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Laying House with Scratching i)b*d._ •. ,~ 
^Pullets vs. Hens as Profitable' Layers. 
Best Breeds for BroHers. j"-' r " 
What and How to Feeci. ';.'. ' • 
Hatchable. Efs^H4lS l tOv Get Them, 
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Construction of Brood Housed; for Chicks,, 
Brooding House— tTnderneathHjfiping System^ 
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Incubators on the Farm, 
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Fefcin Ducks for Profit 
Breeding and Feeding Pekln Ducks. 
To Hatch and Raise Ducks. 
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Brahmas, Cochins and ILang'slians 

• c . ALL VARIETIES . . . 

* * * * 

THeir Origins Peculiarities ©f Snape 
and Color i Egg Productions Tneir 
MarKet Qualities. Breedings Mating 
and Esenibiting, witK Detailed Illus- 
trated Instructions on Judging, tj* *P 
















A Short History of the Introduction of Cochins, Brahmas, and Langshans— Their Origin is Veiled in 

Mystery, But From Data Gathered by Numerous Early Fanciers the Period 

of Their First Appearance is Fixed. 

By A. F. Hunter, Associate Editor Reliable Poultry Journal. 


R. DARWIN tells us that "sufficient materials do 
not exist for tracing the history of the separate 
breeds" of fowls,. and it is equally true' that suffi- 
cient materials do not exist for tracing the growth 
<or evolution) of the domestic fowls of to-day as a whole, 
but from what materials we haye and by what we can sur- 
mise we can piece together a probable history. 

The domesticated fowl, according to Mr. Darwin, is said 
to have been introduced from the west into China about 
1400 B. C, and we see in the descendants of those fowls a 
development in a decidedly different direction from that 
taken by the domesticated fowls in Europe and North 
Africa. Instead of the small, non-sitting, intensely nervous 
and active "Mediterranean," we find the large, clumsy, 
placid-dispositioned and extremely broody "Asiatics." 

If we suppose that quantity and quality of meat were 
preferred to a great egg product we would expect just such 
a development of the meat producing qualities as those 
Asiatic fowls possess. Some of us can remember the great 
Yellow Shanghais, Gray Chittagongs and Malays of fifty or 
sixty years ago; so tall that, while standing on the floor 
beside it, they could eat corn off the top of a barrel that 
was standing on end; cock birds of the descendants of those 
varieties are said to have reached seventeen or eighteen 
pounds iin weight. 

Much ink has been shed over the introduction of what 
■we know as the Asiatic varieties of fowls. Wright's "New 
Book of Poultry," speaking of Cochins, says: 

"Books of much pretension have traced the origin of 
this breed to some fowls imported in 1843, which afterwards 
became the property of Queen Victoria under the name of 
Cochin China fowls. As regards the fowls themselves this 
is a total mistake. A drawing of those birds was given in 
the Illustrated London News of that date (see illustration), 
from which and the description it is manifest that they had 
absolutely no point3 of the Cochin at all, save perhaps yel- 
low legs and large size. The shanks were long and bare, 
the heads carried back instead of forward, the tail large 
and carried high, the back long and sloping to the tail, the 
•eyes black, the plumage close and hard. Of what we may 
■call Malay blood they probably had a great deal, of Cochin 
blood none, or but some trace in a cross. But one thing 
about them there was; these fowls were not only big, but 
they probably really did come from Cochin China, and from 
them and that fact came undoubtedly the name, which 
-will now belong, while poultry breeding lasts, to another 
fowl that has no right to it at all. 

"The real stock first reached this country in 1S47, Mr. 
Moody in Hampshire and Mr. Alfred Sturgeon of Gray's Essex 
*oth receiving stock in that year. Mr. Moody's, so far as we 
•can learn, were inferior in character and leg-feather to Mr. 
Sturgeon's but were very large and of the same broad type; 

and all alike came from the port of Shanghai or its neigh- 

"The birds were undoubtedly Shanghais and had never 
been near Cochin China, and for years attempts were made 
to put this matter straight. The first Poultry Book of 
Wingfield and Johnson (1853) wrote of them as Shanghais, 
and all American writers strove for the same name years 
after the attempt had been abandoned in England; but it 
was no use. * * * The public had got to know the new, 
big fowls as Cochins, and would use no other word, and so 
the name stuck, in the teeth of the facts, and holds the field 
to this day." 

Mr. Sturgeon's stock, with subsequent importations 
from Shanghai has been the main source from which Coch- 
ins were bred in this country; America has had many inde- 
pendent importations. Mr. Punchard's stock was mainly 
from Mr. Sturgeon, the latter keeping from choice the lem- 
ons and buffs, while Mr. Punchard had the dark birds which 
originated the Partridges." 

The Brahmas were undoubtedly originated in America 
by selection and careful breeding of what was known as 
the Gray Chittagongs. Mr. Wright quotes a letter of a 
Mr. Virgil Cornish, of Connecticut, dated March 2, 1852, as 
follows : 

"In regard to the history of these fowls- very little is 
known. A mechanic by the name of Chamberlain, in this 
city, first brought them here. Mr. Chamberlain was ac 
quainted with a sailor, who informed him there were three 
pairs of large imported fowls in New York, and he dwelt 
so much upon the enormous size of these fowls that Mr. 
Chamberlain furnished him with money and directed him 
to go to New York and purchase a pair of them for him, 
which he did. The sailor reported that he found one pair 
of light grey ones, which he purchased; the second pair 
were dark colored, and the third pair were red. The man 
in New York, whose name I have not got, gave no account 
of their origin, except that they had been brought there by 
some sailors in the Indian ships. The parties through 
whose hands the fowls came, so far as I have been able to 
trace them, are all obscure men. I obtained my stock from 
the original pair brought here by Mr. Chamberlain, and 
have never crossed them in the least. These fowls were 
named Chittagong by Mr. Chamberlain, on account of their 
resemblance, in some degree, to the fowls then in the coun- 
try called by that name; but it is certain that they never 
bred until they reached this town." 

One strain of these fowls, according to Mr. Wright was 
first called "Burram pooters," evidently with the intention 
of having it believed they were^ of a different race from the 
Chittagongs and ShanghaK^the name being subsequently 
dropped and replaced by "Brahnia-Pootre," and eventually 
simplified into Brahmas, by whicn name they were intro- 


duced into England by a present of a pen of the birds to 
Queen Victoria by Mr. Burnham. In his amusing and un- 
scrupulous book, "History of the Hen Fever," Mr. Burn- 
ham says: 

"An ambitious sea captain arrived in New York from 
Shanghai, bringing with him about one hundred China fowls 
of all colors, grades and proportions. Oust of this lot I se- 
lected a few grey birds that were very large and conse- 
quently very fine. I bred these with other grey stock I had 
at once and soon had a fine lot of birds to dispose of, to 
which I gave what I have always deemed their only true 
and appropriate title (as they came from Shanghai), to-wit, 
Grey Shanghais." 

It will be noted that these China fowls were of "all 
colors, grades and proportions," and it will be readily un- 
derstood that selection and careful breeding along any one 
line of color, grade or proportion would ultimately develop 
a distinct type, which would breed true and become a vari- 

that time than the popular Black Langshans of to-day. The 
same opinion obtained here in America, and the writer dis- 
tinctly remembers hearing the earlier Black Langsbars con- 
temptuously sjx>ken of as "Inferior Cochins." It is probable 
that the Langshans are descended from the same great par- 
ent stock of China fowls as are our Brahmas and Cochins, 
and they owe it to the skill of enthusiastic breeders vhat 
they are now a distinct variety. 

In economic quality Asiatic varieties have been chiefly 
ranked as table fowls, or meat producers; they have, how- 
ever, been well known as magnificent layers. When farm 
raised and with the free and easy manner of farm breeding 
and handling, they fall off materially in show qualities and 
develop great laying ability. 

Mr. Wright speaks of Brahmas which lay above 200 
eggs each in a year, and Mr. Silberstein had a Light Brahma 
pullet that by trap nest record laid 232 eggs within a year 
of laying maturity. We at one time bred what we called an 

"Her Majesty's Cochins; Imported in 1843." Reproduced from Tegetmeier's Poultry Book. 

ety. Mr. Burnham elsewhere says that the Dark Brahmas 
were produced by crossing Grey Chittagongs with Cochins, 
the Cochins probably being the "other grey stock" of which 
he speaks, and which were probably earlier importations of 
China fowls. The illustrations of Cochins and Light Brah- 
mas, which we have reproduced from Tegetmeier's poultry 
book, give us a good idea of what those early Cochins and 
Brahmas were, and a comparison of the birds of (about) 
1S50 with those of to-day is full of encouragement and indi- 
cates what development can be attained by selection and 
careful breeding. 

The Langshans are a much more recent importation, 
they having first been introduced into England in 1872 and 
purported to come from the Langshan district in China, 
and Mr. Wright says of them: 

"It seems more than probable that birds very similar to 
Langshans have been imported as Black Cochins in the 
early days of those fowls." And an illustration which he 
gives of the early Langshans lends probability to this sup- 
position, as they much more resemble the Black Cochins of 

"Early Laying" strain of Light Brahmas, which were most 
prolific layers and pullets of which reached laying maturity 
at between five and six months old; an intimate friend had 
what he called "Practical" Buff Cochins, which were early 
and most prolific layers, and we know a farmer in western 
New York who breeds what he calls "Farmers' Black Lang- 
shans" that are likewise great layers. In all of these cases 
the birds develop with a fineness of bone that makes them 
at maturity from one to two pounds under weight, and this 
characteristic of great laying Asiatics would indicate that 
■;he show stock has been bred to rather excessive size, and 
that breeding them to a finer framed type would increase 
their economic merits. It would seem that the same deteri- 
oration in economic merit has been evident in England, as 
Mr. Wright speaks of' the Brahmas as follows: 

"There are various causes for the decline in laying 
powers, which is certainly general. Of course the one general 
cause of breeding merely for feather has some effect, as in 
all other cases; but that alone is soon recovered from in 
"utility" stock, such as gets about the country. In addition 


to that, however, the Brahma is a breed in which it is 
particularly desirable to keep the pullets back from laying 
with a view to the best show condition; and thJis, repeated 
for generations, has also had effect. But beyond even these 
factors, all experience goes to show that activity and close 
plumage are indispensable to any marked laying power, 
and the gradual change to looser feather, with wider and 
shorter body, has had probably the greatest share in the 
deterioration; the bird has actually been bred to a model 
which cannot lay so well as the older one. There are still 
to be found about the country flocks derived from the older 
stock which keep up the old reputation; but if the Brahma 
is desired as a layer, some effort should be made to ascertain 

what the character of the strain really is in that respect." 
This is a strong recommendation to seek utility bred 
stock if we want birds of the highest economic merit, and 
that is undoubtedly what is wanted by the great majority 
of poultry breeders. Fortunately, too, the birds showing 
the better laying ability are of a desirable fine-framed stock, 
hence possess better table quality — carry a larger proportion 
of edible meat. Such stock is of great practical value. The 
eggs of the Asiatic varieties are large of size and of the 
most popular brown color, which commands a premium in 
the markets, hence great laying ability coupled with their 
superior market poultry Qualities insure them lasting popu- 
larity. A. F. HUNTER. 

"tight Brahmas Presented to Her Majesty, Queen Victoria in 1852, By Mr. G. Burnham,' 
Reproduced from Tegetmeier's Poultry Book. 


Criticisms of Foremost Judges and Brahma Breeders on a Composite Ideal From Live Models, as 

Drawn by Franklane L Sewell-A Collection of Opinions That Are in Themselves 

Authority on the Ideal Shape of a Standard-bred Male Brahma. 

Prom the Reliable Poultry Journal. 

POLLOWING are presented numerous criticisms of 
Artist Sewell's best individual conception of Stan- 
dard Brahma male shape. These criticisms, offered 
in all good feeling, present strong evidence of a dis- 
position on the part of judges and breeders to advance the 
true interests of Poultry Culture. In more ways than^o'tie 
they prove the existence of a sincere desire to bring about 
a greater uniformity of ideals in breeding and judging. We 
have received scores of letters expressing a deep interest in 
this series, and thanking the judges, breeders, theartist and 
the R. P. J. for the parts taken in presenting same. 

D. M. Owens, Tennessee, judge and breeder: "Comb 
should extend further back and conform more to shape of 
the head at rear. Skull hardly full enough over eyes. Wat- 
tles rather small. The head has too much of a feminine 
appearance. The concave sweep of back commences too 
near cape. It should slope slightly downward to the hips, 
then rise in concave with the saddle to tail. Saddle and 
tail both carried too high. Sickles should stand a, little 
more upright. Little too full or loose feathered about the 
thighs. The bird appears rather short from front to rear, 
but only slightly so." 

Theo. Hewes, Indiana, judge and breeder: "I 
like this bird . He is extra good. Head might be a little 
broader above the eyes, and he might stand just a trifle 
longer neck. I would fan the tail a little, making it more 
upright, and raise the sickles so as to show about half their 
length, making them more prominent. Too much covering 
to thighs. Let's keep away from Cochins in this breed. 
I like plenty of feathers on their feet, but not too much 
on the rest of legs." 

F. W. Hitchcock, Colorado, judge and breeder: "The 
drawing of Light Brahma male submitted to me for criti- 
cism is, I consider, one of Mr. Sewell's best efforts. I can 
find but little to criticise about it, and what little there is 
is of minor importance. The comb is just a trifle short, mak- 
ing it look a little stubby, but in all other respects the draw- 

ing comes up to my ideal of correct BTahma shape. It is- 
surely one of Mr. Sewell's masterpieces." 

H. S. Babcock, Rhode Island, judge and breeder: 
"The comb is not clean cut enough fey- .perfection; it might 
come farther back with advantage. "TaOjrlght for cockerel," 
not full enough for cock. Thighs do not stand out clearly 
enough and foot feathering is rather more profuse than we 
see in the best birds in the shows.- A bit of tendency to- • 
wards the Cochin type is shown in this cut. The bird lacks- 
the vivacity that the Brahma exhibits. Still it is a very- 
good illustration." 

Charles McClave, Ohio, judge and breeder: "Symmetry- 
good. Head outlines good. Comb rather small compared 
with size of bird; serrations should commence a little nearer 
to beak. Wattles and ear-lobes are good. • Neck shape, 
front and rear, is about right. Back," length, medium, 
good, but not high enough at base of tail. The back should 
show a little more concave sweep. Breast and wings are 
good. Length of tail is all right, but it looks a trifle 
pinched. Legs and toes have plenty of feathering, but ap- 
proach Cochin shape. General outlines are almost above- 
criticism, forming a typical Light Brahma male." 

W. S. Russell, Iowa, judge and breeder: "The drawing 
of male shows a bird too short in body, or in other 
words, there is not enough of him behind the legs. 
Fluff is too scanty; back too short, according to my liking. 
I also think the head is too small and tail too short." 

Sharp Bubterfield, Canada, judge and breeder: "I 
herewith submit the changes I think necessary in the 
drawing of Light Brahma male. The head is alto- 
gether too weak — too much on the feminine order. Where 
there is such a head as the one portrayed we generally find 
wattles almost void. The back is much too short and the 
tail too much pinched. The breast is quite full enough in 
front, but lacks depth, and the body is not deep enough nor 
long enough for the ideal Brahma of to-day. The rage in 
the east is for birds of great substance." 


J. Y. Bicknell, New York, judge and breeder: "Back 
is a little too short for the size of the bird. Head, from 
top of skull to base of beak, is not quite full enough; ths 
outline representing the head under the comb should b3 
convex instead of being concave. Comb is too long, and 
still it does not reach far enough back on the head. It 
should commence at the front of the skull, rising rather 
abruptly in front and extend back farther over the head in- 
stead of commencing about half way down the beak and 
running back in a straight line to the top of the serrations. 
All in front of the serrations should be cut out, thus allow- 
ing the beak to show to better advantage. Now the latter 
seems to be blended with the head and comb. Let the beak, 
head and comb show three sections, more clearly cut, rather 
than to appear to be swedged out of one lump, without dis- 
tinction. The wing also blends altogether too much with 
the surface of the body, and if we were not looking for it 
where it should be, we might easily imagine there was no 
wing there. The shape should show better." 

P. J. Marshall, Georgia, judge and breeder: "The 
cut of Light Brahma male is a very good one, though the 
head is a little too small, neck a trifle short as is also the 
back, although the back is good shape. Tail is very good, 
but it might be carried just a trifle lower. Breast to be in 
keeping with what the back should be would want to be a 
little longer from thighs up and the fluff should show a 
little more behind the thighs. Thighs and shanks good. 

D. A. Stoner, Indiana, judge and breeder "In crit- 
icising shape of Light Brahma male I would say, he is 
rather too tall for size of bird and is too much of a V shape. 
Trim the front part of his thighs off one-fourth of an inch, 
and trim body up one-eighth of an inch at thighs, taper. ng 
forward to nothing at point of breast bone. Then trim the 
rear part of body or fluff at hocks one-fourth of an inch 
higher, tapering out to nothing five-eighths of an inch below 
vent. Shorten his legs to match body and you have, in my 
judgment, a much better Brahma shape." 

S. L. Roberts, California, judge and breeder: ' Head, 
with lower mandible stouter, and juncture with neck 
a trifle depressed, I would call all right. Wattles, not large 
enough. By reason of hackle feathers extending too far 
over shoulder of wing much of the typical shape of the 
Light Brahma male is lost — it is a Dark Brahma hackle, 
and hides the shoulder so much as 10 destroy the back prop- 
erties, and causes the wing to appear as if set on too low, 
and drooping a trifle. Breast is very angular. The cut is 
a good one — 'the best we have seen. Mr. Sewell has excel- 
lent Brahma ideas and puts them on paper." 

H. B. Savage, Texas, judge and breeder: "I would 
like the head to be a trifle broader, crown projecting 
a little farther over the eye; serrations of comb to begin 
farther front on the beak; beak to curve just a trifle more; 
breast a trifle rounder opposite and a little below front of 
wing bow; tail a very little more upright and spread slightly 
more. The outer toe does not extend far enough out. The 
-cut of male is well nigh perfect, as the defects here noted 
would cause but very light cuts in scoring, in my opinion, 
but of course looking at these well gotten up pictures is 
.not like handling the bird itself." 

John C. Snyder, Oklahoma, judge and breeder: "I 
think the comb is a little small for size of bird and a shade 
too of the neck is 

a quarter of an inch too low down on neck. Wing carried 
too low, tail hardly upright enough. But taken all together 
he js good in symmetry." 

F. H. Shellabarger, Iowa, judge and breeder: "The cut 
of Light Brahma male is, in my judgment about all that 
the Standard calls for. The head appears a trifle slim for 
a Brahma, but it fits the s.'andard closely." 

H. A. Bridge, Ohio, judge and breeder: "Head 
of Brahma male is just a little feminine. The comb 
should be just a trifle broader and the serrations brought 
forward more. There does pot seem to be space enough 
between the center and outer serrations. Face below the 
eye has the appearance of projecting beyond the eye. The 
crown of the head does not project over the eye enough, 
but when face below is darkened up may give the crown 
the appearance of enough projection. Tncrease the length 
of wattle a little so that when the lower edge is rounded 
up it will stand away from face a little on lower end. Bring 
the ear-lobe more under the ear and round up the front 
edge of lobe, making them just a little broader and of 
course have them ievel with the wattles. The arch of neck 
is just a little low down. The back is a trifle short and too 
deep in concave, this I think, when remedied will relieve 
the long appearance of the tail. Wings should be carried 
just a little higher. Upper portion of tail is a little narrow. 
Breast is a little fuller than necessary. Thighs should be 
relieved a little from their slightly Cochin appearance. 

F. B. Zimmer, New York, judge and breeder: "I 
consider the drawing of Light Brahma male perfect as 
far as shape is concerned. In all previous proofs of other 
bryeds sent me I could find sections I would change, but this 
Brahma represents my idea of shape. Therefore your read- 
ers would know about where to find me on this variety." 

D. T. Heimlich, Illinois, judge and breeder: "The 
male bird in all sections pleases me just as it is, and 
Mr. Sewell should have a vote of thanks from all lovers of 
this grand breed for the picture of the male Brahma." 

C. A. Emry, Missouri, judge and breeder: "Head 
not full enough over eyes, breast not full and round enough, 
tail too small and pinched, legs show too much Cochin leath- 
ering and shape." 

L. P. Harris, Nebraska, judge and breeder: "I think 
the cut of Light Brahma male shape fine, except comb and 
wattles. ' The serrations in center row start too far back 
by the width of one serration; the side serrations are a 
little too far from the head, and the back point of the comb 
should tip down on or nearer the head. Wattles are too 
small and short." 

A. B. Shaner, Illinois, judge and breeder: "The 
Light Brahma male as submitted is a good model, and 
should I ever come across one as good I think I should pass 
him as perfect in shape outlines. He comes as near perfect 
as the standard calls for." 

George H. Northup, New York, judge and breeder: 
"The proofs of Brahma drawings accompanying your letter 
of the 20th are received. I consider them very excellent in- 
deed and think it doubtful if we ever see a bird as near 
perfect in all points as these two birds are. However, re- 
ferring to the male bird, I think th'e lobes not quite large 
enough, and they do not extend quite low enough to com- 



flELWBLC ft,lttlKYJouSNnW--= ; /, 


•Comprising the Best Points of Several Live Models as Illustrated by Franklane L Sewell for the Reliable Poultry 

Journal, and submitted to Sixty-five Prominent Judges and Breeders for Criticism 

Based upon Standard Requirements. 

BV Ttrt 
(KUflBLt PuWTtfY Joi/RPcnfe" 


An Ideal Brahma, Illustrated by Franklane L. Sewell. for the Reliable Poultry Journal, under the Suoaestions of 

Sixty-five Prominent Judges and Breeders— The Outcome of Criticism Upon the 

Brahma Male Shape Shown on the Opposite Page. 



t»are with wattles. The body seems 'too short for height, 
that is, the distance measured in a straight line from point 
where the hackle divides at the front of neck, touching the 
highest point of wing bow and terminating in the lower 
part of tail, is too short. His neck and legs are perfect. 
Head, a little too narrow above the eye. His tail is good 
except that it does not spread enough, the sickles especially. 

0. B. Skinner, Kansas, breeder of Light Brah- 
mas: "Referring to the proof of Light Brahma male which 
you sent me, would say the cockerel does not please me at 
all. T want a bird with a much larger head, broader skull 
and much larger ear-lobes. His tail appears in the cut too 
pointed, that is, not spread enough. I should want longer 
shanks. His breast and back shape is good." 

Mrs. B. F. Jackson, Kentucky, breeder of Light 
Brahmas: "I consider the etching of male Brahma excel- 
lent, with one exception — the head is a trifle too small and 
comb too large or prominent." 

T. N. Smiley & Son, Indiana, breeders of Light 
Brahmas: "The proofs of Light Brahmas received, and we 
think they are excellent. We have no criticism to make on 
the male. We think he Is grand." 

Sid Conger, Indiana, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"The male is fairly good in general shape. The head is too 
small, narrow, pinched in the throat. It fails in the hand- 
some head the Light Brahma usually shows. It is not quite 
deep enough in the breast for an ideal. The coloring of the 
neck indicates smuttiness, and white lacing around the les- 
ser siclfles is not standard. Shape of back fairly good." 

W. A. Irvin, Nebraska, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"The excellent proofs of the Light Brahma male and female 
came duly to hand. I consider the shape and outline of the 
male the best drawing that I have ever seen, and- when we 
as breeders can breed them up to the typical standard shape, 
as outlined by Mr. Sewell, there will not be any cause for 

George Luhrsen, Illinois, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"In regard to Mr. Sewell's drawing of Brahma male, I will 
say that in my judgment he is as near perfect as can be 
drawn. Perhaps some breeders would say he is a little too 
deep in saddle and .short in back, but I think him just about 

Mrs. Ella Thomas, Missouri, breeder of Light Brah- 
mas: "In regard to the drawing of ideal Light Brahma 
male cockerel, as submitted by Mr. Sewell, would say I think 
It very good, though I would prefer the comb to extend a 
little further back on head, skull broader, wattles slightly 
longer, first row of tail coverts solid black instead of edged 
with white. Lesser coverts are all right. Body should be 
slightly longer for the breadth and depth; wings a little 
longer and tucked slightly higher; foot-feathering mottled 
well with black. The whole body is too short for true 
Brahma shape, according to my notion." 

George Clough, Illinois, breeder of Dark Brah- 
mas- "I consider the male Brahma to be good in shape, 
but I think he is a little short in back; hardly flat enough 
at shoulders; breast not round, deep or full enough; fluff 
not abundant enough." 

John H. Ryan, Illinois, breeder of Light anda 
Dark Brahmas: "I can find but little fault with Mr. Sew- 
ell's idea of Light Brahma male. He is a little too narrow- 
across the head, hardly full enough over front of eyes; a. 
little low at base of hackle; a trifle too much sweep to tail; 
hackle is too dark. Otherwise he is all right, to my notion. '- 

E. E. Marlow, Missouri, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"I think the head of the male Brahma is a trifle small and 
the tail is not spread enough. But I wish I could raise all 
my birds to be as good." 

M. Mayer, Jr., Illinois, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"The drawing of the male comes so near to perfection that 
there is very little room for criticism. The breast could be> 
a trifle fuller, otherwise he suits me first rate." 

E. Dunstan, Mississippi, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"In offering my criticism on the Light Brahma male draw- 
ing by Mr. Sewell, would say that I think the wattles are 
too small to be called medium size, and the ear-lobes are 
certainly not 'large pendant,' as required by the standard. 
The junction between the head and back part of the neck is- 
not defined clearly enough. The remainder of the neck, 
looks very nice. I consider the back too short, and the 
wings not being held high enough, give the back a narrow- 
appearance instead of being broad and flat at the shoulders. 
And from his saddle to the vent he looks shallow enoughv 
for a Leghorn. I do not consider his tail is carried high 
enough to be called 'carried tolerably upright,' and is too> 
contracted to be considered full, well spread and well filled 
underneath with curling feathers. The breast is round and 
full enough, but lacks depth. The thighs and legs are, I 
think, about right, but from the back of leg to vent he is 
too short." 

Miss Hattie Winship, Illinois, breeder of Light Brah- 
mas: "When it comes to calling this the Standard Light 
Brahma for all strains and cutting every bird one or more 
on symmetry, which does not resemble this male or female 
exactly, I think it an impossibility, and would be doing; 
what is unjust. When it comes to this strain, the Mammoths. 
Light Brahma, they are very good, still if my preference 
was for this strain, I should work for the heavier, more 
blocky and more heavily feathered type. The male is too* 
high in proportion to the width and length, is too long- 
legged; tail too high-; "breast might be a trifle fuller, an« 
when you have the feathers looser and heavier all over youi 
will have a bird more of the style in the March, 1896, num- 
ber R. P. J. frontispiece. I would not object to one or two> 
pens of this strain; but as to a large flock or many pens,, 
and when it comes right down to the money-making birde 
(what we are after), I should not wish for them in the least. 
I had some of that type last year and find they are not lay- 
ers; the smaller types are those where the feathers are 
smoother, or not so fluffy, and my customers, like myself, 
met with poorer hatches from this mammoth 'strain. The. 
male which gave me the best satisfaction is of the type Miss. 
Forbes, of California, .has- represented on page 242, May, 
1896. R. P. J., and is the strain I shall work for. There is 
something much richer in color and form, making them a. 
beautiful, noble, lordly type. The large type is nothing but 
a rough, coarse, lazy bird. If your birds are very small it 
is well to mix the larger with them to bring them up. E 
think we need an ideal for each of the two or three strains, 
as .some will prefer one strain whereas others will choose 
another. They will never all ch oose the same." 



J. J. Burnside, Indiana, breeder of Light Brahmas: "I 
think the male is all right. I cannot see where I could 
better It." 

L. 0. Berryman, Illinois, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"The illustration of Light Brahma male by Mr. Sewell is a 
grand type of this noble breed, yet, according to the stand- 
ard, it is a little faulty. I think the comb should be serrated 
down to beak in front; the back should be medium in length 
— I call his short. His tail should be carried more upright, 
especially sickle feathers. With these changes made, I think 
we would have an Ideal Light Brahma male." 

J. A. Roberts, Pennsylvania, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"The Light Brahma male is of good shape, but he might 
be a little longer in body. Tail might be run in line with 
back. I expect it is well spread. I cannott see, as he stands 
sideways to me. I should be satisfied if parties of whom I 
order would always send as good as he." 

T. R. McDonald, Kentucky, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"After carefully looking over the Light Brahma male draw- 
ing, I have no comments to make other than that it is ex- 
actly my idea of what a Brahma male should be." 

Casper Dice, Nebraska, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"The cut of male would suit me better if comb ran up far- 
ther on head and lower behind. Head seems too narrow. 
Neck should be a little longer and fuller at base of hackle 
and cape. Fluff should be fuller to make bird deeper from 
cape to fluff, and the legs look too short." 

F. L. Ackerman, Michigan, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"Commenting on the Light Brahma Male Shape, I would say 
that if we get as near perfection as this cut represents we 
will be very near the top of the ladder. But if back and sad- 
dlo were broader and tail spread out a little, with wings a 
trifle smaller and carried higher, it would suit me better." 

R. R. Clendenen, Missouri, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"Mr. Seweil's cut of Light Brahma male is a good one. The 
comb might be a trifle longer and be drawn a little closer to 
the head at the back end." 

W. S. Campbell, Illinois, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"Your beautiful proofs of Light Brahmas a't hand and it is 
hard to find fault with them. Comb on male is smaller than 
I like and back of neck is fuller in hackle than we see in 
nature. The breast is a little full. He looks too tall from 
bottom of left foot to middle of back for the length of body, 
and the fluff is a little scant." 

N. Porter Brown, Massachusetts,, breeder of Light Brah- 
mas: "After examining the proof of the Light Brahma 
male, it appears So me that there is very little to find fault 
with, yet he appears to be short bodied. I like to see a 
cockerel with more length of back between neck and tail. 
I would also add about one-fourth inch to breast, making 
him fuller in that section. Most every one likes to see a 
short legged Brahma, yet the male for his size, looks as if he 
were a little too short in leg." 

Mrs. T. W. Ragsdale, Missouri, breeder of Light Brah- 
mas: "First of all I will express thanks to you and Mr. 
Sewell for the beautiful engravings sent me, and to siow 
my appreciation I have framed them. I think both are good 
specimens and I have but few criticisms to make, though I 
have given them close study. I think the head of the male 

rather feminine for such a large neck and body, and tne- 
body from front to rear is rather too short. I like more- 
evidence of weight, strength and vigor." 

Simon Lynch, Indiana, breeder of Light Brahmas: "This- 
cut is good, but the comb is too high at rear, eyes too low, 
ear-lobes too coarse, beak not arched enough, hackle not 
fine enough, legs too close together. I want a white color." 

H. N. Rollins, Massachusetts, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"I think the cut of Light Brahma male is very fine. I should 
like to see the fluff a little more developed, otherwise I like 
it very well." 

Wililam Chamings, Illinois, breeder of Light Bramnas: 
"I would suggest a few changes in Artist Seweil's cut of 
male. Comb should extend back farther and set closer to- 
head. Head is a trifle small; back should be longer and 
fluff back of thighs fuller, so as to give a more massive ap- 
pearance and a much better proportioned bird. Body a little 

John A. Meyer, director West Virginia Agricultural 
Experiment Station, breeder of Light Brahmas: "The excel- 
lent proofs of the male and female Light Brahmas, executed 
by Mr. Sewell for the R. P. J., seem to me to represent very 
closely the ideal type of Light Brahmas. The male is very- 

W. W. Kulp, Pennsylvania, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"I have no criticism to make on shape of male Light Brah- 
ma. I think if I had one like him in shape and as good in. 
color he would have plenty of 'blues' to his credit. There 
may be a little too much tail." 

B. G. Hayward, Illinois, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"The body of the male should be longer and he should be 
correspondingly deeper in breast. At the point where he 
measures four and three-quarter inches in length of body I 
would prefer it full five inches." 

Alfred Doyle, Illinois, breeder of Light Brahmas: "Head 
is faulty in shape; eye is too low down, it should be about 
even with the top of upper mandible, and a little farther 
back. Mouth is too long; wattles should commence a little- 
farther forward on the bill; ear-lobes should be right un- 
der the ear, and not at the rear. Comb could be better. 
Neck is too thick; that swelling at the back should be trim- 
med off; the dividing line between the head and neck is not 
clearly enough defined. Back is too short for a Brahma. 
Breast should be pared off a little in front of hocks, and 
also the upper part of neck, and dew lap should be cut away 
so as to leave a clear space under the wattles. Fluff is a 
trifle too abundant. Lower edge of wing should be rounding 
and not form an angle as in the cut, and the wing is a trifle 
too short. Main tail feathers and coverts are a little too- 
long; tail coverts should not be edged with white, as in cut. 
Hocks and legs are entirely too heavily feathered for the 
American type of Brahma. Take the bird all through, I 
consider it too blocky for a Brahma." 

F. F. Congdon, Wisconsin, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"Etching by Sewell of "Standard Light Brahma Male Shape" 
was duly received, and it seems a pity to criticise such a 
strikingly beautiful illustration, however, I think the head 
is a little too small, back a trifle short, the general appear- 
ance of the bird being too high for the length." 



C. E. Kunze, Illinois, breeder of Light Brahmas: "We 
received the Light Brahma sketches, and wish to say only 
this: Mr. Sewell has a much better idea of what a good 
chicken is, and knows how to put the idea into better form 
than any other poultry judge or artist anywhere in the 
United States or foreign countries. The Light Brahma- 
sketches are beauties, and we do not wish to criticise them, 
as any alteration might hurt more than do good." 

James George, Kansas, breeder of Light Brahmas: "It 
seems to me that the back of the male is a trifle short and 
the tail is carried a little high. Otherwise I can find no 
fault with it." 

N. E. Woods, Indiana, breeder of Light Brahmas: "In 
regard to the excellent typical drawing of Light Brahma 
male, I will say I have no criticisms except that there is too 
great leg and toe feathering, which in my opinion is against 

Mrs. B. G. Mackey, Missouri, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"As I understand the standard it seems to me that Mr. Sew- 
ell has in this drawing almost reached perfection. The 
comb seems a trifle higher than I understand to be standard 
and the back looks to me short for a standard bird." 

G. W. Randall, Nebraska, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"Regarding the drawings of Light Brahmas submitted, I 
think them nearer to what the ideal Light Brahma should 
be than anything I have ever before seen! and I consider 
them excellent, especially the male. I think that submitting 
these cute for criticism is doing much good." 

H. M. Uttley, Nebraska, breeder of Light Brahmas: "I 
am so young in the business of breeding thoroughbred poul- 
try that I am hardly competent to criticise a drawing by 
almost any one, but I have watched and studied Mr. Sewell's 
work in your estimable journal with great pleasure and shall 
attempt to criticise in this matter (what little I do) with a 
good deal of reluctance. In treating the picture of the male, 
in my judgment it would be an improvement to the shape of 
the bird to draw a line from the curve of the back across 
in front of the hock, lowering that part of the breast in 
front of the hock, that, is, give the bird a little more depth 
through that part, and it looks to me on the picture as 
though it were too much pinched behind." 

John H. Rohrer & Sons, Pennsylvania, breeders of Light 
Brahmas: "The ear-lobes are too short, not being on a level 
with lower edge of wattles. Back is a trifle short, also 
not flat enough at shoulders. Fluff % bit too scant behin^, 
not having the broad appearance spoken of in standard. 
Shanks a trifle short. We would say the neck hackle is 
too heavy, as it has been our experience that such heavy 

neck hackle in males produces many cockerels with black 
in back. With these few corrections we believe he would 
be about our ideal Light Brahma." 

H. M. Dawson, Tennessee, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"Comb, head and wattles too small for size of bird. Comb 
should be a little more prominent in front, more curved 
at the rear and evenly serrated. Neck is a little short. He 
leans too far forward; should be tilted, so as to stand a little 
higher in front and lower in the rear. The shanks should- 
be shorter." 

W. P. Deam (Deam & Eby), Ohio, breeders of Light and 
Lark Brahmas: "The male's head is too small, body too 
short for the height. Point of breast not prominent enough. 
Very good shape to arch of neck and back." 

C. F. Foster, Kansas, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"While I think Mr. Sewell has produced for you a very fine 
drawing in general and I would be satisfied should I produce 
a large per cent as good as this cut of the Light Brahma 
male, still, I notice some minor points I might change. 
Comb should reach a little farther back on head, beak lacks 
a little in stoutness, wattles not quite large enough, back 
should be a trifle longer,, saddle is too concave. The bird 
would show a better, more rangy Brahma shape if shanks 
were a little longer." 

T. Cadwallader, Missouri, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"The Light Brahma drawings at hand. I regard this series 
as the best thing that has been done to get the fanciers and 
judges all on one side as to shape, and I believe that the 
scores will be more uniform on these lines. While these 
drawings are good, I will offer my criticisms on the male 
as follows: Wings are carried too low (look at the stand- 
ard). Tail looks well, but is not quite high enough in car- 
riage. Shanks are rather short, the feathers on the hocks 
come down too far, giving a Cochin appearance. The cut 
does not show enough feathers just below the hock. Fluff 
is not quite full enough. Wattles and ear-lobes are both 
rather too small." 

D. J. Lambert, Rhode Island, judge and breeder: "Al- 
though my specialties are the American classes, I see where 
I should cut these outlines of Brahma shape. The head of 
male is too small compared to size of the bird. Comb should 
project farther back and conform to shape of skull. Middle 
serrations should be a trifle larger. Breast is not deep or 
full enough. Body is too short and needs more fluff. Upper 
sickles of tail should be more developed." 

Mrs. L. A. McMeekin & Sons, breeders of Light Brah- 
mas: "Wish I could breed as good shaped birds. Still I 
think the male curves out too much in front of hackle. Head 
is not strong enough." 


Criticisms of Foremost Judges and Brahma Breeders on a Composite Ideal From Live Models, as 

Drawn by Franklane L. Sewell— A Collection of Opinions That Are in Themselves 

Authority on the Ideal Shape of a Standard-bred Female Brahma. 

From the Reliable Poultry Journal. 

DT IS highly creditable for the judges and breeders of 
standard-bred fowls to submit their criticisms on these 
drawings. Their doing so proves that they take an 
active interest in whatever is for the good of Poultry 
Culture; proves that they are ready and willing to do their 
part in the work of developing and improving the thorough- 
bred poultry industry along right lines. It takes a degree 
of courage for these friends of better poultry to write down 
for publication their opinions, pro and con, of Mr. Sewell's 
sketches. Located, as they are, hundreds, and in some 
cases thousands of miles apart, they have no way of know- 
ing what the other judges and breeders are going to ap- 
prove or object to. Bach one must depend on his or 
her own knowledge, on his or her own interpreta- 
tion of the standard. It is a good training for all. The 
standard has been carefully read and re-read on account of 
this series! The future is bright for Poultry Culture, for 
the thoroughbred poultry industry so long as the foremost 
men and women engaged in it will do such work as this. 
The R. P. J. greatly appreciates the courage and good will 
of the judges and breeders. We know that the many read- 
ers of the Journal also feel under obligations to them, and 
to Mr. Sewell.— Ed. 

D. J. Lambert, Rhode Island, judge and breeder: "Head 
is r oo small; neck is not long enough; hackle should come 
down more on the shoulders. The back is too long; it wants 
a more concave sweep to the tail. The tail is uneven; the 
upper feathers should be longer so as to appear more 
pointed. The legs and toes would look better if longer." 

J. Y. Bieknell, New York, judge and breeder: "Back 
and body are too short for the depth of the bird. Breast 
shows, too much fullness; unnatural and undesirable. Head 
looks as if a portion in front had been cut out to make room 
for the comb instead of having an oval sweep, and the comb 
placed above as it should be. A small comb is desirable, 
but this one is too small. Give the head the natural oval 
front, make the comb a little larger, place it above the skull 
instead of having it crowding the latter out of the way." 

L. P. Harris, Nebraska, judge and breeder: "I have no 
criticism to make on female Brahma drawing sent to me." 

D. A. Stoner, Indiana, judge and breeder: "In regard 
to Mr. SeweH's Light Brahma female, I would say that in 
shape she is overdrawn, or she shows a bird so fat that she 
would be of no use as a breeder. The back is too straight; 
cushion is not full enough to rise to tail nicely; breast is 
too full; body hangs too low; fluff between legs also hangs 
too low; too much like an over-fat goose. Too much fat, 
too much fat!" 

D. T. Heimlich, Illinois, judge and breeder: "The draw- 
ing of female shows too much of a Cochin type of body. The 
back is straight, not concave enough. Breast is too deep 
and fluff too full. Leg and toe feathering is too heavy for a 
Brahma. A line should be drawn from upper edge of "hackle 
where it joins the back to tail to the depth of one-fourth of 
an inch, tapering. Cut the breast away one-fourth of an 
inch in front of the thighs to a point, to the lines in front 
where breast joins the neck. Cut away a full half inch of 
the fluff back of hocks, tapering to the vent. Between vent 
and lower tail feathers fill out more fully. This would then 
take away the Wyandotte character of tail and make the 
whole harmonize with the perfect makeup of the male." 

F. J. Marshall, Georgia, judge and breeder: "The Light 
Brahma female is not nearly so good us the male drawing; 
too much Cochin entirely. Head is pretty good, except 
comb is set too far forward. I like the shape of throat, but 
the neck is a little short, not much, though, if the body were 
not so blocky looking. Back is too high and straight from 
base of hackle to tail. Tail is carried too low and it is a 
little too long at the middle of it. The breast is decidedly 
too full and carried too low, looks like a pouter pigeon. 
Body and fluff are too well feathered, especially about the 
thighs. Thighs and shanks are too short and look too much 
like they came right out of the body like a peg." 

F. H. Shella'barger, Iowa, judge and breeder: "The fe- 
male is not as good as the male. The neck is short in 
length, the back too long and not sufficiently concave in 
front of the tail. The breast is overdrawn and too prom- 
inent at point of breast bone. Legs and toes would fit a 
Cochin better than a Brahma, as they are too short." 

H. S. Babcock, Rhode Island, judge and breeder: "The 
female shows more of the Cochin than the male. Back 
should be more concave — too straight now, which makes tail 
set on badly. Body too deep for its length. Thighs too much 
hidden by the fluff. Leg and toe feathering too profuse. A 
hen with such a general shape would be markedly cushioned. 
I do not like the type of Brahma hen shown in this illustra- 

John C. Snyder, Oklahoma, judge and breeder: "The 
female is too short in neck; crown is too high above eyes; 
back is. too low in saddle; tail is rather large; fluff is too 
low, which makes thighs too short. Altogether she is not 
so good as the male." 

S. L. Roberts, California, judge and breeder: "The head 
is good with exception of beak, which is too flat at nostril ' 
and curves at point too near the tip. Comb appears to be 



.good. Eyes, ear-lobes and wattles all right; expression, by 
.reason of projection over eye, Brahmistic. Neck, not of 
'medium length' as compared with size of body, and it some- 
what deteriorates from the arch. Back, not concave nor 
flat enough. Breast, deep enough, round enough and full 
enough, in all conscience. Body and fluff good. Wings, not 
.-square at shoulders by reason of a slight droop at butts. Tail 
.all right. Legs and toes right. All considered ft is as good 
in outline as one need to wish, the foregoing exceptions 
•being made." 

Theo. Hewes, Indiana, judge and breeder: "The female 
is not so good as the male; it is too low on the ground; too 
much Cochin. Head and neck are set too far back, and 
when you remedy this you get the back too long. The back 
is too straight and too long. Tail is pinched. There is too 
much fluff and too much leg and toe feathering. Breast is 
■entirely too prominent, due to the position in which she now 
-carries her neck. We could add a little to the length of this 
neck, the same as in the male." 

D. M. Owen, Tennessee, judge and breeder: "The neck 
■is too much arched. Breast and body are both too deep 
through up and down. I do not like the set of tail. The 
-main tail feathers set too horizontally. The tail should 
-continue the even concave shape of back. Legs are too 
rshort, and legs and feet are too heavily feathered. General 
-appearance of the specimen is too blocky." 

H. B. Savage, Texas, judge and breeder: "The head is 
a-ather too small. Comb is set back loo far from front of 
beak; it needs just a trifle more curve to beak. Breast is 
too full and prominent;- neck a trifle too short. Tail is a 
little too low, and back is too long. I should like a little 
-better concave sweep to it. Outer toe, like that of the cock, 
is too short." 

F. W. Hitchcock, Colorado, judge and breeder: "In the 
:female there is more to criticise, as it is too gross and heavy 
for a typical American Light Brahma female. It looks too 
much like an over-fat hen. There is not quite concave 
sweep enough to the back. The breast and body are -too 
•deep and the stern altogether too heavy. It is also too 
heavily feathered around the thighs. Head, neck and tail 
are all right." 

W. S. Russell, Iowa, judge and breeder: "I can find but 
little to criticise. I would prefer to see the back flat at 
.-shoulders and then rising with a concave sweep to the tail. 
If the tail were raised just a trifle it would add to the appear- 
ance of the back. I consider the thighs too short."' 

C. A. Emry, Missouri, judge and breeder: 
■Cochin in legs and fluff, otherwise it suits me.' 

'Too much 

George H. Northup, New York, judge and breeder: "The 
Tproof of the Brahma hen seems perfect, except that the tail 
is a little too long and the back is too flat near the tail. The 
back should have a more concave sweep." 

F. B. Zimmer, New York, judge and breeder: "What I 
said last month applies with equal force in this connection." 

H. A. Bridge, Ohio, judge and breeder: "The comb is 
too delicately drawn and not distinct enough in formation, 
especially outside serrations are not prominent enough. The 
back at junction of tail should be raised to relieve the 
*roken sweep. The ends of main tail feathers should be of 

a length to form a gentle convex sweep from the top main 
tail feather to the bottom covert as they are in cut, then 
bring out the coverts to a little less sweep, showing the main 
tail beyond the coverts in unbroken lines. 

■'I did not intend to say anything about color, and will 
not, except to give my fancy regarding tail and coverts. The 
lacing on first row is a little broad — make it clear and 
distinct and sharply defined. Bring out the first row as sug- 
gested and add another row, but overlap them just a little 
more and have one less covert in second row than first. 
Now add still another row with one less than the second. 
These coverts should be overlapped enough to show plainly, 
and at the same time give feathers of back and side the same 
convex outline as they finish up on the tail as the breast 
has, this will give the bird a slightly rounded-up finish at 
both ends with the snow-white feathers. The breast is too 
full and the wings are carried a little too low. Legs are a 
little short; thighs do not show quite enough. Body and 
fluff are too full and in connection with the legs make the 
bird a little Cochiny. 

"In connection with the above, I wish to say that with 
all my faultfinding I consider these among the very best Mr. 
Sewell has given us in all the varieties, and as regards their 
merits as typical Light Brahmas they are the best pair I 
have ever seen drawn, and had I placed an order with Mr. 
Sewell for cuts of Light Brahmas and received these I 
should have been very much pleased. My criticism of the 
drawings is not so much on the work of Mr. Sewell, but 
rather more to give my idea of the ideal. 

"Sickness prevented any remarks on former drawings, 
but. I assure you I enjoyed them very much and I hope to 
be favored with invitations to participate in all future criti- 
cisms of ideal cuts, as this worthy enterprise of the Reliable 
merits the support of all true fanciers." 

Charles McClave, Ohio, judge and breeder: "Symmetry 
is good. Shape of head is good, but it is a trifle too deep 
from eye back, giving back of head and upper neck & heavy 
appearance. Back is rather long when compared with that 
of the cock, and too low at base of tail. The breast is plenty- 
full and in fact, Cochin full. Tail is a trifle too low. Shanks 
aro too short, Cochin- type. Feathering is pretty heavy for 
a Brahma. General outlines are a little after the Cochin 
type with the exception of the tail. The Brahma and Cochin 
shapes seem to be drifting nearer together in females." 

0. E. Skinner, Kansas, breeder of Light Brahmas: "Re- 
ferring to the proof sheet of Light Brahma female I would 
not suggest any great changes in the bird. I would want a 
little larger head with broader skull and more throat wattle 
and ear-lobes a little more prominent. Would want quite a 
little longer shanks. Shape of breast, back and tail is 

W. P. Oeam (Deam & Eby), Ohio, breeders of Light and 
Dark Brahmas: "The female's head is too small, it has not 
enough expression above the eyes. The neck is too short 
and too large at base. The body is too low between the 
legs. Point of breast is not prominent enough. The tail 
is too long for size of bird. The cut looks too round, it 
does not show points that should be prominent." 

C. F. Foster, Kansas, breeder of Light Brahmas: "The 
female is so near my ideal that I pass her, only saying that 
she has a too sluggish and listless expression. In my opin- 
ion the Reliable is to be complimented on this good work 
in the interest of the poultry fraternity." 



T. Cadwallader, Ohio, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"'While the drawing is good, I would offer the following 
-criticisms: Ear-lobes are rather too small; wings are car- 
ried just a little too low; the back is too straight, it should 
>have a more concave sweep to tail; the neck is a little too 
^short; the legs and toes are too short, giving the bird too 
much of a Cochin appearance; tail is too large." 

T. N. Smiley & Son, Indiana, breeders of Light Brah- 
mas: "We think the female is a little long in back, and 
perhaps a little full in breast, otherwise it is excellent." 

W, A. Irvin, Nebraska, breeder of Light Brahmas: "I 
-am pleased to accept as typical the shape and outlines of 
the Brahma female, as drawn by Mr. Sewell." 

Sid Conger, Indiana, breeder of Light Brahmas: "The 
'hen is coarse, too deep and coarse for her length. She is 
too small up and down in front of her tail; head and neck 
too small and thrown back too far. Taken all in all, the 
hen is not good and will not do at all for an ideal." 

O. W. Randall, Nebraska, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"The female seems to me to be a little full in the tail. I am 
glad to see less tendency to stimulate breeding toward the 
-Cochin shape than has been shown in some previous cuts. 
"To put the Cochin shape and feathering onto the Brahma 
-would destroy its chief beauty— its grand, majestic appear- 

H. M. Uttley, Nebraska, breeder of Light Brahmas: "I 
have no suggestions to offer in regard to the female Brahma 
shape. Older breeders and judges may, but I should say 
that a bird which fitted the picture in every respect would 
be almost entitled to a score of 100." 

Alfred Dyole, Illinois, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"'Head is faulty; eye should be a little higher up and a little 
farther back; mouth is too long; wattles should be placed 
■a little farther forward; ear-lobes should be directly under 
the ear. Neck is too thick back of the head. Some of the 
lower hackle feathers are entirely too large. Back is en- 
tirely too straight and a little too short and not rounding 
-enough. Breast is too full and should be cut away a little 
-from top to bottom. The lower edge of fluff should be cut 
-away a little; wing is not quite long enough; tail looks to be 
too narrow; middle feathers should not be longer than the 
tipper ones, and the upper tail coverts are entirely too large. 
Hock and leg feathers are entirely too heavy — they would 
look well enough on a full feathered Cochin, but are out of 
-place on the American type of Brahma. Take her make-up 
«11 through and I consider it too blocky." 

Mrs. B. G. Mackey, Missouri, breeder of Light Brah- 
mas: "It appears to me the female is a little too flat at 
"base of tail and the tail is carried rather low. Otherwise 
'I see no fault in the shape." 

Miss Hattie Winship, Illinois, breeder of Light Brah- 
mas: "The female is better than the male, still 1 should 
prefer her more blocky and more heavily feathered with a 
"back broader and not so slanting, such as you find in front- 
ispiece of March, 1896, R. P. J." 

James George, Kansas, breeder of Light Brahmas: "The 
meek of the female is a little full at base. The back is al- 

most too straight; it should be a little more concave, 
tail might be elevated a little." 


N. B. Woods, Indiana, breeder of Light Brahmas: "The 
beautiful representation of a perfect type of Brahma female 
is almost faultless, as I look at it, except I would suggest 
that the back from cape to root of tail is too straight, the 
legs are too short and there is too much feathering to rep- 
resent activity and usefulness." 

F. P. Congdon, Wisconsin, breeder of Light Brahmas: "I 
think this etching shows a bird a little too high for the 
length, and, as in the male shape, the head is a little small. 
I like to see Brahmas with a head that looks as though it 
were full of knowledge. I want the crown to project well 
over the eyes. Would like 'a thousand of 'em,' however, as 
good as the etching." 

W. W. Kulp, Pennsylvania, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"I do not like the shape of the female. The breast is too, 
much of a circle; they do not grow that way. The standard 
'roundness' is more around horizontally than up and down. 
The breast line is straighter; should not be one continuous 
curve. There is too much tail. I would be satisfied with 
less. It extends down one-third too far and is too long at 
the end. Fluff is too full also for a Brahma." 

B. G. Hay ward, Illinois, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
think the shape of Brahma female is all right." 

H. N. Rollins, Massachusetts, breeder of Light Brah- 
mas: "The cut of Brahma female suits me very well, but 
I should prefer to see the back more concave." 

William Chamings, Illinois, breeder of Light. Brahmas: 
"The Light Brahma female cut I consider extra good (much 
better than the male) and I suggest but two changes: Back 
at base of hackle should be flatter, and the two upper tail 
coverts extend back too far over main tail feathers." 

N. Porter Brown, Massachusetts, breeder of Light Brah- 
mas: "The proof of the Light Brahma female I consider 
perfect. She fulfils my ideal to a dot." 

W. S. Campbell, Illinois, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"The tail of the female looks too long and has a pinched 
appearance just in front of the coverts. The comb is smaller 
than I like. The hackle is a little fuller than we find in 
nature's productions. Breast is a little too full." 

Simon Lynch, Indiana, breeder of Light Brahmas: "This 
cut is excellent, but I would want the back with a shade 
more concave sweep. Hackle is too coarse. Fluff extends 
too much on hock joint. I want a white color." 

Mrs. T. W. Ragsdale, Missouri, breeder of Light Brah- 
mas: "I can see no fault in the female Brahma unless the 
neck is rather short for such an immense body. She is all 
I could wish for. I only wish I could' raise such as this 
engraving represents." 

T. R. McDonald, Kentucky, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"I have very little fauit to find with the cut of Brahma 
female. The tail might be raised a little, it gives the back 
the appearance of being a little too long." 


, RfUftBit poultry journal- 


Comprising the Best Points of Several Live Models, as Illustrated by Franklane L, Sewell for the Reliable Poultry 

Journal, and Submitted to Sixty Prominent Judges and Breeders for Criticism 

Based upon Standard Requirements. 


An Ideal Brahma. Illustrated by Franklane L. Sewell, for the Reliable Poultry Journal, under the Suggestions of 
Sixty Prominent Judges and Breeders— The Outcome of Criticism Upon the Brahma Female 

Shape Shown on the Opposite Page. 



Casper Dice, Nebraska, breeder of Light Brahmas: "I 
thiuk that both neck and legs of female are too short for 
body. Back is too straight and narrow and the tail is 
pinched too much. It looks as though the lower feather 
were gone." 

John A. Myers, director West Virginia Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station, breeder of Light Brahmas: "In the female 
I think the fluff extends down and back a little too far, and 
the line extending from the cape to the back part of the 
cushion seems to me to be too straight. In other words, 
I think the back should be depressed somewhat over the 
cushion so as not to give it such a cocked up appearance. 
I grant that many Light Brahma hens have a tendency to 
carry themselves as shown in the cut, but I would prefer 
the other form as ideal. It is a small matter, however, more 
a question of taste than otherwise in selecting our model." 

F. L. Ackerman, Michigan, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"The back is too long and flat. Breast a trifle too full and 
deep, with wings a trifle large and not carried high enough. 
Tail too large and a trifle too short in shanks. Otherwise 
it is good." 

R. R. Clendenen, Missouri, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"The cut representing standard shape of Brahma female is 
good, but I think it might be improved. The wing is not 
carried high enough; the back does not have that perfect 
concave sweep to tail that I admire. It is too low on saddle 
and perhaps the fluff above vent is not quite full enough, 
giving her a pinched appearance in front of tail." 

L. 0. Berryman, Illinois, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"The female is all 0. K. except I would give her back a 
little more concave sweep to the tail and perhaps lengthen 
her legs a trifle." 

J. A. Roberts, Pennsylvania, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"The Brahma female is good. The eye, which we suppose 
is bay, might be a little larger, and the tail should run 
straight, not raised, bul run in line from back." 

M. Mayer, Jr., Illinois, breeder of Light Brahmas: "The 
female should have a little more cushion, otherwise I con- 
sider it an ideal drawing." 

J. J. Burnside, Indiana, breeder of Light Brahmas: "The 
female is too straight on back from point of hackle to the 

George Luhrsen, Illinois, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"The female drawing of Light Brahma from Mr. Sewell is 
excellent in my estimation, unless it might be a little long 
in the back. I think her as near to the standard as any I 
ever saw, and do not think there is much room for criti- 

Mrs. Ella Thomas, Missouri, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
'The model for the female is better than the male, though 

the comb should be slightly longer and extend back farther 
on head; skull broader, wattles heavier, back shorter for the 
length of body, with more of concave sweep to tail. The 
body should be longer in front of thighs, hocks more closely 
rounded, and more distinct. Foot feathering with the 
amount of black would be elegant. They are grand speci- 
mens, but not quite far enough away from Cochin shape, 
hardly up to my ideal of true Brahma shape." 

Mrs. B. F. Jackson, Kentucky, breeder of Light Brah- 
mas: "The female is better in comb than the male. I 
think the back is a little too straight and long." 

John H. Ryan, Illinois, breeder of Light and Dark 
Brahmas: "I think the Brahma female, as drawn by Mr. 
Sewell, excellent, but I think she is a little too short and 
compact. I would suggest, that her body should be some- 
what longer, and I think the back is a little too full and 
straight. It would look better if more concave. Wing is 
carried too low at rear. Otherwise it is all right." 

George Clough, Illinois, breeder of Dark Brahmas: "The 
female is indeed excellent in shape. If she is faulty any- 
where it must be in tail, which is, I think, a little high, and 
the. fluff should be more abundant." 

E. E. Marlow, Missouri, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"The back of the female is too long and there is not enough 
concave sweep to the tail. Otherwise she suits me all 
right. Both are extra good drawings." 

E. Dunstan, Mississippi, breeder of Light Brahmas: 
"Regarding the Light Brahma female drawing submitted 
for criticism, I would say that I think the head, comb, bill 
wattles and ear-lobes are all right, but the neck is far from 
being of medium length and well arched. The back seems 
broad and of medium length, and flat at the shoulders, but 
• it lacks the concave sweep to the tail, and the tail is too 
large and coarse to be described as rather small. The 
breast, 'round, broad, deep and full,' is overdone, and the 
same with the body and fluff. Take the cut altogether it 
has the appearance of an over-fat Light Brahma with a very 
ill-proportioned neck. If the neck were lengthened one- 
quarter and in same proportion as presented, with the exces- 
sive fullness of breast, body and fluff reduced to every day 
proportions, I think you would have a comparatively good 
Light Brahma hen. As it stands, I consider it a very ill- 
proportioned bird and not in accordance with the Standard 
of Perfection." 

Mrs. L. A. McMeekin & Son, breeders of Light Brahmas: 
"Back of female is too much of an incline, instead of having 
a concave sweep to the tail. Instead of the sweep, the tail 
rises too abruptly. The bird is a little too much Cochin in 


Fifty Years of Improvement and of Advancement in Popularity— Points of Recent Improvement— A 

Comparison of Winning Types. 

By T. P. McGrbw. 

^From the Reliable Poultry Journal.) 


iROM the time of what is known as the "Cornish im- 
portation of Brahmas" into Connecticut, in 1849, via 
the Port of New York from some south sea country, 
the Brahmas have become the pride of all New England 
fanciers. New England, of all the world, is the home of the 
Brahma; there they are produced in all their glory and mod- 
ern perfection. 

Early in the seventies— almost thirty years ago — Mr. 
Lewis Wright, of England, wrote the following words: 
"Each breeder should fully acquaint himself with the proper 
characteristic of his favorite fowl and have in his mind a 
definite idea as to the standard of perfection after which he 
aims. If such ideas have been formed intelligently and on 
good grounds, they should not be lightly given up for the 
fashion of the hour, which can often not be depended upon 
longer than that of a lady's bonnet. It will often be better, 
and in the end even pay better, to sacrifice some prizes for 
a year or two than to give in to the present fancies of sec- 
ond-rate judges and degrade a stock in order to meet them." 

These timely spoken words of the "King of the Brahma 
fancy" in England saved the Brahma from ruin and main- 
tained their characteristics, while not in our cherished type, 
yet of the same fashion, only more cobby than we select. 
At that time, in England the opinion of the judges, whether 
right or wrong, had great influence and many followed the 
lead of these experts and tried to fashion their Brahmas on 
Cochin lines by shortening their legs and encouraging 
heavy hocks. The words of Mr. Wright changed these plans 
somewhat, and called the attention of all to the true rule of 
breeding to a true-type. Many times with us could this same 
warning be sounded as against following a fashion that is 
made popular by the placing of awards in opposition to the 
standard rule. It would be well for us at times if some one 
of authority could save us from ourselves when we wander 
from a true type while searching for a solid wing flight, or 
a handsome covert, as if these constituted the whole thing. 

Too much attention cannot be paid to the rich coloring 
of our Light Brahmas. The neck feathers of the males, 
when examined singly, may be quite handsome, but the 
proper coloring of the hackle should present a beautiful 
blending of color from just at the juncture of head to well 
down over the shoulders, the whole presenting a picture of 
beauty in black and white that is most attractive. The 
black centre of the hackle should be rich and bright and 
the white edge of the same pure white, without any shading 
of black whatever. The black should be clear cut and dis- 
tinct—no running of the black into the white, the white 
border or edging of each feather should be pure white and 
entirely free from any shading of dark or black. 

Such rich, pure coloring of the neck is very beautiful 
when the black centre is of a rich shining black that tapers 
to a fine ending at the point, and the whole edged or laced 
all about the black centre clear up to the very start of same, 
with clear, pure white that has no tinge of color in it. When 
such coloring extends close up to the head and well around 

in front, marking the entire hackle plumage, leaving no pure 
white portion upon the plumage, then the perfect neck is 
present. No more will the white ring about the neck, just 
back of the head, pass muster as the perfect marking, nor 
will it do to have clear white portions of the hackle on 
either side in front, lacking the black centre; the hackle 
must be well marked in every feather. 

The pure black flights in the male are most difficult to 
obtain in these handsomely marked specimens that have 
the nice white lacing about the coverts, and the pure, clear, 
rich black tails which are nicely filled in with feathers 
laced with white. This beautiful combination of clear black 
and white, with the black or almost black flights, gives us 
the present up-to-date rich colored show specimens. Many 
such were seen at the Boston show, of a quality that sur- 
passed any yet produced in this country, their form, color 
and markings being the admiration of all who saw them. 

There are many fanciers throughout New England who 
pride themselves on the high quality of their Brahmas who 
never send a "bird to a show, and there are many more who 
breed them for the keenest competition and come to the 
ring side, as it were, to contend for supremacy. The latter 
are the backbone of the New England fancy; they form the 
membership of the New England Brahma Club; they are 
the men who guide and guard the future welfare of the 
Brahma, and to them the world must look for the greatest 
■ advancement and quality in this breed. 

The application of all rules of law can be so construed 
as to fit almost any existing condition; it seems to be much 
the same in applying the Standard of Perfection to the 
Brahmas in our seyeral shows. After 'the awards were placed 
in Boston in 1900, the accusation was made against the win- 
ning pullet that it was Cochin in shape. Under the approval 
of the New England Brahma Club this claim was made em- 
phatically. Next year they had the exhibit and the selection 
of judges in their own hands, and we find second on cock 
birds and first on cockerels placed on specimens that 
showed more of the Cochin type in their make-up than had 
the pullet of 1900. 

When we compare the awards of one year at Boston and 
New York, we find that a cock bird of admitted high quality 
was first at Boston. This same cock bird, when he came to 
New York two weeks later, was superceded by one that was 
selected two weeks before at the Boston show because he 
was considered to be the style of bird most preferred by the 
New York judge. All the Boston pullet winners were turned 
down at New York in favor of one that did not gain a place 
at Boston. The winner at New York was small in size, trim 
in form, beautiful in hackle plumage, not clear white in 
body plumage, and her wing flights almost too weak in color 
for an old hen. Here we have a demonstration of the great 
gap that divides the opinion of these two experts. 

This shows the importance of having a better under- 
standing and of getting closer together on the whole matter. 

T. P. McGREW. 


The New England Light Brahma Club is Content With Nothing Short of the Best— Mr. Franklane L 
Sewell Engaged to Portray the Ideals of the Members— History of These Ideals. 

By G. W. Cbomack. 

(From the Reliable Poultry Journal.) 

DT WAS a long time after the idea of securing ideal illus- 
trations of Light Brahmas was first mentioned by 
members of the New England Light Brahma Club that 
an attempt was made to embody their various preferences 


■ IDE/11' 


Light Brahma Male adopted as the Ideal of the New England Light Brahma Club 
A Sewell Production Based upon the Ideals of the Members. 

in. composite ideals. There were many men of many minds, 
and most of them were very decided in their opinions. Their 
ideas of shape had taken years to formulate, and were not 
to be lightly forsaken. After a good deal of talk (everybody 
admitted the necessity of the New England Light Brahma 
Club having an ideal male and female), it was decided to 
procure cuts. A committee was appointed and negotiations 

were commenced with an artist with a view to getting draw- 
ings submitted, and then, having criticised and perfected 
them, to order composite illustrations which should repre- 
sent the club's ideal. "Well, the drawings were submitted, 

and no fowl was ever 
plucked more quickly or 
more mercilessly than 
were those unfortunates. 
In short, the subject of se- 
curing an ideal male and 
female was for a time 

As the years flew by 
there were continual calls 
for the club catalogue, and 
finally at the annual meet- 
ing in April, 1900, the sec- 
retary stated he had sent 
in answers to calls for 
catalogues, old premium 
lists, and that the supply 
of those was nearly ex- 
hausted. It seemed, there- 
fore, that a catalogue 
should be prepared. This 
question having been set- 
tled in the affirmative, 
"ideal cuts" were again 
suggested^-they must be 
had to place in the pro- 
posed catalogue. This time 
the secretary was instruct- 
ed to correspond with Mr. 
Sewell and inform him as 
nearly as possible what 
would be expected in 
drawings of ideal male and 
and female Light Brah- 
The drawings arrived. 
The male as published 
is identical with that sub- 
mitted by Mr. Sewell, 
while the female has been 
changed several times. 

All of this took months 

to do and it was January, 

1902, before the cuts were 

published in the catalogs 

It is not to be supposed that they represent everything that 

every member wishes to see in Light Brahmas, but every 

one believes them to be the nearest possible approach to the 

ideals of the members generally, and we hazard nothing in 

saying that they are by all odds the finest representations of 

ideal Light Brahmas in existence. 




They are Good Layers of Large Eggs; Make Desirable Broilers, and May be Cheaply Housed and 

Easily Cared For. 

By E. Erickson. 


in the show 
good layers, 
answer, that 
course we do 

"B ARE often asked by visitors 
room if Light Brahmas are 
We believe we can truthfully 
they are very good layers. Of 

not claim that they will lay 

more eggs than the Leghorn 

or some of the other small 

breeds, but if the size and 

weight of eggs are taken into 

consideration, they will head 

the list. We have jus>: placed 

on the scales one dozen Brah- 
ma eggs, that were gathered 

from our yards to-day, and 

they weigh one pound four- 
teen ounces. We also weighed 

one dozen White Wyandottes, 

that weighed one pound nine 

ounces, showing a difference 

of five ounces in favor of the 

Brahma. Thus it would take 

a little more than fourteen 

Wyandotte eggs to equal the 

weight of twelve Brahma 

eggs. At this rate for a year, 

allowing the Brahma an aver- 
age of one hundred and fifty 

eggs per year (a record which 

they will easily make, and 

many of them will lay more 

than that), the Wyandotte 

will have to lay one hundred 

and eighty to equal the weight 

of the Brahma eggs. 
One of our customers told 

us that he kept a record of 

his flock for a period of 190 

days. By the use of the trap 

nest boxes he found that one 

hen laid 145 eggs in this time. 

With good care she surely 

would have reached the 200 

mark in a year, as he had 175 
days more to go. 

We will suppose that the 
birds are kept for market 
only, and that the old hens are 
sold off along in July after 

the laying and hatching season is over. A flock of good 
Brahma hens will average about nine pounds each, while 
most of the smaller breeds will not average over six. Let 
them sell, say at ten cents per pound. Here again the 
Brahma will gain thirty cents per head over the small, 
heavy laying competitor. Some one will say that the 
smaller hen has already gained that much in the extra num- 
ber of eggs laid. Yes, she may have, if she has been laying 
heavily during the winter. But it must be remembered that 
the Brahmas are naturally good winter layers. With their 
low combs and heavy feathering, they can stand more cold 
than any other breed that we know of, and for this reason 
they do not suffer or lose any time on account of frozen 
combs. They do not need as costly built and warm houses 

as the high combed varieties. Any kind of a house that is 
tight and dry will do for them. 

If early broilers are wanted, there is no breed that will 
reach a weight of two pounds each in less time. We have 

,.M *>"• 

:'.- mj^^ 


IDtflL • 


Light Brahma Female Adopted as the Ideal of the New England Light Brahma Club. 
A Sewell Production Based upon the Ideals of the Members. 

tried them in the same brooder with Wyandottes and Ply- 
mouth Rocks, and we always found that at eight to ten 
weeks old the Brahmas were a quarter to a half pound 
heavier than the others. Some people claim that the Brah- 
ma will not feather quick enough for a good market chicken. 
We have found that all the buyers care for is the weight. 
They do not care whether the chick is full feathered or not. 
So this cannot be any obstacle in the way of those who 
want to produce early chickens for market. By careful 
feeding the Brahma can be grown a great deal above stand- 
ard weight. 

The Brahma is naturally of a quiet disposition and can 
be easily confined. This quality makes them especially 
adapted to those who have limited space. E, ERICKSON. 


Its Origin and Introduction Into America— The Standard Male and Female Described Section by Seo- 

tion— The Principal Defects Explained and the Cuts for Each Given— The 

Method of Mating This Variety to Produce Exhibition 

Birds Set Forth in Detail. 

By I. K. Felch. Associate Editor Reliable Poultry Journal. 

POR nearly fifty years I have been known as 
the champion of the Light Brahma and to- 
day I affirm that among all the breeds men- 
tioned in our standard, they are most worthy 
of consideration. They are the best of the Asiatics 
and are entitled to first place among the three or four best 
money making varieties. No matter how often one writes 
about them, there is always something good left unsaid, and 
the lover- of the pure Brahma type may well sound the alarm 
against the encroachment of the Cochin shape in his beloved 
variety. Leaving others to display their rhetoric and classic 
learning, I simply wish to express in plain words what I 
know about this variety from experience. I will tell of 
their origin, their development and their influence upon the 
poultry culture of our land. I will describe the true Brahma 
shape, their plumage, and tell how to mate and how to judge 
them. This I will do for the benefit of those who are start- 
ing in poultry culture and those who are to follow in this 
industry, which is fast becoming the greatest of agricultural 


The breed came to us in America completed, if we may 
use the term; that is, it passed through no mongrel, no 
transitory state. So perfected was it then that fifty years 
have failed to make them one whit better, and a breeder is 
not able to-day to produce a bird with a higher score than 
those we had in 1876. One specimen has reached the re- 
markable score of 97. 

About 1847 they were discovered by a Mr. Knox, on 
board an India ship in New YoTk harbor, and those six birds 
are the ancestors of the American Light Brahma. Mr. Knox 
purchased them for a Mr. Chamberlain, of Hartford, Conn. 
These birds and their progeny later became the property 
of Virgil Cornish, who placed them on exhibition in 1850 at 
the Fitchburg Depot show at Boston, where they were named 
Brahma Pootra, or short-legged Chittagong. At that time 
there was a large, ugly variety known as Chittagong. It 
was the largest and the most popular breed. The breeders 
of that variety were jealous of the Brahma's advent and did 
all they could to prevent them from forming a distinct 
variety, But the Brahma's more symmetrical shape, its pea 
comb and its prolific laying soon overcame the opposition, 
and in a short time they became known as the Light Brahma 
and were acknowledged to be the best of all large fowls. 
They gradually absorbed the Chittagong blood and that 
breed disappeared, while the Brahmas, as such, were put 
into our first standard. There was an effort made later to 
resuscitate the Chittagong under the name of Single Comb 
Light Brahmas and they were exhibited at one or two shows, 
but the race soon became extinct. 

The first birds imported were capable of reproducing 
themselves and the variety to-day is able to produce pro- 
geny, ninety per cent of which will score 90 to 96 points. » It 
shows a strength and prepotency not excelled by any other 
breed of parti-colored fowls. The standard written for them 
in 1876 is, and ought to be standard to-day, for birds of that 
type are most prolific. One hen, Rebecca, has a record of 313 
eggs in 333 days, and though she laid no more eggs during 
the other thirty-two days that finished the year, it was still 
a wonderful record. Another hen, Pareppa, laid for twenty- 
three consecutive months without showing any desire to. in- 
cubate, and eight of her sisters showed no desire to sit. 

But one swallow does not make a summer, nor does one 
bird with a remarkable record prove the superiority of a 
variety, but I know that birds of the Chamberlain-Felcli 
strain will average 150 eggs a year besides hatching and 
rearing a brood of chickens. Flocks of thirty-five, fifty-five 
and seventy-five have records of 92%, 107% and 110 eggs 
when one year old. Other flocks have yearly records of 160 
to 168 eggs each, and seven-twelfths of the number of eggs 
were laid in the five coldest months of the year when eggs 
bring the best prices. Eight pullets have a record of 192 
eggs each, besides raising 64 chicks in the yards of the late 
G. P. Fay. They lay large, heavy eggs, which weigh more 
per dozen than those from any other fowls. They will make 
tender roasts at a greater age than other varieties and if 
the roosters are kept in celibacy they will make tender meat 
when a year old. When the Light Brahma females have 
been crossed with Wyandotte and Indian Game males, the 
result of these crosses are sure to win the prizes in a dressed 
poultry contest. 

Such are the records that have been made by the old- 
style Light Brahma, and it is the old-style to which we must 
return and adhere if we will have these records remain un- 
excelled. The variety has been injured by the desire of 
some persons to breed them with short necks, backs, thighs 
and shanks and with the looser, longer plumage and exces- 
sive foot feathering. The poultry coops used in our large 
shows have been greatly to blame for the change to the 
Cochin type Brahma. These coops were too low for a nor- 
mal Brahma to stand in them free and clear. Therefore, 
only a Cochin-shaped Brahma looked well in the coops, and 
consequently, birds of that character won the prizes and a 
large number of breeders, noting the style of bird that had 
been winning, immediately began breeding to that type of 
bird and ignored the standard. This would not matter so 
much if it did not damage the utility and injure- the egg 
productiveness of the variety. But I know that breeding 
Brahmas to this Cochin type has diminished the egg produc- 



tion of such altered strains sixteen to twenty-five per cent. 
I have seen this demonstrated under my personal observa- 
tion during my long years 'With the Brahma. To bring the 
race back to its old time prolificness and beautiful shape, 
we have only to breed them according to the early models. 
They should have a close, smooth surfaced plumage. The 
neck, back, thighs and shanks should be of medium length 
and the general appearance should be oblong. The Honor- 
able Geo. Loring, as he stood looking at them at the Middle- 
sex South Fair, exclaimed; "They are a vertitable oblong 
band-box on legs," a quaint expression, but to the men and 
women of his time it was a forceful one, telling of the equal 
breast and posterior weight, with their clinging plumage, 
the hocks showing in profile below the body line, with the 


A cock in his second year should weigh twelve pounds 
or more in exhibition condition. A cockerel in his adult 
coat should weigh ten pounds, a hen nine and a half or more 
and a pullet eight pounds. The birds should be sufficiently 
fat to have their plumage show its best sheen when on exhi- 
bition. During the breeding season the birds should be al- 
lowed to fall one pound under these weights, which will put 
thpm in their best working form. Weight is valued at ten 
points on the score card and is as much a part of the stand- 
ard's demand of excellence as any other section, and a judge 
in scoring must cut two points for every pound that a bird 

The judging of fowls is no longer confined to exhibi- 

Jj^lisJr " *=^>~ Copyright 
BrM^r ni:i>«u.EPauixmrj«>umwi 
sat. --' puBVSMtia c?. 

1903 — 

Ideal Ught Brahma Male and Female Shape, Advocated by I, K. l-'elch. 

thigh plumage curling closely and smoothly about the hock 

In 1876, there appeared in the American Poultry Exhi- 
bition in New York City, a Light Brahma cock which was 
named "Autocrat." It was a bird that was found in Fulton 
market and no trace was ever discovered of its antecedents. 
He varied little from the bird from the Chamberlain strain 
known as the Imperial 300, but afterwards called the Felch 
strain. These two males, "Autocrat" and "Imperial 300," 
are the founders of the two strains of Light Brahmas, the 
Autocrat and the Felch, whose progeny are to be found in 
every state in the Union. The popularity of the Light 
Brahma has declined occasionally, when some new variety 
has been boomed and amateurs have been tempted to try 
them t but each time the Light Brahma has regained its hold 
and has even grown more popular. 

tions, although articles upon this subject generally refer to 
birds in the show room, as they vary less than the speci- 
mens constituting a whole flock. 

The first article I ever wrote treated of the general de- 
fects found in flocks as they existed in the days when our 
first standard was compiled. To-day so much private scor- 
ing is indulged in that there seems to be a necessity for an 
exposition of the subject of judging the average merit as 
seen in the whole flock. Lest the novice and beginner may 
incline to be satisfied with mediocrity, we illustrate this 
article with perfect male and female shapes, while stating 
that divergencies from these ideals are faulty in proportion 
as they differ. 


The plumage of the head is white. The beak should be 
stout at the jucture with the skull, and should be nicely 



arched to the point, yellow in color, striped with dark brown 
color or black in the upper mandible and the under beak 
should be yellow. The beak in the female may be yellow, 
or yellow striped with a dark color. In the male the face 
deep red; eyes red, large and bright; ear-lobes large and 
pendant; wattles well developed and hanging, their lower 
edge being well rounded on a line with the lower edge of 
ear-lobes. The face, ear-lobes and wattles should be rich 
crimson. In the females all these features are much smaller 
in comparison with the male, and the wattles are closely 
rounded to the throat. 

The skull should be large, with heavy brows overhang- 
ing the eyes. Especially should this be prominent in the 
male, as seen in our perfect model. Heavy ear-lobes, long 
and pendulous, with wattles that are large and long enough 
to place their lower line on a level with lower point of ear- 
lobes, are the conditions that insure s rong, procreative 
power. In early days cocks with only rudimentary wattles 

Defective Hackle Feathers of the Male. 

were disqualified and ought to be to-day, for they are worth- 
less, save only as poultry meat. 

The defects of head and its adjuncts are generally: Nar- 
row in skull, depressed in front of eyes; for these cut one 
point; eyes, when not bay or red, one-half point; rudimen- 
tary wattles, one-half to two and one-half, and when entire- 
ly absent, the specimen should be disqualified. 


The comb is what is called a pea comb. It is like three 
small combs joined together at the front and base, the side 
divisions merging with the center division near its rear 
point. The channel between the center and side divisions 
should be deep enough so that if all the small points were 
frozen off the comb would still show its three divisions. In 
.an absolutely perfect comb the center division should have 

seven small points and the sides each five points. The top 
line of the comb should follow the curve of the skull. While 
we may say that the comb is small, it is still in keeping with 
the size of the bird. In the female the comb is very much 
smaller in proportion to the weight of the specimen, in fact, 
the smaller the better, so that it is perfect in shape, rt is 
of .the same shape as the comb of the male and is subject 
to the same cuts. 

A comb may be ever so perfect in its three divisions, 
yet so thin at base and junction with skull as to flop from 
side to side of the head. Such a specimen would be disquali- 
fied; yet a comb, if from some cause it leans to one side, but 
is firm in its position, would be cut from one-half to one and 
one-half for failing to stand erect upon the head in a straight 
line from front to rear. The comb could be gross and large 
with crumpled or serpentine divisions, the channels between 
the divisions so slight "that were the small points frozen or 
shaved off, the comb would be literally a short, single piece 
of comb flesh. In both these cases we think the defect could 
be so aggravated as to be cut one-half to two points, and 
when loose at junction with the skull, we would withhold 
all score card record as being a specimen unworthy of recog- 
nition as a thoroughbred. If the comb should be single or 
so defective otherwise as to stultify standard description, we 
would also- pass it by. 

If it is too large, but still stands erect, it 
would be cut one point for size. On the middle division, 
if the points are so large and wide that they crowd in a 
zig zag way, although side divisions are all right it de- 
mands a cut of one point. Taken altogether (size and 
shape), even if the comb were erect, a cut of two points 
would be demanded. There is another style of comb fre- 
quently seen, a short, very small comb, stubbed off at rear, 
which causes the bird to look like a man six feet tall, wear- 
ing a very small boy's hat. The comb on some birds 
has but four points in the middle and three points on the 
sides, and the channels are not deep, though straight and 
stiff upon the head. Such a comb should be cut fully three 
points. Want of development should always be cut with 
more severity than over-development. I believe in a gener- 
ous development of comb and all head embellishments, for 
it denotes procreative work. Diminutive combs are surely 
an indication of failing productive power. 


The. neck should be medium in length and prominent 
in its juncture with the head, nicely arched to the center, 
the hackle then falling in a concave sweep, completely cov- 
ering the shoulders. Each hackle feather must have a black 
stripe the full length of the web, ending in a fine point at 
or near the end of the feather. The black stripe must show 
a rich green sheen for fully three-fifths of its length, and the 
white must form a complete edge the full length of the web. 
The under-fluff may be either black, dark slate or white, 
neither having the preference in the show room. The throat 
should be white. 

In the fomale the neck appears shorter and has the same 
arch and concave sweep that it has in the male. The feathers 
in the female are more correctly described as black edged 
with white. The hackle should cover the cape when the 
head is thrown back, which gives apparent fulness to the 

In this section there are seldom defects in shape so glar- 
ing but they are overshadowed by color defects. Yet if th« 
neck be short and the effect be that known as Cochin shape, 
or if the neck be of sufficient length, but head carried so far 
forward as to give the feature too straight a poise, it should 



be cut one point for shape, for the latter has the appearance 
of robbing the breast of its fulness. 

It is not by any means understood that every feather 
of the hackle shall be perfect In order to pass uncut, but 
that the perfect feathers should be in overwhelming num- 
bers, of the character as seen in our models. But when the 
neck plumage is in a general way made up of feathers like 
No. 1, the neck would most likely be cut one point for color; 
if like No. 2, one and one-half points; like No. 3, one 
and one-half to two points if void of sheen. Feathers 
still worse should condemn the specimens as breeders, and 
surely they could not be show specimens. They should be 
sent to the kitchen pen. When the head is carried so far 
forward as to destroy the full arch of the neck and the 
hackle fails to fully cover the cape; or when the white lacing 
fails to extend along the entire edge of the web; or the black 
and white are mixed, or there is straw color in the white or 
black spots in the Lhroat, cut one-half to one point. A more 
severe cut should be made if the black stripe is very poorly 


The back should be medium in length, but sufficiently 
long so that in conjunction with a full, round breast it 
will give an oblong appearance to the body. The back will 
appear much shorter in the male, because more of the cape 
is covered by the hackle and also on account of the saddle 
feathers. The standard describes the back as broad and flat, 
which appearance is caused in part by the hackle feathers 
spreading over the cape and the feathers on the upper part 
of the wings. From the cape to a point just in front of the 
hips, there is a slight downward slope, but the saddle rises 
in a concave sweep to the tail. The saddle should be wide 
enough to balance the breadth of the shoulders, the saddle 
hangers trailing down over the points of the wing bays. The 
surface of the back proper should be pure white, except 
where the last row of saddle feathers take on the character 
of the tail coverts, being black edged with White, which is 
not to be considered a defect. The under-color of the back 
may be bluish grey, white or Slate color in the male. Ii 
there should be slight traces of black in the saddle plumage 
near the tail, it must not be considered a disqualification un- 
der the disqualifying clause of "black prevalent in the web 
feathers of the back," etc. 

In the female the back has a longer appearance, due to 
the lack of saddle hackle. The rear portion of the back 
is more properly termed "cushion" in the female. The back 
should have a Slight downward slope from the cape to a 
point in front of the hips and then show a slightly curved 
line from the hips to the tail. The surface color should 
be white and the under-color may be white or bluish grey. 
If the last row of cushion feathers resemble the tail coverts, 
it should not be considered a defect. 

Cut one-half to one point, according to the degree of im- 
perfection, if the plumage is straw colored in place of white 
or if the dark under-color shows on the surface. Cut two 
points for pronounced yellow shade of feathers. 

Occasionally in any flock there appears an aggra- 
vated case of roached back, being oval from cape to tail, 
and as is general in such cases, wings are carried low and 
the back appears narrow and oval from side to side. The 
hip may be slipped also. As he stands, the bird is disqualified, 
but were hip in position, even with all his roached condi- 
tion, the specimen would be cut from one-half to two points. 
A specimen with a slipped hip and a crooked back may be 
an excellent stock bird, yet he is disqualified, while the 
roached back bird surely is worthless as a breeder when in 
this aggravated form, yet we cannot disqualify him in 

A croojced shell bone causes what is termed a wry tail. 
Sometimes a few black ticks appear in the saddle of the 
male. He may have fifteen to twenty near the tall. This is 
exempt from disqualification, but becomes a defect, subject 
to a cut of one-half to one point; the condition we mention 
is cut one point. The under-color may be so dark as to ap- 
proach black in the fluffy portion and should be cut one 
point in the male; if dark slate in female, the same cut. 
When black ticks appear in the wab of the feather in the 
female, but are not prevalent on the surface, they are a 
defect, to be cut one point. If so pronounced that one was 
forced to cut two points, the specimen should be disqualified 

Should the black ticks, described for the male as a 
defect, become prevalent, reaching down to middle of saddle 
and appearing in the saddle hangers and under the wings at 
the sides, he, too, is a disqualified specimen; yet he may be 
a valuable breeder with hens that have lost color by age 
and service in the show pen. This defect often corrects 
itself as such cockerels molt into their cock form; they grow 
lighter with age. 

Defective Hawkle Feathers of the Female. 

Feather No. 7 is a black ticked one; these feathers, ac- 
cording to their prevalence, are cut one-half to one point. 
This is as far as the license for their appearance should go, 
for a pure white surface color is desirable and it is a fact 
that where the under fluff is a bluish gray the surface color 
is far more liable to be a pearl white so much coveted in 
show birds. 


The breast should be full, broad and round and the 
quarters prominent. This will give a full, oval outline from 
shoulder to keel, and from shoulder point to shoulder point 
that is so much desired. This section is seldom faulty in 
color, both surface and under-color being white, though the 
latter may be bluish gray at its juncture with the body. The 
reason we find this section so perfect in color is because it 
is protected, so to speak, and never receives the direct rays 
of the sun, nor the full force of storms. This description 
applies to both male and female. 

Sometimes the ticking on throat extends downward, or 
a slight straw tinge invades the upper part so as to secure 
a cut of one-half to one point; so rare is this that judges 
pay little attention and generally make Hhe breast cuts un- 
der the head of shape; and it is as well. Shape becomes the 
defect in ninety-nine cases in one hundred. 

Tn viewing the specimen from the front you see the 



shape Irom quarter to keel is V-shaped, not rounded at the 

sides. This and a want of fulness in front generally go 

together, and are generally cut one point. When the quarters 

are full, giving rounded shape to side lines, the. breast is 

sure to have a rounded front from wing to wing front. This 

fulness of the shoulder or quarters, as its effect in breast is 

called, is what gives the effect of the breast being carried 

well forward of the thighs, when such appearance is called 



In the old standard the body and fluff were considered 
together. The keel should be carried rather low, but not 
so low as to hide the full profile of the hock, and the keel 
muscle must be full and firm to the touch. The fluff should 
be moderately full and with the full thigh fluff gives a broad 
appearance to the bird when viewed from behind. The sur- 
face and under-color are white, though the latter may be 
bluish grey. 

When keel is so crooked as to affect the shape we have 
described as perfect, showing a hollowness in front of thighs 
and a want of depth to body, a cut of one-half to one point 
should be made, and we have seen cases where one and a half 
and even two points were necessary; but slight notches or 
slight turning of the keel, if no apparent alteration to shape 
of body appears, may pass uncut in Brahmas, but should 
a tie appear, the crooked keeled bird should lose, or be given 
a check for the defect, which would decide the tie without 
another examination. 

If the thigh fluff be scant and fluff proper be shrunken 
as compared to our model, a cut of one-half to one point will 
in a large majority cover these defects. 

Here- again color comes in with such effect that shape is 
too often overlooked. Light Brahma wings are a trifle more 

than medium in length and 
are well cupped in the rose, 
that is, they should have a 
prominent round sweep from 
cape downward. The prima- 
ries are folded smoothly under 
the secondaries, which lay un- 
der the saddle hangers. The 
wing fronts are strongly mus- 
cled and covered by the breast 
plumage at the quarters. In 
color the fronts are white, or 
slightly mixed with black. 
The secondaries are black, but 
have white on the lower web 
of sufficient width so that the 
wing bay is white. The white 
along the upper edge of the 
upper web, growing wider as 
it extends around the tip and 
along the upper edge of the upper web, growing wider as the 
secondaries comb upward. The five feathers between the 
secondaries and the cape have less and less black, until the 
top one is altogether white in order to*secure the white sur- 
face color. The primaries are black, or nearly so, having a 
white edge to the lower web. 

The same description applies to the wings of the female, 
except that the primaries are black in the shaft, the balance 
of the feather being black and white, but to escape a cut for 
defective color the black must predominate in the feather. 
The wings should be carried high enough to secure the flat 
cape across the back and should be so folded that the points 
lie under the saddle hangers in the male and are well bedded 
between the cushion and fluff of the female. 

A Black Ticked Saddle Feather. 

.Cut one-half to one and one-half points, according to 
degree of imperfection, if the wings are carried too low, or 
the. primaries are loosely folded, showing below the secon- 
daries; if white predominates in the primaries of the females 
and is top prominent in the males; if straw color shows in 
the surface color, or brick color in the white of flights. If 
the wings have a generally bad color, or have twisted feath- 
ers in them, cut one-half to one and one-half points. If the 
primaries are folded outside of the secondaries, refuse the 
specimen a score card, for such birds will not prove worthy 

Wing Primary 

lary of the Male. 

For color, see feathers forming illustrations Nos. 12 and 
12%. Such feathers making up the primaries of a male, 
should not be cut under the rule "black or nearly so, but 
showing a white lacing to lower web," while in the female 
white may appear as in No. 13 so long as the surface be 
black in the larger proportion as here seen, buit upper web 
may be solid black. In hens one often sees nearly all white 
with the shaft only black, yet both colors are clear in shade; 
one and one-half may be a reasonable cut, but when the 
colors are neither black nor white like feather No. 14, we 
think one and one-half to two and one-half should be the 
penalty. This defect is more frequent in old hens. 

The secondaries are a white feather with the centers 
being a very dark slate or black, but all color showing on 
the surface must be white. Where the surface of wing is 
shaded with straw or yellow, one-half to two points will 
cover this defect. Of the feathers (five in number^ between 
secondaries and cape, the fifth must be white and the others 
sufficiently white to secure white in surface color. The cut 
then almost always comes in surface color and primaries. 

Should the primaries be composed of feathers like Fig. 
UA the cut surely should be all of one and one-half points, 
and lesser defects one-half to one and a half 




The tail should be fairly well developed and carried 
tolerably upright and spread latterly like a capital A, which 
should be filled in underneath with rich, curling feathers 
of mixed black and white color, the darker the better. A 
line dropped from the deck feathers to the ground should 
just clear the tip of the lower tail feathers. The 
sickles and lesser sickles should reach but little 
beyond the tail proper and should curve outward 
laterally. The larger coverts should lay in form of 
a simitar on the side of the tail and reach far enough 
to the rear to just cover the tail proper. The sickles, lesser 
sickles and tail proper are to all appearances black, but the 
quill end next to the skin and along the lower web of the 
lower tail feathers may be white and on the very lowest 
feather the white may extend two inches. The lesser cov- 
erts in the male may be black, or black edged with white. 

In the female the tail proper extends beyond the tail 
coverts and to all appearances the feathers are black; except 
the two deck feathers, which are edged with white, but the 
quill ends for one-half to two inches along the web of the 
lower feathers are white. While the tail is called fan- 
shaped, it must not be exaggerated, but it is a fault if it 
comes to a point like the Cochin tail. It should be filled 
underneath with rich, curling white feathers which may be 
mixed with black and not be considered a defect. The cov- 
erts may be black, or edged with white. When the last row 
of the cushion feathers are black laced with white, the 
larger rear coverts may be black. 

We have said that when shell bone is crooked by a fall- 
ing hip joint, the tail becomes wry, that is, carried out of 
a straight line from neck, this becomes a disqualification. 
It is really no fault of the tail proper, it being only the result 
of a deformed back. If the carriage of the sickles is too 
straight and the tail proper is not spread laterally into what 
some term fan-shape, in other words, viewed from behind, 
the space between the sides is not A-shaped, cut one and 
one-half points for either of these defects. 

But color cuts a large figure here, as it does in 
wings. If an inch of white appears in sickles above the 
coverts, cut one point; if more, cut to two, as the length of 
white increases. White appearing in large coverts, with les- 
ser coverts in characters like feather No. 17 should be cut 
a full point. When this is the case the third set of coverts 
next to the saddle will be nearly white. 

Here is where the judge or novice has a work to 
do. Lift the saddle entirely off the tail and you will see 
every tail has three sets of coverts; the large ones that lie 
upon the tail proper and curve downward are to be black; 
the other two sets, black laced with white. When the saddle 
is wholly white, the second and third set do not show on the 
surface, yet our model shows what looks like two sets, 
showing the second set laced with white. This is only a 
case where the last row of saddle plumage has taken on the 
character of tail coverts and is not rated as a defect 
in back, as it has added brevity to tail the same as if the sec- 
ond set of tail coverts showed. No female ever showed 
the second set of the real tail coverts unless she had been 
faked of her last row of saddle feathers. The judge who 
knows his business will uncover the tail to judge of its cov- 
erts. The specimen that shows this last row of saddle plum- 
age black laced with white, will have tail coverts wholly 
black, without the white lacing. When the tail feathers 
proper are tipped with white like our illustration, Fig. 18, 
cut one full point, or if the defect is less pronounced, cut 
one-half point. 

Fig. 18 is one of the lowest tail feathers. Note the 

white near the quill point. This is the normal condition of 
all tails and is not a- defect, for all feathers of tail and cov- 
erts, when full grown, are white at the quill points. The 
defective conditions are at the tip of the feathers. To decide 
on the amount of white at the base I examine the white 
in the tips, that being the sign of the evil and generally of 
its extent. White in sickles and coverts will sometimes 
appear in an alarming degree in old birds, sufficient indeed 
to cause a cut of one to three points, but if more than two, 
surely the specimen should be passed as unworthy. 

If the tail is drooping or carried above 45 degrees; if 
the black is devoid of the desirable green sheen, cut one-half 
to one and one-half points. If the tail is carried to either 
side sufficiently to be termed a wry tail, the specimen must 
be disqualified and refused a score card. 

Wing; Feathers of the Female. 

The thighs should be medium in length, showing the 
hock in profile below the body line. The lower thigh should 
be well and firmly muscled and covered with close, clinging 
plumage that curls about the hock joint preserving its dis- 
tinct outline. The shanks should be medium in length, 
looking neither short nor long and should be well feathered 
down the outside, the feathering blending with the foot 
plumage in a smooth, outward curve. The toes should be 
straight, the outer being feathered to the tip joint and the 
middle toe bearing feathers enough to fill the space between 
it and the outer toe. The shanks and feet should be yellow, 
but they may be straw color as the birds grow older. In 
the female the hock joint is less prominent than in the male 
and the shank and foot feathering is not so heavy. The 
feathers may be mottled with black in the male, or may be 
white in the female. 

Occasionally we find a case of complete knock-knees. 
Such specimens are disqualified. When they diverge from the 
perfect, as seen in our model, to this condition the cuts 
range from one-half to two points. If the shanks are lightly 
feathered and the feathering does not grow to tip joint of 
outer toes, then the specimen is disqualified. If toes are, 



a majority of them, crooked, as we have herein depicted 
them, they are to be passed as unworthy. For a crooked toe 
cut one point; if middle toes are not feathered beyond the 
joint with shank, cut one point for each middle toe thus 
affected; but if feathered sufficiently to fill space between 
middle and outer toe they should not be cut, for it is not 
expected that the demand be to tip joint. For shanks thinly 
feathered (the foot plumage being up to the requirements of 
the standard), cut one-half to one point. 

If the thigh be so short in males as to hide the hock 
in the fluff plumage, cut a full point. It is the length of 
bone in the second joint, so called, that allows the lower 
thigh and hock joint to appear in smoothly plumed profile 
below the lower body line. A Brahma should appear in an 
upstanding, active poise. 

Defective Tail Feathers 

The above i re the general defects and more damaging 
to appearance in the breed. The lesson is a long one, yet 
we are aware more might have been said. 

Could we obtain birds such as we have described in the 
foregoing, they would be perfect and score 100 points, but 
defects appear and cutting them according to the standard, 
we are able to produce only birds that score from' only 90 
to !>6, and occasionally one is found that will score 96% 
honest points. We have described. a perfect bird and given 
the cuts that are the penalty for defects. But our task is 
not completed until we give our experience in mating to 
produce the best results. 

Of all the varieties of thoroughbred fowls, there is none 
that will give us so large a percentage of chicks that will 
score 90 to 96 points as will a single pair of Light Brahmas 
when mated according to the standard. But we wish to 
gee the greatest number of chicks possible during two years 

which is the usual length of time we use our breeders and 
exhibition birds. To do this we must mate our stock so 
that our medium colored birds will give us show specimens 
in their first season, because they lose color when breeding 
and with age. When we make our selection for shape, the 
shape takes care of itself, but to secure approximate per- 
fection in color is hard and the artist (breeder) may be said 
to be painting with live colors and brushes. 

Pen No. 1, First Division— When we mate a cock and 
pullet of the color I have described, we make a real standard 

Pen No. 2, First Division — Select a cockerel that is as 
dark as the standard permits and mate him to hens that in 
their second year are standard in both shape and color. This 
is also a standard mating in the truest sense. The hens se- 
lected for this pen were, as chickens, dark specimens that 
have come to standard color by 'the loss which age inflicts 
and by the work of reproduction. For my part, I should 
not care from which pen I set eggs for hatching. I should 
expect the cockerel to molt enough lighter to be prime stan- 
dard color as a cock and in the second year take his place 
in Pen No. 1 and to mate him to his own pullets, which 
would be of standard color. Out of such pens as No. 2 
we expect fowls to come which each year will form pens 
such as No. 1. 

To mate the balance of one's stock is a question for the 
breeder to solve. All matings should be such that the 
strongest and best exhibition color will be found among 
the medium colored specimens of the flocks raised. 

Pen No. 3, Second Division — Use a cockerel that is ex- 
tremely dark, one that has very dark wing flights, black tail 
and coverts, with the rear saddle feather showing character- 
istic tail coverts and the hackle with wide black etripss. 
The object, as you will perceive, is to have a surplus of dark 
color. To such a male mate pullets of pure standard color. 

Pen No. 4, Second Division— For this mating use a cock- 
erel or cock that is as near standard color as possible, and 
mate to him pullets that are exceedingly dark, even those 
that would be disqualified for excess of color, but be sure 
that it is a defect that will disappear after the molt. The 
hackles should have very narrow White lacings, the tail 
coverts and the primaries should be black. If possible they 
should have a bluish-grey under-fluff. They may even have 
black in the under-web of the back. Such pullets will ripen 
into show hens and form a part of pen No. 2 the second 

The progeny from these four pens will not vary a point 
in their average merit. A third division now becomes neces- 
sary, because the pullets that have molted into hens have 
lost so much in color that they need an exceedingly dark 
cockerel to mate with them, like the one described in Pen 
No. 3. 

Pen No. 5, Third Division— Use a cockerel such as de- 
scribed in Pen No. 3, for we must supply the loss that the 
hens that were in Pen No. 1 have sustained during their first 
year of breeding. 

Pen No. 6, Third Division-Select a cock that came from 
a dark cockerel and still retains the color of a younger bird, 
even if he has black ticks in the back and dark slate under- 
color and leg and toe feathers well mottled with black. Then 
to him mate pullets that have flights in which the white pre- 
dominates, which are white in under-color and whose neck 
hackles appear right on the surface, hut when examined, we 
find that the black does not extend the full length of the 
reamer. They may also have white leg and toe plumage. 

After four months in the breeding pen they will molt 
out worthless light-colored hens, fit only for kitchen use. 
and are used only for breeding from necessity. It would be 



foolish to use a male from this pen in subsequent matings. 
Another male should be used from pena in which both males 
and females are strong in color and strictly prime, but 
females from this pen may make valuable mates for exces- 
sively dark cockerels that have come from the first four 
pens, for remember, these are sisters of birds we have in our 
best pens who lost color, perhaps, from the indisposition of 
their dams or at some time when the sire was out of condi- 
tion. Health and vigor are essential to successful breeding, 
as are shape and markings. A strong, healthy, active hen 
is the mother of the best chickens, especially when we per- 
severe in pedigree breeding and the females in the pen are 
Bisters and so the pen is reduced to a single pair in blood. 
The best chickens we obtain 
may have different mothers, 
owing to the varying physical 
conditions, but the blood in 
the chickens in the same. 

All these matings may be 
called standard, for both 
males and females scoring 
from 93 to 96% points are as 
likely to come from one pen 
as another, provided we have 
made careful selection in re- 
gard to standard shape. The 
birds are all pedigreed and 
all of them are reasonably 
standard in shape and color 
when mated, or they ripen in- 
to standard color when they 
molt. In our matings we aim 
to allow for the deterioration 
of age and to protect the off- 
spring from adverse ancestral 
influence. The breeder who 
does not take into account an- 
cestral influence has not gone 
beyond the A, B, C of the al- 
phabet of breeding. 

The matings described are 
far different than double mat- 
ings. inasmuch as exhibition 
males and females will come in a like percentage from each 
and every pen. Standard color will deteriorate and birds 
from the first division will probably give us a greater num- 
ber of light birds than dark, while in the second division 
we will get probably more specimens that are too dark for 
show purposes, but not so many that will be of standard 
color the first year, but as hens they will prove winners, for 
the dark pullets ripen while breeding into show hens. All 
pullets that are what we call medium specimens of standard 
color are reduced in value when they molt into hens. 

There is a great difference in what different persons un- 
derstand by white. Specimens having dark under-color are 
always a purer shade of white in surface color, and white 
under-colored specimens have a creamy white surface color, 

which often during the breeding season becomes sun-burned 
or straw colored and sometimes has a red shade when they 
begin to molt. A bluish-white or bluish-grey under-color is 
the safest to breed from. We all like to breed males whose 
primaries are pure black with an outside rim of white. A 
female with pure black and white, the black predominating 
and the shaft of the feather being black, will prove the best 
breeder. The fad for wholly black primaries in females will 
in the end prove of more harm than good, and judges have 
no right to give such a bird the preference on account of it. 
Breeders of Light Brahmas should read and commit the 
standard to memory and then mate strictly according to it, 
understanding that the standard description applies to a cock 

Flort FIRST PRE&- 

VYESTB !? nflSS 

The Male and One of the Females from J. P. Keating's First Prize Pen of Wght Brahmas at Boston, 1903, 

and hen. When we are considering young stock we must 
make allowance for age and remember that as they grow 
older their colors will become less pronounced, and we must 
insist that there be a sufficient reserve color to carry them 
through. The amateur must not expect to reap success in a 
single year, but he should give heed to the older breeders 
and take their advice until he learns by experience. 

The breeder Who took the Light Brahma in his keeping 
fifty years ago, acknowledging their worth then, is to-day 
their staunch friend and he tells you with the same enthusi- 
asm that they are the best fowl on earth when they are 
allowed to appear in the shape and color that is their birth- 



Line Breeding Necessary to Secure and Maintain a Uniform Type — A System of Mating Birds of 
Standard Color in Which Like Produces Like— The Relation of JUnder Color 

to Surface Color Discussed. 

Bv Mrs. Ella Thomas. 


P I should consider myself even now anything but an 
amateur in mating Light Brahmas, I should go against 
my own convictions in the matter, but as I have had 
some degree of success, I will be pleased to give you my ex- 
perience, as none of us "liveth unto 
himself," and I think it essential to 
beginners in poultry culture to be 
able to profit by the success of 
others. It will save them years, 
perhaps, of unsuccessful labor, and 
often inspires success wliere many 
new breeders would become dis- 
couraged and quit the business. 

I find my ideas of several years 
ago are only strengthened into facts 
that we cannot depart from, if we 
would produce an ideal fowl in 
points, pedigree, size and vigor, 
.vith egg laying qualities. I believe 
the parties who condemned line 
breeding are revolted and gone, or 
will be, for they have so of ten spoiled 
their flocks by mixture of blood 
from the different strains. Good 
food and plenty of it will make any 
"strain" large, while lack of it will 
produce the opposite. In the hands 
of practical breeders it is the only 
safe plan to line-breed; as like, 
when the "blood" is established, 
will produce like, and give us vigor- 
ous specimens full of usefulness. 

I condemn Cochin shaped Brah- 
mas, because they are not Ameri- 
can-bred, because they lay fewer 
eggs, and are not like our Ameri- 
can-bred, rustling, practical, vigor- 
ous birds. Many of the Brahmas 
of to-day, as in the past, show a 
loss of the broad, short head; 
heavy, overhanging eye-brows; full 
throat, short, strong, well arched 
beak; broad, well-spread tail; 
broad, deep breast; oblong body, 

with proper length, etc., that characterize our best Brahmas. 
You will find them in the show room and elsewhere with 
long, narrow heads; long, slim beaks; very small combs and 
wattles; narrow, flat breast; and Cochin leg and toe feather- 
ing; and short Cochin body. There are many good flocks 
of Brahmas in the United States, I am happy to say, but we 
do not find" all yards alike as we should do. We should try 
to work together to weed out all characteristics other than 
Brahma, and we still have years of work before us on scien- 
tific line*; even now that we have our National Light Brah- 

ma Club we have that much more reason to establish a uni- 
form character in our Brahmas all over the United States. 

One objection many find to Light Brahmas is the pro- 
fuse foot feathering, but I like the feathering when not too 


■$&!■■• ^t) 

A Boston First 

Prize-Winning Light Brahma Male, Owned by J. W. Shaw. 

profuse, and find no hindrance to the quality of my birds on 
that account. It is easily overlooked when we consider their 
great size, marked vigor, hardiness and practical qualities. 
They arc loved by all fanciers who know their gentle dis- 
position. They respond to kind treatment with evident af- 
fection. They leara to know their friends and trust them. 
It is pleasant to note the enthusiasm of the fancier of this 
breed, who understands mating and breeding them, -be- 
cause most of them breed them without injuring their util- 
ity and increase their fine quality each year. I shall always 



hold as a pleasant remembrance a conversation with Judge 
Ball, of Massachusetts, who was a very enthusiastic lover 
and breeder of this noble breed. Though he seemed to be 
surprised at my knowledge of this breed, I was equally 
pleased at his love and enthusiasm for them, because therein 
laid the key to my success in mating and breeding them. 


One very good mating I find is birds of equai color, that 
is, as near the Standard as you can get them, selected from 
a promiscuous flock of hens and pullets, mated not akin, 
all good individuals, cut not over one point in any section 
as pullets, or one and one-half as hens, as all birds do not 
hold their color at two and three years old. I find they 
seldom do from the old strains, and that is why I value so 
highly the strain that does. That in 
why I described in the Reliable Poultry 
Journal so minutely my choice matings 
and my mode of keeping them, and why 
I consider it so important that where we 
have a hen, or several hens, that hold 

their color at two and three years old, t ( 

they should be put where every egg can 
be carefully set and pedigreed. This is 
the only way, I believe, by which we can 
increase and "fix" the color of our birds, 
or, rather, produce a strain that will 
not fade at one year old, or even at two 
years of age. 

In mating number two I mentioned, 
we must select birds, both male and fe- 
male, to come as near up to the Stand- 
ard requirements as possible. The cock 
or cockerel should be medium high on 
legs, not too long nor too short — legs 
of a deep yellow color, heavily feathered, 
the feathering mottled with black. He 
should be of Standard weight when in 
good flesh, and if he is over Standard 
weight (not too fat) , so much the better, 
though I do not fancy the extra large 
males, nor do I find them as good breed- 
ers as the medium sized. Medium sized 
cockerels mated with large hens make 
the best matings. The comb should be 
set evenly on the head, be deeply ser- 
rated and extend well on top of the 
head. The head should be broad and 
short, with overhanging eyebrows and 
a full, well-developed throat, full, well- 
arched hackle, long and flowing, four- 
fifths of the feather black. The 
wattles and ear-lobes should be a 
bright red, as well as the comh, 
and well developed. A very particular point in this 
mating (as well as in the first mating mentioned) 
should be a deep bay eye in both males and females. 
Wings of both male and female should be as near solid 
black as you can get them and there is generally a white 
rim on each wing feather, the web being black to the 
flights. Our best breeders get fine colored backs, that is, 
with bluish under-color, and if you practice the mating I 
have first described you will soon have color in wings of 
pullets as well as cockerels and have an even bluish under- 
color in both males and females, with few black "ticks" in 
backs of pullets — none in cockerels. This has been 
my experience, and I believe it will be yours, and 
as I have several pullets entirely free from the "ticks" 
in back, also hens one and two years old that have almost 

solid black flights, I feel confident that I can in a short 
time have them breed true enough to be entirely free from 
them and be in color equal to the males. 

The coverts Of the cockerel for the pen mating called 
number two should be, first row black, also main tail feath- 
ers black; second and third row of coverts black edged with 
pure white like the hackle. Breast, broad and full; body 
long as compared with a Cochin; wings well folded and 
tolded high enough to give breadth to body as well as to 
back. He should be broad across the saddle, nearly as much 
so as across the shoulders. The wings should be folded high 
enough to give a broad, flat back across the' shoulders, well 
rounded, yet broad as it sweeps in concave line to tall. I 
like black mottling in the foot feathering of the females as 

The Boston First Prize Light Brahnia Pullet, Referred to in Mr, McGrew's Article, "I,ight 
Brahmas In New England," Owned by J. W. Shaw. 

well as in malts, and believe it is impossible to get uniform- 
ity of color in our males and maintain it, unless we are more 
particular about the color in the females. It is time to ex- 
plode the idea that males must have black in color whether 
or not the females do. Of course it stands to reason that 
where pullets and hens lack color the cockerel, if very dark, 
can improve greatly the color of the progeny, for he is half 
the flock, and any one knows that by adding one very dark 
pullet it would only increase the color of her progeny. If all 
the pullets were dark and the cockerel lacked color, it 
would have the same effect that a dark cockerel would have 
added to the pen of light pullets, yet. in establishing pedi- 
greed stock I find that a very dark cockerel, when mated 
to any pullet, is liable to produce cockerels with black 
in back. Hence, my advice on my favorite mating 



as given in the Reliable several years ago. I like 
black point* in the females as well as in the males and 
breed for it by mating my darkest males and females to- 
gether sometimes. I like black mottling in the foot feath- 
ering of the females as well as in the males, and believe it 
is impossible to get uniformity of color in our females 
where it should be and maintain it, unless I breed as above 

I always have some specimens of Light Brahmas that I 
especially like, because I like shape as well as color, and 
color as well as shape, in both males and females. Despite 
the years of breeding this noble breed, I believe most breed- 
ers, like myself, are very far from obtaining the acme of 
perfection, but the few females I have have almost solid 
black nights, heavy hackle edged with pure white, tails 
black to the skin, with two or three rows of coverts edged 
with white, deep blue under-color in backs and throughout 
the plumage, heavy leg and toe feathering, mottled with 

A Pen of Mrs. Ella Thomas' Mammoth I^ight Brahmas. 

black, presenting the Brahma hen and pullet absolutely 
beautiful to me. 

When it comes to pounds of meat and eggs in a year, 
with a combination of beauty in shape and color of this 
grand old breed, the west certainly leads at present, and has 
for some years. After fourteen years' experience in mating 
our gains and losses in mating for certain points. I keep 
a number of such hens as a reserve of color, to increase the 
and breeding this noble bird, I cannot agree with some of 
our fanciers (I trust they will pardon me for this assertion) 
who purchase many winning birds and advocate the same 
methods as we of the west do, although some of them claim 
to despise our methods. They will come to them by and by 
when the successfully establish and breed their own strain. 

Those who contend for pure white in under-color in all 
their birds will find to their sorrow, when too late, that they 
will soon sacrifice the beautiful rich, glossy black wings, 
tails and coverts that are plentiful in the west. Brother and 
sister fanciers, avoid as much as lies in your power the char- 
coal under-color. Do not cast away those grand old hens 
that have some black spots in backs, even if they have some 

charcoal under-color, when they have the needful color in 
wings, tail and hackle. Cultivate and work for the even, 
bluish under-color throughout the entire plumage and to 
extend one-half or one-third the length of the feathers from 
the skin outward, and this, when everything is favorable, 
will give us black wings and pure white surface color. We 
do not need to breed for black on head to retain these char- 
acteristics if we use judgment and pay strict attention to 
color of birds in my own or my customers* hands that are 
too light and to produce extra fine dark males with no dis- 
qualification, and this I do by mating black and white males, 
that is intense color where it is most needed, and I do this 
by mating these very fine males to such hens or pullets. 
We must breed our birds in such a manner as to produce 
a strain that will reproduce good specimens in the hands of 
the purchaser, or we fail to make a breeder of the 
purchaser. I find that by breeding carefully for blue 
under-color throughout the plumage and keeping in re- 
serve the darkest old . 
hens that are free from 
black in back, to mate 
with, a male near the 
standard requirements, 
I can produce offspring 
that secures the high- 
est honors in many big 

I am heart and soul 
for the advancement of 
the Light Brahma, and 
am full of solicitude 
for the co-operation of 
the breeders in all 
parts of our country, 
feeling that whatever 
is for the good of one 
part of the country 
would eventually be 
for the good of all. Let 
the west and east, 
north and south, all 
work for the advance- 
ment of this worthy va- 
riety, for you know "in 
union there is strength" 
and in union of minds 
there will be mutual 
benefit, and aid in producing harmony and _ zeal among 
breeders in perfecting the fine points of our birds, in secur- 
ing vigor, great laying qualities, perfecting them as a prac- 
tical fowl, breeding for that beautiful shaped body that is 
their characteristic, increasing the rich black markings and 
bluish under-color that gives so beautiful a white surface 
color. The whole, a grand make-up that never has and 
never can be attained by any other breed than the Light 

In this article I have endeavored to give plainly, so that 
a novice can understand it, a description of my methods of 
mating this variety which after years of careful study and 
painstaking experience I believe to be correct and best cal- 
culated to advance the worth and popularity of the variety 
from a fancier's viewpoint, while preserving to the 
greatest extent the true value of the fowl for all practical 
purposes. ' I am aware that the opinions of many, whose 
experience and success entitle them to consideration, will 
not agree with mine, but no other methods have given me 
so much satisfaction. 





The Advent of Laced Coverts on Females and a Prophecy 
That They Will Yet Be Required on Males, 

By George Pukdue. 

CONVERSATION with Mr. Sewell at the late New 
York show, during which we discussed the progress 
that had been made in Light Brahmas, brought to 
both our minds the pullet "Progress" that was ex- 
hibited art; the first show held by the "New York Poultry 
and Pigeon Association" in the American Institute Building 
of Ntfw York City fifteen years ago. At that time Mr. 
Sewell made me the accompanying cut and it was published 
the same year in the Poultry Monthly of Albany. 

This was the first pullet ever shown with tail coverts 
laced. For a number of years I had been trying to bring it 
out in a creditable and well devised manner. In those days 
the east was still tolerating tire score cardi and you can im- 
agine how I felt when I found the judge had cut her three 
on the tail. He had run against something so foreign to 
the ordinary tail of the day that he made as heavy an im- 
pression as was possible. At the present time a female that 
has not a laced tail is not a show bird and' there is not any 
question in any breeder's mind but that it has done more to 
beautify the breed than any other one development. 

Did you ever stop to think that it is within the limits of 
nature to have every covert and saddle feather in a Light 
Brahma male laced and that it would add to the beauty just 
as much as the coverts have to the female. I know many of 
the wise judges will shake their heads and turn thorn down 
just the same as they did the pullet "Progress" fifteen years 
ago; but it will come just the same, and when it does it will 
be one more stride toward beautifying the breed. 

of this character, nor do I advise young breeders to go in too 
strong, but keep "Progress" in mind; increase your color; 
educate your judges; show them what quality to. At the 
time "Progress" was shown the standard requirement was a 

Illustration by Sewell of JLaced Tail Coverts on a Light Brahma 
Cockerel exhibited at the recent New York Show 
by George Purdue, 

clean back. As the color of the breed increased disqualifi- 
cation for black was modified to "prevalent" in the back. I 
do trust that the next step will be to wipe out every dis- 
qualification except for fraud. The American Standard has 
done more to retard the progress of the Light Brahma than 
it has ever done good and has kept the Light Brahma twen- 
ty years behind what it should be. My standard consists of 
that which is most beautiful to the eye and without it we 
cannot make progress. Shape and color well de- 
fined is quality. GEORGE PURDUE. 

Light Brahmas as Market Fowls. 

taced Coverts of Iyight Brahma Pullet exhibited at the First New York 
sketched by Mr. Sewell fifteen years ago in illustration of '-the first 
ever shown" with covert lacing; Bred, owned and exhibited 
k George Purdue, Proprietor, Norwood Farm. 

We exhibited in the New York show last winter three 
cockerels, from one of which Mr. Sewell made the illustra- 
tion which appears in connection herewith. 

This article is not written to encourage the sale of birds 

Of those who first took up the raising of mar- 
ket poultry and made it a special and profitable 
feature of their business, a considerable propor- 
tion pinned their faith to the Light Brahma. Those 
in particular who catered to the demand for roast- 
ing chickens, which combine large size and soft, 
tender flesh, found this variety well suited to their 
use. Their experience indicated that the smaller 
breeds, approaching maturity earlier, could not be 
brought to the size and weight required to obtain 
the highest price without acquiring enough hard- 
ness of flesh and toughness of muscle to graduate 
them from the quality desired. 

A good majority of the large growers of these 
birds prefer this variety to-day and some dealers 
will pay a higher price for the Light Brahma car- 
cass, assuming that the name guarantees the qual- 
ity to some degree. The wisdom of this choice 
of variety is proved by frequent, well authenticated 
reports of sales involving numbers of these Brahma 
roasters at over two dollars per head. James Ran- 
kin stated in the Reliable Poultry Journal that he raised a 
flock of this variety to roaster size and disposed of them at a 
price which netted him ?5 an hour for the time he bestowed 
upon them. H. A. NOURSE. 

Show and 






The Dark Brahma is a favorite with fanciers who are familiar with its beauty and utility. The contrast of black and silvery white on the male, 

so distributed as to render it most effective, and the dark penciling with gray ground of the female, 

added to their great size, place this variety in a class of its own. 


The Value of This Variety for Eggs and Meat— The Colors of the Male and Female Described- 
Useful Hints Upon Mating for Best Results. 

By Ohahles A. Ballou. 

THIS breed is one of the oldest established breeds in 
America, and I can say, after twenty-dive years 
breeding them, that it is one of the best. They are 
extra fine layers of rich, brown eggs; mature about 
six weeks earlier than their cousins, the Light Brahmas, 
and my experience has been that they will lay more, though 
not so large eggs. For table fowls, they cannot be beat. In 
competition with nearly all varieties at the Rhode Island 
exhibition they won first three years in succession; first for 
plumpness and first for best dressed poultry in the hall. 
For broilers they are excellent; any time after the age of six 
weeks they are ready to kill and a more toothsome piece 
of flesh cannot be found. 

The hens make fine sitters and good mothers. They 
will commence laying while with their chicks and care for 
the chicks just the same. The chicks are very hardy and un- 
der ordinary care there is no need of losing many. Feed them 
well, keep them growing and no breed will show a more 
rapid improvement than they will. 

It requires no fitting process to get them ready for the 
show room. They are always dressed for exhibition, their 
color being such that it needs no washing or cleaning, if 
their surroundings are kept reasonably clean. 

They can be kept anywhere and under all conditions. 
They always look well, the male bird having a stately car- 
riage, a clean silvery white head, with a fine pea comb and 
a beautiful hackle, with a dark stripe running down the cen- 
ter and a pure silver edging to each feather. The back is 
of medium length and a pure, silvery white in color. The 
breast, although required to be pure black, is never so pretty 
as when evenly mottled with silver, and males so marked 
are particularly valuable to breed from to secure evenly pen- 
ciled pullets. The tail should be black with flowing sickle 
feathers, lesser sickles with black centers edged with silvery 
white, like the saddle feathers. Wings must have a beauti- 
ful black bar and the outer edge of the flight feathers silvery 

The female presents a pure steel gray head, darker than 
that of the male. Neck, the same color as in the males. 
Back and breast must be gray penciled, not barred, with a 
pure steel gray, the lines of penciling following the contour 
of the feather. 

Don't think you must have a solid black breast in the 
male; when you find a nice evenly mottled breast you will 
find a bird with cleaner color on hackle and hack and one 
more likely to he free from yellow. A certain cock bird 
that won first at Boston and special for best shape and color 
had a fine evenly mottled breast. Be careful in your nutt- 
ings; the Dark Brahma is one of the hardest birds to breed 
that there is in the Standard. Never use a short backed, 
high tailed male, but if you have a female that is short in 
back, that is extra good otherwise, it is safe to mate her to 

a long backed male, but if you have none such to use you 
had better discard ber entirely. 

Another great trouble is with foot and toe feathering. 
This is hard to reto-in and I know of only one way to keep 
the feet and legs properly feathered, which is by using, 
occasionally, vulture hocked hens and pullets, never sacri- 
ficing an extra nice female because of this defect; but never 
use a vuitured male, unless for some special purpose and 
then only as a last resort. It is not advisable to use a male 
with a poor comb, my experience having proven that the 
male exerts far the greater influence upon the combs of the 

l?irst Prize Dark Brahma Hen at Ontario. 1904. Exhibited by ly. C. Sage. 

chicks. As in other breeds, we must look to the female for 
size and we have always found it advisable to use females 
of large size and males of medium size in preference to large 
males and hens of medium Size or smaller. 

That this meritorious variety is not more widely bred is 
due principally to ignorance of its practical qualities. Its 
beauty is universally admitted and any one securing stock 
from an up-to-date strain and giving them the intelligent 
attention necessary to achieve success with any variety will 
have no cause to look further for an all purpose fowl. 

The future of the variety is in the hands of its breeders 
and they should not fail to give it the prominence it de- 
serves. The quality is there, but it needs to be made known. 

This is the advice of a breeder who has bred this fine 
Asiatic variety for twenty-five years. C. A. BALLOU. 




Illustrating the Distribution of Color as Required by the American Standard of Perfection. 

The above chart is prepared to assist in a correct understanding of the ideal shape and color of individual feathers in all sections of Dark 
Brahma males. It is, so far as it goes, an illustrated standard of these requirements; the outline too, is that of an ideal 
standard-bred well matured Brahma cockerel. By studying this chart section by section the breeder may be- 
come familiar with standard requirements to the extent that he can better select from his own flock 
the birds most desirable for breeding and exhibition and so be aided in his 
efforts to produce the correct type in Dark Brahma males. 


Illustrating the Distribution of Color as Required by the American Standard op Perfection. 

The above chart is prepared to assist in a correct understanding of the ideal shape and color of individual feathers in all sections of Dark 
Brahma females. It is, so far as it goes, an illustrated standard of these requirements; the outline, too, is that of an ideal stand- 
ard-bred, well matured Brahma pullet. By studying this chart section by section, the breeder may become familiar 
with standard requirements to the extent that he can better select from his own flock the birds 
most desirable for breeding and exhibition and so be aided in his efforts 
to produce the correct type in Dark Brahma females. 


Double Mating of This Variety AdYocated-The Matings Described-Caring for the Laying Stock- 
Feeding, Yarding and Housing the Growing Chicks. 

By L. 0. Sage. 


UCH lias been said and much more remains to be 
said regarding the mating, breeding and rearing 
of the Dark Brahma fowls. Good judgment must 
be used in selecting the birds to be mated if the 
best results are to be obtained. In the first place, two pens 
are necessary, one for pullet and the other for cockerel 
breeding. When breeding for the latter a healthy cock or 
cockerel must be selected; one with nice shaped head, the 
hackle a pure black' and white, and both hackle and saddle 
well striped. The top parts must be free from red and of 
a silvery white; the under parts black, and tail well spread, 
a. glossy black and free from white. The feet must show 
mo sign of white feathers or vulture hock. He should have 
an upright, graceful carriage. Now the hens that are mated 
to such a bird should be large, well feathered, good shape 
and the less marking they have the better, or mottled breasts 
in the cockerels will be the result. Always avoid the Cochin 
shaped hen When mating for show pullets and get a cock or 
cockerel as good in all points as possible, but he should have 

First Prize Dark Brahma Cockerel at Toronto and I^ondon, 1903, 
Exhibited by I,. C. Sage, 

hackle and saddle well penciled. His top parts sivery white, 
with fluff a good black nicely laced with white, and breast 
evenly mottled. The head small and well sbaped. 

The hens or pullets for this pen should be a good steel 
gray in color, well penciled all over, especially on the fluff 
and well up to the throat, with hackle well striped. From 
such matings you would surely get good show birds. You 
may often get a good cockerel from a pullet breeding pen, 

but never a good show pullet from a cockerel breeding pen. 
Many breeders, especially beginners, have been heard to com- 
plain that the Dark Brahma is not a good egg producer. 
But it can be proved that if properly fed they will lay as 
well as any other breed. The fault with moet breeders is 
that they get the females too fat. One thing must be borne 
in mind, not to overfeed them. 

Give a good feed of dry oats in the morning and let 
them scratch around until noon. Then give a mash made 
of table scraps mixed up dry with shorts and bran, and 
for a last meal, a generous feed of mixed grain. On this 
diet the hens will lay their share of eggs and keep in good 

In winter when kept in confinement it is well to give 
green food in the shape of cabbage or turnips hung up within 
easy reach and plenty of grit. Never allow them to drink 
stale or mucky water. 

The most satisfactory way of feeding chicks to avoid 
the many complaints they are liable to have, is to wait 
until they are about twenty-four hours old. Then give dry 
bread crumbs and hard boiled eggs chopped fine, shell and 
all, for a few days, then a variety of small or crushed grains, 
millet seed and grit; feed four or five times a day. Do not 
keep food lying around to get stale, as this is the chief cause 
of bowel trouble in young chicks. Let them have only 
enough feed to eat up clean. Give them plenty of fresh 
water or milk in a shallow dish until they are large enough 
to reacb the drinking fount. 

At the age of three months they should be fed only 
three times a day. Give grain in the morning, at noon mash 
the same as the old birds have and the evening meal should 
be of grain, with a little green ground bone or meat just 
before going to roost. 

It is a good plan to put a little flowers of sulphur in 
their mash at noon about twice each month when they are 
finishing out, as it aids the growth of the feathers. 

Growing chicks must have shade as well as sunshine. 
If there are no trees for shade a good substitute may be had 
by growing a few groups of sunflowers or hills of corn in 
the yard where they run. This will answer the purpose, 
besides providing food, as it is a fact that fowls fed a few 
sunflower seeds once a day will add a nice gloss to their 
feathers. Chicks should not be over-crowded at night, for 
if given plenty or room they will grow faster. 

This last point is all important, but is often neglected 
by those who otherwise take the best of care of their chicks. 
The coops in which to spend the hot summer nights 
should be wholly open or covered with wire on at least one 
side and provision made for protecting the inmates in stormy 
weather without cutting off their supply of air. 

By following the rules laid down here you will have 
good and strong, vigorous birds, as I have proved by twen- 
ty-five years' experience as a breeder of the Dark Brahma 
fawl - L. C. SAGE. 


The Value of All Varieties of Cochins for Practical Purposes— The Best Method of Feeding and 

Housing Growing Chicks and Mature Fowls— A Discussion of the Principles of Mating 

Standard Cochins, and Instruction in Preparing for Exhibition. 

By J. D. Nevius. 


ANY years ago, just at the close of the war. 1 be- 
came attracted towards the tien most popular 
Shanghai or Cochin fowl. There was something 
about their general appearance and attractiveness 
of color that led me to select the Buff Cochin fowls and to 
follow them continually from that day to the present time. 
During the past thirty-five years I have kept constantly in 
touch with all the advancements and improvements made 
in the Cochin family. To speak of itheir early history would 
simply carry us back to the opening day of the gates of 
Pekin to the English, about 1840. From that time on there 
came to England and this country specimens of the Asiatic 
type of fowls of many kinds and colors, and the colors most 
irregular and unattractive. 

From these several types, kinds and colors of Asiatic 
fowls have been built up the four varieties of Cochins, also 
the two varieties of Brahmas and the Langshans might 
well be classed with them. The most interesting part of 
Cochin history is the fact that the American fanciers, of 
which I am so pleased to be one, have contended from 
the very first for a true Cochin type and distinctive high 
class coloring. Long legs, flat breasts and stiff hocks should 
be discarded and kept out and away from $he entire Cochin 

It cannot but be admitted that the full rounded breast 
and the proper Cochin formation adds not only to their 
beauty, but to their value as well for market poultry. Free 
range is of benefit to all poultry, and while the Cochins will 
stand confinement when properly cared for and fed, better 
than almost any other poultry, they gain equal advantage 
with others through having a free range. The trouble that 
confronts us in the confinement of Cochins is that they are 
apt to become too fat, but if they are largely fed on oats, 
either clipped or hulled, wheat and but little fattening food 
they will do very well. 

I give my young growing Cochins after they are six or 
eight weeks old, the free range of a three acre orchard that 
has been sown with oats in the spring. What they do not 
consume as green food ripens and is eaten in that condition. 
In addition to this they are fed all the whole wheat, cracked 
corn and mixed food that they can be induced to eat until 
grown to maturity. 

There is a general misunderstanding as to the ability of 
Cochins to produce eggs. It is not unusual at all to have 

early hatched pullets begin laying in October and continue 
a profitable egg production throughout the entire winter. 
It is largely a question of proper care and feeding. When 
Cochins are properly fed they are quite as apt to produce, 
a large egg yield as are any oi our meat or general purpose 
fowls. It is not reasonable to compare the egg yield of 
Cochins with the Mediterranean family, they producing so 
much more flesh and feather than is produced by the non- 
sitting varieties. At the same time I am fully satisfied that 
equal profit can be made from the Cochins "as market poul- 
try and eggs as from any of the breeds. 

I feed the laying hens but very little corn, depending 
almost entirely upon wheat, oats, buckwheat and mixsd food 
largely made from the products of wheat, and in addition to 
this ground oats and cut clover. My mixture is two parts 
of fresh cut clover, two parts ground oats, one part ground 
meal. This is fed once a day in reasonable quantity. There 
cannot be any set rule for all to follow in the selection of 
foods for the Cochins. The surroundings and advantages 
at gaining good food products for egg production may be 
different in one locality than in another, but you may ,rest 
assured that when you wish to have eggs from Cochins, you 
must feed for eggs, make them exercise and work for parts 
of their grain food the same as other poultry. The relative 
value of the Cochins as egg producers in my experience 
seems to be as follows: Whites, Blacks, Partridge and 
Buffs. Whites and Blacks lay the largest egg and the Part- 
ridge the smallest, their advantage over the Buffs being 
that they produce a larger number of eggs. 

It has always been my earnest endeavor to select my 
matings of such a quality as to make it almost unnecessary 
to sell any of the chickens for table poultry. For this rea- 
son we seldom have enough of the inferior quality to fur- 
nish our own family table. My former partner, one of the 
largest buyers and shippers of dressed poultry in this state, 
much prefers a Cochin or a Cochin cross to any of the varie- 
ties that he can purchase in heavy poultry, the meat being 
remarkably fine, tender, juicy and soft. 


In feeding my young chicks I have always selected that 
manner of food which seemed to get the greatest size in the 
shortest possible time. In this we must consider the grow- 
ing of bone and muscle as well as flesh. 



Feed for growth, feed for bone, feed for size and trust 
to add the flesh and fat when necessary for exhibition pur- 
poses when the time for finishing for the show arrives. 
While I have never kept the increased weight month by 
month in the growing chicks, I experience no trouble what- 
ever in having full grown Cochins ready for the fall fairs 
in September and October. One «of the largest Cochins that 
I ever saw I raised in 1901, at eleven months old. This cock- 
erel weighed fourteen and a half pounds. I have known 
some Partridge Cochin hens in show condition to weigh 
twelve and a half pounds. 

Never have experienced much trouble in leg weakness. 
This I have avoided by feeding plenty of bone forming 
foods. When Cochins are grown on a soil that has the nat- 
ural influence that comes from a limestone sub-soil, they 
do not need so much care and attention in the feeding of 
bone forming material. Bone meal, green cut bone and any 
good food material that adds the proper element for bone 
forming and strong growth may be used to advantage to 
keep away the trouble of leg weakness. There is another 
kind of leg weakness which comes as the result of attempt- 
ing to raise poultry in low, damp places. The Leghorns are 
quite as apt to be affected by these conditions as are the 

During the summer months and up to the time that 

is far better not to waste time and money in trying to im- 
prove the condition of such as will not grow and feather 
properly on solid, wholesome grain, cut green bone, bone 
meal and beef scrap. 

My growing chicks have all the wheat, hulled oats and 
cracked corn that they will eat. In addition to this they are 
fed once a day with a rich mash food composed of ground 
meal, ground oats., wheat bran and beef scrap. A self-sup- 
plying feed box full of bran is aways at hand where they 
can help themselves. One hundred young chicks will eat 
up one-half bushel of bran from a feed hopper jn about two 
weeks. If the feed hopper is kept perfectly, sheltered from 
rain and a little catch box kept under the feed hopper there 
will be very little of it wasted. That which falls into the 
catch box can be either put back into the hopper or made 
use of in the mash feed. Statements above as to the feed- 
ing of the old fowls may be considered. To make it more 
plain, the absolute rule for feeding Cochins with me is to 
feed them strongly on egg forming foods throughout the 
entire year, except when in molt, when they are fed more 
fattening foods to assist in renewing their coat of feathers. 
You must watch the Cochins continually or they will get too 
fat to be useful. 


In mating your Cochins perfect Cochin type must have 


■•■'- &, 


A Group of Colony Houses and Yards, occupied by J. D. Nevius' White Cochins. 

orf.ii, frosty weather is at hand, my growing stock is left 
oul in the orchard :n open or slatted colony houses. When 
the cold weather necessitates removing them indoors, they 
are housed in colony houses, made as plain as they can pos- 
sibly be, that stand in the center of large sized enclosures, 
great attention being paid to have them perfectly dry, free 
from damp or drafts and constructed so that they may have 
proper ventilation, with plenty of floor space and roosts, the 
latter being hung very close to the floor. These may be easily 
removed for cleaning and quite accessible to the heavy 
Cochin, leaving the floor space free for the poultry and the 
nests. I prefer cheese boxes for my Cochin hens to lay in. 
Around these colony houses are four feet wire fences, which 
seem to be all that is needed for the confinement of Coch- 
ins, either young or old. 

There is very little trouble in our section of the country 
with the young growing Cochins being bare of feathers for 
many weeks, or even months, as in some localities. From 
experience I can say but little as to this, but my informa- 
tion is that it is caused largely through the lack of having 
plenty of feather forming foods. Usually young Cochins 
that do not feather out for several months never amount 
to anything and it would be money saved, as well as time 
and trouble, to destroy such as soon as you notice their in- 
clination not to grow a coat of feathers. We have seen the 
recommendation of many who advocate feeding a mixture 
of pulverized bone, beef scrap and iron. We believe that it 

the first cons, .'oration. Mate together the very finest 
shaped Cochics .-ou can possibly select and remember that 
you cannot hope in have good colored offspring unless you 
have the finest possiole color in the parent birds. Do not 
hope to grow good colored Buff Cochins from poorly colored 
parents. This is equally true of the Whites and Blacks. 
When selecting your matings for Partridge Cochins, in ad- 
dition to the very finest of form, you must have absolutely 
the very best of color and marking in the females from which 
you hope to grow your pullets, and they must be mated to 
males that are strong and rich in the blood lines of the 
females that are the best producers. It is a well known 
and established fact that the rich mahogany color of the 
female with a distinctive pencilling is the only thing that 
can win at the present time. You must have this color and 
this pencilling of the highest character upon females of the 
most exclusive Cochin form and feather or you need no! 
hopo to win in Partridge Cochin alley. 

In mating Partridge Cochins many follow the doubU 
mating system. In using this system you would mate for 
females as above described. For males choose the -very 
darkest colored specimens, both males and females, the 
males having a very dark red top color, very heavily stripe! 
with metallic black. Such matings when followed up year 
after year produce the richest colored males. I have, how- 
ever, always followed the single mating plan, mating the 
very highest character and type of form and color for fe- 


males and depending upon these matlngs 10 produce my 
exhibition males. You cannot have too much feather on 
your Cochins, providing you do not have any vulture hocks. 
The only advantages to be gained in the use of cockerels 
over cock birds is in their greater activity and vigor. I 
would rather have a few chicks bred from males and fe- 
males in their second year than double the number from 
birds in their first year of production. The very best of 
size, shape and color comes from the very finest two year 
old hens. You need not hope to have large sized offspring 
from under sized Cochin hens. 

It is quite as difficult to produce fine color in the Buffs, 
Blacks and Whites as in the Partridge. You must always 
select the very best color and under color for the reproduc- 
tion of all varieties of Cochins. Some prefer a lemon, some a 
darker, verging on a cinnamon. I myself prefer the very 
best of rich golden buff, but perfect evenness of color 
throughout is of the greatest importance. 

There are a few features in the breeding of the fowls 
that have the same influence with Cochins as with the others. 
These are bad combs, ugly, ill-formed heads, long ungainly 

wing bow on either your male or your female. Always 
select good even colored specimens to breed from. Do not 
have anything to do with mixed or mealy colors. In Buffs, 
when you know that they were formerly of good even color, 
any slightly uneven or mottled plumage need not be so much 
feared. Always mate together nearly even shades, having 
a male just a little darker than the female. Mealiness and 
bad color in Buff Cochins come largely from pairing to- 
gether uneven shade. Undercolor is of the greatest import- 
ance. A male should always have a good rich undercolor, 
for color comes largely from the male, and it is always best 
to have good undercolor in both male and female. A line 
of Cochins that has been bred with care in the selection of 
surface and undercolor is much more apt to produce and 
maintain a good even shade than a promiscuous selection 
from many flocks. , 


The Standard tells us that white or black in the plum- 
age of the Buff Cochin fowl is equally objectionable. The 
facts are that if there is white in wings and undercolor of 

Two Breeding Pens of Buff Cochins— Owned by J. D. Nevius, 

backs and vulture hocks. These features seem to transmit 
most readily in the Cochin, but one could scarcely meet with 
any so neglectful of their interests as to use birds showing 
such defects in their breeding pens. When you have in 
view the production of Cochins for the show room, tbe most 
difficult problem is to unite the three points that are de- 
manded in all exhibition Cochins — form, feather and color. 
If you do not have Cochin shape, you do not show Cochins. 
If your Cochins lack feather, there is but little chance for 
them to succeed in the show room, and after you have the 
form and feather, if you lack in color, you again fail. The 
successful Cochin breeder must unite all three of these qual-' 
ities if he would be successful. 

There is a natural loss of color in the Buff variety. 
There is no way to guard again this; every one is fully ac- 
quainted with the fact that Buff is the very hardest color in 
the world to produce and to retain. All shades become mo^e 
or less mottled. This shows more distinctly in the dark col- 
ored females and is caused by bad molting. We have seen 
some of these mottled hens, dry plucked at molting time, 
that grew a very smooth, rich coat of feathers quite unlike 
that of the season before. 

Never tolerate in any of your breeding stock the red 

either the males or the females, it has a tendency to pro- 
duce lighter colored offspring. With black shadings in 
wings or tail this has an influence in the opposite direction, 
as it is apt to produce dark body colors. Personally I have 
much less fear for white than for black. I always prefer 
and select, so far as possible, even, true colors and mate 
them together. In reckoning for defects in the show room, 
you must follow the law of the Standard, which says black 
or white shading in wing or tail shall be considered alike 

As to the coloring of Partridge Cochins, what we all 
aim for is to have the neck color of the male and the female 
exactly as demanded by the Standard. Bright red for the 
male, with a distinctive black stripe, the same for the fe- 
male. But whenever you establish a long line of high 
quality penciled females, you will find that the shade and 
color of neck become very much lighter, and ofttimes 
almost as much penciled as the body plumage itself. We 
all prefer to have the exact color demanded in the Standard, 
but I have not met with a half dozen females in the past 
three years that possessed both the proper color and pencil- 
ling of body plumage and the Standard demand for color 
in neck. We must all strive to gain the color and markings 



of neck exactly as described in the Standard, but it is better 
by far to have a weak colored neck than to have bad body 
coloring and pencilling. I always find that the finest col- 
ored offspring come from the pen of birds that are mated 
exactly as described for the exhibition pen, provided they 
have been bred in line long enough to establish the influence 
that comes from such matings. It is almost useless to hope 
to produce high class Partridge Cochins from chance mat- 

Formerly there was some trouble in getting the proper 
size in White Cochins. Years of selection and of using the 
very largest White Cochin females as producing stock, to 
be secured by hatching them early and feeding them plen- 
tifully throughout the whole season, have very much im- 
proved the size, and the size of the Black Cochins has been 
improved in the same way until it is not unusual to see 
White and Black Cochins fully the equal in size of the other 
varieties. Whites are just as apt to have had color in the 
plumage as are any other white fowls. This can be bred 
out and kept out through care in selecting pure white plum- 
age in your producing stock. The shanks of all Cochins 
have a tendency to a little bad color, from the fact that 

they are so completely covered with feathers that but little 
of them is seen. Buff Cochins and White Cochins have nat- 
urally rich colored yellow shanks and there is but little 
trouble in getting them to equal the Standard demand ex- 
cept that they lose a little of their color win age. 

The shanks of he Partridge Cochin and Black Cochin 
are of a darker shade of color than the others, and there is 
less trouble experienced in having them of the proper Stan- 
dard color. One great trouble with Cochins of all kinds is 
that they seem to be more afflicted with scaly legs than 
some breeds, and it is hard to get this out when once it gets 
a hold. The way to prevent it is never to make use of 
Cochin females for mother hens that have this affliction, 
for so sure as you do, all the young chicks that such a hen 
raises to maturity will be afflicted in like manner. 

In preparing birds for the show room, you must have 
them in the very finest of health and condition, absolutely 
clean throughout, and their foot feathering as well pre- 
served as possible. Foot feathering is usually kept in good 
shape for exhibition by keeping the fowls on dry sand, 
feeding them all their food from troughs or boxes and never 
inducing them to scratch or break the foot feathering. 

J. D. NEVIUS. . 

WtlWmmi wmml m 

ill '-, m m. 




Standard Bred Buff Cochins— By Sewell. 


Criticisms of Foremost Judges and Cochin Breeders on a Composite Ideal From Live Models, Drawn 
by Franklane L. Sewell— A Collection of Opinions That Are in Themselves Authority on 

the Ideal Shape of a Standard Cochin Male. 

From the Reliable Poultry Journal. 


'E PRESENT the following criticisms of Artist F. 
L. Sewell's delineation of Standard Cochin male 
shape offered by those most interested in the 
Cochin fancy in an honest endeavor to secure a 
more uniform type for the guidance of breeders and judges: 
G. 0. Brown, Maryland, judge and breeder: "The male 
appears too much wedge-shaped, lacks fullness of both 
breast and fluff in comparison with height. Comb too far 
front. "Wattles too large and should not fold. Leg and toe 
feathering a trifle too full for American Cochins, but if 
full feathered or English is to become the prevailing fash- 
ion, all right. Short in neck in comparison with size of 

F. H. Shellabarger, Iowa, judge and breeder: "The 
cochin male as submitted is, in my judgment, too high up 
to his back from his feet. Or, in other words, strip his 
thighs and shanks of the feathering and his legs would be 
long enough for a Brahma. His neck is also full short for 
the proportion he shows otherwise. His wattles are also a 
trifle long for a Cochin." 

George H. Northup, New York, judge and breeder: 
"Cochin male nearly perfect, wattles a little too long, breast 
not quite full enough. Too much length from lower edge of 
wing to bottom of feet. I do not notice any other section 
that can be improved." 

D. T. Heimlich, Illinois, judge and breeder: "The 
Cochin male appears entirely too high on legs and too short 
in neck. The leg feathering and the feathering under breast 
are entirely out of proportion to the size of his body. Back, 
tail and body shape are all 0. K. If the breast were a little 
deeper it would make an improvement in his appearance." 

S. L. Roberts, California, judge and breeder: "The first 
impression one receives from the Cochin male etching is 
that the distance from center of back to foot is too great. 
Shorn of the shank and toe feathers the bird would appear 
very stilted. Head is not carried forward as Cochins carry 
their heads. Upper mandible of beak is blunt. Comb is 
small for massiveness of bird. Breast is too full at throat 
and down to point of keel. Neck is too short. Shoulder is 
held too low. Fluff is not heavy enough latterly on thigh. 
Tail is too rounded and blunt. The etching is evidently 
done to meet the requirements of the modern bunch of 
plumes known as Buff Cochin, whereas it should have con- 
formed to a composite Cochin type; for, sad to say, all 
Cochins are not characteristically of same form, as now 
bred. In some respects I like the work very well." 

Theo. Hewes, Indiana, judge and breeder: "The outline 
Mr. Sewell has furnished does not leave very much room for 
any one to pick flaws. The position of the bird makes him 
look as if he were standing on an uneven surface. I should 

like the bird to show a little broader in breast, and a trifle 
deeper; back broader and tail a little more upright. In 
feathers he is immense and fits the new Standard well." 

W. S. Russell, Iowa, judge and breeder: "Male bird is 
not deep enough in body. Is too narrow in breast, too 
scanty in fluff, too short in back. The bird in total is too 
high for his depth." 

H. S. Babcock, Rhode Island, judge and breeder: "The 
Cochin male from top of back to bottom of feet is too long; 
too pronounced a V in the whole outline. Otherwise very 
good, though personally I prefer to see the legs a little bet- 
ter defined." 

H. B. Savage, Texas, judge and breeder: "Male — Well, 
these illustrations, to my mind, are so near perfection that 
there is little left to say. Would like the neck a trifle longer, 
breast a little more plump, and legs a trifle shorter, with 
fluff a little heavier." 

A. B. Shaner, Illinois, judge and breeder: "The head 
shows a little coarse, wattles are too long. Neck should be 
short, but in my judgment, the one submitted is a trifle too 
short. The convex curve of back is a trifle sharp. Lower 
breast might be a little fuller. In general, he stands in a 
trifle too much of a neck-drawn-in posture." 

C. H. Rhodes, Kansas, judge and breeder: "I consider 
the cut of Buff Cochin male about right; the outlines are 
Oochiny all over. The great abundance of fluff and loose 
feathering fills up all angles and represents a Cochin in 
every sense of the word. I have no comments to make." 

S. A. Rigg, Illinois, breeder of Buff Cochins: "In regard 
to the etchings of Cochins, I think Mr. Sewell must be a 
mind reader. The male is exactly the mental picture I have 
always formed of ideal Cochin shape, though I must confess 
I can not get my hens to see it just that way." 

F. B. Donisthorpe, Nebraska, breeder of Buff Cochins: 
"I do not wish to criticise too severely friend Sewell, for I 
am a lover of his work, but I cannot help thinking that in 
sketching this male he had not fully obliterated from his 
mind the old English Shanghai that we used to raise twen- 
ty-five or thirty years ago. I apply this simply and solely 
to the height of the bird. I think that if about an inch 
were taken off from the height we should have a better 
Cochin shape. Of course, to-day we are breeding for a 
'blocky' bird. We want to get, if possible, a ball of feath- 
ers. I admire very much, indeed, the tail of the male, neither 
too high nor too low. I have been trying for the last two 
years to have my males so that a horizontal line could be 
drawn from top of head to tip of tail. I would furthermore 
criticise in a slight degree the comb of the male. I think 


Comprising the Best Points of Several Live Models, Drawn by Franklane L. Sewell lor the Reliable Poultry Journal and 
Submitted to Prominent Judges and Breeders lor Criticism Based Upon Standard Requirements. 


An Ideal Cochin, Drawn by Franklane L. Sewell for the Reliable Poultry Journal, under the Suggestions of Prominent 
Judges and Breeders— The Outcome of Criticism Upon the Cochin Male Shape Shown on the Opposite Page. 



it a little too stumpy, and the serrations seem too blunt. I 
like a fine serration, even on a Buff Cochin male. Of course 
I want the comb thick next to the head." 

O. B. Skinner, Kansas, breeder of Buff and Partridge 
Cochins: "Referring to the Cochin cuts just received, I beg 
to state that while this shape is fine to look at, if you un- 
dertake to breed birds of this type, exactly, you would 
surely fail in Standard weights. They are too short in back 
and body. I am not criticising the shape to any extent, but 
my judgment is, a longer back and body, or else less weight 
for mature birds. I find my best shaped birds, like these 
cuts, are always short on Standard weights, although I ad- 
mire them." 

W. A. Ryon, Missouri, breeder of Buff Cochins: "The 
proofs of Standard Cochins, as submitted by Mr. Sewell, are 
just about the thing. He might make forty more and not 
come so near the real Cochin shape. Were I to offer any 
change it would be to have the male more 'English' or full 
feathered, and bill just a little longer." 

J. H. Parrish, Illinois, breeder of Partridge Cochins: 
"The Cochin male cut is very fine. I do not see how it could 
be improved. I am well peased with it." 

Sid Conger, Indiana, breeder of Buff and Partridge 
Cochins: "The male ought to be as long as he is high, but 
Mr. Sewell has him two inches higher than long. The 
wattles are too long and too much folded to be natural and 
neat. He needs some trimming to make him more natural 
and life-like." 

Samuel S. Sherman, proprietor Banner Poultry Yards, 
Iowa, breeder of Partridge Cochins: As regards the 
Cochin male and female shape, as submitted, would say that 
Mr. Sewell has certainly produced the ideal in the English, 
or 'full feathered' class, and I, being a breeder of the Amer- 
ican class only, would not attempt to 'split hairs' in a crit- 
icism of the proofs submitted, but confess at once that I am 
one of those old fogy fellows who cannot just keep up with 
the extremes of the fad for bloomer legs and pillow cush- 
ions, which latter almost conceal any appearance of backs 

0. L. McCord, Illinois, breeder of Buff Cochins: "The 
etchings of Cochin male and female shape received. I pro- 
nounce them fine. I cannot see where there is any fault to 
find with them." 

Dr. A. Gaiser, Nebraska, breeder of Buff Cochins: "Pro- 
file of Cochin male at hand. While the shape of male is 
good, I like a little more breast, more fluff and a trifle 
shorter legs, otherwise he suits me in every way." 

Dan Robertson, Illinois, breeder of Buff Cochins: 
"Etchings of Cochins received. The male suits me. Wish 
I had one as good as he." 

E. Dunstan, Mississippi, breeder of Buff and Partridge 
Cochins: "Mr. Sewell's drawing of Buff Cochin male re- 
ceived, and in offering my opinion as to its merits as a suit- 
able sketch for a place in the Standard of Perfection, to 
guide and govern Buff Cochin breeders in forming an out- 
line, I would condemn same as not fit for such an exalted 
position. The general outline of head and neck is suggestive 
of Mr. Sewell's drawing of Royal Blue strain of Barred 

Plymouth Rocks. Examine it by the wording of our Stan- 
dard, which says: 'Wattles medium in length, well rounded, 
fine in texture; ear lobes, large, etc' We find here tha wat- 
tles long and coarse and ear lobes small. Standard also 
says: 'Neck short, neatly curved.' The neck is certainly 
short in the drawing, too short to suit my fancy, but the 
neatly curved part should be condemned by all followers 
of the Standard. Again it says: 'Breast broad, deep and 
full.' The breast may be broad enough, but it is cartainly 
not full enough to fill the requirements of the Standard. 
In looking at the thighs, I should say they are one-third 
longer than is demanded, to be symmetrical, but I am in- 
clined to think the great length of thighs shown is caused 
in part by the breast not being deep enough. On the whole, 
it suggests to me a Shetland pony set up on a pair of ele- 
phant's legs. Try again, Mr. Sewell. Give us something 
from life; for instance, the bird -Oakland,' winner at Madi- 
son Square Garden, January 2, and at Boston, January 26, 
1897, which suits me much better than this drawing." 

J. A. Ayers, Missouri, breeder of Buff and Partridge 
Cochins: "The sketches of Buff Cochin male and female, 
by Sewell, sent for criticisms, were received. For my part 
I would lengthen the body of the male bird. I would ex- 
tend the fluff farther back and the body farther forward of 
the legs. The head is too nearly over the tegs for a Buff 
Cochin. The comb extends too far back and fits too closely 
down on the neck. The comb also extends a little too near 
the end of beak. I would suggest he be a little deeper in 
breast; he is a little too shallow from lowest point in back 
to breast just in front of thighs. Otherwise he is tip-top." 

E. T. Blood, manager Crescent Farm, Ohio, breeder of 
Buff Cochins: "Our criticisms on the Sewell sketch of 
Cochin male are: Male, too tall for length of body. Would 
add to depth of breast and length of fluff at rear. Tail, 
while nice in general shape and carriage, shows an unnat- 
ural evenness in outline." 

Robert M. Dale, Illinois, breeder of Buff Cochins: "This 
bird appears to me very good with but few changes. In my 
estimation the comb projects out over the beak too far and 
is a trifle too high in front. The bird is also too high for 
his length of body. If the legs were shortened a trifle I 
think it would improve the bird in symmetry. With these 
few changes would call the bird a winner of the blue." 

George Clough, Illinois, breeder of Buff Cochins: "The 
proof of Cochin male received and I must say it is hard to 
find any fault with it. It is an excellent proof and suits 
me, except that the wattles are too long." 

Julius J. Klein, Illinois, breeder of Partridge Cochins: 
"J think the male is perfect." 

I. V. Hardy, Kansas, breeder of Buff Cochins: "The 
drawing of the Cochin male appears to be overdone as to 
feathering from breast down. I think the bird a trifle too 

J. H. Lewis, manager of Hanlin Poultry Farm, Penn- 
sylvania, breeders of Buff Cochins: "Outlines of Cochin 
male and female received. I think the male is the better 
of the two, though both are better than most breeders get 
them. I would like the male's saddle not to rise so close to 
hackle. Head a little too much crouched in feathers, mak- 
ing wattles rest too much on feathers. Otherwise he would 
suit me." 


Criticisms of Foremost Judges and Cochin Breeders on a Composite Ideal, From Live Models, Drawn 

by Franklane L. Sewell-A Collection of Opinions That Are in Themselves 

Authority on the Ideal Shape of a Standard Female Cochin. 

From the Reliable Poultry Journal. 

THE wide difference of opinion expressed by judges and 
breeders, in criticising the work of our foremost 
poultry artist, is ample proof of the urgent need of 
exactly such work as is being done along this line. 
If we are to attain a greater uniformity of judging and 
breeding, it must come through efforts of this kind. The 
judge or breeder who is in earnest in his desire to progress 
will not fail to give careful attention to these sketches and 

George O. Brown, Maryland, judge and breeder: "The 
female appears squatty. Shape makes her appear as if walk- 
ing down-grade instead of standing on the level. Head car- 
ried too low for the size of the cushion-^which is a trifle too 
high, anyway. Oomb does not go far enough back on head. 
Trifle short in neck in comparison with size of figure." 

P. H. Shellabarger, Iowa, judge and breeder: "The 
Cochin female is much the better of the two, yet her neck 
should be a trifle longer, with the head increased in size to 
harmonize with the rest of the drawing. The Standard 
calls for a short neck on a Cochin compared with that of a 
Brahma or Langshan, but it does not want to look like a 
mud turtle on a fish line, nor to have a head so small that 
it looks like the eye of a rhinoceros compared to the size of 
the body." 

George H. Northup, New York, judge and breeder: "The 
female is just my idea of a Cochin hen, the embodiment of 
my ideal when I was breeding them." 

D. T. Heimlich, Illinois, judge and breeder: "The Buff 
Cochin female is too short in the neck. The back breaks too 
albruptly into the cushion. She does not show depth of 
breast in proportion to general size. As a whole she repre- 
sents well the fad now in vogue, without the practical feat- 
ures so desirable in an utility fowl." 

S, L. Roberts, California, judge and breeder: "The bird 
appears to be taking a walk toward her keeper, evidently 
looking for something to eat at his hands. Comb is too 
small. Too great a sinus between cushion and joint of 
hackle, and not enough at juncture of tail with cushion. Cut 
breast away at center thereof a trifle, throw the head for- 
ward some, and with the foregoing alterations I should con- 
sider the study a good one." 

Theo. Hewes, Indiana, judge and breeder: "The female 
is overdrawn. The head should be pulled up a little and 
some of the cushion taken away. I will not say a word aibout 
this bird below the wings. She is elegant. But the cushion 
runs too far forward. We do not want to call for something 

that we cannot get. Modify it just a little and raise the tail 
a sixteenth of an inch." 

W. S. Russell, Iowa, judge and breeder: "The female 
is good with the exception of back, which is too short, and 
the convex sweep is too abrupt. I should prefer to see sweep 
rise more gently." 

H. S. BaJbcock, Rhode Island, judge and breeder: "The 
cushion rises too abruptly from back and too near neck. A 
very good cut, otherwise." 

H. B. Savage, Texas, judge and breeder: "The female, 
like the male, is a cracker-jack. I should prefer the head 
just a little larger, breast a little deeper and just a trifle 
more distance between the hackle and the rise of the cush- 

A. B. Shaner, Illinois, breeder of Buff Cochins: "The 
head shows ' coarseness. Beak is a trifle long. The cushion 
is too large, and rises too sharply. Lower breast is not full 
enough, and the tail is carried a trifle low." 

C. H. Rhodes, Kansas, breeder of Black Cochins: "The 
sfeetch of the female Would suit me better if the breast were 
carried lower and were fuller in outline. The position may 
have something to do with it. Otherwise it suits me." 

S. A. Rigg, Illinois, breeder of Buff Cochins: "In the 
female I make some objections. The cushion is a little too 
abrupt in start from the back. The body seems not well 
balanced — too much behind for what there is in front — looks 
as if she were standing by muscular effort rather than an 
easy equilibrium. Take her a section at a time and she is 
faultless, but those fellows who are always rawhiding about 
the symmetry cut can find use for it on this bird. These 
drawings are great educators and are worth fifty times the 
cost of a year's subscription to the breeder who wants to 
keep 'up to snuff.' " 

0. E. Skinner, Kansas, breeder of Buff and Partridge 
Cochins: See page forty-six for criticism. Mr. Skinner 
thinks birds of this type cannot be brought to Standard 
weights for adults. 

W. A. Ryon, Missouri, breeder of Buff Cochins: 
fault to find with the female." 


J. H. Parrish, Illinois, breeder of Partridge Cochins: 
"The Cochin female cut I think could be improved a little 
in cushion. It is most too long from rise to the point of tail. 
Very good all over." 

copyrighted by the 
Reliable Poultry Journal 


Comprisina the Best Points of Several Live Models, Drawn by Franklane L. Sewell, for the Reliable Poultry Journal, and 
Submitted to Prominent Judges and Breeders for Criticism Based Upon Standard Requirements. 




An Ideal Cochin, Drawn by Franklane L- Sewell, for the Reliable Poultry Journal, under the Suggestions of Prominent 
Judges and Breeders— The Outcome of Criticisms Upon the Cochin Female Shape, Shown on the Opposite Page. 



Sid Conger, Indiana, breeder of Buff and Partridge 
Cochins: "The female should have one more point on comb, 
and comb should not be so wide between the serrations; they 
are hollowed out too much, not cut V-shaped enough. She 
should hold her head up a little more, making it higher than 
her back." 

Sam S. Sherman, proprietor Banner Poultry Yards, 
Iowa, breeder of Partridge Cochins: See page forty-six. 
Mr. Sherman believes in more chicken, less feathers. 

0. L. McCord, Illinois, breeder of Buff Cochins': Finds 
no fault with this cut. 

Dr. A. Gaiser, Nebraska, breeder of Buff Cochins: "The 
female Cochin profile is before me, and if she were a little 
fuller in the breast I should call her about perfect. I like 
a very full breast in a Cochin.'' 

F. B. Donisthorpe, Nebraska, breeder of Buff Cochins: 
"As to the female, my criticism in the first place would be, 
breast not low enough. Breast should be at least five- 
eighths of an inch lower, and I dislike the division as it ap- 
pears between the foot and hock feathering. The leg feath- 
ering is hardly full enough. The tail just suits me, it does 
not droop like some, neither is it erect like others. I wish 
we could have had color given, then there might have been 
more room for criticism, but I would say candidly, as a Buff 
Cochin breeder, if I could raise all my birds as good as the 
proofs received, I should be perfectly satisfied." 

J. A. Ayers, Missouri, breeder of Buff and Partridge 
Cochins: "The female I would suggest be a little deeper iit 
body from the lowest point in back to breast just in front 
of thighs and her hackle a shade longer. Otherwise she is 
O..K., and would be hard to improve on." 

Dan Robertson, Illinois, breeder of Buff Cochins: "The 
female would look better if she were fuller in lower part of 
breast. That is about all I find bad about her." 

Julius J. Klein, Illinois, breeder of Buff Cochins: "The 
female suits me." 

Robert M. Dale, Illinois, breeder of Buff Cochins: "Head 
of female appears to me a little too small for size of body, 
and beak is too large for such a small head. Otherwise to 
me she appears good enough to win, and that is what we all 
want. It will take a good one to etcb a better female than 
the one now before me." 

George Clough, Illinois, breeder of Buff Cochins: "I 
am well satisfied with the shape of the female. I can find 
no fault with it." 

B. Dunstan, Mississippi, breeder of Buff and Partridge 
Cochins: "I have received Mr. Sewell's drawing of Buff 
Cochin female. Would say that I think comb too small and 
it conforms a little too closely to shape of head. Beak not 
curved enough and rather too masculine in appearance. 
Whole head and neck set too far back. The live specimens 
I have seen and admired have a more slanting, stooping 
forward shape, and if a perpendicular line were dra .vn, com- 
mencing at back of neck, it would strike the front part of 
thigh and toe feathers, while this drawing shows a line from 
eye would touch front feathers of thigh and toe, consequent- 
ly the breast does not show either full or low enough. The 
fluff and back parts would pass as Standard, but I am in- 
clined to think the cushion rises too suddenly and is slightly 
overdone in size." 

E. T. Blood, manager Crescent Farm, Ohio, breeder of 
Buff Cochins: "Female, head just a little bit small. Breast 
carried a trifle high, not showing prominent enough in pro- 
portion to fluff and cushion." 

I. V. Hardy, Kansas, breeder of Buff Cochins: "With 
the female it strikes me that her cushion rises a trifle too 
abruptly, and that she would look better if the lower part of 
breast were a trifle fuller." 

J. H. Lewis, manager for Thomas and F. M. Sankey, 
breeder of Buff Cochins: "Female cushion rises too ab- 
ruptly and runs too high, making a hump on back. I like a 
full cushion without so much hump. Point of tail too low. 
Breast a trifle low, otherwise she suits me." 

Frank W. Breed, California, judge: "It is difficult to 
get a correct idea of this female's shape, owing to the poise 
caught by the artist in illustrating his ideal. As here pre- 
sented, the bird was caught in the act of stepping down and 
off some object, thus throwing her weight on the extended 
foot and consequently forcing her whole contour out of sym- 
metry. Did she stand so as to give us a square side view 
her neck would not be strong enough in arch and breast 
would lack a trifle in depth. If main tail had more of a 
tendency to point downward a rounded appearance would 
be given to her cushion, thus adding to her beauty." 


Their Introduction and Development in America— A Description of Standard Shape and Color of 

Each Section— The Defects Found When Judging and the Penalty for Each— Selecting 

and Mating to Produce Exhibition Specimens. 

By 1. K. Pbloh, Associate Editor Eeliable Poultry Journal. 

DF ANY breed in America deserves to stand at the head 
of the list of fowls this breed does; for it was in its 
crude beginning, under the name of Cochin China, 
the means of awakening the American fancier farmer 
and breeder to the importance of poultry culture. While 
1S49 may be said to be the first year of studied effort in the 
importations of Chinese fowls to America, for several' years 
previous there were many foreign specimens that came in as 
surplus stock left over in ships' cabins that were called 
China fowls, more from the fact that they were found on 
ships employed in the China trade. The "Hen Fever" be- 
tween '49 and '55, however, was the incentive for studied 
importations of these large Asiatic fowls that were brought 
from Shanghai, China, the white, grouse and buff specimen, 
the latter in number predominating. The improvement of 
these Buff Gigantus have resulted in the improved product 
we now call Buff Cochins. Yet their importance and real 
benefit to the nation were in a very large measure achieved 
under other names as above. Previous to 1850 our birds 
were small; but such was the influence of the Cochin blood 
upon our native stock that the average weight of the speci- 
men upon the poulterer's tables in 1852 was found to be 
fully one and one-half pounds more per fowl than ever be- 
fore. That this race gave to our native stock renewed life 
and productive merit none can deny, and to it must all the 
buff races we now have in our best breeds date back for 
their color and ancestry- Thus in a collateral way are they 
the progenitors of merit and utility, while in their present 
condition do they present and hold a premier position as 
one of the grandest of exhibition breeds, that have de- 
manded the very highest prices known among fowls. 

The development of the Buff Cochin has been erratic, 
yet remarkable; it has at times held the favored esteem of 
nearly all the poultry loving nations of the globe. The 
pride of possession in the fanciers has carried the prices to 
the remarkable sum of $300 for a single specimen, $500 for 
pairs, with current and repeated sales at $100 each, and by 
the trios hundreds of them at that sum until at the present 
writing we can truthfully say of the Buff Cochin, that they 
are the pride of the Cochin family, the source from which 
emanates that gem of all colors seen in fowls, convexed 
lines of beauty which give that shape to the breed's sec- 
tions so in harmony with their color that as a whole makes 
the breed hold the gazer spellbound, forcing him or her to 
exclaim in viewing them, "Perfection of color!" 

The six months' old pullet, with her full, broad, rounded 
development of breast, with length of back sufficient to se- 
cure that full curved outline from cape to tail, with full 
thigh fluff, broad, full body fluff, with tail proper nicely 
folded to a point beneath the ample cushion and coverts, 
this with lower thigh plumage hanging full in front, as well 
as rear and about the hock joint in soft flexible feathering, 
meeting the shank and foot plumage in a smooth outward 
sweep, covering completely the feet; such a plumage col- 

ored in a rich orange, ocherous shade; then do we have per- 
fect harmony in shape and color, which puts to rout the 
assertion that shape has nothing to do with color in poultry 

But we say each is dependent up on the other, this har- 
mony essential for the fullest and best effect, and this breed 
our most able witness for the position we take that shape 
and color shall receive equal consideration in adjudicating 
for prizes. It is this very harmony that has enabled the 
breed to hold its position as one of the strongest and most 
popular exhibition varieties and secured for it the high 

We have many breeds of which the same color is de- 
manded, but do they present the same strength and perfec- 
tion found in this ocherous shading of the Cochin? 

When practical useful merit is coupled with pure color 
then do we see such breeds meet 'the popular demand, for 
then the poor and middle classes will buy and propagate 
them and the breed no longer is dependent upon the rich 
and those who prize them solely for exhibition purposes. 
It is exhibition quality that brings the fabulous prices, 
practical merit that makes any breed popular and secures 
for them satisfactory prices year after year, and as there 
is nothing that stands exclusive and alone, thus we see the 
advantage of massing the plumage in pure convexed lines 
upon which to display a pure orange ocherous color. No 
other satisfies. The feather itself must be convexed from 
base to tip and from edge to edge of its fiber, which aids in 
producing this desired outline. 

But let us begin at the beginning as we trace its history 
and completion as a breed in America. 

From 1846 to 1852 there were many Chinese fowls re- 
ceived in America. They must be called chance receipts, 
for, as I remarked above, they were the unused cabin sup- 
plies found upon ships in our foreign trade, usually called 
Cochin China or often named for captains of ships upon 
which they were found. Not until the year '49 or '50 were 
there many if any special importations. The specimens in 
the two shades of brown plumage were called marsh fowls, 
later Grouse Cochins, and finally they assumed the shape, 
color and name of Partridge Cochins; others came into the 
country white and buff in plumage, but all classed as 

As a boy I came into possession of a Black Red male 
and Buff pullet that weighed ten pounds. Will I ever for- 
get her magnificent proportions? You who to-day gaze 
upon the general flock can have no conception of the differ- 
ence in sizes experienced in 1849. When we consider the 
fact that fowls are marketed at about two-thirds their full 
grown weight, and understand that in thirty months the 
average market weight was raised one and one-half pounds, 
you may understand the surprise of those who saw the 
effects of this pair upon my flock of native fowls. 

The prevailing colors in the progeny, however, were 



Qcherous, either light or dark, shading from lemon to light 
brown, and when these colors prevailed the shape ap- 
proached that now acknowledged as perfect • and their 
shanks and feet were more heavily plumed. 

This country is fast following in the footsteps of Eng- 
land. There is a strenuous effort to produce an over abun- 
dance of plumage and in too many cases it has produced 
nothing less than an excrescence. But for all that a prop- 
ejly feathered Cochin is, even in comparison with the other 
sub-varieties of its class, most profusely feathered in the 
Buff variety. As the Brahma is the largest of all breeds, 
so is the Buff the longest and most profusely feathered 
Cochin. For all that I do not think this should license pro- 
nounced vulture hocks to win prizes in our exhibitions. We 
had vulture hocks in 1852; we have them to-day. They 
were unsightly and a disqualifying defect then; the Stand- 
ard so declares them to-day. Yet oftentimes we see the law 
ignored and see vulture hocks on the winners. They are an 
objectionable extreme and usually such birds are mated to 
pullets having bare middle toes, both being disqualifica- 
tions by our Standard. Yet because the breed is acknowl- 
edged the heaviest plumed of all breeds, nineteein-twentieths 
of the judges become a law unto themselves and pass them, 
and the worst feature of it all, they allow them to pass 
uncut. Were the disqualifications raised in our Standard 
and the defect cut a reasonable amount these specimens 
would not win, and it would soon reduce the plumage to a 
reasonable condition, and the egg product would be the 
greater for it. 

The use of any disqualifying extremes is but to harbor 
inherent defects to be reproduced from time to time, and 
the breeder known to thus indulge in their use hazards his 
reputation; eventually his loss in sales will far outweigh 
any gain ho may derive through the' use of disqualified 

All the breeders both of England and America have 
striven to breed out this eye sore, and why? It is not only 
unsightly, but this stiff, coarse plumage that results in vul- 
ture appearance generally has accompanying it a long stiff 
tail plumage, very objectionable in a Cochin sense, and the 
progeny, even though they in themselves may be termad 
first-class, still have the repeating influence in transmitting 
the defects of their sires, even producing the bare toes of 
the females and the vulture hocks of the males. 

"We can never be free from our ancestors" is as true 
here as in the mammals, but this breed was destined to have 
the greatest effect upon American fowl culture and to 
awaken in the minds of our farmers and fanciers the fact 
that the raising of poultry could be made one of the largest 
agricultural industries. Who has not read Burnham's "Hen 
Fever?" Ludicrous and a burlesque that it is, it disclosed 
the fact that over the ancestors of the Buff Cochin was cre- 
ated the wildest excitement ever experienced in poultry 
culture. It reached presidents, kings, queens, senators, as 
well as the humble occupants of our village homes and 
farms, and $20 to $300 was paid for specimens. 

Crude as the breed then was, I fear that to-day in their 
accepted exhibition form they do not maintain the merit of 
egg production that they did, when not required to carry the 
volume of plumage now demanded of them. 


This leads up to the question: What do they need to 
make a more practical, money earning breed? 

I believe I will be sustained in the assertion that to-day 
they are shorter jointed, shorter bodied, heavier and more 
profuse in plumage, the eggs smaller and thicker shelled, 
with the need of fully twenty-five per cent more males, 

compared to females, than formerly to secure satisfactory 
fertility. (This last is equally true of all Asiatics.) 

I fear the shortening of body structure, the lowering of 
the weight center and the greater amount of lower thigh, 
shank and foot plumage has proved a sad mistake for the 
practical merit of the breed, and has lessened the call for 
the breed outside the exhibition demand; even with the cov- 
eted outline of hocks, we would have more of them if bred 
to a longer conformation. 

The earlier birds I speak of in 1872 to 1876 were longer 
bodied and more generally pronounced in the convexed 
feature of hock and cushion. Fads make shuttle cocks of 
any breed. 

The desire to intensify and develop to a wonderful de- 
gree any one single section, such as enormous leg and foot 
plumage, or to make a fad of unnatural developments that 
have come in the place of features sought for in our mat- 
ings, should sink into utter insignificance as compared to a 
development of beauty that has come in company with won- 
derful development of muscle growth or egg production. 
To produce the latter is much greater honor and surely of 
greater profit to the breeder. 

The angular, over long, flat sided specimens of early 
days are being supplanted by birds of the other extreme, 
until these excessively short necks, short. legs, backs and ex- 
cessively feathered specimens have lost so much of merit in 
egg production that we hear the clamor for the old time 
excellence and productive power. 

Is it not history that the most practical and prolific ele- 
ments in a breed carry it into popular favor and secure for 
it a prominent and lasting position there? Surely it is such 
that secures continued demand in the purchasing world at 

Periodically does this breed come to the front to de- 
mand the breeder's attention and adoration. 

It is hard to forget the furor and fire of interest kindled 
by the advent of the Hodgen trio at New York in 1866, at 
which exhibition they sold for $315 at auction, the record 
price at that time, and for a decade breeders were not con- 
sidered in it that could not boast of the blood of that trio 
in their breeding pens. 

For a score of years following the above the interest 
drifted west, where in Ohio, Indiana and Michigan seemed 
to center the home of this breed, the breeders there becom- 
ing their champions and defenders. During this time it was 
my lot to judge, at Indianapolis, a class of 180 specimens; 
nine of which had cost twenty pounds or more each in Lon- 

The eastern states for a time found other favorites, let- 
ting the Buffs fall into careless hands, but would they have 
maintained their position even in the states named had 
they been other than the catchy and beautiful color that 
they were? 

History has been repeating itself again with this breed 
and, as with others, we see about every ten years a revival 
of interest in them. The last time the controversy was over 
types— the effort of the breeders to raise the disqualifica- 
tions of vulture hocks, even going to the extreme of giving 
classes outside of the Standard which allowed such to com- 
pete under the name of Full Feathered Cochins. The con- 
troversy served to awaken the American breeder, to sustain 
and in. fact triumph with the American type and breeding, 
and the full feathered classes were abandoned. To the 
Sharp Brothers, of Massachusetts, should be given the credit 
for they have demonstrated that the American bred speci- 
mens are in every way the equal of the full feathered birds, 
and that the soft, clinging plumage, to fall about and down 
upon an ample foot plumage, can be secured without the ob- 



je.ctionable and unsightly vulture hock. While we must ad- 
mit that the American type is somewhat altered, yet have 
we retained the line rolling tails and soft and wonderfully 
fluffy feathering accomplished. 

The sales have been marvelous, $250, $150, $100, $75, $50 
each in the past fivt years have been surprisingly frequent. 
With this breed so prominently before the breeders, can we 
not agree upon a shape that will improve their egg produc- 
tion? Cannot the breeders, for their own general interest, 
agree to a less heavy plumage and a longer body structure, 
that they may improve the breed's productive merit? 

It has been our hope that our efforts may do something 
to make the race more practical and more universally ap- 
preciated in the future, for it is those especially useful and 
practical merits that add most to a nation's wealth. What 
will make them heavier, quicker growers, and more prolific 
layers, and thus more profitable, will make the rank and 
file of the breeders the larger purchasers. 

What has been the grand reason for the late strenuous 
effort to introduce these superb colors in other 
sub-varieties more generally used by the poul- 

The plain unvarnished truth is that the con- 
trollers of the Buff Cochins have ignored pro- 
ductive merit for feather. The conservative 
middle ground is where the majority meet and 
where the greatest money value is found. A 
rich buff color in its purity as a color in fowls 
can never be excelled in any 
other breed than in the match- 
less convexity of outline as 
found in nature's champion of 
that color, the Buff Cochin. 

Now make this breed match- 
less for color, as matchless in 
practical worth, by converting 
their type to that which will 
give the very largest amount of 
flesh for food consumed and that 
produces the largest number of 
generous sized eggs (for they 
are by nature winter layers); 
thus will you make them money 
earners, as well as show speci- 
mens, and all other similarly 

colored breeds will become obsolete, as have Pea Comb Ply- 
mouth Rocks, Jersey Blues, Dominique Leghorns, White 
Javas and all such that have failed in their harmony of 
color with the shape their breeders have tried to marry. 

A multiplicity of breeds of one color has and will prove 
a mistake for the breeders; first it only divides the demand 
and sale, that would be controlled by the one breed, could 
it enjoy the sole position as representing the color in ques- 
tion. One has only to coop an oblong bodied, reasonably 
plumed flock, to find that such will lay about twenty eggs 
a year more than will those excessively short in body and 
of vulture hock character of plumage. This very difference in 
the egg product will go far towards securing and keeping up 
the sales, for a large number of breeders must look to the 
money earning feature of any breed for support and pleasure. 
This breed is the oldest that has been adopted by Amer- 
ica, and should have been the best, but the fads of its fan- 
ciers have been its worst enemies. Any fad that introduces 
extremes in a breed has always proved detrimental. The 
excessively heavy plumage that has been demanded has 
caused the breed to be given the go-by by the poulterers. 
Thus has the surplus stock other than show specimens sold 
so slowly as to cause many to cease breeding them. 


A Massive, Full-Feathered Buff Cochin Cock 

It is the fancier who establishes the lines and beauty 
to be called Standard; then is it in their power to make 
the accepted type a money earning one and thereby make 
the breed of their choice far more popular and valuable. 
"Give this breed all the exuberance of plumage that can be 
secured without bringing with it stiff quilled feathers in 
lower thighs and very long sickles in tail, for a vulture hock 
becomes a feeder upon the juiciness and roars the flavor 
of its meat;" so says the poulterer. Then why produce such 
volume of plumage as makes them a fad? They are not 
beautiful, they are only grotesque, a burlesque, so to speak, 
upon beauty, just as excessive dress becomes dudish and 
subject to derision. 

But too many breeders fail in moral courage; they may 
come out and demand a practical money earning position 
for all breeds and exclaim that all poultry breeding is but 
a fad, but when fashion turns its cold shoulder, give up the 
breed altogether, A moral obligation to poultry lulture, 
as a calling they ignore. But has not poultry culture be- 
come a business in America? We think so and fail 
to see in the past the same keen insight and action 
in its control. The same parties exist in the bank, 
store and factory in which they are interested. 

It will be remembered that during the excite- 
ment in which the full feathered 
craze was at its height, the fol- 
lowing appeared in an English 

"The carrying by storm of the 
Cochin world in America by the 
English full feathered type of 
birds should convince our Ameri- 
can cousins on the other side, that 
two of a trade will never agree, 
and that while the supporters of 
our type of a bird are engaged 
in smashing up the favorites of 
their rivals, the public, who after 
all is said and done are respon- 
sible for a most important part 
in the development of a breed, 
become scared by the dissen- 
sions that exist and will be 
found by the time the matter is 
financially thrashed out to have 
quietly invested their money in some other breed." 

We acknowledged the force of the prophecy at the time, 
but how true has it become in the strenuous effort to per- 
fect buff in other breeds to the disparagement of sales in 
the Buff Cochins. Extreme views and contention among 
the breeders of any variety are a misfortune to the breed. 

To be sure, these Cochins are an English product. The 
exhibitors there do not have as an end and aim the improve- 
ment of those qualities that make breeds in America wealth 
producing money earners outside the show room. To breed 
these beautiful colored gems of the show world, without 
merit in egg production, is folly for the American breeder. 
Statistics give us three per cent that get rich and thus are 
able to support a fad. The balance are forced to couple 
with their pleasures work that helps to a living, but all of 
us enjoy seeing those things we are interested in appreci- 
ated by the many. 

You ask me how I would make a standard, that which 
lived up to will secure the greatest practical virtues in the 
breed. I answer, just as I would make a standard for a 
horse, one that has all the features acknowledged as perfect. 
You say there is no such specimen, but there are the best 
of a thousand good ones and among the whole thousand 



cannot we find a perfect section for all "the sections that go 
to make up a perfect whole in our best one of a thousand? 
We have only to substitute perfect sections for the ones 
found faulty in him and the trick is done, and when done 
have you not a standard by which to compare and judge all 
defects found? 

Apply this rule to Buff Cochins and I ask: Is your con- 
ception of perfection in the head other than the best head 
you ever saw? Then suppose you take the first prize male, 
exhibited in the class of American Buff Cochins at New 
York, 1893, that scored 96y 2 points by the score card system 
of applying the Standard. This specimen was claimed by 
all the judges present, to be the best ever exhibited in 
America, which I believe is true, nor has he ever been beaten 
since, yet his comb was not absolutely evenly serrated, hav- 
ing but four points; while cutting one-half point for his 
defect, how easy to describe his comb with five points so 
graded as to make the middle one the largest and stand the 
highest, when our work presents perfection. His back was 
faultless in shape, but a trifle faded; what had we to do but 


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P^ " ' ^tB 



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1 *■■>' 

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An English-Bred Buff Cochin Female. 

describe his back as it was and to describe perfect color. 
Thus, by such deduction, we easily obtain in the end a per- 
fect standard. At the same time, note his defects, give him 
a score card value of 96% his specific value as tried by your 
perfetet standard. 

This bird was a grand compromise between the cham- 
pions of full feathered and American Cochins and accepted 
as strictly first-class, and worthy to win the "first and all 
specials" that he did. But our pen picture of the breed must 
be our ideal of a perfect Cochin. Any further development 
of plumage, we believe will be at the expense of practical 
worth, and as it is we make a partial sacrifice to exhibitors' 



In the Cochin, as in all the other breeds of fowls, 
the authorities have wisely left the value of weight to be 
determined by the scales, by deducting two points to the 
pound for all deficit of full standard weight, that being 
eleven pounds for cocks, nine pounds for cockerels, eight 
and one-half pounds for hens and seven pounds for pullets. 

The question of condition Becomes one of general 

health, cleanliness and breakage of plumage. The percent- 
age of damage is left to the decision of judge, with right 
to banish from the show room for disease. 

Defects. Puffed cheeks, watery eyes and soiled plumage 
beyond reasonable effect of cooping. For these cut one-half 
to one and one-half points as a reasonable per cent shall 
dictate. In this breed an isolated feather broken should 
be ignored, but general breakage to disfigure should be pun- 
ished under the head of section where breakage occurs. 

As a matter of fact condition is a resultant, and 
the utility of the unused points for the defects of condi- 
tion always appears in some other section and becomes more 
intelligently punished in the section where located, yet it 
is the effect of condition. To cut such under thei head of 
condition usually has the effect of cutting twice for the same 


The comb is single, small as compared to size of breed, 
should be serrated into five points, the middle one the larg- 
est and highest; forward flanges, counting with first point, 
rear flange and rear point counting together, leaving three 
between top line, the top forming a line parallel with the 
natural curve of the crown of the head. The sides smooth, 
free from wrinkles, corrugations or side sprigs; these last 
having a specific cut of one point for each sprig developed; 
the whole perfectly erect and in a straight line from front 
to rear. 

Defects. For each point less or more than five cut one- 
half point; for turning to left or right at rear, or corruga- 
tions along the sides, excessively large or ill-shaped, one-half 
to one and one-half points; twisted or falling combs in fe- 
males one-half to two points, according to degree. Combs 
other than, single in either sex or twisted in front or falling 
to one side in males, condemn as unworthy a score card 

The rear flange is not uniform in males, nor do 
the artists illustrate them correctly; some are turned 
smooth, others have upon the flange two and three small 
points. It is only the rear perfect point in front of flange 
that is counted to secure the five described above or by 
the Standard. This has been a fruitful cause of the dispar- 
agement of scores between judges. Whether the flange be 
smooth and rounded from its rear point, or has the scalloped 
character that presents the three minute points is immate- 
rial if both give a graceful finish to the rear portion of the 


In this breed the head is wide in skull, deep in face as a 
whole, appears short and shows prominently in its junction 
with the neck. Plumage a dark orange ocherous color, eyes 
large and bright, bay or red, beak heavy at junction with 
skull, but evenly arched to its point, being a deep yellow in 
color. Ear-lobes well developed, especially in the male, wat- 
tles hanging in a pendulous manner below lower point of 
lobes. This feature when developed is much smaller in 
proportion and more closely rounded to throat in the fe- 
males; the whole free from ridges or coarseness in texture, 
the head as a section carried well forward (a drop line from 
point of beak to ground will clear the breast by an inch). 

Defects. Skull long, narrow and depressed in front of 
eyes, beak too straight or turned slightly to one side or 
tainted with foreign color; ear-lot>es very small, eyes other 
than bay or red, face shriveled from disease, should be cut 
one-half to one and one-half for each according to the de- 
gree of the defect. Wattles in males too small or nearly 
absent, one-half to three points. When the wattles are ab- 
sent or merely rudimentary, the bird should be deprived of 
score card record. 



A generous development of comb, ear-lobes and wattles 
Is a sure sign of procreative vigor. The desire for a small 
fine head in the males of any breed is a mistake for the 
above reason. 


Hackle should be full; this with head carried forward 
gives a nice curve rather than prominent arch to the neck; 
hackle profuse and in length sufficient to cover cape and 
shoulder, even covering back in part; surface color and 
quill a rich orange ocherous color with outer edge shading 
off into a perceptibly lighter shade than center of web. Un- 
der color hidden well, up to surface color without the sheen 
(or hard finish, so to speak) ; this under-color must be free 
from white, a slight shade of blue may be Ignored, but when 
pronounced, it is a defect, but of less magnitude than white. 
Defects. Head thrown too far back, neck too long and 
scantily feathered, the hackle failing to cover cape and 
shoulder points, surface color faded to drab or light lemon 
color, or so dark as to show shades of brown in the under- 
color, a very pale shade or reaching white, to 
be cut from one-half to one and one-half for 
each, according to degree. 

We may as well here define the individ- 
uality of the feather in Cochin plumage. In 
this breed we have the very largest amount of 
under-fluff, often reaching more than half the 
length of the feather, which does not web out 
smooth. This causes the puffed character and 
causes the feathers to lie in a curved form, its 
function being to give us the oonvexed outline 
in all the sections throughout In shape we 
describe that much of development as shall 
pass uncut and which in our judgment can be 
reached without detracting from productive 
merit. Any surplus that nature shall give us, 
which does not mar or alter our standard 
should not be deemed' a defect in the show 
room. To- wit: A specimen may have a won- 
derful amount of plumage in competition with 
one that fulfills the law. Both must receive 
full score,' but in case these specimens tie, an 
honest question arises, which of the two 
should win? The one over-developed in plum- 
age has been the favored one heretofore, but 
when it has been so forcibly demonstrated that Buff Cochin 
such detracts from productive merit, shall we continue thus 
to favor such? These are the questions that arise outside of 
any general law we may make; but in color these exceptions 
do not arise and we can apply the law with arbitrary force. 
A rich orange ocherous color is perfect, but the question is 
how much shading therefrom may be admitted and pass 
uncut in judging. The evenness of a shade throughout, 
surely is of prime importance. 

Suppose we make seven, nine, or eleven shades between 
what we call a light lemon color, and a light brown, or even 
thirteen divisions, the middle one will be our rich clear 
ocherous color. Now of the three or five center shades, 
either should pass uncut but they grow lighter, or toward 
brown, it becomes defective color. As in other breeds, five 
shades of described color are advisable. (A light cinnainon 
might be termed a shade of brown or an ocherous shade.) 
While we cannot disqualify or rather we would not deem 
it justice to disqualify, still this shade of brown must be 
cut as defective color. Prime surface color with poor under- 
color, is far preferable to prime under-color and poor sur- 
face color. 

While the back is broad and flat across cape, the 
hackle which is long and flowing on to back, gives a very 

short appearance to forward portion; the saddle being full 
and broad, rising well upon and with the tail coverts en- 
velopes the tail proper. All serves to give that short ap- 
pearance to the back as a whole. The profusion of saddle 
hangers, reaching well down over wing tips, but being 
slightly flattened on the top destroys any pronounced convex 
outline Of back from hackle to tail in the male. In the 
female this saddle, or cushion, as it is called in her case, 
must be a pure convex outline from neck plumage to tail 
so profuse as to be a complete circle from top around base 
of tail, meeting the circling plumage under tail, the back 
long enough to secure the con vexed formation and give 
a slight dblong appearance to structure. Exposure to sun 
and storms will, in a vast majority of cases, cause surface 
color to be somewhat faded from the rich ocherous color de- 
manded by our standard, but we must demand a tolerably 
clear shade in quill, however, and permit a shade lighter, 
but free from the sheen In the fibre of under-color. 

.Defects. Back narrow, too straight, or concave, lines 

Cockerel and Hen, scoring 94 and 92J£ Bred and Owned by A. A. IJvans. 

from neck to tail too short and wanting in saddle and cush- 
ion, oval shape of cape, surface color faded to -a drab or 
mottled with brown, white in quill or under-color, cut one- 
half to one and one-half for these evils according to degree. 
Passing as unworthy crooked shell bone or slipped hips. 

In the Cochins there is little if any of that description 
for forward part of back, all being covered by hackle or 
hidden by a pronounced type of cushion. Back in any breed 
is simply a collective term for cape and saddle and cushion, 
and when we say, "back broad and flat," we mean "cape 
broad and flat," for surely that is what is commonly accepted 
as a broad, flat back; without this upon which the neck 
plumage flows out how much of beauty and symmetry are 


The quarter muscle is full, tapering downwards, beirig 
very broad across in front and deep to forward point, of keel; 
thus we say for the male full and deep. Outline from throat 
to keel long in its sweep. This effect comes from the for- 
ward" carriage of head and neck, which takes from breast 
much of the globular form in the male, the same as it re- 
duced the rear outline of neck to a curve. In the female, 
the breast appears more round and the outline from throat 



to keel presents a fuller profile than in the male. The color 
in both, while having less sheen, is generally a pure shade 
of ocher and more free from any discoloration by false color 
for the reason that it is protected from the direct rays of 
the sun, there being generally but little difference between 
surface and under-color. 

Defects. In males if very flat in front, or flat in females, 
quarters not being prominent, thus giving pronounced wide 
shape viewed from the front, the color mottled, faded to 
drab, or too brown, a shade of surface color too light or 
white in under-color; each of these to be punished by a cut 
of one-half to one and one-half according to the degree of 
defect in each. 


Keel in this breed is carried low, its muscle full and 
firm to the touch. This large muscle and full plumage give 
great apparent width to body, and with well rounded wings, 
come well rounded sides. Fluff well developed, especially 
the thigh fluff, which together give a broad appearance from 

This feature in the female causes great apparent fullness. 
The' upper thigh fluff should be very full between wing bay 
and hock, for to this feature are we dependent for that full, 
Cochin appearance so desired. The loose fluffy condition of 
this feature robs it of the sheen seen in other sections, but 
in color it must retain the rich ocherous shade described 

Defects. Keel so crooked as to mar shape and depth of 
body merits a cut of one-half to one and one-half points. It 
is not so much for the fact that the keel is .crooked as when 
it affects the shape as a whole; the fluff may be shrunken, 
or the thigh fluff not standing out. Failure of con vexed out- 
line in all these, too light in shade or positive white in 
under-color, surface color faded to drab, should be dis- 
counted one-half to one point each. 


Wings are small compared to weight of specimen, 
strong and heavy in muscle, front buried in breast plumage, 
rose well cupped, which, with full quarters, secures a circu- 
lar line from back to point of keel. Primaries smoothly 
folded under secondaries, the whole wing presenting a 
smooth, sheeny surface of rich orange ocherous color, 
reaching its deepest shade in the rose of the wing, where it 
may be a reddish orange shade in the male and not a defect, 
as it is sure to be accompanied by a perfect colored back, 
such being grand mates for hens having lost color by age. 

In the female the evener the shade and more pure the 
color throughout the entire plumage, the better. Wing- 
bays a rich deep ocherous shade with no mottling of other 
■color. (See neck section.) 

Defects. Failure to fold primaries completely under 
secondaries, the rose shading to red or brown shades outside 
of ocherous; white or black in primaries or secondaries, 
mottled or faded surface color, white quills or white fibre in 
under-color. The rose flat, losing its cupped form, the whole 
carried so low as to give an oval shape to cape. For those 
cut one-half to one and one-half points, according to degree. 
Twisted feather one-half to two points. Primaries folded 
outside secondaries pass as unworthy specimens. 

A single broken feather, the mate being perfect, is not 
a defect, for it does not cover a chance to disqualify, but 
a general disturbance and breaking which is really condition 
will receive a more just punishment by checking condition 
thus, X, and cutting the defect in the wing where effect is 


The tail proper is short and nearly enveloped in an 
abundance of tail coverts and lesser coverts which secures 
the rolled tail, so called, and the carriage of tail proper. It 
is the abundance of saddle and tail coverts that gives the 
drooping appearance in the female, although as a matter of 
fact it does not exist. The sickles and lesser sickles are so 
Short and small as to appear like enlarged coverts; these 
whole upper tail furnishings should be a rich orange ocher- 
ous color, the under-color admitted at a lighter shade; tail 
proper a dark chestnut, shading to a light shade in such 
portion as shows to surface. That of the female may be of 
chestnut at quill, but surface color should be pure orange 
ocher and nicely folded into a round point just beyond the 

Defects. Showing end of feathers in a lateral spread 
affecting Brahma shape; the whole section too large or ir- 
regular in the combing with sickles too long and prominent; 
positive black or white in any part. For these cut one-half 
to one and one-half according to degree. If tail be carried 
to one side or twenty-five per cent white, withhold score 

There has been the demand by many judges for pure 
buff, as they have termed the color in this section. This 
we believe will prove a grave mistake, for if none but such 
males are used we may look for an increased amount of 
white in primaries and tail proper, with a decided light 
shade of surface color with white in under-color in our fe- 
males and with the culls vastly increased in the breed. 

In all breeds, no matter what their color, there is the 
tendency to become light and for absolute white to appear; 
why cause in a greater degree this danger by a requirement 
advocated by the few, when to do so is to oppose nature in 
her effort to do her best for the breeders, as a whole. What 
we propose as the proper color is, at the best, all we can 
demand of nature; the word buff is surely a misnomer as 
applied, for scientifically there is no buff in Cochin fowls. 


The lower thigh and shanks should be apparently 
short, heavy in bone; thigh muscle large; plumage long, 
soft and profus%, hanging in front of hock two-fifths the 
way to foot plumage, curving about the hock free from stiff 
vulture hocks; shanks heavily feathered; meeting without 
a break in an outward and forward sweep, with foot plumage 
covering outer and middle toes, all of which in surface and 
quill should be a rich orange ocherous color. Toes should 
be stout in bone, well spread and with shanks in scale and 
skin yellow, permitting straw color with age. 

Defects. Scant covering of hock joints, feathers not 
hanging below and filling the space between hock and shank 
plumage; apparently bare middle toes; for these cut one- 
half to one and one-half points for each, according to de- 
gree; turning inward at hocks with shanks too long or being 
cow-hocked one-half to two points. For actual knocked 
knees; exposed hock joints; middle toes actually bare to 
instep, debar as an unworthy specimen. 

The act of the bureau of judges to protect from dis- 
qualification superior specimens that had feathers upon 
middle toe from instep to edge of web, and not to blindlr 
disqualify such, because middle toe from web to point was 
bare, was a just dissension. All law should be applied with 
equity and common sense. Technical application to save or 
to destroy is not the intention of the standard law. The 
judge should protect the good and destroy the bad. The 
a p A. demand to disqualify all Cochins having bare mid- 
dle toes, we believe 'a mistake.- For no disqualification 
should apply to one variety and not to all of its class, and 



especially in this case should females be exempt. To cut 
bare middle toes one and one-half points would destroy all 
chances of the specimens winning a first prize. But the 
card, disclosing her true value otherwise, might discover in 
her a valuable specimen for the breeder. Any disqualifica- 
tion that shall work to destroy a really nice specimen is not 
just and had best be ignored. Therefore, notwithstanding 
the standard may disqualify for bare middle toes, the judge 
should and can protect nice specimens. When the plumage 
grows from instep joint to web of the middle toe and close 
inspection here should be the rule and cut for the defect for 
not extending beyond the web, many are disqualified off 
hand through the adjudicator failing to examine closely. The 
judge should protect by a cut of two points as defect before 
going to the extreme of disqualifying. Our standard is con- 
tinually criticised because of its too meager use of language, 
but however exhaustively the subject be treated, the novice 
fails somewhat of its meaning until he has had experience. 
To excite the reader to investigate is the writer's aim in 
writing these notes. 

In the past under-color has been ignored, and this has 
led to discrepancy and differences between judges. 

But show record as made by the score card application 
surely should be a guide to mating and breeding, not a mere 
surface consideration. The older breeder understands this 
and scans closely the under-color. 


It shall be noted that while we may give a set 
of rules for matings based on the experience of breeders, 
they must be based upon the antecedents of the breed that 
have been mated under similar rules and conditions, when 
we may surely expect first-class results. We may in the 
foregoing have described the best shape, best color and best 
conditions which have given the best attained results even 
the photos of best specimens we have yet seen. 

But now comes the all important question, how shall we 
produce more like them, with a hope that in a few we may 
have those that excel in beauty, brilliancy and prolific 
merit, the best we now have. But decay is written upon all 
things animate and inanimate, and the vast majority come 
poorer than the merit we have described. It is nature's best 
that are the peers, not better than we have portrayed. 

As a rule even in old and tried breeds like this one, we 
should first cull closely fully twenty-five percent of the 
males, consigning them to the kitchen's use before making 
our selections for our breeding pens and exhibition room. 
This in ordinary flocks of one hundred will leave us some 
forty pullets for our work. Cockerels may have ten con- 
sorts, and cocks five to not more than eight. 

We divide the pullets into two divisions, of light and 
dark under-color, then again we divide each of these into 
the long-bodied, oval backed, and the short bodied more 
concaved backed. 

In Pen No. 1. The nearest we possibly have in a 
male, cock preferred, that fills our foregoing pen picture for 
the breed, both as to shape and color; to him mate females, 
which are in surface color as described, but retain the dark 
under-color, the quills all having the orange ocherous color. 
This is our pen from which we expect our best male speci- 
men, having a strong reserve of color, as progenitors. For 
a mate pen we would select a cockerel that had a strong 
under-color as well as surface color and with all else as in 
our pen picture. To him should be mated hens that in molt- 
ing retained their rich ocherous under-color and a prime 
even shade of surface color, even if in its general shade it 
could be considered somewhat light. These hens would in 
nearly all cases have been, in their pullet form, like the 

dark pullets of our first division, we mated with the cock 
in pen number one. 

The pullets mated to the cock being the darkest short 
bodied specimens. 

Pen No. 2. The male as large and as long in body and 
full in quarters as can be confined within a reasonable like- 
ness of our pen picture for shape, being a cockerel of rich 
ocherous color, rich in his profusion of plumage. 

To him we will mate the long bodied convexed backed 
pullets of good weight and of fairly first-class surface color, 
with a reasonably medium Shade of ocher, retaining in the 
quills the color of surface plumage. This pen will produce 
females the equal to any. 

Pen No. 3. A male that is an even shade of color, but 
so dark as to have nearly the golden brown shade found in 
this breed, with chestnut colored tail coverts and tips, with 
neck and rose of wing a reddish ocher or orange bay shade 
of color, and a very dark shade of under-color, se- 
curing in shape all the convexity of form of "wing, 
thigh fluff, back and roll of tail. To him mate the hens in 
our second division that have faded to an even light shade 

A Pair of Buff Cochins, Winners at St. Louis. 
Gelder & Robertson. 

Owned by 

of surface color, which will most likely have a very light 
under-color and Shafts to plumage — -those long bodied con- 
vexed backed, nice old business hens that have lost their 
hold upon the exhibitions. Do not confound these with the 
white under-colored specimen we abandoned to the cull pen 
before commencing to mate, for from this pen we will have 
fine pullets and many fine males. 

Pen No. 4. For this pen we have left the smallest short 
bodied females from the first division, also the darkest short 
bodies females of the second division, to these we propose 
to mate a large boned, long bodied, very dark male, whose 
tail reaches the chestnut color, with neck and rose golden 
bay, and with a very dark under-color. The pullets from 
this pen will be the desirable part of its progeny, for they 
can be mated to perfect colored males, to produce males. It 
is a fact that all lose color by breeding; white and gray 
constantly creeps in. Another fact; we cannot make radi- 
cally extreme matings for color without producing a mottled 
or mossy plumage. By the use of these pullets we sustain 
the color derived from the dark color of their sire, and use 
it in so diluted a form as to be absolutely controlled by our 
perfect colored lines in this second year use. 

I do not believe in any disqualifications except the fol- 
lowing: Crooked back, positive wry tails, and all specimens 



scoring less than 87 points. This last will prevent anything 
like culls or scrubs from taking premium honors. It con- 
demns such to strictly kitchen uses. 

All the above surely would demand a price for breeding 
' equal to $3 to $20 each for females, with males at $4 to $35, 
leaving all others at a personal consideration of buyer and 
seller, outside the thoroughbred trade. 

Then winners will breed winners and from any one of the 
pens described we may expect to breed winners. They are 
one of the oldest breeds; is there any reason why they 
should not breed true if proper care is taken of them? Close, 
grassless runs will destroy the chances of even the best mat- 
ings from winning, except by accident. I am sorry to be 
obliged to chronicle the fact that nine-tenths of the breeders 
who confine their stock thus as a rule neglect them. A 
prime breeding pen is not all there is to poultry culture. 

Experience has taught that when very dark colored 
males have from necessity been mated to very light colored, 
faded out hens, even those with white appearing in their 
flights, feet, and tail, very gratifying results have followed, 
but faded, white tainted males are a failure whenever they 
are used as breeders. When loss of color is marked in the 
males, it is surely time to kill them and take a new source 
of color supply. It is only when we consult the entire ques- 
tion of color, that we are safe. 

, I call to mind a ease in St. Louis, when a pair of pullets 
had been tied for first place. Their owners calling my atten- 
tion to the fact, as they put it, of two pullets being exactly 
alike. I looked them over and said, "They are exactly alike 
in surface color, but in no other particular, for one is solid 
mahogany while the other is simply veneered, that is three 
full points difference in color alone." One had a fine under- 
color, while the other was white quilled and white in under- 
color. When breeder or judge ignores under-color in Buff 
Cochins, they have both sadly missed their calling. 

A knowledge of the antecedents of any flock is highly 
necessary for the breeder to make correct predictions in re- 
gard to the results of his matings. The show specimen 
should by no means be the darkest one raised, but as near 
as possible should represent the medium color of his flock — 
for should he be caught without darker color he surely can 
feel he has entered a stage of decay in color production. 

In. this breed, like many others, a cock and hen that 
have ripened into standard color, both as chickens having 
been deemed too dark for standard demand, surely are the 
very best mating to preserve color. Such is beyond all ques- 
tion a standard mating. I have come to the conclusion that 
in a general sense there is no single mating. The distinc- 
tion should be: Middle matings, not extreme or double 
mating, though this breed is like Brahmas, one of more 
nearly single mating than any other breed. 


For best results this breed requires to be furnished 
a cool and shaded retreat in which they can repose between 
9 and 4 o'clock when molting. Their hearts beat 150 times 
each minute and as they cannot sweat like the horse, you 
can see what a tax there is on their respiration, besides the 
effect of the hot harvest sun is very disastrous to their deli- 
cate plumage, when in its pin feather state. 

To have an even shade of color during the last stage 
of growth of their adult or new plumage it is necessary that 
all premature growth and the old coat be removed, that all 
plumage of back and saddle may be of the same age, or you 
will have a spotted back or mealy wing to militate against 
the specimen if she or he is to be shown. Even for one's 
own selection in one's breeding pen, this care will be needed. 
If these birds have been early hatched and are liable to grow 
their adult coat in July and August, then a grove or tent 
or artificial shade will repay you well if you furnish it. 

Continued soft and sloppy food is not good for this or 
any other breed, but a free use of scalded milk to drink and 
one meal each day of mash, twenty per cent of which shall 
be meat, such as desiccated fish or granulated beef scraps, 
(avoid pork scraps) may be fed, the whole day rations being 
so fed as to consist of fifteen per cent of meat, twenty-five 
per cent vegetable and sixty grain. These are the main 
points to be followed if you would raise strictly first-class 

For your chicks until three weeks old or older, you will 
find it will pay you to have corn cracked as fine as millet 
seed. A bread made of excelsior meal, thoroughly baked 
and moistened in scalded milk, is fed for the forenoon, while 
the afternoon feeding should be millet, rolled oats, fine 
cracked corn and wheat. After a month begin the feeding 
of meat in the morning food, giving for the first two weeks 
the scalded milk to drink; if this be followed, there will be 
no bowel trouble, or loss by death because of it. 

This care will start them at one month old with a strong 
constitution that will carry them through life with a low 
death rate in your flocks. 

Little things become great things in their results. If 
you watch the combs as they commence to develop, it may 
be a surprise to you that they start with anywhere from 
four to even nine points. Pinch the ones that are desired to 
be absorbed; nature does not always absorb the right ones 
to secure for us the even, regulation five point comb. But 
if this care is taken, the one which is pinched and whose 
growth is thus checked, will be the one to be absorbed into 
the two one each side and a serration is secured in place of 
the point. Little cares win premier prizes. 



The Influence of Past Ma-tings— How to Overcome Prominent Defects And Maintain the Required 

Size and Proportion. 

By A. W. Bell. 

THE proper mating of any buff breed to produce the 
most desirable shade of buff is a question yet in a 
very transient and unsatisfactory state. Of course, 
if one has the room to produce chickens of any one 
variety in the hundreds, doubless he can by proper selection 
obtain a sufficient number of good birds to exhibit and sell 
his customers. But if on the other hand his space was limited 
to about forty or fifty chickens each year, then comes the test 
of his resources. This is as true in any of the buff varieties as 
in Buff Cochins. I have visited the yards of a large number 
of prominent breeders of other buffs, and have found where 
they are raised in large numbers, all shades of buff from a 
light lemon to a color bordering on cinnamon. 

What is the cause of this? 

No doubt they are cases of reversion to some ancestors 
of these shades, going back to a time when they mated these 
dark birds to a lighter one to produce a good under-color, 
and whilst that purpose was accomplished, it has left a taint 
in the blood of their progeny that Will take years to breed 
out, but to a certain extent will be continually cropping out. 
In these days so much more specialty breeding, that is, 
mating a male with one or two females, is done than for- 

In all articles, in mating one most universally finds 
statements like these that the male bird gives the color to 
the chicks, and the female the size and shape. I do not be- 
lieve this is the case, but on the contrary, that the female 
has as much to do with the color as the male, and not only 
is this so in color, but also in shape, i. e., one parent has as 
much to dt> with producing color and shape as another. 
Breeders of other stock do not lay as much stress upon color 
from the male and shape from the female as we do in 

This was brought to my notice very forcibly the other 
day when discussing this subject with a breeder of horses 
for a number of years, and he showed a pair of horses, filly 
and gelding, the former a brown and the latter a bay. The 
dam was a bay and the sire a bay. He told me that all this 
stallion's colts were of the same color of fillies, whilst the 
geldings almost unlversially in color took after the dam. 

But can all the characteristics of breeding In one line 
of stock be found or carried out in another? This year I 
bred a very heavily hocked male with much foreign color 
in wings and tail to females solid buff in these particulars, 
and whilst we would expect to get bad winged birds, yet 
the females take mostly after their dams, whilst the cocker- 
els follow the sire. 

The chief obstacles to overcome in breeding Buff Coch- 
ins are color, shape and size. In color, we have the uneven- 
ness not only in surface color, but also in under-color, for 
if you have the latter you will undoubtedly have the former. 

To overcome these, .select in both parents stock of as 
uniform a color all over as you have, one whose hackle, 
back, saddle and body shades are all the same. These prop- 
erly mated will give you birds that will be a pleasure to 

behold. Under no circumstances use dark surface colored 
birds for present day exhibiting. 

I do not object to a little black in tail or wings, in 
breeders, as you must have this to retain your rich surface 
color, and if your birds are too dark, a little white in the 
wings will soon tone this down, though many look upon 
white as a most serious defect, yet if one's birds are inclined 
to be too dark, the presence of white will in a season or 
two work wonders. 

Another serious color defect is shaftlness. This, to me, 
is the hardest point to eradicate, but if one will persist in 

A Buff Cochin Female of Rare Shape and Color, Winning First Prize as 

Pullet at Boston (Novice Class) ; Eastern Ontario and Chicago. As 

Hen, First at the Eastern Ontario and Ontario Shows, also 

at Chicago and New Yor^. Owned by A. W. Bell. 

using those birds with good under-color, not too dark, and 
the quills of the feathers buff both on the surface and under- 
neath, which can be easily noticed by looking at the wing 
spread out from the under side. 

Endeavor to breed from birds having a rich buff 
(not red) quill, superficially, and one will be highly satis- 
fied with the result. 

Mealiness is most prominent on the wing bows of 
females, but is very seldom seen in first-class birds of 
to-day. This was caused by formerly breeding dark males 
to light females to produce under-color, but as this is not 
practiced at present to any extent, it is not much seen. 

In breeding for shape, I like to employ birds as short 
in every particular, save length of feather, as I possibly can 

A Cochin should have a short neck, short in back, which 



should be wide, his breast deep and full and carried for- 
ward, body short and wide, his legs short — I have not yet 
seen a Cochin too short in legs for me — and set well apart, 
covered with long soft fluff feathers, giving them the ap- 
pearance of having a thigh eight to ten inches around. 

The same Is applicable to the female, only of a more 
feminine nature. Her cushion being more pronounced and 
tail carried low, if anything, that is, below or at the hori- 
zontal line. What I like to see in young stock is a bird, 
when you notice it, looks as broad as it is long, and seems 
to be creeping on the ground, due to its large soft fluffy 
hocks and short legs. 

A. real good Cochin should look as if it had been raised 
in a pail and as round as one. 

Under no circumstances use a long-legged Cochin, for 
as sure as you do, you will produce Brahma shaped birds, 
which would be as much of an eyesore to a Cochin man as a 
Cochin Brahma is to a Brahma breeder. Do not use for 
breeders, in either sex, birds with long tails or with tails 

carried high, for you cannot produce stock with good cush- 
ions from these. 

To the casual observer the Cochins are possibly the larg- 
est looking of all fowls, due to the long fluffy feathering, 
and to secure this with a body of good size is a very impor- 
tant point. 

Size is due more to breeding from large birds and the 
care they receive. Some could take the same parents and 
with their plan of feeding produce birds very different from 
what others could. 

By good care also can shape be vastly improved, for 
what can you expect a half-starved or search-my-own-Hving 
bird to amount to, especially in Cochins. Give them a gen- 
erous supply of nourishing food containing an abundance of 
protein, and you will have birds with large frames and 
loose in feathering. Do not endeavor to fatten young Coch- 
ins; get the frame on them first, then add your flesh. 

A. W. BELL. 


Ideal Buff Cochins of 1895-By Sewei^ 









8 U 


An Illustrated Description of the Standard Requirements for This Variety— The Cuts Scored by- 
Judges for the Defects Found in Each Section. 

By Theo. Hewes, with Illustrations by Seweli,. 

irp EALIZING that one must have ideas of his own and 
]j\£ by a careful study of the different breeds, together 
with the Standard description of them, arrive at 
some definite conclusion, I offer to the readers my 
ideas of the different breeds, and I believe if the amateur 
will study the chart and defective feathers, together with 
my description, he will arrive at a fair conclusion as to what 
constitutes perfection and gain a fair knowledge of the de- 
fects that he may expect to find in breeding the different 

I will take up the Partridge Cochins, and since there is 
the same general shape in all varieties of the Cochin fam- 
ily, it will not be necessary to give a detailed description of 
the other varieties. 

In Chart Pig. 1 is shown a male that can truly be called 
an ideal. While, as in the cases cited above, there are a few 
minor changes that could be suggested, the picture is so 
good, that I agree to pass without discount on shape such a 
specimen when found in the show room. The Standard says 
in describing outline for the Cochin male, that he should 
be a very deep, massive bird, showing great constitution, 
having a dignified carriage and a tendency to lean forward, 
the keel carried low and the saddle or cushion well up. The 
outline of every section should be well rounded and free 
from any flat or concave surface. Mr. Sewell has certainly 
filled the Standard description in the outline Fig. 1. 

In color the Partridge Cochin should be rich, deep black 
in breast and body; neck and saddle, bright red or dark 
orange with black stripe extending down each feather. In 
Fig. 1 Mr. Sewell has faithfully portrayed the correct color 
as described in the Standard, and in the accompanying 
drawings I call your attention to defective feathers with 
their discounts as measured by our best judges. It is a well 
known fact that some males are used in the breeding yard 
that are decidedly off color so far as the Standard is con- 
cerned, and our best breeders tell me they have to use them 
in order to get the fine penciling and proper ground color 
on the females, so that a discount in the show room is not 
always so serious a defect as the cut would lead one to 
imagine. As an illustration, a male bird might be cut on 
color of neck, back, breast and body, and still be the high- 
est priced bird in the breeder's yard, or in other words, his 
best breeding male. I call special attention to this so that 
the amateur may learn the difference between a show bird 
and a pullet breeder. 

I will how take up the different sections, using a few 
feathers from each section for comparison. 


This section should be bright red or dark orange red, 
with a distinct black stripe extending down each feather 
running nearly parallel with the edge of the feather and 
tapering to a point near its extremity, the red or dark 
golden edge to be free from black. Such necks as the Stan- 
dard describes are met with quite often in our fancy show 

specimens; in fact, so exquisitely are some of them colored 
that an artist could hardly improve on them with his brush 
or pencil. There are others, however, where many defec- 
tive feathers are found, and to better illustrate these defects 
I call the attention of the readers to Fig. 2. Feather No. 1 
of this group is, taken from the lower part of neck, and is 
fairly well proportioned in black and red, but the under 
color is too light, and there is a streak of red running along 
the shaft, and black runs to the end of feathers, making the 
point look black and smutty. A neck with plumage like this 

Defective Neck Feathers of the Male. 

should be discounted one and one-half points. Feather No. 
2 is taken from upper part of neck and is quite a good one, 
except the tracing of black on outer edge of feather. Dis- 
count one-half point. In feather No. 3 is found a defect 
quite common among the pullet breeding males. The black 
and red mingle up in the center of the feather, and the out- 
side edging of red is too light, and there is a trace of black 
on its edge. A neck like this should be discounted two 


This is the most important of all the shape sections, 
and nearly if not quite the most important in color. The 
Standard says in describing this section, in shape, appar- 
ently short, very broad and well rounded. You will note the 
words "apparently short" are used in describing back. This 
breed if bred to feather as the Standard, calls for is very 
deceptive. A glance at the Chart Fig. 1 would lead one to 



believe that the bird was short in this section, but a closer 
inspection shows you he is quite long in back, and it is only 
the long feathers around body and legs that give the bird the 
short appearance. While inspecting the chart place a piece 
of paper over the lower part covering up to lower part ot 
wings, and you will be surprised to note the difference in 
the length of the specimen. The Standard in describing the 
color o£ this section gives the same description as in neck. 
There is a slight difference in the shape of the feather, as 
will be noticed by a study of the chart. 

In Pig. 1 is shown a well proportioned, finely shaped 
back and one that fits well this breed of fowls. In Fig. 3 are 
illustrated some defective color, all three feathers in this 
group taken from the back of one male, and still the back, 
taken all in all, was far from a bad colored one, as there 
were any number of nearly perfect feathers to be found. 

Defective Back Feathers of the Male. 

Feather No. 1 is light in under color, is not black enough 
in center of feather and fails in the black stripe. If all the 
featiiers in a section were as defective as this one the sec- 
tion should be discounted two points. Feather No. 2 is 
taken from just back of the wings, and shows a fairly per- 
fect feather for that section. There is slight stripe of red 
running through the center of feather, which should dis- 
count one-half point. Feather No. 3 is one of the long, side 
hangers, and is very defective.- It is too light in under color, 
shows but little black in body of feather, and the stripe is 
almost entirely lost. A back showing all feathers like No. 
3 Should be discounted three points. 


.Like back, this is a very important section, especially in 
shape, and next to back is the most important from a breed- 
er's standpoint. It is doubtful if there is in the Standard a 
better description of any breed than the one used in con- 
nection with the Cochins, which is as follows: Breast car- 
ried low in front; full and well rounded, with great breadth 
and depth. With this description and the Chart Fig. 1 the 
reader should have no trouble in gaining a good general 

Defective Breast Feathers of the Male. 

idea of the shape of this section. You will note the breast 
is carried low as compared to any other of the large breeds; 
this gives our Cochin males a peculiar pose, and one that 
harmonizes well with 
their quiet, docile 

In color the 
breast should be 
black, and in our 
choicest show speci- 
mens it is seldom 
this section is dds- 
counted in color. 
However, there are 
some defects that 
show up, and in or- 
der to explain them 
to the reader, I call 
your attention to the 
feathers as shown in 
Fig. 4. In feather 
No. 1 is shown 

a faint trace of red on lower edge, and the discount is one- 
half point, while feather No. 2 has red on both sides running 
well down, and the discount is one point. Feather No. 2 is 
one that crops out quite often in the pullet breeding males, 
and is not considered a serious defect when breeding for 


This section has a valuation of eight points and 
is divided, giving five to shape and three to color. 
It will be noted in the division of points the Stand- 
ard makers considered the shape of this section of 
more value than color, and in most of the Asiatic 
varieties this is true, but in Partridge Cochins and Dark 
Brahmas it is doubtful if the scale of points should not 
be changed, giving four for shape and four for color, as a 
more intelligent card could be given in that way. However, 
a full feathered Cochin must be good in body and fluff to be 
Standard, as so much stress is laid on the rounded outlines 
of these sections. In Chart Fig. I is shown a full feathered 
bird, one that conforms to the new order of things and one 
that we must admit makes a pleasing picture. In color the 
Standard says the feathers should be black, but there are a 
very few males that are entirely black in this section. Quite 

Defective Body Feather of the Male. 

often every feather in breast and front of body will be black, 
still there will be quite a trace of red in the surface of fluff 
and rear of body. The Standard description of body, like 

Fig. 1-Illustrating the Shape and Color Required by the American Standard of Perfection. 



that of breast, is well worded; in fact, there is no better 
description given in all the book than the one describing 
this breed. The body should be from point of breast to 
abdomen broad, deep and well rounded; medium in length. 
The abdomen well let down between the legs, broad and well 
rounded up from breast bone to tail, depending more for its 
fullness on the length of feathers than upon muscular de- 

In Fig. 5 will be found three feathers that were taken 
from a male that showed fairly dark in breast and body. 
Feather No. 1 is red on outside, with a tracing along the 
shaft. A section showing feathers like this should be dis- 
counted one and one-half points. Feathers Nos. 2 and 3 
show a lacing of red on the outside and should be discounted 
one point. Feathers 2 and 3 are quite common on pullet 
breeding males and quite often this lacing of red will run 
down on thighs and feet. The cuts of one and one-half 
seem slight as compared to other discounts, but it must be 
remembered there are only three points allowed for color in 
this section. 


This section in a Partridge Cochin male is usually good. 
Broken feathers sometimes mar the shape, and occasionally 
a trace of white will show in nights, but as a rule the wing 
is good, and quite often passes without discount in either 
shape or color. Where feathers are broken the cut is from 
one-half to one, as in degree. If white shows in primaries 
or secondaries, the cut is from one-half to one and one-half, 
as in degree. 


This section has quite a bearing on the shape of a 
Cochin male, and it seldom passes as perfect. In fact, there 
is undoubtedly as much tinkering with this section as any 
one on the bird, including the hock. The nice short tail, 
well furnished with long, soft coverts, doesn't grow on every 
Cochin male. 

In the Chart Fig. 1 is shown a tail that is slightly over- 
drawn; in fact, the stiff feathers are entirely out of sight. 
This bird shows a tail nicely filled in underneath and just 
such a one as our Cochin breeders are striving for, and one 
I hope soon to see common with this breed, without the aid 
of artificial help. So much trimming has been indulged in 
by some of our breeders that when I see a good, well bal- 
anced tail I am the least bit skeptical about it. But the rad- 
ical improvement that has been made in this section within 
the past fivo years encourages one to the belief that it is 
only a matter of a short time until we may expect to find 
many of our best specimens with such tails as illustrated 
in the chart. There is a color disqualification in tails of 
Partridge Cochin cockerels that some of the breeders seem 
to overlook, and should white creep in the web of main tail 
feathers or sickles, the bird is disqualified. When under 
color is allowed to run too light, one may look for this de- 
fect, and it is well at all times to keep a watchful eye in this 


In Fig. 1 is shown a male bird that has sufficient plum- 
age on legs and thighs to please the most fastidious. It 
was this extra heavy feathering that put so many of our 
Cochin breeders at variance, and in many cases caused the 
old-time breeders to give up the Cochins altogether. The 
claim made by them that the heavy feathered bird was not 
so good an egg producer was in some cases exaggerated. 
Some strains may have been affected by this introduction 
of the longer feathers, but breeders to whom I have talked 
who at first were radically opposed to the change, have ad- 
mitted that they see no difference in the laying qualities of 
their birds. There have been some radical views taken on 

the leg and toe feathering, many seeming to think the stiff 
vulture hocks were being called for, and the birds exhibited 
in the full feathered class some eight years ago were abom- 
inable looking scrubs, and it is really wonderful that the 
breeders came to adopt the full feathered ones at all. Care- 
ful mating along intelligent lines soon eliminated the stiff 
hocks and produced in their place a profusion of long soft 
feathers, covering the thighs completely and curling as 
much in front as behind the leg. A careful study of the 
chart will show the readers that a Cochin male when prop- 
erly feathered comes pretty near filling a perfect triangle. 
They will also note the entire absence of stiff feathers on 
hocks. Such birds as pictured in the chart are rare, but 
only from such may we expect to breed the ideal Cochin. 


Perhaps of all the Standard varieties there is no female 
of the heavy weight breeds so strikingly handsome as a well 
bred Partridge Cochin. Their beautiful color, with well 
rounded shape, is surely a pleasing picture; add to this their 
gentle disposition and we have something well worth out 
time to study and care for. In my opinion the two hand- 
somest females recognized by the Standard are the Partridge 
Cochins and Dark Brahmas. The Cochins, with their grand 
penciling and their rich mahogany red ground color, the 
Brahma, with its graceful tracings of white on the steel 
gray, make a study for an artist. 

The lacing is the same in both breeds, being a distinct 
triple in back, breast, body and wing bows. 

In Fig. 6 is shown a chart that represents an ideal 
Cochin female. So far as shape goes there is little chance 
for improvement, and shpuld any Partridge Cochin breeder 
get one as good in color as the tracings on this chart, he is 
pretty certain of a place in close competition. With the 
chart as a guide there is no great amount of explanation 
necessary for a clear understanding of shape, and it is this 
ease of demonstrating by outlines that convinces the writer 
that an illustrated Standard is not only valuable, but a real 
necessity if we wish to educate the breeders to a better un- 
derstanding of the different varieties. With the chart as 
our guide for perfect shape and color, I will call attention to 
some defective feathers, and place a discount on them sim- 
ilar to the male. 


This section is seldom good in color if other sections of 
the bird are nicely penciled. Instead of a black feather with 
golden lacing, we are quite likely to find the feather laced 
like the back and wing bows. The Standard says in describ- 
ing color of neck: Bright red or dark orange red, with a dis- 
tinct black stripe extending down each feather, running 
nearly parallel with the edge and tapering to a point near 
its extremity. The black stripe may be slightly penciled. 
In my opinion the wording should be changed to read lower 
part of hackle penciled similarly to the back, then we can 
breed without asking nature to reverse her markings in two 
sections that join each other. 

In Fig. 7 are shown some defective feathers taken from 
che back of a female that possessed remarkable color in 
breast and body. The back had a good shade of ground 
color, but was almost entirely void of lacing. Feather No. 
3 shows a faint irace of lacing, but is badly mixed 
up and should be discounted one and one-half points. 
Feather No. 2 in the same group is entirely devoid of 
lacing and should be cut two points. Feather No. 1 is 
not only devoid of lacing, but has a shading of gray on edge 
of feather, which gives the surface a faded out appearance. 



Fiff. 6— Illustrating the Shape and Distribution of Color Required by the American Standard of Perfection. 



A back showing feathers like this should be dis- 
counted two and one-half points. In shape it is doubtful if 
a better outline Will ever be offered than the one Mr. Sewell 
has portrayed in the chart. Perhaps a little overdrawn for 
our best Partridges, but well in hand for some of our Buff 

Defective Back Feathers of the Female. 

females; in fact, the first pullet at Illinois State show, Jan- 
uary, 1902, was only a shade behind this drawing. The Part- 
ridges have only within the last few years been shown with 
the long, soft plumage so common with the Buffs, but with 
such men as Mitchell, Baylies, Harrison and others in the 
chase for perfection, it is only a matter of time till the 
Partridges will take their place alongside the best of the 

This section usually shows as good color as any on the 
bird; in fact, we quite often find good lacing on breast when 
other sections are quite defective. In Fig. 8 is shown a group 
of feathers frequently found on the breast of this variety. 
Feather No. 1 has a fairly good style of lacing on outside, 
but pencils up too much in center of feather. A breast with 
feathers like this 
should be cut one 
and one-half points. 
Feather No. 2 is 
taken from up near 
the throat and 
shows a faint trace 
of lacing, but not dis- 
tinct enough, and 
center of feather is 
penciled and runs to- 
gether. A section 
showing feathers like 
this should be dis- 
counted one point. 
Feather No. 3 is 

laced on outside; in fact, two rows of lacing show fairly 
plain, but mingle too much near the shaft. A breast show- 
ing plumage like this should be discounted one point. 

In shape the breast should be full and well rounded, 
with great breadth and depth, carried low in front. In Fig. 
6 is shown an outline of breast that fills the Standard fairly 
well. However, this breast might be carried a trifle lower at 
point of breast bone, still not go beyond the Standard de- 


This is another important section in all Cochins; in fact, 
there are but few if any breeds where this section is con- 
sidered of so much importance especially in shape. To be 

Defective Breast Feathers of the Female, 

perfect it should be from point of breast bone to abdomen, 
broad, deep, full and well rounded, medium in length, the 
abdomen very full and round from breast bone to tail, with 
great length and fullness of feather. 

In Fig. 6 is shown an outline of body that would be hard 
to improve upon. The long feathers of the lower body com- 
pletely hide the hock, making a nicely rounded out profile 
that is pleasing to look upon and one our Cochin breeders 
are striving to breed. In this, as in other sections where 
the long, soft plumage has much to do with the outline, it 
is well to remember that but few of our best Partridge Coch- 
ins are so profusely feathered. The Buffs of this breed have 
a trifle the best of the long feathering thus far, but year 
by year we see the improvements in the other varieties, and 
it is only a matter of time, and a short time at that, until all 
varieties of the Cochins will be as profusely feathered as 
our chart shows. 

In Fig. 9 are shown some feathers taken from a female 
in a pen mated for general results. It will be noticed there 
is scarcely a trace of lacing, and the feathers are badly off 
in penciling. Feather 1 looks more like the fluff of a cock- 
erel breeding Brown Leghorn. There is no lacing and black 
extends almost half way through the web of the feather. 
A body with plumage like this should be discounted two 

Defective Body Feathers of the Female. 

points. Feather 3 has some of the same defects as feather 
No. 1 and there is also a tracing of light lemon on outside. A 
body showing color like this should be discounted two and 
one-half points. Feather No. 2 is not so bad as 1 and 3, but 
is void of the lacing and black runs too far into the web and 
should be cut one and one-half points. 


In shape the wings should be small and completely 
folded, the fronts embedded in the plumage of the breast. 
The tips concealed between the cushion and thigh plumage. 
In color the chart Fig. 
6 is shown correct in 
lacing for this section, 
and like breast is usu- 
ally good, as compared 
to other sections. 

In Fig. 10 are shown 
three feathers that are 
more or less defective; 
all of these feathers, 
taken from the wing 
bow of one bird, show 
how defects will multi- 


ply if careless breeding De£ ective Wing Bow Feathers of the Female 



is indulged in. Feather No. 1 in this group shows a 
trace of lacing, but is not distinct enough. The penciling 
runs into the ground color, and should be cut one point 
Feather. No. 2 is so penciled as to practically destroy all 
trace of lacing and should be cut one and one-half points. 
Feather No. 3 is one of the small feathers taken from upper 
part of wing bow: Like feather 1, it is not clear enough in 
lacing and should be cut one point. 


This section in the female, like that of the male, gives 
the breeder more or less trouble in keeping it at the proper 
length. A nice short tail is a wonderful help in rounding out 
the back, while a high stiff one will mar the symmetry. 
However, there is not so much trouble experienced in pro- 
ducing good tails on females as on males. The Standard 
says in describing the shape of this section: Short and 
broad at base, well filled underneath with a profusion of 
soft feathers and nearly enveloped in the coverts, which 
help form the cushion. The tail in Fig. 6 is slightly over- 
drawn; the tail proper should show at an angle of about 
85 degrees, while the feathers in Fig. 6 would show they 
grew out on almost a straight line. The point for the breed- 
er to take into consideration is to breed the main tail feath- 
ers as short as possible, with a profusion of coverts and 
cushion feathers. In color the tail of a Partridge Cochin 
female should be black, except the two highest main tail 
feathers, which should be penciled. The penciling of the 
two top feathers carries the handsome color effect from 
comb to end of tail, but tail, like neck, is pretty hard to 
keep free from penciling, when other sections are good in 
color, and it is a question in my mind if penciling should 
not be allowed in the main tail of Partridge Cochins, Indian 
Games and Brown Leghorn females; but so long as the 
Standard reads as it does, all we can do is to discount the 

In feather 1 in Fig. 11 will be found a penciled feather 
quite often met with in tails of well colored females. A 
bird showing this amount of penciling in tail should be dis- 
counted one point. Feather 2 is taken from down on the side 
of tail, and only a trace of red appears. A tail like this 
should be cut one-fourth point. Feather 3, like feather 1, 
shows the penciling on both sides, also shows a streak of 

very light ashy color on surface, and should be discounted 
one and one-half points. 


This section is not only important in shape, but in color 
as well. Thighs, shanks and feet should be profusely feath- 
ered, and the lacing on feathers should extend to the toes. 
It is only within the past few years that good lacing on 
body and fluff was considered wonderful, but with the great 
improvement in mating we have to-day not only the hand- 
some coloring in body and fluff, but on feet and toes as well. 
In fact I have within the past three years found several fe- 
males with foot feathering as well laced as Mr. Sewell has 

•3-ig i.3 

Defective Tail Feathers of the Female. 

shown in the chart. In shape improvement would be hard 
to make, as Mr. Sewel] has portrayed one of our very choic- 
est Buff pullets. She has a sufficient amount of feathers on 
legs and toes, and the length of leg is in proportion to the 
well rounded symmetrical body. T. HBWES. 


A Variety Adapted to Any Locality— That Thrives in Confinement and Lays When Eggs Are High 

Priced— Feeding, Mating and Judging. 

By 0. E. Skinner. 

DHAVE bred Partridge Cochins nineteen years. History 
has it they originated from the same sitting of eggs as 
the Buff Cochin. A skipper brought the eggs from 
China and when hatched one party took the chicks 
looking most like a partridge and the other the Buffs. 
It is needless to say that they have been very materially 
advanced in color and shape since. 

Partridge Cochins prove highly satisfactory in cities 
and mining districts, as they do not show soot and coal 
smoke like other varieties. 

They are easily confined. To illustrate — I have only a 
two-foot fence between two pens of Partridge Cochins and 
they do not bother any. Three feet I think amply high. 
I am, from varied experience, an advocate of low houses and 
low roosts, but they must be kept absolutely clean and dry. 
Twelve to fourteen inches is high enough for roosts. They 
bear confinement exceedingly well, and do not get overly 
fat like Barred Rocks and other more active breeds. To 
get the best results in close confinement, straw or other lit- 
ter should be liberally supplied to induce exercise. 

I have succeeded in producing a larger number of eggs 
in zero wea'ther with Partridge Cochins than with any other 
breed. I have bred all the leading breeds of fowls side by 
side with them. I tested five Partridge Cochins (three hens 
and two pullets) with forty Leghorn pullets and hens in the 
exceedingly cold January and February of 1899. These 
fowls were kept in the same kind of a house with the same 
food. Now for results. These Partridge Cochins averaged 
two and a half eggs per day with the temperature running 
as low as twenty-four below zero, and for nearly one-half 
the time the forty Leghorns laid absolutely none. Some 
will say, "Your houses were not warm enough." Yes, but 
the same conditions applied to the Partridge Cochins; be- 
sides, one egg laid by one old Partridge Cochin has produced 
a pullet that commenced laying at four months and twenty- 
nine days old. They are considered by many the very best 
table fowl. 

Here are some weights— Hatched June 24th, weighed 
August 24th: 

Pour Partridge Cochins— 3 pounds. 

Four Light Brahmas — 2% pounds. 

Four Barred Rocks— 3% pounds. 

Four Light Brahmas— 4% pounds. 

Four Partridge Cochins— 4 11-16 pounds. 

Four Barred Rocks — 4% pounds. 

Weighed again September 7th: 

The Partridge showing a gain over the rest. 

A great many breeds of fowls are subject to leg weak- 
ness when young and growing fast. In nineteen years of 
breeding Partridge Cochins, I cannot recall a single case of 
leg weakness. Where it does occur in any breed a little 
copperas in the drinking water is valuable. 

Another good point about Partridge Cochins is that 
when bred for winter layers, having been laying all winter. 

they are ready to sit early for early show chicks. For hatch- 
ing in incubators, Partridge Cochin eggs knock the Light 
Brahmas clear out and are far better than Buffs. 

The longer I breed fowls the less I think it requires 
any special kind of food to raise young chicks successfully. 
It is the air surrounding the hen or in the brooder that 
does the deadly work and not the food. I believe this, how- 
ever; the kind of food has a great deal to do with the rapid 
growth. I am at the present time using Spratt's food. Corn 
bread baked with plenty of eggs and oatmeal mixed with 
hot water for one feed a day for chicks up to two weeks 
or more old helps them make a very rapid growth. 

B^or mature Partridge Cochins I feed one mash in morn- 
ing with some variety of meat and potatoes cooked. In the 
evening I feed whole, grain, corn, oats and wheat mixed. 

About six to ten females to one male for breeding is the 

Third Proe Partridge Cochin Cockerel, in a targe Class at the Great 
_ Mid-Contmental Exhibition. Bred by M !? Skinner 



proper mating. I always prefer cockerels with hens and 
early pullets, as I make a specialty of raising winter-laying 
Partridge Cochins hatched from eggs laid in the winter. 
Cocks are all right for summer breeding, but the most active 
cockerels are required for cold winter breeding. In breed- 
ing for show birds, I always advocate mating as near stand- 
ard as possible on both sides, using a male as high as possi- 
ble in cushion with as short a tail as possible and broad 
across -back. 

In breeding good Cochins, it is difficult to get good 
shape in males and good penciling in females. In color, 
white is the hardest to keep out. My idea is if you use a 
special mating, that is, a cockerel with penciled feathers, 
you soon will have a white strain of Cochins in males. On 
the other hand, in mating for cockerels, you soon would 
have a strain of females without any penciling. I much pre- 
fer cherry red in males and females with a rich golden 
edging to hackle, rather than lemon edging. The new stand- 
ard calls for the same hackle in females as in males. 1 
think this is a printer's error. 

In judging I have seen the most noted judges make 
bungling work, aljowing a little under sized pullet, for in- 
stance, to take first because she was of good color, leaving 
out shape and size altogether. 

If I were judging Cochins, I would look over the entire 
lot and select the one with good size, good shape and best 
color possible, with the other qualities, and score this one 
first and then be very careful that I got none higher. I 
believe, if this system was adopted in judging, a better and 
evener type of Cochins could be established. Then a long- 
legged, out-of-shape and under-sized bird could not win over 
other birds far more valuable as breeders. 

In the accompanying photo of a bird I bred is shown 
the cockerel winning third prize at Kansas City, twenty- 
seven competing. He is a trifle long on legs, but fine shape 
of body. His present position is a little more erect than 
usual, owing to his standing near a coop containing another 
cockerel. His comb is a trifle larger than I like, otherwise 
he is a fine specimen. 



Characteristics Specially Valuable in Male and Female— Inbreeding Necessary to Fix These Char- 
acteristics— Improvement in Recent Years— Double Mating Advocated. 

By A. W. Bell. 

THE main difficulty in breeding Partridge Cochins is 
to obtain the desired penciling in the females, with 
proper mahogany ground color, which is so earnest- 
ly sought for by all breeders, but as yet has been 
the reward of the few. In the male the most important, 
outside of shape and looseness' of feathering is to secure a 
well-striped hackle and saddle, free from what is called 
mossiness in the edge of the feathers, and the quill of 
feather being light, the latter being the result of use of 
English blood to a greater or lesser degree. 

I know of no special mating that will in one season pro- 
duce birds with a standard hackle and saddle, except that 
by breeding from males strong in under-color will assist, 
and all one can do is to mate such birds with the best pro- 
curable characteristics in these sections following a good 
deal in-breeding until you have this point thoroughly fixed 
in your strain, then attempt another section of the bird, 
unless you are fortunate enough to possess one good in all 
points, though of course it is much more expedient to accom- 
plish the perfection of two or more sections at the same time 
if possible. 

When we turn to the female though is where the per- 
sistence and resources of the breeder are taxed to their 
utmost. To produce every feather on the body as distinctly 
penciled as if it had been done by an artist, in fact, often 
say that an artist could not do such work, is an undertak- 
ing that not every one is capable of accomplishing. , 

A few years ago most judges would pass a hen with 
peppered fluff sound or cut one-half, whilst now she would 
lose two points because in this section alone has there been 

such wonderful improvement. I saw last winter a female 
where one could almost truthfully say every feather on her 
body was perfectly penciled, and to a Partridge breeder she 
was Worth a considerable sum. 

Your male should be from what they call a pullet breed- 
ing strain (would that though the single mating was all 
that was required to produce any variety), 1. e., a bird whose 
breast, body and fluff are penciled, with black, and not a 
solid black as for cockerels. Added to this with a light 
under-color, and do not object to a little white or grey in 
wings, as you will easily notice the improvement in your 

To a male of this type should be mated a female as dis- 
tinctly penciled in all parts, as you have, of a mahogany 
red shade, her under-color being light 

To one who has bred Partridge Cochins, no more beau- 
tiful bird exists, and no doubt after they become perfected 
more in color, especially among females, they will be bred 
considerably in excess of the present time. There is no 
doubt this deters many from taking up those beautiful birds, 
the same as with Dark Brahmas. 

I have said nothing as to shape and size, as rules for 
other colors will answer the Partridge, only the majority 
of strains are a little too much inclined to a great length 
of leg in both sexes. This can be remedied a good deal by 
breeding later in the season, as a majority of birds so bred 
are shorter legged than those hatched earlier; possibly also 
they are being inbred more than they should be, which ex- 
plains their smallness and tightness of feather in compari- 
son with the Buffs. A. W. BELL. 


The Combination of Form, Feather and Color Necessary to the True Cochin— How to Obtain These 

by the Single Mating System— Value of Inbreeding, Wholesome 

Food and Proper Care. 

By George W. Mitchell. 

DN the production of high class Partridge Cochins it has 
been my constant desire to have not only the best 
quality of this variety, but to equal the Cochin quali- 
ties of any variety of the breed. To handle them in a 
manner to gain such quality has been an extremely difficult 
task, demanding the closest attention as well as continuous 
thought for the future. In the production of all the qualities 
required to have them fill the demands of the Standard it 
is absolutely necessary to line breed, even to the verge of 
dangerous in-breeding. To continue in this line of work and 
maintain all the Cochin qualities has been a problem that 
has given occasion for thought. 

The best way to convey to those who are interested such 
information as will be valuable is by telling how it "is possi- 
ble to maintain size, shape and feather when line-breeding 
for color. First, the size can be maintained only by the se- 
lection of the largest and most vigorous females, those that 
show good constitutions and bone force, with thick heavy 
shanks and thighs. Cochins must have strength in these 
sections to enable them to carry the weight that comes with 
increased size. The thighs must be long to carry the full 
feathering of the present type and must be so located, or set 
on the body, as to spread well apart so the body may be 
wide and full and at the same time let the body down be- 
tween the shanks that we may gain a broad* appearance both 
fore and aft. Such hens can be depended upon to produce 
good size and vigor at all times, even if bred in line for 

Another thing that must be done is the forcing of the 
ohick from start to finish with good, strong and wholesome 
food that contains a large per cent of bone and feather form- 
ing properties. Much more depends on proper care and feed- 
ing than is generally understood. A Cochin that is allowed 
to falter in its growth at any stage of its development will 
never make a large, vigorous bird. Poor or irregular feed- 
ing, over-crowding, damp or cold coops, all have quite as 
much to do with loss of vigor, size and luster of feather as 
has the method of mating. The chicks must be regularly 
fed and properly looked after all the time or they will not 
become high quality fowls, even if the eggs they came from 
were from the finest of hens. 


To gain the best Cochin shape and feather we must have 
the right tendencies in our breeding stock. The progress 
that has been made in this line has come from the use of the 
heaviest feathered females to be obtained. The use of males 
that have long and heavy vulture hocks stamps this evil 
quality so strongly in the blood that it gives continuous 
trouble for years. Select the heaviest feathered females you 
can find, and the heaviest feathered males without the stiff 
hocks and breed these qualities into your young stock grad- 
ually rather than to have the bulk of them discarded for 
vulture hocks. 

Of all things, do not tolerate a specimen that lacks 
Cochin shape. In selecting for this do not make the mistake 
of having them so short in body that they look dumpy or 

deformed, nor so low in front nor so high behind that they 
have the appearance of falling forward. The most desirable 
Cochin shape is the rounded, full form in all sections, as 
large and full as possible, and as long as can be had without 
losing the well-rounded form that is the beauty of the 

If these rules of maintaining shape, size and feather are 
followed, you may feel assured of reasonable success and 
improvement in the stock from year to year. 

Color and markings give this variety a grace and beauty 
of feather that seldom are excelled. The combination of the 
black and red of the male, and the mahogany red with 
brown or black in the female, gives us a pair of birds beau- 
tiful beyond the power of the pen to describe. When the 
feathers show the smooth, glossy, velvety sheen that indi- 
cates good health and breeding, you have a sure evidence 
of vigor, without which you cannot gain the best condition 
of color and feather. 


For many years I have practiced line breeding and the 
good qualities so much desired have been infused into the 
blood by the mating together of the specimens 'having in 
the highest degree the qualities most desirable for the show 
pen. Always having in mind the methods set forth above 
for the control of shape, size, vigor and feather, it has been 
possible to mate together the finest specimens produced, 
even to using in the same pen full brother and sister. If 
asked if I would advise such close breeding, I must answer, 
"Yes, but — ." The "but" is added only to remind the ama- 
teur that the greatest care must be exercised along the lines 
set forth, and then success is the reward. 

Should one not desire to give the time and thought nec- 
essary to produce the results mentioned he can hold to the 
male line and breed these males to two or three separate 
female lines that can be kept separate by knowing the pul- 
lets from each hen, and hold these over to be mated with the 
cockerels of the year, or with cocks that are a very little 
removed from full brother and sister. In this way color can 
be improved from year to year, providing you make use of 
the true Standard colors in your matings. Our Standard 
calls for the same color and striping of the hackles of both 
males and females. 

Real beauty demands that the Standard be obeyed in 
your matings or the result will be inferior hackles in the 
females at least. Nature gives the proper hackle to the male 
more readily than to the female, and to keep the proper 
shade and markings in the hackle of the females we must 
see to it that the hackles of the breeders are as we would 
have them in the young stock. 

The mahogany red of the female helps to keep the bril- 
liancy of the top color of the males and the dark penciling 
helps to add richness and gloss to the black of breast and 
body color of the males. The proper use of the Standard 
colors in your matings will aid in establishing a line of birds 
that will produce winners in both sexes from the matings 






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as mentioned, while the manipulations necessary to the dou- 
ble mating system tend to force your blood lines so far apart 
that the introduction of one into the other injures both color 
and markings. 

The only way to hold in check the white that is so likely 
to make its appearance ir the wings .:nd about the? roots of 
the tail feather? c-f the male, is to have a good, rich black 
in breast, body and wings and with these good, strong under*; 
color is necessary. These are the only safeguards against . 
the white or gray, that naturally belongs to all fowls whose 

plumage shows the black-red shades. The same fault, if 
fault it must be called, was found in the early-day males, 
the Earl Derby Games, our present-day Black Red Games, 
Brown Leghorns and others with similar colors. The pres- 
ence of white or gray has a very undesirable influence upon 
the richness of the surface color. For all these reasons it is 
quite difficult to hold the shades and markings of Partridge 
Cochins together with perfect Cochin type, but it can be ac- 
complished if the proper care and attention are given along 
the lines as I have suggested. GEO. W. MITCHELL. 


An Instructive, Convincing Article by a Fancier and Judge Who Has Bred Them Continuously 

During Twenty-two Years. 

By C. H. Rhodes. 

FTER a fancier has made the breeding of a 
certain variety of fowls a specialty for a num- 
ber of years, it i s hard to keep his mind 
free from prejudice toward other varieties. Very 
naturally his special variety of fowls become his fav- 
orites, and he desires to have other breeders recognize the 
true merits of his variety as seen by himself. The true 
fancier, however, will avoid prejudice or favoritism, con- 
ceding to all varieties the true merit they deserve. When- 
ever an article is published from the pen of a contributor 
showing a desire to depreciate any special variety of fowls, 
you can rest assured that the fowls he depreciates are strong 
competitors of public favor. It is to be hoped that the read- 
ers of this article will recognize the desire of the writer to 

A Black Cochin Hen of Grand Shape and Color. Bred by C. H. Rhodes. 

call attention to the excellencies of the Black Cochin, giving 
to all other varieties of fowls most respectful consideration. 
It is not the purpose of this article to go into details 
regarding the origin, history or advent of the Black Cochins 
in this country. Many articles as to the history of these 
fowls have been published heretofore. The purpose of this 
article will have been accomplished if it produces in the 
mind of the reader a recognition of the sterling qualities 
possessed by the Black Cochins, and assists in placing them 
in the front rank with other varieties. 

The breeders of these fowls thoroughly understand and 
appreciate them for their economic worth. As compared 
with the other Asiatics they stand second to none 
as egg producers. Their eggs are large and uniform. 
The hens are not prone to sit very early in the 
season, but when they raise a brood of chicks, 
they make thebest of mothers. The better strains 
of these fowls under careful handling' breed 
very uniform as to size, color and shape. The 
epicure will find in the Black Cochin a fowl 
that for table use will fill all requirements. The 
tissue of the fowl is tender and easily prepared 
for use. Unlike many varieties of black fowls, 
the skin dresses yellow and is free from any 
bluish tinge, which is so objectionable in many 
of the markets of the east. 

The Black Cochins are very hardy fowls. 
They stand exposure and fatigue, changes of 
climate and temperature with impunity. As a 
class they are exceptionally free from predis- 
position to disease. During unfavorable sea- 
sons of the year, when other flocks are infected 
with disease, they are immune. The typical 
fowl has a beautiful greenish black metallic 
luster. A flock of these well-bred fowls is most 
pleasing to the eye, and would please and en- 
thuse any admirer of fine poultry. 


My attention was first called to Black 
Cochins in 1872. A Wisconsin friend was at 
that time giving his especial attention to these 
fowls. The early breeders were more success- 
ful in securing the requisite color than in ob- 



taining the Cochin shape. In early days these fowls were 
tall and leggy, and close feathered, both in the males and 
females. By shape they would hardly have been recognized 
as belonging to the Cochin family as described by the pres- 
ent American Standard. In the early days they were known 
as almost non-sitters. 

Four years later, at the National Poultry Show at Chi- 
cago, the Blacks on exhibition was one of the strong classes. 
During this short space of time they had made considerable 
improvement in shape, but the color had somewhat depre- 

In 1879 we owned our first Black Cochins. They were 
somewhat undersized and coarse in their general make up, 
though they filled the requirements of this variety at that 
time. I took up the breeding of Black Cochins with the 
fixed determination to secure if possible birds of larger size, 
of Cochin shape, with more profuse feathering, and at the 
same time retaining their economic qualities as to jgg pro- 
duction and early maturity. How well I have followed this 
determination is best shown by the fact that I have contin- 
uously and without interruption bred this variety twenty- 
two years and produced fowls that have received the high- 
est recognition at the local and national exhibitions of our 

Starting with the Williams strain, for two years we in- 
bred the fowls, selecting the fullest feathered for the pur- 
pose, using sire on daughter and granddaughter. This 
resulted in an increased size and an improvement in sfcape. 
Later we purchased what was then known as the Stone 
stock. The male line was not satisfactory. We selected 
two pullets that were extra heavily feathered on legs and 
toes and mated them with 'the old cock. From this mating 
the results were very satisfactory. The cockerels combined 
the good qualities of the sire, increasing the leg feathering 
and fluffiness so desirable in the Cochins. The best cockerel 
was bred to his dam, and from this mating a line of sires 
was established that has remained unbroken to the present 

It seemed to be a natural tendency of the Blacks to be 
more closely feathered than the other Cochins. To obviate 
this, I concluded to try the cold weather theory of fluffing. 
I had a brood hen come off in August with six youngsters. 
These chickens were given the closest attention, sheltered 
from the inclement weather and kept growing from the 
shell to maturity. In November they were black balls of 
fluffy down. From this lot four were selected for exhibitior- 
purposes. That they were excellent Cochins is evidenced 
by the fact that they won sweepstakes prizes at two of the 
largest shows in the west, i. e., Chicago and Indianapolis. 

A number of importations of Blacks have been made 
since 1885. This blood must be used very sparingly to avoid 

A Typical Black Cochin Cock. Bred by C. H. Rhodes. 

a stiff, harsh hock. On several occasions I have experimented 
somewhat with the English variety of Black Cochins, but 
have achieved my greatest success in confining the matings 
to the stock of my own production. 

The increasing volume of my correspondence and the 
statement received from many fanciers, show conclusively 
that the Black Cochins are growing in popularity each 
year. From the present handsome and symmetrical Black 
Cochin, one would hardly recognize any resemblance to the 
tall and leggy variety of birds of twenty years ago. The 
development of this fowl to its present state of perfection 
illustrates* what may be accomplished by careful matings 
and persistent effort to perfect a given variety of fowls. In 
the history of Black Cochins, there never has been a time 
when the variety has been given any great boom in the 
fanciers' world. They have grown steadily in public favor 
without the boom and reaction which is the fate of so many 
other varieties. With their intrinsic merits and from their 
past history, one has a right to believe they will continue to 
grow in popularity as their excellence becomes better 
known. C. H. RHODES. 


A Useful Variety for Exhibition and Practical Purposes— The Standard Demands for Form and 

Feather— A Bird Worthy of the Breeder's Skill. 

By Edward Wtatt. 


T IS with the utmost pleasure that I herewith present 
an article upon the justly entitled 1 "Royal- White 
Cochin." They are royal first, because of the admira- 
tion our late sovereign, Queen Victoria, had for them 
when she imported them direct from China into Eng- 
land, and second, because of their great excellence of merit, 
marvelous combination of form and color of the purest 
white. They seemingly possess all that can be expected of 
any fowl. 

In this short article I will try and give, with the hope 
of aiding the tyro, the Standard demands of shape and color 
and the system of mating for best results. Many to-day find 
themselves shipwrecked upon a sea of wrong mating. To 
successfully raise the White Cochin for exhibition, one must 
necessarily be a fancier — a lover of his fowls. He must be 
an artist in his line, with an eye for the beautiful, for no 
breed is more beautiful if bred in their pureness of white, 
with an abundance of feathering to give it the shape of a 
large ball of snowy white. To breed them to almost perfec- 
tion, the fancier must be an enthusiast, a specialist devoted 
to this one breed — this one variety. 

If a person possesses not the taste to become a fancier, 
or is indifferent as to the proper care of his flock, he had not 
better undertake to raise this illustrious fowl, or he will be 
doomed to disappointment. Such arrangements on the part 
of the indifferent have hatched out many disasters and been 
the chief cause of repressing the great merit of the whole 
Cochin family, constraining themselves and many others to 
believe that, this variety is of little use except for exhibition 

Second Prize White Cochin Pullet, at New York, 1904 
Bred by Edward Wyatt. 

purposes. But, my dear readers, learn from me this truth— 
the whole Cochin family have stood the storm of criticism 
from jealous breeders for many years, and have come out 
of the controversy as one of the best all-round breeds in 
use to-day. They stand upon their own merits and are rap- 
idly becoming the favorites in every clime, country and 
state. True the Buffs are the most popular, but they do not 
excel the whites on any point save as a matter of taste on 
the part of the fancier. The writer frankly admits that the 
White Cochin is his first love and the fowl he most ardently 
admires, and he has been breeding them for ten years. 

The typical White Cochin is a majestic fowl, a beauty 
in itself, and stands upon the canvas of the past distinct and 
vivid as the king— an exhibition fowl par excellence. Its 
lovers and breeders, though not so many as those of the Buff 
and Partridge, are on the Increase and will be as long as 
the love of raising poultry warms the "heart of man. The 
White Cochin is also one of the practical every day workers 
and money makers in Canadian and American yards to-day, 
provided, however, they have the proper care and food. 

The up-to-date White Cochin, similar to its sister varie- 
ties, is a massive, profusely feathered fowl, the more heav- 
ily feathered the better; broad, blacky, globular in every 
outline. This presents a most grand and imposing form. 
Under the present Standard, the most grandly formed, the 
purest white, the fullest plumaged birds win the honors. 
To obtain the plumage one must breed for it. It can be had 
only by selecting each season for mating those showing pro- 
fuse side fluff, massive front and rear hock and foot plumage 
and great length of underfluff. This will gradually approxi- 
mate that broad cushion or saddle, which properly should 
be as broad as or broader than the widest point of the fowl. 
This and the desired full breast are only seen at our best 
shows and are hard to obtain. The full plumage will give 
the required almost horizontal tail. The profusely feathered 
Cochin does not carry any more weight in feather than does 
a Light Brahma of like class. The feathers are longer and 
fluffier — that's all. 

The Standard color is a pure white — something beautiful 
indeed. Too much stress should not be laid upon color. In 
my opinion shape comes first. The neares.t and best illustra- 
tion of a pure white is the newly driven snow as it descends 
from heaven. On the male bird the wavy, metallic lustre of 
the neck, wing and saddle is almost identical; While on the 
female, of course, it lacks life and gloss. The White Cochin 
is the easiest of all the Cochin varieties to breed as regards 
color, for in them there are no discordant colors as in the 
others. As for shape, they are all on a level, the shape of 
one variety being that aimed at in the others. 

To breed White Cochins is work for an artist and a 
great repast for thought and study. They represent the 
world's greatest artistic work in serenely combining form 
and color, and as a result for exhibition qualities as a fowl, 
they reign supreme. So mucb for the White Cochin, and. 
long may they reign. EDWARD WYATT. 


A Judge and Fancier of Thirty-three Years' Experience in Breeding Cochins Says a Few 

Words in Favor of the Whites. 

By J. D. Nevius. 

(From the Reliable Poultry Journal.) 

THIS variety of the Cochin family should differ only 
in color from that of the Buff, which is and has been 
for years considered the most perfect in shape, size 
and feathering of all the varieties. This can, I 
think, he easily accounted for from the fact that the Buffs 
have had far more admirers, consequently have had much 
more attention paid to their improvement, and being bred in 
much larger numbers, better specimens have been produced 
from which to select breeders. After thirty-three years' 
experience as a breeder of Cochins, most of this time breed- 
ing the four varieties — Buff, Partridge, White and Black— 
I have found the Whites in all respects the equal of either 
of the other more popular varieties — Buffs and Partridges. 
In hardiness, either as fowls or chicks, they will stand con- 
finement as well (but like all white birds, -if not kept on 
grass runs, appear to a disadvantage in point of condition), 
are good sitters and splendid mothers, and are better layers 
and their eggs are much larger than those of either of the 
other varieties. The beauty of a well bred flock of White 
Cochins on a green lawn I do not think can tie excelled by 
that of any other variety of all chickendom. Prom the de- 
mand for eggs and fowls for the past three years I am con- 
vinced that they are rapidly growing in favor, as they cer- 
tainly deserve. We have been unable to supply the demand 
for either fowls or eggs the past two years. With White 

Cochins, like all varieties of white fowls that the Standard 
demands shall have yellow legs and bay eyes, it has been 
difficult to breed stay-white males. I mean by this males 
that when exposed to the sun for a season will be free from 
any tendency to straw color. Such a cock, if first-class in 
size, shape and feathering, is almost priceless as a breeder. 
We lost a bird of 'this kind this year (a winner of many 
first prizes) that we had used as a breeder for five years, and 
was strong, active and vigorous up to within a short time 
of his death. We never bred a Cochin that was more vigor- 
ous at his age. 

The White Cochin, like all the other varieties, should 
be a massive bird with broad, deep, well-rounded body and 
breast, small head for size of bird, comb small, with five 
serrations, eyes bay, neck short and full, the male's hackle 
cushion full and well rounded, that of the female almost 
extending well over the shoulders, back short and broad, 
hiding the entire tail, which should be so carried that the 
highest point does not appear above the highest point of 
cushion, breast deep, full and well rounded, and carried mod- 
erately low, legs yellow, short and abundantly feathered to 
end of middle toe. We believe that in a few years the 
White Cochin will in all respects be the equal of the best 
of any other variety of Cochins. 



Standard-bred White Cochins— By Sewell. 

novDlCHT '• -; '■ - .- "O^. 






A Product of the Langshan Hills of China— Its Admission to the American Standard and Subsequent 

Development — Pen Pictures of Ideal Male and Female— The Defects Found and Cuts 

Scored by the Judge— A Tried and Proven System of 

Mating for Best Results. 

By I. K. Felch. 

THE first importation of them to America was made 
in 1876, by E. A. Samuels, the ornithologist of Wal- 
tham, Mass., from the Langshan Hills of China. 
About four years before this (February, 1872) they 
were imported by Major Croad of Sussex, England, from the 
same quarter. Those of us Who were active in poultry cul- 
ture at that time remember the bitter antagonism exhibited 
toward them by those breeders then trying to make the Black 
Cochin popular; they terming these new importations as 
crude and indifferently-bred Cochins, but they reckoned 
badly, for they lived to see these black additions to our list 
prove beyond dispute a difference in type and exhibit more 
decided and brilliant color, which secured for them the ap- 
pellation of "The black diamonds" in poultry culture. The 
clandestine use of them as crosses with the Cochins, both 
in England and America, in the hope of improving the color 
of their plumage, brought to the breeder thus working, the 
chagrin of seeing the Cochin character and color of shanks 
and feet absorbed by the Langshan instead, and in the end 
forcing him to acknowledge their superior strength of blood 
and breeding; the Langshan establishing itself as a thor- 
oughbred of decided type and color and maintaining its de- 
cided merit as producers of eggs, taking rank as the best 
layers among the Asiatics. 

They have many admirers and those not prejudiced 
against the color of the skin of poultry (it being white 
skinned), find no fault with its merit as a meat supply. 

The Langshan Hills of northern China is the original 
home of this breed, as it was from there that the first speci- 
mens, sent both to America and England, were imported. 
It matters not how fully one may write of its advent, its 
history in America is what interests the readers of to-day. 
During the seven years from its advent to 1883, when at 
Worcester it secured admission to the American Standard, 
its path was a thorny one for any breed — no breed probably 
ever had such opposition and probably none ever had a 
greater triumph in its acceptance. A petition of nearly a 
thousand names accomplished its admission. 

It is now nineteen years since they were acknowledged 
as thoroughbreds by the American breeders and accepted by 
the A. P. A. at Worcester, Massachusetts. 

It was my privilege to write out a standard for them as 
a disinterested party. Those being on exhibition (a full row 

across the hall) comprised birds of all ages, imported and 
American bred; no finer lot has ever graced an exhibition 
since. After having made a standard for them, which was 
accepted at that meeting, it was my lot to repair to the hall , 
to judge and score the exhibits; thus was I the first judge 
to score and award the prizes to the first exhibit of Lang- 
shans under A. P. A. law. At that time arbitrary demands 
for disqualifications were necessary to secure their admis- 
sion, in order to make them as distinct from the Black 
Cochin as possible. For all that, t>y the simple change of 
the disqualifying clauses of that date for those of to-day, 
we claim that the weights and other demands of their stan- 
dard, if they had been allowed to stand intact, and the 
breeder forced to live up to and breed to them, would have 
given us to-day in America a larger and handsomer breed 
than we now have. 

The color appearing in neck, saddle, tail coverts and 
sickles, wing coverts and lower web of secondaries is a 
changeable one off dark green to black. Looking at the 
plumage at right angles it is a coal black, while at an angle 
of forty-five degrees it is a rich, sheeny green — might be 
said to be a calendered green — over black. The breasts, 
thighs, primaries, fluff and tail proper are a solid black in 
first-class specimens. In these sections we have little if any 
of the green sheen spoken of above, for the reason that they 
are protected from the direct rays of the sun, being almost 
constantly in the shadow of the body. A dark slate color 
for under fluff will be found in the best colored specimens, 
this with black under color being the only ones that should 
be passed uncut by the judge in adjudicating for prices. 

I have no desire to alter or amend that which I sug- 
gested to the Langshan Club in 1891, which is herewith sub- 
mitted, neither have I any desire to change my criticisms of 
the illustrations then in vogue and of the character of foot 
plumage. Excessive shank and foot plumage changes the 
appearance and pure Langshan shape into a similarity to 
Cochin shape. This, as is well known, disgusts every first- 
class breeder of Langshans. But to return to color in this 
estimable breed. How many do we see of a rusty shade of 
black, with no lustre or green sheen, and is it not the truth 
that these birds are most leniently considered by the judges. 
There is another defect that is objectionable. Some speci- 
mens are actually barred with bronze bars, or a color akin 



to claret shaded with bronze. We had rather see this than 
a dirty, rusty black, for this evil creeps into the nice col- 
ored specimens and seems to grow out of excessive lustre or 
metallic shading; yet it should be watched and such males 
chosen as the mates for females that seem to lack in lustre. 
The fact that pullets dull in shading show a marked im- 
provement in the plumage of their progeny by such males 
leads us to make the assertion that the evil grows out of 
excessively high color, for dull black specimens are never 
thus marked. These males and females having the pure 
black with green reflection free from the barring alluded to 
should be able to prove that "like begets like" to a greater 
degree than in any other breed extant. Such should liter- 
ally reproduce themselves — and being in health and fur- 
nished with a generous supply of grain, meat and vegetable 
food, with shade that they can retire to at will, they will 
do all this. A dull, sooty black Langshan, no matter what 
its type, is a cull, and no judge is doing justice to the best 
specimens who in judging gives a Langshan the benefit of 
a doubt in color. This should be the rule with any solid 
colored bird, if we would secure a just color discrimination 
between breeds. . 

The neck of a Langshan is longer and slimmer than the 
Brahma or Cochin, therefore is less arched. The term well 
arched is not a good one— it being rather longer than 
medium. We should say more than medium length, slightly 
yet neatly curved, with hackle long and flowing. Breast 
while full, has a long oval sweep from throat to thighs, 
which while equally full, shows less prominence than in the 
Brahma. This is due to the longer neck and long tail plum- 
age, which accompanies it. The back is exceedingly short 
and flat, and therefore looks very wide when hackle is lifted, 
the saddle being more of an inclined plane than a concave 
sweep. The first description ever given, we think the best; 
"gently rising from the back to high upon the tail, while 
the tail is carried in an upright position, but short of being 
a squirrel tail." This high carriage is necessary to secure 
the fountain tail, so called, the long sickles, lesser sickles 
and side hangers gracefully falling in long trails over and 
about the tail proper, almost completely hiding the same in 
the males. (See dotted lines to rear of male and female.) 
Instead of saying the sickles extending beyond the tail 
proper six inches, the term falling in trails six inches long 
at the rear of the tail proper would express it literally. The 
wing like that of the Brahma is larger than that of the 
Cochin. Artists make a mistake when they portray them 
with small wings, for they lift themselves in the air very 
readily when frightened. The side hangers on lower part 
of tail take a half turn as they lop about the rear of the 
tail and viewed from the rear show flat to the gaze of the 

Now, the females of this type should all show this char- 
acteristic, and those that do are the dams of our winning 
males. They show at the surface only about four at the 
most of the upper stiff tail feathers which give a slightly 
thicker set appearance to body, and in fact a larger look 
to body proper. It is for the club to vote what the correct 
type for the breed shall be; that the type that I uphold here 
is the original one not a breeder who has followed the breed 
since 1883 can deny. 

Whatever cut the club adopts it must be a natural one; 
if not upheld by nature, then its use as a rule of form and 
shape will subject nature to a cut for being perfect. The 
Langshan breast was never seen so prominent as to reach 
within one inch of a drop line from beak to ground at its 
most prominent point, just above the point of keel bone. 
Its breast seems farther to the rear because of its longer, 
slimmer, le3s arched neck than any other Asiatic. We are 

aware that all pictures are not exact measurements in pro- 
portion with the original. We have to portray them as they 
look on flat surface; could we em<boss the picture, we could 
adhere to exact proportions, but on a flat surface a pure pro- 
file presents the fowl in the nearest proportion and measure- 
ment. To get fullness and width of breast, we cannot, how- 
ever, take more license than to even the curve of breast up 
to this drop line; If we do we are forced to add fictitious 
length and depth to fluff and rear of tail, to balance the 
picture which is thrown all outside of nature's lines. We 
have taken this license in our cut, but know, as herein 
stated, a live Langshan never yet snowed a breast in normal 
shape that protruded to meet this line described. But no 
breeder can deny that we find these types in nature and that 
they are desirable. It is folly to tinker with nature's best. 
We can only entice nature to be prolific with her best; this 
we do and secure in greater degree by furnishing all the 
year round, so far as we can artificially, the foods and condi- 
tions of nature's breeding and most prolific months, which 
are April and May for the Middle and New England states. 
It is absolutely necessary for a club to agree upon a fixed 
type and standard description for color, and to revise the 
weights to, cocks ten pounds, cockerels eight and one-half 
pounds, hens eight pounds, pullets six and one-half pounds. 
Then declare the standard final and unalterable. 

They should return to the original description of shank 
and foot feathering, to-wit: Shank and outer toe well feath- 
ered, to a degree that the outer toe be covered from sight. 
The disqualifications should be: Shanks not feathered down 
outside, outer toe neither feathered to the end nor well cov- 
ered by the shank plumage. 

It is the height of folly to declare a first-class specimen 
a cull by disqualifying it because no feather grows on the 
toe itself when the toe is completely covered by a profusion 
of the shank plumage, for the effect and looks are the same 
as when the shank plumage is extended by the feathers 
growing to the tip of the toe. 

The breeder should watch out for medium sized, evenly 
serrated combs, green sheen to plumage, full fountain tail, 
well feathered shanks and feet, close profiled hocks that 
give the specimen an "up and up," smart appearance as the 
English express It, all excellence being backed by the fitness 
of things. 

We class it as one of the most productive layers of the 
Asiatic class, its prolific egg production in winter and color 
of shell being in conformity with the other Asiatics, but 
the shells are the darkest shade of all. Aside from this it 
presents an independent character: Long in its joints, long 
in comb, neck, wings, tail, thighs and shanks, thus giving it 
a character all its own, while its green sheen over black pre- 
cludes the thought of any other breed in the beholder. But 
as to texture and close adhesion of its plumage, it is akin 
to the whalebone texture of the original Brahmas. Not- 
withstanding many of the oppositions to its white skin, its 
friends and breeders are multiplying in the west and south- 
west, and why should they not? It came to us a thorough- 
bred, it has passed through no transition, has reproduced 
itself ever since, and our care of it has only enabled us to 
produce a large per cent to scores above ninety-two points. 

Nature's best in 1883 were and are the equal of the best 
in 1903, and though we saw them once almost rejected, we 
now see them one of the principal Asiatics to-day; as a 
purely utility breed, the equal of the best in its class, while 
as a fad and exhibition variety we have seen them popular, 
so shall we again see their classes large in our large exhibi- 
tions. Their merit has placed them with us to stay in our 
American lists of thoroughbred fowls. It is a fact that no 
breed stands long in public favor as a fad of fashion that 



faila in true productive merit; so true is this, that when a 
breed holds such a position it is prima facie evidence of 
merit and utility. 

Oddities have never stood popular long with the so-called 
fancy breeders. They are seldom sought for by the practi- 
cal poultry keeper and as the prejudice against the color of 
skin and fat in this breed gives way see them gain favor 
daily with the poulterer; New England being the only sec- 
tion so strongly prejudiced in favor of golden colored car- 
cass when dressed. This is the only objection which pre- 
vents the breed being a universal favorite, even in New 

The early and prominent breeders of Langshans adhere 
to the original type. Their early acceptance protected them 
from breeders' hobbies and individual claims for strains. 
There were only claims of excellence for families or the get 
of particularly meritorious sires. Charcoal, Paragon, Bar- 
cem C, Prince Cyclops, Thunder, Cyclone are among those 
of American reputation during 
all these years. To-day do we 
see the best types, and they are 
the types admired in 1883. 

The breeder no longer ignores 
egg production in a breed; none 
but the very best, in an exhibi- 
tion sense, now sell at the price 
of beauty. In a breed beauty is 
quality to be sure, and the very 
few having this exhibition excel- 
lence sell at extravagant prices, 
but the rank and file are the bone 
and sinew of poultry culture and 
herein comes the question of egg 
production; these produce the 
dividends that make all stock 
profitable. None can deny that 
the Langshan is one of the best 
and most prolific layers among 
the Asiatics. 

To produce a layer we have to 
produce a brother to her and 
herein comes the question of 
poultry meat. The poultry ques- 
tion in any breed is an item to 
be looked after, for as a rule we 
look for the money to be received 
from marketing of the males up 
to six months of age, to pay for 
the raising of the entire flock. This they will do, leaving the 
females as they commence to lay free of the cost of feeding, 
when they commence the dividends in poultry culture, which 
we may safely reckon in October as a dollar and twenty-five 
cents and the value of the hen as in the market added. In 
this breed the males will pay better in proportion as capons, 
as in appearance when dressed they resemble a small turkey 
more than does any other breed, therefore sell better as 

Our novice and beginner demands a pen picture of all 
the breeds. How essential then that all such, in the absence 
of specific standards, be truthful descriptions of nature's 
excellence, and that all illustrations be found within the 
lines of nature. The artist has no right to go beyond nature, 
even if by so doing he gives the same impression. Measure- 
ment should have weight as well. See our illustrations. 

Thus should our pen pictures and illustrations become 
true and instructive standards for the novice, and rules of 
action in adjudicating prizes in our exhibitions. We do not 
think, should we be followed, that the specimens will score 
any the less by the A. P. A. law, but nope they will when 

meeting our demands, be far more appreciated by, and bring 
a better price in the thoroughbred market. In our present 
standard the language is too meager and the dividing of the 
subject of color and shape not appreciated by the novice or 
beginner. We have outgrown the belief that standards are 
for the sole use of the judges in our exhibitions; they are 
and should be the text book for the beginner in poultry cul- 
ture. It is for such we are endeavoring to write this essay. 

We are therefore opposed to that heresy which demands 
that standards shall be formed and illustrations made other- 
wise than true likenesses of nature's best. We hear the ex- 
pressions used often, "We want the standard better than we 
have seen, for the breeder to breed up to"; what nonsense. 
The Almighty as a rule gives us in the best efforts of nature 
the best merit and productive power; what folly to distort 
this handiwork of the Creator. 

When we describe each section according to the best 
nature has produced, doing this in all sections, we have per- 

A Pair of Black I^angshans, Illustrating the Shape of Different Sections Advocated by I. K. Felch. 

fection as a whole. It is true nature produces individual 
sections perfect, but perfection as a whole is impossible, 
for it is written, "None are perfect, not one." 

The chance to produce a specimen to score one hundred 
points is' just one in a million, eight hundred and twenty- 
eight thousand, eight hundred. Then why augment this 
difficulty by making standards foreign to nature in the 

Now to our task of presenting a pen picture that may 
well be adopted as a standard for Black Langshans: 


Their weight and condition: To our mind a cock should 
not weigh less than ten pounds, cockerel eight and one-half 
pounds, hen eight pounds, and pullets six and one-half. 
Any less weight is to give undue advantage to small under- 
size specimens, when judging by scale of points. The cut- 
ting of two points to the pound for any deficit thereof is a 
just rule to follow. The present American Standard de- 
mands only ten, eight, seven and six pounds weight, but is 
it not folly to list an Asiatic female at less than in some 



breeds in the American classes, which is but to acknowledge 
that the breeders fail in the handling? When pens of twelve 
birds, one male and eleven females, are seen at full one 
hundred pounds weight — thirteen pounds above adult weight 
even, does it not present an argument for an increased stan- 
dard weight for this breed? We have demanded for them 
ten, eight and one-half, eight and six and one-half pounds. 

The preseDt condition of things makes the awards in our 
exhibitions hinge solely on color, because standard weights 

Ideal Black Langshan Male, Illustrated by the Late Artist Lee, under toe 
Direction of I. K. Felch. 

are so low that they are inoperative. It also handicaps all 
other weight controlled breeds competing with them for 
sweepstakes prizes, and this handicap is fully a point in 
favor of the Langshan, giving them at least eight chances 
in ten to win. Condition is simply a resultant which only 
in a general way can be considered under the head of health. 
Uncleanliness or accident from bad conditions is invariably 
disclosed in the sections which are affected by it, so far as 
this sectfon (condition) goes it becomes an intuitive consid- 
eration for the judges, as an additional defect other than 
is punished in the several sections; this double application 
being seldom applied. 


Rather more than medium in size and longer in its reach 
back, as compared with the whole class of single combs, 
evenly serrated into five points so that the center one is 
largest and stands highest. The rear point is counted with 
the flange (the minute points at rear upon the flange are 
not counted, nor are they mentioned, as they are almost 
never illustrated by our artists), the whole fine in texture, 
erect and straight upon the head, smooth at the sides, and 
free from all wrinkles or corrugations. 

Defects. Too large; not setting firmly 
upon the head; corrugated along the 
sides; curved from a straight line from 
front to rear; unevenly serrated. For 
these cut one-half to one and one-half, 
as in degree. Cut one point for each side 
sprig developed. 

If twisted into a letter S shape at back, 
or lopped in a male, the bird should be 
condemned as a breeder and score card 
record withheld. 

Carriage slightly forward and high, be- 
ing medium long in skull and deep in 
face, which is a dark shade of red; eyes 
a dark hazel or approaching black; the 
yellow discoloration being a defect; beak 
fairly well curved to point and of dark 
horn color or black, shading to light slate 
in lower edge or rim; the lower bill of 
the latter color. 

Barlobes well developed, hanging low 
with well developed wattles, their lower 
extremities hanging below lower line of 
the earlobes, all this embellishment being 
in color crimson red. 

Defects. Depression in front of eyes; 
want of proper arch to upper mandible; 
pale or yellow eyes. For these cut one- 
half to one and one-half as in degree. 
Diminutive size in earlobes and wattles 
one-half to two points. In the case of 
absence of wattles, crossed beaks or 
enamel in earlobes, withhold a score card 
record or prizes. 

Long; thereby has less apparent junc- 
ture with head; the arch is less pro- 
nounced than in other Asiatics; hackle 
plumage long, covering well shoulder and 
cape; the surface color, reaching well up 
to the web, is a metallic black, which at 
other than a direct angle gives off a 
green sheen; under-'color black or dark 
Defects. Head carried so far forward as to cause a too 
straight appearance of neck and want of breast develop- 
ment; want of sheen to hackle plumage; under-color too 
light, approaching a gray or white; hackle short, falling in 
a full flow over cape. For each, cut one-half to one and one- 
half points, in degree, as they fall short of description. In 
under-color, carry cuts to two points before disqualifying 
for positive white. 


Back proper, short; cape, broad and flat; saddle, rising 
in an inclined plane from in front of hip joints to high upon 
tail coverts; saddle plumage long, merging with tail coverts 



and flowing well down over tips of wing bays; in color, 
shading from an intense black into a green sheen over black 
to the rear. 

Defects. Deep concave saddle; roached back; bronze 
bars in plumage; plumage short and straight in the feather; 
oval capes; dull black failing in the green sheen near tail 
and on wing bays; back long and narrow; under-color gray, 
approaching white. These are to be cut one-half to one 
and one-half points, as in degree. Birds with crooked shell 
bone, slipped hip, white in any part or under-color, are to 
be passed as unworthy specimens and 
score card withheld. 


Fairly broad and deep; the long 
sweep from throat to keel bone detracts 
somewhat from its apparent fullness; 
quarter fairly well developed; color a 
bright almost metallic black; showing 
somewhat of the green sheen in upper 
part near throat; under-color black or 
dark slate. 

Defects. Smutty black plumage; 
wedge shape from insufficient prominence 
of its quarters; too flat in front of wing 
fronts; too light under-color; gray 
streaking the feather and near the quills, 
approaching white. For these cut one- 
half to one and one-half points, extending 
to two points for defective color before 
condemning the specimen. 


Keel bone carried only moderately 
low; sides fairly oval in their lines to 
keel; keel bone straight, with keel muscle 
well developed and firm to touch; plum- 
age close and clinging to body and thighs 
more than in other Asiatics, thus leaving 
lower extremities of thighs and hocks in 
profile below body line; in color, a coal 
black, with dark slate or black in the un- 
dercolor. The fluff proper, but fairly de- 
veloped, being in harmony with a close 
clinging plumage elsewhere; the color 

Defects. Keel so crooked as to af- 
fect the general shape; shrunken keel 
muscle; too light, or light gray under- 
color. For these cut one-half to one 
point each. 

Positive white under-color and yel- 
low skin in any part must deprive them of 
a score card record or prizes in exhibi- 


Close and smoothly folded, with 
fronts reaching well to fore part of breast 
and points well into fluff; rose fairly well 
cupped; in color, black with a rich green sheen in rose, cov- 
erts and bay. 

Defects. Loosely folded; bronze bars across feathers; 
dead or smutty black in color; bluish gray spots in prima- 
ries or secondaries. For these cut one-half to one and one- 
half, as m degree, carrying the cuts for gray spots to two 
points before disqualifying for color. 

For red, white or mixed gold and black in plumage, or 
for primaries folded outside of secondaries, condemn and 
withhold score card record. 


Fountain shape (a technical term in this connection), 
it being large, carried prominently upright with the sickles; 
lesser sickles and large coverts exceedingly long and ribbon 
like; tail proper length, closely combed, spread laterally 
at a little less angle than the capital letter A. Coverts, 
termed side hangers by some English breeders, profuse and 
long; they with sickles completely enveloping the tail and 
hanging three to Keven inches at the rear of tail proper. 
Upper tail furnishings all flowing; plumage being a rich 

Ideal Black Langshan Female. Illustrated by the Late Artist Lee, under the 
Direction of I. K. Felch. 

green sheen over black; tail proper coal black; under-color 
of coverts black or slate; the highest point of tail being on 
the level with the eye, or crown of head. 

Defects. Carriage, squirrel or drooping to the other 
extreme; short and Cochin-like in character; tail proper 
carried wide like the Brahma; side hangers failing to cover 
tail proper; bronze bars across the feathers; want of green 
sheen : gray or slate tips to tail proper. Cut one-half to one 
and one-half points for these as in degree developed; with 
even two points for small Cochin character or bluish gray 



tips in tail proper; cutting one-half to two and one-half 
for carriage between upright and full squirrel position of 

Positive white beyond that allowed in all black plum- 
age, to condemn a score card record. 


Lower thighs and shanks long, but not crane-like; the 
former clothed in coal black clinging plumage curved close 
about the hock, having the line in perfect profile below the 
lower body line. Shanks well feathered down the outside, 
upon and covering the feet to the web and covering full 
length of outer toes; the present demand being for plumage 
to grow upon outer toe to the tip joint. Scales, and skin 
a blue black, showing pink shadings or violet between scales 
and in web of feet. Toes medium in length, straight and 
well spread. Bottoms of feet flesh color or having a pink 
shade to same. 

Defects. Insufficient shank and foot plumage; knees 
turned in at hock; shanks faded to a willow color, or very 
short in bone. For these cut one-half to one and one-half 

Yellow bottoms to feet; outer toe not feathered to tip 
joint, if not completely covered by shank plumage; positive 
knock knees. Pass all such as unworthy of prizes or score 
card record. 

Outer toes if feathered beyond the web, balance be com- 
pletely covered by shank plumage, surely should not be cut 
beyond one point and should save the otherwise worthy 
specimen from disqualification. Feathering of middle toe 
is and should be immaterial and of no value in a score card 
record. It is folly to make feathering of middle toe a defect, 
when if nature were to give us all outer toes feathered to 
tip joint, she would feather all of seventy per cent of the 
middle toes. It is folly to punish nature for that which fol- 
lows her fulfillment of our desires. 


The remarks for weight and condition are fully met 
under the description for the male. 


In the female, medium size; fine in texture (but it is a 
fact that nature has furnished them rather large and thin 
at the base, which makes it hard to secure a majority in an 
upright position and straight upon the head). The smaller 
we can secure them, the better, serrated into the regulation 
five points, so graduated as to make the center one the' larg- 
est, all being a rich scarlet color. 

Defects. Too large and thin, twisted or lopped; corru- 
gated along the sides. For these cut one-half to one and 
one- half points. Side sprigs cut one point for each. "We 
do not believe in disqualifying for lopped combs in females 
of this breed. 


Apparently carried more prominently forward than in 
the male. Skull medium in width and long. Face less 
deep, giving less surface of red in proportion than the male. 
Byes large, in color dark brown or hazel. Beak medium in 
length, evenly arched to point, being fairly stout at juncture 
with skull. Color, black or dark horn color, so-called. Ear- 
lobes medium in size and development with wattles clearly 
defined, but rounded close up to lobes, both scarlet red in 

Defects. Narrow in skull; pale or light colored eyes; 
elongated beak, the same too straight; depressed in front of 
eyes; white in earlobes. For these cut one-half to one and 

one-half as in degree. We think, however, that white ap- 
pearing to any extent or beaks crossed, should class the 
specimen as unworthy and withhold the score card. 


Apparently long; the arch being rather a moderate 
curve from head to cape. Plumage not especially full, but 
long in feathers, which cover completely the cape. Surface 
color a hard metallic black, but lustrous in a green sheen 
in lower portion; under-color being black or a very dark 

Defects. Neck short; lack of green sheen; failure of 
plumage to cover cape; under-color too light, approaching 
gray. For these cut one-half to a full point for each. White 
in under-'color should debar the specimen from winning and 
score card should be withheld. 


Back proper, short; cape flat and medium width; the 
plumage flowing from cape to high upon tail; so near 
straight is the concave line as to appear more of an inclined 
plane in outline in our best specimens; the feathers at ex- 
treme rear of saddle, with the tail coverts, curve' downward. 
Color, black at cape, shading into a green sheen or metallic 
lustre toward tail and back of thighs; under-color black, 
shading to slate color. 

Defects. Convexed or marked in a deep concave line 
from cape to tail coverts; plumage short and straight; want 
of the green sheen; bronze bars across feathers; dull black 
throughout; under-color approaching gray. Each of which 
are to be cut one-half to one full point. For crooked shell 
bone slipped hips, under-color reaching positive white, or 
positive white in web of feather deprive specimen of score 
card or prizes. 


Long in its sweep from throat to point of keel; quarter, 
medium full; color a deep black, with under-color black. 

Defects. Dull or sooty black surface color; flat across 
from wing to wing; decided wedge shape from depressed 
quarters; under-color approaching gray. Cut one-half to 
one point for each. White in under-color, when found, 
should condemn specimen as unworthy. 


Keel bone curved low, with full keel muscles; from for- 
ward part of keel to thigh a slight concave line; plumage 
smooth and clinging, leaving hock in profile; fluff but fairly 
developed so as to give a slight oblong appearance to body 
structure; color of all, coal black; under-color black or 
dark slate. 

Defects. Dull sooty black plumage, falling down of 
abdomen; crooked keel bone, so marked as to mar lower line 
of body structure; too light in under-color. For these one- 
half to one and one-half points, is the usual cut. Positive 
White in under-color or. yellow skin in any part of body 
should condemn the specimen as unworthy a score card 


Large in an Asiatic sense; the rose well cupped to give 
apparent roundness to sides; fronts buried in breast plum- 
age quite near the front, with the points well buried between 
saddle hangers and fluff; color, fronts, primaries, upper web 
of secondaries a coal black; rose, coverts and bay a rich 
green over black. 

Defects. Flat in the rose; not folded smoothly; want- 
ing in the green sheen; slaty spots in primaries and secon- 
daries; bronze bars in surface plumage. For these make a 



cut of one-half to even two points before condemning them 
as unworthy. Primaries folded outside of secondaries; 
white, red or mixed yellow and red color in any part of 
plumage; refuse score card record or prizes to such. 


Large; carried upright; tail proper, spread laterally at 
a less angle than the letter A, but combed closely so as to 
admit of lower two-thirds becoming enveloped by the upper 
tail furnishings, as they meet the curly plumage under the 
tail, only the tips of the three or four top feathers appearing 
beyond the coverlets; these with lesser coverts hanging 
curved in symmetrical shape downward: tail proper a coal 
black, furnishings and coverts a green sheen over black. 

Defects. Fan-shaped like a Brahma; coverlets short, 
not reaching beyond lower portion of tail proper; want of 
green sheen on the furnishings and coverlets; bronze bars 
in surface plumage; pointed or drooping carriage, like 
Cochin; dull sooty black in color; slaty gray tips or spots 
in tail proper. For these cut one-half to one and one-half 
points; cutting one-half to two and one-half points for car- 
riage between the proper upright position and full squirrel 
character. Those having white at base of tail or in under- 
color of coverlets, pass as unworthy of score card record. 


Lower thigh and hock well below body line, the former 
closely feathered in coal black plumage that curls close about 
the hock joint, thus preserving hock in profile; the shank 
medium long and feathered down the outside, the feathers 
blending with a foot plumage sufficiently profuse to com- 
pletely cover the outer toe and growing on the same to the 
tip joint; feathering of middle toe immaterial and of no 
value in score card application of the standard; shanks 
straight and parallel, with leaden blue or black scale, with 
pinkish violet or flesh color in soft parts between scales and 
inside of shanks; bottom of feet flesh colored, so-called; 
free from yellow skin in any part. 

Defects. For shanks turned inward at hock at a less 
angle than positive deformity, shanks and outer toe scantily 
feathered, cut one-half to one and one-half points, cutting 
one full point for each crooked toe. Shanks short, with 
hocks not in profile below body line, one^half to a full point; 
for positive knock knees, pronounced deformed feet, or yel- 
low in scale or skin, pass the specimen as unworthy of score 
card record. 


There are characteristics of color that need a more ex- 
tended consideration than is usually given in our standard 
descriptions of the breeds and condensed formulas of shape 
and color supposed to be sufficient for score card judging. 
We have in this essay endeavored to cover all that is neces- 
sary to make the work a fair standard. But there is a ten- 
dency in this breed, as in all breeds of a metallic black 
plumage, to show flights and secondaries and tail proper 
with slaty, sheeny spots, and tips of feathers lacking in the 
intense black of the general plumage. But these spots are 
a long way frDm being white or gray. While these are de- 
fects to deal with, the judges should first place such tips 
upon the white back of his score card, when he will be sur- 
prised to see that they are nearly black. Even the reflection 
of light on a highly sheened plumage will produce a white 
appearance, which is sometimes deceptive. These spots I 
speak of placed upon the metallic black of their own plum- 
age look almost white, but this all disappears when laid 
upon a white surface. 

I am aware of the influence of the grave error we made 
in the first standard when we made white, appearing when 

laid upon a black surface, a disqualification. But that has 
long since been abolished and all disqualifications adminis- 
tered in the spirit of giving the specimen the benefit of the 
doubt. If to disqualify jars upon your sense of justice, you 
surely are not giving the specimen the benefit of your judg- 
ment; but bear in mind that this clause in our standard 
was put there to save almost perfect specimens from dis- 
qualification, not to save poor, unworthy specimens for the 
sake of giving them a score card record. White, red, red 
and yellow, mixed feathers, then must show beyond the 
presence of a single feather. There must be a reasonable 
conviction of taint in blood that would transmit the evil in- 
dicated. The mere fact of one isolated, small, single white 
feather other than in what is called the quill plumage, is not 
sufficient nor just cause to disqualify. To so severely pun- 
ish such minute defects is better justice than to condemn the 

The comb of females of this breed, because of the thin 
skin and fine texture, is seriously affected by the heat of the 
show room; also by the approach of laying. They easily, 
from these causes, lop or fold; thus does this breed suffer 
more than other breeds with single combs. The apprecia- 
tion of their merit as egg producers, the practical work they 
accomplish for us out of the show season, should cause the 
judge to be alert and lenient as possible in applying the gen- 
eral laws governing our exhibitions. To be cut for these 
defects a reasonable amount is all the»females of this breed 
can stand in justice. 


To mate them seems an easy matter, by first discarding 
all hens scoring less than ninety and all pullets scoring less 
than ninety-two and one-half and reserving no male under 
ninety-two points. This any breeder can well afford to do. 
Then divide the birds reserved for breeding into two flocks: 
the one rich in green sheen, the other of metallic black with 
little or no green. 

We are ready to again divide each division into the 
largest and longest in bone structure, and those smallest and 
shortest in the joints, selecting their male mates from the 
opposite of these conditions, using no male not strictly first- 
class in shape. It would be folly to use those of poor shape 
even to secure good color. 

Pen No. 1 should always be mated in any breed to pro- 
duce the best results from the male line of ancestry, and 
when the breeder is to rely solely upon his own yard, the 
male should be the best both in shape and color and as near 
to our pen picture as possible. 

To him we would mate an even shade of pure black 
plumed females; not showing the green sheen in a very 
marked degree; being absolutely free from bronze bars in 
the feathers. The specimens being large in size and weight; 
neck, thighs, shanks such as to make them look large and 
commanding in appearance, but void of anything of a crane 
like appearance. 

Pen No. 2. For this a male tall, commanding, with full 
flowing fountain tail; plumage black, with a reasonable 
amount of the green sheen in lower hackle, rose and bay of 
wing and in tail coverts; well plumed shanks and feet. 

The females having all the green sheen possible, while 
selecting medium length of neck, back, tail and shanks and 
of full weight as recommended in our Standard; with full 
inclined plane of back to tail. 

Pen No. 3. Male very large, wifh full length of joints; 
hocks well below body line, with heavy green sheen to 

To him mate females the shortest in neck, back, shanks 
and tail of our second division; coal black, with absence of 



Pen No. 4. Male very large, full fountain tail; heaviest 
in weight; metallic black, but not heavy in green over-color. 

The females shortest in joints, but having intense green 
sheen. In all our mating we, of course, have considered 
only the first selected for mating, all being strictly first-class 
specimens. Each pen so selected as to be even in shape and 
color; having been so selected to secure a uniform lot in the 


There is no race of fowls that needs more to be kept 
from the direct scorching rays of the sun, which does more 
to bar the plumage with those objectionable purple or bronze 
bars, than all else they are subjected to. One need not be 
much of an observer to see that early hatched chicks that 
get their adult coats during the heat of our harvest sun and 
those confined in shadeless yards, are more severely tar- 
nished by these objectionable bars. This should influence 
you to secure for them all the shade possible during August 
and September, especially when the last coat of feathers are 
in their pin feather state. 

These bars never appear upon birds with a dull or 
smutty colored plumage, but who considers such as first- 
class Langshan color? All the use I see for such color is a 
secondary one, i. e., mating a few very large, strong bens of 
this color to males of intense sheeny character, even if 
somewhat barred with bronze, that have become thus col- 
ored by the mating of both sexes highly colored. Then to 
breed a set of his pullets of first-class color back to him, 
when as a cock and having lost the bar, he has molted into 
perfect form as a cock. These pullets then three-fourths of 
his own blood, would be most likely as near perfection of 
color as is often seen, and many such have been produced 
in this manner. The male product of this first cross of the 
dull color had best be sacrificed as capons, or market poul- 
try of some sort. 

If there is a breed where it is especially necessary to 
divide the sexes at an early age, if show specimens are de- 
sired, it is the Langshan, and we would do this at the age 

of four months, keeping the males by themselves and the 
females in small flocks, free from the males. As soon as 
the breeding season is over select your best hens, allowing 
them to molt in celibacy, that they may molt in quiet, and 
not again be put with the males until after the show season 
is over. When it is a fact that often a single point blankets 
the first three prizes of an exhibition, one sees how useless 
it is to exhibit a pullet or a hen with a flattened or mutilated 
plumage of the saddle. Watch the growth of plumage, keep- 
ing all foul growth and broken feathers removed, in order 
that perfect new ones may replace them. See, too, that 
wings are smoothly folded, for there is not a breed so de- 
pendent upon minor details to secure for them the blue rib- 
bon. Keep them clean, with green lawn and clean dust 
baths, furnishing nature's foods that are found in the fol- 
lowing proportion: Fifteen per cent meat as found in beef 
scraps, dessicated fish or green cut beef bones; twenty-five 
per cent vegetables, the best of all being green clover; sixty 
per cent being grain in the proportion of fifteen per cent 
corn — balance in oats, wheat and buckwheat. 

They are prolific layers of eggs. After they reach six 
months of age it is hard to keep them in exhibition condi- 
tion, so that May hatch chicks will generally prove the best 
exhibition specimens in January and males hatched a month 
earlier, their stronger mates. But the poulterer who cares 
nothing for the exhibition, and those who cater for the egg 
trade for hatching, will do well to mate up in large numbers, 
and as fast as the females become broody to allow them to 
incubate a sitting of eggs, for the rest will save you many a 
death in your breeding yards and enable you to send out 
larger and nicer colored eggs to your trade; which you will 
find will be appreciated, and besides all this the eggs will 
hatch nicer and stronger chicks for it. 

The difference in time to break them up or set and allow 
them to bring up a clutch of chicks will not be over two 
weeks; for they invariably go to laying when chicks are two 
weeks old. It is nature's rest, after which they lay a larger 
litter of larger eggs than if broken up to secure a second 
litter before allowing them to sit. I. K. FELCH. 


Early Ideals and Recent Improvement— Commendable Laying and Market Qualities— Breeding for 
Color and Shape— Toe Feathering and Standard Weights— Preparing for Exhibition. 

By John Hettich. 

TO THE question of "What do you know of the origin 
and history of the Black Langshans?" there is little 
to be said, since we are convinced that it is a dis- 
tinct breed and not a variety made by crossing a 
number of other breeds as are many of the varieties we have 

The first account we had of the Langshan was in 1872, 
when an English army officer stationed in the northern part 
of China sent home some of these fowls to his uncle, Major 
Croad, of Birmingham, England. The first report of their 
exhibition was in connection with the Crystal Palace show 
in the winter of that same year, when they came in compe- 
tition with the then more popular Black Cochins and were 
described by the Cochin breeders of that day as nothing 
more than poor Cochins. 

The first Langshan club was started in England in 1877, 
and the first importation to America was in the same year. 
While this most excellent variety met with all kinds of 
prejudiced opposition in those earlier days, more so in 
England than in America, yet it was not long before their 
many good qualities became known. 

Major Croad, no doubt, improved them very much 
from the time the first ones were received by him up to the 
time of their first importation to this country, and the Lang- 
shan in America to-day is a great improvement over its 
ancestors, so much so that they hardly resemble the first 
importation if we may judge from the illustrations made 
of them by the best poultry artists of their day. I saw an 
illustration some time ago made by the late B. N. Pierce 
in 1882 of a pair of Black Langshans belonging to Fred 
Greensland, of Highland Park, 111. Of course they repre- 
sented an ideal pair at that time, but I am sure that at the 
last show at which Judge Pierce made the awards on the 
Langshan class he did not judge them by that ideal illustra- 
tion. Nor did his son "Mac" judge the big class of Lang- 
shans at the late Chicago show by his father's ideal of the 
first American Langshans. Another early illustration that 
I saw was drawn in 1880 by Ludlow from an imported pair. 
No doubt that was a fine pair of birds at that time. There 
is but little difference in these two drawings in either style 
or carriage, which shows that the Langshans of that time 
were of a uniform style, but very different from the Lang- 
shan we have to-day. 

In an old article that I read some time ago it said: "After 
the appearance of the Langshan at Birmingham a local 
Paper stated that its only good quality was that of being a 
good layer.. Another publication said: 'One of the judges 
was heard to say that the Langshan was a good table fowl, 
but fit for nothing else.' " The former was right as to their 
laying qualilies, the latter as to its good table qualities, but 
both wrong in saying that they were fit for nothing else, 

for they possess both of these good qualities and many 

As egg producers the Langshans unquestionably take 
front rank. They will lay just as many eggs the whole year 
round as any breed, except perhaps Leghorns and Minorcas, 
and in winter when eggs are scarcest and command the 
highest prices they will lay proportionately more. This 
proposition has never been successfully contradicted. My 
earliest pullets nearly always begin to lay by October 1st, 
and many a promising exhibition pullet has gone back on 
my expectations on account of her laying just a little too 
early for my purpose. 

I mated my yards for last season in January; I began 
filling orders for eggs for hatching in February. Nearly 
every pullet was laying when I made my mating, four yards 
of ten females each. Up to April 10th I had only four hens 
broody, and had I depended on sitting hens from my own 
yards for my early hatches I would not have had many early 
chicks, but thanks to the invention of the incubator, I do not 
depend upon the hens. I have in my yards two yearling 
hens that were laying some time before I put them in my 
breeding pens and they have laid continually up to this 
time — April 10th. 


While I do not raise Langshans for market, but strictly 
for the fancy, yet I market a few every fall after carefully 
culling the flock, and they always brjng the very highest 
price that is paid for market poultry at that season. There 
is no better taihle fowl than a Langshan, especially when it is 
fully matured. The flesh is white, very fine grained, tender 
and juicy. The skin is a clear white, not a dark bluish 
white, but creamy white. The chief objection offered 
against a Black Langshan is, as I said before, their color— 
they are black. It is said they are hard to pick and show 
pin feathers, but I am sure no one that has ever dressed a 
pure-bred Langshan will raise such an objection. The 
Langshans are a rather loose feathered fowl, unlike the 
short and close feathered Black Leghorn, Minorca, or Black 
Spanish, and they are for this reason more easily picked, 
and show few pin feathers. 

It is' not advisable to use a cock in the breeding pen 
after the third year. I have always had very satisfactory 
results from mating a cock with pullets, and a cockerel with 
hens; in fact, I am convinced that this is the proper way 
to mate Langshans. If the pullets are fully matured then a 
well-matured cockerel will give equally good results. What 
I mean by good results is in producing strong, vigorous 
chicks. During the breeding season I was compelled to 
make a change in one of my yards, one of my cock birds 
having contracted something like chicken pox. I put in his 
place a big full grown cockerel and the chicks hatched from 
that mating are as big and strong as any I have ever seen. 



In breeding Black Langshans for the show room I find 
more difficulty in getting them free from purple barring in 
plumage than from any other defect, yet I find that in mating 
a rich greenish colored male with a dark slate under-color, to 
a female equally rich in color, I get nearly all good colored 
birds. I believe that when the parent stock is full of purple 
the offspring will be the same. I am not a believer in the 
theory that the sun or dry winds produce the purple barring. 
While it may affect the surface color by turning it brown or 
rusty, yet I have had some very fine colored Langshans that 
were as free from purple barring as they grow run out in the 
hot sun the entire season and they never had their color 
affected in the least. 

One thing almost convinces me that the hot sun does 
not cause this purple barring in the plumage. It is a case 
of a bird that won first at the Northeast Missouri Show. 
This bird was from a sitting of eggs that I gave to a friend 
late in the season of 1900. Several cockerels were hatched 

j^^_ from the sitting, but 
the bird in question 
was always the best 
in every way except 
in color, which was 
almost as bad as 
could be, and he was 
sold with a lot of 
mixed stock as com- 
mon poultry to a sec- 
ond party. The lat- 
ter part of last sum- 
mer when passing by 
the place where the 
cockerel was, I jok- 
ingly remarked that 
I would give fifty 
cents for him. A few 
days later the neigh- 
bor came to see me 
with the bird, saying, 
"Here is your roos- 
ter; give me the fifty 
cents." The bird had 
been allowed to 
rough it and had had no care whatever; had been run- 
ning out in the burning hot sun, and yet he molted 
out as good in color and as nearly free from pur- 
ple as any cock bird I have ever seen. He scored 94%, by 
Hewes, after receiving an extra cut for a slightly frosted 
comb. I have always been able to produce some extra good 
colored Langshans. Not all of them, however, are good in 
color and free from purple, but if the hot dry winds were 
the cause of so much purple barring in Langshans, why 
should it not affect all alike under the same conditions? 

Three years ago I raised exceptionally good colored 
Langshans, but among them were some that were as full of 
purple as they could be. That winter I exhibited three 
cockerels and a number of pullets at the Missouri State 
Show, one of each sex being passed by Russell, with only 
one-half point cut on color, and I found him none too easy 
to please, as he is a pretty good cutter. These good colored 
birds were raised in the same yards and under the same 
care and conditions that those were that had purple bars. 

I find that the color of Langshans has been very much 
improved since I first began breeding them, and especially 
since the revision of the last standard, which at first fixed 
the punishment for purple in any section at one point, but 
which was afterwards changed to read from one-half to one 

A First Prize Black I^angshan Cock. 
Owned by John Hettich. 

point. There is no other defect that puts a Langshan out of 
competition in the show room as quickly as bad color or 
purple barring, and many an otherwise common bird has 
won a place simply on color. In breeding for color I am 
convinced that the male exercises the greater influence. 

White feathers in plumage of Black Langshans I have 
always contended should disqualify, except where it appears 
in toe feathering. I watch this very closely and find that 
it does not accompany the best or most brilliant colored 
plumage, but on the contrary I find that most of it appears 
in my poorest colored (the purple barred or the dull rusty 
black) birds. These show more white and nearly always 
have white or gray tips on wing flights. 

Many an otherwise good specimen, having a little white 
in some part of the plumage, which under the old standard 
would have been discarded, is now put into the breeding 
pen and the result is a lot of Langshans with white-tipped 
feathers. It was Judge Wale, by the way, one of the best 
Langshan judges in America, who said that the only way 
to get rid of white in plumage was not to breed it. I men- 
tion Judge Wale because from him I received my first in- 
structions in breeding Langshans and his lessons have done 
me a great deal of good. I have and always will have for 
him a kindly feeling. 

I enjoy telling of my first experience with the judge. 
When I began breeding Langshans, I started with what I 
thought were some fairly good hens bought in this country, 
and a ten dollar cockerel, bought of a New York state 
breeder. Late that fall Judge Wale came to my place to 
score my birds and pick some winners for a show in the 
adjoining county. I had them all up and banded, expecting 
at least 125 out of the 150 I had would show scores of 95 
each. The first ten or fifteen that the judge picked up went 
out of the window. I asked him what was the matter with 
them and why he did not score them. "Didn't you see those 
white feathers?" he asked. Then he found a pullet that 
he considered very good. She had no white tips and good 
under-color, and then some more went out of the window, 
and when he got through I had just thirteen scored birds 
out of my one hundred and fifty. I was a pretty sick en- 
thusiast. Had my ten dollar cockerel and my geod looking 
hens been free from white in plumage I would not have 
had one-tenth of the white-tipped feathers. I asked Judge 
Wale if it would be wrong to pull out the white feathers (I 
was younger then), and he was honest and said yes. Since 
then I have asked other judges the same question and they 
always smile. I will never forget my first lesson on Lang- 
shans, nor my teacher. 

I do believe that in breeding for dark under-color, and 
the brilliant greenish surface color, we often get red 
feathers in hackle or in back or on butt of wings. I have 
never seen a red feather in a very dull or purple bird, but 
always in the most brilliant plumage, and always in the 
males. I have never seen a pullet with a red feather. Last 
season I discovered two red feathers in the back of what I 
regarded a very promising cockerel. I sold a sitting of eggs 
from the yard he was in to a breeder in this locality and he 
has now out of that hatch as fine styled, big Langshan cock- 
erel as one could wish to see. If he had not a few red feath- 
ers he would be worth $15 to anybody for a breeder. These 
red feathered cockerels were sired by one of the best colored 
birds I ever saw; a brilliant green bird, scoring 95% by 
Hewes, and receiving a cut of only one-half point on color 
of plumage. Several years ago I purchased the first prize 
cockerel at the Mid-Continental show of Kansas City. That 
cockerel received the highest score of any Langshan male I 
ever saw or heard of— 97 points by Wale, who was one of the 
judges at this show. He did not get a single cut on color. 



He had dark slate under-color, very rich brilliant surface, 
and not a trace of purple anywhere. About three weeks 
after I had him I discovered two reddish feathers cropping 
out in the hackle. These feathers had black centers with 
reddish lacing and in a certain light the defective color was. 
not noticeable. I used him as a breeder that season, and got 
five cockerels that showed red in hackle and wing at matur- 
ity; most of the others possessed extra good rich color; one 
of them in particular winning first at Missouri State Show 
that winter, being cut only one-half point in color, by 


As to shape in males, I find that after we have them up 
on the right kind of legs, which should be rather long, espe- 
cially in thigh, the hardest sections to breed to perfection are 
the back and tail. To get medium length of back, broad at 
shoulders, curving gradually upwards from the middle to 
the root of tail, with abundant saddle feathers, and what is 
called a fan-shape or well spread tail rising upward from its 
junction with back so as not to form a break at this point 
(and not carried perpendicularly, approaching the squirrel 
tail), is not easy, even though we use a male with an almost 
perfect back and tail shape. I have always selected the 
very best shaped male birds in these two sections and yet 
I get lots of straight backed, narrow, pinched tail cockerels. 
I am undecided whether the male or the female has the 
most influence in producing good back and tails on 

The comb of the Langshan has proved with me the eas- 
iest section to get; for when I use a male bird with a good 
comb, I have few cockerels with bad combs, and the same 
is true with females. 


I have but little trouble in getting my Langshans up to 
standard size, especially in hens, cockerels and pullets, and 
I consider the weights as fixed by the standard about right. 
I noticed some time ago that Judge Russell recommended 
the raising of the weights one-half pound on hen, pullet and 
cockerel. I oppose this, for while we can bring them up to 
their weights and lots of them over, yet there are many that 
never come up to weight. It is difficult to bring the cocks 
up to the standard weight of ten pounds. Of course lots of 
them come up to it, and some of them go over that weight. 
I have one now that weighs eleven and one-half pounds, 
another ten and one-half, and yet I am satisfied that there 
are more Langshan cocks that weigh nine and nine and one- 
half pounds than there are cocks of ten pounds weight. At 
a recent Kansas City show there were ten cocks in competi- 
tion; most of these weighed less than ten pounds, and some 
of them were disqualified on weight. Most associations are 
very lenient on weight, allowing one-fourth to one-half 
pound on each birds; this allows many under-weight cocks 
to come into competition. The same number of cocks were 
on exhibition at the late Chicago show, and some of the 
winners were not up to standard weight, yet some of the 
exhibitors claim that their cocks weighed twelve and thir- 
teen pounds. 



Black Langshans are one of the most attractive show 
fowls, and I experience little trouble in preparing thorn for 
the show or getting them in good show condition; in fact, 
about all a good specimen needs is to be kept clean and in 

good health. They require no washing except their legs and 
toes, which should be cleansed with soap and water, and 
afterward rubbed with oil. The face, beak and comb should 
receive similar attention. Cockerels will remain in better 
show condition if kept in roomy quarters, or given an out- 
side run. They seldom do well in very close confinement 
(that is, in small coops) and will not take on flesh. Hens and 
pullets I prefer to keep in a light roomy house with a plank 
floor, covered lightly with clean chaff or short cut straw, 
as it is easier to keep their toe feathering in good condition 
if they are kept on plank floors. Scratching in hard or long 
straw always breaks the toe feathers. 

Heavy outer toe feathering is one of the points Lang- 
shar. breeders are striving for, and I believe with Judge 
Felch that slight middle toe feathering is no serious objec- 
tion, as it is only an accompaniment of heavy outside toe 
feathering. I have never seen a Langshan disqualified on toe 
slight middle toe 
feathering, but many 
perfectly clean mid- 
dle toe birds have I 
seen that were very 
shy, or almost free 
from outer toe feath- 
ering. A nice 
straight, clean mid- 
dle toe is a fancy 
point and very desir- 
able; I like to have 
them, but I never 
discount an other- 
wise good bird with 
few feathers on mid- 
dle toe. I purchased 
the first prize hen at 
the lafe Chicago 
show, a fine Lang- 
shan female with a 
perfectly clean mid- 
dle toe. She is well 

feathered on Shanks First Prize Black Langshan Pullet at Southeast 

, «„„*. rt p Missouri Show; also First as Hen at St. 

and upper part Of ^^ Owned by John Hettich. 

toe, but almost bare 

at the extremities, or from the last joint downward. 
This hen I am satisfied would if mated to a cockerel also shy 
on toe feathering produce lots of bare outside toed young- 
sters, but mated as I have her, to a cockerel heavily fea ti- 
ered, with a few feathers in middle toe, I look for a wc'.l 
feathered lot of Langshans from her. 

Langshans have grown more popular each year since I 
have been breeding them. Farmers are taking them up as 
an all purpose fowl. They are learning their good quali'y 
as a table fowl. The prejudice that has existed against them 
on account of color is passing away. Their extra good lay- 
ing qualities are now well established and their attractive- 
ness as show fowls proven by the extra big' classes at the 
breeding shows last winter. The big demand for them, the 
sales of both stock and eggs, by all the Langshan breeders 
of my acquaintance, the big prices paid for good birds as 
breeders, and the high prices received by the leading breed- 
ers of this variety for eggs for hatching are proof enough 
that the meritorious Langshan is one of the popular vari- 
eties of the day, and still coming. JOHN HETTICH. 


Their Value for Market Proved— A Novel Stock House— White in Plumage Considered Less Dangerous 

Than Purple Barring— Shape Deserves Close Attention. 

By L. A. Kline. 

EAM surprised at times to note the unreasoning prejudice 
that exists among some people against black fowls. I 
have seen it very effectively overcome in numerous in- 
stances, by a taste of a well cooked Black Langshan. Among 
the so-called general purpose fowls, there are none with 
finer grained or better flavored meat than the Langshan, 
and I believe there are none so good. The resemblance to 
turkey in flavor is unmistakable, and is often noticed and 
remarked by those who have tasted this breed of fowl for 
the first time. They dress very plump and nice, with rather 
more breast meat than the average. A few years ago I got 
an incubator and experimented a short time with raising 
broilers. Not having enough eggs of my own to fill the 
machine, I got some Bared Plymouth Rock eggs from a 
neighbor. In this way I had an opportunity to observe their 
comparative growth. The Langshans kept pace with the 
Rocks in feathering and development. I sold the bunch 
on the Chicago market, and they brought top price, netting 
me twenty-four cents per pound. No objection was made 
on account of color, and I have never heard such an objec- 
tion urged by a poultry dealer, unless he happened to be a 
fancier of another breed. They mature earlier than the. 
other Asiatics. . I find that many people are misinformed on 
this point, and are. laboring under the mistaken belief that 
they develop very slowly, when, as a matter of fact, they 
mature as quickly as the Rocks or Wyandottes. A large 
part of my flock last year was hatched during the month 
of May, but a .great many of them were up to weight by 
December 1st. As a rule, the chicks feather quickly, and, 
unlike the other Asiatics, are seldom troubled "by a lack 
of feathers. A chick that is bare for weeks at a time is a 
rarity, and for that reason I have never bothered myself 
about the cause of the trouble or its possible prevention and 
cure. The chicks are strong and hardy and where given free 
range, will hear all the food they will eat, without develop- 
ing any trace of leg weakness. I start my chicks either 
with a good brand of chick food, or with bread crumbs and 
rolled oats, later on giving them corn bread and whole 
wheat, and finishing off with oats, corn (preferably new 
corn) and milk if I have it. I have always regarded leg 
weakness, as a result of lack of exercise coupled with a 
forcing ration. I suppose it might develop in the Langshan 
chicks if too closely confined and fed high, but on a good 
range it will never bother and a fair range is conducive to 
good growth and development. 

The matter of housing is an important one with any 
breed of fowls, especially in a northern climate where win- 
ter eggs are much desired and hard to get. I am more and 
more of the opinion that a house with too much glass is 
worse than one with no glass. My first venture in my pres- 
ent locatiojn was a shed roof house with plenty of glass on 
the south. Walk into it on a sunny winter day, and it 
was as comfortably warm as a room in the house. But 
when the sun left the glass, it cooled quickly, and the sud- 

den change was injurious to the fowls, resulting in a de- 
crease in the egg yield. And then, in summer, although I 
took the windows out, it always seemed stiflingly warm. 
After a few years' experience with this kind of a house, I 
tore it down and built a two-story octagon house, with seven 
small windows downstairs and four upstairs. The lower 
floor is partitioned with poultry netting, and the arrange- 
ment of the windows gives each pen the benefit of some 
sunshine during the day, and at the same time the tempera- 
ture inside is not raised so much above normal as it was in 
the old house, avoiding sudden extremes of temperature. 
The result has been an increased egg yield. The upper story 
is used for exhibition coops, and during the winter for sur- 
plus cockerels. 

Langshans should have low roosts. Heavy hens are 
often injured by flying from high roosts. A little experi- 
ence with egg eaters, has made me an ardent admirer of the 
darkened nest. I am satisfied that it is the only sure pre- 
ventive, as well as the best cure for this most discouraging 


In mating Langshans, early in the season, one male to 
five or six females is enough, but later on, when fowls have 
free range, I believe ten to twelve females will give better 
results. As a rule, I mate cocks with pullets and cockerels 
with hens, believing that more vigorous chicks are secured 
in this way. Of course, .there may be individual cases 
where a certain result is to be obtained, where the rule can 
not be followed. As the general outline of both male and 
female is the same, and the color the same. I can see no 
advantage to be gained by a double mating system. If 
both male and female approximate closely in type to the 
ideal, the progeny will be as nearly as possible the correct 


The question of color is another thing, and is no doubt 
the hardest problem with which the Langshan specialist has 
to grapple. Experience seems to prove it an evanescent 
quantity, perhaps all right this year and all wrong the 
next. It is very evident that we do not thoroughly under- 
stand the laws which govern it, and I have myself had one 
or two pet theories upset. 

Some writers upon this subject advocate making white 
in any section a disqualification. At first blush this might 
appear to be a reasonable proposition, but a long experience 
in the breeding of Black Langshans leads me to believe it 
would be a mistake. I will' tell you why. 

I have an old hen in my yards that is at least eight years 
old-perhaps nine. I am keeping her in the first place as 
a sort of curiosity, and also because she has been exceed- 
mgly useful in her day, having produced many fine chicks 
and having been a first prize winner at one show and a 
second at another. She has passed under the hands of such 
judges as Hewes and Shellabarger and never showed a white 
feather, nor did I ever pluck a feather from her. Judge 



then of my astonishment the other day 
on picking her up to And one wing full 
of white fea tiers. I suppose some one 
will say that this is the result of old 
age. But, listen. I have also frequent- 
ly had an experience like the follow- 
ing: A pullet would score well, show- 
ing no white feathers, and at the next 
molt would bob up with enough white 
feathers to disqualify. White feathers 
may also appear in places where the 
skin has been torn or otherwise in- 
jured. I have a friend who breeds 
Black Minorcas, and he has had the 
same experience. He says he often 
finds hens with white feathers enough 
to disqualify, which passed all right as 
pullets. No doubt breeders of other 
black fowls could recount instances of 
a similar character. Of course I have 
always discarded specimens which 
showed enough white feathers to dis- 
qualify, so have had no experience 
which would enable me to determine 
whether the converse of the above is 
true, viz.: That birds having white 
feathers would be likely, at the next 
molt, to replace them with clear, black 
feathers, but I believe that it is likely 
to occur, and I mean to test it in the 
near future. Black and white seem to 
be very closely correlated, and if the 
theory I have developed from my ob- 
servations thus far is correct, the 
white in the plumage of a black fowl 
is a variable quantity, liable to become 
either mors or less abundant at each 
succeeding molt. Your disqualified 
fowl of this season may become your 
prize winner of next season, and vice 
versa. This, too, without any feather 
P«Hing. ! ; |]j ;jj 

Perhaps we Langshan breeders 
have made a mistake in discarding all 
specimens showing white in plumage. 
Perhaps it would be a still greater 
mistake to make the disqualifications in 
tion any more stringent than they are 
I think it will be found very often that 
Showing a few white tips will have more 

"Big Bug," a Black I,ang5han Cockerel, Winning: at Two Shows. Weight Eleven Pounds. 
Bred by Dare & Thurston. 

this direc- 
at present, 
a specimen 
of the de- 
sired green sheen and less of the purple than those speci- 
mens which are strictly free from white. These questions 
are all worthy of more careful thought and study on the 
pari of Black Langshan breeders, and if many will unite in 
the effort, their united testimony would soon establish a 
rule which would be far superior to any man's opinion as a 
safe guide to follow in breeding. Personally, I should still 
hesitate to breed from a bird having white feathers, but I 
feel safe in predicting that with increasing study, this fault 
will be considered less of a disqualification than it is at- 

The question of white in feathers is not so serious as 
purple barring. At times the green sheen seems to be de- 
cidedly elusive. When the careful breeder thinks he has 
the purple almost eliminated, it crops out in the most unex- 
pected place. It is almost certain that it is a case of atav- 
ism, aggravated in some instances by lice, improper food, 
and lack of shade and pure water, and it is equally certain 

that the utmost care in breeding will not entirely prevent 
it, although encouraging progress has been made. A prom- 
inent judge told me not long since, that a friend of his 
who has long been a breeder of Langshans, had the finest 
colored birds one season that he ever saw. He thought he 
had the color question forever settled. The next year he 
mated his yards with the best of his green birds, confidently 
expecting the best birds he ever raised, but to his astonish- 
ment and intense disgust, the purple barring was as much 
in evidence as ever. The same judge said that some breed- 
ers believed that mating a finely colored male bird to a 
dull or dead black female, would produce the finest green 
specimens. I give the opinion for what it is worth, not hav- 
ing had an opportunity yet to test it. I have been inclined 
to believe that a little white in plumage was accompanied 
by a more brilliant green sheen, 'having seen a number of 
specimens in which this was the case, and yet I know that 
it is not always so. I do know, positively, that white will 
often appear after a molt in a specimen which before was 
free from it, and I am persuaded that the reverse is often 
the case. This subject is worthy of all the study that Lang- 
shan breeders can give it. 


One of the chief difficulties in breeding to standard 
shape is to get the back and tail shape correct. I feel cer- 
tain that many breeders and some judges, have laid too 
much stress on color, and too little on shape. Glance at the 
cut of an ideal Langshan, and then compare it with some of 
the photographs of 95 and 96 point birds which appear in 
the poultry papers from time to time. I maintain that fre- 
quently birds are given high scores merely on the strength 
of size and color, which ought never to pose as Langshans. 
This is confusing to the novice, and opens the way for a 
large degree of carelessness in his selection of next year's 


breeders. It also results in keeping I large percentage of 
the Langshans throughout the country below the average 
in shape. The ideal gives us a short, broad back in both 
male and female, with a long fountain tail in the male, and 
a decidedly long tail in the female, carried well up in both. 
But the cuts of winners, too, frequently exhibit a long back, 
with a decidedly short tail, carried low down. Making all 
due allowance for difficulty in posing, etc., it would still 
seem that in a great many instances, the punishment for 
bad shape has been too light. 

President American Langshan Club. 


Twenty-five Years' Breeding Has Not Changed the Breed Type— Generous Producers of Fine Grain 

Meat and Dark Brown Eggs— Fineness a Distinctive Quality 

of the Langshan. 

By Franklane L. Sewell. 

D TRUST that, I shall not in any way discourage the lovers 
of some of our modern styles of fowls by telling tiiem 
that one of the strongest reasons for the Langshan's 
value as an economic fowl is its undisturbed type and an- 
cient origin. The more we let the Langshan revert to its 
natural bent — or perhaps I should say to the type it first 
presented when Europeans and Americans took it up — the 
more profitable, vigorous and productive it becomes, both in 
quality of flesh and number of eggs. 

You know that the reason a flock of mixed hens is more 
difficult to handle profitably is that there are so many dif- 
ferent natures in the flock. What is good for the few will 
starve some and spoil the rest by overfeeding. The more 
the flock is crossed and intermixed, the more complicated 
the successful management of it becomes. The average 
farmer's flock of hens presents as many types as it contains 
birds. This is the reason that on free range, where they 
can suit themselves as to exercise, food, etc., they do pass- 
ably well. But as a man regularly in the poultry business 
cannot handle his fowls in that way — all in one rambling 
flock — he must have a distinct race of fowl that will all 
respond productively to one method of management. 

The Langshan (pure) to-day is the same type as it was 
twenty-five generations of birds back. It seems to have 
passed its "artificial selection" atage long before che Eng- 
lish people found it. The Old English Game and the Dork- 
ing are also counted among the few races that keep reason- 
ably to their understood type. A fancier or farmer need not 
spend a great amount of study on these races in selecting 
for fancy requirements. It is the few among them that show 
a turning out of the line, while with our later made varieties 
only the few are fit to rely on to produce their like, or better. 
This prepotency in the Langshan has kept its type in spite 
of many misinformed and misdirected matings, where the 
race has been allowed to remain pure. It has been found 
more difficult to change the pure Langshan type in England, 
to follow the whims of the judges, than it is to preserve 
its original shape, and many breeders found it impossible 
to keep pace with the demands of some of their misin- 
formed judges without resorting to a cross. 

We took up the Langshan twenty years ago, because we 
liked their looks. People said they were hardy and produc- 
tive and that they were an old established race. At that 
time we were keeping the Brown Leghorns and Plymouth 
Rocks. We had started when twelve years of age with 
Game fowls, the only pure-bred fowls then kept in our town, 
but after three years' enduring their quarrelsome nature 
we decided to keep Houdans. We liked this breed, but they 
did not fully satisfy us. At seventeen we learned of the 
Langshan, and have kept them ever since. 


The older nations that have tried all kinds of fowls and 
fed and prepared them in all sorts of ways to suit their ap- 
petites, require white-skin fowls. The Dorking, the Houclan, 
the La Fleche, all have white skins. The La Fleche has black 
legs, but this in France seems to make no difference in the 
market value of a fowl. However, it is not the color of 
skin that is most important in a table fowl, it is the fineness 
of grain, the depth and length of keel bone and succulency 
of flesh. In our experience the Langshan shows the smooth- 
est skin and finest grained flesh of any fowl equal to its 
size. The size of carcass in a Langshan can be overdone. 
The quantity of the true Langshan is (and should be in all 
races kept for profit) on the breast, and he is proud to carry 
it well forward. 

You will not overfatten the Langshan easily unless in 
very close confinement. Like the Jersey cow for cream, the 
Langshan turns its food to the production of eggs that are 
rich in their contents. I believe they are the only white 
skin race of fowls producing dark brown eggs. 

As to their fancy characteristics we have so often told 
them in word and in picture that we may be pardoned for 
here writing only briefly of them. The fancy points of the 
Langshan need not change to make them attractive, and 
they are already of a genuinely practical type. 

I will add a few words that may prevent mistakes 
for those who do not understand the real Langshan. Our 
friend, Mr. Harrison Weir, who always stood so firmly for 
the Langshan, not long ago wrote me, "A bird can be too 
large and too coarse to be good." Remember that, when 



thinking of the Langshan Standard and recall the most 
typical and productive Langshan you have seen or pos- 
sessed. The best were not the greatest in size, not those 
stilty, close hocked, coarse boned roosters with heads for- 
ward and tails drooping, but the deep bodied, spirited birds 
whose length was in the keel bone rather than in the back. 

Among the worst and most common drawbacks to the 
Langshans seen at our shows of late has been coarseness of 
feather, bone and head furnishings. The Langshan wanting 
in fineness lacks in the qualities that set the race distinc- 
tively apart from other Asiatics. 

The cordy-limbed, smooth-plumaged, fine-headed Lang- 
shan has often prompted commendatory remarks from ex- 
pert stock breeders visiting the poultry shows. The long years 
of successive breeding stand out in the tense, nervy carriage 
and proud bearing. Coarse heads, loose feacher and heavy 
bones and clumsy action do not belong to the profitable nor 
the showy type of Langshan. They are the outgrowth of 
mongrel blood or continuous careless breeding. 

The Langshan is peculiar in its show type — carries a 
very large, expanded tail, profusely furnished with 
flowing sickles, side hangers and covert feathers. In the 
Langshans the plumage in this section is sought in abund- 
ance in contrast to the short plumage sought for in the 
Cochins and Brahmas. 

The erect carriage of this abundant plumage adds to the 
appearance of depth and height, especially in the rear of 
the bird. 

The show Langshan then requires deep breast and full 
development of it to appear well balanced. This possession 
of "balance" is not too common in our show rooms. Our 
American fanciers, it is gratifying to observe, have never 
striven to select or breed stiltiness in their Langshans, _ 
plainly recognizing the impractical qualities that became 
common with that ungainly extreme. A few, long legged 
specimens have occasionally appeared, but their narrow 
bodies and close hock joints have warned away any tendency 
toward that type. 

During the early 90's the Black Langshan was among 
the best advertised races, was much written, talked about and 
shown — its classes in numbers compared well with the most 
popular in the leading exhibitions. It is evidently not be- 
cause the Langshan has a reputation of producing less fine 
flesh or abundance of large eggs than the more extensively 
advertised breeds. One of which owes its best qualities to 
its parent, the Langshan. 

In an Australian egg laying contest we lately read that 
the Langshans were one of six pens that had produced 202 
to 241 eggs during the first three months (April, May and 
June), there being six hens in each pen. 

It is plainly a lack of push and printer's ink that causes 
the Langshans to lag instead of leap along the highway cf 
popular favor. The "Orpington" (a white skin fowl) comes 
along with its mixture of Langshan, Rock and Minor: a 

blood— cackles no louder nor oftener than the "Lordly 
Langshan" and his wives, in the barnyard, but hangs his 
shingle high in the leading publications and keeps it there. 
Pride of ancestry, perhaps, prevents the Langshan from put- 
ting himself so prominently before the people— while Amer- 
ican dollars and poul'.ry stalls are calling for "better poultry 
and more of it." 

Victor^ — 

«& byM.5»1HI»^"iCtl\ 

A High-scoring, Prize-winning Black Langshan Cock. 
Lemen, Sketched by Sewell in 1894. 

Owned by A. A. 

All the prejudice against dark leg fowls can be overcome 
by good exhibits of well eonditioned Langshans at the 
dressed poultry displays of our leading shows. It is only 
because the people leave it to the poultrymen to tell them — 
and nobody shows them the difference — that they believe 
all this "white skin" talk. I remember when some Black 
Russians were shown at the dressed poultry display at Madi- 
son Square Garden they had a host of admirers, when they 
never would have been thought of as a table fowl with their 
feathers on. F. L. SEWELL. 



A Beautiful Variety With Genuine Practical Worth-Notes From Fifteen Years' Experience With 

These Superior Fowls. 

By Henry L. Allen. 

' ITH the exception of a short period early in life, my 
experience as a breeder of fowls in the Asiatic 
division of breeds has been confined entirely to 
the Black Langshan; in fact, it may be said that to the 
Black Langshan has been devoted all the time which could 
he spared from an exacting business, for nearly fifteen years. 
I have never been blind to the beauty and excellent points of 
other breeds, in fact, I have always been willing to admit 
that there are other breeds more desirable for some people to 
breed, but for me, I know that no other breed or variety 
could ever come to possess the same interest that the Black 
Langshan does and I feel that the same can be said by any 
one who has become thoroughly familiar with the qualities 
of the lordly black beauties, both from a fancy and a utili- 
tarian standpoint. 

To begin with, the Black Langshan, although almost 
unexcelled as a producer of eggs all the year round and as 
a table fowl, is pre-eminently a fanciers' fowl on account 
of the great beauty of plumage and carriage which charac- 
terizes the breed. Its lordly stateliness combined with an 
activeness which is not a characteristic of any other family 
in the Asiatic division, makes the Langshan stand out in 
sharp contrast with the other Asiatics. In color the Black 
Langshan is, to those who have come to know its coloring 
in its 'highest perfection, a fowl of surpassing beauty. Look- 
ing at one in the sunlight, one forgets that it is a black 
fowl, the rich green sheen making it appear more like a 
piece of beautiful green silk, so brilliant is its lustre, and 
he who imagines that perfection in color is easy to attain 
in the Black Langshan because the breed is of "solid color" 

' *^ 


^k fl Ib 

A ,^k wL. 








First Prize Black Langshan Hen at Illinois State Show. 
Score 95^. Bred by Jesse T. Bateraan. 

has only to make the attempt in a careless way to learn how 
woefully he may be mistaken. 

As a rule, I have found that the best and most satisfac- 
tory mating is that of one's best male with the pick of the 
females. There are some who contend that the best show 

birds are not the best breeders, and while that may be so 
in instances where the natural vigor of the birds has been 
impaired by long continued showing or by improper treat- 
ment while preparing them for the shows, my own experi- 
ence has been that my best youngsters have been raised 
from a pen of my best show females headed by my best 
show male. By this it should not be inferred that one can 
always succeed by simply mating a good show male with 
a pen of show females. In the first place, there is a marked 
difference, sometimes, in good show birds. 


Then, too, a breeder can get the best results who is 
familiar with the characteristics of the ancestors of the 
birds being mated. A good show specimen decidedly off in 
some one point should be used cautiously. For instance, 
an otherwise perfect male with a decidedly poor comb should 
be used experimentally before being placed at the head 
of a largt breeding yard. The same holds true if the male 
is good in other respects but weak in leg and toe feather- 
ing. A nearly perfect male, but lacking some in size can 
safely be used if the females are a little over rather than 
under the weiight limit. Light weight females are not desir- 
able, and when used should be mated with a heavy weight 

Color and the part it plays in the mating of Black Lang- 
shans has been a much discussed subject. Some of the most 
eminent authorities have asserted that the objectionable 
purple barring is likely to result from mating the best col- 
ored males and females, that is, those having the metallic 
green lustre in an accentuated degree. Those who hold to 
that belief say that a dead black female, one possessing 
little of the green sheen, mated with a perfect colored male 
will produce the best colored chicks. In this respect I am 
unable to agree with the authorities referred to. By mat- 
ing females possessing the green sheen so much desired in 
a show bird with a male similiarly characterized year after 
year, I have had so small a proportion of chicks marked 
with the purple barring as to lead me to believe that, with 
other things being equal, the proper mating is male and 
female colored as one wants the chicks to be colored. 

In trying to get the proper type outlined to follow, the 
beginner should remember that the Langshan is not in- 
tended to have the massive blockiness of the Cochin or the 
majestic angularity of the Brahma. Neither should one go 
to the extreme which has made the Langshan a laughing 
stock in England and attempt to get a type which is stilty 
and lacking in style. The Langshan, as recognized by the 
standard, is, first of all, an upstanding, stately fowl of 
remarkable beauty. To allow it to take on the chunky 
characteristics of the Cochin or the stiltiness of the exhibi- 
tion Game robs it of those attributes which the breeder 
should most carefully cherish and which when properly 
conceived in the breeder's mind and embodied in the prod- 
uct of his breeding yards, make the Black Langshan an 
example of the breeder's art that will draw the admiration 
of every genuine fancier. • HENRY L. ALLEN. 


An Attractive Fowl With Sound Utility Merit— Hints on Breeding and Raising. 

By Jesse T. Bateman. 


(From the Reliable 

BREED Black Langshans because of their beauty and 
utility. A Langshan of true shape and color is in my 
opinion the most beautiful fowl bred. Take a male bird 
with his red face, comb, wattles and ear lobes, attired 
in his beautiful plumage, black and glossy with that green- 
ish sheen, standing up so tall and stately with his arched 
neck, long flowing hackle, concave back, well spread tail full 
of long flowing sickles, and he is a thing of beauty and a 
bird that every one admires. 

As winter layers they are among the best. Any kind of 
hen will lay when spring and grass come. I get plenty of 
eggs all winter, and when spring comes, too, and I don't 
have to wait until April for biddy to set. 

Some people object to the white skin and black pin- 
feathers of Black Langshans. I have time and again seen 
Black Langshans and Barred Plymouth Rocks dressed 
equally well by the same party, placed in the show window, 
and the white skinned birds have gone first invariably. As 
for pinfeathers, they have no more than other kinds and 
not as many as some, for they are a loose feathered fowl. 
There is an advantage in black pinfeathers, for we see them 
and pick them out, while If invisible by reason of color they 
are eaten. That's all right for those who are partial to that 
kind of thing, but please excuse me. Some say a black bird 
will not bring as much on the market as other kinds. I 
always get the top price for my culls and the poultry dealers 
are anxious to get them. I have heard them advise the 
pickers not to rub the white skinned chickens so hard, as 
their skin is thinner than the others. This being the case, 
there would be more meat and less waste. Langshans have 

Second Prize Black Langshan Hen at Chicago, November, 1903. 
Bred by Jesse T. Bateman. 

long deep breasts; their meat is of delicate flavor and as 
good as the best. 

Langshans will stand confinement well. A four-foot 
fence will keep them in. I have some yarded, and some 
have free range. I get more eggs (and a larger majority 

Poultry Journal.) 

are fertile) from the former than the latter. Often more 
than one male bird with a flock of females causes interfer- 
ence one with another and this prevents fertility in the eggs. 
I And the eggs from mature pullets are more frequently fer- 
tile than those from hens. The older the hens the fewer 
fertile eggs; yet | . 

I would rather 
have a chick 
from a hen than 
a pullet. I think 
they are strong- 
er. Similarly 
with regard to 
cocks and cock- 
erels; the young 
one is more cer- 
tain than the old 
one. The cock is 
liable to be no 
good at all and 
you rarely see a 
young bird but he 
is all right as a 
breeder. I think 
it right to mate 
cockerels and 
pullets, If they 
are both well 
matured, but it 
is not best to use 
them in the 
breeding yard if they are not so, no matter to what they 
are mated. 

Sometimes in full feathered breeds we find a chick that 
will not feather out. It is practically naked. I know of no 
remedy for this. I think it is hereditary, for his associates 
may be in full dress, although they all have similar food and 
care, while he is as bare as if he had been picked. 

I think leg weakness, which often appears in Asiatics, 
is caused by too much fat producing food. My remedy is to 
take away corn and such food and give bran mash with 
some good poultry food added. 

I do not think the standard too hard on Black Lang- 
shans. If we have an easy standard we will not improve 
our stock. The cocks are hardest to get up to standard 
weight, but if a cockerel develops as he should he will be 
up in weight. If he does not, let him go or he will decrease 
the size of your stock. The thing to do is to cull and cull 
closely, and, if the white and gray tips are eliminated from 
the breeding yards, there will be less of them next year, 
and still less the next. If not, the white will increase. 

More attention should be paid to symmetry. There are 
more Langshans off in shape of back and tail than any other 
points. Many a bird wins in shows which the judge or 
owner would never suppose to be a Langshan if he saw its 


As for color, some are breeding to the brownish black 
to overcome the purple. I think the remedy about as bad 
as the defect. JESSE T. BATEMAN. 

Black Langshan Cockerel, scoring 95. 
Bred by Jesse T. Bateman. 


Selecting the Breeders— Two Males for Each Pen— Fifty Birds Yield Five Hundred Dollars Income 

in Twelve Months. 

By L. E. Meter. 

(From ihe Reliable Poultry Journal.) 

ATING for good results is one of the knotty ques- 
tions for all breeders of fancy fowls. Langshans 
have some bad defects to overcome that often 
puzzle the breeder, such as red and yellow eyes; 
gray or white tips in wings; white in toe feathering; crooked 
breast bones; lopped combs in females; side sprigs and pur- 
ple barring. These defects may all be transmitted. The 
breeder who is always preaching that like begets like has 
a hard time making all his customers and friends believe 
it. Even the old line breeders who often produce high class 
specimens have a hard time to get offspring that are the 
equal of their parents. I have tried all sorts of matings. 
My first idea was to mate in pairs, which is a very good 
way of mating. I got about ten per cent first class birds 
from such matings. If I had females weak in some sections 
I would select a male strong in section where females were 
weak. This is a good way to mate, but the best plan I 

"Choice Goods"— A Magnificent Langshan Male— A Winner, 
Bred and Owned by I,. E. Meyer. 

have ever adopted is to select the females and put from ten to 
twelve in each pen. Be sure to get them with good straight 
combs, having from four to six spikes; long, deep bodies 
with broad backs; good length to legs and toes with plenty 

of toe and shank feathering. If the pen I have described 
is composed of pullets I would select two cock birds to mate 
to them, allowing only one at a time to run with them, say 
three or four days at a time. Keep one cooped all the time. 

Fourth Prize Black Langshan Hen at Chicago, 
Bred and Owned by L. E. Meyer. 

This keeps the males vigorous. I find if you allow the same 
male to run with the pen all the time they are inclined to 
take three or four females away from the rest and give 
them nearly all of their attention. My method of mating 
makes eggs more fertile and I think gets stronger chicks, 
and I can get fully as many show specimens. 

In selecting a male to breed from I select one that is 
strong in color, with as perfect a head and comb as I can 
get; short, broad back; large, spready tail, with an abun- 
dance of sickles— the more the better. 

When my cockerels are maturing I select those that I 
expect to breed from, and they are not for sale at any price. 
In this way I have improved my birds every year. 'Choice 
Goods," whose photo appears here, would be my ideal if he 
had a better comb. This season I am using six cockerels 
that will all be his equal when fully matured. If you want 
to get rid of defects quit breeding them. That is the quick- 
est and surest way. 

Never crowd your fowls. Keep their roosting place 
warm and clean; have your yards as large as possible; feed 
good wholesome food and be liberal with it. From fifty 
hens kept in this way I sold in 1902 nearly $500 worth ot 
stock and eggs. That's very good pay for a farmer. 



The "Sacred Bird" of the Chinese— Produced in This Country From Sports— A Fowl for Fancier and 

Farmer— Hints on Selecting and Breeding. 

By Rees F. Matson. 

THE only pure White Langshans are sports from the 
Black Langshans or descendants of such sports. 
During the early existence of this breed, when, as is 
usually the case with a new breed, the demand ex- 
ceeded the supply, many cross-bred mongrels were sold as 
White Langshans. These were mostly of White Dorking, 
White Leghorn and White Cochin extraction, and even yet, 
though it is rare, one runs across birds that show some of 
this foreign blood. The Dorking and Leghorn crosses can 
easily be detected by their large, coarse combs and the 
Cochin birds by their loose feathering and yellow skin. 
Thanks to the untiring efforts of the breeders of this excel- 
lent bird, these crosses have been almost entirely eradicated 
and I doubt if there is a breed of its age that shows a more 
uniform type than the White Langshan. I should have said 
its age in this country, for it is known that the White Lang- 
shan has existed for, possibly, hundreds of years in China, 
its birthplace, where it is known as the "Yop" or Sacred 
Bird, but, because of the fact that the Chinese consider it 
sacred, it has been almost impossible to secure any speci- 
mens for importation. 

Whatever can be said of the Black Langshans can be 
said of the Whites for the only difference is in color. I find 
amongst my own birds that the Whites lay the larger egg, 
but I am inclined to believe this is attributable to strain. 
In the spring of 1893 I set fourteen eggs, all laid by my best 
Black Langshan hen, which was mated to an excellent cock- 
erel, scoring 94. From these eggs, hatched twelve White 
Langshans, the first sports I had ever seen and the founda- 
tion of my strain of White Langshans. This black hen 
laid an unusually large egg and to this fact I attribute the 
large size of the eggs from my Whites. All specialty breed- 
ers are accused of being unreasonably prejudiced in favor 
of their "hobby," but I recommend the Langshan after try- 
ing nearly all the popular varieties of pure j bred poultry. 
As a winter layer they have no superior and I doubt an 
equal, for not only in winter, but throughout the entire year, 
they lay with gratifying regularity. Their eggs are large 
and of varying shades of brown and pink. For table use 
the White Langshan is excellent, having small bones and a 
juicy flesh, which retains tenderness at an age when most 
fowls are relegated to the tahle of the proverbial boarding 
house. The White Langshan is particularly well adapted to 
the farm, being splendid foragers, hardy, prolific and easily 
managed. Let's take the chick, a bundle of "smutty " down, some 
as dark as a mole, others almost white, with tints of canary 
here and there on their breasts. Who would suppose they 
would ever be white? Several customers have complained 
that I had sent out mongrel stuff, when they first viewed 
the little fellows in the nest, but their disappointment was 
turned to joy when in two months they were as white as 
snow and the brightest, liveliest chicks they had ever seen. 
I will confess that at from three to five months of age the 
Langshan cockerel is an awkward, ungainly fellow, no more 

than other Asiatics, but where can you find a more beautiful 
specimen than the matured male, all life, style and beauty. 

In the show room no breed attracts more attention not 
only because of their beauty, but because of their gentleness, 
you might say friendliness. At the '03 Chicago show, my first 
prize pullet occupied a corner coop, from the bars of which 
she pecked at the rings and buttons of all who passed her 
way, and was a friend of all. The following descripti6n of 
her, by Editor Curtis, in the Reliable Poultry Journal, is 
applicable to Langshans in general, for they all have that 
"Regal bearing," that "Distinguished air": 

"At this show, for the first time in our experience, we 
became really inter- 
ested in the White 
Langshan, as a result 
of the exhibit of 
beautiful specimens 
made by Rees F. 
Matson. The stately 
white beauties forci- 
bly remind you of 
the demure 'ladies of 
quality' of a hundred 
years ago going 
through the evolu- 
tions of the minuet. 
Fardon this flight of 
fancy, but Mr. Mat- 
son's first prize 
White Langshan pul- 
was easily the state- 
liest creation in the 
form of a standard 
fowl we have seen." 

The graceful, neat- ' 
ly proportio ned 
Langshan of to-day. 

is nearer the accepted ideal than either the "squatty" or 
"snaky" extremes met with so often in the past. By careful 
selection and close culling this type can be improved. We 
must keep away from the loose-feathered Cochin type and, 
too, we must not go to the other extreme, the hard-feathered 
Game type. The true Langshan is neither hard feathered 
nor loose feathered, but, while seemingly close feathered, is 
yet soft and fairly fluffy. In shape the defects to avoid are: 
Large, beefy combs, flat, meatless breasts, long, jnarrow, 
straight backs and low, scantily furnished tails. In color 
breed for pure white, both in web and quill, shanks and feet 
of a blue slate color, pink skin and a dark brown eye. 

Summing it up, the especially laudable characteristics of 
the Langshan are its docility, winter laying proclivity, large 
size combined with small hone, tender and juicy flesh, abun- 
dance of breast, and beauty, unsurpassed. 


A High Scoring, Prize Winning White Lang- 
shan. Cockerel, Bred and Owned by 
Rees F. Matson. 


A Variety Fortunate in the Langshan Shape and Style— Valuable for Winter Laying— Offering Two 

Sources of Profit if Properly Handled. 

By Geo. D. Black. 

VERY breed of fowls has its admirers and cham- 
pions; there are many good varieties, and the value 
of many of them is so nearly equal as to make it 
difficult to choose among them. I am going to 
praise the White Langshan, and this I am very willing to 
do, for having tried it for a number of years by the side of 
other pure-bred fowls, I have come to be a decided admirer 
of the breed. There are birds that may be better suited to 
the fancy and to the wants of other people, but to me there 
are none whose style and general characteristics appeal to 
me as those of the White Langshan do. If there is such a 

First Prize Winning White Langshan Cockerel at Dayton, Ohio, 
Bred and Owned by George D. Black. 

thing as the artistic in chicken conformation, the Langshan 
has it. For stateliness, for elegance of form, it easily stands 
at the head of the poultry kingdom. This is true of both 
the male and female. Every one who knows the breed rec- 
ognizes that there is a Langshan style which is so distinc- 
tive that it never can be confounded with that of any other 
breed. We say that form differentiates breeds; but the 
American breeds, for instance, are so near alike, as we see 
them in some yards, that one form easily passes for another 
to the novice; and ihis is sometimes true in the show room. 
But a judge would have to be form-blind and style-blind 
ever to mistake the Langshan conformation. 

The White Langshan is a beautiful fowl; but if it is at 
the same time a highly useful one, its friends have good 
ground for their attachment to it. 

For several years I have been trying the White Lang- 
shan by the side of other breeds, and I have found no chick- 
ens that will lay more eggs during the year than my Lang- 
shans, and few that will lay as many. I have had none that 

will come anywhere near them in winter laying. The White 
Langshan hen has the knack of laying just at the time when 
eggs are at the tip-top price in the market. Last winter 
when eggs got so high that only millionaires could afford 
to eat them, my Langshan hens kept laying. The coldest 
days did not stop them, and they were not housed and fed 
differently from the others. I think it may confidently be 
claimed that the White Langshans are excellent winter 

When it comes to table qualities, this breed will hold 
its own with the best. The flesh is especially tender, and 
it remains so in the mature hens beyond any other fowls I 
have ever had any experience with. Their freedom from 
dark pinfeathers adds greatly to their value when dressed. 
They can be cleaned in about half the time that is'required 
to clean most other kinds, and when they are dressed they 
look clean. 

One other thing I prize in them especially is the ease 
with which one can handle them. They are naturally quiet 
and gentle. A wild chicken I have no use for. It is annoy- 
ing, to say the least, to go into your poultry yard or poultry 
house and have the whole flock flying and scurrying around 
as if you had started up a covey of partridges. My White 
Langshans will hardly get out at my way as I go among 
them, and if I come suddenly upon a bunch of them they 
do not raise a general hubbub and fly all over the barnyard. 
I pick up my sitting hens and put them in a house used as 
a hatching place, giving each one a box with a clutch of 
eggs, and they sit there as contentedly as if the place were 
of their own choosing. This docility of disposition makes 
them unexcelled sitters and mothers. You can handle them 
with their broods without their flying into your face i?| 
tramping the chicks to death. And yet the Langshan is not 
a lazy, stupid fowl. It is sprightly and active, and a good 

This quality of docility in the Langshan to me counts 
for much. I esteem it so highly that I could not be induced 
to harbor about the place chickens that were nervous and 

The qualities which I have enumerated are the ones 
that combined make a good all-purpose chicken, and it 
may be claimed with assurance that the White Langshan 
is of this sort. The general farmer keeps from fifty to a 
hundred hens. If they are good layers and have good car- 
casses he has two sources of profit from them, and the mil 
profit, if he manages his business skillfully, will amount t| 
considerable in the course of a year, to say nothing of the 
fries and roasts that go to his own table. I am so well con- 
vinced of the worth of the White Langshan as a farmert 
fowl that I shall be glad if this book does much toward call- 
ing the attention of farmers and breeders to it. There 1§J 
marked increase of interest in it, as I happen to know, «BH 
I am sure that if its merits were better known it would bl 
come one of the most popular breeds. 




• KABllft 

' I I- 

' ■ • I l l 




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