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Full text of "Tractor plowing at its best .."

te' 






Cornell University Library 
S 683.161 

Tractor plowing at Its best ... 




3 1924 003 310 962 



TRACTOR 
PLOWING 

at 

ITS BEST 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924003310962 



Tractor Plowing 



at 

Its Best 



/M 



[ Illustrated 




International Harvester Company 



OF AMERICA 
606 So. Michigan Ave. oncorporateo. 



Chicago, III. 



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Illust. 1. This plow is set for one hundred per cent perfect work. Both bottoms 
will turn furrows exactly the same width and depth. The hitch is at the correct 
angle, neither too high nor too low, and a minimum amount of power will be 
required to pull the plow. To obtain this result the adjustments noted in the 
following pages are required. 



Preliminary Adjustments 



Rolling Coulter 

The purpose of the rolling coulter is 
to furnish a thin, sharp edge which 
will cut trash, roots and tough soil 
with a minimum amount of power. 
While under usual conditions a plow 
will do nearly as good work without 
the coulter as with it, 
it will require more 
power because the shin 
of the mold has a tearing 
rather than a cutting 
action. 

The position of the 
rolling coulter with re- 
lation to the plow bot- 
tom has a great deal to 
do with the quality and 
appearance of the work. 
In most cases the center 
of the coulter should be 
directly above the point 
of the plow, as shown in 
the illustration on this 
page. The proper height 
for the coulter depends 
upon the depth of the 
plow and the nature or 



condition of the soil. In this illustration 
(No. 2) the coulter is shown set for 
plowing about six inches deep in 
ordinary soils. Notice that the lower 
edge of the coulter is about an inch 
and a half above the point of the 
share. 




Illust. 2 



For deep plowing, the rolling coulter 
should be raised. It should not run more 
than about three and one-half inches deep. 
The position shown in Illust. 4 is about 
right for plowing eight or nine inches deep. 
Notice that as the coulter is raised it should 
also be moved slightly to the rear, giving 
the share a better chance to penetrate the 
soil. If the ground is exceptionally hard 
the coulter has a tendency to ride the plow 
out of the ground when set too far ahead. 
When a plow doesn't take to hard ground 





Illust. 3 



Illust. 4 

as it should, see if the coulters are too far 
forward or set too deep. For hard ground 
center of coulter should set about 3 inches 
back of point of share. 

The position of the rolling coulter with 
relation to the landside has much to do 
with the quality of the work, especially 
with the neatness of the furrow bank. 
Under most conditions, the coulter should 
be set § to f of an inch to the left of the 
landside, as shown in Illust. 3. It can be 
moved to right or left by loosening nuts 
A and B and turning standard with a 
large wrench as shown. Setting coulter 
out prevents edge of furrow from crumb- 
ling and preserves a better furrow bank. 




Illust. 5. When the coulters are properly set, they will line up as shown above. 
Notice the angle at which the offsets in the coulter shanks set — front one toward 
the rear and the second and third toward the front. 



Opening A "Land" 



Illustration 6 shows 
the opening up of a new 
land with the last plow 
running between six and 
seven inches deep, and 
the first one three to 
four inches deep. This 
setting will prevent a 
high ridge even though 
it is desired on the re- 
turn trip to have the 
first plow throw back 
the opening furrow. 

When opening a land, 
the right hand or furrow 
wheel must necessarily 
be set higher than is the 
case after the first round 
has been made and this 
wheel is running in the 
furrow. The two levers 
shown in Illust. 7 are 
used to adjust the 
depth and to level the 
plow. To open a land, 
the levers should be 
about in the positions 
shown. After the first 
time around, the plow should be leveled 
with the furrow wheel in the furrow, 
and after that the levers should require 
practically no attention until the land 





Illust. 7 



Illust. 6 

is finished. Of course if there are tough 
spots, or grades, where the draft is 
exceedingly heavy, it may be necessary 
to run the plow somewhat shallower. 
On the Nos. 3, 4, 5, 
and 7 Little Genius 
plows these two levers 
can be operated inde- 
pendently of the power- 
lift device. This feature 
has the advantage that 
should one of the bot- 
toms encounter a stone 
or root, the plow can be 
backed and the bottoms 
raised by hand. The 
same thing can be ac- 
complished on No. 8 
Little Genius by backing 
the plow a short distance 
and raising the bottoms 
with the power lift. This 
permits the removal of 
the obstacle, and the 
plowing can then proceed 
without leaving a skip. 




Illust. 8. Showing proper hitch for 2-bottotn plow 



Hitch 



One of the commonest sources of 
excessive draft is the hitch between 
the plow and the tractor. The draw- 
bar of the plow should make, as nearly 
as possible, a straight line between the 
tractor drawbar and the center of the 
load on the bottoms. If the hitch slopes 
downward from the plow to the tractor, 
unnecessary weight is thrown on the 
front wheels, increasing the draft, and 
wearing out the wheel bearings. The 
line of hitch should slant slightly up- 
ward toward the tractor. 

McCormick-Deering tractor plow 
hitches are now assembled for hitching 
to the center of McCormick-Deering 
10-20 and 15-30 tractors. 
Since the center of draft in 
a two-bottom plow is ap- 
proximately 1 7 to 1 9 inches 
from the furrow wall, the 
center hitch is ideal under 
average plowing condi- 
tions. In the case of 
the three-bottom plow 
the center of draft is 
approximately 24 to 26 
inches from the furrow 
wall, and hitching to the 
center of the McCormick- 
Deering 1 5-30 tractor is 
correct under average 
plowing conditions. Note 
that the right hand trac- 
tor drive wheel runs in 
the furrow. 



In hard plowing the center of draft 
has a tendency to move to the right, 
closer to the centers of the bottoms, 
owing to the heavier mold-board 
pressures. To overcome excessive land- 
side pressure under these conditions, set 
the plow hitch to the right. In very 
shallow or very loose plowing the land- 
sides may have a tendency to run away 
from the furrow wall. To overcome 
this tendency, and steady the plow, 
adjust the plow hitch to the left. Under 
extreme conditions it may be desirable 
to hitch to right or left on the tractor 
drawbar. 

In hillside plowing it is often desir- 
able to hitch the plow farther to the 
right when throwing the furrow up- 




Illust 



hill than when going the 
opposite way. Where the 
hills are so steep as to 
make frequent hitch ad- 
justment necessary it is 
recommended that the 
plowman use the special 
adjustable drawbar hitch, 
which has a lever which 
enables the plowman to 
adjust the hitch instantly. 

Spring Tension 

The weight of the bot- 
toms should be evenly 
counterbalanced by the 
heavy tension springs in 
order to make them lift 
as easily as possible, either 
by the operator or the power - lift 
mechanism. It is easy to adjust the 
tension of these springs. If the plows 
raise too hard, loosen the lock nuts 
(Illust. 10) on the adjusting bolts at 
the ends of the springs and tighten 
the second nut until the proper tension 
is obtained as shown above. Spring A 
adjusts the lifting tension on the axle of 
the front furrow wheel, which is oper- 
ated by hand lever C. Spring B adjusts 
the lifting tension of the axle on the 
land wheel, which is operated by hand 
lever D. 





Illust. 11 



Illust 



When the tension of these springs is 
properly adjusted, the springs will assist 
the lift in raising the bottoms and will 
not in any way retard lowering. 

With plows that depend entirely 
on the weight of the bottoms to get 
the bottoms into the ground, too much 
tension on the springs may interfere 
with penetration. 

The Rear Wheel 

The heel of the third plow should 
run lightly both against the bottom 
and the wall of the furrow. 1 1 should not 
carry the full downward 
pressure from the weight 
of the rear end of the 
plow nor the full side pres- 
sure from the furrow. 

It is easy to ascertain 
whether the heel is bear- 
ing against the furrow 
bank or bottom by ob- 
serving whether it is 
leaving grooves and, if 
so, how deep such 
grooves are. 

The heel of the plow 
can be raised or lowered 
by means of the set- 
screw shown in Illust. 1 1 . 
To make the adjust- 
ment, first loosen lock- 
nut and clamp bolt, then 
turn the set screw in to 
raise heel or out to 
lower it. 



The rear furrow wheel should run 
in the corner of the furrow, and be so 
adjusted that it bears a part of the 
weight of the rear end of the plow, 
as well as a part of the side pressure 
against the furrow wall. Also, this 
wheel should have a lead of J to | inch 
to the right. By "lead" we mean 
that the edge of the tire should be 
farther from the furrow wall in front 
than in the rear. This will lighten 
the pressure on the landside. If the 
furrow wheel does not stand in proper 
relation to the landside, that is, does 
not lead away from the bank, it should 
be changed. How to do this on the No. 
8 Little Genius is shown in lUust. 13. 

It is essential to good plowing 
that the heel of the rear landside 
bear lightly on the bottom of the 
furrow. 




Illust. 12 

The Front Wheel 

The notion prevails in many sections 
that the front furrow wheel should run 
against the bank of the furrow. This is 
wrong. The inner edge of tire should 
be about two inches from bank, as 
shown in Illust. 12. In this position 
the first plow will cut the same width 
as the others. If wheel is run against 
bank the front bottom will cut two 
inches more than it should, throwing 
additional draft on tractor and resulting 
in an inferior job of plowing. Also, if 




Illust. 13 

the wheel is run against furrow wall, 
a slight deviation of the tractor from 
the furrow wall causes wheel to climb 
bank or cut against it in such a way 
as to interfere with the work. The 
wheel is run away from the bank to 
provide against slight deviations of the 
tractor. 

The Jointer 

When difficulty is experienced in 
covering trash, it is advisable to use 
a jointer. It is important that the 
jointer be properly adjusted. When 
used in connection with a rolling coulter 
as illustrated, its point should be set as 
close as possible to the face of the coul- 
ter without actually running against it. 
Proper adjustment is easily obtained 
by means of the two nuts, A and B, 




Illust. 14 





B 




lUust. 15 



and by the slotted hole in the end of 
the jointer as shown in Illust. 14. 
Loosening nut A slightly and tighten- 
ing nut B will move the jointer away 
from the coulter. To move it toward 
the coulter, reverse the 
operation. 

A simple but very im- 
portant adjustment is 
provided for in the slotted 
hole at the end of the 
jointer shank as shown in 
A, Illust. 15. This slot 
permits moving the point 
of the jointer toward or 
away from the coulter. 
The jointer should always 
be adjusted as shown in 
C, with the point close to 
the coulter and with the 
space between the jointer 
and coulter widening to- 
ward the rear. This pre- 
vents weeds or trash from 
wedging between the 
coulter and jointer, as will 
happen if the point is far- 
ther from the coulter than 
the rear of the blade. B 
shows the wrong adjust- 
ment, with trash wedged 
between the coulter and 
jointer blade. By loosen- 
ing the two bolts which 




Illust 



hold the blade to the shank, it is easy 
to get the right adjustment as shown 
in C. The rear of the edge next to 
the coulter should be about three- 
eighths of an inch from the coulter, 
while the point should be 
as close as possible with- 
out causing friction. 

The use of the jointer 
alone has been largely 
discontinued, as in most 
cases the combined coul- 
ter and jointer does so 
much better work. 

Illust. 16 shows the 
proper position of the 
jointer in relation to the 
shin of the plow, namely 
about one-half inch to the 
left. The jointer is moved 
to the right or left as 
shown in Illust. 17. 

The heel of the jointer 
share should run a little 
above the top of the 
ground. This will make 
it cut a cleaner furrow 
and will prevent it from 
becoming fouled with 
trash. The line A-B (in 
Illust. 16) shows about 
the depth the jointer 
should cut. 




Illust 



It is a simple matter to adjust the 
position of the jointer with relation to 
the shin of the plow. In order to move 
the jointer farther to the left, loosen 




nut A (Illust. 17) slightly, and tighten 
nut B. In order to move it to the right, 
reverse the operation. 

To adjust the pitch of the jointer 
with reference to the point of the share, 
that is, to move it forward or back, the 
set screw shown in Illust. 1 9 is turned 
to the right or left, as the case may be. 
Do not attempt to change the position 
of the jointer by means of the set screw 
when the two bolts which hold the 
jointer to the plow beam are tight. 
Slightly loosen the nuts on the two 
bolts which hold it in place, then turn 
the set screw until the jointer is in its 
proper position, then tighten the nuts. 
The set screw only changes the pitch 
of the jointer. 




Illust. 18 



Illust. 19 

The rolling coulter yoke permits a 
slight turning movement, either to the 
right or left. Since this joint is in a 
position where it comes in contact with 
a great deal of dust and grit, more or 
less wear is likely to occur. There should 
not be unnecessary looseness at this 
joint as two bolts, A and B (Illust. 18), 
are provided for taking up wear. 



10 



Shares 

It does not pay to plow 
with dull or worn-out 
shares. It is always de- 
sirable to have at least 
one complete set of spare 
shares (two sets are bet- 
ter) so that one set may 
be used while the other is 
being sharpened. Prac- 
tically all tractor plows 
are now equipped with 
quick-detachable shares. 
It requires but a moment 
to unscrew the nut A far 
enough so that the front 
end of the bolt slips over 
the head of the bolt on the 
share. One turn on the 
nut B at the wing of the 
share and the share slips 
off, after which a new one can be slipped 
into place, and the nuts tightened. 

A new share is made with what is called 
suction, that is, it is made with the point 
of the share pointing slightly downward. 
This is done to make the share penetrate 
readily. As the point wears off, this suction 
is gradually lost and difficulty will be ex- 
perienced in getting the bottoms to take to 
the ground. To repeat, it does not pay to 
use dull shares. It costs more in fuel, time, 
and patience than the cost of resharpening 
justifies. (See page 20.) 

Rear Wheel Scraper 

Where the soil is sticky, the rim of the 
rear furrow wheel is quite likely to become 
caked with mud, thus increasing the diameter 
of the wheel and changing the adjustment 
of the plow. In order to prevent the ac- 




Illust. 21 




Illust. 22 




cumulation of mud on the rim 
and to keep the diameter of 
the wheel uniform, the wheel 
scraper should be adjusted so 
that the point is at the center 
oif the wheel rim and about 
one-fourth of an inch from 
its surface. 

On a plow whose furrow axle 
is held against side play by 
collars, as shown in Illust. 20, 
the collars must be kept tight 
on the axle — there should be 
no side play at the points 
indicated by the arrows. 




lUust. 23 



Hanging Cutter 

Under some conditions the use of the hanging cutters is desired. The proper 
position for these under most conditions is as shown in the Illust. 23, with 

their points about one inch 
above the points of the 

P' i'^ ' ' ■ * ', shares and with the cutters 

fX I C . ^jj slanted backward at a 

* ^^™ shght angle. 

The position of the hang- 
ing cutters with relation to 
the points is shown in 
Illusts. Nos. 24 and 25. 

Illust. 24 shows the prop- 
er position of the hang- 
ing cutter with relation to 
the point of the plow, 
namely about one-half inch 
to the left and with the 
left-hand side of the cutter 
parallel with the landside 
of the plow. The adjust- 
ment of the cutter from 
side to side is shown in 
Illust. 25. 

Illust. 25 shows how the 
position of the hanging 
cutter can be changed with 
relation to the point of the 
plow. By loosening nut A 
and tightening nut B the 
edge of the cutter is moved 
toward the left. 

To move it toward the 
right the operation is re- 
versed. 




Illust 




Illust 



12 



Oiling 

It is a mistake to assume, because a 
plow moves slowly and has few moving 
parts, that oil and grease are not neces- 
sary. The bearings on tractor plows 
work under severe conditions. Grit 
causes wear and no plow can do first- 
class work when its wheel bearings are 




lUust. 26 

worn and wobbly. When there is plenty 
of oil in the bearings, dust cannot get 
in, for as the oil works out it carries 
the dust with it. McCormick-Deering 




Illust 



tractor plows are now being equipped 
with oilers of the Zerk or Alemite type 
at points where frequent oiling is 
necessary. 

The three wheel hubs are provided 
with screw caps designed to be used as 
grease cups. Fill these frequently and 
force the grease into the bearing. At 




Illust. 28 



the beginning of the season it is well to 
squeeze in several capfuls. 

While the wheels are equipped with 
hard oil screw caps, which force the 
grease back into the bearing, the 
grease is very likely to work away from 
the sand bands. A covered oil hole is 
provided on the sand bands and these 
should receive frequent oiling. 




Illust. 29 

Keep the coulter bearings oiled — 
the coulter can't do first-class work 
when the bearings are worn. 

The rear wheel (Illust. 29) sets at 
an angle, with the wheel box pointing 
downward. This means that the grease 
would naturally work away from the 
sand band, and frequent oiling will 
prevent friction at this point. 



13 



G 




to -y 

_2 ci 



14 



Principles of Draft in Tractor Plows 



The outstanding advantage of plowing with 
tractors is, of course, economy — maximum 
production per man. Tlfis is so well under- 
stood now that we shall not here go into that 
phase of the subject. Another advantage is 
the ability, with a tractor plowing unit, to get 
the plowing and tillage done in time for season- 
able planting, which generally results in better 
crops, and greater yields. Not only is the 
hourly accomplishment of a. tractor plow 
greater than that of a horse plow, but the 
tractor, unlike the horse, can be worked two 
or three shifts a day, and often is. 

These, and other advantages, have been 
discussed so much that the quality of tractor 
plowing and the simplicity of using a tractor 
plow, as compared with horse plows, too 
frequently have been overlooked. 

Tractor plowing has a uniformity of ap- 
pearance, depth, and quality which can be 
achieved with horse plows only by very ex- 
perienced plowmen. And the adjustments re- 
quired to adapt a tractor plow to varying con- 
ditions are simpler and more quickly made. 
Stated from another angle, there are fewer 
chances for failure to do good work with a 
tractor plow than there are with a horse plow. 

Yet there are conditions encountered in 
tractor plowing which call for some knowledge 
of the principles involved in plow design and 
operation, if the plow is to be given a chance 
to do its best work under all conditions. Not 
infrequently plows are condemned for poor 
work when the trouble arises entirely from 
wrong hitch or faulty adjustment of equipment. 

The Center of Draft 

While it is not necessary that the tractor 
plowman possess the information which is 
presented here, he will find it easier with this 
knowledge to do more nearly perfect vyork. 
Plowing must be done under an extremely 




Approx. 
Center 
~^^(\ of Load 



llluBt. 31. The cross indicates the approxi- 
mate location of the center of load on a 
plow bottom under average plowing con- 
ditions. 



wide range of conditions. When tractor plows 
leave the factory they are set for average 
conditions. Naturally, some of them may need 
adjustment to meet special conditions on the 
farms they happen to reach. 

One of the most frequent causes of failure 
to do good work is a wrong hitch. Nor does 
the damage caused by wrong hitch stop with 
the work. Nearly always there is also undue 
wear on the plow, and heavier draft, resulting 
in higher fuel cost per acre of plowing. 

To be able intelligently to hitch a plow to a 
tractor it is an advantage to have an idea of 
the location of the center of load on the plow 
bottoms and its relation to the drawbar of 
the tractor, or, in plow parlance, the line of 
draft. If the center of load would stay in one 
place for all conditions, hitching would be 
greatly simplified, but it won't. 

Most authorities agree that in a 1 4-inch bot- 
tom, under average conditions and at average 
depth, the center of load is 2 inches from the 
shin, and not far above the joint between the 
moldboard and share. 




Illust. 32. Of the dotted lines the straight line shows the true line of draft with respect to the 
height of the plow hitch and the tractor drawbar. The other dotted lines show high and low 
hitch. The bent lines will straighten under load and the working of the plow will be aSecled 

accordingly. 

15 



Results of Too High Hitch 

The line of draft is an imaginary line from the 
center of load on the bottoms to the point of hitch 
at the tractor drawbar. Regardless of how high 
or low we hitch, that line is going to do its best to 
straighten out. If we hitch too high on the plow, 
too much weight is carried by the front wheels of 
the plow. The result is worn wheel bearings, and 
a tendency of the bottoms to "stutter" or bob along 
on the noses of the shares. 

Hitching too high is also likely to cause poor 
scouring. The reason for this is that when abottoin 
is tipped on its point, the angle of the bottom with 
reference to the furrow slice is changed — made more 
abrupt — the soil encounters the turning surface of 
the moldboard too squarely to push itself off. Also, 
the moldboard being too abrupt, that is, too straight 
up, the furrow slice breaks down before it should 
and passes under the wing of the board instead of 
turning over as it should. Perfectly good plow bot- 
toms have been condemned for failure to scour, 
and for failure to turn the furrow, when the trouble 
was due entirely to a hitch too high on the plow. 





Furrow 
Wall 



lllust. 34. This shows 
the line of draft in a 3- 
bottom plow with 14- 
inch bottoms, and _the 
correct setting of hitch 
when the plow is pulled 
by a 15-30 tractor. 



lUust. 33. The sketch at 
the right locates the line 
of draft in a 2-bottom 
plow with 14-inch bot- 
toms, and shows the cor- 
rect hitch for usual con- 
ditions. 



If Hitch Is Too Low 

Hitching too low on the plow has the opposite 
effect. Too much weight is thrown on the rear 
wheel, or on the bottom of the rear landside if there 
is no rear wheel, and the front wheels do not carry 
their portion of the weight. Resistances which 
should be converted to a rolling load must be' over- 
come as friction, and again there is heavier draft. 

The Tractor Drawbar 

It is well to remember that lowering the tractor 
drawbar is equivalent to raising the hitch on the 
plow, and that raising the tractor drawbar is 
equivalent to lowering the hitch on the plow. 

Lateral Hitch 

Now we'll suppose we have plowed around once 
and that we have started on the second through 
and have the wall of a previously made furrow from 
which to measure. From this we shall locate the cen- 
ter of load for 2-, 3-, and 4-bottom plows, assuming 
that the plows are equipped with 14-inch bottoms. 

The point 2 inches from the shin, the center of 
load on the first bottom, is 1 2 inches from the furrow 
wall. The center of load on the second bottom 
is 12 inches, plus 14 inches, or 26 inches from 

16 



the furrow wall. The center of load on the 
two bottoms is, therefore, half way between 1 2 
and 26 inches, or 19 inches from the furrow 
wall. The center of load on a 3-bottom plow 
is the center of load of the middle bottom, 
which, as we have just shown, is 26 inches from 
the furrow wall. In other words, when we 
add a 14-inch bottom, the center of load of 
the gang shifts 7 inches farther from the fur- 
row wall, or half the width of the bottom 
added. Add 7 inches to 26 inches and you 
have 33 inches for the center of load in a 
4-bottom plow. The true line of draft is 
straight forward from the center of load. For 
plows with 12-inch bottoms the lines of draft 
are, from the furrow wall, 16 inches for the 
2-bottom, 22 inches for the 3-bottom, and 28 
inches for the 4-bottom. 

Conditions Affecting Line of Draft 

Keep in mind that these locations are based 
on the more or less arbitrary assumption that the 
center of load is 2 inches from the landside or 
furrow wall. Often it is farther to the right than 
that, and sometimes it is nearer the landside. 
For stubble plowing, the figures are very close. 
In hard plowing, or heavy sod, more pressure is 
thrown on the moldboards, and the center of load 
may shift considerably toward the centers of the 
bottoms. Conditions which might cause the 
center of load to shift toward the left are loose 
soil, shallow plowing, blunt shares, plowing in 
root-matted soil without rolling coulters, etc. 

Better Than Guessing 

While it is always possible to arrive at a fairly 
correct adjustment of a plow by trial, the plow- 
man who knows about where the center of load 
is located in his plow and the relation of the true 
line of draft to the line of hitch, is able more 
quickly and intelligently to make the adjust- 
ments necessary to adapt his plow to the con- 
ditions under which it has to work. Horse plows 
are far more sensitive to side draft than tractor 
plows, yet it is helpful to know these things even 
in the operation of tractor plows. 

Instruction books supplied with McCormick- 
Deering tractor plows show how to assemble the 
hitches for hitching to the centers of McCormick- 
Deering tractors. These hitches are correct for 
average conditions. By applying the principles 
outlined above, the user can recognize the effects 
caused by shifting of the true line of draft, due 
to unusual conditions, and adjust the hitch to 
meet them. If there is too much landside pres- 
sure, leading the rear wheel away from the furrow 
wall or hitching farther to the right on the tractor, 

17 



drawbar will hold the landside away and make 
the plow run lighter. 

Hitching Too Far to Right 

If the hitch is too far to the right on the plow 
when hitched to the center of the tractor, shift- 
ing the hitch four inches to the left on the plow 
and hitching in the first hole to the left of center 
on the tractor drawbar will favor the plow, 
while the effect on the tractor will be scarcely 
noticeable. We have shown the 3- and 4-furrow 
plows hitched this way because we believe 
such a hitch covers a wider range of plowing 
conditions. It should be noted that a tractor 
plow is not sensitive to slight off-side hitch 
under ordinary plowing conditions, and that, 
if the center of load on the plow does shift, 
the shift is usually in favor of the hitches 



M*^Cormick-Deerin^ 
15-30 Tractor 



151 




Illust. 35. This shows the 
proper hitch for a 4-bottotn 
plow behind a 15-30 when 
the right tractor drive wheel 
is run in the furrow. Under 
heavy draft conditions it is 
sometimes desirable to run 
both tractor drive wheels on 
the land. 



shown. That is, as the plowing gets harder, 
the center of load on the bottoms shifts closer 
to the line of hitch. 

When Tractor Is Run On Land 

Often when plowing in loose, crumbly, or 
marshy land, it is desirable to run the tractor 
on the land. When this is done it is customary 
to hitch in the first hole to the right of the 
center of the tractor drawbar, which is some- 
what to the left of the center of draft of the 
plow. While we can't always hitch in the true 
line of draft, knowledge of where that line is 
helps the plowman to understand the action 
of his plow and to correct adjustments to meet 
conditions. More or less landside pressure 
results from running the tractor on the land, 
but it can be counteracted by leading the rear 
wheel (on three-wheel plows) away from the 
furrow wall. 

The Front Furrow Wheel 

Probably the best evidence of whether a 
plow is hitched right laterally is to observe 
the land wheel. If this wheel is running 
straight, it indicates proper lateral hitch. 

If the plow is hitched so that the front bot- 
tom is cutting its correct width and the coulters 
are set right, the furrows all lie alike and 
there is a uniformity of appearance which 
cannot be duplicated by the average plowman 
with horses. 

Soil On Wheels Affects Depth 

If the soil packs on the rims of the tractor 
drive wheels, and on the plow wheels, the 
depth of plowing is affected, and the addi- 
tional wheel diameter should be allowed for 
in the adjustment of the levers. Ridging the 
soil often results from failure to level the plow. 
The depth and leveling levers work together — 
the plowman should always be sure to use the 
leveling lever when he makes any appreciable 
change in the adjustment of the depth lever. 
The rear-wheel scraper should be adjusted to 
keep the wheel clean. One of the functions 
of the rear wheel on a three-wheel plow is to 



:; 



W^CORMICK-D 



Approx 

Center of 

oj Plow 

Center aj 
Tractor ^ 



Drajt 



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Albws for 
tilt 0/ tractor 
with one wheel 1 
in,6''/arrow 



I rumw 
Wall 




Approx. 

Center of 

Load on,' 

Z'^ Bottoirf 



Illust. 36. Shows 2-bottain plow (14- 
inch bottoms) hitched to the Farmall. 



carry the landside lightly in the bottom of the 
furrow. If the soil is allowed to pack on the 
wheel, the rear end of the plow is raised too 
high for good work. 

We have tried in this article to cover the 
factors having most to do with quality and 
appearance of tractor plowing. Much that 
we have said applies to plowing with horses. 
Whereas, it requires an experienced plowman 
to do really first-class work with a horse plow, 
any man who can apply a few simple rules 
in setting his plow, and who can drive a tractor 
straight, can do first-class work with a tractor 
plow. 




How to Sharpen a Steel Plow Share 

Modern plow manufacturers have expended large sums of money 
for the purpose of giving the farmer the best plow shares that can be 
produced. Refrigerating plants have been installed to maintain the 
tempering bath at a uniform temperature ; the best three-ply soft center 
steel that can be produced is used. In fact, nothing is left undone 
that will produce a plow share so hard that it will scour and polish 
like a mirror, yet withstand the strain and shock incident to heavy 
plowing; and all that has been accomplished along the lines above 
mentioned can be undone in a few minutes by the first man who 
sharpens the share, either through lack of knowledge, or carelessness. 

The average blacksmith, after removing the share from the plow, 
plunges it into a big broad fire to heat, preparatory to sharpening, oft- 
times setting it on edge in the fire. This is wrong, as it permits the 
heat to extend over the entire surface of the share, withdrawing the 
hardness that the manufacturers were so careful to conserve. It also 
causes the share to warp and lose its original shape, causing annoy- 
ance in replacing the share on the plow. 

To sharpen a plow share properly: 

Build a fire on the forge suitable for this particular work. This is 
done by banking the fire, allowing only a small opening in the side 
for the blaze and heat to escape. Commence with the point of the 
share. Insert this into the fire just far enough to heat the part you 
wish to draw, never permitting the heat to extend farther back on the 
share than is absolutely necessary. Draw this down to the proper 
shape and thickness, which should be as near the original bevel as 
possible. After the point has been finished, work back toward the 
heel or wing of the share, never heating more than 1 J inches from the 
edge and 2^ inches wide. It is important to keep hammering after 
the steel has changed from a red heat to a black as this makes the 
edge tough and hard, giving a wearing surface that will last much 
longer. 

If once down the share is not sufficient, reheat; but confine the 
heated part to the above measurements. In working along the cutting 
edge, keep it straight. In so doing you will avoid having to go back 
and reset the edge. 

It is impossible to give the exact amount of wing bearing on walk- 
ing plow shares, but it should be from 1 to 1 f inches, according to the 
size of the plow. Shares used on wheel plows should have no wing 
bearing. These instructions refer to both hard and crucible steel shares. 



19 



Suction of Plow Shares 



Worn Shares Waste Time, 
Money and Patience 

It costs more to plow with worn shares, a 
great deal, than it does to sharpen them — it 
takes more power — it takes more time and 
results in excessive wear on the plow, particu- 
larly the wheel bearings if hitching high on the 
plow is resorted to to make the plow take to 
the ground, as it often is. 

Bottom Suck 

There is more to reconditioning a plow 
share than merely restoring the edge. If you 
will hold a yardstick under the bottom edge 
of the landside of a new plow, with the edge 
of the yardstick touching the point of the 
share and the heel of the landside, you will 



lUust. 38. Side view 
of a plow bottom in 
which suction is ob- 
tained by bending 
the nose of the share 
down. 




note that at the point where the share joins 
the landside there is approximately one-half 
inch clearance. This is known as bottom, or 
down suck. It is the characteristic which 
makes the plow take to the ground. You can 
check the bottom suck in a bottom having a 
short landside by placing the bottom on a 
level surface and placing a half-inch block 
under the heel of the landside. 

Too frequently when the shares begin to 
lose their suck and the plow begins to run 
out on the slightest provocation, the plowman 
tries to overcome the difficulty by raising the 
hitch on the plow. Now if you lay a rail 
over a block and push down on one end, the 
other end is bound to come up. That is just 
what happens when you hitch too high on the 
plow. The frame of the plow is the rail and 
the plow wheels are the block. The result of 
hitching too high is that while you do "throw 
the plow on its nose" you raise the heels of 
the' landsides, you lose the steadying effect of 
the landsides, the plow has a tendency to kick 
to the left, and there is excessive wear on the 
front furrow and land wheel bearings. 




Illust. 37. Side view of the plow 
bottom showing bottom suck. 
This is approximately 
inch on tractor and -wheel 
bottoms. Notice that the 
under side of the gunnel is 
a straight line. The nose 
of this share should not 
be bent down by the 
blacksmith. 

Bottom 



Two Types of Shares 

In some plows bottom suck is secured by 
bending the nose of the share down after 
sharpening. This is usually accomplished by 
placing the share on an anvil, with the nose 
projecting over, and striking the nose with a 
hammer. In some plows, the bottom suck is 
determined by the angle of the share with 
relation to the bottom. In this type it is 
necessary merely to set the share on a face- 
plate after sharpening and bring the bottom 
edge of the landside portion of the share 
(gunnel or stub landside) to a straight line. 
It is very necessary, therefore, to know which 
type of share you are using, for if the latter 
type of share is given additional suction by 
bending the nose down, the additional penetra- 
tion will more than likely result in a strong 
tendency of the plow to bury itself. 

Side Suck 

The nose of a new or properly reconditioned 
share also points slightly "toward the land." 
This characteristic is called side suck and is 
built into the share to make the bottom "hold 
its land;" that is, cut its proper width. 

Reconditioning a share means sharpening 
and restoring the original bottom and side 
suck. Probably nine-tenths of the trouble which 
some folks have in making their plows work 
properly is due to worn shares. If your plow 
hesitates in taking to the ground, examine the 
shares to see if they have lost their bottom suck. 

In reconditioning the share the point should 
be brought out to its original length. 




Side Suck 



lUust. 39. Top view of a plow bottom 

showing side suck. The side suck varies 

from A to 3^ inch in plow bottoms. 



20 



Methods for Laying Out Lands and 
Plowing With Tractors 



In order that tractor users might 
receive the highest possible degree 
of satisfaction from their outfits, 
our publication Tractor Farming, 
published in the March issue of 
1919, an article entitled "Plowing 
With Tractor Power." The accom- 
panying illustrations and text are 
taken from that article. We hope 
this information will prove of 
benefit to those who receive this 
pamphlet. 

Two Methods of Tractor 
Plowing 

Broadly speaking, there are two 
distinct plans followed when plow- 
ing with a tractor. In one, the field 
is laid off in lands, to be plowed 
out in straight furrows. The plo^Vs 
are raised at each end of the field, headlands 
being left for turning. Headlands are plowed 
last. (See lUusts. 40 and 41.) 1 1 is customary to 
leave the same space on each side as is allowed 
for headlands, to permit plowing around the 
field when finishing, as shown in Illust. 41. 
If this is not done the headlands are plowed 
out as lands, either by back-furrowing or 
plowing them out to a dead furrow. 

In the second plan the entire field is plowed 
by driving round and round without taking the 
plows from the ground at all, or for only a few 
feet, while turning corners. The outfit either 



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DEAD FURROW (CLfAB UP) 



BACK FURROW (RIDGE) 






lUust. 41. Most farmers leave the same space at the 
sides of the field as at the ends and then plow round the 
entire field in finishing up. If desired, the entire width 
may be plowed in lands and the headlands plowed out 
separately as individual lands. 

21 



Illust. 40. Plowing the center of the field out in lands is 
the most comnion method. This shows one of the best 
plans for plowing out the lands in order to reduce idle 
running at the ends and eliminate about half the dead 
furrows. Plow symbols show direction dirt is thrown. 



starts in the center of the field and works 
toward the outside, or starts at the outside 
and works toward the center. (See Illusts. 
42 to 45 inclusive. ) 

The first plan, that of laying off the fields in 
lands, is by far the most common and some 
variation of it will probably be found most 
satisfactory on the average farm. The prin- 
cipal disadvantages of the system are that it 
involves considerable idle travel at the ends, 
and also leaves a number of dead or "clear-up" 
furrows. While there are some areas where the 
rainfall is heavy and the dead furrows are con- 
sidered a desirable aid to drainage, 
in most sections dead furrows are 
more of a disadvantage than other- 
wise. 

The majority of farmers, however, 
recommend some variation of this 
first general method, apparently 
considering that its advantages 
more than offset its disadvantages. 
Nevertheless, unnecessary trav- 
el adds somewhat to cost and 
reduces the amount of plowing 
which can be done in a given time, 
and it should therefore be kept as 
low as practicable. The narrower 
the lands the less the amount of 
idle traveling required, but the 
greater the number of dead fur- 
rows. There is a simple plan of 



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ifer^^ 




instead of two which would result 
from plowing each land out by back- 
furrowing. A field laid off in five 
lands will have but two dead furrows 
instead of four. 



Illust. 42. Plowing round and round, turning to the 
left and throwing the soil tovrard the fence without rais- 
ing the plows from the ground. Note the wider furrows 
at corners which means poorer plowing, but this method 
eliminates all idle running. 



plowing out lands, however, which will reduce 
the number of dead furrows by approximately 
one-half without increasing the size of the lands 
or the amount of idle travel, and every farmer 
who plows in lands should be acquainted with 
this method. 



Reduce Dead Furrows 

Without Additional 

Idle Travel 

This scheme consists of plowing out alter- 
nate lands by back-furrowing (in some parts 
of the East this is known as "striking a ridge" 
and plowing around it), and then plowing round 
each intermediate land to a dead furrow. In 
other words, every odd land (first, third, fifth, 
etc.) will be plowed round by turning to the 
right, throwing the soil to the center, while 
every even land (second, fourth, sixth, etc.) 
will be plowed out by driving 
round it, turning to the left, 
throwing the dirt toward the 
sides of the land, and finishing in 
the center, leaving a dead furrow. 
When following this plan the first 
and third lands are completed 
before starting the second, and 
the fifth land is plowed before 
starting on land four, and so on. 
Illust. 40 shows this method of 
plowing out a field of three lands. 
As in all the illustrations, no 
attempt was made to draw fur- 
rows even approximately to scale 
— the lines merely indicate the 
line of travel of the tractor, and 
the direction. 



1 1 pays to take care in laying off 
the lands, since inaccuracy of locat- 
ing the lands or insufficient mark- 
ings cause considerable inconven- 
ience when finishing up the work, 
at the same time spoiling the looks 
of the work. Very often the work 
of laying off and marking the field 
for plowing can be done at odd 
times — in fact, several weeks before 
the work is started. It pays to use 
plenty of markers — it doesn't take 
much longer, may save a lot of time 
in finishing, and is almost sure to 
result in better work. It is much 
easier to plow a straight furrow by 
keeping markers injine than driving toward a 
single marker at the other end of the field. 

The accuracy of laying off the field can be 
increased by constructing a measuring frame 
of light strips of wood in the shape of a letter 
"A" with the lower points the exact widths of 
the strip turned by the gang plow or some 
multiple of this width. The use of this device 
will usually make it possible to finish it 
up evenly without having to plow extra 
furrows. 

When a field is to be plowed in lands it is 
always advisable to have a mark at each end, 
as a guide for raising and lowering the plows. 
This mark can be a single furrow plowed at 
each end of the field. These furrows should 
be as shallow as possible to avoid jolting the 
tractor and plow when driving across them 
and the furrows should be thrown in toward 
the center of the field. A mere scratch parallel 
with the fence or boundary of the field is all 
that is required. 




By following this plan a field in 
which there are only three lands 
will have but one dead furrow. 



Illust. 43. Showing how some farmers plow out the 
corners first when they wish to plow round and round the 
field in the manner shown in Illust. 42. This permits all 
the work to be done with the tractor and makes a gradual 
curve for turning. 

22 



Plowing Round and 
Round 

The system of plowing round and 
round the held without taking the 
plows from the ground, or for only 
a few feet at the comers, has the 
advemtage of greater speed and a 
minimum of idle travel. The prin- 
cipal objection is the quality of the 
work at the corners. If the plows 
are left in the ground all the way 
around the work done on the turns 
will not be first class unless a very 
wide curve is made, and a wide 
curve leaves more unplowed land in 
the corners. 




Turning to the Right 

If the curve at the corner is very 
gradual the tendency to cut wide or "cut and 
cover" is not so pronounced and may be 
entirely unobjectionable. 

When turning to the right the bottoms will 
not cut full furrows and therefore will not do a 
really first-class piece of work, although the 
quality will not be lowered so greatly as when 
turning to the left. In a large field, however, 
it will result in leaving considerable ground 
in the comers by the time the furrows on the 
ends and sides have reached the fence. In 
order to avoid leaving a considerable amount 
of unplowed land at the comers, therefore, 
extra furrows should be plowed at the corners 
to bring them out even. This should be done 
as near the end of the job as possible when 
there is just room enough left for turning on 
the unplowed land, eind then plowing enough 
extra furrows around the curve at each corner 
to bring the corners practically the same dis- 



"E 

Illust. 44. A method commonly used alternately with 
that shown in Illust. 33. Find point marked "1," equally 
distant from A, F and E^ and point 2, equally distant 
from B» C and D. Back-furrow between 1 and 2 for a 
few rounds, then plow round and round. 




lUuBt. 45. A variation of method shown in Illust. 42. 
Plows raised at corners while turning:. AH furrows are 
kept straight and idle travel considerably reduced. When 
point marked ''Finish" is reached, the unplowed land is 
plowed out as shown in Illust. 46. 

23 



tance from the fence as the side and end fur- 
rows. By again plowing round and round the 
entire field it will then be possible to plow out 
practically every foot of the field with the 
tractor outfit. 



Turning to the Left 

When plowing round and round, making 
left turns, throwing the soil toward the fence, 
the curve should be gradual at the corners so as 
to avoid having to run the tractor off the land 
or into the plowed land in order to make the 
turn without the furrow wheel of the plow 
leaving the furrow. To do this the corners 
should be plowed out first until a wide curve 
has been made, as shown in Illust. 43. The 
field can then be furnished by plowing round 
and round, and practically every foot can be 
plowed with the tractor. 

A variation of the plan of 
plowing round and round the 
field is shown in Illust. 45. As 
can be seen, the field is plowed 
round and round with the plows 
raised at each corner while a 
half-turn is being made, but 
instead of plowing close to the 
fence on all four sides of the 
field a headland is left at the 
two ends, the same width as the 
strip between the ends of the 
furrows where the plows are 
taken out in turning. When the 
unplowed land in the center of 
the field is twice the width of 
these headlands and corner 
strips, the corners and head- 
lands are plowed out by driving 
round and round, as shown in 
Illust. 44. This avoids making 




lUust. 46. Method of finishing a land plowed as shown 
in Illust. 45. This shows the ends, corners and center 
plowed round and round to a dead furrow in the center, 
starting the finishing furrowrs at the point mariced 
"start.** If desired, it can be plowed out by back- 
furrowing. 

short turns in the corners of the field, which 
are necessary in case the headlands are not left. 
This plan permits the entire field to be 
plowed with the tractor just as close in the 
comers as the tractor can go, and that is about 
as close as it can be done with horses. While 
the method is best suited for plowing with left- 
hand turns, that is, throwing the furrows 
toward the fence, it can be used very satis- 
factorily for throwing the soil toward the 
center of the field, if the field is carefully 
measured off so as to permit starting at the 
proper points at the center. 

Don't Plow Same Way Every Year 

Most plowmen like to throw the soil toward 
the fence one year and toward the land the 
next. This can easily be accomplished by either 
of the two general methods of plowing describ- 
ed. If the center of the field is plowed out in 
lands the headlands and the strips ^^____ 
on each side can be plowed out by ^ -=S>- '~ 
driving around the field either to the 
right or to the left. When the meth- 
od of plowing round and round is 
used this can be alternated by start- 
ing at the fence and turning to the 
left one year and beginning at the 
center and plowing round and round 
to the right the next, whether the 
plows are left in the ground all the 
time or raised in the corners. 

Irregular Fields 

Most fields of irregular shape can 
be plowed using either of the two 
general methods described by exer- 
cising a little thought in adapting 
them. Plowing round and round. 



making left turns, will probably 
be as satisfactory as any method 
for the first time. Plows can 
either be raised at the corners 
or left in the ground, as desired. 
By making some sort of a mark at 
the center of the field as located by 
this method of plowing, the next 
time the field is plowed the work 
can be started at these points. If 
the field is plowed out to a dead- 
furrow, this furrow can usually be 
located and used as a guide for 
starting plowing and turning to 
the right. Plowing in lands can 
usually be followed to good advan- 
tage in fields having two parallel 
sides by laying off the lands par- 
allel with the parallel sides and 

raising the plows at the ends equally distant 

from the fence at all points. 

Plowing Round and Round Turning 
Square Corners 

Illust. 47 shows a method occasionally used 
but involving a large number of turns with the 
plow idle. It is used by some plowmen alter- 
nately with the methods shown in Illusts. 42 to 
45. The quality of the plowing compares very 
favorably with that done by any other method. 

As can be seen in the illustration, the center 
of the field is located as in Illust. 44 and the 
land started by back-furrowing. After the land 
is several feet wide, furrows are plowed across 
the end at each round, complete turns being 
made at the four corners by looping to the left. 
When there is no longer room left for turning 
at the corners, the remaining strip can be 
plowed out as shown in Illust. 41. 
A b 




Illust. 47. Method sometimes practiced alternately 
with that shown in Illust. 45. Points 1 and 2 located as in 
Illust. 44 and a land back-furrowed a few rounds after 
which furrows are plowed across ends, complete turn 
made at corners by looping to left. 

24 



McCormick-Deering 
Triple-Po\srer Tractors 




Illust. 48. The McCormick-Deering 15-30 — a powerful tractor for big-scale farming. 



The McCormick-Deering 10-20 and 15-30 
tractors have an abundance of dependable 
power for the heavy plowing and seed-bed 
preparation jobs. They pull large-scale harvest- 
ing equipment and operate the many belt- 
driven machines. 

This low-cost, heavy-duty power places all 
farming operations on an efficient, low-cost 
basis. Elqually as important as disposing of 
the heavy work is the ability of these tractors 
to keep all farm operations on schedule, over- 
coming weather delays and other handicaps 
that may occur. 

These tractors are McCormick-Deering con- 



struction from radiator to drawbar and are 
popular because of many distinctive features. 
Included among these are removable cylinders, 
factory-sealed governor, combination manifold 
for using either kerosene or gasoline, oil filter, 
air cleaner, one-piece main frame, and unit 
construction. The unit construction feature 
is invaluable in tractor design. Any unit — 
engine, clutch, transmission, final drive, etc. — 
can be removed without disturbing the adja- 
cent units. Three forward speeds of approxi- 
mately 2, 3, and 4 miles per hour meet all 
working conditions, whether in the field or on 
the road. 




Illust, 49. McCormick-Deering 10-20 tractor doing a good job of plowing and 
harrowing in one operation at low cost. 

25 



McCormick-Deering 
TracTracTors 




lUust. 50. McCormick-Deering T-40 TracTracTor. The T-20 is similar in design. 



The McCormick-Deering TracTracTors — 
Model T-20 and Model T-40 — are the crawler- 
type members of the McCormick - Deering 
tractor family. They are the most accessible 
crawler tractors built. The rugged construc- 
tion, combined with proved engineering prac- 
tices and modern alloy steels, assures crawler 
tractors that meet McCormick-Deering stand- 
ards of performance, economy, and durability. 
Their conveniently located controls and the 
upholstered cushion seats are features which 
contribute to the comfort of the operator and 
result in a bigger and better day's work. 



McCormick-Deering TracTracTors are com- 
pact units which operate in close quarters. The 
T-20 is especially adapted to working under 
low-hanging trees, in orchards, and similar 
work. More than forty ball bearings assist in 
providing an unusual degree of transmitted 
power in the TracTracTors. The steering 
clutches and steering brakes located in the rear 
compartment of the main frame introduce an 
innovation in efficient steering performance for 
track-type tractors. Wherever the going is 
uncertain, the load heavy, and the work dif- 
ficult, TracTracTors will do the job. 




lUust. 51. The T-40 delivers the power required on the Northwest hillside 

26 



The Famous FARMALL 
Now in Three 




lllust. 53. The regular Farmall, the original 
successful row-crop all-purpose tractor. 




The regular FARMALL, the original row-crop, 
all-purpose, two-plow tractor, meets the require- 
ments of the average farm. It pulls two 14-inch 
bottoms, wide tillage tools, two and four-row 
cultivators, four-row planters, etc. Broadly, the regu- 
lar FARMALL fits the farms in the quarter-section 
class. It supplies fast, economical, dependable power 
for all field and belt operations. It also provides 
power through the power take-off for corn pickers, 
binders, potato diggers, etc. 

The FARMALL-30 is the three-plow size. It 
meets the power requirements of the farms in the 
200 to 300-acre class, where the power demand is 
heavier, due to unusual soil conditions, or larger 
tillage combinations. It supplies ample power 
for two-row corn pickers, two-row potato diggers, 
harvester -threshers, etc. It is a handy tractor 
for the row-crop farm, and a husky, versatile 
tractor for any farm. 

FARMALL 12, the newest member of the 
famous FARMALL line, is the tractor for the 
smaller row-crop, or the very small intensively 
worked farms. It pulls one 16-inch, or two 10-inch 
bottoms, and tillage tools of like drawbar demand. 
Already it has made a name for itself as a two-row 
cultivating tractor, and many tractor 
users operating larger tractors are buy- 
ing the FARMALL- 12 for use as an 
auxiliary tractor. A gallon of gasoline 
an hour or a little over, is all the 
F-12 needs on the average job, which 
makes it a wonderfully economical 
tractor on all drawbar and belt work 
within its capacity range. 

For further information on these 
famous row-crop, all-purpose, triple- 
power tractors, see the nearest McCor- 
mick-Deering dealer, or write for 
special catalog. 



lllust. 54. Farmall 30, the 3-plow size of the famous Farmall. 




Operating a two-row middle Cultivatinsf two rows, 

buster. 



Well adapted for farm work. 



27 



McCormick - Deering 

Tractor Plows 




Illust. 55. McCormick-Deering No. 8 Little Genius tractor plow. 



McCORMICK-DEERING tractor 
moldboard plows are notable for 
the ease with which they can 
be adapted to varying soil conditions 
and for their remarkable stamina in 
extremely hard plowing. 

The line includes the No. 8 Little 
Genius in 2 and 3-furrow with 10, 12, 
14, or 16-inch bottoms and 4-furrow 
with 14-inch bottoms. 

The bottoms are the product of 
nearly 90 years of plow building ex- 
perience. There is a bottom for every 
soil. The shares are quick-detachable. 

The Little Genius can be supplied 
with special equipment in the way of 
wide tires for loose or sandy soils, 
special coulters, jointers, knife cutters, 
etc. — whatever is needed to adapt the 



Little Genius to plowing conditions 
anywhere. 

The Little Wonder is a two-bottom 
two-wheel tractor plow for small trac- 
tors. It is as light in weight as it is 
possible to build a good plow. The 
same types of bottoms are available 
as for the Little Genius, in 12 and 
1 4-inch sizes. 

The line also includes the Little 
Genius in one and two furrow with 
18-inch bottoms, and special breaking 
plows. Whatever your plow require- 
ments, there is a plow in the McCor- 
mick-Deering line that will meet them. 




Illust. 56. McCS-mick- 

Deering No. 2" Little 

Wonder tractor plow for 

small tractors. 



28 



McCormick- Deering 

Tractor Disk Plows 



THE two leaders in the McCor- 
mick-Deering line of disk plows 
are the Nos. 33 and 34. These 
plows are more than the leaders of a 
line — they set a new standard for disk 
plow efficiency. No. 33 is probably 
the heaviest disk plow of its type ever 
built. It was built to meet conditions 
as they are found, for instance, in the 
Imperial Valley and in the Salt River 
Valley. 

Several new features embodied in 
the No. 33 were so popular as to lead 
to an immediate demand for a disk 
plow of similar design but lighter in 
weight and adapted to general con- 
ditions. The No. 34 is the answer to 
that demand. 



The dream of plow designers, since 
the idea of a disk plow was first con- 
ceived, has been to build a plow that 
would stick to its work under all con- 
ditions. Nos. 33 and 34 are that kind 
of plows. 

No. 33 is supplied in 3, 4, and 5-fur- 
row sizes and regularly equipped with 
26-inch disks. No. 34 is supplied in 
2, 3, 4, 5, and 6-furrow sizes, with 
26-inch disks. These plows are 
equipped to meet usual conditions, 
and a wide range of special equipment 
is available to adapt them to extreme 
conditions. 

If you would like to know more 
about these remarkable disk plows, 
ask for the McCormick-Deering Trac- 
tor Plow Catalog. 




Illust. 57. A front view of the 34-3 tractor disk plow. 



29 



PLOWS (All Types). 





McCortnick-Deering Walking 
Plows and Middle Breakers, 
steel and chilled. Two, three 
and four-furrow moldboard and 
disk Tractor Plows. Sulky 
and gang, moldboard and disk 
Riding Plows. Far mall Plows. 
Orchard and Vineyard Plows. 
Harrow-Plows. Special plows 
for every purpose. 



TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS (All Types). McCormick- 
Deering Disk Harrows, seven sizes, with or without 
tandem. Special orchard disk, and reversible types. Trac- 
tor DiskHarrows, Offset Disk Harrows, Spring- Tooth 
Harrow^s, Peg-Tooth Har- 
rows, One-Horse Cultivators 
with 3, 7 and 9 shovels, also 7, 9 
and 14 teeth. Ridge Busters, 
for horses or tractors. Rotary 
Hoes, Soil Pulverizers, Field 
Cultivators, Rod Weeders, 
Land Packers and Plow 
Packers. 

KEROSENE ENGINES. McCormick-Deering, oper- 
ate on kerosene as well as gasoline. Sizes 1 i, 3. 6 and 10 
horsepower. Hopper-cooled. All 
have throttling governors, serv- 
iceable magnetos, removable 
cylinders and enclosed crank- 
cases. Friction clutch and plain 
pulleys. Hand and horse trucks 
. extra. McCormick-Deering 
^4-Cylinder Industrial Power 
Units. 

TRACTORS. McCormick-Deering, sizes 10-20 and 
13-30. Also Industrial Trac- 
tors with rubber tires. Power 
Take-Off for tractor binder, 
ensilage harvester, corn picker, 
' rice binder, etc. Tractor 
Hitches for all drawbar ma- 
chines. 



FARMALL TRACTORS. McCormick-Deering, 2- 

and 3-plow sizes, ofwrate on 
kerosene or gasoline. Also F-12, 
the new Farmall for smaller 
farms. Fast, economical power 
for seed-bed work, planting and 
cultivating row crops, haying, 
I harvest, and belt work. Special 
Farmall machines. 

|RAC|RAC|ORS McCormick-Deering T-20 and Six- 
Cylinder T-40 for farm, high- 
\ way and industrial work. 
Rugged construction; compact, 
i powerful engines, convenient 
k controls, a variety of speeds 
I to meet all requirements. 



THRESHERS. 







MOTOR TRUCKS. 




International Motor Trucks, 

^ to 7i-ton capacities including 
the famous l^-ton Six-Speed 
Special. Also 6-cytinder speed 
trucks in ^, I ^, 2, and 3-ton 
sizes and heavy-duty, double 
reduction gear-drive models in 
3 to 7i-ton capacities. Suitable 
bodies for all hauling purposes. 






McCormick-Deering^ 22 x 38 

and 28 x 46. Ball-bearing cyl- 
inders. Roller bearing stacker 
fan. Can be equipped with 
self-feeders, wind stackers, grain 
measuring elevators and loaders. 
Pea, Bean, Rice, Alfalfa and 
Clover Threshers. 



CREAM SEPARATORS. McCormick-Deering Ball - 
Bearing Separators turn 
easily, skim closely, and are easy 
to keep clean. Hand, engine, 
and electric driven types. 
Capacities, 330, 500. 750, 900, 
1200 and 1300 pounds of niilk 
per hour. McCormick-Deering 
Cream Separator Oil, a specially 
prepared light-bodied lubricant 
for cream separators. 

MILKERS. McCormick-Deering Milkers, single and 
double units, single and double 
cylinder vacuum pumps, engine 
and motor drive; efficient and 
sanitary, with many new and 
patented features. No-oil, no- 
spring pulsator assures satisfac- 
tory performance in hot and 
cold weather. 

CANE MILLS. McCormick-Deering. Powerful three- 
roll mills that "get the juice." 
Upright, horsepower mills in 
four sizes, capacities from 35 to 
90 gallons of juice per hour. 
Belt power mills, three-roll, hori- 
zontal, capacities 1 75 to 250 
I illllMI nill'li lU gallons per hour. Juice pumps. 



GRAIN DRILLS AND LIME SOWERS. McCormick- 
Deering Grain Drills; sizes 3 to 57-furrow openers; 
4, 6, 7 and 8-inch spacing. Press 
drills and press wheel attach- 
ments. Also fertilizer drills, 
i beet drills, alfalfa drills, one- 
I horse, endgate and broadcast 
I seeders. McCormick-Deering 
7 Lime Sowers, Endgate Lime 
Spreaders, Fertilizer Dis- 
tributors and Crop Dusters. 

MANURE SPREADERS. McCormick - Deering, 

horse-drawn, 60 to 70 bu. 

capacity; eight roller bearings, 
^aix conveyor speeds. McCor- 
mick - Deering Power 

Spreader, 130 to 150 bu. 

capacity; entire mechanism 

operated by tractor power 

transmitted through the power 

take-off. 






STALK CUTTERS. 




McCormick - Deering. Single 
row 7 or 9 blades. Has steel 
wheels, non-clogging knife head, 
angle steel frame, dust-proof 
bearings, shock absorbing hitch. 
Two-ro^v, 1 4 - knife. Separate 
cutting cylinder for each row. 
The cutting cylinders on these 
stalk cutters are spring sus- 
pended, greatly reducing 
vibration. 



'"Good equipment makes a good farmer better '^ 



30 



McCormick-Deering Line 






GRAIN BINDERS, REAPERS,TWINE. McCormick- 
Deering Binders, 6. 7 and 8- 
foot cut. Special binders for 
rice. McCormick - Deering 
Tractor Binder, 10-foot cut. 
McCormlck-Deering Reapers 
in 5 and 5i-foot cut. 



HARVESTER-THRESHERS,WINDROWHARVEST- 
ERS, HEADERS, PUSH BINDERS. McCormick- 
Deering Harvester-Threshers. Four styles, 8, 10, 12 
and 16-foot prairie types and 12-foot hillside type. A 
4-foot extension supplied for hillside type, making 1 6-foot 
cut. Harvest and thresh small 
grains, soybeans and other crops 
in one operation. McCorznick- 
- Deering Windrow Harvest- 
ers, 8, 1 2 and 16-faot. McCor- 
mick-Deering Headers, 12 
and 14-foot. Push Binders, 
10, 12 and 14-foot cuts. 

MOWERS AND KNIFE GRINDERS. McCormick- 
Deering Mowers, 1 -horse 3^-foot vertical lift; 2'horse 
regular and vertical lift. 4^ and 5-foot cuts. Heavy-duty 
types, 4 i and 5-foot, regular and vertical lift. 6 and 7-foot 
regular lift only. Rubber-tired highway mowers. Trail- 
ing mower for tractor. Special 
Farmall and tractor mowers. 
McCormick-Deering Knife 
Grinders for mower knives. 
Tool and saw gumming wheels 
extra. McCormick-Deering 
>Shredder Knife-Head 
Grinder. 

RAKES (All Types) TEDDERS. McCormick-Deering 
Self-Dump Rakes, 8, 9. 10 and 12-foot; cornstalk rake, 
1 1-foot. McCormick-Deering 
Sweep Rakes, three styles. 
McCormick - Deering Side 
Rakes and Tedders, 7i and 
I 8-foot sizes. McCormick- 

Deering Tedders, 6 andS-fork. 

HAY LOADERS AND STACKERS. McCormick- 
Deering Windrow Loader, 
6-foot. Double Cylinder 
Loader, Cylinder- Rake 
Loader, 6 -foot. AH unhitch 
from topof load. McCormick- 
Deering Stackers, two types, 
overshot and special high lift. 



McCormick-Deering one and two- 
horse type and power presses. 
Three sizes, 14x18, 16x18 and 
1 7x22 bales. Power presses 
run either by tractor or engine. 



PLANTERS AND LISTERS, McCormick-Deering , 
Corn Planters; 100 Series, i 
checkrow, drill and hill-drop 
drill, flat-, edge-, or full-hill- 
-^ J^Vj^^TS. ffS drop plates. McCormick- 

Deering Cotton and Corn 
Planters, walking and riding, 
single and two-row. Fertilizer 
attachments. Horse and Trac- 
tor Listers, corn, cotton and 
corn, and Wheatland. 

BEET IMPLEMENTS. McCormick-Deering plain 
and fertilizer Beet Drills. 
McCormick-Deering two and 

: four-row Beet Cultivators. 

. Riding Beet Pullers. 







POTATO PLANTERS AND DIGGERS. McCor- 
mick-Deering one and two- 
row Potato Planters, picker- 
wheel type, plain and fertilizer. 
Two and four-horse Potato 
Diggers, elevator type, rod- 
link and bar-grate. Walking 
Diggers. Farmall Power 
Drive Diggers, 1 and 2-row. 




CULTIVATORS. 






McCormick-Deering, for all crops. 
One and two-row, riding or 
walking, disk and surface culti- 
vators. All varieties of shovels 
and gangs. Lister Cultiva- 
tors, single row, sled and 
wheeled. Two and three-row 
wheeled. Field Cultivators, 
6. 7^, 9 and 12-foot sizes. 



CORN BINDERS AND PICKERS. McCormick- 
Deering Corn Binders, ver- 
tical and ho rizontal. Special 
type for short corn. McCor- 
mick-Deering Corn Pickers, 
I and 2-row, Farmall and pull 
type. 

ENSILAGE CUTTERS. McCormick-^Deering, four 
sizes with capacity of 3 to 25 tons cut ensilage per hour. 
Force feed, large throat and 
boiler plate steel flywheel. Six 
to 25 horsepower required. 
McCormick - Deering Ron- 
ning Ensilage Harvester and 
I McCormick - Deering Ensi- 
lage Blower. 

HUSKERS AND SHREDDERS. McCormick-Deer- 
ing Steel Husker and Shred- 
der. Large capacity, all-steel 
construction, combined snap- 
ping and husking rolls, all mov- 
ing parts protected by shields, 
large and convenient feed tables. 

CORN SHELLERS AND FEED MILLS. Mc- 
Cormick - Deering Shellers. 
Spring type, hand or power, 
moun ted or down, 4 sizes. 
Cylinder Shellers, 2 sizes. 
McCormick - Deering Feed 
Grinders, 3 types in various 
capacities. McCormick — 
Deering Hammer Mills. 



FARM WAGONS AND TRUCKS. Weber Wagons; 
Keystone and Monarch 
Trucks; standard and wide 
track. One-horse wagons, 
) McCormick - Deering All - 
Purpose all-steel, roller- bearing 
Truck. Wagon Boxes. 

SOIL PULVERIZERS. Double Gaiig. Two machines 
in one. Cultivates the soil and 
crushes lumps. Finishes what 
other tillage tools begin. Made 
in eight widths for horse or trac- 
tor power. Also single gang 
soil pulverizers. 







BINDER TWINE. 
1 

L J 



McCormick-Deering and Inter- 
national. Standard and Sisal, 
500 ft. per lb. Manila. 600 and 
650 ft. oer lb. Six 8-lb. balls 
to the Dale. Guaranteed for 
length, strength and weight. 
Treated against destruction hy 
insects. 



31 



McCormick-Deering Service 



Eighty-seven IHC Branches 
Assure Unusual After-Sale Service 

The Harvester Company believes that every pur- 
chaser of a machine is entitled to two kinds of service — • 
service from the machine itself and service from the 
organization back of it. 

In keeping with that policy, a nation-wide network 
of eighty'seven Company'owned branches, working 
in conjunction with the thousands of McCormick' 
Deering dealers, provides prompt service for every 
owner of McCormick'Deering machines. 





Aberdeen, S. D. 


Des Moines, Iowa 


Lincoln, Nebr. 


Richmond, Va. 


Albany, N. Y. 


Dodge City, Kans. 


Little Rock, Ark. 


Saginaw, Mich. 


Amariilo, Texas 


Dubuque, Iowa 


Los Angeles, Calif. 


St. Cloud, Minn. 


Atlanta, Ga. 


Eau Claire, Wis. 


Louisville, Ky. 


St. Joseph, Mo. 


Auburn, N. Y. 


Elmira, N. Y. 


Madison, Wis. 


St. Louis, Mo. 


Aurora, 111. 


Evansville, Ind. 


Mankato, Minn. 


Salina, Kans. 


Baltimore, Md. 


Fargo, N. D. 


Mason City, Iowa 


Salt Lake City, Utah 


Billings, Mont. 


Fort Dodge, Iowa 


Memphis, Tenn. 


San Antonio, Texas 


Birmingham, Ala. 


Fort Wayne, Ind. 


Milwaukee, Wis. 


San Francisco, Cahf. 


Bismarck, N. D. 


Grand Forks, N. D. 


Minneapolis, Minn. 


Shreveport, La. 


Boston, Mass. 


Grand Island, iSIebr. 


Minot, N. D. 


Sioux City, Iowa 


Buffalo, N. Y. 


Grand Rapids, Mich. 


Nashville, Tenn. 


Sioux Falls, S. D. 


Charlotte, N. C. 


Great Falls, Mont. 


New Orleans, La. 


Spokane, Wash. 


Cheyenne, Wyo. 


Green Bay, Wis. 


New York, N. Y. 


Springfield, III 


Chicago, 111. 


Harrisburg, Pa. 


Oklahoma City, Okla. 


Springfield, Mo. 


Cincinnati, Ohio 


Houston, Texas 


Omaha, Nebr. 


Sweetwater Texas 


Cleveland, Ohio 


Hutchinson, Kans. 


Parkersburg, W. Va. 


Terre Haute, Ind. 
Toledo, Ohio 


Columbus, Ohio 


IndianapoHs, Ind. 


Peoria, 111. 


Council Bluffs, Iowa 


Jackson, Mich. 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


Dallas, Texas 


Jacksonville, Fla. 


Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Topeka, Kans. 


Davenport, Iowa 


Kankakee, 111, 


Portland, Ore. 


Watertown, S. D. 


Denver, Colo. 


Kansas City, Mo. 


Quincy, 111. 


Wichita, Kans. 



The Farther You Go From One, the Nearer You Get To Another 



International Harvester Company 

OF AMERICA 
606 So. Michigan Ave. oncorpcated. Chicago, III. 

''Good equipment makes a good farmer better '^