Skip to main content

Full text of "[Forestry reports]"

See other formats


£>tate CollcBE of agriculture 

at Cornell iHniberstttp 

Stiiaca, iBt. g. 



Hibrarp 



Declaration of Governors for Conservation of 

National Resources 
Public Lands Commission — Message from the 

President of the United States 
Report of the Poresterj 1902 
leport of the Forester^ 1903 
Report of the Forester, 1904 
Report of the Forester, 1905 
Report of the Forester, 1906 
Report of the Forester, 1907 
A Primer of Forestry, Part II 

Practical Forestry- 
Food of Woodpeckers 
The Tongues of Yfoodpeckers 
Forest Planting and Fsrm Mans^gement 
Index to the Yearbook: of the United States 

Department of Agriculture, 1901-1905 
Key to Subject Index of Experim_ent Station 

Literature 
United States National Museiom 
A List of Publications of the United States 

National Museiim, 1875-1900 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924003106170 



V.13 

[Forestry reports] 




3 1924 003 106 170 



CIRCULAR. 



Sale of Timber in Forest Reserves. 



E DEPARTMENT OF THE INTEEIOE, 

GENERAL LAND OFFICE, 

"Washington, D. C, January 22, 1902. 

GEN SEAL. 

1. Timber will be sold, both live and dead, wherever the removal of 
such material will be beneficial, or at least not detrimental, to the forest 
reserves. "^ 

2. In the disposition of this material the local demand will have 
preference, and, in localities where this local demand is so great that 
all available timber is likely to be needed, applications involving the 
export of the material to distant points will be refused. , , , 

HOW THE TIMBER MAY BE PUROHA^KD. ^ ' ' , / 

' ' J ^ 

1. The applicant who wishes to purchase timber will apply, in person 
or in writing, to the supervisor of the reserve, stating— 

(a) How much timber he wishes to buy ; 
(6) The kind of material desired ; 
(c) Where the timber is located. 

2. As soon as practicable the supervisor or his assistant will go over 
the ground with the applicant, and determine whether the timber may 
be sold, under what conditions, and at what price. 

3. After an agreement is reached the applicant should sign a definite 
application, prepared on the regular form, with the assistance of the 
forest officer. 

4. After this, the forest oflScer marks out the block or areai where the 
timber may be cut, maps it, and estimates the amount of timber on the 
whole, and also the particular kind applied for. He also makes a gen- 
eral forest description of the tract, block, or quarter section. 

6. Then the application, together with the forest officer's description 
and recommendation, is sent to the Department at Washington. 

6. If approved, the timber will be advertised in a local paper for 
thirty daj's (sixty days in California). This advertisement will be 



waived only in cases where the amount involved in the sale is of $100 
stumpage value, or less 

7. Bids on this timber will then be in order. These bids, together 
with a deposit (insuring the good faith of the bidder), should be sent 
by the bidders to the receiver of the local land office, and the bid will 
be forwarded from that office to the Department. 

8. At the end of thirty days (sixty days in California), the timber will 
be awarded to the highest bidder ; and if the applicant is the successful 
bidder, the deposit is credited on the sale ; if not, the money will be 
refunded. 

9. When the timber is awarded the applicant will sign a contract 
containing the specifications contained jn the original application, as to 
manner of cutting, scaling and cleaning up, etc., and, if the case seems 
to justify it, he will be asked to give a bond, usually in an amount 
double the value of the timber, to secure the proper fulfillment of the 
contract. 

10. Cutting may then begin. 

11. The material will be skidded or piled in the customary manner, 
and the purchaser is required to mark the tops of the logs to facilitate 
scaling. 

12. The scaling will be done in the customary way by the old Scrib- 
ner rulCj Ifyl which the contents of a 16-foot log are as follows : 



— ~', — V ' ^ ^ 
'\ ©iaiieter in- 


Gonti^ntain ft. 


Diameter in- 


Contents in ft. 


Diameter in- 


Contents in ft. 


side of^JjarkJ 


b. m. 


side of bark. 


b. m. 


side of bark. 


b. m. 


Inches. 




Inches. 




Inches. 




6 


9 


31 


304 


36 


923 


7 


16 


32 


334 


37 


1,029 


8 


25 


33 


377 


38 


1,068 


9 


36 


34 


404 


39 


1,120 


10 


49 


35 


459 


40 


1,304 


11 


64 


36 


500 


41 


1,373 


12 


79 


37 


548 


42 


1,343 


13 


97 


38 


583 


43 


1,896 


14 


114 


39 


609 


44 


1,480 


15 


142 


30 


657 


45 


1,518 


16 


159 


31 


710 


46 


1,587 


17 


185 


33 


736 


47 


1,656 


18 


213 


33 


784 


48 


1,738 


19 


340 


34 


800 






30 


380 


35 


876 







This rule applies to saw timber and mining timber. Logs of 24 feet 
and over in length are scaled at more than one point ; so that a log 24 
feet long, for instance, is scaled at 16 feet and at the top. In other 
words, long pieces are treated as 16-foot logs and fractions thereof. 

Square-hewed goods are measured like sawed timber, as solid pieces. 
Thus, an 8 by 12 inch 16-foot timber contains 128 feet board measure. 



Railway ties are simply counted, and 

30 ties, 8 feet in length, equal 1,000 feet board measure. 
40 ties, 6 feet in length, equal 1,000 feet board measure. 
Cordwood is measured in the ordinary way. Where green timber 
10 inches and over in diameter is cut into cordwood it is charged as 
timber, and two cords are considered equal to 1,000 feet board measure. 

13. The scaling will be done according to the conditions of the case. 
If the cutting is on a sufficiently large scale, it will be done in such a 
way as to keep up with the work ; otherwise, the scaling will be done 
at set times. 

14. All timber must be marked with the TJ. 8. stamp before it may 
be removed. 

The following blank forms for application and contract filled in as 
samples will be used in all timber sales: 

4—178. 

No. 12S. . 

PUBLIC TIMBER SALE. 



Bliti-k Hills Forest Reserve. 



APPLICATION. 



I hereby raake application for the sale and purchase of timber located and de- 
scribed as follows : 100 M feet B. M., saw timber, green or dry ; no M feet B. M., 
mining timber, green or dry ; no railroad ties, green, dry ; S50 cords cord- 
wood, green, and dry ; and is located /S T-C. J^, <S' TF. J^, S.'M5, T.3N.,R.S E. 

To be used at mines near Deadivood. 

1 promise to deposit with the receiver of public moneys at the United States land 
office at Rapid City, S. Dak., such sum as may be required at the time of filing my 
bid for the above-described timber, and I further promise that in case my applica- 
tion is favorably considered I will deposit with the said receiver such sum as may 
be required to cover the cost of advertising for bids for the purchase of this timber, 
and in the event that the timber is awarded to me as the successful bidder I promise 
to pay to the said receiver the amount covered by my bid. [Here insert the condi- 
tion of payment, whether full cash payment or one-third down and the balance in 
thirty, sixty, and ninety days, as the case may be.] Cash in advance, at price of: 
lfS.50 per M ft. B. 31. for timber; 30 cents per cord for cordii'ood of all kinds; credit 
being given for the sums heretofore deposited with the said receiver by me in con- 
nection with this sale and purchase ; which, otherwise, will be refunded to me. 

And I further agree and promise to conduct the work of cutting and removing 
said timber in accordance with the f ollovnng specifications : 

1. I will comply strictly with the laws and the regulations governing forest 
reserves. 

3. Submit all timber and wood to measurement by the forest officer before the 
same is removed. 

3. Pay in advance for all timber before cutting the same. 

4. To cut only timber on the area agreed upon and blazed and marked, and not 
to out any of the live trees bounding this area. 



5. To leave no logs, ties, lagging, or other material in the woods, and to pay 
double the agreed price for any material thus left in the woods. 

6. To pay for all material used in shanties or buildings of any kind ; also for 
material used in the construction of skidways, corduroy, log roads, bridges, and 
other improvements. 

7. To cut only marked timber, and to out all marked timber. 

8. To leave no trees lodged in process of felling. 

9. That all material is marked on skidway or in pile, the amount to be placed in 
plain figures at top or on blaze near by, and that no material will be piled on such 
skidway or pile after the scaling has been finished. 

10. All felhng and cutting with saw, except firewood. 

11. Stumps high ; none higher than 18 inches. 

12. Shaft of tree to be used to diameter of 6 inches, . 

13. Cordwood to be cut from all tops down to a diameter of 3 inches. 

14. Tops to be dragged bodily into openings ready for bujning. See 15. 

15. Tops to be lopped and brush piled on entire area. 

16. No hewing, except at skidways in openings . 

17. No cutting of timber in summer season between month of and — 

Waived in this case. 

18. Cut all dead material sound enough for fuel . 

19. Out only standing dead material. See No. IS. 

20. Cut only and all dead material. Dead and green allowed. 

21. Build camps at place agreed upon, located , as per map . No camps 

aUoiri'd in this case. 

22. Construct dam at point agreed upon, located at , as per map . No 

dams allowed in this case. 

23. To pile or skid all material before measuring -. 

24. Scaling to be done [once a week or month, continuously, to keep up with 
cutting] once a nvek, the maximum to be not over SO M feet B. M., and S5 cords, 
ties per day or week per week. 

I further agree that in case my bid for this timber is accepted I will execute a 
contract embodying the above provisions for the purchase of said timber, and deliver 
therewith a bond which shall be satisfactory to the forest officers for the faithful 
performance of the conditions imposed in said contract ; and I further agree that 
in ca.se of failure on my part to fulfill, all and singular, the requirements of said 
contract I will forfeit the said bond and all moneys paid to the receiver of public 
moneys herein mentioned. 

JNO. DOE. 

Dated at Hill City, S. Dale, Jan. 16, 



4—179. 
No. 133. 



PUBLIC TIMBER SALE. 



Black Hills Forest Reserve. 



CONTRACT. 



This contract is hereby entered into by and between Jno. Doe, party of the fii-st 
part, and the Secretary of the Interior for the United States of America, party of 
the second part, for the purchase of certain public timber in the Black Hills Forest 



Reserve, based upon the bid of the said Jno. Doe for said timber, submitted in 
pursuance of a duly advertised proposal to sell said timber, which bid has been 
accepted by the Secretary of the Interior, said bid and advertisement being made 
a part of this contract. 

Approximately 100 M feet B. M., saw timber, green or dry ; no M feet B. M., 
mining timber, green or dry ; no railroad ties, green, dry ; 260 cords cord- 
wood, green, and dry. All timber to be removed within one year from date of 

this contract, and is located S W. }iof SW. M. S. 25,T.SN.,R.S E. To be used 
at mines near Deadwood. 

In consideration of the sale of this timber to me I, Jno. Doe, promise to pay the 
Receiver of Public Moneys at the United States Land Office at Rapid City, S. Dak., 
the sum of three hundred and twenty-jive dollars (|5^5), being at the rate of %S.5n 
per thousand for timber and SO cents per cord for cordwood, entire sum cash in 
advance, credit being given for the sums heretofore deposited with the said Receiver 
by me in connection with this sale and piirchase. 

And I further agree and promise to conduct the work of cutting and removing 
said timber in accordance with the following specifications : 

I. I will comply strictly with the laws and the regulations governing forest 
reserves. 

3. Submit all timber and wood to measurement by the forest officer before the 
same is removed. 

3. Pay in advance for all timber before cutting the same. 

4. To cut only timber on the area agreed upon and blazed and marked, and not 
to cut any of the live trees bounding this area. 

5. To leave no logs, ties, lagging, or other material in the woods, and to pay 
double the agreed price for any material thus left in the woods. 

6. To pay for all materials used in shanties or buildings of any kind ; also for 
material used in the construction of skidways, corduroy, log roads, bridges, and 
other improvements. 

7. To out only marked timber, and to cut all marked timber. 

8. To leave no trees lodged in process of felling. 

9. That all material is marked on skidway or in pile, the amount to be placed in 
plain figures at the top or on the blaze near by, and that no material will be piled 
on such skidway or pile after the scaling has been finished. 

10. AU felling and cutting with saw, except firewood. 

II. Stumps high ; none higher than 18". 

13. Shaft of tree to be used to diameter of 6 inches, . 

13. Cordwood to be cut from all tops down to a diameter of 3 inches. 

14. Tops to be dragged bodily into openings ready for burning. See No. 16. 

15. Tops to be lopped and brush piled on entire area. 

16. No hewing, except at skidways in openings . 

17. No cutting of timber in summer season between month of and 

Waived in this case. 

18. Out all dead material soimd enough for fuel . 

19. Out only standing dead material. See No. 18. 

30. Cut only and all dead material. Dead and green allowed. 

31. Build camps at place agreed upon, located , as per map . No camps 

allowed in this case. 

23. Construct dam at point agreed upon, located at , as per map . No 

dams allowed in this case. 

33. To pile or skid all material before measuring . 

34. Scaling to be done [once a week or month, continuously, to keep up with 



6 

cutting] once a weeh, the maximum to be not over W M feet B. M., and S3 cords, 
ties per day or week per week. 

And as a further guarantee of a faithful performance of the conditions of this 
contract, I have executed and deliver herewith a bond in twice the amount of the 
purchase price named ia this contract, which bond shall be forfeited, together with 
all moneys paid or promised under this contract, upon failure upon my part to 
fulfill, all and singular, the conditions and requirements herein set forth or made 
a part hereof. 

Given vmder my hand at Lead, S. Dak., this SO day of Feb., 190^. 

JNO. DOE. 

Given under my hand at Washington, D. O., this 15 day of March, 190^. 

, Secretary of the Interior. 



SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS. 



The following considerations are of special Importance : 

1. Applications will be considered and attended to in the order in 
which they are received ; but exceptions to this rule will occur, with 
spe,cial local conditions, such as isolation of particular cuttiug, great 
distances, insufficient force of workers, etc. 

2. All applications in any reserve will be held up and delayed when- 
ever it becomes evident that the reserve force, for any reason whatever, 
fails to carry out the work according to the prescribed regulations. 

3. In every case, the timber purchased is uot the amount called for in 
the application, but the amount actually found on the cutting area as 
located and marked out by the forest officer. If there is less timber on 
this area than the applicant desires, he must make a new application, 
but is vevi:r allowed to cut over the original line as laid down for his 
case. 

4. The following violations of the regulations will be regarded as 
trespass, and will lead to a suspension of all operations until the ease 
is settled : 

(a) Cutting across the line surrounding the cutting area; 
(6) Cutting of unmarked timber; 

(e) Removal of any material before it is properly scaled and 
stamped or marked. 

5. Since a considerable time is necessarily required in attending to 
any case of timber sale, and the law positively forbids any short-cut ■ 
methods, the public is earnestly requested not to delay applications of 
this kind. 

6. "When the applicant fails to hear of his application in a reasonable 
time, say thirty days, he should address letters both to the supervisor 
and to the honorable Commissioner of the General Land Office, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 



7. Any incivilities, or evident neglect on the part of the forest 
officers which hinders the purchaser in his work or endangers his case 
by giving to it the appearance of willful or negligent trespass, should 
be reported to the supervisor, and, if not promptly corrected, should be 
reported to the Commissioner of the General Land Oflice. 

8. Trespassers, in the absence of a proper settlement for the trespass, 
will not be awarded timber. 

BINGER HERMANN, 

Commissioner. 
Approved, January 22, 1902, 

E. A. HiTCHf'OCK, 

Secretary of the Interior. 



Jssued December 6, 3908. 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



FARMERS' BULLETIN 340. 



DECLARATION OF GOVERNORS FOR 

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL 

RESOURCES. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1908. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



U. S. Department or Agriculture, 

Forest Service, 
Washington, D. C, October 28, 1908. 
Sir: Believing that the Declaration of Governors adopted at the 
recent conference on conservation of our natural resources is 
worthy of the widest circulation among the people, and that it will 
do more than anything else that could be published to arouse a pop- 
ular, interest in this very important subject, I respectfully recom- 
mend its issuance as a Farmers' Bulletin. 
Respectfully, 

GiFFORD PiNCHOr, 

Forester. 
Hon. James Wilson, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 

340 (2) 



CONTENTS. 



Vage. 

Introduction 5 

Declaration of Governors 6 

340 (3) 



DECLARATION OF GOVERNORS FOR CONSERVATION OF 
NATURAL RESOURCES. 



INTRODTJCTION. 

The Declaration of Governors contained in this bulletin was 
adopted by the conference of governors of the States and Terri- 
tories called by the President to consider the conservation of our 
natural resources, and which met at the White House May 13, 14, 
and 15, 1908. Besides the governors there were invited to the 
conference the members of the Cabinet, the justices of the Supreme 
Court, the members of both Houses of Congress, representatives of 
the great national organizations, the Inland Waterways Commis- 
sion, and, as special guests, Hon. William Jennings Bryan, Mr. James 
J. Hill, Mr. Andrew Carnegie, and Mr. John Mitchell. The late ex- 
President Grover Cleveland was also invited as a special guest, but 
illness prevented him from attending. At the request of the Presi- 
dent each governor brought with him to the conference three citi- 
zens from his State or Territory to act as assistants or advisers. 

The object of the conference was stated by the President in his 
letter of invitation to the governors, in which he said: 

It seems to me time for the country to take account of its natural resources, and 
to inquire how long Uiey are likely to last. We are prosperous now; we should not 
forget that it will be just as important to our descendants to be prosperous in their 
time. 

Papers which discussed the present state of our various natural 
resources were read by experts and speciahsts in each respective 
hne, and these were followed by an open discussion among the gov- 
ernors of the points brought out. 

The conference then appointed a committee to draft a declara- 
tion, consisting of th« following: Governor Newton C. Blanchaed, 
of Louisiana; Governor John Franklin Fort, of New Jersey; Gov- 
ernor J. O. Davidson, of Wisconsin; Governor John C. Cutler, of 
Utah; and Governor Martin F. Ansel, of South Carolina. 

This committee prepared and submitted the declaration which 
follows, and it was unanimously adopted by the conference of gov- 
ernors as embodying their conclusions on the question of conserva- 
tion. 

340 (5) 



DECIAKATION. 

We, the governors of the States and Territories of the United States of 
America, in conference assembled, do hereby declare the conviction that 
the great prosperity of our country rests upon the abundant resources of 
the land chosen by our forefathers for their homes, and where they laid 
the foundation of this great nation. 

We look upon these resources as a heritage to be made use of in estab- 
lishing and promoting the comfort, prosperity, and happiness of the 
American people, but not to be wasted, deteriorated, or needlessly 
destroyed. 

We agree that our country's future is involved in this ; that the great 
natural resources supply the material basis upon which our civilization 
must continue to depend, and upon which the perpetuity of the nation itself 
rests. 

We agree, in the light of the facts brought to our knowledge and from 
information received from sources which we can not doubt, that this 
material basis is threatened with exhaustion, Even as each succeeding 
generation from the birth of the nation has performed its part in promot- 
ing the progress and development of the Republic, so do we in this genera- 
tion recognize it as a high duty to perform our part ; and this duty in 
large degree lies in the adoption of measures for the conservation of the 
natural wealth of the country. 

We declare our firm conviction that this conservation of our natural 
resources is a subject of transcendent importance, which should engage 
unremittingly the attention of the nation, the States, and the people in 
earnest cooperation. These natural resources include the land on which we 
live and which yields our food ;. the living waters which fertilize the soil, 
supply power, and form great avenues of commerce ; the forests which yield 
the materials for our homes, prevent erosion of the soil, and conserve the 
navigation and other uses of the streams ; and the minerals which form 
the basis of our industrial life, and supply us with heat, light, and power. 

We agree that the land should be so used that erosion and soil wash 
shall cease; and that there should be reclamation of arid and semiarid 
regions by means of irrigation, and of swamp and overflowed regions by 
means of drainage ; that the waters should be so conserved and used as to 
promote navigation, to enable the arid regions to be reclaimed by irri- 
gation, and to develop power in the interests of the people ; that the forests 
which regulate our rivers, support our industries, and promote the fertility 
and productiveness of the soil should be preserved and perpetuated ; that 
the minerals found so abundantly beneath the surface should be so used 
as to prolong their utility; that the beauty, healthfulness, and habita- 
bility of our country should be preserved and increased; that sources of 
national wealth exist for the benefitof the people, and that monopoly thereof 
should not be tolerated. 



We commend the wise forethought of the President in sounding the 
note of warning as to the waste and exhaustion of the natural resources 
of the country, and signify our high appreciation of his action in calling 
this conference to consider the same and to seek remedies therefor through 
cooperation of the Nation and the States. 

We agree that this cooperation should find expression in suitable action 
by the Congress within the limits of and coextensive with the national 
jurisdiction of the subject, and, complementary thereto, by the legisla- 
tures of the. several States within the limits of and coextensive with 
their jurisdiction. 

We declare the conviction that in the use of the national resources our 
independent States are interdependent and bound together by ties of 
mutual benefits, responsibilities, and duties. 

We agree in the wisdom of future conferences between the President, 
Members of Congress, and the governors of States on the conservation of 
our natural resources with a view of continued cooperation and action on 
the lines suggested; and to this end we advise that from time to time, 
as in his judgment may seem wise, the President call the governors of 
States and Members of Congress and others into conference. 

We agree that further action is advisable to ascertain the present con- 
dition of our natural resources and to promote the conservation of the same ; 
and to that end we recommend the appointment by each State of a com- 
mission on the conservation of natural resources, to cooperate with each 
other and with any similar commission of the Federal Government. 

We urge the continuation and extension of forest policies adapted to 
secure the husbanding and renewal of our diminishing timber supply, the 
prevention of soil erosion, the protection of headwaters, and the main- 
tenance of the purity and navigability of our streams. We recognize 
that the private ownership of forest lands entails responsibilities in the 
interests of all the people, and we favor the enactment of laws looking 
to the protection and replacement of privately owned forests. 

We recognize in our waters a most valuable asset of the people of the 
United States, and we recommend the enactment of laws looking to the 
conservation of water resources for irrigation, water supply, power, and 
navigation, to the end that navigable and source streams may be brought 
under complete control and fully utilized for every purpose. We espe- 
'cially urge on the Federal Congress the immediate adoption of a wise, 
active, and thorough waterway policy, providing for the prompt improve- 
ment of our streams and the conservation of their watersheds required for 
the uses of commerce and the protection of the interests of our people. . 

We recommend the enactment of laws looking to the prevention of 
waste in the mining and extraction of coal, oil, gas, and other minerals 
with a view to their wise conservation for the use of the people, and to the 
protection of human life in the mines. 

let us conserve the foundations of our prosperity. 

340 

o 



PUBLIC LANDS COMMISSION. 



[Senate Document No. 188, Fifty-eighth Congress, second session.] 

MESSAGE FBOM THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, SUB- 
MITTING THE PRELIMINARY REPORT OF THE PUBLIC LANT)S 
COMMISSION APPOINTED OCTOBER 23, 1903, TO REPORT UPON 
THE CONDITION, OPERATION, AND EFFECT OF THE PRESENT 
LAND LAWS, AND TO RECOMMEND SUCH CHANGES AS ABE 
NEEDED. 



i 



[Senate Document No. 154, Fifty-eighth Congress, third session.] 



MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, SUB- 
MITTING THE SECOND PARTIAL REPORT OF THE PUBLIC LANDS 
COMMISSION, APPOINTED OCTOBER 22, 1903, TO REPORT UPON 
THE CONDITION, OPERATION, AND EFFECT OF THE PRESENT 
LAND LAWS. 



58th Congress, ) SENATE. j Document 

M Session. \ (No. 188. 



PUBLIC LANDS COMMISSION. 



MESSAGE 

FROM THE 



PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, 



BUBMITTINO 



THE PRELIMINABY REPORT OF THE PTJBLIC LANDS COMMISSION 
APPOINTED OCTOBER 22, 1908, TO REPORT UPON THE CONDI- 
TION, OPERATION, AND EFFECT OF THE PRESENT LAND LAWS, 
AND TO RECOMMEND SUCH CHANGES AS ARE NEEDED. 



Makch 7, 1904. — Bead, referred to the Committee on Public Lands, and ordered to 

be printed. 



To the Senate and Souse of Representatimes: 

I submit herewith the preliminary report of the Public Lands Com- 
mission appointed by me October 22, 1903, to report upon the condi- 
tion, operation, and effect of the present land laws, and to recommend 
such changfes as are needed to effect the largest practicable disposition 
of the public lands to actual settlers who will build permanent homes 
upon them, and to secure in permanence the fullest and most effective 
use of the resources of the public lands. The subject is one of such 

great importance and great intricacy that it is impossible for the 
ommission to report in full thereon at this time. It is now ready, 
however, to suggest certain changes in the law as set forth in the 
accompanying report. I commend these suggestions to the fa voidable 
consideration of the Congress. 

Theodore Roosevelt. 
White House, Ma/rck 7, 190Ji,. 



PARTIAL REPORT OF THE PUBLIC LANDS COMMISSION. 

Washington, D. C, March 7, 190^. 
Sir: This Commission, appointed October 22, 1903, to report to you 
upon the condition, operation, and effect of the present land laws, and 
to recommend such changes as are needed to effect the largest practi- 
cable disposition of the public lands to actual settlers who wUl build 



2 PUBLIC LANDS COMMISSION. 

permanent homes upon them, and to secure in permanence the fullest 
and most effective use of the resources of the public lands, respectfully 
submits the following partial report: 

MEETINGS OF COMMISSION. 

During the month of December, 1903, the Commission sat in the 
office of the Commissioner of the General Land Office to receive 
recommendations and hear the arguments of all who might appear 
before it. Notice of these sittings was published through the press 
and special invitations to be present were extended to the public lands 
committees of the Congress. Senators and Representatives and others 
appeared before the Commission. 

In January, 1904, Messrs. Pinchot and Newell, of the Commission, 
attended the meetings of the National Livestock Association and of 
the National Woolgrowers' Associatien in Portland, Oreg., and par- 
ticipated in the sessions of those associations. Returning, they also 
visited Sacramento, Cal. ; Reno, Nev.; Salt Lake City, Utah; Denver, 
Colo.; Cheyenne, Wyo., and conferred with governors. State land 
boards, public officials, and citizens generally, and discussed the ques- 
tions under consideration by the Commission. Upon the return "of 
Messrs. Pinchot and Newell to Washington the meetings of the Com- 
mission were resumed. 

MAGNITUDE OF PROBLEM, 

In approaching the question of attaining the largest practicable dis- 
position of the public lands to actual settlers, and the equally impor- 
tant question of securing the most effective use of these lands, we 
appreciate that extremely difficult and far-reaching problems are 
involved. The public lands embrace in area very nearly one-third of 
the entire extent of the United States and are widely scattered, extend- 
ing from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific and from Canada to Mexico, 
including every variety of topography and climate. Excluding Alaska 
there are 23 States and 3 Territories containing public land. This 
includes approximately from 5 to 96 per cent of the area of these 
States. 

Often in any one State the conditions are so diverse that the man 
who argues for certain points is usually found to base his argument 
upon conditions which exist in his locality. If not limited by geo- 
graphical environment the view point is almost always that of a special 
industry such as sheep or cattle raising, irrigation, etc., and the argu- 
ments are based upon a knowledge of conditions which affect that 
industry. It is this condition which has led to the presentation before 
the Commission of irreconcilable statements of exisiting conditions, 
and the divergence of opinion as to the remedies to be adopted. 
Certain able men insist that the public land laws are sufficient, and 
that however the lands are disposed of they will ultimately be put to 
the best use. 

Others go to the other extreme and assert that nearly all of the 
public land laws should be repealed or modified, that they" ai'e incom- 
patible with good administration, and that the lands now being dis- 
posed of are held in such a way that they will never furnish homes to 
people who might otherwise enjoy their use. 



PUBLIC LANDS COMMISSION. 3 

Between these two extremes there is a broad middle ground, occu- 
pied by the majority of persons who have carefully considered the 
subject and who agree that changes should be made and that the land 
laws should be simplified and codified. 

ANTIQUATED LAND LAWS. 

The information obtained by the Commission through the conferences 
in the West and the hearings in Washington discloses a prevailing opin- 
ion that the present land laws do not fit the conditions of the remaining 
public lainds. Most of these laws and the departmental practices which 
have grown up under them were framed to suit the lands of the humid 
region. The pubKc lands which now remain are chiefly arid in char- 
acter. Hence these laws and practices are no longer well suited for 
the most economical and effective disposal of lands to actual settlers. 

The States and Territories where lies the greater part of the public 
domain are progressing rapidly in population and wealth, but not in 
proportion to the disposal of land. In spite of this fact and of the 
i-eeognition that the land laws might be improved, there is a general 
fear of change and a wide demand that the present laws be allowed to 
stand. This is due to dread of the introduction of unfamiliar require- 
mente and to the fear that new enactments may recognize physical 
conditions even less than the present ones, and may be even less suited 
to the needs of the country. By the use of practices sanctioned by 
custom, the people have heretofore been able to get along fairly well; 
any change in their minds is associated with more difficult require- 
ments,, and they dread innovations which may hinder rather than help 
home making. 

The changes suggested at this time have principal bearing upon the 
control, use, and disposal of the forest lands, as these are among the 
most valuable of the lands remaining in public ownership. The repeal 
of the tinaber and stone act will unquestionably cure the most obvious 
defect in the administration of the public lands. Next in importance 
to this is the desert-land law. The Commission is not at present pre- 
pared to suggest radical changes in this law, but we believe that the 
change recommended hereafter in this report, together with a more 
careful enforcement of the law itself, and especially of those pro- 
visions which relate to the adequacy of the permanent water supply, 
will suffice to insure good results. 

TIMBEB AND STONE ACT. 

Under the act of June 3, 1878,, gencTally known as the timber and 
stone aet, there has lately been sm unusual increase in the number of 
entries, which can not be accounted for by an increase in the demands 
of commerce or by any unusual settlement of the localities in which 
the greater part cd the entries were made. In 1902 there were 4,022 
entries under this act, aggregating 546,253 acres, while in 1§03 there 
were 12^249 such entries, aggregating 1,766,222 acres. A very large 
proportion «f these entries were upon timbered land. The law was 
easacted to meet the demands of settlers, miners, and others for timber 
and stone for buiidingr, mining, and other purposes. There is much 
evidence, however, going to show that many entries have been made 
for purposes not contemplated by the Congresa. 



4 PUBLIC LANDS COMMISSION. 

Under this law no residence upon nor cultivation of the tract entered 
is required. An application is made at the local land office in the dis- 
trict in which the land is situated to purchase 160 acres, or less, of 
land which it is alleged is chiefly valuable for the timber or stone, as 
the case may be, which it contains. Advertisement is made for sixty 
days, naming a date upon which evidence will be offered before the 
local land officers to prove the character of the land. Upon the day 
named such proof is offered, and, if deemed sufficient and there being 
no protest nor allegation of fraud or collusion, payment at the rate of 
$2.60 per acre is made and final receipt is issued. This practically 
concludes the transaction, the issuing of the patent following in due 
course of time. 

The only grounds upon which the entry by a qualified entryman 
would be refused are either that the land is not cliiefly valuable for 
timber or stone, or that entry is not being made for the sole use and 
benefit of the entryman, but for speculative purposes. As the entries 
under this act are generally made for the timber which the land con- 
tains, proof is seldom lacking that the land is chiefly valuable for tim- 
ber. It is very difficult to prove collusion or that the entry was made 
for speculative purposes, although it is apparent that many such 
entries have been made. 

In the case of United States v. Budd (144 U. S. , 164), in a decision 
made in March, 1892, the United States Supreme Court said (syllabus 
quoted: 

(1) That all the act of June 3, 1878, denounces is a prior agreement by which the 
patentee acts for another in the purchase. 

{2) That M. might rightfully go or send iuto that vicinity (the vicinity of the 
land) and make known generally to individuals a ■willingness to buy timber land at 
a price in excess of that which it would cost to obtain it from the Government, and 
that a person knowing of that offer might rightfully go to the land office and pur- 
chase a timber lot from the Government and transfer it to M. for the stated excess 
without violating the act of June 3, 1878. 

The Commission believes that Congress did not intend that this law 
should be used for the acquisition of large tracts of valuable timber 
land by individuals or corporations, but it has been used for such 
purposes. Carefulness and vigilance in its administration can not 
prevent its being so used. A great number of such entries were 
recently suspended, but the most rigid investigation failed to show 
that any considerable proportion of them had been made in violation 
of the law, and the suspensions were removed. The fact remains, 
however, that many of these entries were made by nonresidents of the 
State in which the land is situated, who could not use the land nor the 
timber upon it themselves, and it is apparent that they were made for 
speculative purposes and will eventually follow the course taken by 
many previous similar entries and Ijfecome part of some large timber 
holding. 

While this law is adapted to and chiefly used for the acquisition of 
timber land, many entries have been made under it where it was 
alleged that the land is chiefly valuable for stone. There is no doubt 
that the land in a very large proj)ortion of such entries was not desired 
on account of the stone which it contained, but for the purpose of 
obtaining control of water or to add to other holdings. There are, 
moreover, other laws under which land containing stone may be 
entered. 

Our conclusion is that the law is defective, because even when prop- 



PTTBLIO LANDS COMMISSION. 5 

erly administered it may be used for purposes for which it was never 
intended, and we recommend its repeal. 

If the timber and stone act is repealed some legislative enactment 
■will be necessary providing for acquiring timber upon the public lands. 
The manner in which timber upon Indian lands has recently been dis- 
posed of suggests a plan for the disposition of this timber upon the 
public lands. The timber is advertised and sold to the highest bidder, 
with the result that the market price has been obtained. 

In December, 1903, there were two sales of timber upon the ceded 
portion of the Chippewa Indian Reservation in Minnesota. At the 
first sale, on December 5, the timber upon 103,027 acres sold for 
$1,432,771, an average price of fl3.90 per acre. At the second sale, 
on December 28, 95 per cent of the timber upon 72,856 acres sold for 
$1,218,132, an average price of $16.70 per acre. The amounts to be 
received from the various purchases are calculated upon the estimated 
amount of timber upon the land at a stated price per thousand feet, 
"board measure, but the payments will be based upon an actual scale of 
the logs when cut. Logging operations now in progress indicate that 
more than the estimated amount of timber will be cut from these lands.; 
It will be observed that but 95 per cent of the timber was sold at the 
last sale, the remaining 5 per cent being reserved for reforestation. * 

The average price per acre of both sales is $15.06, and the land is 
retained for subsequent disposition. Had this land been disposed of 
under the timlser and stone act the price would have been $2.50 per 
acre for both land and timber. Under these sales the timber on 175,883 
acres sold for $2,650,903, and the Government still owns the land. If 
this land had been disposed of under the timber and stone act the 
Government wonld have received for both land and timber the sum of 
$438,707, a difference of $2,211,196. 

Some means should be provided by which the matured timber upon 
the unreserved public lands may be sold, not only for the use of indi- 
viduals, but also to supply the demands of commerce. There is now 
a provision of law for the free use of timber in limited quantities for 
domestic and mining purposes which meets the requirements of those 
needing small quantities, but there is no provision for the sale of 
timber except from forest reserves. 

RECOMMENDATION OP SALE OF TIMBER. 

We recommend the enactment of a law under which it shall be law- 
ful for the Secretary of the Interior to sell to the highest bidder, at 
pu'blic outcry or otherwise, under such rules and regulations and sub- 
ject to such conditions and restrictions and in such quantities as he ma,y 
prescribe, the right to cut and remove, within such period of time as 
he may fix, any timber from any unappropriated, nonmineral, surveyed 
public lands, after first having had such timber duly appraised, and 
after giving public notice of the time, terms, manner, and place of such 
sale; that he shall have power and authority to reject any and all bids 
offered at any such sale, and that it shall be unlawful for any purchaser 
at such sale to sell, transfer, assign, or in any manner alienate the rights 
secured by him under this act, except as authorized by said Secretary; 
that the act entitled "An act for the sale of timber lands in the States 
of California, Oregon, Nevada, and Washington Territory," approved 
June 3, 1878, and all acts amendatory thereof be repealed, and that no 



6 PUBLIC LANDS COMMISSION. 

lands valuable chiefly for timber shall hereafter be patented under the 
commutation provisions of the homestead laws; that any person who 
violates any of these provisions, or any regulation or requirement pre- 
scribed pursuant thereto, shall forfeit to the United States all benefits 
conferred, and all moneys paid by him, and that any right to cut and 
remove timber which he may then hold shall be canceled and revoked, 

COMMUTATION CLAUSE OF THE HOMESTEAD ACT. 

Much evidence has been submitted, tending to show that in the 
prairie States, where it has been most used, the commutation clause of 
the homestead act has been of advantage to the settler without caus- 
ing serious loss to the Government. On the contrary, the Govern- 
ment has been pecuniarily benefited by it, because under this act the 
land is paid for in cash after fourteen months' residence, while without 
commutation the entryman would receive a patent after five years' 
residence without paying for the land. It is no doubt true that the 
great majority of commutations are made in order to get a title to the 
land upon which money could be borrowed for its improvement. 

There have been abuses of this law as of other land laws, but prin- 
cipally in connection with entries made upon timber lands. It has 
furnished a convenient means by which an individual could obtain 
title to 160 acres of valuable timber land which could be readily sold 
for more than it had cost. In this way large holdings have' been 
acquired. 

The timbered areas of the public lands of to-day are generally in 
mountainous regions, and are not susceptible of a high state of culti- 
vation after being cleared of timber. Entries of such land are seldom 
made for farming purposes, but if it is desired to do so the settler is 
permitted, under the law and regulations, to sell any surplus timber 
upon his claim, the proceeds of which can be used in its improvement. 
This is a source of revenue available immediately after entry and one 
which is not enjoyed by the settler upon prairie land. 

Our investigations respecting the operations of the commutation 
clause are still in progress, and we are not prepared at this time to 
recommend its repeal. We are, however, satisfied that no serious 
hardship will be imposed upon the actual settler by prohibiting the 
patenting, under its provisions, of lands chiefiy valuable for timber. 

DESEET-LAND LAW. 

The Commission is of the opinion that the desert-land law should, 
for the present at least, be allowed to stand, with a few changes in 
detail. With the experience of the past for guidance it is possible to 
enforce this law so that its essential provisions shall be complied with. 
When this is done it is evident that the entryman will have earned a 
patent at an expense too great for speculative purposes. 

The number of entries is not so large as to preclude actual inspec- 
tion of each by an agent of the Government before final proof is 
accepted, and the required expenditures for reclamation are of such a 
character as to be easily ascertained. Especial attention should be 
directed to the proof that an adequate and permanent water supply 
has been provided. 

There is one defect in this act which should be remedied at once. 



PUBLIC LANDS OOMMISSIOTT. 7 

The act of March 3, 1891 (26 Stat, 1095), permits the assignment of 
entries, and to invalidate an entry the illegal intent must assume some 
tangible form prior to entry. The mere fact that a contract to sell is 
made after the entry, or any other arrangement whereby the lands are 
held for some other person, does not warrant cancellation. This 
feature of the law is the chief objection that might be urged against it. 

The right to assign an entry is not in harmony with the fundamental 
principle underlying the public-land laws that entries should be made 
for the exclusive benefit of the entryman and not for the benefit of 
any other person, and its existence practically abrogates the restriction 
of the act limiting one person to one entry in a compact form, the 
only actual limitation being to 320 acres, which might embrace a num- 
ber of noncontiguous tracts taken by assignment. 

The interest of the Government and of the actual settler will be pro- 
tected and promoted by a repeal of so much of the act of March 3, 1891, 
as permits the assignment of desert-land entries. 

AGEICULTTJRAL LAND IN FOREST KESEBVES. 

However carefully the boundaries of forest reserves may be selected, 
it is practically inevitable that more or less agricultural land should be 
included. Such land usually lies in the narrow valleys of the rivers. 
Its occupa,tion for agricultural purposes is in the interest of the region 
in which it lies and of the settlers who would make homes upon it. 
The presence of the latter in the reserves would, under wise laws, 
operate distinctly for the protection and general advantage of the 
reserves. It is essential to the prosperity of the public-land States 
both that the forest reserves should be maintained and that all of the 
land within their borders should be put to its best use. To exclude all 
agricultural lands by Presidential proclamation is not feasible, because 
of their small area, scattered location , and irregular boundaries. There- 
fore we recommend that such lands be opened to agricultural entry in 
the following way: 

That the Secretary having supervision of forest reserves may, upon 
application or otherwise, ascertain, list, and describe, by metes and 
bounds or otherwise, lands within such reserves which are chiefly 
valuable for agriculture, and that the lands so listed may, at the expi - 
ration of ninety days from the filing of such lists in the land oflSce of 
the land district in which they are situated, be disposed of to actual 
settlers under the homestead laws only, in tracts not exceeding 160 
acres in area and not exceeding 1^ miles in length; that when such 
lands are ascertained and listed upon the application of any person 
qualified to make' homestead entry, such applicant may settle upon and 
enter such lands thirty days after the date of such fiiling; that no per- 
son settling upon, entering, or occupying such lands shall thereby have 
a right to use any other lands within such reserve for grazing or other 
purposes; that any entryman desiring to obtain patent to any lands, 
described by metes and bounds, entered by him under the provisions 
of this act, may do so by filing, with the required proof of residence 
and cultivation, a plat and field notes of the lands entered, made by or 
under the direction of the United States surveyor-general, showing 
accurately the boundaries of such lands, which shall be distinctly 
marked by monuments on the ground, and shall post a copy of such 
plat, together with a notice of the time and place of offering proof, in 
30623—05 2 



8 PtTBLIO LANDS COMMISSION. 

a conspicuous place on the land embraced in such plat during the period 
prescribed for the publication of his notice of intention to offer proof, 
and that a copy of such plat and field notes shall also be kept posted in 
the office of the register of the land office for the land district in which 
such lands are situated for a like period; and further, that any agri- 
cultural lands within forest reserves may, at the discretion of the Sec- 
retary, be surveyed by metes and bounds, but that no lands entered 
under these provisions shall be patented under the commutation pro- 
visions of the homestead laws or be exchanged for other public lands. 

To open the reserves to homestead entry without restriction would 
be in effect to abolish them. We therefore recommend tbat the agri- 
cultural character of the lands should be officially ascertained, as nas 
been the habit hitherto in the case of agricultural and mineral lands. 

The effect of the foregoing provisions is to give an intending set- 
tler the right to apply for the particular agricultural land he wants 
and sixty days' preference in entering it. Througli survey by metes 
and bounds the settler is enabled to take the full amount of 160 acres 
of actual agricultural land. The principal danger in the administra- 
tion of this plan is likely to arise from the desire of others than actual 
settlers to get possession of valuable timber lands on the plea that they 
are agricultural in character, to cut the timber from the lands, and 
then abandon them, to the serious injury of the interests which the 
reserves are created to serve. 

Such an abuse would be greatly facilitated by the commutation 
clause of tbe homestead act, whereas actual settlers on agricultural 
lands in forest reserves would seldom or never suffer hardship from 
the requirement of five years' residence. Agricultural lands in forest 
reserves are not wholly on the same plane as such lands outside, 
because their use must be subservient to the purposes for which the 
reserves were created. Their actual occupation by permanent settlers 
is of the first importance to this object, and shifting of ownership 
during the first years of settlement and development would be of 
serious injury to the reserves. We are of the opinion that to allow 
the application of the commutation clause of the homestead act to 
lands in the forest reserves would tend to defeat the object of the 
opening of these lands to agricultural entry and would embarrass the 
administration of the reserves. 

LANDS KBLEASED FEOM TEMPOEAET WITHDRAWAL. 

In making forest reserves it is usually necessary to withdraw tem- 
porarily, pending segregation, considerable areas of _ land which are 
known to contain forest growth. These temporary 'withdrawals are 
made usually of areas larger than will ultimately be proclaimed as 
forest reserves, in order to enable the officers of the Government to 
ascertain what are the existing conditions and to draw the boundaries 
with care and without interference growing out of speculative entries 
or selections made not for settlement, but to secure certain advantages 
which may grow out of the creation of the forest reserve. For this 
reason temporary withdrawals are essential for the careful delimiting 
of the forest reserve. When the limits of a forest reserve are deter- 
mined upon, the excluded lands are restored to entry and settlement. 

Experience has shown that speculative entries or large filings of 
so-called scrip are frequently made upon such excluded land, to the 



PUBLIC LANDS OOMMISSIOTT. W 

detriment of actual settlers. Therefore provisions should be made to 
give actual settlers ample time in which to exercise their rights. 
Accordingly, the Commission recommends that in the event of the 
modification or revocation of any order temporarily withdrawing lands 
from settlement and entry resulting in the release of such lands from 
such withdrawal, or in the event of the exclusion or release of lands 
from any forest reserve established by the President, under section 24 of 
the act approved March 3, 1891, entitled "An act to repeal timber-culture 
laws, and for other purposes," the nonraineral public lands so released 
from a forest reserve, and not otherwise appropriated or reserved, 
shall become subject to settlement from the date of the order or proc- 
lamation so releasing or excluding them, but shall not become subject 
to entry, filing, or selection under any law providing for the disposal 
of nonmineral public lands until after sixty days' notice by such pub- 
lication as the becretary of the Interior may prescribe, nor shall they 
become subject to entry, filing, or selection under any law except the 
homestead laws until ninety days after said notice. 

The Commission will continue its investigations and make further 
report. 
Respectfully submitted. 

W. A. Richards. 

F. H. Newell. 

GiFFOKD PlNCHOT. 

The President. 



58th Congeess, [ SENATE. J Document 

3d Session. \ 1 No. 154. 



PUBLIC LANDS COMMISSION. 



MESSAGE 

FROM THE 



PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, 

SUBMITTING 

THE SECOND PARTIAL BEPOBT OF THE PUBLIC LANDS COMMIS- 
SION, APPOINTED OCTOBEE, 22, 1903, TO BEPORT UPON THE 
CONDITION, OPERATION, AND EFFECT OP THE PRESENT LAND 
LAWS. 



February 13, 1905. — Read; referred to the Committee on Public Lands and 

ordered to be printed. 



To the Senate and House of Representatives : 

I submit herewith the second partial report of the Public Lands 
Commission, appointed by me October 22, 1903, to report upon the 
condition, operation, and effect of the present land laws and to rec- 
ommend such changes as are needed to effect the largest practical dis- 
position of the public lands to actual settlers who will build homes - 
upon them and to secure in permanence the fullest and most effective 
use of the resources of the public lands. The subject is one of such 
magnitude and importance that I have concluded to submit this sec- 
ond partial report bearing upon some of the larger features which 
require immediate attention without waiting for the final statement 
of the Commission, which, from the very nature of the case, it has 
not been possible to complete at this time. I am in full sympathy 
with the general conclusions of the Commission in substance and in 
essence, and I commend its recommendations to your earnest and 
favorable consideration. The existing conditions, as set forth in this 
report, seem to require a radical revision of most of the laws affecting 
the public domain, if we are to secure the best possible use of the 
remaining public lands by actual home makers. 

Theodore Roosevelt. 

The White House, February 13, 1905. 



2 PUBLIC LANDS COMMISSION. 

1. This report is based on a broad general view of the public-land 
situation, not on specific cases. 

2. The present laws are not suited to meet the conditions of the re- 
maining public domain. 

3. The agricultural possibilities of the remaining public domain 
are unknown. Provision should be made to ascertain them, and, 
pending such ascertainment, to hold under Government control and 
in trust for such use the lands likely to be developed by actual 
settlers. 

4. The right to exchange lands in forest reserves for lands outside 
should be withdrawn. Provision should be made for the purchase of 
needed private lands inside forest reserves, or for the exchange of 
such lands for specified tracts of like area and value outside the 
reserves. 

5. The former recommendation for the repeal of the timber and 
stone act is renewed and emphasized. 

6. The sale of timber from unreserved public lands should be 
authorized. 

7. The commutation clause of the homestead act is found on exami- 
nation to work badly. Three years' actual residence should be re- 
quired before commutation. 

8. The desert-land law is found to lead to land monopoly in many 
cases. The area of a desert entry should be reduced to not exceeding 
160 acres. Actual residence for not less than two years should be 
required, with the actual production of a valuable crop on one-fourth 
the area and proof of an adequate water supply. 

9. After thorough investigation of the grazing problem your 
Commission is opposed to the immediate application of any rigid 
system to all grazing lands, but recommends the following flexible 
plan: 

(a) Authority should be given to the President to set aside graz- 
ing districts by proclamation. 

{&) Authority should be given the Secretary of Agriculture to 
classify and appraise the grazing value of lands in these districts ; to 
appoint such officers as the care of each district may require; to 
charge and collect a moderate fee for grazing permits, and to make 
and apply appropriate regulations to each district, with the special 
object of bringing about the largest permanent occupation of the 
country by actual settlers and home seekers. 

10. The fundamental fact that characterizes the situation under 
the present public-land law is this, that the number of patents issued 
is increasing out of all proportion to the number of new homes. 



SECOND PARTIAL REPORT OF THE PUBLIC LANDS COMMISSION. 

Sir : This Commission, appointed October 22, 1903, to report upon 
the condition, operation, and effect of the present land laws, and to 
recommend such changes as are needed to effect the largest practicable 
disposition of the public lands to actual settlers who will build per- 
manent homes upon them, and to secure in permanence the fullest 
and most effective use of the resources of the public lands, submitted 
to you a partial report, dated March T, 1904, which was printed as 



PUBLIC LANDS COMMISSION. 8 

Senate Document No. 188, Fifty-eighth Congress, second session. 
In this report reference was made to the magnitude of the problems 
and to the fact that it was not then practicable to reach definite con- 
clusions on a number of the more intricate questions. 

Since the time of making this first report many meetings of the 
Commission have been held and special topics have been assigned 
to experts for their detailed investigation. The members of the 
Commission have individually and collectively studied many of the 
subjects assigned to it. During the year 1904 each member spent 
much time upon the public lands, making personal inquiries into 
existing conditions and discussing public-land questions with public 
men and citizens generally. 
_ The Commission now respectfully submits to you a further par- 
tial report. 

There is in preparation an appendix containing special reports pre- 
I pared for the Commission, upon which, in part, the conclusions here 
presented are based. The Commission desires to express to you its high 
appreciation of the valuable assistance and support it has received 
from officers of the General Land Office, the United States Geological 
Survey (especially the reclarualion service), and the bureaiis of Plant 
Industry and Forestry of the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture. 

PROBLEMS PRESENTED. 

The total area of the public lands of the United States, exclusive 
of Alaska, was 1,441,436,160 acres, of which 473,836,402 acres still 
remained on June 30, 1904. The latter figure, of nearly half a bil- 
lion acres, while but a third of the original area, is still enormous. 
Even to see typical examples of these lands in each of the States or 
larger political divisions would require months of arduous travel. 
To obtain a full comprehension of all the physical conditions would 
require years of research. This fact is emphasized because it appears 
in the general discussion of public-land questions by hundreds or 
thousands of individuals that as a rule each man sees only certain 
phases of a group of problems and from his own view point brings 
argument to bear for or against any one conclusion. Specific cases 
are cited to show that certain land laws should be repealed or revised, 
or should be allowed to remain, and instances are given of the bene- 
ficial results of such action. 

A correct decision must be based not upon individual cases but upon 
the broadest attainable knowledge of prevailing tendencies and re- 
sults. In a hundred cases it may be possible to find 10 excellent illus- 
trations of the beneficial workings of a law, and yet the remaining 
90 cases show without doubt that the law on the whole is not good. 
It is only when large groups of facts are comprehended and analyzed 
that the real conditions appear. 

ANTIQUATED LAND LAWS. 

In our preceding report reference was made to the fact that the 
present land laws do not fit the conditions of the remaining public 
lands. Most of these laws and the departmental practices which 
have grown up under them were framed to suit the lands of the 



4 PTTBirO LANDS OOMMISSIOH-. 

humid region. It is evident that the decisions often coixtemplate 
conditions such as prevail in the Mississippi Valley and Middle West 
Judging cases by arbitrary rules of evidence and considering only 
such facts as may be presented under these rules> there is much ele- 
mentary and essential knowledge of whicli cognizance can not be 
taken. 

The changes we recommend in the land laws are required not only 
because some of the present laws are wholly unsuited to existing con- 
ditions, but also in part because some of these laws as originaliy 
drawn contemplated certain conditions or practices which have bBen 
gradually modified by various rulings or decisions. In short, the- 
precedents established and which now hav& practically the force of' 
law have so completely modified the apparent object of the original 
statute that the statute and the prevailing conditions appear to be 
wholly unconnected. The effect of laws passed to promote settlement 
is now not infrequently to prevent or retard it, 

LAND CLASSIFICATIONS. 

The agricultural possibilities of the remaining public lands are as 
yet almost unknown. Lands which a generation or even a decade- 
ago were supposed to be valueless are now producing large crop&, 
either with or without irrigation. This has been brought about in 
part by the introduction of new grains and other plants and new 
methods of farming and in part by denser population and improved 
systems of transportation. It is obvious that the first essential for 
putting the remaining public lands to their best use is to ascertaiM 
what that best use is by a preliminary study and classification' O'f 
them, and to determine their probable future development by agri- 
culture. 

Until it can be definitely ascertained th-at any given area of the 
public lands is and in all probability forever will remain unsuited to 
agricultural development, the title to that land should remain in the 
General Government in trust for- the future settler. 

For example: The passage- of the reclamation act (June 17, 1902)- 
made certain the disposition to actual settlers of large areas of lan^" 
which up to that time had been considered as valueless. Other 
areas, which are too high and barren to have notable value evero for 
grazing, are now known to have importance in the future develop- 
ment of the country through their capa:city to produce forest gro-wth. 
The making of wells will give an added value to vast tracts of range 
lands for- which the water supply is now scanty. In short, because 
of possible development, through irrigation, through the introduc- 
tion of new plants and new methods of farming; through forest 
preservation, and grazing control, the remaining pubic lands have an 
inportance hitherto but dimly foreseen. 

In view of these facts it is of the first importance to save the 
reniamm^ public domain for actual home builders to the utmost 
hmit of future possibilities and not to mortgage the future by any 
disposition of the public lands under which home makianig- will not 
keep step with disposal. To that end youir Commission recommen'ds 
(see p. 12) a method of range control under which present resources 
may be used to the full without endangering future settleKtent.' 

After the agricultural possibilities of the public lands have been 



PUBXIO LAUDS COMMISSION". 5 

ascertained with reasonable certainty, provision should be made for 
dividing them into areas sufficiently large to support a family, and 
no larger, and to permit settlement on such areas. It is obvious that 
any attempt to accomplish this end without a careful classification 
of the public lands must necessarilj fail Attempts of this kind are 
being made from time to time, and legislation of this character is 
now pending, modeled on the Nebraska 640-acre homestead law, 
which was passed as an experiment to meet a certain restricted local 
condition. This act (33 Stat., 547) permits the entry of 640-acre 
homesteads in the sand-hill region of that State. '\Vhether in prac- 
tix;e the operation of this law will result in putting any considerable 
number of settlers on the land is not yet determined. 

Your Commission is of opinion, a"fter careful consideration, that 
general provisions of this kind should not be extended until after 
thorough study of the public lands has been made in each particular 
case, because to do so controverts the fundamental principle of saving 
the public lands for the home maker. Each locality should be dealt 
with on its own merits. Even if it should ultimately appear that 
this law has worked beneficially in Nebraska it would by no means 
follow that such a law might be safely applied to other regions dif- 
ferent in topography, soil, and climate. No arbitrary rule should 
be followed,, but in each case the area of the homestead should be 
determined by the acreage which may be necessary to support a 
fa'Hiily upon the land', either by agriculture, or by grazing if agricul- 
ture is impracticable. Until such acreage is determined for each 
locality,, any new general, law providing a method of obtaining title 
to the public lands would, in the opinion of your Commission, be 
decidedly unsafe. 

LIEU LANDS. 

Careful study has been given by your Commission to the subject 
of forest-reserve lieu-land selections. These selections have given 
rise to great scandal, and have led to the acquisition by speculators 
of much valuable timber and agricultural land and its consolidation 
into large holdings. Furthermore, the money loss to the Govern- 
ment and the people from the selection of valuable lands in lieu of 
worthless areas has been very great. There has been no commen- 
surate return in the way of increased settlement and business activ- 
ity. Public opinion concerning lieu-land selections, by railroads in 
particular, has reached an acute stage. The situation is in urgent 
need of a remedy, and jour Commission recommends the repeal of 
the laws providing for lieu-1'and selections. 

A partial remedy by Executive action has already been applied by 
carefully locating the boundaries of new forest reserves, and thus 
limiting lieu-land selections to comparatively insignificant areas. 
The last annual message to Congress declares definitely that — 

The making of foirest reserves within raiU-ood and wagon-road land-grant 
limits will hereafter, as for the past three years, be so managed as to prevent 
the issue, under the act of June 4, 1897, of Base for exchange or lieu selection 
(usually callted scrip).. In all eases vyhere forest reserves within areas cov- 
ered by land grants appear to- be essential to the prosperity of settlers, miners, 
or others the Government lands within such proposed forest reserves will, as 
in the recent past, be withdrawn from sale or entry pending the completion of 
such negotiations with the owners of th& land grants as will' prevent the crea- 
tion of so-called scitliii 



6 PUBLIC LANDS COMMISSIOM'. 

There are now lands in private ownership within existing forest 
reserves, and similar lands must to a limited extent be included in 
new reserves. Therefore, a method is required by which the Groy- 
ernment may obtain control of nonagricultural holdings within 
the boundaries of these reserves. Your Commission recommends 
the following flexible plan : Upon the recommendation of the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture, when the public interest so demands, the Secre- 
tary of the Interior should be authorized, in his discretion, to accept 
the relinquishment to the United States of any tract of land within 
a forest reserve covered by an unperfected bona fide claim lawfully 
initiated or by a patent, and to grant to the owner in lieu thereof a 
tract of unappropriated, vacant, surveyed, nonniineral public land 
in the same State or Territory and of approximately equal area 
and value as determined by an examination, report, and specific 
description by public surveys of both tracts, to be made on the 
ground by officials df the Government. When exchange under these 
conditions can not be effected, lands privately owned within forest 
reserves should be paid for in cases where the public interest requires 
that such lands should pass into public ownership. The Secretarj' 
of the Interior should be authorized to take the necessary proceed- 
ings as rapidly as the necessary funds are provided. 

TIMBER AND STONE ACT. 

The recommendations made for the repeal of the timber and stone 
act in the previous report are renewed and emphasized. Additional 
facts showing the destructive effect of this law have strengthened 
the belief of your Commission that on the whole its operation is de- 
cidedly harmful. This law has been made the vehicle for innumer- 
able frauds, and the Government has lost and is still losing yearly 
vast sums of money through the sale of valuable timber lands to 
speculators, and hence indirectly to large corporations, at a price far 
below their actual value. From the passage of the act, June 3, 1878, 
to June 30, 1904, 55,372 claims for 7,596,078 acres of timber land 
were patented under its provisions, and on last date 7,644 claims for 
1,108,380 acres were pending. Many transfers of land patented 
under this law are made immediately upon completion of title, 
often on the same day, to individuals and companies. In this way 
a monopoly of the timber supplies of the public-land States is being 
created by systematic collusion. Under the existing rules, and prac- 
tices of the courts it is difficult to prove this collusion, except in cases 
of open fraud, and it is therefore practically impossible to secure 
conviction. Furthermore, under bona fide compliance with the ac- 
tual provisions of the law the effect is almost equally bad. The law 
itself is seriously defective. 

It has been urged in behalf of this act that it enables poor men to 
enjoy the bounty of the Government by obtaining tracts of timber 
which they can afterwards sell with advantage. A careful study 
seems to show, on the contrary, that the original entrymen rarely 
realize more than ordinary wages for the time spent in making the 
entry and completing the transfer. The corporations which ulti- 
mately secure title unusually absorb by far the greater part of the 
profit. 

In addition to the direct loss to the Government from the sale of 
the lands far below their real value, timber lands which should have 



PtJBLIC LANDS COMMISSION. 7 

been preserved for the use of the people are withdrawn from such 
use, and the development of the country is retarded until the corpora- 
tions which own the timber see fit to cut it. The bona fide settler who 
comes into a country, the timber resources of which have thus been 
absorbed, may be very seriously hampered by his inability to secure 
timber except from a foreign corporation. All of the timber land 
has often passed beyond his reach, and the development of his farm 
may be retarded and his expenses greatly increased because he can no 
longer obtain the necessary supplies of fuel, rails, posts, and lumber. 

As in the case of other laws, instances of the beneficial operation 
of this act may be cited, but when it is considered from the point of 
view of the general interest of the public it becomes obvious that 
this law should be repealed. 

SALE or TIMBER ON THE PTJBLIC LANDS. 

Necessity for the enactment of a law authorizing the sale of timber 
on nonreserve public land is becoming more evident, and the recom- 
mendations made in the preceding report of this Commission are 
reiterated. For the best use of the public lands it is absolutely 
essential to hold public tim>ber for sale when needed and in quanti- 
ties necessitated by the continuous growth of prevailing industries. 
Provision .should also be made for a limited free-use right by miners 
and actual settlers. 

COMMUTATION CLAUSE OF THE HOMESTEAD ACT, 

In the preceding report a statement was made that our investiga- 
tions respecting the operations of the commutation clause of the 
homestead law were still in progress. We were not at that time pre- 
pared to recommend its repeal. Investigations carried on during 
the past year have convinced us that prompt action should be taken 
in this direction and that, in the interest of settlement, the commu- 
tation clause should be greatly modified. 

A careful examination of the districts where the commutation 
clause is put to the most use shows that there has been a rapid increase 
of the use of this expedient, for passing public lands into the hands 
of corporations or large landowners. The object of the homestead 
law was primarily to give to each citizen, the head of a family, an 
amount of land up to 160 acres, agricultural in character, so that 
. homes would be created in the wilderness. The commutation clause, 
added at a later date, was undoubtedly intended to assist the honest 
settler, but like many other well-intended acts its original intent has 
been gradually perverted until now it is apparent that a great part 
of all commuted homesteads remain uninhabited. In other words, 
under the commutation clause the number of patents furnishes no 
index to the number of new homes. 

To prove this statement it is only necessary to drive through a 
country where the commutation clause has been largely applied. 
Field after field is passed without a sign of permanent habitation or 
improvement other than fences. The homestead shanties of the 
commuters may be seen in various degrees of dilapidation, but they 
show no evidence of genuine occupation. They have never been in 
any sense homes. 



8 PUBLIC LANDS COMMISSION. 

Investigations have been carried on where the commuted home- 
steads are notable in number. The records of some of the counties 
examined show that ^0 per cent of the commuted honiesteads were 
transferred within three months after acquisition of title, and evi- 
dence was obtained to show that two-thirds of the commuters imme- 
diately left the State. In many instances foreigners, particularly 
citizens of Canada, came into this country, declared their intention 
of becoming citizens, took up homesteads, commuted, sold them, and 
returned to their native land. 

The reasons given for adhering to the commutation clause are 
diverse and many of them are cogent when applied to individual 
cases. It is said, for example, that the commuter desires to raise 
money for use in improving his place. This is often true, but in the 
majority of cases the records show that the commuter immediately 
leaves the vicinity. The frequency of loans is traceable in many 
places directly to the activity of agents of loan companies, who are 
often United States commissioners also, eager first to induce settle- 
ment and then to make these loans on account of the double commis- 
sion received. Later they secure the business which accrues to them 
through the foreclosure and transfer of the property. The true 
working of the commutation clause does not appear until after fore- 
closure upon the maturity of the loans. 

One significant fact brought out by the investigation is that a large 
portion of the commuters are women, who never establish a perma- 
nent residence and who are employed temporarily in the towns as 
school-teachers or in domestic service, or who are living with their 
parents. The great majority of these commuters sell immediately 
upon receiving title, the business being transacted through some 
agent who represents his client in all dealings and prepares all 
papers. 

The commutation clause, if it is to be retained to cover special cases, 
should be effective only after not less than three years' actual — ^not 
constructive — living at home on the land. Under present practice, 
the commutation period being fourteen months, six months of this 
time is generally taken to establish residence, so that only eight 
months remain. This time is usually arranged to include the sum- 
mer, so that the shack built need not be habitable in severe winter 
weather, and the residence on the land niay consist merely in a sum- 
mer outing. Obviously it is essential that residence should be far 
. more strictly defined. It is probable that lax interpretation and en- 
forcement of the provisions of the law regarding residence is respon- 
sible for more fraud under the homestead act than all other causes ' 
combined. 

It may be urged that the frauds which have taken place under the 
operations of the commutation clause are due largely to lax adminis- 
tration. The fact is that the precedents established "by decisions ren- 
dered on special cases have so far weakened th& powers of adminis- 
tration that additional legislation is necessary. 

DESEET-LAND LAW. 

In the preceding report the opinion was expressed that the desert- 
land law should, for the present, at least, be allowed to stand, with a 
tew changes m detail. It was believed that, with the experience of 



PUBLIC LANDS OOMMISSIOIT. » 

the past for guidance, it would be possible to enforce tbis law so that 
its essential provisions could be complied with. More careful analy- 
sis, however, of the operations of this act and of the practices which 
have grown up has led your Commission strongly to the conclusion 
that this, law should be modified in essential particulars. 

Your Commission recommended last year the repeal of the assign- 
ment clause. This provision has been made the convenient vehicle 
for evading the spirit of th« law and for facilitating the acquisition 
of lands in large holdings. The law limits the amount which one 
person or association of persons may hold, by assignment or other- 
wise, prior to patent to 320 acres of such arid or desert lands. The 
most common form of attempted evasion of this requirement is for 
two or three individuals to form themselves into a corporation, each 
individual member of the corporation securing, by entry or assign- 
ment, 320 acres of such lands and the corporation as such SSO* 
acres. These same individuals then form another corporation under 
an entirely different name and procure an assignment of another 320 
acres, and this process is continued indefinitely. 

The General Land Office has within the past year endeavored to 
put a stop to this practice by holding that a corporation or associa- 
tion of persons is not qualified to receive a desert-land entry by 
assignment where its individual members, either singly or in the 
aggregate, are holding 320 acres of such arid or desert lands. This 
ruling, if enforced, will tend to lessen the evils resulting from large 
holdings prior to patent, but it is not deemed possible to secure ade- 
quate control of this question unless the law prohibits assignments 
of desert-land entries. By repealing that provision of the law and 
requiring the claimant to show that he has made the entry for his 
own use and benefit and not for the benefit of any other person or 
corporation and that he has made no agreement by which the title 
shall inure to any other person or corporation the evils incident to 
large holdings of such lands under the sanction of law will be materi- 
ally lessened. 

It is a str iking fact that these large holdings of desert land are 
not reclaimed and devoted to their best use. Three hundred and 
twenty acres of irrigable land is entirely too much for economical 
handling by one person.. On the other hand,, inspection shows that 
in the same locality and under the same climatic conditions the home- 
stead entries, where not commuted, are reclaimed and utilized. 

The desert-land act as it stands upon the statute books appears to 
have many features which commend it, but, as before state'd, the 
practices governing it have largely nullified its good features, and 
the resulting evils can not be fully overcome without legislation. 

The area of the desert entry should be cut down from 320 acres to 
not exceeding 160 acres, and discretion should be given to the Secre- 
tary of the Interior to cut it down still further where it is apparent 
that intensive cultivation is practicable. A farm of 320 acres, if 
irrigated, is entirely too large for a single family, and its possession 
simply prevents other settlers from coming into the country. Fur- 
thermoare, it makes laimd monopoly easy and induces speculation. 

Actual living at home on the land for not less than two years should 
be required before patent. Your Commission can not understand 
why any settler should be given both a homestead and a desert entry, 
either of which without the other should suffice, under the law, to 



10 PTJBLIO LANBS COMMISSION. 

furnish him a home. The desert-land law should be a means of 
settlement, and actual bona fide residence should be rigidly required. 

The actual production of a valuable crop should be required on not 
less than one-fourth of the area of the entry. At present, as a rule, 
the greater part of the desert entries are never actually watered. 
Hundreds or desert entries were examined by members of the Com- 
mission in the last year, and the great majority of them were found 
to be uninhabited, unirrigated, uncultivated, and with no improve- 
ments other than a fence. This applies both to desert entries upon 
which final proof is now being offered and to other entries to which 
title has been given. 

It is a fact that a very small proportion of the land disposed of 
under the terms of the law has actually been reclaimed and irrigated, 
and scrutiny of many hundreds of desert entries now passing to final 
proof shows that in the majority of cases these lands are not actually 
utilized, but are being held for speculative purposes. Owing to 
several causes, among which are the laxity of some of the State laws 
governing appropriation of water for irrigation purposes, and the 
insufficiency of the water supply, considerable difficulty has been 
encountered in administering that provision of the desert-land laws 
which requires a claimant to have a permanent water right based on 
prior appropriation. Very often the waters of a stream are ex- 
hausted by other appropriators before the time when the claimant 
goes through the form of posting notices, recording his claim, and 
complying with other essentials of the State law. Notwithstanding 
this, he furnishes the testimony of two witnesses that the water 
thus appropriated has been used in reclaiming his land, and that 
the supply is adequate for that purpose. While this showing, on 
its face, indicates a compliance with law, the fact remains that the 
water supply, if any at all, is not sufficient to permanently reclaim 
the land. 

The ownership of stock in a projected irrigation ditch which does 
not exist in fact, or the ownership of a pump temporarily installed, 
has often been accepted, in connection with such testimony, as proof 
of the possession of water. Many alleged irrigation ditches or 
reservoirs are familiar to members of the Commission which are 
utterly inadequate to irrigate a square rod, and upon the strength of 
such works patent has frequently issued to 320 acres of land. 

Frauds committed through conventional forms of perjury and 
through lack of proper verification of the facts as to the reclamation 
of the Jand justify the taking of immediate and radical steps in the 
revision of the law. The law should absolutely require an actual 
adequate water supply, and the limits as to quantity should be defined, 
defined. 

In short, the law should render impossible the continuance of the 
practices by which desert lands without water, without cultivation, 
and without crops are passed into the possession of claimants. 

GRAZING LANDS. 

The great bulk of the vacant public lands throughout the West 
are unsuitable for cultivation under the present known conditions 
of agriculture, and so located that they can not be reclaimed by irri- 
gation. They are, and probably always must be, of chief value for 



PUBLIC LANDS COMMISSION. 11 

• 

grazing. There are, it is estimated, more than 300,000,000 acres of 
public grazing land, an area approximately equal to one-fifth the 
extent of the United States proper. The exact limits can not be set, 
for with seasonal changes large areas of land which afford good 
grazing one year are almost desert in another. There are also vast 
tracts of wpoded or timbered land in which grazing has much im- 
portance, and until a further classification of th« public lands is 
made it will be impossible to give with exactness the total acreage. 
The extent is so vast and the commercial interests involved so great 
as to demand in the highest degree the wise and conservative han- 
dling of these vast resources. 

It is a matter of the first importance to know whether these graz- 
ing lands are being used in the best way possible for the continued 
development of the country or whether they are being abused under 
a system which is detrimental to such development and by which the 
only present value of the land is being rapidly destroyed. 

At present the vacant public lands are theoretically open commons, 
free to all citizens; but as a matter of fact a large proportion have 
been parceled out by more or less definite compacts or agreements 
among the various interests. These tacit agreements are contin- 
ually being violated. The sheepmen and cattlemen are in frequent 
collision because of incursions upon each other's domain. Land 
which for years has been regarded as exclusively cattle range may be 
infringed upon by large bands of sheep, forced by drought to mi- 
grate. Violence and homicide frequently follow, after which new 
adjustments are made and matters quiet down for a time. There 
are localities where th« people are utilizing to their own satisfac- 
tion the open range, and their demand is to be let alone, so that th«y 
may pareS out among themselves the use of the lands ; but an agree- 
ment made to-day may be broken to-morrow' by changing condi- 
tions of shifting interests. 

The general lack of control in the use of public grazing lands has 
resulted, naturally and inevitably, in overgrazing and the ruin of 
millions of acres of otherwise valuable grazing territory. Lands 
useful for grazing are losing their only capacity for productiveness, 
as, of course, they must when no legal control is exercised. 

It is not yet too late to restore the value of many of the open 
ranges. Lands apparently denuded of vegetation have improved in 
condition and productiveness upon coming under any system of con- 
trol which affords a means of preventing overstocldng and of apply- 
ing intelligent management to the land. On some large tracts the 
valuable forage plants have been utterly extirpated, and it is imprac- 
ticable even to reseed them. On other tracts it will be possible by 
careful management for the remaining native plants to recover their 
vigor and to distribute seeds, which Avill eventually restore much of 
the former herbage. Prompt and effective action must be taken, 
however, if the value of very much of the remaining public domain 
is not to be totally lost. 

The conclusions as to grazing reached by your Commission were 
based : 

First. Upon the results of long acquaintance with grazing prob- 
lems in the public-land States on the part of each member of your 
Commission. 



12 PUBLIC LANDS COMMISSION, 

Second. Upon the results of careful examinations made for the 
Commission of the grazing systems of the State of Texas, the State 
of Wyoming, the Union and Northern Pacific railroads, and of the 
Indian Office in the case of permits to stockmen for the use of Indian 
lands suitable for grazing, and of the grazing conditions throughout 
the West. A map has been prepared showing the general location 
and area of the summer, winter, and year-long ranges, and the sec- 
tions which are largely dependent upon a temporary water supply 
for their utilization in grazing, and those where there has been 
extensive development by wells and windmills. We believe that this 
map will be found exceedingly valuable and interesting in the consid- 
eration of all grazing problems, and it is therefore submitted in the 
appendix. 

Third. Upon the results of a meeting called to confer with the 
Commission by the National Live Stock Association in Denver early 
in August, 1904, which was attended by the Secretary of Agriculture 
and by representative stockmen from all the grazing-land States and 
Territories. The opinion of the stockmen present was almost unani- 
mous in favor of some action on the part of the Government which 
would give the range user some right of control by which the range 
can be kept from destruction by overcrowding and the controversies 
over range rights can be satisfactorily eliminated, the only question 
being as to the most satisfactory method by which such right may be 
obtained. 

Fourth. Upon 1,400 answers received to a circular letter addressed 
to stockmen throughout the West. These answers show that under the 
present system the pasturing value of the ranges has deteriorated 
and the carrying capacity of the lands has greatly diminished ; that 
the present condition of affairs is unsatisfactory ; that the adoption 
of a new system of management would insure a better and more per- 
manent use of the grazing lands; that a certain improvement in 
range conditions has already been brought about by range control on 
the forest reserves, and that the great bulk of the western stockmen 
are definitely in favor of Government control of the open range. 

Fifth. Upon facts presented at many public meetings held through- 
out the West and upon innumerable suggestions which have been 
received and considered. 

Your Commission concurs in the opinion of the stockmen that some 
forni of Government control is necessary at once, but is opposed to 
the immediate application of any definite plan to all of the'^grazing 
lands alike, regardless of local conditions or actual grazing value. 
The following plan is intended to bring about the gradual applica- 
tion to each locality of a form of control specificallv suited to that 
locality, whether it may be applicable to any other "locality or not. 
Your Commission recommends that suitable authority be "given to 
the President to set aside, by proclamation, certain grazing districts 
or reserves. To the Secretary of Agriculture, in whose Department 
IS found the special acquaintance with range conditions and live-stock 
questions which is absolutely necessary for the wise solution of these 
problems, authority should be given to classify and appraise the graz- 
ing value of these lands, to appoint such officers as the care of' each 
grazing district may require, to charge and collect a moderate fee 
tor grazing permits, and to make and apply definite and appropriate 
regulations to each grazing district. These regulations should be 



PUBLIC LANDS COMMISSION. 13 

framed and applied with special reference to bringing about the 
largest permanent occupation of the country by actual settlers and 
home seekers. All land covered by any permit so given should con- 
tinue to be subject to entry under reasonable regulations notwith- 
standing such permit. 

MINING LAWS. 

Your Commission has not yet found it possible to take up the ex- 
tremely important subject of the revision of the mining laws with the 
thoroughness which it deserves. From the evidence already submit- 
tedit is obvious that important changes are necessary, both in the 
United States and in Alaska. The Commission hopes to treat this 
matter more at length in a subsequent report. 

EIGHTS OF WAY. 

Year after year the question of rights of way across the public 
lands and reservations has been called to the attention of the Con- 
gress in the reports of the Secretary of the Interior and the Commis- 
sioner of the General Land OiEce. The laws on this subject are 
numerous and apparently often incongruous. Eights of way are 
granted contingent upon the execution of work within a definite time, 
but decisions and practices are now in force under which it has be- 
come almost impossible to divest the public lands of the incubus of 
these rights, granted conditionally in the first place, but still in ex- 
istence, although the conditions were not fulfilled. 

Rights such as these are very numerous. They lie dormant until 
actual development has begun to take place, either under the recla- 
mation act or otherwise; then they appear in enormous numbers to 
the very serious hindrance of new enterprises. Your Commission is 
engaged on a study of this subject and will report hereafter upon it. 

AGEICULTUEAL LANDS IN FOREST RESERVES. 

Attention is called again to the recommendation of your Commis- 
sion in its previous report (hereto attached) that entry of agricul- 
tural lands included in forest reserves be permitted under surveys by 
metes and bounds, and special emphasis is directed to the recommen- 
dation, which is here renewed, that in such cases actual residence at 
home on the land be rigidly required and that no commutation be 
allowed. 

LARGE AND SMALL HOLDINGS. 

Detailed study of the practical operation of the present land laws, 

Earticularly of the desert-land act and the commutation clause of the 
omestead act, shows that their tendency far too often is to bring 
about land monopoly rather than to multiply small holdings by actual 
settlers. The land laws, decisions, and practices have become so com- 
plicated that the settler is at a marked disadvantage in comparison 
with the shrewd business man who aims to acquire large properties, 
is^ot infrequently their effect is to put a premium on perjury and dis- 
honest methods in the acquisition of land. It is apparent, in conse- 
quence, that in very many localities, and perhaps in general, a larger 
proportion of the public land is passing into the hands of speculators 
and corporations than into those of actual settlers who are making 
homes. 

This is not due to the character of the land. In all parts of the 



14 PUBLIC LANDS COMMISSIOlSr. 

United States known to your Commission where such large holdings 
are being acquired the genuine homesteader is prospering alongside 
of them under precisely the same conditions. Wherever the laws 
have been so enforced as to give the settler a reasonable chance he has 
settled, prospered, built up the country, and brought about more com- 
plete development and larger prosperity than where land monopoly 
nourishes. Nearly everywhere the large landowner has succeeded in 
monopolizing the best tracts, whether of timber or agricultural land. 
There has been some outcry against this condition. Yet the lack of 
greater protest is significant. It is to be explained by the energy, 
shrewdness, and influence of the men to whom the continuation of the 
present condition is desirable. 

Your Commission has had inquiries made as to how a number of 
estates, selected haphazard, have been acquired. Almost without ex- 
ception collusion or evasion of the letter and spirit of the land laws 
was involved. It is not necessarily to be inferred that the present 
owners of these estates were dishonest, but the fact remains that their 
holdings were acquired or consolidated by practices which can not be 
defended. 

The disastrous effect of this system upon the well-being of the 
nation as a whole requires little comment. Under the present con- 
ditions, speaking broadly, the large estate usually remains in a low 
condition of cultivation, whereas under actual settlement by indi- 
vidual home makers the same land would have supported many fami- 
lies in comfort and would have yielded far greater returns. Agri- 
culture is a pursuit of which it may be asserted absolutely that it 
rarely reaches its best development under any concentrated form of 
ownership. 

There exists and is spreading in the West a tenant or hired-labor 
system which not only represents a relatively low industrial develop- 
ment, but whose further extension carries with it a most serious 
threat. Politically, socially, and economically this system is inde- 
fensible. Had the land laws been effective and effectually enforced 
its growth would have been impossible. 

It is often asserted in defense of large holdings that, through the 
operation of enlightened selfishness, the land so held will eventually 
be nut to its best use. Whatever theoretical considerations may 
support this statement, in practice it is almost universally untrue. 
Hired labor on the farm can not compete with the man who owns 
and works his land, and if it could the owners of large tracts rarely 
have the capital to develop them effectively. 

Although there is a tendency to subdivide large holdings in the 
long run, yet the desire for such holdings is so strong and the belief 
m their rapid increase in value so controlling and so widespread 
that the speculative motive governs, and men go to extremes before 
they will subdivide lands which they themselves are not able to 
utilize. 

The fundamental fact that characterizes the present situation is 
this : That the number of patents issued is increasing out of all pro- 
portion to the number of new homes. 

Respectfully submitted. 

W. A. Richards. 
F. H. Newell. 

GiFFOED PiNCHOT. 

O 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



REPORT 



THE FORESTER 



1 9 O 2 . 



GIKKORD PINCHOT. 



[From Annual Reports, Department oe Agricui,ture.] 




WASHINGTON : 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1902. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Work of the year _ _ 109 

Introduction 109 

Summary HO 

Forest management _ _ HO 

Forest investigation _ HO 

Tree planting _ _ 112 

Eecorda 112 

Forest management 112 

Private lands 112 

Working plans made 113 

Working plans in preparation 116 

Public lands _ _ _ 117 

Military reservations 118 

Forests under management _ _ lis 

Forest measurements 120 

Expenditures 120 

Work for the ensuing year 120 

Working plans 120 

Inspection 120 

Forest measurements 121 

Commercial trees 121 

Forest investigation 121 

Studies of commercial trees 121 

New England hardwoods 121 

Swamp forests 121 

Studies of North American forests 121 

Cooperative investigations 123 

Effects of grazing on the forest 124 

Study of forest fires 124 

Dendro-chemical investigations. 124 

Turpentine orcharding 125 

Cooperation with the Division of Entomology 125 

Various studies 125 

Timber construction and supplies 126 

Expositions 126 

Identification of forest specimens 127 

Expenditures 127 

Work for the ensuing year 127 

Dendrology 127 

Forest distribution 127 

Study of forest products 127 

Mechanical and other properties of leather, prepared by tan 

extracts from different native tanbarks 128 

Coniferous products 128 

Forest statistics 128 

Preservation of wood . . 128 

Timber tests 128 

Forest entomology 129 

Miscellaneous investigations 129 

Records 129 

Quarters 129 

Library 129 

Correspondence 130 

III 



IV OONTENTS. 

Work of the year — Continued. 

Records— Continued. Page. 

Mailing lists - - 130 

Publications 130 

Photographic laboratory 131 

Instruments and supplies 131 

Tree planting 132 

Cooperative planting 132 

Studies of planted woodlands 133 

Studies of forest extension , 134 

Reserve planting 134 

Sand dunes 135 

Expenditures 135 

Work for the ensuing year 135 



REPORT or THE FORESTER. 



U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Bureau of Forestry, 
Washington, D. C. , September 1, 1902. 
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith a report of the work of 
the Bureau of Forestry for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1902, 
together with an outline of the plans for the work of the Bureau for 
the current fiscal year. 

Respectfully, Gipford Pinchot, 

Forester. 
Hon. Jambs Wilson, Secretary. 



work of the year. 

Introduction. 

Dviring its first year as a Bureau, the former Division of Forestry 
has rapidly assumed the character and functions of its new position. 
With the increased capacity to do its work, the Bureau has gained in 
stability and eff:'ectiveness, and in the character and value of its 
results. While from tlie lack of American foresters it yet falls below 
a high standard of equipment in trained men, a larger proportion of 
educated foresters than ever before was engaged in its work, both in 
the office and in the field. The organization of work made possible 
by the change from a Division to a Bureau has been of capital value 
throughout the year. 

The progress of public interest in forestry during the year far more 
than kept pace with the growth of the Bureaii. The demands for 
advice and assistance increase from month to month, and continue 
to outstrip more and more the ability of the Bureau to meet them. 
The time for the general introduction of practical forestry in the 
United States is evidently at hand, provided only the necessary infor- 
mation and assistance can be supplied. The inability of the Bureau 
of Forestry to meet this demand because of inadequate resources is 
thus the most serious bar to the protection and perpetuation of our 
forests. With the rapid extension of professional education in for- 
estiy, the need of the Bureau for trained foresters can next j-ear be 
met more nearly than ever before. In view of the increasingly rapid 
destruction of our forests, it is most fortunate that the imperative 
demand for assistance in checking the loss is paralleled by the oppor- 
tunity to supply the demand, if only the necessary resources in money 
are made available. 

109 



110 DEPAKTMENTAL BEPOMS. 

Summary, 
forest management. 

Private lands. — The demands for assistance in introducina: practical 
forestry on private lands increased during tlie past year almost as 
much as during the thi-ee preceding years. These applications have 
now reached a total of 4,709,120 acres, under an arrangement by 
which the owners pay all expenses of the field work except the salaries 
of members of the Bureau. 

The total area of private forests under conservative management, 
however, reached onlj^ the comparatively insignificant total of 372,463 
acres, or 7. 9 per cent of the total applications. The Bureau has thus 
been obliged, for lack of men and money, to neglect or defer over 90 
per cent of its opportunities to introduce practical forestry on private 
lands. 

It must not be forgotten that the overwhelming bulk of the forests 
in the United States are in private ownership, and that forest protec- 
tion by the Government, while absolutely of vast importance, is rela- 
tively insignificant when compared with the action of the lumbermen 
and other private owners. In the light of these facts, the inability 
of the Bureau to respond to more than 8 per cent of the requests 
for advice in applying the principles which it continually advocates 
is seen to be the most dangerous of all checks on the progress of 
forestry. 

Field work on seven large forest tracts was completed during the 
year, and preliminary examinations were made of 1,620,000 acres. 
The amount paid by the owners for the expense of working plans was 
$13,325. 

Public lands. — The preparation of working plans for conservative 
lumbering on the public forest reserves, at the request of the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, has continued throughout the year. The total 
area of these reserves, September 1, 1902, is 58,850,925 acres. Field 
work was carried on during the past year in five reserves. In addi- 
tion to field work and the computation of results in the ofiBce, the 
force of the Bureau was drawn upon to supply the entire lack of 
trained foresters in the management of the National forest reserves. 

During the year a request was made by the Secretary of War for 
working plans for eight military wood and timber reservations, with 
a total area of 117,468 acres. Among these is the military reservation 
at West Point, upon which field work will be begun without delay. 

Field work was completed on townships 5, 6, and 41 of the Adiron- 
dack Forest Reserve by the use of an appropriation of $3,500 made 
by the New York legislature to cover the field expenses of the Bureau 
of Forestry. 

Foresi measurements.— The force employed in computing field 
results was thoroughly organized. It completed during the year com- 
putations of 16,678 acres, and measurements of the rate of growth of 
10,786 trees, of 25 species, in 13 States. 

FOREST INVESTIGATION. 

Commercial J^rees.— Measurements and sylvi cultural facts were gath- 
ered for 20 species in various parts of the country. Studies of hard- 
wood sprout lands were carried on in Massachusetts and other parts 
of New England, and promise valuable results. A special investiga- 



BUKEAIT OF FOEESTET. Ill 

tion of the Big Trees of California was begun and is still in progress, 
and a preliminary study of the swamp forests of eastern Missouri and 
Arkansas was undertaken. 

Studies of North American /oresfe.— The forests of Nebraska were 
made the subject of an elaborate report, and at the request of the 
Michigan forest commission an investigation of lands in the southern 
peninsula of Michigan was made, with special reference to the proper 
management of the Michigan Forest Reserve. Special studies of 
forest conditions were pushed forward in Kentucky, Ohio, and Texas, 
and of the distribution of forests in certain portions of New Mexico, 
Arizona, South Dakota, Wyoming, Montana, and California. In Cali- 
fornia the study of the relation of forest cover to the flow of streams 
was continued, and the results will shortly be ready for publication. 
In cooperation with the IT. S. Geological Survey the study of the 
Sierra Forest Reserve was completed. In Vermont a cooperative 
study of the forest resources and conditions of the State was com- 
pleted, and in Maryland the mapping of the forests by counties, begun 
in 1899, was continued. Attention was given, both in the office and in 
the fi(dd, to the region of the proposed Appalachian Forest Reserve. 

Fires and grazing. — Investigations of the effect of grazing on the 
forest were conducted in Washington, Oregon, Wyoming, New Mex- 
ico, Utah, and California. The study of forest fires was conducted 
in 12 States, and work was pushed on the preparation of a report. 

Dendro-chemical investigations. — Special attention has been given 
during the year to the chemical investigation of tan extracts from 
native woods and barks, and of gums from the Philippine Islands. 
The study of pulp woods, with special reference to the qualifications 
of untried species, has been carried forward. 

Turpentine orcharding. — The investigation conducted by the Bureau 
into the methods of producing naval stores in the Southeastern United 
States has resulted in the development of a method which it is believed 
will radically affect the whole industry. A report is in preparation 
describing its actual operation. 

Forest entomology. — In cooperation with the Division of Entomology, 
a beginning was made in the investigation of insect damage to the 
forest, with the direct purpose of devisingremedies. The vast impor- 
tance of the subject makes the continuance of this work imperative. 

Various studies. — Investigations of the lumber industry of the State 
of New York and the maple sugar industry of the United States were 
completed, and a study of the osier willow industry was begun. 

A careful investigation of the Eucalypts and Acacias cultivated in 
the United States was completed, and bulletins were prepared for 
each. 

Timber construction and supplies. — In cooperation with the Bureau 
of Plant Industry, great progress was made during the year in arous- 
ing the interest of mining and railroad companies in the preservation 
of timbers and in the sources of timber supply. The practical assist- 
ance of many railroads toward the establishment of conservative 
forestry was begun, and the work shows conspicuous promise. 

Forest exhibit. — A forest exhibit was prepared and installed at the 
Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo, and later transferred to Charles- 
ton, S. C. 



112 DEPARTMENTAL KEP0BT8. 

TREE PLANTING. 

Planting plans.— The cooperation of the Bureau of Forestry with the 
owners of timber land is paralleled by its cooperation with the owners 
of treeless areas who wish to plant. Up to June 30, 1902, there were 
received 262 applications for assistance, in response to 224 of which 
planting plans were prepared. In the course of the work 197,439 
acres of land were examined. The area to be planted under plans 
already prepared is 6,474 acres. These plans cover 29 States and 
Territories and 172 different localities. 

Planted woodlands. — In order to use the information already at 
hand from previous planting, careful studies of 20 large plantations, 
8 in the Middle West and 12 in the East, were carried on during the 
year. A similar study is now under way to find trees adapted for the 
Southwestern plains. 

Forest extension. — Studies of the natural extension of forests were 
continued during the year. A careful forest survey of a large part of 
Nebraska was completed, and resulted not only in arousing great 
interest throughout that State, but in the creation of two forest 
reserves for tree planting, a most valuable contribution to the forest 
policy of the United States. 

Reserve planting . — Preparations for planting considerable areas in 
the two reserves in Nebraska were made during the latter part of the 
fiscal year. 

Sand dunes. — Investigations with a view to preventing damage 
from drifting sand dunes were begun during the year, both on the 
Atlantic and Pacific coasts, and promise results of great value, espe- 
cially along the Columbia River. 

RECORDS. 

Office work. — The office work of the Bureau has continued to 
increase steadily in efficiency throughout the year. 

The collection of forest literature from the Department Library was 
transferred to the library of the Bureau, which now contains 1,120 
bound volumes, 1,900 pamphlets, and numerous periodical publi- 
cations. 

The photographic collection was largely increased, and is now serv- 
ing as the source from which nearly all forest illustrations are derived. 

The correspondence of the Bureau increased until the number of 
mail pieces forwarded during the year was 24,538. 

Eight new publications and 10 reprints were printed during the 
year, with a total number of 77,200 and 127,500 copies, respectively. 

A photographic laboratory was prepared at the quarters of the 
Bureau, and was nearly ready for occupancy at the end of the fiscal 
year. 

Forest Management. 

private lands. 

During the past year the Bureau of Forestry has continued to give 
advice and practical assistance to private forest owners. The demands 
upon this branch of its work have increased steadily, and they are 
now even further beyond its capacity than at the end of the previous 
fiscal year. In the Southern States in particular there has been a 



BUREAU OF F0BE8TKY. 113 

rapid awakening to the advantages of practical forestry, and a grow- 
ing appreciation of tlie opportunity open to private forest owners 
through the offer of cooperation made by the Bureau in Circular No. 
21, which gives the terms on which farmers, lumbermen, and others 
may cooperate with the Bureau in handling their forest lands. Wood 
lots, not exceeding 200 acres, are studied without cost to the owner, 
but in the preparation of detailed working plans for larger tracts the 
Bureau and the owner share the expenses of the work, the former 
paying the salaries of its men and the latter their traveling and field 
expenses. From July 1, 1901, to July 1 of the present year, 37 appli- 
cations have been received from private owners for advice and assist- 
ance in the management of their forest lands. Twenty-five were for 
timber tracts and 12 for wood lots. They reach a total of 1,904,476 
acres. The total area of private lands, in handling which assistance 
has been requested since the publication of Circular No. 21, in Octo- 
ber, 1898, to July 1, 1902, is 4,709,124 acres. 

WORKING PLANS MADE. 

The field work necessary for detailed working plans was completed 
during the year for seven tracts with a total area of 421,000 acres in 
Maine, New York, Michigan, South Carolina, and Tennessee. The 
total amount estimated as the cost of these working plans to the owners 
was $9,725 and the total amount actually expended was $9,040.80. 

One of these working plans was for a tract of 110,000 acres in Polk 
and Monroe counties, Tenn., on the western slope of the SmokyMoun- 
tains. The field work occupied a party of 12 men for six months. It 
included a thorough study of the forest, the habits and i-ates of growth 
of the timber trees, and their behavior after lumbering. A careful 
investigation was made in order to determine what modifications of 
present methods of lumbering will leave the forest in good condition 
without seriously impairing present profits. The stand was actually 
measured upon 1,500 acres, and 1,200 measurements of volume and 
rate of growth were made upon felled trees. The tract was divided 
into blockSj according to watersheds, and the stand oC each of the 
merchantable kinds was computed separately for each block. The 
silvicultural problem was very complicated because of the large num- 
ber of species in the forest mixture. Only a few of these have as yet 
any market value, and it was difficult to determine how the tract may 
be lumbered so that the reproduction of the few valuable kinds may 
hold its own against tliat of the less valuable trees upon the lumbered 
areas. Careful studies were made of the habits of the more important 
trees and of the other local conditions which determine the form of 
management. Methods for the effective protection of the forest from 
fire were thoroughly investigated. The principal recommendations of 
the working plan may be summarized as follows: 

(1) A diameter limit is set for each of the commercial trees, below 
which none may be cut. 

(2) A certain number of trees above the diameter limit recommended 
should be marked and left standing to serve as seed trees. 

(3) Contracts for the sale of stumpage should provide that a certain 
quantity of the less valuable kinds be cut and removed with the val- 
uable trees. This should be done in order to leave the forest after 
lumbering in a condition favorable to the reproduction of the valuable 
kinds, the chief object of the working plan being to produce a future 

AGB 1902 6 



114 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

Stand of timber in which Yellow Poplar, Ash, Hickory, Walnut, and 
White Oak will be much better represented than in the present forest. 

(4) A plan is outlined for the protection of the cut-over lands 
against fire. 

The application of practical forestry to this tract is exceedingly 
important as a long step toward the adoption of conservative forest 
methods in the Southern Appalachians. 

Another tract for which a detailed working plan was prepared lies 
in Scott, Campbell, and Anderson counties, Tenri., and has an area 
of 50,000 acres. The field work occupied a party of 10 men for four 
months. The tract is situated in the bituminous coal district of the 
Cumberland Mountains, and in addition to a valuable stand of hard- 
woods the property contains numerous accessible veins of soft coal, 
for which a good market exists. The object of the owners is to lumber 
conservatively in conjunction with mining operations. The main 
object to be worked for is to combine present profits with a valuable 
second crop. To this end the more valuable species will be favored 
in the lumbering and so given every chance to reproduce themselves 
well. The present forest is a mixture of hardwoods with a sprinkling 
of White, Shortleaf, and Scrub Pine, and Hemlock. It is remarkable 
for the number of species. Among the more important are Yellow 
Poplar, Ash, Hickory, White Oak, Chestnut Oak, Black Oak, Post 
Oak, Black Walnut, and Black Cherry. Most of the merchantable 
timber stands in the coves or hollows, while the slopes are covered 
by an open and less valuable growth. As a basis for an estimate of 
the stand of merchantable timber, all the trees were actually meas- 
ured on 2. 5 per cent of the total area. To ascertain the merchantable 
contents and the rate of growth of the commercial kinds, measure- 
ments called stem analyses were made of 2,474 felled trees. For 
greater accuracy, the tract was divided into 18 blocks, the boundaries 
of Avhich correspond to the boundaries of the smaller watersheds, 
and the stand was calculated separately for each block. The working 
plan contains detailed silvicultural descriptions of the three principal 
types of forest growth — coveland. Chestnut Oak slope, "and Black 
Oak slope. It also discusses the silvicultural characteristics of the 
most important species, and gives diagrams showing their rate of 
growth in diameter, height, and merchantable contents. The regu- 
lations for lumbering give the diameters for each species, under which 
no tree should be cut, and direct that certain trees of the more valu- 
able species above this diameter limit be marked and left standing to 
furnish seed for a second crop after lumbering. A plan is outlined 
for the protection of cut-over lands from fire, and recommendations 
are made concerning transportation and contracts for the sale of 
stumpage. The working plan is accompanied by a forest map, show- 
ing the distribution of the important timber trees. The conditions 
on this tract are peculiarly favorable to the successful application of 
practical forestry. 

A tract of 60,000 acres for which the field work was completed is 
that of the Okeetee Club, in Beaufort and Hampton counties, S. C. 
The important tree here is the Longleaf Pine. As a result of the past 
management, the forest varies irregularly from mature stands to 
young woods, and is broken by occasional patches of open ground, 
where heavy cutting followed by fire has destroyed the forest alto- 
gether. The hearty cooperation of the Okeetee Club in the scientific 
investigations of the Bureau of Forestry and the exceptional oppor- 



BtEEAU OF FORESTBY. 115 

tunity for experimentation which is offered combine to give this piece 
of work peculiar usefulness. 
The working plan deals mainly with the following points: 

(1) An accurate estimate of the stand of merchantable timber. 

(2) A study of the rate of growth of the Longleaf Pine. 

(3) A system of fire protection and the organization and instruction 
of a fire service. 

(4) A plan to foster and increase the reproduction of the Longleaf 
Pine. 

(5) Where lumbering operations should begin, how they should be 
carried on, to what extent the timber should be cut, what yield should 
be expected, what would be the expense of cutting and marketing 
under proper rules, and what financial results might be expected. 

The preparation of the working plan for .a tract of 10,000 acres on 
Grand Island , Michigan, gave useful results. The field work necessary 
for a working plan occupied a party of 6 men fo ■ two months. The 
stand was actually measured upon 301 acres, and 299 measurements 
of contents and rate of growth were made upon felled trees in addi- 
tion to careful silvicultural studies of the more important species. 
The forest is composed of hardwoods of large size, which, from the 
nearness of a strong market, are of high value. There is here an 
unusually good opportunity for conservative forest management, upon 
a paying basis from the start. 

The tract of the Moose. River Lumber Company, of 15,000 acres in 
Herkimer County, N. Y. , was studied by a party of 4 men for four 
months, and the data necessary for a working plan were collected. 
The area is equally divided between virgin and cut-over land. On 
the latter there is a fair amount of small spruce among the first growth 
of hardwoods, while the former contains in addition a fine stand of 
mature spruce. The Moose River Lumber Company operates its own 
mill at McKeever, and can therefore manufacture its own product 
without the expense of long transportation for its logs. The unusu- 
ally good opportunity for conservative forest management rendered 
the preparation of a working plan for this tract of decided importance. 

The sixth tract upon which the Bureau completed field work during 
the past fiscal year includes 150,000 acres of the 275,000 acres in north- 
western Maine which belong to the G-reat Northern Paper Company. 
The field work occupied a party of 20 men for four months. It included 
complete measurements of the stand upon 3,303 acres, and of the vol- 
ume and rate of growth upon 900 felled trees. Careful study was 
made of the Red Spruce and Balsam, which are here, both commercially 
and in number of individuals, the most important trees. The chief 
problem in the management is so to modify the present methods of 
lumbering that the Spruce may hold its own in the reproduction on 
cut-over areas. A part of the field work was the preparation of a maj) 
of the tract to show the topography and the burnt-over lands, the 
lumbered areas, the virgin forest, and the forest types. 

The field work necessary to a working plan for the 15, 000-acre tract 
of Mr. E. H. Harriman, near Arden, N. Y., was begun April 1 and 
completed June 15. It was carried out entirely bj^ 9 students, con- 
stituting the senior class of the Yale Forest School, under the imme- 
diate direction of Prof. Henry S. Graves, formerly assistant chief of 
the Division of Forestry, and still a collaborator of the Bureau. A 
forest map of the entire tract was made, as well as a careful study 
of the forest, by which its character, condition, present stand, and 
future yield were ascertained. 



116 DEPARTMENTAL KEPOKTS 

The working plan will deal with the following topics : 

Part I: 

The purpose and scope of the examination. 

Character of the forest, including a general description of ,the distribution 
of trees, distribution of age classes, merchantable yield, present condition of 
the timber, future production, etc. 

Recommended treatment of the forest, including a description of the thin- 
nings actually made. 

Financial possibilities of the forest. 
Part II: 

Detailed description of the forest by compartments. 

Forest map. 

Silvicultural study of the forest. 

During the spring about 100 acres were thinned under supervision, 
and about 1,000 cords of wood were cut. 

WORKING PLANS IN PREPARATION. 

Personal examinations were made during the year of 10 timber 
tracts in the States of Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, South 
Carolina, Texas, Pennsjdvania, and New York, covering a total area 
of 1,620,600 acres. The preparation of detailed working plans was 
recommended for six of the timber tracts examined and the recom- 
mendation in each case was approved by the owners, at a total esti- 
mated cost to them of $10,100. 

The largest and most important of these tracts is that of the Kirby 
Lumber Company and the Houston Oil Company, in southeastern 
Texas. It comprises an area of 1,250,000 acres, and includes practi- 
cally all of the virgin Longleaf Pine land in the 7 coiinties in which 
it is situated. The forest is divided into three principal types: 
Longleaf Pine land, Shortleaf Pine land, and hardwood bottom land. 
The first covers about 80 per cent of the total area and is commercially 
the most important. 

The opportunity for practical forestry on these lands is unusually 
good. The tract consists largely of pure woods of Longleaf Pine, only 
about 15 per cent of which have been cut over. With reasonable 
protection the reproduction is assured, while the presence of a heavy 
stand of mature timber, the absence of underbrush, and the flatness 
of the country are conditions exceedingly favorable to clean, con- 
servative lumbering. 

The points which will be chiefly studied in the preparation of the 
working plan are the following: 

(1) The present method of lumbering and its effect upon the forest, 
m order to ascertain what practicable modifications will hasten the 
production and improve the quality of a second crop. 

(2) Tiie reproduction of the Longleaf Pine and the rate at which it 
produces timber. 

(3) The effect of fire on the Longleaf Pine, and the fire problem in 
general, in order to devise a simple and effective system of protection. 
Whether this system should include the whole area of the forest or 
should, as seems probable, deal only with the protection of lumbered 
areas until the reproduction is old enough to be comparativelv safe, 
can be decided only by a thorough study on the ground. 

(4) The railroad tie industry, its effect upon the forest, and its com- 
mercial wisdom under the methods and to the diameter to which trees 
are now cut for ties. 

Another valuable opportunity foi- practical forestry is offered by a 



BUREAU OF FOEESTKY. 117 

tract of 72,000 acres, the property of E. P. Burton & Co., situated in 
Berkeley County, S. C. The principal species are Loblolly and Long- 
leaf Pine. Ease of lumbering and transportation and excellent repro- 
duction render this tract one of the most promising with which the 
Bureau has yet had to deal. 

A third tract for which an examination was made, a working plan 
advised, and its preparation approved by the owners, is that of the 
Linville Improvement Company, in Mitchell, Caldwell, and Watauga 
counties, N. C. It has an area of 16,000 acres. The forest is com- 
posed chiefly of broadleaf species, among which Yellow Poplar, Yel- 
low Birch, and the oaks are the most important. It presents an 
interesting silvicultural problem in addition to conditions exceedingly 
favorable to conservative management upon a sound financial basis. 

A smaller but not less promising tract which has lieen examined, 
and for which a working plan is now being made, lies on the west side 
of the Susquehanna River, LS miles above Ilarrisburg, Pa., and has 
an area of 2,300 acres. Tlie owner wishes to hold it as a permanent 
investment and to manage it with this end in view. With the excep- 
tion of about 200 acres the forest is composed entirely of sprout 
growth of Chestnut, Rock Oak, White Oak, and Hickory, together 
with excellent Scrub, White, Shortleaf , and Jack Pine. A strong 
market exists for all kinds of forest produce, and transportation facili- 
ties are good. 

PUBLIC LANDS. 

The preparation of working plans for the National forest reserves 
is one of the urgent pieces of work before the Bureau. It has arisen 
from the request upon the Secretary of Agriculture from the Secretary 
of the Interior for advice as to the best management of the reserves, 
which now comprise a total area of 58,850,925 acres. The study on 
the ground necessary to a working plan was carried on during the 
past year in the Prescott Forest Reserve, Arizona, which contains 
423,680 acres, the Priest River Forest Reserve, in Idaho, with an area 
of 645,120 acres, and the Big Horn Forest Reserve, in Montana, which 
includes 1,216,900 acres. The field work in the Prescott Reserve 
occupied a party of 11 men for three months. Measurements of the 
stand were taken upon 1,648 acres, and 1,840 measurements were 
made of volume and rate of growth ; the Bull Pine was carefully 
studied, particularly with reference to the eifect of the present meth- 
ods of lumbering upon the reproduction of the tree, and the data were 
obtained for a comprehensive plan for the best management of the 
reserve with due regard to its value in the production of timber and 
in maintaining the water supply. The field work carried on in the 
Big Horn Reserve occupied a party of 7 men a period of four months. 
The stand was measured on 820 acres, and 1,299 measurements made 
upon felled trees. In the Priest River Reserve a party of 6 men were 
at work for three months. The stand was measured upon 879 acres, 
and 720 measurements of volume and rate of growth were made. 

A thorough preliminary examination preparatory to a working plan 
is now being made of the San Francisco Mountains Forest Reserve, 
in Arizona. 

The field work necessary to a working plan for townships 5, 6, and 
41, Hamilton County, N. Y., in the Adirondack Forest Reserve, was 
begun and completed during the past fiscal year. It became possible 
through an appropriation of $3,500 by the New York legislature to 



118 DEPARTMENTAL EEP0ET8. 

cover the field expenses of the agents of the Bureau engaged in the 
work. The area of these three townships is 69,916 acres, and the nec- 
essary studies on the ground occupied a party of 16 men for four 
months. The work was carried on upon lines similar to those fol- 
lowed in the preparation of a working plan for township 40, Hamilton 
County, which has already appeared as Bulletin No. 30, Division of 
Forestry. Measurements of the total stand were made upon 3,471 
acres and of volume and rate of growth upon 2,081 felled trees. A 
careful study was made of the forest, not only from the point of view 
of the forester, but also from that of the lumberman, and a map was 
prepared for the three townships showing the combined work of both. 
This map, in addition to the forest types, gives information necessary 
to the best lumbering of the tract, showing desirable sites for splash 
dams, and indicating necessary improvements of streams for driving 
and other points of practical value to the lumberman. 

MILITARY RESERVATIONS. 

An important piece of work which will be taken up as rapidly as the 
force and appropriation of the Bureau will permit has arisen through 
the request by the Secretary of War upon the Secretary of Agriculture 
for technical advice governing the handling of military wood and tim- 
ber reservations. These are eight in number and comprise a total 
area of 117,468 acres. 

A preliminary examination has already been made of the West Point 
Military Academy Reservation of 2,000 acres stocked with second- 
growth hardwoods, and a detailed working plan has been recommended 
and field work will soon begin. An excellent opportunity is offered 
for thinnings which will materially improve the character of the forest 
and at the same time yield a supply of firewood for the use of the 
Academy. 

FORESTS UNDER MANAGEMENT. 

The working plan prepared in 1901 for the tract of the Sawyer & 
Austin Lumber Company, of Pine Bluff, Ark., and which has been 
published as Bulletin No. 32 of the Bureau of Forestry, was put into 
effect in March, 1902. The forest is a mixture of Shortleaf and Lob- 
lolly Pine, with scattered hardwoods, the pine only being cut to a 
diameter of 14 inches on the stump. The tract was visited by agents 
of the Bureau and the area to be cut over within the next year, 
approximately 6,400 acres, was carefully examined. On this area a 
certain number of Loblolly and Shortleaf pines to be left as seed trees 
were marked and stamped. They average one tree to 6 acres. It is 
estimated that there will be left after lumbering at least six seed trees 
below a diameter of 14 inches, and it is believed that with the larger 
trees referred to above they will amply suffice to seed up the cut-over 
lands. Tlie Loblolly grows more rapidly than the Shortleaf and is of 
practically the same value in the market; hence, wherever possible, 
it was favored in the markings in order to increase the stand of Lob- 
lolly m the second crop. A good begipning in fire protection has 
been made. One thousand acres have been set aside and an attempt 
will be made to protect this area thoroughly against fire. It is favor- 
ably situated, being completely surrounded by abandoned railroad 
spurs These spurs have been cleared of rubbish and will act as 
excellent fire hues. A man who lives on this area has been detailed 



BUKEAa OF FOEESTRT. 119 

to act as fire warden, under a contract which provides that he shall 
be paid only in ease there is no fire, or, if a fire occurs, then if he can 
clear himself of contributory neglect; that he may hire assistants 
when necessary, that he must burn a fire line round the area once or, 
a necessary, twice a year, and that he shall keep the land thoroughly 
posted. 

An experiment was made on this tract in burning the tops of felled 
trees, which are sources of great danger if fire once starts on cut-over 
land. It was found that to be burned successfully the tops must first 
be lopped and piled. If this method does not prove too expensive 
upon further trial, the tops on all cut-over lands will be dealt with in 
this way. An examination was made of the height at which stumps 
are now cut, and a report was submitted to the company showing, the 
loss which follows from cutting high stumps. 

In 1898 a working plan was made for the several wood lots included 
in the estate of Maj. W. A. Wadsworth, near Geneseo, N. Y. The 
owner desiring to put the plan in operation, the lands were visited by 
an agent of the Bureau of Forestry in the fall of 1901. The forest is 
composed of a mixture of hardwoods, and the main object is so to 
lumber it that its future productiveness will be assured. All trees 
to be cut were marked and stamped. The markings favored the more 
valuable Hickory, Ash, Black Walnut, and White Oak against the 
less valuable Beech, Maple, and Black Oak. The intention was both 
to aid the former in the present stand and to increase their relative 
proportion in the second growth which will follow the lumbering. 
All dead or dying trees were at the same time marked for removal. 
An excellent local market exists for lumber, cord wood, and ties. 
There is assurance that the cutting will prove a financial success and 
will tend to improve the forest. 

The work in practical forestry on the 6,000-acre domain of the 
University of the South, at Sewanee, Tenn. , goes steadily on. Trees 
containing approximately a total of 500,000 feet board measure have 
been marked for felling by the Bureau of Forestry, and the lumber- 
ing proceeds under its general supervision. 

In the Adirondacks the tract of the Moose River Lumber. Company 
has been added to those to which practical forestry is applied under 
the direction of the Bureau. In accordance with the recommendations 
of the working plan Spruce is being lumbered to a diameter of 12 
inches. The marking of the trees to be cut, as well as the lumbering 
itself, is being carried on under the general supervision of the Bureau. 
An experiment is also being made in the conservative lumbering of 
the hardwoods. 

The working plan for the tract of 110,000 acres upon the west slope 
of the Smoky Mountains in eastern Tennessee has been applied and 
lumbering has begun under the supervision of the Bureau. Contracts 
made for the sale of stumpage include provisions recommended by the 
Bureau. These specify the kinds which shall be lumbered and fix 
the diameter limits to which they shall be cut. They provide against 
waste in lumbering and against unnecessary damage to young growth. 
It is further provided that trees cut in violation of the rules for con- 
servative lumbering drawn up by the Bureau of Forestry shall be 
paid for at double the contract price. 

Including lands not mentioned above, the total area of private for- 
ests actually under the supervision of the Bureau of Forestry is 372,463 
acres. 



120 DEPARTMENTAL EEP0BT8. 



FOREST MEASUREMENTS. 



The force employed in computing field- data was thoroughly organ- 
ized as a section of the division of forest management during the past 
fiscal year and the effectiveness of its work notably increased thereby. 
This section now is equipped to handle all the figures of any kind 
gathered by the Bureau in its many lines of activity. 

During the year the section of forest measurements worked up the 
figures and prepared the tables for th6 working plans made by the 
division of forest management and for the studies of commercial trees 
by the division of forest investigation. The data consisted of meas- 
urements obtained in 13 States and upon 25 species. It included 
surveys of the stand of timber upon 16,678 acres and analyses of 
10,786 trees. These were cast into final tables of present and future 
stands and yields, of volume, and of rates of growth in diameter and 
height for the localities and species covered. With the exception of 
data obtained in the Black Hills Forest Reserve, which await further 
figures before they can be completed, the force engaged upon forest 
measurements has entirely finished the work for the field season of 
1901, and has scaled also 10,000 acres of surveys left over from 1900. 

EXPENDITURES. 

The total expenditures during the year by the division of forest 
management were $53,947.89, or 29.1 percent of thetotal appropriation 
of the Bureau. 

Of the $13,325 contributed by owners as their share of the expenses 
in the preparation of working plans, begun or continued during the 
year 1901-2, $9,160 had been expended at the end of the fiscal year. 

WORK FOR THE ENSUING YEAR. 
WORKING PLANS. 

Public lands. — The field work necessary to a working plan for the 
San Francisco Mountains Forest Reserve will be undertaken, since 
the preliminary examination has established its advisability. Work- 
ing plans will probably be begun for three other forest reserves, the 
preliminary examinations of which will be made during the current 
year. 

Private lands. —The study of private forest lands, in the handling 
of which assistance has been requested under the terms of Circular 
No. 21, will be carried on as rapidly as the appropriation and the field 
force of the Bureau will allow. Particular attention will be given to 
the rendering of assistance in the handling of wood lots. The field 
work necessary to a working plan for the 1,250,000-acre tract of the 
Kirby Lumber Company in southeastern Texas will be undertaken, 
and also for the two tracts of the E. P. Burton Lumber Company, the 
one of 45,000 acres, the other of 6,000 acres, in South Carolina. 

INSPBCTION. 

Forests under management— MarMngs and inspection of lumber- 
ing will continue upon those forest lands already under the general 
management of tlie Bureau, and upon other lands for which their 
recommendation is approved in working plans already prepared or in 
process of preparation. 



BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 121 

FOREST MEASUBEMENTS. 

The section of forest measurements will continue to work up all field, 
results obtained by the Bureau. It will at the same time carry on 
field work within its own province. 

COMMERCIAL TREES. 

The purpose of the Bureau in this branch of its work is to complete 
during the ensuing year the studies of commercial trees already begun. 
The more important of these are the southern hardwoods, the southern 
pines, the Adirondack hardwoods, the Balsam in Maine and New 
York, the White Pine in Michigan, the Lodgepole Pine in the Middle 
West, and the Sugar Pine in California. 

Forest Investigation. 

studies of commercial trees. 

During the past year, both by this division and by the division of 
forest management, much valuable information was gathered for the 
discussion of the growth and yield of White Pine, Eed Pine, White 
Oak, Scarlet Oak, Red Oak, and Aspen in Michigan; Sugar Pine in 
California; Balsam in Maine; and White Oak and Chestnut Oak in 
Tennessee, Kentucky, and Missouri. Similar data was collected for 
Lodgepole Pine in Wyoming and Montana, and for Western Yellow 
Pine in Arizona. 

NEW ENGLAND HARDWOODS. 

The study of New England second-growth hardwoods was continued 
by two field parties, and valuable facts were collected for the future 
discussion of their value and the best method of maintaining it. 

The first draft of a study of the silvicultural characteristics of the 
Longleaf Pine was revised and enlarged. The study of the growth 
and characteristics of Loblolly Pine was not completed last year, 
partly on account of the illness of the expert in charge of the work 
and partly because his services were diverted to other urgent work. 
The report on this pine is now practically completed and the manu- 
script will soon be ready for the press. The study of the Sierra Big 
Tree in California and its exact distribution required additional 
attention, but is now practically finished. The maps and manuscripts 
will be ready for printing early during the present fiscal year. A 
study of the Bristle-cone Fir in southern California was completed 
and will shortly be ready for publication. The report on the Pacific 
Coast Redwood was prepared this year and awaits editorial revision. 
The report on Western Hemlock was completed and is in press. 

SWAMP FORESTS. 

A preliminary study of the factors which determine the distribution 
and best growth of swamp forests in eastern Missouri and Arkansas 
was begun last season. The timber trees concerned in this investiga- 
tion are principally Cypress, Red Gum, and Black Gum. Little is 
known of the conditions most favorable to the reproduction and to 
the best growth of the Cypress, which is a timber of the first commer- 
cial value, or of the gums to be included in this study, the results of 
which are likely to be of practical value. 

STUDIES OF NORTH AMERICAN FORESTS. 

Michigan. — At the request of the Michigan forest commission a 
study was made of typical areas of forest and other lauds in the 



122 DEPARTMENTAL EEPOETS. 

northern part of the southern peninsula of Michigan. The land 
examined is included in the State forest reserve, which contains some 
60,000 acres of White, Red, and Jack Pine stump land 

A study of the reserve was made for the purpose of suggesting a 
plan for its proper management and for that of other similar lands in 
the same region, and recommendations were made to the commission. 

^en^wc%.— Investigations were begun last season on the forest con- 
ditions and resources of Kentucky, with special regard to the effects 
of destructive lumbering and of fire on the forest and its reproduc- 
tion. A preliminary report of progress has been made, but another 
season's field work is required before a full report can follow. 

Ohio. — A general examination of the forest resources of Ohio was 
begun last year to determine the location and extent of available sup- 
plies of commercial hardwood timber. In connection with this exam- 
ination a study was begun of the relation of the wood-consuming 
industries of the State to existing supplies of timber. Search was 
made also for historical and other evidence to show the effect of 
denuding forest lands on the flow of streams. A report on the avail- 
able tree species of the State has been submitted, together with a pre- 
liminary account of lihe consumption and principal sources of timber 
supply. The information in question is greatly needed to answer 
constant inquiries concerning supplies of Oak, Hickory, and other 
hardwoods. 

A special study was begun of the moisture content of green wood. 
Tables have been constructed showing the percentage of water con- 
tained in samples of the green wood of seven commercial timbers of 
Ohio. This study will be extended and will form a basis for the deter- 
mination of the best conditions for air-drying timber. 

Texas. — The forest resources and general forest conditions of Texas 
were studied and a report Avhich gives an accurate survey of the gen- 
eral and typical forest conditions of the State is nearly ready for pub- 
lication. 

New Mexico. — An examination was made of the forests on and in 
the region of the Sacramento Mountains. Particular attention was 
given to the relation of grazing to the perpetuation of the forest cover, 
and of the latter to the flow of water, which is of vital importance in 
contiguous agricultural regions. 

Arizona. — Studies were made of the forests of Mount Graham, the 
Santa Catalina Mountains, the Huachucas, and the Chiricahuas. A 
portion of the forest lands of the Verde River basin was also examined, 
likewise with special regard to their relation to local water supplies. 
Aside from this question, the facts gathered will be of great service in 
answering frequent inquiries concerning the commercial timber sup- 
plies of these regions. 

South Dakota — The forest lands on and in the vicinity of Turtle 
Mountain, Short Pine Hills, and Slim Buttes were studied and reported 
upon for the same important purposes. 

Wyoming.— All examination of the forest lands contiguous to the 
Yellowstone National Park was made with special reference to the. 
grazing problem. The urgent need for protection of the local water 
and timber supply gave this work peculiar significance. 

Montana.—A special study was begun in the Flathead Lake region 
of the terrestrial and climatic factors which influence the distribution 



BTJEEAU OF FORESTRY. 123 

of certain types of coniferous forests. The practical object of this 
studj' is an accurate knowledge of the soil, climate, and other condi- 
tions most favorable to the development of the species considered. 
A preliminary report of the progress of this Avork has been submitted. 
Further field investigations are needed, however, before a full report 
can be made. 

California. — The study of the relation of forest cover to the flow of 
streams, begun two years ago in southern California, was continued. 
The facts collected during two field seasons, have been partly elabo- 
rated, but require further study, which is being given. It is believed 
that a complete report of this investigation will be ready for publica- 
tion early in the present fiscal year. 

A general study was made of forest land in northern Calif oruia with 
a view to its protection against fire, overcutting, and overgrazing. 
The examination covered altogether more than 2,000,000 acres. 

Iowa. — Studies of the distribution, character, and value of forests 
in Iowa have been in progress for some time. It is expected that 
complete reports will be ready for publication at the close of the cal- 
endar year. The information will be of particular value to land 
owners of the Middle West. 

COOPBKATIVB INVESTiaATIONS. 

California.- — The study of forests in the Sierra Forest Reserve was 
again taken up in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey, and 
the unfinished south half of the reserve was completed. The purpose 
of this work was to make a description and classification of the forest 
and other lands within the reserve, to map the distribution of tree 
species and forest types, and to ascertain the condition, quality, and 
stand of commercial timber. The relation of these forests to various 
industries was considered, and the effects of forest fires on the growth 
and reproduction of the trees. An area of about 3,000,000 acres was 
examined. A report of the work of two field seasons, covering the 
entire Sierra Forest Reserve, is in preparation and will be completed 
early in the present fiscal year. 

Vermont. — In cooperation with ex-Governor Smith, the Bureau 
began a general study of the forest resources and conditions of Ver- 
mont with a view to recommending a forest policy. A preliminary 
report was submitted and the complete report is in preparation. 

Maryland. — The study of the forests of the best timbered counties 
of Maryland, begun in 1899 in cooperation with the State geological 
survey, was continued during last season under the same auspices. 
Reports on the timber resources and forest conditions of Cecil, Gar- 
rett, and Calvert counties have been prepared. Those on Cecil and 
Garrett counties are being published as a part of the report of the 
State geologist, while the Calvert County report will be published 
later. 

Appalachian forests. — Descriptions of additional forest lands under 
consideration for inclusion in the proposed Appalachian Forest 
Reserve were completed during the past year. The results of this 
and the previous season's work, conducted in cooperation with the 
U. S. Geological Survey, were embodied in an elaborate report sub- 
mitted to Congrfts^ and ordered published as Senate Document No. 
84. The report is copiously illustrated by maps and photographs, 



124 DEPARTMENTAL BEPOKTS. 

Its immediate purpose is to give reliable information upon the desira- 
bility and feasibility of establishing the Appalachian Forest Reserve. 
Aside from this purpose, the report embodies exhaustive data on the 
composition, condition, character, extent, and distribution of the 
forests of a little-known region. 

EFFECTS OF GRAZING ON THE FOREST. 

Investigations of the effects of grazing on the forest were con- 
ducted in the region included by the Yellowstone and present Teton 
forest reserves in Wyoming, in the Sacramento Mountains of New 
Mexico, in the Uintah Mountains of Utah, in the southern Sierras, 
and in the State of Washington. The purpose of these studies was 
to secure information which would permit a satisfactory regulation of 
grazing in regions where agi'ieultural and other interests dependent 
upon water supply and \ipon timber have suffered as a result of 
excessive grazing. 

STUDY OF FOREST FIRES. 

A study of the effect of fires on the forest was conducted in Maine, 
Vermont, Michigan, Maryland, the Appalachian Mountains, Wyo- 
ming, Utah, Idaho, California, New Mexico, and Arizona. The exami- 
nation of published forest-flre records was extended to a large num- 
ber of Western papers. A discussion of the destruction caused by 
forest fires and the significance of the fire records now accumulated 
was embodied in a report which will be ready for publication during 
the present fiscal year. 

DENDRO-CHEMICAL INVESTI GATIONS. 

Under cooperative plans arranged last year between the Bureau of 
Forestry and the Bureau of Chemistry, the following dendro-chemical 
studies were carried on: 

Commercial derivatives from native and exotic barks, woods, and 
gums. — Particular attention was directed to the quality and quantity 
of tan extracts produced by native woods and barks. The species 
studied include White Oaks, Black Oaks, Chestnuts, and Hemlocks. 
A number of gums produced in quantities by trees native of the Philip- 
pine Islands were studied with reference to the production of dammar 
and gutta-percha, and a large amount of work is yet to be done on 
similar material from the same source. 

Standard pulp ivoods and untried species probably suitable for paper 
pulp. — The rapid exhaustion of the supply of standard pulp woods 
renders it imperative to discover, if possible, other equally useful 
species. To demonstrate the usefulness for pulp of certain plentiful 
timbers not yet used for that purpose will be exceedingly valuable if 
it can be done. Wherever supplies of such timber are present the 
life of the wood-pulp paper industry may be greatly extended. 

The species being studied are White Spruce, Black Spruce, Red 
Spruce, Balsam Fir, Red Pine, White Pine, Loblolly Pine, Hemlock, 
Arborvitse, Southern White Cedar, Aspen, Large-tooth Aspen, Cotton- 
wood, White Birch, Basswood, Red Maple, Silver Maple, Tulip-tree, 
and Black Gum. 

The study of these woods embraces the preparation of pulp from 
their woods and the manufacture of commercial paper in accordauce 



BUKEAU OF It'ORESTRY. 125 

with standard methods of manufacture. A detailed microscopic study 
is also being made of the wood fibers as an additional means of ascer- 
taining the structural basis of the excellence or unfitness of certain 
fibers for the manufacture of paper. The paper produced will be 
subject to thorough tests, including the wear and strains to which 
they are subjected in actual use. 

Removal of resin from fir pulp woods. — In connection with the gen- 
eral investigation of pulp woods a special attempt is being made to 
devise a cheap treatment which shall remove all the resin in fir woods, 
or at least a sufficient part of it, to permit its reduction to pulp by 
grinding without clogging the reducing stones. 

TURPENTINE ORCHARDING. 

The method of producing naval stores in the South is rapidly 
destroying the forests of the Longleaf Pine, a timber whose preserva- 
tion is absolutely essential to the prosperity of that region. These 
facts led to an investigation of the production of crude resin by the 
Longleaf Pine, and an attempt to devise a more economical system. 
The survival of the naval stores industry depends absolutely on the 
abandonment of the old system of boxing and the introduction of a 
new method which will protect the life of the tree. Tlie old system 
invites the destruction of the forest by fire and wind, as well as by the 
boxing itself. The Herty method of tapping, devised by Dr. C. H. 
Herty, a member of this Bureau, leaves the tree practically intact. 
By this method the resin, from two or more shallow streaks chipped 
on the trunk,. flows into galvanized iron gutters which conduct it to 
an earthen pot hanging by a nail TiO the trunk of the tree. To test 
the new method in comparison with the old, 20,000 trees in strips 
intimately mingled were tapped. Great care was taken to make 
the comparison perfectly fair. The run of gum from sets of trees 
tapped for the first, second, third, and fourth times was collected and 
measured for each method. A bulletin giving in detail the results of 
the test is now in preparation. It is sufficient to say here that in quan- 
tity, quality, and economy of production the new method is decidedly 
superior to the old. 

The acknowledgments of the Bureau are due to Mr. John H. Powell, 
of Ocilla, Ga., without.whose assistance this experiment could not have 
been carried out. 

COOPERATION WITH THE DIVISION OP ENTOMOLOGY. 

In cooperation with the Division of Entomology, much attention has 
been given during the past year to the ravages of insects injurious to 
forests. Problems of the first importance to conservative forestry are 
presented by insect damage in the East and West alike. It may be 
cited as an example that the timber killed by insects in recent years 
in the Black Hills of South Dakota amounts to not less than 600,000,000 
feet B.M. 

VARIOUS STUDIES. 

A history of the lumber industry in the State of Neiv YorT<. — This 
study, prepared by the superintendent of forests of the State of New 
York, was completed during the year, and has recently appeared as 
Bulletin No. 34 of this Bureau. 



l26 DEPAKTMENTAL KEPOET^. 

Osier willow industry in the United States. — An exhaustive study 
was made of the status of the osier willow industry in this country. 
Important statistical data, hitherto unpublished, were compiled and 
supplemented by original inquiries. A representative of the Bureau 
studied on the ground the growth and management of American osier 
plantations, and added a thorough survey of the osier willow culture 
in foreign countries. A bulletin embodying the results of these in- 
vestigations is nearly ready for publication. There is a widespread 
call for the information it will contain. 

Tree growth on bu/rned lands. — The study of burned mountain slopes 
in southern California was continued during the year. Special atten- 
tion was given to the study of natural reseeding from surviving trees, 
and to experiments in direct seed planting of Western Yellow Pine, 
Torrey Pine, and Monterey Pine, in denuded sections. Since the 
spring rains very encouraging results have followed this seeding. 
With the exception of the Yellow Pine, the species named are of little 
direct value, but a protective cover of these trees will make possible 
the later introduction of more useful timbers. Strong local sentiment 
was aroused by this work, and the agent in charge has been given 
cordial support and assistance from settlers in collecting seed and in 
planting it. 

JEucalypts cultivated in the United States. — A careful study was made 
of the distinguishing characteristics, culture, uses, and distribution 
in the United States of about 40 species of Australian Eucalypts, and 
the results of these studies were embodied in a bulletin which is now 
in press. Collectively, the information made available in this bulletin 
is nowhere else accessible. It will give information much needed and 
often requested by correspondents of this Bureau. 

Acacias cultivated and naturalised in the United States. — A similar 
study was made of the Acacias cultivated and naturalized in the United 
States, but the report is not yet ready for publication. Information 
concerning these trees is in constant demand by correspondents of 
the Bureau in the Southwest. 

TIMBER CONSTRUCTION AND SUPPLIES.* 

D'twdbility of treated and untreated railway titpher. — In cooperation 
with the Bureau of Plant Industry, the durability of timber used for 
construction, and particularly of railroad timber, was given thorough 
attention. Large quantities of railroad ties, contributed and trans- 
ported without cost to the Department by vario\is companies, were 
laid in the roadbed under test conditions. 

The value of insect-killed timber, both treated and untreated, for 
various purposes was carefully investigated, and great interest in vari- 
ous questions was aroused among the mining and railroad companies. 
Widespread support and encouragement was given by the latter in 
various ways. This work, continued from previous years, is among 
the most promising in which the Bureau of Forestry has been engaged. 

EXPOSITIONS. 

The forest exhibit installed at the Pan-American Exposition on 
Juje 20, 1901, remained on exhibition until November 1, 1901, when, 
with the exception of the two largest transparencies, it was moved to 
Charleston, S. C, and installed there on December 30, in the South 



BFBEAIJ OF F0KE8TEY. 127 

Carolina Interstate and "West Indian Exposition. The only new fea- 
ture of the exhibit at Charleston was the addition of 70 samples of 
commercial woods from the Philippine Islands. At the close of the 
Charleston Exposition one-half of the exhibit was installed at the New 
England Association of Arts and Crafts, at Providence, R. I., where 
it now is; the remainder of the exhibit was boxed and shipped to 
Washington, D. C. 

IDENTIFICATION OF FOREST SPECIMENS. 

Much time was consumed in the division of forest investigation in 
identifying specimens of native and exotic trees and samples of com- 
mercial woods. An important service was rendered to the Tennessee 
and Virginia Boundary Commissioa by the identification of the spe- 
cies of witness trees and the determination of the ages of blaze marks 
upon them. 

EXPENDITURES. 

The total expenditures of the division of forest investigation dur- 
ing the fiscal year were $55,468.84, or 29.9 per cent of the total appro- 
priation of the Bureau. 

WORK FOR THE ENSUING TEAR. 
DENDROLOGY. 

Monographic studies of the White and Black Oaks and the osier 
willows will be continued, and studies will be begun of the Sugar 
Maple and the Western Cottonwood. Investigations of the forest 
floras of important regions will continue. 

FOREST DISTRIBUTION. 

A study of the character, extent, and value of forests in the best- 
timbered counties of Maryland will be continued in cooperation with 
the Maryland State geological survey. Studies of forest conditions 
and forest resources will be carried on in Vermont, Michigan, Ohio, 
Kentucky, Iowa, Montana, and California. Special forest problems 
concerning types of forests in Texas, Arkansas, and Missouri will also 
be taken up. 

STUDY OF FOREST PRODUCTS. 

Dendro-chemical investigations.— GhemiGal investigations of woods, 
barks, and gums to determine their production of tan extracts and of 
the adaptation of untried pulp woods for the manufacture of paper 
pulp will be continued in cooperation with the Bureau of Chemistry. 
The lines of this work will be considerably broadened to include 
examinations of new material and the manufacture and testing of 
papers made from untried woods. 

Bemoval of resin from pulp woods. — In connection with the investi- 
gation of pulp woods, experiments will be continued to devise a 
method of cheaply removing resin from fir woods in order to facilitate 
their red uction by grinding to pulp. Similar experiments will be made 
also with inferior pine woods, which, if freed from resin, can be used 
for certain grades of paper. 



128 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

MECHANICAL AND OTHER PROPERTIES OF LEATHER PREPARED BY TAN EXTRACTS 
FROM DIFFERENT NATIVE TANBARVS. 

An investigation to determine the mechanical properties of leather 
from different tannages will be begun at the request of a leading manu- 
facturer of American leathers, upon samples to be furnished by him 
and other manufacturers. This study follows naturally upon the 
investigation of tan barks already mentioned. It is expected to yield 
important results upon the comparative wearing qualities of leathers 
prepared by various tannages. 

CONIFEROUS PRODUCTS. 

Turpentine orcharding.— This investigation will be continued for 
this season along the lines already described. A comparative study 
of European and American methods on the ground will be undertaken 
and should be of very great advantage to the development of the new 
method now under experiment. 

Distillation of pine woods. — The preliminary study already made of 
the distillation of waste Longleaf Pine butts for the production of 
turpentine and other by-products will be continued, with a view to its 
application to waste pine tops. 

FOREST STATISTICS. 

An effort will be made to begin the collection of data showing past 
and present consumption of raw and manufactured wood of various 
kinds for all purposes. The investigation is planned to include a 
considerable number of American and foreign woods in home and 
foreign markets and the production and value of forest by-products. 

PRESERVATION OP WOOD. 

The mechanical treatment of railway and other construction tim- 
bers with preservatives to increase their durability and comparative 
studies of the behavior and durability of treated and untreated tim- 
ber in actual service will be continued. Further study of the causes 
of decaj"^ in timber and methods of prevention will be made. These 
investigations will be conducted in cooperation with the Bureau of 
Plant Industry. 

TIMBER TESTS. 

In cooperation with the Bureau of Chemistry, a series of tests to 
determine the strength of the principal merchantable timbers of the 
United States has been commenced. There is an urgent and wide- 
spread demand for reliable information of this kind, and it is intended 
to take up the work in a very thorough way. The Division of For- 
estry began in 1891 tests which related principallj' to the southern 
pines and which in 1896 were discontinued. Beyond this no sys- 
tematic tests of American timbers have ever been made. 

The work in timber testing now undertaken by the Bureau of For- 
estry will be of direct practical value to engineers and to others inter- 
ested in the utilization of timber. Testing stations have already been 
established at Washington, D. C, and at New Haven, Conn., the lat- 
ter in connection with the Yale Forest School, and their number will 
be increased as rapidly as possible. Experienced engineers wiU be 
employed in the laboratories, and the material will be collected by 
trained men. 



BUBEAU OF FORESTRY. 129 

FOREST ENTOMOLOGY. 

In cooperation with the Division of Entomologj% the study of the 
relation of injurious insects to practical forestry will be continued, 
and will include an investigation of the relation of insect pests to 
American osier willow plantations. 

MISCELLANEOUS INVESTIGATIONS. 

Pacific Coast Tan-hark Oak. — A thorough investigation will be made 
of the distribution and available commercial supplies of the Tan-bark 
Oak of the Pacific slope. Special attention will be given to the growth 
of the tree and its methods of reproduction. The importance of this 
investigation is very great, since the supply of this bark, M'hich is the 
most valuable in the West, is rapidly decreasing, and its place can 
not be taken by material from any other western Tan-bark Oak. 

Pacific cedar-shingle industry. — A study will be made of the cedar- 
shingle industry of the Pacific coast region. The industry will be 
investigated at the principal manufacturing centers, while a careful 
study will be made in the forest of the distribution, character, and 
extent of cedar timber available for shingles. So far as it is possible 
during the present season, a study will be made of the reproduction 
and silvicultural characteristics of this cedar. 

Records. 

quarters. 

At the beginning of March, 1902, an entire floor of the Atlantic 
Building was added to the quarters of the Bureau. This addition was 
required by the congested condition of the rooms on the seventh floor. 
It permitted a rearrangement of the offices, the installation of the 
library, and the assignment of quarters to the photographic laboratory, 
hitherto in the building of the Bureau of Chemistry by the courtesy 
of the chief of that Bureau. 

LIBRARY. 

The transfer of the main collection of forest literature from the 
Department Library to the quarters of the Bureau was prevented by 
lack of space until March, 1902, when a large room was equipped for 
library purposes. The library now contains 1,120 bound volumes, 
1,900 pamphlets, and files of 28 current forest and lumber-trade jour- 
nals, including French, English, and German periodicals. There 
were added during the year 3,821 clippings from newspapers relating 
to forest work. The library staff was increased by the appointment of 
two librarians, making it possible to classify properly much valuable 
material collected in former years and to keep abreast of the current 
work. 

The photographic collection was largely increased. Prints to the 
number of 3,64.3 were added during the year. Of this number, 3,235 
photographs were taken in 42 States and Territories, and 408 forest 
photographs were received from foreign countries, including excellent 
collections from India, Switzerland, and Germany. These were classi- 
fied, catalogued, and filed. 

The collection now numbers 6,059 prints. Every State and Terri- 

AGR 1902 9 



130 DiEPAHtMElfTAL REPOETB. 

tory, including Alaska, Porto Rico, and the Philippine Islands, is 
represented. The collection of lantern slides now numbers about 
1,000, of which over 400 were added during the year. Loans of 476 
slides were made to 13 persons during the year. 

COREBSPONDBNCE. 

As in preceding years, close attention was given to the expeditious 
handling of correspondence. Notwithstanding the large increase of 
mail matter, all letters received were promptly referred for attention, 
and, with few exceptions, were acted upon and acknowledged within 
thirty-six hours. The number of pieces of mail matter forwarded 
from the Bureau during the year was 24,538. 

MAILING LISTS. 

The mailing lists of the Bureau are the following: 

(1) A special list of libraries. 

(2) A list of representative newspapers. 

(3) A small foreign list of journals, libraries, and individuals 
engaged in forest work. 

(4) A special list of persons engaged in forest work in the United 
States. 

(5) A general list of persons interested in forestry. 

The first four lists, which number together 2,817 addresses, receive 
all publications of the Bureau as soon as they are available. To the 
general list are sent the reports of the Forester, reprints of the con- 
tributions from the Bureau of Forestry to the Yearbook of the Depart- 
ment, and circulars of information. Cards are also sent, giving noljce 
of the appearance of bulletins, with brief descriptions of their con- 
tents. Applications for these bulletins, made in response to the card 
notices, are honored in the order of their receipt. The number of 
addresses on the general list is 5,056. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

New publications. — During the year eight new publications ap- 
peared, as follows: 

Copies. 

BuUetinNo. 31 7,300 

Bulletin No. 33 10,000 

Circular No. 33 10,000 

Extract No. 313 ..15,000 

Extract No. 214 10,000 

Extract No. 336 5,000 

Report of the Forester for 1901 ...10,000 

Eanners' Bulletin No. 134 10, 000 

77,300 
Press Bulletins (Nos. 14, 15, and 16) 13,000 

Total 89,300 

A word of explanation is required concerning the number of new 
publications issued, without which it would seem that the publication 
of results had not by any means kept pace with the Bureau's activity 
in other directions. While but 2 new bulletins have appeared, as 
against 3 in 1901, there are now in course of publication 4 new bulle- 
tins, the manuscript of a fifth is completed and awaiting the beginning 



fitJfeEAU OF FOEESTEY. 13l 

of the new fiscal year before being submitted, and 2 additional extracts 
from the Yearbook will appear shortly. It is thus true that the work 
of publishing results has been carried on much more rapidly than 
ever before. 

Reprints — Ten reprints of former publications were printed, as 
follows : 

Copies. 

Bulletin No. 7 1,000 

Bulletin No. 10, first edition 3,000 

Bulletin No. 10, second edition . 1, 000 

Bulletin No. 13 3,500 

Bulletin No. 17 . 1,000 

Bulletin No. 36 _ 3, 000 

Bulletin No. 39 , 10, 000 

Bulletin No. 80 10, 000 

Circular No. 83 _ 3, 000 

Extract No. 313 10,000 

Farmers' Bulletin No. 134 (various reprints) 85, 000 



Total 137,500 

In addition to the reprints listed above, the following are now in 
course of publication : 

Copies. 

BulletinNo.6 . 3,500 

Bulletin No. 8 3, 000 

Bulletin No. 13 3, 500 

Bulletin No. 33 1 , 000 

Bulletin No. 38 10,000 

Total 18,000 

PHOTOGRAPHIC LABOEATOET. 

Owing to lack of space at the quarters of the Bureau of Forestry, 
the photographic laboratory remained, as already mentioned, until 
recently, in the building of the Bureau of Chemistry, through the 
courtesy of the chief of that Bureau. With the acquisition of the 
eighth floor of the Atlantic Building it was possible to assign sufficient 
quarters for the equipment of a photographic laboratory. The work 
of installing the equipment is now completed. An enlarging and 
reducing camera of large size was purchased, and the laboratory is 
now thoroughly equipped in all branches of photographic work, includ- 
ing map photography, enlarging, reducing, and wet-plate work. 

The work of the laboratory during the j^ear was very satisfactory. 
Five thousand three hundred and thirty-two films and plates were 
developed, 9,695 prints were made, and altogether 20,884 items of 
work were performed. 

INSTEUMEfJTS AND SUPPLIES. 

Instmments. — The rapid extension of the work of the Bureau in the 
field made heavy demands for additional instruments, while experience 
in the woods suggested improvements in the construction of several 
types. A very small pei-centage of field equipment was lost or dam- 
aged beyond repair, for the members of the field parties were generally 
careful in the handling and use of the instruments. The total expendi- 
ture for instruments during the fiscal year was $7,245.61, or .3.9 per 
cent of the total appropriation. 



132 DEPARTMENTAL REfOETS. 

Supplies.— With the exception of $400 from the contingent fund of 
the Department, all furniture, typewriting machines, stationery, and 
supplies of all kinds have been purchased from the funds appropri- 
ated for the Bureau of Forestry. This expenditure was 110,200.74, or 
5.5 per cent of the total appropriation. 

Accounts. — At the beginning of the fiscal year 1902 a system of 
accounts was introduced, the principal object of which, in connection 
with the proper preparation and handling of vouchers for the pay- 
ment of salaries and expenses, was to furnish at all times an accurate, 
comprehensive, and permanent record of the condition of the appro- 
priation for the expenses of the Bureau, and of the several allotments 
made by letters of authorization for the traveling expenses of mem- 
bers of the Bureau engaged in field work. A system setting forth in 
detail the allotments and liabilities of every class has been submitted 
at the end of each month to the chief of the Bureau. 

Tree Planting. 

The work of this section has broadened steadily during the past 
year. Cooperation with forest planters under the provisions of Cir- 
cular No. 22 was widely extended, met with a high degree of public 
appreciation, and remains the most important work with which the 
section is charged. Other lines of work of equal promise originated 
during the year. The first National reserves for the distinct purpose 
of forest planting were established. It was fairly proved that some 
lands, hitherto considered incapable of doing so, will stock themselves 
without planting, if well directed assistance is given to the natural 
reproductive power. The reclamation of the coast sand dunes by 
forest planting was for the first time undertaken by the Bureau. 

COOPERATIVE PLANTING. 

On June 30, 1901, there had been received in response to the offer 
of cooperation with forest planters, announced in Circular No. 22, a 
total of 192 applications for assistance. For 173 applicants planting 
plans had been prepared, in the course of which 113,842.3 acres were 
examined. Probably 10 per cent of this area will be planted within 
twelve or fifteen years, but the detailed plans, made in consequence of 
the examinations, covered but 3,057 acres, which is the area to be 
planted within three or four years from the date of the plans. Where 
the planting was not extensive, in many cases it is now complete and 
in others it is near completion, for many landowners began planting 
at once on receipt of their plans. 

This planting has generally given satisfactory results. For exam- 
ple, at Fowler, Kans., the main part of a wood lot of 12 acres has been 
established without losing a single tree. At Enid, Okla., satisfactory 
results were obtained in establishing a wood lot of 5 acres. In a few 
instances the planting has been temporarily deferred, and in two 
cases the agreements have been canceled because they could not be 
carried out by the owners. 

During the past fiscal year 70 applications for assistance were 
received and 51 planting plans were made. There was examined fia 
area of 83,596.9 acres, a large percentage of which is subject to plant- 
ing. The area actually covered by the plans made during the year, 
and to be planted within the next two or three years, is 3,417.67 acres. 



BUJSEATJ OF FORESTRY 133 

The total number of applications to June 30, 1902, is 262, the number 
of plans prepared 224, the area examined, 197,439.2 acres, and the 
area to be planted, 6,474.32 acres. Thirty-eight applications await 
attention. 

The plans represent 29 States and Territories and 172 localities. In 
addition, personal advice and instruction have been given in these 
localities to many other planters. It has been the practice of the 
representatives of the Bureau in this work to attend and address local 
meetings when such are called in the interest of forestry by the citi- 
zens of a community where work is being done. At Anthony, Kans. , 
where such a meeting was held last summer, over 500,000 trees were 
set out this spring in consequence, in addition to the planting under 
plans regularh^ prepared in that locality. 

Planting under this year's jjlans has several i)urposes. Protective 
shelter belts and farm wood lots have generally been the object in the 
Middle AVest. Several commercial plantations are being dc\ eloped 
in Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska for fence posts and telegraph 
poles, though none is of great extent. An average example is a plan- 
tation at Stafford, Kans., which covers 30 acres and has for its object 
the production of fence posts. The Middle West has comparatively 
little nonagricultural land, and except for the production of fence 
posts, telegraph poles, and railroad ties, forest jilanting will not as a 
rule be practiced by individual planters on a larger scale than farm 
wood lots and shelter belts. The Eastern States have a high percent- 
age of land adapted only to forest purposes, a good pai't of which has 
been stripped of timber beyond the hope of natural reproduction. 
Such land often lies within reach of good himber markets. In many 
places in New England land worth from $2 to $5 per acre can be 
stocked with White Pine at fair annual profit on the investment, reck- 
oning lumber at present prices and a period of growth of from forty 
to sixty years, and this has encouraged many land owners to begin 
planting on their idle lands. 

An increasing amount of forest planting is being done for the pur- 
pose of protection, and this Bureau is giving practical aid in several 
cases of this nature. For example, the most extensive planting in 
New England is being done by the Metropolitan Water and Sewerage 
Board of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, for the pur^jose of pro- 
tecting from silt the immense reservoir under construction at Clinton, 
Mass. , to supply Boston and surrounding cities with water. Seed 
beds, in preparation for this planting, were established two years ago. 
Planting was begun this year under plans prepared by the Bureau 
. and carried forward with a force of 48 men under the immediate 
direction of a forester pri vately employed. One hundred and seventy- 
five acres were planted. It will require three years more to complete 
the planting at present planned, which will cover 1,500 acres. Seed- 
lings are already on hand for the planting of this area, which is, 
however, but half of that which the plantation will eventually occupy. 

In no case has the Bureau furnished seeds or trees or participated 
in any degree in the expense of planting. Its outlay is limited to the 
expenses of its agents in making the preliminary examinations and 
planting plans. 

STUDIES OP PLANTED W^OODLANDS. 

Reliable advice and instruction in forest planting must be based 
upon a thorough knowledge of the purposes for which planting is 



134 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

practicable, and of the methods to be economically employed in vari- 
ous regions. This knowledge can be obtained only by an exhaustive 
study of plantations already established. Such a study was vigor- 
ously pursued, during the past year, along the lines already established, 
in 20 large plantations, 8 of which are located in the Middle West and 
12 in the East. The study of the Hardy Catalpa for economic plant- 
ing was completed, and a bulletin based upon it is in press. A study 
of the White Pine for economic planting in New England is in prog- 
ress, and a report is in course of preparation. 

Closely connected with these investigations is a study now under 
way with the object of finding trees better adapted to the South- 
western plains than those hitherto in use. Types of trees inured to 
hard conditions of climate and soil in other regions are being intro- 
duced, in the hope that trees thoroughly fitted for the situation may 
be discovered. 

STUDIES OF FOREST EXTENSION. 

The study of the practicability of forest extension by assisting 
natural reproduction was begun two years ago in the timber belts 
which project into the prairies along the streams of the Middle West. 
During the past year this study was much advanced by a forest sur- 
vey which included a large portion of Nebraska. It was found that 
the forests of that State, which consist mostly of narrow belts along 
the streams, have extended over large areas of prairie land within the 
last twenty-five years, where they were protected from fire and stoclf. 
It is estimated that in eastern Nebraska, where the timber is confined 
to hardwoods, the growth of the, forest through its encroachment on 
prairie land amounts to not less than 400 square miles. The exten- 
sion of the forest is noticeable on almost every stream and ravine. 
The forest is known to have traveled up certain streams as much as 
2 miles and to have taken complete possession of tracts of 80 to 100 
acres of prairie lands within the last twenty-five years. 

A knowledge of how to assist natural reproduction effectually will 
be useful throughout the Middle West, where there are hundreds of 
scantily wooded stream valleys which should support a heavy stand 
of timber. Such knowledge will also be of much use in dealing with 
the denuded lands in the Eastern States, especially where reproduc- 
tion has been prevented by repeated fires. It is likely to be of great- 
est value, however, on the National forest reserves, where the stand 
of timber is often deficient and in the management of which time is 
often a less important factor than on private lands. 

RESERVE PLANTING. 

The first step in this important work was taken this year. In the 
forest survey made in Nebraska, convincing evidence was found of 
the adaptability of the sand-hill district of that State to the growth 
of forest trees. Bull Pine and Red Cedar are spreading over the hills 
naturally near the Niobrara River, a decided tendency toward shrub 
growth exists throughout the district, and the Government's experi- 
ment in planting conifers, made nearly fifteen years ago, has been 
attended with marked success. At the recommendation of Senator 
Dietrich, of Nebraska, supported by the Bureau of Forestry, the 
President, on the 16th of last April, established in the sand-hill 
region two forest reserves of a joint area of 208,902 acres. With the 



BUREAU OF FOEESTEY. 135 

consent of the Secretary of the Interior, the Department of Agricul- 
ture will establish nurseries and undertake forest planting on these 
reserves. Preparation for the work was begun this spring, and simi- 
lar work on other reserves is about to begin. 

SAND DUNES. 

Work on the control of sand dunes by forest planting was begun 
for the first time during the past year. Dune control has become 
important in several parts of the country where serious damage is 
threatened to valuable property by the encroachment of sand. In 
southern Virginia and northern North Carolina a chain of immense 
sand dunes stretches north and south along the coast. These dunes 
are moving slowly landward, and within the last few years have 
become dangerous to the United States life-saving stations and to 
private property of large value. Last fall, at the request of a num- 
ber of private owners, the Bureau made an examination of a district 
in Currituck County, N. C, and began work at one point to fix the 
drifting sand sufficiently to permit forest planting. In cooperation 
with the owners of the land, board fences and other structures were 
erected to alter the course of the most threatening dunes and to clear 
the superfiuous sand from a plain about certain valuable buildings. 
The work was so successful that this spring the ground was in condi- 
tion for the planting of beach grass, which is being used temporarily 
as a cover. With a fair growth of grass this season, forest planting 
on from 30 to 50 acres may be begun next spring. The forest, besides 
protecting the buildings, will yield a much-needed supply of fuel. 
At other points in the same district, which extends 'SO miles along the 
coast, the Bureau is now giving similar aid. In addition to its direct 
use this work will have great value as an object lesson in dealing with 
the sand. 

An investigation is also being made of the dunes formed by the 
drift sand along the Columbia River in Washington and Oregon. 
The dunes are destroying valuable orchards and rich agricultural 
lands. They form serious hindrances to transportation along the 
lines of the Northern Pacific Railway and the Oregon Railroad and 
Navigation Company. After a careful examination the Bureau will 
attempt to devise methods for controlling the movement of the sand. 
The Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company is assisting in the 
investigation. 

EXPENDITURES. 

The expenditures of the section of tree planting for the year were 
$16,616.86, or 8. 9 per cent of the total appropriation. Of this amount 
53 per cent was for salaries and 47 per cent for field expenses. 

WORK FOR THE ENSUING YEAR. 

The work in cooperative planting is giving highly satisfactory results 
and will continue unchanged. Increased attention will also be paid 
to protective planting, especially in the Eastern States. 

Preparations for extensive planting on the Dismal River and Nio- 
brara forest reserves in Nebraska will be pushed forward as rapidly 
as possible. Seed beds and nurseries are being put in readiness. A 
large collection of seed will be made this fall and nursery work will 
begin. Examinations will be made of other forest reserves, notably 



136 DEPARTMENTAL BEP0KT8. 

those in Oklahoma, Colorado, Arizona, and southern California, to 
determine the advisability of sj^stematic planting. 

Careful studies will be made in Oklahoma and Arizona during the 
year to find methods of extending the present forest stand by improv- 
ing the conditions for natural reproduction. In both regions field 
parties are already at work. 

The reclamation of sand dunes, both along the coast and in the inte- 
rior, is one of the large problems before this Bureau. Two field par- 
ties, one on the Atlantic coast and one on the Columbia River, will 
continue to investigate this problem during the present season. 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



REPORT 



THE FORESTER 



1 O 3 



GIKKORD PINCHOX. 



[From Annual Reports, Department ov Agriculture.] 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1903. 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction - 497 

Forest management 499 

Public lands 499 

West Point Military Reservation : 500 

Indian reservations 501 

Private lands 502 

Working plans made 502 

Working plans in preparation 506 

Private forests put under management during the year 507 

Cooperative State forest studies 508 

Studies of commercial trees 509 

Forest measurements 510 

Expenditures 510 

Work for the ensuing year 510 

Forest investigation 511 

Turpentine orcharding 511 

Forest distribution 512 

Cedar-shingle industry 514 

Dendro-chemical investigations 514 

Forest entomology 514 

Miscellaneous investigations 515 

Expositions 516 

Correspondence 516 

Expenditures 516 

Work for the ensuing year '. -. 516 

Forest extension 517 

Cooperative planting 518 

Reserve planting _ 520 

Forest replacement ^ 522 

Forest fires 524 

Reclamation of shifting sands 525 

Expenditures 526 

Work for the ensuing year 526 

Forest products 527 

Timber tests 527 

Wood preservation 529 

Study of proposed reserves _ . 530 

Work for the ensuing year 531 

Records 531 

Forest library 531 

Correspondence 532 

Mailing lists 532 

Publications 532 

Photographic laboratory 533 

Instruments 533 

Supplies ".!"".!" 533 

Accounts 533 

Drafting \\\.\\\..\...... 533 

Expenditures 533 



REPORT OF THE FORESTER. 



IT. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Bureau of Forestry, 
Washington, D. O. , October 28, 1903. 
Sir : I have the honor to transmit herewith a report of the work of 
the Bureau of Forestry for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1903, 
together with an outline of the plans for the work of the Bureau for 
the current fiscal year. 

Respectfully, Gipford Pinchot, 

Forester. 
Hon. Jambs Wilson, Secretary. 



INTRODTTCTION. 

No previous year has seen such progress in forestry as the last. 
During this time public sentiment in favor of forestry became more 
marked, and practical forest work in the woods was better in quality 
and greater in amount than ever before. But great though the prog- 
ress was in comparison with other years, actually it was small. The 
saving of the forests by wise use is but little nearer than it was a year 
ago, except for the wider spread of a knowledge of the nature and 
objects of forestry. The means available are yet too feeble to make 
much impression on the gigantic task of preventing the destruction 
of the lumber industry, the fourth among the great industries of the 
United States, and of using conservatively the forests which supply 
wood and conserve water for the use of the nation. The interests 
which these supplies serve and maintain are so vital to all our people 
that it can not be in question whether they shall be preserved, but 
only how best it can be done. The present provisions are wholly 
insufBcient. 

The very rapid progress of the sentiment for forest preservation 
during the last year has been nowhere more conspicuous than in the 
Western States. The greater part of it may be traced directly to the 
growing desire for development in irrigation which followed the pas- 
sage of the National reclamation law. Except where special interests 
complicate and obscure the issue, the public opinion of the West has 
become unanimous in favor of forest preservation for the protection 
•of the water supply, and practically so for the perpetuation of the 
supply of timber. 

The necessity for the creation of forest reserves for their influence 
on the stream flow and timber supply is being better understood and is 
steadily receiving greater support where once there was opposition to 
the policy. The people of the West have not only come to understand 
that existing forests must be preserved if irrigation is to maintain its 

AGB 1903 m 497 



498 DEPARTMENTAL REPOKTS. 

continued development, but thej' are realizing also the importance of 
reserving lands once covered with forest, but now denuded, and the 
essential necessity that the Government should reclothe them with 
trees. 

Decidedly the most important development of the year in forestry 
has been the awakening of the great lumber interests to the necessity 
for practical forestry and the hearty cooperation they have begun to 
give to the efforts of the Government for forest perpetuation. At the 
convention of the National Lumber Manufacturers' Association, held 
in Washington, more attention was given to forestry than to any other 
subject. The convention expressed itself in favor of the perijetuation 
of forests by wise use, and gave evidence of its good will by visiting 
tlie Bureau of Forestry in a body. Members of the association have 
since that time begun active cooperation with the Bureau with the 
object of forest preservation, and it may fairly be said that forestry 
has become a live issue in the minds of the great timber-land holders 
of the United States. 

Only less important is the recent tendency of the railroads of the 
United States to consider the future of their timber supply and to take 
measures for its perpetuation. Railroads are among the greatest con- 
sumers of timber in the United States, and the preservation or 
destruction of vast areas of forest will depend on the attitude they 
assume toward this question, which is not less vital to them than to 
other users of wood. 

A marked feature of the year is the increase in State cooperation 
with the Bureau of Forestry. The reference of Sta.te forest problems 
to the Bureau of Forestry for solution has reached the point where it 
involves a large and constantly increasing share of the attention of 
the Bureau, which could be given to few more profitable lines of work. 
The legislature of California has passed a law under which the State 
contributes $7,500 a year for two successive years for a cooperative 
study of its forest problems by the Bureau of Forestry, which con- 
tributes an equal sum. 

The legislature of New Hampshire appropriated $5,000 for a sys- 
tematic study of the forests of the State by the Bureau, including an 
examination of the proposed White Mountain National Forest Reserve. 
The State of Wisconsin and the Territory of Hawaii have each asked 
the Bureau to nominate a principal forest officer for them, while 
Maine, Michigan, and other States are in close and continual consul- 
tation with the Government forest officers. 

The growing tendency of the Bureau of Forestry to devote its ener- 
gies rather to Government work than to the assistance of priA-ate own- 
ers was marked during the past year. In spite of the rapidly increas- 
ing demand for assistance under the terms of Circular No. 21 on the 
part of private owners, a very large proportion of the work of the 
Bureau was given directly to Government forest problems on public 
land. But the greater part of the forests of the United States are and 
doubtless will remain in private hands, and their preservation is essen- 
tial to the National safety and prosperity. While, therefore, it is right 
that the Bureau of Forestry should meet first of all the demands for 
strictly Government work, it can not neglect the requests for assistance 
from private owners without most seriously endangering the central 
object of its existence, which is the perpetuation of the forests of this 
country by wise use. 

The widening of the field for practical usefulness of the Bureau in 
cooperation with private owners was showu by the growing number 



BUKEAU OF FORESTRY. 499 

and tlie eagerness of such demands. In meeting them it is the public 
rather than any private interest which is at stake. It is plain that a 
great oppoi^tunity has presented itself at a critical time. If this 
Bureaii can be equipped to meet the demand before destruction has 
gone too far, the extensive protection of woodlands by the practice of 
forestry will certainly be attained. The only obstacle is present ina- 
bility to handle the work. The Bureau is face to face with a situa- 
tion with which it is unable to cope. Not only are the demands already 
made upon it fai- beyojul its present capacity to meet, but there is 
grave danger that vast areas of the forests will have disappeared before 
the Bureau of Forestry can be made ready to use the opportunity to 
save them. 

The making of working plans for the handling of small tracts of for- 
est, such as woodlots, is a part of the most important educational work 
of this Bureau. The results of such work are by no means confined 
to the area or even to the neighlwrhood immediately concerned. Every 
such plan is a plain and practical demonstration of what is needed on 
similar holdings in the same region, and as such is of use to all those 
who wish or who maybe brought to wish to manage and improve their 
own woodlands. 

Large operations must always be conducted by trained foresters. 
Not so the small cuttings of the average farmer. The work of the 
Bureau in this direction must be along the line of teaching every 
woodlot owner to become his own forester. During the year the 
studies of woodlot problems already made have taken shape in pub- 
lications of the greatest practical value to woodlot owners in nearly 
every region where such holdings occur. 

Not less useful to the farmers of the treeless West are the planting 
plans prepared by this Bureau to assist them in selecting wisely and 
planting successfully the trees whose shelter gives so large an added 
value to their farms. 

At the end of the fiscal year for which this report is made the fol- 
lowing organization was, by j^our approval, established for the Bureau 
of Forestry : 

Forester, GiflEord Pinohot. 

Forest Measurements, Overton W. Price, assistant forester, in charge. 

Forest Management, Thomas H. Sherrard, assistant forester, in charge. 

Dendrology, George B. Sud worth, assistant forester, in charge. 

Forest Extension, William L. Hall, assistant forester, in charge. 

Forest Products, Hermann von Schrenk, in charge. 

Records, Otto Luebkert, in charge. 

forest management. 

Public Lands. 

northern minnesota. 

Under the provisions of the act of June 27, 1902 (32 Stat., 400), 
amending the act of January 14, 1899 (25 Stat., 642), known as the 
Morris bill, the Forester of the Department of Agriculture is charged 
with the selection, subject to the approval of the Secretary of the 
Interior, of 231,400 acres of land from certain of the Chippewa Indian 
reservations in northern Minnesota. This area includes 200,000 acres 
of pine land, 25,000 acres of agricultural land, and an amount equiva- 
lent to 10 sections to be reserved from sale or settlement. The act 
provides that the 225,000 acres of pine and agricultural lands, after 



500 DEPARTMENTAL EEPOBTS. 

the pine has been lumbered under rules prescribed by the Forester 
and approved by the Secretary -of the Interior, shall constitute a 
National forest reserve. 

Field work under the act was begun early in August, 1902, and 
occupied an average of four men throughout the remainder of the 
year. The task before the Bureau was to ascertain what lands within 
the Chippewa reservations were best suited to the purposes of a 
National forest reserve, to select and draw up rules for conservative 
lumbering upon them, and to mark for reservation from cutting the 
5 per cent of merchantable timber which the act provides shall be left 
standing as seed trees. The Bureau is charged also with the inspec- 
tion necessary to enforce its rules for conservative lumbering. This 
work, which has been prosecuted with difficulty because of the remote- 
ness of parts of the Indian reservations, their large size, and the 
faultiness of existing surveys and land classifications, has been car- 
ried on successfully throughout the year. A first selection of lands 
to constitute the Minnesota National Forest Reserve, embracing 
104,459 acres, has been made by the Forester and approved by the 
Secretary of the Interior. The study necessary to a second selection 
comprising the remaining area has been made, and the official 
announcement awaits only the completion of Indian allotments within 
it by the Department of the Interior and the delineation of the flowage 
line for the Leech Lake and Lake Winnibigoshish reservoirs by the 
War Department. The 10 sections to be reserved from sale and set- 
tlement under the provisions of the act have also been selected and 
the selections have been approved by the Secretary of the Interior. 

The necessary study was made to determine the best methods of 
reserving the 5 per cent of merchantable timber. The forest was 
actually measured upon a sufficient area to furnish a close estimate of 
the stand, and measurements upon felled trees were made to secure 
reliable volume tables upon which the selection of the 5 per cent for 
seed trees and a diameter limit for lumbering were based. Rules 
were drawn up to govern the lumbering and have been approved by 
the Secretary of the Interior, and the trees to be left standing have 
been marked upon over 6,000 acres. 

In the Black Hills Forest Reserve, in South Dakota, material was 
gathered for a forest map supplementary to the working plan for the 
reserve, which was completed in 1901. The field work occupied one 
man for five months and consisted of a careful classification of the 
forest into its important types. 

West Point Military Reservation. 

As the result of the request of the Secretary of War upon the Sec- 
retary of Agriculture for technical advice governing the handling of 
military wood and timber reservations, a working plan for the reser- 
vation of the United States Military Academy at West Point was pre- 
pared during the past year. The forest comprises about 2,300 acres, 
and consists of a sprout growth of broad-leaved trees. Little cutting 
has been done for fifty years, but ground fires have annually burned 
ofE the vegetable mold and so injured the trees that the forest gener- 
ally is in poor condition. 

The purpose of the working plan is to prevent further damage by 
fire and gradually to improve the quality of the forest by judicious 
cuttings. The importance and value of the tract as a part of the equip- 
ment of the United States Military Academy and the urgent demands 



BUKEAU 01' FOBESTKY. 501 

for forest prodiice in the Quartermaster's Department demanded the 
preparation of a more detailed plan for protection and management 
than is generally necessary under forest conditions in the United States. 

Field work in the collection of data for the working plan occupied 
two months. It was done by 16 students of the senior class of the 
Yale Forest School, under the direction of a field assistant of the 
Bureau of Forestry. A topographical map showing 20-foot contours 
was made as a basis for the forest map and for the assistance of the 
forester who will carry out the working plan. The field work showed 
that wood roads and trails enough already exist to serve as a basis for 
a thorough system of fire protection. Fire lines to supplement them 
were indicated on the forest map, and regular beats were established 
for the daily patrol of the tract. With the system of fire lines and the 
constant patrol which the working plan recommends, it is believed 
that fires entering from the outside or starting within the reservation 
will be easily controllable. 

For the restoration of the stand to vigorous condition the working 
plan recommends careful improvement and reproduction cuttings. 
In situations where there are now fair stands of healthy trees the form 
of cutting recommended aims at the removal of the dead and dying 
and the inferior trees which retard promising growth. In poorer sit- 
uations the purpose of the cutting will be to secure a new stand by 
making openings for seedling and sprout reproduction. Where it is 
improbable that the new growth will establish itself, seeding and plant- 
ing of desirable species is recommended. Trees were marked for 
removal on sample acres to guide in future work. The forest was 
divided for administrative purposes into three ranges, and each range 
into compartments varying from 40 to 200 acres, according to the 
character of the stand and the natural boundaries. Each compartment 
was carefully cruised, described, and subdivided into forest types. In 
each type representative sample plots of from one-fourth of an acre 
to 1 acre were carefully selected. On each sample plot every tree was 
calipered and recorded by kind and diameter. Average sample trees — 
that is, representative trees whose diameters correspond as nearly as 
possible to the average diameter of all trees of the same kind upon the 
sample plot — were felled, and their volume and rate of growth were 
measured . The results for each sample plot were computed and tabu- 
lated. The total volume and the merchantable volume were obtained 
by multiplying the total and merchantable volumes of the sample trees 
by the ntimber of trees which they represented. In this way units were 
obtained from which were calculated the stand and rate of growth of 
the more important species in all types and for the whole forest. Tables 
and curves showing the growth of the different species in diameter, 
height, and volume, tabulated summaries of sample plots, tables of 
stand of the various forest tj'pes, and estimates of the probable cost 
of the improvements recommended and of the probable income from 
the cuttings advised are included in the working plan. 

Indian Reservations. 

In compliance with the request of the Secretary of the Interior to 
the Secretary of Agriculture, field study of the Lac Courte Oreille, 
the Menominee, and the La Pointe Indian reservations, all in Wis- 
consin, was undertaken during the past year. 

It was asked that an examination of each reservation and a report 
containing a description of the forest and recommendations for lum- 



502 DEPARTMENTAL BEPOBTS. 

bering, in the form of rules, should be made, in order that they might 
form part of every contract for lumbering on these reservations. The 
request specified that the application of these rules should be super- 
vised by an agent of the Bureau of Forestry. The field work occu- 
pied two men for two months. Its results were embodied in reports 
upon each of the three reservations, which include a full description 
of the forest and of the effect of past methods of management upon 
it, and recommendations of practical means for improving its condi- ' 
tion. Each report contains a definite plan for the protection of the 
reservation from fire and rules for lumbering, which specify the lowest 
diameter to which trees should be cut and which provide for the 
avoidance of waste and of damage to standing trees. 

Private Lands. 

During the past year the requests for assistance under the offer 
made in Circular No. 21 have increased in number and insistence. A 
marked growth of interest in forestry in the Southern States has taken 
place, and here, as in other regions, the Bureau is confronted by enor- 
mous opportunity for effective work. Although the preparation of 
working plans for woodlots and timber tracts goes steadily on as fast 
as the resources of the Bureau and the other claims upon them will 
permit, its inability to meet the demands for this branch of its work 
was never more evident than it is at present. 

During the year 94 applications were received for advice and assist- 
ance in the management of private forest lands. Thirty-seven of 
these were for timber tracts, with a total area of 941,179 acres; 57 
were for woodlots, with a total area of 5,868 acres. The total area 
of private lands in the handling of which assistance has been requested 
since the publication of Circular No. 21 is 5,656,171 acres, of which 
5,640,579 acres are in timber tracts and 16,592 acres in woodlots. 

Five great railroad companies have during the past year requested 
the cooperation of the Bureau to determine the advisability of the 
purchase and conservative management of forest lands by the com- 
panies for the production of railroad ties — the New York Central and 
Hudson River Railroad, the Pennsylvania lines west of Pittsburg, the 
Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway system, the Erie Railroad, and 
the St. Louis and San Francisco Railroad Company. In view of the 
enormous quantity of timber used annually by these and other rail- 
roads and of the rapid decrease in available supplies, their attitude 
toward practical forestry offers in some ways an unparalleled oppor- 
tunity for useful work. 

Working Plans Made. 

woodlots. 

"Working plans based on thorough study on the ground were mad: 
for 48 woodlots, with a total area of 5,650 acres, in the States oi 
Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Penn- 
sylvania, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia, and West Virginia. Where 
cuttings were advisable a number of trees were marked for removal 
to guide in future work. The results of the examination of each 
woodlot, with detailed recommendations for its management, were 
embodied in a report to the owner. The general willingness shown to 
follow the advice of the Bureau in the handling of woodlots is very 
marked. 



BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 503 

In cooperation with Mrs. Henry C. Potter, who contributed $1,000 
toward the cost of the work, of which $579.39 was actuallj^ expended 
during the year, the Bnieau completed during the past year a thorough 
study of woodlot conditions in Otsego County, N. Y. The purpose was 
to draw up simple rules for woodlot management for the use of farmers 
and other private forest owners in Otsego County. The field work, 
which occupied a party of four men for three months, included a care- 
ful study of the more important trees and of the effect of present 
methods of cutting upon the production of a second crop. At present 
the woodlots of Otsego County are in generally poor condition. The 
cutting practiced in the past has removed the beat trees without regard 
to the forest of the future. The chief need of the woodlots was 
found to be a sj^stem of thinnings which will yield merchantable 
material and, by the removal of unsound and undesirable trees, will 
steadily improve the condition of the forest. The results of the field 
work have been embodied in a report which describes typical woodlot 
conditions in Otsego County and gives detailed instructions for better- 
ing them. Upon several woodlots markings for thinnings are now 
being made in order to demonstrate exactly how the work should be 
done. 

TIMBER TRACTS. 

The field studies necessary for detailed working plans were made 
during the year upon five tracts, with a total area of 482,321 acres, in 
Maine, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Texas. 
The total amount estimated as the cost of these working plans to the 
owners was $12,100, and the total amount actually expended was 
$11,398.29. 

SOUTHERN" PINE. 

One of the tracts for which a detailed working plan was prepared 
lies in Berkeley County, S. C, and covers an area of about 39,000 acres. 
The field work occupied a party of six men for three and a half 
months. The forest, which is typical of much of the eastern portion 
of the Southern pine belt, consists chiefly of Longieaf and Loblolly 
pines, about two-thirds of the area being pine land and the remainder 
Cj'press and hardwood swamp. The forest is of good quality, and 
the flatness of the country and the situation of the tract along the 
Cdoper River render logging unusually cheap. The field work 
included the actual measurement of 5 per cent of the forest, which 
afforded an exceedingly close estimate of the stand. The rate of 
growth of Longieaf and Loblolly pines and of Cypress was obtained, 
and also their volumes for given d'iameters. 

The protection of the forest from fire, which is here, as elsewhere in 
the Southern pine belt, the most urgent problem in conservative for- 
est management, was thoroughly studied on the ground. Present 
methods of lumbering and their effect upon the forest were carefully 
investigated, in order to formulate plans for work in the future which 
will insure the production of a second crop without seriously impair- 
ing present profits. Material was collected for the preparation of a 
detailed forest map showing the area and distribution of the forest 
types and the approximate stand per acre. The working plan con- 
tains a description of the methods employed in field work and a full 
record of its results. It includes recommendations for the protection 
of the forest from fire and for profitable modifications of present 
methods of lumbering. Among the important conclusions drawn 



504 DEPARTMENTAL KEPOETS. 

from the field study is the superiority for this region, under conserva- 
tive management, of the Loblolly Pine over the Longleaf Pine, because 
of its much more rapid rate of growth and its equally plentiful 
reproduction. 

PENNSYLVANIA HAKDWOODS. 

Another tract for which a detailed working plan was prepared is 
situated west of the Susquehanna River, about 15 miles above Harris- 
burg, Pa., and has an area of 2,321 acres. The forest has been clean 
cut, all of it once and some of it twice, for charcoal wood. The present 
stand consists of second-growth hardwoods, among which Chestnut, 
Chestnut Oak, White Oak, Black Oak, and Scarlet Oak are the pre- 
dominating trees. The present owner intends to hold the property as 
a permanent investment. As the land is unfit for agriculture and 
contains no deposits of coal, iron, or other minerals, its capacity to 
yield returns lies only in the production of wood. 

Three men spent six weeks in the field work necessary for the work- 
ing plan. A thorough study was made of the forest and of the silvi- 
cultural characteristics of the more important trees. The local market 
for wood and timber of the sorts obtainable from the tract was inves- 
tigated with a view to the disposal of the material from thinnings 
and improvement cuttings. Data were collected for a detailed map 
showing the distributiion and character of the forest and the location 
of the more important streams and roads. It was found that on 1,G59 
acres the growth is still too small to be merchantable, but that on 662 
acres the forest will now furnish telephone poles, railroad ties, and 
firewood. The market permits this material to be cut at a profit. 
The purpose of the working plan, therefore, was to determine how 
cuttings yielding salable material could be made with the best results 
in improving the quality of the stand. Since the land is capable of 
producing White Oak and Yellow Poplar, cuttings are recommended 
with the object of gradually replacing inferior coppice growth with a 
seedling forest of the more valuable kinds and at the same time 
maintaining the present proportion of Chestnut in the mixture, which 
is desirable on account of its good market value, its rapid growth, 
and its capacity to reproduce from the stump. 

SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN HARDWOODS. 

The tract of the Linville Improvement Company, comprising 16,000 
acres in Mitchell, Caldwell, and Watauga counties, IST. C, offered a 
somewhat unusual problem in the preparation of a working plan . The 
tract includes Grandfather Mountain, one of the highest peaks of the 
Southern Appalachians. Except for the cutting of Black Cherry fif- 
teen years ago, little lumbering has been done. The present owners 
desire to cut the mature trees in such a way that the beauty of the 
forest will not be impaired, while its condition will be improved. 
The field work occupied a party of four men for three months. The 
stand was actually measured on 600 acres, the rate of growth of the 
more important species was determined, and a study was made of 
their silvicultural requirements and of their present market value. 
From the data obtained a map was made showing the distribution of 
the forest types and giving an approximate estimate of the stand of 
Ash, Cucumber, Basswood, and Hemlock, here the more important 
commercial trees. The problem of lumbering at a profit in such a 
way as to improve the condition of the forest without impairing Its 



i^l 



BUREAU OF FOKESTRY. 505 

beauty was carefully studied. The working plan contains detailed 
instnictions for the location and execution of cuttings, so planned as 
not to injure standing trees and young growth, and to provide for 
reproduction. 

LONGLEAF PINE IN TEXAS. 

During the past year the study for a working plan for the forest 
lands of the Houston Oil Company in southeastern Texas was begun, 
and field work upon the holdings of the company in Jasper and New- 
ton counties, comprising an area of about 300,000 acres, was brought 
near to completion. Longleaf Pine is here the tree of chief commercial 
importance. Lumbering has been in progress uninterruptedly for 
twenty years, and about 25 per cent of the entire tract has been cut 
over. During recent years the use of railroads instead of streams in 
transporting logs to the mills has had a marked effect upon the char- 
acter of the logging. The problem of conservative management upon 
the forest lands of the Houston Oil Company falls, therefore, under 
three heads : 

Management of virgin forest. 

Management of forest lands lumbered before the construction 
of the railroads, which have merely been culled of the largest trees 
and which now contain a fair stand of merchantable timber. 

(3) Management of forest lands lumbered since the railroads were 
completed, in which the cutting has been comparatively close. Here 
Loblolly and Sliortleaf pines were lumbered as well as the Longleaf, 
and in addition to the logging for lumber, piles and railroad ties 
were cut to a considerable extent from small trees. 

The field work for this working plan has already required the serv- 
ices of 35 men for four months. Much information of general applica- 
tion was collected upon which to base the working plan for the entire 
tract. Careful measurements were made of 8,000 felled trees in order 
to determine the volume and rate of growth of Longleaf Pine, and a 
detailed study was made of present methods of logging. The timber 
was measured upon 8,432 acres. 

The chief object of the working plan is to devise practical modifica- 
tions of present methods of lumbering which will hasten the produc- 
tion and heighten the quality of the second crop. Study of the forest 
shows that it contains a large number of small trees which, under 
present market conditions, can be lumbered more profitably when 
they reach larger size. Since the proportion of small trees varies 
greatly in different localities, a map of the forest has been made, 
based upon its composition and dividing it into types and blocks for 
lumbering. The working plan fixes the d iameter to which trees should 
be cut in each of these types and blocks, recommends practical meas- 
ures to limit the waste in lumbering and to provide for satisfactory 
second growth upon cut-over lands, and outlines a simple and effect- 
ive means of protecting the forest from fire. 

SPRUCE IN MAINE. 

The fifth tract upon which the Bureau completed field work during 
the past year includes 125,000 acres of the 275,000-acre tract of the 
Great Northern Paper Company in northwestern Maine. The field 
work upon 150,000 acres was completed last year, and the study for 
a working plan for the whole tract is therefore completed. The field 
work, which occiipied a party of 32 men for three and a half months, 
was continued along the lines of the preceding year. The men were 



506 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

divided into two parties, each fully organized, and with the knowledge 
of local conditions given by previous experience it was possible to 
push the work rapidly to completion. The stand was actually meas- 
ured upon 5,481 acres, and the volume and rate of growth of 2,058 
trees were determined. The most difficult problem with which the 
working plan had to deal was to increase upon cut-over lands the 
reproduction of the Spruce, which under present methods of lumbering 
does not compete successfully with the Balsam. The working plan 
will include a discussion of the silvicultural characteristics of the 
commercial trees and diagrams giving their rate of growth in diameter, 
height, and merchantable contents. Detailed regulations for lumber- 
ingwill be given, which indicate a diameter limit for the Spruce below 
which no tree should be cut, and provide in other ways for the pro- 
duction of an abundant second crop. A detailed forest map will 
accompany the working plan showing the several forest types, the 
localities in which lumbering has been carried on, and the areas which 
have been burned over. 

Working Plans in Preparation. 

Under the terms of Circular No. 21 preliminary examinations were 
made during the year of ten timber tracts in the States of Alabama, 
Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, New Hampshire, New York, 
and Pennsylvania, comprising a total area of 415,522 acres. Upon 
seven of the tracts examined it was found that the applifeation of 
practical forestry would be sound business policy, and the prepara- 
tion of detailed working plans was therefore recommended. For six 
of the seven tracts this recommendation was approved by the owners. 
The total estimated cost to them for the plans will be $3,150. 

One of the tracts examined during the year, for which the study 
required for the preparation of a working plan has been begun, is that 
of the Blue Mountain Forest Association, in Sullivan County, N. H. 
The forest, which comprises an area of 26,000 acres, consists mainly 
of Spruce in mixture with commercial hardwoods. The generally 
good quality of the stand and its nearness to market make the tract 
particularly favorable for conservative lumbering. The working 
plan will include a detailed forest map, an estimate of the stand of 
commercial timber and its rate of growth, and a thorough study of the 
present condition of the forest as a basis for plans for its best devel- 
opment. The present method of lumbering will be given careful 
study with a view to advisable modifications. 

ALLEGHANY SPRUCE AND HARDWOODS. 

Another tract for which the field work incident to a working plan 
was commenced during the past year comprises 50,000 acres of 
the holdings of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in Webster, Nich- 
olas, and Pocahontas counties, W. Va. This mountain forest con- 
tains, in addition to valuable hardwoods — among which are Yellow 
Poplar, Basswood, Cucumber, Black Cherry, and Ash — a heavy stand 
of Spruce on the higher slopes. The composition and quality of the 
forest may be improved without appreciable reduction in returns 
from lumbering. The ownership of the tract is such that a steady 
income is preferable to a speedy return. In addition to estimates of 
stand and rate of growth, and to tlie results of silvicultural study, the 
working plan will consider the logging problem under existing condi- 
tions. The latter is here the most difacult factor in conservative 



BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 507 

forest management, since the snccessful reproduction of the more 
valuable trees is complicated by the varying requirements of the many 
kinds in mixture. 

MIXED FOREST IN NEW ENGLAND. 

Another promising opportunity for practical forestry is offered by 
the tract of the Pike Manufacturing Company, comijrising 3,000 acres 
in Grafton County, N. II. The collection of data necessary to the 
working plan was begun toward the close of the past year. The 
forest is a mixture of broadleaf and coniferous trees of the general 
type common to northern New England. The desire of the owners is 
to hold the tract permanently and so to manage it that it may con- 
tinue to yield valuable crops of timber. Although it has been cut 
over, the forest contains enough merchantable timber to make lum- 
bering very profitable if conducted in a careful and systematic way. 
The merchantable product of the forest may be disposed of at fair 
profit, while the danger from fire is slight if suitable precautions are 
taken during the lumbering. 

Private Forests Put Under Management During the Year. 

The working plan prepared during the past year for the tract of Mr. 
R. C. Neal, comprising 2,321 acres of second-growth hardwood land 
near Harrisburg, Pa., has been put into effect under the supervision 
of the Bureau. Markings for cuttings have been made upon 30 acres. 
This experiment in practical forestry is an exceedingly promising one, 
and since the forest is typical of large areas in southeastern Pennsj^l- 
vania its conservative lumbering will have wide value as an object 
lesson. 

At the request of the Houston Oil Company two field assistants of 
the Bureau of Forestry were temporarily detailed, beginning with 
June 1, to pxit conservative lumbering into effect; upon the holdings of 
the company in Newton and Jasper counties, Tex. , under the super- 
vision of this Bureau and in accordance with its recommendations. 

In connection with the preparation of the working plan for the for- 
est of the United States Military Academy at West Point sample mark- 
ings for cuttings were made and an arrangement has been reached by 
which the application of the working plan is under the immediate 
supervision of this Bureau. 

The application of conservative management to twenty-seven wood- 
lots in the States of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connect- 
icut, New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, comprising a total area 
of 4,410 acres, is now under the supervision of this Bureau. The lack 
of available men renders it impossible for the Bureau of Forestry to 
supervise the application of all woodlot working plans which it pre- 
pares. Work is supervised only in those woodlots which present 
peculiarly difficult problems in their management and the conserva- 
tive handling of which is of particular value as object lessons for the 
regions in which they lie. 

The 104,459 acres which constitute the first selection for the Minne- 
sota National Forest Reserve are now under the supervision of the 
Bureau, and the marking of trees to be left standing after lumbering 
is in progress. 



508 DEPARTMENTAL BEPOKTS. 

The total area of private lands under the supervision of the Bureau 
in practical forestry, including those not mentioned above, is 679,194 
acres; that of public lands, exclusive of forest reserves, is 106,759 
acres. 

Cooperative State Forest Studies. 

MAINE. 

During the past year a study of forest conditions in Maine was begun 
in cooperation with the Maine forest commission, which contributed 
$1,000 toward the expense of the work. Of this sum, $679.12 was 
actually expended. This study was undertaken as the first step in a 
thorough investigation of the Maine forests. The field work occupied 
10 men for about two and a half months. It included a careful study 
of the Spruce and, so far as possible, of the trees with which it occurs in 
mixture. Particular attention was given to determining the rate of 
growth of Spruce in diameter and height in different localities, its dis- 
tribution, and the conditions necessary for its successful reproduction. 
In this fl]-st attack upon a very large problem it became evident that 
the best results could be gained from a thorough study of a typical for- 
est area. With this in mind. Squaw Mountain Township, which lies 
in Piscataquis County, immediately south of Moosehead Lake, was 
selected for the work. This township, as a result of its varied topog- 
raphy, contains a number of the forest types which are characteristic 
of the forest growth upon large areas in central Maine, and includes 
also virgin forest, lands cut over for spruce and pine lumber, lands 
cut first for logs and then for pulp wood, and lands lumbered for hard- 
woods. Since logging has been going on continuously for six years 
just past there was good opportunity for measurements of rate of 
growth on stumps and felled trees as well as for a study of the effect 
of present methods of logging upon the forest. 

The results of the work were published as a part of the fourth 
report of the forest commissioner of the State of Maine. A careful 
description of the forest is given, with tables showing the stand and 
the rate of growth of the commercial trees, and a summary of conclu- 
sions concerning the conservative management of forest lands similar 
to those of Squaw Mountain Township. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Toward the close of the past year the Bureau began the field work 
of a study of the forests of New Hampshire. This was made possible 
by an appropriation of $5,000 by the State legislature to cover the 
expenses of the work, whose specific purpose is to ascertain present 
forest conditions and their causes. It will include the determination 
of methods by which the forests of the White Mountains and ulti- 
mately of the whole State may best be preserved. The field work is 
directed along the following main lines : 

(1) A study of the composition and quality of the forest and an 
estimate of the present stand. The results obtained will be used 
partly in the completion of the forest map of New Hampshire pub- 
lished in 1894. f f 

(2) A study of the characteristics of the more important trees and 
of the conditions necessary for their successful reproduction. 

(3) A study of the methods and extent of lumbering, of its effect 
upon the forest, and of practicable modifications to improve the con- 
dition of cut-over lands. 



BUKEAU OF FOKESTKY. 509 

(4) An investigation, with the assistance of the United States Geo- 
logical Survey, of the value of the forest as a conserver of the water 
supply. This includes the determination, first, of the size and condi- 
tion of the watersheds tributary to large streams rising within the 
VVhite Mountain region; second, of the effect of forest destruction 
upon the flow of these streams; and, third, of the amount and value of 
water power which is available at different seasons of the year or 
which is already in iise. 

(5) A study of the size, the value, and the character of the lumber 
industry of the State of New Hampshire. 

CALIFORNIA. 

During the past year a comprehensive study of the forests of Cali- 
fornia was begun. This work is the result of an act of the California 
legislature approved March 16, 1903, which provides that — 

The State board of examiners is hereby empowered to enter into a contract with 
the chief of the Bureau of Forestry of the Department of Agriculture for the 
purpose of studying the forest resources of the State and their proper conserva- 
tion, and especially with a view of formulating a proper State forestry policy, to 
the extent of $15,000: Provided, however, That these expenditures for such pur- 
poses shall not be in excess of the amounts to be expended b" the various depart- 
ments of the Federal Government in collaboration. 

The field work is carried on in cooperation between the of&ces of 
forest management and forest extension, since the study involves 
these two branches of the work of the Bureau. Seven men are now 
engaged upon the investigations incident to forest management. 
These include the collection of data for a forest map of California 
sliowing the distribution of the important trees and of the great forest 
types and indicating cut-over forest and chaparral. A careful study 
will be made of present methods of lumbering to find practicable modi- 
flcatious which will hasten the production of a second crop upon the 
cut-over lands. A similar study will be made of grazing and its effect 
upon the forest, to determine how it may best be regulated. The 
results of the work will be embodied in a report which will include, in 
addition to a detailed description of the work done and its results, 
recommendations for a forest policy for the State of California. 

Studies of Commercial Trees. 

It has been possible during the past year to organize definitely the 
work of this Bureau in its studies of commercial trees and to extend 
their scope. With the increased number of trained men available it 
is now possible to conduct these studies in the best way — by studying 
each tree with small parties in various parts of its range. Carried 
out along these lines, the commercial tree studies now being made by 
the Bureau of Forestry are valuable contributions to our knowledge 
of North American forests. 

In the studies of commercial trees conducted during the year par- 
ticular attention was given to finding the average merchantable stand 
per acre and its rate of increase. The silvicultural characteristics of 
each tree were carefully studied, as well as those of the trees with 
which it occurs in mixture. The distribution of the tree, its behavior 
in mixture, the forest types in which it occurs, and the effect of eleva- 
tion and other factors upon it were thoroughly investigated. The 
influence of present methods of lumbering upon its reproduction was 



510 DEPARTMENTAL REPOKTS. 

in every case given systematic study on the ground in order to ascer- 
tain the modifications necessary to insure reproduction upon cut-over 
lands. 

During the year the study of Sugar Pine in California, begun in 
1901, was completed. The field work occupied a party of seven men 
for three and a half months. Lodgepole Pine was studied in Park and 
Granatin counties, Mont., by a party of four men for three months. 
Commercial hardwoods Avere studied in West Virginia, North Caro- 
lina, Tennessee, and Kentucky, occupying 31 men, organized into 
four parties, for four months. A study made of Balsam in the Adiron- 
dacks, because of its rapidly growing importance in supplementing 
the dwindling supplies of wood for paper pulp, is particularly oppor- 
tune at the present time. A comprehensive study was made of Chest- 
nut in southern Maryland with the specific purpose of determining 
the best management of woodlots for the production of that timber. 
The results of the work cover determinations of the stand per acre, 
the rate of growth of Chestnut seedlings and stump shoots, their silvi- 
cultural characteristics, and the method of management under which 
they may most profitably be grown. A study of Red Pine was begun 
in northern Minnesota. The field ork, which occupied five men for 
three and a half months, was directed chiefiy at the study of second 
growth in order to determine accurately what happens on cut-over 
lands under present methods of lumbering. 

Forest Measurements. 

The section of Forest Measurements computed and put into final 
form 25,113 valuation vsurveys, 23,455 stem analyses, 7,947 measure- 
ments of height, and 12,217 taper measurements during the past year. 
These dala furnished information upon the present and future stand 
and the rate of growth in diameter, height, and volume of 42 species 
of trees in 14 States. In addition to the computation of data and the 
prex)aration of tables for working plans and commercial tree studies, 
a large number of miscellaneous results obtained In other lines of the 
Bureau's work were put into final form. It is noteworthy that during 
the past year the section of Forest Measurements has, without increase 
in force, completed nearly twice as many results as in the fiscal year 
1902. 

Expenditures. 

The total expenditures during the year by the office of Forest Man- 
agement were $71,192.48, or 24.4 per cent of the total appropriation of 
the Bureau. 

Of the $15,114.26 contributed toward working-plan studies begun 
or continued during the year 1902-3, 112,864.82 had been expended at 
the end of the fiscal year. 

Work for the Ensuing Year. 

public lands. 

Under the request by the Secretary of the Interior upon the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture, the study of technical problems involved in the 
management of the National forest reserves and Indian reservations 
will be taken up as rapidly as the resources of the Bureau and other 
claims upon it will permit. 



BUREAU OF F0KE8TRY. 511 

PRIVATE LANDS. 

The field work necessary to a working plan for the tract of the 
Houston Oil Company in southeastern Texas will be continued. 
Under the conditions of Circular No. 21, a working-plan study will 
be made of the 27,000-aere tract of E. P. Burton & Co. in South 
Carolina and of the 100,000- acre tract of the Kaul Lumber Company 
in southern Alabama. Particular emphasis will be laid upon the 
preparation of plans for the conservative handling of woodlots, 
which is rapidly becoming one of the most important lines of work in 
the Bureau. 

INSPECTION. 

The marking of the timber to be left standing upon the lands 
which will constitute the Minnesota National Forest Reserve will be 
continued, and the rules for lumbering, which have been prepared 
by the Forester, will be put into effect under the direction of the 
Bureau of Forestry. The supervision of the markings of trees to cut 
and of conservative lumbering will continue upon those lands already 
under the general supervision of the Bureau, or which, as the result of 
the approval of working plans already completed or still to be pre- 
pared, are placed under supervision during the coming year. 

STATE COOPERATIVE FOREST STUDIES. 

The forest study in California will be continued to completion, and 
the results of the first season's work will be embodied in a progress 
report. The study of the forests of New Hampshire will be completed 
along the lines already established. A study will be made of impor- 
tant forest problems in Vermont, especially of those which confront 
the private owner. 

COMMERCIAL TREES. 

Balsam will be studied in Maine and work upon this species brought 
to a completion. The study of Southern hardwoods will also be com- 
pleted and the results prepared for publication. The study of Red 
Pine in Minnesota will be continued, and during the winter a com- 
prehensive study of White Pine in Minnesota and of the Southern 
pines will be begun. 

FOREST MEASUREMENTS. 

The computation of field results obtained by the Bureau will con- 
tinue. 

FOREST INVESTIGATION. 

The division of Forest Investigation has covered a very wide field 
during the past year. Its work in turpentine orcharding has fur- 
nished its most notable contribution to the progress of forestry. 

Turpentine Orcharding. 

One full season's te'st has been made of the cup system of turpen- 
tining, introduced by the Bureau, in comparison with the "box" 
method. The following very important facts have been established ; 

(1) That the box is a destructive and unnecessary wound. 



512 DEPARTMENTAL KEPOETS. 

(2) That the cup system yields over 23 per cent more turpentine 
than the box. 

(3) That the cup system gives uniformly high-grade rosins not pos- 
sible from the box. 

(4) That the cup system occasions the least possible injury to trees 
and will greatly lengthen their life and prolong the duration of the 
naval-stores industry, the extinction of which by the use of the box 
was imminent. 

Through the circulation of Bulletin No. 40 and Circular No. 24, and 
through the personal instructions of Dr. Charles H. Herty, in charge 
of this investigation, the advantages of the cup system have been 
demonstrated to a large number of turpentine operators, of whom 20 
are now using 345,000 cups. Many more operators would have installed 
the new system had it been possible to get cups at the proper time. 
The only present manufacturer of the cup could fill but a small num- 
ber of the orders received. Widespread indorsement of the cup sys- 
tem by operators gives positive indication that it will be very generally 
adopted another season. 

Experiments were continued at Ocilla, Ga., on some 20,000 trees to 
obtain still more accurate data on the comparative yield by the cup 
and the box systems. The present season's experiments have made it 
possible to install the cup system at about half the cost estimated for 
the season of 1902. 

Forest Distribution. 

maryland. 

In cooperation with the Maryland geological survey examinations 
were made of St. Mary, Prince George, and Kent counties. Eeports 
of these studies are practically finished, and are to be ptTblished in 
the annualreport of the State geologist for 1903. The reports embody 
(1) classification of wooded and other lands, the extent and location 
of which are shown on maps; (2) description of the forests and their 
composition by types and species ; (3) stand of available merchantable 
and domestic timber by classes and species; (4) uses and consumption 
of wood by species; (o) efEectof forest fires and other sources of injury, 
and recommendations for prevention and control; (6) recommenda- 
tions for the increase and conservative management of the country's 
forest resources. 

TEXAS. 

Following a study of the general forest resources of Texas, com- 
pleted last year, a detailed study of the forests of Edwards Plateau 
(southeastern Texas) has been made. The forest growth of this region 
is important both for its influence on stream flow needed for irrigat- 
ing adjacent agricultural lands and for supplies of commercial and 
domestic timber. Supplies of Post Oak and a brown-wooded cedar 
(Juniperus saUnoides) are abundant. The latter is important as a 
substitute for the scarce red-wooded pencil cedars. The results of 
this study are embodied in a valuable report, which will soon be ready 
for publication. 

MISSOURI. 

Progress was made with the study of swamp forests in this State. 
Ihe plan includes analyses of the factors which determine the distri- 



BUREAU OF FOBESTRY. 513 

bution and growth of Bald Cypress, and the Red, Black, and Cotton 
gums. There is a growing demand for information concerning these 
swamp timbers, which are rapidly coming into wide use. 

CALIFORNIA. 

The Pacific coast tanbark industry was investigated, with important 
results. This investigation is mainly a study of the Tanbark Oak 
{Quercus densiflora) in California, the region of principal supply. 
The work includes the collection of data on the commercial range of 
the species, a study of the effect of cutting and bark peeling on the 
reproduction of the tree, and on the extension of its range, the rela- 
tion of present consumption of bark and methods of cutting and 
peeling to future supplies, the quality and value of the bark, and the 
tannin content of various types of bark. Qualitative and quantitative 
analyses made of a large number of bark specimens by the Bureau of 
Forestry in its work of collaboration with the Bureau of Chemistry 
showed that the tannin content of the bark varies, very greatly (12 to 
18 per cent) with the region, soil, and density of stand, and that, 
through scarcity of supply, the genuine ' bark, is extensively mixed 
with useless and inferior oak and alder barks. This practice is harm- 
ful to the tannage, and in several localities has done much to injure 
the reputation of genuine bark. The investigations have already 
made it possible to instruct buyers how to detect spurious and mixed 
barks. 

OHIO. 

Investigation of the distribution of commercial hardwood timbers 
in Ohio has continued with special attention to available supplies and 
their relation to wood-consuming industries, and a large number of 
laboratory experiments were made to show the water content of green 
and of air-dried woods. The latter studies are directed toward deter- 
mining the best method of air drying small-dimension sawn lumber. 

A thorough investigation of the Basket Willow industry in Ohio 
was made as a part of a full study of Basket Willow culture in the 
United States. 

MICHIGAN. 

A study of the causes which affect the distribution and growth of 
forests in the sandy Jack Pine plains of northern Michigan was com- 
pleted. Detailed investigation of the influence which soils and soil 
modification in consequence of fires exert on the succession of forest 
types will assist in formulating recommendations for the recuperation, 
extension, and preservation of forest growth in the region. Much 
information that will be useful in dealing with these and similar forest 
regions was secured. 

IOWA. 

Notes and photographs bearing on the distribution, growth, and 
commercial importance of the Sugar Maple and Cottonwood in Iowa 
were collected for use in future dendrological work. 

MONTANA. 

studies begun in 1902 of the factors which determine the distribu- 
tion of coniferous forest types in Montana were completed this year 

AGR 1903 33 



514 DEPAKTMENTAL BEPOETS. 

and embodied in a complete report, with maps and photographic 
illustrations. 

Cedak Shingle Industry. 

The cedar shingle industry of the Pacific Northwest was investi- 
gated daring the fiscal year. The work included a study of the dis- 
tribution of available supplies of shingle cedar, the scope and status 
of the shingle industry, its consumption of timber, the relation of 
present methods of cutting to future supply, and a study of cut-over 
cedar forests in relation to reproduction. In addition to field inves- 
tigations, circulars were sent out to secure data not otherwise attain- 
able from cedar shingle manufacturers. Nearly all the manufacturers 
addressed showed marked interest in the investigation. 

Dendeo-Chemical Investigations. . 

The work of the dendro-chemical laboratory was conducted in coop- 
eration with the Bureau of Chemistry, the Bureau of Forestry paying 
the salaries of experts and giving direction to the work, while the 
laboratory and appliances and immediate technical and administra- 
tive oversight were furnished by the Bureau of Chemistry. Investi- 
gations were made during the past j'ear along the following lines : 

(1) Study of the commercial value of gums and resins from forest trees of the 
Philippine Islands. 

(2) Study of the production of tannins by native barks and woods. Analyses 
were made of the standard Chestnut Oak barks of the East and West and of the 
black oaks of the East. A series of analyses was also made of the woods of these 
trees to show their tannin content. 

(3) Study of untried pulp woods to determine their usefulness as substitutes for 
standard woods now becoming scarce. 

Considerable time was spent as a preparation for this work in a study of the 
stmctui-al and other characteristics of standard pulps, the felting qualities of 
which are known to meet the requirements of various papers. Of untried or lit- 
tle used woods, studies were made of the pulps produced by Black Gum, Cotton 
Gum, Colorado Spruce, Black Cottonwood, Narrowleaf Cottonwood, Aspen from 
the Rocky Mountains, and Engelmann Spruce. 

(4) Experiments to determine the effects of certain poisonous chemicals on the 
life of trees. The purpose was to discover cheap and effective agents with which 
to destroy noxious woody growth. 

Studies were also made of the damaging effects which illuminating and other 
gases and fumes have on the roots and leaves of trees. This Bureau Is often asked 
to supply exact information on this subject. Several important problems have 
been presented for solution relative to the effects of fumes from smelters on the 
foliage and the life of nearby forest trees. 

(5) Detection of adulterated spirits of turpentine. A thorough study was made 
of several hundred samples of commercial turpentine from all possible sources for 
the purpose of discovering a reliable test by which adulterated spirits could be 
detected. The most extensively used adulterant was found to be petroleum. The 
amount of spurious turpentine thus placed on the market is very considerable, 
and is increasing so rapidly that the Savannah Board of Trade applied to the 
Bureau for instructions as to how to detect the adulterated article. A simple and 
reliable test has been found for detecting the smallest per cent of petroleum in 
turpentine, and a description and illustration of the method has been prepared 
for publication. 

Forest Entomology. 

Investigations in forest entomology were conducted by the Division 
of Entomology in cooperation with this Bureau. The life histories and 
depredations of forest insects were studied in the principal timber 
forests of the East, South, and West for the purpose of devising methods 



BUBEAU OF POEESTEY. 515 

of controlling their ravages. One station was established in llie 
Southern Longleaf Pine belt (Tryon, N. C.) and one in the Rrd Fir 
and Yellow Pine forest of Washington (Iloqniam), at which detailed 
studies and experiments which have already been of use were carried 
on. Much helpful advice was given to individual owners of timber 
tracts. Studies of and recommendations for the disposal of beetle- 
killed timber of the Black Hills Forest Reserve are notably important. 
Special chapters on the insects affecting the Red Fir, Western Hem- 
lock, and Coast Redwood, and a Yearbook article (1902) entitled 
"Some of the principal insect enemies of coniferous forests in the 
United States," were prepared. Studies were likewise made of insects 
affecting commercial Pines and Cypress of iSTorth Carolina, South 
Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Texas, Pine and Fir in the Black Hills, 
Priest River, and Olympic Forest reserves, Hickory in Michigan, Pine 
forests in New Mexico, tree Yuccas in southern California, Redwoods 
in California, Tanbark Oak in California, and Sitka Spruce and Giant 
Cedar in Washington. 

Girdling experiments were applied to several hundred Pine trees in 
the Black Hills, South Dakota; to Yellow Pine and Cypress at Tryon 
and Boardman, N. C. ; also, to Red Fir, Sitka Spruce, Giant Cedar, and 
Hemlock in Washington (lloquiam), resulting in the accumulation of 
data which will be of special value in recommending methods for 
preventing losses. Excellent results are predicted. 

At current stumpage values and wholesale prices of commercial 
products the annual loss from forest insect depredations is estimated 
to be about $100,000,000. 

Miscellaneous Investigations, 
basket willow industry. 

During the past year a comprehensive study was made of the Basket 
Willow industry in the United States. The investigation included, 
for the sake of comparison, a careful review of the osier industry of 
European countries. This Bureau is constantly asked for informa- 
tion on the culture of willows. 

An analysis of the present status of the Basket Willow industry in 
the United States shows that there has been a marked decline in the 
number of growers and in the quality and quantity of rods produced. 
This is due partly to the widespread destruction by insects of osier 
holts in the South and partly to a lack of proper methods of culture. 
The finest osier rods are now imported from French and German 
growers, whose methods of culture are practically unknown to Ameri- 
can growers. With standard stock, the method of culture determines 
the commercial qualities of the rods, and it is evident that if the best 
methods are applied to American holts, high-grade rods can be grown 
here. 

MAPLE-SUGAR INDUSTRY. 

Further study of the maple-sugar industry was made during 1902. 
Special study was made of the care, improvement, and management 
of working groves and the creation of new groves by planting and by 
natural reproduction, and of the present and future commercial possi- 
bilities of the maple-sugar industry, which has declined. 

One of the principal aims in this investigation is to point out meas- 



516 DEPARTMENTAL REPOKTS. 

ures througli which adulteration may be checked and an honest 
product ma J' be put on the market with greater profit to the producer 
than his present small returns. 

COMMERCIAL OAKS. 

The commercial distribution and growth of White Oak and Chest- 
nut Oak in the Southern Appalachians was studied. 

Expositions. 

Plans for the Bureau's forest exhibit at the World's Fair, St. Louis, 
Mo. , 1904, have been completed. The fund allotted for the exhibition 
is $7,500. Five thousand square feet of floor space in the Forest, 
Fish, and Game Building are to be devoted to the exhibit. 

Correspondence. 

The giving of original and compiled information by letter on various 
technical subjects constitutes an important part of the work of the 
Dendrologist. One thousand eight hundred and forty communica- 
tions were prepared during the year — a great increase over the previous 
year. The subjects of correspondence vary greatly. A large percent- 
age of these letters asked for information either not yet published or 
widely scattered throxigh various documents. 

Expenditures. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903, the total expenditure 
for forest investigations was $27,714, which is 9.5 per cent of the 
total appropriation. 

Work for the Ensuing Year. 

dendrological studies. 

DESCHIPTIONS OF TKEB SPECIES. 

Bulletins descriptive of North American tree species, including 
their geographical and commercial range, will be in preparation. 
Five separate regions will be considered — the Northeastern, South- 
eastern, Rocky Mountain, Southwestern, and the Pacific slope (includ- 
ing adjacent islands and Alaska). These bulletins will supply simple, 
concise descriptions of our forest trees, and should be particularly 
useful to lumbermen, architects, engineers, and operators of wood- 
consuming industries, who are constantly applying to the Bureau for 
infoi-mation which is nowhere available at present. 

COMMON NAMES OP TREES. 

Serious difficulties are constantly arising among architects, builders, 
engineers, nurserymen, and other wood consumers because of the 
present confusion in the common names of trees. Careful study will 
be given to the subject during the coming year. 



BDEEAU OF FOEESTEY. 517 

SPECIAL STUDIES. 

Studies of swamp forests in Missouri and Arkansas will be continued 
during this field season, and a special study will be made of the dis- 
tribution, growth, and commercial value of swamp hardwood forests 
in Texas. 

Monographic studies of the Black and Red oaks will be carried for- 
ward to completion. This work will be concerned mainly with the 
silvicultural requirements and growth of these oaks for the purpose 
of completing unfinished reports by the late Doctor Mohr. 

The study of the distribution, reproduction, and ownership of the 
Big Trees of California will be continued, and should be followed by 
important recommendations for the preservation of the most unique 
of our forests. 

A systematic study of the timber and other Acacia tree species 
indigenous and naturalized in California, Arizona, New Mexico, and 
Texas will be continued. 

Experiments will be continued on the Potomac Flats to determine 
the best methods for the production of commercial Basket Willow 
rods, the best supplies of which are at present imported largely from 
foreign countries. 

TURPENTINE OEOHABDING. 

Field experiments will be continued at Ocilla, Ga., and elsewhere 
to compare still more widelj' and accurately the cup system and the 
box system, to improve the cup system further, and to increase the 
yield. A study of the French system of turpentining is being made 
on the ground. 

FOREST EXHIBIT. 

The Bureau's exhibit at the World's Fair, St. Louis, Mo., 1904, will 
be installed during the present fiscal year. The detailed prepara- 
tion is going forward as rapidly as possible. 

FOREST LIBRARY. 

The usefulness of the library will be increased during the coming 
year by making available for reference, by title, author, and subject 
index, all essential published matter bearing on forestry and closely 
related subjects. Summaries of published information on special 
subjects will be made by the library force. Material is being col- 
lected for a general history of State forest legislation. 

FOREST PHOTOGRAPHS. 

The photographic laboratorj^ will be continued as heretofore. 

FOREST EXTENSION. 

The forest-extension work of the Bureau of Forestry has to do with 
the creation of forests where at present there are none. It continues 
the cooperative planting carried on by the Bureau with private land- 
owners since 1899, and includes forest planting on the public reserves, 
the investigation of forest fires, studies in foi'cst replacement, and the 
reclamation of shifting sand dunes. 



518 



depabtmental reports. 
Cooperative Planting. 



In cooperating with private landowners in forest planting, the 
Bureau continues to examine land and prepare planting plans, and 
to superintend planting under these plans when the cost of such super- 
intendence, not including salaries, is defrayed by the owner. 

planting plans MADE. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year there were awaiting attention 38 
applications for planting plans; 70 applications were received during 
the year. Sixty-eight planting plans were prepared in 29 States. 
These plans cover an area of 4,283 acres. The total number of plant- 
ing plans prepared to date is 292, covering an area of 10,807 acres. 
The following tables give further details on the planting plans which 
have been made : 

Cooperative planting. 

JULY 1, 1902, TO JUNE 30, 1903. 



No. 


State. 


^^^- 


Plans 
made. 


Area for 

which 

plans were 

made. 






Number. 
3 
3 
2 
2 
1 
1 


NuTnber. 
2 
1 


Acres. 
740 






108.7 


3 

4 




* 




4 
1 
2 

2 
4 


145 


5 




650 






57 






29.5 


g 






107.5 


9 




2 
3 

1 
7 
3 
1 

2 
4 
1 




10 
















12 




8 
4 
1 
1 
5 
1 
6 
1 
6 
3 
1 


402.5 


IS 




254 


n 




6 


15 




430 


16 




120.8 


17 




250 


1R 




35.44 


19 


Ohio 


3 
3 
3 


7.4 


W 




87.43 


'1 


Pennsylvania 


54 


■w 


Rhode Island - -- 


112.95 


tn, 




1 

14 
3 
3 
1 

1 
2 




f-l 


Texas ..- 


11 
3 


80.98 


»■> 


VfiTTnn-nt. 


554 


»fi 






W 








9R 








W 




1 


50 




Total 






70 
38 


68 


4,283.2 


















108 















PLANS MADE PEIOR TO JULY 1, 1903. 



1 




Number. 
3 
7 

14 
8 
1 
2 
5 


Number. 
2 
4 
12 
8 
1 
1 
4 


Acres. 
740 


« 




210.95 


3 




51.75 


4 




260.13 


5 


District of Columbia 


4fi 


B 


Florida 


650 


7 


Illinois 


80 



BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 



519 



Cooperative planting — Continued. 
PLANS MADE PRIOE TO JTXLY 1, 1903— Continued. 



No. 



State. 



Ajjplica- 
tione. 



Plans 
made. 



Area for 

"wliicli 

plans were 

made. 



Indian Territory 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts _ . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

New Hampshire 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina _ 
North Dakota... 

Ohio..-- 

Oklahoma.- 

Pennsylvania 

Ehode Island 

South Carolina _ 
South Dakota . . . 

Texas 

Virginia 

Vermont 

Washington 

West Virginia . _ 
Wisconsin 

Total 



Number. 
8 

12 
8 

46 
■i 
1 
1 

13 
6 
9 
•Z 

33 
.5 
i 
7 
3 

27 
7 

27 
8 

3 
33 
22 
6 
3 
1 
2 
3 



42.9 

747 



700 



,9139. r^ 
319 

48 
5 
190.80 

84 
440 
130.8 
280 
187. 02 

17.4 
276.68 
705.72 
289.20 
100 
252.23 
156.33 

96 
554 



10 
130 



10,807.47 



The planting plans of the past year, like those prepared before, are 
mostlj'' for farm woodlots of not more than 10 to 20 acres. There 
have, however, been numerous exceptions. One of the plans was for 
the Presidio Military Reservation, in the city of San Francisco, Cal. 
This reservation consists of 1,800 acres, 400 acres of which were 
planted in timber between the years of 1888 and 1895. The growth of 
the planted trees has been vigorous, and the stand has become very 
dense. Recommendations were made for thinning the present stand 
of timber and for planting an additional area of 108.7 acres. An 
appropriation of money by the War Department has already been 
made for this work, which is now in progress. Both thinning and 
planting should be completed within the next two years. 

In May, 1902, Governor White, of North Dakota, made application 
for the assistance of this Bureau in the preparation of planting plans 
for the grounds of several of the State institutions. The plans have 
been made during the past year. The plantations provided for in 
the plans made will furnish examples of protective shelter belts such 
as are necessary in the Northwestern plains. The plans have been 
accepted by Governor White and transmitted by him to the various 
institutions concerned. The planting under them should begin next 
spring. 

In the spring of 1902 the Fort Worth and Denver City Railroad 
made application to the Bureau of Forestry for its assistance in the 
encouragement of forest planting by farmers in the prairie region of 
Texas through which the road extends. An examination of the land 
lying contiguous to the railroad between Fort Worth and Texline, 
Tex., was made by the Bureau of Forestry, and conferences on forest 



520 DEPAETMENTAL EEPOETS. 

planting were held with landowners at numerous points. Ten plans 
were made as a result of this work, and upward of 600,000 trees were 
planted last fall and this spring in accordance with them. The Fort 
Worth and Denver Citj^ Railroad cordially supported the work by 
giving transportation to the agents of the Bureau of Forestry and 
hauling free of charge the trees which were ordered for planting 
under its plans. 

During the year a plan was prepared for the planting of 640 acres 
in Cullman County, Ala. This land was originally covered with 
Longleaf J,nd Shortleaf pine, but after being cut over was burned by 
successive fires until reproduction failed. The plan included recom- 
mendations for protection of the land from fire and its planting to 
Loblolly Pine, White Oak, Post Oak, and Chestnut. The request for 
this plan is significant of the growing interest of the Southern States 
in the restocking of cut-over lands. 

PROGRESS OP PLANTING. 

In practically all eases in which plans were prepared during the 
past year the owner was ready to proceed with the planting at once. 
In most cases the planting will be completed within two or three 
years. Planting also continues under plans previously made. 

The Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board of Massachusetts dur- 
ing the year has planted 225 acres under the plan prepared by the 
Bureau in 1900. About 400 acres, therefore, have been planted around 
the edges of the immense Wachusett reservoir of the Boston water 
supply. ^ 

The Currituck Shooting Club, whose grounds lie between Currituck 
Sound and the Atlantic coast, in Currituck County, E". C, began dur- 
ing the year the planting of trees and shrubs for the reclamation of 
shifting sand dunes on the club grounds. The preparation of the 
ground for this planting was done by the club under the Bureau's 
direction during 1902. 

The city of Woonsocket, R. I., has begun extensive planting under 
plans prepared by the B ureau last year. Like the Metropolitan Water 
Board, the city of Woonsocket has a large area of bare land surround- 
ing its storage reservoir. This land" must be planted to protect the 
water. Planting began in the fall of 1902 by the setting out of 10,000 
White Pine, and was continued during the spring of 1903. 

Reserve Planting. 

A good beginning in planting on the public forest reserves was made 
during the year. Work has been in active progress on the Dismal 
River Reserve in Nebraska and the San Gabriel Reserve iu California, 
on both of which there is urgent necessity for establishing forests 
without delay. 

DISMAL EIVER RESERVE. 

On the Dismal River Forest Reserve, one of the two reserves estab- 
lished in the sand hills of Nebraska for forest planting, the boundary 
lines have been surveyed and marked. Nine sections, including the 
district which is to be planted first, have been surveyed and mapped. 
Since the reserve does not afford a satisfactory nursery site, a tract 
of 240 acres adjacent to the north side and lying in the valley of the 
Middle Loup River, about 2 miles west of Halsey, was set aside by 



BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 521 

Presidential proclamation for a forest nursery. Eighty acres of this 
bottom land have been fenced, and a seed bed of 1 acre has been 
prepared and covered by suitable framework for the protection of 
seedlings. This bed has now been entirely seeded to pine and spruce. 
Materials have been obtained for the construction of an additional 
seed bed of the same size as that already made, so that space has been 
provided for the growing of 2,000,000 plants. 

During the fall of 1902, 30,000 seedlings of the Western Yellow Pine 
were collected in the Black Hills Forest Reserve and 10,000 Jack Pine 
seedlings in the woods of Minnesota for the Dismal River Reserve. 
During the past spring 60,000 additional seedlings were obtained in 
the woods in the vicinity of Brainerd, Minn. These 100,000 trees were 
planted in the north part of the reserve. The planting of these forest- 
pulled seedlings is for the purpose of determining how far that method 
is practicable. The present indications for the survival of a large 
percentage of the trees are excellent. 

The cost per 1,000 of collecting, shipping, and planting these seed- 
lings was as follows : 



Species. 


Cost of 
collecting. 


Freight. 


Cost of 
planting. 


Total. 


Jack Pine 


$3.85 
4.58 


SI. 20 
.56 


$1.46 
1.73 


$6.61 
6 86 


Western Yellow Pine 







Seven thousand Cottonwood and 3,000 willow cuttings were planted 
along the Middle Loup River and on the adjacent hills. 

In addition to the sowing of the seed bed and the planting of trees 
and cuttings, 10 acres in the sand hills adjacent to the nursery site 
were sown with Red Cedar, and 24 acres with Jack Pine, Western 
Yellow Pine, and Blue Spruce. 

A temporary building was erected near the nursery site to provide 
protection for tools, implements, and supplies. A well was sunk and 
a windmill erected to supply water for the irrigation of the beds. A 
reservoir of li acre-inch capacity was constructed some 60 feet above 
the seed beds. The level of this reservoir gives ample head for using 
the water either in the seed beds or in the protection of the buildings 
in case of lire. A complete irrigating system has been established. 

It is significant of the local interest taken in the Bureau's work that 
the commissioners of Thomas County have recently laid out a road 
direct from the station at Halsey to the Bureau's headquarters, and 
have bridged the river, at a cost of 1800. 

SAN GABRIEL FOREST RESERVE. 
SEED PLANTING. 

The work of planting on the San Gabriel Forest Reserve was 
greatly extended by this office during the past year. Planting was 
begun on Brown Mountain, at the western extremity of the San 
Gabriel Reserve, in November, 1902. This mountain, which has been 
heavily burned for many years, is now bare of timber and but 
scantily covered with brush. The planting was done at an elevation 
ranging from 2,000 to 4,600 feet. For the larger part of the work 
seeds were planted. Seed spots were dug from 6 to 12 inches deep 
and 2 feet across, the surface was smoothed, and from 8 to 15 seeds 



522 DEPAJRTMENTAL BEPOETS. 

were planted in each spot. The spots were from 6 to 15 feet apart, 
or an average of about 375 per acre, and, when possible, were placed 
in shelter. The total cost of planting was $7.41 per acre, not includ- 
ing cost of superintendence. The force engaged in the work con- 
sisted of two members of the Bureau of Forestry, with from 12 to 
15 laborers. The amount of seed planted in this way was as follows : 

Pounds. 

Knobcone Pine _ 85 

Coulter Pine 1 

Torrey Pine 3 

Gray Pine 33 

Western Yellow Pine 26 

Sugar Pine 45 

Incense Cedar 9 

The seed of the Knobcone Pine planted in November began germi- 
nating in January, and the Incense Cedar a little later. From this 
time until April the seedlings appeared in abundance. Owing to the 
great numbers of birds (linnets), precautions had to be taken for the 
protection of the seedlings. Later in the season, with the growth of 
more vegetable food, the birds' attack largely ceased. In addition 
to the birds the rabbits did great damage by biting off the young and 
tender seedling trees. 

SEED BEDS. 

During the past year a seed bed 15 by 50 feet has been constructed 
in Pasadena, where there are ample facilities for water. On account 
of the presence of birds it was necessary to cover this entire inelosure 
with wire netting. This bed has now been wholly planted to Pine 
and Incense Cedar seed. 

The thanks of the Bureau are due to Mr. J. R. Bell, forest ranger, 
Idyllwild, Gal., for assistance in securing seed for planting; to Mr. 
William G. Kirchkoff, president of the Los Angeles County Water 
and Forest Association, who gave $262 to the work, and to the Pasa- 
dena Board of Trade for a contribution of $600 for the same purpose. 

SEED COLLECTING. 

For the planting both in Nebraska and in California this Bureau 
has itself collected the seed. This was usually necessary because the 
seed was not to be found in the market, and in all cases it has insured 
seed of fresh quality and from suitable places. In addition the 
Bureau has acquired valuable information in regard to the collection 
and treatment of tree seeds. In all, 856 pounds of seed have been 
collected. 

Forest Replacement. 

Investigations to determine methods of improving thin forest stands 
without resorting to expensive planting were begun during the past 
year. Three distinct studies have been carried on, one of the repro- 
duction of hardwoods in Oklahoma, another of Western Yellow Pine 
on the Prescott Reserve in Arizona, and a third of White Pine on 
abandoned fields and pastures in New England. 

reproduction of hardwoods in OKLAHOMA. 

The natural line between timber and prairie which extends south- 
ward through Missouri and eastern Kansas bends distinctly westward 



BUBEAU OF F0EE8TKY. 523 

in Oklahoma to include the Wichita Mountains, which consist of sev- 
eral low ranges separated by high prairies or parks. For the most 
part the valleys at the foot of the mountains and the higher slopes 
are covered by a scattering growth of hardwoods, consisting princi- 
pally of Post and Black Jack oaks. The land until 1901 was con- 
trolled entirely by Indians, who used it for grazing, and was regularly 
burned off each year for the improvement of the range. In the longer 
settled portions of Oklahoma, wliere originally there were similar thin 
stands of oak, a dense growth of young oaks sprang up at once after 
the settlement of the country and the end of the fires. The chief pur- 
pose of this investigation was to find whether such reproduction is to 
be expected in the Wichita Mountains. 

A large number of silvicultiiral and reproduction surveys were made 
on the Wichita Forest Reserve, which includes the principal moun- 
tains, and evidence was gathered which shows that if fires are kept 
out of the reserve and grazing somewhat limited a strong though not 
perfectly distributed reproduction of species such as Post and Black 
Jack oaks and Red Cedar may be expected. A map of the reserve 
was made showing the various types of reproduction and areas where 
timber is -wanting and can not be expected except by planting. This 
is an important feature of the investigation, since there are large tracts 
of this kind of land in the reserve. Full information in regard to 
planting and concerning suitable locations for nursery sites has been 
obtained. 

A general reconnaissance was made of the timber belts of Oklahoma 
and surrounding regions for the purpose of finding whether they are 
extending since the settlement of the country. The opportunity 
which this investigation afforded to study the planted timber of the 
region was used. As a result of this investigation a report was sub- 
mitted on forest extension and planting in Oklahoma. 

KEPKODXJCTION OF THE WESTERN YELLOVT PINE ON THE PRESCOTT 

FOREST RESERVE. 

Because of the small amount of useful timber in central Arizona 
and the great need of lumber for the rapidly growing mining and agri- 
cultural interests a study of the reproduction of the Western Yellow 
Pine was made on the Prescott Forest Reserve. The purposes of this 
study, as of that made in Oklahoma, were to find (1) how far suffi- 
cient reproduction exists, (2) whether by artificial means this repro- 
duction can be increased, and (3) whether planting is practicable on 
any portion of the reserve. 

Reproduction surveys showed what portions of the reserve have now 
a sufficient stand of young timber, and some of the causes of the fail- 
ure of reproduction were ascertained. Abundant evidence is present 
to show that the vital seed which reach the soil at a seasonable time 
have a high percentage of germination. Tests in seeding are advisable. 

WHITE PINE REPRODUCTION IN NEW ENGLAND. 

White Pine reproduces itself abundantly on abandoned fields and 
pastures in certain localities in southern New England, but the dis- 
tribution of the young trees is not good. A study to discover meth- 
ods of improving reproduction began in the summer of 1902 and 
continued far enough to indicate its practicability. The study was 
carried on locally in Worcester County, Mass., and Cheshire County, 
N. H. It showed that seed years for the White Pine in that region 



524 DEPABTMENTAL KEPORTS. 

take place with considerable regularity and that the seeding of a tract 
depends upon the proximity of seed-bearing trees, the condition of 
the surface soil, and the character of the ground cover. The latter 
two conditions being subject to easy control, there seems good ground 
for believing that methods may be found under which, if seed trees 
are present, the landowner ma,j, without great difficulty, secure a 
fairly even stand of White Pine. The investigation, which is to be 
continued during the coming season, will make it possible to give 
definite recommendations to landowners who wish to improve the con- 
ditions for White Pine reproduction. 

Forest Fires. 

The object of the study of forest flres is to get the best information 
possible both on the immediate money loss by forest fires and on the 
indirect damage to the forest and to local interests of various kinds. 
The ultimate purpose is to find effectual methods of prevention and 
control. 

OREGON AND WASHINGTON. 

After the fires which occurred in Oregon and Washington in Sep- 
tember, 1902, the Bureau at once made an investigation of the losses 
which had been sustained. The report of this investigation covered 
the loss of life and property, the causes of the fires, the methods used 
in fighting them, the damage to the soil, and the outlook for repro- 
duction. The burned districts were mapped. 

The area burned over in Oregon was approximately 170,000 acres, 
of which 120,000 acres carried a heavy stand of Red Fir, estimated at 
17,700 board feet per acre, or 2,124,000,000 board feet. The value of 
this timber at a stumpage rate of $1 per thousand, board measure, was 
$2,124,000. Though much of this is a total loss, a great deal can still 
be utilized if lumbering is undertaken immediately. Logging roads 
have already been built into the burned districts. 

The principal flres in Washington were in Skamania, Cowlitz, and 
Clarke counties, where the area burned is estimated at 434,000 acres. 
With the exception of 150,000 acres all of the land was fully as heavily 
timbered as in Oregon and of better quality. The amount destroyed 
is estimated at 5,026,800,000 feet board measure. At a stumpage value 
of $1 per thousand the total stand of Red Fir amounted to $5,026,800. 

In addition to the green timber, both States sustained heavy losses 
in sawmills, sawed lumber, logs, railroad ties, telephone and telegraph 
poles, and cordwood, besides farm buildings, stock, hay and grain, 
fences, farming machinery, vehicles, and orchards. The total losses 
in Washington and Oregon are estimated to be as follows: Oregon, 
13,910,000; Washington, $8,857,100— total both States, $12,767,100. 

Many of these fires could have been extinguished before they became 
serious. An efficient system of forest patrol in these localities would 
probably have prevented them altogether. Watchfulness on the part 
of the Government rangers prevented severe flres on the forest reserves. 

GEORGIA AND FLORIDA. 

An investigation was begun last March to determine the damage 
done by fires to forest reproduction in the Longleaf Pine forests of 



liUllKAV OF FORESTRY. 525 

northern Florida and southern Georgia. In this region, where the 
forest stand is never heavy and where grass always grows beneath the 
trees, it has been a long-standing practice to burn over the ground 
each year to improve the grazing. The investigation was attended 
by many difficulties, chief among which are that burning has been so 
general that areas not affected by fire could seldom be found, and 
without which there was no opportunity for comparison; that the 
individual fires ai-e so light that the damage is not easily determiuod, 
nor is its influence long to be seen, and that the indifference of many 
of the people made it impossible to obtain specific information. 

A few tracts of land were found, however, where, with the original 
condition the same throughout, some parts had been repeatedly 
burned, while others had been protected through a number of years. 
These conditions gave opportunity for a comparative study, the 
results of which are applicable over an extended region. This study, 
though at present incomplete, indicates that definite information may 
be secttred on the damage which fire does to the Longleaf Pine forests. 

THE LAKE STATES. 

In May, 1903, investigations were begun in Michigan and Wiscon- 
sin to find methods of preventing forest fires in the White Pine region 
of the Lake States. In addition to a detailed study such as was con- 
ducted in the Southern States, the Bureau has made careful inquiry 
into the methods of fire protection proposed by railroads and land- 
owners. Fires do not occur so frequently in these regions as in the 
pine belts of the South, but more often reach the dimensions of a 
conflagration. 

The Bureau of Forestry plans, by means of full field studies, to 
replace with carefully gathered facts the vague general notions that 
now exist about forest fires. After detailed study of particular 
regions the Bureau will be ready to recommend methods of fire pro- 
tection and control for private land and, when called upon to do so, 
to suggest fire legislation for the various States. 

Reclamation of Shifting Sands. 

The protection of valuable property from the encroachment of 
shifting dunes and the reclamation of dune-covered land for economic 
uses have become important problems in some sections of the United 
States, particularly along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, in the Great 
Lake district, and along the Columbia River in Washington and Ore- 
gon. The most effectual method of permanently reclaiming such 
land is to establish and permanently keep a forest upon it. Euro- 
pean experience has abundantly shown that this can be done and 
that land which is not only useless but a source of grave danger will, 
when forested, yield returns. 

For this reason the Bureau of Forestry has during the past year 
made examinations of some of the worst districts of shifting sand in 
the United States. 

ATLANTIC coast DUNES. 

The dunes lying along the Atlantic coast between Cape Cod in 
Massachusetts and Cape Fear in North Carolina have received atten- 
tion. The only extensive work yet done for the retention of sand in 



526 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

this district is at the point of Cape Cod, where the State of Massa- 
chusetts owns a tract of several hundred acres known as the " Province 
Lands." Here at considerable expense the State has arrested the 
worst dunes hy the planting of grasses. Grasses hold the sand tem- 
porarily, but it is only where trees have been used that the land may 
be said to be permanently reclaimed and to have attained practical 
value. The Bureau first considered most carefully the results, of the 
work done on the Province Lands. This study assisted it in devising 
methods of reclamation in other places along the coast. As a result 
of this investigation it has begun to prepare tree-planting plans for 
owners of sandy areas along the coasts, under the general plan of 
cooperation in forest planting. 

COLUMBIA RIVER DUNES. 

Some of the most extensive and mobile sand dunes of the United 
States are to be found in the lower valley of the Columbia River, in 
Washington and Oregon. On the outer portion of the valley exten- 
sive farms and orchards have been developed on soil of great fertility, 
and between Pasco, Wash. , and the Cascade Mountains the line of 
the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company has been built. Both 
the railroad and the farming interests suffer great loss from the shift- 
ing sands. Bearing orchards have been completely engulfed, and 
valuable buildings have had to be moved because of it. 

The sand of the Columbia River is much lighter than the sand of 
the Atlantic coast, on account of the quantity of mica which it con- 
tains. This makes it easily blown by the wind and also gives it great 
fertility when once fixed and supplied with water, so that with the 
reclamation of the sand dunes there are possibilities of profitable 
orchards and farm lands in connection with the belts of forest which 
will necessarily have to be established. 

During the past year the Bureau has made a very careful investi- 
gation of the sand districts of the Columbia River. They have been 
mapped, and the trees which naturally thrive in sand in that region 
and which might be used were the work of reclamation begun have 
been closely studied. In addition a strip of land from 1 to 6 miles 
wide lying along the Columbia River, between Willow Creek and 
John Day River, has been withdrawn from settlement for experiment. 
This withdrawal contains some of the worst sand dunes of the entire 
river and will afford an opportunity for an extensive trial of the 
practicability of changing waste areas of this type into fertile agri- 
cultural land. 

Expenditures. 

The expenditures in forest extension during the past year amounted 
to $41, 977. 69, or 14. 4 per cent of the total appropriation for the Bureau, 

Work for the Ensuing Year. 

The linos of work which have been laid down in the past will be 
continued and strengthened during the coming year. The addition 
of several field assistants to the force engaged in forest-extension 
work will easily make this possible. 

Cooperative work in forest planting between the Bureau and land- 
owners is now firmly established and may be extended just so far as 



BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 527 

the resources of the Bureau will permit. Not only will planting 
plans be made in increasing numbers, but more attention will be 
given also to the supervision of planting done under the plans and to 
the care of plantations after they are made. 

The forest planting begun on two of the public reserves will be 
continued, and, if practicable, extended to several others during the 
next year. Work should be begun promptly on the Pikes Peak, 
Wichita, Prescott, and San Bernardino reserves. 

Studies in the improvement of natural reproduction on the Pikes 
Peak Reserve and in northern New Mexico will be continued, as will 
also a study now in progress of the extension of the timber belts of 
western Kansas and an investigation of methods of restocking with 
forest the cut-over pine lands of southern Michigan. In southern 
New England the study begun last year on the improvement of the 
reproduction of White Pine is to be concluded. Other work in prog- 
ress includes an investigation, in cooperation with the Forestry Asso- 
ciation of Massachusetts, covering the problems of forest flres and 
reproduction and studies in cooperation with the State of California 
to determine methods of improving thin forest stands and to show 
the extent to which forest planting is practicable on mountain lands 
in that State. The growth and value for economic purposes of the 
planted Eucalypts in southern California will also continxie as a part 
of this cooperative work. An investigation of methods of preventing 
and controlling forest fires under the same plan will soon be begun. 

Special inquiries will be made into the causes of and damage from 
all serious forest fires which do not receive State investigation. The 
influence of fire on reproduction under the varying conditions pre- 
vailing in different forest regions will continue %o receive attention. 

The reclamation of shifting sand by forest growth will be vigor- 
ously prosecuted on the Atlantic coast, in the Lake region, and on 
the Columbia River. On private lands the Bureau will cooperate with 
landowners. On Government land the Bureau will itself begin work 
in a limited number of places. 

forest products. 

Timber Tests. 

An investigation of the mechanical properties of timber was under- 
taken by this Bureau on September 1, 1902, in cooperation with the 
road-material laboratory of the Bureau of Chemistry. Its specific pur- 
pose is to determine the strength and durability of the merchantable 
timbers of the United States. In planning the work the effort has 
been to confine it to the solution of practical problems and to avoid 
those of purely scientific interest. A circular was prepared and 
printed stating in detail the methods to be employed and the results 
expected. This was sent to prominent engineers, manufacturers, and 
lumbermen, with a request for candid criticism and suggestion. The 
replies show a keen appreciation of the importance of the work and 
in almost every case approve the plan outlined in the circular. The 
intention of the Bureau to test actual commercial products in the 
form of full-sized sticks of structural timber received the commenda- 
tion not only of practicing engineers but of eminent authorities on 
testing, such as Prof. G. Lanza, to whom the principal features of the 
plan were due. 



528 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

The scope and purpose of the timber tests may be briefly summarized 
as follows: 

Series A.— Tests of the mechanical and physical properties of timber as found on 
the market: Actual sizes and grades of commercial products "will be used. The 
purpose is to determine moduli for design ; to ascertain the value of woods 
now considered inferior; to determine the liabilty to knots and their reducing 
effect on the strength of timbers; to arrange a table of standard weights and 
rules of inspection and grading, and to compare the properties of the same 
species from different regions. 

Tests to determine the effects of variations in the testing process: 

Series B— Effect of rate of application of load, including impact tests. 
Series C— EfiEect of moisture. 

Studies of the effect and efficiency of technological processes: 
Series D— Preservatives. 
Series E— Methods of seasoning. 
Series F — Fire retardants. 
Series G — EfEect of forest conditions. 

The Bureau of Forestry is now conducting timber tests at three 
laboratories. The Washington laboratory, in addition to the execu- 
tion of tests assigned to it, has general supervision over the other 
laboratories and the direction of their work. These are the labora- 
tories at New Haven, in which the Bureau is cooperating in timber 
tests with the Yale Forest School, and the laboratory at Berkeley, 
in which similar cooperation is going on with the University of 
California. 

The tests at present being made under Series A include tests of the 
Pacific Coast Red Fir and Hemlock, of Longleaf Pine, and of second- 
growth Loblolly Pine. An investigation of the mechanical properties 
of the Southern gums is planned for the immediate future. Series B 
and C are under way. Efforts are now being made to secure the 
cooperation of those interested in outlining a scheme for investigation 
under Series D. Work upon Series F and G has not yet begun. 

Testing Longleaf Pine beams, measuring 12 by 16 inches, was the 
first work undertaken at the Washington laboratory. Thirteen full- 
sized beams were broken, and many small pieces taken from them 
were subjected to minor tests, such as those for resistance to compres- 
sion and shearing. The testing was done in accordance with the 
standard practice ; but new features were the photographing of all 
four sides and the two ends of each beam, and the recording of its 
actual market grade. After the series of tests is complete these addi- 
tional records will be valuable in determining the reason for unusual 
strength or weakness. The tests of market timber will also serve to 
check the values obtained by the Division of Forestry in former tests 
of material, which were not conducted as described. During the year 
the results of the workuponLongleaf Pine were tabulated, and experi- 
ments were conducted to determine the moisture in the beams tested 
at Berkeley and New Haven. Tests upon second-growth Loblolly 
Pine were begun. 

The work of the laboratory at New Haven, in cooperative work 
begun in September, 1902, comprised the testing of 14 Longleaf Pine 
beams, together with numerous minor tests of smaller specimens cut 
from them. The work of this laboratory for the immediate future 
will consist in an investigation to determine the best methods for 
making timber tests and the effect on the results of tests of such 
factors as speed of application of load and the amount of moisture 
and of volatile oils in the timber tested. The laboratory is equipped 



BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 529 

with a 150,000-pound Riehle testing machine and with the other 
apparatus necessary for thorough work. 

At the Berkeley laboratory work in cooperation with the Univer- 
sity of California began in April, 1903. The work during the year 
included the testing of 56 Red Fir beams, the first step in a series of 
investigations of Pacific coast timbers. The investigation has the 
enthusiastic support of lumbermen, engineers, and manufacturers. 
Two carloads of timber have been given to the laboratory as testing 
material, and many times that amount has been promised when 
needed. The timber is given free transportation by the railroads. 

Wood Preservation. 

The purpose of the work of the Bureau in wood preservation is to 
determine the best methods for the seasoning of construction, rail- 
road, and other timbers, and for increasing their durability by the use 
of preservative processes. Particular attention is given to ascertain- 
ing methods of treatment by which the employment of inferior woods 
may be rendered profitable, and economy in the iise of woods of more 
valuable kinds may thus be increased. The work has received through- 
out the enthusiastic support of the railroad companies. They have 
furnished free transportation to the agents of the Bureau; have pro- 
vided material for experiment, and scales and other appliances ; have 
transported material for treatment from place to place free of charge, 
and in other ways have rendered notable assistance in the work. 

Studies to determine the best methods of seasoning Lodgepole Pine 
railroad ties and the time required to season ties cut in diiferent 
months have been carried on at Bozeman, Mont. One hundred ties 
were weighed each month, immediately after they were cut, and then 
piled in variously constructed open piles to determine the best form 
for thorough and rapid seasoning. The ties were weighed again at 
the end of fifteen days, and at intervals of thirty days thereafter 
until thoroughly air dry. After the seasoning was completed the ties 
were shipped to Sheridan, Wyo. , for treatment by different preserva- 
tive processes. It was demonstrated thatj by proper seasoning before 
shipment the ties lose nearly 40 per cent in weight. It was also 
shown that when the timber was properly seasoned about one-third 
less time was required for treating it. All ties were marked with 
record nails showing the months in which they were cut and the treat- 
ment given them, and then placed in the track in order that their 
durability might be tested by actual trial. 

Similar investigations are being made of railroad ties manufactured 
from the inferior oaks, the gums, and the beech of eastern Tennessee, 
Kentucky, Arkansas, and Mississippi. When seasoned these ties 
will be treated with preservatives and placed in service. More thor- 
ough seasoning in much shorter time has already been attained by 
improved methods of piling. 

A study of Loblolly and Shortleaf railroad ties is being made in 
eastern Texas. About 2,000 ties have been cut each month under the 
supervision of an agent of the Bureau. These ties were taken from 
different localities and from different parts of the tree. They are so 
marked that a record can be made of the differences they show in 
water content, weight, strength, durability, and absorption of pre- 
servatives. A tie yard has been provided by the railroad company, 

AGK 1903 34 



530 DEPAKTMENTAL REPORTS. 

to -wMch the ties are hauled and where they are weighed and piled in 
order to determine what form of pile will give the best results. Ihe 
weights are recorded, and the ties are re- weighed at intervals of thirty 
days until air dry. From these tests accurate data will be obtained 
as to the time required to season Loblolly and Shortleaf Pine ties cut 
in any month of the year. 

In cooperation with the American Telephone and Telegraph Com- 
pany, the best methods for seasoning Chestnut telegraph and tele- 
phone poles are being thoroughly investigated. Fifty poles are cut 
each month, and under the supervision of an agent of the Bureau of 
Forestry are weighed and piled on skids to season. The poles are 
then weighed at intervals of thirty days to determine the rate of sea- 
soning. Each pole is marked with a dating nail designating the month 
in which it was cut. When the poles are thoroughly air dry they are 
placed in position by the company, each pole being marked with 
nails indicating the date of cutting and the date the pole was put in 
use. Since in common practice the green poles are placed directly in 
the ground, it is expected that considerable increase in the length of 
life of the poles will result from the seasoning. In December an 
experimental line of poles was put in place by the company under the 
direction of an agent of the Bureau. The butts of 100 poles were 
treated and the poles set up in cement and broken rock in order to 
determine the effect of the surrounding medium upon the durability 
of the poles. Untreated poles were similarly placed for the purpose 
of comparison. 

In southeastern Texas an exhaustive study is being made of the 
various methods of tie treatment in order to determine which is the 
most profitable for that region. Two years ago 8,000 ties were placed 
in the track of the Gulf, Colorado and Santa Fe Rail-^ay. These ties 
are of 13 different kinds of wood. They are impregnated by 12 
separate processes in order to test the relative durability of each wood 
under each preservative treatment. A certain number of ties of each 
kind were put in the track without treatment. All ties are marked 
with record nails indicating the kind of wood, the treatment which 
the tie has received, and i the date when it was placed in the track. 
These ties are examined every two months by agents of the Bureau. 
It has been noted that all of the untreated ties are already affected by 
decay. After another year this experiment will furnish, for the region 
in which it is made, reliable data for the length of life of ties of dif- 
ferent kinds, both when untreated and when treated under different 
processes. 

Study of Proposed Reserves. 

This work, which includes studies of the boundaries of existing 
National forest reserves and of proposed forest reserves as a basis 
for recommendations, has been undertaken under the request of the 
Secretary of the Interior upon the Secretary of Agriculture for 
advice upon technical questions involved in the administration of the 
reserves. 

In the summer of 1902 examinations and reports were made of the 
following proposed reserves and proposed additions to existing re- 
serves : 

Utah: Aquarius, Logan, Manti, Sevier, Salt Lake, Gunnison, and 
Beaver Forest reserves. 

California: Stony Creek, and additions to the San Jacinto, Lake 
Tahoe, San Gabriel, Pine Mountain and Zaca Lake Forest reserves. 



BUREAU OF F0EE8TKY. 531 

Oregon: Blue Mountain, and addition to the Cascade Range Forest 
Reserve. 

New Mexico: Addition to the Gila River Forest Reserve. 

Of these the Logan, Aquarius, and Manti reserves have been created. 

Beginning with May, 1903, agents of the Bureau were in the field 
for examination and report on proposed forest reserves in New Mexico, 
Arizona, Utah, Colorado, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, and California. 
It is intended to examine over 20,000,000 acres during the field season. 
Twenty-nine men were engaged in the field work. 

EXPENDITURES. 

The expenditures in forest products during the past year amounted 
to $42,098.07, or 14. 4 per cent of the total appropriation for the Bureau. 

Work for the Ensuing Year. 

timber tests. 

A station for timber testing has been established at Lafayette, Ind. , 
in cooperation with Purdue University, and work will begin in Septem- 
ber. The first problem to be attacked will be a determination of the 
mechanical properties of Red Oak, White Oak, Hickory, and Red Gum. 
At the urgent request of manufacturers the question of the best sizes 
and kinds of timber for box boards will be thoroughly investigated. 
The Washington laboratory will continue the work laegun upon Long- 
leaf and second-growth Loblolly pines. The New Haven laboratory 
will be occupied in a determination of the effect of moisture and vola- 
tile oils on the mechanical properties of timber. The effect of speed 
of loading upon the results obtained from timber tests will also be 
investigated. At the Berkeley laboratory tests of Red Fir will be con- 
tinued and tests of Western Hemlock and Redwood will be taken up. 

WOOD PRESERVATION. 

During the coming year studies already begun to determine the 
best methods for the seasoning and treating of timber by preservative 
processes will be continued. An exhaustive experiment will be made 
to determine the suitability after preservative treatment of Adirondack 
hardwoods for use as railroad ties. 

STUDY OF PROPOSED RESERVES. 

The study of proposed reserves and of the boundaries of existing 
reserves, which is now the most urgent piece of work before the 
Bureau, will be pushed as rapidly as its resources in men and money 
permit. 

RECORDS. 

Forest Library. 

The usefulness of the forest library has grown steadily. During 
the year 664 books and pamphlets were added. The book catalogue 
was completed and now contains references to all books in the library 
of the Bureau of Forestry, to forest periodicals and serial publications 
in the Library of the Department, and to technical and other works 
of interest to foresters in the Library of the Department and in the 



532 DEPARTMENTAL BEPORTS. 

Library of Congress. Newspaper clippings to the number of 1,947 
were added and classified. Articles of interest in the lumber trade 
journals and forest periodicals were indexed. 

The collection of photographs now numbers 9,476. Of the 3,417 
photographs added during the year, 3,052 are views taken in 41 
States and Territories, while 365 were received from foreign coun- 
tries. These include collections from Australia, Austria, and Den- 
mark and valuable additions to the collections from Germany, India, 
and Switzerland. 

The collection of lantern slides, which was increased during the 
year by 782, has been greatly improved by the coloring of slides. 
Loans of 908 slides to assist in lectures on forestry were made to 28 
persons during the year. 

Correspondence. 

The correspondence of the Bureau continued to increase greatly 
and exceeded that of the previous year by 75 per cent. There were for- 
warded from the Bureau during the year 43,700 pieces of mail matter. 

Mailing Lists. 

The mailing lists of the Bureau are the following: (1) A special list 
of libraries; (2) a list of representative newspapers; (3) a small for- 
eign list of scientific and governmental institutions; (4) a special list 
of persons engaged in forestry work in the United States ; (5) a general 
list of persons interested in forestry. 

The first four lists, which number 3,008 addresses, receive all pub- 
lications of the Bureau as soon as they are available. To the general 
list are sent the reports of the Forester, reprints of the contributions 
from the Bureau of Forestry to the Yearbook of the Department, and 
circulars of information. Cards are also sent giving notice of the 
appearance of bulletins, with brief descriptions of their contents. 
Applications for bulletins made in response to the card notices are 
honored in the order of their receipt. The number of addresses on 
the general list at the end of the year was 8,778. 

Publications. 

During the year 18 new publications appeared, of which 237,000 
copies were printed. The bulletins were as follows: The Western 
Hemlock; A History of the Lumber Industry in the State of New 
York; Eucalypts Cultivated in the United States; The Woodsman's 
Handbook, Part I; The Hardy Catalpa; The Redwood; Conservative 
Lumbering at Sewanee, Tennessee; A New Method of Turpentine 
Orcharding; Seasoning of Timber; and The Woodlot. The two circu- 
lars were: A New Method of Turpentine Orcharding; and Forestry 
and the Lumber Supply. Five reprints of Yearbook articles were 
issued, as follows: Grazing in the Forest Reserves; A Working Plan 
for Southern Hardwoods and its Results; Practicability of Forest 
Planting in the United States ; Influence of Forestry upon the Lumber 
Industry; and Tests on the Physical Properties of Timber. There 
was also published the Report of the Forester for 1902. 

In addition to these publications 23 press bulletins were issued dur- 
ing the year, with a total circulation of 113,200 copies. 



UVHKAV OF FORESTRY. 533 

Reprints of U publications were made to the total number of 70,500 
copies. 

On July 1, 1903, 6 bulletins, including Part II of A Primer of For- 
estry, were in the hands of the printer. 

Photographic Laboratory. 

Since the beginning of the fiscal year the photographic laboratory 
has been fully equipped for work in all branches of photography. 
With these improved facilities it was possible, with the same person- 
nel as last year, to accomplish -25 per cent more work. The number 
of films and plates developed was 6,563; prints and copies made, 
15,473; mounts, 4,747; lantern slides, 746, and blueprints, 167— a 
total of 27,696 items of work performed during the year. 

Instruments. 

The large increase in the field work of the Bureau made necessary 
the purchase of many additional instruments. The expenditure for 
instruments and field equipment during the fiscal year was $7,170.16, 
or 2^ per cent of the total appropriation. 

Supplies. 

Strict economy has been observed in the purchase of supplies, which 
were paid for entirelj^ from the funds of the Bureau of Forestry. No 
supplies of any kind were furnished from the contingent fund of the 
Department. The expenditure for supplies was $9,762.59, or 3^ per 
cent of the total appropriation. 

Accounts. 

The system of accounts introduced in the Bureau of Forestry at the 
beginning of the fiscal year 1902 has continued in operation, with 
extremely satisfactory results. 

Drafting. 

With the rapid extension of the field work of the Bureau the 
demands for drafting increased considerably and the employment of 
two additional draftsmen became necessary. The work consisted of 
making maps for working plans and planting plans; illustrations, dia- 
grams, and tables for bulletins of the Bureau ; maps of forest reserves ; 
maps of regions investigated; and entering silvicultural data upon 
maps. A record of all forest reserves, with their boundaries and 
descriptions, was kept posted, as heretofore. 

Expenditures. 

The expenditures during the past year in records, which includes 
printing, instruments, su plies, and rent, amounted to $00,264.55, or 
30. 9 per cent of the total l propriation for the Bureau. 

The expenditures for Bureau supervision and co ntrol in salaries and 
traveling expenses amounted to 118,613.21, or 6.4 per cent of the total 
appropriation for the Bureau. 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



REPORT 



THE FORESTER 



1904 



GIKKORD PINCHOT. 



[From Annual Reports, Department of AGRictJi,TURE.] 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1904. 



CONTENTS. 



Page, 

Introduction 189 

Reserve boundaries 170 

Cooperative State forest studies 171 

California 171 

Maryland 172 

Massachusetts 172 

New Hampshire 173 

Hawaii 174 

Worli of the coming year 174 

Forest law 174 

Editorial work 174 

Forest measurements 175 

Forest computation 175 

Forest maps 175 

Silvics 176 

' Work for the ensuing year 176 

Expenditures 176 

Forest management 176 

Public lands 176 

Private lands 177 

Studies of commercial trees 180 

Work for the ensuing year 182 

Expenditures 183 

Dendrology 183 

Forest distribution and resources 183 

Expositions 186 

Forest library and photographs 186 

Correspondence 187 

Expenditures 187 

Work for the ensuing year 187 

Forest extension 188 

Cooperative planting 188 

World's Fair exhibit , 190 

Reserve planting 191 

Forest replacement 193 

Forest fires 194 

Dunes 195 

Additional cooperative work 195 

Expenditures 195 

Work for the ensuing year 195 

Forest products 196 

General aim of work 196 

Studies in timber preservation. .1 197 

Timber tests : !!!.'".'!!"!! 201 

Expenditures 202 

Work for the coming year 202 

Records '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 203 

Accounts and supplies [ 203 

Files and filing ] _ ] 204 

Correspondence '.'.'.'..'.'.'.'. 204 

Stenography and typewriting !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 204 

Photograph laboratory '...'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 204 

Publications ". .".""."'! 204 

Expenditures '.".'."'.".".".'.".".".".'.".'"."'".".'.'.''.'.'. 205 



REPORT OF THE FORESTER. 



U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Bureau of Forestry, 
Washingt07i, D. C, September 38, 1904-. 
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith a report of the work of 
the Bureau of Forestry for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1904, 
together with an outline of the plans for the work of the Bureau for 
the current fiscal year. 

Respectfully, Gifforu Pinchot, 

J^^oresier. 
Hon. James Wilson, Secretary. 



INTRODUCTION. 

During the past year the Bureau of Forestry has made notable prog- 
ress in the efficiency, compactness, and simplicitj' of its organization, 
in the quality and amount of its work, and in the actual number and 
relative proportion of trained men in its personnel. It has been more 
successful than ever before in spreading both a knowledge of practical 
forestry and the desire to practice it among owners of timberland, 
and in collecting and digesting information about American forests on 
which to base the rules for conservative lumbering in different locali- 
ties so as to make it pay. To the majority of forest owners forestr}^ 
is necessarily a question of business, and the fact that the more pro- 
gressive lumbermen have come to realize this truth and to act upon it 
is full of promise for the perpetuation of the forests and hence of the 
lumber supply. The number and efficiency of foresters trained in 
American schools is greater than ever before, and forestry as a pro- 
fession is taking its legitimate place. Among the general public there 
is greater ' interest in forestry than at any former time, and it is 
steadily -growing. 

All this is encouraging, but the situation has another side. The 
available means to check forest destruction are increasing, but so are 
the forces which make for the obliteration of our forest wealth. Rail- 
roads are pushing steadily into new regions, bringing with them not 
only destructive lumbering but also fire, which is far more dangerous. 
The rise in the price of lumber and the dwindling supplj' of logs of 
the better grades both combine with the greater accessibility given by 
the new lines and lower rates of the railroads to make it profitable for 
the lumberman to extend his operations into regions farther and far- 
ther from his mill and his market. In addition, the rapid progress of 
settlement is constantly bringing the local market and the forest nearer 

169 



170 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

together, and the general consumption of- lumber is growing steadily 
with the increasing population and prosperity of the United States. 

It is evident that never before has forest destruction been so rapid 
as at present, that we have never been so near to the exhaustion of our 
lumber supply, and that vigorous measures have never been so urgently 
required as now. Judged in the light of its beginnings and opportu- 
nities, the progress of the Bureau of Forestry is perhaps not unsatis- 
factory. Judged in the light of the task which must be accomplished, 
if the United States is to escape the hardships of a prolonged lumber 
famine, its work has scarcely begun. 

The problem of internal organization of the Bureau presented by 
the accumulation of data collected in the field was met by a thorough 
overhauling of the material now on hand and by new methods for 
bringing facts together and making them available in the most practi- 
cal way. These facts, furnished by field parties working in every 
part of the country, consist of field notes, reports, surve3'^s, and 
hundreds of thousands of counts and measurements, besides per- 
sonal first-hand acquaintance with forest conditions in every part of 
the United States. How large a task the collection and working up 
of the.«e facts was during the past year the statement of the work done 
by the section of Forest Measurements partly shows. The Buireau is 
now better equipped than ever before to handle and apply to practical 
forest problems the scientific knowledge which it has, to direct its 
future studies along fruitful lines, and to bring the results of its 
researches into published form. 

A new classification of technical grades now applied in the Bureau 
is as follows: 

Forester; associate forester (chief of the ranking office and assistant 
to the Forester); assistant forester (chiefs of offices and men occupjnng 
positions of similar responsibility) ; forest inspector (chiefs of the rank- 
ing sections of offices and men in charge of independent lines of work 
of similar importance); assistant forest inspector (chiefs of sections of 
offices, except of the ranking section, and men occupying positions of 
similar responsibility); forest assistant (men who enter the Bureau 
through the examination for forest assistant and have not yet been 
given charge of independent lines of work); forest agent (men without 
civil-service standing in charge of subordinate lines of work); forest 
student (men whose service is temporary and educational in chai-acter 
and whose training in forestr}^ is incomplete). 

Besides the work immediately centered, under the present scheme of 
organization, in the Office of the Forester, and which includes Eeserve 
Boundaries, Cooperative State Forest Studies, Forest Law, and Edi- 
torial Work, the organization of the Bureau includes the subjects of 
F'orest Measurements, Forest Management, Dendrology, Forest Exten- 
sion, Forest Products, and Records. 

BESERVE BOTmDABIES, 

During the field season of 1903 examinations for new forest reserves 
were made in nine States and Territories of the West. Twenty -two 
men were engaged in this work. In addition, an extensive examina- 
tion was made in Alaska. The general public recognition of the high 
character of the work has been and is most gratifying. 

The purpose of the reserve boundary work of the Bureau is two 



BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 171 

fold. It is carried on, first, to prevent the destruction of forest growth 
on public land.s hitherto unreserved where these lands will be perma- 
nently most useful to the communities interested in them if kept under 
forest, and, secondly, to bring about the elimination from reserves of 
land worth more for agriculture, mining, or other purposes. The 
public domain has been passing so rapidly into private ownership that 
it was at first necessary in many cases to act hastily in making forest 
reserves if anything worth reserxing was to be secured. These 
reserves will be the remnant of the vast empire that lay beyond the 
Mississippi which can still be handed down as a national heritage after 
all the rest of the public lands worth having have become private prop- 
erty. But it is the avowed purpose of the Government to withdraw 
no land from settlement for forest reserves which can be put to better 
use in other ways, and examinations are therefore made bv the Bureau 
to secure the correction of boundaries which include too much as M'ell 
as to discover where additional areas should be included. 

One hundred and thirty-four maps in duplicate, or 26S maps in all, 
and 67 reports have been prepared in connection with reserve bounda- 
ries during the year. The total expenditure under this head was 
160.28a. 91, including salaries, or 17 percent of the total appropriation 
of the Bureau. 

cooperative state forest studies. 

California. 

The study of the forests of California begun last year in cooperation 
with the State was continued, occupying 28 men for four months. 
The field work comprised the mapping and description of the forest 
on approximatel}' 20,500,000 acres. The types of land mapped were: 
Timberland, woodland, brush, pasture, fann, burned (restocking and 
not restocking), and cut-over land (restocking and not restocking). 
The descriptions of the forest include an account of its composition 
and condition and a rough estimate of standing timber, with particular 
attention to the effects of fire, grazing, and lumbering. 

In making a stud}' of the growth and value of planted eucalypts 
practically all the important groves in California were visited, and their 
rate of growth was determined. The results will show for the blue, 
red, manna, and sugar gums what growth and returns may be expected 
under various conditions in southern California. 

A study was made in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino forest 
reserves to determine the possibility of improving the cover of cha- 
parral on important watersheds. A reconnoissance was made of the 
entire area of the two reserves, but special attention was given to the 
Los Angeles, San Gabriel, and San Bernardino watersheds, which 
embrace the more important chaparral areas. The specific questions 
considered were the conditions under which forest replaces chaparral, 
the character and composition of chaparral on various slopes and eleva- 
tions, the value of chaparral as compared with forest in water conserva- 
tion, and methods of improving the chaparral cover of the watei'sheds 
by protection and planting. 

The study is complete for the region named, and leads to several 
importmt conclusions, among which are the facts that there is very 
little tendency on the part of the forest to replace chaparral, but that 
chaparral replaces forest almost constantly as a result of fire; that the 



172 DEPARTMENTAL EEPGRT8. 

two important methods of improving chaparral are protection from fire 
and planting; and that there is great need for both. Protection from 
fire must be assured first, since the success of planting depends upon 
it. Lai'ge areas in the interior of the mountains are especially in need 
of planting; because they lie at the head of important drainage basins 
and owing to recent fires are very nearly barren, although they for- 
merly bore excellent timber. Isolated areas can also be found on the 
exposed south front of the mountains, where planting is urgent and 
can be successfully accomplished. The study will be continued in other 
portions of California. 

A study of the replacement of the natural forest on denuded areas 
was in progress throughout the yekr in the Santa Barbara, San Gabriel, 
San Bernardino, and San Jacinto forest reserves. The most detailed 
work was done in the San Bernardino Reserve, where a field party 
worked during the winter months. Though the conditions present are 
in many ways similar, the mountains show extreme variations in forest 
reproduction. The main questions studied were the extent of forest in 
the past, the sufiiciency of reproduction at present as compared with 
the necessary future forest area, the effect of fire upon forest repro- 
duction, the contest between forest and chaparral on burned areas, and 
the rate of growth of j^oung forest trees. 

Taken with the chaparral studj' the results go far to establish the 
extent to which the mountain slopes on important watersheds are being 
covered by young timber. They also show the character of reproduc- 
tion in localities which, like parts of the San Bernardino Mountains, 
have been fully protected from fire, and on which young growth is 
thrifty and abundant. A third practical result of this work is to 
show upon what important watersheds the forest cover is extremely 
poor, and where efficient protection and extensive planting are pecu- 
liarly needed in order to restore the mountains to a safe condition as 
watersheds. 

The study of forest fires in California has been continued and is now 
nearly complete. Its results will be used in recommendations for the 
organization of a fire service which will reduce to the minimum the 
State's losses bj' fire. 

Maryland. 

A descriptive study (conducted in connection with the work under 
Dendrology) was made, in cooperation with the Maryland geological 
survey, of the forests of Worcester County. Based upon this a detailed 
forest type map and report have been prepared for publication in the 
annual report of the State geologist. The study is important, partic- 
ularly as bringing out the commercial value of large areas of loblolly 
pine, which, owing to the presence of good local markets, may be 
profitably worked for fruit boxboards under a forty-year rotation. The 
report further deals with a classification of the woodland types, their 
extent, location, and composition, and with the available stand, con- 
sumption, and uses of timber. Recommendations for profitable man- 
agement are also included. 

Massachusetts. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year the Bureau began, in cooperation 
with the Massachusetts Forestry Association, a study of forest condi- 
tions in Massachusetts. This study, while dealing with specific 



BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 173 

problems of importance in tlae State, was organized on the part of the 
association as a preliminary step toward the formulation of a State 
forest policy. 

An important part of the cooperative study has been a close exam- 
ination of the damage done the forest by fire and the effectiveness of 
present laws to secure fire prevention. The study of this subject occu- 
pied three months of field work in 1903. A comprehensive report has 
been submitted, which describes the damage from fire and the eiSciency 
of present means of fire control, and proposes an entirely new fire law. 

A second part of the work is a study, the report upon which is now 
almost complete, of the forest planting which has been done on the 
watershed of the Wachusett Reservoir, near Clinton. This watershed 
gathers a large part of the water used by Boston, and was originally 
in large part open farm land. Within three years nearly 700 acres of 
open land nearest the reser\oir have been planted to a mixture of white 
]pine and sugar maple under a planting plan made by the Bureau. The 
forthcoming report is descriptive of the methods used in planting, the 
cost, and the results. The report gives a valuable exposition of prac- 
tical forest planting in New England. 

The results gained from the cooperative work have been used effec- 
tively in the Massachusetts State legislature in securing the passage of 
a law providing fyr a State forester. In consequence of the enactment 
of this law a forest system will now be established, and the Bureau's 
cooperation with the State forestry association will be closed with the 
end of the fiscal year. 

New Hampshire. 

The field work necessary to a study of the forests of northern New 
Hampshire, made possible by an appropriation of $5,000 by the State 
legislature and begun toward the close of the last fiscal year, has been 
continued and completed. The investigation covered the region north 
of Squam Lake and west to the farming lands along the Connecticut 
River, an area of 3,206 square miles, or approximately 34 per cent of 
the State. The lines followed by the investigation were — 

(1) A study of the composition and quality of the forest, and an 
estimate of the present yield. 

(2) A study of the characteristics of the more important trees and 
of the conditions of their successful reproduction. 

(3) A study of the methods and extent of lumbering, of its effect 
upon the forest, and of practicable means to improve the condition of 
cut-over lands. 

(1) An investigation of the value of the forest as a conserver of the 
water supply, made with the assistance of the Division of Hydrog- 
raphy', United States Geological Survey. 

(5) A study of the magnitude, the value, and the character of the 
lumber industry. 

The report, which will soon be published by the Bureau, includes a 
comprehensive and detailed description of the forest, and an exhaustive 
study of forest fires, with definite recommendations for fire protection.' 
As a whole, it provides the means to answer questions of private and 
public policy in the management or disposition of forest lands within 
the region. 



174 departmental bepokts. 

Hawaii. 

In 1903 the legislature of Hawaii passed a bill providing for an 
insular forest service and creating a Board of Agriculture and For- 
estry, in the hands of which is placed" the control of Territorial forest 
lands and the administration of forest affairs in the islands. Imme- 
diateh' upon its appointment the board sought the advice of the Bureau 
of Foresti-y in regard to the polic}' which should be inaugurated. The 
Bureau, to acquaint itself fully with the forest conditions and needs of 
the islands, detailed a representative to make a reconnoissance of the 
•situation and to report with recommendations. The examination was 
made during August and September, 1903, and was followed by a 
report descriptive of the conditions and needs of the Hawaiian forests 
and recommending broadly a forest policy. The report was forwarded 
to the Board of Agriculture and Forestry, which has approved and 
adopted its recommendations. It was published as Bulletin No. 48 of 
the Bureau of Forestr}' and also in Vol. I, No. 4, of the Hawaiian 
Forester and Agriculturalist. 

On the nomination of the Bureau, Mr. Ealph y. Hosmer, in charge 
of the forest replacement work in the Bureau, was selected by the 
board as superintendent of forestry, in which position he will manage, 
under the direction of the board, the forest affairs of J;he islands. Mr. 
Hosmer began his duties December 15, 1903, but retains connection 
with the Bureau of Forestry- as collaborator. . 

Work of the Coming Year. 

In California map work will be continued until the whole State has 
been covered; forest-fire work will be completed; studies of yield and 
growth of western j-ellow pine and sugar pine will be made; prelim- 
inary working plans for the management of State forest lands will be 
prepared; a study of the lumber market in the State will be under- 
taken; and recommendations for forest legislation and concerning the 
management of State forest lands will be drawn up. 

FOREST LAW. 

The great and increasing public interest in forest questions has led 
to a multitude of requests on the Bureau of Forestry for information 
with regard to existing forest laws, and for suggestions as to practical 
State laws for the encouragement of tree planting, the protection of 
forests against fire, and the establishment and administration of State 
forest reserves. Such information and advice have been given when 
possible, and for that purpose a careful study of forest legislation has 
been made during the last year. As a result, a bulletin containing an 
annotated compilation of the Federal and State forest laws in foTce 
July 1, 1904, together with carefully prepared suggestions based on 
the present experience of the Bureau, is now nearly ready for printing. 



EDITORIAL] IWORK. 

The editorial work of the Bureau includes the final revision of 
reports, the supervision of publications in the course of printing, and 
the giving out of such information of practical or educational value 
concerning forestry and the work of the Bureau as can Ix^st be diffused 



BUREAU 01' FOKESTKY. l75 

through the periodical press of the country. It is believed that along 
this last line there is opportunity for a large increase in the service 
rendered by the Bureau as a source of useful knowledge, and steps 
have accordingly been taken to provide for the more frequent issue of 
press bulletins and to utilize more effectively this important and eco- 
nomical method of diffusing some of the information which the inves- 
tigations of the Bureau supply. 

In the revision of reports there has been a gain in effectiveness 
through closer internal cooperation to secure the most careful criticism, 
combined with plans for classifying, collating, and elaborating the 
material now on hand, and it is being followed by a decided increase 
in the amount of useful information made public by the Bureau, 
accompanied by the maintenance of a high standard in originality and 
value. 

FOREST MEASTTKEMENTS. 

Under the distribution of work in the Bureau which became effec- 
tive at the beginning of the fiscal year, forest computation, forest 
maps, and silvics were assigned to Forest Measurements. 

Forest Computation. 

During the year the section of Forest Computation handled the 
results of 24,498 acres of valuation surveys, 33,29.5 analyses of trees, 
16,090 height measurements, and 2,321 taper measurements. These 
data were collected in the preparation of eight working plans, studies 
of five commercial trees, two cooperative State forest studies, and five 
investigations of local pi'oblems in forest extension. They represent 
forest conditions in twelve States, and furnish information regarding 
thirty-nine species. Final tables of volume, height, age, and yield 
have so far been comrputed for twenty-two species. In addition to the 
computation of field measurements, the section now puts into final_ 
form all results which require computation obtained b}' the Bureau. 
These included during the past year, in addition to miscellaneous 
results, the data obtained in timber tests and iv studies of the best 
methods for the preservation of commercial timbers. In spite of a 
decrease in its force, the section of Forest Computation handled notably 
more data in the j'ear 1904 than in 1903. 

Forest Maps. 

To the section of Forest Maps is intrusted the making of maps, 
drawings, and diagrams, the custody of such as are not required for 
constant use, and the development of the best methods of mapping 
forest data collected by the Bureau. During the past fiscal year this 
section has completed approximately 2.50 maps and copies and 300 mis- 
cellaneous drawings. These have included the preparation of maps 
for working plans and planting plans, maps illustrative of the condi- 
tions inffuencing forest extension, and maps recording general land 
and forest conditions. Among the subjects illustrated by drawings 
and diagrams were timber-testing and wood-preserving apparatus, 
methods in tree planting and in forest management, and exhibits of 
the Bureau at the St. Louis Exposition. This work was supplemented 
by the plotting of valuation survey lines and forest surveys generally, 

15236—05 2 



176 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

the computing of foi-est areas, the mounting of maps, and the classifi- 
cation of the map records of the Bureau. 

SiLVICS. 

The section of Silvics compiles and digests all silvic information 
obtained by the Bureau. This work has gone far enough to equip 
each man who will take up the study of a commercial tree during the 
coming season with a comprehensive record of the data already 
obtained, thus leading to added effectiveness in further work and to 
the early publication of results. 

Work for the Ensuing Year. 

The computation of the field results of the Bureau bj^ the section of 
Forest Computation will continue, as will the preparation of maps, 
drawings, and diagrams in the section of Forest Maps. Through the 
section of Silvics, a definite system is being perfected and applied for 
the classification, under forest trees and forest regions, of all knowl- 
edge obtained b}^ the Bureau concerning the behavior of trees in the 
forest. 

Expenditures. 

The total expenditures during the year under the head of Forest 
Measurements were 121,492.33, or 6 per cent of the total appropriation 
of the Bureau. 

forest management. 
Public Lands. 

The act of June 27, 1902, known as the Morris bill, provided that 
231,400 acres should be selected by the Forester from certain lands of 
the Chippewa Indian Reservations in northern Minnesota, which should 
eventually become a National forest reserve. It was further specified 
that 200,000 acres of the designated total should be pine land, 95 per 
cent of the standing timber on which should be sold at public auction, 
to be removed under such regulations as the Forester should prescribe; 
that 25,000 acres should be selected from lands classed as agricultural 
land; and that the remainder, or ten sections, should be reserved from 
both settlement and the sale of timber. Work under this act has gone 
on steadily during the year. The ten sections have been selected and 
the selection has been approved by the Secretary of the Interior, their 
outer boundaries have been surveyed and mai-ked plainly upon the 
ground, and notices against fire and cutting have been posted every 40 
rods along these boundaries. The 5 per cent of timber to be left 
standing has been selected and marked upon approximately 55,000 
acres. The timber to be removed was sold last December at public 
auction. In view of the fact that this timber is to be cut and removed 
under rules and regulations prescribed by the Bureau, it is wortky of 
note that the price paid for it is reported to be higher than has ever 
before been obtained for a considerable, body of white pine timber, . 
and in particular that it was higher than the price paid for similar 
timber adjacent, but not subject to the rules of the Forester. 



BUEEALT OF FORESTRY. 177 



Private Lands. 

During the past year 136 applications were received for advice and 
assistance in the manag-ement of private forest lands under the offer of 
cooperation with private owners made in Circular 31. Forty-seven of 
these were for timber tracts, with a total area of 3,872,321 acres, and 
89 were for woodlots, with a total area of 6,609 acres. 

The total area of pri\'ate lands for assistance in the management of 
which application has been made since the publication of Circular 21 
is 9,500,024 acres, of which 9,478,265 acres are in timber tracts and 
21,759 acres are in woodlots. 

Preliminary examinations were made during the j'ear of 25 timber 
tracts in the States of New Hampshire, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ala- 
bama, Louisiana, Texas, Idaho, Washington, and Wisconsin, and in 
the Territory of Arizona, covering a total area of 321,894 acres. 

The preparation of detailed working plans for eight of these tracts 
was recommended and the recommendation approved Ijy the owners. 
The estimated cost of these plans to the owners is $14,450. 

WORKING plans FOR WOODLOTS. 

In response to applications from owners of woodland, working plans 
based upon thorough stud}- on the ground were made for 68 woodlots, 
with a total area of 1S,71S acres, in the States of ]\Iaine, New Hamp- 
shire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, and Mich- 
igan. The purpose of the woodlot work is to assist the farmer or 
other owner in applying such management to his woodlands as will 
make them most productive and profitable, and to encourage by exam- 
ples of forest management a more general understanding of the sim- 
pler principles of forestry. In almost every case owners have asked 
help of the Bureau because they had intelligent interest in the manage- 
ment of their forests and definite problems of their own to solve, as, 
for example, how and where the}" may best cut their annual supply of 
cord wood. 

The wishes of the owner with regard to his forest, the amount and 
nature of the timber that was annually required or that could be sold, 
and the cost and facilities of labor and transportation are important 
considerations in these working plans. Ineveiy case a careful study 
of the forest was made on the ground. Sample areas were selected, 
and the trees on them were marked for cutting. These cuttings, both 
on the sample areas and in other portions of the forest, have in the 
great majority of cases been carried out at once, often with great skill 
and thoroughness. 

WORKING PLANS FOR TIMBER TRACTS. 

The field work for detailed working plans was completed during the 
year upon eight tracts, with a total area of 1,068,000 acres, in Minne- 
sota,' New Hampshire, West ^^irginia, Alabama, and Texas. The total 
amount estimated as the cost of these working plans to the owners was 
$13,150, and the total actual cost to them was |12,539.57. 



178 DEPARTMENTAL KEPORTS. 



MINNESOTA. 



One of these working plans was for a tract of 65,000 acres in St. 
Louis County, Minn. The forest, which is typical^ of much of the 
remaining pine forest of the Lake States, consists chiefly of white and 
Norway pines. About two-thirds of the area is pine land, and the 
remainder hardwood land and swamp. Nearly one-half of the mer- 
chantable pine forest has been lumbered. The lumbered lands are now 
totally unproductive, and future crops of timber can not be expected 
from them within a reasonable time. 

The field work occupied a party of nine men for three months, and 
included a careful determination of the rate of growth and merchant- 
able volume of white and Norway pines, and the time required to 
produce a second crop of merchantable timber under conservative 
management. It is important in the management of this tract to 
secure reproduction of white pine.after lumbering. The working plan 
provides for leaving a sufficient number of seed trees to insure repro- 
duction without appreciably curtailing the present cut of timber, and 
outlines a practical system for protecting the logged-ofl' lands from 
fire, which is essential to the successful management of the tract. 



Two timber tracts in Alabama were selected for the preparation of 
detailed working plans with special reference to the work which the 
Bureau is doing in the Southern pine belt. The working plans were 
completed during the year. The smaller tract covers an area of 30,000 
acres, and lies in Coosa County. The larger tract comprises 75,000 
acres, situated mostly in Bibb Count}'. The forest on both tracts, 
which are owned by the same lumber company, consists almost entirely 
of longleaf pine, and is virgin timber of excellent quality. The 
smaller tract is now being lumbered. The timber from the two tracts 
will be cut at separate mills, and the lumbering will require a period 
of twenty -five or thirty years. 

The company wishes to leave the basis for a second crop of timber, 
in order to lumber a second time at the close of present operations. 
The working plan shows that this result may be accomplished by adopt- 
ing a diameter limit of IS inches, and cutting no smaller trees. 

The field work on both tracts required the services of nine men for 
five months, and included the actual measurement of all trees on 5 per 
cent of the area. One thousand felled trees were measured to deter- 
mine the rate of growth of longleaf pine and the volume of trees of 
different diameters. These data afforded the basis for an accurate 
estimate of the present cut of merchantable timber, as well as of the 
3'oung trees which will remain on the ground after lumbering and the 
annual growth of timber on cut-over lands. 

The working plan recommends changes in the present methods of 
lumbering which will practically prevent the destruction of promising 
young trees and will increase the quantity and improve the quality of 
the next crop. It outlines an inexpensive scheme for protecting lum- 
bered lands against fire, which will insure the successful reproduction 
of the pine after lumbering, and will provide for a second and suc- 
cessive crops of timber from the same lands. 



x>uxvr.AU uF FORTJSTKY. l79 



During the year the field study of a tract of long-leaf pine forest in 
southeastern Texas, begun in 1903, was completed. The total area 
covered by this working plan is 800,000 acres. The collection of data 
this year occupied sixteen men about four months. The results secured 
will be of great value in preparing working plans for longleaf pine 
lands throughout the South. 

The measurements of 8,000 felled trees afford the basis for unusually 
reliable tables of merchantable volume and rate of growth of longleaf 
pine. These tables, comhined with the results of the 19,076 acres of 
standing timber actually calipered, give an exceedingly accurate esti- 
mate of present and future yields of merchantable timber on longleaf 
pine timberlands under similar conditions of growth. 

A part of the work was a detailed study of the waste in logging long- 
leaf pine, in merchantable timber left in tops, windfalls, supposed culls, 
and high stumps, in destruction of young growth, and in the use of 
thrifty trees for skid poles and corduroy. An estimate of this waste 
was reached by survey and measurement on 330 acres of lands recently 
cut over. The results show that the great bulk of the waste is in 
merchantable timber left in tops, which averaged 667 board feet per 
acre. The smallest merchantable log was taken to be 16 feet long, 
with a top diameter of S inches. Proof that this timber was merchant- 
able was obtained by marking logs cut from a similar class of timber, 
following them through the mil], and grading the lumber sawed from 
them, which in no case ran under No. 2 common. 

WES1 VIRGINIA. 

A working plan was made for a tract of about 60,000 acres selected 
from 250,000 acres of rough mountain land in West Virginia. Ten 
men worked in the field for a period of three months. The forest is 
composed of hardwoods, hemlock, and spruce. All of the hardwood 
and mixed hardwood and hemlock forest has been heavilj' cut over, 
and the hardwood and spruce forest has been culled. The forest of 
pure spruce has been cut here and there. Destructive methods of log- 
ging and forest fires have left cut-over lands in a very unsatisfactory 
condition. The owners wish to know whether the condition of the 
remaining forest is sufficiently promising and the production of timber 
great enough to justify further logging and holding all or a portion of 
the area for the future production of timber and railroad ties. 

The field work included a valuation survey of the 60,000 acres 
selected for study, the collection of data upon the rate of growth of the 
principal species, and an estimate of future yields of timber under 
conservative forest management. The data collected in the field are 
now being computed, and a map is being made of the Williams River 
watershed, showing the j-ield of merchantable timber on each stream, 
areas recommended for immediate logging, and the location of the 
railroads and mills which will be necessary to market the timber. 

NEIV HAMPSHIRE. 

A working plan was made during the year for a tract of 25,000 acres 
of forest and abandoned farms in Sullivan County, N. H. The field 
work for the working plan occupied a party of seven men two and 



180 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

one-half months, and furnished an estimate of the standing timber and 
the rate of growth of the principal species. With these data at hand 
it was possible to determine the amount of timber which may be cut 
annualfy without exceeding the actual production of the forest. 

Market conditions are such that this annual production can be har- 
vested in the form of thinnings and improvement cuttings, and a sys- 
tem of cuttings has been outlined which will gradually better the 
silvicultural condition of the forest and insure the reproduction vof 
the desirable species. The successful application of the treatment 
advised requires the skill of a technically trained man, and a resident 
forester has been engaged by the owner. 

Another tract of 2,600 acres in Grafton County, N. H., presents a 
problem in forest management which is exceedingly common in that 
State. The mixed forest of spruce, balsam, and hardwoods has been 
largely cut over, chiefly for the softwoods. Repeated cutting has 
reduced the proportion of the valuable spruce. The owners propose 
to holdthis tract for the production of timber for the boxboards which 
their manufacturing business requires, and wish to manage the forest 
in such a way that its composition will be improved and its highest 
productive capacity maintained. 

The field work occupied a party of six men for two months. Two 
tj'pes of virgin forest, three types of culled forest, and three types of 
second growth on land formerly cleared were distinguished and care- 
fully mapped. A detailed system of thinnings and improvement cut- 
tings, which will favor the reproduction of softwood!s and improve 
the composition and condition of the forest, was outlined for each type. 
The working plan contained also an estimate of the amount of timber 
which may be safely removed, and recommendations as to where cuttings 
should be made for the next ten years. 

A third tract in New Hampshire includes 10,000 acres in Coos County, 
in the heart of the White Mountains. Field work on this tract re- 
quired the services of four men for two months, and a forester has 
been engaged by the owners to direct the work of carrying out certain 
of the recommendations of the working plan. The forest has been 
lumbered for the softwoods, and has greatly deteriorated as a result 
of the severe fires which have followed lumbering. 

The chief object of the working plan was to devise a scheme for 
protecting the tract against forest fares. This includes a system of 
patrol to prevent fire, and the construction of fire lines as bases from 
which to fight fires which are not discovered in time to be easily 
put out. 

The forest types were mapped, and thinnings and reproduction cut- 
tings for the improvement of the forest were recommended for those 
types in which cutting can be done without financial loss. The work- 
ing plan includes an estimate of the yield of merchantable timber 
which can thus be cut, a plan of administration for the management 
of the forest, and detailed directions for work on each compartment. 

Studies of Commercial Trees. 

The scope of the studies of commercial trees was greatly enlarged 
during the year, to include, besides the determination of volume and 
yield, investigation of their commercial possibilities, and to make the 
results applicable throughout their entire commercial range. 



BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 181 



BALSAM. 



The study of the balsam fir, beg^un in 1902 in New York State, was 
continued last year in new parts of that State and extended to various 
localities in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, thus completing 
the study of this tree throughout the whole range of its commercial 
distribution. Eight men were engaged upon this work for three 
months. 

The study of this species was timely, because of the constantly 
increasing use of it by the pulp and lumber industries as a substitute 
for spruce. The large volume of data obtained regarding the occur- 
rence, cut, growth,_ yield per acre, and fitness of balsam fir for wood 
pulp and lumber will furnish much information of practical value. 

BIRCH AND ASPEN. 

A study was made of the white birch and aspen on burned-oyer and 
cut-over land in Maine, which required the services of ten men for two 
months. The increasing use of both woods in the trades — particularly 
the use of aspen for construction purposes — has produced a demand 
that now gives these once worthless trees a decided commercial impor- 
tance. ThBy almost invariably seed and take possession of burned-over 
land before other species can obtain a foothold, and the stands are even- 
aged. A great many sample plots were carefully measured in stands 
of various ages, from seedlings coming up on land burned four months 
before to old trees past maturity. Averages were thus obtained for 
all stages of growth, from which tables of yield were made which will 
be of great assistance to timberland owners in managing their lands, 
since from them they can find just how much timber their stands con- 
tain during each five-3'ear period from seedling to maturity. 

The uses to which these woods are now put and to which they may be 
put were carefully- studied, and tests of their physical properties were 
made which it is hoped ma}^ bring them into even more prominent use. 

Studies of important commercial hardwoods in North Carolina and 
Tennessee were continued during the j^ear, occupying ten men organ- 
ized in two parties for three months. 

White pine and hemlock in Tennessee were added to the commercial 
trees studied in the southern Appalachians. 

RED GUM. 

During the winter the Bureau of Forestry carried on a study of the 
red gum in the South. The object of this study was to find out the 
actual commercial value of this hitherto little used wood, and to study 
its reproduction, rate of growth, and silvicultural characteristics. The 
region covered was the hardwood bottomlands of the Mississippi 
River and the lowlands along the Atlantic coast. The field work 
covered three months, and employed ten men. 

The red gum grows on the hardwood bottomlands of the southern 
rivers. These lands are alluvial in character, and the soil is extremely 
fertile, making the land of great value for agriculture when cleared 
and drained. The growth of all the more important species of swamp 
timber trees is extremely rapid, and the object of this study was in 
part to determine how far practical forestry could be applied to these 



182 DEPARTMENTAL EEPOETS. 

lands. A market study of the gum was carried on in connection with 
the field work, and the value of the wood and best methods of han- 
dling it were ascertained. In the past the gum has been considered a 
very inferior wood because of the diflBculties in handling and season- 
ing it. The boards tend to warp and twist. B}'^ care in drying, 
however, these defects can largely be overcome, and it is hoped that 
the present study will be of value in establishing this wood more 
firmly on the market. The wood is used chiefly for boxes, flooring, 
furniture, and interior finishings. 

RAILEOAD TIES. 

The available supply of timber for railroad ties is rapidl}^ dwin- 
dling awa3% and therefore it grows more important every day to find a 
cheap and still abundant material. With this aim in view the study 
of lobloll}' pine, which has been can-ied on in manj" parts of the South, 
was taken up in Texas, where the great area of j'oung growth of lob- 
lolly pine furnished for this purpose an unexcelled opportunity. Par- 
ticular attention was paid to the yield of loblolly pine land in ties and 
the advisability of holding it as a permanent investment for raising tie 
timber, as well as to the possibilities of avoiding the waste coupled 
with tie making and introducing economical methods of management 
of loblolly pine forests for ties. 

THE MONEY VALUE OF A TREE. 

A piece of work along entirely new lines is the detei'mination of 
the money values of trees of diffei-ent sizes, by selecting trees in the 
woods and following the logs through the mill to learn the amounts 
and grades of lumber they saw out. The result is a striking demon- 
stration of the rapid yearly increase of small trees in actual cash 
value, and hence of the wisdom of preserving them. This determina- 
tion has now been made for longleaf pine in Alabama and Louisiana, 
and for yellow birch, sugar maple, and beech in New York. 

Work for the Ensuing Year, 
working plans. 

At least eight working plans will be prepared during the coming 
year. They arc as follows: 

A working plan for a small ti'act in New Hampshire, chiefly impor- 
tant for the excellent opportunity it will afford to studj' methods of 
logging the mixed forest of white pine and hardwoods in such a way 
as to increase the proportion of the valuable white pine in. the next 
crop. Under proper management the natural reproduction of white 
pine may be greatly increased. 

Two working plans for tracts in West Virginia, where the important 
problem of management is to provide a continued supply of cheap 
mining timbers. The chief object of the working plans will be to 
devise a system of logging Ijy which the annual requirement for min- 
ing timbers can be supplied without overcutting the forest. 

A working plan in Kentucky for a tract of 40,000 acres of hardwood 
forest, which the owners wish to hold mainly for the permanent pro- 
duction of railroad ties. This is a problem which is rapidly assuming 



BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 183 

importance, but as yet little accurate information is available on the 
subject. 

A working plan in Alabama, including a study of less wasteful 
methods of lumbering white oak and hickory. 

Conservative management of a forest of mountain cedar is the chief 
problem of a working plan for a tract of 20,()00 acres in Paloduro Can- 
yon, in western Texas. Wise use of the forests of this valuable tree 
is a matter of the greatest importance over a vast area of otherwise 
treeless country in the Southwest. 

Two working plans, one in Washington and one in Idaho, will be 
made for very large tracts, in one case of two million acres, and in the 
other of over one million. The problem here is not, as is often the 
case in the East, so much to increase the yield of the forest as it is to 
devise modifications of logging which will prevent the total destruction 
of the productiveness of lumbered lands. These working plans afford 
the opportunity to make practical application of the studies of those 
Western commercial trees which the Bureau has made as the founda- 
tion for effective work in actual management. Continued attention 
will be given to the preparation of working plans foi- woodlots. The 
unique opening which this line of work affords for spreading among 
small owners, whose holdings are so important in the aggregate, a knowl- 
edge of how to get the most out of their woodland, gives special impor- 
tance to these studies. 

STUDIES OF COMMERCIAL TREES. 

The purpose of the Bureau in its commercial tree work during the 
coming year is to complete as rapidly as possible the studies of those 
trees for which sufEcient mathematical data have been collected. This 
will be done b}^ giving to trained men the task of making practical 
application to specific problems of the large amount of information 
now on hand. The studies to be thus completed during the year are 
for yellow poplar, white, black, red, and chestnut oaks in the South, 
sugar pine in California, lodgepole pine in Montana and Idaho, and 
western yellow pine. 

EXPENDITURES. 

The total expenditures during the year under the head of Forest 
Management were $42,636.67, or 12 per cent of the total appropriation 
of the Bureau. 

DENDROLOGY. 

Forest Distribution and Resources. 

FORESTS IN long ISLAND COUNTIES. 

A descriptive forest study of Suffolk and Nassau counties, Long 
Island, N. Y., was begun and completed during the year. Its object 
was to supply information as to the desirability of a State forest 
reserve in that region. The report will be accompanied by a type 
forest map, and will contain the results of a thorough study of the 
forest conditions of these counties, with special attention to the eco- 
nomic value and importance of existing forest growth as a protection 
to local water supply. 
15236—05 3 



184 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 



mSSOUEI SWAMP FORESTS. 



A report which concludes the stud}' of Missouri swamp forests in 
progress at the beginning of the fiscal j'ear was completed on June 30, 
1904. It contains a discussion of the influences which affect the distri- 
bution and growth of bald cypress, red gum (Liquidambar), and black 
gum and cotton gum (Nyssa).. The information given will be of value 
in connection with otlier investigations of these species, and forms a 
useful contribution to a knowledge of the little known silvical require- 
ments of these commercially important trees. 

CALIFORNIA BIG TREKS AND BRISTLE-CONE FIR. 

Field studies have been finished and pi-ogress has been made toward 
the completion of reports on the above <Jalifornia species. 

PACIFIC COAST TANBARK TREES. 

The study of the distribution of Western tanbark* oaks and of 
other tanbark trees was continued, together with a study of the tan- 
ning industry depeBdent upon these trees for tanning materials. Par- 
ticular attention was given to msipping the range of the principal 
tanbark oak of the coast region apd to the available stand, silvical 
requirements, and aids to I'eproduction on cut-over areas. Upon this 
information will be based important recommendations for a sustained 
yield of a tanning material which is indispensable to the Pacific leather 
industry. 

Through hearty cooperation of Pacific bark dealers and tanners, a 
very large number of bark samples was collected for chemical analy- 
ses, which have been made by the Bureau of Chemistry. The unex- 
pected discovery of several different types of bark, which yield widely 
varying quantities of tannin, led to the extension of the study consid- 
erably beyond the original plan of investigation. This studj' should 
prove exceptionally profitable in determining the requirements and the 
special forms of this species which produce the largest percentage of 
tannin. 

In connection with a studj' of various oak barks much used to adul- 
terate the standard bark, one or two untried kinds were found which 
are of genuine value. The possible future use of the abundant alder 
barks of the coast region has also been under investigation. 

OHIO HARDWOOD FORESTS. 

The study of this subject was terminated during the j'ear. Valuable 
notes and data resulting from experiments on the water content of 
green and of air-dried saturated woods were secured. 

TURPENTINE ORCHARDING. 

The work, which the Bureau undertook three years ago, of replac- 
ing the ruinous " box" system of turpentining by a less injurious but 
equally productive system has been practically completed. The actual 
results obtained under the cup and gutter system are far beyond what was 
anticipated. They consist in a yield of nearly 40 per cent more turpen- 



BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 185 

tine by the new than by the old method, the production of uniformly 
high grades of rosin, and, what is of the most vital importance to a 
continued existence of the American naval stores industry, in an indefi- 
nitely prolonged working life of turpentine orchards. The old system 
of turpentining was rapidly exterminating the pine forests tapped, and 
extinction of the naval stores industry was acknowledged by intelligent 
operators to be imminent. On a conservative estimate the Bureau's 
service in this work has added to the annual naval stores product an 
increased value of about $7,000,000, at a total cost of less than $14,000, 
and in addition has removed the greatest single cause of Southern 
forest destruction. The new system is now in very general use 
throughout the turpentine belt, and in the hands of as many operators 
as could secure the required equipment. 

TURPENTINE DISTILLATION. 

A study of European methods of distilling crude resin was made 
abroad during the J'ear, and it has shown the need of experiments here 
for the purpose of improving American stills, which at best give 
unnecessarily impure spirits. Rosin and rosin oil are, through faulty 
construction and manipulation of our stills, commonly driven off with 
spirits of turpentine, thus becoming impurities in the latter. The 
presence of these was discovered when the Bureau began its preliminary 
studies of turpentine adulterants. The most improved turpentine stills 
in France are fitted with thermostatic regulators and operated by men 
of trained intelligence. The result is that uniformly pure grades of 
spirits and rosin are produced. The majority of American stills are 
without temperature gauges, and are operated by untrained men who 
have merely learned to apply certain rough, empirical tests. The results 
are impure and varying grades of spirits and rosin. 

The distillation of rosin oil was found to be a paying and extensive 
industry in European countries. American consumers at present 
import nearly all of the considerable quantities of rosin oil used here. 
It is believed that this demand could be profitably supplied by home 
production. 

DENDRO-CHEMIOAL INYESTIGATIONS. 

A laboratory study of turpentine adulterants was concluded in 
August, 1903, and the preparation of a report on methods of detect- 
ing their presence is under way. The subject is one of much impor- 
tance to naval-stores dealers, who are now greatly embarrassed by their 
inability to detect spurious turpentine. The results of laboratory 
studies' of native and exotic gums, resins, tanbarks, and pulp- wood 
fibers have been embodied in a report by Dr. H. W. Wiley, ("hief of 
the Bureau of Chemistry, which concludes the investigations begun in 
cooperation by the Bureaus of Chemistry and Forestry three years ago. 

BASKET WILLOW STUDIES. 

A half -acre plantation of 5,000 willow cuttings established on the Poto- 
mac Flats in flie spring of 1903 for the purpose of testing the fitness of 
different native and exotic kinds for basket work, and particularly for 
determining the relation of close and wide planting to the production 
of high-class basket rods, yielded valuable results, which were em- 



186 DEPAETMENTAL BEPORTS. 

bodied in a bulletin on the basket-willow industry. Further plantings 
on the Arlington Experimental Farm have permitted a wider range of 
experiments, which are establishing other important facts. It is 
intended to embody these in a circular to be issued during the coming 
winter. 

STUDY OF SUGAR-MAPLE GROVES. 

A careful field study was made in the eastern sugar-making districts' 
of the needs of typical old forest-grown sugar-maple groves, and of 
the treatment required to convert dense seedling and pole-maple 
thickets into future sugar bushes. The results form the basis of help- 
ful instructions which have been incorporated in the bulletin on the 
maple-sugar industry previously prepared for printing. 

Expositions. 

The Bureau's forest exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 
St. Louis, Mo., was installed in Maj', 1904. An indoor exhibit covers 
5,000 square feet of floor space and comprises some 12 special features. 
Large photographic transparencies and colored bromide enlargements, 
relief maps, charts, timber and other specimens, instruments, etc., 
afford a complete survey of typical forest conditions and of the use of 
the foi'est and its destruction in the United States, as well as an expo- 
sition of the principles and practice of forestry as applied by the 
Bureau of Forestr3^ An outdoor exhibit covering 2^ acres illustrates 
tree-planting plans for farm woodlots and windbreaks adapted to dif- 
ferent parts of the country and forest nursery methods. The allot- 
ment for preparing the display was $7, .500. 

Forest Library and Photographs. 

The forest library contains 4,227 books and pamphlets, of which 543 
were added this year. The forest photographic collection comprises 
13,860 mounted and classified pictures and 2,320 lantern slides; 4,384 
photographs and 502 slides were added this year. Photographs ai'e 
taken in connection with the Bureau's field work, and constitute invalu- 
able records for reference. 

During the year l,(i7*) photographs (mainly unmounted) were given 
to educational institutions and to individuals for use in illusti'ating 
books and magazines and newspaper articles on forest subjects and in 
educational work, and 635 lantern slides were loaned. The requests 
for loans and gifts were from 27 States and 4 foreign countries and 
from 26 educational institutions. 

Foreign forest photographs were obtained by exchanging sets of 
American pictures for those of other countries. Seventy -five sets of 
our photographs were sent and 73 sets received in exchange. In addi- 
tion, upward of 200 foreign and home pictures have been presented 
to the collection by correspondents and friends of the Bureau. Notable 
among these is a valuable set of Chilean pictures from Mr.H. J. Elwes, 
of London, England ; Georgia, Florida, and Texas views from Mr. R. M. 
Harper; and photogi'aphs of Michigan pine forests from the State agri- 
cultural college. A tabular record of the regions and subjects covered 
by the Bureau's photographs, now in preparation, will assist a system- 



BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 187 

atic extension of photographic records over regions not now covered, 
and at the same time will prevent useless duplication. The photo- 
graphic laboratory work will hereafter be in charge of the OfBce of 
Records. 

CORRESPONDEXCE. 

Three thousand eight hundred and fifty communications were pre- 
pared in response to correspondence, as "against 3,650 the preceding 
year. A large number of wood and other tree specimens were received 
for identification, particulai'ly from manufacturers, builders, and archi- 
tects. Repeated attempts of certain manufacturers and contractors to 
substitute spurious for standard wood materials led to appeals to the 
Bureau of Forestry for expert information, which has been promptly 
given. Several serious impositions upon consumers have thus been 
averted. 

Expenditures. 

The total expenditures during the year under the head of Dendrology 
were *2J:.lo5.97, or 7 per cent of the total approjjriation of the Bureau. 

Work for the Ensuinc; Year. 

A revision of Bulletin No. 17, " Check list of the forest trees of the 
United States," will be made to secure the addition of new and hitherto 
unrecorded tree species, the revision and extension of the list of com- 
mon names of trees, and a revised statement of the geographical ranges 
of trees. Brief popular descriptions of species will constitute a new 
feature of the revised bulletin. 

A series of bulletins descriptive and illustrative of indigenous and 
naturalized tree species in the United States will be begun. 

A study of the acacias growing in the United States will be con- 
tinued. Special attention will be given to the identification of species, 
their requirements with respect to soil and climate, and the economic 
uses, of their wood and hai'k. The species which grow hei'o give 
promise of great usefulness in arid southwestern regions because of 
their rapid production of fuel and their excellent tanbark. 

Another study proposed is that of eucalypts suitable for cultivation 
in regions of little frost. A number of species of economic use are 
believed to be adapted for growth in the South Atlantic and Gulf 
States, and possibly in the Middle States, in which the species now 
cultivated in this country can not he successfully grown. The prepa- 
ration of a bulletin descriptive and illustrative of these eucalypts is 
planned. 

The range, habitat, and future usefulness of the insufficiently known 
Parry pine, Torrey pine, and swamp pine will be investigated. The 
ability of these trees to thrive and to propagate unaided both in 
extremely arid and in wet situations, unsuitable for other species, indi- 
cates their great usefulness for cultivation in treeless regions of the 
Southwest. 

A stud}' will be made of the range, habitat, and reproduction of 
cascara buckthorn, and of the relation of the existing stand to the 
demand for and production of bark. This little-known tree has 
become highly important in Oregon and Washington for the commer- 



188 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

cial value of its bark, for which there is a widespread, permanent, and 
increasing demand. The extensive collection of bark now threatens 
the commercial disappearance if not the complete extermination of the 
species. Consumers are extremely solicitous for the future of an 
established industry. A careful investigation would permit recom- 
mendations looking to a maintenance of the supply. 

Experiments will be made to determine the minimum wound neces- 
sary in tapping pine trees to produce a maximum yield of turpentine 
and rosin. It is believed that the experiments planned will result in 
a system of chipping which will inci'ease the life of turpentined trees 
without decreasing their yield of naval stores. 

Experiments with basket willows will be continued on the Arlington 
Experimental Farm to determine the best methods of culture and 
spacing for the production of high-grade basket rods. Both native 
and exotic willows will be tested with special reference to the soil and 
management required to secure the best quality and largest yield of 
stock. Methods of harvesting and preparing rods for market will also 
be studied, as well as the market value of each species. 

forest extension. 

Cooperative Planting. 

The policy of cooperation with private owners in forest planting 
has been in force in the Bureau since July, 1899. Up to June 30, 
1904, an aggregate of 345 examinations of separate pieces of land 
were made to determine their suitability for planting, followed by the 
preparation of 334 plans, for land in thirty-six States and Territories, 
with a total area of 13,668.8 acres. The cost of these plans was 
approximately 35 cents per acre. During the past year the Bureau 
examined land belonging to 63 owners and made 42 planting plans 
for an aggregate of 2,861.33 acres. Forty applications were on file 
awaiting attention at the beginning of the year, 65 were received 
during the year, and 52 are now awaiting attention. 

The following table shows in detail the number of examinations and 
plans made, and the total area covered by the plans, by States, for the 
past year and since the inauguration of cooperative planting. 



BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 

Planting pimis. 



189 





July 1, 1903, to June 80, 1904. 


Total to June 30, 1904. 


state. 


Exami- 
nations 
made. 


Plans 
made. 


Area. 


Exami- 
nations 
made, 


Plans 
made. 


Area. 


Alabama 






Acres. 


2 
7 

13 
9 
2 
1 
6 
2 

12 
8 

48 
2 
1 
1 

13 
8 
9 
2 

26 
5 
2 
3 
9 

27 

11 

28 

10 

4 

2 

31 

22 

4 

6 

1 

5 

2 


2 ■ 

6 
13 

9 

2 

1 

5 

2 
12 

8 
48 


.teres. 
740 
216. 95 

56.30 
410. 13 

46 
650 

89 

29. 50 
1,038 

42.90 
928 




3 

1 
1 

1 


2 

i 
2 

1 


6 

4.55 
150 

1 


Colorado 




District of Columbia 


Florida 


Illinois 1 i 

Indian Territory 1 . . 


1 


9 


Indiana 






Iowa 






Kansas 4 

Kentucky 2 

Maine 


4 


isi 






1 

1 

12 

7 
9 
2 
26 
5 
1 
8 
8 
'> 

27 
10 
28 
10 
4 
2 
31 
21 
4 
6 


700 
1 
1,939.60 
320 
48 
7.50 
197.99 
84 
45 
571.88 
1,330.80 
280 


Maryland 1 i 

Massachusetts 


1 


Michigan 2 

Minnesota ' 


1 


1 


Nebraska j 3 


1 
3 


2. .50 
7.13 




2 
1 


1 
1 


45 
131.88 
1, 200 






3 1 2 

( 




North Dakota 


:: :: " 


Oklahoma 1 3 1 3 


181 
25. .% 
223. 77 


198. 40 
298. 18 
929.49 






100- 


South Dakota 1 






Texas 




2 
1 
4 


128 
34 
63 




Vermont 


1 

4 
1 
4 


588 






M a.shington 






3 


470 


4 
2 


480 


Wisconsin 


130 




--- 






Total 


63 42 


2,861.33 


345 


334 


13,668.80 



The Bui'eau does not furnish seeds or trees for cooperative planting. 
It participates in the expenses of planting only to the extent of defray- 
ing the salaries and, in certain cases, expenses for travel and sub- 
sistence of its agents while making the planting plan. Nor does it 
undertake to make either planting or working plans for all applicants. 

Preference in time of examination is given to those applications 
which are likely to afford the most useful object lessons. When an 
application has been made and accepted, an examination of the land 
which it is proposed to plant is made b_y an agent of the Bureau. 
Upon small areas where prolonged study or the services of assistants 
are not required, a planting plan, if planting is recommended, is pre- 
pai"ed by the agent before leaving the ground. In all cases the con- 
clusion.s of the examination as to the advisability of planting are 
embodied in a report to the owner. If the preparation of a planting 
plan is recommended and the recommendation accepted, a thorough 
study is made on the ground and a detailed and comprehensive plan 
prepared, a copy of which, with all essential measurements, maps, and 
other data, is sent to the owner upon completion. 

In July, 1903, reports from 118 persons for whom planting plans, 
covering" 3,704 acres, had been made showed that 21 per cent of the 
area had been planted, and that on 2,352 acres more, or 63 per cent, 
the plans are considered valid. Plans for an aggregate of 550 acres 



190 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

were abandoned or doubtful of execution. The ultimate planting of 
from 50 to 75 per cent of the area covered by the plans is to be expected. 

In the past the method followed has been to send an agent to any 
locality after a sufficient number of applications have been received to 
warrant the expenditure. In .addition, a plan of systematic regional 
studies has now been put into effect, the purpose of which is to enable 
the Bureau to handle bj' correspondence, as fast as the studies are com- 
pleted, the applications for assistance, except in undertakings of special 
difficulty or unusual magnitude. 

Examinations of two distinct regions made during the year resulted 
in the preparation of representative planting plans applicable to a large 
number of cases. The first was the plains of eastern New Mexico and 
western Texas. It is known that as a result of this plan 300,000 trees 
were planted on 237 acres in the region. The second examination 
covered the flood-damaged lands along the Kansas River, and resulted 
in the publication of Circular No. 27 on the "Reclamation of flood- 
damaged lands in the Kansas River Valley by forest planting." Copies 
of this circular were distributed to the farmers of the devastated dis- 
trict. A planting plan for the reclamation of these lands has been pre- 
pared and is sent to those who make application to the Bureau for 
assistance. 

The planted timber of that portion of Kansas lying west of the 
ninety-ninth meridian was also studied during' the past season. A large 
number of groves were measured, and from the copious notes secured 
in the investigation and previously a report of great practical impor- 
tance to farmers of that region has been prepared and is being pub- 
lished as a bulletin. 

Reports are now in preparation upon other field studies made in 
northwestern Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, and western Nebraska. Field 
studies are being extended to other districts where they are urgently 
needed. 

Along the same line sixteen circulars on the planting and growing* 
of the commonly planted trees wei'e printed during the year, and mate- 
rial for twenty others is now available. It is designed, when the 
remaining important species have been so treated, to embody the cir- 
culars in bulletins, each applicable to a definite region. 

PUBLIC LECTURES. 

In connection with the cooperative planting work sixteen public 
meetings were held in the Middle West for the discussion of tree- 
planting problems. In August, 1903, a course of six lectures was given 
before the Old Salem Chautauqua Association at Petersboro, 111. 
Courses of about the same length were given at the South Dakota 
School of Mines and the Universitj- of Texas. Papers were also read 
before the Kansas Horticultural Society. 

World's Fair Exhibit. 

A field exhibit of forest planting has been installed and is being 
maintained at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The exhibit covers 
2i acres of ground and is in three parts. The first part consists of a 
model prairie farm laid out with suitable wind-breaks. The second 
part is a series of woodlots planned to show suitable trees for planting 



BUREAU OJ' FORESTRY 191 

in various sections of the l^nitixl States. The third part consists of a 
demonstration of simple nursorv methods applicable to the growing 
of forest seedlings in small numbers such as may be wanted on the 
average farm. 

Reserve Planting. 
dismal river resera^e. 

In the spring of 1903 planting was begun on the Dismal River 
Reserve, in west-central Nebraska, by setting out 30,000 western yel- 
low pine and 70,000 jack pine forest-grown seedlings. The yellow 
pine had been collected in the Black Hills the previous autumn, the 
jack pine in Minnesota in the spring of 1903. The yellow pine suf- 
fered great exposure in shipment, and failed entirely. Of the jack 
pine about 35 per cent survived. The trees were set in deep incisions 
made with a spade in the loose sand of the sandhills, without previous 
preparation of the soil. 

The seedlings which were set in bare spots have grown far better 
than those set in the protection of grass and shrubs, probably on 
account of the more abundant moisture. All which survived last 
year started into vigorous growth early this spring. Many had grown 
6 inches bj^ Maj- 25. 

Several methods of seeding direct in the sandhills, such as broad- 
cast sowing and seeding in hills 1jy means of a hand corn planter, have 
been tried in the hope of tinding rapid and economical methods of 
forestation, but without apparent result. As more favorable condi- 
tions than those under which the work has been done can scarcely be 
expected, the indications are that seeding can not be made successful. 

Better results have been realized from growing seedlings in a nurs- 
ery. The first seedbed, 1 acre in area, was planted in the fall of 1902 
and spring of 1903, from seed gathered by the Bureau. The cost of 
raising 575,000 one-year-old seedlings in this seedbed was $1.20 per 
thousand. This includes collecting and planting the seed, cultivation 
and mulching, and one-tenth of the cost of clearing the ground and 
constructing the shade frames. 

In the nursery the western yellow pine and piiion seedlings attained 
the first year the height of 3 inche^, and produced finely developed 
roots 12 to 15 inches long. In the spring of 1901, 300,000 of these 
seedlings wei-e planted on 335 acre^, the trees being set at 6-foot inter- 
vals in the bottom of furrows plowed s feet apart. The cost of this 
planting was $74:6.95. or $2.48 per thousand. Adding to this the cost 
of growing the seedlings, $1.20 per thousand, the total cost for grow- 
ing and planting was |3.68 per thousand. A high efiiciency of labor 
was secured by careful systematization, and the whole operation was 
carried out with a combined attention to essential requirements, readi- 
ness in contriving practical methods, and economy, which make its 
execution an object lesson for similar work. 

On June 6 counts were made on four sample-acre plots to determine 
the number of living trees. On three plots of western yellow pine 
91, 90i, and 95 per cent were living and growing. On the fourth 
acre, which was of pinon, 91 per cent were living and growing. 

In September and October, 19lJ3, an acre of ground was cleared and 
prepared for an additional seedbed, at a cost of |77. The bed was 
then covered with woven-slat fencing which provides half shade, at a 



192 DEPARTMENTAL REPOKTS. 

cost of $1,363.09. In November, 1903, the new seedbed was planted 
to western j'ellow, jack, and lodgepole pine, and red and white fir, in 
drills 6 inches apart, at the rate of 50 to 60 seeds per linear foot. 
Planting the 1 acre required 26i days' work and cost ^.62. This 
very low cost was the result of ingenious and labor-saving methods, 
and" it is believed to compare very favorably with what any private 
nurseryman could accomplish the same work for. The bed from 
which the seedlings were taken for this year's planting has been 
seeded again, giving 2 full acres of seedbed, most of which will fur- 
nish trees for planting next spring. With ordinary conditions, 
1,500,000 trees should be ready for planting at that time. 

BRUNER PLANTATION THINNED. 

This plantation, situated in the southwestern part of Holt County, 
Nebr. , was planted under the direction of the Division of Forestry in 
1890. It consists principally of jack pine. Its marked success has 
greatly influenced planting on the Dismal River Eeserve and elsewhere 
on the Plains. As the trees had been thickly planted and never thinned, 
they had crowded so severely that to preserve the best growing con- 
dition it was necessary to thin the plantation during the past year. 
In this grove the dominant trees average 19.4 feet in height, and 3 
inches in diameter breasthigh. The thinning has left the trees in 
excellent condition, and thej' should continue, if not excel, their good 
growth of the past. 

NIOBRARA RESERVE. 

This reserve also is situated in the sandhill region of Nebraska, and 
was established for the purpose of giving opportunity for large 
experiments in tree planting. 

During the past year the reserve was surveyed and mapped. A 
report was made which includes, besides a description of conditions, 
recommendations for the protection of the present timber and for 
planting. 

SAN GABEIEL RESERVE. 

Planting on the San Gabriel Reserve, though in progress experi- 
mentally under the Bureau's direction for three years, has not yet 
resulted in the discovery of a sure and economical method of securing 
its forestation. A year ago the method of seed-spot planting was 
given a thorough trial. Seed so planted germinated readily, but the 
3'oung seedlings were nearly all destroyed by birds and rabbits when 
only a few days old. A few hundred seedlings were also planted. 
These were very young and tender and nearly all died, but their 
endurance in transplanting indicated the probability of success with 
larger transplanted trees. A seedbed was therefore established in 
Pasadena, as stated in last year's report, and has resulted in 50,000 
thrifty trees, 35,000 of which have already been transplanted, and all 
of which should be in prime condition for transplanting on the 
mountains next winter. 

It was decided to establish a nursery- also at a higher elevation, near 
where the planting should be done, and accordingly a site was chosen 
in the San Gabriel Mountains, on a bench 2,500 feet above sea level, 
known as Henninger's Flats. The tract, consisting of 80 acres, with 



OF F0KE8TRY. 193 

water right, is leased from the Mount Wilson Toll Road Company. A 
reservoir with a capacity of 23,000 gallons is situated 250 feet above 
and 1,700 feet distant from the nursery. The company furnishes with 
the land a cottage of four rooms and a stable. 

The site of the nursery was cleared, grubbed, plowed, cleaned of 
roots and rocks, and fenced with rabbit-proof wire netting. A seed- 
bed 48 bv 160 feet was prepared. It is now covered by a stationary 
lath shade, 6 feet above ground, made to permit half sunlight, the 
cost of which was |21!». 80. 

The area within the frame was seeded in the latter part of March 
to bigcone spruce, (Coulter pine, knobcone pine, incense cedar, sugar 
pine, Jeffrey pine, gray pine, deodar, pinon, and Monterev pine. A 
small quantity of each of these species, together with some of the 
largest species of chaparral, was also planted in open ground, to deter- 
mine their ability to stand direct sunshine in germination. 

Thirty thousand trees have been transplanted from the seedbed in 
Pasadena to the nursery at Henninger's Flats, with a loss not exceeding 
3 per cent. 

PIKES PEAK RESEEVE. 

The study of forest replacement on the Pikes Peak Reserve, described 
elsewhere, has prepared the way for the establishment of small nur- 
series and the beginning of experimental planting on that reserve. A 
report which is now in preparation describes in detail areas on which 
planting is recommended, discusses the trees which should be used, 
and locates available nursery sites. The beginning of planting forms 
the subject of a recommendation for next year's work. 

SEED COLLECTING. 

The seed used on the reserves has all been collected by the Bureau. 
An abundant crop in the case of several species which the Bureau is 
planting extensiveh^, and in which seed production is irregular, made 
it desirable to collect in quantities beyond the needs of the current 
year. A total of 5,350 pounds of seed was collected in California, 
Colorado, Michigan, Minnesota, and New Mexico, of western yellow 
and Jeprey pine, goldencup oak, simpleleaf sumach, bigcone spruce, 
jack pine, knobcone pine, hollyleaf cherry, red fir, white fir, and 
sugar pine. 

FoEEST Replacement. 

Studies of the action of the forest in reoccupying ground which had 
been denuded of trees have been carried on in Colorado, Kansas, New 
Mexico, and southern New England. 

An examination of the problem of reforestation on the Pikes Peak 
Reserve, Colo., was conducted on the watershed which supplies Col- 
orado Springs, in the southern part of the reser\'e. Attention was 
mainly given to the history of fires which denuded the mountains, the 
distribution of young growth which has succeeded fires, the productive 
power and rate of growth of the principal trees, the conditions which 
influence forest replacement on the burned areas at high altitudes, and 
the necessity of supplementing natural reproduction by planting. 

The study shows that the most serious fires took place at least fifty 
years ago, and that some of the burns have been fairly stocked with 



194 DEP ARTM ENT a L, it Ki-UKT S » 

valuable young trees, while others have been occupied by quaking aspen, 
and still others have remained practically barren. The j'oung trees 
are irregularlj* distributed and grow slowly. Unless planting is resorted 
to, there is no hope for a restoration of the forest on some slopes within 
a reasonable time. 

A map is being made to show the distribution of old and young tim- 
ber in relation to this ver}- important watershed, the location of areas 
naturally reforesting, and the tracts, practicall}' devoid of reproduc- 
tion, upon which planting is recommended. 

Coordinate with the study of planted timber in western Kansas, an 
examination was made of the tendency of the narrow belts of natural 
timber which border the streams to wrest from the prairie contiguous 
tracts of ground, now that prairie tires, less frequent than formerly, 
no longer give grass the advantage over forest which it once had. 
The object of the study is to direct attention to the latent tendency 
toward forest extension and to its uianifest value in the region. A 
similar study has been completed in western Nebraska, and a report for 
the two regions is now awaiting publication. 

A tract of 200,000 acres, comprising most of the watershed of the 
Vermejo River, in northern New Mexico, was studied for the purpose 
of finding methods of improving the reproduction of the forest, which 
consists mainlj' of an open stand of western yellow pine, deficient in 
reproduction on account of fire, excessive grazing, and insufficient seed. 
Plans were made to repair the damage from fire and stock, and a series 
of experimental plantations was recommended. The experiment 
should show what methods are most successful and economical for 
■establishing the stand of timber required. 

For the past two field seasons a stud}^ of the replacement of white 
pine on old fields and pastures in central New England has been under 
way. Field work which has been completed has j'ielded data of scien- 
tific interest and high practical importance. Around thi-ee different 
centers in New England the tendency of white pine to take possession 
of abandoned farm lands is so strong that it maj^ be depended upon bj' 
the landowner to restock his land with forest without any effort on 
his part. 

Forest Fires. 

\Vork of large practical public benefit was a study of the extent and 
effect of great forest fires, such as those in Washington and Oregon in 
1902, and of fires in the Adirondacks in 1903. 

So serious were the fires in the Adirondack Mountains from April 
20 to June 8, 1903, that the Bureau without delay began a study on the 
ground of their extent, causes, and effects. Agents of the Bureau 
traveled extensively through the region, made careful examinations of 
many of the burned areas, and gathered information from guides, cruis- 
ers, lumbermen, pulp manufacturers, and superintendents of private 
preserves. Reports were also obtained from the fire wardens of all 
towns within or near the Adirondack Park. A careful study of the 
burned-over lands along the lines of the New York Central "and the 
Delaware and Hudson railroads was also made. 

It was found that over 600,000 acres of timberland were burned 
oyer. About 1175,000 had been spent in fighting the fires. The total 
direct loss from these fires was approximately $3,500,000, with an incal- 
culable indirect loss, due both to the destruction of voung growth 



BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 195 

which was to form the future forest and to the injuiv to tlie forest 
soil from the burning out of its humus. A summary of the informa- 
tion gathered \\ as published by the Bureau as Circular No. i'6. The 
circular has been most useful not only' in supplying information to a 
deeply concerned public, but also in giving the legislature of the State 
of New York a >ound basis for undertaking needed improvements in 
the State system of fire protection. 

Dunes. 

The application of forestry to the reclamation of shifting sand was 
considered during the past year, principally in connection with the 
sandhill districts of southern Michigan, where a small party worked 
for two months gathering data on the extent of shifting sand and the 
trees and shrubs which are adapted to grow upon it. ^Methods of 
reclamation which have been employed were closely examined. 
Opportunity has not yet been afforded to put the data which have 
been obtained on this subject into form for publication. Until this. 
can be accomplished field work will be suspended. 

Additioxal Cooperative Work. 

The office of Forest Extension participated in several lines of work 
described under State Cooperative Studies. It made the examination 
of the Hawaiian forests, and conducted the work in cooperation with 
the Massachusetts Forestry Association. It also conducted the inves- 
tigations of the growth and value of planted eucalyptus, of forest 
replacement, and of chaparral conditions and their improvement in 
southern California, carried on by the Bureau in cooperation with the 
State of California, as well as the work done toward the inauguration 
of an effective forest-fire policy for that State. 

Expenditures. 

The expenditures in forest extension during the past yi'ar amounted 
to $67,119.19, or 16 per cent of the appropriation of the Bureau. 

Work for the Ensuing Year. 

The making of planting plans under the slightly' modified plan of 
cooperation will continue during the ensuing year. Field studies for 
extensive planting plans will be made of Griffith Park, near Los 
Angeles, Cal., and parts of -the Paloduro Canyon, in northwestern 
Texas. Studies of the success of planted timber will be made in eastern 
Nebraska, eastern North and South Dakota, and northern Illinois. 

Planting will be extended on the Dismal River Reserve, continued on 
the San Gabriel Reserve, and begun on the Pikes Peak Reserve. Study 
will be made of the replacement of the forest on the Salt Lake Reserve, 
which may lead to the beginning of planting there. The studies in 
progress on forest replacement and chaparral conditions in southern 
California will be concluded and the data compiled for publication. 
In connection with the study of the success of planted timber in 
Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Illinois, examination will 
be made of the encroachment of the natural forest upon new areas. 
The study of methods of controlling forest fires in California will be 



196 DEPARTMENTAL BEPOETS. 

completed, and the recommendations resulting from it will be pre- 
sented to the State legislature for its consideration. 

FOREST PKODtrCTS. 

General Aim of Woek. 

Work under Forest Products during the past j^ear followed two 
lines: First, studies of methods of timber preservation; and, second, 
tests to determine the strength of timbers. Timber-preservation stud- 
ies were grouped by regions into Western, Central, and Eastern. The 
timber test work was conducted at New Haven, Conn., Washington, 
D. C, Lafayette, Ind., and Berkeley, Cal. 

In addition, a three-months' investigation was made by the chief of 
the division in various European countries, of the methods there in use 
for seasoning and treating woods and for fastening rails to ties. The 
latter subject is one of vital importance in connection with the use of 
soft timbers in the United States at the present time. A large amount 
of information was collected, part of which was published in Bulletin 
No. 50 of the Bureau. A further bulletin is in preparation dealing 
with some problems relating to treatment. As a result of this trip, 
tests are now being made in various parts of the United States to deter- 
mine methods for more economically treating timber and to ascertain 
how screw-spikes and screw-dowels ma}^ be made to increase the service 
of softwood ties. 

An obscure cause of deterioration of ties treated with zinc chlorid, 
when laid in the track, was made the subject of investigation. A 
deleterious action which had been observed to affect both the tie and 
the spike, and which was ascribed to a supposed production of hydro- 
chloric acid, was found to be really due entirelj^ to electrolysis. 
Microscopic study of spikes from various mills which were found to 
behave differently' from one another led to further discoveries which 
indicate that in the light of these experiments makers of spikes can be 
so instructed as to produce, at a cost not greater than that now paid 
for the ordinar}' spike, a spike which will entirely resist the action of 
zinc chlorid. 

An investigation of the production and use of creosote oils in this 
country and in Canada, and of the causes of their differences in qual- 
it3% has brought out the fact that these differences are due to different 
methods both of treating the coals and of distilling the coal tar. It 
has also disclosed that market conditions in this country are at present 
unfavorable to the production of very high grade oils here, because 
such oils must be distilled at a high temperature. Pitch and creosote 
oil are both products of the same operation, and distillation at a high 
temperature ruins the soft pitch which is now in great demand here, 
and produces a hard pitch which can not here, as it can abroad, be 
profitably marketed. With a market for hard pitch, high-grade oils 
could be obtained. 

It was found that the large Canadian supply of these oils which 
exists is unfortunately of such a character that its use can not be recom- 
mended excepting for the impregnation of railroad ties. 

One of the most difficult tasks which this office has undertaken has 
to deal with the action of various chemicals on wood. Numerous 
experiments were carried on in order to test the formation of insoluble 



BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 197 

compounds in wood, and also the action of tlie timber-destroj'ing organ- 
isms on such compounds. The investigations are complex in charac- 
ter, but their practical import is the light which they shed on the 
various problems of wood preservation. 

In consequence of the discovery that the methods of analysis employed 
by various chemists to determine the amount of zinc chlorid in sam- 
ples of treated timber do not secure uniform results, the cause of the 
variation was investigated and discovered, and new methods were pro- 
posed which will avoid the error. 

Studies in Tijiber Peeser^^atign. 

WESTERN. 

This work consisted of seasoning and treatment tests of certain 
inferior woods. The use of many of the inferior woods in the West 
will depend upon successful methods for dryinp- them rapidly and 
evenly so as to prevent decay, excessive checking, and warping. 
With the rapidly increasing use of the softer woods, the Bureau was 
called upon to give information concerning them, particularlv as to 
how to prevent rapid decay. During the past year ties of various 
timbers were experimented with. The reasons for selecting ties for 
these experiments were that large numbers were obtainable, without 
cost to the Bureau, from various railroad companies interested in the 
results, that the subject of tie preservation is in itself of main impor- 
tance, and that in this way conclusions of general application may be 
secured. 

Tests were made of ties of the following woods: Longleaf, short- 
leaf, and loblolly pine, at Silsbee and Somerville, Tex.; red and black 
pine, spruce, and fir, at Rociada, Las Vegas, and Pecos, N. Mex. ; 
lodgepole pine, at Sheridan, Wyo., and Bozeman, Mont.; and fir, at 
Tacoma and Pasco, ^^'ash. 

TESTS OF LOBLOLLY AND SHOETLEAF PINES IN TEXAS. 

The loblolly pine investigations at Silsbee, Tex., were carried on in 
cooperation with the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad. It has 
been commonly supposed that loblolly pine timber could not be held 
successfully for any length of time before use. Various species of 
fungi attack the wood very soon after cutting, and render it valueless 
with great rapidity.- In the tests at Silsbee 500 ties of loblolly pine 
were cut every month, and weighed immediately. They were then 
piled in open piles of various forms, some with and some without a 
roof. All ties were reweighed at regular monthly intervals to deter- 
mine their rate of drying. The same process was carried on with 
shortleaf pine, and to a certain extent with longleaf pine. 

As a result of the year's work it can be asserted that loblolly pine 
timber when properly piled can be held in Texas for eight months or 
more without decajdng. In that time it will lose approximately 40 
per cent of its weight by the evaporation of the water contained in the 
wood. These results have an important beaiing upon the use of lob- 
lolly pine. A bulletin on this subject is in preparation. 

Further experiments with methods of piling loblolly were carried 
on at Somerville, Tex. Some 250,000 sawed and hewed ties were piled 
in various ways to determine the possibility both of reducing the cost 



198 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

of handling and of foi'ming pile> which more rapidly dry out the tim- 
ber. It is believed that a form of pile extensively used in Germany 
was proved to be not onlj^ a better form of pile for seasoning the ties, 
but somewhat more economical than the old form. A report as to the 
result of these tests was prepared. 

In connection with the seasoning of loblollj^ pine, treatment tests 
also were carried on at Somerville. These related chiefly to details in 
the manner of treating this timber with zinc chlorid. It was thought 
that by omitting the steaming process a more favorable penetration 
could be obtained. These tests have simpl}' been begun, only 2,500 
ties having been treated, but have so far shown a greater absorption 
hx weight when ties are steamed than wheji the steaming process was 
omitted. 

TEKTS OP NEW MEXICO FIXES. 

Two stations for tests of seasoning and one for tests of treatment of 
New Mexico pines were established during the year. The seasoning 
tests were conducted at Pecos and Rociada, N. Mex. Eight thousand 
ties of western yellow pine, balsam, and spruce, cut in the vicinity of 
the former place, and some 4,500 of western yellow pine, spruce, and 
white fir near the latter were weighed at monthly intervals to deter- 
mine their rate of seasoning. Some of them dried out in four months. 
The general results show that open piles cause New Mexico timbers to 
dry out too rapidl}^, so that many of them check excessively, and that 
in this region all timbers should be closely piled. The tests prove 
that the seasoning of New Mexico timbers is a paying operation. 

Other tests were carried on at Las Vegas to determine the best 
methods for treating New Mexico timbers. These tests show that 
with the very dry ties obtained in the high altitudes of New Mexico a 
greater absorption of the preservative follows from treating the tim- 
bers without a preliminary steaming. This process has since been 
followed at the Las Vegas plant. A similar result was obtained from 
a number of tests made during the months of December and January 
at the treating plant of the Santa Fe Railroad. 

TESTS OP LODGEPOLE PINE AND KED FIR IX THE NORTHWEST. 

]Many timbers in the Northwestern States I'equire to be treated chem- 
ically in order to resist decay. Two years ago experiments were 
begun to determine the eflect on seasoning of cutting timber in the 
Northwest at difllerent seasons of the year. The tests began near 
Bozeman, Mont., with the lodgepole pine, a timber hitherto very little 
used because of its softness and its rapid decay when in contact with 
the ground. These tests were continued during the present year. 
One hundred ties of lodgepole pine were cut every month and 
weighed at monthly intem'als. The results show that this timber 
can be seasoned in five or six months, with a great saving in freight 
and considerable improvement in quality, compared with unseasoned 
timber. During the coming year some 2,000 ties will be treated to 
determine the relation between treatment and the season of cutting. 

Attention was called during the past year to the fact that small trees 
of the lodgepole pine when properly peeled and dried make excellent 
mine props. Acting upon this suggestion, a number of mine props 
have been made in Montana and shipped into Wvoming for use in coal 



BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 199 

mines, and it is probable that this timber will be increasingly utilized 
for this purpose. Investigations on a small scale have been carried on 
to determine the best sizes for this use. 

Little is known at the present time as to how to preserve the red or 
Douglas hr. In cooperation with the Northern Pacific Railroad, tests 
were begun in March to determine the actual weights of green and dry 
wood as the first step in a comprehensive study of this tree. 

It has already been found that at Pasco, in a semiarid region, ties 
evaporate water in the first few weeks after cutting nearly six times 
as rapidly as at Taconia, in a region of very heavy rainfall. Various 
forms of piles have been constructed, preliminary figures obtained, 
and important results are expected. 

A series of important treating tests were carried on in cooperation 
with the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad, at Sheridan, Wyo., 
chiefly as to the treatment of lodgepole pine timber with zinc chlorid, 
with and without preliminary steaming, which appears, so far, to have 
little effect on penetration. A beginning was also made in testing red 
fir and western yellow pine from the Black Hills, South Dakota, and 
this work will be vigorously followed up during the coming year. 

A second series of investigations carried on at the Sheridan treating 
plant dealt with the rapidity with which zinc chlorid leached out from 
treated ties. The results show that ail timbers treated with zinc chlorid 
should be seasoned until approximately air dry. Recommendations to 
this effect have been generally followed bj^ those emploj'ing this form 
of preservative treatment. 

CENTRAL. 

The studies in timber preservation carried on in the Central States 
were in general aim similar to those already described. In the Miss- 
issippi Valley a large number of timbers, especially red, pin, water, 
and other oaks, beech, red gum, sj'camore, etc., are being consid- 
ered as possibilities for use in many industries, because of the rapid 
exhaustion of the supply of white oak and hickory. In cooperation 
with the St. Louis and San Francisco and the Illinois Central railroads 
a general ioAestigation was begun during the year as to the utilitj'^ of 
these timbers for ties and bridge structures. With chemical treatment 
it was found perfectly practicable to use them both for ties and for 
other forms of construction, and it is proposed to extend these inves- 
tigations to strength determinations during the coming j^ear. 

A series of tests was inaugurated similar to those carried on in the 
West to determine the relation between seasoning and the season of 
cutting. The chief object is to ascertain how to season these woods so 
that they will not check, split, or warp excessively, and to protect 
them against excessive rainfall. Approximately 500 ties of as many 
different timbers as could be obtained were cut each month at various 
stations, and weighed at regular intervals until they were air dry. A 
distinction was made between swamp timber and that cut on high 
ground. 

Tests of hill red oak were made at Black Rock and Imboden, Ark., 
and of bottom red oak and red gum at Portia and Beggs, Ark. In 
six to eight months the red oaks have lost from 2.5 to 30' per cent in 
weight. Ties under roofed piles have shown little tendency to check, 
split, or warp. Most of the timbers lost the bulk of their moisture in 



200 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

the first six months. Similar results were obtained in Kentucky, 
Tennessee, and Mississippi with red oak, beech, and red gfum. 

In Illinois and Indiana tests to determine the rate of seasoning of 
white oak ties, which have been in progress almost two years, were 
brought to a close, and the results are being prepared for publication. 
The seasoned ties were laid in the track near Brownstown, Ind.,.and 
careful record will be kept of their resistance to decay. 

Tests conducted in cooperation with the Ayer & Lord Tie Company 
demonstrated in the case of red oak ties treated with zine chlorid the 
importance both of thorough preliminary seasoning and of thorough 
drying out after treatment, not only in order to increase the effective- 
ness of the preservative treatment, but also to obviate the loss from 
splitting due to the freezing of tlieir water content. 

EASTERN. 

Studies in preservative treatment in the East during the past year 
were concerned largely with telephone poles, in continuation and 
enlargement of work begun during the previous year. As a rule, poles 
are set almost at once after cutting. The poles are of a larger diame- 
ter at the butt than is at first necessary to carry the anticipated load of 
wires and cross-arms, because the diminution in size due to rot at or 
near the surface of the ground has to be taken into consideration. 
Should it prove possible to treat poles atthe butt economically,, very 
much smaller trees could be used because allowance for weakening by 
decay would be unnecessary, and the poles could be grown in a shorter 
time. 

The subjects studied were, first, seasoning of telephone poles, and 
second, treatment of cross-arms. The poles experimented with were 
of chestnut and white cedar and belonged to the American Telephone 
and Telegraph Company, in cooperation with whom the work was 
done. Five stations were maintained, at each of which 50 poles cut 
each month were carefully' weighed and measured, and reweighed and 
remeasured at monthly intervals to determine the loss of weight and 
shrinkage. 

Preservative tests were carried on at Norfolk, Va., to determine 
whether it would be possible to treat loblolly pine cross-arms with 
creosote in such a way that a uniform amount of creosote would be 
injected into the arm in quantities not over 12 pounds per cubic foot. 
It was found that under the ordinary method of creosoting, some arms 
took up but 1^ pounds and others as much as 35 pounds of creosote, 
resulting in the latter case not only in a waste of material, but also in 
much damage to property from subsequent dripping of creosote from 
the arms in hot weather. By omission of the steaming process and a 
classification of the crOss-arms into three groups, it was found possi- 
ble to bring about a more uniform treatment in less than half the time 
that had usuallj' been required. The bearing of these tests on the 
general problem of creosoting is emphasized, for similar results would 
presumably be obtained with other classes of material. 

Cooperative tests of the Riiping process for creosoting was carried 
on at Perth Amboy, N. J. This process claims to treat timber with 
creosote at a very small cost. Ties of loblolly, shortleaf, and lodge- 
pole pine, beech, red oak, and red fir were shipped to Perth Amboy. 



BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 201 

These tests were uot completed. The results have not j-et been entirely 
formulated. 

A preliminary investigation, begun in May, 190-4. to determine the 
best methods for seasoning beech, maple, and birch ties, from the 
Adirondacks, so as to prevent excessive checking and to bring them 
into a condition fit for treatment, is now under way. 

Timber Tests. 

During the past year the programme for a series of timber tests was 
completed. The work thus far accomplished was largely of a prelimi- 
nary character. Additional laboratories were located, further equip- 
ment was purchased, and additional investigations were undertaken. 
The programme has been submitted for criticism to the American 
Society of Civil Engineers and the American Society for Testing 
Materials, and has received their hearty indorsement. 

A large volume of data concerning the strength of structural timber 
in actual market forms and sizes was obtained, which will be useful in 
economizing the use of timber, perfecting specifications, and establish- 
ing rules for inspection. The relative strength of red fir, western 
hemlock, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine, with characteristic defects, 
was in part determined. A study of the mechanical properties of red 
gum wood was made, and its availability for carriage manufacture was 
established. Studies of the relative strength of tie fastenings, in order 
to determine the proper form for inferior timbei's, have also been 
made. 

An impact testing machine was designed and built, and proper meth- 
ods of test were developed to determine the brittleness of timber pre- 
paratory to a study of the efl'ects of preservative processes on its 
mechanical properties. The law governing the influence of moisture 
on the strength of timber was developed with a completeness of detail 
and scientific precision hitherto unknown. It remains to extend this 
inquiry to the degree of moisture existing in large timbers, and to 
ascertain if any increase in strength mav be counted on in the case of 
large sticks as found partially dried on the market. A preliminary 
examination has been made of the problem of determining the strength 
of boxboard lumber of various species. 

The tests of red fir and western hemlock were made at the timbei'- 
testing station of the University of California. The work at the 
Yale Forest School station included a determination of the efl'ects of 
moisture and resin on the mechanical properties of timber. This 
work requires great care in detail. 

The tests of loblollj' and longleaf pine were made in cooperation 
with the Bureau of Chemistry, United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, at Washington. 

* The work at the Purdue University station included the study of 
the mechanical properties of red gum. The relative strength of sap- 
wood and heartwood, both clear and mill-run, the relative strength of 
mature and immature timber, and the ability of red gum wood to 
withstand the operations of kiln drying, steaming, and bending which 
are necessary in the application of the wood to carriage stock, were 
determined. Other subjects investigated at this station were the 
pulling strength of the screw-spike as compared with the common 
spike when driven into railroad ties, a method of test to determine 



202 DEPARIMENTAL REPORTS. 

the brittlenes8 of wood with an impact testing machine devel9ped b_y 
the Bureau, and a method for testing the resistance to abrasion of 
wooden paving blocks. 

EXPENDITUKES. 

The total expenditures during the j'ear under the head of Forest 
Products were 142,525.20, or 12 per cent of the total appropriation of 
the Bureau. 

WOEK FOR THE COMING YeAR. 

The seasoning tests in cooperation with the Atchison, Topeka and 
Santa Fe Railway at Silsbee will be continued, and a number of ties 
alread}' seasoned at this place will be marked with dating nails and 
jjlaced in the track, together with unseasoned ties, to determine their rela- 
tive lengths of life. The piling and treating experiments at Somer- 
ville will likewise be continued, and a number of seasoned and green 
ties will be laid in the tracks of the Southern Pacific Railway and 
frequently inspected. The seasoning tests with New Mexico timbers 
will go on in cooperation with the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 
Railwaj' at Pecos and Rociada, and further treating experiments will 
be made at Las Vegas. 

Treating tests in cooperation with the Chicago, Burlington and 
Quincy Railway at Sheridan, Wyo., and Bozeman, Mont., will be 
continued. One of the principal questions to be determined by these 
experiments is the penetration of preservatives into seasoned wood 
previously subjected to the steaming process, as compared with the 
peneti'ation into wood that has not been subjected to steam. 

The seasoning experiments alreadj^ in progress in cooperation with 
the Northern Pacific Railway at Tacoma and Pasco, Wash., and in 
cooperation with the St. Louis and San Francisco and Illinois Central 
I'ailways in Kentucky, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Tennessee will also 
form part of the work of the year. 

Other timber treating and testing work will be conducted in coop- 
eration with the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company at St. Louis. 
A complete impregnating plant and several timber -testing machines 
have been installed on the grounds of the St. Louis Exposition, and a 
large number of ties, principally of loblolly pine and red oak, will be 
treated and tested at this station. 

Seasoning and treating experiments in cooperation with the Ameri- 
can Telephone and Telegraph Company will be continued in New Jer- 
sey, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, "Maryland, and Virginia, and 
further experiments will be conducted at Marinette, Wis., and Esca- 
naba,^Iich., in cooperation with the Postal Telegraph-Cable Company, 
the Wisconsin Central Telephone Company, the 'Wisconsin Central, 
the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul, and the Chicago and Northwest- 
ern railway companies, and with the State of Wisconsin. Particular 
attention will be paid to the effect which soaking in water exerts upon 
the rate of seasoning of cedar and tamarack. 

Experiments will be made to determine the best method for piling 
and classifying cross-arms in order to season them in the shortest time. 
These experimental arms will afterwards be treated at Norfolk, Va. 
The seasoning experiments on ties made from Adirondack hardwoods 



BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 203 

will be continued at Utica, N. Y. These ties will afterwards be treated 
and laid in the track. 

The tests of red fir and western hemlock at the Berkeley laboratory 
will be continued, and, if possible, another laboratory for their study 
will be established at Seattle, Wash., in which case work at the 
Berkeley laboratory will be directed especially to a determination of 
the mechanical properties of redwood. 

At the Purdue laboratory the study of red gum from Missouri and 
from the Atlantic coast, of the methods of testing wood under impact 
and abrasion, of the effect of preservatives and preservative processes, 
of methods of testing paving blocks, and of the strength of boxboards 
will go on. 

The work of the Yale Forest School station will continue along the 
present lines for a time. The problem of the strength of large tim- 
bers and their moisture content will be pursued. Cooperative work 
in determining the strength of cross-arms for telegraph poles and the 
effect of the so-called Weed process on the strength of wood will prob- 
ably be undertaken. 

RECORDS. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year it became necessary to secure an 
additional floor of the Atlantic Building for offices. The need of the 
Bureau for office room increases, not only with the slow increase in the 
purely office force, but also with the rapid increase in the number of 
field men who must spend a part of their time in the office preparing 
reports on their field work. This increase of space during the last 
year afforded great relief, and it will probablj^ be sufficient for the 
needs of the Bureau for the next fiscal year (190i-5). Upon the 
request of the Bureau the owners of the building have erected in the 
basement a fireproof vault in which may be stored important records, 
maps, negatives, etc. , belonging to the Bureau. 

Steps were taken during the past year to reduce the fire hazard. 
Among them was the installation of a fire-alarm station on the first 
floor, directly connecting the building with the fire department of the 
District government. To this an auxiliary station on each floor of 
the building was connected. Fire extinguishers of approved pattern 
were installed — 16 on the floors occupied by the Bureau and 10 on the 
floors below. 

At the request of the Bureau an inspection of the building was made 
by the chief engineer of the District of Columbia fire department, 
accompanied by the chief inspector of the Underwriters' Association, 
and their report and recommendations were transmitted to the owners 
of the building. As a result the installation of new fire hose, changes 
in pumping apparatus, important changes in the electric-light wiring, 
and other necessary alterations were undertaken by the owners. 

Accounts and Supplies. 

During the year a radical change was made in the system of 
accounting for Government property. The system adopted was based 
on a modification of that in use in the Quartermaster's Department of 
the United States Army. It included the adoption of a Bureau regu- 
lation that every transfer of property between members of the Bureau 



204 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

must be accompanied by an exchange of an invoice and a receipt, and 
the record of such exchanges upon a property boolt by the property 
clerk. It provided for a form of board of survey to account for 
propert}^ lost or worn out in service, and for a semiannual property 
return by the property clerk. 

No radical departure was made in the purchase of instruments or 
supplies. Every effort was made to standardize the field instruments 
and equipment, and this effort has added to their effectiveness and 
resulted in a considerable saving of money. The requirements of the 
law and the fiscal regulations of the Department concerning compe- 
tition have been closely observed whenever practicable. 

Files and Filing. 

An increase in efficiency and security was effected bj' several minor 
changes in the system of filing correspondence in the Bureau. The 
system as a whole continues to give general satisfaction, and its 
economy of operation is noteworthy. 

Correspondence. 

During the year 28,518 official communications were received in the 
Bureau, and 33,125 sent out. 

Stenography and Typewriting. 

During the month of January, 190i, all stenographers -and type- 
writers not specially assigned to offices were transferred to this sec- 
tion. In it manuscript is copied and general typewriting is done, and 
from it stenographers are temporarily detailed when required. The 
result of this concentration was a noteworthy gain in economy of 
clerical labor and in uniformity of work. From its inception to the 
end of the year, 81:9 items of work were performed, compi-ising a total 
of 9,837 tjrpewritten pages, of which 1,413 pages were in tabulated 
form; 6,888 mimeographed sheets, and a large amount of miscellane- 
ous work. In addition 105 temporary details of stenographers were 
made for a total of 451 days,. The average number of stenographers 
assigned to this section was 10. 

Photograph Laboratory. 

During the past year the effectiveness of the photograph laboratory 
was considerablj' increased by a rearrangement of the equipment here- 
tofore in use and the installation of new equipment. The new equip- 
ment provided for velox or line work, blueprinting by electric light, 
and for making bromide enlargements and transparencies. The use 
of electric light was introduced also in making wet -plate negatives for 
maps. In consequence, the laboratory gained largely in efficiency and 
in econonij' of time and labor. 

Publications. 

There were issued during the year 9 new publications, of which 
77,000 co]3ies were printed. The bulletins were as follows: A Work- 
ing Plan tor Forest Lands in Hampton and Beaufort Counties, South 



BUBEAU OF FORESTRY. 205 

Carolina; The Diminished Flow of the Rock River in Wisconsin and 
Illinois, and Its Relation to the Surrounding Forests; The Planting of 
White Pine in New England; and Cross-Tie Forms and Rail Fasten- 
ings, with Special Reference to Treated Timbers. The circulars were: 
Forest Fires in the Adirondacks in 1903; Reclamation of Flood- 
Damaged Laiids in the Kansas River Valle}- bj^ Forest Planting: and 
Practical Assistance to Users of Forest Products. Two reprints of 
Yearbook articles were issued: Recent Progress in Timber Preserva- 
tion; and Relation of Forests to Streamflow. There was also pub- 
lished the Report of the Forester for 1903. 

In addition to these publications 8 press bulletins were issued during 
the year, with a total circulation of i4,000 copies. 

Reprints of 10 publications were made to the total number of 39,000 
copies. 

On June 30, 1904, 11 bulletins and 3 circulars were in the hands of 
the printer. 

The mailing lists of the Bureau are the following: (1) A special list 
of libraries; (2) a list of representative newspapers; (3) a small foreign 
list of scientific and governmental institutions; (i) a special list of per- 
sons engaged in forest work in the United States; (5) a general list of 
persons interested in forestry. 

The first four lists, which number 3,143 addresses, receive all pub- 
lications of the Bureau as soon as they are available. To the general 
list are sent the reports of the Forester, reprints of the contributions 
from the Bureau of Forestry to the Yearbook of the Department, and 
circulars of information. Cards are also sent to the general list 
giving notice of the appearance of bulletins, with brief descriptions 
of their contents. Applications for bulletins made in response to the 
card notices are honored in the order of their receipt. The number 
of addresses on the general list at the end of the year was 9,860. 

Expenditures. 

The expenditures during the past year in Records, which include 
instruments, supplies, and rent, amounted to $59,032.08, or 17 per 
cent of the total appropriation for the Bureau. 

The expenditures for Bureau supervision and control in salaries 
and traveling expenses and for printing amounted to $42,755.65, or 
13 per cent of the total appropriation for the Bureau. 

o 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



REPORT 



THE FORESTER 



1905 



GIKKORD PINCHOX. 



[From Annual Reports, Department of Agriculture.] 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1905. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Introduction 199 

Inspection 201 

Reserve boundaries 201 

Publication and education 201 

Silvics 202 

Forest law 202 

Forest reserves 202 

Transfer of administration 202 

Area 203 

Officers 204 

Reorganization and policy 204 

Legislation 205 

Timber and wood 206 

Grazing 206 

Crossing permits 206 

Health inspection and dipping regulations .207 

Prevention of grazing trespass 207 

Special privileges 207 

Free use of timber 208 

Forest measurements - 208 

Forest computation 208 

Forest maps 208 

"Work for the ensuing year 209 

Expenditures 209 

Forest management 209 

Public lands 209 

Private lands ' 210 

Working plans for wood lots 211 

Working plans for timber tracts 211 

Studies of commercial trees -> 212 

Southern Appalachians 212 

Cottonwood and ash 213 

Lodgepole pine 213 

Western yellow pine 214 

Sugar pine 214 

Scrub pine 214 

Species used for railroad ties 214 

Determination of timber values 215 

Work for the ensuing year 215 

Public lands 215 

Working plans 216 

Studies of commercial trees 217 

Cooperative State forest studies 217 

Maine 217 

Work of the ensuing year 217 

Expenditures 218 

Forest extension - 218 

Cooperative planting 218 

Results of cooperative planting 218 

Increase of cooperative forest planting 219 

Investigations of planted and natural timber 219 

Popular information 219 

Reserve planting 220 

San Gabriel Forest Reserve 220 

Santa Barbara Forest Reserve 220 

III 



IV CONTENTS. 

Forest extension— Continued. 

Reserve planting — Continued. Page. 

Pikes Peali Forest Reserve 221 

Gila River Forest Reserve — Fort Bayard Military Reservation 221 

Black Hills Forest Reserve 221 

Dismal River Forest Reserve 221 

Collecting and testing of forest- tree seeds 222 

Forest replacement 222 

State cooperative work 223 

Expenditures 223 

Work for the ensuing year 224 

Cooperative planting 224 

Reserve planting 224 

Dendrology 224 

Forest distribution 224 

Forest map of the United States 224 

Studies of special regions, groups, and species 224 

Pacific coast tan-bark trees 225 

Basket willows 225 . 

Turpentining methods 225 

Systematic studies of forest flora 226 

Regional studies 226 

Forest herbarium ... 226 

Forest library and photographic collection 226 

Forest photographs and lantern slides 227 

Expositions 227 

Work of the ensuing year 228 

Expenditures 228 

Forest products 228 

Wood preservation 229 

Cooperative railroad work 229 

Cooperative telephone-pole work 230 

Experimental treating plant at St. Louis 230 

Dendro-chemistry '. 230 

Timber teats 231 

Organization and work for the ensuing year 232 

Lumber trade 232 

Lines of work 232 

Timber tests 233 

Wood preservation 234 

Dendro-chfemistry 234 

Records 235 

Section of accounts and supplies 235 

Photographic laboratory 235 

Quarters 235 

Files and filing ^ 235 

Correspondence 235 

Stenography and typewriting 235 

Publications , 236 

Expenditures 237 



REPORT OF THE FORESTER. 



^ U. S. Departmekt of Agriculture, 

Forest Service, 
Washington, D. C, July 1, 1905. 
Sir: T have the honor to transmit herewith a report of the work 
of the Forest Service for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1905, together 
with an outline of the plans for the work of the Service for the cur- 
rent fiscal year. 

EespectfuUy, Gifford Pinchot, 

Forester. 
Hon. James Wilson, Secretary. 



INTRODUCTION. 

For the Bureau of Forestry, or, as it has now become, the Forest 
Service, the event of first importance during the past fiscal year was 
the transfer to its care of the National forest reserves. The act of 
Congress which accomplished this transfer took effect on February 1, 
1905. Upon that day, therefore, a Bureau the duties of which had 
up to that time been confined to the giving of expert supervision and 
advice, and which had never had charge of one acre of Government 
land, was given full administrative control of 63,000,000 acres of 
public forest, with all the business arising from it. 

An administrative system already existed and was transferred with 
the reserves from the Department of the Interior, together with the 
appropriation for its support. But the task presented was not merely 
to coordinate two related organizations, for the transfer wa!s made 
in order that the National forest reserves might be administered 
along lines of technical, practical forestry, and so be given their 
fullest permanent usefulness. It was therefore necessary to merge 
the former Division of Forestry of the General Land Office in the 
Bureau of Forestry of the Department of Agriculture. 

The absorption by the Bureau of Forestry, without disturbance 
and without the need of any radical change, of the entire administra- 
tive organization and lines of work brought out by the transfer is 
evidence of the character of its work. Its field investigations and 
accumulation of forest data had been training its men to effective 
capacity and had built up its organization on broad, practical, and 
executive lines. 

During the past few years the Forest Service has pushed its field 
investigations and gathered facts in every part of the country. The 
practical utility of these studies is now made evident. . Without the 

199 



200 



DEPABTMENTAL EEPOBTS. 



knowledge thus secured the Service would be unequal to the task 

of applying forestry on 



u 
u 

> 



Ul 
(£ 
O 
U. 

U 

X 



z 
g 

z 

< 

CD 

a: 
o 












Sif 



1. 



sgf 



e£= 














Sis 
li? 




atf 





















the reserves along the 
lines already begun. 

The Forest Service 
aims to bring the ad- 
ministration of the re- 
serves near to the people 
whose wants they serve, 
and to do business 
quickly without neglect- 
ing any of the neces- 
sary safeguards. Un- 
der its methods large 
executive authority is 
given to local oflBicials, 
the work is kept at a 
high standard by fre- 
quent inspection on the 
ground, vexatious de- 
lays are avoided, and 
the practical usefulness 
of the reserves is vastly 
increased. 

With these changes 
public approval 
throughout the West 
of the reserve policy 
strengthens from day to 
day. Assaults upon the 
reserves will continue 
from self-seeking inter- 
ests, as well as from 
short - sighted persons 
who are unable to dis- 
tinguish between an im- 
mediate small advan- 
tage and a great per- 
manent good. 

I wish to bear em- 
phatic testimony in this 
report to the unremit- 
ting steadiness and de- 
votion with which the 
members of the Forest 
Service accepted and 
discharged the new du- 
ties laid upon them by 
the transfer of the for- 
est reserves. The change 
of method and point of 
view which followed 
the transfer brought to 
many of them new and 



FOREST SERVICE. 201 

heavy responsibility, and the mass of the new work made demands 
which could only be met by giving to it for months many hours a day 
beyond the regular hours. How well they met all the demands upon 
them is shown by the fact that the new methods were applied and 
showed results at once upon the transfer, so that the usually unpro- 
ductive period of adjustment was conspicuous by its absence. 

The organization of the Forest Service is shown by the chart on 
page 200. 

INSPECTION. 

, The Section of Inspection examines and reports on the conduct and 
process of the whole field of work conducted by the Forest Service. 
The inspection work was not formally set apart in a section until after 
the beginning of the present fiscal year, and therefore calls for no 
more specific mention in this report. The inspection work of the 
Service lies at the foundation of its efficiency. It is believed to be in 
thoroughly good condition. 

RESERVE BOUNDARIES. 

Examinations for reserve boundaries were conducted during the 
past year with a combined efficiency and economy which will produce 
results out of all propor/;ion to the cost, and which would have been 
altogether impossible of attainment but for the ability and the devo- 
tion of the men intrusted with the work. All forest reserves created 
during the past year had previously been examined by this section. 
Fourteen men were engaged in this work during portions of the field 
seasons of 1904 and 1905 in nine of the western States and Territories. 

PTTBIiICATION AND EDUCATION. 

During the past year it has become more evident than ever before 
that to secure the full benefits of the progress in technical forestry 
made by the Service an active campaign of popular education is called 
for. The large owners of timber land form a class quick to see the 
practical bearing of forestry upon their own interests. The small 
owners, whose aggregate holdings constitute so large a portion of our 
forest wealth, are less easily reached. ■ Through the press, through the 
avenues of education opened by school instruction and industrial 
training, through concrete example, and through the regular publi- 
cations of the Service, popular opinion must be formed and the 
knowledge of what constitutes the right use of forest land must be 
widely inculcated. 

The Forest Service has now reached the point at which it can 
undertake with confidence to advise and guide the forest owners of 
this country in wise and safe methods of forest management. But 
not all of the forest owners have yet reached the point at which they 
are ready to seek and to adopt this advice. During the past year defi- 
nite plans were made and put in effect to open more widely the stores 
of information which have been gathered, and this work, than which 
none more important lies in the immediate future, will be extended 
and pressed forward just as rapidly as men and means will permit. 



202 DEPAETMENTAL KEPOKTS, 

SUiVICS. 

The work of this section comprises the coordination and classifica- 
tion of all the data gathered in the United States, either by the Forest 
Service or through other channels, which can be made to contribute to 
ordered and scientific knowledge of our forests. One of its important 
functions will be to direct future investigations into the most fruitful 
lines by making clear where the results already secured are insufficient 
or inconclusive. The formulation of methods and digestion of the 
mass of material already accumulated, begun during the past year, is 
still incomplete, but enough has been done to demonstrate the great 
value of this work along lines of permanent usefulness. 

FOREST LAW. 

During the past year the legal work of the Service developed along 
thoroughly sound lines. Preparation was made for the demands 
upon it which the transfer would occasion, and when the latter was 
made it was found possible to deal with the legal work incident to 
the management of the forest reserves without undue strain. The 
safety and stability which flow from efficient and conservative legal 
advice are essential in the kind of work which the Forest Service is 
called upon to perform. 

FOBEST RESERVES. 

TRANSFER OF ADMINISTRATION. 

On February 1, 1905, the administration of the National forest 
reserves was transferred from the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the 
Interior to that of the Secretary of Agriculture, except for matters 
affecting the surveying, prospecting, locating, appropriating, enter- 
ing, relinquishing, reconveying, certifying, or patenting of lands. 
By order of the Secretary of Agriculture the Forester assumed imme- 
diate charge of the reserves. 

The policy of the Forest Service in the administration of the forest 
reserves has already found expression in the fcllowing specific 
achievements : 

(1) Improvement of the technical standards in forest reserve man- 
agement, by securing the judgment of trained foresters in all ques- 
tions relating to the reserves. 

(2) The reorganization of the Forest Reserve Service, with the 
specific result that reserve questions are now settled so far as pos- 
sible on the 'ground and not in Washington ; and the establishment 
of a corps of trained inspectors, without administrative authority, 
who constantly and thoroughly inspect all phases of forest reserve 
work and report upon it to the Forester. 

(3) The publication of revised regulations and prompt business 
methods have brought about a general understanding that the forest 
reserves are for the use of the people, with a large consequent in- 
crease in the business of the reserves and the revenue from them. 



FOREST SEEVICE. 



203 



AREA. 

The total area of the National forest reserves on June 30, 1904, was 
62,582,428 acres. During the past fiscal year new reserves have been 
created, with a total area of 23,507,934 acres (including additions to 
existing reserves amounting to 4,356,655 aci'es), and eliminations 
were made to the extent of 396,940 acres. The total area on June 30, 
1905, was, therefore, 85,693,422 acres. A detailed statement of these 
changes follows. 

Forest reserves, showing new reserves, additions, and eliminations, July 1, 1904, 

to June 30, 1905. 



State. 



Reserve. 



Area July 1, 
1904. 



Proclama- 
tions July 1, 
1904, to June 
30, 1905. 



Elimina- 
tions July 1, 
1904, to June 

30,1905. 



California. 



Colorado- 



Irlaho . 



Montana . 



Nebraska 

New Mexico . 



OS^lioma . 



Black Mesa 

Prescott-- 

Grand Canyon _ 

San Francisco Mountains . 

Santa Rita » 

Santa Catalina 

Mount Graham 

Chiricahua _ 

Pinal iMountains 

Tahoe __ - 

Stanislaus 

Sierra 

Santa Barbara 

San Bernardino 

San Gabriel 

San Jacinto - 

Trabuco Canyon 

Warner Mountains 

Modoc - 

Plumas 

Trinity --- ■ 

Klamath --- 

Lassen Peak 

Battlement Mesa 

Pikes Peak 

White River 

San Isabel 

Gunnison - 

Leadville.-- 

Medicine Bow 

San Juan.. 

Park Range 

Wet Mountains - 

Cochetopah .- - 

Montezuma.- --- 

Unoompahgre 

South Platte - --. 

Plum Creek- 

Bitter Boot - ■ 

Priest River 

Pooatello 

Yellowstone 

Sawtooth 

Weiser 

Henrys Lake 

Payette -.- 

Cassia ..- 

Yellowstone 

Bitter Root -.- -- 

Gallatin 

Lewis and Clark 

Madison - - 

Little Belt- 

High wood Mountains 

Elkhorn..- 

Niobrara.- - 

Dismal River 

Gila 

Pecos River--- — 

Lincoln - 

Wichita 



H. Do'C. 6, 59-1 32 



Acres. 

1,658,880 
423,680 

1,851,520 

1,975,310 
387,300 
155,520 
118,600 
169,600 



136,335 
691,200 
4,057,310 
1,838,323 
737,120 
555,520 
668,160 
109,920 



805,720 

184,320 

970,880 

77,980 



654, 499 

179,200 

3,345,760 

541,160 

49,920 



1,229,680 

572,480 

40,320 

4,670,720 

786,640 

501,000 

45,080 



123,779 

85,123 

2,327,040 

430,880 

500,000 

37,120 



4.56,000 



45,760 



335,530 



306,618 

288,218 

579,520 

1,243,042 

1,896,313 

897,115 

62,160 

678,528 



243,247 

901,270 

1,219,947 

1,156,909 

1,437,406 

767,116 

239,621 

1,133,330 

576, 719 

478,111 



515,200 



177,960 
1,947,520 

324,964 

798,720 
1,460,960 

326,160 



133,520 



186,240 



Acres. 



63,420 



00,160 
14,880 



14,080 

'w,mo 



204 



DEPARTMENTAL EEPOETS. 



Forest reserves, showing new reserves, additions, and eliminations, July 1, 1904, 
to June 30, 1905 — Continued. 



State. 


Eesei'ves. 


Area July 1, 
1904. 


f'roclama- 

tions July 1, 

1904, to June 

30, 1905. 


Elimina- 
tions July 1, 
1904, to June 
30,1905. 




Bull Bun 


Acres. 
142,080 

4,424,440 
18,560 
52,480 


Acres. 


Acres. 




Cascade Range 








Ashland - . ... 








Baker City 










747,200 
413,250 
220,320 
54,220 






WeTifl-lin. 
























Black Hills . . . 


1,163,320 

23,360 

58,160 

199,040 

842,000 

111,600 

182,080 

584,640 

639,000 

68,960 

95,440 






Cave Hills 














Utah 


Fish Lake 








Uintah 
























Manti 
















Grantsville 








Salt Lake . 








Sevier 


357,000 






Priest Eiver... .-... 


103,960 
2,027,520 
1,466,880 
3,426,400 






Mount Rainier . . . . 




84 000 




Olympip. 










560,120. 
318,400 


33,680 




Wenaha 




Wyoming 


Yellowstone . 


6,680,920 
46,440 
1,216,860 
418,759 
403,640 
4,506,240 
65,950 






Black Hills 










44,800 


ii0,080 




MftdipiTio Pnw . . 




Alaska 


Afognak 








Alexander Archipelago 






Porto Eico 


Luquillo 








Total 








62,582,428 


23,507,934 


396,940 









OFFICERS. 



On June 30, 1905, the following number of officers were on duty: 
Inspectors, 6 ; superintendents, 2 ; supervisors, 49 ; rangers in charge, 
5; rangers, 379; guards, 87; laborers, 5; forest assistants (assigned 
as technical assistants to supervisors) , 5. 



REORGANIZATION AND POLICY. 

The whole Forest Reserve Service was classified under the civil- 
service law by the President's order of December 17, 1904. The 
permanent field force now contains the grades of forest inspector, 
assistant forest inspector, forest supervisor, deputy forest supervisor, 
forest assistant, forest ranger, deputy forest ranger, assistant forest 
ranger, and forest guard. All officers will gradually be brought 
under this new classification as the necessary funds and as men with 
the required training and experience become available. The object 
of thereorganization is that the force shall hereafter consist of men 
of a higher standard of training and experience, appointed and pro- 
moted on merit alone, or, in other words, that it shall be as useful to 
the public which it serves as it is possible to make it. 

The old regulations were thoroughly revised. They are now much 
simpler and more direct and with much unnecessary office work 
abolished. This revision went into effect on July 1, 1905. 

Under the new regulations thte resp'onsibility of the men on the 



FOREST SERVICE. 205 

ground has been largely increased, so that local questions may be 
decided on local grounds. The work on the reserves is closely and 
frequently examined and reported on by the inspectors. Rangers are 
authorized to transact much of the minor business. Trained foresters 
are or will be assigned as technical assistants to the supervisors on all 
of the more important reserves. In addition to the regular inspectors, 
all officers in charge of special lines of work in the Forest Service act 
as inspectors on the reserves in their lines, and these assistants work 
under them on the preparation of forest survej^s, plans for lumbering 
and planting operations, plans for protection against fire, and many 
other matters. 

The form of organization places the whole administrative authority 
in the office of the Forester, and at the same time provides for the 
conduct, by every other office of the Service, of work on the reserves 
within its special field. 

LEGISLATION. 

. The act of February 1, 1905 (33 Stat. L., 628), besides providing 
for the transfer of forest reserves to the Department of Agriculture, 
stipulates that forest supervisors and rangers shall be selected when 
practicable from qualified citizens of the States or Territories in 
which the reserves are situated. It also provides that rights of way 
within forest reserves for the construction and maintenance of dams, 
reservoirs, water plants, ditches, flumes, pipes, tunnels, and canals, 
for municipal or mining purposes, are to be granted by the Secretary 
of the Interior. The last section provides that all money received 
from the sale of any products or the use of any land or resources 
of forest reserves shall be covered into the Treasury for a period of 
five years and form a special fund for the protection, administration, 
improvement, and extension of the reserves, to be expended as the 
Secretary of Agriculture may direct. 

The laws providing for the relinquishment, selection, and patent- 
ing of lands in lieu of tracts covered by unperfected claims or patents 
within forest reserves were repealed oil March 3, 1905. This removes 
one of the most troublesome questions connected with the creation 
and administration of forest reserves. 

By the act of February 6, 1905 (33 Stat. L., 700) all persons 
employed in the forest reserve and National park service are given 
authority to arrest for the violation of laws, rules, and regulations 
governing forest reserves and National parks, and persons taken in 
the act of violating such laws, rules, and regulations may be arrested 
without process. This act also provides for the export of timber and 
other forest products from reserves in the United States and Alaska, 
except from'those in Idaho and the Black Hills Eeserve m South 
Dakota. 

The President was authorized by the act of January 24, 1905 (33 
Stat. L., 614). to set aside suitable areas in the Wichita Forest Ee- 
serve as a game refuge, these areas to be under such special regula- 
tions as the Secretary of Agriculture may make, provided they do 
not interfere with the State or Territorial game laws. This was done. 



206 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

TIMBER AND WOOD. 

During the past fiscal jear applications for the purchase of timber 
were received, and 411 sales were made of a total of 96,060,258 feet, 
board measure, and 35,202-J cords, for which $85,596.47 were received. 

Approximately 40 per cent of the timber and wood sold was dead 
or damaged by msects, and every effort has been made to dispose of, 
this class of material. The prices obtained were generallv low, partly 
because until February 1, 1905, no timber or wood could be exported 
from the State or Territory in which the reserves were situated, and 
for this reason the purchases were for local use and wide competition 
was lacking. With the law as now amended the sales should soon 
greatly increase. 

No trespass of any magnitude occurred during the year. 

GRAZING. 

Grazing permits to the number of 7,981 were issued for the season 
of 1905, for a total of 632,793 head of cattle, 59,331 horses, and 
1,709,987 sheep. 

No great changes in the number of stock allowed to graze in the 
different reserves were made. In some of the older reserves, where 
grazing has been under control for a sufficient length of time to se- 
cure an improvement in range conditions, the number of stock al- 
lowed was correspondingly increased; in other cases, where the 
forage crop of the reserves was not being fully utilized, additional 
allowances were made to accommodate the stock of new settlers and 
to provide for the natural increase in the herds of those previously 
occupying the range. In the reserves created at a more recent date, 
where the ranges were found to have been overstocked, a reduction 
was made iii the number of stock allowed. The result was a marked 
improvement both in the condition of the range and in that of the 
stock occupying it. 

In reserves recently created all stock which were occupying the 
range at the time the reserves were established or which were grazed 
in them during the past season were allowed to graze during the 
season of 1905 without permits. 

CROSSING PERMITS. 

Five permits issued under paragraph 22 of the circular of May 22, 
1903, allowed 30 head of cattle and horses and 13,200 head of sheep to 
cross reserve lands to reach areas of private lands within the Sierra, 
Warner Mountains, and Mount Eainier forest reserves. 

Under the regulation allowing stock to be driven across the forest 
reserves in transit between summer and winter ranges and to reach 
points of shipment, 341 permit's were issued by the forest supervisors 
for the crossing of 15,136 head of cattle and horses and 749,924 head 
of sheep. In granting this privilege it is the policy to allow the use 
of such width of driveway as is necessary and to give- sufficient time 
in crossing to permit the proper handling of stock. 

T^'Tienever it is necessary to cross regularly any portion of a re- 
serve which is closed against the grazing of any class of live stock, a 
regular driveway is established, and the limits and time allowances 



rOREST SERVICE. 207 

under which it may be used are defined. Such driveways were 
established in the San Francisco Mountains and Black Mesa forest 
reserves of Arizona, the Stanislaus and Sierra forest reserves of Cali- 
fornia, the Big Horn Forest Reserve of Wyoming, and the Salt Lake 
and Manti Forest reserves of Utah. 

HEALTH INSPECTION AND DIPPING REGULATIONS. 

The regulation requiring the owners of stock, in districts infected 
with contagious disease, to submit their stock to inspection by the in- 
spectors of the Bureau of Animal Industry before entering the re- 
serves was willingly complied with in almost every case. The 
inspection service was efficient, and very little delay was caused by 
the inspection or treatment of the stock. The forest supervisors were 
instructed to lise every means to facilitate the inspection work, and 
in some cases additional rangers were employed temporarily to assist 
in prompt handling. 

PREVENTION OF GRAZING TRESPASS. 

Several district courts sustained the decision of Judge Wellborn 
(116 Fed. Rep., 654) that a criminal prosecution did not lie to punish 
a person who took stock into a forest reserve in violation of the rules. 
The Attorney-General held that the decision of Judge Wellborn was 
erroneous, and suggested that prosecutions be proceeded with in 
other districts, so that a case might be taken to an appellate court for 
determination. This was done in the case of Dent v. United States 
(76 Pac. Rep., 466), on appeal before the supreme court of Arizona. 
The supreme court of Arizona, in rendering its final decision, said 
that the circuit court of appeals for the ninth circuit in the civil case 
of the United Staes v. Dastervignes ( 122 Fed. Rep., 30) had held that 
the act of June 4, 1897, did not delegate legislative power to the Secre- 
tary and was not unconstitutional ; and " that inasmuch as under the 
act creating the circuit courts of appeal such court exercises appellate 
jurisdiction over this court in criminal cases such as the one at bar, 
we feel that a decision of that court, although made in a civil and not 
a criminal case, expressly holding that the act in question is consti- 
tutional * * * is binding upon us in this case ; " and ordered 
judgment in favor of the United States. 

The act of Congress approved February 6, 1905, gives the forest 
officers the right to arrest persons found violating the laws and the 
rules and regulations relating to forest reserves. This act will result 
in better protection to the forest reserves. 

SPECIAL PRIVILEGES. 

The rule of requiring permits for the construction and operation of 
sawmills within the boundaries of forest reserves was willingly com- 
plied with by owners, and worked well. The holders of permits gave 
valuable assistance in cases of fire. 

During the past year 239 applications were received for permission 
to occupy and use, for various purposes, forest-reserve land under 
the act of June 4, 1897 (30 Stat. L., 34-36), for which there is no 



208 nUPARTMl^.NTAL EEPOETS. 

other specific provision of law. These and all applications which 
were not finally disposed of witliin the preceding year were passed 
upon, except 18 which required necessary amendment or further 
report and 9 of such recent date that they have not yet been reached 
for action. The year's record shows that in the seven months preced- 
ing February 1, 1905, action was taken upon 127 applications, and in 
the five following months upon 161 applications. 

In response to requests by the Interior Department for report on 
applications filed there undei- the several special acts of Congress 
relating to rights of way for irrigation, mining, and electrical and 
other specified purposes, approval of the application has been recom- 
mended in 32 cases. In 13 other cases referred to the forest super- 
visors action is awaiting their report on the effect which approval 
would have upon forest -reserve interests. 

FItEE USE or TIMBER. 

The demand for the free use of forest-reserve timber continues to 
increase. During the fiscal year 3,381 applications were received 
and 3,363 applications were approved and permits issued by the forest 
officers and the Department, for a total of 6,263,611 board feet and 
40,652 cords, of a total value of $22,925.53. 

FOKEST MEASUBEIHEIfTS. 

FOREST COMPUTATION. 

The Section of Forest Computation is charged with the computa- 
tion and final statement of all forest measurements. During the 
year this section handled the results of 2,301 acres of valuation sur- 
veys, 21,234 tree analyses, 9,135 height measurements, and 2,549 
taper measurements. Of these data 1,599 acres of valuation surveys, 
9,280 tree analyses, 5,141 height measurements, and 2,549 taper meas- 
urements were taken in the field during the fiscal year in connection 
with four working plans, studies of five commercial trees, and four 
investigations of local problems in forest extension, covering twelve 
species in ten States. The remainder were data selected from meas- 
urements made during previous years in order to make tables of 
stand, growth, and yield for regional studies of commercial trees. 
The final tabulating of the public-domain statistics in the appendix 
to the rejDort of the Commission on the Public Lands was done in the 
Section of Forest Computation. 

FOREST MAPS. 

The Section of Forest Maps is intrusted with the making of maps, 
drawings, and diagrams, the custody of those which are not required 
for constant use, and the development of the best methods of mapping 
the forest data collected by the Service. During the past year this 
section has completed 333 maps and copies, made 85 miscellaneous 
drawings, mounted 764 maps, and rendered assistance by temporary 
detail to a total of 563 working days. The work of the year has in- 
cluded the preparation of maps showing conditions upon actual and 
proposed forest reserves, maps for working plans and planting plans. 



FOREST SEUVICE. 209 

and maps showing the distribution of commercial species, general 
land and forest conditions, the movements of lumber, and the progress 
of conservative lumbering. The drawings and diagrams illustrate, 
among other subjects, the methods and results of testing and preserv- 
ing timber and methods and appliances employed in forest extension 
and forest management. The Section made the necessary diagrams 
and drawmgs for the exhibit of the Forest Service at the Lewis and 
Clark Exposition. 

WORK FOR THE ENSUING YEAR. 

The Section of Forest Computation will continue to put into 
final form all forest measurements obtained by the Forest Service. 
Although the number of measurements taken each year is not increas- 
ing, this section has large work before it in rendering available for 
every possible form of use the great volume of forest measurements 
already on hand. The Section of Forest Maps faces not only the 
steadily growing demands upon it from investigative and cooperative 
lines of work, but also the task of building up, so far as this falls 
within its province, the work in forest mapping essential to the 
effective management of the forest reserves. 

EXPENDITURES. 

The total expenditures during the year under the head of forest 
measurements were $30,158.99, or 7 per cent of the total appropria- 
tion of the Forest Service. 

FOREST MANAGEMENT. 

PUBLIC LANDS. 

Immediately upon the transfer of the National forest reserves to 
the care of the Bureau of Forestry (now the Forest Service) , on Feb- 
ruary 1, 1905, steps were taken to put them under forest management. 
To permit the use of the standing timber and at the same time to 
maintain the full productive power of the forest for the future, 
working plans were needed wherever cutting was to take place. 
Twenty-six trained foresters were therefore detailed to take charge 
of this and other technical work on the ground. Five of these for- 
esters were assigned to duty as forest inspectors and twenty-one as 
technical assistants to forest supervisors, five of whom were on duty 
by July 1, 1905. The practice of forestry, which makes it possible 
to harvest the standing timber for the supply of present needs without 
destroying or diminishing the future usefulness of the forest, has now 
definitely begun on the National reserves. 

Commercial tree studies of western yellow pine and sugar pine in 
California, western yellow pine in Colorado, Montana, and South 
Dakota, and lodgepole pine in "Wyoming were carried on during the 
past year. This work is intended to furnish definite information as 
the basis for careful management of forest reserves on which these 
trees are the important species and for establishing better rules for 
lumbering the reserves. 



910 DEPARTMENTAL REPOKTS. 

The work on the Chippewa Indian Reservation, in northern Minne- 
sota, which will eventually become a National forest reserve, has been 
steadily carried on during the past year, under the act of June 27, 
1902, which provided that these lands, with a total area of 231,400 
acres, should be placed under forest management. The land on 
which it was specified that 95 per cent of the timber should be sold 
at public auction is now being logged. All trees to be left standing 
on these sections have been or will be marked, and regulations to 
govern the cutting have been prescribed. The work of removing the 
timber is going on as rapidly as possible, and is under the constant 
supervision of the Service. 

During the year approximately 10,000 acres were marked for cut- 
ting and 6,000 acres were cut. Altogether 50,000 acres have been 
marked since the work began. Brush burning was completed on 
5,645 acres at the end of the year, at an approximate cost of 15 cents 
per thousand feet of lumber, which was less than one-tenth of what 
was commonly predicted. 

The success of the plan adopted to'secure the perpetuation of the 
forest is entirely assured. Already young seedlings are springing 
up in abundance, and there can be no question that an ample supply 
of young growth will be established over the entire forest area. 
Notwithstanding an extraordinarily unfavorable season, the loss by 
windfall in the 5 per cent of seed trees left standing has not even 
endangered reproduction. The loss by windfall was less among the 
seed trees than in the body of the uncut forest. Even the loss which 
took place is not a loss of the lumber nor a permanent loss of seed 
trees, for most of the trees blown down have been logged, and the 
existence of timber yet to be cut in their near neighborhood has gen- 
erally made it possible to select others which will be left in their 
stead. 

PErVATB LANDS. 

During the past year the number of applications for advice and 
assistance in the management of timber lands and wood lots under 
the offer of cooperation outlined in Circular No. 21 has increased 
materially. But still more significant and satisfactory than the 
increase in the number of applications is the wide territory and new 
localities from which they come. Interest in conservative lumber- 
ing and the best utilization of timber lands is undergoing a rapid 
growth, and nowhere more so than in the West. Both from the 
Coast States and from the Middle West many applications for assist- 
ance have been received during the past year, and the rapid growth 
of interest has been very marked. 

During the year 167 applications were received for advice and 
assistance in the management of private forest lands. Of these, 45 
were for timber tracts, with a total area of 1,439,763 acres, and 122 
were for wood lots, with a total area of 7,509 acres. The total area 
of private lands covered by applications for assistance in manage- 
ment since the publication of Circular No. 21 is 10,947,246 acres, of 
which 10,917,978 acres are in timber tracts and 29,268 acres in wood 
lots. 

In the case of timber tracts a preliminary examination must pre- 
cede the preparation of a working plan. Such examinations were 
made during the year of 22 timber tracts in the States of New York, 



FOREST SEEVIOB. 211 



New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, 
Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Arkansas, Missouri, 
Michigan, Wisconsin, Washington, and California, covering a total 
area of 500,043 acres. In every case a report was made to the owners 
giving advice for the management of the tract. For 9 of these 
tracts the preparation of detailed working plans was recommended 
and the recommendation approved by the owners. The total esti- 
mated cost of these plans to the owners is $10,220, or an average cost 
of 2 cents per acre. 

WORKING PLANS FOE WOOD LOTS. 

Working plans based on a thorough study on the ground were made 
for 81 wood lots, with a total area of 5,340 acres, in the States of New 
York, New Hampshire, Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, Maryland, Virginia; North Carolina, Missouri, Alabama, Loui- 
siana, Michigan, and California. The object of this wood-lot work 
is to give advice and suggestion to farmers and other small owners 
of timber land, whose holdings in the aggregate form a large part 
of the productive forest of the country, and for whom forestry can 
often make a far greater increase of profit in proportion to the capi- 
tal invested than for large owners. Advice is given the owner per- 
sonally in the field, and wherever possible thinnings or other opera- 
tions are actually started under the supervision of the agent making 
the examination. A written report is then sent to the owner, embody- 
ing the recommendations made and giving the reasons for them. 
Particular attention was paid during the year to wood lots in Ohio, 
Michigan, and the Lake States, where the question of wood and tim- 
ber for the farm is often of the greatest importance. 

Much valuable information concerning the growth, volume, and 
yield of different timber trees was gathered in the course of this 
work, and is now available for use elsewhere. This is the great 
economy effected by conducting such studies for the public benefit 
at the public charge. The knowledge which it would not pay the 
single small owner to gather for himself becomes immensely valu- 
able when, once gathered, it can be broadly applied. 

In connection with the wood-lot examinations a number of illus- 
trated lectures were given to various organizations, followed by dis- 
cussions which proved of great educational value. Much informa- 
tion was also collected as to market conditions, local demands for 
timber, and the cost of the various logging operations. This infor- 
mation is of special usefulness to farmers, who are often unfamiliar 
with the timber market. 

WORKING PLANS FOR TIMBER TRACTS. 

The field work necessary for detailed working plans was carried 
on during the year upon 8 tracts, with a total area of 1,982,000 acres. 
The total amount estimated as the cost of these working plans to the 
owners was $8,575. The 8 tracts included a hard-wood tract in West 
Virginia, to be managed for a continuous supply of mining timbers; 
a Kentucky tract, which must be so managed as to yield a continuous 
revenue and at the same time build up the condition of a badly 
depleted forest ; a tract in northwestern Texas, valuable for the pro- 
duction of fuel and fencing in a region almost destitute of timber; 



212 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

a tract in Xew Hampshire on which a present hemlock and hard- 
wood forest can be converted into one of white pine, with a promise 
of largely increased profits; a tract in western Washington, the 
study of which disclosed important facts concerning the usefulness 
of forestry in connection with the production of Pacific coast fir; 
a tract in eastern Washington on which it was found that a fair 
second cut can be obtained within a reasonable period by the appli- 
cation of proper methods of handling; an Idaho forest likely to 
become an important source of supply of mining timbers as well as 
a protective agency for the water necessary to the development of 
the surrounding country, and a northern California tract on which 
it appeared that management would pay well if fire could be kept 
out, and for which a plan to secure fire protection was made. 

STUDIES or COJEMEKCIAL TREES. 

During the past year much attention was given to studies of com- 
mercial trees. The purpose of these studies is to secure full and ac- 
curate knowledge of the requirements and habits of each individual 
species of our more important forest trees. Not only are such 
studies valuable contributions to our knowledge of North American 
iorests, but they are of material service for forest management 
and the successful preparation of working plans. It is the present 
aim to supplement the determination of volume and yield by thorough 
investigation of the value and uses of the timber, demand, general 
market conditions, the best methods of lumbering and handling, and 
the most profitable means of utilizing the trees under various cir- 
cumstances. Such information as this has already been of great 
value in showing where waste, both in logging and in utilization of 
the timber, can be avoided. 

SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS. 

The Southern Appalachian region is of foremost importance to the 
hard-wood interests of the United States, because of the great extent 
and value of its hard-wood forests. The Forest Service has collected 
during a number of years volume and growth measurements for sev- 
eral species in various parts of this territory, chiefly in connection 
with the making of working plans. During the past year the work 
of correlating and rounding out the data previously collected was 
undertaken. 

Yellow poplar, white, red, black, and chestnut oaks, chestnut, 
white pine, and hemlock were studied in West Virginia, Kentucky, 
and Tennessee, and the mountainous portions of Maryland, Virginia, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. In addi- 
tion to the field work, a careful market study was also made of all the 
species under consideration. The demand for these timbers has in- 
creased enormously within the last ten years, the available supplies 
are rapidly diminishing, and stumpage prices are rising very fast. 
A comprehensive rnarket study is thus of special timeliness. 

In preparing this market study, a general canvass was made of 
the lumbering centers of the Southern Appalachian region. Infor- 
mation was obtained at each point concerning the remaining stand of 
timber of each si^ecies and its quality, the annual cut and its uses, 



FOREST SERVICE. 213 

new uses and substitutions, the nicarket supplied, and land and stump- 
age values. Special attention was paid also to the cost and methods 
of logging and milling, and to current grades and specifications. 
Sixteen localities, believed to be typical of the forests of the region, 
were then selected for detailed studies of silvics and lumbering. In 
addition, four other typical localities were studied by special parties, 
two m connection with the second-growth problem and two for the 
cooperage industry. Careful studies were made of the characteris- 
tics of the forest, the individual habits and requirements of each 
species, the effects of fire and grazing, and the methods and effects of 
lumbering upon the forests, more especially as regards waste in 
logging and means of preventing this waste. Upon these various 
studies are based plans for conservative forest management under 
varying forest conditions. 

The report upon this great hard-wood region, which is now nearing 
completion, will contain a large amount of information concerning 
commercial and forest conditions and their relation to the lumber, 
cross-tie, tight and slack cooperage, mining, timber, tan-bark, and 
chestnut extract wood industries. Based upon this information, defi- 
nite suggestions will be given as to methods of utilizing the forest 
products to better advantage and as to practical means of managing 
forest properties more conservatively. 

COTTONWOOD AND ASH. 

During the winter the Forest Service carried on a study of 
Cottonwood and ash in the South. This study was supplementary in 
part to the study made the preceding year of the red gum, and com- 
bined with this, furnishes a complete basis for the forest management 
of hard-wood bottom lands in this region. 

Nowhere is forest mainagement more promising than on these 
hard-wood bottom lands. The growth of all species, i^articularly the 
Cottonwood and ash, is here extremely rapid, and nearly all the spe- 
cies are now easily merchantable. The measurements taken on the 
Cottonwood show it to be one of the fastest growing trees native to 
the United States. Ash, while not so fast in growth as either cotton- 
wood or red gum, will make saw logs in about fifty years, and can be 
used when much smaller for many purposes. The chief obstacle to 
be overcome is, in many localities, the dense growth of canebrake, 
which often renders reproduction difficult, if not altogether impos- 
sible. Burning will undoubtedly prove the most efficient means of 
destroying this growth. 

LODGEPOLE PINE. 

A study of the lodgepole pine in Montana, Utah, and Wyoming 
was carried on during the summer and fall. , The object was to 
collect exact information with regard to silvics, commercial status, 
and methods of lumbering, which information, combined with the 
large number of growth and volume measurements obtained by the 
Service during the past four years, will furnish a basis for the correct 
forest management of this species. 

At present lodgepole pine, despite its wide geographical distribu- 
tion and the fact that it forms four-fifths of the forests of the Rocky 
Mountain region, is not commercially a well-known tree. It is, 



214 DEPAKTMENTAL REPORTS. 

however, rapidly gaining in general utility. For example, experi- 
ments have already shown that railroad ties of this tree, when 
impregnated with a proper preservative, satisfy the necessary require- 
ments as to length of service, and its utilization for this purpose, as 
well as for mining timbers, seems to be assured. 

The chief obstacles to forest management on lodgepole lands is the 
repeated forest fires that annually burn over large areas, and one of 
the main objects of this study was to discover how to control and 
prevent these fires. Particular attention was also given to the matter 
of waste in logging and to the disposal of slash and tops. This slash 
left after logging forms one of the greatest obstacles to fire preven- 
tion, for it becomes very dry and inflammable in summer and makes 
a very hot fire. With an efficient system of fire protection forest 
management promises to be highly successful for lodgepole pine 
timber lands. 

WESTEBN YELLOW PINE. 

A study of one of the most important commercial timber trees of 
the West, the western yellow pine, completed during the year, was 
made to determine the best methods of management of this- species, 
based on its reproduction, rate of growth, and silvicultural charac- 
teristics. Measurements of sample plots and of the rate of growth 
and actual volume of felled trees were made in South Dakota, Col- 
orado, Montana, and California. The tables obtained will be of 
great assistance to timber-land owners in estimating the amount of 
standing timber on their lands and the rate at which it will grow. 

In addition, the commercial distribution of the species was mapped, 
and a careful study was made of market conditions, methods of 
lumbering, uses of the wood, and the characteristics of the tree, 
including its requirements as to soil, moisture, elevation, etc. 

SUGAE PINE. 

In connection with the study of the western yellow pine in Cali- 
fornia, the study of sugar pine in that State, begun m 1902, was 
completed. The sugar pine is one of the important timber trees of 
the coast, but a difficult species to manage under prevailing condi- 
tions. Fire protection on cut-over lands is the most important con- 
sideration. The report on this species will contain volume and rate 
of growth tables and carefully prepared silvicultural notes, and will 
furnish much information of practical value. 

SCRUB PINE. 

During the spring months the Forest Service carried on a study of 
the scrub pine in Virginia and Maryland, in order to furnish infor- 
mation to farmers and timber-land owners in these States, where there 
are large areas of abandoned farm land, covered with dense stands of 
this species. Particular attention was given to market conditions 
and present and possible uses of the species, especially for pulp wood 
and lumber. 

SPECIES USED FOK KAILBOAD TIES. 

The tie problem in this country is becoming more important every 
year. The study of loblolly pine in eastern Texas, with special refer- 



FOREST SERVICE. 215 

ence to tie production, was completed during the year, and a sim- 
ilar study was begun in the hard-wood region of the Southern Ap- 
palachians, westward to the Mississippi River. White, black, and 
chestnut oaks were the species principally studied. The fact that the 
tie industry in that region is confined almost exclusi\'ely to second- 
growth forest made desirable a general study of the second-growth 
land, its extent, character, and annual production, and of the proper 
methods of managing it for a sustained yield of the timber de- 
manded in the region, both for ties and for the mining and other in- 
dustries dependent upon wood. 

DETERMINATION OF TIMBEE VALUES. 

A piece of work which the Forest Service has carried on during 
the past year and which makes a strong appeal to lumbermen 
is that of determining the precise money value of trees of the differ- 
ent diameters. This work, begun less than two years ago, has been 
steadily developed. It furnishes in many cases the strongest possible 
argument for conservative forest management. 

The timber owner who undertakes to practice forestry must make 
up his mmd to leave a certain percentage of his trees uncut as a basis 
for future timber crops. Hence the first question he wants answered 
is, What are these trees worth now, and what will they be worth when 
they have reached a larger size? In brief, will it pay to let them 
alone for a while ? 

This study supplies the exact information required. The trees are 
marked in the woods as they are felled, and then traced through the 
sawmill to learn what they saw out. From the figures thus obtained 
tables are constructed which show the number of board feet of each 
grade of lumber yielded by trees of different diameters. By apply- 
ing a lumber price list the exact money value of the trees may then be 
determined. 

This study at sawmills also shows exactly how the actual amount of 
lumber sawed out of a log or tree compares with the amount credited 
to it by the log scale. This is a matter of considerable importance, 
especially to lumbermen who contract for their logging. The tables 
showing money values can be applied with peculiar effectiveness to 
those tracts on which detailed estimates have been made of the stand- 
ing timber. Knowing the number of trees of each diameter and 
species on his lands, and the profits per thousand feet of logging each 
diameter, the lumberman is in a position to put a far more accurate 
valuation on his property than if he had resorted to the customary 
method of having it cruised and had then applied a stumpage price. 
Success in the lumber business depends largely on the ability to 
figure closely on all operations. The mill studies of the Service thus 
furnish the precise information necessary for very important calcu- 
lations. 

WORK rOE THE ENSfrlNG YEAR. 
PUBLIC LANDS. 

During the coming year the preparation of working plans for those 
parts of the National forest reserves where there is an urgent de- 
mand for timber and where large timber sales have been made will 



216 DEP.\IITMENTAL EEPOETS. 

be carried on as rapidly as the resources of the Service will permit. 
Studies of the more important species occurring on the reserves will 
be pressed forward. Those species which are of commonest occur- 
rence or of most importance to correct forest management will be 
studied first. 

WOKKING PLANS. 

Working plans will continue to be made for private tracts. Sev- 
eral working plans, which will be completed during the coming year, 
have already been begun. They are as follows : 

Two working plans for small tracts in New York, on which the 
actual carrying out of the recommendations to be made will be started 
by the Service. The present stand and distribution of the timber will 
be shown by forest maps, and the future stand will be estimated from 
growth figures collected on the tracts. The execution of these plans 
will afford practical examples of forest management for residents in 
the vicinity. 

A working plan for a tract of 100,000 acres in northern New York, 
which the owners wish to manage so as to obtain the largest returns 
from continued cutting and on which present returns are not the first 
requirement. 

Three working plans for small tracts in California. The protec- 
tion of the forest from fires is here most important, and the results 
of this work will be of the greatest value to timber-land owners in 
that region. 

The working plan for the tract of 1,300,000 acres in western Wash- 
ington begun last year. The chief object of this work will be to out- 
line an efficient fire-protection system and to perfect plans for future 
lumbering, so as to obtain continued cuts of timber. 

A working plan for a tract of about 7,000 acres on an island in 
Lake Michigan. The work will include the making of a forest type 
map showing the distribution and character of the timber, an estimate 
of the present stand, plans for the removal of mature timber and for 
improvement cuttings and thinnings in second growth, and a plant- 
ing plan for open and burnt areas. The situation of this tract, on 
a small island, renders the question of fire protection particularly 
easy. 

In addition to these working plans, which are already under way, 
a working plan will be made for a tract of land in Kentucky and 
Virginia, which the owners wish to hold mainly for the permanent 
production of mining timbers. The forest is as yet practically uncut, 
and the opportunities for successful forest management are very 
great. 

Working plans will be made for at least two large tracts of long- 
leaf pine land in Arkansas, including studies of fire protection and 
less wasteful methods of lumbering. A working plan will also be 
made for a tract of longleaf and loblolly pine land in South Carolina. 

A detailed plan for protection of forest lands from fire will be made 
for one of the large railroad companies in California and Oregon. 
The essential features of this work will be the adoption of a system 
of fire patrol and the prevention of fire from starting by improved 
methods of logging and by burning brush and slash left after logging. 

In addition to these working plans for timber tracts attention will 
be given, as in the past, to working plans for wood lots. The oppor- 



FOREST SERVICE. 217 

tunity which this work affords of introducing better "forest manage- 
ment throughout the country is very great, and the examples of 
thinnings and other work furnished by these wood lots are of great 
advantage to neighboring timber-land owners. 

STUDIKS OF COMMERCIAL TREES. 

The Forest Service will continue its commercial-tree studies during 
the coming year. It will be the object to complete as rapidly as pos- 
sible the studies of those trees which are of the greatest importance 
commercially, or in the management of forest lands. Work will also 
be carried on along special lines of investigation, such as the produc- 
tion of railroad ties and studies of second gi-owth in various parts of 
the United States. The study of lodgepole pine will be continued 
during the coming year so as to cover its entire range, special atten- 
tion being given to market conditions, waste in logging, and the 
best methods of reproduction of lodgepole pine forests. Other com- 
mercial trees to be taken up will be the Engelmann spruce in the 
West, the red cedar in the South, the red pine in Minnesota (for 
which sufficient field measurements have already been collected) , and 
the white fir as a source of supply for pulp wood in Oregon and 
Washington. 

A cooperative study of future supply of railroad ties will be carried 
on in Wisconsin and Minnesota. The investigation will determine 
the possibility and cost of producing ties in these States on lands 
tributary to the cooperating road. 

The mill studies to determine the actual money value of trees of 
different diameters and the amounts of each grade of lumber cut 
from the trees will be continued, and the longleaf and loblolly pines 
in South Carolina will be studied. 

Studies of second-growth white pine will be carried on in New 
England, and a study of second-growth hard woods will also be made. 
This work is of particular importance from its bearing upon the man- 
agement of small timber tracts and wood lots. 

COOPERATIVE STATE FOREST STUDIES. 



A descriptive study of forest fires was carried on and completed 
during the past year in cooperation with the State of Maine forest 
commission. Particular attention was given to the causes of fires 
and to the effect of fires on the forest, reproduction, and second 
growth. The present methods of fighting fires and the efficiency of 
these methods were also studied, and figures were collected to show 
the actual damage done to the forest. On this work are based recom- 
mendations for the prevention and control of fires. 

WORK'^F THE ENSUING YEAR. 

In cooperation with the New Hampshire forest commission, a 
study will be made of forest conditions in the southern part of" that 
State. This work will be a continuation of the work already done 
in the northern part of New Hampshire. The lines to be followed 

s.rG '. 

(i) A study of the composition and quality of the forest and the 
completion of the forest map of New Hampshire. 



218 DBPAETMBNTAL KEPOETS. 

(2) A determination of the actual yield of merchantable timber 
possible from second-growth forest under forest management. 

(3) A study of the present methods and extent of lumbering in 
the southern half of the State, and of practicable modifications to 
improve the condition of cut-over lands. 

(4) A study of the values and uses of the various woods, and of the 
returns which can be expected from second-growth forest and wood 
lots. 

(5) The completion of the stream-flow measurements in coopera- 
tion with the United States Geological Survey. 

EXPENDITURES. 

The total expenditures under forest management during the past 
year amounted to $57,082.25, or 13^ per cent of the total appropria- 
tion for the Forest Service. 

FOREST EXTENSION". 

The forest planting operations conducted during the past year by 
the Forest Service fall into two main classes — cooperative planting, 
which concerns itself with planting on private land under the co- 
operative arrangement outlined in Circular No. 22, and reserve plant- 
ing operations and forest replacement studies, both of which are con- 
cerned directly with the work of reforestation on the forest reserves. 

COOPERATIVE PLANTING. 

The same general policy -of cooperative forest planting which has 
been followed since July, 1899, was continued during the past year. 
Upon application, examination is made, whenever practicable, of 
lands upon which the owners contemplate forest planting. If after 
this preliminary • examination a planting plan seems advisable, 
detailed instructions as to what and how to plant are given. In case 
extensive planting is to be undertaken its supervision by an agent of 
the Service is usually recommended. The assistance offered does not 
include the preparation of plans for landscape gardening or decora- 
tive planting of anj^ kind, and such work is entirely outside the 
province of the Forest Service. 

BESUI,TS OF COOPERATIVE PLANTING. 

During the past year 60 landowners applied for assistance under 
the terms outlined above, and at the beginning of the year 52 appli- 
cations were awaiting attention. • Of these applications 49 were acted 
upon during the year, and 46 planting plans were made, covering an 
aggregate area of 36,570 acres, in 21 States. There are now 46 appli- 
cations on file to receive attention during the coming year. The fol- 
lowing is a summary, under fiscal years, of operations from the incep- 
tion of the cooperative forest-planting policy, in 1899, to June 30, 



FOREST SERVICE. 



219 



Fiscal year. 


Applica- 
tions re- 
ceived. 


Exami- 
nations 
made. 


Plans 
made. 


Area cov- 
ered by 
plans. 


1900 


Number. 
117 
75 
70 
63 
70 
50 


Number. 
62 
118 
55 
69 
53 
49 


Number. 
59 
114 
51 
68 
42 
46 


Acres. 
482.55 


1901 


2,574.45 


1902 - - 


3,467.27 


1903 


4,283.20 


180+.- 


2,861.33 


1905 


36,569.70 






Total - - 


445 


406 


380 


50,238.50 







INCKEASB OF COOPERATIVE FOBEST PLANTING. 

The most notable phase of the cooperative planting work during 
the year has been the increasing requests for assistance made by 
cities, water companies, railroads, and other large owners. A forest 
nursery was established and a planting plan is being made for 
some 25,000 acres of denuded land along the Chateaugay division of 
the Delaware and Hudson Railroad in the Adirondacks, while for 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad an examination was made of sev- 
eral parcels of land in West Virginia, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. A 
planting plan was made and planting was begun on a 3,000-acre for- 
est park for the city of Los Angeles, Cal., and application was received 
for a similar plan for a large forest park in the city of Helena, 
Mont. Watershed planting is receiving increasing attention, and 
the practical bearing of reforestation upon irrigation and various 
industries is becoming more thoroughly recognized. The Fort Bay- 
ard Military Reservation was examined for the War Department. A 
planting plan was made for 4,000 acres of the reservation, and a 
nursery was established. The development of these large projects 
indicates the increasing scope of cooperative forest planting, and is a 
natural result of earlier educational work and of increasing needs. 

INVESTIGATIONS OF PLANTED AND NATURAL TIMBER. 

The field studies to accumulate all available data on forest plant- 
ing have been continued in the Middle West, in order to determine 
for definite regions the best species for commercial and protective 
planting, the best cultural methods, and what may be expected from 
the species planted. Such studies were completed last year in North 
and South Dakota, western Minnesota, Illinois, eastern Nebraska, 
and western Texas. A similar study is being made in Iowa. 



POPULAR INFORMATION. 

Leaflets on the planting range, silvical qualities, proper methods 
of propagation and care, and economic uses of such trees as can be 
recommended for commercial and protective forest planting, and on 
common subjects of inquiry, such as spacing, transplanting, heeling 
in, packing and shipping young trees, and the cultivation of forest 
plantations, have been prepared and printed. To supplement the 
planting leaflets a mimeographed sheet for each important species 
has been prepared, giving the range of quotations for seed, seedlings, 
and transplants, and list of dealers from whom planting material 
may be obtained. 



H. Doc. 6, 59-1- 



-23 



220 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

To further the work of cooperative forest planting, public meet- 
ings were held and lectures were given in North Carolina, Iowa, Illi- 
nois, and Nebraska. 

RESERVE PLANTING. 

SAN GAEBIEI. TOEEST RESERVE. 

During the past year the two established nurseries in the San 
Gabriel Forest Reserve were consolidated by the removal of the lath 
house of the Pasadena nursery to Henningers Flat. By this change 
the productive capacity of the Henningers Flat nursery was in- 
creased about one-third. There are now about 11,520 square feet of 
■ground under lath. This area has been replanted to seed beds since 
the removal of the 1-year-old stock to open ground. The seeds 
sown should produce about 300,000 plants. The species mainly used 
were the Jeffrey pine, big cone spruce, knob cone pine, and Coulter 
pine, in the order named. For field planting in the San Gabriel Re- 
serve 2-year-old trees once transplanted are most desirable. Dur- 
ing March of this year 210,700 1-year-old seedlings, chiefly of these 
species, were transplanted from the seed beds in the lath house to nur- 
sery beds and the loss will not exceed 0.047 per cent. 

To check the rapid height growth of certain species, as the Coulter 
and Monterey pines and big cone spruce, and thereby to secure stocky 
plants which rabbits will not molest, " topping " was tried. Several 
thousand trees were cut back three-fourths of their length before 
transplanting, and others when transplanted, with very satisfactory 
results. A root-pruning knife was devised, with which the roots can 
be cut at any depth from 3 to 10 inches. It. has been used only ex- 
perimentally, but thus far with gratifying success. 

During April and May of this year 37,000 trees, chiefly 2-year- 
old transplants, were set out, in greater part for experimental pur- 
poses. For the protection of the Henningers Flat nursery and the 
new forest plantations, a system of fire lines was laid out and con- 
structed after the completion of the planting. 

To promote the reforestation of the watersheds and to extend the 
range of experimental planting, 8,560 trees were given to the city 
of Los Angeles for planting in Griffith Park and 3,106 to individuals 
in lots of from 150 to 1,500. All the trees were planted under in- 
structions from the Service, and, except in two cases, were set on 
watersheds within forest reserves. 

SANTA BARBARA FOREST RESERVE. 

In view of the extremely high value of water in the vicinity of 
Santa Barbara and of the denuded condition of the important 
drainage basins, reforestation work was begun in the Santa Barbara 
Forest Reserve in March, 1905. A forest nursery was established 
within the reserve, at an elevation of 2,000 feet, on the San Marcos 
road, 13 miles from the city of Santa Barbara. The necessary land 
and water privileges were secured by lease. A lath house covering 
5,760 square feet of ground space was erected, in which seed beds 
were prepared and seed sown. 

A detailed planting plan for the watersheds in urgent need of 
reforestation will be completed during the summer. The Mono Basin 
and the watersheds of the Santa Ynez River above the Gibraltar 
reservoir site will receive first attention. 



FOREST SERVICE. 221 

PIKES PEAK FOREST RESERVE. 

During the field season of 1904 three nurseries were established in 
the southern portion of the Pikes Peak Forest Keserve to furnish 
seedlings for planting on the fire-denuded slopes of that region. In 
the fall about one-fifth of an acre of seed beds was planted with seed 
of Engelmann spruce, blue spruce, Douglas spruce, limber pine, 
western yellow pme, and bristle-cone pine. Forty thousand western 
yellow pme and 10,000 Douglas spruce seedlings from the Govern- 
ment nursery at Halsey, Nebr., were planted on the mountain slopes 
near Clyde. 

GILA RIVER FOREST RESERVE — FORT BAYARD MILITARY RESERVATION. 

An examination of the adaptability of the Fort Bayard Military 
Reservation for forest planting, made in cooperation with the War 
Department in April, 1905, was followed by the selection and leas- 
ing of a nursery site at Stevens ranch, north of the military post, at 
the only point where the necessary water rights could be obtained. 
An acre of ground was prepared as a nursery, and seed beds with a 
productive capacity of 3,000,000 seedlings were sown. About 300 
pounds of seed of western yellow pine were used. They were sown 
with a seed drill, at a cost of less than 5 cents per pound ; hand sow- 
ing would cost about 50 cents. 



BLACK HILLS FOREST RESERVE. 



Reforestation work was begun in early June. On 32 acres western 
yellow pine seed was sown broadcast. An area of 8 acres was planted 
to seeds of the same species with a hand corn planter, improved for 
the purpose, and 30,000 western yellow pine and 10,000 red fir seed- 
lings raised in the Dismal River Forest Reserve nursery were set up, 
2,000 to the acre. The operations were in the vicinity of Custer 
Peak, near Roubaix, on the site of an old burn. 

DISMAL RIVER FOREST RESERVE. 

Created primarily as a tree-planting reserve, the Dismal River 
Forest Reserve was the first on which planting was begun, and is still 
the scene of the most extensive reserve planting directed by the 
Forest Service. 

Nursery work. — In September, 1904, a careful estimate based on 
sample-plot counts showed that the nursery stock at that time con- 
sisted of 990,000 western yellow pine, 1,119,000 jack pine, 7,800 red 
fir, and 50,000 white fir seedlings. Of these the western yellow pine, 
red fir, and white fir came through the winter with probably less 
than 5 per cent loss. The jack pine suffered a loss of about 75 per 
cent through winter killing and the attack of a fungus. 

The cost of raising these seedlings to one year old, including cost 
of the seed and one-tenth of the cost of constructing the shade frames, 
amounted to not more than 85 cents per thousand. These seedlings, 
as well as the other trees, are prospering. 

The area devoted to seed beds is now 2-J acres. One-half of this 
area was sown to western yellow pine and jack pine this spring. The 
remaining IJ acres contain one-year-old seedlings of western yellow 



222 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

and jack pine and red and white fir, which will be left in the beds 
another year before transplanting. 

Field planting. — Field planting was begun on April 11 and fin- 
ished in early May. A total of 396,100 trees of jack pine and west- 
ern yellow pine was planted in the sand hills at an average of $2.15 
per thousand trees. The method of planting was practically the 
same as that followed the previous year, described in the 1904 re- 
port. All of the jack pine was planted in the grass sod without 
previous preparation. Of the 274,700 western yellow pine 80,400 
were planted in sod and the remaining 194,300 in furrows. The 
trees planted this year are in a thrifty condition and appear to be 
making a good start. 

Seeds and trees furnished for planting outside of the Dismal 
EiVER Forest Reserve. — In May 300 pounds of western yellow pine 
seed, 30,000 seedlings of the same species, and 10,000 red fir seedlings 
were furnished for reforestation in the Black Hills Forest Reserve. 
Fifty thousand western yellow pine seedlings and 10,000 red fir seed- 
lings were shipped to the Pikes Peak Forest Reserve, and 400 pounds 
of western yellow pine seed were sent to the newly established nursery 
at Fort Bayard, N. Mex. 

Experimental planting. — Although the work up to the present 
has been very successful, sand-hill planting is yet in an experimental 
stage. To secure further data a quarter section of typical sand-hill 
country was set aside for experimental purposes. Planting was done 
on this area with different species, both in and out of furrows, and 
each tree and block was carefully staked and recorded, so that ac- 
curate counts can be made at any time. In addition certain trees 
and blocks in the larger field plantations were staked, that the results 
may be more accurately determined. 

COLLECTING AND TESTING OP FOBEST TREE SEEDS. 

It is the policy of the Service to collect the seeds used in reserve 
planting, though as a large quantity gathered in 1903 was on hand at 
the beginning of the last fiscal year no collecting was needed in 1904. 
In this connection germination tests and data as to the vitality and 
methods of preservation of the seeds are essential. Cooperative 
work was carried on with the Seed Laboratory of the Department 
through a series of experiments, field germination tests were made 
at Halsey, Nebr., and Henningers Flat, Cal., and a report on pre- 
liminary results was prepared. On the whole, the seed collected by 
the Service was of better quality than that purchased of seed houses. 

FOREST replacement. 

The study of forest replacement on areas where tree growth is 
wanting or deficient was continued in the Wichita, Prescott, Pikes 
Peak, Santa Barbara, San Gabriel, San Bernardino, San Jacinto, 
and Sierra reserves. Studies similar in character, although less ex- 
haustive, were carried on in connection with reserve and cooperative 
planting and with the studies of natural forest encroachment. 

Forest-replacement studies serve as a preliminary reforestation 
plan. Through such studies the areas on which planting is advisable 



FOREST SEKVICE. 223 

are definitely determined, species selected, nursery sites located, dis- 
posal of brush and dead timber considered, preliminary fire plans 
made, and an estimate is given of the cost of the several operations. 

During the year the field investigations of forest replacement in 
the Santa Barbara Forest Reserve, inaugurated and carried nearly 
to completion in the fiscal year 1904, were finished, and the prelim- 
inary office report was compiled in the form of locality and repro- 
duction studies. 

The forest-replacement studies in the Sierra Forest Reserve were 
completed in December, 1904. A full office report describes the types 
of the Sierra forest, the extent to which natural reproduction may be 
depended upon to reclaim chaparral and reforest denuded areas, 
the areas on which planting is advisable, and the species suitable for 
planting. 

An investigation of the advisability of forest planting for timber 
supply and water conservation in the Salt Lake Forest Reserve was 
made during the summer field season. One valuable result was the 
beginning of hearty cooperation with the municipality of Salt Lake 
in the interest of the city's water supply. The eastern part of the 
Lewis and dark Forest Reserve was examined to determine whether 
the condition of the watersheds, the state of settlement, and the 
value of the water and timber supplied by this region are sufficient to 
warrant the preparation of a reforestation plan. An examination 
was also begun to determine the advisability of forest planting on 
denuded slopes in the Gunnison Forest Reserve, in Colorado, in con- 
nection with the Uncompahgre Valley irrigation project of the 
Reclamation Service. 

STATE COOPERATIVE WORK. 

The forest investigations in cooperation with the State of Cali- 
fornia which began in July, 1903, were finished. Studies were con- 
ducted by the Office of Forest Extension on the chaparral, its growth, 
extension, functions, and the means of controlling it, and on forest 
fires. The latter resulted in completed reports on fire conditions in 
the San Bernardino, San Gabriel, Santa Barbara, San Jacinto, and 
Trabuco Canyon forest reserves, and in Monterey County, on the 
western slope of the southern Sierras, and in the Lake Tahoe region. 
In addition, a systematic plan of fire protection was made and put 
into operation on a lumber tract in Butte County, and reports on 
slash burning and general fire protection were prepared. Most 
important of all, a State forest code, based on a thorough field study, 
was submitted to the legislature, and was passed in somewhat 
amended form. It provides for the protection and management of 
forests within the State, and creates a State board of forestry and a 
technical administrative force consisting of a State forester and two 
assistants. A general report on fire conditions in California is in 
preparation. 

EXPENDITURES. 

The expenditures of the Office of Forest Extension during the past 
year amounted to $53,970.96, or 12^ per cent of the appropriation of 
the Forest Service. Contributions amounting to $3,792 were received 



224 DEPARTMENTAL BEPOETS. 

and expended on cooperative work. Among the contributors were 
the State of California, the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, the 
Pasadena Board of Trade, and the Solar Observatory, Mount 
Wilson, Cal. 

WORK FOE THE ENSUING YEAR. 
COOPERATIVE PLANTING. 

The preparation of planting plans under the provisions of Cir- 
cular No. 22 will be continued, and effort will be made to extend the 
work bj' bringing the cooperative offer to the attention of a greater 
number of landowners. The study of planted groves in Iowa will 
be completed. It is expected to lead to more active cooperation 
between the Service and railroads, pulp companies, and others inter- 
ested in forest planting. Attention will be given to planting over 
the coal beds in the Ohio Basin which are unproductive or giving 
only small returns from agricultural crops. The black Ipcust will 
be studied with care, because it is the species in greatest favor for 
planting in this region. 

BESEKVE PLANTING. 

The reserve planting projects on the San Gabriel, Santa Barbara, 
Pikes Peak, Gila River, Black Hills, and Dismal River forest re- 
serves will be continued and extended. In connection with this a 
large quantity of tree seeds will be collected this fall. 

In the Garden City Forest Reserve, created primarily as a tree- 
planting reserve in June, 1905, active operations will begin this fall 
by locating the site and preparing the ground for a nursery. The 
planting of seed beds will follow next sprmg. 

If favorable reports are submitted for the reserves on which pre- 
liminary reforestation plans are now being made, the establishment of 
additional forest nurseries will be advisable in the spring of 1906. 
These reserves are the Salt Lake, Prescott, Lewis and Clark, Gunni- 
son, Modoc, Warner Mountains, Cassia, and possibly the Malad. 

DENDROLOGY. 

EOREST DISTRmUTION. 
FOREST MAP OF THE UNITED STATES. 

The collection of data for mapping the forest types and the dis- 
tribution of tree species in the United States was continued during 
the year. A map showing the great types, prepared for the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition, was printed, and marks a considerable advance 
in accurate knowledge. But the satisfactory completion of this most 
important undertaking must be the work of years. Until it is com- 
pleted, knowledge of the extent and economic possibilities of our 
forest resources must remain fragmentary. 

STUDIES OF SPECIAL REGIONS, GROUPS, AND SPECIES. 

A study of the distribution, composition, and commercial value of 
bottom-land forests in the " Big Thicket " region of southern Texas 
was conducted during the year, 



FOREST SERVICE. 225 

Progress was made in a study of important indigenous and exotic 
acacias growing in the United States. Through tlie unfortunate 
loss of field notes by the burning of the Santa Monica Experiment 
Station buildings, however, much of the work done will have to be 
undertaken anew. 

A study of eucalypts for growing where there is little frost is in 
progress. New and definite knowledge has been obtained of the exact 
limits within which various species can be successfully cultivated in 
parts of the West and Southwest. 

PACIFIC COAST TAN-BAKK TREES. 

Material has been collected for a complete report on the present 
and probable future supply of western tan-bark oak, of the extent to 
which it is likely to meet the demand of the Pacific tanning industry, 
of new species capable of supplying tan bark, and of the various 
barks which have been used as adulterants. 

BASKET WILLOWS. 

The basket-willow holts established last year on the Arlington Ex- 
perimental Farm yielded their first crop of rods from 10,000 stools 
in the spring of 1905. Some of this stock was peeled, some dried with 
the bark on, and the remainder used for cuttings to extend the planta- 
tion. The_ peeled and unpeeled rods will be made into various forms of 
produce and farm baskets and placed in actual service to determine 
whether they are enough more durable than the cheaper but compara- 
tively much shorter-lived splint-wood baskets to make them more 
economical in the end. 

From the total crop of rods valuable comparative data were ob- 
tained as to the production of different willows on different soils, and 
the effect of different treatments on the quality and quantity of the 
rods, and, in cooperation with the Bureau of Entomology, on means 
of preventing insect ravages. 

The holts now contain 20,000 stools, distributed in 30 plats, and 
the plantation is well equipped. The Bureau of Plant Industry, 
which assigned the land for these experiments, has rendered most 
cordial and helpful cooperation in preparing the ground and in many 
other ways. 

The appearance of Bulletin 46 (The Basket Willow) awakened an 
interest in willow growing, and many requests are received for cut- 
tings of approved strains of basket willows. It is planned to meet 
this growing demand by distributing from 50,000 to 100,000 cuttings 
during the spring of 1906. 

TTJBPENTININQ METHODS. 

The series of experiments to secure an improved system of turpen- 
tining begun in 1902 was completed in December, 1904, and the final 
results were published in Circular 34. These experiments made 
known a means by which the length of life of the turpentined pine 
forests is greatly lengthened and at the same time both a larger and 
a better product is obtained. The study already made has received 
the hearty commendation of the body of operators who produce the 



226 DEPARTMENTAL BEPOBTS. 

major part of our naval stores and has led to the offer of willing co- 
operation in further studies. 

Purpose and character of new experiments. — A promising field 
for still further improvement in turpentining methods was opened by 
the likelihood that by diminishing the wound caused by chipping the 
injury to the tree might be still further reduced without decreasing 
the yield. The problem is essentially to discover the effect of chip- 
ping on the physiological activities of the tree, upon which depend 
the secretion and flow of resin. To test this matter experiments were 
begun on March 1, 1905, with four crops of approximately 8,000 
trees each. 

These experiments are being conducted on a longleaf pine tract 
near Greencove Springs, Lake County, Fla., about 30 miles south of 
Jacksonville. The work is under the constant observation of the 
most progressive turpentine operators, a number of whom have 
already modified their methods in the light of such conclusions as 
the work itself has suggested, even at its present early stage. 

The special thanks of the Forest Service are due to the Hilman- 
Sutherland Land Company, of Jacksonville, Fla., for the disinter- 
ested cooperative arrangement under which these experiments are 
being carried out. It is planned to continue the work for the regular 
commercial period of three years. 

SYSTEMATIC STUDIES OF FOREST FLORA. 
REGIONAL STUDIES. 

The preparation of material for a series of bulletins descriptive 
and illustrative of the tree species of the different regions of the 
United States has been undertaken. The first installment of this 
work will be published, when ready, under the title of " Part I. Trees 
of the Pacific States." 

FOREST HERBARIUM. 

Response to the demands for technical information about trees 
made by individuals and by schools, colleges, and other institutions 
has become a considerable part of the duties of the Dendrologist. 
To facilitate this work the assignment of about 1,000 of the Forestry 
Division's original collection of tree, seed, bark, and wood specimens 
was secured. This material is needed not only for reference, but also 
to supply models for drawings to illustrate "proposed studies of the 
tree floras of the United States. 

FOREST LIBRARY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTION. 

By a change of quarters of the forest library and the photographic 
collection made in November, 1904, better facilities for practical upe 
and enlarged space for filing books and photographs were gained. 
Adequate room for readers, however, is still lacking. Books and 
pamphlets to the number of 3,851 were added during the year, 
bringing the forest library to a total of 8,078 volumes. This marked 
increase is due mainly to a large accession of books and pamphlets 
previously in the Department library, for which the shelves of the 
Forest Service did not formerly afford space. 



FOREST SERVICE. 227 

The use of the librarj' was markedly greater this 3^ear than last. 
Monthly announcements of all new forest literature receiA-od are 
regularly and prominently posted on the Service and library room 
bulletin boards. The library committee is now preparing for publi- 
cation, in cooperation with the general library of the Department, a 
classified list of forest literature. 

FOREST PHOTOGRAPHS AND LANTEEN SLIDES. 

The photograph collection contains 19,052 photographs, of which 
5,192 were catalogued and filed during the past year — 808 more pic- 
tures than were added during the previous yearr The total collection 
comprises pictures from 43 different States and Territories and 9 
foreign countries. 

Lantern slides in the collection number 2,881, of which 561 were 
added during the year. 

Duplicate photographs (mainly unmounted) to the number of 
4,137 were given to 47 educational institutions, to 52 applicants for 
illustrations to be used in books and articles on forest subjects, and to 
39 individuals who had extended assistance and courtesies to mem- 
bers of the Service doing field work, or were exchanged for sets of 
views from 4 foreign countries. Selections of lantern slides, num- 
bering in all 1,861, were loaned for educational purposes. 

As an aid to filling gaps in the collection and to prevent duplica- 
tion, a map was prepared showing by counties the number of photo- 
graphs already filed. 

EXPOSITIONS. 

The exhibit described in the last report of the Forester was dis- 
played at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition until its close, Novem- 
ber 1, 1904, when most of the material was safely returned to Wash- 
ington. A few articles were shipped to Portland, Oreg., in antici- 
pation of use at the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition; a large 
glass case and contents, illustrating methods of turpentining, was 
loaned to the museum of the College of Pharmacy, St. Louis, Mo., 
and all of the living trees and nursery stock, comprising the outside 
tree-planting exhibit, were presented to the Missouri Botanic Garden, 
St. Louis. 

For the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition a practically new 
exhibit of the Forest Service was prepared. This was installed, to- 
gether with the exhibit of the Reclamation Service, in a special Gov- 
ernment building. Approximately 5,600 feet of floor and wall space 
was devoted to the forest exhibit. The two displays were planned 
to show clearly the direct and vital relationship between the fields of 
the two organizations, which, especially in the West, work hand in 
hand to secure, in the interest of the people at large, the wood and 
water resources of the country against waste and monopoly. The 
forest exhibit was ready and open to the public on the opening day 
of the exposition, June 1, 1905. The cost of preparing and installing 
it was approximately $7,600. Large colored and uncolored trans- 
parencies and colored bromide photographs effectively illustrated 
forest conditions and problems and the work of the Forest Service 
throughout the country. Maps, charts, instruments, models, wood 
specimens, and a timber-testing machine in operation were also 



228 DEPAETiMENTAL fiEPORTS. 

important parts of the display, and helped to make it altogether the 
jnost successful and instructive portrayal of the whole field of for- 
estry and, its bearing upon public and private welfare which has ever 
been made in the United States. 

WORK OF THE ENSUING YEAR. 

The experiments in methods of turpentining already outlined will 
be continued on the lands of the Hilman-Sutherland Land Com- 
pany, in Florida. The study of basket willows will also be continued, 
with special leference to the effects of different kinds of soil and of 
its moisture content lyDon the quality and quantity of rods produced, 
and to the behavior of newly imported European willows under the 
influence of strange soils and acclimation. In the studies of special 
groups and species of trees the Monterey pine and cypress will be 
added to the list of little-known desert pines of California already 
under investigation, the promised study of Gascara sagrada will be 
begun, and the brown-wooded junipers of Texas will be taken up. The 
study of certain kinds of acacias and eucalypts will be continued. 
In the regional studies of North American trees the preparation of 
Part I, Trees of the Pacific States, will be pressed forward, and that 
of Part II, Trees of the Rocky Mountain States, will be begun. 

EXPENDITURES. 

The total expenditures for the year under the head of Dendrology 
were $15,086.44, or 3.5 per cent of the total appropriation for the 
Forest Service. 

FOREST PRODUCTS. 

During the present fiscal year it became plain that a complete re- 
organization of the lines of work comprised under the head of 
forest products was needed. In consequence of the rapid expan- 
sion of this work, the aggressiveness with which problems of great 
magnitude had been attacked, the multiplication of stations, the ex- 
tension of field work, and the failure of the office organization to 
keep pace with it, the need for better control and a firmer coordina- 
tion of parts became imperative. To accomplish this work Mr. Wil- 
liam L. Hall, previously the Chief of the Office of Forest Extension, 
was put in charge. 

The investigations in progress at the beginning of the year were 
chiefly of two kinds — studies of wood preservation and tests of the 
strength of timbers. The wood preservation studies were grouped 
into three sections — Eastern, Central, and Western — ^with a central 
office in St. Louis, from which they are directed. The timber-test 
work was conducted at Lafayette, Ind. ; New Haven, Conn. ; Berkeley, 
Cal., and Washington, D. C., and was directed from the laboratory 
at Lafayette, Ind. A section of dendro-chemistry was also main- 
tained, with headquarters at St. Louis, chiefly to assist and supple- 
ment the work in wood preservation. 

On January 1, 1905, the reorganization of the office began. The 
system of handling cooperative fimds was changed entirely. Ac- 
counts were submitted for all such funds expended during the first 
half of the fiscal year, and all Iwlances in the hands of the field men 



FOREST SERVICE. 229 

were turned over to an agent of the Forest Service duly appointed 
to receive and disburse them, with the provision that all subse- 
quent payments of cooperative funds must be made direct to this 
agent. The headquarters of the wood preservation and dendro- 
chemical work were changed to Washington, and the three sections of 
wood preservation were combined. 

The main energies of the office are now directed toAvard two ends — 
the finishing of much incomplete work left over from the previous 
year and from the early part of the present year, and the development 
of an adequate organization for handling the extensive and diversi- 
fied work which the Forest Service must take up looking toward the 
economical use of wood. The present organization recognizes three 
sections — wood preservation, timber testing, and dendro-chemistry. 

WOOD PRESERVATION. 
OOOPEEATIVE RAILEOAD WORK. 

Several extensive lines of cooperative work with railroad com- 
panies, in progress at the beginning of the year, have for the most 
part been completed. In all cases the companies contributed to the 
expenses of the field work incident to the investigations. 

(1) In cooperation with the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Rail- 
way there was made an extensive study of seasoning and preservative 
treatment of tie timbers in New Mexico and Texas. The company 
has now adopted throughout its system the policy of preservative 
treatment for tie and bridge timbers. The field work with this com- 
pany closed in May, and a report on the results was completed. 

(2) An investigation to determine the best methods of handling 
and treating lodgepole pine, red fir, and western yellow pine was 
made in cooperation with the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Rail- 
way. This work also was completed. It resulted in the adoption 
by the Burlington Railway of the policy of treating with zinc chlo- 
ride all of the above-mentioned kinds of ties. A report on the results 
of seasoning and treating lodgepole pine was prepared. 

(3) The St. Louis and San Francisco Railroad assisted in investi- 
gating methods of handling and treating red oak tie timber. 

(4) With the Northern Pacific Railway an investigation of meth- 
ods of handling railroad ties of red fir was made. Seasoning ex- 
periments at Tacoma and Pasco, Wash., and Sandpoint, Idaho, are 
still in progress. 

(5) A cooperative study of methods of seasoning red oak, beech, 
and gum in Tennessee and Mississippi, carried on with the Illinois 
Central Railroad, was practically completed at the close of the fiscal 

In cooperation with the Chicago and Northwestern Railway a 
series of tie-seasoning experiments with hemlock and tamarack is 
being conducted. This is the most carefully designed experiment in 
the seasoning of timber which the Forest Service has undertaken. 

Other experiments on tamarack ties are being conducted in coop- 
eration with the Wisconsin Central Railway. This work opens a 
large field of usefulness in the Lake States. 



280 DEPARTMENTAL REPOETS. 

COOPERATIVE TELEPHONE POLE WORK. 

During the past year the American Telephone and Telegraph Com- 
pany and the Postal Telegraph Cable Company have assisted in work 
having for its object the determination of the best methods of hand- 
ling and treating telephone and telegraph poles. Several hundred 
poles of chestnut and juniper were cut and carried through a full 
year of seasoning at Dover, N. J., Thorndale and Paoli, Pa., and Pis- 
gah and Wilmington, N. C. Separate lots of these poles were then 
treated with several different preservatives. The treated poles, care- 
fully numbered and labeled, have now been set in an experimental 
section of the line of the American Telephone and Telegraph Com- 
pany between Savannah and Meldrim, Ga. Each treated pole is set 
between a green and a seasoned untreated pole for comparison. 

Special open treating tanks were designed by the Service to permit 
of the treatment with creosote of 30-foot poles. So far as is known, 
this is the first apparatus constructed in the United States for im- 
pregnating the butts of telephone and telegraph poles. It was used 
with entire success. 

A report on the seasoning and treating of telephone poles is now 
under way. 

EXPERIMENTAL TREATING PLANT AT ST. LOUIS. 

A special appropriation of $10,000 made it possible to carry on at 
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition experiments in the use of creosote 
as a preservative. Experiments were made to determine whether 
cheap and quickly grown timbers like cottonwood, willow, elm, and 
maple could be made durable enough for fence posts by creosoting. 
The treatments were made in an upright tank with heat applied di- 
rect. The work was too brief to be conclusive, but gave the best 
indications of success. 

A second series of experiments was on loblolly pine and red oak 
cross-ties, to determine how these important and abundant timbers 
can be most economically treated. Both were found readily capable 
of treatment, and both, when treated, are fully satisfactory for ties. 
In connection with these treatments a series of tests on loblolly pine, 
to determine the effect on the strength of wood both of the prelim- 
inary steaming process and of the preservatives (zinc chloride and 
creosote) themselves, gave definite results. A complete report is to 
be submitted. 

DENDEO-CHEMISTRY. 

A large part of the work was the determination of the amount of 
zinc in timbers treated by the zinc chloride process. Analj'ses in the 
St. Louis laboratory of borings or sections of treated ties from all 
points in the field where treatments have been carried on gave most 
valuable results. A method of analysis was worked out which is 
recommended for general adoption, and a report setting forth this 
method was prepared. 

Much attention was given during the year both to the examination 
of various coal-tar creosotes and to the methods of analysis for such 
creosotes. With the increasing use of coal-tar creosote for preserving 
;timbers, the necessity for some standard method of determining its 



FOREST SERVICE. 231 

character has made itself felt with increasing force. A method was 
developed which it is believed will be widely adopted for the anal- 
ysis of coal-tar creosote, and a report upon it was prepared. 

TIMBER TESTS. 

The work in timber testing during the past year has progressed 
toward a closer relation to other work in forestry, especially toward 
serving the interests of conservative forest management by showing 
the structural value of rapid-growth timber. Progress has also been 
made in promoting the use of preservatives by studying their effect on 
the strength of timbers and in studying the means by which preserved 
railroad ties can be protected against the abrasive action of traffic. 
Other useful work has been done in determining the mechanical 
properties of proposed substitutes for timbers like white oak and 
hickory, supplies of which for vehicle construction are rapidly dis- 
appearing; in supplying data which will enable more satisfactory 
and more accurate rules to be drawn up for the grading of structural 
timber ; in supplying information on the technical properties of un- 
familiar woods ; and in placing on a scientific basis the technique of 
the methods of testing timber. 

The Forest Service now has a well-organized system of laboratories 
and a trained staff of testing engineers. As yet, however, only a be- 
ginning has been made on a few timbers, such as longleaf and loblolly 
pine and red fir, but the greater part of the problem has not been 
touched. 

The work of the year may be summed up as follows : 

At the Yale laboratory a bulletin entitled " The Effect of Moisture 
on the Strength and Stiffness of Wood " has been prepared, based 
upon a long series of tests. The study will serve to establish correct 
methods of thinking on many fundamental matters in wood tech- 
nology. 

The tests on red gum collected from Missouri and from Alabama 
were, with the exception of certain tests on air-dried material, com- 
pleted, and the results were published. 

At the laboratory at Berkeley, Cal., preliminary tests of the 
mechanical properties of red fir collected from Washington,' Oregon, 
and from the San Francisco market, and tests of western hemlock 
collected from Washington and Oregon were completed. The tests 
of western hemlock have given this timber the right to appear in the 
market on its merits. 

The laboratory at Washington, D. C, completed a preliminary 
study of the mechanical properties of loblolly pine and longleaf pine. 
Already the results have aided manufacturers in the introduction of 
these woods in foreign markets. With the tests on red fir they have 
been of direct service to the Isthmian Canal Commission. They are 
now being continued at Charleston, S. C. 

These various tests produced not only figures on large sticks for 
structural purposes useful both to engineers and to lumbermen, but 
also data which will result in the formulation of rules for determin- 
ing the effect of various kinds of knots, and other defects, and of the 
various rates of growth on the strength of timber. 

A preliminary publication, entitled " Progress Report on the 
StreHgth of Structural Timbers," served a useful purpto'se. Variotis 



232 . DEPAKTMENTAl, REPORTS. 

addresses and lectures were given at engineering associations and 
universities throughout the year. Exhibits showing the actual re- 
sults of timber tests and actual test pieces of various species were 
prepared for the exhibit of the Forest Service at the Lewis and Clark 
Exposition at Portland. 

A carefully planned series of tests was made to determine the rela- 
tive value of various kinds of lumber for the making of boxes, in 
which the ability to hold nails, as well as the actual strength of the 
lumber, is involved. At the request of the Chief of the Philippine 
Bureau of Forestry, a report was prepared on the strength of four 
species of wood from the Philippine Islands. 

Tests were made to determine the spike-holding capacity and the 
mechanical strength of certain specimens of Gatalpa catalpa and 
Catalpa speciosa, aiid of treated red oak. 

An investigation of the effect of the rate of loading upon the 
strength of wood is well under way at the laboratory of the Yale 
Forest School. It should have, when completed, nearly the same 
technical value as the work done by that laboratory on the moisture- 
strength problem. 

In connection with the timber-testing plant at the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition, a long series of tests was made on loblolly pine to 
determine the effect of steaming and of preservatives on strength. 

The work of the various laboratories has included not only the col- 
lection, description, and testing of material, but the computation of 
the data, analysis of results, and preparation of charts to show con- 
clusions — work which takes at least as much time as the tests them- 
selves. The data not only serve the immediate purpose for which the 
tests were designed, but will form the basis of replies in a rapidly 
increasing correspondence from lumbermen, contractors, and engi- 
neers. 

In all, 8,210 mechanical tests were made during the year, and an 
equal number of moisture determinations. Each test involves on the 
average about thirty-five measurements in addition to the description 
and drawing of the stick before and after the test. 

\ ORGANIZATION AND WORK FOR THE ENSUING YEAR. 

The office during the next year will comprise the four sections of 
lumber trade, timber tests, wood preservation, and dendro-chemistry. 

Lumber Trade. 

A section of lumber trade is being organized to study the sup- 
ply, transportation, markets, and use of lumber and other forest 
products. 

LIKES OF WOEK. 

Grading specifications. — A preliminary study of specifications 
was made and the work is now being planned in detail, not so much 
for the purpose of suggesting modifications of present rules as to 
bring various specifications together for comparison by both buyers 
and sellers of lumber, just as has been done already in the case of 
log rules. 



FOREST SERVICE. 283 

Statistics of jianufacture.— Heretofore a decennial census of the 
lumber industry has been taken by the Bureau of the Census. Con- 
gress has provided for a quinquennial census, beginning with the year 
1905. There is great need for a yearly statement of the apiount of 
lumber cut and marketed, and the Forest Service will attempt to 
make such a statement, beginning with the cut of the year 1905. The 
work will be conducted principally by correspondence, after the 
methods followed by the Geological Survey in obtaining j^eaiiv sta- 
tistics^ of the niineral products. The National Lumber Manufac- 
turers' Association and other associations will cooperate with the 
Service in getting and publishing the figures. 

Studies of woods for special uses.— Plans are ready for the study 
during the present year of cooperage and box woods, vehicle and 
implement woods, and wooden paving blocks. Similar studies are 
planned upon furniture and cabinet woods, railroad ties, fence posts, 
and piles and poles. 

Timber Tests. 

The testing of timbers of commercial use will be carried on by 
a system of laboratories, with a central laboratory and office at 
Lafayette, Ind., as at present, or at Washington, D. C. The proposed 
system embraces six laboratories, whose location and work are as 
follows : 

Purdue laboratory, Lafayette, Ind. — Tests of the effects of pre- 
servatives and preservative processes on the strength of loblolly pine, 
tests of box lumber, tests of red gum which has been air seasoning for 
nearly two years, the study of the methods of testing wood for their 
properties of resisting abrasion, the determination of the ability of 
various woods to resist the action of a blow, showing different classes 
of defects, and determination of the 'mechanical properties of the pos- 
sible substitutes for the hard woods now used in the vehicle industry. 

A study will be made of the proper design for two new testing 
machines, the first to be a large machine of great capacity for test- 
ing the strength of posts or columns, for which now no machine 
exists, and the second to test the life of wood under such vibrations 
and repetitive stresses as come on stringers and other structural 
forms under the passage of a rolling or live load. 

Washington laboratory, Washington, D. C. — Tests of loblolly 
pine for structural purposes, including the effect on strength of 
knots, air seasoning, kiln drying, rate of growth, sapwood, and age, 
aad tests of the structural value of various hard woods of the south- 
ern Appalachians, and of the value of loblolly and shortleaf pine for 
cross arms. 

Yale laboratory, New Haven, Conn. — Tests of the effect of the 
rate of application of a load on the strength of wood, and a study of 
the effect of different methods of drying on the strength of wood. 

Berkeley laboratory, Berkeley, Cal. — Tests of western yellow 
pine as a structural timber and for telephone and telegraph poles 
and railroad ties, and of eucalypts, especially blue gum and red gum. 

Eugene laboratory, Eugene, Oreg. — Tests of various grades of 
red fir for structural purposes, and of cedar for telephone poles. 



234 DEPAETMENTAL REPORTS. 

Seattle laboratory, Seattle, Wash. — Tests of western hemlock 
for structural purposes, and of western spruce, western hemlock, and 
other timbers of the North Pacific region for cross-ties and telephone 
jDoles. 

At all points the organization for the timber-test work will be 
alert to come into touch with the consuming interests of the country, 
in order to promote the use of inferior timbers in the place of rare 
and expensive ones, the economy of material, and the general inter- 
ests of forestry. 

WOOD PBESBBVATION. 

Probably not more than 10 per cent of the ties laid for renewal 
in the United States are treated. Yet railroad engineers almost 
unanimously agree that treatments must be applied generally within 
the next decade. And the variations in climatic and other conditions 
will make it necessary to adopt different processes of treatment in 
different parts of the country. Evidently the time is at hand for 
the fullest study of the problem. The facilities now available are 
inadequate for a thorough study of the subject. It is therefore pro- 
posed to establish a treating plant at Washington, D. C. 

The question of handling timber to secure the maximum benefits 
of preservative treatment includes questions like the effect of the 
time of year of cutting, the effect of soaking, the effect of various 
forms of piling, and the effect of air seasoning. It is planned to 
conduct experiments on poles or ties, or both, of chestnut, northern 
white cedar, southern white cedar, western red cedar, eastern tama- 
rack, southern cypress, and western yellow pine. 

As a part of its work in wood preservation the Service will test 
the effect of paints and other applications which are applied' ex- 
ternally to wood to preserve it. Another subject of great importance 
is that of methods of kiln-drying lumber. The present practice 
is admittedly ineffectual in many cases. A preliminary study of 
this problem is already under way. 

Dbndeo-Chemistey. 

The dendro-chemical work which the Service has previously con- 
ducted at the laboratory of the Missouri Botanical Garden closed 
at the end of the year. The study of chemical problems connected 
with the utilization of wood products will be conducted temporarily 
at a laboratory at New Haven, Conn., in cooperation with the Shef- 
field Scientific School of Yale University. The work to be taken 
up has the possibility of high value, and the search for suitable woods 
for pulp, the study of ways to utilize the present enormous sawmill 
waste, the im^provement of processes of wood distillation, and the 
analysis of wood preservatives and of treated woods will be carried 
forward. 

In view of the open field for this work and of the dependence 
of the general public and business interests upon the Forest Service 
for the solution of these and kindred problems, there will be estab- 
lished in Washington during the next year a laboratory with ade- 
quate equipment to handle the work. 

EXJENDITDEES. 

The expenditures under forest products amounted to $56,881,22, 
or 13J per cent of the total apfp'rOp'riation. 



FOREST SEEVICK. 235 

RECORDS. 

SECTION OF ACCOUNTS AND SUPPLIES. 

Upon the transfer of the forest reserves on February 1 it became 
necessary to appoint a special fiscal agent to be custodian of the 
funds derived from the sale of their products. In order to simplify 
the handling of this money the same officer was later made disbursing 
officer for the Forest Service, thus avoiding delay in the transmittal 
of accounts and in auditing and making payment, and reducing the 
amount of bookkeeping. Salary, reimbursement, and miscellaneous 
vouchers are now audited and paid in the Forest Service. 

On February 1 arrangements were also made for the disbursement 
of cooperative funds, which amount to about $2,000 a month, by the 
special fiscal agent. The manner of handling cooperative vouchers 
now conforms to the fiscal regulations of the Department in every 
particular. A system of cost keeping was introduced to secure a 
complete and detailed record of the cost of each study and project 
undertaken, and of the cost of administering each forest reserve. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC LABORATORY. 

The map-copying equipment was of effective service, especially 
in securing maps of the forest reserves. A new map case and a system 
of indexing maps on file were installed. Specific instructions for 
taking forest photographs were furnished the members of the Service, 
and other steps to improve the general standard of forest views were 
taken. 

QUARTERS. 

No considerable increase in the rental of office rooms has been 
made during the past year. Arrangements have been made for the 
occupancy of three rooms on the first floor of the Atlantic Building 
as storage rooms for instruments, field equipment, and office supplies, 
which permits the loading and unloading of shipments direct to and 
from the property rooms. 

FILES AND FILING. 

The system of filing correspondence was found satisfactory both 
in security and in economy of operation. A fireproof vault installed 
in the basement of the Atlantic Building at the beginning of the year 
provided a convenient and safe place of storage for valuable records. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

During the year 65,861 official communications were received in 
the Forest Service, and 61,713 were sent out. 

STENOGRAPHY AND TYPEWRITING. 

The concentration in this section of stenographers not assigned 
to offices continued to show a marked gain in the amount and char- 
acter of the work done. It has resulted in developing a corps of 
skilled stenographers and copyists capable of meeting with prompt- 
ness the various needs of the Service. During the year 1,451 items 
H. Doc. 6, 59-1 24 



236 DEPARTMENTAL EEPOETS. 

of work were performed, involving 25,211 typewritten pages (includ- 
ing 3,797 pages tabulated), 43,143 mimeographed sheets, and an 
increased amount of miscellaneous work. , In addition, 390 tempo- 
rary details of stenographers were made to offices for a total of 1,960 
days. The average number of stenographers and copyists assigned 
to this section was 14. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

There were issued during the year 20 new publications, with a total 
of 366,500 copies printed. The bulletins were : The Basket Willow ; 
The Forests of Texas; The Forests of Hawaii; The Timber of the 
Edwards Plateau of Texas; Report on the Condition of Treated 
Timbers Laid in Texas, February, 1902; Forest Planting in West- 
ern Kansas; Chestnut in Southern Maryland; The Luquillo Forest 
Reserve, Porto Rico; Forest Conditions in Northern New Hamp- 
shire ; Federal and State Forest Laws ; and Report on an Examina- 
tion of a Forest Tract in Western North Carolina. The circulars of 
information were: Exhibit of Tree Planting on a Model Prairie 
Farm at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition; Exhibit of Forest 
Planting in Wood Lots at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition; 
Exhibit of Forest Nurseries at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition; 
Progress Report on the Strength of Structural Timber; What For- 
estry Means to Representative Men; and Practical Results of the 
Cup and Gutter System of Turpentining. Three reprints of Year- 
book articles were issued: The Attitude of Lumbermen Toward 
Forest Fires; The Determination of Timber Values; and Progress 
of Forestry in 1904. The Yearbook article Forest Planting and 
Farm Management will be reprinted by the Department in the form 
of a farmers' bulletin. There was also published the Report of the 
Forester for 1904. In addition, 200,000 copies of the Preliminary 
Report and Second Partial Report of the Public Lands Commission 
were printed. 

During the year 28 press bulletins were issued, with a total circula- 
tion of 156,900 copies. 

Reprints of 8 publications were made, to the total number of 71,000 
copies. 

On June 30, 1905, 9 bulletins and 1 circular were in the hands of 
the printer. 

The mailing lists of the Service comprise: (1) A special list of 
libraries; (2) a list of representative newspapers; (3) a small for- 
eign list of scientific and governmental institutions; (4) a special 
list of persons engaged in forest work in the United States; (5) a 
general list of persons interested in forestry. 

The first four lists, which number 4,081 addresses, receive all publi- 
cations as soon as they are available. Cards are sent to the general 
list giving notice of the appearance of bulletins, with brief descrip- 
tions of their contents, and to this list certain publications of general 
interest are sent wiJ;hout notice. Applications for bulletins made in 
response to the card notices are honored in the order of their receipt. 
During the year the general list was thoroughljr revised, and an 
effort was made to increase it conservatively by including persons 
specially interested in forest preservation. This work will be con- 
tinued during the ensuing year. The addresses on this list now num- 
ber 15,197. 



FOREST SEEVICE. 237 

A large extra list of persons interested in lumbering and wood- 
lands, farmers, educators, and professional people in various lines is 
now being compiled. This list will be carefully classified and will 
be representative of all sections of the country. It will be used to 
distribute material of importance to certain sections and to particu- 
lar classes of people, and in general to stimulate a widespread inter- 
est in forestry. 

EXPENDITURES. 

The expenditures for the year under the head of Records amounted 
to $90,881.98, or 22 per cent of the total expenditure of the Service. 
In this are included large items for such general expenses as supplies, 
instruments, rent, and printing, which are incurred, at least in part, 
in the execution of productive work, not in the routine maintenance 
of office administration. 

The expenditures of the Office of the Forester for the year, includ- 
ing the examination of reserve boundaries, State forest studies, pub- 
lications, etc., was $121,078.16, or 284 per cent of the appropriation. 



January 12, 1907. 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



REPORT 



THE FORESTER 



1906 



QIKKORD PINCHOX. 



[From Annual Reports, Department of AgrictjIvTure.] 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1907. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Summary .5 

Publication and education 6 

Work of tbe coming year 6 

Silvics 7 

Worli of the coming year 7 

Law 8 

Claims 10 

Privileges 10 

Forest reserves 11 

Inspection 15 

Administration 15 

Grazing on the reserves 1.5 

Range conditions 15 

Grazing fees 16 

Permits issued 16 

Grossing permits 17 

Quarantine and live-stock laws 17 

Grazing trespass 17 

Depredations of wild animals 18 

Live-stock associations 18 

Forest measurements 18 

Forest computation 18 

Forest maps 19 

Forest management 19 

Timber sales 19 

Working plans 21 

Timber tresp.ass 21 

Inspection 21 

Cooperation with private owners 21 

Woodlots 22 

Working plans for timber tracts 22 

State cooperative studies 23 

Other studies 24 

Work for the ensuing year 24 

Timber sales 24 

Cooperative 25 

Forest extension 25 

Reserve planting 25 

San Gabriel Forest Reserve (Henninger's Flat Station) 26 

Dismal River Forest Reserve (Halsey Station) , 26 

Pikes Peak Forest Reserve (Clyde and Bear Creek stations) 27 

Santa Barbara Forest Reserve (San Marcos Station) 27 

Gila Forest Reserve (Fort Bayard Station) 27 

Salt Lake Forest Reserve (Wasatch Station) 28 

Garden City Forest Reserve 28 

Black Hills Forest Reserve 28 

Wichita Game Reserve 28 

Seed collecting 28 

Reconnaissance 29 

Office work 29 

Cooperative planting 29 

Planting plans 29 

Present status of cooperative planting 30 

3 



4 CONTENTS. 

Forest extension — Continued. t-age. 

Special investigations 31 

Cooperative experimental planting 31 

Planting leaflets and addresses 32 

Work for the ensuing year 32 

Cooperative planting 32 

Reserve planting 32 

Dendrology 33 

Turpentine investigations 33 

Forest distribution and resources 34 

Basket willows 34 

Trees of the Pacific States 34 

Care of street and park trees 35 

Forest herbarium 35 

Forest library 35 

Forest photographic collection 35 

Expositions 36 

Work for the ensuing year 36 

Forest products 36 

Wood preservation 36 

Dendro-chemistry 37 

Timber tests 38 

Lumber trade 39 

Work for the coming year 41 

Record 42 

Accounts 42 

Supplies 42 

Photographic laboratory 42 

Quarters 43 

Correspondence 43 

Stenography and typewriting 43 

Mailing lists 43 



EEPOKT OF THE FORESTER. 



U. S. Department or Agriculture, 

Forest Service, 
Washington, D. C, November 15, 1906. 
Sir : I have the honor to transmit herewith a report of the v^ork of 
the Forest Service for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1906, together 
with an outline of the plans for the work of the Service for the 
eurreiit fiscal 3'ear. 

Respectfully, Giitord Pinchot, 

Forester. 
Hon. Ja:\ies Wilsox, Secretary. 



SUMMARY. 

The most important facts concerning the Forest Service during the 
past year were: 

A marked improvement in the efficiency of the force on the forest 
reserves, due to the progressive education of the men in their duties 
and the removal of incompetent or otherwise undesirable members. 

A marked increase in cooperation between office and field men and 
the disappearance of any divergence in their points of vieAv and atti- 
tude toward the common work. In this all the offices of the Service 
have cooperated, but special mention should be made of the Office of 
Record. 

The collection for the first time of a fee for grazing on the forest 
reserves. After the first protests, unavoidable but remarkably few in 
number, the fees were paid without friction or ill will, thanks in large 
part to the appointment of advisory boards by local associations of 
stockmen at the invitation of the Forest Service. 

A remarkable increase in the amount of timber sold from the forest 
reserves and given away in free use, and a still more remarkable 
decrease in forest fires. But three-tenths of 1 per cent of the forest 
reserves suffered from fire during the summer of 1905. 

A very striking increase in the use of the reserves by the people of 
the West and in their good will and support to the forest policy. 
Opposition to the forest reserves is substantially at an end. It has 
been replaced by a rapidly growing cooperation and approval. 

It is due to members of the Forest Service to say that, in spite of 
the greatly increased responsibilities and pressure of other work 
which followed the transfer of the forest reserves to the care of the 
Forest Service, they contributed notably to the Avork of the assistant 
comiriittees of the Committee on Department Methods. 

5 



DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 



PTTBLICATION AND EDUCATION. 



There was received in this section 40 manuscripts, containing, in 
all, 1,981 typewritten pages. Of these manuscripts 29 were sent to the 
printer, 3 were returned to the originating offices for forwarding to 
persons outside the Service, 3 were returned or withdrawn for emen- 
dation or the addition of further matter, and 5 were found unavaila- 
able for publication. 

There were also prepared 17 original articles as memoranda for 
reports, addresses, and similar purposes. 

Proofs of 38 publications, aggregating 892 printed pages, were 
handled. 

On March 12 this section was assigned the preparation of printing 
requests and care of the file and record of routine printing, including 
the review of all forms. During the remainder of the year 255 
printing requests were made out. The total number of printing 
requests for the year was 795. 

Nine new publications were issued, with a total of 198,000 copies. 
BviUetins issued were: Forest Reserves in Idaho; A Working Plan 
for Forest Lands in Central Alabama; and Grades and Amount of 
Lumber Sawed from Yellow Poplar, Yellow Birch, Sugar Maple, 
and Beech. Of circulars of information there were issued: The 
Forest Service — What It Is, and How It Deals with Forest Prob- 
lems; Forest Planting in the Sand-Hill Region of Nebraska; In- 
structions for Use of Instruments in Surveying; Revised Regula- 
tions and Instructions iii Reference to Grazing; and The Use Book. 
Four reprints of Yearbook articles were issued: How to Grow 
Young Trees for Forest Planting ; Waste in Logging Southern Yel- 
low Pine ; Prolonging the Life of Telephone Poles ; and Progress of 
Forestry in 1905. Reprints of 24 bulletins, 15 circulars, and 6 Year- 
book extracts were made, with a total of 191,000 copies. 

On June 30, 1906, 3 bulletins and 2 circulars were in the hands of 
the printer. 

During the year 58 press bulletins were prepared and issued, with 
a total circulation of 406,100 copies. 

There were printed, for use in supplementing correspondence, 11 
forest planting leaflets, with a total circulation of 27,000 copies. 
Near the close of the year a series of trade bulletins, embodying news 
of a technical nature, was begun. 

Educational work thru addresses was greatly extended during 
the year, both in the number of meetings held and in the territory 
covered. Systematic work was carried on in Kansas, Oklahoma, 
and Alabama, and 23 individual meetings were addrest upon special 
request in 14 States and 1 Territory. Many of these addresses were 
illustrated by lantern slides. On several occasions a representative 
of the Service accompanied the " corn specials " which were run to 
carry exhibits of progressive farm methods. 

WORK OF THE C03IING YEAR. 

Besides handling printing requests, reviewing all forms and other 
work submitted for printing, reading proofs, revising manuscripts, 
and preparing such occasional articles as may be required, the work 
of the coming year will spread information concerning our forest 



iUKEBT SERVICE. 7 

resources and forest use thru making ready special publications in 
popular form, thru cooperation with teachers and officers of public 
instruction, and thru further systematization and extension of lec- 
tures and addresses. 

SILVICS. 

The work of the year in Silvics followed two main lines — collect- 
ing, critically examining, and systematically organizing • the data 
already gathered by past studies of the Forest Service or accessible 
from other sources, and establishing permanent sample plots for 
gathering new data. 

A knowledge of the requirements of the various species which 
form the forests of the United States, and of their behavior under 
varying conditions, is the foundation of intelligent forest manage- 
ment. Yet the vastness of our forested area, the wide range of cli- 
matic and other conditions, and the great number of species found 
make the gathering of this knowledge a huge task, which systematic 
study by foresters has only begun to attack. The problems of man- 
agement which the care of the national forests imposes upon the 
Service makes the need of such laiowledge urgent. 

During the year data were compiled for 67 species. Their range, 
rate of growth, light, moisture, and soil requirements, reproduction, 
and behavior in pure stands and in competition with other species 
were among the subjects treated. At the same time notes were gath- 
ered as to the silvical conditions of 41 of the forest reserves. 

Work on permanent sample plots was done chiefly on loblolly pine 
in South Carolina and Maryland, white pine in Massachusetts and 
NeAV Hampshire, and red spruce in New Hampshire. A less amount 
of work was done on thinnings in chestnut coppice in mixture with 
white and red oak and other species in Connecticut; on yellow 
birch in mixture with paper birch, sugar maple, black cherry, and 
other species in New Hampshire, and on scrub pine in Maryland. 

The study of loblolly pine in Maryland was to learn, first, what 
different densities of seedling stands will produce, and what consti- 
tutes a full stand; second, the effects of thinnings in even-aged 
stands at various stages. Separate series of plots were established in 
pure stands on several different soils. A few plots were taken in 
stands where loblolly was growing in mixture with hardwoods. 
The plots are in Worcester County, where the growth is rapid, where 
the greater part of the land is probably better suited for growing 
pine than for agriculture, and where much land formerly under culti- 
vation is now going back into even-aged stands of loblolly. 

The South Carolina plots deal also with the effects of fire. 

The white pine plots in Massachusetts and New Hampshire will 
furnish data concerning thinnings in young stands, the effect of 
thinning upon partially supprest trees and their ability to recover 
after the removal of larger trees, and thinning in an overcrowded 
stand of pine. 

WORK or THE COMING YEAR. 

New sample plots will be laid out in the North and Middle Atlantic 
States. Data will be gathered concerning red spruce, balsam, white 
pine, and mixt hardwoods. Among the subjects of investigation will 
be the effect of different methods of planting, thinning, and lumber- 
ing upon the present and future forest. 



8 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

LAW. 

During the year highly satisfactory progress was made in the legal 
work of the Forest Service. Actions for trespass were better handled 
than before; settlements for trespass were secured in large amounts 
and upon conditions just both to the Government and the trespasser, 
and cooperation between the Forest Service and the United States 
district attorneys was made effective. Trespassers who refused to 
make adequate settlement were refused privileges upon the reserves. 
The general result was to reduce the number of court prosecutions 
and to collect damages of $39,224.96 for the year. 

In a few aggravated cases suits were brought and resulted in settle- 
ments for damage, ejectment from the forest reserve, restraining 
injunctions, fines, and imprisonment. A supervisor in southern Cali- 
fornia was convicted for continued falsification of his accounts prior 
to the transfer of the forest reserves to the Department of Agricul- 
ture, and was sentenced to three years' imprisonment, Avith a fine of 
$7,00(). Immediately upon the creation of the Hell Gate Forest Ee- 
serve a timber trespass was discovered and stopt, and tho the damages 
were settled for nearly $20,000, it is worthy of note that this tres- 
passer has since purchased $200,000 worth of timber from the same 
reserve. 

Thru the Section of Law the Forest Ser\'ice asserted the right to 
charge for use of forest resei've resources, contrary to the position 
previously held in the Interior Department. The Attorney-General 
upheld this right, which is the basis for all forest -reser\'e receipts 
except those from timber, amounting to $522,306.47 during the fiscal 
year of 1906. This decision was and is of extreme importance. 

The transfer of the forest reserves made it necessary to determine 
the respective jurisdictions of the Departments of the Interior and 
of Agriculture. After long and careful consideration it was agreed 
that the administration of all laws affecting the title to forest-reserve 
land remained with the Department of the Interior, and that of 
other laws, which govern the administration, protection, and use of 
the forest reserves, fall to the Secretary of Agriculture. The co- 
operation made necessary by this division of jurisdiction was con- 
ducted thru the Section of Law. A thoro study was therefore 
required of all the public-land I&wh and previous administrative regu- 
lations, and particularly of right-of-way and land claims of all kinds. 

The President expressly asked both the Secretaries of Agriculture 
and the Interior to cooperate fully in the administration of laws 
affecting forest reserves. Accordingly certain modifications of policy 
and practise were secured to protect Government rights and inter- 
ests and to give effect to the intent of Congress in its later land legis- 
lation. The following necessary and important changes followed: 

(1) The acceptance of the Forester's finding of facts concerning 
land claims within forest reserves. (2) Definite notice to be given 
by the General Land Office to the Forest Service of a claimant's 
intention to make final proof. (3) Refusal by the General Land 
Office to issue final certificate or allow final entry for any land claim 
within a forest reserve, against which a forest officer has protested, 
until full hearing before the local land officers. (4) The require- 
ment of such stipulation and bond as the Forester may demand to 
protect foi'est-reserve interests before the approval of rights of way 



_ _ SERVICE. 9 

within forest reserves. (5) The recognition of the right of the 
Government to withdraw from all appropriation areas within forest 
reserves needed for administrative use. (G) The right of the Gov- 
ernment to witlidraw specific land from coal entrv. (7) The right 
of the Government to withdraw for public use land already with- 
drawn or reserved, when the purposes of the two withdrawals are 
not inconsistent. (8) The principle that withdrawals for prospec- 
tive forest reserves do not interfere with the use of the land, except 
to save the title to the Government. (9) The right of the Secretary 
of the Interior to investigate and determine the \alidity of mining 
locations or settlement claims, especially on forest reserves, prior to 
entry or application in his Department. 

The Section of Law scrutinized all contracts before they past to the 
Forester for his signature, and constantly advised other officers of the 
Forest Service upon matters involving questions of law. 

Many acts and joint resolutions affecting the Forest Service were 
past by the Fifty-ninth Congress at its first session, and approved 
by the President, which may be briefly summarized as follows: 

Provisions of the homestead laws extended to certain lands in Yel- 
lowstone Forest Reserve (.34 Stat. L., 62). Permit granted to the 
Edison Electric Company for power plants in the San Bernardino, 
San Gabriel, ancl Sierra Forest reserves (3-1 Stat. L., 103). Cutting, 
chipping, or boxing of trees on the public lands for turpentine for- 
bidden (34 Stat. L., 208). Historic and prehistoric ruins, monu- 
ments, and objects of antiquity, many of them on forest reserves, pro- 
tected; permits for excavation and collection (34 Stat. L., 225). 
Agricultural lands in forest reserves to be examined for opening 
under the homestead laws (34 Stat. L., 233). Lands granted to the 
State of "Wisconsin for forestry purposes (34 Stat. L., 517). A game 
preserve within the Grand Canyon Forest Reserve to be designated 
by the President (34 Stat. L., 607). The forest reserve special fund 
continued until otherwise provided by law ; to be expended after 
June 30, 1908, only in accordance with specific estimates for each 
succeeding fiscal year (34 Stat. L., 684). Ten per cent of receipts 
from forest reserves to be paid to the States for iDublic schools and 
roads in the counties in which the forest reserves are situated (34 
Stat. L., 684). Sales of forest-reserve timber in California made 
uniform with other States (34 Stat. L., 684). Exportation of timber 
from the forest reserves in Idaho ancl of dead and insect-infested 
timber from the Black Hills Forest Reserve authorized (34 Stat. L., 
684). Refund of excess payments to depositors authorized from 
forest reserve special fund (34 Stat. L., 684). Purchase of law books 
for the Forest Service authorized (34 Stat. L., 685). Fifteen thou- 
sand dollars apjDropriated for fence and sheds on the Wichita Forest 
Reserve for a buffalo herd (34 Stat. L., 696). Five thousand dollars 
appropriated to enable the Secretary of the Interior to pay the ex- 
pense of advertising the restoration to the public domain of lands in 
the forest reserves (34 Stat. L., 724). One hundred thousand dollars 
appropriated for continuation of the survey of public lands in the 
forest reserves (34 Stat. L., 728). Lands in Leadville Forest Reserve 
granted to the town of Tincup for cemetery purposes (34 Stat. L., 
796). Granting to the city of I.iOs Angeles rights of way for the city 
water supply thru the Santa Barbara, San Gabriel, and Sierra 
forest reserves (34 Stat. L., 801). The re-cession by the State of 

228b— 07 2 



10 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

California of the Yosemite Valley grant and the Mariposa Big Tree 
Grove accepted, and these lands included in the Yosemite National 
Park ; certain lands excluded from the park and added to the Sierra 
Forest Reserve (34 Stat. L., 831). Protecting copyrighted matter 
in Bulletin No. 71, " Rules and specifications for the grading of lum- 
ber adopted by the various lumber manufacturing associations of the 
United States " (34 Stat. L., 836). 

After the transfer of forest reserves to the Department of Agricul- 
ture there were increased efforts to secure rights on the reserves, both 
by perfecting title to the land and by obtaining special privileges and 
rights of waj\ Supervision of matters of this kind has been in the 
hands of a section called " Claims and Privileges," which, before the 
middle of the fiscal year, was, for administrative reasons, divided into 
two sections under the Section of Law in the Office of the Forester. 
On July 1, 1906, the sections of Law, Claims, and Privileges were 
combined to make the Office of Law. 

CLAIMS. 

From February 1, 1906, to the end of the fiscal year 486 claims 
reports were obtained from the field and transmitted to the General 
Land Office with recomniendations. 

Steps were successfully taken to secure an investigation of alleged 
fraudulent mining claims in the difi^erent forest reserves, in one of 
which an association of eight persons has located 265,000 am'es under 
the placer mining laws. Until the validity of these locations has been 
determined the Forester can neither sell nor grant the free use of tim- 
ber from them, while the locators are restrained by law from cutting 
timber except to develop the particular claim where it grows. Under 
these conditions the business of this locality must stagnate, for few 
of these claims can be worked for mineral. The Secretary of the Inte- 
rior has detailed three geologists, an attorney, and a special agent to 
examine the validity of these locations, in cooperation with an attor- 
ney from the Section of Law. 

The Section of Claims handles in the office all applications under 
the agricultural settlement act of June 11, 1906. Applications under 
this law to July 1 indicate that their number will finally reach well 
into the thousands. Steps were taken to examine the land as 
promptly as possible. 

The Section of Claims furnished information to all branches of the 
Forest Service concerning title to lands in established or proposed 
forest reserves. 

PRIVILEGES. 

The Section of Privileges has received an ever increasing number 
of privilege applications. After this section was joined to the Section 
of Law a carefullj^ considered effort was made to restore, as far as 
necessary, the policies under which privileges should be granted, 

The underlying principles to be followed, set forth in the first edi- 
tion of the Use Book, were : 

(1) That forest reserve resources are for the use of the people and 
no privileges will be denied unless their exercise materially inter- 
feres with reserve interests or threatens harm to the public. 



FOREST SERVICE. 11 

(2) That a reasonable charge should be made for all such use 
whenever the permit involves withdrawal of the particular resource 
or land from use by the people in general. 

(3) The charge, however, may probably be remitted (a) when the 
use granted will result in direct benefit to the forest reserve or its 
administration, as with telephone lines, wagon roads, trails, etc.; 
(&) when the use is by another branch of the Government, by a State, 
county, or municipality, or by private individuals or associations of 
persons for the use of water to develop their own land and not to be 
sold commercially. 

The basis upon which charges in connection with the use of water 
should be calculated was definitely determined as follows : 

(1) A charge per mile for the length of the ditches, conduits, pipe 
lines, transmission lines, etc. This applies when no greater width is 
allowed than that actually necessary at any one point for the enjoy- 
ment of the privilege. 

(2) A charge per acre for land actually granted for occupancy, as 
areas flooded by reservoirs, land for power houses, residences, hotels, 
fenced pastures, etc. 

(3) A charge for the conservation of the water supply and the use 
of advantageous locations and other privileges. The water itself 
is granted by the State, not by the United States. 

Thus, in a permit for a project to develop electricity the charge 
would be based upon : First, the length of the conduits, transmission 
lines, etc. ; second, the area occupied by power houses, reservoirs, etc. ; 
third, the conservation of the water supply and the advantageous 
location which makes it possible to obtain a fall to turn the water- 
wheel. The policy assumes that amount of water used is a proper 
measure of its conservation by the forest reserve, and that the horse- 
power developed at the wheel, since it results from the water con- 
served and from the fall furnished, is a proper measure of the entire 
conservation furnished by the Forest Service to the permittee. 

During the fiscal year just ended 965 privilege applications were 
received. Of this number 662 were approved, 35 were rejected, and 
268 were awaiting reports from the forest supervisors, either because 
recently received or because depth of snow prevented intelligent field 
examination. 

The work of the Section of Law during the past year was of the 
utmost advantage to the Forest Service. 

FOREST BESERVES. 

During the past year the chief effort of the Forest Service was to 
increase the usefulness of the National forest reserves. Definite 
progress was made along the following main lines : 

(1) The division of the reserves into three districts, with an officer 
in charge of the organization, equipment, protection, and other 
purely administrative matters for each district. These district offi- 
cers are stationed in Washington, directly under the Forester, and 
act thru him. They cooperate in all matters under their charge with 
the various offices of the Service. The chiefs of these offices issue 
instructions in their own lines of work to all field officers on the 
forest reserves in all matters except such as require action by the For- 
ester. To insure imiformity of action and to avoid possible conflict. 



12 DEPARTMENTAL EEPOKTS. 

all instructions and letters from the separate offices pass over the 
desk of the district officer concerned. In questions involving sub- 
jects in more than one office a decision is reached thru cooperation. 

(2) The organization of the inspection, both of the technical and 
business management of the forest reserves and of all other branches 
of the Forest Service. The section of inspection was not intended to 
reduce the actual supervision of field work by the separate offices, but 
to concentrate general inspection directly under the Forester. As 
rapidly as practicable, men ■\^ho by special training and experience 
are fitted to inspect forest work, in one or more of its branches, were 
assigned to the Section of Inspection. The inspectors in no case give 
orders, but make themselves useful on the ground by consultation 
with the men Avhose work they inspect. They report directly to the 
Forester on the efficiency and integrity of the personnel. 

(3) Marked improvement in all branches of forest reserve work, 
resulting from the assignment of specific duties upon the reserves to 
each office in the Service within its own field. 

(4) Greatly increased responsibility laid upon reserve officers. 
As rapidly as possible the duties of the AVashington office toward 
the forest reserves are being reduced to general administration, scien- 
tific investigations, inspection, and record. 

(5) The publication of a second edition of The Use Book, or 
regulations and instructions for the use of the National forest 
reserves, in which the whole service cooperated. This edition shows 
a gratifying advance over the first edition in simplicity and the 
practical application of general policies to the settlement of ques- 
tions on the ground, and goes far to standardize technical methods 
on the forest reserves. It has greatly promoted the use of the 
reserves. 

(6) Increase in the spirit and effectiveness of the reserve force by 
constant intercourse between field and office, by the vigorous appli- 
cation of civil-service rules, by the removal of unfit members of the 
force, and by frequent inspection, which gives help and encourage- 
ment to local officers. 

Six supervisor's meetings were held at convenient points, whose 
attendance included nearly all forest supervisors. At these meet- 
ings the regulations and instructions of The Use Book were fully 
explained, and unsettled questions arising in the local administra- 
tion of the forest reserves were thoroly discust. 

The total area of National forest reserves on June 30, 1905, was 
85,693,422 acres. During the past fiscal year new reserves have been 
created, with a total area of 21,586,957 acres (including additions to 
existing reserves amounting to 9,163,458 acres), and eliminations 
Avere made to the extent of 281,241 acres. The total area on June 30, 
1906, was therefore 106,999,138 acres. 



F0BK8T SERVICE. 



13 



Forest reserves, showing new reserves, additions, and eliminations, July 1, 1905, 

to June 30, 1906. 



state. 


Reserve. 


Area July 1, 
1905. 


Changes in area by procla 
mations, July 1, 1905, to 
June 30, 1906. 


New reserves 

and addi- 

tiona. 


Elimina- 
tions. 




Tonto 


Acres. 


Acres. 
1.115,200 
371, 360 


Acres. 




Black Mesa 


1,658,880 

423,680 

2,307,520 

1,975,310 

387,300 

155,520 

118,600 

169, 600 

45, 760 












Grand Canyon 
















Santa Rita 








Santa Catalina. 
















Chiricahua 


















626, 724 

658, 160 

702, 502 

1,377,126 






Sierra . .. 


4,392,840 
136, 335 


1 066 










Shasta 








655,520 


125 




Yuba 


524, 287 
335, 195 
363, 360 






Monterey 


















627, 780 

1,838,323 

737, 120 

668, 160 

109,920 

306, 518 

288,218 

579, 520 

1,243,042 

1,896,313 

897,115 
























































































990, 720 

29, 602 

7,680 






La Sal 


















797,720 

847, 968 

970, 880 

321,227 

901, 270 

1,219.947 

1,155,909 

1,437,406 

757,116 

239, 621 

1,133,330 

576, 719 

478, 111 

6M,499 

179, 200 

324,964 






































Tipadville 














































































Idaho 


Weiser 


734, 556 
415,360 














3,860,960 

541, 160 
49,920 

177, 960 
1, 947, ,520 

798, 720 
1,460,960 

326,160 
































































97,280 
188, 800 

82, 560 

630,260 

1, 581, 120 

848, 340 

782, 160 








770,000 
501,000 






T.ittlp "Rplt 






















40, 320 














1,229,680 
691, 920 

4,670,720 
45,080 
186,240 








































347,170 








123,779 
85,123 
















59, 115 
423,660 
496, 860 












New Mexico 


Gila 


2,327,040 





14 



DEPAETMENTAL KEPOETS. 



Forest reserves, showing new reserves, additions, eliminations, etc. — Continued. 





Reserve. 


Area, July 1, 
1906. 


Changes In area by procla- 
mations, July 1, 1905, to 
June 30, 1906. 




New reserves 
and addi- 
tions. 


Elimina- 
tions. 


New Mexico— Cont'd, 




Avres. 


Acres. 
172, 680 
196,404 

1,237,205 


Acres. 




600,000 


161,148 








Pecos River '. 


430,880 

67,120 

52,480 

142, 080 

4,424,440 

18,660 

747, 200 

413, 250 

220, 320 

54,220 






Wichita 


3,680 
2,623,140 


















Cascade Range ... 










2,660 












Wenaha 


























19,040 


160 




Black Hills 


1,163,320 

23,360 

68,160 

842,000 

111,600 


160 




Cave Hills 














Utah 


Uinta 


i, 376, 216 

66,680 
465,920 
363, 920 
193,280 

89,760 
261, 693 
128, 960 

68,800 
399,600 

86, 840 


69, 706 










Dixie 








357, 000 
584,640 
199,040 






Manti 


















La Sal . . 








Vernon 


















182, 080 

639,000 

68,960 

96, 440 

103,960 

1,943,520 

1, 466, 880 

3,952,840 

318,400 






Aquarius 




















WasMngton 


Priest River 








Mount Rainier 
























Wenaha 






Wyoming^ 


Uinta 


63,632 


59,036 






6,580,920 

46,440 

1, 161, 680 

418, 759 

403,640 

4,506,240 

65, 950 




Black HlUs 








Big Horn 














Alaska 










Alexander Archipelago 






Porto Rico 
















Total 


85,693,422 


21,686,957 


281,241 









» Baker City with additions, now Blue Mountains. 

On June 30, 1906, there were 82 officers in charge of 104,831,211 
acres, leaving only 10 reserves, with an area of 2,168,212 acres, not 
yet under organized administration. 

The field force on the reserves on July 1, 1905, consisted of 379 
rangers, 87 guards, and 5 forest assistants (assigned as technical 



assistants to supervisors). 
By June 30, 1906, the 



force was increased to 511 rangers, 247 



guards, 18 forest assistants, and 30 laborers. On some of the reserves 
the volume of business made it necessary to give clerical assistance to 
the supervisor. 

The important work of providing rangers with headquarters was 
pushed as rapidly as the funds available would permit, and in all 92 
cabins were built at an average cost of $53. 

Good progress was made in building trails, which greatly simplified 
and improved the patrol of the reserves. 



FOREST SERVICE. 15 

A decided advance was made in establishing and marking the 
boundaries of reserves, in cooperation with the United States Geo- 
logical Survey. This work is essential to the discovery and preven- 
tion of trespass. 

The damage done by forest fires has been greatly lessened. Approx- 
imately 279,000 acres were burned over— less than three-tenths of 1 
per cent of the total area of the forest reserves. 

On the passage of the act, on June 11, 1906, providing for the set- 
tlement of agricultural lands in the reserves, arrangements were 
immediately made for the examination, as provided in the law, of 
the lands applied for, by a corps of men especially qualified for the 
work. 

The examination of lands for proposed reserves and additions to 
and ehminations from existing reserves has gone on rapidly. More 
than 30 million acres were examined during the year. 

INSPECTION. 

The work of the Section of Inspection during the past vear aided 
greatly in increasing the effectiveness of the reserve force, both upon 
existing reserves and in organizing administration upon new reserves. 
Forty-one reserves already under administration were thoroly in- 
spected, and inspectors assisted greatly also in the organization of the 
reserve force upon 10 new reserves. The number of inspectors was 
increased during the year from 8 to 14. 

ad:ministration. 

Under the new organization described above, the following reserve 
districts were established: 

Northern District: Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota, 
Minnesota. 

Southern District: Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Ne- 
braska, Kansas, Oklahoma. 

Western District: Washington, Oregon, California, Alaslta. 

Of the 93 reserves in existence on July 1, 1905, 77, with a total area 
of 73,565,691 acres, were under administration, in charge of 54 super- 
visors or other officers. During the year 31,265,520 acres were placed 
under administration, with an increase of 28 officers in charge. 

GBAZING ON THE RESERVES. 

RANGE CONDITIONS. 

The crop of forage on the forest reserves was better during the 
past season than for years before. Favorable climatic conditions 
resulted in an abundance of early feed, and the lamb crop was the 
largest reported for many years. Altho some ranges have in the past 
been overstocked, the large amount of feed now on the ranges will 
probably make unnecessary any very great reductions next spring. 

The abundance of feed outside of the reserves has, in some locali- 
ties, lessened the demand for forest-reserve range, and has made the 
settlement of controversies in new reserves easier than it would other- 
wise have been. Yet in the old reserves the regular users applied for 
permits to graze about the same number of stock as the jDrevious 
year. 



16 



DEPARTMENTAL EBPORTS. 



The control of grazing has brought a marked improvement in 
range conditions on a number of the reserves, and there is no longer 
any doubt that a large part of the forage crop which was formerly 
wasted by improper handling of the stock is now saved and utilized. 

Range conditioris in general are very satisfactory, and the stock- 
men are enjojang a prosperity which gives them confidence in the 
future. 

GRAZING FEES. 

The announcement that a moderate charge would be made for 
grazing on the reserves after January 1, 1906, roused objection in 
some localities. INIeetings were held and petitions were presented 
asking for modifications in the rates, and in a few cases for the 
entire remission of the fee. 

By firm yet considerate action on the part of the Forest Service, 
and with the strong support of yourself and the President, all seri- 
ous conflict was avoided. Stockmen realized the benefits of a proper 
system of range control, and have shown willingness to bear a just 
portion of the expense. When the regulations were modified better 
to meet existing conditions and a one-half rate was given to settlers 
for a limited number of cattle, all active opposition to the grazing fee 
ceased, and it has been paid almost everywhere without complaint. 

The total amount received for fees on grazing permits during the 
year was $514,086.74, of which about two-fifths was on account of 
permits for cattle and horses and three-fifths for sheep and goats. 

PERMITS ISSUED. 

The creation df 38 reserves available for grazing under regula- 
tion during the past season, and large additions to 14. of the old re- 
serves, added greatly to the carrying capacity of the forest ranges. 
Slight increases in the number of stock were made in some of the 
older reserves, where the range conditions showed a marked im- 
provement, and in others, after careful investigation, new areas were 
opened. In some of the newer reserves, where the range has been 
overstocked, reductions were made in the number allowed. 

In the 92 reserves which were under administration before May 1 
a total of 18,040 applications for grazing permits were approved by 
the forest officers in charge, and 16,593 permits were issued, as 
follows : 





Cattle and horses. 


Sheep and goats. 


state or Territory. 


Number 
of per- 
mits. 


Number of 
stock for 
summer 
season. 


Number of 

stock for 

year-long 

season. 


Number 
of per- 
mits. 


Number of 
stock for 
summer 
season. 


Arizona 


581 

1,979 

2,774 

385 

16 

1,373 

62 

878 

37 

915 

433 

3,376 

512 

772 


30,096 

132, 2E6 

231, 060 

29, 053 

3,245 

93,514 

26, 808 

10,274 

384 

75, 666 

13,041 

93,255 

26,520 

86,643 


67,718 

20,529 

8,605 

531 


87 
190 
185 
182 


347, 208 


California . 


403 688 




420,009 
878, 550 


Idaho 






6,862 
405 
53,454 
2,153 
1,242 


79 


249,908 


Nebraska 




234 


312,035 


Okialioma 


Oregon 


352 


1,124,539 


Soutli I)akota 


Utah 


294 
1,209 
2,443 


888 
108 
195 


1,148,771 
282,793 
694,699 




Wyoming 




Total 


14,093 


849,703 


165,445 


2,600 


5,762,200 





FOREST SERVICE. 17 

The total number of sheep and goats includes about 3,000,000 
lambs and kids, which in the issuance of permits have been counted as 
equal to 1,500,000 grown animals, leaving a net number of 4,262,200 
grown sheep and goats covered by permit. 

Onh'^ 1,447, or 8 per cent, of the applicants failed to pay the fees 
and accept the permits applied for, and many of these will make pay- 
ment before the close of the season. The ' abundance of feed out- 
side of the reserves was one cause of the failure to use permits. 

In reserves established or put under administration after May 1, 
all stock on the reser\e ranges at the time of their creation or whose 
owners had regularly used the range during previous vears were al- 
lowed to graze without permit during the season of 1906. 

CEOSSING PEElVtITS. 

Applications were made by 244 owners or lessees of private lands 
withi?-! ;^0 of the reserves for the privilege of driving a total of 18,823 
head of cattle and horses and 118,438 head of sheep across reserve 
lands to reach 574,397 acres of private land. In 177 cases the OAvners 
of the land made special agreements waiving the right to the ex- 
clusive use of 387,930 acres of this land, and allowing all stock per- 
mitted to graze on the reserve to enter upon it. In exchange for 
this concession, permits wQre issued allowing the number of stock 
the private land would support to be grazed upon the reserve free 
of charge. 

Under the regulation allowing stock to be driven across, reserve 
lands in transit between summer and winter ranges and to reach 
points of shipment, 259 permits were issued by the officers in charge 
of 29 reserves for the crossing of 12,696 head of cattle and horses and 
693,540 head of sheep. , 

No permit is required for stock which is driven along the public 
highway or when reserve lands will not be grazed upon en route. 

QUARANTINE AND IjIVE-STOCK LAWS. 

The Bureau of Animal Industry has required all sheep permitted 
to graze upon the forest reserves of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, 
Utah, and Idaho' to be inspected before entering the reserves, and to 
be dipt when they were found to have been exposed to or infested 
with scab. In South Dakota this inspection was made to include 
cattle, and all diseased stock were debarred from entering the reserves. 

In most cases stockmen willingly complied with quarantine regula- 
tions and marlied improvement in health of stock has followed. Con- 
tinued enforcement of strict quarantine will entirely eradicate disease 
from the reserve ranges. 

In several of the reserves the forest officers have rendered valu- 
able assistance to the stockmert in the enforcement of local live-stock 
laws, particularly as to the grade and number of bulls turned upon 
the range and the prevention of loss by theft. 

GRAZING TRESPASS. 

There has been little trespass by grazing without permit. Except 
where the trespass was wilful, settlement by the payment of reason- 
able damages has been accepted. When the trespass required exem- 
plary action or when reasonable propositions of settlement were 

228b— 07 3 



18 DEPARTMSliTAL aairijalo. 

rejected by the trespassers, the Department of Justice was asked to 
secure an injunction to prevent the stock from entering the reserve, 
and to bring suit for damages. 

In a few of the new reserves, where the regulations were not under- 
stood or stockmen did not realize that they must be obeyed, stock 
which entered without permit was allowed to remain on payment of 
double the regular grazing fee. This method of settlement was 
received as fair and right. It has inflicted no serious hardship, 
while it has shown that the regulations must be obeyed and that forest 
reserve control means real protection to the range. 

Occasionally stock trespassed upon closed areas or upon range to 
which it was not assigned. Where such trespass was wilful the per- 
mit was canceled, a portion of the stock was removed from the reserve, 
and the amount paid for grazing fees was forfeited. 

DEPREDATIONS OP WILD ANIMALS. 

The loss of cattle in Wyoming and southern New Mexico during 
recent years from wolves has caused much alarm. It was thought by 
many that the wolves were breeding in the reserves, and that the pro- 
tection of game increased their number.. In response to an appeal, 
from stockmen, the Forest Service, in cooperation with the Biological 
Survey, is studying the habits of wolves and coyotes, the locations of 
their dens, and the most practical method for their extermination. It 
has already been found that the breeding grounds are not within the 
reserve^ but in the foothills outside, and that they simply follow the 
cattle into the mountains during the summer. A large number of 
dens were located and steps were taken to kill both the old and the 
young wolves. It is confidently believed that the result of this 
investigation will be of great benefit to live stock interests. 

LIVE STOCK ASSOCIATIONS. 

Some of the live stock associations organized by western stockmen 
for the protection of their joint interests sought during the year 
official recognition of advisory boards to confer with forest officers on 
grazing matters. Much had already been done by the attendance of 
forest officers at the meetings of these associations to promote a right 
understanding of the purposes of forest reserves, and the benefits to 
be derived from their proper use. The justice of this request for 
recognition was seen at once, and authority for it was given by the 
Secretary of Agriculture on March 31, 1906. Before the end of the 
fiscal year, advisory boards of live stock associations in Oregon, 
Wyoming, and Colorado had sought and received official recognition. 
Thru them, satisfactory solutions of local problems, which might have 
led to serious difficulty, have already been reached. A marked 
improvement in sentiment among stockmen has followed, and the 
cooperation of the live stock associations with the Forest Service to 
secure the very best use of the reserve ranges is made certain. 

rOKBST MEASUBEMENTS. 
EOREST COMPUTATION. 

The broadened activity of the Forest Service has materially in- 
creased the scope of the work of the section of forest computation, 
which undertakes the computation and final statement of all forest 



FOREST SERVICE. 



19 



measurements. During the year this section worked up results for 
7 working plans, 7 studies of commercial trees, 2 tallies of log prod- 
ucts, 2 reconnaissances of planting sites, 5 pole, 2 tie, and 1 cross-arm 
seasonmg experiments, and 13 miscellaneous projects. It included 
the computation of 5,517 valuation surveys, 27,700 tree analyses, 3,885 
seedhng analyses, 1,560 stump analyses, 13,156 height and 5,750 taper 
measurements, graded mill tallies of 14,300 logs, weights and measure- 
ments of 3,200 poles, 6,900 ties, and 10,800 cross-arms, and 18,700 
reports from manufacturers and consumers of wood, as well as the 
compilation of figures for the number of live stock on the reserves 
from approximately 16,500 grazing permits. 



FOREST 3IAPS. 

The section of forest maps is charged with the preparation of maps 
and drawings, and with the custody of those not needed for constant 
use. The work of the year included the completion of 1,128 maps, 
showing forest conditions of the forest reserves and of areas proposed 
for forest reserves, and illustrating working plans, planting plans, 
the distribution of trees and forests, the progress of logging, and 
many other subjects. Two hundred and one drawings were made, 
illustrative of methods, appliances, experiments, and results in many 
branches of forest work. One thousand seven hundred and sixty 
maps were mounted and 2,408 maps supplied to the field from outside 
sources. 

FOREST MANAGEMEKTT. 
TIMBER SALES. 

In accordance with the policy which aims to satisfy every legiti- 
mate demand for the use of the forest reserves, more than five times 
as much timber was sold during the past fiscal year as during the 
previous one. The following table shows for each State the amount 
and value of the timber sold : 

Timher sold from July 1, 1905, to June 30, 1906. 



State or Territory. 


Feet B. M. 


Cords. 


Linear 
feet. 


Posts and 
poles. 


Value. 


Alaska 


2, 252, 616 
27, 596, 349 
10,302,282 
27,281,829 

S,.S58,102 
53, 512, 895 

1, 024, 356 


1,132 

5,977 

430 

19,900 

2,123 

7,072 

8,321 

3 

291 

29, 328 

2,025 

1,997 

1,580 


43, 229 




Jl,423.80 
70, 126. 28 
13,170.57 
38,531.84 
13,381.50 
109,560.94 
3,761.10 
12 00 


Arizona 


1,200 

57, 600 

29, 913 

16,407 

151, 119 

7,110 

100 

100 

42,4.50 

1,100 

2,100 

3,850 






Colorado 




Idaho 




Montana 


61,012 
38, 921 




Oklahoma 




438,500 

72,951,730 

10, 677, 484 

1, 989, 500 

71,255,683 


80,000 


710. 85 


South Dakota 


85 265 87 


Utah 




14, 715. 35 


Washington 




2, 877. 50 
147,408.16 










Total 


28S, 140, 826 


80, 179 


223,162 


313,049 


600, 945. 76 



The time allowed for cutting was from one to five years, and much 
of the timber sold has not yet been cut. Receipts for timber actually 
cut and removed amounted to $242,668.23. 



20 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

In every case the cutting of live timber Tinder sale, or for free use, 
was allowed only after careful study on the ground which showed 
that the timber applied for could be cut without injury to the forest 
or the water supply, and indicated the best method of cutting to 
insure another growth of timber and safeguard the permanent forest 
cover. Applications for the i^urchase of reserve timber called for 
detailed examinations during the year of over 100,000 acres. 

Only trees marked for removal by the forest ofEcers were allowed 
to be cut. Contracts for the sale of timber stipulate that all brush 
and debris caused by logging shall be piled in openings for burning, 
and other precautions are taken to protect the forest from fires during 
logging. Complete utilization of all merchantable parts of the trees 
is enforced by requiring the cutting of Ioav stumps, the sawing of 
logs well into the tops, and the use of all material of value for any 
purpose. Forms of waste such as the use of thrifty trees for skid- 
poles and corduroy and the destruction of promising young growth 
by careless felling are prevented by close supervision. Payment for 
timber sold is always required on the basis of the actual scale, and 
scaling is always done by the forest officers. 

Small sales greatly ouhiumber?d large sales. Over 100 sales each 
of less than 5,000,000 feet were made for every sale of more than that 
amount. A marked improvement took place in the prompt consider- 
ation of applications for the purchase of timber, especially in small 
amounts. 

The largest sales ^^'ere made in the lodgepole pine forest of the 
Rocky Mountains in Wyoming and Montana. Lodgepole pine 
occurs at high altitudes and in inaccessible locations, and is very 
largely within the forest reserves. The success with which it is 
being treated chemically has created a great demand for lodgepole 
pine ties by the railroads in the Northwest. This demand and the 
increased value of timber of every description has made a strong 
market for this tree, which but recently was considered valueless and 
in many localities is still so regarded. The prices of lodgepole stump- 
age ranged from $2 to $5 per thousand feet. 

Encouraging progress was made during the year in disposing of 
dead and beetle-infested timber on the Black Hills Forest Reserve in 
South Dakota. Sales A^'ere made to the amount of 73,000,000 board 
feet, for which over $85,000 will be realized. The only way to con- 
trol the beetle is to cut the infested trees while the insects are still 
in them. A special eflcrt is being made to sell, before it decays, the 
large amount of timber which has already been killed. 

In Colorado and Utah sales were largely confined to fire-killed 
timber, of which there are vast amounts in the mineral districts. 
The demand for dead timber comes largely from the mines, and from 
operators of small sawmills, which supply towns and ranches located 
away from the railroads. 

In Arizona and New Mexico, timber was mostly sold in small 
quantities to mines and small mills. Twenty-five million board feet 
Avere sold at from $2.50 to $3 stumpage on the San Francisco Moun- 
tains Forest Reserve, where a very large amount of mature timber, 
within easy reach of railroad transportation, can be cut without 
injury to the forest. 

In the Pacific Coast States the demand for timber has been sup- 
plied almost entirely from forests in the hands of private owners, and 
sales from the reserves were small. 



FOREST SERVICE. 21 



WORKING FLAWS. 



The Forest Service prepares detailed Avorking plans for the con- 
servative use of the forest reserves as rapidly as its funds permit and 
trained men are available for the work. But the area "for which 
working plans can be prepared at present is small. Every timber 
sale entails a careful advance examination, including an estimate of 
the timber, the preparation of a forest map, a description of the 
forest, and regulations for the conduct of the logging. So urgent 
and so widely scattered is the demand for timber that the resources 
of the Service have been absorbed in caring for these sales, and few 
independent working plans have been attempted. 

The preparation of a working plan was begun for a large portion 
of the Henrys Lake Forest Reserve, in Idaho. The forest contains 
a very limited supply of mature timber, which is in great demand for 
the development of a rapidly growing agricultural community. 



TIMBER TRESPASS. 



Of the total of $242,668.23 received during the year from timber, 
$39,334.9fi was collected in settlement for timber trespass. This sum 
was in settlement chiefly of trespass on public lands afterwards 
thrown into reserves. As soon as a reserve is created and placed 
under administration, timber trespass practically ceases. 



INSPECTION. 



Systematic inspection of timber sales by a corps of special inspect- 
ors was organized earty in the year. The forest reserves Avere divided 
into districts and an inspector held responsible for the standard of 
the work in his district. Assistance and advice is given the local 
forest officers in initiating neAv sales and in the technical conduct of 
the cutting under current sales and free use. Inspectors report regu- 
larly to the Washington office the condition of timber-sale operations 
on the reserves within their districts. 

COOPERATION WITH PRIVATE OWNERS. 

During the papt year, 99 applications were received for advice and 
assistance in the management of small woodlots, comprizing an area 
of 8,068 acres, and 61 from owners of timber tracts covering an area 
of 761,965 acres. These applications came from 30 States and Terri- 
tories. The total area of private forest lands, in the management of 
which assistance has been asked, since the publication of Circular 21, 
is 11,717,269 acres, of which 37,326 acres is in woodlots. 

During the past year examinations were made of 54 timber tracts, 
in 26 States, covering a total of 2,076,085 acres. Detailed working 
plans were recommended and begun on 11 of these tracts; on the 
others final reports could be and were prepared with recommenda- 
tions for the conservative management and protection of the forest 
without making special working plans. This was a result of the 
knowledge of forest conditions thruout the country gathered by 
past work. On many of the tracts the recommendations have been 
already put into effect. 



22 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 



WOODLOTS. 



Working plans based on a thoro examination on the ground were 
prepared for 100 woodlots, with a total area of 7,104 acres, located 
in 16 States. The object of this work is to give free of cost to farmers 
and other small owners advice and assistance in the use and improve- 
ment of their woodlands. During the past year particular study 
was given to woodlots in southern Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana, in 
continuation of the work begun the previous year. The woodlots of 
this region present very different problems from those of the Atlan- 
tic States. The object was to collect information enough for a pub- 
lication on the problems and methods of treatment for woodlots in 
the Middle West. 

Inspection in New England was made to ascertain whether the 
recommendations of previous working plans have been carried out. 
It was found that they had been either in whole or in part, particu- 
larly for recent plans and where trees were actually marked for 
thinning. Woodlot working plans are no longer made without 
marking trees for thinning on sample areas. 



WORKING PLANS FOR TIMBER TRACTS. 



In New York three working plans were prepared, two for small 
tracts belonging to country estates, which yielded knowledge of the 
rate of growth of second-growth hardwoods, and one for a tract 
of 100,000 acres in the northern part of the State, which included a 
scheme of fire protection and a plan to correct the previous wasteful 
logging and lax supervision. In Michigan a working plan for a 
tract of 8,000 acres, maintained in connection with a summer resort, 
provided, by a system of selection cutting and of planting on un- 
stocked sandy areas, for a fair profit from the sale of timber com- 
bined with improved condition and appearajice of the forest. A plan 
for a tract of virgin hardwoods on coal lands in the Southern Appa- 
lachians, in Kentuclcy and Virginia, provided for maintaining a sup- 
ply of mining timbers, for marketing for other uses the mature timber 
of valuable kinds, and for reproduction of the best species after lum- 
bering; also for planting open areas with trees which will produce 
valuable lumber, such as black walnut and yellow poplar, and mine 
props; and it indicated simple but effective methods of protection 
against damage from grazing and fire. Lastly, on a tract of 27,000 
acres made up of small holdings of mixt pine forest in South Caro- 
lina, already heavily cut over, a study of the present and future values 
showed that in most cases it would pay to hold the timber rather than 
to cut it now. 

A combined fire-protection and Avorking plan was put into opera- 
tion upon a large tract in California. It aimed to prevent fires from 
starting by means of ]:)atrol along a carefully laid out route. Tele- 
phone and tool stations were located to strengthen the patrol. To 
check fires once started and furnish bases for back firing, broad fire 
lines on which the slash was burned were run thru the cut-over lands. 
The cost of all this was about 2 cents per acre per annum. 

Experiments were also made in slash burning. The character of 
the logging made it possible to burn the slash without piling, at a 
cost of only 1^ cents per thousand feet of timber logged. The plan 
was so successful in operation that it has been extended to all the 



FOREST SEEVICE. 23 

holdbigs of the company for which it was prepared. Virgin timber 
on the tract was marked for removal. A diameter limit of 30 inches 
left enough trees standing to insure a second cut. 

STATE COOPERATIVE STTJDIES. 

Cooperation was carried on during the year with California, New 
Hampshire, and North Carolina. 

The work in California included a commercial-tree study of white 
fir. a market study of the chief commercial trees, and an estimate of 
the North Calaveras grove of big trees. The latter was a careful 
estimate of the standing timber, both of sequoia and other species, on 
640 acres including and surrounding the North grove. 

A white-fir study in California was begun as part of a larger study 
undertaken by the Forest Service, in cooperation with the State, to 
ascertain the present uses and possible new uses of this tree. Tho 
not at present of great commercial value, the white fir is so abundant 
that to find better uses for it will greatly simplify the management of 
the Sierra forests. The work included a careful study of the silvics 
of the tree, its growth in height, diameter, and volume, its present 
uses, and methods for managing it on areas where it is the sole or 
the prevailing species. Its mechanical and physical properties will 
next be studied, and the possible use of the timber for pulpwood 
and other purposes will be determined. 

A market study in California covered the most important commer- 
cial trees of the Sierras. The cost of logging, milling, and trans- 
portation in typical forest regions thruout the State was determined, 
the value of forest land and the cost of protection and taxes were 
studied, and the average cost of manufacture and the prices obtained 
for manufacturing lumber at important distributing points were 
ascertained. The results of the investigation are being prepared for 
publication in cooperation with the State. 

In cooperation with NeAV Hampshire a study of the forest con- 
ditions of the southern part of the State was begun. Maps were pre- 
pared showing the distribution and the composition of the forests, 
the percentage of forest and cleared area, and the distribution of the 
chief species. The study will include : 

^1) A study of the silvical characteristics of all the forest trees. 

(2) Volume tables, in cords and in board feet, for trees of all diam- 
eters and heights for all the commercially important species. 

(3) Yield tables for second-growth white pine, showing the best- 
paj'ing period for cutting. 

(4) Methods of management best adapted to different conditions, 
based on a study of present methods of lumbering. 

(5) Suggestions for a State policy for fire, taxes, and the encour- 
agement of practical forestry. 

(6) A mill-scale study, showing the actual amount and grades of 
lumber sawed from chestnut and white pine of different diameters. 

The swamp lands belonging to the State of North Carolina were 
carefully examined at the request of the State, to determine the 
advisability of selling the timber under restrictions and holding the 
land. The examinations showed that it would be much better to sell 
the timber alone, and that by cutting to a diameter limit future crops 
of timber would be produced within reasonable time. 



24 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 



OTHER STUDIES. 



At the request of the Office of Indian Affairs, thru the Secretary of 
the Interior, the Forest Service supervised the logging on the Wiscon- 
sin Indian Eeservation. Under the direction of an agent of the 
Forest Service seed trees were marked on over 4,000 acres, and the 
slash was piled for burning and the ground cleaned up along the log- 
ging railway on all land cut over during the season. 

At the request of the Secretary of War an examination was made 
of the timber on the Fort Wingate Military Eeservation in New 
Mexico. The examination showed the amount of merchantable tim- 
ber, chiefly western yellow pine, on the reservation and the amount 
which should be cut, and recommended rules for the sale and logging 
of the mature and overmature timber on over 23,000 acres. 

The object of a tie-production study, undertaken in cooperation with 
the Northern Pacific Railroad, was to determine the present supply 
of tie timber in northwestern Wisconsin and northern Minnesota, and 
discover what practical steps can be taken to provide for a future 
suppl3^ The investigation showed that the .present supply of tie tim- 
ber is limited, but that the character of the timberlands available will 
not at present warrant purchasing standing timber and managing it 
for a continued supply. Norway pine, both in rate of growth and 
value as a tie tree, under practical management, was shown to be the 
best tree for planting. It will produce ties in from fifty to sixty 
years, at a cost of 12 to 18 cents per tie, by planting it 8 by 8 feet 
on the rolling, sandy pine soils, which are unsuited to agriculture. 

In cooperation with the Hydrographic Division of the United 
States Geological Survey the extent and character of the forested 
areas at the headwaters of the chief tributaries of the Potomac 
Eiver and their influence on the water supply were studied. It was 
found that most of these streams head in well- wooded regions, where 
the forest conditions are satisfactoi'y, the wjtter-flows fairly regular, 
and the water itself pure. The muddiness and other impurities of 
the Potomac water come almost entirely from the lower courses of 
its tributaries, where a large percentage of the area is tilled land, 
and from the towns along the Potomac itself. The present objec- 
tions to Potomac water will increase as the watershed is further 
settled and developed. Forest reserves about the headwaters of cer- 
tain important tributaries and the use of the water directly from the 
points where it is abundant and still pure are the most practical 
means of solving the present difficulty. 

In cooperation with the Bureaus of Chemistry and Entomology 
a study was made in the vicinity of Ducktown, Tenn., to determine 
the character and extent of damage upon the forest from the sulfur 
fumes produced in smelting copper. It was shown beyond a doubt 
that fumes from the smelters were doing great and increasing damage 
to vegetation. 

WORK FOR THE ENSUING YEAR. 



TIMBER SALES. 



During the coming year the timber-sale work will be carried on 
along the same lines as in the past year, particular attention being 
given to the adjustment of prices for lumber. 



E'OEEST SERVICE. 25 

Plans for disposing of timber infested by the Black-Hills beetle 
on the Black Hills lorest Reserve in South Dakota, already und^r 
way, will be carried out. Particular attention will be given to stop- 
puig the spread of this insect, in accordance with recommendations 
made by the Bureau of Entomology. In Colorado, also, where this 
beetle has appeared, steps will be taken to remove the insect-infested 
trees before the beetles can spread to green timber. 

The sale of dead timber on the reserves will be pushed, and where 
possible It will be sold rather than green timber. Sales of mature 
green timber, however, will be encouraged where the timber can be 
removed without injury to the interests of the reserves. 

COOPEEATIVE, 

During the coming year cooperation will be carried on with the 
agricultural experiment station of the State of Ohio, with a view 
to determining the best management of small timber tracts and the 
most profitable disposal of timber by small woodland owners. 

Work will be carried on in cooperation with the Indiana State 
Experiment Station, and will be completed early in the year. The 
results will be of great value in the management of woodlots thruout 
the State. 

Among others, a working plan will be prepared for a tract of 
65,000 acres in Arkansas. The chief object will be to outline a plan 
for the continued cutting of timber and efficient protection from fire. 

Inspection and assistance will also be given in the States where 
working plans prepared by the Forest Service are being carried out 
by the owners. This work has great value. 

Examinations of woodlots and assistance to timberland owners 
will be continued as in the past. 

irOEEST EXTENSION. 

The urgent need for the reforestation of denuded forest reserve 
watersheds and of the treeless reserves in the Middle West and the 
increasing realization that timber growing is profitable have greatly 
broadened the field of forest planting during the past year. The 
2:)lanting work of the Forest Service embraces, first, extensive nursery 
and planting operations on the National forest reserves, and second, 
cooperative assistance to landowners. The organization of the Avork 
is unchanged, except that in March the section of forest replacement 
was consolidated with reserve planting. 

EESEEVE PLANTING. 

Great impetus was given to forest reserve j^lanting by the transfer 
of the reserves to the Forest Service. But since most of the nurseries 
are new, extensive field planting has not yet been possible, and seed- 
ling production was the main work. About 493,000 trees were 
planted this year, and over 3,000,000 are now in the nurseries, of which 
at least 1,500,000 will be large enough to set out next season. Seed 
enough to produce 6,000,000 seedlings was planted in nursery beds 
last spring. The six nurseries now comprize a total of 13.15 acres, 
of which about 8 acres are in seed beds and the remainder is used for 



26 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

transplants. The annual productive capacity of the Forest Service 
nurseries at present is approximately 8,000,000 trees. 

The cost of the several items of nursery and planting work is 
encouragingly low. Except at the California stations, where the 
difficulties are great, the expense of growing and planting does not 
greatly exceed that in Germany, with its cheap labor and long ex- 
perience. The average cost per thousand of the l-j^ear-old seedlings 
now in seed beds outside California is $0.81. Transplanting from seed 
beds to nursery rows costs an average of $1.04 per thousand, while 
seed sowing costs 15 cents per pound. Field planting in the reserves 
of southern California is very expensive as yet, because of the natu- 
ral difficulties. The average cost per thousand of setting 62,000 
trees on chaparral-covered watersheds in the Santa Barbara and San 
Gabriel forest reserves was $17.22; while on the Dismal Eiver 
Reserve, where conditions favored rapid work, 319,000 trees were 
planted at a cost of $1.63 per thousand. 

The progress of the j^ear's work at each of the planting stations 
may be briefly indicated. 

SAN GABEIEI- FOREST EESEEVE (HENNINGER'S FLAT STATION). 

The working equipment was increased by the erection of a combi- 
nation tool house and sleeping quarters for laborers, and by enlarging 
the transplant nursery 0.75 acre. The lath house, which covers ap- 
proximately 0.27 acre of seed beds, was worked to its full capacity. 
The 336,760 seedlings it contained were transplanted to open-nursery 
rows during the winter, and in the spring the beds were resown with 
about 222 pounds of seed of 11 species. The nursery rows now con- 
tain about 387,000 trees. 

During January and February 32,000 two-year-old trees were set 
out in the mountains. The blanks in previous plantations were filled 
in and small experimental plantations were made at intervals of 500 
feet in altitude up to the summit of Mount Wilson. One new site 
was planted and an arboretum of 3,500 trees was established. The 
nursery and planting sites are jjrotected by 12 miles of fire lines, 
built in 1905. Planting in the San Gabriel Reserve must remain a 
difficult and expensive operation, yet the cost was reduced to $15.82 
per thousand trees, a reduction of $29.34 over last year. 

Approximately 30 per cent of the trees set out this year have been 
eaten off by rabbits and a remedy applicable on a large scale has not 
been found. A careful study of the situation has been asked of the 
Biological Survey. 

Besides furnishing plant material for local use, the Henninger's 
Flat nursery supplied 30,000 trees for planting in the Santa Barbara 
Reserve, 3,100 for Griffith Park, Los Angeles, and 11,900 for planting 
by individuals on watersheds within forest reserves or for experi- 
mental purposes. 

MSMAL EIVER FOREST EESEEVE (HALSEY STATION). 

The Halsey station is producing trees for extensive forest planting 
on nonagricultural lands in the Middle West. An additional acre of 
lath house was built, about 0.5 acre was set out to transplants, and 1.5 
acres of open seed beds were sown with broadleaf species. The nurs- 



FOBEST SERVICE. 27 

ery now covers 5.5 acres, with 3.5 acres under lath, contains 1,680,000 
trees, nearly two-thirds of which will be ready to set in the field next 
year, and has an annual productive capacity of about 3,000,000 trees. 
About 540 pounds of seed were sown during May and early June. A 
hand seed drill reduced the cost of sowing to 5 cents per pound. 

Field planting was somewhat curtailed to allow the nursery stock 
to attain larger size. Previous losses were largely due to the use of 
too small plant material, and in the future only selected stock 2 or 3 
years old will be planted. About 319,000 two-year old seedlings, 93 
per cent of which were western yellow pine, were set out. 

A total of 154,000 trees was shipped from Halsey for planting else- 
where, including 30,000 sent to Helena, Mont., for use in Helena For- 
est Park, and 50,000 furnished to the Keclamation Service for plant- 
ing along the interstate canal in Wyoming and Nebraska. 

PIKES PEAK FOREST EESEKVF (CLYDE AND BEAE CREEK STATIONS). 

The Eosemont nursery site, established in 1904, will be abandoned, 
leaving Clyde and Bear Creek as permanent stations. At the Clyde 
nursery the half acre under lath contained about 410,000 seedlings 
when spring opened. Since seed sowing in 1905 was delayed until 
July, awaiting the completion of the lath house and water system, 
the seedlings were too young to withstand well the severe winter. 
The beds which failed wholly or in part were resown. 
. To secure a lower elevation and a longer growing season, an addi- 
tional half acre of seed beds on a 1.8-acre nursery site was prepared 
and sown in Bear Creek Canyon, and a water system was installed. 

Since the seedlings in the Clyde nursery were not old enough to set 
in the mountains, 20,000 red fir seedlings were shipped from the 
Halsey nursery. They were planted in two sites under good weather 
conditions, and promise to grow with slight loss. 

Altho the high elevation a.nd rough slopes in the Pikes Peak Forest 
Reserve make difficult conditions, there is every indication of ultimate 
success. Several important watersheds need jDlanting, and the work 
is supported by public sentiment. 

SANTA BARBARA li'OEEST RESERVE (SAN MARCOS STATION). 

The nursery, which was established in San Marcos Pass in the 
spring of 1905, contains 181,000 one-year-old seedlings in transplant 
beds. The 5,760 square feet of beds under lath from which the trans- 
plants were removed were resown Avitli 127 pounds of seed, mainly 
knobcone, Jeffrey, and gray pine. 

The first field planting in this reserve was done this year, with 
30,000 two-year-old seedlings from the Henninger's Flat nursery. 
The sites selected were at elevations varying from 1,400 to 3,500 feet. 
Two and one-half months after the trees were planted over 95 per 
cent were in good condition. 

GILA FOREST RESERVE (FORT BAYARD STATION). 

The half acre of seed beds sown in July, 1905, produced about 
385,000 seedlings, 300,000 of which were transplanted to nursery 
rows. The beds were resown this spring with 15 species, to give a 
thoro test of southern California conifers and of native trees. 



28 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

The work at the Fort Bayard station aims to reforest 7,000 acres 
in the military reservation, as well as to improve reserve catchment 
basins. The War Department, in December, 1905, granted the use 
of 275 acres in the northern part of the reservation, on which a 
transplant nursery of 1.4 acres has been prepared and an adobe sta- 
tion building is under erection. 

None of the seedlings in the local nursery were large enough to 
be set out this year, but 425 conifers were shipped in and field sow- 
ing was tried with Mexican walnut and three native oaks on 48 plats, 
aggregating 13.4 acres. 

SAM LAKE FOREST RESERVE ( WASATCH STATION). 

This station was established last spring in Big Cottonwood Can- 
yon, near large areas in urgent need of reforestation. The nursery 
site contains about 4 acres, one-half acre of which was covered with 
a lath house and devoted to seed beds. Good planting sites and the 
high value of water in Cottonwood Creek make forest planting on 
this catchment basin promising and important. 

GARDEN CITY FOREST RESERVE. 

In May 51,000 western yellow pine from the Halsey nursery, and 
40,000 red cedar, Osage orange, Russian mulberry, and honey locust, 
purchased from dealers, were planted in four strii^s across one quar- 
ter section. Experiments to learn whether cultivation is necessary ' 
will be carried on during the summer. 

BLACK HILLS FOREST RESERVE. 

In the Custer Peak region the experimental broadcast sowing of 
western yellow pine seed in May, 1905, had produced in October an 
average stand of about 12,000 seedlings per acre. Last spring an 
additional 500 pounds was sown in the same region, part on the 
late melting snows and part on the bare ground immediately after 
the snow had melted. If continued success follows this work it will 
be possible to reforest the denuded portions of the Black Hills Forest 
Reserve rapidly and at a very low cost. 

WICHITA GAME RESERVE. 

The first planting in this reserve was undertaken this spring on 
an experimental scale, with 1,000 western yellow pine seedlings from 
the Halsey nursery. A report from the supervisor, late in May, 
stated that every one was growing. 

SEED COLLECTING. 

Most of the seed needed in the various nurseries was collected 
locally. For the Halsey station it was necessary to collect jack pine 
in Minnesota and western yellow pine in the Black Hills and western 
Nebraska. 

Over 4,500 pounds of seed was on hand at the planting stations on 
January 1, part of which was collected in 1903 and 1904. Of the 15 
species represented, about 2,200 pounds was yellow pine, gathered at 
a cost of only 33 cents per pound. 



FOREST SERVICE. 29 

Since most of the trees used in reserve planting bear full seed crops 
only at intervals of from two to seven years, surplus seed must be 
stored. Storage tests to determine how best to preserve the germi- 
native energy were begun at five of the stations and at Washington. 

A series of tests on the vitality, germinative energy, weight, volume, 
and purity of 27 species of pine seeds was carried on in cooperation 
with the Seed Testing Laboratory of the Department. 

EECONNAISSAN t'B. 

Extensive preliminary examinations for reserve planting plans 
were finished during the year in the Lewis and Clark, Modoc and 
Warner mountains. Cassia, Malad, Salt Lake, Gunnison, and Gila 
forest reserves. Favorable openings were found in the Salt Lake 
Eeserve, where a nursery has since been established; in the Malad 
Division of the Bear River Forest Eeserve, and in the Gila Forest 
Reserve. 

Planting for the improvement of city watersheds located within 
forest reserves is an urgent duty of the Forest Service. A prelimi- 
nary reconnaissance was made on reserves in the Southwest, und 
examinations were completed of the water systems of Pueblo, Colo- 
rado Springs, Denver, Boulder, Longmont, Loveland, Fort Collins, 
and Greeley, Colo. 

OFFICE \\'0RK. 

A plan was devised and adopted for indexing in condensed form 
the data on nursery work and planting for each reserve. The essen- 
tial data of former planting station reports were transferred to cards 
indexed under subjects and years. 

COOPERATIVE PLANTING. 

The cooperative work was continued under the general provisions 
of a revised edition of Circular 22. An entirely new outline for 
planting-plan studies and reports was adopted. 

As a rule planting plans were made without charge for small land- 
owners, public and educational institutions, and Departments of the 
Federal Government. For large private holdings the prelimmary 
examination was made free, but the field expenses of the detail plan 
was charged to the cooperator, as was the cost of supervising the ex- 
ecution of the plans. 

A set of index cards was compiled giving data on 1,326 forest plan- 
tations in 26 States, and another giving notes on seed production, 
seed preservation, germination percentage, methods of propagation, 
etc., for 72 species. Incomplete data on 49 additional species are also 
filed. 

PLANTINQ PLANS. 

During the fiscal year there were made 33 detailed plans for plant- 
ing on 10,233 acres in 19 States, 5 preliminary examinations, cover- 
ing 103,895 acres, where planting was not recommended, and 6 exami- 
nations, covering 212,660 acres, where planting plans were advised, 
but action is still pending. In North Carolina a plan for fire pro- 
tection was prepared for a tract of 1,200 acres. There are 34 appli- 
cations now on file for lands aggregating 13,711 acres. 



30 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

The request made for supervision of nursery and planting opera- 
tions show that the planting plans are being carried into execution. 
Such work was done this spring for 11 cooperators, including the 
Eeclamation Service, two coal and coke companies, two railroads, 
two cities, and a city water company. 

Cooperative funds to the amount of $2,267.5,0 were received during 
the year from 17 landowners for use in preparing planting plans or 
supervising their execution. 

PRESENT STATUS OV COOPERATIVE PLANTING. 

During the past year large landowners, especially railroads and coal 
companies, have shown a marked tendency to undertake forest plant- 
ing on a commercial basis. Their motives are purely economic and 
arise from the increasing difficulty of getting ties and construction 
timbers, even at high prices, and from a desire to utilize and improve 
their lands. 

At least 11 railroad companies are directly interested in procuring 
a future wood supply and have actually begun forest work. Exami- 
nations were made of 18 railroad plantations in Virginia, Kentucky, 
Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, and of a tract in Vir- 
ginia on which planting was contemjDlated. For the Illinois Central 
Railroad a planting plan was made for lands in Iowa, and improve- 
ment cuttings in their catalpa plantations in Louisiana and Illinois 
were supervised. The Union Pacific Railroad entered into an agree- 
ment and provided funds for an examination of certain of their hold- 
ings to learn the advisability of forest planting for tie production. 
The Pennsylvania Railroad paid the cost of an investigation to lay 
down a future forest policy, which will insure a permanent tie supply 
for their lines east of Pittsburg. This work included a study of their 
present holdings and the preparation of a planting plan for various 
tracts in Pennsylvania. The Baltimore and Ohio, Santa Fe, and 
Xew York Central railroads will take up forest planting in the near 
future, and an application is on file from the Long Island Railroad 
for an examination of its waste lands. 

Planting plans made for two coal and coke companies in western 
Pennsylvania last summer were carried into execution under Service 
supervision this spring. The field work for a planting plan on a 
36,000-acre watershed in eastern Pennsylvania, owned by a coal 
company, was started in June. Another large eastern coal company 
is expected to apply for assistance in planting their waste lands as 
the result of a preliminary examination in November. The report 
made after the examination was published in full by the company. 

For the improvement of city watersheds cooperative assistance was 
rendered to the Johnstown Water Company, in Pennsylvania, and to 
the Bridgeport Hydraulic Company and East Hartford Fire District 
in Connecticut. In southern California plans were prepared for 
planting four tracts where watershed improvement was one of the 
prime objects. The plans for city forest parks for Helena, Mont., 
and Los Angeles, Cal., were carried into effect under the direction of 
the Service. 

Increased assistance was given to other branches of the Federal 
Government. Planting plans were made during the year for portions 
of the Fort Bayard, Fort Riley, and Fort Stanton military reserva- 



FOKEST SERVICE. 31 

tions, together with an examination of the reservations around San 
Francisco to learn the advisability of planting. In Vermont a plant- 
nig plan was prepared for lands around a station of the Bureau of 
Fisheries. For the Reclamation Service recommendations were made 
for planting along the interstate canal in Wvoming and Nebraska, 
and around the reservoir and along the canals of the Salt Rived- 
project, Arizona. Planting along the interstate canal was begun in 
May with 60,000 trees from the lialsey nursery. 

To aid settlers in newly irrigated regions, forest-planting investi- 
gations were started in the North Platte and Truckee-Carson projects. 
These studies will also cover the questions of planting for the protec- 
tion of Government canals and on waste lands. In North Dakota 
recommendations for handling certain timberlands on the Buford, 
Trenton, Williston, and Nesson irrigation projects were prepared for 
the State engineer. 

Farmers have been given all possible assistance. Planting plans 
were made as formerly, and much effective work \vas done thru 
lectures at farmers' institutes. A lecture at Amarillo, Tex., was fol- 
lowed by the formation of a tree-planting association with about 600 
members, who have already set out about 200,000 trees, under advice 
from the Service, and will set out many more. 

SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS. 

The possibilities of forest planting on coal lands were studied in the 
upper Ohio Basin, with special reference to black locust and the 
danger of damage by borers. Such planting promises to be profit- 
able, but the use of locust was found unsafe unless the trees are cut 
for posts when small, or methods are found and applied which will 
insure control of the insect pest. 

A study of planted and natural timber in Iowa was finished. 

The following investigations were a part of the State cooperative 
work in California : 

(1) Study of forest planting in agricultural regions. The nearly 
completed work will cover the field of forest planting for protection 
and wood supply in the agricultural valleys. 

(2) The relation of forest cover to stream flow. The importance 
of water for power and irrigation in California led to this investiga- 
tion, in which many valuable observations were made. 

(3) Study of State lands. This work was entirely completed 
during the year. The report, as submitted to the California State 
Board of Forestry, gives information on the location and extent of 
the State forest lands, with recommendations for legislative action. 

(4) Study of the silvical characteristics and methods of propaga- 
tion of eucalyptus. This was undertaken because of the newly ap- 
preciated value of eucalyptus for posts, telephone poles, piling, 
and ties. 

COOPERATIVE EXPERIMENTAL PLANTING. ' 

In various regions more exact knowledge is needed as to the effect 
upon species of soil and climate, the adaptability of new species to 
planting, and the best silvicultural methods. To secure this the 
Forest Service will carry on systematic experiments in cooperation 
with various colleges and State forest commissions. The cooperators 
in all cases furnish the land free and the expenses for plant material 
and labor are divided equally. This work is now under way in 



32 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

cooperation with Berea College, Kentucky, the Xew York Forest, 
Fish, and Game Commission, the University of Michigan, the Michi- 
gan Forestry Association, the Iowa State Agricultural College, the 
University of Nebraska, the North Dakota Agricultural College, and 
the Mississippi Agricultural College. 

PLA^'TING LEAFLETS AND ADDRESSES. 

The planting leaflets for use in correspondence now number 36 for 
single species and 12 on general subjects, such as how to transplant 
forest trees, fence-post timbers, etc. The mimeographed sheets giving 
lists of dealers and range of prices for plant material, whicfi are used 
as supplements to the leaflets, were brought up to date. The total 
number now available is 41. 

Information on farm forestry was disseminated in the West by 
means of farmers' institute lectures. A Forest Service representative 
accompanied institute parties on extensive trips thru eastern and 
western Colorado and parts of Nebraska. Lectures Avere also deliv- 
ered before various farmers' meetings in Iowa, Texas, and Missis- 
sippi. Addresses on special forest topics were given at public meet- 
ings in Illinois, North Carolina, Georgia, Maryland, Vermont, 
Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and California. At the Iowa State 
Agricultural College, the University of Nebraska, and the Mississippi 
Agricultural College, technical Service men are furloughed during 
the winter to give instruction in forestry. 

WORK rOE THE ENSUING YEAR. 
COOPERATIVE PLANTING. 

The preparation of planting plans will be continued under a some- 
what revised plan. Small landowners, public and educational insti- 
tutions, and branches of the Federal Government will be given 
gratuitous or cooperative aid as in the past. Corporations and large 
landowners, however, will be called upon to pay all the expenses, 
unless the work is of high educational value. It will be the aim to 
get in closer touch with the farm thru farmers' associations and 
farmers' institutes. Special investigations will be limited to fields 
where immediate practical results will accrue. The most important 
v\'ork of this kind under way is a forest-planting reconnaissance in 
reclamation projects. Other important tasks are the improvement of 
city watersheds in the East and an investigation of artificial methods 
of timber propagation in the South. 

Experimental planting will be continued in cooperation with State 
forest commissions and colleges, and begun on the areas withdrawn 
for this purpose within reclamation projects. 

RESERVE PLANTING. 

The present reserve planting stations will be made more permanent 
by the erection of suitable station houses, and the productive capacity 
of the nurseries will be increased where advisable. New stations will 
be established as required, and small nurseries under the charge of 
the reserve officers will be started wherever plant material is needed 
for local use. The investigation of city watersheds within forest 



FOREST SERVICE. 33 

reserves should lead to several new nurseries and to extensive plant- 
ing by the rangers under technical supervision. The -new plantations 
will demand complete fire protection, which will be planned for by 
technical men and executed by the reserve officers. 

Planting on all the treeless i'eser\'es in the Middle West should 
be started next spring with plant material from the Halsey nursery. 
The Niobrara, North Platte, aiid Portales reserves need large experi- 
mental plantations to determine whether local nurseries are called 
for. In the Black Hills Forest Reserve broadcast sowing will* be 
conducted on a larger scale if it continues to give promising I'esults. 
A large quantity of tree seed for use at the planting stations will be 
collected again this fall. 

DENDROLOGY. 

A large correspondence is entailed by requests for technical infor- 
mation, especially as to the distinguishing characters of tree species, 
native and foreign, and their economic products. Many identifica- 
tions of wood, seed, and other specimens of nati^'e and foreign trees 
are called for by individuals and educational institutions, and espe- 
cially by builders, architects, and engineers, in consequence of the 
frequent substitution on the mai-ket of inferior woods for stand .ird 
building materials. In all, 3,36('. letters were prepared on den- 
drology. 

TURPENTINE INVESTICiATIUNS. 

Experiments were continued during the turpentine season of 1905 
to discover the effects of different methods of chipping on the yield 
and on the life of the trees. Final results in suoh experiments 
require data for several years, but the indications are that by chip- 
ping a " streak " half as deep and half as high as in tlie present prac- 
tise an equal or greater yield of turpentine per year ciui be obtainad, 
and the working period can be doubled. 

Experiments to compare the results of the pre-ent method of 
working and one under which only trees over 10 inches in diameter 
are chipped with fewer " faces " showed that over 20 per cent more 
turpentine was obtained from the latter method. If these results 
are confirmed they will lead to a radical change of method, under 
which a tract may be worked indefinitely. At present turpentining 
lasts for but three or four years and virtually destroys the forest. 

A chemical study of the distinguishing characteristics of turpen- 
tines from different species of pines Avas begun in cooperation with 
the University of North Carolina. Commercial turi^entine is dis- 
tilled without distinction from the resins of longleaf, Cuban, short- 
leaf, loblollv, and pond pines, tho mainly from the first two. The 
products of these several species differ chemically and otherwise, 
which doubtless explains past failures to find a method for detectmg 
adulterated spirits. The study will throw light on this matter, 
but is expected to be chiefly valuable by showing which of the 
species now worked (and possibly, also, new species) yield turpen- 
tine in paying quantities, and which yields the most. This is 
important in forest management, to determine which species should 



34 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

be favored in the future forest. Already it has been shown that lob- 
lolly and shortleaf, believed by many operators not to yield turpen- 
tine, equal the yield of longleaf. The experiments include tests, also, 
of the resins of Virginia (" scrub ") and western yellow pine. 

FOREST DISTRIBUTION AND RESOURCES. 

Studies of the forests of five Maryland counties, in cooperation 
with the State geological survey, were completed and will be pub- 
lished by the survey. The study of one other county is in progress. 
A silvical study of the " Big Thicket " region of south-central Texas 
was completed, and one of the brown-wooded cedar forests of Texas 
is under way. Information was furnished the Canadian geological 
survey as to the range in the United States of commercially important 
Canadian trees. A report on the identification and uses of American 
woods was prepared. 

BASKET WILLOWS. 

The basket-willow holts now contain 25,000 vigorous stools. Some 
200,000 green rods were cut from them in February and yielded 
1,400 pounds of basket stock as good as the finest imported rods, 
together with 5,000 choice cuttings for extending the plantation, and 
12,000 for free distribution. 

Manufacturers have studied the methods by which rods equal to 
the best imported stock were grown at home, and in some cases are 
preparing to establish holts of their own, while numbers of small 
producers have been led to enter the field of willow production. 

Samples of bark from the different varieties of willow under 
experiment were analyzed for the Forest Service by the Bureau of 
Chemistry, and it was found that the purple and almond willows 
yield 8.73 and 11.39 per cent of tannin, respectively, or about the 
same as the standard tanbark oaks. Other willow barks gave results 
sufficient to justify their use. The bark from next year's crop will be 
analyzed to determine, also, its production of salicine. 

The experiments have yielded valuable information as to cultural 
methods, which will be published. 

TREES or THE PACIFIC STATES. 

Progress was made in preparing for publication the first of the 
regional studies promised, the " Trees of the Pacific States." It will 
tell in untechnical language how to identify the species, where they 
are found, and what theii; silvical characteristics are. It is much 
needed by the local forest officers and the general public. 

The revision of Bulletin 17, " Check List of Trees of the United 
States," has made progress. 

The collection of wood specimens, preparatory to the work on the 
identification of woods of the United States, was begun. It will 
meet the actual needs of wood users, who are now sometimes imposed 
upon by material falsely named. 

Great confusion now exists in distinguishing the various species 
and varieties of catalpa grown for timber, to the frequent injury of 



FOREST SERVICE. 35 

the buyer of seed or stock. A circular is being prepared which will 
set forth the distinguishing marks and safeguard the planter. 

CAEE OF STREET AND PARK TREES. 

Many demands for advice in caring for shade trees are made upon 
the Service. In the absence of any satisfactory treatise on the sub- 
ject, material for an illustrated circular dealing with it is being col- 
lected. Examples of correct methods are now furnished by trees in 
Washington, D. C, which have been cared for under the advice of the 
Service. 

An offer of assistance to cities in naming and labeling their trees 
brought a number of requests for this help. The city of Eichmond 
asked and received an examination of its trees and recommendations 
for their care. 

FOREST HERBARIUM. 

This collection contains specimens of typical foliage, fruits, seeds, 
bark, and wood of approximately 400 of the 645 native species, and 
150 foreign trees, or about 3,500 specimens altogether, besides a col- 
lection of 1,000 thin sections of foreign woods. Special effort is 
being put forth to make the collection of our native forest trees com- 
plete. The National Herbarium relies upon this office for tree iden- 
tifications, and the Service herbarium is considered a part of the 
National Museum collection. It is widely and constantly used by 
members of the Service. 

rOREST LIBRARY. 

The forest library contains 9,291 books and pamphlets, of which 
1,213 were added during the year. One hundred and seventeen 
volumes were bound. Plans for extending the use of the library to 
field officers are under way. The headquarters of 84 field officers 
will be supplied with bound copies of all Service publications likely 
to be of use, and of certain other standard forest books. 

There was a notably increased use of the library by members of the 
Service this year. The library committee, in cooperation with the 
Librarian of the Department of Agriculture, completed a classified 
catalog of forest literature, including the literature of important 
auxiliary sciences accessible in the library of the Department. The 
whole presents a concise view of forest and related literature pre- 
pared for persons not trained in forestry. Constant requests received 
for lists of works on forestry suitable for general library and educa- 
tional use show the need for such a publication. 

FOREST PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTION. 

The Service now has 24,462 mounted photographs, including 1,600 
from foreign countries, of which 5,410 were cataloged and filed dur- 
ing the year, and 935 unmounted pictures. They are from 63 States 
and Territories and insular possessions, and 26 foreign countries. 
They are indexed by States, countries, and subjects, and are also 
platted by symbols on a map to show what regions they cover and to 
indicate where additions are most needed. 



36 DEPARTMENTAL KEPOETS. 

During the year 1,677 unmounted photographic prints were given 
away in response to requests from 28 different States, chiefly to 61 
educational institutions and for illustrating 57 books and articles on 
forestry. Two hundred and ninety-seven prints were received by 
exchange. 

One hundred and fourteen prints, 209 slides, 23 transparencies, and 
8 bromide enlargements were sold. 

The lantern-slide collection contains 3,581 slides, 700 of which were 
added during the year. One thousand slides and 31 transparencies 
were colored this year. The colored slides made by the Forest Serv- 
ice greatly surpass in truthfulness any others known to us. 

Loans of 2,355 lantern slides were made for educational use to 56 
applicants from 26 different States, as against 1,861 last year. 

EXPOSITIONS. 

The exhibit made by the Forest Service at the Lewis and Clark 
Exposition was closed October 15, 1905, and the material returned to 
"Washington. 

About 200 transparencies and bromide enlargements were sent to 
the New England Forest, Fish and Game Exhibit at Boston, Mass., 
beginning December 27, 1905. 

WOEK FOR THE ENSUING TEAR. 

It is planned to continue for the regidar period of three years dur- 
ing which a turpentine crop is worked, the study begun in 1905-6 of 
the effects of shallow and deep chipping and varying width of faces 
on the flow of resin and the life of the trees. 

Much inquiry has been received from Western timberland owners 
as to the possibility of turpentining Western pitch pines. An inves- 
tigation of this question will be undertaken. A study of the charac- 
teristics of turpentines will be continued. One result will be to show 
that untried pines may be profitably worked for commercial turpen- 
tine. 

In connection ^^ith the experiments in basket willow growing 
already under way, an attempt will be made to ascertain whether, by 
the use of Eurojsean stock, strains superior to any now grown here 
can be made available. 

Special studies of various forest tree species and of forest types 
and their distribution Avill seek more accurate knowledge and data 
for mapping our forests and for regional manuals. 

FOREST PRODUCTS. 

The year has been marked by a higher standard of efficiency, com- 
bined with simpler and less laborious methods. The work is classified 
under the four sections of Wood Preservation, Dendro-Chemistry, 
Timber Tests, and Lumber Trade. 

AVOOD PRESERVATION. 

The importance of preservative treatment of wood — railroad ties, 
mine timbers, telephone and telegraph poles, cross-arms, piles, fence 
posts, and even shingles and other forms exposed to rapid decay — 



FOREST SERVICE. 37 

now receives marked and growing recognition. Treating plants are 
multiplying, and new methods and processes are being taken up. 
]n this work the Forest Service has become a recognized source of 
aid and information. 

The study of fence-post treatment with creosote in open tanks was 
carried further by experiments in southern California with eucalv])- 
tus, and in Iowa, in cooperation with the State college, with rapid- 
growth hardwood posts. 

The seasoning of red fir, western hemlock, and western larch rail- 
road ties in Washington and Idaho, in cooperation with the Northern 
Pacific Railway, is now finished, and the seasoned ties, part of which 
have been treated, are ready to be laid in the track for a durability 
test. 

Seasoning and treating experiments with' hemlock and tamarack 
ties in Michigan, in cooperation with the Chicago and Northwi>slern 
and "Wisconsin Ceaitral railways, have shown that seasoning before 
treatment is highly advantageous. These experiments, which include 
tests of the effect of soaking before seasoning, will be continued for 
the coming year. 

Arborvita^ and chestnut telephone poles, cut each month of the year, 
are now seasoning in Michigan and Maryland, respectively. In the 
latter State a soaking test is included. When seasoned, part of these 
poles will be treated and their comparative durability tested in service 
alongside of untreated and unseasoned poles. At Norfolk, Va., lob- 
lolly pine cross arms, cut each month, are undergoing experiment in 
soaking, seasoning, and grading preliminary to treatment. The im- 
portance of grading as the proportion of sapwood varies has been 
demonstrated. Both these classes of experiments are conducted in 
cooperation with the American Telephone and Telegraph and the 
Postal Telegraph-Cable companies. 

A cooperative study of seasoning and treating poles and ties of 
California western yellow pine, western red cedar, and eucalyptus, 
and a similar study of loblolly pine mining timber used in Pennsyl- 
vania, were begun. The latter has already shown that timber should 
be peeled and seasoned for at least tAvo months before shipment, and 
that open-tank treatment gives remarkably complete penetration of 
the preservative. 

Addresses were given before the annual meetings of the Wood Pre- 
servers' Association, the American Railway Engineers and Mainte- 
nance of Way Association, and the North Carolina Pine Association. 

The Forest Service does no Avork in wood preservation except in 
cooperation A^•ith those interested in the results. Every project has 
been subjected to careful and frequent inspection. The cost of the 
investigations are borne mainly, and in new work must be met almost 
entirely, by the coojDcrators, but the results are for the public use and 
are controlled by the Service, which seeks only the solution of prob- 
lems of broad and general importance. 

DENDKO-CHEMISTRY. 

During the study of Michigan hemlock and tamarack ties, already 
mentioned, there were made chemical analyses resulting in over 580 
zinc estimations, to discover the penetration of zinc chlorid, and micro- 
scopic examinations and measurements to learn the value of glue 



38 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

tannin in treatment. A field test of the strength, of zinc chlorid 
solution was devised, and preliminary work was done on the methods 
of analyzing and extracting creosote. This included the devising 
of a new method of estimating tar acids, comparative distillations, 
and tests to determine the best solvent for extracting creosote from 
treated timbers. A study of wood distillation, begun during the year, 
promises a new means of utilizing much of the present waste in 
lumbering. 

A pulp-testing laboratory was installed at Boston, Mass., to investi- 
gate the paper-making possibilities of woods hitherto unused for pulp, 
especially of certain species abundantly supplied by the forest re- 
serves. An anti-stain process of treating white pinfe sapwood in 
Michigan was investigated and found effective with proper piling. 

TIMBER TESTS. 

In all 12,033 mechanical tests were made, and as many moisture 
determinations, as against 8,210 last year. Each test involved an 
average of 35 measurements, a description and sketch of the stick 
before and again after the test, and the necessary computations and 
drawings. The tests were made at the various laboratories as follows : 
Yale, 1,856; Charleston, 190; Berkeley, 2,496; Purdue, 6,156; Port- 
land, 259; Eugene, 872; Seattle, 204. 

Tests were completed during the year upon loblolly pine to show 
the influence of sapwood and knots on the strength of structural tim- 
ber; on red fir (in cooperation with the University of California); 
on Minnesota tamarack and Norway pine in large and small pieces; 
on the holding force of railroad spikes in treated and untreated lob- 
lolly pine and white and red oak ; on the effect of preservative treat- 
ment on loblolly pine ; on strength as affected by the speed at which 
a load is applied ; and on the influence of defects upon loblolly pine 
harvester poles, which led to improved specifications. 

There are still in progress tests of the strength of California euca- 
lypts (in cooperation with the State of California) to learn whether 
the wood can be used in place of such structural timbers as hickory 
and oak; of the strength of red fir as modified by knots and other 
defects, rate of growth, and sapwood ; of western hemlock from 
various localities of the Northwest, including Alaska, and of untried 
woods from the forest reserves ; of the effect upon strength of various 
methods of seasoning; of the bending of beams under constant loads 
for long periods; of the behavior under a blow of buggy spokes, 
axles, and wagon tongues; of resistance of street-paving woods to 
abrasion, indentation, and water absorption (in cooperation with the 
Office of Public Roads) ; of the bearing value of different forms of 
washers on wood stringers, and of the relative strength of live oak 
and black locust insulator pins. 

Reports submitted for publication and now in press were : " In- 
structions to engineers of timber tests," " Effect of moisture on the 
strength and stiffness of wood," and " Experiments on the strength of 
treated timber." Reports were also prepared on the strength of 
various woods in the form of boxes, the strength of Philippine woods, 
the strength of timber treated by a nonsteaming process, the strength 
of loblolly and pitch-pine mine props, the strength of common and 
hardy catalpa, and the strength of African yew and red cedar. 



i!0±tJi6i SERVICE. 39 

Addresses were given before the Western Society of Engineers, the 
Engineering Congress at the Lewis and Clark Exposition, American 
Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association, Ameri- 
can Society for Testing Materials, American' Car Builders' Asso- 
ciation, National Advisory Board on Tests of Field and Structural 
Materials, and before Purdue University and the University of 
Illinois. 

The Advisory Board on Tests of Fuels and Structural Materials, 
appointed by the President during the year, considered and approved 
the general plan of the timber tests conducted by the Forest Service. 

The year fully demonstrated the need of a wood-testing laboratory. 
Such a laboratory will benefit the wood users of almost every class. 
A strong tendency to reform the traditional methods of handling and 
judging wood as a material, and to put commercial standards upon 
the more accurate basis of actual test is widespread. Plans have 
been drawn for a laboratory providing for tests along the three lines 
of preservative treatment of timber, the strength of wood and wooden 
materials, and the chemical problem of wood utilization. 

LXTJIBEE TRADE. 

The Section of Lumber Trade was organized during the year. Its 
work has been of peculiar value both m giving the Forest Service 
systematic touch "with large classes of wood users whose problems 
have not in the past been considered by the Forester and in enabling 
foresters to gain a thoroly practical idea of the problems confronting 
the makers and users of forest products. The manufacturers of lum- 
ber and other forest products have been brought to realize more fully 
than ever before the possibilities of direct practical usefulness to 
them of the Forest Service. At all meetings of associations of wood 
users attended by members of the Service committees on forestry 
were appointed to further the work of the Service. Real progress is 
being made in promoting the most economical utilization of the forest 
products of this country. 

With the aid of the National Lumber Manufacturers' Association 
the hearty cooperation of the secretaries of the leading associations of 
lumber manufacturers was secured early in the year in an eifort to 
collect statistics of the annual production of lumber and other forest 
products, beginning with 190.5. These statistics cover lumber, lath, 
shingles, slack and tight cooperage stock, pulp wood, cross-ties, tan 
bark, veneer stock, mine timbers, wood distillates, and other products. 
The reports upon mining timbers were secured thru cooperation with 
the Geological Survey. The statistical work has aroused great 
interest among the lumbermen, and is of distinct value to them, as 
to the Forest Service. 

The principal grading rules of lumber manufacturers in the United 
States have been compiled. To bring them together in one publica- 
tion will show their inconsistencies and promote the movement 
toward the unification of grades, so desirable to both the producer 
and the user of lumber. 

Field studies of the manufacture of slack and tight cooperage 
stock were made in the Northern and Southern States, with particu- 
lar reference to possible economies in manufacture, the substitution of 
less valuable species, and the utilization of waste. Tables showing 



40 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. 

the relative value of staves and lumber from trees of various diam- 
eters were prejjared. These tables are of direct value to the owners 
of timber, cooperage-stock manufacturers, and lumbermen. A special 
study was made of methods of kiln-drying red gum heading. 

A study of the woods used (including amounts and prices) in box 
making in the Xew England States indicates that the future of the 
industry in this region depends upon the control and conservative 
operation of timberland hj the manufacturer. 

A study of the woods used in vehicle and implement manufacture, 
made in the Central ^'tates, led to the extensive tests upon spokes, 
tongues, and axles now in progress at the Purdue laboratory, to deter- 
mine the proper basis for grading hickory spokas and the effect of 
defects and methods of manufacture upon the strength of the parts. 
Arrangements vi'ere also made for tests of the suitability of several 
western woods for wagon manufacture. 

A study of methods of treating and laying woods used for street 
pa\dng was made in all the priiicipal eastern cities where any con- 
siderable quantity of such paving is in use. A cooperative experi- 
ment with the city of Minneapolis, two creosoting companies, and 
several lumber manufacturers is in progress, to determine the value 
for paving of various kinds of northern woods. 

A study of the methods of kiln-drying hardwood lumber was 
carried on in the North Central States. The report upon this sub- 
ject will furnish a valuable contribution to the theory and practise 
of kiln-drying. Practical knowledge likely to be of great use to the 
Service was obtained. 

A brief study of the conditions under which tupelo is manufactured 
in Louisiana and Alabama resulted in a series of practical recommen- 
dations for air seasoning this wood. An experiment in kiln-drying 
tupelo lumber has made it certain that this problem also will be satis- 
factorily solved. The manner in Avhich the market for tupelo has 
expanded since announcement of this study was made furnishes a 
striking illustration of the practical value of the work.. 

Current prices, by grades and species, of practically all the commer- 
cial kinds of lumber in the United States, have been compiled for of- 
fice use, and the prices of the leading species for the past twenty years 
have been printed. Because of the rapid changes now going on in 
lumber prices this compilation is particularly useful. 

Fieldwork for a study of the possible means of utilizing dead and 
mature timber on reserves began May 1, 1906. It is expected to fur- 
nish practical recommendations for the use of a large amount of 
reserve timber which has heretofore gone to waste and been only a 
menace to the y*' elf are of the forest. 

A study of utilization of sawmill waste began July 1, 1905, but was 
dropt before results were obtained, for want of men to carry it 
on. Some important phases of the subject have been touched upon 
in a concrete way in connection with the study of cooperage and 
vehicle woods. 

Addresses were made at well-attended meetings of the Mississippi 
Valley Lumber Manufacturers' Association, the Pacific Coast Lumber 
Manufacturers' Association, the Yellqw Pine Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion, the Southern Cypress Manufacturers' Association, the National 
Lumber Manufacturers' Association, the National Slack Cooperage 



FOREST SEEVICE. 41 

Manufacturers' Association, the International Slack Cooperage Mafi- 
ufacturers' Association, and the National Box Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation. 

WORK FOE THE COMING TEAR. 

With the beginning of the fiscal year 1906-7 the organization of 
the Office of Forest Products will be considerably changed. Dendro- 
chemistry will be designated Wood Chemistry. Timber Tests and 
Lumber Trade will be combined into the Section of Wood Utilization, 
and sections of Forest Measurements and Reserve Engineering will 
be added. 

The Section of Forest Measurements, during the coming year, will 
work up analysis of white pine in Massachusetts and graded mill 
tallies of softwoods and hardwoods in New Hampshire; compute 
periodic weights and measurements from pole, tie, and cross-arm 
experiments; work up data on western species likely to be valuable 
in the work on the reserves, and compile statistics of forest products. 
Efforts will be made to gather ne^^■ and supplemental figures on im- 
portant trees. Rearrangement of data files on the basis of species 
and localities, already begun, will continue. 

The principal work in map making will concern new forest re- 
serves, timber sales, and working and planting plans. 

Since the Office of Forest Products is in large touch with engineers 
and engineering work, it will be made responsible in the future for 
the more technical engineering work on the forest reserves. The work 
immediately ahead is that of telephone construction. The reserves are 
greatly in need of telephone service. Wherever possible the commer- 
cial telephone companies ^A-ill be given ]3ermits to construct lines on 
the reserves on condition of reduced rates for official business, ex- 
clusive lines to reserve headquarters, and the privilege of tapping 
commercial lines with reserve branch lines. The use of water powers 
and the construction of roads maj' also demand technical attention 
during the year. 

The Section of AVood Preservation will consider : Wood above 
ground, such as railroad ties, paving blocks, cross-arms, etc. ; wood 
in water, such as piles attiicked liy the teredo; and wood under- 
ground, such as mine props, and the butts of fence posts and tele- 
graph and telephone poles. 

In the Section of "\'\^ood Chemistry the Boston pulp laboratory, now 
ready for operation, will test the quantity and quality of pulp obtain- 
able from many different American woods, particularly those from 
the forest reserves. A study of the distillation of wood will be re- 
sumed. A careful study of creosote as a preservative will include 
methods for quantitative estimations of creosote in timbers, for de- 
tecting adulterations of coal-tar creosote, and for analyzing creosote 
by fractional distillation. The leaching properties of timber will 
be studied, including tests to determine the constitu tents of woods 
at different seasons, the nature and quantity of materials removed by 
soaking, changes of insoluble wood constituents during soaking, and 
the effects of leaching on the subsequent growth of attacking fungi 
and on seasoning. There is an increasing tendency among com- 
mercial companies to seek the help of the section in solving chemical 
problems concerning the use of wood. Problems of this kind, the so- 



42 DEPARTMENTAL RBPOBTS. 

lution of which will be generally useful, will be undertaken when the 
cooperator will bear the expense. 

The various timber-test laboratories will continue work already 
begun. The studies of cooperage woods, box-board woods, and vehicle 
woods, and of lumber movements, specifications, and prices will also 
be continued. Annual statistics of Jrorest products will be collected in 
cooperation with the Bureau of the Census and the lumber associa- 
tions interested. The use of dead timber on the forest reserves will 
be given much attention. This timber, of which there are vast 
amounts, has been considered commercialljr useless. It increases the 
danger to the reserves from fire. Much of it is still sound, and every 
effort will be made to use it. 

RECORD. 

ACCOUNTS. 

Accounts include the three subsections of receipt, disbursement, 
and bookkeeping. All funds derived from the sale of products of 
the forest reserves, from the use of the reserves, or from cooperation 
are received in the first; all disbursements for the Forest Service 
are made in the second ; while all administrative bookkeeping, liabil- 
ity and cost keeping, and property accounting is done in the third. 

Up to November 25, 1905, all moneys received from the forest 
reserves were deposited and held in the Central National Bank, 
Washington, D. C, a United States depository, until transferred, 
by order of the Forester, to the Treasurer of the United States, to 
be credited as unofficial moneys to the appropriation "Administra- 
tion, etc., Forest Service." AH moneys received since that date 
were deposited directly with the Treasurer of the United States, to 
the credit of this appropriation. This method materially reduced 
the labor, cost, and chance of loss involved in handling the receipts, 
and promoted effective inspection. 

SUPPLIES. 

The work formerly done by the property clerk was divided, and 
those duties which relate to accountability for property were as- 
signed to a property auditor. The property clerk retained the cus- 
tody of supplies in stock, and issues them on requisition. Improved 
methods of packing and shipping were introduced to keep pace with 
the increasing needs of the Service. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC LABORATORY. 

A new system of informing field members of the Service of the 
results of their photographic exposures led to a marked improvement 
in the views. A table which will enable field members to time their 
exposures correctly was compiled, and specific instructions for taking 
forest photographs were prepared. The increased photographic 
needs of the Service during the year were fully met without increase 
in the number of persons employed in the laboratory. 



FOREST SERVICE. 43 

QUARTERS. 

Twenty -two additional rooms were rented during the year. Eleven 
of these were for office use, 7 for the storage of instruments, machin- 
ery, field equipment, and office supplies, and 4 for the accommoda- 
tion of a newly installed lithographic printing press and for map 
mounting. The increased office work connected with forest reserve 
administration will make necessary a further extension of quarters 
during the coming year. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

During the year 145,468 official communications were received in 
the Forest Service, and 252,092 were sent out. 

STENOGRAM-iy AND TTPEWRITING. 

The value of the concentration of stenographic work was shown in 
the leadiness with which the needs of the Service were met. The 
proportion of the cost of stenography and typewriting to the entire 
expenditure of the Service was reduced from 4 to approximately 3 
per cent. During the year 2,142 items of work were performed, com- 
prizing 31,936 typewritten pages (including 5,018 pages tabulated), 
644,425 mailing-list cards, 141,220 mimeographed sheets, and a 
largely increased amount of miscellaneous work. In addition, 571 
temporary details of stenographers were made to offices for a total of 
5.266 days. The average number of stenographers and copyists 
assigned to this section was 34. 

The concentration of clerical work was extended during. the year 
by including in this section a number of clerks for routine work and 
for detail to offices in emergencies. The result was a high degree of 
efficiency in the clerical force without a proportionate increase of 
expense. During the year ninety-five details of clerks were made, for 
a total of 1,207 days. The average number of clerks assigned to this 
work was 9. 

MAILING LISTS. 

The mailing lists of the Service comprize: (1) A special list of 
libraries; (2) a list of representative newspapers; (3) a small for- 
eign list of scientific and governmental institutions; (4) a special 
list of persons engaged in forest work in the United States; (5) a 
general list of i^ersons interested in forestry ; (6) a large extra list of 
lumbermen, timberland owners, farmers, and members of various 
professions. 

To the names of the first four lists, numbering in all 4,870, all 
publications issued were sent. Those on the general list received 
notice of the appearance of bulletins, with brief descriptions of 
their contents, and also circulars of information and certain other 
publications of general interest. The addresses on the general list 
now number 20,100. 

The extra list is classified, and is representative of all sections of 
the United States. Effective use was made of it during the year in 
bringing the work of the Service to the attention of those most inter- 
ested in the results. 

O 



Issued January 30, 1908. 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



REPORT 



THE FORESTER 



190 7. 



GIKKORD PINCHOT. 



[Prom Annuai, Reports, Department of Agricui<ture.] 




WASHINGTON: 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

I go8 . 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Summary 3 

Events of the year 3 

Scheme of organization 5 

OflBce of the Forester 5 

Law 5 

Information 7 

Dendrology 8 

Operation ]0 

Organization 10 

Engineering 15 

Accounts 15 

Maintenance 16 

Lands 17 

Silviculture 19 

Forest extension 21 

Silvics 24 

Management 26 

Grazing 30 

Range conditions 30 

Control 30 

Development 33 

Products 33 

Wood utilization 33 

Wood preservation 37 

Publication 40 

2 



REPORT OF THE FORESTER. 



U. S. Department of Agrioultuee, 

Forest Service, 
Washington, D. C, December 3, 1907. 
Sir : I have the honor to transmit herewith a report of the work 
of the Forest Service for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1907, together 
with an outline of the plans for the work of the Service for the cur- 
rent fiscal year. 

EespectfuUy, 

Gifeord Pinchot, Forester. 
Hon. James Wilson, Secretary. 



SUMBEABY. 



EVENTS OP THE YXJAR. 



The salient facts of the year in connection with the work of the 
Forest Service wei:e: 

A radical change of organization to secure closer cooperation of 
allied lines of work with o:.e another and better control by the 
Forester through a large reduction in the number of administrative 
heads reporting directly to him. 

A decided extension and improvement in the system of inspection, 
through which the Office of the Forester is kept informed as to the 
efficiency of work in the field. 

The creation of six inspection districts, with headquarters at 
Missoula, Denver, Albuquerque, Salt Lake City, San Francisco, and 
Portland. 

Closer touch between office and field and a more unified service 
through a system by which supervisors are brought in turn from their 
Forests to fill, for periods of two or three months, the positions of 
the six district foresters at Washington. 

A marked growth in the heartiness of support to the National 
Forest policy by the people of the West, who have now definitely 
made that policy their own. 

An increase of the National Forests, held and managed by the 
National Government to serve the best interests of the public, both 
now and always, from 107,000,000 to 160,000,000 acres. 

Better adjustment of the relations between the National Forests as 
sources of wealth and the citizens who benefit by them, together with 
a very much wider use of the Forests. 

Notable success in the control of grazing on the Forests, to the 
satisfaction of those entitled to use of the range, the advantage of 



4 DEPABTMENTAL, REPORTS. 

the owners of stock, and the protection and improvement of the range 
itself. 

A still further and very striking reduction of loss through forest 
fires from that of the preceding year, which had itself shown a most 
remarkable decrease from years that preceded. 

The application of better methods for securing reproduction after 
lumbering, on the National P^orests. 




i iH3W31iI3S 



UHdVU3010Hd 



rC 



L^K 



HE 



H^ 



ss 



4 ONiindHoo 



SVllV +J 



o 



ri^ 



HsiianisQiiiJ 



H^ 



A far more active and intelligent realization on the part of the 
public throughout the entire country of the practical importance of 
forest preservation and the need of concerted action to avert the 
calamity of an exhausted timber supply. 

A growing discernment of the far-reaching principle that the 
national welfare demands the conservation of all natural resources, 



REPORT OF THE FORESTER. 



including the forests themselves, the water needed for agriculture, 
domestic supply, power, and navigation, which the forests largely 
control, and the soil which they hold in place. 



SCHEME OF ORGANIZATION. 

The chart on page 4 shows the present organization of the Service. 
This organization became eifective April 17, 1907. 

OFFICE OF THE FORESTER. 

LAW. 

On March 22 Mr. George W. Woodruff, Chief of the Office of Law, 
resigned to become Assistant Attorney-General of the United States, 
assigned to the Department of the Interior. His work for the Service 
was of very great value, not only in purely legal matters, but also in 
solving administrative problems and important questions of policy, 
especially in the sections of claims, special uses, and settlement, which 
were under his charge. These sections, with status, were in April 
transferred to the new Office of Lands, under which their activities 
for the year will be reported, and the law officer and his force were 
transferred to the Office of the Forester. 

During the year the work was defined and systematized. The law 
officer now disposes of the following classes of business : Correspond- 
ence concerning forest legislation. State and P'ederal; litigation, in- 
cluding contested land claims; communications with the Department 
of Justice, including cases submitted to the Attorney-General for his 
opinion; submissions to the Comptroller of the Treasury for his 
decision. He scrutinizes regulations proposed to the Secretary of 
Agriculture for the Forest Service; proposed new proclamation 
forms ; proposed new business forms ; all contracts, bonds, and stipu- 
lations, including the sufficiency of their execution by the adverse 
party. He also advises the Forester, the fiscal agents, and branches 
and offices in legal questions incidental io the business of the Service, 
including questions of policy having a legal bearing. 

In trespass, 73 cases were referred to the law officer, of which_ 48 
were settled without court proceedings. Sixteen criminal and 8 civil 
suits were brought and 13 are pending in the hands of the United 
States attorneys. Two injunction suits to prevent grazing trespass 
and 2 to prevent unpermitted special use were decided, all in favor 
of the Government. Six civil and 18 criminal cases were closed, 9 
of the latter by trial and conviction and 9 by discontinuance. 

In the cases of United States v. Domingo (152 Fed. Kep., 566) 
and United States v. Daguirre (162 Fed. Eep.,- 568), the constitu- 
tionality of that part of the act of June 4, 1897, which makes it a 
criminal offense to violate the regulations of the Secretary of Agri- 
culture made under that act, was again upheld. The criminal ap- 
peals act of March 2, 1907 (34 Stat., 1246), will enable the Govern- 
ment to appeal this question to the Supreme Court in case of an 
adverse decision. In the case of United States v. Shannon (151 Fed. 
Eep., 863) it was decided that the National Forests need not be fenced 
to restrain unauthorized grazing upon them, though State laws re- 
quire this in the case of private lands. 



6 DEPAETMENTAL EEPORTS. 

Every effort was made to cooperate with the General Land Office 
of the Department of the Interior in securing settlement in civil 
cases and conviction in criminal cases of trespass upon lands included 
within National Forests since the trespass took place. A number of 
the civil cases were transferred to the Office of Law and $5,004.91 
was recovered through settlement. 

Very few cases of trespass upon State school sections, surveyed 
or unsurveyed, within National Forests were reported. Friction 
with the States which claim the right to sell timber from or to lease 
these sections has been avoided, because both the States and the 
Forest Service have refrained from making such sales and leases. 
Federal and State legislation was outlined for the relief of the States 
which claim school sections within National Forests. 

The law officer cooperated with the Office of Lands in dealing with 
invalid land claims in National Forests. Within the Plumas Na- 
tional Forest claims amounting to 18,000 acres, alleged to be invalid 
under the mineral laws, are now being contested. 

When the National Forests were transferred to the Department, of 
Agriculture several protests were pending against the granting of 
special use applications, most of them rights of way for water and 
hydraulic electric plants, usually on the grounds of a speculative pur- 
pose and absence of a prior water right. Inquiry into these questions 
involved long and expensive hearings in the field, followed by suc- 
cessive appeals, and entailed voluminous records, wearisome delays, 
and heavy costs to the contestants. The Forest Service now requires 
the beginning and completion of construction within definite times and 
beneficial use for a fixed period each year, referring decision as to the 
priority of water rights to the courts. Under this policy, which 
was devised by Mr. Woodruff, most of the protested special use 
applications were promptly disposed of. 

The increased National Forest business required the preparation 
of new forms for a number of instruments. Special contracts were 
prepared for the cooperative management of Utah State lands in 
National Forests and for miscellaneous permanent improvements in 
and protection of the National Forests, especially against fire, in the 
San Bernardino Forest. 

Correspondence with citizens and members of State legislatures 
was carried on and advice upon forest legislation was asked and given 
in Alabama, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, 
Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, Nevada, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, 
South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wis- 
consin. The most important State legislation of the year was a 
general forest law for Tennessee and fire laws for Pennsylvania and 
Oregon. 

The agricultural appropriation act of March 4, 1907 (34 Stat., 
1256), contains (pp. 1269-1271) the following new provisions affect- 
ing the Forest Service: Increase of the Forester's salary J;o $5,000 
per annum; forest reserves to be known hereafter as National For- 
ests; authorizing payment of expenses incurred for the transporta- 
tion and care of fish and game supplied to stock the National Forests; 
authorizing the purchase of technical books and technical journals 
for officers stationed outside of Washington; Forest Reserve special 
fund abolished, with a compensating increase from $900,000 to 
$1,900,000 in the appropriation to protect, administer, improve, and 



KEPOBT OF THE FOKESTEK. 7 

extend the National Forests; the creation of new Forests and addi- 
tions to existing Forests in the States of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, 
Montana, or Colorado forbidden, except by special act of Congress, 
and (p. 1281) appropriation of $25^000 for investigation, survey, and 
report.upon the proposed Appalachian and White Mountain National 
Forests. 

Other acts of Congress included: An appropriation of $100,000 
to continue surveys of National Forests (act of March 4, 1907, 34 
Stat., 1336) ; certain townships within the Black Hills National For- 
est brought within the Forest homestead act of June 11, 1906 (act of 
February 8, 1907, 34 Stat., 883) ; lands within the San Juan National 
Forest granted to the city of Durango, Colo., for water-supply pur- 
poses (act of May 1, 1907, 34 Stat., 1053) ; certain lands within the 
Medicine Bow National Forest granted to Boulder, Colo., for water- 
supply purposes (act of March 2, 1907, 34 Stat., 1223) ; United States 
allowed to appeal directly to the Supreme Court in criminal cases 
decided against the Government on demurrer to indictment, arrest of 
jud^nent, on special plea in bar (act of March 4, 1907, 34 Stat., 
1246). 

WOBK FOR THE ENSUING YEAE. 

In the protection of the Forests from trespass through legal advice 
and action, the oversight of contracts and forms, the giving of advice 
to officers of the Service in all matters of law, and the response to re- 
quests for assistance or information concerning forest legislation, the 
law officer will continue to carry out the lines of work of the past 
year. Steps will be taken, in cooperation vt^ith the Department of 
Justice, to secure the fullest measure of protection for members of the 
Service in the performance of their duties and for permittees in the 
exercise of their privileges. National Forest officers will be in- 
structed in their legal powers and duties through conferences at su- 
pervisors' and rangers' meetings, and on occasion a representative of 
the law officer will visit and advise members of the protective force 
needing aid or support' in their official work. 

INFORMATION. 

This line of work, organized as a part of the Office of the Forester 
in May, is an outgrowth of work formerly carried in the Office of 
Publication and Education. Its purpose is to advise the Forester as 
to the general policy of the Service in matters of publication, to 
gather from the originating offices and furnish on demand informa- 
tion concerning the work of the Service and forestry in general, and 
to prepare for unofficial use matter of educational value which the 
Service may properly and effectively bring to the attention of the pub- 
lic through other channels than its regular publications. 

One of the purposes for which the Forest Service exists is to 
educate the public as to the importance of conserving our forest re- 
sources and the best methods of handling woodlands and utilizing 
forest products. This can often be acomplished by being prepared to 
furnish the information in the form in which and at the time when 
the means of greatest publicity demand it. To depend solely on offi- 
cial publications, written without regard to the special requirements 
of this kind of work, would often miss the opportunity. For certain 



8 DEPABTMENTAL REPORTS. 

kinds of information relating to forestry millions of readers can be 
reached through newspapers and magazines for thousands who could 
be reached at a much greater expense and much less effectively 
through official publication and distribution of the same matter. The 
Service therefore definitely seeks to give publicity through these 
channels to much of the useful information which it discovers. 

The Government's work in promoting the best use of our forests, 
public and private, is recognizedly a matter of general and deep 
interest to the people of the country. One result of this interest is an 
increasing demand for information from representatives of the press 
concerning investigations under way, administrative work and policy, 
statistics of forest resources and products, and all kinds of facts re- 
lated to the need and practice of forestry. This demand can not be 
ignored, and can not be satisfied without special provision to meet it. 
The result of making such provision is evident in lessened friction, 
less interruption of the work of administrative officers of the Service, 
a better response made to demands for information on matters con- 
cerning which the public has a right to expect publicity, and an im- 
portant furthering of one of the ends for which the Service exists 
in the dissemination of knowledge of practical value concerning for- 
est protection and use. 

WORK FOK THE ENSUING YEAE. 

I 

Special attention will be given to popularizing technical informa- 
tion concerning forests, the requirements and life activities of forest 
trees, and the practice of forestry. Economical methods of utilizing 
wood and other forest products will also be presented. But above 
all the relation between the public welfare and the perpetuation of 
the forests, the loss of which would mean an impairment of the Na- 
tion's wealth, will be illumined to the fullest possible degree. 

DENDROLOGY. 

A very large part of the work of the Office of Dendrology is tht 
giving of technical information through correspondence. This 
mainly concerns the identification of commercial woods for archi- 
tects, builders, railroad companies, and others, and of seeds and other 
material from native and foreign trees. In all, 3,576 letters were 
prepared. 

TURPENTINE INVESTIGATION. 

It was definitely established by the turpentine investigation that 
shallow chipping with the ordinary hack yields more turpentine, 
makes it possible to work the trees an average of one and one-third 
years longer, and detracts less from their value for lumber than the 
old method. The discovery was made that by beginning chipping one 
month earlier than has been the custom the flow of resin during the 
following month is decidedly increased, and also that a cause bi dis- 
turbance and loss in the process of distillation hitherto unexplained 
is the mixing of pond-pme resin with longleaf. This produces a 
boiling over in the stills which makes it necessary to throw away the 
entire charge. Progress was made toward a determination of the 
exact kind of turpentine yielded by the different species of southern 



REPORT OP THE FORESTER. 9 

pines, knowledge of which will afford a basis for detecting adultera- 
tion of turpentine spirits, a matter hitherto impossible. The chem- 
ical studies involved in these investigations' were made in coopera- 
tion with the University of North Carolina. 

BASKET 'WILLOWS. 

The experimental willow holts yielded 1,432 pounds of high-grade 
peeled rods and 15,000 choice cuttings for free distribution. The 
increase of interest in willow growing on the part of farmers and 
others is very marked. 

SPECIAL DENDEOLOGICAL STUDIES. 

A report on the distribution and commercial importance of mahog- 
any in Florida and adjacent coast islands was prepared, and the dis- 
tinguishing characteristics of oak woods were studied. 

Part I of the four tree books planned to cover the forest flora of 
the United States was brought nearly to completion. It describes 152 
forest tree species of the Pacific slope, with accurate information as 
to their range, occurrence, soil and climatic requirements, tolerance, 
reproduction, and longevity, and is designed to be primarily a manual 
for National Forest officers. Part II, " Forest Trees of the Rocky 
Mountains," is in preparation. Progress was made in revising Bul- 
letin 17, " Check List of Forest Trees of the United States," and in 
preparing a bulletin on the care of street and park trees. 

FOREST HERBARIUM. 

Approximately 1,500 specimens (foliage, fruits, and wood) were 
added to the collection, which numbers about 4,500 specimens of 
native and 1,000 of foreign trees. 

Two new tree species were discovered, a brown-wooded NewMexi- 
can timber juniper (Juniperus megalocarpa Sudw.) and a California 
live oak {Que^'ciis pricei Sudw.). Many sets of foliage, fruits, and 
seeds were presented to public schools. . - 

FOREST DISTRIBUTION RECORDS. 

Systematic compilation of authentic records of the range of trees 
was pushed, and the Service now has the largest and most complete 
record of North American tree ranges in existence. Substantial addi- 
tions to earlier information were secured through field notes of 
Service officers, and notably by the contribution of distribution notes 
on California trees made by Dr. C. Hart Merriam, based on twenty 
years of field observation. The result has been to extend remarkably 
the known ranges of many forest trees, in some instances by hundreds 
of miles. These data will help greatly toward the preparation of a 
general forest map of the United States. 

EXPOSITIONS. 

Two hundred forest transparencies were loaned for use at the Pitts- 
burg Sportsmen's Exhibit, 20 to the exhibit of the Newark, N. J., Tree 
Planting Society, and 80 to that of the New England Forest, Fish, 
and Game Association in Boston. 

24102—08 2 



10 DEPAHTMENTAL REPORTS. 



WOBK FOB THE ENSUING YEAR. 



Field studies of various western and southwestern tree species will 
be carried on, and preparation of publications already in hand and 
of a forest map of the IJnited States will be pressed forward. 

OPEBATION. 

OKGANIZATION. 

A distinct advance was made in the practical management of the 
National Forests. Wider application was given to the policy of 
local control, business methods were simplified, and the personnel 
was strengthened to the fullest extent permitted by the funds avail- 
able. 

The wisdom of dividing the National Forests into administration 
and inspection districts was amply vindicated, and the number of dis- 
tricts was increased to six. The office work of the districts was super- 
intended in rotation by 19 different members of the field force tem- 
porarily transferred to Washington to act as district foresters. The 
value of this plan was seen in closer working relations between the 
office and the field, and wider views of National Forest interests on 
the part of these field men than could be gained in the work of a 
single Forest. 

The districts as now constituted are as follows : 



District J/. 

Southern Idalio. 

Western Wyoming. 

Eastern Nevada. 

Utali. 

Northern Arizona. 

District 5. 
California. 
Western Nevada. 

District 6. 
Washington. 
Oregon. 
Alaska. 



District 1. 
Montana. 
Northern Idaho. 
Northwestern Wyoming. 

District S. 
South Dakota. 
Southeastern Montana. 
Eastern Wyoming. 
Minnesota. 
Nebraska. 
Kansas. 
Colorado. 
Southeastern Utah. 

District 3. 

Southern Arizona. 
New Mexico, 
©klahoma. 

The responsibility of forest supervisors was very materially in- 
creased. They were given full direction of all work on their Forests, 
and all members of the Service assigned to work there, except in- 
spectors and administrative officers from Washington, were placed 
under their instructions. 

A third edition of The Use Book was printed, with revised regula- 
tions to take effect July 1, 1907. The revision was made in the light 
©f experience, and it is believed that a marked gain is made in clear- 
ness of statement and in the better business methods prescribed for 
Forest work. The most important changes in regulations were those 
which provide for increasing the responsibility of forest supervisors. 
The Use Book will be distributed only to Forest officers and to actual 



luai-ujtx ur j.nE FORESTER. 



11 



users of the Forests. Information suitable for wide distribution to 
the general public is given in more compact and simple form in a 
separate publication entitled " The Use of the National Forests." 

Five supervisors' meetings were held at convenient points in Ore- 
gon, California, Arizona, Colorado, and Utah, and were largelv at- 
tended. These meetings had an excellent effect. They were of" spe- 
cial benefit in giving opportunity for the discussion and settlement 
of problems arising in the regular day's work on the Forests and in 
bringing about a better understanding of the general policy of the 
Service in matters connected with National Forest administration. 

National Forests, showing new Forests, additions, and eliminations, July 1, 

1906, to June SO, 1907. 



State. 


Forest. 


Area July 1, 
1906. 


Change's in area by 
proclamations, July 
1, 1908, to June 30, 
1907. 




New Porests 
and addi- 
tions. 


Elimina- 
tions. 


Arizona . 


Baboquivari 


Acres. 


Acres. 
126,720 


Acres. 




Black Mesa- .^ 


2,030,240 
169,600 






Chiricahua 


117,920 

69,120 

7,000 

314,125 
22,280 


"■ 




Dragoon 






Grand Canyon . 


2,307,620 


66,600 




Mduut Graham _ i 

Pinal Mountains _ 


118,600 
46,760 

423,680 
1,975,310 

155,520 

387,300 
1,115,200 


■ 








Prescott 

San PrancisGO Mountains 














Santa Oatalina 

Santa Rita __ 

Tonto 








103,258 










Tumacacori _ _ _ 


203,550 

48,647 

221,324 








626,724 


25,533 




Tnyo 








1,896,313 
897,116 
288,218 
335,195 






Lassen Peak 
















Monterey 










14,108 
208,222 






Plumas 


679,520 

737,120 

555,395 

668,160 

363,350 

1,838,323 

1,377,126 

5,049,934 

627,780 










San Gabriel 








San Jacinto. 


1,083,279 










Santa Barbara -— 


143,777 
146,644 




















669,020 
937,569 
31,648 














838,837 
109,920 

1,243,042 
306,518 
524,287 
797,720 

1,133,330 

7,680 

901,270 

990,720 

29,502 












Trinity 






















Colorado 


Battlement Mesa 












Fruita 

Gunnison 








70^560' 














196,140 






Leadville 


1,219,947 

1,155,909 

576,719 

757^116' 
1,681,667 
321,227 
1,437,406 
478,111 
239,621 
970,880 






190,246 

1,035,427 

273,175 

376,890 












Ouray 






320 


















San Juan 


766.512 
141,317 
















White Biver 








• Tuba Included in Tahoe Sept. 17, 1906. 



12 



DEPARTMENTAL EEPORTS. 



'National Forests, showing new Forests, additions, and eliminations, July 
1906, to June SO, jr907— Continued. 



State. 


Forest. 


Area July 1, 
1906. 


Changes In area by 
proclamatlonB, JtUy 
1, 1906, to June 30, 
1907. 




New Forests 
and addi- 
tions. 


EUmina- 

tlODS. 




Bear Eiver 


Acres. 

415,360 
3,860,960 


Acres. 


Acres. 




Bitter Root 








Big Hole 


304,140 
733,000 
494,560 














f^H^iTlPt 








Cassia 


326,160 




• 


2,331,280 






Henrys Lake ^ 


798,720 






Kootenai ^ 


165,242 

1,344,800 

194,404 






Lemhi _ _ _ 
















Payette . 

Port Neuf 


1,460,960 






99,508 






Pocatello 

Priest River— 


49,920 
541,160 






273,910 

293,044 

1,879,680 

1,392,640 

81,600 

128,880 

----- 

1,612,960 






















1,947,520 
1,059,520 

177,960 
97,280 

630,260 






Weiser— ,- 


14,691 
3,840 


Kansas 


Garden Oity_ 


Montana 


Big Belt 

Big Hole 


640 








Bitter Root— . 


691,920 






Cabinet _ __ . 


1,566,400 
234,760 

33~TO~ 






Crazy Mountains 


186340' 










Ekalaka - 






Gallatin 


888,660 

782,160 

1,576,000 

46,080 







Hell Gate 


6,400 

887,360 
870,460 
478,560 
1,211,680 
111,446 
31,000 






Highwood Mountains 






Kootenai 






Lewis and Clark 

Little Belt 


4,670,720 
583,560 






8,960 




Lolo 














Little Rockies - - 








Madison, „ 


958,800 








194,430 
590,720 
204,320 
126,080 
137,280 






Otter__ 












125,687 




Snowy Mountains 


i'229l680' 

85,123 

123,779 

347,170 


'"ii.'iw 




Dismal Eiver 

Niobrara 

North Platte 













149,165 
135,019 
572,640 






Independence 
















Ruby Mountains.. _ _. . 


423,660 
59,115 






625^040" 
368,000 
156,780 
78,480 












Toquima 
















Gila 


2,823,900 








283,065 
223,040' 
129,472 
480 
154,882 
459,726 
110,625 






Jemez 

Lincoln 

T.fl.H Animns 


1,237,206 
545,266 


47^293 








1,100 




Manzano . 
















Pecos River 


430,880 






PelonciUo 






Portalesi" 


172,680 


172,680 




881,841 
424,693 

233,200 


















Oklahoma 


Wichita -. 


60.800 





o Portales National Forest abolished Mar. 16, 1907. 



EEPORT OF THE FORESTER. 



13 



National Forests, shelving neio Forests, additions, and eliminations, July 1, 
1906, to June SO, i907— Continued. 



State. 


Forest. 


Area July 1, 
1906. 


Changes in area by 
proclamations, July 
1, 1906, to June 30, 
1907. 




New Forests 
and addi- 
tions. 


Elimina- 
tions. 


Oregon 


Ashland 


Acres. 
21,120 

220,320 
2,675,620 

142,080 
4,424,440 


Acres. 
161,680 

874^080" 


Acres. 




Ohesnimnus * _ 


* 






. 




Bull Run 


" 




Cascade 

Ooquille »__ 

Fremont ^ 


1,462,400 
148,317 

1,235,720 
630,000 
292,176 
782,720 







Goose Lake— 








Heppner 








Imnaha 








Maury Mountains ^ 

Siskiyou 


64,220 






1,132,582 
175,518 
798,400 






Tillamook 








Umpqua 










747,200 
413,250 
1,163,160 
23,380 
19,040 
68,160 
639,000 
267,920 
261,593 
465,920 
399,600 
288,800 






Wenaha 

Black Hills: 


81,692 










Cave Hills 














Slim Btittes 






tJtah- 




— 






Bear River - 






Beaver 

Dixie 


25,106 




















74,637 
173,896 












Grantsville 


68,960 
128,980 

777,920 












Manti 

Monticello 


8,160 
214,270 

117^203" 









167,280 












Salt Lake - — 


95,440 

710,920 

2,148,510 

68,800 






Sevier 










39,040 














85,440 
869,520 
127,680 
302,560 
701,600 
2,358,380 




Washington 


Oolville 








1,466,880 
103,960 

1,943,520 

3,952,840 
318,400 

1,151,680 














79,360 






480 








Wyoming 




i36;784' 












46,440 








7,740 

66,320 

164,605 

370,911 

87"800' 






Grow Creek » . 


----- 

6,680,920 

403,640 

4,606,240 

65,950 










Sierra Madre 

Uinta 


6^080 


















Porto Rico 














106,994,018 


44,398,531 


557,881 









■"Ohesnimnus and Wallowa included in Imnaha Mar. 1, 1907. 

*Maury Mountains included in Blue Mountains Mar. 2, 1907. ^ , , . . ^ „ ,„„, 

"Included in list oJ National Eoreats by decision ot Acting Secretary of Interior August 9, 1907. 

iGrand total, June 30, 1907, 359 National Forests, 150,832,665 acres. 

At the end of the fiscal year all the National Forests in the United 
States and Alaska were under organized administration. They com- 
prise 183 administrative units, under the supervision of 116 officers m 
charge. Fifty-six new Forests were put under administration during 
the vear. 



14 DEPABTMENTAL KEPOBTS'. 

The local administrative and protective force on the National 
Forests on June 30, 1907, was 96 supervisors, 11 deputy supervisors, 
639 rangers, and 464 guards. Each field officer engaged in patrol cov- 
ered, on the average, 132,236 acres. 

Aid in technical matters was given to supervisors by 25 forest 
assistants and 10 planting assistants. 

The transfer to the local officers of administrative details formerly 
handled in Washington, together with the routine work arising from 
the larger use of Forest resources, made it necessary to increase the 
number of clerks in the offices of supervisors from 6 to 29. 

Protective measures against forest fires on the National Forests 
were highly effective. The area burned over during the calendar year 
1906 was restricted to 115,416 acres — less than 7.7 acres in 10,000, as 
against 26 for the preceding year. The number of fires reported was 
1,133, and the average burned area less than 102 acres. The esti- 
mated value of the timber destroyed was $76,183, as against $101,282 
for the preceding year. The cost of fighting fires, exclusive of the 
salaries of Forest officers, was $8,768. This small damage from fires, 
many of which were started by lightning and other unavoidable 
causes, in immense stretches of mountainous country, is evidence that 
the measures adopted for detecting and extinguishing fires on the 
National Forests are efficient. It is certain that loss by fire can be 
virtually eliminated if appropriations for the Forests provide ade- 
quate means of communication and sufficient protective force. 

Provision was made for establishing a buffalo pasture on the 
Wichita National Forest in Oklahoma. The New York Zoological 
Society inaugurated the project on March 25, 1907, by offering to send 
18 American bison of pure breed from the New York Zoological Park 
to the Forest in order to provide for the perpetuation of the species, if 
appropriate provisions were made for their protection and care. 
An appropriation by Congress of $15,000 provided funds for the 
necessary fence and buildings. Substantial progress was made with 
the work of fencing an area of about 8,000 acres and erecting suitable 
buildings. This work will be completed early in the ensuing fiscal 
year, and the herd placed under the care of a Forest officer experi- 
enced in handling buffalo. 

WOEK FOB THE ENSUING YEAE. 

The National Forests will be redistricted with a view to their 
more' economical administration and to making the headquarters 
more accessible to users. This redistricting will involve the creation 
of many new administrative units. The Forests will be divided by 
watersheds and natural boundaries rather than by legal subdivisions. 

Steps will be taken to afford rangers opportunity to receive in- 
struction along lines which will add to their efficiency. This will 
be done either by short winter courses in local institutions or by 
lectures at ranger meetings. 

Joint meetings of the supervisors and rangers of groups of Forests 
will be held throughout the West. Hitherto rangers' meetings have 
been held by each supervisor for the men on his own Forest merely. 

The responsibility of the field officers will be largely increased 
by moving into the field more of the work now handled in Wash- 
ington, so that questions of local administration may be settled at 
closer range. 



REPOBT OP THE FORESTER. 15 



ENGINEERING. 



In the appropriation act of March 4, 1907, a fund of $500,000 was 
provided for permanent improvement work on the National Forests, 
$125,000 of which was made available for use during the then current 
fiscal year. Urgent need existed for the construction of telephone 
lines to expedite the administrative work of the Forests, and espe- 
cially to make it possible for supervisors to get prompt notice in 
case of fire or trespass; trails, roads, and bridges to develop the 
resources of the Forests by opening up regions now inaccessible; 
cabins to shelter members of the protective force and to safeguard 
Government property; pasture fences to protect the stock of Forest 
officers; and drift fences to prevent confusion in the handling of 
grazing herds. 

Estimates of needed improvements were received from supervisors 
aggregating $400,000, and expenditures amounting to $170,000 for 
cabins, fences, fire lines, 700 miles of telephone lines, 900 miles of 
roads and trails, and other improvements were authorized before 
the end of the fiscal year. Active work was begun in carrying out 
projects chargeable to the fund of $125,000 made immediately 
available. 

Five commercial power plants on two National Forests were in- 
spected and found to be in accordance with permit stipulations. 



WOBK FOB THE ENSUING YEAE. 



The work planned includes the construction of over 3,500 miles 
of telephone line, 3,000 miles of trail, 200 miles of road, 250 bridges, 
500 miles of drift and boundary fences, and 500 cabins and barns. 
The large number of Forests upon which the work will be carried on 
simultaneously will make necessary a large increase in the force of 
supervising engineers. 

A number of the roads will be built in cooperation with States 
and counties. In Idaho, for example, $4,000 will be expended in 
cooperation with the State to build a State road from Boise to At- 
lanta, and $3,000 to open a wagon road from Harpster to Elk City 
and to reconstruct the old and well-known Salmon Eiver trail. 
About $4,000 will be spent in reopening and repairing the Lolo mili- 
tary trail, which many years ago made accessible a territory rich in 
possibilities, and which will shorten the route between the eastern and 
western portions of the State by many miles. Eoad work in co- 
operation with counties will be undertaken in Colorado, Oregon, and 
Idaho, and probably in other States. 

Fire lines to cost $10,000 will be built on the San Bernardino Na- 
tional Forest in cooperation with the State of California. 

^ ACCOTTNTS. 

An annual statement was prepared for the accounting officers of 
the Treasury showing receipts from sales of products on the different 
National Forests, this statement is used by the Secretary of the 
Treasury in determining the 10 per cent required by law to be 
deducted and turned over to the States and Territories in which the 
Forests are situated for the benefit of public schools and public roads. 



16 DBPABTMENTAL REPORTS. "^ 

The amounts to be paid to the States and Territories, as shown by 
the statement, are as follows: Alaska, $3,67.15; Arizona, $17,307.92; 
California, $16,064.29; Colorado, $15,791.67; Idaho, $19,591.66; 
Kansas, $119.39 ; Montana, $20,655.42 ; Nebraska, $1,017.61 ; Nevada, 
$2,133.98; New Mexico, $9,614.06; Oklahoma, $125.50; Oregon, 
$13,980.89 ; South Dakota, $2,752.23 ; Utah, $13,557.38 ; Washington, 
$3,731.55; Wyoming, $16,221.49; total, $153,032.19. 

The number of accounts rendered for settlement was greatly less- 
ened by the adoption of a new form of certificate of service and a cor- 
responding pay roll for each National Forest, instead of the indi- 
vidual salary voucher hitherto used. 

The discontinuance of the duplication of vouchers has materially 
reduced the amount of work involved in the preparation of accounts, 
both in the field and in Washington. This method of settlement has 
been in use one year, long enough to show its manifold advantages. 

In addition to the regular work of the Office an annual statement 
showing under twenty special headings the disbursements of all the 
appropriation of the Forest Service was prepared for the report 
of the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of Agricul- 
ture, House of Eepresentatives. 

Changes in personnel, including appointments, promotions, resig- 
nations, etc., numbered 4,649, and the temporary employment of 
1,826 persons was reported for the approval of the Secretary of 
Agriculture. 

The liability system in use by the Forest Service was so extended 
that the expenditure of practically every cent is anticipated and 
provided for. 

The system of cost keeping was made more comprehensive, and 
now includes the cost of individual projects on the National Forests. 
By it standards of cost were made available for use in the planning 
of new work. 



MAINTENANCE. 



Improved methods of handling requisitions and keeping account 
of stock resulted in increased promptness in getting supplies into the 
field. Delays of shipments occurred during the winter months be- 
cause of snow blockades in the Northwest and the consequent con- 
gestion of traffic, but the inconvenience to the Forest Service was 
comparatively slight. By the system of semiannual requisitions. 
Forest officers were furnished with all needed supplies which could 
be anticipated, during the time of year when the movement of traffic 
is free. 

The number of kinds and sizes of instruments and articles' of sta- 
tionery carried in stock was reduced, and lists of standard materials 
were issued for the guidance of members of the Service in making 
requisitions. 

PHOTOQEAPHY. 

The extension of administrative and investigative work on existing 
National Forests and on new Forests created during the year 
involved a more general use of maps and blueprints. The increased 
use of photographs in connection with applications made for lands 



REPORT OP THE POEESTEK. 17 

for agricultural settlement and other special uses also added to the 
volume of work for the laboratory. To meet these demands the 
facilities were increased and one additional photographer was 
employed. 
• Equipment for mounting maps was installed, enabling the Service 
to furnish members engaged in field work maps mounted on cloth 
in convenient and durable form. 



The concentration of stenographic and typewriting work and other 
routine clerical labor was continued with good results. The average 
number of stenographers and typewriters available for copying and 
typewriting and for temporary detail to offices was 32. In addition, 
16 clerks, assigned to ordinary routine work, were available for detail 
to offices in emergencies. This elastic system of supplving temporary 
clerical help to offices resulted in a high degree of efficiency, with a 
marked gain in economy of time and cost. 

During the year 158,191 official communications were received, and 
299,610 were sent out. 

The depreciation of field equipment and instruments in the hands 
of Forest officers was less than 5 per cent of the total value of all 
such property in use. 

WORK FOR THE ENSUING YEAR. 

Additions will be made to the facilities of the laboratory, which 
will enable the photographer to furnish maps and blueprints more 
promptly than ever before. 

Supply depots will be established at convenient shipping points in 
the West. The proximity of these depots to the National Forests 
will facilitate the furnishing of supplies to Forest officers. 

The plan of concentrating the routine clerical force will be 
extended. 

LANDS. 
BOUNDARIES. 

The examination of lands for new National Forests and for addi- 
tions to and eliminations from existing Forests led to the changes 
tabulated on pages 11, 12, and 13. A total of 16,324,880 acres was 
still under temporary withdrawal for exemption, while 11,331,916 
acres were released from withdrawal during the year. 

Sites for 1,552 rangers' headquarters on 96 National Forests were 
selected and withdrawn from entry during the year. The head- 
quarters were needed to facilitate the local administration of the 
Forests and to afford centers for protective work against fires and 
depredations. 

AGRICULTURAL SETTLEMENT. 

The act of June 11, 1906, which opened to entry all land within 
National Forests chiefly valuable for agriculture and not needed 
for administrative use, brought 3,871 applications from actual and 
prospective settlers. Examination of the lands applied for was 

24102—08 3 



lO DEPARTMENTAL EEPOKTS. 

promptly begun in the summer and fall of 1906, but before it could 
proceed far winter interrupted the -work. Before spring came a 
large number of applications had accumulated. Under the super- 
vision of the chief inspectors in the different districts the field work 
was pushed as rapidly as possible by experienced men. These ex- 
-aminers, almost without exception, were western men, thoroughly 
^familiar with local conditions. The examiners were accompanied 
by tTie applicants whenever this was possible. Detailed surveys were 
made of areas for listing which were not covered by the public-land 
surveys. A full report was made upon each tract; it considered 
markets, transportation facilities, topography, soil, cover, and eco- 
nomic possibilities. 

Applicants with prior rights are permitted to occupy lands chiefly 
valuable for agriculture and not needed for administrative use, 
pending the formal listing of the lands. Settlers already occupying 
lands in good faith are not required to apply for permission to con- 
tinue their occupancy and use. The only restrictions are that the 
land must be chiefly valuable for agriculture and not needed for ad- 
ministratiA^e use, and that the interests of any previous applicant 
for the same land must not be injuriously affected. 

CLAIMS. 

Although lands included within National F'orests are withdrawn 
from all forms or entry or filing, except under the mining laws and 
the agricultural settlement act of June 11, 1906, many claims are valid 
because initiated prior to the creation of the National Forest. All 
alleged claims must be examined and reported upon in order that the 
Commissioner of the General Land Office may be informed if there 
appears to be reason why patent should not issue. 

Three geologists detailed by the Geological Survey assisted the 
forest supervisors in examining mining claims. 

Reports on 2,473 claims inside National Forest boundaries were 
received from examiners. Of this number 1,093 mining, 705 home- 
stead, 50 desert land, 42 timber and stone, and 29 miscellaneous claims 
were transmitted to the General Land Office for final action ; 200 min- 
ing, 100 homestead, 10 desert land, and 29 timber and stone claims 
were held for further report, and 215 required no action. 

The General Land Office ordered 91 hearings on recommendations 
of the Forest Service that claims be rejected. 

SPECIAL USES. 

The business of special uses was approximately double that of the 
preceding year; Applications were received for 1,763 permits, and 
100 applications for rights of Avay amounting to easements were 
referred to the Forest Service by the Department of the Interior for 
recommendation. Of the permits applied for, 1,668 were issued, 50 
were refused, and 45 were received too late to be acted upon before 
the close of the year. 

STATUS. 

There were obtained from the General Land Office records relating 
to tracts of land concerning which information was needed, and data 



KEPOET OP THE FOEESTEE. 19 

concerning alienations and the status of titles needed to determine 
whether the land was National Forest land or held in private owner- 
ship were furnished to forest supervisors and to the offices in the 
Service. 

WOKK FOE THE ENSUING YEAR. 

The need of examining lands for the creation of new Xational 
Forests and for additions to and eliminations from existing Forests 
will be materially less than last year, and the number of examiners 
will be correspondingly decreased. Selection and withdrawal from 
entry of administrative sites for rangers' headquarters will be con- 
tinued. In regions where the National Forests are confined largely 
to the higher elevations the sites selected will usually be on ground 
low enough to permit of residence throughout the year. 

A large force of experienced men will continue the work of exam- 
ining lands applied for under the agricultural settlement act of 
June 11, 1906, and the work will be vigorously carried to completion. 

Under the revised regulations effective July 1, 1907, supervisors 
will be authorized to grant permits for the use of the National 
Forests, e;xcept upon applications for permits for the installation of 
coimnercial power plants and other uses of large importance, which 
wil] be reserved for the action of the Forester. 

Examinations of mining claims on the National Forests will be 
made by an increased number of geologists from the U. S. Geological 
Survey. The work of examining nonmineral claims will be assigned 
to a trained force of Forest officers familiar with local conditions. 

The work of examining the records of the General Land Office and 
obtaining data as to land titles within the National Forests will be 
carried on by an increased clerical force, to meet the growing de- 
mands of the Service for information of this character. 

SILVICULTURE. 

FOKEST EXTENSION. 

A distinct advance in efficiency was made in the work of this office. 
Nursery and planting operations in the National Forests present 
many difficult problems which the experience gained, both of success 
and failure, now make it possible to attack more vigorously and ex- 
tensively. It is clear that some of the methods which at first seemed 
promising should be discarded, that the natural difficulties of estab- 
lishing new Forests in the more arid parts of the Southwest must 
be overcome by measures of special care, and that in such regions 
it is false economy to make the first cost too small. Thus a firm 
foundation is being laid for future work. 

Forest planting by pri^'ate persons under advice from the Forest 
Service increased remarkabh'^ during the year. , 

PLANTING. 

Stock for National Forest planting is now being grown at 8 sta- 
tions, of which 2, the Fort Stanton and Las Gallinas, were estab- 
lished during the year. The following statement shows the size and 



20 



DEPARTMENTAL KEPOETS. 



estimated capacity of the seed beds, the amount of young stock on 
hand, and the amount furnished for field planting: 

Forest planting stations: Size and estimated capacity of seed beds, young stock 
on hand, and young stock furnished for field planting. 



Planting station. 


Forest. 


Seed bed. 


Estimated 
seedling 
capacity. 


Number oi 
1-year 
trans- 
plants. 


Number ol 
2-year 
trans- 
plants. 


Number ol 
trees f or- 

nisbed tor 

field 
planting. 




San Gabriel 

Santa Barbara 

Pikes Peak 


Acres. 

0.20 
.10 
.60 

4.00 
.50 
.70 
.30 
.30 


300,000 
200,000 
400,000 
4,000,000 
400,0001 
800,000 
400,000 
400,000 


150,000 
127,000 
7,800 
260,000 
89,800 
119,000 


230,000 
18,500 


103,900 


San Marcos 


!)9,000 


Pikes Peak 




Halsey 




241,500 

40,600 


Port Bayard 


Gila (S) 


23,000 


Wasatch 


Salt Lake 

Lincoln 




Port Stanton 






Las Gallinas 


















Total -. 


6.70 


6,900,000 


743,600 


271,500 


444,900 









The following field planting was done on National Forests : 

Tree planting on Xaiianal Forests. 



Forests. 


Number 
of trees 
planted. 


Pores ts. 


Number 
of trees 
planted. 


San Gabriel _ _ 


43,000 
42,000 
63,100 
6,100 
4,700 
20,460 
148,000 


North Platte 


19,000 


San Bernardino..- _ . ... _ 

Santa Barbara 


Niobrara 

Garden City 


19,000 
24,000 


San Luis Obispo 


Gila 

Total, 11 Forests 


30,500 






Pikes Peat. . . 

Dismal River- 


418,850 







The stock planted in the field in earlier years sviffered severe losses 
from special causes, of which the principal were unusual drought 
and attacks of animals. On the San Gabriel Forest rabbits and wood 
rats did great damage. All efforts to protect against or exterminate 
these pests have hitherto proved futile. Kabbits are less common 
on open land and at higher altitudes, where in consequence most 
future planting will be done. Of the trees planted in 1905 the small 
percentage which were not destroyed by rabbits or other pests are in 
good condition, and from 24 to 36 inches high. More than 90 per 
cent of the trees planted in 1'906 and nearly 50 per cent of those 
planted in 1907 were destroyed, while in the brush 95 per cent were 
seriously injured. 

At the San Marcos station the weather conditions for nursery and 
planting work were especially favorable. Transplanting cost $1.78 
per thousand. The seed beds were resown mainly with Jeffrey and 
Coulter pine. 

On the Santa Barbara Forest planting near the nursery cost $10.65 
per 1,000, but from a temporary camp $16.92 per 1,000. On June 1 
the trees were in good condition and from 90 to 97 per cent were alive. 
Damage from rabbits and field rats is very slight in the Santa Bar- 
bara Forest, hence the only danger of loss is from drought. Dry 
weather through July, August, and September of 1906 caused a loss 
of 66 per cent in the planting of that year, but the live trees are in 
excellent condition. 



BBPOET OP THE FORESTER, 21 

The Pikes Peak station has included nurseries at Clyde, Kosemont, 
and Bear Creek. The Clyde site has proved too small and too high 
for extensive nursery work, and will be abandoned. The suitability 
of the Bear Creek nursery site is also uncertain, since the seedlings of 
Engelmann spruce, blue spruce, and lodgepole pine were all winter- 
killed. A small new nursery at the ]\Iount Herman ranger station 
has proved to have a far more favorable site than either the Clyde or 
Bear Creek nurseries, and it will therefore be developed into a plant- 
ing station, with the idea of finally concentrating at this point all 
nursery work on the Pikes Peak National Forest. 

Yellow pine, Douglas fir, and Scotch pine 2-year-old seedlings from 
Halsey were experimentally planted on six widely differing sites in 
the Pikes Peak Forest, at a cost of $5.44 per 1,000. 

The 1903 field planting suffered seriously from drought. None of 
the yellow pine and only .5 per cent of the Douglas fir is alive. Of 
the 1906 field planting about 56 per cent of the trees were alive on 
June 1. The loss was due to drought and trampling of cattle. 

At the Halsey station measures were taken to grow hardier and 
stronger plant material. Trees planted in the sandhills are ex- 
posed to very adverse conditions. The first step was to remove the 
lath roofing from over all one and two year old yellow pine seed- 
lings. To secure trees hardened to wind and sun, and possessing more 
fibrous roots, all seedlings will in the future be transplanted to un- 
shaded beds when one year old. With this new method of treatment 
some of the 4 acres now under lath will be converted to open trans- 
plant beds. 

Slower but more careful methods of planting raised the cost from 
$1.68 to $3.95 per 1,000. The weather conditions were extremely un- 
favorable. On June 1, 55 per cent of the jack pine and 82 per cent 
of the Scotch pine planted during April and May were alive. Of 
the trees planted in 1906, 47 per cent are living. A test planting of 
40,000 Scotch pine purchased from nurserymen and set out carefully 
is in good condition and shows considerable growth this season. 

There were shipped from Halsey for planting elsewhere 94,000 
trees, chiefly to the North Platte, Niobrara, Garden City, and Pikes 
Peak Forests. 

Important experiments under way include the use of commercial 
fertilizer on the seed beds to induce more vigorous growth, shearing 
the needles of trees before planting in the field, and impregnating 
the seed beds with formalin solution to prevent " dami^ing off." 

At the Fort Bayard station the cost of transplanting was $1.63 
per 1,000 or $0.79 per 1,000 more than last year. The increase is due 
to the use of larger seedlings and wider spacing to permit of irriga- 
gation for small ditches between the rows. The first field planting 
with stock grown at this station was during April. Jack pine and 
Douglas fir 2-year-old seedlings, fx'om Halsey. Nebr., were also 
planted experimentally on selected sites. The average cost of plant- 
ing was $5.75 per 1,000. One month after planting 82 per cent of 
the trees were in good condition. A considerable loss will probably 
result, however, from the dry weather of June and July. Of 460 
transplants planted in December, 96 per cent were alive and in a 
thrifty condition in May and had grown from 1 to 2^ inches. 



22 DEPAETMENTAL EEPOETS. 

A new planting station known as the Fort Stanton station was 
established early in Maj on land near the Fort Stanton military 
post. A lath house 80 by 160 feet was constructed. 

The Las Gallinas station was established in the Las Gallinas Can- 
yon, 17 miles northwest of Lag Vegas, N. Mex. A lath house 80 by 
160 feet was built, a water system installed, and seed sown. The 
station is well located for distributing stock to other Forests. 

The Wasatch station is proving extremely well suited for nursery 
purposes. All seedlings wintered remarkably well. The transplant 
ground will be enlarged before the next planting season. 

At 52 ranger headquarters small nurseries were established with 
an average size of about 400 square feet. Two larger nurseries 
were established, one on the Mount Graham Forest, with an area 
of 14 acres, and one with an area of 12 acres on the Pocatello. The 
latter will be enlarged into a planting station during the summer. 

On the Garden City Forest it was planned to plant 160,000 trees 
this, season, but unfavorable wea,ther forced abandonment of part 
of the work. Of the 91,000 trees planted in the spring of 1906, most 
were destroyed by drought, rabbits, and a severe prairie fire. The 
recurrence of such a disastrous fire can be prevented by a better 
system of fire lines. 

Experimental plantings were made by rangers on the Monterey, 
San Luis Obispo, Chiricahua, Santa Rita, Tonto, Mount Graham, 
Pinal Mountains, Lincoln, Pecos, Grand Canyon (S), Yellowstone 
(Shoshone Division), Pocatello, and Wichita Forests. This work 
both tests the value of different kinds of trees for various regions 
and situations and trains the field force of the Service in planting. 

On the Black Hills Forest an exceedingly interesting attempt to se- 
cure forest renewal through broadcast sowing of seed is being tested. 
The sowings made in 1905 and 1906 show, on the whole, fairly sat- 
isfactory results. In 1907 a new line of experiments was begun by 
selecting twenty different situations, ranging from plowed land to 
bare hill tops and slopes, and sowing them with varying quantities 
of seed. If a way can be found of sowing broadcast successfully in 
this region, a discovery of great importance to forestry in the North- 
western States will have been made. 

EECONNAISSANCE. 

Investigations were made as to the need for planting both in the 
National Forests and elsewhere. City and irrigation watershed 
studies were carried on in more than 30 Forests. Immediate plant- 
ing can and should be undertaken on the Uinta, Pocatello, Lincoln, 
and Pecos Forests. The Pocatello watershed in the Pocatello Forest, 
Big Cottonwood in the Salt Lake Forest, Santa Ynez in the Santa 
Barbara Forest, Santa Fe in the Pecos Forest, and the watersheds of 
the cities of Pueblo and Colorado Springs in Pikes Peak Forest, all 
show denuded slopes on which rise streams that feed city water sup- 
plies. Large denuded areas in the Lincoln Forest furnish water both 
for the Hondo Reclamation Project and for the town of Roswell, 
N. Mex. Outside of the National Forests, information was gathered 
on tree planting in regions where assistance had been ^sked and the 
necessary data for advice were lacking, notably on irrigated lands in 
the North Platte and the South Platte valleys and on the Truckee- 



BEPOET OF THE FORESTER. 23 

Carson Eeclamation Project. A study of tree planting in California 
was completed, and one covering Ohio and Indiana was begun and 
nearly finished. 

COOPERATION. 

The increasing volunie of data from completed studies is leading 
more and more to the giving of assistance to private owners through 
correspondence and publications instead of by planting plans, which 
entail study on the ground. There were made, during the year, 23 
planting plans in 15 States, covering 19,600 acres, 10,000 acres of 
which were covered by a single plan for the United States Reclama- 
tion Service, for lands in the North Platte Project. Another im- 
portant plan was for planting eucalypts on 4,000 acres in California. 
In Pennsylvania plans were made for the Lehigh Coal and Naviga- 
tion Company and the Monroe Water-Supply Company. 

Advisory letters written to persons seeking assistance through cor- 
respondence numbered during the single month of May 288. Letters 
were received from every State and Territory in the United States, 
with California, New York, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Indiana, and Mas- 
sachusetts in the lead, and from 10 foreign countries. The informa- 
tion furnished was specific, and one letter often brought extensive 
tree planting throughout a locality. 

Valuable experiments in nursery and planting work are being 
conducted in cooperation with nine universities and State agricul- 
tural experiment stations in the East and the Middle West, at slight 
expense, which is equally divided between the Forest Service and the 
institutions. These experiments are to learn what species are best 
adapted to different regions, to improve methods of nursery planting, 
cultivation and thinning, and to test different spacings and mixtures. 
Among other matters which it is important to investigate through 
this means are the questions of species useful for protective and com- 
mercial planting on irrigated lands and of forest planting in connec- 
tion with dry-land agriculture. 

Experiments to learn how to combat the damping-off fungi, which 
so seriously affect forest nurseries, were begun in cooperation with 
the Bureau of Plant Industry at the Halsey planting station and 
with the New York forest, fish, and game commission at its nursery 
at Saranac, N. Y. 

Publication of a series of regional circulars to set forth clearly and 
concisely the best advice that the Forest Service can give forest 
planters in each region has been begun. 

WORK FOR THE ENSUING YEAR. 

Nursery practice at the present stations will be closely studied, 
better stock grown, and the seed-bed area brought to a higher state of 
production. Greater care will also be given to choosing planting sites 
and perfecting field planting. 

Plans are under way to transfer the Pasadena station to Lyttle 
Creek, the San Marcos to the Santa Ynez Valley, and to relocate the 
nurseries of the Pikes Peak station. These changes will secure better 
and more accessible sites without appreciable loss of equipment or 
permanent improvements. 

Experimental sowing and planting will be carried out on a large 
number of Forests. Additional planting stations will be called for 



24 DEPAETMENTAli B.EPORTS. 

if the scope of planting upon the National Forests is to be broadened 
to meet the opportunity opened by this work, but it is of most imme- 
diate importance to perfect methods and solve the difficult problems 
involved rather than to extend the work prematurely. 

Particular attention will be given to study of the field for planting 
in the National Forests. Forest planting on irrigated lands, espe- 
cially in Idaho, the Dakotas, Montana, and Wyoming, will also be 
studied further, in the field. The many applications received for 
assistance in tree planting in the southern States indicate a probable 
need for field studies in this region during the year. 

The compilation of data will be carried on under an improved 
method for office reference, and with plans for the publication of 
useful information now gathered. The experimental work under way 
in cooperation with several colleges and two forest commissions will 
be systematized to secure the most practical and broadest results, and 
if possible extended to include some western institutions. Cooper- 
ation is planned with the Bureau of Plant Industry, both at some of 
its dry- farming experiment stations and at some of its experimental 
farms on irrigation projects. 

Several planting plans which have been asked for by owners of 
large areas will be prepared. 

SILVICS. 

The best management of the National Forests and of all forested 
lands in the United States must be grounded on careful and exten- 
sive silvical investigations. Because of the growing scope and volume 
of these studies the former section. of silvics was made an office now 
organized in three sections — field studies, compilation, and library. 

FIELD STUDIES. 

A study of old cuttings and burns of lodgepole pine was begun in 
the Eocky Mountains, to find out how fast reproduction takes place 
and how the method of cutting and the brush disposal affect it. This 
will give knowledge as to what is the best treatment of lodgepole 
pine in the different forest types. A special sturdy of the life history 
of Colorado forests was begun. General silvical records were started 
at the office of every National Forest supervisor to secure the history 
of each cutting, and the following reproduction. These will enable 
the working out of a final plan of silvicultural treatment for each 
forest type. Field studies of second-growth yellow poplar in Vir- 
ginia, pointing to the profitableness of growing this species for wood 
pulp and box lumber, at least in the Middle Atlantic States, and of 
the aspen, valuable for book and magazine paper, excelsior, and 
silviculturally as a nurse tree to spruce and white pine, were finished. 
An extensive field study of all important species of hickory, the 
present supply of which is nearly exhausted, was begun to determine 
which lands have the best wood, and how best to grow a second crop. 

There were established in five eastern States, 145 large, and 126 
small permanent sample plots for studying silvical problems of re- 
production, growth, fire, and thinnings, and in the west, 22 sample 
plots, in 4 National Forests. There are now 458 sample plots in the 
east, with a total area of 73.22 acres. 



REPORT OF THE FOEESTEE. 25 

FOBEST INSECT INVESTIGATIONS. 

During the year special explorations were made in cooperation 
with the Bureau of Entomology in the National Forests of Colorado, 
to locate old and new work of the Black Hills beetle, make estimates 
of the amount of insect-infested and killed timber, and determine 
how to control the insect. One result was to show that an outbreak of 
this insect can be controlled. The prompt and radical measures 
adopted by Gen. William J. Palmer in cutting and barking beetle- 
infested timber during the summer and fall of 1905 and the spring of 
1906, in the vicinity of Colorado Springs and Palmer Lake, checked 
the spread of the beetle. 

Maps showing the exact location of the beetle-infested and killed 
timber were prepared for the Forest Atlas, and these made it easier 
to get rid of this timber by sale. An important result of these explo- 
rations in the different National Forests was to teach forest super- 
visors andr'rangers how to detect evidences of insect depredations and 
the importance of reporting them, with specimens of the insects or 
their work. 

COMPILATION. 

The section of compilation collects and systematically organizes for 
practical use existing silvical information from all possible sources. 
During the past year silvical notes were compiled for 113 new species. 
These notes now cover 180 species, including practically all the west- 
em and most of the important eastern trees. They comprise data 
classified as to range, character of distribution by regions, associated 
species, habit, soil, moisture, and light requirements, reproduction, 
planting and thinning, rate of growth, yield, sprouting, and diseases 
of the various species. Besides the notes on species, general silvical 
data are on file for 60 National Forests. 

An increasing amount of silvical data is procured in connection 
with the regular work of the Service. Special annual reports on the 
silvical conditions on National Forests are now required from tech- 
nical assistants. Thirty-one of these reports were received in 1906. 

To place its classified data in the most available form for use in the 
field, the section has begun the publication of silvical leaflets upon 
the various species. These leaflets contain compilations of all 
available silvical knowledge and are designed by future revision 
and addition to form the basis for an American silviculture. During 
1906 more than thirty compilations on the silvics of western coni- 
fers were' prepared for subsequent publication as silvical leaflets. 
Another line of work pursued by this section was the compilation of 
silvical data on Pacific coast trees in connection Avith the forthcoming 
manual of Pacific coast trees. 

LIBRABY. 

Of 13,791 books and pamphlets in the library, 4,500 were added 
during the year and 3,326 were placed in 109 branch libraries estab- 
lished in the offices of National Forest supervisors. Service manu- 
script reports are being indexed with the general library index. 

The photographic collection gained 3,009 mounted prints from 
the States and Territories and 27 foreign countries, and now contains 
27,471 such prints. Rapid growth has been curtailed by restricting 



26 DEPABTMENTAL REPORTS. 

the use of field cameras, setting a higher standard of selection, and 
designating the subjects especially in need of further illustration. 
There were sold 882 prints, 163 slides, 5 transparencies, and 7 bromides. 
Gifts were received of 190 prints and 1 lantern slide, 253 prints were 
purchased, and 297 were exchanged. . Gifts were made of 2,709 prints 
(as against 1,677 last j'ear) to 32 educational institutions, applicants 
for illustrations for 118 books and articles, and 18 other applicants. 
The offices of field men, chiefly on the National Forests, received 949 
mounted duplicates. Useful duplicate collections are being made 
ready for the offices of supervisors. 

The collection of lantern slides now contains 3,956 slides, 376 being 
added this year. The demand for lecture illustrations led to loans 
of 4,065 individual slides — 1,710 more than last year. 

WOKK FOB THE ENSUING YEAE. 

The investigation of logged-over areas will be continued and ex- 
tended to the yellow pine region. Studies of white and yellow birch 
and ash will be undertaken. New silvical leaflets will be prepared 
upon the most important western conifers and a series of leaflets de- 
scribing the silvical conditions on the National Forests will be begun. 
The silvical notes on species will be added to, with special attention 
to methods of silvicultural treatment in practice on the National 
Forests. 

MANAGEMENT. 
TIMBER SALES. 

The past year showed marked progress in the handling of timber 
sales on the National Forests, through the added experience of 
Forest officers and increase in the number of trained men available 
for the work. Mistakes were less frequent than for the previous year, 
although the best standard attainable with the means at hand is still 
too low. Particular attention was given to the location and con- 
trol of cutting areas and to the marking of timber, in order to 
leave those parts of the Forests which were lumbered in the best 
possible condition. Only those trees have been marked for cutting 
which a Forest officer has determined could be removed without 
endangering the permanence and productive capacity of the future 
forest. All healthy young trees of desirable species have been care- 
fully preserved in the logging, and where they were not sufficient as 
a basis for a second crop, older trees of the same species have been 
left standing to seed up the ground. Wherever practicable, mature 
" trees of kinds which yield inferior timber have been harvested to 
improve the quality of the stand. During the past year this gradual 
elimination of undesirable trees from the Forest was carried much 
further than before, since markets were found for large quantities of 
material which had hitherto been considered unsalable or of little 
value. For example, the use of white fir, heretofore considered un- 
merchantable throughout the West, has increased until in many local- 
ities it is practically equal in value to species which have long had 
standing in the lumber trade. 

Similarly, a market was found in Utah for aspen, which has here- 
tofore been regarded as unsalable. On the Pacific coast western hem- 
lock sold for prices which indicate that its value as a commercial 
species has been well established by Forest Service tests. 



EEPORT OP THE FORESTER. 



27 



In timber sales on the National Forests it is invariably required 
that the brush from the felled trees be disposed of so as to reduce both 
the danger from fire and the damage to the Forest should fire occur. 
Experiments conducted during the past year show that the best way 
to dispose of brush is not everywhere the same. Where the fire dan- 
ger is great, it has proved most effective to pile all brush away from 
living trees and to burn it during the wet season. Where the fire 
danger is slight, the brush is lopped and left scattered on the ground, 
where it soon decays and adds to the organic constituents of the soil. 
In every timber sale, therefore, local conditions are carefully studied 
to determine how best to dispose of the brush and debris after logging. 

Full use of the merchantable portion of every tree cut is insisted 
upon. As a result, lumbermen in the West have come to realize that 
the cutting of low stumps and the using of all trees as far into the 
tops as they are merchantable is of actual financial benefit to them, 
and the close utilization of all timber felled is spreading from the 
National Forests to private holdings. 

During the past year applications were received to purchase timber 
on nearly every National Forest. The greatest demands were for 
timber from the lodgepole pine forests of the Eocky Mountains in 
Wyoming and Montana. A number of applications were received for 
timberon the Forests in the far Northwest, where the stand of timber 
is particularly heavy. These Forests have previously been considered 
too removed from recognized lines of transportation to justify log- 
ging operations. Moderately large sales were made in Idaho, Wash- 
mgton, and Oregon, and the demand from these regions is likely to 
increase. 

Timber on Forests where the supply is very limited is reserved en- 
tirely for the use of settlers living in or near them, who would other- 
wise be put to great expense to meet their needs. Sales to supply the 
general market were made only where the supply of mature timber 
exceeds the local need. 

The use of the timber resources of the National Forests was encour- 
aged throughout the year. Three times as much timber was sold as 
in the fiscal year 1906. The following table shows for each State the 
amount and value of the timber sold. Since in many sales more than 
one year is allowed for removing the timber, the amount sold largely 
exceeds the amount cut and paid for. 



Timber sold on the National Forests, July 1, 1906, to June SO, 1907. 



State or Territory. 



Amount. 



Feet B. M. Oords 



Linear 
feet. 



Value. 



Alaska 

Arizona 

California 

Ooloraao 

Idaho 

Montana 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Oklahoma---' 

Oregon 

South Dakota- 
Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 



Total-. 



4,032,020 

110,898,860 

174,0o4,S37 

42,205,077 

76,156,276 

134,104,057 



59,097,988 



28,643,589 
18,533,092 
19,877,095 
49,014,300 
233,726,210 



1,541 

13,464 

14,702 

11,121 

8,422 

71,274 

7 

6,853 

29^ 

2,311 

12,622 

4,151 

11,164 

593 



32,300 
1,500 
49,140 
40,100 
90,900 
6,700 



514,318 
"1"377 



38,000 
398,000 



950,342,591 



158,257i 



1,174,335 



$2,426 

385,098, 

321,353 

77,636 

166,430 

629,294 

21 

159,198 

103, 

48,626 

24,695 

49,327, 

125,061 

644,202 



.50 
.28 
47 
88 
64 
.71 
,75 
74 
76 
60 
27 
05 



2,532,275.60 



"28 DEPABTMBNTAL REPOKTS. 

For every timber sale the actual value of the timber has been 
^ietermined through study of the timber itself, its accessibility, and 
the market conditions of the region. Great care was taken to avoid 
the fixing of arbitrary values not justified by local conditions. The 
advertisement for competitive bids in all sales of timber for more 
than $100 in value still further insured the disposal of timber from 
National Forests for neither more nor less than its actual market 
value. 

When rights of way are granted within National Forests, payment 
is required for the actual value of all timber necessarily cut or de- 
stroyed. The most important case of this kind during the past year 
was that of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Eailway Company. 
The right of way of this railroad, 200 feet wide, runs through the 
Helena, Lolo, Coeur d'Alene, and Washington Forests. The com- 
pany agreed to clear, and keep clear, as a safeguard against fire, 
additional strips from 50 to 150 feet wide, according to the fire risk, 
on each side of its right of way, and to pay the market value for all 
merchantable timber cut. 

Not only is timber sold from the National Forests, but it is also 
given away under the regulations providing for the free use of timber 
by settlers, prospectors, miners, and others who may not reasonably 
be required to purchase. Full advantage of these regulations has 
been taken by the people living in the vicinity of National Forests, 
and large quantities of saw timber, fuel, and fencing are taken every 
year for use on ranches and in developing mining claims and fo2 
other domestic use. During the past year more than 15,000 permits 
to take timber free of charge from National Forests were issued. The 
timber involved was valued at more than $75,000. The cutting of 
timber given away under free-use permit is carefully regulated so 
as to provide for the safety of the Forests, as in timber sales, but 
particular attention is given to insure that settlers obtain timber 
which they desire, easily and quickly. 

The readiness with which timber may be had by purchase and 
under the free-use regulations has resulted in the almost complete 
absence of timber trespassing on National Forests during the past 
year. By far the larger number of the trespasses reported during 
the year were committed before the. timber involved was included 
within a National Forest. Some of the trespassers themselves noti- 
fied the Forest officers that they had cut the timber, and offered set- 
tlement. The total receipts from the settlement of timber trespasses 
during the year were $65,536.32. 

KECONNiCISSANCE. 

To guide the Service in selling National Forest timber, systematic 
estimates of the total stand of merchantable timber of the different 
species were carried forward vigorously. A detailed working plan 
was prepared during the past year for Henrys Lake National Forest, 
in Idaho, to determine how much timber may be cut from it annually, 
without impairing the supply required to provide for local needs. 
Plans for regulating the cut on all National Forests were also taken 
up on the basis of the best available estimates and the present demand. 



REPORT OP THE PORBSTBR. 39- 

Data were collected for the preparation of volume tables of western 
yellow pine, and a careful study of the amounts and grades of lumber 
sawed from National Forest timber was begun. 

COOPERATION. 

At the request of the Secretary of War, recommendations were made 
for the conduct of a sale of part of the dead and mature timber on 
the Fort Wingate Military Reservation in New Mexico. Supervision 
of the cutting was placed in the hands of a member of the Forest 
Service, which also involved the running of interior lines and the 
marking of the timber to be cut on 1,240 acres. This work will prob- 
ably continue for several years. 

At the request of the Secretary of the Interior, field examinations 
of logging conditions and timber values were made on Indian lands 
which under the law were to be sold. In Indian Territory recom- 
mendations were made for the sale of timber on certain allotments 
in accordance with the act of April 26, 1906. As a result of the in- 
vestigation the Indians, for whose benefit the timber is to be sold, 
will receive a sum greatly in excess of what otherwise would have 
been realized by them. 

Cooperative State forest studies were carried on with California, 
Delaware, Missouri, and Kentucky. The work in California included 
a commercial tree study of the redwood and the completion of a series 
of studies of the forests of the State. 

In Delaware a careful study of the forest resources of the State 
was made and a report issued, in cooperation with the Delaware Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station. A report was prepared discussing the, 
present conditions and making recommendations for their improve- 
ment. Special attention was paid to the comparative value of the 
forested lands for agriculture and for the production of timber. 

Cooperation with the Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station 
secured information concerning the forest resources of the Ozark 
region and a basis for recommendations concerning a State forest 
policy. 

In Kentucky work was begun on a study of forest conditions of 
the State in cooperation with the State Board of Agriculture, For- 
estry, and Immigration. 

During the year 46 owners of timberlands and 45 woodlot owners 
applied for field examinations and advice for the management of 
their property in 20 States and Territories. In addition to the re- 
quest for field work, a large number of private owners received advice 
concerning the use and improvement of their forest lands. 

It was learned through letters of inquiry sent to private owners 
for whom Avorking plans have in the past been made that fully Y5 
per cent have adopted the plans laid down for them and are now 
lumbering conservatively or in some other way applying practical 
forestry. 

THE FOREST ATLAS. 

During the year a radical change was made in the methods of re- 
cording, classifying, and making available for reference upon maps 
the infoi-mation concerning the forests of the country, and especially 



30 DEPABTMENTAl, EEPOBTS. 

the National Forests, gathered by the Service. A scheme was adopted 
which improved and standardized the methods employed, both in 
field and in office work. By the use of graphic symbols like those 
of the U. S. Geological Survey and the Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
record is made of the character of the land and of the forest, its 
ownership, grazing conditions, and other matters. To take charge 
of the maps on which appear the data thus gathered and to keep them 
always up to date, a special section, that of " The Forest Atlas," was 
created. 

Folios of the more important Forests are being printed for the use 
of the field men. Others are duplicated by photography, and copies 
are furnished to supervisors. The work of preparing these maps of 
the National Forests was done in cooperation with the U. S. Geolog- 
ical Survey, which already had carefully prepared topographic maps 
of much of the country now included within the National Forests. 

GRAZING. 

RANGE CONDITIONS. 

The favorable conditions of the preceding year continued through 
the past season. The crop of grass and other forage was unusually 
good. Stock grazed upon the National Forests made good weight, 
and losses were very small, except that the extremely cold weather 
in the early spring caused in some localities a heavy loss of lambs, 
of which the crop was generally only fair. '^ 

The heavy fall of snow during the last winter made it impossible 
to reach many of the summer ranges on the usual opening date, and 
in many cases the feed was from two to three weeks late. In conse- 
quence the summer grazing season on the higher ranges this year 
will be a short one and there will be an abundance of feed for the 
stock which regularly graze there. 

The general conditions on the National Forest range are very satis- 
factory. Many letters from users of the range report an improve- 
ment m the weight and condition of their stock and a decrease in 
losses from straying and other causes. Most of the stockmen who 
use the range are well satisfied with the results of regulating the 
grazing, and are giving hearty support to the Forest officers in their 
work of administration. 

CONTROL. 

The regulation of grazing was applied on 50 new Forests. On all 
the National Forests which were created after March 1, 1907, and on 
all additions to the older Forests which were made subsequent to that 
date, the stock which had regularly occupied the range were allowed 
to remain during the season without the payment of any grazing fee. 

In some of the Forests which have been under administration a 
sufficient length of time to secure an improvement in forage condi- 
tions an increase was made in the number of stock allowed, while in 
a few newly created Forests it was necessary to make reductions in 
order to stop damage from overgrazing. 



REPORT OF THE FORESTER. 



31 



PEKMITS ISSUED. 



In the 142 Forests which were under administration prior to March 
1, 23,662 applications for grazing permits were approved by the 
Forest officers in charge, as follows: 

Grazing permits approved. 





Cattle and horses. 


Sheep and goats. 


State or Territory. 


Permits. 


Stock for 
summer 
season. 


Stock for 
year-long 
season. 


Permits. 


Stock for 
summer 
season. 




769 
2,26S 
2,757 
2,035 
15 
1,836 
68 

142 

1,283 

32 

1,255 

453 
4,078 

367 

633 


36,517 

128,761 

213,670 

115,126 

2,190 

126,730 

24,683 

16,448 

11,173 

222 

111,819 

13,475 

115,489 

19,551 

65,148 


80,153 

21,621 

8,845 

3,973 

600 

13,371 

1,133 

373 

61,010 

2,017 

3,207 

20 

891 

113 

1,826 


103 
282 
224 
609 


287,368 

386,142 

446,917 

1,825,484 


Oalifornla 




Idaho 


Kansas — 




160 


480,852 




Nevada 


19 
465 


89,450 
376,408 


Oklahoma- 




495 


940,154 


South Dakota 


Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming . _. 


1,150 
104 
198 


917,963 
172,323 
734,022 


Total- 


17,979 


1,001,005 


199,153 


3,809 


6,657,083 



The average number of cattle and horses grazed under each per- 
mit was 67 head and the average number of sheep 1,748 head. This 
shows conclusively that the small owners have preference in the use 
of the National Forest ranges. 

The total receipts on account of the above permits were $857,856.83. 

Only 8 per cent of the applicants failed to pay the grazing fees 
and to accept the permits applied for, and without doubt many of 
these will accept their permits before the close of the season. This is 
exactly the same percentage as last year, which shows the steady con- 
dition of business and indicates general satisfaction with the manage- 
ment of grazing upon the Forests. 

That stock might be driven across the National Forests in transit 
between summer and winter ranges and to reach points of shipment 
833 crossing permits were issued by the officers in charge of 66 For- 
ests, covering 36,807 head of cattle and horses and 2,051,881 head of 
sheep and goats. 

No permit is required for stock which is driven along a public 
highway, or when National Forest lands will not be grazed upon en 
route. 

Applications were made by 616 owners or lessees of private lands, 
within 52 Forests, to drive 35,674 head of cattle and horses and 
182,622 head of sheep and goats across Forest lands to reach 836,014 
acres of private land. The owners or lessees of 730,855 acres of this 
land made special agreements, waiving the right to the exclusive 
use of the land and allowing stock permitted to graze on the National 
Forests to enter upon it. In exchange for this concession permits 
were issued allowing 29,170 head of cattle and horses and 159,851 



32 DBPABTMENTAL REPOETS. 

head of sheep and goats to graze upon the National Forests free of 
charge. 

Under a cooperative agreement entered into with the land board of 
the State of Utah, by which the State in return for the use of its 
lands within National Forests sells permits to graze a stipulated num- 
ber of cattle, horses, and sheep upon the National Forests within that 
State, 85 permits were issued allowing 747 head of cattle and horses 
and 12,242 head of sheep to be grazed upon 8 Forests. 

ADVISOBY BOABDS. 

The advisory boards of live stock associations, representing the ma- 
jority of the users of certain defined ranges, were recognized by the 
Forester for 20 of the National Forests, and satisfactory adjustments 
of important grazing questions were made by the Forest officers in 
cooperation with them. 

GRAZING TRESPASSES. 

During the past fiscal year 183 cases of grazing trespass were 
reported by the officers in charge of 44 of the National Forests. In 
166 of these cases propositions to make settlement by the payment of 
damages were accepted, and civil action was closed. The total 
amount collected for grazing trespass damages was $5,576.80. 

Of the unsettled cases, 3 are those of trespassers who are under bond 
to appear before the United States jury on a charge of criminal tres- 
pass, 2 are pending in court, and the remaining 13 were reported dur- 
ing the months of May and June, when the time was too short to secure 
settlement before the close of the year. 

QUARANTINE LAWS AND REGULATIONS. 

The Bureau of Animal Industry required all sheep permitted t» 
graze upon the National Forests of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, 
Utah, Idaho, Nevada, and Oregon, and also upon the Tahoe, Stanis- 
laus, and Diamond Mountain National Forests of California and the 
Wenaha National Forest of Washington, to be inspected before enter- 
ing the National Forest ranges and to be dipped when found to have 
been exposed to or infected with scab. Upon the Medicine Bow Na- 
tional Forest of Wyoming, on account of the prevalence of scab among 
the stock grazed upon the adjoining ranges, all cattle were required 
to be dipped before entering. 

The State and Territorial authorities have in all cases heartily co- 
operated with the Government inspectors, and this disease will soon 
be entirely eradicated from the stock grazed upon the National 
Forest ranges. 

WORK OF THE ENSUING YEAR. 

The regulation of grazing along the same lines followed in the past 
will be continued and-extended to the Forests created since March 1. 
As fast as improved condition of the range makes it possible the num- 
ber of stock permitted to graze will be increased. No change will' be 
made in the general scale of charge, but in certain cases local changes 
will be made to equalize the rate. 



BEPOET OF THE FORESTER. 33 

To give the stockmen the very best possible use of the National 
Forest ranges, special effort will be made to encourage the organiza- 
tion of associations, so that through advisory boards the stockmen 
may assist in the settlement of matters affecting their interests. 
Through cooperative work great improvement can be made in the 
condition of the ranges and the method of using them, and the result 
will be beneficial to all interests concerned. 

DEVELOPMENT. 
FORAGE INVESTIGATIONS. 

Because of the urgent need for improvement in the production of 
forage upon ranges which have been injured by overgrazing, the ques- 
tion of reseeding received special attention during the past year. In- 
vestigations were commenced in cooperation with the Bureau of Plant 
Industry to discover under what conditions and in what localities it 
will be possible to secure natural reproduction of the valuable forage 
grasses and plants, and also how and where it will be possible to plant 
new seed successfully. 

WOEK OF THE ENSUING YEAR. 

Studies will be made of the manner in which stock is now being 
handled upon the ranges, with a view to stopping any unnecessary 
damage and ascertaining during what period each range can be used 
with the most economy, and also of the life of the grasses and plants 
to learn how to secure natural reseeding of the ranges. 

Experiments will be made in fencing certain ranges and in trying 
new methods of handling stock within the pastures. Experiments 
will also be made in planting both natural and imported seed upon 
sections of the range which will be open to grazing, as well as upon 
fenced areas, from which stock will be excluded. 

It is expected that by the close of the next fiscal year it will be pos- 
sible to report the results of the first season's investigations and ex- 
periments. 

PRODUCTS. 

In each of the three offices of this Branch — Wood Utilization, Wood 
Preservation, and Publication — the volume of work handled was 
greater and the results obtained were better than ever before. 

WOOD UTILIZATION. 

The Office of Wood Utilization is rapidly becoming a recognized 
authority throughout the United States upon the subjects which it 
handles. Its efforts to ascertain the amount of the annual drain 
upon our forests and to point out the most economical means of utiliz- 
ing forest products are doing much to bring about a public realiza- 
tion of the necessity for taking prompt, and vigorous measures to in- 
sure a future timber supply. 

WOOD CHEMISTRY. 

The work on zinc estimations, to discover the penetration of zinc 
chlorid in treated timber, was completed, and analyses were also 
made of a number of samples of treating-plant solutions. 



34 DEPARTMENTAL REPOETS. 

The physical properties of creosote oils were carefully studied, with 
a view to perfecting methods for grading creosotes and detecting the 
presence of substances other than the distillates from pure coal tar. 
Methods for the detection of oils of the paralfin series in the pres- 
ence of creosote and for estimating the moisture in creosoted wood 
were worked out. 

A study to determine the variation of the soluble constituents of 
chestnut during the different seasons of the year, and the rate at 
which these materials leach from the cut timber, was begun. 

Wood distillation was studied at the leading commercial plants in 
both the North and the South. Particular attention was given to the 
possibility of utilizing waste material by means of distillation, and 
the uses of the resulting products. A laboratory study was made of 
the turpentine obtained by the distillation of southern pine, which 
lays the foundation for scientific methods of grading it. 

The technical methods of analyzing tanning materials received at- 
tention, and a study in cooperation with a San Francisco lumber 
company to determine the amount of tannin present in the waste 
from redwood lumbering was begun. 

The equipment of the wood-pulp laboratory at South Boston was 
completed. The woods from which pulp was prepared include red 
spruce, white fir, loblolly pine, scrub pine, tupelo, hemlock, tamarack, 
. and cypress. It was shown that all of these woods can be made to 
yield a merchantable pulp. The samples obtained were in some cases 
superior to ordinarj' commercial grades of unbleached pulp. 

COMPUTING. 

The section of computing received and tabulated a very large vol- 
ume of data, including 21,000 log tallies, 11,850 tree analyses, 1,980 
acre surveys, 590 sample plots, 10,100 card schedules, monthly weights 
for twelve months, of 1,550 poles, 10,000 ties, and 10,000 cross-arms 
and computations for. 1,250 timber tests. Miscellaneous work in- 
cluded the checking of scale books, for timber sales on the National 
Forests, and numerous less important items. 

The compiling and editing of forest tables covering all measure- 
ments thus far collected has been undertaken, supplementary meas- 
urements to be collected during the coming field season, with a 
view to the preparation of tables of stand, growth, volume, and form 
for all the more important timber trees in the National Forests. 
Similar data for the important trees of the Southern, Central, and 
Northeastern sections will be compiled as soon as possible. 

DRAFTING. 

The section of drafting made maps and did general graphic work 
for 100 distinct projects, about 90 per cent of which were directly 
connected with the National Forests. The output for the year in- 
cluded 1,489 maps of different kinds and 302 miscellaneous draw- 
ings. Map files for reference were also kept. Maps of the National 
Forests were prepared for publishers of maps and school geogra- 
phies. 



EEPOBT OF THE FOEBSTEE.- 35 



TIMBER TESTS. 



Information on the mechanical and pliysical properties of wood 
is in strong demand. The structural timber tests were put to im- 
mediate use by the American Railway Engineering and Mainte- 
nance of Way Association and the American Society for Testing 
Materials in drawing up standard specifications of such timbers. 
The work promoted interest in a more scientific use of wood, which 
is synonymous with a more economical use. 

The tests were made at laboratories run in cooperation with Yale 
University, Purdue University, the University of California, the 
University of Oregouj and the University of Washington. To co- 
ordinate closely the work of these different laboratories an office hav- 
ing general supervision over all the work was established at Wash- 
ington early in 1907. 

Work cojipleted during the year. — There were made during 
the year 10,726 mechanical tests, of which 1,871 were in bending, 
7,957 in compression, and 898 in shearing. 

These tests developed, among other facts, that white fir and Engel- 
mann spruce have about the same strength as eastern spruce, while 
lodgepole pine is almost as strong as loblolly pine ; that in small pieces 
sound dead timber of these species has about 85 per cent of the 
strength of live, and that these woods are suitable for many purposes 
for which more valuable woods are now being used; that various 
species of eucalypts compare favorably in strength with our strong- 
est native woods, and will probably make suitable material for 
vehicles and implements; that insulator pins of live oak and rock 
elm have, respectively, 75 and 65 per cent of the strength of locust 
pins ; that in railroad ties of white and red oak, loblolly pine, hardy 
and common catalpa, and chestnut, with spikes of the common, chan- 
neled, and screw types, the channeled spike has 12 per cent more 
holding power than the common spike and the screw spike about 
twice that of the common spike, while white oak has the greatest 
holding power of the species tested; that western hemlock timber 
has much structural merit, being a little stronger than loblolly pine ; 
and that Norway pine is weaker than tamarack, and both are weaker 
than Douglas fir, longleaf pine, loblolly pine, and western hemlock. 

Tests of loblolly pine bridge stringers secured, with the previous 
work upon this species, sufficient data to form the basis of an au- 
thoritative future report upon its mechanical and physical proper- 
ties. Data were secured as to the effect of knots and other defects, 
rate of growth, specific gravity, proportion of summerwood, and vari- 
ous other qualities on the strength of large Douglas fir timbers. 
Tests on vehicle woods covered spokes, axles, wagon and cultivator 
poles, and buggy shafts, and developed that the discrimination made 
by the trade against red hickory is not justified in so far as its 
strength is concerned. Tests on wagon axles showed the relative 
value of maple and hickory, and the benefits derived from various 
forms of trussing. The results of these tests will enable vehicle 
manufacturers to use material more economically and assist them to 
find satisfactory substitutes for woods that are now hard to secure. 

Tests to determine the fiber-saturation point and moisture strength 
relations for loblolly pine, Douglas fir. Eucalyptus globulus, western 



36 • DEPARTMENTAL REPOETS. 

hemlock, tamarack, and Norway pine furnished helpful information 
on the amount and influence of water absorbed by different woods, 
and establish that wood does not begin to shrink until its moisture 
content is reduced below the saturation point. The per cent of 
moisture which suffices to saturate the cell walls of wood varies 
between 20 and 30. 

The studies now being carried on include tests of the strength of 
several species of wood when subjected to reversal of stress, the 
results of which are expected to throw light upon the question of 
fatigue in telephone and telegraph poles; investigation of the effect 
of various drying and treating processes upon the strength of wood, 
including treatments in which superheated stfeam is used, and dry- 
air treatments in which high temperatures and air at high pressures 
are used; studies of various other problems connected 'with the 
moisture content of wood ; tests of small specimens of wood under 
dead loads, from which it is hoped to derive factors enabling the 
engineer to apply results obtained from tests under gradual loading 
to the design of structures Subjected to dead loads; further tests of 
California eucalypts, including some important new species ; and 
work on the shrinkage factors of Douglas fir, western hemlock, and 
several other western woods. The testing of western hemlock is still 
in progress, and tests are being continued to determine the strength 
of timber obtained from the National Forests. 

STATISTICS. 

During the early part of the fiscal year the compilation of the 
statistics of forest products collected during the preceding year was 
completed and published. On January 1, 1907, the collection of 
these annual statistics of forest products was transferred to the 
Bureau of the Census, under a cooperative plan which greatly 
increased the efficiency of the work. In 1906 reports were received 
from leas than 12,000 lumber manufacturers; in 1907 from more 
than 21,000 manufacturers, with corresponding increases in other 
lines. The information concerning the annual drain upon the for- 
ests of the United States is now far more complete than ever before. 
The National Lumber Manufacturers' Association continued its coop- 
eration in the statistical work, and has taken an active part in 
collecting the data. Preliminary circulars showing the total produc- 
tion of lumber, lath, and shingles, the consumption of tanbark, cross- 
ties, pulpwood, telegraph and telephone poles, and the wood used 
in the manufacture of tight and slack cooperage stock, veneerj and 
for distillation during 1906 were recently issued. The final reports 
are being prepared. 

SPECIAL STUDIES. 

A special study of dead and mature timber on the National Forests 
involved field investigations in the Battlement Mesa, Beaver, Gun- 
nison, Holy Cross, Jemez, Medicine Bow, Montezuma, Pecos River, 
Pikes Peak, White River, and Uinta Forests. 

A statistical study of the uses of wood was made by securing 
reports from the leading manufacturing concerns on the amount and 
kinds of wood used by them for various purposes. Current quota- 
tions of the market prices by grades of all the commercial kinds of 



REPORT OF THE FORESTER. 37 

lumber in the United States were compiled at short intervals. Stump- 
age prices were obtained for the different commercial species through- 
out the United States, furnishing data especially useful to the Serv- 
ice in its timber sales. 

Addresses were delivered before 19 meetings of lumber manufac- 
turers, wood users, and engineers. Thirteen trade bulletins furnished 
short statements of the scientific and practical results of investiga- 
tions, and were widely used by the trade and technical journals. 

WORK OF THE ENSUING YEAR. 

The section of wood chemistry will study wood preservatives, wood 
distillation problems, and pulpwood. There are great possibilities 
in the utilization of wood waste by chemical means, and the Forest 
Service will energetically seek their development. To secure in- 
creased efficiency in administration and operation, the chemical lab- 
oratory will be brought from New Haven and the pulp laboratory 
from Boston to Washington, where they will be combined under one 
roof. The possibility of profitably distilling fat Douglas fir will be 
studied on the ground, and in the South field work will seek methods 
of properly refining and grading yellow pine distillation products 
under commercial conditions. The leading yellow-pine manufactur- 
ers have offered to contribute toward this work. 

Besides computing forest tables, timber tests, seasoning experi- 
ments, tree measurements, and other lines of Service work, the section 
of computing will gather in the field supplementary measurements 
on Douglas fir, sugar pine, and possibly several other Pacific Coast 
species. 

The section of wood uses will continue to secure accurate and 
authoritative data upon the uses, properties, and market conditions 
of the commercial timbers of the country, and also to develop fields 
of usefulness for timber that is at present largely wasted. The 
mechanical and physical properties of redwood timbers and of the 
California tanbark oak, large quantities of which are at present 
being cut for the bark only, will be studied. The work upon Cali- 
fornia eucalypts will be continued. 

The study of the effect of different methods of drying and treating 
woods will be continued and the tests of Douglas fir car sills will be 
completed. It is expected to begin a series of tests upon creosoted 
Douglas fir and yellow pine bridge stringers in cooperation with 
some of the leading railroad companies. Tests upon shortleaf pine 
from Arkansas comparable with those already made upon loblolly 
and longleaf pine will establish the relative values of these three 
important southern woods. 

Field studies u;pon the market conditions and the uses of some 
of the timbers found in the National Forests will be supplemented 
by tests made with the special purpose of demonstrating the useful- 
ness of species which are now regarded with little favor. Work has 
been started on incense cedar, amabilis fir, and western larch. 

WOOD PEESEEVATION. 

While the field of wood preservation in the United States is broad- 
ening, the principles of the different processes are now receiving 
closer scrutiny. The Forest Service is looked to for reliable and 



38 DEPAETMENTAXi REPOKTS. 

impartial information. It has been able to discourage fraudulent 
methods and the investment of capital in processes founded on an 
unsound basis, and now largely directs the trend of investigations 
and practice in this country. It has obtained results of practical 
value to the small consumer by the discovery of a simple and prac- 
tical method for preserving fence posts, shingles, and other farm 
timbers. The entire expense of extensive investigations is borne by 
the cooperators. 

Study of the general subject of wood preservation involves attack 
upon a series of subordinate problems which center in the seasoning 
of wood. Precise knowledge of the rate at which seasoning takes 
place and the effect of such modifying factors as previous water-soak- 
ing, different methods of exposure to the air, time of year when the 
timber was cut, and the conditions under which it was grown, is 
essential in order to devise the best practical methods of preserving 
wood. All of the experimental timber collected in connection with 
the projects was weighed at regular intervals. A considerable por- 
tion of it was accurately measured when freshly cut, when partially 
seasoned, and when air-dry — and in this way exact data on the shrink- 
age and the rate of seasoning were obtained. After treatment the 
material experimented upon was in each case put into service under 
conditions which will test the relative preserving power of the differ- 
ent processes. 

WORK COMPLETED. 

The following work was completed during the year : 

Experiments in seasoning and treating arborvitse telephone poles 
at Escanaba, Mich., in cooperation with the American Telephone and 
Telegraph Company, and chestnut poles at Parkton, Md., in coopera- 
tion with the same company, resulted in a practical method for treat- 
ing these poles on a commercial scale. 

Experiments on yellow pine cross-arms at Norfolk, Va., made it 
possible to devise a system for handling,, grading, seasoning, and 
treating this and similar classes of material which will insure cheaper, 
stronger, and more durable timber. 

Experimental treatment of hemlock and tamarack cross-ties at the 
plant of the Chicago and Northwestern Railway Company, under 
cooperation with the company, resulted in a complete series of recom- 
mendations for the handling and treatment of the ties from the time 
they leave the woods until they are finally placed in the track. A 
marked improvement in the efficiency of the plant has followed, 
though there has not yet been time for all the recommendations to be 
put into effect. 

Seasoned Douglas fir, western larch, and giant arborvitse ties, part 
of which had been treated, some with creosote and some with zinc 
chlorid, were laid in the track of the Northern Pacific Railway Com- 
pany for a test of durability and of the effectiveness of different 
kinds of tie plates and other devices for reducing mechanical wear 
by the rails. 

Dead lodgepole pine fence posts from the Henrys Lake National 
Forest were treated with creosote in an open iron tank to discover the 
most efficient process at the lowest cost. The work was very success- 
ful and will have practical value to the ranchers and other timber 
users of the region. 



REPORT OF THE FORESTER. 39 

The study of wood paving terminated with the laying, in coopera- 
tion with the city of Minneapolis, of an experimental pavement com- 
posed of different woods laid in different ways. 

WOKK IN PROGEESS. 

On the following projects work is in progress : 

In California experiments were made iii seasoning poles of eucalyp- 
tus, western yellow pine, and giant arborvitse from Washington. Yel- 
low pine poles were treated by the open-tank process, with excellent 
results. The attempt to regulate the absorption of the oil was partic- 
ularly successful, and a penetration of from 2 to 4 inches was secured 
at will. The experiments aroused great interest among both owners 
and consumers of structural timber in California, and promise not 
only to promote a more conservative utilization of the present timber 
supply, but also to bring into use new species, which, untreated, are 
not suited for structural use. 

The study of the handling, seasoning, and treatment of mine tim- 
bers, begun last year in cooperation Avith companies in the anthracite 
region of Pennsylvania, has opened a field of impoi'tauce. Artificial 
preservation of mine timbers had previously been thought to be im- 
practicable. The Forest Service devised a simple and inexpensive 
treatment, and conclusively proved its economy. Among the preserv- 
atives used were common salt, magnesium chlorid, zinc chlorid, cir 
bolineum, and many different grades of creosote. The open-tank 
method of treatment proved the most satisfactory, though brush ap- 
plications were found of value when more thorough impregnation is 
impracticable. Large and quick results in promotmg economy in the 
use of timber and increased knowledge of how to preserve wood ef- 
fectively are looked for. The cooperating company is now erecting a 
plant, designed by the Forest Service and erected under its supervi- 
sion, for commercial treatments. 

The protection of wood employed in various marine uses against 
borers was taken up. Creosote was found to be the best protective 
agent that has been used. Plans are now drawn up for cooperative 
study of methods of treating timber used in building barges, scows, 
lighters, and other craft, both fresh and salt water, and for piling. 

A study of the manufacture of distillates of coal and petroleum 
tar oils, and of the effect on the composition of creosote of the differ- 
ent methods used, secured better knowledge of the grades of creosote 
on the market and the precautions which must be taken to avoid 
adulterated or inferior oils. The subject intimately concerns the 
success of wood preservation in the United States. 

Work is under way to compile and index all 'extant seasoning and 
treating data. 

Addresses were made before the annual meetings of the Wood Pre- 
servers and the American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of 
Way associations, and before the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and 
Iron Company Employees' Association. 

WORK OF THE ENSUING YEAH. 

The lines of work now in hand will be continued. Simple and 
economical methods of preserving telephone and telegraph poles, 
cross-ties, mine timbers, vineyard stakes, and all other timbers exposed 



40 DEPABTMENTALi REPORTS. 

to rapid decay, the supplies of which are drawn from National For- 
ests, will be sought. Success will enhance the value of the National 
Forests by openiijg up uses for dead timber and timber of in- 
ferior species. In cooperation with the agricultural departments 
of several Southern and Middle Western States experiments and 
demonstrations will be conducted in preserving for fence posts and 
other farm purposes such easily decaying species as loblolly pine, Cot- 
tonwood, and willow, which are plentiful where the more durable 
woods have been exhausted or never grew. Preservation by an 
adaptation of the open-tank method is so simple and inexpensive as 
to permit every farmer to erect a tank and treat his own timber. 

PUBLICATION. 

The office received for review 102 manuscripts, aggregating 3,712 
typewritten pages. Of these, 66 were submitted for publication, 2 
were returned to the authors for revision, 3 were unavailable for publi- 
cation, and 31 are in the office. There were printed 61 new publica- 
tions, with a total of 2,109,000 copies, reprints of 48 circulars, 11 Year- 
book extracts, 10 bulletins, 1 annual report, and 1 manual, with a total 
of 497,100 copies, and revisions of 4 circulars, with a total of 342,000 
copies. 

The office prepared 25 original articles, 16 press bulletins. With 
a total of 130,000 copies printed, and 14 trade bulletins, of which 
about 3,000 copies were printed. 

Schemes for the distribution of all publications are now prepared 
in this office. Copies of all publications issued, except bulletins, of 
which the editions authorized by law were so small as to prohibit it, 
were sent to a special mailing list of 5,187 names. By the use of a 
general classified mailing list of over 693,000 names, descriptive 
notices of bulletins, circulars of information, and other publications 
of general interest were sent to those concerned in the subject-matter 
of the publications. 

Educational work, which is in charge of the Office of Publication, 
was further extended through addresses made before 158 meetings in 
32 States. 

WOBK OF THE COMING YEAR. 

Besides continuing th.e lines of work of the past j'ear, cooperation 
will be sought with school-teachers and officers of public instruction 
to broaden the work in education. Publications for the use of 
teachers will be prepared. 





iBsiK'il May 13, l'JU',1. 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



FARMERS' BULLETIN 358. 



A PRIMER OF FORESTRY. 

PART II: 

PRACTICAL FORESTRY. 



GIFFORD PINCHOT, 

FORESTER. 




WASHINGTON : 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, 
1909- 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Forest Service, 
Washington, D. C, March 15, 1909. 
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith, for publication as a Farmers' Bulletin, 
Part II of A Primer of Forestry, bearing the subtitle Practical Forestry. This matter 
was published in 1905 as Part II of Bulletin 24 of the Forest Service, for which there 
is a great and continuing demand. To meet this demand Part I has already been 
issued as Farmers' Bulletin 173, and the issuance of Part II in siriiilar form will make 
the entire bulletin available for general distribution. The number of illustrations 
has been considerably reduced. 
Respectfully, 

GiFFORD PiNCHOT, FoTeSteT. 

Hon. James Wilson, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Forest management (illustrated) 3 

The service of the forest 3 

The uses of the forest 3 

Four requirements for the best service 6 

The yield of a forest 7 

Silvicultural systems 8 

Work in the woods (illustrated) 21 

Conservative lumbering 22 

Planting 29 

The weather and the streams (illustrated) 29 

Forests and climate 30 

Effect of forest cover on temperature 32 

Extremes of heat and cold _ 33 

Moisture in forest air 34 

Evaporation 34 

Rainfall 35 

Fallen rain 36 

Forestry abroad and at home 40 

Forestry abroad 40 

Forestry at home 44 

358 
2 



A PRIMER OF FORESTRY. 



PART II : PRACTICAL FORESTRY. 



FOREST MAITAGEMENT. 
THE SERVICE OP THE FOREST. 

Next to the earth itself the forest is the most useful servant of man. 
Not only does it sustain and regulate the streams, moderate the winds, 
and beautify the land, but it also supplies wood, the most widely used 
of all materials. Its uses are numberless, and the demands which are 
made upon it by mankind are numberless also. It is essential to the 
well-being of mankind that these demands should be met. They 
must be met steadily, fully, and at the right time if the forest is to 
give its best service. The object of practical forestry is precisely to 
make the forest render its best service to man in such a way as to 
increase rather than to diminish its usefulness in the future. Forest 
management and conservative lumbering are other names for prac- 
tical forestry. Under whatever name it may be known, practical 
forestry means both the use and the preservation of the forest. 

THE USES OF THE FOREST. 

A forest, large or small, may render its service in many ways. It 
may reach its highest usefulness by standing as a safeguard against 
floods, winds, snow slides, moving sands, or especially against the 
dearth of water in the streams. A forest used in this way is called a 
protection forest, and is usually found in the mountains, or on bleak, 
open plains, or by the sea. Forests which protect the headwaters of 
streams used for irrigation, and many of the larger wind-breaks of the 
Western plains, are protection forests. The Adirondack and Catskill 
woodlands were regarded as protection forests by the people of the 
State of New York when they forbade, in the constitution of 1895, the 
felling, destruction, or removal of any trees from the State Forest 
Preserve. 

A farmer living directly on the produce of his land would find his 
woodlot most useful to him when it supplied the largest amount of 
wood for his pecuKar needs, or the best grazing for his cattle. A rail- 
road holding land which it did not wish to sell would perhaps find it 
358 3 



4 PKACTICAL FOBESTEY. 

most useful when it produced the greatest number of ties and bridge 
timbers. In both cases the forest would render its best service by 
producing the greatest quantity of valuable material. This is the 
central idea upon which the national forests of France are managed. 
The greatest return in money may be the service most desired of 
the forest. If a farmer wished to seU the product of his woodlot 
instead of consuming it himself, his woodland would be useful to him 
just in proportion to its net yield in money. This is true also in the 
case of any owner of a forest who wishes to dispose of its product, 
but who can not, or will not, sell the forest itself. State forests, like 




Fig. 1. — Wind-breaks of Lombardy poplar, intended to protect orcliard trees against wind and moving 

sand, near The Dalles, Oregon. 

those in the Adirondacks, often render their best service, in addition 
to their iisefulness as protection forests, by producing the greatest net 
money return. 

Regarded as an investment of capital, a forest is most useful when 
it yields the highest rate of interest. A forest whose owner could sell 
it if he chose, but prefers to hold it as productive capital, is useful in 
proportion to the interest it yields on the money invested in it. Thus, 
an acre of sprout land may be worth only $5, while the investment in 
adjoining land stocked with old trees may be $50 an acre. This is 
the view which controls the management of state forests in Germany. 
Lumbermen also regard timber land as an investment, but usually 
they take no care except for the yield at the moment. They disre- 

358 



PRACTICAL POKESTKY. 5 

gard the future yield altogether, and in consequence the forest loses 
its capital value, or may even be totally destroyed. Well-managed 
forests, on the other hand, are made to yield their service always with- 
out endangering the future yield, and usually to its great advantage. 
Like the plant of a successful manufacturer, a forest should increase 
in productiveness and value year by year. 




Fig. 2.— Scene in the Sihlwald, the town forest of Zurich, Switzerland, from which its owner desires the 

greatest net money return. 

Under various circumstances, then, a forest may yield its best 
return in protection, in wood, grass, or other forest products, in 
money, or in interest on the capital it represents. But whichever of 
these ways of using the forest may be chosen in any given case, the 
fundamental idea in forestry is that of perpetuation by wise use — that 
is, of making the forest yield the best service possible at the present 
in such a way that its usefulness in the future will not be diminished, 
but rather increased. 

358 



6 PRACTICAL rOEESTBY. 

POina REQUIREMENTS FOR THE BEST SERVICE. 

A forest well managed under the methods of practical forestry will 
yield a return in one of the ways just mentioned. There are, how- 
ever, four things a forest must have before it can be in condition to 
render the best service. 

The first of these is protection, especially against fire, overgrazing, 
and thieves, for without such protection no investment is secure and the 
most skillful management is of little effect. 




Fig. 3.— Vigorous reproduction along the edge of a forest. Germany. 

The second is strong and abundant reproduction. A forest without 
young growth is like a family without children. It will speedily die 
out. 

The third requirement is a regular supply of trees ripe for the ax. 
This can be secured only by the right proportion of each of the smaller 
sizes constantly coming on in the growing forest. Thus, a farmer in 
need of fuel might be much inconvenienced to find no trees on his 
woodlot big enough for cordwood, and it would not help him to know 
that twenty years later he would have an oversupply. In the same 
way a larger forest may yield only a very irregular and unsatisfactory 

358 



PEACTICAL FORESTRY. 7 

product if at one time there are too many ripe trees and at another 
too few. For example, if 100 acres become fit to cut this year, and 
200 next year, and after that none at all until 500 acres become ripe 
fifteen years later, it is easy to see that the yield would come at very 
irregular and perhaps very inconvenient times. But a forest of 10,000 
acres, composed of 100 even-aged groups of trees of every age from 
1 to 100 years, each group 100 acres in extent, would plainly be able 
to furnish every year 100 acres of 100-year-old trees ready for the 
ax. In such a forest the right proportion of young trees would always 
be coming on. 

The fourth requirement is growing space enough for every tree, 
so that the forest as a whole may not only produce wood as fast as 
possible, but the most valuable sort of wood as well. If the trees 
stand too far apart, their trunks will be short and thickly covered 
with branches, the liunber cut from them will be full of knots, and its 
value will be small. If, on the other hand, the trees stand too closely 
together, although their tnmks will be tall and clear of branches, 
they will be small in diameter, and for that reason low in value. 
With the right amount of growing space, trees grow both tall and of 
good diameter, and their trunks supply lumber of higher price because 
it is wide and clear. 

THE YIELD OF A FOREST. 

One of the central ideas of forestry is that the amount of wood 
taken from any healthy forest and the amount grown by it should 
be as nearly equal as possible. If more grows than is cut, then the 
forest will be filled with overmature, decaying trees; but if more 
wood is cut than is grown, then the supply of ripe trees will be ex- 
hausted, and the value of the forest will decline. To make the cut 
equal to the growth does not mean that the volume of wood grown 
each year on every acre should be cut from that acre, but that the 
total growth of all the acres, for one or for a number of years, should 
be cut from the forest in the corresponding period. Thus, if the 
growth or increase is 100 cords a year, that amount might be harvested 
yearly by cutting every tree on a small area, by cutting fewer trees 
per acre on a larger area, by distributing the cut every year over the 
whole surface of the forest, or by cutting 1,000 cords in any one of 
these ways once in ten years. 

There are many different methods of finding what is the annual 
increase of wood in a forest. One of the simplest is to count the 
number of trees upon an acre and select an average tree, then to cut 
it down, measure its cubic contents, and find its age by counting the 
annual rings. That done, the yearly increase of the average tree 
may be found by dividing its cubic contents by the years of its age, 

358 



8 PRACTICAL FOBESTEY. 

Finally, since we have found the yearly increase per tree and the 
number of trees per acre, it is easy to find the average yearly increase 
per acre. It is unfortunate that this simple and easy process is not 
always reliable, because it is hard to find either an average acre or 
an average tree. 

The yield of a forest is the aniount of wood that is taken from it 
in a given tinie. When a forest is put under conservative nianage- 
ment, one of the most important steps is to decide how much timber 
can safely be taken from it; in other words, to determine the yield. 
There are three principal ways of doing so. 

The first, and the least used, is to fix the yield at a certain num- 
ber of mature trees. By this plan the yield of a certain forest might 
be 100 pines, 260 spruces, and 180 hemlocks, each of a given diam- 
eter, every year. 

The second way is to fix the yield at a certain amount or volume 
of wood. Thus, the yield of a large forest might be fixed at 25,000,000 
feet board measure every ten years, and that of another smaller 
one at 750 cords every year. 

The third way is to settle upon a certain number of acres to be 
cut over yearly or once in a given number of years. By this method 
the yield of a forest of 600 acres might be fixed at 6 acres of mature 
timber a year, and that of another at 300 acres every twenty-five 
years. The time between two successive cuttiags on the same area 
must be long enough to allow the young trees left standing to mature. 
That time is found by studying the rate of growth in diameter. 

This method of determining the yield by area is much the most 
practicable of the three for the forests of the United States, and ia 
general it is the simplest and most widely useful of all, because it 
does away with the difficult task of determining the yearly iacrease 
m wood. 

The objects ia handling forests are so various that sometimes no 
single one of these methods is satisfactory, and then combinations 
of them are of great use. Thus, by combining the method by volume 
and the method by area the annual yield of a forest might be estab- 
lished at 250 board feet per acre. This yield might be cut from the 
forest every year, or it might be allowed to accumulate for twenty 
years, and then 5,000 board feet per acre might be cut. 

SIIiVICTJLTUBAIi SYSTEMS. 

After the yield has been found it must be cut not only without 
injury to the future value of the forest, but in such a way as to in- 
crease its safety and usefulness. To this end certain ways of handling 
forests, called silvicultural systems, have grown up. They are based 
on the nature of the forest itself, and are chiefly imitations of what 
men have seen happen in the forest without their help. 

358 



PRACTICAL POEESTEY. 



From the point of view of forest management, one of the princi- 
pal differences between trees is whether they spring directly from 
seed or are produced as sprouts from stumps or roots already in the 
ground. A forest composed of seedling trees is called a seed forest, 
or more commonly but less suitably, a seedling or high forest. One 
composed of sprouts is spoken of as a sprout or coppice forest, or, 
more often, simply as coppice, or as sprout land. Seed forests are 
usually composed of coniferous trees, which rarely sprout, or of 
broadleaf trees allowed to reach -large size. Sprout forests are com- 
mon wherever broadleaf trees are cut while they are still young, for 




Fig. 4.— Seed forest of fir in Washington. 

the sprouting power usually diminishes with age. Sprouts never 
reach so great a height and diameter as seedling trees, although in 
youth they grow much faster; and they are apt to be unsound, be- 
cause the old stumps decay and infect the sprouts which spring from 
them. 

Simple coppice. — It oftens happens, as in Pennsylvania or New 
Jersey, that a fire sweeps over the second-growth hardwood lands 
and kills aU the young trees down to the ground; but the roots 
remain alive, and from them spring young sprouts about the bases 
of the burned trunks. After several years a second fire may follow 
and kill back the sprouts again, and other fires may continue at 
80193— Bull. 358—09 2 



10 PRACTICAL FORESTRY. 

intervals to bum over the land, each followed by a new crop of 
sprouts. When a farmer does with the ax what is often done by fire 
he is using the system of simple coppice. Let us suppose a farmer 
has a woodlot covered principally with chestnut sprouts which he 
wants to manage for the steady production of railroad ties. He 
knows that chestnut sprouts are usually large enough for ties at the 
age of 35 years. In order to insure a steady yield of trees fit for ties, 
he divides the whole woodlot into thirty-five parts of equal productive 
capacity, and cuts one part clean every year. All the new sprouts 
that spring up on the part cut in any year are of the same age. At 
the end of thirty-five years, when the whole woodlot has been cut 
over, the thirty-five parts form a series of even-aged groups of sprouts 
from 1 to 35 years old. Every year the sprouts on one part reach 
the age of 35 years and are ready for cutting. 

Simple coppice is a very useful silvicultural system, and the easiest 
of all to apply. The chief requirements for its success are good 
reproduction from the stumps, proper thinning (where thinning can 
be made to pay), and enough young seedlings among the sprouts to 
replace exhausted stumps with vigorous young ones. Stumps from 
which the sprouts have been cut many times finally grow weak and 
lose their power of sprouting. 

In cutting sprouts it is important not to loosen the bark on the 
stumps, for that impairs their sprouting power, and to make the cut 
as near the ground as possible. Stumps cut level with the surface 
sprout best of all. In simple coppice, weU handled, the reproduction 
takes place ©f itself without the need of further attention from the 
forester. 

Many thousands of acres of American woodland, especially in New 
England, New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, and in other 
places where chestnut is the principal tree, are treated under a rough 
system of simple coppice. 

Stored coppice. — Among the trees which will produce only fuel, 
fence posts, or railroad ties there often stand in a woodlot others 
which would yield much larger returns if they were allowed to reach 
a greater age and size than the trees about them. If there were some 
white oaks scattered through the chestnut coppice just described, it 
might be well to let them grow large enough for the production of 
high-priced material like quartered oak lumber. In that case it 
would be necessary at the time of cutting the sprouts to select and 
leave standing a certain number of white oaks on every acre. As 
many of them as survived the increased exposure to wind and sun 
following the sudden removal of their neighbors would remain as 
standards over the young sprouts. The white oak standards thus 
chosen would remain uncut during two, three, four, or sometimes 

358 



PKACTICAL FOEESTKY. 11 

even five successive crops of sprouts, and would form stout trunks 
with little taper, clear of branches almost to the fuU height reached 
by the sprouts. 

This is ' the silvicultural system called stored coppice, or some- 
times coppice under standards. The successful management of a 




Fig. 5.— Yellow poplar sprout forest in Maryland. 

forest under it depends largely upon the choice of the standards. 
They should be seedlings, for seedhngs make the best trees, or the 
most vigorous and healthy sprouts if seedlings can not be found, and 
they should be distributed as regularly as possible over the ground. 
The standards should be numerous enough at first to allow for 

358 



12 PRACTICAL FOEESTEY. 

heavy loss from wind and shock when the sprouts are cut away, but 
they should never be allowed to suppress the lower story of growth. 

Stored coppice is a very useful system where the principal demand 
is for small material, like fuel, ties, and fencing, but where some 
large timber also is required. It was developed chiefly by the 
French, who use it with admirable results. 

Seed or high forest. — By far the most useful and important forests 
are, as a rule, those which spring directly from seed, such as the pine 
forests of the Southern States and the great hardwood forests of the 
Mississippi Valley. Such forests are called seed forests. The seed- 
forest systems are of many kinds, some of which are pecuUarly 
adapted for the management of certain forests in the United States. 
Just as the sprout-forest systems are chiefly useful to produce fuel, 
posts, ties, and trees of small size, so the seed-forest systems are pro- 
ducers of sawlogs and large timbers. 

Regular seed forest. — ^When a tract of woodland is destroyed by 
fire in one of the Rocky Mountain States, it often happens that the 
seeds of the lodgepole pine are scattered over it by the wind in pro- 
digious numbers. The seeds germinate abundantly, seedlings spring 
up, and in a very few years a young even-aged forest of lodgepole 
pine covers the ground. As it grows older fires destroy patches of 
it here and there, and in time every patch is covered again with a 
younger generation of even age. After many years the forest which 
sprang up after the first fire has become broken into a nimaber of 
even-aged patches without uniformity in size or regular gradations 
in age. 

Now let us suppose that this land was taken in hand by the Gov- 
ernment when the lodgepole pine first came in, and that the lodgepole 
reaches its maturity at 80 years. If the government forest ofiicers 
had divided such a forest into eighty parts, and then had cut the 
timber from one part each year, after a time they would have had 
eighty divisions, each covered with even-aged forest, but differing 
in age among themselves from' 1 to 80 years. Every year one part 
would reach the age of 80 years and would be cut, and evidently the 
other seventy-nine parts would always be stocked with trees from 1 
to 79 years old. 

When the trees on one of the eighty divisions just mentioned 
become ripe for the ax, provision must be made for a new crop. 
This would be a very simple matter if the forest on that division 
could be reproduced naturally in one year, but that is practically 
impossible. Such rapid reproduction can be got only by planting, 
which is chiefly useful in the United States for making new forests 
and restoring injured forests, not for renewing old ones. Reproduc- 
tion from the seed of the old trees is the only kind we need consider 

358 



PRACTICAL POEESTEY. 



13 



hsre. In order to bring it about a few ripe trees are first cut down, 
to prepare a seedbed by giving light -to the soil, and to fit the seed 
trees to bear more abundantly by giving the crowns more room. 
Then, when a good crop of seed is hkely to appear, a few more trees 
are removed to give the future seedhngs light enough for healthy 
growth, but not enough to expose them to danger from frost, drought, 
or the choking of grass and weeds, for young trees just starting in Hfe 
are very sensitive and easily destroyed. Finally, as the young trees 
grow taller and stronger, what remains of the old crop is gradually 




Fig. 6. — Mixed forest in process of gradual reproduction. Sihlwald, Switzerland. 

cut away. When it is all gone, usually from ten to twenty years 
have passed since the reproduction cuttings were begun. 

This is the system of regular seed forest. It is difficult to apply, 
and unsafe except in experienced hands. It has often been necessary 
to plant large areas at great expense because reproduction cuttings 
in regular seed forest have failed. The transportation of the timber 
is frequently expensive, because it must be spread over a number of 
years. On the other hand, when it is well applied this system pro- 
duces the highest type of forest, full of tall straight trunks clear of 
branches, and consequently yields a high grade of timber and a large 
return in money. 

358 



14 



PBACTlOAL FORESTRY. 



Two-storied seed forest. — After a forest fire in Maine it frequently 
happens that the first tree to cover the ground is the popple, or quak- 
ing aspen. It is a slender, short-lived tree, intolerant of shade, with 
a light crown. After the popple has grown for some years, spruce 







Fia. 7.— Beproduotion obtained by process shown in figure 6. Sihlwald, Switzerland. 

seedlings spring up under the friendly cover, and rapidly follow the 
popple in height. There grows up in this way a forest composed of 
an upper and a lower story of growth, in which, as so often happens, 
the lower story is of more importance. 

The system of two-storied seed forest is useful when a tolerant tree 
like the spruce is to be grown under the shade of an intolerant tree 
like the aspen. In countries where forestry is well developed it is 
usual to plant young trees of tolerant species under older intolerant 
trees, to make a cover for the soil and to prevent the growth of grass 

358 



PRACTICAL FORESTRY. 15 

and weeds. Forests' which closely resemble two-storied seed forests 
are common in the United States, but usually as the result of fire or 
careless cutting. Such are, for example, the forests of pine over oak 
in the southeastern United States, and of birch, beech, and maple 
under white pine in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. It often 
happens, as in the case of the spruce and aspen, that both stories can 
not live on in good health together, and that the upper one must die 
or.be cut away if the lower is to prosper. 

Selection forest. — ^When a staad of aspen dies away from a young 
crop of spruce, the ground is no longer completely shaded, and there 
is light and room for other kinds of trees to come in. Thus, birch 
and maple seeds may be blown in by the wind and beechnuts carried 
and planted by squirrels, and eventually the pure stand of spruce is 
changed into a mixed forest of various ages. As the trees grow older, 
some of the spruce may be destroyed by beetles or thrown by the 
wind, and some of the broadleaf trees may die from fungous disease. 
Into the openings made by the death of older members of the forest 
fall the seeds from which younger members spring. So little by little 
the forest loses its even-aged character and there comes into existence 
what is called a natural or selection forest, in which trees of all ages 
are everywhere closely mixed together. Most virgin forests are 
selection forests. 

The silvicultural system called pure selection is applied to forests 
of this kind. It is used chiefly for protection forests in places where it ♦ 
is desirable to keep the cover always unbroken; elsewhere it is out 
of place. Under this system the annual increase of the forest must 
be found before the yield can be determined. (See p. 7.) Then the 
fully mature trees are cut in every part of the forest every year. 
The cost of logging is high, for where single trees are taken here and 
there, roads or other means of transport must be very numerous and 
costly in proportion to the amount of the cut. 

localized selection. — Logging under the system just mentioned is 
so expensive as to prevent its application in the United States, except 
for woods like cherry and black walnut, which have a special and 
unusual value. But if, instead of taking the yield from every part 
of a selection forest, a comparatively small area is cut over each year, 
the cost of logging may be very greatly reduced. Such a method is 
admirably adapted to certain forest regions in the United States, as, 
for example, to the Adirondack Mountains of New York, where the 
forest is composed equally of coniferous and broadleaf trees. The 
conifers are the more valuable, and among them the principal lumber 
tree is the spruce. 

The Forest Service has found by many careful measurements that 
if all spruce trees 12 inches and over in diameter are cut from certain 

358 



16 



PEACTICAL FOEESTEY. 



portions of the Adirondack forest, the younger spruce will grow up 
and replace the original stand of timber in about twenty years. 
But this will not happen unless the rules for cutting are faithfully 
observed, nor will it happen more than once unless enough old trees 
are left standing for seed. Such a forest may then be divided into 
twenty parts, and the merchantable timber about 12 inches in diam- 




FiG. 8. — Mimic pure selection forest, showing mixture of ages. 

eter may safely be cut from one division every year. By the time 
the last of the twenty divisions has been cut over, the first will have 
upon it a stand of mature spruce equal in quantity to that of twenty 
years before. The yield of the whole forest in spruce for a single 
year may be cut each year from one-twentieth of the whole area. 
If all the divisions were cut over five times in the life of a mature tree, 
then one-fifth of the standing timber would be taken from each 
division at each cutting. Thus, if it took one hundred years for a 
tree to become ripe for the ax, the cutting (at intervals of twenty 
years) would return five times during the hfe of the tree, at its twen- 
tieth, fortieth, sixtieth, eightieth, and one hundredth years. 

This is the system of localized selection. It is simple and easy to 
^Pply; and even if mistakes occur they are not apt to have dangerous 
consequences. It is very elastic and has many forms, and it is well 
adapted to many different kinds of forest. Logging is cheap, because 

358 



PEACTICAL FORESTRY. 



17 



the area cut over in any one year is small, and the reproduction is 
provided for by natural seeding in the openings of the forest 

The group system.— It often happens that all the trees of a small 
group in the forest are killed by fire or insects at about the same 
time. In the opening thus made the ground is quickly covered with 
young growth, which extends back under the old trees as far as the 
hght will permit. The seedlings are usually tallest, strongest, and 
most numerous directly under the middle of the opening, and gradu- 




Fig. 9.— Group of spruce under beech. Germany, 

ally decrease at the sides. If the wind should throw some trees at 
the edges of such an opening the young growth would gradually 
extend, and if the same thing should continue to happen in the end 
aU the old trees would have disappeared and their places would have 
been taken by" young growth. The group system is an imitation 
of this process. 

Under the group system openings are made here and there in the 
forest by cutting away ripe trees. As the reproduction proceeds, the 
80193— Bull. 358—09 3 



18 



PBACTICAL FOKESTBY. 



old trees about the openings are gradually cut away, and the groups 
of young growth, spreading from the original openings like drops of 
oil on water, finally meet. 

This is one of the simplest and most useful of all the systems, and 
when the openings are made small at first no other is so safe. It is 
especially adapted to small pieces of forest, such as woodlots, because 
it is simple, and because it assures the safety of the forest even with 
very little skill or care on the part of the owner. 

The strip system. — In nearly every wooded region of the United 
States a tornado occasionally destroys the trees in a long and narrow 
belt through the forest. Fire often follows and clears the strip by 




Fis. 10.— Mimic forest, showing distribution of young growth under the group system. 

burning up the fallen timber. Seeds then fall in the opening, carried 
from the trees on either side, the seeds germinate and grow, and the 
reproduction of the forest takes place. 

When the ax takes the place of the tornado and the timber is logged 
instead of being burned, the strip system is apphed. Eeproduction 
follows from trees on either side, as before. The strip system consists 
in cutting long narrow openings in the mature timber instead of the 
circular openings of the group system, to which it is similar in many 
ways. It is simple and effective when natural reproduction is good, 
and well suited for extensive operations in places where careful work 
is impossible. The strips are usually not over 100 yards in width. 
Where the soil is dfy, they are run east and west to protect the young 
growth against the sun, and are comparatively narrow. If there is 
serious danger of windfall, they lie at right angles to the direction of 
the wind. 

358 



PRACTICAL POKESTRY. 



19 



These are the most important of the silvicultural systems. They 
have many modifications, and indeed each forest may require a 
special form of its own, which must be devised or adapted for it by 
the forester. But whatever the form, the object is always to use the 
forest and provide for its future at the same time. 

Improvement cuttings. — ^Very many forests in the United States, 
and especially many woodlots, are in poor condition and unfit for the 
immediate appHcation of any silvicultural system. They need to be 
put in order, and for that purpose improvement cuttings are usually 




Fig. 11.— Spruce managed under the strip system. Southern Russia. 

required. In the end these cuttings should remove all trees which 
the forest is better without, but they should be made gradually, so 
as not to open the cover too much and expose the soil to the wind and 
the sun. In general, it is unwise to cut more than 25 per cent of the 
poles and older trees in a dense mature forest, or to cut oftener on 
the same ground than once in five years. Improvement cuttings of 
course should never fall on trees which are to form the future crop, 
but they should remove spreading older trees over promising young 
growth; poor trees which are crowding more valuable ones; unsound 
trees whose places will be taken by others of greater value, or which 
are themselves becoming less valuable from year to year; and seed 

358 



20 



PKACTICAL FORESTRY. 



trees of undesirable species likely to reproduce themselves, if repro- 
duction of more useful kind is well assured. The great majority of 




Fig. 12.— Mixed forest in need ol an improvement cutting. The crooked old chestnut, in the center, in 

particular should be removed. 

woodlots need such cutting, and when they do, whatever wood is taken 
from them should be cut in this way. 

358 



PRACTICAL FOEESTEY. 21 

WORK IN THE WOODS. 

The products of the forest are among the things which civilized 
men can not do without. Wood is needed for building, for fuel, for 
paper pulp, and for uimumbered other uses, and trees must be cut 
down to supply it. It would be both useless and mistaken to try to 
stop the cutting of timber, for it could not cease without great injury, 
not to the lumbermen only, but to all the people of the nation. The 
question is not of saving the trees, for every tree must inevitably die, 
but of saving the forest by conservative ways of cutting the trees. 
If the forest is to be preserved, the timber crop now ripe must be 
gathered in such a way as to make sure of other crops hereafter. 

In general, it is true that the present methods of lumbering are 
unnecessarily destructive and wasteful. This is not because lum- 
bermen are more greedy of gain or less careful of public interests than 
other business men, for they are not. It happens partly because in 
this country, compared with France and Germany and other densely 
populated regions, there is so much timber in proportion to the popu- 
lation that it does not pay the lumberman to take anything more 
than the better parts of the trees he fells. The lumberman can not 
do his work unless he does it at a profit, and he must do it, for lumber 
is indispensable. Consequently, although much of the waste in lum- 
bering is not only unnecessary but actually costly to the lumberman, 
for the present it is impossible to avoid waste altogether. It will be 
easier to do so when the methods and advantages of conservative 
lumbering, which is forestry, are better known to the American 
lumbermen, and are therefore in more general use. Although rough 
conservative methods have often been practiced in the past, the 
success of the lumbermen who made the trial was generally but par- 
tial, because their knowledge of the forest was partial also. They 
were often deceived by underestimates of the capacity for tree growth 
of the lands they were handling, because accurate measurements were 
wanting, and they seldom made full use of the reproductive power of 
the forest. More recent attempts, based on better knowledge, have 
been successful in almost every case. 

Lumbermen in America are second to none in skill and ingenuity, 
in the perfection of their tools, and in the effectiveness of the methods 
they have devised. The nations of Europe, although they have given 
far more attention to forestry than we, are very much behind the 
United States in these respects. So it is not surprising that Ameri- 
cans have been slow to change their methods, especially when methods 
and lumbermen alike have often been attacked as wrongly and intem- 
perately as the foreign methods have been praised and recommended. 
German methods would be as much out of place in America as Ameri- 

358 



22 PKACTICAL FORESTRY. 

can methods in Germany. What American foresters should do and 
are doing is to combine the general principles of forestry, which are 
true all the world over, with American methods of lumbering. The 
product will be a system of forestry especially adapted to the United 
States. The foundations of such a system are already laid. 

CONSERVATIVE LUMBERING. 

Something was said in the last chapter about the systematic 
methods of conservative lumbering. With the gradual imderstand- 
ing and application of these methods by American lumbermen, 
already well begun, and with the work in the woods rightly carried 
out, there is but one reason why the great majority of the forests now 
standing in the United States should not in the end be lumbered 
steadily and systematically, or why they should fail to yield a steadily 
increasing return. That reason is the rapid destruction of the forests 
themselves. There is grave danger that the best of our forests will 
all be gone before their protection and perpetuation by wise use can 
be begun. The spread of a working knowledge of practical forestry 
is likely to be too slow. 

Conservative lumbering and ordinary lumbering. — Conservative 
lumbering is distinguished from ordinary lumbering in three ways: 

First. The forest is treated as a working capital whose purpose 
is to produce successive crops. 

Second. With that purpose in view, a working plaii is prepared 
and followed in harvesting the forest crop. 

Third. The work in the woods is carried on in such a way as to 
leave the standing trees and the young growth as nearly unharmed 
by the lumbering as possible-. 

A forest working plan is intended to give all the information 
needed to decide upon and carry out the best business policy in 
handling and perpetuating a forest. It gives this information in 
the form of a written statement, which covers some or all of the 
following topics: It shows the present stand and condition of the 
forest, and gives rules for the selection and marking of trees to be cut, 
for making the reproduction sure, and for the protection of young 
and old standing trees during the logging. The working plan also 
predicts the future yield of the forest, basing its prediction on careful 
measurements which show how many standing trees of different 
diameters will be left per acre after the first cutting, and how fast 
these young trees grow. Finally, it estimates the future return in 
money, taking into account the taxes, interest, and other expenses 
on one side and the future crop on the other. In order to make 
this estimate entirely safe it is usually based on the present price 
of stumpage, although its future value will certainly be much higher. 

358 



PKACTICAL FORESTRY. 23 

Felling the trees. — ^The diflference between the practical work 
under ordinary lumbering and under conservative lumbering is 
chiefly in the selection of the trees to cut, in felling them, and in the 
first part of their journey from the stump to the mUl. Under a 
working plan the trees to cut are chosen in such a way that when 
they are gone the forest will suffer but little from their absence, 
because their places will be taken by others as quickly as possible. 
Usually the trees selected are first stamped with a marking hatchet 
to prevent mistakes, and then the next step is to cut them down. 




Fig. 13.— Low stumps in logging. 

The amount of harm done to the forest by the cutting depends 
considerably upon the season of the year when the work in the woods 
is carried on. Less damage results to the young growth and the 
trees left standing if the lumbering is done after the growing season 
is over than if it goes on in the spring and summer while the bark 
is loose and the leaves and twigs are tender. 

A tree may be felled either with the ax or with the saw. In either 
case the first thing to consider is the height above the ground at 
which the cut is to be made. High stumps needlessly waste the 
best timber in a sound tree. Low stumps are slightly more difficult 
to cut, and therefore a little more expensive, but the additional 
cost is more than balanced by the gain. 

358 



24 



PEACTICAL FOKESTRY. 



The measurements made by the Forest Service have shown that 
the loss from cutting high stumps on a tract of 100,000 acres in the 
Adirondacks, yielding on an average 15 standards per acre, would be 
30,000 standards, or at a stumpage value of 50 cents per standard 
would be $15,000. 




Fig, 14.— Protection to young growth in logging, Biltmore, N. C, 

The second thing to consider in felling a tree is how to get it down 
without breaking or splitting the trunk. On rocky, uneven ground 
this is often a hard thing to do, but unless it can be accomplished the 
tree would, as a rule, better be left untouched. 

Most important of all for the perpetuation of the forest, each tree 
must be thrown where it will not unnecessarily injure other trees or 
crush in its fall the young seedlings on which the future of the forest 
depends. It happens very commonly in ordinary lumbering that 
vigorous, sound young trees are split and ruined in great numbers by 
old trees falling upon them, when it would be perfectly easy and 
almost or quite as convenient to throw the latter where they would 
do little or no harm. 

Finally, it must cost as little as possible to fell each tree, for to be 
successful conservative lumbering must pay. 

358 



PEACTICAL PORESTEY. 



25 



Swamping and sawing. — When the trees are down their lower 
branches are chopped off and the trunks are sawed into logs. In 
falling, a tree is very apt to bend and hold down beneath its trunk 
and branches many younger trees, which will spring up straight 
again if they are quickly released, but which otherwise will be killed 
or permanently hurt. Therefore it is very important to work up 
both the trunk and the top of each tree as soon as it is cut down, and 
so prevent it from destroying the young trees which should take its 










Fig. 15. — Spruce rollway. Adirondack Mountains, New York. 

place. Except when they are to be burned, even the branches of 
tops which can not be used should ordinarily be cut away enough to 
let the tops sink close to the ground, where they will rot as speedily 
as possible. Dry crowns propped clear of the ground by their 
branches rot slowly, burn fiercely, and are very dangerous in case of 
fire. 

Skidding. — ^When the trunks have been sawed into logs the latter 
are dragged away by horses, mules, or oxen, or in some cases by a 
long wire rope which is wound on the drum of a donlcey engine. This 
is called "skidding the logs." In this way they are collected in piles 
called "rollways," or assembled in "yards," or otherwise made ready 
for the next step in their progress to the mill. 

358 



26 



PKACTICAL FOKESTKY. 



Care is needed in skidding not to rub or tear the bark from valuable 
standing trees or to break the young growth down, for much harm 
is quickly done in this way. Promising young trees are often cut 
because it is easier to use them for corduroy or skids or for other 
purposes ia the logging than to take others less straight or less con- 
veniently at hand, or because they are somewhat in the way, or even 
from habit, when it would really be easier to let them alone. A very 
little care in preserving young growth makes an astonishing difference 
in the future value of a forest. 

Transportation. — After the skidding the logs may be transported 
to the sawmill in many different ways. Sometimes they are loaded 




Fig. 16. — Hauling loblolly pine. South Carolina. 

on sleds and drawn over carefully made ice roads to a logging rail- 
road or to the bank of a stream. When the stream is not swift or 
deep enough to carry the logs of itself, splash dams are built, in which 
great quantities of water are held back for a time. When such a dam 
is opened the water is set free and great numbers of logs may be 
driven far down the, stream by the sudden flood. In larger streams 
the logs are sometimes made into rafts, or they may be driven singly 
down the river. The log drivers who do this work learn to balance 
themselves on the floating, rolling logs, and walk on them almost as 
easily as on the solid ground. Sometimes locomotives drag the logs 
behind them over the ties, or they are hauled on cars which run over 

358 



PEACTICAL FORESTRY. 



27 



poles cut in the woods instead of over metal rails; often they are 
rolled into slides built of other logs, and either move downhill by their 
own weight or are dragged along by horses, cattle, or steam. In 
southern swamps the logs are sometimes swung up by a wire rope sus- 
pended from the trees, and so are loaded on the great flatboat which 
carries them to the mUl. 

At the mills. — At the mills the logs are cut into lumber by various 
kinds of saws. Of these the circular saw is still very widely used, 
although the wide bite or kerf which it cuts in the log makes it very 
wasteful of timber. A large circular saw makes a kerf a quarter of an 
inch wide, so that in cutting four one-inch boards enough wood to 




Fig. 17. — Eiver drivers at work on a log jam. Minnesota. 

make a fifth board is ripped into sawdust. Band saws are far less 
wasteful, for they are thinner and make a narrower kerf. Hence they 
are taking the place of the circular saws, although they do not work so 
rapidly. Many mills, in addition to their band saws or circulars, use 
gang saws, which cut out several boards at the same time. 

Besides lumber, the best sawmills produce great quantities of lath 
and shingles, made either from small logs called "bolts," cut specially 
for that purpose, or from slabs, edgings, and other pieces of wood 
which might otherwise be wasted. But in spite of every effort to pre- 
vent waste in the mill by using sawdust and other refuse for fuel, and 
in other ways, very many thousands of tons of wood a year are 
thrown into great burners as the cheapest method of getting it out of 
the way. 

358 



28 



PRACTICAL POEESTEY. 



When the lumber has been sawed it may be piled and seasoned in 
the yard or kUn-dried before it is sent to market or sold at the mill. 
Some sawmills on Puget Sound are buUt on piles over the water, so 




ST' , 




















Fig. 18.— Lumber flume in the mountains. California. 

that the lumber is loaded into vessels directly from the saws. Others 

load their product on the cars and distribute it by rail. Still others 

on the Pacific slope float their timber away in a narrow wooden 

trough called a "flume," through which 

flows a rapid stream of water. These 

flumes are sometimes over 40 miles in 

length, and cost almost as much to 

build as a railroad. Many sawmills 

have connected with them planing 

mills or woodworking factories of other 

kinds, so that the rough lumber from 

their saws is changed into the form of 

a finished product before it reaches the 

market. 

Waste in lumbering. — This is very 
briefly the way in which a tree gets 
into the market at the end of its life. 
At every step there is some waste. Although it may be sound 
throughout, the lumbermen in the woods can take but a portion of 
it, often leaviQg a part of the tnink and all of the top to rot on the 

358 




I J Boards 

Fig. 19.- 



Saw.kar4» ^^SUb* i^Uflnfa 

Diagram to show the sawing 
of a log. 



PRACTICAL FOBBSTEY. 29 

ground. When each log comes to the saw there is a further loss of 
nearly all the slabs and edgings and all the sawdust that is not used 
for fuel. On the average it is doubtful whether more than half of 
the cubic contents of a standing tree is finally used. As prices rise 
and as conservative lumbering comes to be generally practiced, the 
greater part of this enormous loss will be avoided, but it can probably 
never cease altogether. 

PLANTING. 

It has often been proposed to plant trees in order to repair the 
daraage done to the forests by the lumbermen. Tree planting is 
most useful in all the treeless or scantily wooded portions of our 
country where planted trees will grow, and wherever forests have been 
very severely injured or destroyed, but it is generally far too expensive 
to take the place of conservative lumbering iu regions already forested. 
An acre of growing natural forest can be bought ia nearly every for- 
ested part of our country for less than it would cost to plant, 4 feet 
apart, an acre of seedlings a few inches high. The true way to save 
the forests is not to plant new ones, but to protect and rightly use 
those which are standing now. The extension of the forest to regions 
which are without it is a most important task, but it must not be 
confounded with the conservative use of the forests now standing. 
For such use there is no substitute whatever. 

THE WEATHER AND THE STREAMS. 

The central point of public interest in forestry in the United States 
was until recently the influence of forests on climate. It is natural 
that the connection between the immense forests and vast plains and 
the wonderfully various climates of this continent should have 
awakened attention. It is a matter which is easily written and 
talked about without any thorough understanding of forestry itself, 
and in this it differs from other branches of the subject. In dealing 
with the weather one touches a thing which affects the daily life of 
everyone, and which, to very many, holds the balance between pov- 
erty and prosperity. It is therefore unfortunate that so much of the 
writing and talking upon this branch of forestry has had little definite 
fact or trustworthy observation behind it. The friends and the 
enemiesof the forest have both said more than they can prove. Both 
have tried to establish the truth of their opinions by referring to 
observations of temperature and rainfall which cover too short a 
time to prove anything, or by hearsay and general impressions, which 
are not to be trusted in such matters. Such discussions make nothing 
clear except that the pith of the matter has not been reached by 
either party. 

358 



30 



PRACTICAL FOEESTEY. 
POBESTS AND CLIMATE. 



The discussion of forest influence on climate began in this way. 
When the French revolution broke out in 1789, the old restrictions 




Fig. 20. — European larch grove in western Miimesota. Cost of planting per acre 17 years ago, $64.45. 

Present value per acre, $484. 

on the management of private forests were removed. A wholesale 
cutting of these timberlands promptly followed, and as early as 1792 

358 



PRACTICAL FORESTRY. 



31 



the consequences began to be observed. The question of forests and 
cHmate was then raised for the first time ; but questions of this kind 
can not be answered without long and careful observations. Such 
observations were begun by Becquerel in France and Krutsch in 
Germany about the middle of the last century, but it was not until 
1867 that a satisfactory way of making them was devised. This was 
the system of double stations — one within the forest, the other -at a 
distance in the open. It was first put in operation by Professor 




Fig. 21. — The forest cover. Oregon. 



Ebermayer, now of the Bavarian Forest School. By this means the 
amount of moisture and heat in the forest may be compared with that 
in the open, and in the end a full and satisfactory answer will prob- 
ably be reached. 

In order to find how great the influence of forests on climate may be, 
we must first see what are the factors which make climate. Then 
we may ask which of these factors can be affected by the forest, and 
in what way. 

The climate of any place on the earth's surface results from the 
action of the sun's heat upon it. Climate is the average condition of 
the weather. It depends, first of all, on the distance of a place from 
the equator and its elevation above the sea. Secondly, it depends 
on the distribution of land and water, the relief of the land, whether 

358 



32 ■ PRACTICAL FORESTRY. 

flat, hilly, or mountainous, and the character of the surface covering. 
These are all connected with the temperature in a special manner. 
Lastly, it is afl^ected by the winds and the moisture of the atmosphere. 
Now, it is clear that of all these factors of climate the forest can 
influence only the wind, the moisture, and the surface covering; but 
heat (with which the surface covering has so much to do), moisture, 
and wind are the three things which change when we say that the 
weather changes. These are just the points where a change due to 
the forest would have most effect on daily life. The influence of the 
forest is exerted upon them in two ways: 

First. The forest cover intercepts the rain and the rays of the sun, 
checks the movement of the air, and reduces the radiation of heat at 
night. 

Second. The waste from the trees and from certain plants which 
grow only in their shade forms the forest floor, which has much to do 
with the movement of water on the ground and within it. The influ- 
ence of the forest cover and the forest floor appears in the temperature 
of the air, the evaporation of water, the rainfall, and the course of the 
rain water after it has reached the earth. 

EFFECT OF FOREST COVER ON TEMPERATURE. 

So far as the influence of the forest is concerned, the temperature 
of the air is affected chiefly by the forest cover. The leaves, which 
compose the greater part of the cover, contain from 50 to 70 per cent 
of water. More heat is required to raise the temperature of a pound 
of water one degree than for a pound of almost any other substance, 
and so it happens that bare soil or rock exposed to the rays of the sun 
becomes heated many times faster than the water in the leaves. 
While the heated rock or soil was warming the air about it the forest 
cover would still be absorbing heat and keeping the air below it cool. 
The leaves of the cover also tend to cool the air by transpiration, which 
is the evaporation of water from the leaves. This is true because 
heat is required to change water into water vapor, and a part of the 
sun's heat is taken up for this purpose. In these two ways the forest 
cover acts somewhat like a surface of water. 

The growth of the tree itself also helps to cool the air. When the 
leaves take carbonic-acid gas from the air they break it up and force 
its carbon into new chemical compounds, which are then stored away 
as new material in the tree. So with water and the other substances 
upon which the plant feeds. But the elements are less at ease in 
these new compounds, and heat is required to force them to make the 
change. When we burn wood for fuel we are simply getting back 
again the heat which was used to bring about this change. So we 
may say roughly that the air about the tree during its Ufetime has 
:-!58 



PRACTICAL FORESTRY. 33 

been deprived of as much heat as would be given off if the whole tree 
were burned. 

The effect of the cooler air of the forest is felt to some distance in 
the open coimtry. During the day, in calm summer weather, when 
the air is warmer than the tree tops, it is gradually cooled by contact 
with the cooler leaves and twigs. In cooling it becomes heavier and 
falls toward the ground. A rising current of warmer air is formed to 
supply its place, and so the colder air flows off along the surface into 
the open country and causes local breezes. At night the air currents 
are reversed. The air in the forest is then warmer than the air out- 
side, because the cover checks the radiation of heat, and so the colder 
air moves from the open country toward the woods. In these ways 
the influence of the forest is felt at a distance. 

The amount of this coohng of the air has been measured in certain 
places. It is naturally found to be greatest in summer; while in 
winter and at night the air in the tree tops is a little warmer than in 
the open. It is important to add that the cooling effect of the forest 
is greater than the average in the mountains, and less in the plains. 

EXTREMES OF HEAT AND COLD. 

The extremes of heat and cold are moderated by the forest. Obser- 
vations on this point have been made, for example, in Bavaria and 
Wiirttemberg. They showed that the lowest temperature of every 
day in the year was higher, on an average, by nearly 2° in the forest, 
while the highest temperature was lower by nearly 4°. The greatest 
heat of the day in the summer was 1\° less in the forest than outside. 
Prussian observations showed that for fen years the greatest heat of 
the day in July was, on an average, nearly 6° lower in the forest, and 
the greatest cold of the night in January nearly 3° less than outside. 
It should not be forgotten that the latitude, the elevation, and the' 
exposure had a powerful influence on these differences, which are also 
greatly affected by the land of trees and the density of the forest. 

It must be borne distinctly in mind that the figures given above 
are rehable only for the places in central Europe where they were 
observed. But the principles on whi(5h they depend are just as true 
in America as they are in Europe. Natural laws are the same the 
world over. It is safe to conclude, then, that in the United States 
the forest modifies the temperature of the air in certain ways and 
for certain reasons, both of which we have seen. Just how great this 
influence is in different parts of this continent it is as yet impossible 
to tell. But it is probably greater on the average than these observa- 
tions indicate, for two reasons : First, the extremes of heat and cold, 
moisture and dryness, are much greater here than in central Europe, 
and changes are more sudden; second, in most of the double stations 

358 



34 PRACTICAL FOEESTKY. 

mentioned above the station outside the forest was -within less than 
a mile of it, and thus likely to be influenced by the cooler air currents 
flowing from it; that is, the real effect of the presence or absence of 
woods oyer large stretches of cotrntry is probably greater than these 
observations show. 

A system introduced in Austria is expected to give a clearer idea of 
the distance to which the forest influence reaches. It consists of 
Knes of stations beginning in the center of a large forest and extending 
step by step into the open country beyond. 

MOISTURE IN rOBEST AIB. 

The moisture of the air is greater in the forest than outside. The 
absolute quantity of water vapor in a cubic foot of air is generally 
the same in both places, but the forest air is cooler, and therefore its 
relative humidity is greater. Relative humidity is the amount of 
vapor actually in the air, expressed as so much per cent of all it could 
hold at the same temperature. The amount of water that the air 
can hold changes when the temperature changes, but in such a way 
that air cooled until it is only half as warm as before can hold much 
less than half as much vapor. If a hot and a cold stream of air, both 
saturated with water vapor, meet and mix, the mixture can no 
longer hold as much vapor as the two streams separately, and a part 
is condensed, usually in the form of rain or snow. German and Swiss 
observations, have shown that the average humidity is greater in the 
forest by from 3 to 10 per cent. This difference increases with the 
altitude above sea level and the density of the forest cover. The 
increase of humidity explains why dew is more frequent in the neigh- 
borhood of the forest than at a distance. 

EVAPORATION. 

The water which falls to the earth from the atmosphere had first 
to be evaporated, so that year by year the quantity of water which 
the air takes from the surface of the globe by evaporation is the 
same as that which falls upoil it in the shape of rain, hail, snow, 
and dew. The effect of the forest on this great movement of water 
is to detain more of it on those portions of the earth which are shel- 
tered by trees. It does this partly by tending to increase the rain- 
fall, but its effect in lessening the loss of water through evapora- 
tion is probably much more important. The colder and moister 
air of the forest has less capacity for taking up water vapor than 
that of the open country. It is also quieter, which means that the 
winds are less active in replacing saturated air with air which can 
still take up more water. The forest acts powerfully in checking 

358 



PBACTICAL FORESTRY. ^ S5 

the force of the winds because the elastic swaying of the twigs and 
branches is a very effective hindrance to the movement of the air. 
Strong winds, although they are often dangerous in themselves, do 
most harm by drying up the moisture in the soil and in the plants 
which grow from it. Thousands of miles of wind-breaks have been 
planted by farmers in the western parts of this country to protect 
their crops and homes against the wind. These wind-breaks serve 
a most useful purpose, but they are naturally far less effective in 
preventing evaporation than the forest itself. So great is the power 
of the latter that direct observations made in Bavaria and Prussia 
showed that evaporation from a free surface of water in the forest 
was only 40 per cent of that in the open. 

The presence or absence of leaf mold has a powerful effect on the 
amount of evaporation from forest soil. The experiments of Doctor 
Ebermayer, a famous German forest meteorologist, showed that evapo- 
ration from forest soil without a layer of mold was 47 per cent of that 
from soil in the open, while with a layer of mold it was less than 
half as much, or 22 per cent. The greater the altitude above the 
sea the greater is the effect of the forest in preventing evaporation. 
This is a powerful reason for preserving mountain forests at the 
headwaters of streams, especially in the Rocky Mountain regions 
of the United States. Evaporation is there so active that great 
banks of snow lying in the full glare of the sun often disappear 
without melting even enough to moisten the ground on the hillsides 
below them. Vast quantities of water evaporate in this way with- 
out ever reaching the streams. Measurements made by the Geo- 
logical Survey show that evaporation from snow may be four or five 
times as great as from water under like circumstances. 

RAINFALL. 

The causes of rain are for the most part wholly beyond the reach 
of influence from the forest. Such are the great currents of warm 
and cold water in the ocean, the direction of the prevailing winds, 
and the presence or absence of mountain ranges. But there are two 
reasons which lead us to believe that forests do affect the rainfall. 
These are their colder and moister air, and the resistance which they 
offer to the motion of the winds. A great number of observations 
has been made in different parts of the world to discover how much 
the rainfall really is affected by the forest, but for several reasons no 
generally accepted result has yet been reached, In the first place, 
accurate observations on rainfall are not easy to make. The height 
above the ground at which a rain gauge is placed affects it very seri- 
ously. A variation of 10 feet in height wQl often make more differ- 

358 



36 , PRACTICAL FORESTRY. 

ence in the amount of rain caught than most observers claim for the 
whole action of the forest. The rainfall of two stations at unequal 
heights above sea level is sometimes wrongly compared, because the 
difference in rainfall may be caused by the difference in altitude. 
Finally, the best observations that have been made point to different 
conclusions. For example, measurements taken in Prussia go to 
show that there is an increase of rain over the forest, and that it is 
greater the higher the station. Thus, near the level of the sea it was 
only 1.25 per cent greater than over the open country, while at alti- 
tudes between 2,000 and 3,000 feet it reached 43 per cent. Observa- 
tions made at Nancy, in France, which lies about 700 feet above the 
sea,, show an average yearly increase of 16 per cent. The Bavarian 
observations, on the contrary, do not indicate more rain over the 
forest. The best evidence at hand fails to show a decrease in rain- 
fall over the United States in the last hundred years, in spite of the 
immense areas of forest that have been burned and cut. But it 
should not be forgotten that most of those areas have grown up 
again, first with brush, and afterwards with trees, so that the pro- 
portion of land covered with leaves is still very large in aU that part 
of the country which was once under forest. In India, again, a large 
amount of statistics has been collected which leads to the conclu- 
sion that forests do influence rainfall. The truth probably is that 
more rain falls over the forest than over open country similarly 
placed, but how much more it is impossible to say. The excess falls 
chiefly in the form of summer showers. One of the best authorities 
has estimated the difference at 10 per cent. 

FALLEN BAIN. 

Whatever doubt there may be about the action of the forest in pro- 
ducing rain, there is none about its effect on rain water after it has 
fallen. When rain falls over a dense forest from less than one-tenth 
to about one-fourth of it is caught by the trees. A small part of 
this water may reach the ground by running down the trunks, but 
the greater part of it is evaporated, and so increases the humidity of 
the air. That which passes through the crowns falls upon the forest 
floor, which sometimes has an absorbing power so great that it can 
hold for a while a rainfall of 6 inches. Yet this water does not 
remain in the porous floor, but in the end runs off into the streams, 
or is evaporated, or sinks into the ground. That which gets into the 
ground is either taken up by the roots or goes to feed the springs and 
water courses. 

Rain which falls over a bare slope acts differently. It is not caught 
by the crowns nor held by the floor, nor is its flow into the streams 
hindered by the timber and the faflen waste from the trees. It does 

.358 



PRACTICAL FOEESTBY. 



37 



not sink into the ground more than half as readily as in the forest, as 
experiments have shown. The result is that a great deal of water 
reaches the streams in a short time, which is the reason why floods 
occur. It is therefore true that forests tend to prevent floods. But 
this good influence is important only when the forest covers a large 
part of the drainage basin of the stream. Even then the forest may 
not prevent floods altogether. The forest floor, which has more to do 
with the fallen rain water than any other part of the forest, can affect 




frg^l^^^^^^. 



^^■w. » n«r .-^.-y ^i^r«.^.^. wm- 



Fig. 22.— Beginnings of erosion in soil tramped bare by stock. Sierra Nevada Mountains, Calilornia. 

its flow only so long as it has not taken up all the water it can hold. 
That which falls after the forest floor is saturated runs into the streams 
almost as fast as it would over bare ground. 

An unforested drainage basin in the San Bernardino Mountains of 
southern California was found by the Forest Service to discharge the 
rain it received more than twice as rapidly as similar forested basins 
near by. In consequence the stream in the former went dry, while 
the streams in the latter were still flowing abundantly. 

In these ways it happens that in mountain countries, where floods 
are most common and do most harm, the forests on the higher slopes 
are closely connected with the prosperity of the people in the valleys 
below. 

358 



38 



PEACTICAL FOKESTBY. 



Water in motion was nature's most powerful tool in shaping the 
present surface of the earth. In places where the slopes are steep, the 
structure of the ground loose, and the raiafall abundant, water may- 
work very rapidly in cutting away the heights and filling the valleys. 
The destruction of the forest in such a region exposes the surface to 
the direct action of falling rain and is certain to be followed by the 
formation of torrents. The danger is greatest when the soil has been 
laid bare by the browsing and the hoofs of grazing animals, among 
which sheep and goats are especially destructive, or where the forest 
floor has been burned a#ay. 



>'J 







Fig. 23.— Rich bottomland washed out by floods. North Carolina. 

When these conditions are both present, as in parts of the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains of California, of the Cascade Range in Oregon, and 
in many other parts of the West, the prosperity of the valleys is ia 
serious danger. Fire and overgrazing on the mountains combine to 
endanger the future water supply of irrigated or irrigable areas in the 
valleys below. When rain falls over mountains which have so been 
deprived of their natural protection it is no longer caught and held 
back by the trees and the forest floor. The roots, which were once the 
strongest means of binding the soil together, now are gone and leave it 
without protection against the rushing water. Heavy rains or sudden 

358 



PRACTICAL FORESTRY. 



39 



thaws swell the streams with marvelous quickness, and give them a 
wonderful power to cut away their banks. Where the waterway is 
very steep such a flood often carries with it many times its own weight 
of earth and stones. As it nears the valley it breaks from its bed and 
makes new channels, or spreads over the lowlands. The current loses 
its swiftness, and its load of stones and sterile earth sinlcs to the bot- 
tom, the heavier pieces first. Where it falls the beds of rivers are 
filled up and fertile lands are covered with pebbles and sand. 




Fig. 24.— Plantation ol European alder In the bed of a torrent controlled by dams. This torrent is now 
extinct. Alps of southern France. 

For a time after such a flood the streams are usually low, because 
the water which should have fed them for weeks or months has run off 
in a few days. This may be quite as serious a matter for the farmers 
as the destruction of their fields, as, for example, in places like south- 
ern California, where the crops depend on irrigation with the water 
of streams which rise in the mountains. Torrents have begun to form 
there in the San Bernardino Mountains, and have already carried 
stones and sand into the orange groves, and even into the towns of the 
San Gabriel Valley. Before the water of the San Gabriel River was 
so largely taken out for irrigation it was rapidly cutting away the 
fertile land on either side of its shifting bed, and it seemed likely that 
serious loss of property would follow. This is the direct result of 
fire and grazing in the mountains. 

358 



40 



PRACTICAL FOEESTKY. 



The pasturage of sheep in the Alps of southern France was the 
chief cause of the destructive torrents with which the French Govern- 
ment has been struggling for many years. The direct loss to the 
French people has been enormous, and in addition the work of cor- 
rection alone has cost upward of $35,000,000. Although wonder- 
fully successful hitherto, it is still far from finished. 




Fig. 25.— Unforested watershed in the San Bernardino Mountains. Southern Calitomia. 



FORESTRY ABROAD AND AT HOME. 

FOBESTBY ABROAD. 

Except China, all civilized nations care for the forest. Until 
recently the United States ranked nearly with China in this respect, 
and our country still remains far behind the progressive modern 
nations in nearly all that relates to the protection, preservation, and 
conservative use of the forest. Japan has a well-developed forest 
service and a national forest school. In Austria, Italy, arid Norway 
and Sweden government forestry is a well-established portion of the 
national life. Turkey, Greece, Spain, and Portugal give attention 
to the forests. Russia, dealing like ourselves with vast areas of 
forests in thinly peopled regions, but by methods wholly different 
from our own, is drawing enormous revenues from the systematic 
care and use of the forests. In Germany the scientific treatment of 

358 



PRACTICAL FOEESTRY. 41 

forests has reached, perhaps, its highest development. The foresters 
of France have perfected a most practical and effective general sys- 
tem of forestry and have created the difficult art of controlling the 
floods of mountain torrents by planting trees. The Repubhc of 
Switzerland, by the use of methods most instructive to citizens of 
the United States, has developed a type of government forest policy 
more worthy of our attention and imitation than any other in Europe. 
In Australia and New Zealand forestry has already made important 
advances. In Canada the English have made real progress in for- 
estry. The Government sells the timber from its forests, but retains 
possession of the lands and employs fire guards". At the Cape of Good 
Hope they have an excellent forest service. In British India they 
have met and answered many questions which still confront the 
American forester, and in a little more than thirty years have created 
a forest service of great merit and high achievement. The United 
States has scarcely yet begun. 

THE FOKEST IN EARLY TIMES. 

In very early times the forest was preserved for the game it con- 
tained. Forestry then meant the art of hunting, and had very little 
to do with the care of trees. Even the word "forest," which really 
comes from the Latin /oris, meaning out-of-doors, was thought in 
England to be derived from the fact that it was a place given up to 
wild animals /or" rest. But gradually the forest came to be considered 
more than the game, and the serious study of forestry began. 

MODERN FORESTRY. 

Forestry as a science is of comparatively recent origin, although a 
work in which all the European trees are described was one of the 
earliest printed books. Until the end of the eighteenth century for- 
estry was discussed chiefly by men who were either scholars or prac- 
tical woodsmen, but who were not both. Then appeared Hartig 
and Cotta, two men who united these points of view, and their writ- 
ings are at the base of the whole modern growth of the subject. 
Both Were German. Each covered the whole field as it was then 
understood, and together they exerted an influence which has not 
been approached by any other authors since. From Germany their 
teaching spread to France, and early in the nineteenth century their 
doctrines were introduced into the French Forest School at Nancy 
by Lorentz, who, with his successor. Parade, was the founder of 
modern forestry in France. 

Under the feudal system, which was finally destroyed in France 
by the revolution of 1789, the forest was the property of the feudal 

358 



42 PEACTICAL FOEESTKY. 

lord. In order to make the life of his serfs, who were useful both 
as taxpayers and as fighting men, easier, and so increase their num- 
ber, he gave them the privilege of taking from his forest the wood 
which they required. For similar reasons the wealthy religious 
houses, like that of the Grande Chartreuse, made grants of land and 
of rights in the forest. But after a time the number of peasants 
increased so much that their wants absorbed nearly the whole produce 
of the woodlands. Then it was found necessary to limit the pre- 
scriptive rights to forest products by restricting them to certain parts 
of the forest, or to make an end of them by exchanging them for the 
absolute ownership of smaller areas. Thus many of the communities, 
to which, and not to individual peasants, these rights belonged, came 
to possess forests of their own. But the communes, as they were 
called, managed their forests badly, and about three hundred years 
ago the Government was forced to intervene. Under the manage- 
ment of officers of the government forest service, the results from 
the communal forests have been excellent. At present these forests 
not onlj' supply fuel to the villages which own them, but in some 
cases they produce enough to pay all the village taxes as well. 

Germany. — Germany still holds the high position in forest science 
which began with Hartig and Cotta. The German forest schools, 
of which there are seven of the higher grades, are still among the very 
best, and the studj^ of forestry, both in the schools and in the forest 
experiment stations, is eagerly pursued. The forests in Prussia, 
Saxony, and other German States are admirably managed, and yield 
important returns. The total value of the German forests, public 
and private, is said to be about $4,500,000,000. 

France. — Forestry in France has long been associated with the 
names of famous men. Henry of Navarre and his friend and minister, 
Sully; Palissy, the great potter, who called the neglect of the forest 
prevalent in his time "not a mistake, but a calamity and a curse for 
France;" Colbert, the minister of Louis XIV; the botanist Duhamel 
du Monceau; Buff on, the celebrated naturalist, are among the men 
to whom France owes the rise and progress of her present excellent 
forest policy. Their peculiar service was to lay the foundation, both 
in law and in public opinion, upon which modern forestry in France 
now rests. 

The forests of the French Government are admirably managed. 
They cover only about 2,750,000 acres, but they yield a net return 
each year of more than $2 per acre. Besides handling their national 
forests with great intelligence and success, the French foresters have 
done much for the general progress of forestry. They developed the 
art of reforesting denuded mountains, and were the first to plant trees 
on moving sand dunes along the seashore. More than 150,000 acres 

358 



PEACTICAL FOEESTEY. 43 

of these dunes, which once were blown about by the wind until they 
overwhelmed great stretches of fertile ground, and even threatened 
to bury whole towns, are now covered with forests of pine, and 
produce great quantities of turpentine, lumber, and charcoal. 

Switzerland. — In Switzerland forestry received attention from 
very early times. Nearly two hundred years before the discovery 
of America the city of Zurich began to make rules for the protection 
and management of the Sihlwald, a forest which it still owns, and 
which now yields an annual return of about $8 per acre. In the 
Canton of Bern a decree of the year 1592 warned the people against 
the wasteful use of timber and provided for the protection of the 
forest along various lines. It also directed that for every tree cut 
down a young one should be planted in its place. It is curious to 
find this mistaken prescription for the ills of the forest already in 
fashion more than three centuries ago. To save the forest every 
old tree must be replaced by many young ones. 

The first general forest law of Bern was passed as early as 172.5. 
It embodied the most important principles of wise forest Ipgislation 
as we know them to-day. But this was only one of a long series of 
forest laws in which, from the beginning, the idea of the importance 
of the forest to others besides its owner became steadily stronger. 
The citizens of Bern have grown ever more willing to place restric- 
tions on themselves for the benefit of the Commonwealth. 

There were great floods in Switzerland in 18.34, and they were the 
cause of a general awakening of interest in forestry. Somewhat 
later a federal forest commission was appointed. Since the appear- 
ance of its final report in 1861 the progress of forestry in Switzerland 
has been steady. In 1875 a federal forest inspector was appointed, 
and a year later the first Swiss forest law was passed. This law 
does not extend to the whole of Switzerland, but only to the Alps 
and the steeper foothills. In a country of steep mountains it is of first 
importance to guard the forests on the higher slopes. Consequently 
all the forests on these higher lands which serve to protect the low- 
lands against floods, avalanches, and other similar dangers of wind 
and weather are put in charge of the Swiss federal forest service. 

A great saying of Landolt: "Our forest laws," said Ehas Landolt, 
a great and simple man, whose name stands first among Swiss for- 
esters, "are intended to work more through instruction, good 
example, and encouragement than by severe regulations. This 
method is somewhat slower than one which should involve harsher 
measures, but the results achieved are more useful and lasting. 
When forest owners do something because they are convinced of its 
usefulness it is done well and with an eye to the future, but what 
they do under compulsion is done carelessly and neglected at the 

358 



44 PEACTICAL FOEESTEY. 

first opportunity. What they have come to learn in this way and 
have recognized as good will be carried out, and that better and better 
from year to year." 

Britisli India. — For many years after the British conquest forestry 
in India made very httle progress. Much time was wasted in half 
measures, until in. 1856 Doctor (now Sir Dietrich) Brandis was put 
in charge of the teak forests of Pegu. He acted at once upon the 
idea of preserving them by making them pay. At first the oii^ut 
of teak had to be somewhat restricted, much against the will of the 
timber merchants of Rangoon, who protested that the business of 
their city would be ruined. But after this momentary check the 
teak trade of Rangoon grew until it was far greater than ever before, 
and it is now a chief and increasing source of the prosperity of that 
city. 

The appointment of Doctor Brandis was the beginning of the 
Indian forest service. In 1866 he was made inspector-general of for- 
ests, and from that time progress was rapid. The Indian forest serv- 
ice now has nearly 300 superior officers and over 10,000 rangers and 
forest guards. It has charge of about 200,000 square miles of forest, 
and produces a net revenue, after all expenses have been paid, of 
about ,1.3,000,000 a year. In addition, the forests furnish to peasant 
holders of forest rights products whose value is estimated to be con- 
siderably greater than the whole cost of the forest service. About 
30,000 square miles are effectively protected against fire, at an aver- 
age yearly cost of less than half a cent per acre. These admirable 
results are especially interesting because India is Hke the United 
States in the great extent and variety of her forests and in the number 
and fierceness of forest fires. 

KOBE STB Y AT HOME. 

The forests of the United States cover an area of about 699,500,000 
acres ; or more than 35 per cent of the surface of the country. Before 
so large a part of them was destroyed they were perhaps the richest 
on the earth, and with proper care they are capable of being so again. 
Their power of reproduction is exceedingly good. 

In the Northeastern States, and as far west as Minnesota, once 
stretched the great white pine forest from which, since settlement 
began, the greater part of our lumber has come. South of it, in a 
broad belt along the Atlantic and the Gulf coasts, lies the southern 
pine forest, whose most important tree both for lumber and naval 
stores is the southern yellow pine. In the Mississippi Valley Hes the 
interior hardwood forest of oaks, hickories, ashes, gums, and other 
hardwood trees. It is bordered on the west by the plains, which 
cover the eastern slope of the continental divide until they meet the 

358 



PRACTICAL rOEESTRY. 45 

evergreen Rocky Mountain forest, wliich clothes the slopes of this 
great range from the Canadian line to Mexico. Separated from the 
Rocky Mountain forest by the interior deserts, the Pacific coast forest 
covers the flanks of the Sierras, the Cascades, and the Coast ranges. 
Its largest trees are the giant sequoia and the great coast redwood, 
and its most important timber is the fir. 

The forests of the Philippine Islands cover an area of more than 
40,000,000 acres. Their timbers, almost wholly different from those 
of the United States, are exceedingly valuable, both as cabinet 
woods and as construction timber. An efficient forest service was 
organized in 1898, and following its reorganization in 1902 a new 
and excellent forest law was passed in 1904. The Philippine forest 
service costs but half as much as the revenue received from the 
forests of the islands. 

The island of Porto Rico contains a national forest reserve, the 
site of which was once covered with valuable hardwoods ; but this 
forest has been much abused. Porto Rico, like the Philippines, has 
many kinds of wood valuable for cabinetmaking. 

The settler and the forest. — When the early settlers from the Old 
World landed on the Atlantic coast of North America they brought 
with them traditions of respect for the forest created by generations 
of forest protection at home. The country to which they came was 
covered, for the most part, with dense forests. There was so little 
open land that ground had to be cleared for the plow. It is true 
that the forest gave the pioneers shelter and fuel, and game for food, 
but it was often filled with hostile Indians, it hemmed them in on 
every side, and immense labor was required to win from it the soil 
in which tO' raise their necessary crops. Naturally, it seemed to 
them an enemy rather than a friend. Their respect for it dwindled 
and disappeared, and its place was taken by hate- and fear. 

The feeling of hostility to the forest which grew up among the 
early settlers continued and increased among their descendants 
long after all reason for it had disappeared. But even in the early 
days far-sighted men began to consider the safety of the forest. In 
1653 the authorities of Charlestown, in Massachusetts, forbade the 
cutting of timber on the town lands without permission from the 
selectmen, and in 1689 the neighboring town of Maiden fixed a 
penalty of 5 shillings for cutting trees less than 1 foot in diameter 
for fuel. An ordinance of William Penn, made in 1681, required 
that 1 acre of land be left covered with trees for every 5 acres cleared. 
But these measures were not well followed up, and the needless 
destruction of the forest went steadily on. 

First steps in forestry. — More than a hundred years later, in 1795, 
a committee of the Society for the Promotion of Agriculture, Arts, 

358 



46 PRACTICAL rOBESTEY. 

and Manufactures in New York made a report on the best way to 
preserve and increase the growth of timber. Four years afterwards 
Congress appropriated $200,000 for the purchase and preservation 
of timberlands to supply ship timbers for the navy, and in 1822, 
with the same object in view, it -authorized the President to employ 
the army and navy to protect and preserve the live oak and red 
cedar timber of the Government in Florida. Since that time more 
and more attention has been given to the forests. In 1828 Governor 
De Witt Clinton, of New York, spoke of the reproduction of our 
woods as an object of primary importance, and in the same year 
the Government began an attempt to cultivate live oak in the South 
for the use of the navy. Three years later an act was passed which 
is still almost the only protection for the much-abused forests of the 
public domain. 

In 1872 the Yellowstone National Park was established, and in 
1873 Congress passed the timber-culture act, which gave Government- 
land in the treeless regions to whoever would plant one-fourth of his 
claim with trees. In 1875, the American Forestry Association was 
formed in Chicago through the efforts of Dr. John A. Warder, who 
was one of the first men to agitate forest questions in the United 
States. In the centennial year (1876) Dr. Franklin B. Hough, per- 
haps the foremost pioneer of forestry in America, was appointed 
special agent in the Department of Agriculture. This was the begin- 
ning of educational work in forestry at Washington. Soon afterwards 
Congress began to make appropriations to protect the public timber, 
but nothing was done to introduce conservative forest management. 

About this time forest associations began to be established in the 
different States, the most influential and effective of which has been 
that in Pennsylvania. The States also began to form forest boards 
or commissions of their own. 

In 1888 the first forest bill was introduced in Congress. It failed, 
to pass, but in 1891 an act was passed which was the first step toward 
a true policy for the forests of the nation. The first step toward 
national forestry is control of the national forests. This act, whose 
chief purpose was to repeal the timber-culture act, contained a clause 
which authorized the President to reserve timber lands on the pubhc 
domain, and so prevent them from passing out of the possession of 
the Govermnent. 

The public domain. — In all the States and Territories west of the 
Mississippi except Texas, and in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, 
Wisconsin, Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi, all the land originally 
belonged to the Government. This was the public domain. It has 
graduaUy been sold or given away until in many of the States it has 
all or nearly all passed to other owners. But it still includes more 

358 



PRACTICAL FOEESTRY. 47 

than 470,000,000 acres, or nearly one-third of the United States, not 
including the Territory of Alaska, which has an area of about 
350,000,000 acres. A large part of the public domain has been sur- 
veyed by the Government and divided first into squares 6 miles on 
each side, called townships, then into squares of 1 mile, called sections, 
and these again into quarter sections and smaller divisions. The 
lines which mark these divisions are straight and at right angles to 
each other. When any part of the public domain is reserved or dis- 
posed of it is usually located by reference to these lines. 

Federal forest reserves. — ^When power was given the President to 
make forest reserves, the public domain still contained much of the 
best timber ia the West, but it was passing rapidly into private hands. 
Acting upon the wise principle that forests whose preservation is 
necessary for the general welfare should remain in Government con- 
trol, President Harrison created the first forest reserves. President 
Cleveland followed his example. But there was yet no systematic 
plan for the making or management of the reserves, which at the time 
were altogether without protection by the Government. Toward the 
end of President Cleveland's second administration, therefore, the 
National Academy of Sciences was asked to appoint a commission 
to examine the national forest lands and report a plan for their con- 
trol. The academy did so, and upon the recommendation of the 
National Forest Commission so appointed. President Cleveland 
doubled the reserve area by setting aside 13 additional forest reserves 
on Washington's Birthday, 1897. 

The Cleveland forest reserves awakened at once great opposition, 
and led to a general discussion of the forest policy. But after several 
years of controversy widespread approval took the place of opposition, 
and at present the value of the forest reserves is generally recognized. 

The recommendations of the NationaJ Forest Commission for the 
management of the forest reserves were not acted upon by Congress, 
but the law of June 4, 1897, gave the Secretary of the Interior author- 
ity to protect the reserves and make them useful. The passage of 
this law was the first step toward a national forest service. The 
second step was the act of Congress, approved February 1, 1905, 
which transferred the control of the national forest reserves from the 
Department of the Interior to the Department of Agriculture. This 
act consolidated the Government's forest work, which had been 
divided between the General Land Office and the Bureau of Forestry, 
and secured for the reserves the supervision of trained foresters. 

President McKinley and after him President Roosevelt continued 
to make forest reserves. *The latter introduced a system of examining 
the proposed forest reserves, so that now their boundaries are better 
located than ever before. Under him great progress has been made 

358 



48 PRACTICAL FOEESTKY. 

by the Government in bringing about the practice of forestry by 
forest owners and in awakening the great lumber interests, as well as 
the people in general, to the dangers of forest destruction. 

The forest reserves lie chiefly in high mountain regions. They are 
62 in number, and cover an area (January 1, 1905) of 63,308,319 
acres. They are useful first of all to protect the drainage basins of 
streams used for irrigation, and especially the watersheds of the great 
irrigation works which the Government is constructing under the 
reclamation law, which was passed in 1902. This is their most 
important use. Secondly, they supply grass and other forage for 
many thousands of grazing animals during the summer, when the 
lower ranges on the plains and deserts are barren and dry. Lastly, 
they furnish a permanent supply of wood for the use of settlers, 
miners, lumbermen, and other citizens. This is at present the least 
important use of the reserves, but it will be of greater consequence 
hereafter. The best way for the Government to promote each of 
these three great uses is to protect the forest reserves from fire. 

State forestry. — ^Many of the States have taken great and 
effective interest in forestry. Among those which have made most 
progress are New York and Pennsylvania. New York has a state 
forest preserve of 1,436,686 acres, and Peimsylvania one of 700,000 
acres. Michigan, Minnesota, and other States are rapidly following 
their example. 

In 1892 the first example of systematic forestry in the United States 
was begun at Biltmore, in North Carolina. It is still in successful 
operation. 

The first professional foresters in the United States were obliged to 
go abroad for their training, but in 1898 professional forest schools 
were established at Cornell University, in New York, and at BUtmore, 
in North Carolina, and they were followed by the Yale Forest School 
in 1900. Others have sprung up since. At present, thorough and 
efficient training in professional forestry can be had in the United 
States. 

358 

O 



Bull. 7, DIv. of Ornithology and Ma,r,malogy, U. S. Dept. of Agrioulturi 



pRONTrsPIECE. 




PiLEATED Woodpecker or Logcock 



(.Ceophlmus JJileaiiis). 



Bulletin No. 7 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

DIVISION OF ORNITHOLOGY AND MAMMALOGY 



PRELIMINARY REPORT 



FOOD OF WOODPECKERS 



F. E. L. BEAL 

Assistant Ornithologist 



THE TONGUES OF WOODPECKERS 



F. A. LUCAS 

Curator, Department Comparative Anatomy 
U. S. National Museum 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 



LETTER OF TRANSMIHAL. 



United States Depaktment of Agbicultuee, 

Washington, B. C, May 15, 1895. 
SiE: I have the honor to transmit, as Bulletin No. 7 of this division, 
a preliminary report on the Food of Woodpeckers, by Prof. F. E. L. 
Beal, Assistant Ornithologist. The report is accompanied by a short 
article on the 'Tongues of Woodpeckers,' prepared at my request by 
Mr. F. A. Lucas, Curator of the Department of Comparative Anatomy, 
United States JSTational Museum. 
Kespectfully, 

C. Haet Merriam, 
Chief of Division of Ornithology and Mammalogy. 

Hon. J. Sterling Morton, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

The Food of Woodpeckers. By F. E. L. Beal 7 

General remarks 7 

Table showing food percentages 11 

Downy Woodpecker (DryoJiates pul)escens) 11 

Hairy Woodpecker {Dryohatcs vilJosus) 14 

Flicker {Colapiea auralus) 16 

Eed-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes eryihrocei>halus) 20 

Eed-hellied Woodpecker (Melanejyes caroUiius) 25 

yellow-heilied Sapsucker (Sjjhyrapiciis rarius) 28 

Great Pileated Woodpecker {Ceophlwus pileatus) 32 

Other Woodpeckers 33 

The Tongues of Woodpeckers. By F. A. Lucas 35 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 
Text figures. 

Fig. 1. Hairy Woodpecker (Dryohatcs rillosus). 

2. Flicker {Colapies atiral us). 

3. Eed-headed Woodpecker {Melanerpcs eryihrocepltalus). 
i. yellow-bellied Sapsucker {Sphyrapicus varias). 

Plates. 

Frontispiece. Pileated Woodpecker (Ceophlceus pileattis). 
Plate I. Tongues of North American Woodpeckers. 
II. Tongues of North American Woodpeckers. 
III. Tongues of North American Woodpeckers. 



PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE FOOD OF WOODPECKERS. 



By F. E. L. Bbal, Assistant Ornithologist. 



GENERAL EBMAKKS. 

With the possible exception of the crow, no birds are subject to more 
adverse criticism than woodpeckers. Usually no attempt is made to 
discriminate between the numerous species, and little account is taken 
of the good they do in destroying injurious insects. The name ' Sap- 
sucker ' has been applied to two or three of the smaller kinds, in the 
belief that they subsist to a great extent upon the juices of trees, 
obtained from the small holes they make in the bark. There can be 
little doubt that one species, the Yellow-bellied Woodpecker [Spliyra- 
picus varius), does live to a considerable extent upon this sap. Obser- 
vation does not show that other species have the same habit, but it is 
a difficult point to decide by dissection, as fluid contents disappear 
quickly from the stomach. 

Many observers have testified to the good work these birds do in 
destroying insects, while others have spoken of harm done to fruit or 
grain. Both are correct within certain limits. 

Field observation on the food habits of birds is attended with so 
many difficulties as to render it a very unreliable source from which to 
draw general conclusions. The most conscientious and careful person 
is often deceived, not only as to the quantity of a particular kind of 
food eaten by a bird, but as to the fact that it is eaten at all. The 
further difficulty of keeping a number of birds, or even a single one, 
under constant observation makes an estimate of relative proportions 
of different kinds of food impossible. When much mischief is done 
the fact is apparent, but there is no way to find out how much good is 
done during the same time. For these reasons it often happens that 
reports on food habits, based on observations of wild birds, not only 
conflict with each other but also disagree with the results obtained 
from stomach examinations. This last method must be taken as the 
court of final appeal, and it is evident that a collection of stomachs 
covering every month in the year, and as nearly as may be all points 

7 



8 THE FOOD OF WOODPECKERS. 

of the birds' range, becomes more and more trustworthy as it increases 
in size; in other words, the more stomachs examined the nearer correct 
will be the result as to the birds' annual diet. 

The present paper is merely a preliminary report, based on the exami- 
nation of 679 stomachs of Woodpeckers, and representing only 7 spe- 
cies — all from the eastern United States. These species are the Downy 
Woodpecker {Dryohates pubescens), the Hairy Woodpecker (D. villosus), 
the Flicker or Golden winged Woodpecker {Golaptes auratus), the 
Hed-headed Woodpecker [Melanerpes erythrocephalus), the Eed-bellied 
Woodpecker {Melanerpes carolinus), the Yellow-bellied Woodpecker 
(Sphyrapicus variiis), and the Great Pileated Woodpecker {Ceophlceus 
pileatus). Examination of their stomachs shows that the percentage 
of animal food (consisting almost entirely of insects) is greatest in 
the Downy, and grades down through the Hairy, Flicker, Pileated, 
Bedhead, and Yellow-bellied to the Eed-bellied, which takes the 
smallest quantity of insects. Prof. Samuel Aughey stated that all of 
these species except the Pileated (which was not present) fed upon 
locusts or grasshoppers during the devastating incursions of these 
insects in Nebraska. The vegetable matter, of course, stands in inverse 
order. The greatest quantity of mineral matter (sand) is taken by the 
Flicker, somewhat less by the Bedhead, very little by the Downy and 
Hairy, and none at all by the Yellow-bellied and Pileated. 

The stomachs of all of the 7 species except the Bedhead and Eed- 
bellied contained the substance designated as 'cambium' in the 
accompanying list of vegetable food. This is the layer of mucilagi- 
nous material lying just inside of the bark of trees, and from which 
both bark and wood are formed. It is supposed by many to be the 
main object sought by woodpeckers. Except in the case of a single 
species the stomach examination does not bear out this view, since cam- 
bium, if present at all, was in such small quantities as to be of no 
practical importance. The Yellow-bellied Woodpecker, however, is evi- 
dently fond of this substance, for in the stomachs, examined it formed 
23 percent of the whole food of the year. It was found in 37 stomachs, 
most of which were taken, in April and October. Of 18 stomachs col- 
lected in April, 16 contained cambium, and one of the remaining con- 
tained no vegetable food whatever. Moreover, as the. true cambium is 
a soft and easily digested substance it is probable that what is usually 
found in the stomachs is only the outer and harder part, which there- 
fore represents a much larger quantity. The extent of the injury done 
by destroying cambium must depend on the quantity taken from indi- 
vidual trees. It is well known that woodpeckers sometimes do serious 
harm by removing the outer bark from large areas on the trunks of 
fruit trees. The rings of punctures often seen around the trunks of 
apple trees are certainly the work of the Sapsucker, though sometimes 
attributed to the Downy and Hairy Woodpeckers. But the bird is not 
sufiBcieutly numerous in most parts of the country to do much damage. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 9 

It is a difiBcult task to summarize the results of the investigations 
herein detailed, more especially if an attempt is made to decide as to 
the comparative merits or demerits of each particular species. The 
stomach examinations do not always corroborate the testimony 
received from observers, and many no doubt will be inclined to think 
they have seen more harm done by some members of this family of 
birds than is shown by the data here published. If birds are seen 
feeding repeatedly on a certain kind of food the inference is that they 
are particularly fond of it, but the truth may be that they are eating 
it because they can find nothing they like better, and that a collection 
of their stomachs from many localities would show only a small per- 
centage of this particular food. 

In reviewing the results of these investigations and comparing one 
species with another, without losing sight of the fact that comparative 
good is not necessarily positive good, it appears that of 7 species 
considered the Downy Woodpecker is the most beneficial. This is due 
in part to the great number of insects it eats and in part to the nature 
of its vegetable food, which is of little value to man. Three-fourths 
of its food consists of insects, and few of these are useful kinds. Of 
grain, it eats j)racticaliy none. The greatest sin we can lay at its door 
]S the dissemination of poison ivy. 

The Hairy Woodpecker probably ranks next to the Downy in point 
of usefulness. It eats fewer ants, but a relatively larger percentage 
of beetles and caterpillars. Its grain-eating record is trifling; 2 
stomachs taken in September and October contained corn. For fruit, 
it seeks the forests and swamps, where it finds wild cherries, grapes, 
and the berries of dogwood and Virginia creeper. It eats fewer seeds 
of the poison ivy and poison sumac than the Downy. 

The Flicker eats a smaller percentage of insects than either the 
Downy or the Hairy Woodpecker, but if eating ants is to be considered 
a virtue, as we have endeavored to show, then surely this bird must be 
exalted, for three-fourths of all the insects it eats, comprising nearly 
half of its whole food, are ants. It is accused of eating corn ; how little 
its stomach yields is shown on another page. Fruit constitutes about 
one-fourth of its whole fare, but the bird depends on nature and not 
on man'to furnish the supply. 

Judged by the results of the stomach examinations of the Downy 
and Hairy Woodpecker and Flicker it would be hard to find three other 
species of our common birds with fewer harmful qualities. Not one of 
the trio shows a questionable trait, and they should be protected and 
encouraged in every possible way. Fortunately, only one, the Flicker, 
is liable to destruction, and for this bird each farmer and landowner 
should pass a protective law of his own. 

The Bedhead makes the best showing of the seven species in the 
kinds of insects eaten. It consumes fewer ants and more beetles than 
any of the others, in this respect standing at the head, and it has a pro- 
nounced taste for beetles of very large size. Unfortunately, however, its 



10 THE FOOD OF WOODPECKERS. 

fondness for predaceous beetles must be reckoned against it. It also 
leads in the consumption of grasshoppers ; these and beetles together 
formiDg 36 percent of its whole food. The stomachs yielded enough 
corn to show that it has a taste for that grain, though not enough to 
indicate that any material damage is done. It eats largely of wild fruit, 
and also partakes rather freely of cultivated varieties, showing some 
preference for the larger ones, such as apples. In certain localities, 
particularly in winter, it feeds extensively on beechnuts. No charge 
can be brought against it on the score of injuring trees by pecking. 

The Eed-bellied Woodpecker is more of a vegetarian than any of 
the others. In certain localities in Florida it does some damage to 
oranges, but the habit is not general. On the other hand, it eats quan- 
tities of ants and beetles. 

The Yellow-bellied Woodpecker seems to show only one question- 
able trait, that of a fondness for the sap and inner bark of trees. 
Both field observations and the contents of the stomachs prove this 
charge against it, but it is not probable, that forest trees are exten- 
sively injured, or that they ever will be, for aside from the fact that 
the bark of many trees would be unpalatable an immense number of 
birds would be required to do serious damage. But with fruit trees 
the case Is different. Their number is limited, and there are no super- 
fluous ones as in the forest. In localities where the bird is abundant 
considerable harm may be done to apple trees, which appear to be 
pleasing to its taste. 

The Pileated Woodpecker is more exclusively a forest bird than any 
of the others, and its food consists of such elements as the woods 
afford, particularly the larvae of wood-boring beetles, and wild fruits. 
The species is emphatically a conservator of the forests. 

In describing the stomach contents of the different woodpeckers a 
quantity of material is classed under the term 'rubbish.' The great 
bulk of this stuff is rotten wood and bark, picked up in digging for 
insects in decayed timber, and apparently swallowed accidentally with 
the food. If the G woodpeckers which had eaten rotten wood are com- 
pared with respect to the quantity of this material contained in the 
stomachs it. is found that the .Hairy Woodpecker stands at the head 
with 8 percent, the Downy next with 6, the Flicker with 3, the ITedhead 
and Yellow-bellied with 1 percent each, and the Pileated with only a 
trace. From this it appears that the Hairy Woodpecker is preeminently 
a woodpeclcer, •while the Bedhead and Yellow-belly do much less of this 
kind of work. The difference in habit is obvious to the most casual 
observer. The Redhead is ordinarily seen upon a fence post or tele- 
graph pole hunting for insects that alight on these exposed surfaces, 
and watching for others that fly near enough to be captured in mid-air. 
Unlike other woodpeckers, he is seldom seen digging at a rotten branch 
except in spring, when he prepares a home for the family he intends 
to rear. The Yellow-bellied, as will be shown i)Fesently, does much 
wood for bark^ per-.king. but of another kind. 



DOWNY WOODPECKER. 



11 



The following tables show the food percentages of the stomachs 
examined : 

Percentages of food of 7 species of woodpeckers. 



Name of speciea. 



Downy Woodpecker {Dry- 

obatesvuiencens) 

Hairy Woodpecker (Dryo- 

bates villosus) 

Flicker (Colaptes auratus) . 
Red-headed Woodpecker 

{Melmierpes crythroceph- 

o!m) 

Eed-bellied Woodpecker 

(Melanerpes carolinus) . - . 
Tellow-bellied Sapsucker 

{Sphyrapicus varius) — 
Pileated Woodpecker 

{Ceophltxus pileatus) 



140 



Percentage of 
stomach con- 
tents. 



66 



50 ^ 47 

26 ! 71 

1 
60 I 50 

51 ' 40 



Percentage of different insects. 



©3. 



-§5 
pa 

o p, 



§•5 



Trace. 
1 

5 
Trace. 

1 
Trace. 



P,S 

■gft 
M 



Trace, i Trace. 

1 

Trace. 

I 
1 I 3 

I 

4 Trace. 



* ft 



Trace. 



Eelative proportions of larval and adult heelles (Coleoptera) in stomachs of 7 species of 

woodpeckers. 



Name of species. 


H 

« a 

•Si 

|g 

!■§ 


.si 


a i 

Is 

'A 


Percentage of 
whole number. 


Percentage of 
stomach con- 
tents. 




Adult. 'Larvae. 


Adult. 


Larvae. 


Downy Woodpecker ( Dryobates pubescens) . 
Hairy Woodpecker {Dryobates villosus) 


140 

82 

230 

101 

22 

81 
23 


50 
27 
67 

83 

6 

15 

4 


60 

• 46 

18 

4 

1 
12 


38 
33 

25 

82 
27 

19 

17 


43 

66 

8 



18 

1 
62 


11 
6 

8 

31 

7 

5 
2 


13 
18 
2 


Eed-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes ery- 




Eed-bellied Woodpecker {Melanerpes caro- 


3 


Yellow-bellied Sapsucker {Sphyrapicus 




Pileated Woodpecker {CeopMceus pileatus) . 


1 



DOV7NY WOODPECKER. 

{Dryobates pubescens.) 

This little woodpecker is the smallest, not only of the 7 species 
under consideration, but of all those inhabiting the United States. He 
is also one of the most familiar, being no stranger to the shade trees 
about houses and parks, while his fondness for orchards is well known. 
He is so quiet and unobtrusive that the first notice one has of his 
presence may be a gentle tapping or scratching on the limb of a tree 
withiu two or three yards of one's head, where our diminutive friend 



12 THE FOOD OP WOODPECKERS. 

has discovered a decayed spot inhabited by wood-boring larvae or a 
colony of ants. 

One hundred and forty stomachs of the Downy Woodpecker have 
been examined. They were collected during every month in the year 
and in 21 States, the District of Columbia, Ontario, and New Bruns- 
wick. A few of the western subspecies {Bryobates pubescens gairdneri), 
from British Columbia, have been included. The stomachs contained 
74 percent of insects, 25 percent of vegetable matter, and 1 percent 
of mineral matter or sand. The insects belong to the following orders : 
Ants {Hymenoptera), beetles (Goleoptera), bugs {Hemiptera), flies 
(Diptera), caterpillars [Lepidoptera), and grasshoppers (Orthoptera). 
Spiders and myriapods were also present. While all of these were 
eaten to some extent, they appear in widely different proportions. The 
ants constitute almost one-third of all the animal food, or about 23 per 
cent of the whole, indicating a very decided taste for this rather acid 
and highly flavored article of diet. Beetles stand a little higher in 
order of importance, amounting to about one-third of the entire insect 
food, or somewhat more than 24 percent of all. Many of these belong 
to the family of May beetles, a few were thepredaceous ground beetles, 
but by far the greatest number were wood-boring larvae, a fact showing 
that this little bird while securing his dinner is doing good work for 
the forest. One-fifth of the animal food, or 16 percent of the total, 
consists of caterpillars, many of which apparently are wood-boring 
species ; others are kinds that live on stems and foliage. Among insects 
the most interesting are the bugs (Hemiptera), which are represented 
in the stomachs by several species, notably by plant lice {Aphides), 
which in several instances were found in considerable quantities, 
amounting to 4 percent of the whole food. From the minute size 
and very perishable nature of these insects it is evident that they 
must disappear from the stomach in a very short time, and it is fair to 
infer that many more were eaten than shown by the food remains. 
Spiders, including harvestmen or daddy longlegs, were eaten freely, 
and amounted to nearly one-tenth of thewhole. A few bits of snail 
shell were found in one stomach. 

Eleven Downy Woodpeckers from Kansas collected in winter (De- 
cember) deserve special notice. Eight of them had eaten the eggs of 
grasshoppers to an average extent of 10 percent of all their food. 
This, besides being in itself a good work, emphasizes the fact that this 
bird resorts to the ground for food iu case of necessity. 

Prof. Samuel Aughey examined 4 stomachs of the Downy Wood- 
pecker in Nebraska, all of which contained grasshoppers. 

The late Dr. Townend Clover, entomologist of the Department of 
Agriculture, states that the stomach of a Downy Woodpecker shot in 
February "was filled with black ants." He states further, "On one 
occasion a Downy Woodpecker was observed by myself making a 
number of small, rough-edged perforations in the bark of a young ash 



DOWNY WOODPECKER. 



13 



tree, and upon examining the tree wlien the bird had flown it was 
found that wherever the bark had been injured the young larvae of a 
wood-eating beetle had been snugly coiled underneath and had been 
destroyed by the bird."' 

In the matter of vegetable diet, the taste of the Downy Woodpecker 
is varied, prompting him to eat a little of a good many things rather 
than a large quantity of any one. The following is a list of the vegetable 
substances that were identified : 



Grain : 

Indeterminable. 
Fruit : 

Dogwood berries ( Cornus fiorida), ( C. 

alternifoUa), and (C. asperifoUa). 
Virginia creeper berries {Partheno- 

cissus^ quinquefolia) . 
June or service berries (AmeJanohier 

canadensis). 
Strawberries (Fragaria). 
Pokeberries {Phytolacca decandra). 
Apples. 
Unidentified. 



Miscellaneous: 

Poison ivy seeds {Rhus radicans). 

Poison sumac seeds {Rhus vernix). 

Harmless sumac seeds {Rhus sp. ?). 

Mullein seeds {Verhascum thapsus). 

Hornbeam seeds {Ostryavirginana). 

Nut, unidentified. 

Flower petals and buds. 

Galls. 

Cambium. 

Seeds, unidentified. 

Rubbish. 



Material believed to be fragments of grain was found in 2 stomachs 
but the quantity was so small that it may be dismissed without further 
comment. Fruit is by far the largest item of vegetable diet, forming 
one-tenth of the whole food. Strawberry seeds were found in only 1 
stomach, apple pulp was supposed to be identified in 2, and the other 
varieties mentioned in the table were distributed in about the same 
proportion; so that no great economic interest can attach to this part 
of the birds' diet. The seeds and other things included under the 
head 'Miscellaneous' constitute about one- twelfth of the total food. 
Seeds of poison ivy were found in 20 stomachs and poison sumac in 1. 
These plants, far from being harmful to the birds, seem to form a very 
agreeable article of diet, and are eaten by many species. Unfortunately 
these- seeds are protected by a hard, horny covering which successfully 
resists the action of the stomach, so that they pass through the ali- 
mentary canal uninjured. It is probable that we owe to birds, more 
than any other agency, the presence of these noxious plants beside 
fences, copses, and hedge rows. The remaining vegetable food, about 
5 percent, was classed as rubbish, and will be discussed in connection 
with some of the other woodpeckers. 

No beechnuts were found in any of the stomachs examined, but Dr. 
Merriam informs me that in northern 'New York they feed extensively 
on this nut, particularly in fall, winter, and early spring. On April 5, 

' U. S. Agr. Rept.for 1865, 1866, p. 37-38. 

^Commonly called Ampelopsis. See (List of Pteridophyta and Spermatopbyta), 
prepared by a committee of the Botanical Club of the A. A. A. S., 1893-94, which 
has been followed in all questions of botanical nomenclature. 



14 



THE FOOD OF WOODPECKKES. 



1878, Dr. Merriam " shot 4 Downy Woodpeckers all of whose gizzards 
were full of beechnuts and contained nothing else. The birds were 
often seen on moss-covered logs, and even on the ground, searching for 
the nuts exposed by the melting snow." Dr. Merriam states also that 
he has seen this woodpecker in the fall eat the red berries of the moun- 
tain ash. 



HAIRY WOODPECKER. 

(Dryobates villosus.) 

This woodpecker is as common as the Downy in most parts of the 
United States, and to the ordinary eye can only be distinguished by 
its greater size, its color and markings being almost exactly the same. 




riG. 1. — Hairy Woodpecker. 

The Hairy is a noiser bird, however, often making his presence known 
by loud calls and obtrusive behavior and by rapid flights from tree 
to tree. Like the Downy, he has been accused of depredations on fruit, 
but the stomachs examined do not show that cultivated varieties form 



HAIRY WOODPECKER. 



15 



any considerable part of his fare. Beside the general resemblance 
between the two birds there is also a remarkable similarity in their 
food habits, as shown by tlie stomach contents; the greatest difference 
being that the Hairy eats a smaller percentage of insects than the 
Downy. Eighty-two stomachs ha.ve been examined, collected during 
every month in the year, except February; and coming from 19 States, 
the District of Columbia, Ontario, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia; 
though most were from the northern United States. The proportion 
of different kinds of food is as. follows: Animal, 68 percent; vegeta- 
ble, 31 percent; mineral, 1 percent. The insect material was made 
up of ants, beetles, caterpillars, bugs, and grasshoppers. Spiders and 
myriapods also were present. An inspection of the percentages shows 
that ants are not so highly prized by the Hairy as by the Downy, since 
they constitute only about 17 percent of the whole food, or one-fourth 
of the insect portion. Beetles, both larval and adult, stand relatively 
higher than in the case- of the Downy, comprising 24 percent of all 
food, or more than one-third of the insect matter. Caterpillars were 
eaten in greater quantities, both actually and relatively, amounting to 
21 percent of the whole food, or more. than, one-third of all the insect 
material. Spiders are well represented, and aggregate nearly 6 per 
cent of the entire food. Among the miscellaneous insects were a few 
aphids or plant lice. Grasshoppers were- foun.d in. only 1 stomach, 
but Professor Aughey found them in 4 out of 6 stomachs examined by 
him in Nebraska. 

Mr. F. M. Webster states that he has seen a HairyWoodpecker suc- 
cessfully peck a hole through the parchment-like covering of the cocoon 
of a Cecropia moth, devourin-g the contents. On examining more than 
20 cocoons in a grove of boxelders he found only 2 uninjured. 

The Hairy Woodpecker selects a somewhat larger variety of vege- 
table food than the Downy, though of the same general character. 
The following list of fruits and seeds found in the stomachs does not 
indicate that the bird visits orchards and gardens for fruit so much as 
swamps and thickets, where wild grapes, woodbine, and dogwood 
bound : 



Grain: 

Corn. 
Fruit : 

Dogwood berries (Corims florida and 

C. asperifolia). 
Virginia creeper berries {Partheno- 

cissus quinquefolia) . 
June or service berries (Amelanchier 

canaden8is) . 
Spice berries (Benzoin benzoin). 
Sourgum berries {Nyssa aquatica). 
Wild black cherries (Prunus serotina). 
Choke cherries (Prunus virginiana). 
Wild grapes (Vitis eordifolia). 



Fruit — Continued : 

Blackberries or raspberries (Bubaa). 

Pokeberries (Phytolacca decandra). 

Unidentified. 
Miscellaneous : 

Poison ivy seeds (Rhus radicans). 

Poison sumac seeds (Rhus vernix). 

Harmless sumac seeds (Rhus glabra'). 

Barngrass seeds {CTiamcerapMs. sp?). 

Hazelnuts. 

Seeds unidentiJied. 

Cambium. 

Spruce foliage (Picea). 

Rubbish. 



16 THE FOOD OF WOOKPECKERS. 

The only grain discovered was corn, which was found in 2 stom- 
achs. In one case it was green corn in the milk, but this is hardly 
sufQcient to prove the habit of eating corn. Fruit aggregates a little 
more than 11 percent of the food of the species, and is fairly distrib- 
uted among all the items in the above list. Since blackberries are the 
only kind of cultivated fruit found in the stomachs, and since they grow 
wild in abundance, it is evident that the Hairy Woodpecker does not at 
present cause any great damage by his fruit-eating habits. The sub- 
stances in the miscellaneous list form about 11 percent of the whole food, 
and arO' practically of the same character as in the case of the Downy. 
Poison ivy seeds were eaten by 7 birds, and poison sumac by only 1, so 
that not so many seeds of these undesirable shrubs are distributed by 
the Hairy as by the Downy. The weed seeds in the stomachs were 
few in number, but in Iowa both the Hairy and the Downy Woodpeckers 
feed largely on weed seeds in winter, stomachs taken then containing 
little else. Eubbish amounts, to about one-twelfth of all their food, 
which is the largest percentage shown by any species. 

Dr. Merriam informs, me- that in northern New York the Hairy Wood- 
pecker, like the other woodpeckers of the Adirondack region, feeds 
largely on beechnuts. In late fall, winter, and early spring followiug 
good yields of beechnuts the nuts form the principal food of the 
woodpeckers. 



FLICKER. 

(Colaptes'auratus.) 

This bird, one of the largest and best known of our woodpeckers, is 
more migratory than either the Hairy or Downy, in winter being scarce 
or absent from- its breeding range in the Northern States, where it is 
very abundant in summer and early fall. The Yellow-shafted Flicker 
is distributed throughout the United States east of the Eocky Moun- 
tains. In the West it is replaced by the Red-shafted Flicker, which 
may be considered the same so far as food habits are concerned. 
Under one or the other of its. various titles of Flicker-, Gold en- winged 
Woodpecker, High-holder, Yellow-hammer-, Pigeon Woodpecker, and 
Hairy-wicket, it is. known to every farmer and schoolboy and, iinfortu- 
nately, to certain, so-called sportsmen also, for this is the one woodpecker 
that is often seen in city markets. In most places it is a much shyer 
bird than either of the preceding, and while it frequents the farm and 
approaches buildings. freely it keeps more in the tops of the trees and 
does not allow so near an .approach of its greatest enemy, man. This is 
particularly true in the northeastern part of the country, where large 
bags of Pigeon Woodpeckers are annually made among the wild cherry 
trees in which the birds feed. The Flickers soon learn whom they have 
to fear, and such knowledge seems to be hereditary. They are very 
prolific, rearing from six to ten young at a brood, and so keep reason- 
ably abundant in most parts of the country. The Flicker is the most 



FLICKER. 



17 



terrestrial of all the woodpeckers, in spite of his high-perching and 
high-nesting proclivities, and may often be seen walking about in the 
grass like a meadow lark. 

In the investigation of its food habits 230 stomachs were examined, 
taken in every month of the year, although January and February 
have but 1 each. They were collected in 22 States, the District of 
Columbia, and the Northwest Territory, and are fairly well distributed 
over the region east of the Rocky Mountains. They contained 56 per 
cent of animal matter,' 39 percent of vegetable, and 5 percent of min- 
eral. It will be seen that the quantity of animal or insect material is 
less than in either of the preceding species, and the mineral matter 
somewhat greater. The following orders of insects were represented : 




ittn 



Fio. 2.— Flicker. 



Ants [Hymenoptera), beetles (Coleovtera), bugs {ITemiptera), grasshop- 
pers and crickets ( Orthoptera), caterpillars (Lepidoptera), Mayflies ( Ephe- 
mmda) and whiteants( Jsopterrt). Spiders and myriapods also were pres- 
ent. An inspection of this insect matter shows the rather remarkable 
fact that more than three- fourths of it, or 43 percent of the whole food, 
consists of ants. If the mineral matter is thrown out as not being prop- 
erly food, we find that more than 45 percent of the Flicker's food for 
the year consists of ants. Among the stomachs examined several 
contained nothing but ants. In two of these the actual number of ants 
present in each stomach exceeded 3,000. These were' mostly small 
species that live in burrows in the earth, so that it is evident that 
when Flickers are seen upon the ground they are usually in search of 
18269— No. 7 2 



18 THE FOOD OF WOODPECKEES. 

ants, although the other insects found in the stomachs account in 
part for this ground-feeding habit. Prof. Samuel Aughey examined 8 
stomachs of Flickers in Dixon County, Nebr., in June, 1865. All of 
them contained grasshoppers, and the number in each stomach varied 
from 15 to 48. 

As a large part of the food of the 7 woodpeckers studied consists 
of ants, the question may be asked whether the birds are doing good 
or harm by destroying them. There are so many different species of 
these insects, and they have such widely different habits, that it is 
difficult to make any assertion that will apply to all, but it is safe to 
say that many kinds are decidedly harmful, because they attend, pro- 
tect, and help to spread plant, root, and bark lice of various species. 
These lice are among the worst enemies of plant life, and everything 
which tends to prevent their destruction is prejudicial to the interests 
of agriculture. Other species of ants destroy timber by burrowing in 
it; still others, in warmer climates, do much harm to fruit trees by 
cutting off the leaves and undermining the ground. Many species 
infest houses and other buildings. Apparently, then, birds do no harm 
in destroying ants, but on the contrary probably do much good by keep- 
ing within bounds these insect pests, whose greater abundance would 
be a serious injury to man. The Flicker takes the lead in this work, 
eating ants to the extent of nearly half of his whole food. 

Next in importance to ants are beetles, which form about 10 percent 
of all the food, less than half the quantity eaten by the Hairy and 
Downy Woodpeckers. Among these were May beetles and their allies, 
and a few snapping beetles, but the greater number were Carabids or 
predaceous ground beetles. Most of these were in the adult form, but 
some larvoe of tiger beetles were identified. As these last live in bur- 
rows in the sand, and as Carabids live upon the ground, their presence 
in the stomachs again points to the terrestrial habits of the bird. The 
same is true of the grasshoppers and crickets. None of the other insects 
mentioned were eaten to any great extent, the whole aggregating only 
about 3 percent. Two stomachs contained each a single bedbug. 
Where they were obtained it is as difficult to surmise as it is to under- 
stand what motive could prompt the bird to swallow such an insect. 
Five stomachs contained each a few bits of snail shell. 

In the matter of vegetable diet the Flicker has the most extensive 
list of any of the 7 woodpeckers, and many of the articles of food 
can only be obtained on the ground or among low bushes. Following 
is a list of all the vegetable substances identified in the Flicker's 
stomach : 



FLICKER. 



19 



Grain : 
Corn. 

Buckwheat. 
Fruit: 

Dogwood berries ( Cornus floi-ida and 

C. asperifolia). 
Virginia creeper berries (^Partheno- 

cissus quinquefolia) . 
Haokberries (Celtis occidenialia) . 
Black alder berries (Ilex veriicillata), 
Sourgum berries {Nyssa aqtiatica). 
Cat or greenbrier berries (Smilax 

glauca). 
Blueberries (Vaccinium sp.). 
Huckleberries (Gaylussacia sp.). 
Pokeberries (Phytolacca decandra). 
June or service berries (Anielanchier 

canadensis). 
Spice berries (Benzoin benzoin). 
Elderberries ( Sambucus canadensis and 

S. pubens). 
Mulberries (Morus). 
Wild grapes (Vitis cordifolia). 
Wild black cherries (Prunus serotina). 
Choke cherries (Prunus virginiana). 
Cultivated cherries. 



Fruit — Continued. 

Blackberries (Subus) 

Unidentified. 
Miscellaneous: 

Poison ivy seeds (Rhus radicans). 

Poison sumac seeds (Bhiis vernix). 

Harmless sumac seeds (Rhus copalliva 
and I{. glabra). 

Waxberries or bayberries (Myrica 
cerifera). 

Juniper berries (Juniperus virgini- 
ana). 

Knotweed or smartweed (Polygonum 
convolvulus, P. persicaria, P. lapa- 
thifolium). 

Clover seed (TrifoUum repens). 

Grass seed (Phleum). 

Pigweed seed (Che^opodium). 

Mullein seed ( Verbascum thapsus). 

Kagweed (Ambrosia) . 

Magnolia seed (Magnolia grandiflora). 

Acorns (Quercus). 

Seed unidentified. 

Cambium. 

Eubbish. 



Of the two kinds of grain in the above list corn was identified in 5 
stomachs, buckwheat in 1. One of the stomachs containing corn was 
taken in March and the bird had made a full meal of it, probably 
because he could get nothing else. Three of the others were collected 
in September, and the corn was evidently 'in the milk.' The fifth was 
taken in October, and is of a somewhat doubtful nature. 

The Department of Agriculture has received a number of reports 
that implicate woodpeckers in damage done to crops. The only one of 
any consequence-is from Dr. E. S. 0. Foster, of Eussell County, Kans., 
who states that the Eed-headed and Golden-winged Woodpeckers dam- 
age corn in the roasting ear by tearing open the husks. He does not say 
for what purpose the husks are torn open, though some observers have 
declared that the object is to obtain the grub which sometimes infests 
the ear. The testimony furnished by the stomachs does not indicate 
that the Golden-wing has much to do with corn stealing, for it appears 
that out of 98 stomachs taken in September and October, the season of 
harvest, only 4 contained corn at all, and these in quantities ranging 
from 4 to 30 percent of the stomach contents. The buckwheat was 
eaten in September. The Flicker has a rich and varied list of fruit, 
embracing at least 20 different kinds, nearly all of which are wild. 

The two items of grain and fruit together constitute about 25 per 
cent of the whole food, the grain, however, being of little consequence. 
With all this fruit eating, the Flicker trespassed upon man's preserves 
for cherries only, and these were found in only 1 stomach. Several 



20 THE FOOD OF WOODPECKEKS. 

observers, however, have testified that some damage is done. T. J. 
Parrish, of Cooke County, Tex., states that the Yellow-hammers and 
small woodpeckers feed on peaches, plums, grapes, and cherries. 

Miscellaneous vegetable substances aggregate a little more than 10 
percent of the whole food of this bird, and like the fruit list, consist 
of a variety of elements. Poison ivy seeds were found in 20 stomachs, 
poison sumac in 5, and bayberries in 14. All these seeds are coated 
with a white substance resembling wax, and while the quantity is small 
compared with the size of the seeds, it is probably rich in nutritive 
properties, for the seeds are a favorite article of winter diet with many 
birds. A number of weed seeds were found, and if eaten in consider- 
able quantities would be a great argument in the bird's favor, but 
unfortunately they occurred in only one or two stomachs each, and so 
may be considered as merely picked up experimentally in default of 
something better. It is possible that a series of stomachs taken in the 
winter months might show a larger percentage, as has been observed 
in the case of other species of birds, including at least 2 woodpeckers. 
The mineral element of the stomach contents is larger in the Flicker 
than any of the others, forming 5 percent of the whole, and consisting 
principally of fine sand. It was noticed that the greatest quantity was 
present in stomachs containing ants, showing that the sand was picked 
up accidentally in gathering the ants from their hillocks. 



RED-HEADSD WOODPECKER. 

(Melanerpes eryihrocephalus.) 

The handsome Redhead inhabits suitable localities throughout the 
United States east of the Eocky Mountains, but is only casual in New 
England. He is a familiar bird on telegraph poles and fence posts, 
and seems to prefer these rather unpicturesque objects to other appar- 
ently more fruitful hunting grounds. He feeds largely on insects found 
upon these bare surfaces, but the vegetable matter in his stomach 
shows that he forages in other pastures also. 

Fifty years ago Giraud stated that on Long Island the Eedheaded 
Woodpecker arrives early in April, and during the spring "subsists 
chiefly on insects. In the summer it frequents the fruit trees, ripe 
cherries and pears seeming to be a favorite repast. In the fall it feeds 
on berries and acorns, the latter at this season forming a large portion 
of its food." 1 

In its fondness for mast it resembles its relative, the California Wood- 
pecker, whose habit of storing acorns is one of its most conspicuous 
traits. In the northern part of its range, whero the oak is replaced by the 
beech, the Eedhead makes the beechnut its principal food. Dr. C. Hart 

1 Birds of Long Island, by J. P. Girand, jr., 1844, p. 180. 



RED-HEADED WOODPECKER. 



21 



Merriam has given mucli testimony under this head.' He states that 
in northern New York, where it is one of the commonest woodpeckers, 
it subsists almost exclusively on beechnuts during the fall and winter, 
even picking the green nuts before they are ripe and while the trees 
are still covered with leaves. He has shown that these woodpeckers 
invariably remain throughout the winter after good nut yields and 
migrate whenever the nut crop fails. He says : " Gray Squirrels, Eed- 
headed Woodpeckers, and beechnuts were numerous during the winters 




Fig. 3.— Ked-headed Woodpecker. 

of 1871-72, 1873-74, 1875-76, 1877-78, 1879-80, 1881-82, 1883-84, while 
during the alternate years the squirrels and nuts were scarce and the 
woodpeckers altogether absent;" and adds that in Lewis County, 
IST. Y., '<a good squirrel year is synonymous with a good year for 
Melanerpes, and vice versa." In early spring, following nut years, when 
the melting snow uncovers the ground, they feed on the beechnuts that 
were buried during winter. On April 5, 1878, at Locust Grove, K Y., 
he shot 6 whose gizzards contained beechnuts and nothing else. 



' Birds of Connecticut, 1877, p. 66; Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, Vol. Ill, 1878, p. 124; 
Mammals of the Adiroudaoks, 1884, p. 226. 



22 THE FOOD OF WOODPECKERS. 

In an interesting article in the Auk/ Mr. O. P. Hay says that in cen- 
tral Indiana during a good beechnut year, from the time the nuts began 
to ripen, the Bedheads were almost constantly on the wing, passing 
from the beeches to some place of deposit. They hid the nuts in almost 
every conceivable situation. Many were placed in cavities in partly 
decayed trees; and the felling of an old beech was certain to provide 
a feast for the children. Large handfuls were taken froin a single knot 
hole. They were often found under a patch of raised bark, and single 
nuts were driven into cracks in the bark. Others were thrust into 
cracks in gateposts ; and a favorite place of deposit was behind long 
slivers on fence posts. In a few cases grains of corn were mixed with 
beechnuts. Nuts were often driven into cracks in the ends of railroad 
ties; and the birds were often seen on the roofs of houses pounding 
nuts into the crevices between the shingles. In several instances the 
space formed by a board springing away from a fence was nearly filled 
with nuts, and afterwards pieces of bark and wood were brought and 
driven over the nuts as if to hide them from poachers. 

In summer Dr. Merriam has seen the Bedheads "make frequent 
sallies into the air after passing insects, which were almost invariably 
secured." He has also seen them catch grasshoppers on the ground in 
a pasture. 

Dr. A. K. Fisher saw several Eed-headed Woodpeckers feeding on 
grasshoppers in the streets at Miles City, Mont., in the latter part ot 
July, 1893. Several of the birds were seen capturing these insects near 
the hotel throughout the greater part of the forenoon. From a regu- 
lar perch on top of a telegraph pole or cottonwood they descended on 
their prey, sometimes eating them on the ground, but more often 
returned to their former post to devour them. 

The following interesting observation was made by Dr. G. S. Agers- 
borg, of Vermillion, S. Dak. :^ 

Last spring, in opening a good many birds of this species with the object of ascer- 
taining their principal food, I found in their stomachs nothing but young grass- 
hoppers. One of them, which had its headquarters near my house, was observed 
making frequent visits to an old oak post, and on examining it I found a large crack 
where the woodpecker had inserted about 100 grasshoppers of all sizes (for future 
use, as later observation proved), which were put in without killing them, but they 
were so firmly wedged in the crack that they in vain tried to get free. I told this to 
a couple of farmers, and found that they had also seen the same thing, and showed 
me posts which were used for the same purpose. Later in the season the wood- 
pecker whose station was near my house, commenced to use his stores, and to-day 
(February 10), there are only a few shriveled-up grasshoppers left. 

Mr. Charles Aldrich, of Webster City, Iowa, states that he saw a Eed- 
headed Woodpecker catching grasshoppers on the prairie half a mile 
from timber. In Nebraska grasshoppers were found in 4 out of 6 
stomachs examined by Prof. Samuel Aughey. 

1 Auk. Vol. IV, 1887, pp. 194,195. 

2 Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, Vol. Ill, 1878, p, 97. 



RED-HEADED WOODPECKER. 23 

Besides depredations upon fruit and grain, this woodpecker lias been 
accused of destroying the eggs of other birds and even of killing the 
young; and from Florida comes a report that it enters poultry houses 
and sucks the eggs of domestic fowls. Mr. Charles Aldrich, of Webster 
City, Iowa, says that a Eed-headed Woodpecker was seen to kill a 
duckling with a single blow on the head, and then to peck out and eat 
the brains.i In view of such testimony remains of eggs and young 
birds were carefully looked for in the stomachs examined, but pieces 
of eggshell were found in only 1 stomach of the Flicker and 2 of the 
Eedhead. 

A very unusual trait has been recorded by Dr. Howard Jones, of 
Circleville, Ohio. Dr. Jones says he has seen the Eed-headed Wood- 
pecker steal the eggs of eave swallows, and in cases where the necks of 
the nests were so long that the eggs were out of reach the woodpecker 
made a hole in the walls of the nest and so obtained the contents. In 
a colony of swallows containing 'dozens' of nests not a single brood 
of young was raised. One of the woodpeckers also began to prey upon 
hens' eggs, and was finally captured in the act of robbing the nest of a 
sitting hen.^ 

'No traces of young birds or of any other vertebrates were discovered 
in the stomachs of any of the 7 species under consideration, except 
bones of a small frog which were found in the stomach of a Eed-bellied 
Woodpecker {Melanerpes carolinus) from Florida. 

The Eedhead has been accused of doing considerable damage to fruit 
and grain, and both charges are fairly well sustained. In northern 
New York Dr. Merriam has seen it peck into apples on the tree, and 
has several times seen it feed on choke cherries {Prunus virginiana). 

Mr. August Jahn, of Pope County, Ark., writes that it has damaged 
his corn to the amount of $10 or $15, and Dr. J. E. Mathers, of Upshur 
County, W. Va., says that the same species feeds on cherries, straw- 
berries, raspberries, and blackberries, and that its depredations are 
sometimes serious. According to Mr. Witmer Stone, of Germantown, 
Pa., Eed-headed Woodpeckers have been observed to strip a black- 
berry patch of all of its fruit. Mr. W. B. McDaniel, of Decatur County, 
Ga., also reports that the Sapsucker and Eedhead eat grapes and cher- 
ries, the loss being sometimes considerable. These examples show the 
nature of the evidence contributed by eye-witnesses, the accuracy of 
whose observations there is no reason to doubt. That the stomach 
examinations do not reveal more damaging points against the species 
is not surprising, for a person seeing a bird eating his choice fruit, or 
in some other way inflicting damage, is more impressed by it than by the 
sight of a hundred of the same species quietly pursuing their ordinary 
vocations. Thus an occasional act is taken as a characteristic habit. 

lAm. Nat., Vol. VT, No. 5, May, 1877, p. 308. 

2 Ornithologist and Oologist, Vol. VIII, No. 7, 1883, p. 56. 



24 THE FOOD OF WOODPECKERS. 

One hundred and one stomachs of the Eedhead were examined from 
specimens collected throughout the year, although the bird is not gen- 
erally abundant in the Northern States during the winter months. 
The specimens were taken in 20 States, the District of Columbia and 
Canada, and are fairly well distributed over the whole region east of 
the Eocky Mountains. The contents of the stomachs consisted of: 
Animal matter, 50 percent; vegetable matter, 47 percent; mineral 
matter, 3 percent. The animal and vegetable elements are nearly 
balanced, and the mineral element is larger than in any except the 
Flicker. The insects consist of ants, wasps, beetles, bugs, grasshop- 
pers, crickets, moths, and caterpillars. Spiders and myriapods also 
were found. Ants amounted to about 1 1 percent of the whole food, which 
is the smallest showing of any of the 7 species under consideration, 
and is in harmony with the habits of the bird, which collects its food 
upon exposed surfaces where ants do not often occur. Beetle remains 
formed nearly one-third of all food, the highest record of any one of 
the 7 woodpeckers. The families represented were those of the com- 
mon May beetle {Lachnosterna), which was found in several stomachs, 
the predaceous ground beetles, tiger beetles, weevils, and a few others. 
Among the May beetle family is a rather large, brilliant green beetle, 
known to entomologists as Allorliina nitida, but commonly oalled by 
the less dignified name of 'June bug.' It is very common during the 
early summer in the Middle and Southern States, but less so at the 
North. This insect was found in 11 stomachs, and 5 individuals were 
identified in a single stomach, which would seem an enormous meal for 
a bird of this size. Another large beetle eaten by this woodpecker is 
the fire-ground beetle (Calosoma calidum), a predaceous beetle of large 
size and vile odor. Passalus cornutus, one of the staghorns, a large 
insect, was also found, as well as a pair of mandibles belonging to 
Prionus brevicornus, one of the largest beetles in the United States. A 
preference for large beetles is one of the pronounced characteristics of 
this woodpecker. Weevils were found in 15 stomachs, and in several 
cases as many as 10 were present. Eemains of Carabid beetles were 
found in 44 stomachs to an average amount of 24 percent of the con- 
tents of those that contained them, or 10 percent of all. The fact that 
43 iiercent of all the birds taken had eaten these beetles, some of them 
to the extent of 16 individuals, shows a decided fondness for these 
insects, and taken with the fact that 5 stomachs contained Cicindelids 
or tiger beetles forms a rather strong indictment against the bird. 

Grasshoppers and crickets formed 6 percent of the whole food, a 
larger percentage than in any of the other 7 species. The aggregate 
for all other insects is 4 percent, and the most important kinds are 
wasps and their allies. As this bird has often been seen capturing 
insects on the wing' it is probable that the wasps Mere taken in that 
way. 

■See Merriam, Bull. Nuttall Ornitb. Club, Vol. Ill, July, 1878, p. 126; also Forest 
and Stream, Vol. IX, .January 17, 1878, p. 451. 



RED-BELLIED WOODPECKER. 



25 



The vegetable food of the Bedhead presents considerable variety, 
and shows some points of difference from that of the other wood- 
peckers. The following is the list of substances identified: 



Graiu ; 

Corn. 
Fruit : 

Dogwood berries ( Cornua candidissima 
and C.florida). 

Huckleberries (Gaylussacia). 

Strawberries (Fragaria). 

Blackberries or raspberries (Buhus). 

Mulberries (Moras). 

Elderberries (Sambacus). 

Wild black oberries (Pj'mbms serolina). 

Choke cherries {Prunus virginiana) . 

Cultivated cherries. 

Wild grapes ( Fitis cordifolia). 



Fruit — Continued. 

Apples. 

Pears. 

Unidentified. 
Miscellaneous : 

Sumac seeds (Bhua copalUna and B. 
glabra). 

Ragweed seeds {Ambrosia) . 

Pigweed seeds (CJienopodium). 

Acorns {Quercus). 

Seeds unidentified. 

Galls. 

Flower anthers. 

Rubbish. 



Corn was found in 17 stomachs, collected from May to September, 
inclusive, and amounted to more than 7 jDercent of all the food. 
While it seems to be eaten in any condition, that taken in the late sum- 
mer was in the milk, and evidently picked from standing ears. This 
being the largest percentage of grain shown by any of the 7 species 
corroborates some of the testimony received, and indicates that the 
Bedhead, if sufficiently abundant, might do considerable damage to 
the growing crop, particularly if other food was not at hand. While 
the fruit list is not so long as in the case of the Flicker, it includes 
more kinds that are, or may be, cultivated; and the quantity found in 
the stomachs, a little more than 33 percent of all the food, is greater 
than iu any of the others. Strawberries were found in 1 stomach, 
blackberries or raspberries in 15, cultivated cherries in 2, apples in 4, 
and pears in 6. Fruit pulp was found in 33 stomachs, and it is almost 
certain that a large part of this was obtained from some of the larger 
cultivated varieties. Seeds were found in but few stomachs, and only 
a small number in each. 



RED-BELLIED ■WOODPECKER 

(Melanerpes carolinus.) 

The Bed-bellied Woodpecker is a more southern species than any of 
the others treated in this bulletin. It is not known to breed north of 
the Carolinian fauna, and is abundant in Florida and the Gulf States. 
Curiously enough it sometimes migrates north of its breeding range to 
spend the winter. 

Only 22 stomachs of this species have been obtained by the division. 
These were collected in 9 States, ranging from Florida to Michigan and 
from Maryland to Kansas, and in every month except April, June, and 
July. An examination of their stomachs shows : animal matter (insects) 



26 



THE FOOD OP WOODPECKERS. 



26 percent and vegetable matter 74 percent. A small quantity of 
gravel was found in 7 stomachs, but was not reckoned as food. Ants 
were found in 14 stomachs, and amounted to 11 percent of the whole 
food. Adult beetles stand next in importance, aggregating 7 percent 
of all food, while larval beetles only reach 3 percent. Caterpillars had 
been taken by only 2 birds, but they had eaten so many that they 
amounted to 4 percent of the whole food. The remaining animal food 
is made up of small quantities of bugs [Hemiptera), crickets ( Orthoptera), 
and spiders," with a few bones of a small tree frog found in 1 stomach 
taken in Florida. 

Dr. B. H. Warren states that the stomachs of 3 Eed-bellied Wood- 
peckers captured in winter in Chester and Delaware counties. Pa., con- 
tained black beetles, larva, fragments of acorns, and a few seeds of 
wild grapes. The stomachs of 8 adults from the St. Johns Eiver, 
Florida, contained red seeds of 2 species of palmetto, but no insects. 
Two additional stomachs from the same locality contained palmetto 
berries, fragments of crickets {Nemobius and Oracharis saltator), a pal- 
metto ant {Gamponotus escuriens), and numerous joints of a myriapod, 
probably Julus} 

Dr. Townend Glover found in the stomach of a Eed-bellied Wood- 
pecker killed in December " pieces of acorns, seeds, and gravel, but no 
insects. Another, shot in December, contained wing-cases of Buprestis, 
and a species of wasp or Polistes, acorns, seeds, and no bark. A third, 
shot in May, was filled with seeds, pieces of bark, and insects, among 
which was an entire Lachnosterna, or May bug."^ 

The vegetable food of the Eed-bellied Woodpecker contained in the 
22 stomachs examined by the division consisted of the following seeds 
and fruits : 



Grain : 

Corn. 
Fruit : 

Mulberries {Morvs ruira). 

Wild grapes ( Vitis cordifolia). 

Virginia creeper (Parthenociaeus quin- 
quefolia). 

Elderberries {Samiucus canadensis). 

Eough-leaved cornel {Cornua asperi- 
folia). 



Fruit — Continued. 

Saw palmetto {Sabal serrulata). 

Holly {Ilex opaea). 

Wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudioauUs). 

Bayberries {Myrica cerifera). 

Pine {Pinus eohinata). 

Poison ivy {Rhus radicana). 

Eagweed {Ambrosia sp.). 



Corn was found in only 2 stomachs. The other items were well dis- 
tributed, and none of them appear to be specially preferred, unless it 
may be the poison ivy, which was found in 6 stomachs, and amounted to 
nearly 12 per cent of the whole food. Although 8 of the 22 birds were 
collected in Florida, no trace of the pulp of oranges was discovered, but 
that oranges are eaten by them is shown by the following interesting 
notes. 



> Birds of Pennsylvania 2d ed., 1890, pp. 174, 175. 
^ U. S. Agrio. Eept. for 1865, 1866, p. 38. 



RED-BELLIED WOODPECKER. 27 

Dr. B. n. Warren states that in Florida the Eed-bellied Woodpecker 
is commonly tnown as 'Orange Sapsucker' and 'Orange Borer.' Dr. 
Warren collected 26 of these woodpeckers in an orange grove near 
Volusia and found that 11 of them contained orange pulp. Three con- 
tained nothing else; the others had eaten also insects and berries. 

Corroborating Dr. Warren's account, Mr. William Brewster states 
that at Enterprise, Fla., in February, 1889, he saw a Eed-bellied Wood- 
pecker eating the pulp of a sweet orange. Mr. Brewster states that the 
woodpecker attacked the orange on the ground, pecking at it in a slow 
and deliberate way for several minutes. On examining the orange it 
was found to be decayed on one side. "In the sound portion were three 
holes, each nearly as large as a silver dollar, with narrow strips of peel 
between them. The pulp had been eaten out quite to the middle of the 
fruit. Small pieces of rind were thickly strewn about the spot." Upon 
searching closely he discovered several other oranges that had been 
attacked in a similiar manner. All were partially decayed and were 
lying on the ground. He was unable to find any on the trees which 
showed any marks of the woodpecker's bill.' 

Mr. Benjamin Mortimer, writing of the same bird at Sanford, Fla., 
says: 

During l<'ebruary and Marcli, 1889, while gatliering fruit or pruning orange trees, 
I frequently found oranges that had been riddled by this woodpecker and repeatedly 
saw the bird at work. I never observed it feeding upon fallen oranges. It helped 
itself freely to Sound fruit that still hung on the trees, and in some instances I have 
found ten or twelve oranges on one tree that had been tapped by it. Where an 
orange accidentally rested on a branch in such a way as to make the flower end acces- 
sible from above or from a horizontal direction the woodpecker chose that spot, as 
through it he could reach into all the sections of the fruit, and when this was the 
case there was but one hole in the orange. But usually there were many holes around 
it. It appeared that after having once commenced on an orange, the woodpecker 
returned to the same one repeatedly until he had completely consumed the pulp, and 
then he usually attacked another very near to it. Thus I have found certain clusters 
in which every orange had been bored, Vhile all the others on the tree were 
untouched. An old orange grower told me that the " Sapsuckers,'' as he called them, 
never touch any but very ripe oranges, and are troublesome only to such growers as 
reserved their crops for the late market. He also said that it is only within a very 
few years that they have shown a taste for the fruit ; and I myself observed that, 
although Red-bellies were very common in the neighborhood, only an individual, or 
perhaps a pair, visited any one grove.^ 

1 The Auk, Vol. VI, 1889, pp. 337-338. 
2 The Auk, Vol. VII, 1890, p. 340. 



28 



THE FOOD OF WOODPECKERS. 



YBLLO'W-BBLLIED ■WOODPECKER OR SAPSUCKER. 

(Sphyrapicus varius. ) 

This species is probably the most migratory of all our woodpeckers, 
breeding only in the most northerly parts of the United States, and in 
some of the mountains farther south. In the fall it ranges southward, 
spending the winter iu most of the Eastern States. It is less generally 
distributed than some of the other woodpeckers, being quite unknown 
in some sections and very abundant in others. For instance, Dr. C. 
Hart Merriam states that in the Adirondack region during migration it 




.tc' 

' in 




Fig, 4. — Yellow-bellied Woodpecker or Sapaucker. 

outnumbers all other species of the family together, and throughout the 
summer is second in numbers only to the Hairy Woodpecker; and at 
Mount Ghocorua, ISTew Hampshire, Mr. Frank Bolles found it the most 
abundant species. Iu Minnesota also it is very common. On the other 
hand, near my home in Massachusetts only two or three were observed 
each year; and during a residence of eight years in Iowa it was noted 
only three or four times. 



YELLOW-BELLIED WOODPECKER. 29 

It is to tliis species that the term 'Sapsucker' is most often and 
most justly applied, for it drills holes iu the bark of certain trees and 
drinks the sap. It feeds also on cambium, insects, and wild fruits and 
berries. 

In writing of the habits of these woodpeckers in northern New York 
in 1878, Dr. Merriam states : 

They really do considerable mischief by drilling holes in the bark of apple, thorn- 
apple, and mountain ash trees in such a way as to form girdles of punctures, some- 
times 2 feet or more iu breadth (up and down), about the trunks and branches. 
* * * The holes, which are sometimes merely single punctures, and sometimes 
squarish spaces (multiple punctures) nearly half an inch across, are placed so near 
together that not unfrequeutly they cover more of the tree than the remaining bark. 
Hence, more than half of the bark is sometimes removed from the girdled portions, 
and the balance often dries up and comes off. Therefore it is not surprising that 
trees which have been extensively girdled generally die, and mountain ash are much 
more prone to do so than either apple or thoruapple trees, due, very likely, to their 
more slender stems. The motive which induces this species to operate thus upon 
young and healthy trees is, I think, but partly understood. It is unquestionably 
true that they feed, to a certain extent, both upon the inner bark and the fresh sap 
from these trees, but that the pvocuremeut of these two elements of sustenance, 
gratifying as they doubtless are, is their chief aim iu making the punctures I am 
inclined to dispute. As the sap exudes from the newly-made punctures, thousands 
of flies, yellow jackets, and other insects congregate about the place, till the hum of 
their wings suggests a swarm of bees. If, now, the tree be watched, the woodpecker 
will soon be seen to return and alight over the part of the girdle which he has most 
recently punctured. Here he remains, with motlouless body, and feasts upon the 
choicest species from the host of insects within easy reach. * '» * In making 
each girdle they work around the trunk, and from below upwards, but they may 
begin a new girdle below an old one. They make but few holes each day, and after 
completing two or three remain over the spot for some little time, and as the clear 
fresh sap exudes and trickles down the bark they place their bill against the depen- 
dent drop and suck it in with evident relish — a habit which has doubtless given rise 
to the more appropriate than elegant term Sapsucker, by which they are commonly 
known in some parts of the country. I have several times watched this performance 
at a distance of less than 10 feet, and all the details of the process were distinctly 
seen, the bird looking at me, meanwhile, ' out of the corner of his' eye.' When his 
thirst is satisfied he silently disappears, and as silently returns again, after a few 
hours, to feast upon the insects that have been attracted to the spot by the escaping 
sap. This bird, then, by a few strokes of its bill, is enabled to secure both food (ani- 
mal and vegetable) and drink in abundance for an entire day; and a single tree, 
favorably situated, may suffice for a whole season.' 

The late Frank Bolles has published some interesting detailed obser- 
vations respecting the food habits of the Sapsucker. His conclusions 
are: 

That the Yellow-bellied Woodpecker is in the habit for successive years of drill- 
ing the canoe birch, red maple, red oak, white ash, and probably other trees, for the 
purpose of taking from them the elaborated sap, and in some cases parts of the cam- 
bium layer; that the birds consume the sap in large quantities for its own sake and 
not for insect matter which such sap may chance occasionally to contain ; that the 
sap attracts many insects of various species, a few of which form a considerable 
part of the food of this bird, but whose capture does not occupy its time to any- 



iBuU. Nuttall Ornith. Club, Vol. IV, January, 1879, pp. 3-5. 



30 THE FOOD OF WOODPECKERS. 

thing like the extent to which sap drinking occupies it ; * * * that the forest 
trees attacked by them generally die, possibly in the second or third year of use; 
that the total damage done by them Is too insignificant to justify their persecution 
in well-wooded regions. ' 

Mr. Bolles shot 8 Sapsuckers in July and August, 1890. Their stom- 
achs "were well filled with insects." Some of these were examined by 
Mr. Samuel H. Scudder, who states : 

The insects in the different stomachs are in all cases almost exclusively composed of 
the harder chitinous parts of ants. In a cursory examination I find little else, though 
one or two beetles are represented, and No, 4 must have swallowed an entire wasp 
of the largest size, his head and wings attesting thereto.^ 

In a subsequent article Mr. Bolles gives the result of an attempt to . 
keep several young Sapsuckers alive on a diet of dilute maple sirup. 
Unfortunately for the experiment, the birds obtained and greedily 
devoured numerous insects attracted to the cage by the sirup. How 
many of the insects were eaten was not known, but all of the birds 
died within four months. Examination of their bodies showed fatty 
degeneration of the liver — a condition said to be usual in cases of star- 
vation. Mr. Bolles states : 

The most probable cause of this enlargement of the liver, which seems to have 
been the reason for the death of the 3 Sapsuckers, was an undue proportion of 
sugar in their diet. In a wild state they would have eaten insects every day and 
kept their stomachs well filled with the chitinous parts of acid insects. Under 
restraint they secured fewer and fewer insects, until, during the last few weeks of 
their lives, they had practically no solid food of any kind.' 

Mr. Bolles has thus proved by experiment that concentrated sap 
(saturated with sugar) is not suflQcient to sustain life, even with the 
addition of a small percentage of insects. The logical inference is 
that sap, while liked by the birds and consumed in large quantities, 
holds a subordinate place as an article of food. 

The Yellow-bellied Woodpecker is represented in the collection by 
81 stomachs, distributed rather irregularly through the year. None were 
taken in February, March, or November, and only a few In January, 
June, and December; the great bulk were collected in April, August, 
September, and October. They were obtained from 15 States, the 
District of Columbia, and Nova Scotia. All were from the Northern 
States, except a few from North Carolina, Virginia, and the District of 
Columbia. Unlike any of the preceding species the vegetable element 
of the food here exactly equals the animal part. The insect matter 
was made up of ants, wasps, beetles, flies, bugs, grasshoppers, crickets, 
and mayflies. Some spiders also were present. Of the whole food, 36 
percent consisted of ants, a higher percentage than in any other wood- 
pecker except the Flicker. Beetles amounted to 5 percent, and do not 
appear to be a favorite food. Flies {Biptera) in various forms were 

1 The Auk, Vol. VIII, July, 1891, p. 270. 
''The Auk, Vol. VIII, July, 1891, p. 269. 
3 The Auk, Vol. IX, April, 1892, p. 119. 



YELLOW-BELLIED "WOODPECKER. 



31 



eaten in larger numbers than by any of the others. Among them were 
several long-legged crane flies ( Tipulids). Spiders were eaten to a small 
extent only, and most of these were phalangers or ' daddy-longlegs,' 
which, taken with the crane flies, would indicate a slight preference for 
long-legged prey. Bugs, wasps, caterpillars, crickets, and mayflies 
collectively amount to about 6 percent, no one of them reaching any 
very important figure. Prof. Samuel Aughey examined 6 stomachs of 
the Yellow-bellied Woodpecker in Nebraska, all of which contained 
grasshoppers. The number in each stomach varied from 15 to 33, 

Mr. William Brewster states that at Umbagog Lake, Maine, " After 
the young have hatched, the habits of the yellow-bellied Woodpecker 
change. From an humble delver after worms and larvae, it rises to the 
proud independence of a flycatcher, taking its prey on wing as uner- 
ringly as the best marksman of them all. From its perch on the spire 
of some tall stub it makes a succession of rapid sorties after its abun- 
dant victims, and then flies off' to its nest with bill and mouth crammed 
full of insects, principally large Diptera." ^ 

The vegetable food of the Sapsucker is varied. The following fruits 
and berries were found in the stomachs: 



Fruit: 

Dogwood berries {Cornus flonda). 
Black alder berries {Ilex vertlciUata). 
Virginia creeper berries (Parthenocis- 

sus quinquefoUa). 
"Wild black cherries {Prunus serotina). 
Blackberries or raspberries (liubus). 
Unidentified. 



Miscellaneous : 

Poison ivy seeds (Bhus radicans). 

Mullein seeda (Veriascum tliapeus). 

JnnipeTheiiiea (Juniperusvirginiana). 

Buds. 

Seeds unidentified. 

Cambium. 

Eubbish. 



The quantity of fruit found in the stomachs formed 26 percent of the 
entire food, but the only kinds identified that might possibly be culti- 
vated were blackberries and raspberries, and these were in only 2 
stomachs. Unidentifiable fruit pulp was found in 12 stomachs. Mis- 
cellaneous seeds to the amount of 5 percent complete the list of sub- 
stances eaten by this species. Poison ivy seeds were found in only 1 
stomach, and most of the other things were distributed in about the 
same proportion. 

Dr. Merriam informs me that in the fall in northern New York the 
Sapsuckers feed on ripening beechnuts, the small branches bending 
low with the weight of the birds while picking the tender nuts. 



'Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, Vol. 1, 1876, No. 3, p. 69. 



32 THE FOOD OF WOODPECKERS. 

GREAT PILEATBD W^OODPECKER. 

( Ceoplilwus pileatus. ) 

Excepting the Ivory Bill this is the largest woodpecker in the United 
States, where it inhabits most of the heavily wooded districts. It is shy 
and retiring, seldom appearing outside of the forests, and difficult to 
approach even in its favorite haunts. Its large size, loud voice, and 
habit of hammering upon dead trees render it conspicuous. Its strength 
is marvelous, and one unacquainted with it can scarcely credit a bird 
with such power of destruction as is sometimes shown by a stump or 
dead trunk on which it has operated for ants or boring larvae. 

Only 23 stomachs of the Pileated Woodpecker have been obtained; 
all taken in the months of October, Novem.ber, December, and January 
and collected from 6 States, the District of Columbia, and Canada 
(including New Brunswick). Fifty-one percent of the contents of 
these stomachs consisted of animal matter or insects; 49 percent of 
vegetable matter. The insects were principally ants and beetles, with a 
few of some other orders. The ants were mostly of the larger species 
that live in decaying wood. A large projiortion of the beetles were in 
the larval form, and all were of the wood-boring species. There were 
also a few caterpillars, also wood-borers, a few plant lice, several cock- 
roaches of the species that live under the bark of dead trees, a few 
white ants and a few flies, with one spider. 

The gizzard of a Pileated Woodpecker shot by Dr. Merriam in the 
Adirondacks, April 25, 1882, contained hundreds of large ants and no 
other food. Six stomachs, collected by Dr. B. H. Warren on the St. 
Johns Eiver in Florida, contained numerous palmetto ants ( Gampanottis 
eseuriens), and remains of other ants, several larvse of a Prionid beetle 
{Orthosoma brimnea), numerous builder a,nts (Gremastogaster lineolata), 
one larva, of Xylotrechus, and one pupa of the white ant ( Termes). The 
insects were determined under Prof. 0. V. Eiley.' 

Seeds and berries of the following plants were found in the stomachs 
examined by the division : 



Sourguin {Nyasa aquatlca) . 
Flowering dogwood (Cornns fiorida). 
Black haw {Viburnum prunifolium). 
Casseua (itex caaaine). 
Hackberry {Celtia occidenialia). 
Persimmon {Dioapyros virginiana). 
Wild grapes ( Vitia cordifoHa). 



Virginia creeper (Parthenociasua quinque- 

folia) . 
Greenbrier (Smilax rotundifolia and 

iS. glauca). 
Sumac {Rhus eopalUna). 
Poison sumac (Ehus vernix). 
Poison ivy {Ehua radicana). 



'Birds of Pennsylvania, 2d ed., 1890, p. 177. 



OTHER WOODPECKERS. 33 

In addition to the 7 species of woodpeckers whose food has been 
already discussed, 57 stomachs have been examined, belonging to 12 
species and subspecies, mostly from the southern and western parts of 
the United States and British Columbia, as follows : 

stomachs, 

Niittall's Woodpecker {Dnjobates nuttalii) 7 

Eed-cookaded Woodpecker {Dryobatea lorealis) 12 

Baird's Woodpecker {Dryohates scalaris bairdi) 3 

Gilded Flicker ( Colaptea chrysoides) 3 

Eed-shafted Flicker ( Colaptes eafer) 11 

Northwestern Flicker ( Colaptes cafer saturatior) 5 

California Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi) 1 

Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes torquatus) 3 

Gila Woodpecker {Melanerpes uropygialis) 1 

Eed-breasted Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus ruber) 1 

Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus ) 7 

Alpine Three-toed Woodpecker (Picoides americanus dorsalis) 3 

With such a small number of stomachs it is hardly worth while to dis- 
cuss the food of each species. The Three- toed Woodpeckers {Picoides), 
however, deserve passing notice, since their food contains a larger per- 
centage of wood-boring larvae than any other woodpecker examined. 
As the food of the two species is practically the same they may be con- 
sidered together. The contents of the 10 stomachs consists of: animal 
matter, 83 percent; vegetable matter, 17 percent. It is a question 
whether this should not all be considered as animal, for the vegetable 
portion consisted almost entirely of rotten wood and similar rubbish, 
probably taken accidentally, and is not in any proper sense food, the 
exception being in one case where a little cambium had been eaten by 
one individual of the Arctic Three- toed Woodpecker {Picoides arcticus) 
and a few skins of some small fruit by one Alpine Three-toed Wood- 
pecker (P. americanus dorsalis). The animal food consisted of 63 per 
cent of wood-boring Coleopterous larvse (beetles), 11 percent of Lepi- 
dopterous larvae (caterpillars), probably also wood-borers, and 9 per 
cent of adult beetles, ants, and other Hymenopterous insects. 
18269— No. 7- 3 



THE TONGUES OF WOODPECKERS.' 



RELATION OF THE FOEM OF THE TONGUE TO THE CHARACTER OF 

THE FOOD. 



By Frederic A. Lucas, 

Curator, Departvient of Comparative Anatomy, 
United States National Mvsciim. 



Whether the tongues of bird s are of value iu classification, or whether 
the modifications of the tougue, at least the external modifications, are 
due to adaptation to the character of the food or the manner in which 
food is manipulated, is a question of much interest. Unfortunately 
the food and feeding habits of birds are so little known that in many 
cases the adaptive characters of the tongue are not recognized, since 
without a knowledge of the one it is difficult or impossible to explain 
the peculiarities of the other. 

The results of the preliminary investigation of the food of IS'orth 
American woodpeckers, made by the Division of Ornithology and Mam- 
malogy of the Department of Agriculture, suggested that this group 
would be a most excellent one to study, and the tongues of all available 
species have been examined. 

The woodpeckers are structurally a well-marked, compact group, and 
any variation in the structure of a given part, if shown to be directly 
correlated with some peculiarity of habit, would be a good indication 
that the one was dependent on the other. A comparison of the struc- 
ture and modifications of the tongue with the results obtained from the 
examination of a large series of stomachs will, it is thought, show that 
just such a correlation does exist between the two, and that the form of 
the tongue varies surprisingly according to the nature of the food. 

It is of course always necessary to bear in mind that the food of a 
bird necessarily varies with the season — a fact well shown by the group 
under consideration — and consequently that the peculiarity of the 
tongue may be related to some special kind of food, or particular 
method of obtaining it, pursued daring a portion of the year only. A 

' Published by permission of Dr. G. Brown Goode, Director United States National 

Museum. 

35 



36 THE TONGUES OF WOODPECKERS. 

particular kind of food which could be best obtained by some special 
adaptive feature would naturally have more influence as a modifying 
agent, even if indulged in for only a short time, than a general diet 
for a long period, since the one would be positive in its efiects, the 
other negative. 

As the hyoid bone is the framework on which the tongue is built, it 
will be well to note some of its characteristic features in the wood- 
peckers before proceeding to the modifications of the tongue itself. 
The hyoid is so constructed as to combine the two characters of length 
and strength that are needed for extensile purposes. The front of the 
hyoid is formed by the short, fused cerato-hyals, although a groove, or 
in some cases a perforation, indicates the double origin of this bone. 
The basi-hyal is usually very long and very slender and the cera.to- 
branchials abut upon its posterior end, the basi-branchial being absent, 
nor have any indications of this bone been found even in very young 
specimens. The cerato-branchials and epi-branchials are variable, 
especially the latter, which, as in the Sapsucker {Sphyrapicus), may be 
no longer than in many Passeres, or, as in the Flickers (Colaptes), reach 
the maximum length among birds. The epi-branchials curve up over 
the back of the skull, meet on its summit, and continue on toward 
the forehead. In other long-tongued birds, as in the humming bird 
(TrocMlus), for example, the apposed bones reach to the base of the 
bill, but in the longest-tongued. woodpeckers they turn to the right, 
pass through the right narial opening, dipping under the nostril, and 
thence continue quite to the tip of the bill, so that in these species the 
extreme possible length of tongue is reached unless some other device 
is resorted to.' The cerato-branchials lie side by side when the tongue 
is protruded, and even when it is withdrawn they are posteriorly but 
little separated. The general character of the hyoid is constant in all 
species examined, but, as just stated, the proportions of its component 
parts vary, the extremes being represented by the Sapsucker {Spliyra- 
picus) and Flicker (Colaptes), both of which are figured (PI. Ill, figs.l, 3). 

Externally the tongue consists at the tip of a horny portion more or 
less barbed along the edges ; this is followed by a section covered with 
tough skin bearing on the upper surface a long patch of minute points, 
wliile the basal portion is clothed with smooth, elastic skin, which is 
more or less wrinkled tranversely when the tongue is retracted. The 
skin covering the base of the tongue is reflected, forming a sort of sheath, 
into which the basal part of the tongue is withdrawn when at rest. 
The shape of the patch of minute points, as well as the number and 
character of the points themselves, seems to vary in different species, 

' It would appear that a method is already in use by ■which the length of the tongue 
can he greatly increased, and this is the curling of the free ends of the epi-branchials 
into a spiral. Although I have never met with a specimen in which the hyoid was 
so arranged, both Dr. Bryant and Mr. Wm. Palmer have recorded specimens in which 
the hyoid encircled the eye. Dr. Bryant's paper, entitled "Eemarks on Spliyrapious 
varius, Linn./' appeared in Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. X, 1864-'66, pp. 91-93. 



VARIATION IN FORM. 37 

and, although these points. are so small as to appear like mere granula 
tious, they are seen under the microscope to have a perfectly definite 
form and to be directed backward (PI. Ill, fi[gs 8, 9.) They are smallest 
toward the tront of the patch, and increase in size from thence back- 
ward. 

The anterior, horny portion of the tongue is also subject to great 
variation. In most species it is armed on either side with a number of 
sharp, backwardly-directed spines, bat these may vary in number from 
two or three in the Flicker ( CoZapies, P1..II, fig. 10), up to thirty or forty 
in the Eedhead {Melanerpes, PI. II, flg. 2). One specimen of Flicker, 
labeled Golaptes hybridus, PI. I, fig. 1), had the tip of the tongue wholly 
unarmed; but this may have been an individual peculiarity, and if so, 
would be interesting as showing the retention in the adjilt of the con- 
dition found in the young. In the Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus) the tongue 
bears no spines, but two series of stiff hairs, the lower set directed out- 
ward, the upper series backward. Of course, strictly speaking, these 
hairs are simply very slender spines, and in the California Wood- 
pecker (Melanerpes formicivorous bairdijTl. II, fig. 1) we find an almost 
intermediate stage, the spines being quite fine, and the sides of the 
tongue, as in a few other species, furnished with a few short hairs lying 
below the spines and directed outward and forward. 

In very young woodpeckers the tongue is unarmed at the point, bear- 
ing neither hairs nor spines, although the patch of minute points on the 
upper surface is present from the first. Later on, as indicated by a 
fully -fledged nestling of the Downy Woodpecker [Dryoliates pubescens, 
PI. Ill, fig. 6), a species whose tongue, when adult, is armed with sharp 
barbs, the spines are represented by short, fine, reflexed hairs, like the 
upper series of the Sapsucker [Sphyrapicus varius). Thus it would 
seem that the lateral spines are acquired after the bird has commenced 
to fly, and that they must be developed very rapidly, although speci- 
mens showing the. various stages in their acquisition are lacking. The 
growth of the hyoid must be correspondingly rapid, for in the nestling 
alluded to the ends of the epi-branchials. reached only to the center of 
the skuU, although the Downy is a long-tongued bird whose hyoid runs 
beneath the nostril into the bill. This rapid growth has been observed 
in the hyoid of humming birds, in which the growth of the bill is also 
very rapid after hatching, and it would appear that gr^at changes take 
plade in the tongue and beak about the time the young bird ceases to 
be fed and begins to feed itself. 

If woodpeckers were to be classified by their tongues we would start 
with forms like Delattre's Woodpecker {Geophlceus scapularis,'P\. II, 
fig. 11), and Flicker { Golaptes auratus or G. chrysoides, PI. II, fig. 10), in 
which the tongue is armed with two or three points on each side; pass 
through the Pileated Woodpecker {Geophlceus pileatus, PI. II, flg. 9). 
into the White-headed Woodpecker {Xenopicus albolarvatus, PI. 11, 
fig. 8^. and Downy Woodpecker (Dryobates pubescens, PI. II, flg. 4.), 



38 THE TONGUES OF WOODPECKERS. 

and thence to such species as the Gila Woodpecker {Melanerpes uro. 
pygialis, PI. II, fig. 6). Thence through the Three-toed Woodpecker 
(Picoides, PI. II, fig. 6) and the Ladder-back Woodpecker (Bryohates 
scalaris, PI. II, fig. 3), we reach the Bedhead Woodpecker {Melanerpes 
erythrocephalus, PI. II, fig. 2) and California Woodpecker {Melanerpes 
formicivorus bairdi, PI. II, fig. 1), while between these and the short, 
brush-tongued Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus, PI. I, fig. 12), there is a gap 
to be bridged over. 

Considering the tongues in relation to food, we find that those of the 
various species of Flickers (Golaptes, PI. I, fig. 3) have the fewest termi- 
nal barbs and the longest dorsal tract of fine points; they are also 
among the longest. The members of the genus are particularly fond 
of ants, and the tongue seems especially adapted for probing ant hills. 
The function of the fine points on the upper part of the tongue seems 
to be to form a rough surface to which the sticky saliva will readily 
adhere and to which in turn the ants will be stuck. In this genus the 
submaxillary salivary glands reach the maximum size in the group. 

The Hairy and Downy Woodpeckers [Dryobates villosus and B, 
pubescens, PI. I, fig. 4), and also the Pileated Woodpecker (GeopMceus 
pileatus) feed more or less oh the larvae of beetles ( Coleoptera), and these 
have sharply barbed tongues, well adapted for spearing grubs or for 
coaxing them out of their hiding places. Hence it seems extremely 
probable that other species similarly provided have similar food habits. 
In these species, and in others with sharply barbed tongues, the dorsal 
tracts of points vary in shape and extent as well as in the size and 
number of the points,, but in none are they as long as in the Flicker 
(Colaptes). The same is true of the submaxillary glands, which are all 
smaller than in the Flicker. 

The Eed-headed Woodpecker {Melanerpes erythrocephalus, PI. I, fig. 
9), although having a peculiar tongue, has one which is less evidently 
specialized than those of other species, and one which suggests the 
fringed tongues of some finches and other passerine birds. In diet 
this bird appears to be the most omnivorous of the species examined, 
eating a large proportion of fruit, or vegetable food, the total amount for 
some months equaling that of the insect food. The species is evidently 
fond of grq,sshoppers, but whether or not there is any direct relation 
between the character of its tongue and that of its food is not evident. 

The Sapsucker (Sphyrapious varius, PL I, fig. 12) drills into the 
maples, birches, mountain ash, and apple trees, and feeds upon the sap 
as well as upon the insects which are attracted by it. The tongue may 
be used in two ways: either the fringe of stiff hairs may serve as a 
brush, to which a considerable quantity of sap would adhere, or it may 
serve by capillary attraction to guide the sap from the little pits in 
which it gathers to the front part of the tongue. 

The tongue of the Sapsucker is much less extensile than that of any 
other woodpecker examined, and this lack of extensibility is a charac- 



RELATION OF THE TONGUE TO FOOD. 39 

teristic of the tongues of insectivorous birds, such as the swifts and 
swallows. The spines of the upper surface of the tongue also reach 
their greatest size in the Sapsucker (S^hyrapieits), and spine-clad 
tongues are another characteristic of insect-eating birds. The insec- 
tivorous diet of the Sapsucker is further indicated by the fineness of 
the backwardly directed spiny processes at the base of the tongue and 
about the opening of the trachea, their use being apparently to facili- 
tate the passage of food past the larynx. 

The direct relation of the modifications of the tongue to the char- 
acter of the food can perhaps be best appreciated by comparing the 
figures of the tongue, and particularly the enlarged figures of the 
tongue tips, with the table giving the summary of the food. It will 
be seen, too, by further comparison that there is a direct relation 
between the form of the bill, the tongue, and the number of larvae 
eaten. Those species which have bills best adapted for cutting into 
trees containing larvae, and tongues most capable of extracting them 
from their hiding places, eat the most. Thus the Three-toed and Plic- 
ated "Woodpeckers (Picoides and Oeophloeus) stand at the head of the 
list, closely followed by the members of the genus Dryohates. At the 
other extreme is the Sapsucker {Sphyrapicus varius), for this species 
was only once found to have eaten larvte, and in this instance they 
were probably not obtained by cutting into wood. It should be noted, 
as showing the importance of the modifications of the tongue, that 
the Flicker {Colaptes), which has a curved bill, not well adapted' to cut 
into trees after grubs, has, next to the Eedhead [Melanerpes) and Sap- 
sucker {Sphyrapicus), eaten the smallest percentage of larvae of any 
species examined. 

Altogether the evidence favors the view that modifications of the 
tongue are directly related to the character of the food and are not of 
value for classification. 



Plate I. 

Tongues of North American Woodpeckers (all viewed from above and enlarged 
2J diameters) . 

Fig. 1. Hybrid Flicker (Colaptes). Fort Pierre, S. Dak. 

2. Delattre's Woodpecker {Ceophlwus soapiilaris). Tabasco, Mexico. 

3. Glided Flicker (CoZopies chrysoides). San Jose del Cabo, Lower California. 

4. Downy Woodpecker {Dryobates pubescens) . Washington, D. C. 

5. White-headed Woodpecker (XenqpicMS a?6o!a)'Da<»s). Clarks Fork, Colum- 

bia River, Washington. 

6. Hairy Woodpecker (Dryobaies villosus). 

7. Gila Woodpecker (Melanerpea nropygialis) . Fort Huachuca, Ariz. 

8. Three-toed Woodpecker {Picoides aroiicus). Illinois. 

9. Red-headed Woodpecker {Melanerpes erythrooephalus). Northern Illinois. 

10. California Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorous hairdi). Stockton, Cal. 

11. Ladder-back Woodpecker (Dryobates scalaris). Matamoras, Mexico. 

12. Red-naped Sapsueker (Spliyrapicu8 varius mushalis). Fort Wingate, N. Mex. 

40 



Bull. 7, Div. of Ornithology and Mammalogy, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate I. 




Tongues of Woodpeckers. 



Platb II. 

Tips of tongues of North American Woodpeckers (all save 4 viewed from above 
and enlarged 9i diameters). 
Fig. 1. CalifoTBia, WooCipeokeT {^Melanerpes formioivorous hairdi). Stockton, Cal. 

2. Eed-headed Woodpecker {Melanerpes erythrocephalus). Northern Illinois. 

3. Ladder-back Woodpecker {Dryoiates scalaris). Matamoras, Mexico. 

4. Downy Woodpecker (Dryobates pubescens). Washington, D. C. 

5. Three-toed Woodpecker (Picoides aroticus). Illinois. 

6. Gila Woodpecker {Melanerpes nropygialis). Fort Hiiachuca, Ariz. 

6a. Another specimen showing variation due to wear of tongue. San Jose 
del Cabo, Lower California. 

7. Hairy Woodpecker {Dryoiates villosua). 

8. White-headed Woodpecker (Xenopicits albolarvatus). Clarks Fork, Colum- 

bia Eiver, Washington. 

9. Pileated Woodpecker (Ceo^AZfBjts^sJeatMs). Louisiana. 

10. frilded Flicker ( Colaptes chrysoidea). San Jose del Cabo, Lower California. 

11. Delattre's Woodpecker (CeopAteus scopwZaris). Tabasco, Mexico. 

42 



Bull. 7, Div. of Ornithology and Mammalogy, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate II. 








Tongues of Woodpeckers. 



Plate III. 

Fig. 1. Hyoid of Flicker (Colaptes auraius) (adult, X 2). 

2. Hyoid of Flicker {Colaples awratus) (recently hatched, X 2). 

3. Hyoid of Eed-naped Sapsuoker (Sphyrapiciis varins nuohalis) (x 2). 

4. Tongue of recently hatched Downy Woodpecker (Dryoiates puhescms) 

(X4). 

5. Tongue of fully-fledged nestling of Downy Woodpecker {Dryoiates pubes- 

cens) (X 3i). 

6. Tip of tongue of fully-fledged nestling of Downy Woodpecker {Dryobates 

piihescens) (X 6). 

7. Tip of tongue of adult Downy Woodpecker (Dryohates pubescens) (x 6f). 

8. Spines from dorsal tract of tongue of Eed-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpea 

erytkroceplialus) (greatly enlarged). 

9. Spines from dorsal tract of tongue of Ladder-back Woodpecker {Dryo- 

iates scalaris) (greatly enlarged). 

44 



Bull. 7, Div. of Ornithology and Mammalogy, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



Plate Ml. 







5 J 



Tongues of Woodpeckers. 



[Reprinted from SCIENCE, N. S,, Vol. XIX., No. 
4-9Z, Pages 867-868, June S, 1904. ] 



ALBINO BROOK TEOUT. 

Among the brook trout hatched at the 
Adirondack Hatchery, Saranac Inn, N. Y., 
in March, 1902, there appeared to be some dis- 
tinct albinos. There were about fifty of 
these fry out of an entire hatching of 800,000 
ordinary brook trout eggs, taken from both 
wild and confined trout. These albinos were 
put by themselves, and four reached maturity. 

Two of them are tjrpieal albinos. They are 
the same in outline as the ordinary brook 
trout. The skin is white, mottled with an 
ochraceous yellow, colored with the typical red 
and yellow spots. The fins are white, with 
the red band and yellow mottling. Eyes red. 
The general appearance of the fish is delicate, 
and the bones are apparently visible through 
the seemingly transparent skin. As these fish 
were reared in captivity they have been con- 
fined to the ordinary fish races, and fed on 
ground liver. One is a male, the other a 
female. The former now measures seven 
inches in length; the latter, nine inches. 

The other two fish are a grayish white, with 
dark fins and black eyes. 

On November 10, 1903, when the two 
albinos were twenty months old, they were 
stripped for eggs and fertilization. At this 
time their combined weight was approximately 
one half pound, the female being much the 
larger. Mr. G. E. Winchester, foreman of 
the Fish Hatchery, made the following experi- 
ments in fertilization : viz., first cross, 527 eggs 
from female albino X albino male; second 
cross, 103 eggs from female albino X natural 
male; third cross, 424 eggs from natural fe- 
TTifilf V albino male. 



The eggs, after fertilization, were placed in 
the hatchery races the same as all brook trout 
eggs. The hatching began March 1, 1904, 
and continued until the thirteenth of the 
month, the period of incubation being the 
same as that of the ordinary brook trout egg. 

The result of the hatching was as follows: 
From the first cross 32 hatched, or approxi- 
mately 6 per cent. ; from the second cross 43 
hatched, or approximately 42 per cent.; from 
the third cross 416 hatched, or approximately 
98 per cent. 

At the present time — one month after all 
the fish were hatched — the following number 
is living: from the first cross 20, or 62 per 
cent.; from the second cross none; from the 
third cross all, or 100 per cent. 

The weakness of the pure albinos is indi- 
cated by the fact that only 6 per cent, of the 
eggs proved fertile, and several of these are 
not perfect fish. Tet they have the character- 
istics of the albino parents. 

Of the fry from the second cross 42 per 
cent, hatched; but none were alive at the end 
of one month. Some of them were imperfect 
in form, and were colored more like the nat- 
ural male parent, but not entirely so. 

From the third cross all the eggs were fertile 
except eight — a loss of but two per cent. — and 
all are living at the end of thirty days. There 
are practically no cripples, and the coloring 
is typical of the natural female parent. 

The silver gray albinos did not spawn. They 
have the appearance of barren fish. 

These fish were exhibited by this department 
at the New York state fair last fall and at- 
tracted much attention. 

C. E. Pettis. 

Forest, Pish and Game Commission, 

Attiaw. N. Y.. 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



FARMERS' BULLETIN No. 228. 



FOREST PLA-NTING AND FARM MANAGEMENT: 



OEORGE L. CLOTHIER, 

ASSISTANT FOREST INSPECTOR, FOREST SERVICE. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1905. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Forest Service, 
Washington, D. C, August 8, 1905. 
Sir: A paper on Forest Planting and Farm Management, pre- 
pared under my direction by Mr. George L. Clothier, of the Forest 
Service, and published in the Yearbook of the Department for 1904, 
is herewith submitted, with a few slight alterations, for republica- 
tion as a Farmers' Bulletin. 

EespectfuUy, Giffoed Pinchot, 

Forester. 
Hon. James Wilson, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 

(3) 

228 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Forestry and farm designing. . _ 7 

The need of forest planting 8 

Mistakes of the past _. 8 

Preparation of a planting plan 10 

A concrete example- H 

A model prairie farm plan _ 14 

Trees and methods recommended 15 

Special features of f crest planting about the farmstead _ . . 18 

Conclusion 31 

(5) 

228 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 
Fig. 1. Arrangement of forest plantations on a farm in central Ohio to 

facilitate scientific farm management- _ 11 

2. Ideal plan of the four quarters of a section — suited to the prairies 

of Kansas and Oklahoma. 14 

3. Plan of a farmstead arranged to afford windbreak protection 19 

(6) 

228 



FOREST PLANTING AND FARM MANAGEMENT. 



rOEESTRY AND FARM DESIGNING. 

Although agriculture stands first among American industries and 
our production of farm products is greater than that of any other 
country, the ;possibilities of the art of agriculture have hardly begun 
to be understood. That scientific farming will vastly increase the 
productive power of the land in the United States is beyond doubt. 
With the advance of knowledge through the discovery of new truths 
and the advance in practice through the better application of what 
science has already found out, improved utilization of the country's 
resources will make room for a future rapid growth in population and 
wealth, as expansion in territory has made room in the past. Making 
the same land twice as productive as before is as good as doubling the 
amount of land, if not better, and we have as yet scarcely scratched 
the surface of the agricultural resources of the country as a whole. 
One of the ways in which present methods of farm management may 
be greatly improved is by better recognition of what may be called 
farm engineering, or farm designing ; and this in turn must give an 
important place to the consideration of farm forestry. 

The farm designer, or farm architect as he might be called, can do 
much to improve the efficiency of farm operation. Economical man- 
agement may be attained by a scientific adjustment of the parts of a 
farm, just as the utility of a great building may be increased by the 
careful planning of a qualified architect. Several agricultural col- 
leges and experiment stations have recognized this fact, and have 
given a distinct place to this as a part of the great problem of how to 
get the most out of the soil. The best opportunities to apply these 
principles are found in those parts of the West where new farms are 
being taken up. Generally it is also in these regions that forestry 
can do most for the farmer, for in the treeless regions, especially, 
the full development of the country depends in no small degree on 
the establishment of forest plantations. 

From the fact that trees take so much time to grow, the forester 
who seeks to advise a farmer how he can make trees contribute most 

(7) 

228 



largely to his prosperity is compelled to take a long look ahead and 
to consider the whole problem of farm arrangement. In well-settled 
regions the possibilities of farm designing are apt to be severely 
limited by what has been done in the past. The location of the 
buildings, the division into fields, and in many cases the situation of 
the timber, are now fixed facts. Nevertheless, even here a decided 
improvement may often be made, as will be illustrated later. What 
needs to be emphasized now is that even in the older parts of the 
country a farm should be run according to a definite and carefully 
considered plan, designed to secure economy of operation and the best 
use of every part ; that tree planting for farm purposes ought always 
to take into account this plan; and that even where standing timber 
is already present it may be in the interest of the best use of all parts 
of the farm to cut this down and plant elsewhere. 

THE NEED OF FOREST PLANTING. 

Forests are indispensable to the highest material development of 
any country. We have learned that, besides furnishing the useful 
timber products resulting from the growth of trees, they conserve 
moisture, ameliorate climatic extremes, and purify the atmosphere. 
Where they are not found naturally, or where they have been thought- 
lessly removed from wide stretches of country, it becomes desirable in 
behalf of the public welfare to plant trees in great number. Obvi- 
ously the benefits of such plantations will be most widely felt if the 
planting is well distributed over the region. Further, it is a work the 
benefits of which are shared by all, and which all should join in per- 
forming. 

The plantations in a definite region should be made after one gen- 
eral plan, in order to allot to each farm its proportionate amount of 
forest. The method of planting and the position of the planting sites 
should evidently be made with reference to a system of farm manage- 
ment, since a forest is the most permanent thing that can be planted 
on a farm. An example of such a plan and such a system is shown in 
fig. 1. 

MISTAKES OF THE PAST. 

It is unfortunate that a large percentage of the plantations made by 
farmers have been disappointing. Yet some commercial plantations, 
such as that of Mr. L. W. Yaggy, at Hutchinson, Kans., have been 
financially successful. 

Farm forest planting has been practiced in some of our prairie 
States for more than half a century, and great good has resulted f rom 
many of the plantations, but the measurable increase in the wealth 
of the country attributable to forest planting has been small, owing to 



9 

the choice of poor sites and the use of unsuitable species. The artifi- 
cial forests of Illinois would have been worth many times what they 
are at present if longer-lived and more valuable species had been 
used in the plantations instead of silver maple or other trees of as 
little worth. Species of the greatest value have often been ignored 
because of their slow growth, and others, deserving to be classed as 
" weed trees," have been used in their place. Successful plantations 
of black walnutj hickory, elm, oak, and other valuable trees are com- 
mon enough to prove that the slower-growing woods ordinarily pay 
best. Silver maple, boxelder, and the like are valuable chiefly for 
firewood, and it is easily possible to overstock the market for cord- 
wood in any locality. Lumber woods, on the other hand, can always 
be disposed of in any quantity. 

In order to illustrate the relative values of the two classes, let a 
comparison be made between the returns from a 64:-y ear-old stand of 
black walnut in Morgan County, 111., and a 35-year-old stand of silver 
maple in Sangamon County. These were the best groves of each 
species found in the State during an extended survey made in the 
summer of 3904. The figures relating to the two tracts may be best 
contrasted in the following table : 

Value of planted forests of hlack walnut and silver maple on the prairies of 

Illinois. 





Location. 


Age. 






Number 


Average diameter breast 
high. 


Species. 


Area. 


of trees 
on area. 


Domi- 
nant 
trees. 


Inter- 
mediate 
trees. 


Sup- 
pressed 
trees. 


Black walnut . 


Morgan County, HI 

Sangamon County.ni... 


Years. 
64 
35 


Acres. 
0.6 
5.6 


119 
1,478 


IncJies. 
19.0 
^10.6 


Inches. 
13.3 


Inches. 
9.4 










Location. 


Number 
of trees 
per acre. 


Yield per acre. 


Total 

valueper 

acre.t 


Annual 


Species. 


Lum- 
ber, a 


Fence 
posts. 


Fire- 
wood. 


valueper 
acre, c 


Black walnut . 


Morgan County, 111 

Sangamon County, ni .. 


198 
264 


Board ft. 
43,000 


1,800 


Cords. 
15 
65 


$1,050 
130 


$5.58 
2.15 















a From trees 11 inches and over In diameter breasthlgh. 

' Lumber at $20 per 1,000 board feet, fence posts at 10 cents each, and firewood at $2 
per cord. 

" Interest compounded annually at 3 per cent. 

It would be quite as easy to show that the returns from hickory, 
elm, or some other wood which can be used when no older than the 
maple would amount to more than those from the latter, but the com- 
parison of walnut with maple serves also to emphasize the greater 

5116— No. 228—05 2 

228 



10 

value of a wood which must be kept until the trees attain a good size. 
The figures in the last column represent the annual returns from the 
two plantations irrespective of their age, and are therefore directly 
comparable. 

It is a well-known fact that the great majority of the forest planta- 
tions made in accordance with the timber-culture act were failures. 
Here, again, the unfavorable results were due to poor sites and ill- 
adapted species, combined with a lack of care on the part of planters 
and the dishonesty of entrymen, who regarded this law merely as a 
means of obtaining title to public land without paying for it. 

Plantations made by specialists and designed for a special purpose 
do not usually require very elaborate pilanting plans. It is the small 
woodlot plantation that is to serve many purposes in the economy of 
the farm which calls for the most careful planning. 

PEEPARATION OF A PLANTING PLAN. 

As a machine of production, a farm should have a plan which pro- 
vides for the best use of its every part. The woodlot or forest plan- 
tation should be in a position to contribute to the successful operation 
of this plan, for the trees may affect the atmospheric drainage, the 
wind currents, and the humidity of the air about the home. At the 
same time a planting plan must provide for sites which will produce 
the best possible growth. The arrangement of the fields and the loca- 
tion of the fences, private lanes, drainage systems, buildings, and 
farmstead should all be considered before any forest planting is 
undertaken. 

Very rarely indeed have farmers deliberately planned the location 
and make-up of their forest plantations with reference to the needs, 
convenience and economy of their farms, and the relative value and 
adaptability of the trees to be planted. Woodlots have sometimes 
been so poorly located as to do actual damage to farms. Cases have 
been observed in the northern half of the Middle West where wind- 
breaks planted too close to the buildings caused the drifting snow 
of severe winters to bury the houses 15 or 20 feet deep. In the winter 
of 1899 a farmhouse in the Red River Valley, North Dakota, was 
buried in a snowdrift for three months because a cottonwood grove 
had been planted too near it. In other cases trees have been planted 
near tile drains, which the roots clog. 

It is probable that not one-tenth of American farms are being 
operated under any permanent system of management. Before forest 
planting is undertaken some such system must be adopted, however, 
in order to make the future existence of the forest plantations possi- 
ble, for more than half the planting plans made since July 1, 1899, 



by the Forest Service, fundamentally affect the future management 
of the farms. As very few farmers are acciistomed to formulating 
farm plans, the agent of the Forest Service, besides being called 
upon to give advice in matters pertaining to technical forestry, is 
usually drafted into this service as well. After consultation with 
the landholder and consideration of all the matters affected by the 
policy of management, he is able to bring out an orderly arrange- 
ment which will permit on the same farm the practice of both scien- 
tific agriculture and scientific forestry. 



. fiUBUC fiOAa . 




ew fiV/ W BW BW BW ew BW 
tic HC HC rtc 



aw BW 6W ©w 



HC HC HC 



BVf BW BV« 



V a-<*O-i>0 ' 0»0 »A.^.»0-0-J1-0 A 91ft tl i lBH 



HC Htf HC HC HC He HC HC 



BW gw ew Bw Bw' avi BW cw 



HC Mfc He MC HC MC Hd HC 

Ow= Black walnut 
MC B MAHDV CATAUPA 
RtOUIRED NUMBER Of TTtEES PER ACKCi 
BtACK WALM/r 907 
HAROY CATAUA 907 
TOTAL 1814- 



FiG. 1. — Arrangement of forest plantations on a farm in central Ohio to facilitate scientific 

farm management. 



A CONCRETE EXAMPLE. 

The planting plan shown in fig. 1 was made for a farm in central 
Ohio, and illustrates graphically the bearing that forest planting may 
have on the management of a farm. This- farm in Ohio contains 375 
acres, and that part of it which is devoted to agriculture is capable of 
earning interest on a capitalization of $100 per acre ; not a foot of it 
is unsuited to tillage. That part which was originally heavily tim- 
bered has all been cleared, except a blue-grass pasture of 30 or 40 

228 



12 

acres which is occupied by the remains of the original forest, consist- 
ing of a scattered stand of declining sugar maple and beech trees. 
This timberland embraces the most fertile part of the farm, and inter- 
feres most seriously with the convenient and economical division of 
the farm into fields. If the Forest Service had advised the owner 
to attempt to rejuvenate the dying trees and to underplant them with 
expensive nursery stock, the instructions would have been implicitly 
followed, but such advice would have wrought a positive injury to the 
landholder. Instead, the planting plan advises that the forest area of 
the farm be reduced by clearing the only natural timber left standing, 
and that, instead of retaining the scattered growth now cumbering 
the pasture, trees sufficient to occupy about half the present forest 
acreage be planted in such positions as to protect the farm from the 
severe westerly winds prevailing in the region. 
The owner was therefore advised as follows : 

(1) The major part of this farm is too valuable for agricultural 
purposes to be devoted to forestry. The native timber now scattered 
over the pasture is rapidly declining, and is reduced by every hard 
storm. No natural reproduction is taking place, and while the land 
is grazed none can be secured. The location of the scattered trees in 
the middle of the farm would require expensive fencing in order to 
protect them from live stock. Thus, it is believed that the rejuvena- 
tion of the old forest on this farm is impracticable. Instead, this 
land, as soon as the old trees have all disappeared or been removed, 
should be laid out into permanent fields. As every well-regulated 
farm, however, should possess some timber land to supply it with 
fence posts and to furnish shade and shelter for live stock, new plan- 
tations are recommended. The trees will take up as little room as 
possible, while the arrangement of the fields in rectangular blocks 
will greatly facilitate the use of modei'n machinery. 

(2) The chief plantations should occupy strips 5 rods wide, run- 
ning from north to south. One of these strips should be planted on 
the western border of the farm and another crossing its center due 
south of the residence. A third should cut oflf the block extending 
east from the southeast corner of the main rectangular tract. In 
addition to these strips, it is advised that single rows of trees be 
planted on the division lines between the fields, so that they maybe 
used as live posts upon which to fasten wire to form fences. (See 
fig. 1.) 

(3) Black walnut and hardy catalpa should be used in equal pro- 
portions for the belts, and should be planted every 4 feet in alternat- 
ing rows, which should be 6 feet apart. The walnut seed should be 
planted two years prior to the introduction of the catalpa seedlings, 
in order to allow the slow-growing walnut to get a start before being 

228 



13 

crowded by the catalpa. The nuts of the walnut should be collected 
as soon as ripe in the fall, and should either be stratified " in moist 
sand or planted immediately in their permanent site. These nuts 
should never be allowed to dry out after ripening. They are most 
easily planted while plowing, by dropping them in a furrow and cov- 
ering them with the next furrow slice. If walnuts are thus planted, 
the squirrels are not likely to find them. The ground between the 
rows during the following two years should be planted with corn, 
and should receive good tillage. This can best be done by use of the 
lister. After the catalpa seedlings are introduced no more corn 
should be planted, but the ground should be cultivated as long as a 
single-horse cultivator can be run between the rows. Catalpa seed- 
lings 12 to 16 inches tall and one year old should be used. They can 
be obtained from dealers for $1.50 to $5 per thousand. The labor of 
planting these seedlings may be performed chiefly by horsepower. 
Both walnut and catalpa should be planted in accordance with the 
diagram shown at the right in fig. 1. 

By consulting the illustration the reader Avill see that the planting 
plan subdivides this farm into eleven fields — eight rectangular ones 
of equal area and similar dimensions, and three of nearly equal area 
but of unlike dimensions. This division will permit the application 
of scientific crop rotations, the eight rectangular fields being suited 
to two systems of four-year rotations and the three irregular fields 
to one three-year rotation. The convenient shape, ease of cultivation, 
and wonderful fertility of this farm present an excellent opportunity 
for the arrangement of such rotations of suitable crops. 

Trees planted on the lines which separate the fields will serve as 
windbreaks as well as living fence posts. A method adopted by some 
is to plant Osage orange hedges between the fields, and every 20 feet 
to allow one of the trees to grow to its natural height. The remain- 
ing trees should be pruned to a height of 5 feet and kept within 
proper limits for a hedge. Then, if this growth proves inefficient as 
a fence, it can be reenforced by fencing wire stapled to the large trees. 
If the Osage orange is undesirable or a hedge is not wanted, chestnut 
should prove a desirable tree for the fence lines. The young trees 
should be planted about 20 feet apart, and when they begin to crowd 
each other every alternate tree should be cut out. Round-headed and 
with sturdy trunks, these trees will form very effective windbreaks 
for the intervening fields. Their nuts will bring a satisfactory return 
for' the land they occupy, and the trees which are cut out will furnish 
excellent fence posts. The substitution of straight woven-wire fences 
for the old zigzag ones of rails transforms the fence lines from breed- 

a Stratification is a method of storing forest seeds to prevent them from- drying 
out. The seeds are stored in alternating layers between layers of moist sand. 



14 



ing places for noxious weeds into productive land upon which the 
living fence posts grow into a merchantable product. 

Such a plan as this fixes the boundaries of the fields, locates the 
private lanes, and, in fact, forms the skeleton of any future system of 
farm management that may be applied to this farm. 

A MODEL PRAIRIE FARM PLAN. 

In order to illustrate a model prairie farm plan made in accordance 
with sound principles of forestry, fig. 2 has been prepared. This 



NORTH 




-1305' |- -BOS'-b 



Fig. 2. — Ideal plan of the four quarters of a section with location of forest and wind- 
break plantations — suited to the prairies of Kansas and Oklahoma. 

farm plan is applicable to a large region in the prairies of the Middle 
West, where windbreaks are necessary to the full development of the 
country. It assumes that the land is of uniform condition of soil, 
and has been surveyed by the rectangular system adopted by the 
Government. The public roads are supposed to be located on the 
section lines. The application of this model to a country with its 

228 



15 

surface broken by creeks or lakes would, of course, necessitate a 
modification to fit local conditions. The plan is intended merely to 
illustrate principles. 

Four farms of 160 acres each are shown, illustrating an arrange- 
ment suitable to each of the four quarters of a section. The farm- 
stead, or that portion of a farm which is occupied by the residence, 
barn, orchards, gardens, lawn, and feedlots, is here shown as placed 
at the section corner of each farm. While in a large proportion of 
cases the location of the farmstead will be determined by the particu- 
lar conditions, as water supply, topography, etc., an arrangement, 
where practicable, by which the houses stand on the section corners 
will be worth considering. 

The fields on each quarter section have been laid out to permit the 
planting of windbreaks to protect the crops from the hot southwest- 
erly winds of summer and the cold northwesterly winds of winter. 
The farmsteads are also provided with protection from winds. East 
winds have not been considered, because of their infrequent occur- 
rence, but a general adoption of this plan on all the farms of a region 
would afford protection from all points of the compass. 

The fields, with one exception, are all of the same shape and size, 
there being on each quarter section six fields, each 22.1 acres in 
area. This method of dividing the farm into fields will afford an 
opportunity for the application of a scientific system of crop rota- 
tion, and the fields, being six in number, will permit the application 
of a compound rotation embracing the use of a perennial crop like 
alfalfa in combination with five annual crops, where this is desired. 
If the use of a perennial is not desirable, the six fields will permit the 
running of two parallel three-crop rotations. 

TREES AND METHODS RECOMMENDED. 

The plan provides that the forest trees shall be planted in belts 
varying from 2 to 8 rods in width, except along fence lines, where 
they are in single rows. The best results, purely from the standpoint 
of forestry, will be obtained in the widest belts, since trees are social 
in their habits. Still better tree growth would be secured by planting 
in compact blocks. But as agriculture is the fundamental industry in 
the region to which this plan applies, the tree planting is designed 
only to supplement the production of field crops. Eleven or 12 per 
cent of each quarter section is to be devoted to forest. This is exclu- 
sive of the space occupied by the single lines of trees in the fence rows. 

The species that may be recommended for this purpose vary for 
each particular locality with conditions of climate, rainfall, and soil. 
Considering the Middle Western States together, however, the fol- 

228 



16 

lowing trees, when placed on hospitable soil fulfilling the require- 
ments of each individual species, may, in the northern half of the 
region, be successfully grown as windbreaks : 

Arborvitse. White elm. Laurel-leafed willow. 

Green ash. European larch. Russian golden willow. 

Boxelder. Russian wild olive. White willow. 

Cottonwood. Western yellow pine. 

Cork elm. Black Hills spruce. 

In the southern half of the Middle West, also the green ash, cotton- 
wood, white elm, Russian wild olive, and western yellow pine may 
be successfully grown, and in addition the following species : 

Chinese arborvitse. Honey locust. Osage orange. 

Wild China. Mesquite. Persimmon. 

Black locust. Russian mulberry. Shittimwood. 

These lists do not include all of the best timber trees that might be 
grown in the Middle West, for many valuable timber trees will not 
endure such severe exposure as a windbreak is subject to. 

In the establishment of a windbreak wisdom is required in the 
placing of the different species. A windbreak composed of more 
than one species is usually the most effective. An excellent method 
of arrangement is to place the shortest trees in the outside row 
(toward the prevailing wind), to plant a somewhat taller species 
next to them, and to place the tallest trees in a third row on the side 
adjacent to the buildings or the area which is to be protected. This 
causes the wind to strike the trees as it would strike the face of a 
' steep hill, deflecting its course upward. If the tallest trees of the 
third row consist of a flexible species, such as cottonwood, European 
larch, white willow, or honey locust, they will bend before the wind, 
and act as a cushion to deflect it upward and over the object to be 
protected. A satisfactory windbreak 5 rods in width, for the pro- 
tection of the north and west sides of a farmstead (see fig. 2) and 
adapted to Minnesota and the Dakotas, is as follows : Plant 13 rows 
of trees, parallel to one another and 6 feet 10 inches apart. The 
first two rows on the north and west edges of the belts should consist 
of Eussian wild olive, the third and fourth rows of arborvitse, the 
fifth and sixth rows of boxelder, the seventh and eighth rows of 
white elm, the ninth and tenth rows of white willow, and the remain- 
ing three rows of common cottonwood. Such a plantation, when 
mature, will appear like a wall with a sloping top, the highest side 
being where the cottonwoods are planted. 

Carrying out this same principle for Oklahoma and Texas, with a 
change in the position of the plantations to afford protection from 
southwest winds (see fig. 2), the following method is advised: The 



17 

first two rows on the south and west edges of the belts should consist 
of Russian mulberry or Osage orange, the third and fourth rows of 
Chinese arborvitsa, the fifth and sixth rows of black locust, the 
seventh and eighth rows of green ash, the ninth and tenth rows of 
white elm, and the remaining three rows of honey locust or common 
Cottonwood. 

In southern California, where the damaging winds come from oppo- 
site points of the compass (from both the southwest and northeast), 
a good plan for a windbreak is one in which the tallest, most flexible 
trees will be in the center rows, so that the species on either side will 
slope downward toward the outside edges of the belt. For such a 
windbreak 2J rods wide and consisting of 7 rows of trees, the follow- 
ing arrangement may be suggested : The three rows in the middle of 
the belt should be of blue gum {Eucdlyftua globulus) , the next row 
toward the outside on each side should be of Monterey pine {Pinus 
radiata), and the two rows occupying the two edges of the belt should 
be of Monterey cypress ( Gupressus macrocarpa) . This same arrange- 
ment may be used on a belt 5 rods wide by doubling the number of 
rows of pine and cypress and increasing the gum to five rows. In 
order to construct a windbreak in California that will be perfectly 
effective, the belts should be placed on all four sides of the area which 
is to be protected. This is illustrated by the farmstead on the north- 
west quarter of the section shown in fig. 2. 

The belts advised in the model plan are of sufficient width to pro- 
duce all the timber that will be needed on a farm of 160 acres, while 
the fields are sufficiently narrow to be protected from winds by the 
single lines of trees occupying the fence rows. Experiments have 
demonstrated that a windbreak, on level land, will be effective for a 
distance of at least ten times its height. For perfect px'otection on 
the model farms herein described, the trees in the windbreak must 
teach a height of at least 60 feet. 

An objection to growing trees along fence lines has been made by 
farmers on the ground that such trees steal the soil nourishment from 
the crops which are on the edges of the fields. It is true that healthy, 
vigorous trees make great demands on the soil moisture in their imme- 
diate vicinity, but wherever their influence is felt as windbreaks they 
Conserve enough moisture, by preventing rapid evaporation, to more 
than pay for all that they use. By planting a deep-rooted crop like 
alfalfa under the shade of the fence-line trees, good returns from the 
land may be secured in spite of the fact that the trees absorb a part of 
its moisture. It is a great mistake to begrudge a useful tree the space 
it occupies, and particularly so in the naturally treeless prairies of the 
Middle West. 

228 



18 



SPECIAL PEATURES OF POREST PLANTING ABOUT THE 

FARMSTEAD. 

On rare occasions it is found to be impracticable to concentrate the 
different elements of the farmstead in one place. (See fig. 3.) In 
the great majority of c'ases, however, it is both practicable and eco- 
nomical to have a farmstead, and the choice of its site is of the first 
importance to the landowner. 

If the farmsteads of several adjoining sections were laid out in 
accordance with the plan herein suggested, four farmhouses would 
be grouped at each crossroads corner, bringing neighbors together in 
a little settlement. The position at the crossroads is also likely to 
facilitate the reaching of church, school, and town. An argument 
against such an arrangement is the possibility of its leadiug to 
neighborhood quarrels. 

In many cases, however, uniformity of soil does not exist. The 
farmstead must then be located with reference to the adaptability of 
the soil to the forest growth, since a farmstead without trees for shade 
and shelter is not worthy of the name. The forest planter, therefore, 
is often the one to determine the location of a permanent site for the 
farmhouse, and he may also lay out at least the plan of the farmstead 
itself. 

Fig. 3, representing the farmstead located on the southeast quar- 
ter of the section sketched in fig. 2, has been prepared to show how 
forest planting may be made to help every one of the different parts 
that go to make up the farmstead. "Windbreak belts, 5 rods wide, are 
located on the north, west, and south sides of the farmstead. Open 
spaces varying from 72 to 96 feet in width have been provided to the 
north and west of the buildings and orchards, to act as snow traps to 
catch the drifts during winter storms. Every farmer is familiar with 
the fact that a hedge or belt of trees on the north side of an east-and- 
west road will cause the road to be filled with snow during winter, 
when the wind comes from the north. So the open space on the farm- 
stead will in the same way tra^^ the snow, and will consequently pre- 
vent any drifts from forming near the barn or residence or in the 
orchards. These open spaces may be utilized for garden vegetables, 
sugar beets, and other annual feed crops, the accumulation of winter 
snows serving as an annual irrigation to store up large quantities of 
soil moisture for the garden, and making the land particularly well 
adapted to this purpose. The trees on the edges of these spaces will, 
for the same reason, grow very vigorously. 

In this plan the convenience, health, and comfort of the tenants of 
the farmhouse have all been considered in the location of both barn 
and residence. The grouping of the trees in the background of the 

228 



19 

lawn has been made with reference to adornment, but without an 
attempt to enter into the details of landscape gardening. The plan 
leaves the lawn in such a shape, however, that the landscape gar- 
dener may have full scope for the display of his talents. A plan 
including, as this one does, complete protection from the hot winds of 
summer and the cold storms of winter will add greatly to the intrinsic 




Fig. 3.— Plan of a farmstead, situated at the soutlieast corner of a prairie farm, arranged 
to afford windbreali protection. 

worth of any farm located in the prairie States. If the farmer is 
engaged in the production of beef and pork, the protection of the 
barnyard and feedlots will economize the feed consumed by the fat- 
tening animals, for it takes more grain to produce a pound of flesh 



228 



20 

upon animals exposed to the cold north winds of winter than upon 
stock that is protected from blizzards. Thus a windbreak takes the 
place of grain in maintaining the heat of the animal during cold 
weather. On the other hand,- it will add to the farmer's bank 
account during the summer, for it will afford shade and protection to 
fattening animals, which lose flesh in very hot weather. 

Windbreak belts in connection with a farmstead form an asset that 
is none the less real because the actual money value may not easily be 
determined. The protection to an orchard afforded by forest trees is 
valuable, since late frosts are not likely to blight the fruit blossoms of 
a protected orchard. Forest belts on the south and west sides of the 
farmstead give ample protection against the parching blasts from the 
southwest — the hot winds of summer, which are destructive to fruit in 
many parts of the country. It is to be understood, however, that the 
forest plantations herein recommended are also to be utilized for the 
production of the needed timber supplies on the farm. By judi- 
ciously thinning the plantations, 20 acres of planted forest will fur- 
nish all the fuel needed on a farm of 160 acres, besides producing 
lumber for the renewal of the farm buildings. Many Kansas and 
Nebraska farmers have in twenty years grown cottonwood trees 
large enough for sawlogs. Mr. W. D. Rippey, of Severance, Kans., 
cut 200,000 feet of cottonwood lumber a few years ago from trees of 
his own planting. Mr. Eippey's plantations were on uplands where 
the soil is not particularly well adapted to the growth of cottonwood, 
and, when lumbered, were but little more than a quarter of a century 
old. 

On the farm of Mr. T. F. Eastgate, near Larimore, N. Dak., in 
the Red River Valley, a belt of planted cottonwood trees, supple- 
mented by a dense undergrowth of wild plum bushes, acts as a wind- 
break and snow catcher, causing a snowdrift to form in winter 
over the open field, Avhich is devoted to alfalfa. In the summer of 
1904: Mr. Eastgate harvested alfalfa hay from this field at the rate 
of more than 5 tons per acre. 

Besides serving as a windbreak and snow catcher, thus making 
the growth of alfalfa possible on this farm, the forest plantation 
has produced cordwood during its twenty-one years of life at the 
rate of 4.74 cords per acre per annum. 

The successful growth of alfalfa on 10 per cent of the area of this 
region would double the earning power of every acre of land in the 
Red River Valley; and, since the thermometer here sometimes falls 
as low as 50° below zero, it is possible to grow this extremely val- 
uable forage only by utilizing some contrivance like Mr. Eastgate's 
windbreak, to catch the snowdrifts and form during the winter a 
protecting blanket over the plants. 



21 



CONCLUSION. 



Forestry is but a branch of the great industry of agriculture, but it 
can give important aid to the farmer in getting sustenance for the 
human race from the soil. It has been shown that where forest 
planting is desirable, the planting plan is of fundamental importance 
to the management of the farm which is concerned. The location 
and cultivation of these forests may either make them peculiarly 
advantageous or cause them to become a detriment to the economical 
management of the farm. 

The planting plans which have been set forth in the preceding 
pages are not regarded as perfect, but are given as suggestions of what 
may be done to make farm forest planting serviceable. They are 
based on considerable practical experience, and it is believed that they 
demonstrate beyond a doubt how far superior is a weU-considered, 
systematic method of handling the problems of farm forestry to the 
haphazard, careless methods so often 'practiced in the past. 

Farmers are now receiving instructions from the Department of 
Agriculture both for the establishment of forest plantations and for 
the inauguration of cropping systems, but it seldom happens that the 
same farmer receives instruction in both matters at the same time. 
The intimate relations existing between farm management and forest 
planting are so patent and their importance is so great that the two 
should go hand in hand. It is to be hoped that as the practice of 
scientific agriculture spreads, model farms may be laid out in all 
parts of the United States, on which practicable plans for forest 
planting may be demonstrated and the best methods of planning the 
various parts of a farm so as to make provision for an economical 
and practicable system of crop rotation may be illustrated. Farmers, 
in order to get the services of Government experts in planning both 
forest plantations and systems of farm management, should make 
application for instructions both to the Bureau of Plant Industry 
and to the Forest Service. 



228 



22 



FARMERS' BULLETINS. 

The following is a list of the Farmers' Bulletins available for distribution, showing 
the number and title of each. Copies will be sent to any address on application to 
any Senator, Representative, or Delegate in Ctongress, or to the Secretary of Agricul- 
ture, Washington, D. 0. 

No. 22. The Feeding of Fann Animals. No. 24. Hog Cholera and Swine Plague. No. 25. Peanuts 
Culture and Uses. No. 27. Flax for Seed and Fiber. No. 28. Weeds: And How to Kill Them. No. 29 
Souring and Other Changes In Milk. No. 30. Grape Diseases on the Paciiic Coast. No. 31. Alfalfa or 
Lucerne. No. 32. Silos and Silage. No. 33. Peach Growing for Market. No. 34. Meats: Composition and 
Cooking. No. 35. Potato Culture. No. 36. Cotton Seed and Its Products. No. 37. Kafir Com: Culture 
and Uses. No. 38. Spraying for Fruit Diseases. No. 39. Onion Culture. No. 41. Fowls: Care and Feed- 
ing. No. 42. Facts About Milk. No. 43. Sewage Disposal on the Farm. No. 44. Commercial Fer- 
tilizers. No. 46. Insects Injurious to Stored Grain. No. 46. Irrigation in Humid Climates. No. 47. 
Insects Affecting the Cotton Plant. No. 48. The Manuring of Cotton. No. 49. Sheep Feeding. 
No. .50. Sorghum as a Forage Crop. No. 51. Standard Varieties of Chickens. No. 62. The Sugar Beet. 
No. 54. Some Common Birds. No. 55. The Dairy Herd. No. 56. Experiment Station Work— I. No. 
57. Butter Making on the Farm. No. 58. The Soy Bean as a Forage Crop. No. 59. Bee Keeping. No. 
60. Methods of Curing Tobacco. No. 61. Asparagus Culture. No. 62. Marketing Farm Produce. 
No. 63. Care of Milk on the Farm. No. 64. Ducks and Geese. No 55. Experiment Station Work— n. 
No. 66. Meadows and Pastures. No. 68. The Black Rot of the Cabbage. No. 69. Experiment Station 
Work— III. No. 70. Insect Enemies of the Grape. No. 71. Essentials in Beef Production. No. 72, 
Cattle Ranges of the Southwest. No. 73. Experiment Station Work— IV. No. 74. Milk as Food. 
No. 75. The Grain Smuts. No. 77. The Liming of Soils. No. 78. Experiment Station Work— V. No. 79. 
Experiment Station Work— VI. No. 80. The Peach Twig-borer. No. 81. Corn Culture in the South. 
No. 82. The Culture of Tobacco. No. 83. Tobacco Soils. No. 84. Experiment Station Work— VII. No. 
85. Fish as Food. No. 86. Thirty Poisonous Plants. No. 87. Experiment Station Work— VIII. No. 88. 
Alkali Lands. No. 89. Cowpeas. No. 91. Potato Diseases and Treatment. No. 92. Experiment Station 
Work— IX. No. 93. SugarasPood. No. 94. The Vegetable Garden. No. 95. Good Roads lor Farmers. No. 
96. Raising Sheep for Mutton. No. 97. Experiment Station Work— X. No. 98. Suggestions to Southern 
Farmers. No. OT. Insect Enemies of Shade Trees. No. 100. Hog Raising in the South. No. 101. Millets. 
No. 102. Southern Forage Plants. No. 103. Experiment Station Work— XL No. 104. Notes on Frost. No. 
105. Experiment Station Work— XII. No. 106. Breeds of Dairy Cattle. No. 107. Experiment Station 
Work— XIII.- No. 108. Saltbushes. No. 109. Farmers' Reading Courses. No. 110. Kice Culture in 
the United States. No. 111. Farmers' Interest in Good Seed. No. 112. Bread and Bread Making. 
No. 113. The Apple and How to Grow It. No. 114. Experiment Station Work— XIV. No. 115. Hop Cul- 
ture in California. No. 116. Irrigation in Fruit Growing. No. 118. Grape Growing in the South. No. 
119. Experiment Station Work— XV. No. 120. Insects Affecting Tobacco. No. 121. Beans, Peas, and 
other Legumes as Food. No. 122. Experiment Station Work— XVI. No. 123. Red Clover Seed: Infor- 
mation for Purchasers. No. 124. Experiment Station Work — XVII. No. 125. Protection of Food Prod- 
ucts from Injurious Temperatures. No. 126. Practical Suggestions for Farm Buildings. No. 127. 
Important Insecticides. No. 128. Eggs and Their Uses as Food. No. 129. Sweet Potatoes. No. 131. 
Household Tests for Detection of Oleomargarine and Renovated Butter. No. 132. Insect Enemies 
of Growing Wheat. No. 133. Experiment Station Work— XVIII. No. 134'. Tree Planting in Rural 
School Grounds. No. 135. Sorghum Sirup Manufacture. No. 136. Earth Roads. No. 137. "nie Angora 
Goat. No. 138. Irrigation in Field and Garden. No. 139. Emmer: A Grain for the Semlarid Regions. 
No. 140. Pineapple Growing. No. 141. Poultry Raising on the Farm, No. 142. Principles of Nutri- 
tion and Nutritive Value of Food. No. 143. Conformation of Beef and Dairy Cattle. No. 144. 
Experiment Station Work— XIX. No. 145. Carbon Bisulphid as an Insecticide. No. 146. Insecticides 
and Fungicides. No. 147. Winter Forage Crops for the South. No. 148. Celerj; Cutaire. No. 149. 
Experiment Station Work— XX. No. 150. Clearing New Land. No. 151. Dairying in the South. 
No. 152. Scabies in Cattle. No. 153. Orchard Enemies in the Pacific Northwest. No. 154. The Home 
Fruit Garden: Preparation and Care. No. 155. How Insects Affect Health in Rural Districts. No. 166. 
The Home Vineyard. No. 157. The Propagation of Plants. No. 158. How to Build Small Irrigation 
Ditches. No. 159. Scab in