(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Cocker's manual, devoted to the game fowl, their origin and breeding, rules for feeding, heeling, handling, etc., description of the different breeds, diseases and their treatment"

From the Personal 

Reference Library of 

PAUL IVES 




ALBERT R. MANN 
LIBRARY 

New York State Colleges 

OF 

Agriculture and Home Economics 

AT 

Cornell University 




THE GIFT OF 

Paul Pomeroy Ives 2d 

IN MEMORY OF 

Paul Pomeroy Ives 





Date Due 





















































































































































Library Bureau Cat. No. 1137 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924003119512 



Cocker's Manual, 



DEVOTED TO THE 



THEIR ORIGIN AND BREEDING 

RULES FOR 

FEEDING, HEELING, HAINDUIMG, Etc, 

Description of the Different Breeds, 
DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT. 



SECOND EDITION (Revised), 

— BY — 



PUBLISHED AND SOLD BY THE AUTHOR. 

1878. 



BATTLE GREEK, MICHIGAN : 
FROM THE JOURNAL STEAM PRINTING HOUSE. 



E G505 



Entered, according to Act of Ceugreu, 1b the ^ear 187S, by 
F. H. CRAY, 

in the office of the Librarian, at Washington. 



CONTENTS. 



PAKE. 

Origin of the (Tame, 

The (;ame Fowl 10 

Breeding Uanies 16 

Selection ol Breeders 18 

I 'are of Breeders 19 

Breeding to Featlier, 20 

Breeding In-and-in, 23 

Crossing of tlie Game, 25 

Breeding for tlie Pit 28 

Influence of tlie Sire, 31 

Setting Hens, 37 

Young Chiciis 40 

Rules for Feeding, 42 

Stamper's Rules, , 15 

General Remarlts, 49 

Trimming Fowls for tlie Pit 51 

Rules for Heeling 51 

Description of Gafts, 52 

Regulation Spur, ,.,.. 52 

Singleton Spur, 53 

Cincinnati Heel 53 

Thimble Heel, 51 

Full Drop Socket ; 54 

Half Drop Socket 55 

Remarks on tlie Fowl, , 55 

Rules of the Pit,... 57 

New York Rules 37 

Philadelphia Rules 59 

Western Rules, 63 

Southern Kules (il 

Englisli Rules, 60 

English Notes on Cocks and dickers, tiO 

A Plea for the Pit, 89 

Description of Games 91 

Karl Derbys 91 

Seftons, 93 

Irish Dare-Devels !I3 

Heathwoods 91 

Red Horse, 91 

Counterfeits, 91 

Red Quills 95 

Claibornes, 95 

The Tartar Fowl 96 

Jack McClellans, 96 

Dusty Millers 97 

The Kslin Fowl, 97 

Irish Slashers 97 

Stonefence Ifowl 98 

NewboldReds ;..../!. 98 

Irish Muffs, 98 

Baltimore Tassels 99 

Rattlers, 99 

Red Rippers 99 

Dominic Games, 100 

Irish Piles 100 

Brass Back Games 101 

Henny Games, 101 

Breeding Coops and Pens, 101 

Diseases, 103 

Roup : 103 

Pip, or Gapes, 104 

Indigestion 104 

Moulting^. 105 

Chicken Pox, 105 

Buuning at the Nose, or Catarrh, 106 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Diarrhoea, or Dysentery....... 107 

CoRtiveness, Iff? 

IilmedLeg, • 107 

Bheumatism 107 

Rattles, or Asthma, 108 

Fever, .„ 108 

liOBB of Feathers, 108 

Eating their Feathers, 109 

Inflammation, or Swelling of the Eyes, 109 

Melancholy and Moping, 110 

Apoplexy, 110 

CJorns 110 

Care of Wounded Fowl HO 

The Standard of Excellence, ~ 112 

Black-Breasted Red Games 112 

Brown-Red Games, 115 

Ginger- Red Games, 118 

Yellow Duckwing Games, 121 

Silver Duckwing Games, 124 

Bed Pile Games 127 

White Pile Games 130 

White Games 132 

Black Games 135 

Blue Games, 138 

Gray Games 140 

Spangled 143 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Duckwing Games 13 

Dominic G^ames 21 

Brown- Red Games, 29 

Yellow Duckwing Games 35 

Black-Red Tartar Games 47 

Regulation Spur, 52 

Singleton Spur, 53 

Cincinnati Heel, 53 

Thimble Heel 54 

Full Drop Socket Heel, 54 

Half Drop Socket Heel, 55 

Bed Pile Games 61 

Brown-Bed Games 67 

Black-Breasted Red Games, 77 

White Georgian Games, 83 

Earl Derby Game 92 

Breeding Coop, 102 

Tartar Game Cock, HI 

Pit Fowl, 120 

ADVERTISE MENTS. 

H. H.Stoddard, Hartford, Conn., 147 

Wm. J. Healey, Mineral Point, Wis .• 148 

Harry K. Welsh, York, Penn 148 

Louis Sendlcer, Parker City, Penn., 148 

L. E. Sinsabaugh, Syracuse, Nebraska, 149 

0. J. Ward, Chicago, 111., 150 

H. H. Stoddard, Hartford, Conn 151 

F. H. Gray, Battle Creek. Mich., 152 

Daniel Allen, Gait, Ontario, Canada, 153 

Joseph M. Wade, SpringHeld, Mass., 154 

H.H.Stoddard, Hartford, Conn., 155 



PREFACE. 



With respect to the present work, it has many advantages over that 
of the first addition. Everything has been treated in so plain a man- 
ner that all may understand it. The rules laid down by the best 
sportsmen have been carefally attended to. With the author's prac- 
tical knowledge of the different subjects he has advanced, nothing but 
what he knows to be consistent, and the fancier will meet with more 
accurate ideas of the subject, while his practice will give him daily 
proofs of its utility. As such it is presented to the public, without a 
doubt but that it will meet with a candid and favorable reception. 
We feel obliged to acknowledge an indebtedness to those who have 
favored us in many particulars, and by their contributions have mate- 
rially lightened our labors, and those manifesting an interest in our 
welfare have our best wishes. In closing, it is but just to say, in our 
work we have been aided by many standard and reliable works on 
poultry, to all of which we "have given due credit. 



ORIGIN OF THE CAIVIE^ 



^J^izJ 



The origin of the Game Fowl is a point that would involve ann im- 
mense amount of labor and considerable time without leading us to 
any practical conclusion. It has proved a most perplexing question 
notwithstanding naturalists, historians, and game fanciers have written 
much concerning it, and still no one theory has been accepted by all 
as correct in every particular. We find almost every known part of 
the globe has been honored with their origin. Many refer to India 
as the original country, and possibly aver from thence they were car- 
ried over the world. Others to the contrary, forcibly assert that 
England, or the Isle of Rhodes, or some other place were their orig- 
nal countries. In this way, perhaps, we could go on and give article 
upon article yet be no nearer their origin than we were at 'first, and 
we do not intend to furnish many new ideas upon this subject as it 
would only be filling our work up with what many care so little about. 

In closing we simply say, by permission we have been allowed to 
publish extracts from a short letter written us some time since upon 
this subject, and we have no hesitation in saying the writer has written 
more concerning Game Fowls than any other person living, having 
traveled in all parts of the globe and seen every variety he speaks of 
in their natural state. We cannot do otherwise than take his ideas for 
granted, knowing full well that he is conversant with what he is writ- 
ing about : "As for all Game fowls coming from India, it is nonsense ; 
but one yellow and willow-legged sort come from that country. The 
white, brown, black carp and blue-legged are the old British sorts, 
but as the whole of their ancestors of both Britons and Saxons came 
from Persia in Asia originally, it is probable that all our white-skinned 
game fowls are of Persian origin, and that all the yellow-skinned sorts 



lO COCKERS MANUAL. 

are of Indian origin, and also the gypsy-combed and dark-faced will 
be from there too. There are five colors in India still : First, Black- 
breasted Reds, legs willow, eyes red and comb red. Second, Ginger 
Reds, legs yellow, eyes red and combs red. Third, Gingers, legs yel- 
low, eyes yellow and combs yellow. Fourth, Brown-reds, legs dark 
willow, dark eyes and dark faces. Fifth, Ginger-brown Reds, legs 
dark willow, dark eyes and dark faces. All of these colors are to be 
found, small and quite wild, and are all originals. All the others are 
made-up colors, except perhaps the Red Duns or Ginger Blues, which 
some say are original. Duck Wings and all grays are made-up colors, 
though many will say the contrary. White Piles and Blacks are the 
most artificial colors of all and took much trouble to make up." 



THE GAME FOWL. 

For the present type of the Game Fowl we are without doubt in- 
debted to the contests that for centuries incited that strife among the 
breeders of it, which has in this way given so good results. The Eng- 
lish Game Fowl as now seen is unequaled in form and carriage and is 
everywhere regarded as the highest possible type of gallinaceous beau- 
ty. Just before the abolishing of cock-fighting in England by law, 
we find Newcastle, Cheltenham, Chester, Gloucester, Norwich, Lan- 
caster, Stamford and other smaller places were noted for their fighting 
strains of Games, and at one time the cockers of Newcastle challenged 
the world. This was just subsequent to one of their last meetings, at 
which over two hundred cocks were fought. Cock-fighting in Eng- 
land is greatly on the decline owing to stringent laws. We also have 
the same in this country, but from reading the reports of several 
mains the past few seasons we should judge it was more on the increase, 
as seldom before has such large sums been placed on each side or 
mains been more frequent. In consequence a demand has been ex- 
cited for a game fowl greater than ever before known, and not only is 
attention being paid them by fanciers and cockers alone, but other 
breeders of fancy poultry whose yards are now considered incomplete 
without one or more varieties. 

In this country, fanciers believe more in crossing, and for this reason 
many ofour best games cannot be claimed as any particular strain, but 



COCKERS MANUAL. II 

generally take the name of the breeder or some fancy name, given 
them by him for some known fighting quality, and among such per- 
sons are they to be found in the highest degree of perfection, and can 
be shown of various colors. Every country has its games, as we have 
stated, and just so long as the\' are grown so long will more or less of 
them be obliged to endure the severe tests well known to cockers in 
one or more battles. 

We do not intend to treat at any length upon the subject of cock- 
fighting, as perhaps the views we might express would be unpopular 
with some and at the same time do us no real good. Every cocker will as 
readily bet on his own fowl as a lover of a good horse will upon his 
animal. All kinds of sport has its admirers, and each one will stand 
up for his just as strong as the other \vill cry it down, consequently we 
shall not point out the cruelty of it nor speak of any of the charges 
brought against it. 

Games compared with other fowl look small, but on handling it 
will be found they are larger than they look, and are more than the 
average size, but owing to their quarrelsome dispositions are a hard 
fowl to manage ; still, they will often run peaceably together as soon 
as one becomes master. Game fowls often reach as high as eight 
pounds in weight, and yet the cock will appear as light and active as 
an ordinary fowl will of smaller size. A true game fowl should be of 
bold carriage, the eye large and bright, the beak well shaped and 
strongly made, the body should be broad between the shoulders, grad- 
ually tapering to the tail, the breast should be broad, full and straight, 
the thighs short and well turned, the legs stout, the foot flat and 
strong with a long claw and the spur rather low on the leg. For the 
game cock to show fight well he must be in the best of health, for 
though possessing superior qualities physical weakness and general de- 
bility will sometimes cause him to seek flight. Activity, determina- 
tion, willingness to encounter, force in fighting, etc., are the distin- 
guishing characteristics of the game. No other fowl possesses to so 
great an extent these peculiar qualities. Not only are they noted for 
their bold carriage but for their disposition to receive severe punish- 
ment in a most courageous manner. 

We find in the Journal of Horticulture the following article upoa 
this subject, written by one of the oldest and most reliable breeders ia 
England, which we consider worthy of notice: 



12 cocker's manual. 

"Game fowls have not gained their popularity as other breeds, by 
one class of admirers only. Many breed them for table purposes^ 
justly preferring their delicate white skin and flesh, round, plump ap- 
pearance, and rich nutritious game-like flavor, both of flesh and eggs,, 
to all other poultry. Others breed them for the beauty of their ele- 
gant muscular symmetry and brilliancy of feather ; whilst a few of the 
old school still breed them for those points so ominous of sudden 
death, and every Englishman admires their unrivaled courage. Now, 
how far do exhibition birds supply either of these requirements? Cer- 
tainly not as a table fowl, as fully ninety per cent, of show birds have 
dark legs and skins, although the purestand best Game fowls ever seen 
in England, consequently in the world, have had white legs ; and in 
shape a roasted or boiled exhibition Game fowl more nearly resembles 
a Heron in its narrow shape and length than a true Game fowl, whilst 
for tenderness and flavor of the two breeds, well, you can dine on one- 
and try to on the other. 

"As for symmetry the true Game fowl was bred so as to have the 
greatest possible strength and activity, combined with the lightest 
weight possible to go to scale with. The show bird is bred with a 
beak and head as long and weak as a snipe, yet we are asked to be- 
lieve with all this want of leverage he can hold and tear like a hawk ; 
he is thin, long-necked, has long legs, and is stilty upright, conse- 
quently has not the least spring or force to fight if he wished — has no 
forehand; in fact, a cup-winner is out of all proportion, for if a 5-lb. 
cock has one quarter inch too much length of body, leg or head, he 
must necessarily be so. As to color, the original Black-breasted Dark 
Red has not been seen in a show pen since the first few shows at Bir- 
mingham, and is as different in color to our present Black-breasted 
Reds of the show pen as they are to Brown-breasted Reds, which are 
also a new-made color, being totally unknown to the old frequenters 
«f the Royal cock pit. 

"As to their fighting it scarcely requires a word. They were never 
intended for it, and it would be a cruelty to put them to what they 
either wijl not or cannot do. Mr. Wright has seen both breeds, and 
'Duckwing' has bred both, I have bred both, and used them suc- 
cessfully for each purpose, and I quite endorse 'Black Red's' opinion. 

"I do not write with the spleen of a disappointed exhibitor, as I am 
sure I can compare results favorably with any exhibitor in England 



cocker's manual. 15 

with the same number of entries, and I am not quite ignorant of the 
fighting bird, having fought my first main in public, with the parish 
constables keeping order in the pit, about the same time as 'Duck- 
wing' began breediiig, and have seen a score or two of cocks judged 
by merits in private since he wrote his article in the Journal asking 
for the points of the Malay in our exhibition birds. I would ask where 
the whip-tail came from, carried as only a Malay and a craven does 
carry? What is the first thing a bad-bred one and a craven does, when 
intending to fly the pit ? (I am sure 'Duckwing' knows, as I think we 
have had some conversation on this subject), and is it not to fold his 
flag and put it in true exhibition posture ? whilst the up and spread 
tail belongs only to the true Game cock. 'Duckwing' must surely in 
varied experience have seen half-bred Malays awarded cups, and on 
the second and third days of the show seem so ashamed of their de- 
ception that they would neither crow nor fight. I knew a sporting 
American colonel to take thirteen cocks to America from our best 
shows, and after journeying 3000 miles with them found all were dung- 
hills, except two low-priced despised yellow-legged ones. I have just 
received a letter from a breeder and shipper of Game fowls in America, 
asking me to try to get him something better than the trash exhibited 
in this and his own country. Our Journal stated that many of the 
birds at the last Birmingham show were as much Malays as game, and 
an old and able correspondent of this Journal, 'Newmarket,' wrote me 
to the same effect, and no one knows a Gime cock in or out of con- 
dition better than he does. I recently wrote for a brood cock to a 
gentleman who has long bred and shown as good Game fowls as any 
man in England, and he requested me to see a bird he was sending to 
a show in my district. It was awarded the cup, but I thought it the 
coarsest bird of the Malay type I had ever seen him exhibit, wrote him 
to that effect, and his reply informed me that he fully anticipated my 
verdict, saying that he had purchased this one not to please himself 
but the judges ; and as this bird has taken as many, if not more cups 
than any other bird shown this season, it would seem he has been very 
successful in doing it. 

"As to length of head, I know an exhibitor who has a stag only 
three removes from a prize Malay hen, whose head for mere length 
would beat most prize-winning show birds ; and of the many 
birds I have known so manufactured for the show pen, a judicious se- 



1 6 cocker's manual. 

lection has obviated all trouble in molding the head into the required 
shape. Not only does every poultry show contain these mongrels ia 
abundance, our judges encourage them, and even the illustrations of 
our modern poultry books would pass muster for improved Malays, and 
are mere caricatures of real Game fowls, such as are seen in 'Rural 
Sports,' from a good painting by Marshall, of one of the most perfect 
cocks ever seen; It took centuries of careful breeding to gain that 
perfection, and the trial was often for a fortune, thousands depending 
on the prowess of a single bird. Now, we are told a few years' breed- 
ing them to be shown a score together for a few shillings or a cup has 
improved them, and readers are asked to believe it. I shall give them 
Punch's advice to those contemplating marriage and say, 'Don't.' " — 
[Cornish Duckwing. 



BREEDING GAMES. 

The breeding of Games is just as much a science as the breeding of 
other fancy poultry, and it is a mistaken idea of fanciers to think as 
they have purchased perhaps at a large expense a pair or trio of Games 
from some noted breeder's yards that it is all that is required to pro- 
duce a nu.Tiber of fine fowl; but care, time, and a large amount of 
patience will also be needed. They can be just as easily raised as 
other breeds of fowls and at no more expense to the breeder, and as 
he grows in experience so much less will be the work, as each season 
will teach him something new. They being hardy can be confined in 
very small runs, and for this reason can be bred in small places as they 
have a strong constitution. We find them in their prime when two 
years old, but as a general thing the cock wears out faster than the 
hen, although the hens at an old age only lay about one clutch. We 
now have a cock in our possession which is over twelve years of age, 
and as far as we can notice appears as young as a two-year-old, and 
his stag's comb as stronjg and vigorous as any we raise. But very few 
Game fowl ever live to this age, as owing to their quarrelsome dispo- 
sitions sooner or later they die by accident or some disease caused by- 
fighting. 



COCKERS MANUAL. 17 

Stags bred to pullets will produce good chickens, but as a, general 
thing full grown or two-year-old birds bring the best. 

A writer in the Journal of Horticulture says, "In crossing colors in 
breeding the following cases — first, when there are more than six hens 
to each cock ; second, when the hens are dark with dark legs and the 
cock light ; third, when the hens are full grown and the cock not full 
grown ; also in breeding games from hens with a barn-door cock the 
the progeny will be gamer than if breeding from a game cock and 
barn-door hen. The fighting qualities are, however, inherited more 
directly from the cock than from the hen. In breeding Game fowls 
together, which made the best breeders for the pit in general, more 
careful of their brood cocks than of their brood hens. In all animals 
of both sexes those taking the most after their sires are considered to 
be the strongest and most spirited. As a rule, breeding from fowls 
not full grown is a great mistake, as even if they produce quicker 
birds (which some say, though contrary to ray own experience), they 
at any rate produce weaker, smaller and softer birds both in bone and 
flesh." 

It is a well known fact that every breeder has his own ideas and 
no amount of talking could induce him to change it. One of these is 
not dubbing his breeding cocks, as they select their finest stags and 
keep them undubbed, putting them on a walk alone with a few hens 
only. When our stock has been bred in-and-in too long they begin 
to be slower in their motions, the hens do not lay as well and also 
moult later each season and feather more slowly. In this case they 
should be crossed with a strong, healthy brood cock, as all birds from 
a first cross are more vigorous if the cross is good, and also best for 
the pit. Each succeeding cross grows less vigorous and spirited. By 
keeping two distinct breeds a first cross can always be had when wanted. 
It is said the first laying hens never breed the best birds, i. e., hens 
that lay in winter are not the best to breed from, having exhausted 
themselves before the proper season. 

Breeders for the pit generally allow three hens to the stag, and five 
to the cock, but we are convinced from our own experience that the 
best stock can be bred from a single cock and two good hens ; still it 
is often the case that two hens will not prove sufficient and others will 
have to be put in. But as a general thing we like to breed from two 
hens if possible. Successful breeders avoid breeding in-and-in, and it 



i8 cocker's manual. 

is shown many good breeds have been ruined by so doing, although 
they were once very successful. To avoid this American breeders 
breed twice in and once out, while it is said the English breeder's rule 
is once in and once out. Our advice is, if you have a good winning 
strain take good care of them and breed from them the best shape and 
most active and healthiest, and do not destroy their good properties 
by constantly crossing and changing them. 



SELECTION OF BREEDERS. 

As the selection and mating of our breeding stock is not attended 
without some difficulty much care and patience will be required to be 
successful. Fanciers who select their cocks from one yard and hens 
from another mast not expect to raise fowls that are reliable, although 
their chicks will not be related. As the hens give us size and shape 
too much care cannot be taken in selecting them. Each fancier has 
his own ideas as to what his breeding stock should be, yet we often 
see some very poor fowls on such breeders' yards. Some fanciers pre- 
fer small birds, others medium size, and again others extra large ones, 
and each one will show his own individual preference for one over the 
other. Perhaps there are some grounds on this point for question, 
but for us we have no hesitation in giving our judgment for the larger 
bird, as we can then get all the smaller ones we want without breeding 
especially for them, as we contend that a good large one is better than 
a good small one, and one of extra size with all the other good quali- 
ties should not be disposed of but be highly prized as one of our 
breeders. Another wrong is also done by some fanciers in letting 
their old and well tried stock run out and breeding some new breeds 
they know nothing of when, perhaps, they find they do not equal 
their old favorites and then lament for not breeding from them. They 
are too apt to be taken up with some new breed and each season try- 
ing something new, and for this reason the breeder should understand 
his stock thoroughly. It is a well known fact that good qualities in 
parents will become fixed in the offspring if care is shown in the se- 
lection of the breeders. The age of the breeding stock is an import- 
ant consideration. Some fanciers claim no hen should be selected as 



cocker's manual. 19 

a breeder until she is two years old, as pullets' eggs have a tendency 
to produce weakly chickens, and also claim the same in breeding from 
too young a cock. We always have our breeding stock full grown if 
possible ; if not we prefer to breed cocks to pullets and hens to stags. 
If the fancier's object is breeding to feather, great care should be 
taken in selecting his breeders or otherwise the object sought will not 
be obtained. If it is desired to preserve a particular color, the hen 
selected for the purpose should be the same in color as the cock but of 
different blood, that is to say, not closely or nearly related. Some 
claim the principle in breeding to be observed is, "like produces 
like," but still this is not an unerring guide as we can breed from any 
stock of fowls, and not unfrequently an extra fine specimen will ap- 
pear, and by breeding such specimens or pairs we cannot obtain their 
like in all cases, at least a portion of their progeny will possess the quali- 
ties distinguishing the originals. If, however, we select the best pro- 
duced by such fowls as breeders and continue from season to season 
selecting the best samples we shall in time arrive at our desire and ob- 
tain a permanent improvement on the original stock. If size and 
strength are desired the selections should include large hens or pul- 
lets with good build, legs and general make. If intended for the pit 
special attention should be given to abtaining a breed of good size 
with large bone and muscle — the cock well set upon his legs, broad at 
the shoulders, wing strong and of good length and a tough wiiy 
feather, one that continually urges the battle and gives his adversary 
no rest, and a stock whose gameness you have often seen tested. With 
such a cock placed with hens selected for the many fine points which 
they possess, being good layers and setters, the chickens will be noted 
for their courage and gameness. Some like a cock to be full of mo- 
tion while in hand and continually talking and chatting, with his legs 
drawn close up to his body. 



CARE OF BREEDERS. 

All fanciers must bear in mind that great care and attention must 
be paid to our breeding fowl during the breeding season. Particular 
attention should be given to our breeding cocks, as they must be in 



COCKER S MANUAL. 



the best of feather and health, as it is well known that breeding from 
•diseased fowls result in chickens with weak and sickly constitutions, 
small in leg, boue and muscle. We do not believe in too expensive 
coops for our breeding pens, but light and roomy, as we use ours only 
during this season ; but if intended for winter as well as summer use 
more expense will be added in making them. Care must be taken in 
feeding them and not supply too much food, as the birds may become 
fat and thus defeat our object. It is not well to keep them confined 
to one kind of food but a change should be given them often ; fresh 
water must be supplied them daily, and if extremely warm weather 
at least twice each day. If a cock takes a dislike to a hen she 
should be removed at once as it would be useless to endeavor to breed 
from her and would result in her death, or at least her injury. The eggs 
should be collected regularly each day, marking the name of breed 
and day on each. If this plan be adopted great disappointment will 
be prevented in the hatching of the eggs. 



BREEDING TO FEATHER. 

Since our Poultry Standard has come into existence and our poultry 
shows more numerous we find much attention being paid to breeding 
^ames to feather, caring more for exhibition birds than our old pit 
fowl which, owing to the stringent laws now in force has done much 
to put them out of use. Yet, notwithstanding this fact, we find that 
many old cockers discard breeding to feather, caring more for the ac- 
tion and fighting qualities of the cock than for his appearance. 
Among the cockers this class are greatly in the majority. A fancier, 
however, whose object is to breed exhibition or prize birds gives close 
attention to breeding to feather, to do which successfully several 
things are necessary to be observed. Just as much science will be 
needed in breeding fowls to feather as for any other purpose, and in 
breeding for this point it is generally expected that we will produce 
fowls of the same feather, but experience shows all will not be the same, 
and so it is with standard birds. Many chapters have been written in 
which are given various rules and instructions for breeding to feather 
af this or that advice is followed. But there are many important points 










r - / " • 




COCKER S MANUAL. 23 

besides these which must be considered as well as plumage, althougk 
it is one of the main objects in judiciously mating for breeding to 
feather, yet we have other well known points that we must not over- 
look but have an eye on form, size, vigor and action, as while we are 
breeding to feather none of these other qualities should be lost sight 
of Select only your best birds, mate them carefully for color, avoid- 
ing as much as possible breeding brothers and sisters together, keeping 
our selected stock closely by themselves. By carefully following the 
course suggested you will succeed in getting a larger number of chick- 
ens of the right color and the more valuable for breeders. 



BREEDING IN-AND-IN. 

It has long been a disputed point whether the system of breeding 
in-and-in or the opposite one of crossing had the greatest tendency to 
maintain or impvove the quality of the breed. Both systems we find 
here have able and earnest advocates, each confident of being in the 
right. As a general thing in-and-in breeding is not looked upon in 
this country with as much favor as in England, still we now and then 
find some old cocker who perhaps brought with him a trio or pair of 
some favorite breed of games, and has kept breeding them together 
ever since in order to keep his breed pure, and to his sorrow he gives 
them up as worthless for fighting. There has been much written upon 
this subject the past season. We find one English breeder of some repu- 
tation holding to it as if it were his only hope, showing how it worked in 
animals, why not the same in game fowls ? No doubt they can be in- 
bred for a number of years, but in doing so intelligence on the part of 
the breeder is required, also great care and study in the selection of 
his breeding stock. It is almost impossible nowadays to obtain a breed 
of games pure. You will find when you breed them that they have 
one or more crosses, and sooner or later this will show itself, and yet 
this in-and-in breeding will produce bad results when practiced by an 
inexperienced breeder, and to do it successfully must understand his 
fowl. It is a well known fact that some of our finest horses, cattle 
and sheep have been produced by this inand-in breeding. To pre- 
serve certain characteristics an amount of close breeding is necessary, 



24 cocker's' manual. 

but for strength of constitution the less the better. When our fowls 
have been bred in-and-in too long they begin to be slower in their 
motions, the hens dp not lay as well as before, and they moult later 
and slower each season. 

"The question of in-breeding has never been settled by the uniform 
custom of any considerable number of breeders. The practice in 
England appears to be once in and once out, avoiding incest, while 
the American practice leans to the practice of twice in and once out. 
Some of the best English authorities have recommended the custom 
that prevails in this country, though it is not reduced to anything like 
uniformity among American breeders. By in-and-in breeding is un- 
derstood to imply the union of near relatives, avoiding kindred of the 
first degree. Long continued in-breeding would tend to diminish the 
bone and reduce the dimensions of the muscular form and propor- 
tions. It therefore becomes necessary to breed out to strangers, to 
keep up size and bone. As soon as this end is accomplished, we can 
breed back to kindred, and refine bone and muscle. By this simple 
process of enlarging and refining, we get the most substance in the 
least compass. 

"The wild horse, in promiscuous intercourse, avoids consanguinity, 
or continued in-breeding in the highest degree, by the simple law of 
nature. It is a wise provision, designed to perpetuate the race. The 
strongest of the male species govern the .flock and perpetuate their 
kind. The king of the harem soon gets displaced by some young, 
courageous rival, who usurps the throne, and holds dominion through 
his day and generation. He is succeeded by' some other rival, who 
holds dominion over the flock till his successor becomes qualified, by 
brute force, to displace him. We have here the system of in-breeding 
and out crossing agreeable to the laws of nature. The deductions 
from the wild horse, roving at large, are decidedly in favor of in- 
breeding. It would be a natural conclusion from the common course 
of things, that when we have the best possible form and action ma- 
tured in the breed, not to lose half the benefit of superior excellence 
by crossing out to strangers except to enlarge the reservoir to hold 
more substance. We must keep all the improvement we have got, and 
get all we can.'' 



COCKER S MANUAL. 25 

CROSSING OF THE GAME. 

There can be no doubt that crossing as practiced by the more ex- 
perienced and cautious breeders is of real benefit as it hardens up the 
feather, increases the size and gives us more bone and muscle, and 
also helps lessen the amount of superfluous flesh, the last being one 
great point for an old cocker as a less amount of work is required to 
prepare him for pit fighting. The game fowl is unlike many others, 
consequently the benefits of crossing can be realized in a single season, 
the results of which can well be shown, perhaps in some of our fowls 
in days gone by, but well remembered by many old fanciers and who 
still speak with as much pride of their Claibornes, Heathwoods, Bal- 
timores, etc., as our great horsemen do of their Longfellow, Bassett, 
etc. Here the benefit of crosfing was shown in its full force, as no 
fowl was ever produced that excelled them in an old cocker's e\e, as 
determination and force in fighting could here be found. Many 
think as they have two strains of games that is all that is needed to 
make a cross, consequently their fowls in time show much worse than 
their old ones. Nothing can be gained in crossing without regard to 
form, size and general characteristics of your breeding stock. Expe- 
rience of old and reliable fanciers everywhere have shown this, and all 
breeders should seek to be as near perfect as possible. We believe it 
cannot be disputed that old cockers have made the game what they 
are, giving him his ferocious disposition, hardness of feather and per- 
fect build, and it never could have been done without care and study 
in breeding them. 

By crossing is meant the mixing of breeds, and if two Jowls of dif- 
ferent breeds cross a third is invariably produced different from either 
and partaking to a large extent of the qualities of both is frequently 
and it may be invariably said better than either. The following arti- 
cle upon this subject was written by Newmarket in the Journal of 
Horticulture : 

"Some breeders assert that in crossing, color and form or shape are 
derived chiefly from the cock, and that size, vigor and constitution: 
come from the hen. I would not, however, "giye much for any brood 
cock that did not impart all qualities to his progeny in excess of the 
hen. ******* As to crossing and mixing the different 
colors I think that Piles and Red Duns cross best of all, both being of 

3 



36 cocker's manual. 

a light red. Reds will always spoil the color of grays, giving them a 
tinge of red and brown, but grays do not spoil the reds. The best 
colored Duckwi»gs are bred from the dark gray cross though this 
spoils dark grays. It is well known to all good breeders that crossing 
colors is very injudicious, as a rule all the best breeders liking each 
sort to be exactly alike both in shape, in feather and in blood, and 
disliking all mongrel mixed colors and crosses. * * * * * * 
In crossing colors when the hens are of a stronger and harder color 
than the cock, most of the cock chickens will be the color of the hen 
and the pullets the color of the cock. For instance, in crossing brown- 
red hens with a willow-legged black-breasted red cock most of the 
cocks will be brown-reds and most of the pullets ot the partridge color. 
This, however, is not a good cross." 

Darwin says : "There can be no doubt that crossing, with the aid 
of rigorous selection during several generations, has been a potent 
means in modifying old races, and in forming new ones. Lord Or- 
ford crossed his famous stud of greyhounds once with the bull-dog, 
which breed was chosen from being deficient in scenting powers, and 
from having what was wanted, courage and perseverance. In the 
course of six or seven generations all traces of the external form of the 
bulldog were eliminated, but courage and perseverance remained. 
Certain pointers have been crossed, a^i I hear from the Rev. W. D. 
Fox, with the fox-hound, to give them dash and speed. Certain 
strains of Dorking fowls have a slight infusion of Game blood ; and I 
have known a great fancier who on a single occasion crossed his tur- 
bit-pigeons with barbs, for the sake of gaining greater width of beak. 

"In the foregoing cases breeds have been crossed once, for the sake 
of modifying some particular character ; but with most of the im- 
proved races of the pig, which now breed true, there have been re- 
peated crosses — for instance, the improved Essex owes its excellence 
to repeated crosses with thfe Neapolitan, together probably with some 
infusion of Chinese blood. So with our British sheep; almost all the 
races, except the Southdown, have been largely crossed ; 'this, in fact, 
has been the history of our principal breeds.' To give an example, 
the 'Oxfordshire Downs' now rank as an established breed. They 
were produced about the year 1830 by crossing 'Hampshire and some 
instances Southdown ewes with Cotswold rams ;' now the Hampshire 
jam was itself produced by repeated crosses between the native Hamp- 



COCKER S MANUAL. 2J 

shire sheep and Southdowns ; and the long-wooled Cotswold were 
improved by crosses with the Leicester, which latter is again believed 
to have been a cross between several long-wooled sheep. Mr. Spoon- 
er, after considering the various cases which have been carefully re- 
corded, concludes, 'that from a judicious pairing of cross-bred ani- 
mals it is practicable to establish a new breed.' On the Continent 
the history of several crossed races of cattle and other animals, has 
been well ascertained. To give one instance : The King of Wurtem- 
berg, after twenty-five years' careful breeding, that is after six or sev- 
en generations, made a new breed of cattle from a cross between a 
Dutch and Swiss breed, combined with other breeds. The Sebright 
bantam, which breeds as true as any other kind of fowl, was formed 
about sixty years ago by a complicated cross. Dark Brahmas, which 
are believed by some fanciers to constitute species, were undoubtedly 
formed in the United States, within a recent period, by a cross be- 
tween Chittagongs and Cochins. With plants I believe there is little 
doubt that some kinds of turnips, now extensively cultivated, are 
crossed races ; and the history of a variety of wheat which was raised 
from two very distinct varieties, and which after six years' culture 
presented an even sample, has been recorded on good authority. 

"Until quite lately, cautious and experienced breeders, though not 
averse to a single infusion of foreign blood, were almost universally 
convinced that the attempt to establish a new race, intermediate be- 
tween two widely distinct races, was hopeless. 'They clung with su- 
perstitious tenacity to the doctrine of purity of blood, believing it to 
be the ark in which alone true safety could be found.,' Nor was this 
conviction unreasonable : when two distinct races are crossed, the 
offspring of the first generation are generally nearly uniform in char- 
acter ; but even this sometimes fails to be the case, especially with 
crossed dogs and fowls, the young of which from the first are some- . 
times much diversified. As cross-bred animals are generally of large 
size and vigorous, they have been raised in great numbers for imme- 
consumption. But for breeding they are found to be utterly useless; 
for though they may be themselves uniform in character, when paired 
together they yield during many generations offspring astonishingly 
diversified. The breeder is driven to despair, and concludes that he 
will never form an intermediate race. Bat from the cases already 
given, and from others which have been recorded, it appears that pa- 



28 cocker's manual. 

tience alone is necessary ; as Mr. Spooner remarks, 'nature opposes 
no barrier to successful admixture ; in the course of time, by the aid 
of selection and careful weeding, it is practicable to establish a new 
breed. After six or seven generations the hoped-for result will in 
most cases be obtained ; but even th6n an occasional reversion, or 
failure to keep true, may be expected. The attempt, however, will 
assuredly fail if the conditions of life be decidedly unfavorable to the 
-characters of either parent-breed. 

"It is scarcely possible to overrate the effects of selection occasion- 
ally carried on in various ways and places during thousands of gene- 
rations. All that we know, and, in a still stronger degree, all that we 
do not know, of the history of the great majority of our breeds, even 
of our more modern breeds, agrees with the view that their production, 
through the action of unconscious and methodical selection, has been 
almost insensibly slow. When a man attends rather more closely than 
is usual to the breeding of his animals, he is almost sure to improve 
them to a slight extent. They are in consequence valued in his im- 
mediate neighborhood, and are bred by others ; and their character- 
istic features, whatever these may be, will then slowly but steadily he 
increased, sometimes by methodical and almost always by unconscious 
selection. At last a strain, deserving to be called a sub-variety, be- 
comes a little more widely known, receives a local name, and spreads. 
The spreading will have been extremely slow during ancient and less 
civilized times, but now is rapid. By the time that the new breed had 
assumed- a somewhat distinct character, its history, hardly noticed at 
the time, will have been compleiely forgotten ; for, as Low remarks, 
'we know how quickly the memory of such events is effaced.' " 



BREEDING FOR THE PIT. 

We do not find at the present day as much attention paid to breed- 
ing Games for the pit as in times gone by, still many old cockers take- 
as much pains as ever and show just as much care and attention in. 
breeding as in an earlier day. The best breeders for the pit consider 
the cock as ahead of all the qualities, consequently show great care in 
selecting tiiem, as in breeding for this special purpose we must not 




H 

< 

a 

o 



cocker's manual. 31 

seek color but strength and endurance with all the good fighting qual- 
ities. Color, as will be observed, is of secondary importance and 
should not be preferred to the essential requisites for the pit. It is- 
generally considered that a cross fowl is best for this purpose and for 
this reason the breed selected to cross with must be equally as good 
and better if possible in their fighting qualities than those possessed 
by the breed intended to be crossed. In the selections made it is 
hardly needful to be remarked that great caution should be observed, 
for it is frequently the case that some games are good billers but very- 
poor strikers, and such it is hardly desirable to breed from. A selec- 
tion should be made of a well tested cock of a reliable breed, a good 
biller and striker, a savage and inveterate fighter, quick in movement 
and who shows no quarter to his antagonist. Breeders for the pit 
generally allow three hens to a stag and five hens to a cock. Some, 
however, prefer only two hens to a cock. 



INFLUENCE OF THE SIEE. 

It is still an unsettled question as to the length of time it is neces- 
sary to keep a hen after a cock has been changed before the eggs can 
be set with a certainty of getting chicks sired by the new cock We 
have seen statements to the effect that a permanent influence resulted 
from copulation in the case of fowls — that absolute purity of blood 
could not be depended upon if the hen at any time had run with a 
cock of different breed. On the other hand, we find with many a 
cominon impression that impregnation takes place but a short time 
before the egg is laid. If we wish to be doubly sure we should not 
breed from a hen until she had finished laying her litter and wishes 
to set, then we would place her with a cock we desired to breed from. 
In this way we think we could be more assured that we had the breed 
we most desired. 

The following was written by a well known western breeder, who 
has given the subject much careful attention, and which we consider 
worthy of mention : 

"A correct answer to this question is important to the breeder of 
high-class poultry, to enable him to know when a breeding hen should 



32 cocker's manual. 

be confined or removed from the cock to maintain purity in her pro- 
geny; also, what number of eggs, being laid by one hen, are fertile 
after the cock has been removed from the yard. I shall not attempt 
to answer this question fully, but give such observations as have come 
to my notice. 

"In examining some of the leading works on poultry, such as 
Wright, Tegetmeir, aud others, I find the chapters on eggs, their 
formation, etc., do not touch upon the subject, but slip out of it easily, 
and fail to give a hint tending to a so'ution. All the answers I have 
ever seen have appeared in periodicals, and were written by breeders 
who gave their individual opinions, just as the subscriber is now doing. 
Their answers are that the period at which a cock can be removed 
from the hen and still have the eggs she may produce fertile at four, 
six, eight, ten or more days, and I believe one man had such wonder- 
ful hens that the characteristics of a certain cock were seen in their 
progeny, although they had been removed from him the year pre- 
vious. For fear of contamination, or for effect, some persons adver- 
tise that they keep their various breeds separated the entire year. Tl|is 
carefulness is well enough, but fully shows the ignorance of the breed- 
er, who seeks to make reputation by such proclamations. 

"After the yolk has fully matured, the sac which contains it is de- 
tached from the ovary, and passes into the oviduct or egg-passage. It 
is in the egg passage, in my opinion, that the eggs becomes fertilized; 
That at different seasons more or less eggs are so maturing in this Das- 
sage ; and that all the eggs so maturing, which have not become en- 
veloped with the skin which we find next to the shell, are impregnated 
if the hen comes in contact with the cock. Hence, as production goes 
on faster at one period than at another, it is impossib'e to fix any given 
number of days that one impregnation by the cock may last. 

"It is well established that a pure-bred hen may remain with cocks 
of other breeds with safety to the purity of her progeny at another 
time than during the producing seasons. It is also well established 
that her eggs may be fertilized by a cock of any other breed and only 
produce cross-bred chicks from a limited number ol eggs. Physiolo- 
gists maintain that in most breeding females, the first male by which 
they are impregnated influences their subsequent progeny, no matter 
by what male it may be produced ; and that such a female absorbs in- 
to her own blood, through the offspring, some of the characteristics of 



COCKER S MANUAL. 33 

the male. In fowls this rule or trait does not seem to obtain, and 
may be, perhaps, an indirect evidence that the yolk is vitalized or 
impregnated after it has become detached from the ovary. 

"If this opinion is well founded, then, the exact number of days 
which must elapse before preserving eggs for hatching, after the hen 
lias been placed with her cock, no definite answer can be given, as it 
is impossible to know the number of eggs in process of formation in 
■the egg-passage of a living hen, and in all cases, it will be safe to wait 
long enough, say two or three weeks, especially so if the eggs are de- 
signed for sale." 

Again we notice in the Fancier's Gazette, London, the following 
article upon the subject, which we consider of interest to all breeders : 

"How long after the cock's removal does his productive influences 
■continue to affect the hen is a question more easily asked than satis- 
factorily answered. Our forefathers who bred their old fighting 
strains with a hundred times more care for the pit than we are wont 
to do, for the show pen, contended that a hen was never clean, i. e., 
free from the influence of the cock sl\e first laid to after 
moulting until she moulted again. There are others who as positively 
affirm that every hen is clean on becoming broody, whilst not a few 
assure us that the influence of the cock only extend over the limited 
space of three or four days. Are they all right or all wrong? I am 
not so egotistical as to say, but would rather, with your permission, 
state a few facts which may assist your readers in drawing their own 
•conclusions. 

"Every experienced breeder will have often observed chickens of 
•one clutch showing the distinctive points of two cocks when it has 
happened that two cock birds have been running on the brood walk at 
one and the same time, or when a cock of one breed has been substi- 
tuted for another during the laying of the hens. For instance, I have 
often required a brood cock from the walk for some purpose, say a 
full-feather plain head, and have' placed with the hens a Tassel or hen 
■cock, the result is that the laying hens then produce chickens closely 
resembling both the plain heads and Tassel, or full-feathered and hen- 
feathered cock; but the question is, 'ZTt^ze/ /(?«^ is it after the intro- 
■duction of a fresh cock before this change of parentage takes place ?' 
Last autumn a poultry-killing sheep-dog so bit and mutilated a brood 
cock — one of the handsomest I ever saw, presented to me by one of the 



34 COCKER S MANUAL. 

oldest and best breeders in Cheshire — that I had great difficulty in 
keeping him alive. I determined to breed from him this spring not- 
withstanding his injury, so I placed six brood hens with him in No- 
vember, and not until March, after sitting several nests of eggs by 
him without producing a single chick did I become satisfied that he had 
totally lost all procreative power, as all the eggs were marked with the 
date they were laid and all set. I found the eggs became prolific on 
and after the fifth day from the introduction of another stag and not 
before. Again, I had occasion to take a cock from a brood walk 
early in the spring. A black hen was then running with a brood of 
young chickens, and after leaving them she laid away privately in the 
woods, and nine weeks and two days after the cock was taken away she 
appeared with a brood of eleven strong chickens. There was no pos- 
sibility of her getting with another cock, no other fowl being kept 
within a mile of the place. Requiring a few game fowls of a particu- 
lar color for some friends in Australia, I last year placed a gray pullet 
with a brown-red cock, both having been carefully bred in-and-in and 
to their respective feathers, for many years previous, the produce be- 
ing exactly what I required, viz: blotch breasted dark grays with 
marigold-shouldered cocks, and a more uniform brood in color, shape 
and style it would be difiicult to find. Being so successful I this year 
placed >vith the cock three other sisters to the pullet which had never 
perviously heard a cock crow. The produce of these bear the closest 
resemblance to those hatched last year, but their sister (mother of last 
year's trial brood) has hatched nine chickens, all quite undistinguisha- 
ble from true brown red and good brown reds, too. Is this caused 
by any latent influence of the brown-red cock from last year ? And 
will her sisters if left with the same cock until next year produce 
brown-reds instead of grays ? I have noticed variations of colors caused 
by change of constitution, water, soil, and especially by food. 
I had a weakness in my boyish days for breeding from any- 
strange cock I saw distinguish himself in a main, and the 
motley colors I often got were a sight to see, even when the hens 
happened to match the cock through the hot meals and stimulating 
food which the cock had been fed on during his preparation for bat- 
tle, but none of these things can have affected the birds in question 
in the least, and although I have my own opinion as to the cause, I 
shall be glad to have that of some more competent person." 



COCKER S MANUAL. ^.f 

SETTING HENS. 

In setting hens only the largest eggs should be selected, and in nO' 
instance should a misformed egg be used for this purpose. The hen 
should be set in a clean dry place, so situated that other fowls cannot 
disturb her. She should come off regularly for food and water, both 
of which there should be a plentiful supply within reach. Thirteen 
eggs is the average setting ; frequently more than this number are set, 
but the study of the fancier should be rather as to the number of 
chicks the hen can cover than the number of eggs. During the time 
of setting the eggs should not be molested but nature should be al- 
lowed to take its course. The time required for hatching, as a gene- 
ral rule, is twenty-one days, but with good and continual setting the 
chicks will come out in twenty days. If the eggs used are fresh they 
will hatch within a few hours of each other ; if not fresh they require 
at least twenty-three days and should not be destroyed before the ex- 
piration of that time. Marking the eggs is conducive to convenience 
and certainty as it forms the means for knowing whether any have 
been laid since the day of setting. It is also well, though not of 
course necessary, to mark the day of the month. The state of the 
weather should be taken into consideration, as we find that a hen ca- 
pable of setting and hatching a certain number of eggs in the warmer 
months, cannot give an equal share of heat to more than two-thirds 
the number in the early part of the season. 

Another consideration worthy of notice is sprinkling the eggs with 
water. This process undoubtedly assists the hatching, from the fact 
that the chicks receive an increased supply of fresh air, and in the 
summer season prevents, to a great extent, the inner membrane of the 
egg from becoming hardened and contracted. So in moderately cold 
weather, as in the spring of the year, by a careful sprinkling the egg 
is in a great measure prevented from chilling. Setting hens occa- 
sionally desert their nests. The causes of such desertion are quite 
numerous, principal among which could be mentioned the irritating 
effect produced by lice. When these are found the eggs should be 
carefully removed, the nest' thoroughly cleaned, and fresh straw 
sprinkled with sulphur and ashes placed therein, after which carefully 
replace the eggs sprinkled with sulphur. The hen also should be 
sprinkled with sulphur, though sparingly. We know of many cases 



.38 cocker's manual. 

where this method has been used, and can recommend it as likely to 
produce beneficial results. 

"When several hens sit nearly at the same time, if any accident 
should happen to one of them her eggs may be distributed among 
others, provided they had not too many eggs in the first instance. 
The best time to make such a transfer will be when the hen is off the 
nest, lest she be dissatisfied at receiving them." 

Some cockers raise many objections against setting eggs under 
dunghill hens ; but these objections are really entitled to no weight, 
and in fact are only false notions, for such hens are much less inclined 
to be quarrelsome and less apt to be disturbed by other hens. It has 
been the experience of many breeders that chickens so brought up do 
not partake of the qualities of the dunghill, and now it is not unusual 
to find cockers wanting two clutches from the same hen, setting the 
first under a dunghill and the second under a game hen. 

An early writer on this subject has the following: "The desire to 
sit is made known by a particular sort of clucking, which is continued 
until the chickens are full grown ; and a feverish state ensues, in which 
the natural heat of the hen's body is very much increased. The in- 
clination, or, as phj'siologists term it, the 'starge,' soon becomes a 
strong and ungovernable passion. The hen flutters about, hangs her 
wings, bristles up her feathers, searches everywhere for eggs to sit up- 
on, and if she finds any, whether laid by herself or others, she imme- 
diately seats herself upon them. These signs of an inclination to set 
ought generally to be indulged in all hens : but those are best adapted 
for setting which have rather short legs, a broad body, large wings, 
well furnished with feathers, and their nails and spurs not too long 
nor sharp. The setting hen will sometimes exhibit impatience at her 
close confinement, and want to get frequently off the nest. When 
this is observed, one-half of the food that usually forms her meal 
should be withheld, and, when she has had only half her due allow- 
ance, replace her on the nest, and hold out to her in the hand some 
hemp or millet seed. This second meal has the effect of reconciling 
her to sit constantly without deserting her eggs. With the same view 
some put food and water so near the nest that the setting hen may 
feed without leaving her eggs for any great length of time ; while 
others hold that this is not so conducive to health as the more natural 
method of letting her come off to enjoy good water and food at some 



cocker's manual. 39 

little distance. Undoubtedly it is important that setting hens should 
have a little exercise, as well as that the eggs should be exposed to the 
circulation of air, to carry off any stj^gnant vapor which has been 
proved by experiments to be deleterious and destructive to the chicks 
still in the egg. We have ourselves remarked that setting hens are as 
fond of rubbing themselves in the dust as they are of food and water ; 
and we have always indulged them, evidently with benefit, in this habit. 
Other hens will sit so closely and long that they are in danger of 
starving themselves for want of food. Of such it has been said they 
have been- known to faint outright, as if dead, and which, when the 
chickens were hatched, were so exhausted as scarcely to be able to at- 
tend them. It is recommended that such should be fed on the nest." 

We find in the April number of the Fanciers' Journal a well written 
article upon this subject and of interest to all breeders : 

"Burn out every nest-box, new or old, before and after using. The 
cJiarred surface will not favor the lodgment of vermin. Fill each 
nest-bottom with freshly cut sod slightly hollowed towards the center, 
covering with fine straw. Sprinkle nest and hen with carbolic pow- 
der. Don't use too much sulphur; in fact if carbolic powder is ob- 
tainable don't use it at all. Let your hen get accustomed to the nest 
before trusting her with the eggs ; then give the eggs, to her, quietly 
inserting them under her rather than giving her to the eggs. 'Make 
haste slowly." Don't give her more than she can cover and care for 
well. Mark the eggs with ink, giving kind, if necessary, and date of 
sitting, preserving a duplicate record in a book kept for the purpose. 
Examine the nest daily. If an egg is broken, or even cracked, re- 
move it. If the remaining eggs have any trace of the disaster, clean 
them from it by washing them carefully in tepid water. The contents 
of an egg are alive or dead. If alive they must have air. If the pores 
or air-ducts of the shell are closed, the contents die of suffocation. 
The grave is made and hermetically sealed. It is our plan to moisten 
the eggs and nests three times during the last ten days of incubation 
when the nest is in a dry, warm situation, and the hen not permitted 
the freedom of out-of-doors. We have found it done most easily and 
effectually by a fine rose sprinkler, using tepid water. If a chick must 
be helped from the shell, give it aid in the form of warmth, and 
warmth only. Insert the pipped or unpipped egg if you are assured 
that it contains life, in warm water, being careful to keep the opening 



40 cocker's manual. 

of the pipped shell above the surface. It is wonderful how quickly- 
new life will be infused, and the little bird gain strength to help itself. 
If in the course of hatching it is necessary to examine the nest and its. 
contents, remove the hen, then the contents. Allow the hen to re- 
turn to the nest, then give chicks and eggs to her ; she will carefully 
tuck them away where they shall not be injured. Mark the chicks 
when taken from the nest in a web of the foot either with one of 
Scribner's steel punches, or with a darning needle filled with coarse 
twisted silk, leaving the silk in the hole until it is healed. Make 
record of the mark and its purpose. Do not ieed the chicks for the- 
first twenty-four hours after batching, then give hard boiled eggs or 
bread and milk."' The best brood of chickens we ever saw were never 
fed mixed or 'artificial' feed of any kind, but simply broken grains, 
coarse corn-meal, oat-meal, and bird seeds. It was an experiment, 
and a success. Examine each chick's head for the long lice that are 
so often found there. Kerosene oil is an excellent remedy, simply 
applying it with the finger, the lice are exposed to view, and they 
generally yield to the first application. (j\\& young chicks every care 
and attention. Do not let them be stunted by exposure to cold, 
dampness, or lack of food. Feed often, but not more at a time than 
will be eaten up clean. Remember that chickens are early asleep and 
and early awake, and prepare food for them to find as soon as they 
are out in the morning, at daylight, instead of allowing them to chirp 
around half-starved for two or three hours. If you can manage to 
give them a late evening feed, they will thrive under it. Any one 
caring to make the experiment will be astonished at the difference in 
the growth of chicks fed early, often, and late, and that regularly, and 
those fed, as they too frequently are, without any system — 'when I 
happen to think of if' " 



YOUNG CHICKS. 

If possible the feed for the first week should consist of hard boiled 
eggs, oat meal, bread crumbs, etc. Where a large number are raised 
this system of feeding would perhaps be attended with too much 
trouble and expense ; but even where such is the case efforts should 
be made to give them at least two or three feeds as above. Chicks 



COCKER S MANUAL. 4t 

■under two weeks old should be fed as often as every two hours during 
.the day, and no more should be given at each feed than they can eat 
up clean. They should be kept at a distance from the house to pre- 
vent them from drinking muddy or filthy water. Oftimes it will not 
do to allow several hens with their chickens to run upon the yard at 
the same time on account of their quarrelsome disposition and liabil- 
ity to kill each other's chickens, etc.; and when from any cause they 
are confined in coops they should be plentifully supplied with fresb 
water and green feed. Green grass chopped fine, lettuce, cabbage, 
etc., should be mixed with their food. A little meat two or three 
tiroes a week is also good. Wheat screenings are very good for chicks 
five or six weeks old. In no case should bread soaked in water be fed 
as it soon sours in the stomach, and is productive of disease. A little 
camphor put into the drinking water will be Ibund to assist greatly in 
keeping the chicks in good health. It is bad policy to allow spring 
' chicks to roost before they are three or four months old, as before that 
time the tendency is to produce crooked breast bones, so frequently 
seen in young fowls. 

Respecting the care of chickens Mr. Bement says: "We are certain 
more chickens are destroyed by over feeding than are lost by the want 
of it. We have remarked also that hens which stole their nests gen- 
erally hatched all their eggs ; and if suffered to seek the food for her 
chickens, if the season was somewhat advanced, she would, unless 
some casualty occurred, raise the whole brood, while with too much 
kindness or officiousness not half would be raised. All watery food, 
such as soaked bread or potatoes, should be avoided. If Indian meal 
is well boiled and fed not too moist, it will answer a very good pur- 
pose, particularly after they are eight or ten days old. Pure water 
must be placed near them, either in shallow dishes or bottle fountains, 
so that the chickens may drink without getting into the water, which 
by wetting their feathers benumbs and injures them. After having 
confined them for five or six days in the box, they may be allowed 
the range of the yard if the weather is fair. They should not be let 
out of their coops too early in the morning, or while the dew is on 
the grotmd ; far less be suffered to range over the wet grass, which iA 
a common and fatal cause of death. Another cause of the utmost 
consequence to guard them against is sudden unfavorable changes of 
the weather, more particularly if attended with rain. Really all the 

4 



42 COCKER S MANUAL. 

diseases of gallinaceous fowls arise from cold moisture. At the end 
of four weeks, the hen may be allowed to lead her little ones into the 
poultry yard, where she will soon wean them and commence laying, 
again. The feathering of chickens demands attention inasmuch as 
with them it is a most trying time. If chickens feather rapidly when 
very young they are always weakly, however healthy in other respects-, 
from the fact that their food goes to sustain their feathers instead of 
their bodies, and they frequently languish and die from this circum- 
stance alone ; but if, on the other hand, they feather slowly the food 
in early life goes to nourish and sustain their bodies until they become 
more vigorous and old enough to sustain the shock of feathering with- 
out detriment. Chickens which feather rapidly must be kept perfectly 
dry and warm, however strange it may appear, or they will die ; while 
naked chickens, as they are called, or those which feather at a more 
advanced age and very slowly, seldom suffer from the cold from the 
fact that their down is very warm and their blood is hotter and cir- 
culates more rapidly, as their food principally goes to blood, flesh and 
bone, and not to feathers." 

In closing we will only say, don't try to raise too many, for a place 
that will accommodate a large number when chicks will be found 
much too small when grown. Close quarters cause vermin and dis- 
ease. We think these instructions and the aid of a little common 
sense will insure you success. 



RULES FOR FEEDING. 

Nearly every old cocker has rules for feeding of his own which he 
follows, often producing good results ; but our object is to give rules 
which have been extensively used and which on that account can be 
regarded as standard authority, and the following if carefully observed 
will result in marked success : 

The first thing to be provided is a coop of sufficient size, and suita- 
ble for a cock to exercise in. Probably one two and one-half feet 
wide, three feet high and three feet deep, with a roost running through 
the middle, would be sufficient. Another requisite is a, place with 
sufficient light and air. Put up your cocks in the evening two weeks 



cocker's manual. 43 

■before they are to fight ; if stags ten days will do. For the first three 
or four days let the feed be mush and molasses. If your cocks be very 
fat mix a little vinegar with the evening food. After the third day 
physic them with one ounce of Epsom salts to three ounces of butter, 
mix well together, and at night be sure that tliey have no food in their 
<;oop. Give each cock a pill the size of a marble. The next day let 
Them have as much water as they will drink. The first feed after giv- 
ing the physic should be mush and milk, one tablespoonful to each 
cock, and one feed of the white of hard boiled eggs chopped fine and 
mixed with barley. During the last week do not feed any barley but 
feed bread and eggs in the morning, and cracked corn and eggs in the 
evening. Wash their feet once a day and sponge their heads with 
rum reduced with vinegar ; equal parts- should be used. Before feed- 
ing in the morning exercise for a short time, increasing the length of 
time each feed. To give them their exercise, toss them on a bag 
stuffed with straws or a soft cushion until they become tired. If you 
have a very fat cock give him extra exercise and immediately after 
sponge and wipe dry ; then place him in the coop and do not give 
him drink until he has become sufficiently cool. Be careful to exam- 
ine each cock before cooping, to see if there are any signs of disease 
about him ; and if so remove at once. If possible let the drink be 
spring water, and that only to be given once a day, at noon ; two or 
three swallows are sufficient. If the cock is very thin in flesh, beat 
^p the white of an egg with a little boiled milk, and give two swallows 
twice a day. The utmost care must be taken to keep the coops clean. 
It is best to remove the straw every morning and put in fresh. Fre- 
quent use of the weights is necessary to show the order and condition 
of the cocks. Extra fat rocks will require longer exercise and others 
proportionately. If a fowl is extremely eager to drink, it shows too 
much fever ; in this case give a little nitre with the water, and the 
fever will be reduced in a short time. This should be repeated until 
the desire for drink subsides. In no case feed a cock unless his crop 
is empty, Large fat cocks can be reduced from eight to fourteen 
ounces ; smaller ones from three to eight ounces. 

The following is to be found in the Edinburg Encyclopaedia : 
"The fowl is supposed to come from his walk in good condition, in 
■which case he will be too fat for fighting and will have no wind until 
he is reduced. ' To effect this medicine and abstinence from food are 



44 cocker's manual. 

required for seven or eight days before he can be brought to the hit,. 
at least such is the regime pursued by our first feeders and is pretty 
generally as follows : His tail and spurs being cut short he is put into- 
his pen, and the first day received no food; second, he has his physic, 
consisting of cream of tartar or jalap, or both united, in the dose of 
about five grains of each ; or if it be a very fat and large fowl, the 
dose may be increased to ten grains of cream of tartar. These are 
given him mixed in fresh butter ; this generally purges briskly and 
scours out the intestines. Immediately after the physic is given and 
before it affects him he is placed on loose straw or a grass plat with 
another cock and allowed to spar with him, the boots or muffles being- 
previously tied on their short spurs. In this way he is exercised till 
he is a little weary; he is then returned to his pen. Before putting 
him up it is necessary to examine his mouth to see if he has been 
picked or wounded in the inside, as'such wound is apt to canker. To- 
prevent this it is washed with a little vinegar and brandy. He is now 
allowed his warm nest to work off his physic. This is a diet made of 
warm ale or sweet wort, and bread in it, with a little sugar candy, or 
bread and milk and sugar candy, a large tea cup full. He is then 
shut up close till the next morning, or about twenty-four hours. If 
the weather is cold the room should be made warm, or a blanket 
placed over the pen ; if in warm weather he may be clipped out for 
fighting ; but if the weather is cold this should be left till the time of 
fighting. The room should be kept dark except at feeding. Early on 
the following morning, that is about the third day, his pen must be 
cleaned out from the effects of the physic, etc., and clean dry straw 
put in ; this should be done every day. His feet should be washed 
and wiped clean before he is returned to his pen. If his feet feel cold 
his pen should be made warmer. He is next to be allowed some 
bread; that is, a sort of bread made of. ingredients in the following 
proportions : about three pounds of fine flour, two eggs, four whites 
of eggs and a little yeast ; this is kneaded with a sufficiency of water 
for a proper consistency, and well baked. Some add, as a great secret 
a small number of annis seeds or a little cinnamon. Of this bread as 
much as would fill a tea cup, cut into pieces, is given him twice that 
day ; no water is allowed him then, as it is considered highly injuri- 
ous at the early part of the feeding. On the fourth day early in the 
morning he should receive half a tea cup of good barley and a little 



cocker's manual. 45 

•water, in which a toast has been steeped some time. Having eaten 
this clean his pen, etc., and let it be uncovered for about an hour 
■while he scratches and picks the straw Some think it is highly ad- 
vantageous to prepare the barley for them by bruising it, and thus take 
away the sharp points of the barley and the husky shell or covering 
which is blown away. In the afternoon the same quantity of barley 
may be repeated, but no water. On the fifth or next day he may have 
the bread as before, but three portions of it and no water. On the 
sixth or weighing day very early in the morning give him the bread 
as before. He is then to be weighed, and afterwards a good feed of 
barley and water should be given. Some hold it a valuable secret to 
give them flesh, as sheep's heart, for this and the succeeding day, 
•chopped small and mixed with the other food. On the seventh day 
or day before fighting, early in Ae morning let him bave the same 
feed of barley ; in the afternoon bread and the white of an egg boiled 
hard and a little water. On the eighth or day of fighting he may have 
a little barley, as about forty grains." 

We give below Stamper's rjile (a well-known Southern sportsraaH, 
■who, many years ago met with great success through the Southern 
States), which was presented to us by F. E. Grist, of Blakely, Georgia, 
■who had a personal acquaintance with him : 

STAMPER'S RULE. 

Ten days before the cock is taken up from his walk to be prepared 
for battle he should be carefully examined to see that he is a sound 
fowl, his feathers should be glossy, hard, and lie close ; if you are 
fully satisfied from this examination of his soundness you can then 
spar him with a cock of his own weight until he becomes wearied; 
should he turn black in the face turn him out, as it will be impossible 
to get him right in time for the contest. If he does not show any sign 
-of disease, give him a dose of the following physic : Six grains cream 
tartar and six grains rhubarb made into pills with unsalted butter or 
lard. After Riving the physic, flirt him a few times, then give him a 
"warm mash of bread steeped in sweetened water or boiled rice and 
milk; leave him foE twenty-four hours and this will have acted suffi- 
•ciently ; he can now be turned out. Give one feed of boiled rice and 
uanilk. For the balance of the ten days feed on such grain as he may 



46 cocker's manual. 

have been accustomed to, giving an occasional feed of raw meat 
chopped fine, which will be of great advantage should it agree with 
him. 

nth. Having been prepared as above suggested, the cock will now 
be taken up preparatory to being fed and drilled for the pit. Cut off 
his spurs, which should be done with a small saw made for that pur- 
pose, leaving about half an inch. Flirt him until beseems tired, then 
give him warm sulphur water. Late that evening physic as before 
directed, spar him, then give him a mash of barley or oat bread and 
milk to work off the physic. 

1 2th. At twelve o'clock to-day feed boiled rice and milk, late m 
the evening flirt him then give warm sulphur water. 

13th. Clean out your coop well, then wash your cock's mouth, legs 
and feet, wipe dry and put him back into the coop. His first feed 
should be barley or oat meal bread moistened with skimmed milk or 
water. Give him three feeds of this, and his drink should be barley 
water three times that day. Flirt him. 

14th. Feed oat bread and scalded barley mixed ; at twelve o'clock 
oat bread and the white of a hard boiled egg ; late in the evening ex- 
ercise by flirting, feed with scalded barley and corn bread. Give hina 
free-stone water three times for drink. 

15th. Feed corn bread and raw beef chopped fine and mixed in the 
morning, oat bread and the white of a hard boiled egg at twelve 
o'clock, flirt him in the evening for exercise, feed oat bread and 
scalded barley ; give barley water cool three times and let him roost 
at night. 

i6lh. Feed oat bread and raw beef chopped fine and mixed in the- 
morning; at twelve o'clock feed with corn bread and the white 
of a hard boiled egg. Exercise him in the evening by flirting, and, 
feed him oat bread and scalded barley. His drink should be spring 
water and milk. Let him roost at night. 

17th. Feed corn bread and scalded barley mixed, in the morning;; 
at twelve o'clock feed on oat bread and the white of a hard boiled egg. 
In the evening flirt him for exercise, and feed corn bread and scalded 
barley mixed. His drink should be barley water three times. Let 
him roost at night. 



COCKER S MANUAL. 49 

i8th. Feed barley bread and the white of a hard boiled egg in the 
morning. At twelve o'clock feed corn bread and the white of a hard 
boiled egg. Flirt him in the evening and feed on oat bread and 
scalded barlej. Let him roost at night. 

19th. Feed corn bread and scalded barley. At twelve o'clock feed 
oat bread and the white of a hard boiled egg. Flirt in the evening, 
and turn loose for a few minutes in a room, but not one in which he 
cannot get fresh air. Feed corn bread and scalded barley. • ' 

20th. This being the day of battle, give him a light feed of oat 
bread early in the morning, and in about one hour a drink of spring 
water and milk. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

Some cocks will need physic twice when taken up, others only once ; 
this can only be determined by the feeder. The feeder should be 
provided with a good pair of scales that weigh down as low as half aa 
ounce, and he can only feed intelligently by their frequent use. Fat 
cocks require long sparring or flirting, and when much wearied let 
them rest. As long as their appetites are gpod you need have no fears 
of over exercise or over feeding. Let them have what they will eat 
at night, keeping their flesh down by exercise ; but should you not be 
able to keep them down in flesh feed sparingly with barley bread and 
scalded barley. If they should become too much reduced and wanting 
in appetite, let them have such food as they are most fond of; a raw 
egg or two will probably restore it. When they incline to driuk too 
muct it is a sign of heat, and sometimes happens at the latter part of 
the keep ; then they should have a little sorrel or plantain leaf cut 
and mixed with their food. Give them also milk and cool spring 
water with a little fine rectified spirits of nitre injt to drink, which 
will cool and moderate their heat. This ought to be repeated until 
their thirst or desire for drink subsides. In no instance give a cock 
water after being heated by sparring or otherwise. When cocks begin 
to purge give them new milk well boiled with barley bread, warm, 
and their drink ought to be warm toast and spring water. In giving 
cocks drink do not let them have more than four dips at one time, 
which ought to be eight and eleven o'clock in the morning and three 
o'clock in the evening, and never feed a cock unless his crop is empty. 



50 COCKER S MANUAL. 

Give him drink and exercise and it will soon go off. Reducing the 
weight of the cock depends entirely on the size and order when they 
are put up. Large, fat cocks should lose from ten to sixteen ounces, 
a* cock in medium order should lose from six to ten ounces^ smaller ones 
in proportion. Lean cocks will lose one or two ounces but will nearly 
gain it in feeding, and every cock when fought should be rather in 
the rise in weight.- If the weather is warm they should be trimmed 
the day before the iight, but must be kept warm that night. Be care- 
ful and not cut their wings and tail too short. 

Care should be taken to keep the cocks clean; shift the straw at: 
least once in two davs in their coops. Every evening, three days be- 
fore the fight, wash the head, legs and feet in chamber lye, and in 
the morning in water not too cold, and wipe dry ; this will heal the 
bruises about their heads and the cracks in their toes. 

Stags ought to be put the ninth day before they are to fight, and 
ought to have but one sparring afid one purge. They are to be treat- 
ed in other respects as an old cock. 

Sulphur water is made by a pint of boiling water on half an ounce 
of sulphur and pouring off as it cools. 

The scalded barley is prepared by pouring on scalding water and 
not letting it stand more than ten minutes, then pour it off and spread 
the barley on a table to dry. The water that is poured off serves for 
their drink, which ought to be made fresh every morning. It is best 
weak, a slight taste of the barley being sufficient ; otherwise it is rath- 
er heating. In mixing milk and water for their drink, observe not to 
put more than one-fourth skimmed milk to three-fourths spring water; 
a greater proportion of milk is not so cooling. The different sorts of 
bread for feed, sush as oat, barley or corn-meal, must be heated and 
ought to be baked the day before they are used. They are made in 
the following manner : take equal measure of the white of eggs and 
milk, beat well together, then add as much meal as will make up for 
bread, which must be well worked up and baked, care being used to 
prevent the crust from burning. In no instance must sour milk be 
used, for it will cause them to purge, which is very hurtful. Whea 
raw beef is recommended, if it should be found to purge discontinue 
its use. 



COCKERS MANUAL. 5 J 

TRIMMING FOWLS FOR THE PIT. 

Known among cockers as "cutting out," is done by the handler 
itfflmediately after weighing and tends to give the cock greater force 
and activity in the pit. This practice has been in vogue for years 
among handlers, and consists in cutting or trimming the neck and 
hackle feathers close from his head to his shoulders and clipping off 
all the feathers from his tail close to his rump. The more scarlet ap- 
pears the better state of health he is in. Then take his wings and 
extend them ; from the first feather clip the rest sloping, leaving sharp^ 
points, that in rising he may endanger the eyes of his adversary. This 
practice, we are glad to say, is not followed as much at present as ii» 
former years, as most fowls are required to be shown in full feather. 



RULES FOR HEELING. 

Holding the fowl on either side fit the heel tightly to the stub, hav- 
ing the point just pass the outside or back of the leg and fasten it 
while in that position. Holding onto the leg just heeled, turn the 
fowl and proceed to heal the other in the same manner, with the point 
occupying a similar position. Fowls heeled in this manner will be 
found to do good cutting in the body and neck and frequently will 
bring down their opponents with either a broken wing or leg. A fowl 
fighting for the head and neck exclusively require a much closer heel- 
ing, to accomplish which, if the heel is to be placed on the right leg^ 
set it so that the point will be on a line with the center of the slight 
hollow perceptible in the upper joint of the right leg. The point of 
the heel on the left leg should be placed on a line with the outside of 
the upper joint of the left leg. 

On this subject Dr. Cooper advises as follows: "Let your fowl be 
held so that the inside of the leg will be perfectly level, then take 
your thumb and fore finger and work the back toe of the fowl. While 
doing this you will see the leader of the leg rise and fall at the upper 
joint. You will set the right gaft on a line with the outside of the 
leader at the upper joint of the leg, and the left gaft you will set on a 
line with the inside of the leader at the upper joint. Be careful not 



5 2 



COCKER S MANUAL. 



to set the gaft too far in, as it would cause the cock to cut himself." 
The spurs should be sawed off when the cocks are put up for feed- 
ing, and should be left with a length sufficient to reach nearly through 
the socket of the gaft. Thin paper folded and dampened, or soft 
buckskin can be used to fit the spur to the socket of the gaft. The 
two methods given above are extensively practiced, and when fol- 
lowed cannot lead astray. Yet, perhaps nothing connected with the 
handling of birds depends so much upon undivided preference as 
heeling ; and nearly all fanciers have original methods for heeling, 
and by no means quietly affirm their methods superior to all others 
fenown. 



DESCRIPTION OF GAFTS. 



For the benefit of those unacquainted with the different styles of 
■Gafts we give illustrations of all the leading kinds now in use. To 
the old cocker they would be of little use, but there are many fanciers 
who are not acquainted with them who have asked for a more careful 
illustration, which we trust we have given. 




REGULATION SPUR. 



The fairest and best heel in use for all purposes, being nearly 
straight and perfectly round from socket to point, with a short round 
socket, varying but little from the Singleton, which is also very much 
in use and a favorite with many. 



COCKER S MANUAL. 



5J 




SINGLETON SPUR. 



The Singleton Spur is now extensively used by heelers. The sock- 
et is light, short and round, with the spur nearly straight, running 
from the lower part. This is considered one of the fairest heels in 
use, is highly finished, finely tempered, not easily broken, and can be 
obtained of any desired length. 




CINCINNATI HEEL. 



The Cincinnati Heel differs from the Singleton heel in many par- 
ticulars. The socket is heavy,- long and deep, with the spur curved 
upward from the bottom of the socket. This spur is deservedly a 
favorite among all heelers, and cannot be barred from any pit, being. 
perfectly round, like the Singleton spur, from socket to point. 



54 



COCKER S MANUAL. 




THIMBLE HEEL. 



The Thimble Heel is extensively used, and many of the advanta- 
ges claimed for it are possessed by no other spur. The socket is 
thimble-shaped, with no opening at the end, constituting the only 
essential difference from other heels. It is claimed that by filling up 
the socket the heel is removed farther from the leg, giving the fowl 
greater purchase. 




FULL DROP SOCKET. 



Full Drop Socket Heel was a favorite among heelers of an early 
day. As will be noticed the blade comes directly from the back and 
lower part of the socket, and dropping almost throws the spur even 
with the foot. Leather is frequently placed on the under part of the 
socket to make the drop greater. 



COCKER S MANUAL. 55 




HALF DROP SOCKET. 

The Half Drop Socket differs from the Full Drop in having the 
Wade come directly from the front part of the socket with a less long 
and deep drop. Drop sockets can be obtained of any desired length. 
The revised rules of the pit however declare drop socket heels unfair, 
and consequently if used a special agreement will be necessary. 



REMARKS ON THE FOWL. 



HEELING, HANDLING, ETC. 

No general rule can be laid down for handling, yet a few special 
semarks concerning the qualifications of handlers and what they ob- 
serve may be made. The handler never should allow himself to be- 
come excited by the remarks or actions of the opposite pitter, who 
will undoubtedly seek to get him confused, but remaining perfectly 
cool shoiild give an undivided attention to his bird during the count. 
In handling do not allow your opponent to over-bill for the purpose 
of fatigueing your bird. If it becomes necessary to give either cock 
the wing it should be done in a gentle manner and not with force 
sufficient to throw him upon his feet. If one cock becomes fast in the 
other, the pitter should at once advance and see to the drawing of the 
heels. Immediately after the fight see to the weighing of the birds. 
Handlers should be men capable of maintaining the utmost composure, 
endowed with quick perception and thoroughly conversant with the 
yules of the pit. They should strive for every advantage possible 



56 cocker's manual. 

within the rules. A good handler is a man of many resources. Nu- 
merous fights have been won more by the handling than by the heel- 
ing or the fighting qualities of the birds. 

As regards heeling we remark that many fowls are close hitters, 
while others are wide. The latter should be heeled more closely, in 
this respect differing greatly from the manner of heeling close hitting- 
birds, with whom the greater caution is to be observed to prevent 
them from cutting themselves. Every heeler should be thoroughly 
acquainted with his fowls before he attempts to heel them. The ama- 
teur after heeling should try the cock, and following this practice will 
learn the proper way of setting the heels. 

Never pit a fowl that is sick or out of condition, for no matter how 
good a heeler you have you can hardly be successful ; in fact, condi- 
tion is everything, as otherwise the fowl will lack wind, muscle, will 
be weak, and his style of fighting will not be determined but extreme- 
ly feeble. The fowl that is in the best condition invariably wins the 
battle, although through chance his opponent will get in a blow that 
will disable him. It has been our experience that condition and style 
of handling is of greater importance than the heeling, for if in poor 
condition the fowl can hardly use the heels to advantage. 

The pit should be either sixteen or eighteen feet in diameter, and 
can be made with either six or eight corners, or if preferred can be 
of circular form. It should be from sixteen to twenty-four inches in 
height in order to prevent the cock from breaking his heels should he 
while fighting force his opponent too near the side of the pit. It 
should be lined with some cheap material, dark color preferable, with 
a stuffing of either cut hay or straw, making a soft cushion the entire 
distance around it. In all regular pits the bottom is covered with 
carpet or other suitable material, a mark being made as near the cen- 
ter as possible ; two other tnarks are drawn one foot each way from 
the center. 



COCKERS MANUAL. 57 

RULES OF THE PIT. 



NEW YORK RULES. 

Article i. — The pit shall be a circular pit, at least twelve feet im- 
(iiametcr and not less than sixteen inches in height, the floor of whicfe 
shall be covered with carpet or some other suitable material. There 
shall be a chalk or other mark made as near as can be to the center oC 
the pit. There shall also be two outer marks which shall be one foot 
each way from the center mark. 

Art. 2. — The pitters shall each choose one judge who shall choose- 
a referee. Said judge shall decide all matters in dispute during the 
pendency of the fight ; but in case of their inability to agree then ifc 
shall be the duty of the referee to decide, and his decision shall be 
final. 

Art. 3. — Chickens shall take their age from the first day of Marchj, 
and shall be chickens during the following fighting season, to-wit ~ 
From the first day of March to the first day of June the following year„ 

Art. 4. — It shall be deemed foul for either of the respective pitters 
to pit a bird with what is termed a foul hackle; that is, any of the- 
feathers left whole on the mane or neck. 

Art. 5. — No person shall be permitted to handle his fowl after her 
is fairly delivered in the pit unless he counts ten, clear and distinct^, 
without either fowl making fight, or shall be fast in his adversary, oi- 
fast in the carpet, or hung in the web of the pit or in himself. 

Art. 6.— Any fowl that may get on his back the pitter thereof shalb 
turn him off it, but not take him off the ground he is lying on. 

Art. 7. — Whenever a fowl is 'fast in his adversary, the pitter of ths..r 
fowl the spurs are fast in shall draw them out, but the pitter of a iowH 
has no right to draw out his own spur, except when fast in himself, or" 
in the carpet, or in the web of the pit. 

Art. 8. — When either pitter shall have counted ten tens successively,^ 
without the fowl refusing fight, making fight, again breasting theixi 
fair on their feet, breast to breast and beak to beak on the center scorse 
or mark, on the fifth ten being told, and also on the ninth ten beirngj 

5 



58 • cocker's manual. 

told, shall have won the fight. ^ The pitters are bound to tell each ten 
as they count them, as follows : once, twice, etc. 

Art. 9. — No pitter, after the fowls have been delivered in the pit, 
shall be permitted to clean their beaks or eyes by blowing or other- 
wise, or of squeezing his fowl, or pressing him against the floor during 
the pendency of a fight. 

Art. 10. — When a fowl is pounded and no person takes it until the 
pitter counts twenty twice and calls three times "Who takes it?" and 
no person does take it, it is a battle to the fowl the odds are on ; but 
the pitter of the pounded fowl has the right to have the pound put up, 
that is, twenty dollars against one , should not this be complied with, 
then the pitter shall go on as though there was no poundage. 

Art. II. — If a fowl is pounded and the poundage taken, and if the 
bird the odds are laid against should get up and knock down his ad- 
versary, then if the other bird is pounded and the poundage not taken 
before the pitter counts twenty twice and calls out "Who takes it?" 
three times, he wins, although there was a poundage before. 

Art. 12. — It shall be the duty of the respective pitters to deliver 
their fowls fair on their feet on the outer mark or score, facing each 
other, and in a standing position, except on the fifth ten being told, 
and alse on the ninth ten being told, when they shall be placed on 
the center score, breast to breast and beak to beak, in like 
manner. Any pitter being guilty of shoving his bird across the score, 
or of pinching him, or using any other unfair means for the purpose 
of making his bird fight, shall lose the fight. 

Art. 13. — If both birds fight together, and then if both should 
refuse until they are counted out. in such case a fresh one is to be 
hoveled and brought into the pit and the pitters are to toss for which 
bird is to set to first ; he that wins has the choice ; then the one which 
is to set to last is to be taken up but not carried out of the pit. The 
hoveled bird is then to be put down to the other and let fight, while 
the judges, or one of them, shall count twenty, and the other in like 
manner ; and if one fights and the other refuses it is a battle to the 
fighting bird ; but if both fight or both refuse it is a drawn battle. 

N. B. — This rule is rarely carried into effect, but any pitter can ex- 
act it if he thinks proper to do so. 



COCK.ER S MANUAL. 59 

Art. 14. — If both birds refuse. fighting until four, five or more or 
less tens are counted, the pitters shall continue their count until one 
has refused ten times ; for when a pitter begins to count he counts for 
both. 

Art. 15. — If a bird should die before they are counted out, if he 
fights last he wins the battle ; This, however is not to apply when his 
adversar\- is running away. 

Art. 1.6. — The crowing, or raising of the hackle of a bird is not 
fight, nor is fighting at the pitter's hands. 

Art. 17. — A breaking fowl is a fighting one, but breaking from his 
adversary is not fight. 

Art. 18. — If any dispute arises between the pitters on the result of 
the fight, the birds are not to be taken out of the pit, nor the gafts 
taken off, until it is decided by the judges or referee. 

Art. 19. — Each fowl within two ounces of each other shall be 9. 
match ; except blinkers when fighting against two-eyed birds, an 
allowance of from three to five ounces shall be made ; when blinkers 
are matched against each other the same rule to apply as ta two-eyed 
contestants. 

Art 20. — Any person fighting a feird heavier than he is represented 
oa the match list shall lose the fight, although he may have won. 

Art. 21. — In all cases of appeal fighting ceases until the judges or 
the referee give their decision, which shall be final and strictly to the 
question before them. 

Art. 22. — When a bet is made it cannot be declared off unless by 
consent of both parties, all outside bets to go according to the main 
bet. 

Art. 23. — Each pitter when delivering his fowl on the score shall 
take his hands off him as quickly as possible. 

Art. 24. — Any person violating any of the above rules shall be 
deemed to have lost the match. 

PHILADELPHIA RULES. 

Article i. — The pit must be a Aground floor, unless otherwise 
agreed to. 

Art. 2. — The cock or stag must be weighed enclosed in a small bag, 
and then two ounces deducted for the weight of the bag and feathers. 



6o cocker's manual. 

A stag fighting a cock has an allowance of four ounces in weight,' a 
blinker cock fighting a two-eyed one has four ounces ; a blinker cofck 
and a stag of one weight are a match. ./ 

Art. 3 — The cocks being weighed and matched, you will cut them 
out; you must cut the hackle with all the shiners off; you can use 
your own pleasure about cutting out other parts of your cock. 

Art. 4. — Your cock now being cut out you will heel him ; you can 
heel him with paper and water and nothing but that ; if you do yoU' 
will lose the battle if the opposite party finds it out. 

Art. 5. — Your cock being heeled, you will bring him in the pit for 
battle ; you will bill the cocks one minute, and then, put them down- 
behind your scores for their battle. 

Art. 6. — In fighting a battle, according to Philadelphia Rules, when 
you deliver your cock on his score, you must stand back of him and 
not lean over him to hide him from the other cock. 

Art. 7. — A cock breaking with another cock is fight, and a cock 
picking at any time when on the graund is fight ; but picking while 
in your hands is- not fight; he must make fight after you deliver him 
oijt of your hands. 
*/ Art. 8.' — -When the cocks are fast, you must handle by my drawing, 
your spur out of my cock and you drawing my spus out of your cock, 
you then have thirty seconds to nurse yom- cock ; the judge will call 
"down cocks;" then you must strictly obey and put your cock clown 
to renew the battle. In case one of the cocks gets disabled, you can 
count him out : you can lay your cock down on his wing on his score,, 
and count ten without the other cock making fight ; you can handle 
him again, and so on until you count five tens ; then you can get 
ready to breast )'our cocks ; you must put them down on their feet 
and breast to brea=t, and if the crippled cock refuses to fight while the 
opposite handler counts twenty more, he has lost the battle. 

Art. 9. — You are not bound to lay your cock on his wing, you can 
use your pleasure whether to lay him on his wing or on his feet ; if it 
is to your advantage for your cock to fight, put him down on his feet 
and let him fight. 

Art. 10. — In counting a cock out, after you breast the cocks and 
you are counting twenty, if the cock should get in the disabled cock, 
you dare not put your hand on them unless the disabled cock makes 



cocker's manual. 63 

fight; and if he does make fight, you can handle, and by his making 
fight it will renew all the counting from the first, and if the disabled 
coc> should make fight last it is his count. 

AnT. II. — The judges cut the heels off, and if all is right you must 
get leady for the next battle; you, are allowed twenty minutes to be 
in th; pit with the next cock. The judges* are to keep the time. 

AzT. 12. — All outside bets go as the main stakes. 

Aft. 13. — Any man not paying bets that he lost will not be allowed 
in any pit in Philadelphia hereafter. 

WESTERN RULES. 

Rule i. — All birds shall be weighed, give or take two ounees, shall 
le a match or otherwise if parties see fit to make it so. 

Rule 2. — All heels to be fought with shall round from socket to 
point, or as near so as can be made. 

Rule 3. — When a stag is matched against a cock, the stag will be 
entitled to four ounces advance in weight. 

Rule 4. — It shall be fair for handlers to pull feathers and sling blood, 
©r any other thing to help the bird between handlings. 

Rule 5. — It shall be foul for A or B to touch their birds while fight- 
ing unless one is fast to the other, but if a bird should unfortunately 
fasten himself with his own heel it shall be fair to handle, but on no 
other consideration, and either handler violating or deviating from 
the above rules shall lose his fight. 

Rule '6. — Thirty seconds shall be allowed between each and every 
round. 

Rule 7. — In counting, the bird showing fight last shall be entitled 
to the count, but if his handler refuse to take the count the opposite 
handler shall be entitled to it. 

Rule 8. — The handler having the count shall pit his bird in his 
respective place when time is called, and count ten, then handle three 
more successive times; when time is called again, the birds shall be 
placed in the center ot the pit, breast to breast, and forty more count- 
ed, and if the bird not having the count refuse to fight, the one hav- 
ing it shall be the winner. 



6 4 cocker's manual. 

Rule 9. — A peck or blow at the opponent's bird, and not at hi 
Ihandler, will be considered fighting. 

Rule 10. — When time is called the handlers must let go their birds 
irom their respective places fair and square, for it shall be foul for 
■either handler to pitch or toss his bird upon his opponent's, and 
--either one violating the aboVe rule shall lose his fight. 

Rule ii. — Each party shall choose a judge, and the judges choose 
^a disinterested party as referee. No referee will be competent vho 
has bet on either side, or is otherwise interested. 

Rule 15. — It shall be the duty of the judges and referee to witch 
:3.\\ movements of the figtits and judge according to the above rules. 
The referee will be confined to the opinions of the judges only, and 
■Ms decision final. 

Rule 13. — It shall be the duty of the referee to keep time betweea 
Tthe rounds and notify the handlers to get ready at twenty-five seconds, 
:.then call time at thirty seconds, when the handlers must be prompt ia 
.-^pitting their birds ; and if either handler refuse to do so, he shall lose 
2.the fight. 

SOUTHERN RULES. 

Article i. — When the cocks are in the pit the judges are to ex- 

-.j.mine whether they are fairly trimmed and have fair heels. If all be 

right and fair the pitters are to deliver their cocks six feet apart (or 

Tither«abouts) and retire a step or two back ; but if a wrong cock should 

r?e produced the party so offending forfeits that battle. 

Art. 2. — All heels that are round from the socket to the point are 
;aUowed to be fair; any pitter bringing a cock into the pit with any 
other kind of heels, except by particular agreement, forfeits the battle. 

Art. 3. — If either cock should be irimmed with a close, unfair back, 
■iShe judge shall direct the other to be cut in the same manner, and at 
•ithe time shall observe to the pitter that if he brings another cock ia 
tthe like situation unless he shall have been previously trimmed, he 
3hall forfeit the battle. 

Art. 4. — A pitter when he delivers his cock shall retire two paces 
back, and not advance or walk around his cock until a blow has 
,!nassed. 



cocker's manual. 65 

Art. 5. — An interval of minutes shall be allowed between the 

termination of one battle and the commencement of another. 

Art. 6. — No pitter shall pull a feather out of a cock's mouth or 
from over his eyes or head, or pluck him by the breast to make him 
fight, .^r punch him for the like purpose, under penalty of forfeiting 
the battle. 

Art. 7. — The pitters are to give the cocks room to fight, and are 
not to hover and press on them so as to retard their striking. 

Art. 8. — The greasing, peppering, muffing, and sooping a cock, or 
any other external application, are unfair practices, and by no means 
admissible in this amusument. 

Art. 9. — The jndges, when required, may suffer a pitter to call in 
some of his friends to assist in catching the cock, who are to retire 
immediately when the cock is caught, and in no other instance is the 
judge to suffer the pit to be broken. 

Art. 10. — All cocks on their backs are to be immediately turned 
over on their bellies by their respective pitters at all times. 

Art. II. — A cock when down is to have a wing given him if he 
needs it, unless his adversary is on it, but his pitter is to place the 
wing gently in its proper position, and not to lift the cock; and no 
wing is to be given unless absolutely necessary. 

Art. 12. — If either cock should be hanged in himself, in the pit, or 
canvas, he is to be loosed by his pitter ; but if in his adversary, both 
both pitters are to immediately lay hold of their respective cocks, and 
the pitter whose cock is hung shall hold him steady while the adverse 
draws out the heel, and then they shall take their cocks asunder a 
sufficient distance for them fairly to renew the combat. 

Art. 13. — Should the cocks separate and the judges be unable to 
decide which fought last, he shall at his discretion direct the pitters 
to carry their cocks to the middle of the pit and deliver them back to 
back, unless either of them is blind ; in that ease they are to be 
shouldered, that is, delivered with their breasts touching, each pitter 
taking care to deliver his cock at this, as well as at all times with one 
hand. 

Art. 14. — When both cocks cease fighting it is then in the power 
of the pitter of the last fighting cock, unless they touch each other, to 
demand a count of the judges, who shall count forty deliberately. 



66 cockee's manual. 

which, when counted out, is not to be counted again during the battle. 
Then the pitters «hall catch their cocks and carry them to the middle 
of the pit and deliver them beak to beak ; but to be shouldered if 
either are blind as before. Then if either cock refuses or neglects to 
fight the judge shall count ten, and shall direct the pitters to bring 
their cocks again to the middle of the pit and pit as before ; and if 
the same cock in like manner refuses, he shall count ten again and call 
©ut "twice refused,," and so proceed until one cock thus refuses six 
times successively. The judge shall then determine the battle against 
such cock. 

Art. 15. — If either cock dies before the judge can finish the count- 
ing of the law, the battle is to be given to the living cock, and if both 
die the longest liver wins the battle. 

Art. 16. — The pitters are not to touch their cocks whilst the judge 
is in the act of counting. 

Art. 17. — No pitter is ever to lay hold of his adversary's cock, un- 
less to draw out the heel, and then he must take him below the kne-c. 
Then there shall be no second delivery, that is, after he is once de- 
livered he shall not be touched until a blow is struck, unless ordered 

Art. 18. — No pitter shall touch his cock unless at the time men- 
tioned in the foregoing rules. 

Art. 19. — If any pitter acts contrary to these rules the judge, if 
called upon at the time, shall give the battle against him. 

ENGLISH RULES. 

1. That every person show and put his cock into the pit with a 
fair hackle, not tjo near shorn, or out, nor with any other fraud. 

2. That every cock fight as he is first shown in the pit, without 
shearing or cutting any feathers afterwards, except with the consent 
©f both the masters of the match. 

3. When both cocks are set down to fight, and one of them runs 
away before they have struck three mouthing blows, it is adjudged no 
battle to the persons who bet. 

4. No persons to set-to but those who are appointed by the masters 
«if the match. 



cocker's manual. 69 

5. When a cock shall come setting-to, and both cocks refuse to 
fight ten times successively according to the law, then a fresh cock 
shall be hoveled, and the masters of the match must agree which of 
them shall turn the cock down ; after that, if both fight, or both re- 
fuse, to be deemed a drawn battle ; but if one should fight, and the 
other refuse, the battle to be allowed won by the fighting cock. 

6. After the person appointed by the masters to tell the law shall 
have told twice twenty, the cocks to be set-to, beak to beak if they 
both see, but if either be blind, then the blind cock to touch ; and on 
their refusing to fight, the person appointed as before is to tell ten 
between each setting-to, till one of the cocks has refused to fight ten 
times successively. 

7. When ten pounds to a crown are laid on the battle, and not 
taken, after twice twenty is told, the battle is determined as won by 
that cock the odds are on. 

8. That no person shall make any cavil or speech about matching 
of cocks, either to matchers or owners, after the cocks are once put 
together. 

9. A master of a match has a right to remove any person out of the 
lower ring. 

10. No person can make a confirmed bet void without mutual 
consent. 

11. Bets to be paid on clear proof by creditable witnesses, even 
though they have not been demanded immediately after the battle is 
over. 

12. It is recommended that all disputes be finally determined by 
the masters of the match, and two other gentlemen whom they shall 
appoint ; and in case the four cannot agree, then they shall fix on a 
fifth, whose determination shall be final. 




70 COCKER S MANUAL. 



ENGLISH NOTES ON COCKS AND COCKERS. 

The following brief notes on the past and present cocks, cockers 
and cocking in England were furnished at the request of the author 
by J. Harris, who has been enthusiastically devoted to the sod from a 
child, and who has not merely had a local experience of a few birds 
and men, but has assisted and also fought many of the best cockers all 
over the kingdom : 

The origin of the game cock is enveloped in considerable obscurity, 
for whilst many naturalists affirm that it is the reclaimed wild jungle 
fowl, as still found in India, many others who have given the subject 
much careful consideration and research are of an opinion that our 
game fowls were originally from Persia, where they deem it probable 
that a race of white-legged birds were very early reclaimed, but whose 
originals, like many wild animals, have long since become extinct, 
and their sporting history dawns in this country of Persia and the 
early records of China, although most books, etc., point us to Themis- 
tacles as the first cocker known to fame, who, some authorities state, 
received an omen of the success of the army he was leading from the 
crowing of the cocks, but Aolieu, the author cited, says he saw the 
cocks fighting! Yet Idomeusus long before that time bore on his 
shield the effigies of a cock as a martial bird. History informs us 
that they were bred for fighting in the reign of Croesus, king of Lydia. 
(A, M. 3426). The ancient Dordanii had representations of cock- 
fighting on their coins. The fighting cock was one of the principal 
gods of the Lyrians, and the learned Hebrew, Dr. Rahbi David, in- 
terpreting the 17th chapter of 2nd Kings, verses 30 and 31, says 
"Nergel" was a cock for war or fighting, or champion cock, and by 
the Samaritans worshipped for a god. 

A volume might be written on this subject of interest to the anti- 
quarian, but enough has been said to satisfy the sportsman that this 
sport will bear favorable comparison with any other in point of an- 
tiquity. Its introduction into England has been attributed to the 
Romans wUo, history informs us, were called on to witness cocking in 
thfeir own country in order to incite them to deeds of bravery and 
courage, previous to their departure to conquer our tight little isle. 



COCKER S MANUAL. 7 1 

but from a fair translation of Julius Ccesar's words, the natives reared 
fowls for pleasure and diversion, although it was unlawful to eat them. 
It requires no great stretch of imagination to suppose that the sport 
was practiced here previous to the Romish invasion. It is true early 
English history is very reticent on cocking, as well as many more im- 
portant matters, and but little information can be gleaned from that 
source, until the 12th century, when it was so common as to be prac- 
ticed in schools, as we find it has continued to be up to almost the 
present time. As recently as 1868 Mr. L. G. Fitch, one of the assist- 
ant school inquiring commissioners, called attention to the fact that 
the almost obsolete custom of cock fighting is at this moment a pre- 
text for charging a guinea to the head master and a half guinea to the 
usher from each scholar at the Ledburgh school in order to provide 
cocks at Shrovetide for the entertainment of the boys and their 
parents, adding that the boys have ceased to require any _sport from 
their masters as an equivalent, and that at other free schools a similar 
rule prevails. This gratuity has from time immemorial been knowa 
as the cock-penny, but in many schools and countries the penny has 
been transformed into a more valuable coin, as at Ledburgh, or in the 
statistical account of Scotland (Vol. 3 Edinburgh, 1792), the school- 
master at Appleross, in county Ross, is mentioned as having, amongst 
other perquisites, the cock-fight dues, equal to one-quarter pay- 
ment to each scholar. Welsh princes sometimes made presents of 
game cocks to the English princes and nobility and which were much 
valued, and within the present century a single county in Wales has 
publicly challenged all England to fight an annual main for five suc- 
cessive years for a large sum. I have seen a great many mains fought 
in Wales and very few plain cocks, a bad one never. 

Early in the 14th century cocking became a royal amusement, and 
was carried on to that extent that it had to be introduced in the royal 
household. In the accounts of Henry the VII. is found the following 
entry: "March 2nd, 7th Henry; item to Master Bray for rewards to 
them that brought cocks to Westminster at Shrovetide, twenty-five 
shillings. In the early part of the i6th century a royal pit was added 
to the palace at Whitehall for the more magnificent exhibition of the 
sport. Although prohibited by Henry the VIII., as well as by that 
prince of hypocrites, Oliver Cromwell, a fac simile of whose seal and 
^prohibition I now have befare me. Cacking as well as all other sports 



72 COCKER S MANUAL. 

was much patronized in the days of glorious Queen Bess, who ruled 
too wisely and generously to interfere with the sports of her loyal 
subjects. James I. was so fond of the sport that he publicly attended 
it twice a week, and Charles II. was a great patron of the sod, and 
introduced the Pyles (so-called) from the very distinctive colors of 
white and red, and derived from ancient English game of Cross & 
Pyle. At this time so enamored of the sport were the people that 
cocks were very frequently fought in the public streets of London, 
notwithstanding there were in London several cock-pits beside the 
royal pit. In after times when the latter was taken down, another 
bearing the same designation was immediately erected by subscription 
in Tufton street. Derby Lane theatre was originally a cock-pit, and 
many provincials were under the patronage of their respective corpo- 
rations. The Canterbury corporation pit was an apartment of a splen-. 
did gateway that formed part of St. Augustine Monastery, and some 
of the old rules and reg'-ilations that we have seen for the government 
of those ]jits prove that amateurs of those days had to conduct them- 
selves with all the gravity of deportment and language becoming a 
church congregation of our own time as no lo,ud talking, swearing or 
unseemly behavior was ever allowed in those places. This would form 
a striking contrast to the excitement, roars, shrieks, offers to take or 
lay the odds consequent on the springing from the setter's hand ; of a 
pair of rasping Cornish hen cocks amidst a perfect Babel of tongues 
indescribable ; or yet to the motley groups Hogarth so cleverly de- 
picted on canvas in the royal pit at Newmarket, and on whom that 
rare cock-feeder, Nan Rawlings alias Duchess of Deptford is looking 
down so complaisantly and whose characters I would like to portray 
if space permitted. 

Old Frampton was generally acknowledged to be the father of the 
sod. He was more fond of racing than hunting, and infinitely pre- 
ferred cocking to either. He was hatched and a very promising chick 
in the reign of Charles I.; was doubtless a fine crowing stag when 
Charles II. Pyles were fighting, and was placed in a fine walk by 
William III as keeper of the running horses to his majesty, a part he 
retained under Queen Ann, George I. and George II. He died 
in March, 1727, aged 86. From some original letters of his still ex- 
tant, he not only appeared to have been conversant with many of the 
modern tricks of cocking, but also to some extent with the method of 



cocker's manual. 73 

feeding. Cocks were then matched by the length and girth, by the 
eye and gaip, and not by weight as at present. But he was chiefly 
noted for breeding a strain of cocks that eclipsed the royal Pyles, and 
his old Sourface strains were unquestionably the best birds at that 
time. In color they were known to old cockers as Smittenwing Reds, 
being either streaky or spotted-breasted reds with dull yellow wings 
and sometimes saddle also, and white legs. These in turn succumbed 
to the old Vannihall yellow or orange-breasted gra)'s, on which the 
popular ditty was written, with the refrain of 



"Fly up, fly up, fly up, 

My bonny gray cook 

And crow when it Is day; 

Your breast is of the burnished gold. 

And your wings a silvery gray." 



These got whipped by the renowned in-and-in-bred Mealy Grays of 
Hugo Maynell's and Sir Charles Sedley's, which beat everything that 
could be pitted against them until crossed after the decease of their 
masters ; even the killing Smocks and light Pyles of the Warburtons, 
Raylences, Molyneaxs and Egertons, whose heels were wont to bring 
down death as suddenly as an electric shock, could not live a battle 
through with them ; and only when those black-legged warriors of 
Maynell & Sedley were opposed to each other did either find their 
equal, and amateurs witnessed the hardest, cleverest fighting to be 
seen in England, and by this same system of in-and-in breeding May- 
sail produced the most perfect pack of fox hounds the world had ever 
seen, and a keener sportsman all around, never existed. When Sed- 
ley's cocks were opposed to his, vast sums of money were invariably 
staked on the result, as both their cocks and feeders were on a par. 

The Earl of Mexborough's beautiful and true feathered grays, with 
pearl eyes, yellow legs and beaks, looked as handsome and ornamental 
on their walks when leading forth the half dozen spotless clear white 
hapkle, gray-bodied hens that formed their harem, as they proved 
dangerous in the pit. There is an old painting of a favorite cock and 
two hens lying before me as I write this, and look so like life as fairly 
to threaten to fly out of the canvas — a straw-colored hackle, rich, deep 
red saddle, up and spread game-like black tail, bright yellow legs and 
beak, and elegant carriage form a grand contrast to the heavy, dull, 
inactive, droop-tail, spiritless, so-called game Duckwings we now see 
in the show-pen at poultry exhibitions. In chickenhood, full feath- 

6 



74 



COCKER S MANUAL. 



ered, and when cut out for the pit those birds so closely resemble each 
other in shape and feather as do wild ducks. The last of the breed 
was a few years since in possession of a noted feeder who was always 
wont to swear by them. He left three hens with a gentleman he was 
in the habit of feeding an annual county main for, and at the decease 
of the feeder the writer was requested to take the office, and after win- 
ning a closely contested main was asked to state his charges, which 
were expenses and one of those same hens, and since then she has 
never hatched anything but gray chickens, although she has been 
mated with a black, brass-back, and a black-red as well as a gray cock. 
It is said the celebrated Mr. Nunis (or butcher) grays were of this 
strain, one of which after winning in eleven mains had thirty-six sons 
fought in a main at the royal pit and only four of them were whipped ; 
so much for blood. A portrait of this bird with particulars was pub- 
lished at the time. Halford's yellow-legged light reds and Elwess' red 
duns, one of which fought twenty-seven battles, were equally famous, 
and one of Sir Francis Boynton's won the same number of battles and, 
was known as the Yorkshire herd. Col. Millish, who the late Duke 
of Wellington declared was the best aids-de-camp that ever crossed a 
horse, also bred a wonderful strain of cocks which he backed for fabu- 
lous sums. The Dean of York strain and Sir Henry Goodrich's were 
general favorites with the dark reds of Mr. Green ; but all these could 
scarcely equal the Tassels of John Weightman, known as the Park 
House Reds. Weightman fought and beat the Lancashire men at 
Burton with these cocks for the largest amount ever fought for, not- 
withstanding it is stated in Rural Sports that the main for _^i,ooo a 
battle and ^^5,000 the odd, which was won by Gilner at Lincoln, were 
the largest stakes. I have just seen one (if not the very last) of the 
pure-bred Parkhouses on a brood walk where he has got fine chickens 
this season although he is from twelve to twenty years old, and is a 
real good type of the breed, having a long narrow tassel, short taper 
head, very strong boxing beak, prominent, quick, fearless red eye, 
long, strong, thick neck, short, broad, flat body, white, clean, blood- 
like feet and legs, dark, shady breast, light red, with the brightest and 
glossiest plumage. 

The Strokshire Reds and Duns have proved more than a match gen- 
erally for the very best cocks that could be pitted against them, and 
the fighting qualities of the Cheshire Piles are proverbial and unsur- 



cocker's manual. 75 

passed. They have been kept pure and clean from any cross for a 
number of years by the proudest families of the country, and Mr. 
Rilands who bred them for a great number of years was so careful on 
this point that he scrupulously kept the light and dark varieties apart. 
Mr. Walker also bred and fought against many of them, and all have 
found when crossed even with Beverly and other noted Piles, leaving 
out other colors that have invariably been a falling off of their first 
and grand requisite, the "bloody heel," which has rendered them so 
notorious. The celebrated Mr. Hetchley, who bred some of the best 
birds in England upwards of half a century after, tried to cross them 
but could never reproduce their equals. 

The black cocks of Stafford, Lord Veres, were much sought after 
and were very successful for many years, and so enamored was the 
noted Nathaniel Monk of them that after seeing a week's main at 
Boston he fell asleep during service at church on-the following Sunday 
and startled the minister and congregation alike by peering over the 
pew with half awakened eyes and shouting at the top of his voice, 
"I'll have the black cock for a crown !" The Derbyshire striped 
hackle, dark reds of Mr. Saut, and the Norfolk spangles of Mr. Gurney 
could always find backers in any company which the Smocks or white 
cocks of Zealhampton, in Devon, were for a long time annually pitted 
against the Cornish light reds of Couth. The latter were only an ofl"- 
shoot of the Earl of Derbys, and Mr. Taylor's strains which were one 
and the same family. Couth kept those birds carefully bred and were 
very successful for up'vards of forty years, when he crossed them to 
gain bone; With larger bone they were just as unsuccessful as they 
had been successful, when he put an old hen of a pure strain, although 
thirteen years old, with her brother, and the produce brought him 
back his former successors. 

The Earl of Derby strain had been bred at Knowsley a long time 
previous to the Earl's appearing on the sod. Many cockers objected 
to their dun eyes. Busley was his lordship's first feeder. On bis de- 
cease Potter took the office, and was followed by Potter, Jr. But their 
opponent in feeding, Joseph Gillien, was always too much for either 
had they not been better cocks. But for a great number of years his 
lordship's breeder, Roscoe, senior and junior, placed out to walk up- 
wards of 3,000 cock chickens annually, and from this number it was 
easy to pick mains of cocks faultless in shape and perfect in constitu- 



76 cocker's manual. 

tion. They were chiefly black-breasted reds, with white legs and a 
white streamer in tail and flight feathers, although he latterly fought 
some of a slashing gray strain, and he never bred a finer cock than the 
Pile of the old Cheshire strain which Pollard printed for him and en- 
graved in 1826, and the Earl's last mains were fought some six or 
eight years afterwards. Potter always considered his own red duns as 
superior to his lordship's birds. 

Dr. Bellyse, the best judge of a horse, greyhound and cock Eng- 
land ever produced, first bred the Piles of his own country, but soon 
got an idea that even with their matchless heels their constitutions, 
were not equal to the punishing preparation of modern feeding, so 
took to breeding the old dark-red strain, so successfully fought by 
Gillier, of Warwickshire, as well. He also bred largely from the 
noted Westgorth cock, and his crow alleys became so much sought 
after that he was off"ered fifty guineas for a sitting hen by a visiting^ 
nobleman. On handing him the hen there and then and crushing the- 
eggs with his foot, his lordship remarked thai he had purchased the 
eggs as well in the price. "No, or I should have refused a thousand," 
wds the reply. He seldom walked out more than a thousand chickens. 
a year, but the quality was so superior that at two years old he could 
always select enough from them to defy all England. Six pullets to 
their own father, or mother and two or three sisters to her own son 
was his favorite plan, and he always persisted that he could never 
breed them too closely. Philips fed a great many mains for him, but 
whoever fed had to supply them with fresh sod and gravel every third 
day. Ralph Benson of Stropshire, and Walker of his own county,. 
usually fought him the closest, but beating him was fairly out of the 
question. There was a suggestion made to one of the sporting peri- 
odicals that as no one else had a chance in fighting him that the Earl 
of Derby should fight him a grand main to prove whether the Doctor 
was really invincible, as his friends supposed him. But the Earl's- 
party had too much judgment to avail themselves of the beating that 
would have been in store for them. His birds were never better than 
at the time of his decease, and although he lived the allotted space of 
three score years and ten, age never quenched his love of the sod. If 
any man ever bred a superior strain of cocks to his it could only have 
been the late Mr. Clark, of Taunhall, better known as Vaunhall Clark 
and his phenomenon, that won the Westminster gold cup, besides 



. &^ 



ii«i 







4iiaiiii|'i,«tti 









cocker's manual. 79 

several other mains, was allowed by good judges to be the most clever 
and terrific fighter ever seen in a pit, often taking his cock and flying 
screaming across the pit with him, dropping him as dead as a knocker 
with kicking enough to kill a dozen. But in whatever company his 
cocks fell it was a foregone conclusion that considerable more than 
half their opponents would never fight again. Indeed whole mains 
have been fought against them without scoring a single battle. Sam 
Chifney, the famous racing jockey, had some of the breed, but he 
crossed them and so spoiled them. It would be very easy to mention 
scores of other noted strains that have fought their way into notoriety, 
as Dr. Waiys, of Leicester, the Cumberland Muffs, Isle of Wight Yel- 
lows, the Devonshire Tassels, and Cornish Hennies, but we have 
already far exceeded our space, and will just state the colors most 
valued in the pit in its palmy days of half a century since. Not that 
we are color fanciers. A good cock cannot be a bad color, yet no 
one will deny but that a set of full brothers of similar shape, feather, 
constitution and fighting qualities are much more desirable in a main 
than birds bred without any rule or uniformity whatever. Some will 
be good, some bad, and some indifferent. The principal colors of 
birds used for the pit were as follows : i, black-breasted dark reds ; 2 
brown -breasted light reds; 3, black-breasted birchen Duckwings ; 4 
brown-breasted berry birchens ; 5, Piles; 6, black-breasted silver 
grays; 7, smock or shaded-breasted mealy grays; 8, black- breasted 
dark gray; 9, ginger-breasted reds ; 10, blacks ; 11, brass-backs; 12, 
spangles; 13, smocks or whites ; 14, duns, and although some were 
esteemed more than others in different localities, their merits were 
pretty generally accepted in the order named. The first named is the 
old true BlackRed of the cock pit, for a description of which we ac- 
cept the best known and acknowledged authority in England, who has 
bred and fought more cocks for upwards of fifty years than any other 
man, is that the bird in question should be a clear, vivid red extend- 
ing from the hackle to the extremities ; the red upon the hackle above 
and black beneath ; the upper converse side of the wing equally red 
and black, even though surrounding the posterior ; the whole of the 
tail feathers, the tips of the wings, the breast, beak and legs, black. 
The hen, dark partridge color, with bright red hackle above and black 
beneath, clean brick-breasted and such to the posterior, with black 
beak and legs. If a Black Red has any other color than black and red 



8o cocker's manual. 

he is not a'true Black Red. The brown at tip of wings of any black- 
breasted Red is not at all admissible. In a true Black Red, or prop- 
erly dark-breasted Black Red, who has a crow wing, point black and 
brown, and a Black Red could have no other colored breast or he 
would not be Black Red, the breast being always named in match 
bills. 

We have not space to enter on breeding more than this. If you 
have a real good sort be careful not to spoil them by crossing, and a 
very old cocker has said a failure needs no cross but total eradication, 
and I would add, the best way to perpetuate any grand qualities is to 
breed those that have those qualities in the greatest perfection, and if 
those should be of the same family, which is not likely to be the case, 
provided they are in perfect health and vigor and are the best you 
know, then by all means breed from the best, although they should 
be brother and sister. I am aware many will object to this as ridicu- 
lous, but here is a fact, that all the crack breeds in England have been 
so bred that scarcely a breeder in England has become celebrated for 
a strain of cocks that has not adopted this in-and-in system. How 
often have we known two of the very best strains that could be put 
together get very indifferent produce, and it holds good with animals 
as well. Mr. Balkwell bred his cattle on the same principle, as well 
as other celebrated breeders of sheep, pigs and dogs, and the best 
horses we have ever had on the turf are proved by pedigrees to have 
been bred in the same manner. One thing never lose sight of, and 
that is, that the brood cock has that first and greatest requisite, heel, 
for it is that which wins and without which all other fine qualities are 
useless. 

Of feeding I shall say still less. Every feeder thinks his own system 
best, and has some infallible secret which is jealously kept, and I have 
some half dozen recipes by me now which have been obtained at fab- 
ulous prices from some of our most celebrated feeders by gentlemen 
of fortune, and there is scarcely one I entirely agree with. Infallible 
recipes are mostly infallible nonsense, and some that are published in 
recent works on game fowls in America would insure death in 
England if followed. There is a vast difference in the constitution of 
cocks, climate, seasons of the year, fighting in steel and silver, which 
the best recipes never allow for. I have seen strange things given 
fowls, and I have never yet seen condition forced into a pen of cocks. 



cocker's manual. 8 I 

but I have seen it forced out considerably. When a cock is properly- 
wound up for a battle he should neither be overloaded with flesh, dis- 
tressed with physic, or wearied with sparring ; should be full of fire 
and vigor, yet fight cool and collected, for a cock rendered hot and 
mad with unnatural treatment has little chance with the cool, hard- 
hitting cock in condition. Centuries of careful observation has result- 
ed in giving that condition to the game cock surpassing all animals. 
Even our severest contested races fail to put condition to the test so 
much as the game cock in the long battle. 

Spurs have been made of very different shapes and material, but 
Clay's silver spurs are more valued than any other. They are now 
become very scarce, and there is but one maker in London, although 
Cockspur street was so named from the trade being carried on there. 
Men are still living who recollect Mr. Vincent keeping several men 
constantly at work making. Smith was the next best maker and suc- 
ceeded Clay. Gatesfield was a reliable maker, as was also Toulman of 
the Dial and Crown stand. We found a beautiful box of the latter 
make at a gentleman's house the day after Doncaster won the last 
derby. A few cocks were on the walks, and after dinner it was pro- 
posed to have a battle or two, but we had no spurs. One of the do- 
mestics said there was a box in the library, and produced a splendid 
box that appeared not to have been once used since fresh from the 
maker's hand, say fifty years before, and on the inside of the lid was 
coupled with the maker's address the following lines : 

"As curious artists dift'erent skill disclose, 
The vaciOLis weapons difTerent temper shows : 
Now curving point too soft a temper bear. 
And now too Hard, their brlttleness declare ; 
Now on the plain the treacherous weapons lie, 
Now winged in air the shivered fragments fly ; 
Surprise, chagrin, the incautious feeders gaze, 
And Smith alone in genius artists praise." 

Toulman refers to his method of making, being the same as the 
noted Smith. Green made some very strong spurs and good turns, 
but were often heavy and always yellow, very different from the silver- 
like spurs of Clay and Smith. A well turned out pair of silver spurs 
were worth three guineas, and no mains of any importance were ever 
fought except in silver. An old friend of the writer, Mr. Faultless, of 
London, gave ten guineas for a recipe supposed to be two hundred 
years old for mixing the alloys, making, etc. , and his assistant the 
late W. Chalden, of Sussex, made some nice turned spurs but they 



82 cocker's manual. 

would never stand, and as he never knew how to mix the alloys prop- 
erly, and as Faultless obtained his recipe under secrecy he would not 
divulge it to him. Their sort of spurs was made of steel and washed 
over with silver to pass for silver spurs. They often broke, and Mr. 
Bald Houghton once lost a main to Lord Derby by the spsr breaking 
in the last battle. The very best maker of this class of spurs was Sin- 
gleton, of Ireland. These can be made very good at present in 
England, although no cocker would trust the best silversmith in Lon- 
don to make a pair of silver spurs and fight a battle for money in 
them. Steel spurs were made very good in Ireland by Singleton and 
others, but the largest quantities were made in Sheffield, and generally 
were very reliable ; although the best maker of steel spurs was a 
resident of Exeter in Devonshire, who has been dead some thirty 
years ; his name was John Wattling, and at present his spurs are much 
sought after, and half a dozen pairs of any other make can be gotten 
for a pair of his, for in addition to their being a very killing spur, 
no cock can either break or bend them, although they are so light and 
elegantly made. 

Main bags were made of different colored silk velvet embroidered 
in gold and silver lace, were used to carry the birds into the pit, and 
this alone was often worth the entrance fee. 

There wi.s a difference in mains, but a long main and those gene- 
rally fought was that each county and party should show and weigh 
sixty-one or more or less cocks between three pounds six ounces and 
four pounds eight ounces three days before fighting, and as many as 
fell within une ounce of each other had to fight in the main which 
began with the lightest pair of cocks on the third day after, and the 
battles were as equally divided as could be into five or six single or 
double day's play — a double day being when five or seven battles 
were fought in the first ingo, or before dinner, and the second ingo 
of the same number who were fought in the afternoon. But at race 
mains single day's play or ingo in the morning only were fought, the 
afternoon being devoted to racing. When the cocks were weighed 
the colors and marks were most carefully and accurately taken by both 
parties in order that the birds might not be changed. All birds not 
falling in one ounce but falling within two ounces of each other were 
fought by battles for ten, twenty or forty pounds a side. Three 
pounds six ounces and four pounds eight ounces were the regular fixed 



COCKER S MANUAL. 

weights of the royal pit, Westminster ; all above that weight went for 
byes, and none less were allowed. The lightest birds commenced 
fighting and proceeded up. When the birds were brought into the 
pit they were carefully examined to see that they answered the de- 
scription on the match bill, and if correct the birds were handed the 
setters to fight, except in the first battle of the main, when it is usual 
for the masters of the match, i. e., the backers or principal owners of 
the cocks, to toss the first pair upon the mat or rod. In this case no 
cocks are weighed after the weighing day, it being left to the feeders 
to weigh the birds as light as they can, and to raise them as high on 
the fighting day three days after. Eight days is the usual time for 
feeding, but the heavy or last cocks fighting in the long main of six 
days are in fourteen days, and there have been mains fought for a 
longer time, for a fortnight, in the north, many years since, and 
which after all ended in a drawn main, and some twenty years since 
a week's fighting took place at Easter, in the Gallogate pit, where six 
feeders sat upwards of two hundred and seventy cocks on the mat 
ranging in weight from three pounds four ounces to five pounds two 
ounces, and a notice was at the time hung up in the pit that the cocks 
for the 6th of May main were to come in on the 26th of April and 
weigh on the 3d of May, and of another main to weigh off scales on 
the 13th. So it will be seen there was not much lack of sport at that 
time. Printed lists of the numbers, colors, weights, feeders' names, 
and winners were at that time published, to be sent to those parties 
who had cocks there but could not themselves attend on account of 
business or distance. Many of those lists are now before me as I write, 
especially one of the mains I have just referred to, Prailey commenc- 
ing with a winning three pound four ounce furness cock named 
Mungo, and losing the last battle of the main with a iive pound two 
ounce cock named Waterloo. 

Short mains are when parties each find twenty-one cocks, more or 
less, between a stipulated weight. Each supplies a list of the weights 
of their cocks to a referee, who compares them and matches all that 
fall within one ounce under four pounds eight ounces and within two 
ounces of those above four pounds eight ounces but under five pounds 
four or eight ounces to fight for the stakes previously agreed upon. 
The cocks are weighed in the pit, one ounce being allowed for spurs, 



86 COCKER S MANUAL. 

and any cock excluding one-fourth ounce of the weight he was 
matched for loses the battle. 

A set weight main is one where each party names the weight of 
eleven cocks, more or less between certain specified weights, and his 
opponent must find cocks to match them. They then toss for choice 
of weight for odd battle which the loser must match, and they usually 
meet aiid fight fourteen or twenty days after choosing weights. 

A Welch main is sixteen cocks under a certain weight are weighed, 
and the lightest pair matched to fight, and so upwards until eight bat- 
tles are fought. The eight winners are matched and make four 
battles, and the four winners make two battles, and the two winners 
fight for the purse cup or stakes. 

A main Royal is when any number of cocks under a certain weight 
are thrown on the sod together, and the last cock fighting takes the 
stakes. This, according to the Rey. Dr. Robert Wild, the historian, 
poet, wit, divine and cocker, is of Dutch origin. The Doctor, al- 
though a minister, was an enthusiastic cocker, and wrote the best poem 
on the subject in the English language. At one time he and another 
preached probationary sermons for the rectorship of Aynho, in North- 
amptonshire, and a friend some time after asked him which had re- 
ceived the living, he replied, "We divided it ; I took the ayes and my 
rival the nays." 

There is sometimes fought what is termed a shake-bag or turn-out 
main. Each party get a specified number of the largest cocks they 
can and proceed to fight them without weighing' Indeed, weighing 
cocks at all is of comarpative modern date, as cocks were formerly 
matched by length, girth, strength, etc. 

Setting is the most difficult art in the whole routine of cocking. 
Hundreds think they can set a cock when they know no more of the 
art than a cock knows of his father. An old author has said, "A set- 
ter should have a ladle's hand, a hawk's eye, a fox's head and a lion's 
heart." A cock should be handled as tenderly as if he were foam, or 
some equally as perishable matter. Yet how often do we see men 
roughly handle cocks in distress. He should not only be quick to 
see any hurt to his own bird but to his opponent's, and thus reckoa 
where to force the fighting or slacken it. A cool, calculating head is 
indispensable. From thirty to sixty guineas were formerly paid to 
some of our cock-setters for a good main, and Stradling, Gladdish, 



cocker's manual. 87 

Fisher, Eaton, Overton and Lun were thought highly of in this ca- 
pacity by those great patrons of the sod, Lord Lonsdale, Wexborough, 
Hamilton, Northumberland, Warburton, Halton, Wharton, Bullock, 
Halford, etc., as were the feeders Brombey, Lister, Watling, Lauley, 
etc. I thought to have given something more than the mere names 
of those past celebrities, but space will not permit, and I would just 
remark that Owen Prolyn was generally supposed to equal any man 
that ever entered a pit. Porter, too, was very clever, whilst at the 
Royal pit Dick Fleming was always supposed to be several battles 
ahead in the long main of any setter ever entering there, and the old 
chant, "I've seen Dick Fleming handle cocks," is still remembered 
by many a sexagenarian. His father was a great feeder and a rival of 
the celebrated Nash, and both young Nash and Fleming were no mere 
adepts at that art. But in this line none could be found to equal 
Joseph Gilliner, publicly pronounced to be the greatest feeder that 
ever lived. But all these, along with their opponents. Potter Weight- 
man, Philips, Woodcock, and a host of others have many years since 
passed away, and were succeeded by Bailey, Brough, Parker, Morton, 
Bootal, Jones, Gillham, Davis, Faultless, Calicott and others. 

For some time past the police have been constantly on the alert to 
stop all fighting in England, so that it has to be carried on in private. 
The Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals hound them on, and 
many good men amongst them think cocking a most cruel sport, 
whilst they are practicing much worse cruelties every day. All of 
Nature's laws are cruel, from the spider that ensnares the fly to the 
hawk that pounces on the bird, but vain man would be wiser than his 
maker, and it is one of the wise laws of the Creator that this battle of 
life should be carried on, we will suppose a cock in his native wilds is 
armed with spurs more fatal than even with steel, for with them two 
strong combatants die, whilst with the steel one would probably come 
off scathless. I would ask, what are those spurs provided by nature 
for ? When the old cock becomes infirm he is engaged by a younger 
and more lusty rival and soon falls a victim ; and well it is so, as he 
is thus saves from decrepitude, hunger and a lingering death, while 
his younger rival's- progeny keeps up nature's standard of excellence, 
and it is no more cruel to. look at two fowls that are only following 
their own natural instincts and inclinations and in which they cannot 
be forced than it would be were they to fight in their natural wild 



88 COCKER S MANUAL. 

habitation. There is a vast deal of difference between this natural in- 
clination and gratification and the cruel back-door work of staking, 
baiting and ill-using creatures, entirely under our own control, and 
tried in the balance of reason. I am sure cocking is the least cruel of 
all sports, but I am passionately fond of fishing, lauded as one of the 
most innocent amusements without considering the pain inflicted on 
live baits — worms, frogs, etc. — on barbed hooks, and the play- 
ing and torturing the fish into weakness to enable me to land 
it. I have never got over the pang given the beautiful trout when 
drawing the hook from its throat and gills. The same with shooting. 
How many maimed, injured birds escape the gunner to die a lingering 
death from hunger, mortification and dreadful wounds. The 
glorious chase and the exciting race-course are not without their 
drawbacks. 

All countries have merged from a state of barbarism to a state of 
civilization, thence to a state of luxury, and then certain and mere 
effeminacy; and there is at present an amount of mock humanitarian- 
ism, dandyism and effeminacy disgraceful to the name of Englishman. 
Even the sports of our fathers are denounced as horrible, coarse, vulgar, 
whilst the amusements of those condemning them are profligate and 
effeminate to the last degree. I accompanied a Cheshire county 
squire to the opera the night succeeding the last Derby, and a more 
philanthropic, kinder-hearted man does not exist, notwithstanding he 
had attended the Derby, seen a few cocks fight, and is never so happy 
as when following his hounds. After looking at the half nude crea- 
tures that came on the stage for a short time, he turned, thoughtfully, 
and leaving, said : "This, John, is a most miserable sight with all its 
glare and glitter;" and this is one of England's fashionable amuse- 
ments, and from the pale, sickly youth that frequent those places we 
are to draw those who will uphold England's glory to a certain extent. 
In country places magistrates, police, etc., keep down the rustic 
amusements of young John Bull. The wrestleing ring, cudgeling, 
stage, boxing, etc., must give place to tea fights, croquet, etc., till 
England gets in danger, then put a red coat on his back, clap him on 
the shoulder and say, "you're a fine soldier," but not of that dare- 
devil ilk that Wellington had in the peninsular wars. 

A great change has and is still taking place in Englishmen. Some 
men feelingly but proudly recollect a vessel named the Birkenhead, 



cocker's manual. 89 

full of Englishmen, and amongst them many enthusiasts of sports. 
The vessel was found to be in a sinking state. The men were drawn 
upon deck by the officers, and calmly met their fate as only English- 
men and the bravest of the brave could do. A few months since a 
vessel was run into full of Englishmen, and the fright and disorder 
was a strange contrast between the panic-stricken passengers of the 
Northfleet and the cool bravery of the Birkenhead. That the sports 
of a country has much influence on a people is abundantly proved in 
the history of Rome, Greece, etc. However some may contend to 
the contrary, and if the following lines contain any truth, cocking 
should take a much higher stand : 

And some more martial are, 

But cocking fits a man for peace or war ; 
It makes men bold and fonvard for the field, 
And learns them there rather to die than yield. 
Cocking does also constancy create, 
And arms a man to wrestle with his fate. 
Be it more happy or severe, his mind 
Is still the same to a brave end Inclined. 



A PLEA FOE, THE PIT. 



AN ENGLISHMAN S ARGUMENT IN FAVOR OF COCK-FIGHTING. 

The Hon. Admiral Rous sends a letter to the London Times, from 
which the following extract is made : A motion in the House of 
Commons to increase the punishment to Her Majesty's subjects who 
indulge in the most ancient and royal amusement of cock-fighting in- 
duces me to trespass on your columns. It has been argued that it is a 
wise policy to forbid this sport, owing to its cruelty On this princi- 
ple, why not make pigeon-shooting illegal when fat Herods, standing 
over the traps, slay the innocents? Why not legislate against hunting, 
coursing, fishing ? In the latter amusement, what can be more brutal 
than impaling worms on hooks or trolling with live bait to catch pike ? 
Playing with a fine salmon on your hook is a pleasant pastime, 
although the victim differs in opinion. Neither is there much to be 
said in favor of grand battues, where hundreds of birds and ground 
game escape mutilated to live a miserable life or to be eaten by rats. 

7 



go COCKER S MANUAL. 

All these amusements must of necessity be cruel, but they are sanc- 
tioned by the upper classes, and the cruelty is ignored. With respect 
to the champions of the cock-pit, is it a greater boon for a cock to be 
well fed and reared to fight a battle, if victorious to be petted for the 
remainder of his life, with half a dozen little hens for his comfort, or 
to cut his throat early in life to satisfy the appetite of a carnivorous 
man. 

It must be clear to every man that in this country there is one law 
for the rich and another for the poor. The snob sticks to the former, 
but the thoroughbred gentleman stands by the poor man. In ancient 
times the gamecock was considered an emblem of divinity by the 
Synans and Greeks. When Themistocles besieged Dalmatia, he com- 
manded that two cocks should be fought in the open view of his army, 
and exorted them to behave as these stout-hearted creatures fought. 
Pomponius Mela, the historian, asserted that the Roman empire did 
not begin to decline until cocking had fallen into disrepute among its 
governors. He proves that Serverus was not able to conquer Britain 
until he had rendered his principal officers passionately emulous of 
glory by exhibiting a main of cocks every day before them. The 
soothsayers warned Mark Anthony to take heed of Caesar, because his 
cocks were always beaten by him. The great Gustavus told the King 
of Denmark he had no cause to fear the Imperialists, since they had 
given up cocking and were devoted to drinking and dancing. Chris- 
tian, king of Denmark, said: "Were I to lead an army against the 
great infidel of Constantinople I would choose none but cockers for 
my commanders, and none but lovers of the sport for my soldiers." 
Our Henry VIII. built a stately pit in Whitehall, where he often dis- 
ported himself among his most noble and loving subjects. The dying 
speech of Sir T. Urquhart, who was wounded at the battle of Naseby, 
was: "My king and a good cock I have ever loved, and like a good 
cock in my sovereign's service I gladly now expire." A Mr. Wilson, 
in the last century, advised all men who take delight in this pleasant 
and delicious pastime never to forsake or alienate themselves from it, 
so long as it shall please the Almighty to bless and prosper them ; and 
he adds that we are bound to encourage cock-fighting among ourselves 
and discourage it among all foreign nations. If cocking, which for- 
merly was a great sport with the great nobles of this kingdom, be now 
a sin, I am au old and hardened sinner. In 1827, in command of 



COCKER S MANUAL. 9 1 

the Rainbow, I brought ten English-bred cocks from Sydney to Ma- 
lacca, and fought ten battles with a Chinese merchant who had 
defeated all the Malays. We won every battle, and I would go two 
hundred miles to see a main between the Cheshire Piles and the Lan- 
cashire black-breasted Reds, if there was no legal prohibition. Any 
amusement which creates alliances and augments friendly acquaintance 
adds to the strength of the empire, for united we stand ; and the 
monotony of human life is relieved by every salutary diversion. 



DESCRIPTION OF GAMES. 

Owing to the numerous breeds, strains and crosses of the Game 
Fowl it would be quite impossible to notice all of them, therefore if we 
fail to mention any well known variety we would not be understood 
as considering them unworthy of notice. 

EARL DERBYS. 

This breed of games, for many years noted in Eilgland for their 
courage and almost universal success in battle, is esteemed by all 
cockers and fanciers throughout the land. It is generally understood 
that by skillful breeding and crossing this breed was kept in all its 
purity for over a hundred years. Many stories are written concerning 
their history, and many disputes concerning their importation to this 
country. Upon this subject we have the following, written by one, of 
the oldest and most reliable cockers in England, who has fought many 
battles against the Derby fowl, and he says: "Many believe that 
Derby's fowls were the most successful fighters in England. Although 
he was the most extensive breeder, walking annually from three to 
five thousand cocks, he could from this number select many good ones, 
biit many breeders who never bred so largely but bred more good 
ones were equally successful in their mains. But from so many it is 
an easy matter to pick mains of cocks faultless in shape and perfect in 
condition. His chief success was mostly to be found in numbers 
rather than in excellence, as for years Potter had a pick of three thou- 
sand two-year-old cocks, and even in that great choice of the Earl's 



92 



COCKER S MANUAL. 



cocks he many a time found that old Joe, with Mr. Leigh's birds, car- 
ried off the cash and had won the majority of the battles at the end of 
the week's fighting. It was once proposed to match a great main of 
those cocks, ten years before the Earl gave it up, against Bllyse, at 
Chester, but the Earl and his friends would never risk the beating 
that was pretty sure to be given them, as it had for a number of years 




EARL DERBY GAME. 

to all comers, both from England and Ireland, including the noted 
birds of Benson, Walker, etc. In fact, when or wherever Bllyse 
fought he proved invincible. Philips cheerfully fed for him, and he 
seldom put out more than one thousand chickens a year, or only one- 
third the number of the Earl. Clark's birds generally made short 
work of all that came against them, and when pitted against the 
Derbys it was always two to one on Clark, Again, many who ought 



COCKER S MANUAL. 93 

to know assert that a pure Derby cock was never sent to America. You 
might as well have asked the Earl for a church living as one of his 
brood stock ; it would have been the least favor of the two. Some 
twenty years since we applied to Old Roscoe (who had charge of the 
cocks as his father had before him) for some of the breed, being some 
eighteen years after the Earl had fought his last main, and all that 
Roscoe could then find of the pure breed was some half dozen, and 
he was most anxious to get them for us as we were an intimate friend 
of his. I am aware this assertion will not be credited with you, but I 
would take long odds that one-half dozen real Derby's were never 
sent to America, if it could be proved, but those that know best in 
this country will quite endorse my opinion. Scores of half-breeds 
that amswer to feather, marking, size, etc., have been sent there as 
Derbys, as well as hundreds that have been sold and are kept here as 
such. It has been proven that the white-legged black-reds were bred 
in this country hundreds of years before the Earl was born ; therefore 
their origin cannot be claimed to have originated with him as he only 
kept a variety of them. His fowls were chiefly black-breasted reds, 
white legs and a white streamer in the tail and flight feathers, although 
at a late day he fought a strain of gray cocks, which were extra good 
ones. 

SEFTONS. 

This is also another breed of English fowls, but have long been 
known in this country. They were never so noted as the Derbys and 
never, as claimed by some, the principal contestants of the Earl's 
fowls. The originals generally bred ginger-reds with green and yel- 
low legs, and are of good size, well shaped and strongly built, with 
large bone and muscle, and are still a much coveted fowl in certain 
quarters, and are sought after by many cockers who have been for- 
tunate with them. 

IRISH DARE-DEVILS. 

.This is one of the largest and best of the Irish varieties. They are, 
in our opinion, the best class of fowls ever imported for general use. 
In color a black-breasted red with yellow legs and red eyes. The 
hens are buff, with yellow legs. This breed has made its mark, are 
good fighters and dead game. They are greatly in demand, owing to 



94 cocker's manual. 

their beautiful plumage and hard, rapid style of fighting. The cocks 
run in weight from five to seven pounds, and very frequently have 
proved winners against strong odds. The hens are good size, good 
layers, and take great interest in their young. 

HEATHWOODS. 

A noted strain of games named in honor of Thomas Heathwood, a 
celebrated cocker and breeder. They breed various colors, weigh 
from four and a half to six pounds, and are bred for the pit 
only. For many years they were the principal winners in many of 
the large mains fought in our eastern cities, and were so highly prized 
that extravagant prices were asked and paid , but they now have be- 
come more numerous and can be found on many a fancier's and cock- 
er's yard. They are remarkably quick fighters, fighting with force 
and vigor, stand up well, and are liberally possessed of bone and 
muscle. 

RED HORSE. 

A fowl long known to old Southern cockers, breed black-brown 
and ginger-reds, with dark legs, and are considered one of the best of 
the Southern varieties. They have long been fought in the principal 
mains in Maryland and Virginia, and no pains have been spared to 
make them reliable. They are strong, fast fighters, and invariably 
force the fighting, are quick in their movements, and are an excellent 
fowl for yard or pit purposes. In certain sections they have many 
admirers who breed them largely for pit purposes. The hens are of a 
dark brown color with dark hackle and dark legs, are compactly made 
and of good size. 

COUNTERFEITS. 

A fowl much thought of at the present time, with a handsome plu- 
mage and courageous disposition, are a desperate fighting bird, quick 
in motion, good size, rather low on legs, long wings, good bones, fine 
eye, in color either brown or ginger-red, with dark legs, are a very 
hardy fowl and keep as free from disease as any on our yard. The 
Counterfeit strain of fowls took its origin from a black-red rose-comb 
cock weighing five pounds and six ounces. This cock was a very 



COCKER S MANUAL. 95 

beautiful and well-made bird, and a most extraordinary, desperate and 
rapid fighter. It was these latter qualities which produced the coin- 
cidence and drew forth the remark which gave to this cock the name 
Counterfeit. Some twenty years or more ago, a main of cocks was 
fought at Gavanstown, Baltimore county, Maryland. One of the 
battles of the main was between a very celebrated black-white speckled 
cock, called the Class-Leader, and the then obscure black-red cock 
whose progeny afterwards became so celebrated. The two cocks 
came together, and at first, it was said, the Class-Leader had the ad- 
vantage and struck his antagonist so hard he was crazed. He quickly 
recovered, however, and attacked the Class-Leader with such fierceness 
that he soon killed him. The extraordinary fighting qualities dis- 
played by the winning cock led one of the old cockers present to 
believe him to be his own, and he exclaimed, aloud, in the pit : 
"Ah ! Skipper, that's my cock j that's the one you ought to have sent 
me, for mine was a d — d counterfeit !" This occasioned great laughter, 
and the little black-red rose-comb cock was forthwith named Coun- 
terfeit. After the battle he was taken to a gentleman named Goss, 
who used him for a breeder, and this originated the Counterfeit strain. 
He was, also, the winner of several subsequent battles, and was finally 
conquered by a War Eagle cock. The original Counterfeit cock was 
bred by Billy Hoffman, of Carroll county, Maryland, and was from a 
strain known as the old Charley Martin cocks. 

RED QUILLS. 

This strain has an extensive reputation in Virginia and in a few 
other Southern States, while in others they are comparatively unknown. 
We have bred them for a few seasons, and consider them one of the 
best for pit purposes. They have a handsome plumage and lofty car- 
riage. The cock has a small round head, neck full and well hackled, 
breast full and strong, tail long and well sickled, wings long and low 
on the shank, legs either yellow or green, and vary in size from four 
and one-half to five and one-half pounds. They have unflinching 
gameness, and will soon earn an extensive reputation throughout the 

West. 

CLAIBORNES. 

This is a noted breed of fowl, taking their name from the gentleman 
who bred and fought them for a number of years in the Southern 



96 cocker's manual. 

States. They are supposed to be a cross between a good English and 
Spanish breed, resembling both breeds in many particulars. The cock 
has a small round head, with neck full and well hackled, black breast, 
full and strong, tail full and well sickled, wings long and low on the 
shank, legs either clear white or yellow. The cocks vary in size from 
four to five and one-half pounds. They are sometimes described as 
having a small tassel, but we have bred and seen them fered for a num- 
ber of years, and as yet have failed to perceive the slightest tassel. 
Perhaps in crossing them formerly with other approved breeds, to 
increase and keep up their size and strength, they may have lost some 
of their original peculiarities. They have long been known in the 
the Northern and Southern States, and will stand all the changes of 
our northern climate. 

THE TARTAR FOWL. 

This strain had an extensive reputation, at one time being consid- 
ered the best for breeding and pit purposes. Dr. Cooper prizes this 
breed highly and still continues to breed them in such a manner as to 
preserve all the general fighting qualities. We obtained the breed 
some years since from him, and have bred them as large as eight 
pounds ; their average weight is from five to seven pounds. Tkey can 
be used successfully for producing any desired cross. They breed 
black and brown reds with black and green legs. We also find them 
sometimes breeding a blue-red. The cock stands up well, has a large, 
full breast, large, heavy limb, long claws, and large red eyes. The 
many battles recorded show plainly that too much praise cannot be 
given for their unflinching gameness and quick, savage manner of 
fighting. They have an extensive reputation and can now be found 
in the hands of nearly every fancier and cocker. 

JACK McCLELLANS. 

This breed of fowls perhaps is little known in the Western Stales, 
but stand high in Virginia and Pennsylvania. They originated with 
John McClellan, of Gettysburg, Pa., one of the most successful cock- 
ers in the country. The cock is strongly built, with fine, well set 
neck, head rather large, bones strong, thoroughly game, and will 



COCKER S MANUAL. 97 

show fight under all circumstances. We have bred them for many 
seasons, our original stock consisting of an eight-pound dark-gray 
cock and two dark-brown hens, nearly black, with copper hackles and 
green legs. Our stock now shows reds, both black and brown, grays, 
and occasionally a spangle. Their weight varies from four and a half 
to six and a half pounds. They are hard strikers, tolerable fast fight- 
ers, and for shake bags or cross breeding cannot be excelled. 

DUSTY MILLERS. 

This breed of fowls are well remembered by old cockers, and have 
long maintained a high reputation in Kentucky. The stock is highly 
valued, but difficult to procure, and of late has met with great favor in 
Ohio and Virginia. The cocks are terrific fighters and sure to win if 
equally matched. They breed reds, blue-reds, and occasionally grays, 
from which they take their name. The legs of the reds are white ; of 
the blue- reds, yellow; of the grays, green. The cocks are well sta- 
tioned, strong and long winded, varying in weight from four and a 
half to six and a half pounds, are full breasted, full hackled, with 
extremely long wings nearly meeting at the points. We have bred 
them for some time and deem them most valuable for the pit. 

THE ESLIN FOWL. 

This breed, it is said, originated with the Eslin family, of Wash- 
ington, D. C. Having bred them extensively, we find them showing 
black-red, brown-red and blue-red, with green legs. Many consider 
them the same as the Tartar fowl. They are of fine plumage, remark- 
ably deep, broad chests, short backs, and strong in the legs and bills, 
are strong, fast fighters, and in our opinion cannot be excelled. The 
cocks are of good size, weighing from five and a half to seven pounds. 
The hens are good layers and setters and very motherly in the care of 
their young. As a general rule they can be depended upon, and their 
product under favorable circumstances is generally abundant. They 
are favorites in localities where large fowls are in demand. 

IRISH SLASHER. 

Is a favorite breed, and having seen their gameness frequently 
tested in the pit and elsewhere, we consider them eminently trust- 



98 cocker's manual. 

worthy. In breeding they show reds, blue-reds and Piles, with either 
green or bright yellow legs. The cocks are desperate fighters, fight- 
ing as well on their opponent's hold as their own ; are well built, of 
good action, and are inveterate talkers while in the hands. The blue- 
reds have pure blue breasts, light red hackles, with turkey-red saddles, 
and dark blue tails, legs yellow, etc., making them ornaments to any 
fancier's yards. The reds have a deep, broad, black-red breast, with 
yellow legs and a fiery red eye. The Piles have either green or yel- 
low legs with light robin breasts, red saddles, light hackles and tail, 
and vary in weight from four to six pounds. They are excellent in 
the pit, mature early, fight rapidly, and have good wind and endurance. 

STONEFENCE FOWL. 

This breed is said to have been kept in their purity for more than 
fifty years by the Arlington family in North Carolina, by whom 
they were extensively fought, invariably coming off victorious. At 
the present time this breed is well known throughout the Northern 
States. They are of various colors, as black with brass backs and 
gray. The blacks are of good size, well shaped, strongly built, and 
are good billers and flyers. They are said to carry no superfluous 
flesh, and are soon put in condition for the pit. 

NEWBOLD REDS 

Were imported by Ed. Newbold, a cocker well known in the East- 
ern States, and from whom we obtained our stock, giving them the 
name of Newbold Reds. The cocks are of good size and station, 
stand well up, with heads erect, full breasted, broad across the shoul- 
ders, and tapering gradually to the tail. The wings are long almost 
meeting at the point, the tail full, with long sickles, breast of a brown- 
red col^r, the head small, with a large dark eye ; most of the cocks 
have a loud and savage crow. Their weight runs from four to six 
pounds. They legs are of good size and either a dark green or black 
color. They are fast becoming favorites. 

IRISH MUFFS. 

Frequently called New York Muffs, are a breed of fowls fast gaining 
a valuable reputation for gameness, and when obtained pure have few 



COCKER S MAKUAL. 99 

superiors. Formerly they were very numerous, but on account of 
being bred by fanciers and irresponsible dealers became unreliable. 
Lately, however, new blood has been imported, and once more in the 
hands of experienced cockers are fast proving worthy of every fancier 
and cocker. They show different colors, and run from five to seven 
pounds. By reference to the sporting papers it will be seen that they 
have won many a hard fought battle during the past few seasons. They 
have a rough-and-tumble style of fighting, are good billers and hard 
hitters, have large bones and are well set upon their pins. 

BALTIMORE TASSELS. 

Have large bodies and breed various colors, as blue-reds, reds and 
Piles, with tassels to match. We have often seen their gameness 
tested with steels, and find they invariably stand until death. Their 
weights run from five to seven pounds ; are skillfiil fighters, stand up 
well, and are frequently taller than other fowls ot equal weight, there- 
by giving them the advantage in the pit. We have bred them for a 
number of years, and have found them healthy and easy to raise. 

RATTLERS 

Are said to take their name from their style of fighting. They 
breed a variety of colors, with blue or green legs, and for fancy or 
fighting qualities have few superiors. They are especially desired 
when light weights are wanted. The cocks are strong fighters, thor- 
oughly game, strongly made, long winded, and as quick as fowls can 
conveniently be, mature early, and at an early age can be trusted in 
the pit. The cocks vary in size from four to five and a half pounds. 
The hens are fair layers, good setters, and show great interest in their 
progeny. Of the many crosses we have made none show better than 
the Rattlers and Tartars. 

RED RIPPERS. 

This breed we obtained some years since from a well known cocker 
in southern Georgia, who, if our information be correct, originated 
them. The name evidently comes from their color, and style of 
fighting. Our first stock consisted of a fine five pound cock, in color 



lOO COCKERS MANUAL. 

nearly white, and two hens of light buff color with yellow legs. We 
were informed that the cock was formerly a ginger red, but gradually 
changing his color each moulting became nearly pure white. Since 
we obtained him he has changed to a darker color, and at present is 
as fine a spangle as can be found. He has large, pure white legs. He 
was said to have been the winner of many battles, and when we re- 
ceived him was cut out for the pit. Although nine years old he moves 
as quickly as a yearling stag, is very savage and hard to handle. We 
have been offered large sums for him several times. Breeding him 
with the hens sent at the same time gave spangles, brass-backs, and 
pure reds, with white and yellow legs. They make a close fight, are 
always near or mixed up with their opponents, and force the fighting ; 
are continually on the move, long winded, very quick in their move- 
ments. Inveterate talkers, and are fast becoming great favorites. 

DOMINIC GAMES. 



This breed of fowl has long been successfully cultivated in the 
Southern States and have many admirers. They are quick, skillful 
fighters, are of good size, well made, and stand up well on their legS) 
which are either white or yellow. In the Northern States their ad- 
mirers are less numerous, having a number of times shown a lack of 
gameness ; yet many breed and fight them and consider them equal 
to their best varieties. They have been successfully fought in a num- 
ber of large mains in the South, and have always shown great courage 
and gameness. We see no reason why they cannot be bred as pure at 
the North. 

IRISH PILES 

Are a well known breed of Piles, and generally speaking result from 
crossing. They are strong, of good bone, and well made throughout, 
quick in movement, hard fighters, etc. The cocks run in weight from 
four to five and a half pounds, and have greater endurance than most 
Pile fowls. They show reds with white grounds and red and white 
stripes in the hackle , legs yellow, saddle and buts of wings dark red ; 
the feathers of the breast are red and white. 



cocker's manual. ioi 

BRASS-BACK GAMES 

Have a jet black hackle, bright yellow back, long, flowing dark tail, 
yellow or white legs, are broad breasted, short back, wings nearly 
meeting at the points, and are a breed much admired. They are good 
pit fowls, resulting from a cross ; are fine billers and strong hitters, 
stand up well and are thoroughly game. They are of the average 
weights. 

HENNY GAMES. 

This variety was imported from England and Spain at various times, 
and it is said to be very difficult to find them in their purity. They 
derive their name from the peculiar feathering of the cock, as he 
closely resembles a hen in feather but not in size, and when pure never 
show any sickle feathers, and the hackle feathers of the neck are quite* 
short, like those of the hen. They are of all colors, some white, some 
Pile, some spangle, and are said to be dead game. 



BREEDING COOPS AND PENS. 

Many admirers of fine poultry are deferred from keeping them, 
thinking they must have large and expensive coops with plenty of 
room, but this is a mistaken idea, as almost any one can at a small 
expense build suitable coops and raise as fine fowls as those bred in 
large and more costly ones. The following illustration shows one of 
our coops, suitable for breeding four varieties, or can be divided intd 
two apartments and two runs and so breed two varieties. It has been 
our experience that cheap and convenient coops are best, which, after 
a few years, can be torn down and replaced by new ones, and in this 
way be kept clean and fresh. Frequent whitewashing on the inside 
is needed, which prevents in a great measure the most troublesome 
pest fanciers have to contend with, lice. Keep the uesls clean ; and 
to be perfect should be so constructed as to be removed quite often, 
which allows of their being cleaned and whitewashed more easily. 
Any fancier can build a small house and pen suitable for half a. dozen 
hens in a very short time and at a small expense, giving plenty of 
light and air. We prefer giving it height enough to enter, as you 



COCKER S MANUAL. 



can more'' readily clean it out, the real cost being but a trifle more. 
Fowls will bear confinement if a change of food is given them often. 
Fresh cut sod does much to help them along. During the winter 
season we use plenty of straw. Selecting a place close to our coops 




we spread it on the ground quite thick, and whenever it snows take a 
fork and shake the straw up. In this way our fowls have a place to 
walk and stand on out of the snow, with no danger of frozen toes and 
a good place to scratch, which they enjoy. 



cocker's manual. 103 

DISEASES. 

As it is our purpose to make this manual strictly practical, such 
complaints will only be mentioned as are most common and with 
which fowls are most liable to be troubled. The methods of treat- 
ment have been more or less practiced, and consequently we feel not 
the slightest hesitation in recommending them as in every respect 
reliable and adapted for the different diseases. Without doubt there 
are many instances when it would be more profitable to kill than to 
cure the fowl ; and an attempt to cure should only be made when the 
disease with which the fowl is afflicted is well known. Over treat- 
ment should be guarded against. It is better to use precaution than 
medicine ; and if fowls are kept clean, are supplied with fresh water 
and a change of food, they are less liable to disease. 

ROUP. 

Perhaps no one disease to which fowls are liable is more trouble- 
some than the roup. It attacks the old and the young. Strong and 
healthy fowls are less subject, and when attacked are more easily 
cured. During the continuance of the disease great care should be 
shown the bird. Dr. Cooper gives the symptoms as follows ; "Rising 
and falling of the wattles at each breath, a whooping sound in the 
throat, fetid discharge from the nose. In some the head and eyes will 
swell, then the swollen parts are feverish, and if not soon attended to 
a yellow matter will form in the eyes, which, if not regularly dressed, 
will destroy that member. The fowl's appetite fails, his desire for 
drink increases, his crop feels hard, and his feathers lose their glossy 
appearance." 

Treatment. — As soon as the disease is discerned the fowl should 
be placed by itself in a clean, dry box, with plenty of straw. The 
head, neck and throat should be washed, and the eyes thoroughly 
rinsed with warm water in which common salt has been dissolved ; 
give a half teaspoonful of dry black pepper ; supply with soft food — a 
little bread soaked in ale is beneficial. When a fowl begins to iaa- 
prove place him in the sun for a short time each day. If the bird 
continues to rattle give a teaspoonful of cod-liver oil, or fish oil. 
Keep his box clean and supply with fresh straw each day. With good 



104 COCKER S MANUAL. 

treatment and proper care the disease in its worst form can be cured. 
Nearly every breeder has a method of treatment, but as the difference 
is not particularly great, one method will answer every purpose. The 
method given above we have applied in many cases, and invariably 
with results most favorable. Some authors advise a dOse sufficient for 
a horse, entirely beyond the capacity of a fowl. The method of treat- 
ment as given by Bement is : "For roup and all putrid affections take 
finely pulverized fresh-burned charcoal and new yeast each three parts, 
pulverized sulphur two parts, flour one part, and water sufficient to 
mix well ; make into boluses the size of a hazlenut and give one three 
times a day." He also believes in bathing the head, eyes and nos- 
trils with warm milk and water. 

PIP, OR GAPES 

Is a very common disease among young fowls, and is particularly 
troublesome during the warmest months. It is caused by drinking 
filthy or muddy water, and eating dirty food. Some claim that 
drinking rain-water also brings them on; and perhaps it were as well 
to keep them from it. This disease will be detected by the fowl 
holding up its head and gasping for breath. We have tried many 
advised cures and find none so effectual as turpentine administered 
with a feather. Take a tail or wing feather, strip it within one or 
two inches of the feathered end, and dipping it into turpentine gently 
put it down the fowl's windpipe, not his gullet. After turning the 
feather once or twice draw it out, when it will be found to be covered 
with small red worms. These as well as those that remain will be 
destroyed by the turpentine. We would advise as likely to prove 
beneficial, that camphor be put into the drinking water. A few 
drops of turpentine mixed with the corn meal with which the fowls 
are fed will, in general, prevent the appearance of the disease. 

INDIGESTION, 

The remarks on this subject we take from the works of Dr. Bennett : 
''Cases of indigestion among fo<vls are common, and deserve atten- 
tion according to the causes from which they proceed. A change of 
food will often produce crop-sickness, as it is called, when the fowl 



cocker's manual. 105 

takes but little food and suddenly loses flesh. Such disease is of little 
consequence and shortly disappears. When it requires attention at all, 
all symptoms will be removed by giving their diet in a warm state. 
Sometimes, however, a fit of indigestion threatens severe consequen- 
ces, especially if long continued. Every effort should be made to 
ascertain the cause, and the remedy must be governed by the circum- 
stances of the case. * * * * General affections of this kind, as 
in the human species, proceed from over feeding or want of exercise. 
The symptoms are heaviness, moping, keeping away from the nest and 
want of appetite. 

Remedy. — Lessen the quantity of food, and oblige the fowl to exer- 
cise in the open walk. Give some powdered Cayenne and gentian 
mixed with the usual food. Iron rust mixed with soft food or diffused 
in water is an excellent tonic, as indicated when there is atroph)- or 
diminution of flesh. It may be combined with oats or other grain. 
In England it is said that milk and warm ale have a good effect when 
joined to the diet of diseased fowls." 

MOULTING. 

With young birds the process is easy and the time occupied is not 
long ; but with fowls that have passed beyond the second season the 
process of renewing the plumage is protracted and exhausting. Much 
assistance can be rendered by the fancier in varying the diet, and 
giving tonics, etc. Pieces of meat and fish should be thrown to them 
frequently, and lime and pepper mixed with their food. An abund- 
ance of grass and vegetables should be allowed them. Their drink 
should be composed of a half teaspoonful of sulphate of iron to one 
gallon of fresh water ; an extra amount of feed should be given them 
also. After the third year fowls moult later each succeeding season, 
and frequently it is as late as January before they are in full feather. 
The fowl should be kept warm and occasionally given a dose of Cay- 
enne pepper. 

CHICKEN POX. 

This is the worst disease to which game fowls are subject, and our 
fenciers may well fear, as it will give them greater trouble than any 
other disease known. It affects a number of fowls at the same time, 

8 



io6 cocker's manual. 

and generally goes through the entire flock. We find it results prin- 
cipally from fighting, as when the fowl's head has been badly pecked 
and proper attention has not been given toward healing the wounds. 
Still we have had it on our yards when no cause was apparent and none 
could be ascribed. Some years since, being unable to check it, it run 
through and nearly destroyed our whole stock. Since then we have 
been more successful, and have found that if taken in time — before 
canker gets into the throat — it can be cured with but little trouble. 
Symptoms — small yellowish specks scattered over the head and neck, 
gradually enlarging until the head and neck become completely cov- 
ered ; the mouth and throat become badly cankered ; the eyes swell 
shut, and in this condition the fowl remains until death ensues. As 
soon as a fowl becomes affected he should be placed in a coop by 
himself. 

Treatment. — Make a strong brine of warm water and salt, and 
with a soft, fine sponge wash the head and neck ; thoroughly rinse 
the eyes ; carefully scrape the mouth with a small, sharp stick, to re- 
move the canker; with the fore finger rub salt well pulverized in the 
mouth and throat ; mix equal parts of sweet oil and turpentine and 
apply with a feather to the head and neck. No injury will result if 
the eyes are treated similarly. The fowl should receive the same 
treatment twice each day, and if carefully attended will grow better 
in two or three days ; the scabs will come off, the appetite will be in- 
creased, and soon he will be well. During the sicknes a slight physic 
should be given, also a light feed of bread and milk. If the fowl re- 
fuses to eat force the food down. If the above be followed as recom- 
mended the worst cases can generally be cured. 

RUNNING AT THE NOSE, OR, CATARRH. 

t 
It is almost impossible at the present day to go on any breeder's 

yard and not find this disease existing to a greater or less extent. We 

have noticed it at poultry shows as well as on the yards. Its existence 

can readily ascertained by pressing gently with the thumb and fore 

finger on either side of the nostril, when an offensive whitish matter 

will make its appearance. 

Treatment. — Wash the head in warm water in which salt has been 
dissolved. Pure cider vinegar diluted with water will also answer the 



cocker's manual. 107 

purpose. Place the fowl in warm quarters and give him a warm feed 
with a slight physic. This resembles the roup somewhat, and in fact 
is the first stage of that disease. 



DIARRHCEA, OR DYSENTERY 

Requires immediate and careful treatment. It is frequently brought 
on by giving green or soft food, in which case change the feed, as this 
will do much towards curing the disease in the first stages. Chalk 
mixed with boiled rice and milk, with a little alum dissolved in the 
drinking water, will prove beneficial. The disease is accelerated by 
dampness, cold and wet weather, without proper shelter and care. 

COSTIVENESS 

Will be noticed by the fowl's frequent attempts to relieve itself. 
The cause is continued dry, hard feed, and a limited supply of clean 
water. 

Treatment. — Give a feed of bread and milk, warmed ; a small 
quantity of fresh meat may be safely given, with a change of green 
food, as cabbage chopped fine ; mashed boiled potatoes are also good. 
If this method be strictly followed a cure will be perfected in nearly 
every case. 

LIMED LEG 

Is first perceived by the whitish appearance of the legs, subsequently 
becoming sore ; the scales enlarge and the toes crack open. Several 
methods of treatment are recommended, which we have tried with 
varying success ; but advise the following as likely to work a cure as 
any method used : Wash the fowl with warm water and soap, after 
which wipe dry and grease with salt butter or lard, or fish oil. An- 
other advised method is, wash the leg with kerosene oil and annoint 
with salt grease, or rub the parts affected with red precipitate oint- 
ment. The white legged varieties are more subject to this disease 
than others. 



io8 cocker's manual. 

RHEUMATISM 

Arises frequently from confinement in a cold and damp place, with- 
out sufficient light or air. It is noticed by the stiffness of the limbs, 
unsteady gait, and evident pain caused by the slightest movement. 
The disease can be partially if not entirely removed by placing the 
fowl in a warm, dry place, and externally applying stimulants, rub- 
bing the legs and thighs, A soft or opening feed will be of service. 
The large varieties appear to be more subject to this disease than others. 

RATTLES, OR ASTHMA. 

A complaint particularly prevalent among young fowls, and is oc- 
casioned by colds, or cold, damp weather' The premonitory symp- 
toms are a rattling sound in the throat, with a perceptible laboring 
for breath, occasioned by phlegm obstructing the' air cells. 

Treatment. — Bathe the head in warm salted water ; give a tea- 
spoonful of vinegar each morning, also a dose of dry black pepper. 
The food should consist of bread and milk ; a light physic may be 
given. A cure is sometimes effected by giving a teaspoonful of cod- 
liver oil during the first stages of the disease. Care should be taken 
to keep the fowl in warm quarters. 

FEVER 

Is of frequent occurrence among fowls that have been long confined, 
over fed, and not given a sufficient supply of water. Fighting also 
occasions it. Fever is easily cured, but when attending other diseases 
frequently proves fatal. Symptoms : The head is hot, eyes very 
red, etc. 

Treatment. — Give a light physic, with a little nitre in the drinking 
water. With light food and change of air the fowl will soon recover. 

LOSS OF FEATHERS. 

The following remarks on this subject we take from Dr. Bennett's 
Poultry Book: "This disease, which is common to confined fowls, is 
by no means to be confounded with the natural process of moulting. 



cocker's manual. 109 

In the annual healthy moult, the fall of the feathers is occasioned by 
the protrusion of new feathers from the skin. In the diseased state, 
which we now consider, where the feathers fall no new ones come to 
replace them, but the fowl is left bald and naked. A sort of rough- 
ness appears also on the skin. 

"Symptoms. — A falling off in appetite, moping and inactivity, the 
feathers starting and falling off until the naked skin appears. 

"Remedy. — This affection is supposed by some to be constitutional 
rather than local. External remedies, therefore, may not always be 
efficient. Stimulants applied externally may serve to assist the opera- 
tion of what medicine may be given. Sulphur may be thus applied, 
mixed with lard. Cayenne and sulphur, in the proportion of one 
quarter each mixed with fresh butter, is good to be given internally, 
and will act as a powerful alterative. The diet should be changed, 
and cleanliness and fresh air are indispensable. 

EATING THEIR FEATHERS. 

On this subject the National Live Stock Journal for December, 1871, 
has the following : "Eating each other's feathers is a habit fowls often 
contract when confined in yards, but is not, perhaps, fully understood. 
'It is a morbid appetite,' says a writer in the Cultivator, 'apparently 
induced in the outset by the impatience of the fowls under confine- 
ment.' It is well known that fowls are very fond of blood, and when 
moulting the new feathers are generally called bloodshot ; that is, the 
ends of the quills, when quite young, have a drop or so of blood, 
which induces the fowl to pluck for the blood contained in them ; and 
we have known it to be kept up till some individuals of the flock, who 
were made special victims, were almost entirely denuded of their 
feathers, and sometimes have even had their entrails torn out." 

INFLAMMATION, OR SWELLING OF THE EYES, 

Is said to be a specific inflammation of the lining of the membrane 
of the air passages of the nose. The disease arises from exposure to 
cold and damp weather or constitutional delicacy. There is no reg- 
ular treatment prescribed for this disease that we are aware of, but dry 
shelter, stimulating, peppered food and corn may be given with ad- 



no COCKERS MANUAL. 

vantage. Twice each day give one grain of sulphate of iron, three of 
Cayenne pepper and a desert spoonful of cod-liver oil mixed in their 
meal or feed. If the head of the bird feels feverish, bathe with warm 
salted water or warm milk and water two or three times a day. 

MELANCHOLY AND MOPING. 

When a fowl hangs its wings and looks droopingly immediate atten- 
tion should be given. If he appears purged, give a teaspoonful of 
brandy with a few drops of camphor in a tablespoonfnl of warm water, 
keeping the fowl in a clean, warm place, giving him only soft food. 
If this treatment is followed the bird will soon recover, unless it has- 
been too long neglected. 

APOPLEXY 

Occurs from over feeding and can seldom be treated in time. It is 
more troublesome among hens, which are found dead on their nests 
or under their roosts. If perceived in time lessen the quantity of 
food. Stimulating food should not be given to fowls subject to this 
disease. It is recommended that bleeding the fowl under the wing 
will possibly effect a cure. 

CORNS. 

The larger varieties of games are particularly subject to corns, 
which are occasioned by roosting high or by long confinement in 
coops. These will be found in the fleshy part of the foot, often caus- 
ing lameness. To remove, cut around the hard substance forming the 
corn, and apply equal parts of sweet oil and turpentine. Frequently 
they can be removed with a knife. Keep the foot soft and all trouble 
on this account will cease. 

CARE OF WOUNDED FOWLS. 

When fowls are injured immediate attention should be given to 
prevent the fever which generally follows the injury. When the fowl 
has been badly pecked and torn, the head should be washed in blood- 
warm water, using a soft sponge, carefully removing the blood ; grease 



COCKER S MANUAL. 



Ill 



the parts affected with salt butter. Give butter rolled into a pill the 
size of a marble ; this tends to remove the blood and feathers in the 
throat, and serves as a slight physic. For a few days only food of a 
soft nature should be given ; also a small quantity of nitre should be 
placed in the drinking water. Where fowls, either old or young, have 
been badly injured in the pit the closest attention is necessary. If the 
injury occurs in the winter season, warm quarters must be provided to 
avoid taking cold. As a general thing fowls injured with the steels 
more readily recuperate than those torn with the naked spur. The 
day after fighting 'give the fowl a feed of bread and milk, warmed. 
The blood and feathers in the throat and mouth should be removed, 
and a few drops of wine given as stimulant. If fever is prevented 
from making its appearance the fowl can cafely be placed on the walk 
in a few days. It is not advisable, however, to place the cock on his 
walk after battle, during cold weather, as he is liable to take more 
cold, which usually results in his death. 




TABTAR GAME COCK. 



COCKER S MANUAL. 



THE STANDARD OF EXCELLENCE. 



Up to this point we have given a brief exposition of many subjects 
intimately connected with the breeding and management of Game 
Fowls, studiously avoiding everything uninteresting to the cocker 
and fancier, yet evidently the Manual will hardly be complete if a 
briefspace were not devoted to those breeding standard or exhibition 
birds, and for their benefit we give the latest revised Standard of 
Excellence. 

BLACK-BREASTED RED GAMES. 



DISQ UALIFICATIONS. 

Color of legs or plumage not matcliing, when shown in pairs or trios; crooked 
backs; wry tails; malformed breasts ; duck-feet; adult cocks not dubbed, any arti- 
ficial coloring; trimming or plueking foul feathers. 



THE COCK. 

Head : Very rich, dark red, long, thin ^nd tapering, and very 
strong at its junction with the neck. Beak, willow or dark horn-color, 
slightly curved, and strong at the base. 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes : Comb, in chickens that have not 
been dubbed, single, small and thin, low in front, serrated, erect and 
straight ; mature birds to be neatly dubbed, and free from warty ex- 
crescences, small feathers, or ridges on the edges. Wattles, in chick- 
ens, brilliant red, very thin, and smooth in texture. Ear-lobes, rich 
red, small, and smooth in texture. 

Eyes : Large and prominent, bright, clear, deep bay, with a quick 
and fearless expression, and perfectly alike in color. 

Neck : Rather long and nicely arched, the hackle being rich red, 
short and close, and free from black stripes. 



COCKER S MANUAL. , II3 

Back : Rich, dark red, rather short, flat, broad across the shoulders, 
and narrowing to the tail ; the stern slender and neat, and the saddle- 
feathers very short and close, and, in color, rich red. 

Breast and Body : Breast, broad and full, and a rich black, free 
from any admixture of red, or any other color. Body, very firm and 
muscular, not soft or hollow on the sides, broadest at the shoulders 
and tapering towards the tail ; the under part rich, deep black. 

Wings : Of medium length and powerful, the butts and shoulders 
slightly raised, as if for a sudden spring ; the remainder not drooping 
but carried compactly against the sides, the points resting under the 
saddle feathers ; the primaries bay on the outside web, and black on 
the inside web ; the secondaries a rich, clear, bright bay on the out- 
side web, and black on the inside web, with a rich metallic or green- 
ish-black spot on the ends of the feathers ; wing-butts, black ; wing- 
bows, rich, dark red, perfectly free from black feathers ; wing-coverts, 
metallic or greenish-black, forming a wide bar across the wings, 
perfectly even and well defined, and not irregular on the edges. 

Tail : Rich black, of medium length, carried well together, and at 
a moderate elevation ; sickle-feathers and tail-coverts a very rich me- 
tallic or greenish- black. 

Legs and Feet : Thighs, black, rather long, round, stout, hard and 
firm, and placed well forward on the body. Shanks, in color, willow, 
olive, yellow, white or blue, rather long, bony, clean and strong, and 
standing well and evenly apart, the scales smooth and close, and the 
spurs set on low. Feet, broad, thin and flat ; the toes long, straight 
and spreading, and well furnished with strong nails ; the hind-toes set 
low on the feet, standing well backwards, and flat on the ground, and 
not merely touching with the points, or duck-footed. 

Hardness of Feather ; Body-feathers, short, glossy, close, hard 
and firm ; quills, very hard and strong. 

THE HEN. 

Head : Long, slender, tapering, very neat in appearance, and 
brown in color. Beak, horn-color, slightly curved, sharp at the point, 
and stout at the base. 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes : Comb, single, small and thin, low- 
in front, evenly serrated, and perfectly erect and straight ; in color, 



114 COCKER S MANUAL. 

very bright red. Wattles, bright red, small, thin, and neatly rounded 
on the edges. Ear-lobes, bright red, very small and close to the face. 

Eyes : Brilliant red or bay, large and prominent, with a quick and 
fearless expression, and exactly alike in color. 

Neck: Long, the hackle a bright brownish-yellow, striped black, 
the feathers very short, giving the neck a slender and graceful ap- 
pearance. 

Back : Brown, penciled with black, of moderate length, broad 
across the shoulders, flat, and narrowing to the tail. 

Breast and Body : Breast, broad, round and prominent, deep sal- 
mon-color, shading off to ashy-brown towards the thighs. Body, very 
firm and muscular, broadest at the shoulders, and tapering towards the 
tail, the general plsmage a rich brown. 

Wings : Of medium length and powerful, the butts and shoulders 
carried somewhat high, making a flat back, the points not droopisg, 
but carried compactly against the sides ; primaries and secondaries 
brown ; wing-bows, shoulders and coverts brown, penciled with black, 
and perfectly free from red. 

Tail: Dark brown, approaching black, moderate in length, not 
carried over the back, but extending backwards at a slight elevation, 
the feathers not spread out, but held neatly together. 

Legs : Thighs, ashy-brown, stout and round, and the feathers short 
and close. Shanks, long, bony, clear and tapering, the scales narrow, 
smooth and close, and, in color, to match those of the cock when 
placed on exhibition. Feet, broad, flat and thin ; toes, long, straight 
and spreading, and well furnished with strong nails, the hind-toes set 
low on the feet, standing well backwards, not duck- footed. 

Hardness of Feather : Body-feathers, close, short hard and firm ; 
quills, very hard and strong. 

Carriage : Neat, upright, quick and active. 

POINTS IN BLACK-BREASTED RED GAMES. 

Symmetry, lo 

Condition, 6 

Station, 12 

Color, 12 

Head, 8 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes, 4 

Eyes, 5 



cocker's manual. 115 

Neck, 4 

Back, 5 

Breast and Body, 6 

Wings, 4 

Tail, . — — . __.. .... ._„ _ — 7 

Legs, 6 

Feet, 6 

Hardness of Feather, 5 



BROWN-RED GAMES. 



DISQ UALIFICA TIONS. 

Color of legs or plumage not matching, when shown in pairs or trios; crooked 
backs; wry tails; malformed breasts ; duck- feet; adult cocks not dubbed; any arti- 
ficial coloring ; trimming or plucking foul feathers. 



THE COCK. 

Head: Very dark red, long, thin and tapering, and very strong at 
its junction with the neck. Beak, nearly or quite black, slightly 
curved, and strong at the base. 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes : Comb, in chickens that have not 
been dubbed, single, small and thin, low in front, serrated, erect and 
straight ; mature birds to be neatly dubbed, and free from warty ex- 
crescences, small feathers, or ridges, on the edges. Wattles, in chick- 
ens, deep red or dark purple, very thin and smooth in texture. Ear- 
lobes, deep red or dark purple, small, thin, and smooth in texture. 

Eyes : Dark brown or black, large, prominent and bright, with a 
quick and fearless expression, and perfectly alike in color. 

Neck : Rather long and nicely arched, the hackle being short and 
close, and rich red in color, finely striped with black. 

Breast and Body : Breast, broad, full, round, and black in color, 
the shafts and margins of the feathers being reddish-brown, the color 
becoming darker as it approaches the thighs. Body, very firm and 



ii6 cocker's manual. 

muscular, not soft or hollow on the sides, broadest at the shoulders 
and tapering towards the tail. 

Wings : Of medium length and powerful, the butts and shoulders 
slightly raised, as if for a sudden spring ; the remainder not drooping, 
but carried compactly against the sides, the points resting under the 
saddle-feathers ; the primaries dusky-black ; secondaries, black, with 
metallic lustre towards the ends of the feathers ; wing-bows, dark 
crimson-red ; wing-butts, black, or very dusky-brown ; wing-coverts, 
rich, glossy black. 

Tail: Black, of medium length, carried well together, and at a 
moderate elevation ; tail-coverts, rich, glossy black, and nicely curved. 

Legs : Thighs, dusky-black, rather long, round, stout, hard and 
firm, and pieced well forward on the body. Shanks, olive, dark wil- 
low or bronzy-black, rather long, bony, clean and strong, and stand- 
ing well and evenly apart, the scales smooth and close, and the spurs 
set on low. Feet, broad, thin and flat ; the toes long, straight and 
spreading, and well furnished with strong nails ; the hind-toes set low 
on the feet, standing well backwards and flat on the ground, and not 
merely touching with the points, or duck-footed. 

Hardness of Feather : Body-feathers, short, hard and firm ; quills, 
very hard and strong. 

THE HEN. 

Head : Dark, dusky-brown, approaching a dusky-black, long, 
slender, tapering, and very neat in appearance. Beak, black, or 
nearly so, slightly curved, sharp at the point and stout at the base. 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes : Comb, red or dark purple, single, 
small and thin, low in front, evenly serrated and perfectly erect and 
straight. Wattles, red or dark purple, small, thin and neatly rounded 
on the edges. Ear-lobes, red or dark purple, very small, and close to 
the face. 

Eyes . Dark brown or black, large, prominent and bright, with a 
quick, fiery expression, and perfectly alike in color. 

Neck : Rich gold or bright lemon-color, striped with black, long 
feathers very short, giving the neck a slender and graceful appearance. 

Back : Very dark brown, approaching black, of moderate length, 
flat, broad across the shoulders, and narrowing to the tail. 



COCKKR S MANUAL.' II 7 

Breast and Body : Breast, brilliant black, broad, round and 
prominent. Body, very firm and muscular, broadest at the shoulders, 
and tapering towards the tail. 

Wings : Of medium length and powerful, the butts and shoulders 
carried somewhat high, so as to cause a flat back, the points not 
drooping, but carried compactly against the sides ; primaries and 
secondaries, as well as wing-bows and coverts, brilliant black, dusky- 
black, or very dark brown. 

Tail : Black, moderate in length, not carried over the back, but 
extending backwards, the feathers not spread out, but held neatly to- 
gether. 

Legs ; Thighs, black, stout and round, and the feathers short and 
close. Shanks, long, bony, clean and tapering, the scales narrow, 
smooth and close, to match those of the cock when placed on exhibi- 
tion. Feet, broad, flat and thin ; toes, long, straight and spreading, 
well furnished with strong nails, the hind-toes set low on the feet, 
standing well backwards, and not duck-footed. 

Hardness of Feather : Body-feathers, close, short, hard and firm; 
quills, very hard and strong. 

Carriage : Neat, upright, quick and active. 

POINTS li^ BROWN-RED GAMES. 

Symmetry, lo 

Condition, 6 

Station, t2 

Color, 12 

Head, 8 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes, 4 

Neck, 4 

Back, 5 

Breast and Body, 6 

Wings, 4 

Tail, 7 

Legs, 6 

Feet, 6 

Hardness of Feather, 5 



ii8 cocker's manual. 

GINGER-RED GAMES. 



DISQ VALIFIOA TIONS. 

Color of legs or plumage not matching, when shown in pairs or trios ; crooked 
backs; wry tails; malformed braasts; duck-feet; adult cocks not dubbed ; any arti- 
ficial coloring; trimming or plucking foul feathers. 



THE COCK. 

Head: Red, long, thin and tapering, and very strong at its junction 
with the neck. Beak, olive or bronzy-black, slightly curved and 
strong at the base. 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes : Comb, in chickens that have not 
been dubbed, single, small and thin, low in front, serrated, etect and 
straight ; mature birds to be neatly dubbed, and free from warty ex- 
crescences, small feathers, or ridges on the edges. Wattles, red, very 
thin, and smooth in texture. Ear-lobes, red, small, thin, and smooth 
in texture. 

Eyes : Brown or black, large, prominent and bright, with a quick 
and fearless expression, and perfectly alike in color. 

Neck : Rather long and nicely arched, the hackle short and close, 
and a rich, clear red in color. 

Back: Rich red, rather short, flat, broad across the shoulders, and 
narrowing to the tail ; the stern slender and neat, and the saddle- 
feathers very short and close, and a rich, clear red. 

Breast and Body : Breast, in color, ginger-red, becoming darker 
towards the thighs, broad, round and full. Body, general plumage 
rich red, very firm and muscular, not soft or hollow on the sides, 
broadest at the shoulders and tapering to the tail. 

Wings : Brownish-red, of medium length, and powerful, the butts 
and shoulders slightly raised, as if for a sudden spring ; the remainder 
not drooping, but carried compactly against the sides, the points rest- 
ing under the saddle feathers ; primaries and secondaries, brownish- 
red ; wing-bows and shoulder-coverts, rich red. 

Tail: Black, of medium length, carried well together and at a 
moderate elevation ; tail-coverts, rich black, the lesser coverts edged 
with red. 



cocker's manual. 119 

Legs : Thighs, dusky-red, rather long, round, stout, hard and firm, 
and placed well forward on the body. Shanks, olive, dark willow, or 
bronzy-black, rather long, bony, clean and strong, and standing well 
and evenly apart, the scales smooth and close, and the spurs set on 
low. Feet, broad, thin and flat ; the toes long, straight and spread- 
ing, and well furnished with strong nails; the hind-toeS' set low on the 
feet, standing well backwards, and flat on the ground, and not merely 
touching with the points, or duck-footed. 

Hardness of Feathers : Body-feathers, short, hard and firm; quills, 
very hard and strong. 

THE HEN. 

Head : Yellowish-brown, long, slendering, tapering, and very neat 
in appearance. Beak, olive, or bronzy-black, slightly curved, sharp 
at the point and stout at the base. 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes : Comb, purplish-red, single, small 
and thin, low in front, evenly serrated, and perfectly erect and straight. 
Wattles, dark-red,, small, thin, and neatly rounded on the edges. 
Ear-lobes, dark-red, very small, and close to the face. 

Eves : Brown or black, large, prominent and bright, with a quick, 
fiery expression, and perfectly alike in color. 

Neck : Golden-yellow, striped with black, long, the feathers very 
short, giving the neck a slender and graceful appearance. 

Back : Yellowish-brown, of moderate length, flat, broad across the 
shoulders, and narrowing to the tail. 

Breast and Body : Breast, broad, round and prominent, the higher 
part, near the throat, a yellowish-brown ; the shafts, and a narrow 
margin of feathers, of a much lighter shade ; the lower part and sides 
a dusky-brown, with a narrow margin of a golden-ginger shade. Body, 
very firm and muscular, broadest at the shoulders, and tapering to the 
tail ; the general color of the plumage a yellowish-brown. 

Wings : Of medium length and powerful, the butts and shoulders 
carried somewhat high, so as to cause a flat back, the points not 
drooping, but carried compactly against the sides ; the primaries and 
secondaries, dark brown or black ; wing-coverts, yellowish-brown. 

Tail : Black, moderate in length, not carried over the back, but 
extending backwards, the feathers not spread out, held neatly to- 
gether. 



COCKER S MANUAL. 



Legs : Thighs, dusky-brown, stout and round, and the feathers short 
and close. Shanks, olive, dark willow or bronzy-black, long, clean, 
bony and tapering, the scales narrow, smooth and close, to match 
those of the cock when shown in pairs or trios. Feet, broad, flat and 




PIT FOWL. 

thin ; toes, long straight and spreading, well furnished with strong 
nails ; the hind-toes set low on the feet, standing well backwards, and 
not duck-footed. 

Hardness of Feather : Body-feathers, close short, hard and firm ; 
quills, very hard and strong. 

Carriage ; Neat, upright, quick and active. 



COCKER S MANUAL. 121 
rOINTiS IN GINGER-RED GAJIES. 

Symmetry, lo 

Condition, 6 

Station, 12 

Color, 12 

Head, 8 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes, 4 

Eyes, 5 

Neck, __" 4 

Back, 5 

Breast and Body, 6 

Wings, ____ 4 

Tail, _... ___. ._._ .__. ____ ____ 7 

Legs, 6 

Feet, 6 

Hardness of Feather, 5 



YELLOW DUCKWING GAMES. 



DI.S(J UA LIFICA TlOyS. 

Adnlt cocks not dubbed; color of legs or plumage not matching, when shown in 
pairs or trios; crooked backs ; "wry tails; malfoimed breasts; duck-feet; any artifi- 
cial coloring; trimming or plucking foul feathers. 



THE COCK. 

Head: Straw-color or yellow, long thin ar.d tapering, and very 
strong at its junction with the neck. Beak, willow, olive or blue, 
slightly curved, and strong at the base. 

CoisiB, Wattles and Ear-lobes : Ccnib, bright red in chickens 
that have not been dubbed, single, small, and thin, low in front, ser- 
rated, erect and straight ; mature birds to be neatly dubbed, and free 
from warty excrescences, small feathers or ridges on the edges. Wat- 

9 



122 COCKERS MANUAL. 

ties, brilliant red, very thin, and smooth in texture. Ear-lobes, bril- 
liant, red, small, thin, and smooth in texture. 

Eyes ; Red, or deep bay, large, prominent and bright, with a quick 
alid fearless expression, and perfectly alike in color. 

Neck : Rather long and nicely arched, the hackle a clear straw- 
color, free from black stripes. 

Back : Rather short, flat, broad across the shoulders, and narrowing 
to the tail, the plumage a rich, uniform, bright copper or maroon, the 
more even, clear and unmixed in color the better; the stern slender 
and neat, and the saddle-feathers very short and close, and of straw 
color. 

Breast and Body : Breast, rich black, broad, full and round. Body, 
very firm and muscular, not soft or hollow on the sides, broadest at 
the shoulders, and tapering to the tail ; the under part of the body a 
rich black. 

Wings : Of medium length and powerful, the butts and shoulders 
slightly faised, as if for a sudden spring ; the remainder not drooping, 
but carried compactly against the sides, the points resting under the 
saddle feathers ; primaries straw-white on the outside web, dark on the 
inside web ; the secondaries white on the outside web, dark on the 
inside, and also at the ends of the feathers; wing-butts, black; wing- 
covests, steel blue or metallic black, forming a wide bar across the 
wings. 

Tail Black, of medium length, carried well together, and at a 
moderate elevation ; sickle feathers and tail-coverts a rich metallic or 
greenish-black. 

Legs . Thighs, rich black, rather long, round, stout, hard and firm, 
and placed well forward on the body. Shanks, willow, olive, yellow 
or blue, rather long, clean, bony and strong, and standing well and 
evenly apart ; the scales smooth and close, and the spurs set on low. 
Feet, broad, thin and flat ; the toes long, straight and spreading, and 
well furnished with strong nails ; the hind-toes set low on the feet, 
standing well backwards, and flat on the gsound, and not merely 
touching with the points, or duck-footed, 

Hardness of Feather : Bady-feathers, short, hard and firm ; quills, 
very hard and strong. 



COCKER S MANUAL. 1 23 

THE HEN. 

Head : Gray, long, slender, tapering and very neat in appearance. 
Beak, willow, olive or blue, slightly curved, sharp at the point and 
stout at the base. 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes : Comb, bright red, single, small 
and thin, low in front, evenly serrated, and perfectly erect and 
straight. Wattles, bright red, small, thin, and neatly rounded on the 
edges. Ear-lobes, bright red, very small and close to the face. 

Eyes : Red or deep bay, large, prominent and bright, with a quick 
and fiery expression, and perfectly alike in color. 

Neck: White, striped with black, long, the feathers very short, 
giving the neck a slender and graceful appearance. 

Back : Bluish or slaty-gray, the shafts of feathers white, of moderate 
length, flat, broad across the shoulders, and narrowing to the tail. 

Breast and Body : Breast, salmon-red, shading off to ashy-gray 
toward the thighs, broad, round and prominent. Body, very firm and 
muscular, broadest at the shoulders and tapering to the tail. 

Wings : Of medium length and powerful, the butts and shoulders 
carried somewhat high, so as to cause a flat back, the points not 
drooping but carried compactly against the sides ; primaries and sec- 
ondaries a slaty or bluish-gray ; wing-bows and wing-coverts a slaty or 
bluish-gray, the shafts of the feathers being white ; red or brown on 
the wings very objectionable. 

Tail : Dark gray, the inside approaching black, moderate in length, 
not carried over the back, but extending backwards, the feathers not 
spread out, but held neatly together. 

Legs : Thighs, ashy-gray, stout and round, and the feathers short 
and close. Shanks, long, bony, clean and tapering, the scales narrow, 
smooth and close, and to match the cock in color when placed on 
exhibition. Feet, broad, flat and thin; toes, long, straight and 
spreading, well furnished with strong nails ; the hind-toes set low on 
the feet, standing well backwards, and not duck-footed. 

Hardness of Feather : Body-feathers, close, short, hard and firm ; 
quills, very hard and strong. 

Carriage : Neat, upright, quick and active. 

points in yellow duckwing games. 
Symmetry, 10 

Condition, 6 



124 COCKERS MANUAL. 

Station, 12 

Head, 8 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes, 4 

Eyes, 5 

Neck, 4 

Back, 5 

Breast and Body, 6 

Wings, 4 

Tail, 7 

Legs, 6 

Feet, 6 

Hardness of Feather, 5 



SILVER DUCKWING GAMES. 



DISQ UALIFICA TIONK 

Adult cocks not dabbed , color of legs or plumage not matching, "wlien shown in 
pairs or trios; crooked backs; wry tails; malformed breasts; duck-feet; any arti- 
ficial coloring; trimming or plucking foul feathers. 



THE COCK. 

Head : Silvery-white, long, thin and tapering, and very strong 
at its junction with the neck. Beak, olive or yellow, slightly curved, 
and strong at the base. 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes : Comb, bright red in chickens that 
have not been dubbed, single, small and thin, low in front, serrated, 
erect and straight ; mature birds to be neatly dubbed, and free from 
warty excrescences, small feathers, or ridges on the edges. Wattles, 
bright red, very thin, and smooth in texture. Ear-lobes, bright red, 
small, thin and smooth in texture. 

Eyes : Red or deep bay, large, prominent and bright, with a quick 
and fearless expression, and perfectly alike in color. 



COCKER S MANUAL. 125 

Neck ; Rather long and nicely arched, hackle short and close, clear 
white, without any mixture of black or any other color. 

Back : Silvery-white, rather short, flat, broad across the shoulders, 
and narrowing to the tail ; the stern slender and neat, and the saddle- 
feathers a clear white, and very short and close. 

Breast and Body : Breast, black, broad, full and round. Body, 
very firm and muscular, not soft or hollow on the sides, broadest at 
the shoulders and tapering towards the tail ; the urider part of the 
body Mack. 

Wings : Of medium length and powerful, the butts and shoulders 
slightly raised, as if for a sudden spring ; the remainder not drooping 
but carried compactly against the sides, the points resting under the 
saddle feathers ; the primaries white on the outside web, and dark on 
the inside web ; the secondaries a clear white on the outside web, 
black on the inside web and on the ends of the feathers ; wing-bows, 
silvery-white. wing-butts, black, and wing-coverts, a steel-blue, forming 
wide bars across the wings. 

Tail: Black, of medium length, carried well together, and at a 
moderate elevation; tail-coverts, a metallic or greenish- black, and 
nicely curved. 

Legs and Feet : Thighs, black, rather long, round, stout, hard and 
firm, and placed well forward on the body. Shanks, willow, olive, 
bronze or blue, rather long, bony, clean and strong, and standing well 
and evenly apart, the scales smooth and close, and the spurs set on 
low. Feet, broad, thin and flat ; the toes long, straight and spread- 
ing, and v.-ell furnished with strong nails ; the hind toes set low on the 
feet, standing well backwards, and flat on the ground, and not merely 
touching with the points, or duck-footed. 

Hardness of Feather ; Body-feathers, short, hard and firm ; quills, 
very hard and strong. 

THE HEN. 

Head : Silvery-gray, long, slender, tapering, very neat in appear- 
ance- Beak, willow or bronze, slightly curved, sharp at the point, and 
stout at the base. 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes : Comb, single, small and thin, low 
in front, evenly serrated, and perfectly erect and straight. Wattles, 



126 cocker's manual. 

bright red, small, thin, and neatly rounded on the edges. Ear-lobes, 
bright red, very small and close to the face. 

Eyes : Red or deep bay, large, prominent and bright, with a quick, 
fiery expression, and perfectly alike in color. 

Neck: Silvery- white, striped black, long, the feathers very short, 
giving the neck a slender and graceful appearance. 

Back: Silvery or ashy-gray, the shafts of feathers white, flat, of 
moderate length, broad across the shoulders, and narrowing to the tail. 

Breast and Body : Breast, salmon, broad, round and prominent. 
Body, very firm and muscular, broadest at the shoulders, and tapering 
to the tail. 

Wings : Of medium length and powerful, the butts and shoulders 
carried somewhat high, so as to cause a flat back, the points not 
drooping, but carried compactly against the sides ; the primaries, 
secondaries and wing-coverts gray ; wing-bows, ashy-gray, the shafts 
of feathers white ; red or brown on the wings very objectionable. 

Tail: Dark gray, approaching black, moderate in length, not 
carried over the back, but extending backwards, the feathers not 
spread out, but held neatly together. 

Legs : Thighs, ashy-brown, stout and round, and the feathers short 
and close. Shanks, long, bony, clear and tapering, the scales narrow, 
smooth and close, and, in color, to match those of the cock when 
placed on exhibition. Feet, broad, flat and thin ; toes, long, straight 
and spreading, and well furnished with strong nails, the hind-toes set 
low on the feet, standing well backwards, and not duck- footed. 

Hardness of Feather: Body-feathers, close, short hard and firm ; 
quills, very hard and strong. 

Carriage : Neat, upright, quick and active. 

POINTS in silver DUOKWING GAMES. 

Symmetry, lo 

Condition, 6 

Station, 12 

Color, 12 

Head, 8 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes, 4 

Eyes, 5 

Neck, 4 

Back, r 



cocker's manual. 127 

Breast and Body, 6 

Wings, 4 

Legs, 6 

Feet, 6 

Hardness of Feather, 5 



RED PILE GAMES. 



DISQ UALIFICA TIOXS. 

Adnlt cocks not dubbed; color of legs or plumage not matcbing, "wben sbown in 
pairs or trios; crooked backs; wry tails; malformed breasts; duck-feet; artificial 
coloring; trimming or plucking foul featbers. 



THE COCK. 

He-\d : Deep chestnut red, long, thin and tapering, and very strong 
at its junction with the neck. Beak, slightly curved, and strong at 
the base. 

Comb, W.^ttles and Ear-lobes : Comb, rich, bright red, in chick- 
ens that have not been dubbed, small, single and thin, low in front, 
serrated, erect and straight ; mature birds to be neatly dubbed, and 
free from warty excrescences, small feathers, or ridges, on the edges. 
Wattles, red, very thin and smooth in texture. Ear-lobes, red small, 
thin, and smooth in texture. 

Eyes : Red or brown, large, prominent and bright, with a quick 
and fearless expression, and perfectly alike in color. 

Xeck : Rather long and nicely arched, the hackle light chestnut- 
red. 

Back: Uniform rich red, rather short, flat, broad across the shoul- 
ders and narrowing to the tail ; the stern slender and neat, and the 
saddle-feathers light chestnut-red, and very short and close. 

Breast and Body : Breast, white, slightly penciled with chestnut- 
red, broad, full, and round. Bod\', very firm and muscular, not soft 



128 cocker's manual. 

or hollow on the sides, broadest at the shoulders and tapering to the 
tail. 

Wings : Of medium length and powerful, the butts and shoulders 
slightly raised, as if for a sudden spring ; the remainder not drooping, 
but carried compacth' against the sides, the points resting under the 
saddle-feathers ; primaries white ; secondaries, red on the outside web, 
and white on the inside web, with a white spot on the end of each 
feather ; wing-bows, uniform rich red ; wing-coverts, white, edged 
with red. 

Tail: White, of medium length, carried well together, and at a 
moderate elevation ; sickle-feathers white and handsomely curved. 

Legs: Thighs, white, rather long, round, stout, hard and firm, 
and placed well forward on the body. Shanks, willow, yellow or 
white, rather long, bony, clean and strong, and standing well and 
evenly apart, the sc&les smooth and close, and the spurs set on low. 
Feet, broad, thin and flat ; the toes long, straight and spreading, and 
well furnished with strong nails ; the hind-toes set low on the feet, 
standing well backwards and flat on the ground, and not merely 
touching with the points, or duck-footed. 

Hardness of Feather : Body-feathers, short, hard and firm ; quills, 
very hard and strong. 

THE HEX. 

Head : Long, slender, tapering, and very neat in appearance. 
Beak, willow or yellow, slightly curved, sharp at the point and stout 
at the base. 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes : Comb, bright red, single, small 
and thin, low in front, evenly serrated and perfectly erect and straight. 
Wattles, bright red, small, thin and neatly rounded on the edges. Ear- 
lobes, bright red, very small, and close to the face. 

Eyes . Red or brown, large, prominent and bright, with a quick 
and fiery expression, and perfectly alike in color. 

Neck : Long, the feathers very short, giving the neck a slender and 
graceful appearance ; the hackle a light chestnut, with white in the 
center of the feathers. 

Back : Of moderate length, flat, broad across the shoulders, and 
narrowing to the tail. 



COCKERS MANUAL. I 29 

Breast and Bouv : Breast, broad, round, prominent and chest- 
nut-red on the front part, and mottled, shading to white on the lower 
part. Body, very muscular and firm, broadest at the shoulders, and 
t.ipering to the tail. 

Wings: White, slightly penciled with light chestnut-red, of medi- 
um length and powerful, the butts and shoulders carried somewhat 
high, so as to cause a flat back, the points not drooping, but carried 
compactly against the sides ; primaries and secondaries, white. 

Tail : White, moderate in length, not carried over the back, but 
extending backwards, the feathers not spread out, but held neatly to- 
gether. 

Legs ; Thighs, white, stout and round, and the feathers short and 
•close. Shanks, long, bony, clean and tapering, the scales narrow, 
smooth and close, to match those of the cock when placed on exhibi- 
tion. Feet, broad, flat and thin; toes, long, straight and spreading, 
well furnished with strong nails, the hind-toes set low on the feet, 
•standing well backwards, and not duck-footed. 

Hardness of Feather : Body-feathers, close, short, hard and firm; 
quills, very hard and strong. 

Carriage : Neat, upright, quick and active. 

POINTS IN RED PILE GAMES. 

Symmetry, 10 

Condition, 6 

Station, 12 

Color, » 12 

Head, 8 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes, 4 

Eyes, 5 

Back, 5 

Breast and Body, . 6 

Wings, 4 

Tail, _-_ -__ __-- _— — - .__. 7 

Legs, 6 

Feet, 6 

Hardness of Feather, 5 



130 COCKER S MANUAL. 

WHITE PILE GAMES. 



DISQ UALIFICA TJ0N8. 

Adult oocks not dubbed ; color of legs or plumage not matching, when shown in 
pairs or trios; crooked backs; wry tails; malformed breasts; duck-feet; artificial 
coloring; trimming or plucking foul feathers. 



THE COCK. 

Head : Long, thin and tapering, and very strong at its junction with 
the neck. Beak, yellow, willow or white, slightly curved and strong 
at the base. 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes: Comb, rich, bright red, in chick- 
ens that have not been dubbed, single, small and thin, low in front, 
serrated, erect and straight ; mature birds to 'be neatly dubbed, and 
free from warty excrescences, small feathers, or ridges on the edges. 
Wattles, red, very thin, and smooth in texture. Ear-lobes, red, small, 
thin, and smooth in texture. 

Eyes: Red, large, prominent and bright, with a quick and fearless 
expression, and perfectly alike in color. 

Neck : Rather long and nicely arched, the hackle mainly white, and 
with but faint penciling. 

Back : Rather short, flat, broad across the shoulders, and narrowing 
to the tail, in color light red ; the stern slenc^r and neat, and the 
saddle- feathers short and close, mainly white, and with but slight 
penciling. 

Breast and Body : Breast, white, broad, full and round. Body, 
very firm and muscular, not soft or hollow on the sides, broadest at 
the shoulders and tapering to the tail. 

Wings : Of medium length, and powerful, the butts and shoulders 
slightly raised, as if for a sudden spring ; the remainder not drooping, 
but carried compactly against the sides, the points resting under the 
saddle feathers ; primaries and secondaries, white ; wing-coverts, a 
rich, bright red, or orange and port-wine color combined. 

Tail : Pure white, of medium length, carried well together and 
at a moderate elevation ; sickle-feathers and tail-coverts white and 
handsomely curved. 



cocker's manual. 13 1 

Legs : Thighs, white, rather long, round, stout, hard and firm, and 
placed well forward on the body. Shanks, willow, yellow or white, 
and the colors preferred in the ordor in which they are named, rather 
long, bony, clean and strong, and standing well and evenly apart, the 
scales smooth and close, and the spurs set on low. Feet, broad, thin 
and flat; the toes long, straight and spreading, and well furnished 
with strong nails ; the hind-toes set low on the feet, standing well back- 
wards, and flat on the ground, and not merely touching with the points, 
or duck-footed. 

Hardness of Feathers : Body-feathers, short, hard and firm; quills, 
very hard and strong. 

THE HEN. 

Head : Long, slendering, tapering, and very neat in appearance. 
Beak, yellow, willow or white, in color, slightly curved, sharp at the 
point and stout at the base. 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes : Comb, bright red, single, small 
and thin, low in front, evenly serrated, and perfectly erect and straight. 
Wattles, bright red, small, thin, and neatly rounded on the edges. 
Ear-lobes, bright red, very small, and close to the face. 

Eyes: red, large, prominent and bright, with a quick, fiery ex- 
pression, and perfectly alike in color. 

Neck : White, long, the feathers very short, giving the neck a slen- 
der and graceful appearance. 

Back : Of moderate Igngth, flat, broad across the shoulders, and 
narrowing to the tail ; in color white. 

Breast and Body : Breast, distinct chestnut-color, broad, round 
and prominent. Body, very firm and muscular, broadest at the shoul- 
ders, and tapering to the tail. 

Wings : Of medium length and powerful, the butts and shoulders 
carried somewhat high, so as to cause a flat back, the points not 
drooping, but carried compactly against the sides ; the primaries and 
secondaries white. 

Tail : Pure white, moderate in length, not carried over the back, 
but extending backwards, the feathers not spread out, held neatly 
together. 

Legs : Thighs, white, stout and round, and the feathers short and 
close. Shanks, long, bony, clean and tapering, the scales narrow. 



132 COCKER S MANUAL. 

smooth and close, and to match the cock's in color when placed on 
exhibition. Feet, broad, flat and thin ; toes, long straight and 
spreading, well furnished with strong nails ; the hind-toes set low on 
the feet, standing well backwards, and not duck-footed. 

Hardness of Feather : Body-feathers, close short, hard and firm ; 
quills, very hard and strong. 

Carriage ; Neat, upright, quick and active. 

POINTS IN WHITE PILE GAJIES. 

Symmetry, 10 

Condition, 6 

Station, 12 

Color, -_ 12 

Head, 8 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes, 4 

Eyes, 5 

Neck, 4 

Back, 5 

Breast and Body, 6 

Wings, 4 

Tail, 7 

Legs, 6 

Feet, 6 

Hardness of Feather, 5 



WHITE GAMES. 



DISQ UALIFICA TlOyiH. 

Adult cooks not dubbed; color of legs or plumage not matcblng, wben shown in 
pairs or trios ; crooked backs ; wry tails; malformed breasts; duck-feet; trimming 
or plucking foul feathers. 



THE COCK. 

Head : A pure white, long, thin and tapering, and very strong at 
its junction with the neck. Beak, yellow or white, slightly curved, 
and strong at the base. 



cocker's manual. 133 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes : Comb, bright red, in cliickens 
that have not been clubbed, single, small and thin, low in front, ser- 
rated, erect and straight ; mature birds to be neatly dubbed, and free 
from warty excrescences, small feathers, or ridges on the edges. Wat- 
tles, bright red, very thin, and smooth in texture. Ear-lobes, brighj 
red, small, thin, and smooth in texture. 

Eves : Red, large, prominent and bright, with a quick and fearless 
expression, and perfectly alike in color. 

Neck : Rather long and nicely arched ; the hackle short and close, 
pure white, and free from any tinge of yellow. 

Back : Rather short, flat, broad across the shoulders, and narrowing 
to the tail ; the stern slender and neat, and the saddle-feathers very 
short and close, pure white, and free from yellow tinge. 

Breast and Body : Breast, pure white, broad, full and round. 
Body, very firm and muscular, not soft or hollow on the sides, broad- 
est at the shoulders and tapering to the tail, and, in plumage, clear, 
pure white. 

Wings : Of medium length and powerful, the butts and shoulders 
slightly raised, as if for a sudden spring ; the remainder not drooping, 
but carried compactly against the sides, the points resting under the 
saddle-feathers ; .primaries, secondaries and wing-coverts pure white, 
free from yellowish tinge. 

Tail : Of medium length, carried well together, and at a moderate 
elevation ; sickle-feathers and tail coverts pure, clear white, and hand- 
somely curved. 

Legs : Thighs, rather long, round, stout, hard and firm, and placed 
well forward on the body. Shanks, yellow or white, rather long, 
bony, clean and strong, and standing well and evenly apart ; the 
scales smooth and close, and the spurs set on low. Feet, broad, thin 
and flat ; the toes long, straight and spreading, and well furnished 
with strong nails ; the hind-toes set low on the feet, standing well 
backwards and flat on the ground, and not merely touching with the 
points, or duck-footed. 

Hardness of Feather : Body-feathers, short, hard and firm ; quills, 
very hard and strong. 



134 COCKER S MANUAL. 

THE HEN. 

Head : Long, slender, tapering, and very neat in appearance. , 
Beak, yellow or white, slightly curved, sharp at the point, and stout at 
the base. 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobess ; Comb, single, small and thin, 
low in front, evenly serrated, and perfectly erect and straight. Wat- 
tles, bright red, small, thin, and neatly rounded on the edges. Ear- 
lobes, bright red, very small and close to the face. 

Eyes : Large, prominent and bright, with a quick, fiery expression, 
and perfectly alike in color. 

Neck : Long, the feathers very short, giving the neck a slender and 
graceful appearance, the hackle clear white. 

Back : Of moderate length, flat, broad across the shoulders, and 
narrowing to the tail. 

Breast and Body : Breast, broad, round and prominent. Body, 
very muscular and firm, broadest at the shoulders, and tapering to the 
tail, and in plumage a clear, pure white throughout. 

Wings : Of medium length and powerful, the butts and shoulders 
carried somewhat high, so as to cause a flat back, the points not 
drooping, but carried compactly against the sides ; primaries second- 
aries and coverts all pure white. 

Tail : Clear white, moderate in length, not carried over the back, 
but extending backwards, the feathers not spread out, but held neatly 
together. 

Legs : Thighs, stout and round, and the feathers short and close. 
Shanks : yellow or white, long, bony, clean and tapering, the scales 
narrow, smooth and close, and to match the cock's in color when 
placed on exhibition. Feet, broad, flat and thin ; toes, long, straight 
and spreading, and well furnished with strong nails; the hind-toes set 
low on the feet, standing well backwards, and not duck-footed. 

Hardness of Feather: Body-feathers, close, short, hard and firm; 
quills, very hard and strong. 

Carriage ; Neat, upright, quick and active. 

POINTS IN WHITE GAMES. 

Symmetry, lo 

Condition, 6 

Station, 12 



COCKERS MANUAL. 1 35 

Color, 12 

Head, ._ 8 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes, 4 

Eyes, 5 

Neck, 4 

Back, 5 

Breast and Body, 6 

Wings, — 4 

Tail, -_.. .... .... .... __._ ..._ 7 

Legs, 6 

Feet, 6 

Hardness of Feather, 5 



BLACK GAMES. 



DISQ UALIFIOA TIONS. 

Adult cocks not dabbed ; color of legs or plumage not matolilng, when shown In 
pairs or trios ; crooked backs; wry tails; malformed breasts; duck-feet; any artifi- 
cial coloring; trimming or plucking foul feathers. 



THE COCK. 

Head : Rich, deep black, long, thin and tapering, and very strong 
at its junction with the neck. Beak, olive or bronzy-black, slightly 
curved, and strong at the base. 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes : Comb, in chickens tliat have not 
been dubbed, bright red, single, small and thin, low in front, serrated, 
erect and straight ; mature birds to be neatly dubbed, and free from 
warty excrescences, small feathers, or ridges on the edges. Wattles, 
bright red, very thin, and smooth in texture. Ear-lobes, bright red, 
small, thin, and smooth in texture. 

Eyes : Black or brown, large, prominent and bright, with a quick 
and fearless expression, and perfectly alike in color. 



136 cocker's manual. 

Neck : Rather long and nicely arched ; the hackle short and close- 
and rich metallic black in color. 

Back : Rather short, flat, broad across the shoulders, and narrow- 
ing to the tail ; the stern slender and neat, the saddle-feathers very 
short and close, and a rich, lustrous black. 

Breast and Body : Breast, deep black, broad and full. Body, very 
firm and muscular, not soft or hollow on the sides, broadest at the 
shoulders, and tapering to the tail ; plumage throughout a rich, deep 
black. 

Wings : Of medium length and powerful, the butts and shoulders 
slightly raised, as if for a sudden spring ; the remainder not drooping, 
but carried compactly against the sides, the points resting under the 
saddle-feathers. 

Tail: Of medium length, carried well together and at a moderate 
elevation ; sickle-feathers and tail-coverts a rich, glossy, or metallic 
black. 

Legs : Thighs, deep black, rather long, round, stout, hard and 
firm, and placed well forward on the body. Shanks, dark olive, 
leaden-black, or bronzy-black, rather long, bony, clean and strong, 
and standing well and evenly apart, the scales smooth and close, and 
the spurs set on low. Feet, broad, thin and flat; the toes long, 
straight and spreading, and well furnished with strong nails ; the hind- 
toes set low on the feet, standing well backwards, and flat on the 
ground, and not merely touching with the points, or duck-footed. 

Hardness of Feather : Body-feathers, short, hard and firm ; quills, 
very hard and strong. 

THE HEN". 

Head : Long, slender, tapering, and very neat in appearance. 
Beak, dark olive or bronzy-black, slightly curved, sharp at the point 
and stout at the base. 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes: Comb, single, small and thin, 
low in froiit, evenly serrated, and perfectly erect and straight. Wat- 
tles, bright red, small, thin, and neatly rounded on the edges. Ear- 
lobes, bright red, very small and close- to the face. 

EvES: Black or brown, large, prominent and bright, with a quick, 
fiery expression, and perfectly alike in color. 



COCKER S MANUAL. I37 

Neck : Long, the feathers very short, giving the neck a slender 
and graceful appearance. 

Back: Of moderate length, flat, broad across the shoulders, and 
narrowing to the tail, and, in color, a rich, lustrous black. 

Breast and Body : Breast, broad, round and prominent. Body, 
very firm and muscular, broadest at the shoulders and tapering to the 
tail, and the plumage throughout a rich, glossy black. 

Wings : Of medium length and powerful, the butts and shoulders- 
carried somewhat high, so as to cause a flat back, the points not 
drooping but carried compactly against the sides ; primaries and sec- 
ondaries, deep black ; wing-coverts a rich, glossy black. 

Tail: Moderate in length, not carried over the back, but extending 
backwards, the feathers not spread out, but held neatly together, and 
a pure, deep black in color. 

Legs : Thighs, stout and round, and the feathers short and close. 
Shanks, dark olive or leaden black, long, bony, clean and tapering, 
the scales narrow, smooth and close, and to match the cock in color 
when placed on exhibition. Feet, broad, flat and thin; toes, long, 
straight and spreading, well furnished with strong nails; the hind- 
toes set low on the feet, standing well backwards, and not duck-footed. 

Hardness of Feather : Body-feathers, close, short, hard and firm ; 
quills, very hard and strong. 

Carriage : Neat, upright, quick and active. 

POINTS IN BLACK GAMES. 

Symmetry, 10 

Condition, 6> 

Station, 12^ 

Color, 12' 

Head, 8 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes, 4 

Eyes, 5 

Neck, 4 

Back, 5 

Breast and Body, 6 

Wings, 4 

Tail, ' 7 

Legs, ^ 



138 cocker's manual. 

Feet, 6 

Hardness of Feather, 5 



TOO 



BLUE GAMES. 



DISQ VALIFICA T10N8. 

Adult cocks not dabbed, color of legs or plumage not matching, wlien shown in 
pairs or trios ; crooked backs ; wry tails ; malformed breasts ; duck-feet ; any arti- 
ficial coloring; trimming or plucking foul feathers. 



THE COCK. 

Head : Very dark blue, shaded with black, long, thin and tapering, 
and very strong at its junction with the neck. Beak, black or brown- 
ish-black, slightly curved, and strong at the base. 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes : Comb, in chickens that have not 
been dubbed, dark red or purple, single, small and thin, low in front, 
serrated, erect and straight ; mature birds to be neatly dubbed, and 
free from warty excrescences, small feathers, or ridges on the edges. 
Wattles, dark red, very thin, and smooth in texture. Ear-lobes, dark 
red or purple, thin, and smooth in texture. 

Eyes : Black, large, prominent and bright, with a quick and fear- 
less expression, and perfectly alike in color. 

Neck : Blue, shaded with black, rather long and nicely arched ; the 
hackle short and close. 

Back : Dark blue, rather short, flat, broad across the shoulders, and 
narrowing to the tail ; the stern slender and neat, the saddle-feath- 
ers blue, tinged with golden-red or yellow, and very short and close. 

Breast and Body : Breast, broad, full and round. Body, very firm 
and muscular, not soft or hollow on the sides, broadest at the shoul- 
ders, and tapering to the tail, and in color of plumage deep blue 
throughout. 

Wings: Of medium length and powerful, the butts and shoulders 
slightly raised, as if for a sudden spring ; the remainder not drooping, 



cocker's manual. 139 

but carried compactly against the sides, the points resting under the 
saddle-feathers ; primaries and secondaries, dark blue ; wing-coverts, 
blue, tinged with golden-red or yellow. 

Tail : Dark blue, of medium length, carried well together and at a 
moderate elevation ; tail-coverts nicely curved, and deep blue in color. 

Legs : Thighs, rather long, round, stout, hard and firm, and placed 
well forward on the body. Shanks, blue-black or olive, rather long, 
bony, clean and strong, and standing well and evenly apart, the scales 
smooth and close, and the spurs set on low. Feet, broad, thin and 
flat ; the toes long, straight and spreading, and well furnished with 
strong nails ; the hind-toes set low on the feet, standing well back- 
wards, and flat on the ground, and not merely touching with the 
points, or duck-footed. 

Hardness of Feather : Body-feathers, short, hard and firm ; quills, 
very hard and strong. 

THE HEN. 

Head ; Very dark blue, shaded with black, long, slendei", tapering, 
and very neat in appearance. Beak, black or brownish-black, slightly 
curved, sharp at the point and stout at the base. 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes : Comb, dark red or purple, single, 
small and thin, low in front, evenly serrated, and perfectly erect and 
straight. Wattles, dark red, small, thin, and neatly rounded on the 
edges. Ear-lobes, dark red, very small and close to the face. 

Eyes : Black, large, prominent and bright, with a quick, fiery ex- 
pression, and perfectly alike in color. 

Neck : Blue, shaded with black, long, the feathers very short, giving 
the neck a slender and graceful appearance. 

Back : Dark blue, of moderate length, flat, broad across the shoul- 
ders, and narrowing to the tail. 

Breast and Body : Breast, broad, round, prominent. Body, very 
firm and muscular, broadest at the shoulders, and tapering to the tail; 
the plumage throughout a rich, dark blue. 

■Wings : Of medium length and powerful, the butts and shoulders 
carried somewhat high, so as to cause a flat back, the points not 
drooping, but carried compactly against the sides; primaries and 
secondaries, dark blue ; wing-coverts, dark blue, bordering on black. 



140 COCKER S MANUAL. 

Tail : Moderate in length, dark blue, not carried over the back, but 
extending backwards, the feathers not spread out, but held neatly to- 
gether ; the tail-coverts dark blue, bordering on black. 

Legs ; Thighs, dark blue, stout and round, and the feathers short 
and close. Shanks, blue-black or olive, long, bony, clean and taper- 
ing, the scales narrow, smooth and close, and to match the cock's in 
color when placed on exhibition. Feet, broad, flat and thin ; toes, 
long, straight and spreading, well furnished with strong nails, the 
hind-toes set low on the feet, standing well backwards, and not duck- 
footed. 

Hardness of Feather : Body-feathers, close, short, hard and firm; 
quills, very hard and strong. 

Carriage : Neat, upright, quick and active. 

POINTS IN BLUE GAilES. 

Symmetry, lo 

Condition, 6 

Station, t2 

Color, 12 

Head, 8 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes, 4 

Eyes, 5 

Neck, 4 

Back, 5 

Breast and Body, 6 

Wings, 4 

Tail, 7 

Legs, 6 

Feet, 6 

Hardness of Feather, 5 



GRAY GAMES. 



DISQ UALIFICA TIONS. 

Adult cocks not dubbed ; color of legs or plumage not matching, when shown In 
pairs or trios ; crooked backs ; wry tails ; malformed breasts ; duck-feet ; any artifi- 
cial coloring; trimming or plucking foul feathers. 



cocker's manual. 141 

THE COCK. 

Head : Silvery-gray, long, thin and tapering, and very strong at its 
junction with the neck. Beak, dark willow or horn-color, slightly 
curved, and strong at the base. 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes : Comb, in chickens that have not 
been dubbed, single small, and thin, low in front, serrated, erect and 
straight ; mature birds to be neatly dubbed, and free from warty ex- 
crescences, small feathers, or ridges, on the edges. Wattles, red or 
purple, very thin and smooth in texture. Ear-lobes, dark red or pur- 
ple, small, thin, and smooth in texture. 

Eyes : Deep bay or brown, large, prominent and bright, with a 
quick and fearless expression, and perfectly alike in color. 

Neck: Rather long and nicely arched, the hackle short and close, 
and, in color, silvery-gray. 

Back : Silvery-gray, rather short, flat, broad across the shoulders, 
and narrowing to the tail ; the stern slender and neat, and the sad- 
dle-feathers very short and close, and gray in color. 

Breast and Body : Breast, broad, full, and round ; in color, black; 
the shafts of feathers silvery-gray, the color growing darker as it ap- 
proaches the lower part of the thighs. Body, very firm and muscular, 
not soft or hollow on the sides, broadest at the shoulders and tapering 
to the tail. 

Wings : Of medium length and powerful, the butts and shoulders 
slightly raised, as if for a sudden spring ; the remainder not drooping, 
but carried compactly against the sides, the points resting under the 
saddle-feathers ; primaries, dusky-black ; secondaries, black, with 
metallic lustre towards the ends of the feathers ; wing-butts, black or 
dark gray ; wing-bow^, silvery-gray ; wing-coverts, rich, glossy black. 

Tail: Black, of medium length, carried well together, and at a 
moderate elevation. 

Legs: Thighs, dusky-black, rather long, round, stout, hard and 
firm, and placed well forward on the body. Shanks, dusky-willow 
or broney-black, rather long, bony, clean and strong, and standing 
well and evenly apart, the scales smooth and close, and the spurs set 
on low. Feet, broad, thin and flat ; the toes long, straight and 
spreading, and well furnished with strong nails ; the hind-toes set 
low on the feet, standing well backwards and flat on the ground, 
and not merely touching with the points, or duck-footed. 



142 COCKER S MANUAL. 

Hardness of Feather : Body-feathers, short, hard and firm ; quills, 
very hard and strong. 

THE HEN. 

Head : Dusky-gray, long, slender, tapering, and very neat in ap- 
pearance. Beak, dark willow or bronzy-black, slightly curved, sharp 
at the point and stout at the base. 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes : Comb, single, small and thin, 
low in front, evenly serrated and perfectly erect and straight ; color, 
dark red or purple. Wattles, red, purple, small, thin and neatly rounded 
on the edges. Ear-lobes, dark red or purple, very small, and close to 
the face. 

Eyes : Deep bay or brown, large, prominent and bright, with a 
quick, fiery expression, and perfectly alike in color. 

Neck: Silvery-gray, striped with black, long, the feathers very 
short, giving the neck a slender and graceful appearance. 

Back: Very dark gray, of moderate length, flat, broad across the 
shoulders, and narrowing to the tail. 

Breast and Body : Breast, broad, round and prominent. Body, 
very firm and muscular, broadest at the shoulders, and tapering to the 
tail. 

Wings : Of medium length and powerful, the butts and shoulders 
carried somewhat high, so as to cause a flat back, the points not 
drooping, but carried compactly against the sides. 

Tail : Black, moderate in length, not carried over the back, but 
extending backwards, the feathers not spread out, held neatly to- 
gether. 

Legs : Thighs, very dark, stout and round, and the feathers short 
and close. Shanks, dark willow, approaching black, long, bony, clean 
and tapering, the scales narrow, smooth and close, and to match the 
cock's in color when placed on exhibition. Feet, broad, flat and 
thin ; toes, long straight and spreading, well furnished with strong 
nails ; the hind-toes set low on the feet, standing well backwards, and 
not duck-footed. 

Hardness of Feather : Body-feathers, close short, hard and firm ; 
quills, very hard and strong. 

Carriage; Neat, upright, quick and active. 



cocker's MANi-Aj, 143 

POINTS IN GRAY GAMES. 

Symmetry, 10 

Condition, 6 

Station, 12 

Color, „__ 12 

Head, 8 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes, 4 

Eyes, 5 

Neck, 4 

Back, 5 

Breast and Body, 6 

Wings, 4 

Tail, 7 

Legs, 

Feet, 6 

Hardness of Feather, 5 



6 



SPANGLED GAMES. 



DISQ UALIFIOA TI0N8. 

Adult cocks not dubbed ; color of legs or plumage not matching, when sliown in 
pairs or trios ; crooked backs; wry tails; malformed breasts; duck-feet; trimming 
or plucking foul feathers. 



THE COCK. 

Head : Long, thin and tapering, and very strong at its junction 
with the neck. Beak, yellow, willow or bronzy-black, slightly curved, 
and strong at the base. 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes : Comb, in chickens that have not 
been dubbed, single, small and thin, low in front, serrated, erect and 
straight ; mature birds to be neatly dubbed, and free from warty ex- 
crescences, small feathers, or ridges on the edges. Wattles, red, very 
thin, and smooth in texture. Ear-lobes, red, small, thin, and smooth 
in texture. 



44 COCKER S MANUAL. 

Eyes : Red, bay or dark, large, prominent and bright, with a quick 
and fearless expression, and perfectly alike in color. 

Neck : Rather long and nicely arched ; the hackle short and close, 
and, in colors, either black and white, red and white, blue and white, 
buff and white, or any clearly defined combination. 

Back : Rather short, flat, broad across the shoulders, and narrowing 
to the tail; the stern slender and neat, and the saddle-feathers very 
short and close, and of any well-defined combination of spangles. 

Breast AND Body : Breast, broad, full, round, and well spangled. 
Body, very firm and muscular, not soft or hollow on the sides, broad- 
est at the shoulders and tapering to the tail ; the general plumage be- 
ing black and white, red and white, blue and white, buff and white, or 
any other clearly defined and duly fixed combination of colors. 

Wings : Of medium length and powerful, the butts and shoulders 
slightly raised, as if for a sudden spring ; the remainder not drooping, 
but carried compactly against the sides, the points resting under the 
saddle-feathers. 

Tail : Of medium length, carried well together, and at a moderate 
elevation ; tail-coverts nicely curved. 

Legs: Thighs, rather long, round, stout, hard and firm, and placed 
well forward on the body. Shanks, yellow, willow, olive or bronzy- 
black, rather long, bony, clean ' and strong, and standing well and 
evenly apart; the scales smooth and close, and the spurs set on low. 
Feet, broad, thin and flat ; the toes long, straight and spreading, and 
well furnished with strong nails ; the hind-toes set low on the feet, 
standing well backwards and flat on the ground, and not merely touch- 
ing with the points, or duck-footed. 

Hardness of Feather : Body-feathers, short, hard and firm ; quills, 
very hard and strong. 

THE HEN. 

Head : Long, slender, tapering, and very neat in appearance. 
Beak, yellow, willow, olive or bronzy-black, slightly curved, sharp at 
the point, and stout at the base. 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes ; Comb, single, small and thin, 
low in front, evenly serrated, and perfectly erect and straight. Wat- 
tles, red, small, thin, and neatly rounded on the edges. Ear-lobes, 
red, very small and close to the face. 



COCKER S MANUAL. 1 45 

Eves : Red, bay or dark, large, prominent and bright, with a quick, 
fiery expression, and perfectly alike in color. 

Neck : Long, the feathers very short, giving the neck a slender and 
graceful appearance ; the plumage spangled, black and white, red and 
white, blue and white, buff and white, or any other well-defined com- 
bination. 

Back: Of moderate length, flat, broad across the shoulders, and 
narrowing to the tail. 

Breast and Body : Breast, spangled, broad, round and prominent. 
Body, very muscular and firm, broadest at the shoulders, and tapering 
to the tail, the plumage throughout handsomely spangled. 

Wings : Of medium length and powerful, the butts and shoulders 
carried somewhat high, so as to cause a flat back, the points not 
drooping, but carried compactly against the sides. 

Tail : Moderate in length, not carried over the back, but extend- 
ing backwards, the feathers not spread out, but held neatly together. 

Legs : Thighs, stout and round, and the feathers short and close. 
Shanks : yellow, willow, olive or bronzy-black, long, bony, clean and 
tapering, the scales narrow, smooth and close, and to match the 
cock's in color when placed on exhibition. Feet, broad, flat and thin ; 
toes, long, straight and spreading, and well furnished with strong 
nails; the hind-toes set low on the feet, standing well backwards, and 
not duck-footed. 

Hardness of Feather : Body-feathers, close, short, hard and firm; 
quills, very hard and strong. 

Carriage ; Neat, upright, quick and active. 

POINTS IN SPANGLED GAMES. 

Symmetry, lo 

Condition, 6 

Station, 12 

Color, 12 

Head, 8 

Comb, Wattles and Ear-lobes, 4 

Eyes, 5 

Neck, 4 

Back, 5 

Breast and Body, 6 

Wings, -— 4 



146 

Tail, 

Legs, 

Feet, 

Hardness of Feather, 



cocker's manual. 



7 
6 
6 

5 




147 



rm nuvm woi^tc, 



HARTFORD, CONN. 



H. HI. sa:ox)i3-A.iax3, - - _ isiDiToia. 



This is an elegantly illustrated and carefully conducted quarto 
Monthly Magazine for the Fancier, the Family, the Breeder of Fowls, 
and the Market Poulterer, to whose interests its pages are especially 
devoted. 

"The Poultry World" aims to maintain its reputation as the leading 
American journal of its class, and its circulation is admitted to be by 
far the largest of any strictly poultry publication in the country. 

Its Seventh Volume, for the year 1878, will be an advance upon all 
previous issues . and in that volume a highly attractive feature is pre- 
sented, in our series of original 

Superior Chroino Illustrations 

of modern Standard specimens of Fowls ; twelve of which elegant full 
page pictures are furnished to "The Poultry World" subscribers at a 
cost of only 75 cents annually, in addition to the regular price of the 
Magazine. 

As an Advertising Medium for Breeders, Dealers, Fanciers, and 
Poultry men generally, those who have good surplus stock to sell will 
readily appreciate the advantages offered by means of the present very 
large and constantly increasing circulation of "The Poultry World" 
amongst the Farmers, Fanciers, Fowl-raisers, etc., who desire to pur- 
chase such stock. 

Our Magazine goes largely into every State and Territory in the 
United States and Canadas, each month. Advertisements are received 
at reasonable rates, coiisidering the wide-spread distribution these 
cards and notices obtain. And as we devote our pages exclusively to 
the interests of poultryrnen, it will be seen that this paper is beyond 
comparison the best channel through which advertisers may reach the 
buying class. 

Terms. — $1.25 for first year's subscription. 75 cents additional for 
the 12 Chromos. ^i.oo a year, after first year, to same address. 
Clubs of two or more (when desired) sent to separate addresses, at 
;gi.oo each. These rates include postage, bac^ numbers always on 
hand — 10 cts. each. Back Volumes ^i.oo each. 

H. H. STODDARD, "Poultry "World," Hartford, Conn. 



148 



GAME FOWLS 

FOR SALE, 

Of the following well-known varieties : 

Black Keds, Virginia Grays, Brown Keds, 

Tartars, Rattlers, Cencers, 

Duckwings. 

Parties ordering fowls of me will receive nothing but choice, healthy- 
birds. I can also furnish other strains of Games not above mentioned. 
Fowls carefully boxed and shipped on receipt of price. 

i<ro ifo'wxjS szeisto: c. o. id. 

Send stamp for circular and prices. Address, 

WM. JAS. HBALEY, Mineral Point, Wis. 

YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, 

Breeder and Shipper of 



Yellow Duckwing, Black- Breasted Reds, Stonefence, etc., etc. 
Send for Prices. 

- " ■"""'- ■■ . « . . I III 

LOUIS SENDKER, 

Lock Box 643, PARKER CITY, PA. 

Importer and Breeder of 

PIT GAME FOWLS. 

Warranted Dead Game or money refunded. 

Eggs and Chicks in season. Cocks and Hens at any time. Send 
stamp for Circulars and Prices. 



149 



ILic 3Sc 



^Er^^^lB^^TLKS-HTc 



Breeder and Shipper of Superior 



Q 

b 

H 

O 

P4 

o 

o 
o 

w 

H 

o 



Light Brahmas, Dark Bralimas, Partridge Cochins, 

Plymouth Rock, Gold-Iiaced Sebright Bantams, 

Imperial Pekin Ducks. 




I have about 400 Chicks of the above varieties, and I will sell Choice Specimens for 
breeding or exhibitions after September 1st, at reasonable prices. Write for just 
what you want. All letters and postal cards cheerfully anwei-ed. 



ISO 



American Poultry Journal 

And Record. 

A splendid 32-page, Illustrated Monthly Magazine, devoted to the 
breeding and management of 

Poultry, Pigeons, Rabbits and Pet Stoch. 

It has the Largest Corps of Practical Breeders as Editors and Corres- 
pondents of any Journal of its class in America, and is 

The Finest Poultry Journal in the World. 

Subscription, ^1.25 per year for plain edition; $2.60 per year for 
the Chromo-plate edition (each number containing a beautiful eight 
to ten color plate of prize fowls), strictly in advance. Send 13 cents 
for specimen copy of Plain Edition, or 20 cents for specimen copy of 
Chromo Edition. 

JI^'No attention paid to postal cards asking for specimen numbers. 

by C. J. ^A^ARD, Editor and Manager, 

182 and 184 Clark Street, Chicago, 111. 



I also furnish the following goods at prices annexed : 

CRUSHED RAW BONE: 25 ft. bag, ^1.50; 50 ft. bag, ^2.50; 
100 fts., ^4.00; per bbl., 200 fts., ^7.00. 

CRUSHED OYSTER SHELLS; 100 ft. bag, J2. 50 ; per bag of 200 

fts., ;g4.oc. 

COOKED BEEF MEAL (an excellent thing): 6 cents per pound. 

AMERICAN POULTRY FOOD : Trial Packages, 40 cents ; Large 
Packages, ^i.oo — sent by mail, post-paid. Five Pound Boxes (by- 
express), ^1.50 — expressage to be paid by person ordering. 

Also, ROUP PILLS and CHOLERA PILLS at 50 cents, 75 cents 
and $1.00 per box, post-paid. 



iSi 



THE AMERICAN 

POULTRY YARD, 

A New, Stylish, Well-filled, Nicely Illustrated, 
and Carefully Edited 

Will henceforth be published and sent out by us from Hartford, Conn., at 

ONLY $1.50 A YEAR. 

WE HAVE PLACED the SUBSCRIPTION PRICE DOWN LOW 

In order that we may make it an inducement for Fanciers and Poul- 
terers, Farmers, Families, Mechanics, Amateurs — every one who 
keeps fowls, who thinks of breeding chickens, or who feels 
any interest in fowl-raising in this country — may 
SUBSCRIBE FOR IT. 

New or Old subscribers to THE POULTRY WORLD are invited to 

order both papers (our Monthly Magazine and the Weekly), at 

^2.00 for the year. The regular price for both is ^2.75. 

THE AMERICAN POULTRY YARD and twelve 

Chromos will be sent annually, to one address, for 

^2.25. Both The Poultry World and the 

Weekly, with the 12 Chromos, at $2.75. 

Half-yearly, or yearly advertisers have the privilege of changing the 
matter in their advertisements every three months, without 
additional cost. No extra charge for cuts or dis- 
played type, which we furnish, of any style 
and variety of fowls desired. 

A Live Weekly Poultry Paper 

Is now to be published, which we shall aim to make a welcome visitor 

to the iireside of farmer, poulterer, fancier, dealer, 

family or amateur, at ^r.50. 

H. H. STODDARD, - - - - HARTFORD, CONN. 



152 



FROM- 



The Best of American and Imported Stoch. 




Having greatly increased my stock of Games, I can now offer to Fan- 
ciers and Cockers a selection from 

Nearly all the Leading Varieties. 

Also, a number of Crossed Fowl, bred especially for the Pit. 

Persons can have fowls combining beauty with strength, courage 
with skill, and perseverance with gameness, as it is a pride in me to 
produce WINNING FOWL. My fowls have been repeatedly tested, 
and in point of courage, ferocity, and celerity of action, have no su- 
periors. 

All purchasers guaranteed satisfaction. 
For further particulars address 

F. H. CRAY, 

P. O. Box, No. 974. Battle Creek, Mich. 



153 



r/lMli f OE BALE, 

From Allen's Celebrated 

Black-Bed, Brown-Bed 8f Duckwing Games. 



23 PAIRS of my Games were pronounced the best lot ever seen on 
exhibition, as exhibited by one exhibitor, at the Centennial. They 
were awarded the 

CENTENNIAL GRAND MEDAL, 

Also were recommended the GOLD MEDAL, by the International 
Judge, TWO SILVER, and FIVE BRONZE, for being very superior 
specimens of the varieties to which they belong. They were exhibit- 
ed six times last season and received 

8i First Premiums, 22 Third Premiums, 

48 Second Premiums, i Fourth Premium. 

At the Provincial Exhibition this season, they received 7 First and 2 
Second Premiums. 

By this, judge of their merit, as they are only exhibited at first-class 

shows. 



Game Fowl Chicks, at from $10 to ^25 each. 

Eggs in Season, Setting, eleven eggs, $6. 

Game Bantam's, Setting, eleven eggs, $^. 

Terms — Cash. Parties ordering will please note this, as no order 
will be filled until terms are complied with. 

Address, 

Enclose stamp for answer. , Gait, Ontario, Canada. 

(See page 35 tor illastration ot Duckwing Games.) 



1S4 

1878. "NOT FOR ITSELF, BUT FOR ALL." 1878. 

NEW SERIES. 

IPI^OSIPEOTTJS 

FOB 

Familiar Science 

and Fanciers' Journal. 

(Established 1873.) 

An Illustrated Magazine covering departments as follows : 

EDITORIAL, wherein our views upon questions and issues concerning, or of inter- 
est to, our readers will be given candidly and freely, uninfluenced by clique or 
ring. 
CORRESPONDENCE,— ( lie department of our subscribers— wherein their experien- 
ces may be exchanged, diflerent theories advanced and discussed, and the re- 
sults of their research and experiments be recorded. The life of a fancy is in its 
members being acquainted and familiarized with each other, so this department 
must recommend itself to all . 
THE NATURALIST wiLl be devoted more especially to Ornithology, Botany and 
Oology, studies now receiving almost universal attention. While a certain re- 
■ gdrd must be had for scientific names and technical phrases to insure accuracy, 
still our aim in this department will be to treat these subjects in a familiar man- 
ner that shall be acceptable to the general readers as well as the advanced stu- 
dent. 
HOME AND ITS PETS will treat of the Window Garden, the Aquarium, the Avia- 
ry, and the many Pets children fancy. It will aim to cover all that combine to 
make "home" a center of interest, something more than a sheltering roof. A 
feature In this department will also be the Domestic column, a collection of old, 
varied, and tested recipes. 
POULTRY AND PIGEONS. In this department, we intend "Seasonable Hints" to 
be the concentration of a volume of timely information. Besides this we shall 
furnish the latest news from all quarters, with a careful treatment of all the6ries 
and experiments that are engaging popular attention. 
THE EXCHANGE AND MART, our Advertising Supplement, will be all it has 
been in the past. We shall endeavor to keep it free from dislionest parties. The 
Exchange and Want columns, that have proved so ,'^cceptable during the hard 
times, and have done much to familiarize fanciers with each other, will be con- 
tinued. 
CUB LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS will include the names of William Wood, M. D., 
Prof. A. N. Raub Wm. E. Flower "Huon," Thos. G. Gentry, Harry A. Slocum, 
E. A. Samuels, V. M. Firor, Prof. G. O. Brown, Dr. A. M. Dickie, "Barb," Jas. M. 
McCanu " P. B.," Rev. W. G. Todd, H. Woodward. Edw. Harris, Andrew Sueden, 
A. E.Abbott, Prof, Horsford, "W.," C.L. Maynard, "Peter Peppercorn," P.Welch, 
"Pacific"' "Wasliening," Charles Wy Us, Fred T. Jencks, John Van Opstal, Geo. 
M. Twitchell, Wm. T. Rogers, Henry Erdman, artist. 
Receiving regularly, oesides the leading Americen periodicals, the best of the Ger- 
man, French and English devoted to our specialties, we are enabled to have our se- 
lections applicable a.nd of the higest order. 

With the Filth Volun\e, the Journal will be enlarged and improved. Its field is 
the broad one of fancies, hobbies. Devoted to no one in particular, it will give pre- 
cedence to that which for the time being most engages thepopularmind. Thanking 
pur patrons for the generous support of the past, we ask its continuance. We direct 
the attention of all fanciers, whatever may be their hobby, to the Journal as a paper 
giving the latest and best information, one out-spoken and Independent, a paper 
untrammeled by individual interest, conducted "Not for itself, but for all." 

JOSEPH M. WADE, Springfield, Mass. 

Terms of Subscription, pre-paid by mail, Sl.50 per annum. Single copies, 15 cents. 
General Advertising Rates, 25 cents pec line. Exchanges and Wants, four lines, or 
forty words, 2o cents each insertion. 



iSS 



GERMAN ROUP PILLS. 

THE STANDARD SPECIFIC REMEDY FOR 

ROUP, 

OR COMMOJ^ FOWL AILS. 



THE GERMAN ROUP PILLS (Kunkel's Original Recipe), have 
•deservedly acquired a world-wide reputation, through their extra- 
ordinary 

Efficacy, Adaptedness, Operative and Bestorative 
Qualities, 

where they are judiciously administered to ordinary sick fowls. The 
combination of Health-giving Ingredients embodied in the peculiar 
prescription from which the universally approved and promptly effect- 
ive German Roup Pills are manufactured, has proved indeed a won- 
drously successful and reliable discovery, that in thousands of instan- 
ces has been voluntarily proclaimed by prominent and experienced 
Fowl Fanciers, Breeders, Amateurs, Dealers and Poulterers, in every 
section of the United States and the Canadas, to be for a general fowl 
medicine 

UNRIVALED, AS WELL AS ALTOGETHER UNEXCELABLE, 

After five years of steady success, the subscriber has become pro- 
prietor of the now celebrated German Roup Pills, and they will be 
manufactured under his supervision hereafter, at Hartford, Conn. 



in good locations, tor the sale of these reliable Roup Pills. Liberal 
discount, at wholesale. 

Sample Boxes mailed, post-paid, to any address, for 50 cents. 

Larger sized boxes (containing more than double the quantity), for 
gi.oo. For explanatory circulars, testimonials, etc., address 

H. H. STODDARD, 

"Poultry World," HARTFORD, CONN. 



< ' . , I 1 1 



I'UFl ■: 



i