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Full text of "Cultivated roses; an alphabetical list of species and varieties grown in this country, with their date of introduction, classes, colours, adaptabilities, and modes of pruning; also chapters dealing with insect and fungoid pests, manures, etc"









v \/ 




ALBERT R. MANN 
LIBRARY 

New York State Colleges 

OF 

Agriculture and Home Economics 

AT 

Cornell University 




THE GIFT OF 

The estate of 
E.S. Boemer 



SB 411.S2l''"°"""''^™">"-ibrary 
^"ilivated roses-, 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tliis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924003408998 




A Good Pot Rose : Niphetos. 



Cultivated Roses ; 



An Alphabetical List op Species and Vaeibties Grown in 

THIS CorNTRY, WITH THEIR DaTE OF INTRODUCTION, 

Classes, Colours, Adaptabilities, and Modes 

OP Pruning; also Chapters dealing 

WITH Insect and Fungoid Pests, 

Manures, Etc. 



ILLUSTRATED. 

Edited by 

T. W. SAiSTDEES, F.E.H.S., F.N.C.S. 

(Editor of "Amateur Gardening" and President of the National 
Amateur Gardeners' Associatimi.) 



LONDON : 

W. H. AND L. C0LLINGRID6E, 

148 AND 149, Aldbrsgate Street, E.G. 

1899. 



LONDON ; 

PRINTED BY W. H. AND L. COLUNGRIDGE, 

ALDERSGATE STREET, E.C. 




INTRODUCTION. 



Having been frequently applied to by numerous readers of 
Amateur Gardening to supply information as to colours, classes, 
and methods of pruning various roses, we conceived the idea 
of preparing and publishing, in the pages of the above journal, 
a catalogue or schedule of all the kinds of roses worth growing 
in this country, under the impression that such a list might be 
found generally useful. We made an attempt to undertake 
the task ourselves, but finding it more onerous than we antici- 
pated, and recognizing the fact that if done at all it was worth 
doing well, we engaged an expert, Mr. Archibald Piper, to carry 
out the compilation. 

At the first onset we had no idea that the list would have 
extended to such a formidable length as it did, and this in spite 
of the fact that it by no means included all the species and 
varieties known to rosarians. However, having commenced, 
we were bound in the interests of the readers of Amateur 
Gardening to continue its publication, which extended to twenty- 
three issues. 

As the schedule passed through the pages of the journal, 
numerous requests were made by readers for its publication in 
book form. This afforded unmistakable evidence that the 
schedule supplied a real want among rosarians, and encouraged 
by this fact, we decided to meet so unanimous a request by 
making arrangements for issuing it in a handy form. 



ii. INTRODUCTION. 

Several readers kindly made various suggestions for adding 
to its value and usefulness. We have, however, only been able 
to add one new feature, namely, the date of introduction, as far 
as it could be ascertained with certainty. To do this we have 
had to abridge some of the terms used in the columns ; but 
we do not think this will prove any serious defect, or diminish 
the usefulness of the information given. Most of the other 
suggestions have been supplied in the form of short chapters 
at the commencement, which will, doubtless, prove more useful 
than abridged details given in columnar form. 

We have reproduced some notes of our own on " Types of 
Roses " that appeared in Amateur Gardening some years ago, 
which we hope the reader will find helpful ; also given 
chapters on Manures ; How to Plant, Prune, and Propagate ; 
Enemies of the Rose ; Pot and Climbing Roses, etc. 

We desire it to be clearly understood that we do not profess 
this little manual to be a complete guide to rose culture. 
While it unquestionably supplies a vast deal of valuable 
information in an absolutely unique form, the limits of its size 
necessarily preclude it from dealing fully with every phase of 
so fascinating a pursuit. Those who want a more exhaustive 
work on the subject are recommended to parchase "The 
Amateur's Rose Book," published at the office of Amateur 
Gardening. 

Lastly, we have to thank several friends for assistance ren- 
dered in supplying special information on the subject of insect 
pests, diseases, etc. Those who have kindly helped in these 
mattei-s are Messrs. H. A. Smith, J. Landsell, J. C. Tallack, 
and E. Molyneux. 



TYPES OF ROSES. 



Alba (Rosa alha). — The original type of this rose has been 
in cultivation since 1597. It bears small white fragrant blooms 
in June and July. The hybrids obtained from it are numerous, 
and all bear very beautiful blush or rosy-tinted blooms of ex- 
quisite fragrance. Essentially early summer blooming, and 
best grown as dwarfs, although some sorts do well as standards. 
They require to be pruned closely, i.e., to two or three " eyes " 
or buds. Good ordinary soil and a well-drained bed or border 
will suit their growth well. Not suited for town gardens. The 
following are typical kinds : Maiden's Blush, blush ; Felicity, 
rosy flesh ; and Celestial, flesh. 

Ayrshire {Rosa arvensis). — A native species from which 
several double varieties, hardy in constitution, rapid in growth, 
and prolific in flowering, 
have been raised. They 
are all admirably adapted 
for quickly covering tree 
stumps, trellises, 
arbours, rooteries, per- 
golas, pillars, walls, etc., 
and grow with the 
greatest freedom in 
ordinary soil, in sun or 
in shade. Specially 
adapted for town 
gardens. Make excellent 
weeping roses budded on 
standard briars. Require 
no pruning beyond 
thinning out the shoots 
a little, and removing 
dead wood and cutting 
off the soft tips of re- 
maining shoots. Dundee 
Rambler, white ; Ben- 
nett's, white (see illustra- 
tion, page 3); Ruga, flesh; and Splendens,flesh,are excellent sorts. 
Ruga is perhaps the best of all. The foregoing are scentless roses. 




The Austrian Briar Rose 
{see next page). 



2 CULTIVATED ROSES. 

Austrian {Rns,a lutea). — A European speoies, first intro- 
duced into this country in 1596, and bearing lovely yellow 
solitary flowers in June and July only. There are three 
varieties of it, namely, Austrian Copper, single, reddish copper ; 
Harrisonii, golden yellow, double ; and Persian Yellow, rich 
yellow, double. They are easily distinguished from other roses 
by their prickly chocolate-coloured shoots, small leaves, and 
solitary flowers. Although hardy, they thrive best in a well- 
drained border at the foot of a south wall. A poor rather than 




The Apple-bbaking Rose. 



a rich soil suits them best. They are essentially pure air roses, 
and hence not suited for town or suburban gardens. The 
flowers being borne near the extremities of the shoots of the 
previous year's growth, only the unripened tips of the strongest 
of the latter should be removed, and the weakest thinned 
out slightly. May be grown as dwarfs or standards; the 
former is the best method of the two, however. 

Apple-bearing ( Bosa mollis pomifera). — A near ally of the 
Scotch Eose (E. spinosissima), a native of Eu.rope (Britain), 



4 CULTIVATED ROSES. 

and long cultivated in old-fashioned gardens. It is very hardy, 
has glaucous foliage, and bears large single red flowers freely in 
June and July, which are succeeded by large brilliant scarlet 
apple or pear-shaped heps, that ripen in early autumn. A 
charming rose for the rough border, and succeeding under 
similar treatment to that accorded to E. rugosa. No pruning 
beyond thinning out the shoots, when crowded, required. 

Banksian (Rom Bankdce). — Originally introduced from 
China in 1809. The typical species bears small white, double. 




The Banksian Rosk. 

pleasantly-scented flowers in clusters in early summer. There 
is a yellow variety, equally pretty ; also a hybrid, called 
Fortune's Yellow, which bears yellowish orange, semi-double 
blooms. These roses are not quite hardy, hence will only 
succeed against a south wall and in fairly good soil in a well- 
drained border. They will do well also against the back wall 
of a sunny, cold greenhouse. A warm greenhouse is not 
suitable, as the heat would encourage a too free growth at 
the expense of flowering. Pruning should be done after 



TYPES OF HOSES. 5 

flowering in June or July, and consist only of the removal of 
the o-ver-gross or badly- ripened shoots and the tips of those 
left. 

Barberry-leaved {Rosa berberifoUa).~A native of Persia 
and Tartary, and introduced in 1790. An exquisite but un- 
fortunately very tender rose. It bears solitary small yellow 
flowers, with a dark crimson spot at the base of each petal. 
There is one variety, Hardii, which bears single yellow blooms, 
having a chocolate blotch at the base of each petal. The 
flowers are very fragrant. Too tender to grow outdoors, except 
on a warm, well-drained bed or border against a south wall. 
Rarely grown in this country. Prune in April, thinning out 
weak shoots only. 

Bourbon (Rosa indica Bourboniana). — The original proto- 
type of the Bourbon class of roses is supposed to be the result 
of a cross between the Chinese and Four Seasons' rose. The 
varieties since raised are all noteworthy for blooming freely in 
the autumn when other roses are on the wane. They also 
bloom comparatively freely during the summer, but it is during 
the autumn months that they are seen to perfection. All are 
thoroughly hardy, free flowering, vigorous growing, and more 
or less fragrant. They may be grown on standards or dwarfs 
in the open in well-drained soils and sheltered positions ; in 
cold districts they are best grown against a south wall. A 
good rich soil is necessary. Some few sorts will thrive and 
flower freely in town or suburban gardens. The most suitable 
for this purpose are : Souvenir de la Malmaison, blush ; Mrs. 
Bosanquet, pale flesh ; Queen of Bedders, crimson, an excellent 
variety for growing in masses in beds ; Empress Eugenie, rosy 
blush ; and Robusta, fiery red. Other good sorts are : Climb- 
ing Souvenir de la Malmaison, an excellent variety for south 
walls ; Loma Doone, magenta, shaded scarlet ; and Sir Joseph 
Paxton, crimson. In pruning, bear in mind that vigorous 
growers like Souvenir de la Malmaison must not be pruned too 
closely. Simply shorten the strongest shoots one-third and the 
weakest two-thirds. Moderate growers, like Queen of the 
Bedders, require their strongest shoots to be shortened to three 
or four inches, and the weaker ones to one or two inches. 

Bourbon Perpetuals (Eosa indica var.). — The varieties 
included under this heading are invariably classed with hybrid 
perpetuals in catalogues, but we follow Mr. W. Paul's admirable 



b CULTIVATED ROSES. 

system of classification, as published in his excellent work, 
the " Rose Garden," and keep them distinct from the latter. 
The Bourbon perpetuals have the common characteristics of 
the Bourbon class, but are hardier, if anything, and though 
the blooms individually are not large, they are borne with 
great profusion in September and October. They should be 
grown as dwarfs or on dwarf standards in a rich soil, and be 




A Typical BonRBON Perpetual Rose. 



closely pruned — i.e., have their strongest shoots shortened to 
three, the medium ones to two, and the weak ones to one inch, 
or removed entirely. Among the numerous varieties in this 
class, the following are strongly recommended for town or 
suburban gardens : Madame Isaac Pereire, rosy carmine ; 
Reine Victoria, rose ; Michael Bonnet, rosy peach ; Madame 
Scipion (Jochet, rose ; Marie Pare, flesh. 




House Wall; Covbked with Eveborben |Kose (Flora). 



8 CULTIVATED ROSES. 

Boursault or Alpine {Uosa alpina). — A thoroughly hardy, 
vigorous class of climbing roses, originating from the Alpine 
Rose (E. alpina); a species introduced in 1683. The variety 
known as Amadis is one of the best climbing roses in 
existence for covering a north or east wall quickly, and flower- 
ing profusely in summer. It bears large semi-double crimson 
flowers in immense clusters, which are very showy but not 
very fragrant. An excellent rose for walls, arbours, trellises or 
pillars in town or suburban gardens. Gracilis, rosy red, is 
another good sort for the same purpose. These roses require 
scarcely any pruning ; simply thin out the weak shoots, and 
remove the soft tips of the remaining ones. Ordinary rich soil 
will suit their requirements. 

Chinese or Monthly (Eosa indica). — The roses classed 
under this heading are the result of crosses between the old 




A Typical Chinese Rose. 



China or Monthly Rose (R. indica) and the Crimson China Rose 
(R. semperflorens). They are all fairly hardy, and bloom very 



TYPES OF ROSES. 



freely during summer and autumn when grown in beds or borders 
of rich, well-drained soil, and in a sunny position. They are not 
suitable for heavy cold soils or sunless positions. China roses 
always produce the best effect when grown by themselves. 
With the exception of the common or monthly rose, these roses 
are not suitable for town, nor, indeed, for suburban gardens 
where there is much smoke. They require protection in winter, 
and careful pruning in autumn and spring. Thin out the shoots 
in autumn, and shorten the strongest shoots a foot, the medium 
ones to eight inches, and the weaker ones remove altogether, or 
shorten to three inches. Here is a good selection : Common or 
monthly rose, pink ; Cramoisie Superieure, crimson ; Little Pet, 
white ; Sanguinea, crimson ; Alba, white ; Madame Laurette 
Messimy, rose and yellow, is a grand variety for beds or 
masses. 

Damask {Rosa damascoena). — An old and favourite rose, 
supposed to be a native of Syria, and to have been introduced 
into this country in 1573. There are several varieties of it, all 
of which are vigorous growers, free blooming, fragrant, and 
thoroughly hardy. The Damask rose is really ' one of the 
parents of the race of roses known as hybrid perpetuals. These 
roses are largely grown abroad for producing blooms for the 
distillation of rosewater. All summer-blooming. Most of them 
are good town roses, and one or two are good climbers for a south 
or south-west wall, also excellent pillar kinds. All do well 
as dwarfs, but do not make good standard kinds, on account 
of their growth being too straggly. Plant in October or 
November eighteen inches to two feet for dwarfs, and three feet 
apart for standards. Prune partly in October, thinning out 
w^eak growth, and finally in March, shortening strong shoots to 
six or eight " eyes," and remainder to three and four " eyes." 
Typical varieties are the York and Lancaster, pink and white, 
striped ; Leda or Painted Eose, blush, edged with lake ; 
Madame Hardy, white ; La Ville de Bruxelles, light rose, 
blush margin ; and Madame Zoetmans, white, shaded buiF. 
Madame Hardy, La Ville de Bruxelles, and Madame Zoetmans 
are good climbing or pillar roses, and the remainder similarly 
good sorts for dwarfs or standards. 

Damask Perpetual {Rosa damascmna var.). — This is a form 
of the damask rose which flowers more or less from June to 
November. Several varieties were cultivated at one time, but 
since the hybrid perpetuals came into favour they have all dis- 



10 



CULTIVATED ROSES. 



appeared except one— the Rose du Roi or Crimson. This is a 
crimson-flowered, sweetly-scented sort of moderate growth, and 
grown chiefly as a dwarf. Its requirements as to soil and pruning 
are similar to the damask. It is really only worth growing 
where there is plenty of room. Not suited for town gardens. 

Evergreen {Rosa sempervirens). — Although called evergreen, 
this rose is not really so. It retains some of its foliage, it is true, 
through the winter, but yet not to such an extent as to warrant 




A Typical Evergreen Rose. 



the correct application of the name. Both the species — which, by 
the way, was introduced into this country from Central Europe 
in 1629 — and its varieties are thorovighly hardy roses, and make 
excellent climbers for north, east, or west walls and fences, 
arbours, pillars, or weeping standards. They are very vigorous 
growers and profuse bloomers ; chiefly summer-flowering roses. 
The blossoms are borne in large bunches or corymbs of ten to fifty 



TYPES OF ROSES. 11 

blooms each, and are mostly white or pink in colour. They all 
require a rich soil. Plant between October and March, and prune 
in March. In pruning thin out the small shoots freely, and just 
remove the tips of the larger ones. First-rate town roses. For 
general culture Donna Maria, white ; Felicitfe Perpetue, creamy 
white ; Flora, rosy flesh (see illustration) ; and Myrianthes 
R^noncule, blush, edged rose, are excellent sorts. Felicite 
Perpetu6 is, perhaps, the best of them all. 

Fairy or Lawrenciana Rose {Rosa indica). — The roses 
belonging to this section are dwarf forms of the China rose, and 
do not grow more than a foot high. They are specially 
adapted for pot culture in windows or greenhouses, and for 
edgings to rose beds. Easily raised from seed sown in a warm 
greenhouse in early spring. Plants so raised will begin to 
flower when two months old. Thousands of such plants, bear- 
ing double pink flowers, are sold by florists in spring and 
summer. Typical kinds are : Fairy, pink ; Gloire de Lawren- 
ciana, crimson ; Jenny, bright crimson. If grown outdoors, a 
dry soil and sunny position is necessary. Scarcely any pruning 
is required, merely cutting out weak and removing tips from 
strong shoots. Do this in April. 

French or Qallica {R.gallica). — The race of roses grouped 
under this head are descended from Rosa gallica, a native of 
France and the south of Europe. Prior to the advent of the 
hybrid perpetuals they were the favourite class of roses, and 
grown to the same extent as the H.P.'s are to-day. No 
class of roses are easier to grow, are more hardy, more beautiful 
when in bloom, or more delicious in their fragrance. They will 
grow in any fairly good soil, but require full exposure to the 
sun. Not good town roses, however. They are compact 
growers, and do well grown as dwarfs or standards. Plant from 
October to March eighteen inches apart if dwarfs, and three 
feet if standards. Prime partly in October, thinning out the 
centres of the plants, and finally in March, shortening the 
shoots to four, five, or six "eyes." The following are charming 
varieties : Village Maid, white, striped rose and purple ; Kean, 
velvety purple, centre scarlet ; Rosa Mundi, rose, striped with 
white ; Blanchfleur, white, tinted flesh ; and ffiillet Parfait, 
white, striped rosy crimson. 

Hybrid Ayrshire {Rosa arveiisis var). — This group of roses 
embraces kinds which are hybrids between the Ayrshire 

c 



12 CULTIVATED ROSES. 

and the tea-scented typess. Ruga is a typical variety of this 
section. Culture, etc., sanae as for the Ayrshire type, described 
on page 1. 

Hybrid Bourbon {Rom gallica var,). — The roses classed 
under this head, are mostly hybrids between the Bourbon 
(described on page 5) and the French or Provence roses. 
They are a very fine type of garden roses, thoroughly hardy, 
robust growers, and free bloomers. The flowers, individually, 
are large, brilliant in colour, very fragrant, and borne in 
summer only. Ordinary rich soil and a sunny position. They 
are well adapted for town or suburban gardens, even in cold 
localities. Good pot roses also Plant October to March, 
two feet apart. Prune partly in November, thinning out weak 
shoots; and finally, in March, shortening shoots of strong 
growers to four or six " eyes," moderate growers to eight or ten 
" eyes." Strong growers do well for pillars or trellises ; moderate 
growers for dwarfs or standards. Typical varieties : Charles 
Lawson, rose ; Coupe d'Hebe, deep pink ; Paul Ricaut, crimson. 

Hybrid Noisette (Rosa gallica var.). — A class of roses of 
mixed parentage, mainly the result of crosses between the 
French, Provence, and the Noisettes. Mr. W. Paul, in his 
" Rose Garden," affirms that " they resemble the hybrid Chinese 
more nearly than any other group," but differ from them in 
bearing smaller flowers in corj-mbs or clusters. The only 
variety belonging to this class that is generally grown is 
Madame Plautier, a charming rose bearing abundance of 
white flowers in clusters during the summer. It is an excellent 
rose for pot culture, for a standard, pillar, or south or south 
west wall. Madeline is another charming rose, bearing white 
flowers tinted with pink or crimson. Both are ^•igorous 
growers with slender shoots and light green foliage. Prune 
and otherwise treat as advised for Hybrid Bourbons. 

Hybrid Chinese {Rosaindka var.). — Hybrids between the 
French, Provence, and Chinese sections, laut possessing the charac- 
teristic features of the two former, i.'., hardiness, robustness, 
and flowering in sunmier. Like the preceding tyjie, they are 
excellent garden roses, and do well in town or suburban 
gardens. A rich soil and a sunn\- position will gi'ow them well. 
Some of the sorts, like Blaii-ii, Cht'nedol(^, "N'ivid, and Fulgens, 
are excellent climbing or pillar roses, growing from four to ten 
feet in one season; whilst others, like (»eneral Jacqueminot, 




Doorway Decorated with Gloire de Dijon Rose. 



c 2 



14 



CULTIVATED ROSES. 



Paul Verdier, and Lady Stuart, ai-e good dwarf varieties for pot 
or outdoor culture. Plant in March or April, not in autumn. 
Prune jjrecisely as recommended for the Hybrid Bourbons. If 
grown against walls or fences a south aspect is best. Blairii 
No. 2, blush pink ; Ch6n6dol6, crimson ; (General Jacqueminot, 
purplish crimson ; Paul Verdier, red ; and Vivid, crimson, are 
the leading sorts. General Jacqueminot and Paul Verdier are 
generally included with Hybrid Perpetuals. 

Hybrid Tea-scented (Roia indica mr.). — These, like the 
Hybrid China roses, are usually classed with the Hybrid 




A Typical Hybrid Tea Rose. 



PcriJctuals; indeed, there is practically Aery little difference 
})etween them, and we only place them under a separate 
heading just for the purpose of showing those Avho are not 
well acquainted with the various types what varieties are 
frequently described in the press and in catalogues as h3-brid 
teas. The latter possess the delicacy of colour and fragrance 
of the teas, and the vigour of those Hybrid Perpetuals owing 



TYPES OF ROSES. 



15 



their parentage to the Damask rose. The following are the 
chief types of this class of rose : Captain Christy, fleshy pink ; 
Cheshunt Hybrid, cherry-carmine ; Grace Darling, creamy 
pink ; Kaiserin Auguste Victoria, white and lemon ; La France, 
silvery rose ; Lady Mary Fitzwilliam, rosy flesh ; Triomphe de 
Fernet Pere, carmine ; Viscountess Folkestone, creamy rose 
and Hilvory ])ink; Augustine Guinoisseau, blush white; and 
ISardou Job, (.-rimson. Thej' require precisely the same treat- 
ment as Hj'brid Perpetnals. 

Hybrid Perpetual (Rosa damasecena). — Here we have a 




A Typical Hybrid Perpetual Rose. 



class of roses of mixed parentage. Some belong to the Hybrid 
Chinese, some the Damask Perpetual, others the Bourbon and 
Noisette Perpetual. But the majority bear a strong resemblance 
to the Damask type, and hence are classed under the latter. 
They are all autumnal roses ; that is to say they commence to 
flower in May or June, and continue in flower until November. 
This, indeed, is the reason why they are termed Perpetuals. No 



16 CULTIVATED ROSES. 

class or type of rose is, with the exception of the tea-scented, so 
popular or so widely grown as the hyhrid perpetual. The 
numerous varieties are not only very hardy, free-growing, and 
capable of succeeding well in town and suburban gardens, bu.t 
they are for the most pari, deliciously fragrant and wonderfully 
varied in colour. All are admirably adapted for pot culture or 
for growin;^- as dwarfs or standards, budded or grafted on the 
manetti, seedling briar, dog rose, or grown on their own roots. 




A Typical Hyekid Sweet Briar Rose (see next page). 

The}' require a rich soil, a sunny position, and generous treat- 
ment, (iivcnthis and judicious pruning annually, no class of 
rose will flower more profusely, or give greater satisfaction. 
Pruning should be done partlj^ in autumn and partly in 
March. In October, thin out the weak shoots and cut away 
old and worn-out shoots, leaving strong young shoots of the 
current year only. For spring pruning, see Schedule. Fol- 
lowing are typical varieties : Alfred Colomb, red ; Beauty of 



TYPES OF ROSES. IV 

Waltham, carmine ; Centifolia rosea, pink ; Charles Lefebvre, 
crimson ; Diipuy Jamaiu, cerise ; John Hopper, rose ; Madame 
Gabriel Luizct, pink ; Mrs. John Laing, Paul Neyron, dark 
rose ; Prince Camille de Eohan, crimson-maroon ; Victor Ver- 
dier, carmine ; Merveille de Lyon, white. 

Hybrid Sweet Briar. — This is a new race of roses, 
obtained by Lord Penzance by crossing varieties of the Hybrid 
Perpetual and Fortune's Yellow (Banksian) with the Sweet 
Briar. The varieties so raised possess fragrant flowers and 
foliage, bear large and beautifully coloured blossoms, and are 
in every way a decided acquisition. They are admirably 
adapted for growing in masses in beds or for forming hedges. 
Plant in good ordinary soil, and merely thin out weak shoots, 
also cut off tips of stronger ones in March. Amy Eobsart, 
rose ; Anne of Gierstein, crimson ; and Lady Penzance, copper, 
are typical varieties. 

Lucida or Clynophylla (T^asa ^Mci^a). — A North American 
rose, first introduced into England in 1724. The variety 
Duplex has bright, shiny foliage, and bears double blush- 
coloured flowers during summer and autumn. May be grown 
as a dwarf in ordinary rich soil in a sunny position. Not 
suited for town gardens. Plant October to March, and prune 
moderately in March. 

Macartney {Ro&a bradeatu). — Beautiful evergreen and 
somewhat tender roses, hailing from China, from whence they 
were introduced in 1795 by Lord Macartney. Only two 
varieties are grown, viz.. Alba simplex, white and single ; and 
Marie Leonida, white and creamy blush, double. These lovely 
roses require to be grown against a south or south-west wall, 
in rich soil. They should be planted in March or April, and 
pruned in April, thinning out weak shoots and removing the 
soft tips of the larger ones. 

Microphylla {Ruaa microphylla). — A dwarf rose, and a 
native of the Himalayas and China. Introduced in 1828. It 
is evergreen, and furnished with very small leaves. They 
require to be grown in sandy soil at the base of a south wall. 
The two kinds generally grown are Ma Surprise, white with 
rosy centre ; and Kubra, rosy crimson. Both flower during 
summer and autumn. Plant in April. Prune also in April, 
as advised for the Macartney rose. 



18 



CULTIVATED ROSES. 



Moss {Rom cenUfoUa muscosa). — Originally a sport from the 
old Provcuce or Cabbage rose, and said to have been intro- 
duced into this country from Holland in 1596. At one time 
moss roses were not particularly showy, but since the florists 
have taken them in hand and crossed them with the Hybrid 
Chinese, some really pretty varieties have been obtained. The 
type we are dealing with here are summer-blooming kinds only. 
There are some that flower in autumn, but these will be dealt 
with under the head of Perpetual Moss roses further on. All 




A Typical Moss Rose. 



the present types ai-e hardy, but with the exception of the 
Common Moss, Lanei, and Baron de Wassenaer, they are not 
good town roses ; they really prefer the purer air of the distant 
suburbs and the country. Very few kinds do well on 
standards : they thrive best as a matter of fact on their own 
roots, or budded on the briar. A rich soil and an open position 
is indispensable ; in fact they cannot be treated too liberally 
in the former respect. Plant October to March, in borders or 



TYPES OF JiOSES. 



19 



ill beds. Pruning should bo done early in March as advised 
in Schedule. The following arc typical varieties : Colina, 
crimson and purple ; pale Common, rose ; Crested, rose ; 
C'rimson or Damask, deep rose ; Lanei, rosy crimson ; 
Luxemburg, crimson and purple ; White Gem, white ; Reine 
Blanche, pure white ; "\\'hite ]!ath, white ; Comtesse Mimnais, 
white. 

Miniature Provence or Pompon {Rosa cenHfoTia var.). — 
A dwarf tj-pe of the cabbage rose, not exceeding a foot in 




A Typical MnsK Rose (-see next page). 



height. They are admirably- adapted for edgings to beds or for 
massing, but unfortunately they do not last in flower very 
long. Grown in pots, however, in a cold greenhouse they make 
charming plants during the short time they remain in bloom. 
They reqiiire similar treatment to the Provence or Cabbage rose. 
Not good town roses. De M-eaux, rosy lilac ; White de Meaux, 
white ; and De Spong, pale rose, are the three kinds generally 
known, 



2Q 



CULTIVATED ROSES. 



Musk (iio.sfl inos('hata). — The varieties of this type are some- 
what tender, and lience only adapted for warm situations, such 
as a south or south-west wall. They arc climbing roses. The 
original type was introduced from Persia in 1596. There are 
some eight or nine varieties, and one or two hybrids. One of 




A TvpicAL Noisette Rose (vee page 



the latter — known as The Garland — is a charming rose, 
bearing fawn-coloured flowers in large clusters, and succeeding 
admirably in town or siiburban gardens. They are all more or 
less fragrant, possessing a musk-like odour. Flower in Septem- 
ber and October. Plant in March or April, and prune in April. 




PS 

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C6 



o 

P3 



Q 
O 
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22 CULTIVATED ROSES. 

Tliiu out the weak shoots freely and shorten the stronger ones 
about one-fourth, not more. Typical varieties : Eliza Werrj', 
nankeen and white; Fringed, white; Princesse de Nassau, 
yellow; Rivers, pink shaded buflf; The Garland, fawn; and 
Madame d'Arblay, flesh, are hybrids between the musk and 
multiflora types. Not suited for greenhouse culture. 

Noisette {Ii<)!.a moschata noltettiana). — This type of rose is 
supposed to he the result of a cross between the C'liinese and 
the miisk roses. The original hybrids, like Aim'e Vibert, are 
very hardy, and will thrive and flower well in town gardens. 
The modern hybrids, however, are rather tender, and require 
to be treated similarly to the tea-scented kinds. As a matter 
of fact, some of the modern noisettes have a certain amount 
of the tea lalood in them, so to speak. But they are beautiful, 
nevertheless, the colours being so charming and the perfimie 
so sweet. The noisettes are distinguished from the teas hy 
bearing their flowers in large clusters. They are mosth' of 
vigorous habit, and make charming pillar or climliing roses 
outdoors or under glass. Those best suited for south or south- 
west walls in town gardens are : Aim6e Vibert, white ; ( Jrandi- 
iliira, blush ; Celine Forestier, yellow; Desprez a Fleur Jaune, 
red and buft'. Those, again, that will thrive in the suburbs 
and country, and against sovith and west walls are : L'Ideal, 
coppery rose ; W. A. Eichardson, orange-yellow ; Bo\i(j;uet d'Or, 
yellow; Reve d'Or, yellow; and Solfaterre, sulphur yellow; 
wliilst for standards Madame Caroline Kuster, pale yellow ; 
Jjamarque, sulphur yellow ; and Cloth of Gold, yellow, are 
good sorts. Plant in April or May. Ordinary rich soil will 
suttice. Those to lie grown as standards must be planted in a 
sunny jiosition. Prune in April as advised in Schedule. 

Noisette Perpetual {Rosa moschata noisettiana). — The 
roses classed under this head are similar to those just dealt 
with, differing only in the fact of their flowering for a longer 
]iei-iod. They require the same treatment as regards soil, 
|)i-uning, etc. Pa>d's Single White, Madame Auguste Perrin, 
and I'crlc des Blanches, white, are typical varieties. 

Multiflora (liosa multiflora). — A charming type of hardy, 
free-growing, and free-flowering climbing roses. The De la 
Gritferaie^ frequently used as a stock for tea roses, and a first- 
rate pillar or wall rose, rosy blush ; and Turner's Crimson 
Rambler, a very showy and handsome variety, are the chief 



TYPES OF HOSES. 



23 



kinds. Turner's Crimson Eambler does best against a 
west, and De la Grifferaie a south, wall. For a town 
garden the De la Grifferaie is the best. The other variety has 
not yet been sufficiently grown to fully test its merits as a 
town rose, but it will probably turn out a good all-round 
kind eventually. It has been grown with great success as a 
pot rose, flowering quite freely in a small state. Plant in 
rich, well-drained soil, preferably in March or April from pots, 
and prune in April, as advised for the Polyantha type. 




A Typical Provence or Cabbage Rose. 



Provence or Cabbage {Rosa cenfi/olia). — One of the 
grandest types of garden roses, and one which has not had the 
attention it deserves of late years. Thoroughly hardy, free- 
flowering, fragrant, and handsome in foliage and flower, there 
is nothing to beat it as a garden rose. The old-fashioned 
Cabbage is the familiar type of the Provence rose, and has 
been grown in English gardens ever since 1596. In old- 
fashioned gardens one may frequently come across large 



24 CULTIVATED ROSES 

bushes laden with rosy-tinted blooms, filling the air around 
with their delicious fragrance. There are two other forms, a 
white, known as the White Provence, and a rose-tinted one, 
called the Crested Moss (cristata), so named because its buds 
are surrounded by a beautifullj^-crested calyx. The common 
Cabbage rose is the most ^-igorous of the three. This may 
be grown as a dwarf bush in the border or as a standard. 
The Crested Moss also does well as a standard or dwarf, and 
the AVhito Provence as a dwarf only. They all like a good 
rich soil and ;i sunny position. May be planted between 
October and ilarch. Prune in March. Thinning out the 
weakest shoots, shortening the moderate-sized ones to two 
"eyes" and the strongest (,o three "eyes." It is most 
essential that this hard system of pnining be adopted, other- 
wise vigorous growth and few flowers will be the result. All 
summer-blooming only. 

Perpetual Scotch (Ilom arvemis). — There is only one 
variety of this type worth growing, and that is Stanwell 
Perpetual. The typical species is a native rose M'ith spiny 
stems, and flowering in summer. The above variety bears 
double rosy flowers freely from May to November, and will 
succeed on any sunny bank or wild part of the garden. 
Ordinary rich soil suits its requirements, and no pruning 
beyond thinning out the crowded shoots in ^larch is needed. 
Plant October to March. Not suited for town gardens. 

Perpetual Moss [Rom c.entifolia musrosa). — Closely allied 
to the common Moss rose, but flowering in autumn as well as 
summer. All free-flowering and requiring to be grown in a 
rich soil as standards or dwarfs. They are not to be com- 
mended for culture in town gardens. No collection of roses 
in the suburbs, where the air is fairly pure, or in the 
country, should fail to include this type of rose. Reqiure 
the same treatment and pruning as the Moss type (see pages 
18 and 19). The best varieties are Blanche Moreau, white; 
Madame \\'. Paul, rose ; \^''hitc Perpetxial, and Madame 
Edouard Ory, rosy carmine. 

Polyantha (Rosa polyantha). — A tender, summer-blooming 
tj'pe of rose, a native of China and Japan, and allied to the 
multiflora t^-pc. The)' are of climbing habit, and require to 
be grown against a south or south-west wall in a sheltered, 
sunny position. Not adapted for town gardens ; should be 



TYPES OF ROSES. 25 

grown in a rich soil, planted in Marcli or April, and prnned in 
April. In pruning remove the tips of the strongest shoots, 
shorten the medium-sized ones about a third, and cut away the 
weakest entirely. Grandiflora and the Single White are 
white-flowered, and Claire Jacquier, nankeen yellow and double. 
These roses require protection in winter, and are not suitable 
for cold districts. 

Polyantha Perpetual {Eom multiflora.) — These differ 
chiefly from the polyantha type in blooming in autumn as well 




A Typical Polyantha Perpetual Rose. 

as summer. Some of the varieties are suitable for climbers 
against south or south-west walls in warm, sheltered districts, 
aiid others of a dwarfer habit are best adapted for pot culture 
in cold greenhouses. The latter type are scarcely suitable for 
outdoor culture except in the south. They are all very 
beautiful, free-blooming roses, and very fragrant. The only one 
adapted for climbing is Mdlle. Jeanne__Ferron, a satin rose- 
coloured variety. Those that are specially suitable for pot 



26 CULTIVATED ROSES. 

culture iii-c! : Mignonette, soft rose and white ; Pacquerette, 
pure white ; Little Dot, soft pink ; Annie Marie de ^luntravel, 
white ; and Perle d'Or, nankeen yellow. None of these exceed 
a foot in height. For pot culture they should be potted in 
autumn in a compost of two parts sandy loam and one part 
decayed cow manure, and placed in a cold greenhouse or frame. 
Scarcely any water sho\ilcl be given until growth begins. 
Prune early in March, catting the strong shoots back to three 
"eyes," medium ones to two "eyes," and the weakest to one 
" eye." No artificial heat must be given at any time. After 
flowering in July, repot and stand the plants outdoors in a 
sunny position until October, then remove to the cold frame or 
greenhouse. 

Prairie {Rosa rahifolia). — A North American species, intro- 
duced in 1830, and but little grown in this country. A number 
of varieties of this rose are grown in America, and they are 
said to piroduce some remarkably fine but nearly scentless 
blooms. Mr. W. Paul, the veteran rosarian, however, expresses 
an opinion that at present they ai'e of little value, but that 
it might be [j(jssible some day to raise a new race of roses 
from them that would prove an acquisition. The best known 
varieties ai-e Baltimore Belle, pale blush, double ; Uem of the 
Prairies, crimson and white, fragrant ; and Queen of the 
Prairies, rosy-purple, double. These roses are summer 
bloomini;, and arc best grown as dwarfs in good ordinary soil 
and a well-drained border. Prune closely, i.e., shorten the 
previous }'ear's shoots to two or three eyes or buds from their 
base. 

Rose de Rosamane {Rosa imUcu). — The varieties grouped 
under this heading are generally to be found in catalogues 
under the liead of Hj'brid Perpctuals. They are really of 
mixed parentage, possessing the characteristics of the hybrid 
Chinese, tea-scented, and Bourbon, and are distinguished from 
the ordinary hybrid perpetual by the brilliancy and richness of 
the colour of their blooms. Thov arc autumu bloomers — that 
is, flower from June to November — and vigorous growers. 
Some of the varieties, like Kmj)ereur do Maroc, do best as 
dwarfs ; whilst others of a more vigorous type, Hke Gloire de 
Rosamane, prefer to be grown against a wall. The dwarf 
sorts also do well in pots under the same treatment as that 
accorded to tea roses. They are p\u-e-air roses, therefore will 
not do well in town gardens. Here is a selection of varieties of 



TYPES OF ROSES. 27 

moderate growth : Empereur de Maroc, maroon ; and Louis 
XIV., blood red. Also of sorts of vigorous growth : Eugene 
Appert, scarlet and crimson ; Geant des Batailles, crimson and 
purple ; Gloire de Eosamanes and Princess Mathilde, crimson- 
maroon. Prune the moderate growers to two, three, or four 
eyes, according to the vigour of the shoots, and simply thin 
out the weak and shorten the strong shoots of the vigorous 
growers about one-fourth. Early in April is the best time to 
prune. 

Rugosa (Roia rugosa). — A Japanese species, introduced in 
1845, and now largely cultivated for the sake of its showy 
crimson and white flowers, its brilliant scarlet haws in autumn, 
and its handsome evergreen foliage. The typical species bears 
single crimson flowers, but there is also a single white variety 
named R. rugosa alba, a double crimson form known as 
R. rugosa flore-pleno, and a double white named Blanc Double 
de Coubert. Then there are two beautiful hybrids, both double- 
flowered and having blooms the shape of a tea rose when 
in the bud stage of formation. Madame Georges Bruant 
is a white variety, producing its blooms in clusters, and 
Mungo Park has large double blooms of a deep glowing 
crimson colour, shaded with purple. Both kinds are thoroughly 
hardy, and may be grown in company with the older sorts in rich 
soil in an open sunny border, or as isolated specimens on a lawn. 
All the roses belonging to this type do well in town gardens. No 
pruning b eyond shortening a ,straggling_shoot now and then is 
needed ; aTToWthe plants to grow freely, and then abundance 
of blossom and plenty of haws will be obtained, and the garden 
made lively from June to December. 

Scotch {Bosa spinodssima^. — The typical species is a native 
rose, growing freely in a wild state in many parts of this 
country, but more particularly in Scotland. There are a large 
number of varieties which bear delioiously scented double 
flowers of various shades of yellow, pink, white, purple, and 
red throughout the summer. They are thoroughly hardy, and 
will grow in any ordinary soil on banks, rookeries, or borders 
where it is not possible to grow other types of roses. As a rule 
they do not exceed 30 inches in height, and form dwarf, 
compact little bushes. No^pruning is reguired j indeed, it would 
not be an easy task to do it, as the shoots are furnished with fear- 
fully long and sharp spines which tear the flesh terribly unless the 
hands are well protected by exceptionally thick gloves. The 

D 



28 



CULTIVATED ROSES. 



Scotch rose lias a hahit of pushing up underground stems for 
some distance from the parent i)lant, and hence in a few years 
one or two plants will form an impenetrable mass of growth 
which will flower freely throughout the summer. We advise 
those who purpose starting to grow Scotch roses to purchase 
mixed seedlings. The.se will provide a great variety of colour 
and answer a.s well as named sorts. 



^^^s— 




A Typical Scotch Rose.' 



Sweet Briar {Rosa rubiginosa). — This is also a native 
species found growing wild in almost all parts of the kingdom, 
as well as in other parts of Europe. The typical species is 
interesting only for the fragrance of its leaves and for its 
scarlet haws in autumn. It is sometimes grown to form a low 
boundary hedge, and it answers this purpose well. Plant the 
briars a foot apart for this purpose. If not grown as a hedge 
rose, a plant or so in a sunny border (ordinary soil) will be 
sufficient. There are several varieties in cultivation. The 



TYPES OF ROSES. i^ 

Double Scarlet ; Celestial, semi-double bhish ; and the 

Double White are the ones most commonly met with. No 

pruning beyond thinning out the shoots and shortening 
straggling ones occasionally is required. 

Tea-scented {Rom indAca). — The roses grouped under this 
heading may be said to represent the creme de la cremi of the 
rose famil}'. Exquisite in the delicacy, variety and superb 
loveliness of the tints of their beautiful blooms ; unspeakably 




A Typical Tea-scented Rose. 



delicious in their fragrance ; invaluable for the freedom with 
which they flower, and for the long duration of their flowering 
period, they are unquestionably the finest class of roses we 
have in cultivation at the present day. What finer type of 
rose could we wish for than we have in Mar6chal Niel, the 
prince of tea roses ? And there are numbers of others that 
are equally worthy of praise in this section. But they speak 
for themselves. The old proverb, "Good wine needs no bush," 
may indeed be fitly and aptly a])plied to the tea-scented roses. 

D 2 



30 CULTIVATED ROSES. 

All the varieties, and they may be counted by hundreds, have 
descended from the Old Blush Tea-scented rose, introduced in 
1810, and a yellow variety, which made its appearance here. in 
1824, by a system of crossing and inter-crossing adoj)ted by 
English and French rosarians. Coming originally from so 
warm a climate, the varieties are naturally somewhat tender 
in constitution, and hence require to have greater care bestowed 
on them than on other types. 

To grow tea roses successfully out-of-doors a well-drained bed 
and a sunny, sheltered position is necessary for the dwarf sorts, 
whilst for the tall ones a south or south-west wall is desirable. 
Tea roses like a pure air, too, and therefore do not prove good 
town plants, so that we advise those of our readers who do 
not live in a salubrious district not to waste time, money, and 
space in attempting to grow tea roses. Wherever grown the 
plants need a certain amount of protection from frost. This is 
generally given in two ways, by drawing the soil up so as to 
bury the base of the shoots, or covering the shoots with litter 
or bracken. The soil should be light and rich. Heavy, clayey, 
and wet soils are quite unsuitable ; and if any one having 
such a soil desires to grow tea roses successfully, they must 
prepare a special bed or border for the purpose. This can be 
done l)y taking off the top spit and putting it on one side, then 
removing a second spit, and wheeling this away and putting 
in its place a mixtvire of fresh long manure, cinder ashes, 
burnt clay, road grit, partially decayed tree leaves, soot, and 
lime. Work this well into the third spit, then place the top 
spit thereon, and put a layer of good fat cow or pig dung on 
this, and finish off with some good light, generous mould. Do 
this, then you will have a capital soil for tea roses. 

Planting should be done in October, or early in November. 
If it cannot be done then, defer it until the end of February 
or early in March. For methods and time of pruning, see 
Schedule of Cultivated Roses. 



SELECTIONS OF ROSES. 31 



SELECTIONS OF ROSES. 



Climbers for North and East V^alls. — Felicity Perpetud 
(evergreen), ^white ; Kuga, :wbifcei \ and Dundee Rambler 
(Ayrshire), '^cMf "j Amadis (Boursault), red ; Climbing Aim6e 
Vibert (noisette), white. 

Climbers for South and West Walls. — Crimson Rambler, 
crimson ; Claire Jacquier, nankeen yellow ; Marechal Niel, 
yellow; Gloire de Dijon, buff; W. A. Richardson, copper; 
Banksian (two), white and yellow ; Madame Berard, salmon- 
rose ; Blairii No. 2, blush-pink. 

Climbers for Covering Arbour or Pergola Quickly. — 

Evergreen Rose (Felicite Perpetue), Ayrshire Rose (Dundee 
Rambler), and Boursault Rose (Amadis). 

Climbers for Wire Arches. — Climbing Aimee Vibert, 
white ; Madame Berard, salmon-rose ; Gloire de Dijon, buff ; 
Crimson Rambler, crimson ; W. A. Richardson, copper ; and 
Reine Marie Henriette, red. 

Climbers for Shady Trellises. — Ayrshire, Evergreen, and 
Boursault roses. 

Climbers for Sunny Trellises. — Madame Berard, salmon- 
rose; Gloire de Dijon, buff; Cheshunt Hybrid, crimson; 
Crimson Rambler, crimson ; L'Ideal, coppery ; Climbing Aimde 
Vibert, white; Flora, fleshy white; Longworth Rambler, 
crimson. 

Climbers for Pillars. — Crimson Rambler, crimson; Climbuig 
Souvenir de la Malmaison, blush ; Pink Rover, pale pink ; 
Madame Plantier, white ; Glory of Waltham, crimson ; and 
Madame Berard, salmon. 

Climbers for Greenhouse. — Marechal Niel, yellow ; Gloire 
de Dijon, buff; Reiue Marie Henriette, red; Souvenir d'un 
Ami, pink ; Climbing Niphetos, white ; W. A. Richardson, 
coppery ; La Marque, yellow ; Bouquet d'Or, yellow ; Pink 



i-2 CULTIVATED ROSES. 

Kcivcr, pink ; Climbing Devoniensis, white ; Waltham Climber 
orimson ; and Madame Pierre Cochet, orange-yellow. 

Twelve Teas for Buttonholes. — Anna Olivier, salmon ; 
Corinna, flesh, rose, and coppery ; Homer, rosy-white and 
salmon ; Isabella Sprunt, sulphur yellow ; Ma Capucinc, 
coppery ; Niphetos, white ; Sunset, apricot ; ^\^ F. Bennett, 
crimson; The Bride, white; Madame Falcot, apricot-yelloNV ; 
Madame Chcdano Guinoisseau, canary -yellow ; Marie A'an 
Houtte, white, rose, and yellow, ilay be grown outdoors or in 
pots. 

Two Beautiful Noisettes for Buttonholes. — AV. A. 

llichardson, orange-yellow, and Madame Pierre Cochet, orange- 
yellow. 

Twelve Hybrid Perpetuals for Buttonlioles — Bril- 
liant, crimson ; Charles Lamb, red ; Crown Prince, purplish- 
crimson ; Emperor, black ; Fisher Holmes, scarlet-crimson ; 
General Jacqueminot, red ; Gloirc Lyonuaise, white and yellow ; 
La Fraicheur, rose and carmine ; Gustave Piganeau, carmine- 
lake ; Jean Cherpin, pui-plish-red ; Prince Camillo do Rohan, 
crimson ; and Empress, white and pink. May be grown out- 
doors or in pots. 

Twelve Teas for Pot Culture. — Anna Olivier, salmon ; 
Catherine Mermet, flesh ; Niplietos, white ; Papa Gontier, 
crimson ; Madame Falcot, apricot-yellow ; Madame de AVatte- 
ville, salmon white ; Grace Darling, creamj'-white ; Franoisca 
Kruger, coppery yellow ; Porle des Jardins, straw ; Viscomitess 
Folkestone, salmon-pink ; Madame Lambard, salmon-pink ; and 
Souvenir d'un Ami, pink. 

Twelve Hybrid Perpetuals for Pot Culture. — 

Baroness Rothschild, rose ; Captain Christy, flesh ; Charles 
Lefebvrc, crimson ; Crown Prince, ijurplish crimson ; Fisher 
Holmes, scarlet ; General Jacqueminot, red ; Gloire Lyonnaise, 
white and yellow ; La France, silveiy rose; Madame Gabriel 
Ltiizet, i)ink ; Magna Charta, carmine and pink ; Merveille de 
Lyon, white and rose ; and (|)ueen of C^lueens, blush. 

Twelve Roses of other Types for Pot Culture. — Little 
Gem (moss), crimson ; Charles Lawson (hybrid Bourbon), 
rose ; Souvenir de la Malmaison (Bourbon), blush ; l!eline 
Forestier, j'ellow ; and Madame Caroline Kuster, yellow 
(noisettes) ; Louise Margottin (Bourbon perpetual), rose ; Perlo 
d'Or (polyantha), orange ; Cramoisie Superieure (Chinese) ; 



SELECTIONS OF ROSES. 33 

Fairy (Lawreuciana), rose ; Cabbage or Provence, rosy pink ; 
Blanche Moreau (perpetiial moss), white ; Michel Bonnet 
(Bourbon perpetual), rosy peach. 

Twelve Hybrid Perpetuals for a Town Garden.— 

Beauty of Waltham, rosy carmine ; Charles Lefebvre, crimson ; 
Dr. Andre, dark red ; General Jacqueminot, red ; Glory of 
Waltham, crimson ; John Hopper, rose ; Magna Charta, pink 
and carmine ; Mrs. John Laing, pink ; Prince Camille de 
"Eohan, maroon ; Madame Victor Verdier, cherry red ; Jules 
Margottin, cherry ; Violette Bowyer, white and flesh. 

Twelve Mixed Roses for a Town Garden. — Aimee 
Vibert (noisette), white ; Bouquet d'Or (noisette), yellow ; 
Charles Lawson (hybrid Bourbon), rose ; Chenedole (hybrid 
Chinese), vermilion; Coquette des Blanches (noisette per 
petual), white ; Madame Berard (tea), salmon ; Madame Georges 
Bruant (hybrid rugosa), white ; Madame Plautier (hybrid 
noisette), creamy white ; Safrano (tea), apricot ; Sombreuil 
(tea), white and rose; Gloire de Dijon (tea), buff; Madame 
Hardy (damask), white. 

Twelve Weeping Roses to be Grown as Standards. 

— Aimfee Vibert, white ; Celine Forestier, yellow ; Crimson 
Rambler, crimson ; Desprez i fleur Jaune, red, buff, and 
sulphur ; Dundee Rambler, white ; Felioite Perpetue, white ; 
Flora, rose; Gloire de Dijon, buff; Myrianthes Renoncule, 
blush ; Reine Marie Henriette, red ; Ruga, flesh ; Virginian 
Rambler, pink. 

Twenty-four Mixed Roses for Ordinary Garden 
Decoration. — Cabbage or Provence, pink ; Little Gem, 
scarlet and crested rose (moss) ; Madame Zoetmans, white and 
buff (damask) ; Rosa Mundi, red, striped white (French) ; 
Harrison's yellow (Austrian) ; Charles Lawson, crimson (hybrid 
Chinese) ; Blanche Moreau (perpetual moss) ; Gloire des Poly- 
antha, rose (polyantha) ; Souvenir de la Malmaison, blush 
(Bourbon); Celine Forestier, yellow, and W. A. Richardson, 
orange (noisette) ; Monthly Rose, pink (China) ; F61icite [Par- 
mentier], blush (Alba) ; Boule de Neige, white ; General 
Jacqueminot, red; Mrs. John Laing, pink; Crown Prince, 
purplish crimson ; Prince Camille de Rohan, maroon (hybrid 
perpetuals); Safrano, apricot; Gloire de Dijon, buff; Madame 
Berard, salmon ; Marie Van Houtte, white and yellow ; Homer, 
rose, white, and salmon (teas). 



34 CULTIVATED ROSES. 

Twenty-four Hardy Tea Roses for General Culture. 

— Madame Lambard, salmon pink ; Marie van Houtte, white 
and yellow ; Anna Olivier, flesh ; Souvenir d'un Ami, pink ; 
Gloire de Dijon, buff; Eubens, white and rose; Francisca 
Kruger, coppery yellow ; Hon. Edith Giffkrd, salmon-rose ; 
Jean Duoher, lemon to salmon-yellow ; Madame Caroline 
Kustcr, pale yellow ; Homer, white and salmon ; Catherine 
Merniet, flesh ; Madame Willermoz, white and salmon ; Madame 
Bravy, cream ; Madame Berard, salmon-rose ; Belle Lyonnaise, 
canary yellow ; Madame Cusin, purplish rose ; Madame de 
Watteville, salmon-white ; Etoile de Lyon, safFron-yellow ; 
Innocente Pirola, cream ; Jules Finger, rosy salmon ; Safrano, 
apricot ; Madame Falcot, apricot ; Grace Darling, creamy white 
and peach ; Niphetos, ^vhite. 

Twenty-four Hybrid Perpetuals for General Culture. 

— La France, peach ; General Jacqueminot, red ; Duke of 
Edinburgh, pink ; Baroness Kothschild, pale rose ; Fisher 
Holmes, reddish scarlet ; Madame Gabriel Luizet, pink ; Ulrioh 
Brunuer Fils, cerise-red ; Prince Camille de Rohan, maroon ; 
Boule de Neige, white; Captain Christy, flesh; Dupuy 
Jamain, cerise ; Madame Eugene Verdier, silvery rose ; A. K. 
Williams, carmine-magenta ; Heinrich Schiiltheis, pink ; 
Charles Lefebvre, crimson ; Merveille dc Lyon, rosy white ; 
Marie Baumann, carmine ; Marquise de Castellane, rose ; John 
Hopper, rose ; Violette Bowyer, white and flesh ; Louis Van 
Houtte, amaranth ; Alfred Colomb, red ; Jules Margottin, 
cherry red ; Beauty of "Waltham, rosy carmine. N.B. — Those 
who wish a selection of six varieties should take the first half- 
dozen in the two preceding lists ; those who want twelve the 
first dozen. 

Sweet Scented Roses. — Teas and Noisettes. — 

Socrates, Catherine Mermet, Souvenir d'un Ami, Madame 
Cusin, Adrieune Christophle, Aline Sisley, Comtesse liiza du i 
Pare, Devoniensis, Goubalt, Louis de Savoic, Primrose Dame, 
Rubens, Souvenir de Paul Neron, The Queen, synonymous with 
Souvenir de S. A. Prince, Souvenir de Madame Pernet, The 
Bride, Viscomitcss Folkestone, Waltham Climber No. 2, Celine 
Forestier, Jaune Desprez, Unique Jaune, Triomphe de Rennes, 
Mar^chal Niel, and last, but by no means least, Gloire de 
Dijon are all highly -scented teas and noisettes. There are a 
few very sweetly-perfumed roses among the hybrid perpetuals 
and Bourbons, the best perhaps being La France, Abel Grand, 



SELECTIONS OF ROSES. 35 

Souvenir de Charles Montault, Due de Montpeusier, Magna 
Charta, Baronne Prevost, Beauty of Waltham, Mdlle. 
Gabrielle Luizet, Augustine Guiunosseau de la Eeine d'Angle- 
terre, Charles Darwin, Heinrich Sehultheis, Reine du Midi, 
Lord Macaulay, Madame Furtado, Elizabeth Vigneron, Mon- 
sieur E. Y. Teas, Marie Verdier, Mrs. John Laing, The Puritan, 
Sir Garnet Wolseley, Paul Verdier, and Miss Hassard. Some 
of the miniaftire roses are also very fragrant ; Anne Marie de 
Montravel, Gloire de Polyantha, and Madame Cecil Brunner 
being among the best. China roses are represented by that 
best of Chinas, Mrs. Bosanquet, while of the mosses we must 
name Soupert et Netting, Madame Moreau and Lanei. The 
Microphylla rose. Ma Stiprise, is one of the sweetest-scented 
roses grown. Souvenir de la Malmaison, and Baronne de Noir- 
mont are good, also the old Cabbage or Provence Eose. 
Several of the newer tea-scented roses are particularly sweets 
scented. Among them we must include Madame Joseph Godier, 
Sappho, Mrs. James Wilson, Kaiserin Friedrich, and Luciole, 
in addition to those newer kinds already named. 

Roses for Pegging Down. — Hybrid Perpetuals : Madame 
Gabriel Luizel, pink ; Baron de Bonstettin, crimson ; Prince 
Camille de Rohan, maroon ; Captain Hayward, carmine- 
crimson ; Charles Lefeljvre, red and maroon ; Margaret 
Dickson,' blush white ; Thomas Mills, crimson ; Duke of 
Edinburgh, vermilion ; Mrs. John Laing, pink ; Camille 
Bermardin, red ; Gloire de Margottin, red ; Violette Bowyer, 
white and ilesh. Bourbons : Madame Isaac Pereire, carmine ; 
Mrs. Paul, blush white. Hybrid teas : La France, pink. 
Teas : Gloire de Dijon, buff; Marie Van Houtte, white and 
yellow ; Madame Lambard, salmon pink ; Madame Berard, 
salmon rose. Noisette : Madame Caroline Kuster, yellow ; W. 
Allen Richardson, orange yellow. 




36 CULTIVATED ROSES. 



HOW TO PLANT ROSES. 



Preparation of the Soil. — Ordinary soils — i.e., those that 
are fairly rich, and do not retain too much moisture in winter — 
simply require to be dug three spits deep — equal to at least 
30 inclies — and have thick layers (2 or 3 inches) of decayed 
manure mixed between the second and third spits. Light soils 
also require to be dug deeply, and to have pig or cow dung 
— not horse manure — placed in laj'ers beneath the second and 
third spits. If possible, some heavy loam or clay should be 
incorporated with the light soil. Heavy clay soils should, if 
very wet, be drained to a depth of 3 feet, and afterwards 
trenched to a depth of 3 feet, working in abundance of road 
grit, leaf mould, burnt earth and fresh horse manure. 
Where single plants only are to be planted, a space of not less 
than 4 feet square should be prepared as above advised. 

When to Plant. — Where possible, plant at the end of 
October, or during November. Never plant in December or 
January if it can be avoided. February, March, and the early 
part of April are good months for spring planting. 

Distance Apart and Depth for Planting. — Dwarf roses 
should be planted IS inches apart, standards 3 feet, and 
climbers from 3 to 4 feet apart. As to depth, plant standards 
in holes 6 inches deep ; dwarfs and climbers sufficiently deep 
to allow the junction of stock and scion to be buried about an 
inch below the surface. In other ^vords, the part of the stem 
where the plant was budded or grafted must be buried in the 
soil to the depth of an inch. In the case of " own-root " roses, 
plant in holes 6 inches deep. 

Mode of Planting. — Dig out holes 15 to 18 inches square, 
and to the depth above stated. Spread the roots out CA'enly 
in every direction to their full length. On no account twist 
the roots round, beca\ise the diameter of the hole will not 
permit them to be spread out at full length ; rather make the 
hole wdder to accommodate the roots. (lo^'cr the roots with fine 



HOW TO PLANT MOSES. 37 

soil free from maniire. Work it avoII between them, so that 
they do not touch each other. Give a gentle tread with the 
foot, then add more soil ; tread firmly, and finally fill up the 
hole, afterwards making the soil absoKitely firm. 

General Remarks. — If the roots of the roses are dry when 
they arrive, soak them for an hour or so in water before 
planting. Take care also to cut off all jagged ends of wounded 
roots. Should the weather be frosty or very wet at the time 
the plants arrive do not unpack them, but place the package 
in ii cool place until planting can be performed In the case 
of standards, place a stout stake to each plant before the roots 
are covered with soil, and secure the stem firmly to it. This 
is best accomplished by placing a strip of leather or sacking 
round the stem, and then securing the latter to the stake by 
means of a ligature of tar twine or copper wire placed over the 
bandage. The ligat\ire then will not injure the bark of the 
stem. Dwarf roses require no staking. Climbing roses should 
not be securely fastened until each plant has had time for its 
roots to settle down. All that remains to be done is to 
properly laljel each variety, and to mulch the surface to a 
distance of IS inches or so from the stem of each plant with 
littery manure. 




38 



CULTIVATED ROSES. 



PRUNING ROSES. 



In the schedule of roses at the end of this book, the following- 
terms are used in the column devoted to pruning to indicate 
the kind of pruning reqviired by each variety: — "Close," 
"hard," "medium," "half," "little." We will now proceed to 
explain the meaning of these terms, which were necessary in 
order to get so much information in a given space. 

Hard Pruning. — This means that the shoots of the 




Fig. 1. 



Fi(5. 2. 



previous year's growth arc to 
or dormant bud from tliuir 



be cut back to the second "eye " 
)ase, as indicated by short thick 



PRUNING ROSES. 



39 



lines at the base of the shoots of the plant figured in accom- 
panying illustration. At the same time, all very weak shoots, 
or those that are two or more years' old, if unhealthy are to 
be cut away entirely. The second diagram (Fig. 2) shows the 
previous year's shoots (A B C) which were advised to be 
shortened as per example (Fig. 1) ; also the weak and older 
growths (D E F) indicated by dotted lines, which are to be cut 
away. This mode of pruning ensures vigorous growth and 
fine blooms for exhibition. 

Close Pruning. — In this case the shoots are to be 
shortened to four or six "eyes" or dormant buds, as indicated 




Fig, 3. 



by thick lines on upper part of the shoots, ABC (Fig. 1). 
Here also, as in the case of hard pruning, weak and old or 
useless growths (D E F, Fig. 2) are to be cut away entireh'. 
Standards require to be pruned as shown by short lines near 
base of shoots in Fig. 3. Very weak shoots should be entirely 
removed. 
Medium Pruning. — Here the shoots of the previous year's 



40 



CULTIVATED ROSES. 



growth must not be out back so short as in the case of close 
pnming. For example, cut them back pretty much after the 
style indicated by the short lines in Fig. 4 ; that is, all the 
strong shoots to about eight "eyes" or dormant buds, the 
medium-sized ones to about four, and the weakest to two buds. 
Where the upper part of a fairly strong shoot is furnished with 
weak sprays, shorten the shoot to lielr)\v' these. 

Half Pruning'. — This simply means shortening all strong 
shoots of the previous year's growth about half way, and 




Fig. 4 




=r"{&- 



Fig. 5. 



cutting away all very weak growths. The annexed diagram 
(Fig 5) will show clearly what wo mean. 

Little Pruning-. — By this is meant cutting off the soft 
tips of the previous year's shoots as indicated by short lines at 



PRUNING ROSES. 



41 



end of black shoots in Fig. 6. All weak or diseased growths, 
indicated by dotted lines, are to l>o cut away entirely. In 



r~/ / / / 7-7-7 




the case of standard trees a similar rule should be followed 
where little pruning is advised. 

General Remarks.— In pruning always use a Iteen-bladed 
knife in preference to scissors or secateurs, as the latter often 
seriously wound the bark and cause the shoot to die. Cut 




back, too, to a bud pointing outwards, as depicted at C, Fig 7, 
and not at a distance from it as in the example A, otherwise 



42 



CULTIVATED ROSES. 



the shoot will in due course be similar to B. Always endeavour 
to keep the centre of the plant open and free from weak and 
useless shoots which are valueless for yielding flowers, and liable 
to easily fall a prey to insects and fungoid pests. 

Summer Pruning. — Where this is recommended, it means 
that the shoots must be shortened or thinned out in order to 
get the plants to flower satisfactorily. 

Disbudding. — This is a form of pruning practised by some 
to ensure vigorous yoimg growths. It consists of rubbing off' 
with finger and thumb any young weakly growths in an early 
stage of their formation, in order that the whole efforts of the 
plant may be concentrated on the development of three or four 
strong shoots only. It is usually done in May. 




POT EOSES. 



4.3 



POT ROSES. 



No phase of horticulture gives more pleasure to the amateur 
than the growth of roses in pots. To have well -formed, 
brightly-coloured, and deliciously perfumed blossoms of the 
finest varieties in April and May is the height of ambition to 




Ste^?^J«r•■4:^*:,^.-**iaHMil 



A RosAKicM OR KosE Garden. 



the amateur cultivator. Without special means it is difficult 
to have the various varieties of hybrid perpetuals in full flower 
before the time alluded to. With an ordinary greenhouse 
convenience the plants will flower freely, and, at the same time, 

K 



44 CULTIVATED ROSES. 

last many more years than those which are subjected to hard 
forcing annually to get them in flower earlier than March. 
Many varieties of roses succeed upon their own roots, while 
others — and very often they are some of the best — are too 
weak in growth to succeed without aid from other stocks. 

Best Plants for Pot Culture. — Speaking generally, 
roses in pots may be grown successfully by purchasing early 
in November the required number of plants growing upon the 
manetti or seedling briar, as if for out-of-door cultivation. 
Such plants are generally plentifully furnished with roots, also 
with from three to six shoots. By growing them slowly the 
first season they become well established as pot plants, and 
will gi^'c good blooms in iilay without any artificial heat what- 
ever ; indeed, it is better that thej' should have none the first 
j'ear so as to give time for the plants to recuperate themselves 
from the check of replanting. 

Potting'. — Pots eight inches in diameter are large enough 
for the strongest plants the first year ; in fact, roses do not 




Fro. 1.— How TO Prune a H.P. Rose. 

require extra large pots at any time. Cut all strong-growing 
roofs to within four inches of their base. Drain the pots care- 



POT ROSE^. 45 

fully and pot moderatelj- firm jn a compost of three-parts fibry 
loam, one part of half-decayed horse manure, with the addition 
of a handful of bone meal to every peck of the compost. 
Stand the plants in a cold frame until the new year, or even 
a month later. If the soil is moist, as it should be when used, 
but little water will be required until new growth is pushing. 
Just give sufficient to keep the soil moist and no more. Early 
in January cut the plants down to within four inches of their 
base to induce strong shoots to form (see short lines A in 
accompanying diagram. Fig. 1). Give the plants a position as 
near the glass as possible, where they will get abundance of 
air and light to induce a stocky growth. Water must be 
liberally, yet carefully, supplied. Syringe the plants overhead 
occasionally with tepid water to keep the foliage clean and 
free from dust and insect pests. 

Insects. — When the shoots are a few inches long greenfly 
may be troublesome to the points ; if they are allowed to 
remain the tender leaves will be crippled and the growth 
checked. Fumigating with tobacco is the best remedy for 
green or black fly. Should but one or two shoots show 
symptoms of the presence of aphides, a good way to get rid 
of them without the trouble of fumigating the whole house 
is to dip the finger and thumb into clear water and gently 
rub the affected part, squeezing the aphides. With a little 
practice plants can be easily cleansed from aphides by this 
simple remedy 

General Treatment. — As soon as the plants have done 
flowering stand them out of doors on a thick bed of ashes in a 
thoroughly exposed situation to induce the wood to become 
thoroughly ripened. Whilg the plants are in this position they 
must not suffer for want of water at the roots. Early in 
October they should be repotted if necessary. Those not 
requiring it should have an inch or so of the surface soil 
removed and replaced with fresh compost. Employ the same 
mixture as previously described, and do not overpot the plants. 
One size of pot is sufficient unless they are extra well rooted 
and largely supplied with branches. Stand the pots in a cold 
frame to prevent the soil becoming soddened by rain, which 
cannot but hinder the progress of the roots. Early in January 
prune the shoots to within four or six inches of where they 
were shortened the previous year (see B, Fig. 1). Eeally 
the strong shoots should be shortened to B, and the weaker 

E 2 



46 CULTIVATED ROSES. 

ones to A. Teas and noisettes require pruning like example 
shown in Fig. 2 ; that is, shorten all strong shoots about half 
way, and moderate ones to within three inches of their base. 
Stand the plants in the greenhouse where they can make 
steady growth, giving them a temperature of 45 deg. by night 
if they are required to be in bloom earlier than the previous 
year. The same attention to watering, keeping in check insect 
pests, and syringing the foliage as in the year previous, should 
be attended to. When growth has so far progressed as to 
expose the flower buds some stimulant supplied to aid in 
inducing the blooms to grow to their fullest extent will be an 




Fif:. 2. — How TO PmNE a Tea Rosk. 

advantage. A sprinkle of artificial manure or bone dust will 
have the desired effect. Liquid manure from cow, horse, or 
sheep dung, with the addition of a little soot, will assist the 
growth considerably. 

Own- root Plants. — Plants growing upon their own roots are 
useful in a small state. For instance, a plant in a three and a 
half-inch pot and carrying one large bloom is a useful subject 
for filling vases in rooms. Such plants are easily produced. 
After the plants have flowered in May or June take off the 



POT ROSES. 47 

current season's shoots a few inches from the base, insert them 
four inches long in a large pot, with the soil sunken sufficiently 
low to enable the cuttings to be below the top of the pot, so 
that they can be covered with a square of glass to maintain 
them in a moist and close condition. Plunge the pot in a 
gentle bottom heat, if possible, to induce roots to form early. 
When well rooted remove the glass and admit air to the plants, 
and a few days afterwards pot them off singly into three and a 
half inch pots, still keeping them in the frame for a time until 
they are thoroughly established in the pots. The following 
year cut the plants down to within two or three eyes of the 







Tdknbr's Crimson Ramblek Rose in a Pot. 

base of new growth. From the newly formed shoots one full- 
sized bloom will be obtained. Some plants will give one, others 
two blooms. Varieties useful for this method of growth are : 
La France, Baroness Rothschild, Marquise de Castellaine, 
Edouard Morren, Magna Charta, John Hopper, and Madame 
Therfese Levet. 



48 CULTIVATED ROSES. 



GREENHOUSE CLIMBERS. 



This book would be considered incomplete by a very large 
proportion of ovir readers if it did not contain a chapter on the 
cultivation of climbing roses under glass, more especially that 
ubiquitous variety, the Mar^chal Niel. Every year we receive 
hundreds of letters asking for information how to treat this 
rose in greenhouses, and although we have repeatedly given 
very full details, yet we have not been able to satisfy the 
requirements of readers of Amateur Gardening for any length 
of time, for still enquiries on the subject pour in vipon us from 
all quarters. 

We have, therefore, decided to give an epitome of the culture 
of the Marechal Niel from the pen of one of the most success- 
ful growers of this rose — Mr. J. Landsell, which we sincerely 
trust will meet the requirements of readers of these pages, 
and enable them to grow both this and other climbing kinds 
in the greenhouse with greater success in the future. 

MARECHAL NIEL 

How to Plant. — AVhen roses are put into pots they usually 
ha"\'e good soil and drainage, but this is not always the case 
when planted out. If there be a good depth of rich and sweet 
soil, that is neither dust dry nor ver\- wet, a rose may be ex- 
pected to do well without having any fresh soil added ; but if 
there l)e any doubt about it, it is far better to use good turfy 
loam, of a rather heavy nature, chopped up into pieces about 
three inches square. To each bushel add a half -gallon 
of raw bone meal and one gallon of wood ashes. Be very 
careful the soil is neither wet nor dry before chopping it 
up, as this makes far greater difference than many imagine 
as to the plant succeeding or not. If convenient this soil 
may be put in one corner of the house, and boards put two 
sides of it, which, with the corner, will make a square like a 



GREENHOUSE CLIMBERS. 49 

box without a bottom, so that roots may eventually go into the 
border underneath after they have exhausted the new soil 
above, but of course if the soil in the border is known to be 
bad it will be better to take some out and replace it with 
fresh, and then pvit the other on top as first suggested. Roses 
generally do better when planted in a raised position in a house 
than in the border ; perhaps it is because they get more air 
and better drainage. The soil should be rammed or 
trodden quite firm as it is put in. If two bushels of 
soil could be put into the corner it would be enough for 
several years ; a less amount would answer fairly well. 
If the planting be done during the autumn or winter, while 
the rose is in a fairly dormant state, it should be allowed to 
get rather dry before turning it out of the pot, so that the soil 
will crumble away from the roots more easily. I like to 
disentangle the roots as much as possible without breaking 
them, as I find they start away much quicker and better than 
when left in the ball. But if a plant is in full growth, with a 
lot of young, active roots, I do not disturb them. It is better 
to cover the roots with some fine, sandy soil or old leaf-mould, 
finishing off with more of the turfy soil above. Give just 
enough warm water to moisten the soil around the roots, and 
water very sparingly afterwards until the plant starts freely 
into growth. 

First Pruning. — At the time of planting the plant should 
be pruned half back, and if any flower- buds appear in the 
spring they should be picked off at once. If the flowers were 
left on it is very likely the plant would make no growth at all 
the year after. It is best to let all the shoots grow freely 
until you see an extra strong shoot coming out of the stem, 
and when that has grown several inches, cut all the other 
growths boldly back to this, so as to throw all the force of sap 
into it, but care must be taken the shoot is not broken oiF. A 
shoot of this description will often grow from ten to twenty 
feet long. These long shoots may generally be left their full 
length ; but sometimes there are several feet below the points 
which is unripened, which, of course, must be cut back to solid 
full-grown wood in the beginning of winter. 

Winter Treatment. — The house should be kept quite 
cool during the winter, and the soil just moist, but when 
o-rowth commences in the early spring rather more water 
must be given, and as soon as the flower-bads show, liquid 



50 CULTIVATED ROSES. 

manure should be given every other time water is appHed, 
until the flowers are fully out. 

Annual Pruning. — After the flowering is over, the growths 
should be cut about half back, and the house be kept as cool and 
airy as possible until new growth starts. Soon after new 
growths are made, extra strong growths iisually come out 
of the stem near the roots, and again the whole of 
the top growths must be cvit back to these strong shoots. The 
fact of cutting back to strong shoots one year seems an in- 
ducement for strong shoots to come another year. This is a 
far better system than leaving the old weakly wood on year 
after year, as is often done Some recommend prvming hard 
back after flowering in order to get strong shoots ; but we find 
the half pruning much the safest way, until strong shoots are 
formed. 

Feeding and Top-dressing. — Roses never seem to get old 
when treated in this way ; but after several years the soil gets 
exhausted, and should then have a top-dressing every winter. 
Bone-meal or dissolved bone-meal, also basic slag are good 
manures for roses ; half a poimd of basic slag, mixed with a 
gallon of wood ashes and spread over the surface, then covered 
with a little soil, or one pound of bone-meal mixed with a 
gallon of wood ashes, used the same way, makes a good top- 
dressing. 

In Pots. — AVlien grown in pots, the main shoot should be 
trained up the rafter of a greenhouse, and any strong side 
shoots be loosely trained up the side of this. Each autumn 
shorten all weak shoots to three or four dormant buds or eyes, 
medium ones to a foot, and stronger ones take up off their tips 
only. The main shoot sliould not at any time be cut back as 
advised for plants growing in boxes or beds, but merely have 
their unripened tips taken off'. In all other respects treat the 
plants as advised for pot roses generally. 

Insects and Diseases — These are fully described in a 
separate chapter, so need not be repeated here. 

OTHER CLIMBERS. 

Climbing Niphetos should be planted as advised for 
Mardchal Niel. The weak shoots should be cut away directljf 
after flowering, and the other ones shortened about one- 



GREENHOUSE CLIMBERS. 



51 



third in winter, then fine growths 6 to 10 feet will be made 
each season. Gloire de Dijon should be treated similarly. 
Cheshimt Hybrid requires very little pruning, merely thinning 
out weak and taking the tips off strong shoots in winter. 
W. A. Eiohardson needs to be pruned somewhat close, cutting 
out weak and shortening the stronger shoots to 8 inches or 
so in winter. Belle Lyonnaise should be treated similarly to 
Gloire de Dijon. Fortune's Yellow or Beauty of Glazenwood 
needs to have all weak shoots out away, and the others shortened 
about two-thirds. Treated as above advised any or all of the 
foregoing roses may be relied upon to grow healthily and 
flower freely in any amateur's greenhouse. 




5:^ CULTIVATED ROSES. 



MANURES FOR ROSES. 



In the following notes we shall endeavoui- to give as much 
information as possible on the subject of solid and liquid 
manures for roses : — 

Natural Manures. — Dean Hole, in his charming work, "A 
Book About Roses," informs lis that, as a result of many 
experiments, he found nothing to equal farmyard manure for 
growing good roses ; and he is not alone in holding this view, 
for most successful growers strongly believe in its efKoaoy. 
By farmyard manure is meant the dung obtained from the 
stable, cow byre, pigstye, poultry yard, or rabbit hutch, j^nd 
there is no doubt they are right in taking this view, since such 
manure not only provides most of the food required for the 
support of roses, but also materially assists in mechanically 
improving the condition of the soil. 

The question then arises as to which of the kinds mentioned 
above should have the preference. Well, this depends upon 
the soil. If light, cow-dung or pig-dung is preferable to 
horse-dung, because more cooling and solid. Horse-dung, on 
the other hand, is better adapted for heavy soils ; owing to its 
heating properties it warms the soil and, being more or less 
spongy in texture, opens its pores, allows superfluous moist^ire 
to pass away to the suljsoil and air to take its place. 

The ideal manure for roses is, however, a combination of 
cow, pig, horse, and poultry manure thoroughly mixed together 
whilst fresh, and saturated from time to time with stable urine 
or the drainings from the maniire-lieap collected in a tank. 
Such a heap, turned over occasionally during the summer, will 
form a rich, unctuous mass by autumn, and if d\ig in, or spread 
as a mulch over the surface of the soil, left thus all the winter 
and dug in the spring, cannot be surpassed for roses. It is 
of no use applying manure that has been allowed to decay 
naturally, because nearly all the essential salts have been 
waslied out or evaporated, leaving a mass of inert matter of no 
value, except from a mechanical point of view. If it were pos- 



MANURES FOR ROSES. 53 

sible to procure some gypsum and sprinkle some of this among 
the manure before decaying, it would assist in fixing the 
ammonia, and prevent the loss of valuable plant food. A 
sprinkle of common salt is eqvially effective. Fresh horse 
droppings are also excellent for roses. 

Peat moss litter, if allowed to remain in the stable long 
enough to become well saturated with virine, is a valuable 
manure for sandy soils ; it has binding and cooling properties, 
apart from the large amount of nitrogen it holds as a result of 
the urine saturation. But it must be used at once, not allowed 
to remain in a heap exposed to the air, otherwise it will lose its 
fertilizing value. If it cannot be used at once, water it with a 
solution of sulphate of iron and water — 20 ozs. of the former 
to a gallon of the latter, then the ammonia will be fixed. 

Poultry manure, if used alone, should be mixed with an 
equal proportion of dry soil, stored in a shed for a few months, 
and then applied at the rate of a hundredweight per square 
rod in spring. 

Night soil is a most valuable manure for roses if properly 
prepared before it is applied. It should, if possible, be mixed 
with an equal proportion of dry earth and gypsum for light 
soils, and with the addition of cinder ashes for heavy soils. 
Mix all together and cover with boards or a layer of soil to 
protect the heap from rain, and then in a few months the 
material will be in the best possible condition for application 
to the soil. It is always better to use it as a top-dressing in 
spring. If gypsum be used there will be no unpleasant smell 
arising at any time. 

When to apply Natural Manures. — Where new beds 
have to be formed the best time is in autumn, when the soil 
is being prepared. Should the soil be heavy, use the manure 
in a partially decayed state ; but if light, it is best applied in a 
well decayed condition. Needless to say, the soil should be 
trenched three spits deep at least, and have a good layer of 
manure placed between each spit. But when roses are estab- 
lished a different plan should be adopted. The manure should 
then be spread over the surface of the soil in a liberal fashion, 
and allowed to remain thus until the spring, then be forked in. 
This serves a two-fold purpose : it protects and fertilizes the 
surface, and when dug in adds to the root pabulum, and so 
stimulates the growth of foliage, wood, and blossom to a greater 
degree than it would if dug in in autumn. 



54 CULTIVATED ROSES. 

Artificial or CIieiTiical Manures. — No matter how 
rich animal mamires may be, we cannot dispense with the aid 
of some of the many kinds that come under this heading if we 
wish to grow really good roses. In animal manures there is 
necessarily a very large proportion of material which may be 
considered as waste so far as it applies to plant support. In 
artificial or chemical manures there is little, if any, waste, the 
whole of it being availaljle for the support of the plants. 
Intelligent rose growers, therefore, use animal manures for the 
primary object of providing an agreeable anchorage or pabulum 
for the roots — in other words, for improving the texture of the 
soil and enriching it to a small degree ; and have recourse to 
chemical manures for providing such additional food as may be 
required. 

In the list of manures coming under the latter heading, we 
have superphosphate of lime, basic slag, nitrate of soda, 
sulphate of ammonia, potash, and sulphate of iron, either alone 
or in combination. Superphosphate of lime has been proved 
over and over again to bcTan excellent fertilizer for roses, and 
in any formula for a special rose manure should always pre- 
dominate. Its office is to impart vigour and solidity to growth — 
not to produce rank shoots, which are useless for bearing hand- 
some blooms, but moderate, sturdy, growing ones, carrying 
j_grand healthy foliage. On heavy, damp soils basic slag answers 
jeven better. - ' - — 

Potash assists in a similar way, and in the production of fine 
flower buds. It is most valued in the nitrate form, but the 
sulphate, of which kainit is now largely used as a source 
because of its cheapness, will prove nearly as effectual. 

Sulphate of magnesia is regarded as an essential ingredient 
of rose manure, and so is sulphate of iron and sulphate of lime 
(gypsum). The iron is saicT to add increased depth and 
brilliancy to the blooms, and, according to Dr. (Jriffiths, serves 
as an antiseptic, correcting the e-^'ils of over feeding with other 
manures. 

Sulphate of ammonia and nitrate of soda are sometimes used, 
but they are not so essential as the foregoing. Both have a 
tendency to encourage leaf growth at the expense of the 
blossoms, and therefore require to be used with caution. 
Sulphate of ammonia is of the most service to exhibitors, as by 
its judicious aid blooms may be increased in size and bright- 
ness of colour. Unlike other plant foods it becomes soluble 
directly it is applied to the soil, and is easily assimilated by 



MANURES FOR ROSES. 55 

the roots ; besides, its presence in the soil enables other plant 
foods to be readily available. It is best adapted for loamy and 
clay soils. On light soils nitrate of soda should be used. 

How to Use them. — Now as to the manner of using these 
manures. For a good general manure we cannot do better 
than recommend the following formula, which is largely used 
by the leading rose growers : Superphosphate of lime, 48 lbs. ; 
potash (kainit), 40 lbs. ; sulphate of magnesia, 8 lbs. ; sulphate 
of iron, 4 lbs. ; sulphate of lime (gypsum), 32 lbs.=132 lbs. 
Crush the ingredients up fine, mix them thorotighly together, 
and then apply the mixture at the rate of a pound per square 
yard in spring. If the beds were top-dressed with animal 
manure in autvimn, sprinkle the chemical manure over this, 
and dig the whole in. Such a dressing will make a wonderful 
improvement in the growth of the plants, providing they are 
in good health at the time the manure is applied. If it is not 
convenient to apply the foregoing formula, try the following, 
recommended in "Special Manures,"* and found to be a good 
one : Dissolve half an ounce of superphosphate and a quarter 
of an ounce each of sulphate of ammonia and sulphate of iron 
in two gallons of water, and apply this quantity to each tree 
once a week during May and June. Sulphate of ammonia and 
nitrate of soda should be used at the rate of a quarter of an 
ounce to a gallon of water, and applied about once a week 
during the_ last week in May and the whole of June. It is 
not advisable to continue to apply either after June ; better 
apply soot water or ordinary liquid manure after then. For 
pot plants the formula recommended by Dr. Griffiths is best. 
Whenever any mamires are applied in a liquid form it is 
best to do it when the soil is moist ; therefore, if it be dry, 
give it a good soaking of clear water first. Where basic slag 
is used, apply this at the rate of 4 oz. per square yard. 

Guano. — Nothing has yet been said about guano, a good 
all-round manure, which may be used in a dry state or in 
solution. As a good guano contains an abundant supply of 
the fertiliizing ingredients required by roses, it is to all 
intents and purposes an excellent substitute for any of the 
preceding chemical manures. It has, perhaps, one drawback 
— it encourages rather too much leaf-growth However, 
judiciously used at the rate of an ounce per gallon of water 

* " Special Manures for Garden Crops," by Dr. A. B. Griffiths. 
Price 2s. (148 and 149, Aldersgate Street, London.) 



56 CULTIVATED ROSES. 

during May and June, it will assist materiallj' in the develop- 
ment of the blooms. From two to three gallons of water 
should be given to each tree at intervals of ten days. Native 
guano is good for roses. Fork into the soil around each tree 
early in April about half a pound of the manure. 

Special Compound Manures. — Beeson's Manure has also 
been found a capital fertilizer for roses. Fork a handful into 
the soil around each plant in March, May, and July. Clay's 
Fertilizer, used dry or in solution, cannot be beaten as a 
good general rose manure. It is rapid in action, as well as 
lasting in its effects. Being highl}' concentrated, a little goes a 
long way. For example, an ounce per square yard forked 
in at intervals of a month from March to September, or 
a large tablespoonful to a gallon of water applied at intervals 
of a week during May and June will be found most effective. 
Other good compound manures for roses are Albert's Concen- 
trated, Colchester's Ichthemic, Corden's Fish-guano, With's Plant 
Food, and Standen's Manure. Albert's is highly concentrated, 
and requires to be used as advised for Clay's. The Ichthemic and 
fish-guano require to be sprinkled thinly on the surface of the 
soil and forked in. Do this in March, May, and July. 

Liquid Manures. — This part of the subject has beenpartlj- 
touched upon in the preceding paragraphs. All that remains 
to be said is a brief reference to soot water, etc. Soot water is 
a first-rate stimulant ; it imparts increased colour to foliage and 
flowers. A peck of it enclosed in a bag, and put in a thirtj'- 
six gallon cask of soft water, will in three days be ready to be 
applied undiluted once or twice a week to roses in pots or in 
open gardens. Horse, cow, or sheep manure, at the rate of a 
bushel to a thirty-six gallon cask, adding a peck of soot, is also 
an excellent liquid fertilizer. Apply it undiluted to outdoor 
roses, and diluted with two-thirds water to plants in pots. Pig 
dung used at the rate of a peck to a similar quantity of water 
answers well. The best of all manures is poultry dimg. This 
requires to be used with soot at the rate of half a peck of each 
to thirty-six gallons of water. Ajaply undiluted to roses out- 
doors, and diluted with one-third water for pot plants. The 
solution prepared from poultry dung and soot is equal to 
giiano-water in strength. 

Blood, etc. — Something must be said about blood, bones, 
malt dust, etc. Blood is rich in soda, potash, iron, and of great 



MANURES FOR ROSES. 57 

value as a source of food for roses. But it is not a pleasant 
thing to use ; it is apt to emit an offensive odour. It may be 
added in a fresh state to the beds, forking it in, or be mixed 
with an equal bulk of dry soil and placed in a heap for a year 
to decay. Dried blood is sold by manure vendors. This is a 
good fertilizer for the purpose, and should be used at the rate 
of two ounces per plant, forking it in in March. Crushed 
bones and bone meal are also of some service, though not 
essential. In making new beds, both may be used freely. Malt 
dust, if well saturated with chamber slops or stable urine, and 
allowed to ferment, is said to be a good fertilizer for top-dress- 
ing roses. Brewers' grains, mixed with fine charcoal, are 
occasionally used with good results for the same purpose. 
Lastly, wood ashes, the residiie of burnt garden refuse, is an 
excellent material for applying to beds at any season of the 
year. 




58 CULTIVATED ROSES. 



PROPAGATION OF ROSES. 



By Seed. — Seeds may be purchased, or procured from the 
heps or fruits of good sorts of roses. When ripe and softening, 
the heps must be gathered, buried in damp sand (somewhere 
safe from rats and mice) and left till spring, by which time the 
pulp will have decayed, and the seeds may be easily separated 
and sown thinly in drills about a foot apart. Another plan is 
to rub out the seeds as soon as they are gathered and sow them 
at once. Some of the seeds will germinate the first year, but 
not all, and probably not the best of them, so the seed rows 
must not be dug up for at least eighteen months after sowing ; 
any plants, however, which become big enough for transplanting 
the first year must be carefully lifted out with most of their 
roots intact and put into nursery rows, where they should be 
protected during the first winter with some suitable surface 
mulching. This transplanting should take place in October or 
early in November, to allow time for a certain amount of root 
action taking place before winter sets in. The second year all 
the plants in the seed rows may be served the same way, for 
seeds which have not germinated by this time will be worthless. 
This batch should be most carefully looked after, as it will 
probably contain the best of the seedlings. A year or even two 
may elapse before any flowers appear, and even then the first 
flowers must not induce us to condemn the plants, unless the 
colour is bad, for most of the best varieties come semi-double 
the first time they flower. 

By Budding'. — This method of propagation is best per- 
formed in July, and during showery weather if possible. For 
standards, plant hedgerow briars the previous autumn, and for 
dwarfs the seedling or cutting briar. Manetti and De la 
Grifferaie stocks should be planted at the same time. All the 
dwarf stocks should be cut down close to the ground in March. 
In the case of standards, do not allow more than three shoots 
to form on each plant. When the bark is firm enough to be 
easily raised from the wood the stock is ready, and similarly 



PROPAGATION OF ROSES. 



59 



will the buds 1)j when they assume a plump appearance, but 
have not started, into growth. First remove the thorns from 
the shoot A to be budded on — the nearer the base the better ; 
then open the bark by making a long slit similar to 6, and a 
transverse or cross slit at a. In the case of dwarf stocks make 
the cut in the stem just below the soil. Next get the ivory 
blade of the bvidding knife or a thin piece of wood, and gently 
raise the bark on each side of the long slit so as to admit the 
shield and bud. The next thing i s to see abou t thebud. Examine ■ 
a healthy shoot of the kind you wish to take the bud from, and ' 
select a bud that is fairly plump. Cut off the shoot first, then' 
remove the bud with a portion of the bark and wood as in the . 
example B c (/. On turning the bud over a small portion of ^ 
woody matter will be found, and this must be carefully removed. 




C HE., ;■■ ;1 B C IIIFIA 

Fio. 1. — How TO Bdd a Rose. 



If on removing it there is a cavity left at d the bud is useless, 
but if it is perfectly level with the inside of the bark c it will 
be all right. A side view of the bud is shown at C. It will be 
seen that the leaf is shortened close to the bud, and the upper 
part of the bark or shield is out off level. Holding the bud in 
the mouth to keep it moist, next proceed to gently raise the 
bark, then introduce the lower end of the shield under the 
bark at a A, forcing it gently down to h. If the upper part 
projects above the cross slit a, out it off level with the latter, 
and then get some soft yarn or bast, and tie this round 
moderately firm, both above and below the bud as shown in 
the example C. In the course of three or four weeks the buds 
should be examined and the ties loosened if necessary, to allow 
the bark to swell and unite over the shield. Tight tying is 



60 



CULTIVATED EOSES. 



very injurious, iiiid lacerating of the bark unnecessarily often 
causes the death of the buds. 

By Grafting. — Grafting is very rarely carried out in the 
open air, as it is not nearly so certain as the other methods 
of propagation, and grafted plants have a knack of dying off 
suddenly and without apparent cause. It is, however, useful 
for establishing roses, as it were, by express, and for getting 
good plants within the year, as may be easily done by operating 



tf' 




A B 

Fig. i. — How to Gk.\ft a Rose. 



under glass. ^Vhip grafting is the most simple and certain 
method wliere stock and scion are about of a size, and crown or 
cleft grafting when the stock is much bigger than the scion. 
Tlie operation is carried oiit in exactl}- the same way as it is 
with fruit and other trees, but more care must be taken in 
selecting tlie sciims, for young rose wood is generally pithy, 
and this is useless for grafting. A good deal of waste takes 
place, as the whole of the upper portion of the young shoot 



PROPAGATION OP POSES, 61 

must be discarded, simply retaining for scions the well-ripsued 
lower portions which show but little pith when cut. The stoclis 
may be slightly active, just moving out of their winter's rest, 
but the scions must be still quite dormant. If a genial moist 
atmosphere can be maintained round the plants after grafting, 
wax or clay may be dispensed with entirely and with advantage, 
but the scions must be well tied on, and no portion of the cuts 
exposed entirely to the air. Where grafting takes place low 
down on the stock, a little soil heaped over the point of union 
will be beneficial. Rose grafting should be carried out under 
glass in February, or even earlier in the year. The seedling 
brier forms the best stock for most roses. Fig. 2 shows how to 
go to work to graft a rose. B is the stock which has to be cut 
back to the position shown by dotted line. A thin slice is cut 
off the stock A, and a similar slice off the lower end of the scion 
b. Next a notch or tongue is made in the scion at b, and a 
similar one in the stock A. The notch of b is then fitted into 
the notch of A, and the stock and scion joined as shown at a 
and b. When this is done, tie firmly with bass and surround 
with grafting wax. 

By Cutting^s. — The simplest mode of taking cuttings is to 
get shoots of the present year's wood with a " heel " of older 
wood attached. The unripe tips should be removed, leaving 
the shoot from nine inches to a foot long. Cutting a groove in 
the soil with a spade for the reception of the cuttings is the 
best way of preparing the site, as one can then see that the 
base of each cutting is firmly set on soil — a necessary pre- 
caution. The cuttings should be buried two-thirds of 
their length, leaving three or four buds out of the ground. 
After insertion flood the ground, as this will wash the soil 
well round the cuttings, and close all air spaces. If the soil 
is naturally sandy, no addition is needful, but if the reverse an 
inch or two of road grit round the base of the cuttings is 
helpful. No manure of any kind must be used. October is 
the best month for inserting rose cuttings i n the open ground, 
but November w ill do almost equally well. In striking 
cuttings urideFglass — the method usual with teas and weakly- 
growing varieties — the above conditions should be followed as 
nearly as may be, but as the time for striking is in the summer 
(July), much care is needed in shading and watering ; the 
cuttings must not be allowed to flag, neither must they be 
overwatered, while strict attention to ventilation is also 

f2 



62 



CULTIVATED ROSES. 



necessary. The best place in which to strike roses under glass 
is under a garden frame on a spent hotbed, which may have 
been used earlier in the year for striking and raising bedding 
plants. The pots used should be deep, such as are usually 
sold for bulb-growing, and the drainage must be perfect. Eose 
cuttings made without a heel of the older wood may be 
induced to strike, but there is not nearly such a certainty with 
them as there is when a heel is obtainable. In the latter case 




Fii:. 3. — How TO Pkepake a Rose Cutting. 



oue can depend upon an a\ci-agc of 95 per cent., while 
without a heel probably 30 per cent, would be nearer the 
mark. 

By Layering. — This is one of the most simple methods of 
rose pnipagation, and in tliis way \vc may soon establish big 
Imshes witluiut trouble in providing stocks. (Jood shoots must 
be ch(jseii early in summer, and at a convenient place the stem 
should be cut half tbiough on the under side, the l)lade of the 



PROPAGATION OF ROSES. 



63 



knife should then be turned so as to make a longitudinal cut 
upwards for an inch or more through the centre of the shoot, 
which should then be firmly pegged into a notch made in the 
soil with a spade and the cut portion well buried, the whole 
operation being precisely similar to that of layering a carnation. 
By October roots will have been formed, and the shoot may be 
entirely severed from the parent and removed to the spot 
selected for its home. It is well, however, to make sure that 
roots have been formed before the shoot is severed, which may 
be found out by carefully removing a little soil near the buried 
stem, as some varieties take two seasons before sufficient roots 
have been formed to make the plant self-supporting. 




4. — Rose Shoot with "Eye." 



By Suckers. — Suckers are frequ^ently made by own-roo 
roses, and these form a convenient means of obtaining new 
plants. The reader must be careful, though, that it is a rose 
he is getting, as cases have been known where a brier or Manetti 
shoot has been fondly cherished for years with the idea that it 
was a garden rose and that some day it would produce double 
blooms. In taking suckers from the parent plant it is wise to 
remove the surroimding soil until a convenient place for sever- 
ance can be seen. If a root or two be found on the sucker 
itself it should be cut below these, but if not, then it is necessary 



fi4 



CULTIVATED ROSES. 



to trace it home to the old root-stock and remove a portion of 
this with the sucker 

By Division. — Some few roses which naturally produce 
many shoots from the same tuft may be propagated by division, 
and in this way we get most of our Scotch, Fairy, and China 
roses and Austrian briers ; nearly every shoot of these can be 
depended on to have some roots attached, and each of these 
^Yill form a plant in itself. Division of roses scarcely needs 
describing, but it is well to bear in mind that the best method 
is to lift a big clump and carefully wash the soil from the roots, 




'i ':':/// ',7 1'/. 



Firi. .'i. — "Eye" Inserted. 



as we can then see exactly where to sever the roots to the best 
advantage, and all mutilated pieces may be easily cut away. 

By Eyes or Buds. — Propagation by "eyes" is seldom at- 
temjjtcd in this countrj', and it is at the best a tedious process. 
It is really a striking of buds, and simply a development of 
sti-iking liy cuttings, each cutting consisting of one leaf and one 
Viud cut out as we should cut it for budding (Fig. 4), but 
lea^-ing the wood attached instead of pulling it out ; in this 
form tlie bits (Fig. 5) are piit into cutting-pot placed in heat, 
and coaxed into root aud top-growth by considerable coddling. 
This metlidd is not to be uenerallv reconnncnded. 



ENEMIES 01 ROSES. 65 



ENEMIES OF ROSES. 



Following are the chief insect, fungoid, and animal pests 
that attack roses in the garden and greenhouse, with brief 
remedies for their eradication : — 



INSECT PESTS. 

Aphis or Qreen-fly {Aphis rosce). — Of all the enemies of 
the rose this one must take the pre-eminence for destructive- 
ness. It is a pale green, small, fly-like insect, with or without 
wings, and with slender legs. Aphides are very tender, and 
easily crushed. The mischief they perpetrate is that of 
congregating around the points of the shoots and young 
leaves, and sucking the juices therefrom, causing a stunted 
growth. Although the individual insect is easily crushed and 
destroyed, yet they are possessed of such an enormous power of 
increase as to fully make up for their weakness. A single 
female produces about ninety young ones. In a week or ten 
days these again commence reproduction, and so on until ten 
or a dozen generations are produced. The number of insects 
thus brought to life is enormous, the second generation 
amounting to 8,100, the third to 729,000, the fourth to 
65,610,000, and so on. Can we wonder at our rose trees failing 
with such a family to support? Fortunately they are subject 
to enemies as well, which tend to keep them considerably 
in check. During the summer aphides are viviparous, pro- 
ducing their young alive, but in the autumn eggs are laid 
which will not hatch till spring. As the winter destroys 
all the existing aphides, early spring is clearly the most 
favourable time to combat them. One of the best of 
preventives is robust health in the rose bush ; a weak plant 
is always more liable to an attack than a strong one. 
Under glass the most effectual remedy appears to be fumi- 
gation, or a strong syringing with clear cold water. The 
use of the syringe or garden engine out of doors at frequent 



66 



CULTIVATED ROSES. 



intervals proves very effectual in clearing a bush of these 
pests or in preventing them eflfecting a footing. If stronger 
measures must be resorted to, then some of the various insecti- 
cides placed before the public should be used, or some home- 
made remedy as tobacco water, prepared by dissolving 1| lbs. 
of soft soap in two gallons of hot water, and mixing therewith 
the juice obtained by steeping four oimces of tobacco in a quart 
of boiling water and leaving until cold ; well mix and dilute 
with twenty-five gallons of water. Quassia is also another 
effectual insecticide. Give ten ounces of quassia chips a good 
boiling in a gallon of water, and while hot stir in an ounce of 
soft soap. Before using dilute with nine gallons of water. 
Paraffin is another good insecticide if used with care. Boil 
for a few minutes a pound of soft soap in a gallon of water, 
then add a pint of paraffin and stir vigorously. A quart of 
this mixture should be diluted with fifteen gallons of water, 
and the bushes are the lietter for being well syringed with 
clear water a few hours after an application. 

Antler Sawfly {Claditis diformis). — The larva) or caterpillars 
of this Hj are responsible for many of the perforated leaves or 




Antlee Sawfly and Gkub. 



scalloped edges found on rose trees. If such damaged leaves 
be lifted up, the pest will be found on their undersides, either 
stretched out or curled up ; if disturbed it drops to the ground. 
Owing to this habit the larvsc may be caught wholesale by 
laying sheets of paper on the ground and shaking the tree. 
AA'liere only a few are seen, hand-picking should be resorted to. 



ENEMIES. OF ROSES. 67 

Syringing with tobacco-water is also effectual. The male fly 
has antennae, which, when magnified, resemble stag's horns, 
hence their popular name. 

Caddice Sawlly {Lyda inanita^—l^aSs, is a less common 
enemy, but one easily recognised by its effects. The female 
lays its eggs on the leaves, and the young larva when hatched 
commences to roll itself in a case formed bv a strip of the rose 





Rose Caddice Sawfly and Lakv^. 



leaf wound roimd and round its body. When full grown the 
larva detaches itself from the case and falls to the ground, 
where it burrows, and remains in the pupal state till the 
following spring. Hand-picking is the best remedy. 

Tenthredo cincta is another sawfly responsible for rose 
shoots withering at times. The eggs are laid on the young 
shoots, and, when hatched, the larvae work their way inwards 
to the pith, which they feed upon As they feed they work 
downwards until they reach the hard portion of the stem, by 
which time they are full grown Here they make a cell for 
themselves, and change into pupse and remain till the spring. 
The only remedy is to remove and burn the affected shoots. 

Leaf-Cuttingf Bee {Megachile centuncularis). — This bee pro- 
duces a similar spoliation of the foliage to the antler sawfly. 
It very carefully nips ovit of the edges of the leaves circular 
pieces, with which it builds its nest. It does its work neater 



68 



CULTIVATED ROSES. 



and with more exactness than the sawfly, and makes no per- 
forations. The best remedy is to catch the bee with a butterfly 
net. It possesses a sting. 




Leap-Cutting Bee (see previous pacje). 

Rose Grub Moth {Didijopteryx Bergmanmana). — The cater- 
pillar of this moth is the pest which appropriates to itself the 
nse of, usually, the three terminal leaflets on rose leaves. This 
it dcies liy glueing them together. If disturbed, out it drops, 
siispended Ijy a slender thread, up which — if nothing happens 
— it returns. The moth resulting from this pest is a small 
yellowish one. Squeezing the caterpillar while yet between the 
leaves is the simplest remedy. 

Ants. — These, though they do not directly injure plants 
generally, yet in an indirect way often prove pests. Ants, as 
is well known, take great care of aphides, and may often be seen 



ENEMIES OF ROSES. 



69 



carrying the young ones to pastures new, so that they are 
leagued with the gardeners' and with the rosarians' greatest 
enemy. A sticky sweet liquid, called honey-dew, secreted by 
the aphides, constitutes their attraction for ants, who feed upon 
it. Cases have also been observed where rose blooms have 
been, as it were, saturated with this honey-dew, and have been 
eaten entirely by ants. The remedy is obvious ; if there are 
no aphides there will be no ants. Vigorous syringing with 
water or quassia solution will disturb the ants and cause them 
to go elsewhere, while if their nest or runs can be traced, 
paraffin may be poiired over them. 

Lackey Moth {Glisiocampa neustria). — This pest does not 
confine itself to the rose, being very frequent on fruit trees. 
The moth lays its eggs in avitixmn in circles round the branches. 




Lackey Moth and Laeva. 



forming, as it were, a bracelet about half an inch in depth. 
From these, black hairy caterpillars hatch out in spring and 
form for themselves a web-nest from which they make excur- 
sions for the purpose of feeding on the leaves. When full- 
grown they separate for the pairpose of changing into the 
chrysalis state. Wherever the eggs are seen they should be 
destroyed, likewise the caterpillar nests. 

Winter Moth {Gheimatohia brumata). — This is another moth 
whose larvse are not confined by any means to roses, but are 
very destructive to fruit trees. The caterpillar lives on the 
leaves, some of which it very lightly joins together with a web. 



70 



CULTIVATED ROSES. 



The male and female moths are very dissimilar, the latter 
having only nidimentary wings, and can only crawl about. 
They appear in late antnmn or early winter, and the female 
crawls np the stem of the plants or trees for the purpose of laying 





WiNTEK Moth and Larva {.see previous page). 

eggs. Standards maj- be protected by binding round the stems 
a band of grease-proof paper about a foot from the ground, and 
smearing this with cart-grease, tar, or some other adhesive. 
Infested bushes should be treated with the paraffin emulsion 
advised for aphides. 

Rose Beetle (Ceionia aurata). — This is a handsome beetle, 
being bright green shaded with rich gold, and about three- 
quarters of an inch in length. It may often be seen flying 
round and over rose blooms during summer, or else engaged 
in tearing the petals in its effort to get at the stamens and 
pollen. White and light coloured roses are greater favourites 
with it than dark ones. Hand-picking of the beetles is the 





RcisE Chafer Beetle and L.irva. 



only effectual remedJ^ The larvfc does no damage, as they 
feed only on decaying vegetable matter. 

Bedeguar Gall Fly {Cynipn rosw). — Most people have 
observed what appear to bo small bunches of moss enclosing 



ENEMIES OF ROSES. 




Bedeguak Gall. 



^^ 



a 








Bedeguak Gall Fly, Chkys/ilis and Lakva. 



CULTIVATED ROSES. 



rose shoots on wild and sometimes garden roses. These are 
galls, and known as the Bedoguar Gall or Eose Bedegnar. In 
summer they are green, but change on tlic approach of autunm 
to red. They contain grubs or maggots, which change to 
pupae in the gall and emerge as small flies the following spring. 
The galls are produced liy the irritation and stoppage to tlie flow 
of sap owing to the insertion of eggs in the bark of young- 
shoots by the fly, but why the growth should take the pecidiar 
and pretty form it does is not exactly known. Their presence 
is objectionable on garden roses, as the shoots are unable to 
grow j)roperly, and should be cut off before the fly emerges. 




8J-S5- 



FROGHorPER (Aphrophora sphmaria). 

Referhnces. — (I, Cuckoo-spit on Branch ; h. Perfect Insect Flying ; 

r, Larva; d. Perfect In.sect ; Lines represent natural size. 

Froghopper or Cuckoo Spit {Aphrophora spumaria). — The 
presence of this insect is easily recognised by the little masses 



ENEMIES OF ROSES. 73 

of froth adhering to the branches of roses and other shruhs, 
grass, etc. If this be brushed or washed away, a pale yellow 
or green insect is seen ; this is the larva of the froghopper, 
a brown insect seen in antumn, and which, if touched, jumps 
to an incredible distance. The larva produces its frothy 
covering from the sap of the plant on which it feeds. A good 
syringing will get rid of the larvoe. 

Red Spider {Acarus lellarius). — This pest is more prevalent 
indoors than out, though not by any means confined there. It 
is an extremely minute object of a red colour, and is hardly 
discernible to the naked eye. It feeds on the under sides of 
the leaves, which turn to a yellowish colour, and if very badly 




Red Spider. 

infested drop off. It flourishes best in hot and dry quarters, 
and its greatest enemy is damp and cold water. Plants which 
are effected should be well syringed with clear, cold water daily 
until the enemy is eradicated. 

Scale {Kermes Roses). — This pest puts in an appearance if 
indoor roses are very much neglected. It is a tiny pale- 
coloured or brown insect, which lies close to the bark and sucks 
out the juice. It does not move except in a young state. The 
dead females form a nest in which the young ones are hatched. 
Sj'ringing with insecticides will kill the young scale, but the 
older ones must be removed with a blunt stick or by means of 
an old tooth-brush. 



74 CULTIVATED ROSES. 

Thrips {Thrips lemorrhoidalis). — This is a small white or 
black insect affecting the lower surfaces of the foliage of roses 
grown under glass. It causes the leaves to turn yellow, and 




Thkips. 

if such are turned over the pest will be seen, often accompanied 
with little black dots of excrement. Fumigating or sponging 
with soft soap and water is the best remedy. 



DISEASES. 

Anthracnose {Oloeoiporium rosarvtn, iZaZs.).- AVheu a rese 
is badly infested with this fungus the leaves are small and 
pale, and the canes die at the tips. Sometimes the stems may 
be dead for a foot or nun-e from the extremity. Not infre- 
quently one liraneli will be dead clear to the base, and some- 
times t\\o or more are thus destroyed. The dead twigs show 
pimples C[uite evenly distributed <n'er the surface, and from 
some a minute, often curved, horn of a reddish colour protrudes. 
AVhen such stems are placed in a moist chamber, the whole 
decaying surface becomes closely coA'ered with numerous, almost 
brick-red, masses of spores, and the disease spreads rapidly 
through the adjoining parts of the twigs that seemed healthy 
when placed in the moist chambei'. The rapidity with which 
tlie fuug\is wmdd spread was a subject of surprise. In four 



ENEMIES OF ROSES. 75 

days from the time spores were introduced into sterilized 
sections of rose twigs in test tubes, the whole of the culture 
would be covered with the spore masses. This anthracnose 
appears to be new, in that it has not been before studied 
microscopically. 

The Black Spot {Actinonema Jioste, IV.). — The Black 
Spot is a very widespread and conspicuous disease of the rose, 
first described in 1826, now known in many countries and often 
much dreaded. The foliage when attacked soon develops the 
characteristic black spots, and the leaves becoming elsewhere 
pale shortly fall to the ground. As a result rose houses badly 
infested with the black spot show bvit few leaves and fewer 
blooms. This pest may be held in check by the carbonate 
of copper compound, using three ounces of carbonate of copper, 
one quart of ammonia, and fifty gallons of water. The spray- 
ing should be done once a week, using a hose and a nozzle that 
gives a fine spray. The point should be to wet every part of 
the plant and yet not drench it. If many leaves have fallen 
from the plants they should be gathered up and burned. As 
with many other diseases, some varieties are more liable to the 
black spot than others. When possible — that is, when all other 
things remain the same — it is, of couree, wise to grow those 
least susceptible to the disease. 

Canker. — This is a disease which of late years has proved 
exceedingly troublesome to growers of the Mar^chal Niel rose. 
The lower part of the stems should frequently be examined, 
and as soon as shrinkage or swelling is observed, cut a little of 
the bark away to see if it is decaying. The earliest form of 
canker is a shrinkage in the bark, caused by a fungoid disease, 
which keeps spreading until it gets all around the stem, then 
the part above it dies. But before this takes place, a swelling 
of a warty appearance forms just above it; this is caused by the 
descending sap being stopped in its downward course ; it seems 
to be trying to make a growth to cover the wound, but, of 
course, cannot do so. All this knotty excrescence, also the 
shrinkage, should be cut away, and also all decayed wood and 
bark ; sometimes there will be dark narrow streaks running 
some 'distance beyond, these must be followed up until every 
portion is cut away. Then dress the wound with either Bor- 
deaux mixture, sulphate of iron, two ounces dissolved in a 
gallon of water ; or sulphide of potassium one ounce to twelve 
gallons of water. If none of these are at hand, rub the part 



76 CULTIVATED ROSES. 

well with flower of sulphur. After (whichever is used) make a 
poultice of equal parts clay and cow manure and bind round 
the wound. The summer is the best time for the operation, 
as the wound heals over much more quickly then. 

Mildew {Sphmrotheca pannosa, Wallr.) — One of the oldest 
troubles of the rose grower is the mildew. This develops very 
suddenly on the foliage in the greenhouse or outside it, giving the 
leaves a powdery appearance, and causing them to become more 
or less misshapen. In a mild form the foliage may be only mealy, 
hut frequently the surfaces become uneven and the whole leaf 
twisted. If left unheeded the enemy will ruin the plants 
attacked, and knowing this a remedy has been found and long 
applied in the shape of sprinkling the leaves with flowers of 
sulphiir. Another good remedy to get rid of the mildew is 
to close the house about eight o'clock in the evening, run 
the temperature up to 75 deg., then with a bellows fill the 
house full of sulphur, let the house remain closed until it 
reaches 85 to 90 deg., then admit air gradually. A constant 
circulation of air is likewise recommended for roses at all times. 
Potassium sulphide one ounce to two gallons of water sprayed 
upon the plants has proved an effective remedy. Rosarians, 
from long experience, have come to the belief that rose mildew 
is induced by a weak condition of the plant, resulting from 
partial starvation, irregular or excessive watering, and undue 
exposure to draughts of cold air. The best successes in rose 
growing, as in all other things, attends those who give constant 
intelligent care to the manv details. 

Downy Mildew {P'-mnospora xpursi', Btrk.). — Some rose 
growers are troubled with a second form of mildew which 
differs in many ways from the one just mentioned. It is 
less easy to detect, and being more deeply seated may do 
greater damage before detected than the powdery mildew. 
It is likewise less easy to eradicate, because it thrives within 
the substance, while the sphterotheca feeds superficially. The 
Peronospora sparsa is a close relative of many of the most 
serious mildews, as those of the grape, onion, lettuce, spinach, 
and the potato disease. The treatment for this is the same 
as for the anthracnose to be mentioned later. 

Rose Rust {Phragmidium mueronatum, Wint.). — The genuine 
rust of the rose, similar to the rust of wheat, oats, and 
other grasses, is not common in our section of the country 



ENEMIES OF RORES: 77- 

upon indoor roses. It is not unlikely that it may become 
a pest here as it now is in California and other States in the 
Union. Those who are familiar with the rust of the black- 
berry need no further words of general description of this 
fangus. It produces a mass of orange-coloared spores on 
the foliage. There is very little to be said in the way of 
treatment save that of cutting and burning all affected 
plants. 

ANIMAL PESTS. 

Eel Worms. — One of the leading reasons for the many 
complaints made by rose growers during the past year is a 
microscopic worm that works principally at and in the roots. 
These worms are in outline like that of an ordinary eel, and 
under the microscope arc seen in almost constant motion. 




They cause an enlargement of certain parts of the roots, and by 
means of these galls or knots are easily detected with the naked 
eye when the plant is removed from the soil and carefully- 
washed of the adhering earth. 

The term nematodes is also given to the eel worms, but 
whatever the name they go by there is no doubt about their 
injuriousness. The point that most interests rose growers 
is how to get rid of the pest. In order to do this it will be 
of much assistance to know where the worms come from, 
how they propagate, and get into the roots of the infested 
plants. These eel worms are much more abundant than 
generally supposed, arid it is only wheij they get numerous 
that their mischief becomes apparent. "The nematodes are, 
as a rule, much more abundant in warm climates than else- 
where, and the unusual abundance of these pests in northern 
gardens for the past two years is likely due to the lack of 
freezing of the soil. The greenhouse furnishes the proper 

g2 



78 CULTIVATED ROSES. 

conditions for the propagation of the eel worms provided they 
are there to begin with. This naturally raises the question 
of how they first get into the bed. This may be in one or 
more of several ways. They may be already in the roots of 
the plants, but in small numbers when the plants are placed 
in the house. To guard against this, the roots should be 
examined as closely as possible for the galls when the beds 
are set. All galled roses should be excluded. The nematodes 
may come in with the earth. 

As before stated, the worms infest a large number of kinds 
of plants, and it is an easy matter for them to come with 
the soil. Soil that has not been used for growing plants in 
the garden is not necessarily free, but may, if taken from 
a pasture or meadow, contain many nematodes. Then, again, 
they may be taken with the manure that is used. Just 
what may prove to be the best precautions remains for the 
practical rose grower to determine. Cold in excess will 
probably destroy the worms, and likewise a high temperature 
is fatal to them. 

It is possible that some substance may be put upon the 
soil that, while not injuring the roses, may kill the worms 
not already in the plants. Lime has been thus used, and 
with favourable results. Sprinkle the lime upon the surface 
of the bed, or better, mix it with the soil, and each watering 
will tend to bring it in contact with the tender bodies of the 
worms. It is not unlikely that some of the fertilizer com- 
pounds may be found that, at the same time they furnish food 
for the plants, will deal a death-blow to the nematodes. 
Kainit may thus prove an efficient remedy, and it only 
remains for some enterprising rosarian to take the matter in 
hand. 




GLOSSAR V. 79 



GLOSSARY. 



Following are explanations of the principal terms used in 
these pages : — 

Bud. — When used in connection with the operation of 
pruning, this term has a similar meaning to that of " eye," 
which see. 

Climbers. — Eoses with long shoots, budded or grafted near 
roots — dwarfs ; or on briar stems — standards. 

Disbudding^. — This signifies the removal of superfliious 
shoots or flower buds. Thus, in May, rosarians often rub 
off weakly young shoots of no use for bearing flowers ; and 
in June remoYe all small or under-sized flower buds where 
fine blooms are required. 

Dwarfs. — A term applied to roses budded or grafted close 
to the roots of the stock. 

Exhibition Roses. — Varieties that bear perfectly formed 
flowers and of excellent quality, but not necessarily in quantity. 
Some sorts are good alike for garden decoration and exhibition 
purposes. 

Extra Vigorous. — Very strong growing roses. 

Eye. — A term frequently used by rosarians to indicate the 
dormant growth buds on the shoots of a rose. This and the 
word "bud" are synonymous terms when used in connection 
with the operation of pruning. 

Free. — A term applied to roses that make a well-pro- 
portioned, healthy, and fairly vigorous growth. 

Qarden Roses. — Any free-flowering, showy kinds that 
will make a good display in beds or borders, and afford 
abundance of flowers for cutting for indoor decoration. 

Half-Standards. — Eoses similar to standards, but with a 
shorter stem. 

Medium. — Eoses that make small shoots and do not attain 
a large size. 



80 CULTIVATED ROSES. 

Moderate. — Roses that make growth about midway between 
medium and vigorous. 

Mulching. — Placing a layer of decayed manure on the 
surface of the soil for the double purpose of feeding the roots 
and conserving the moisture in the soil, i jMulohing is of special 
value on light soils. 

Own-Root Roses. — Eoses not propagated by grafting or 
budding, but by cuttings or seed. 

Pegged Down Roses. — Roses planted in beds and having 
not more than four of the previous year's shoots bent down 
to within a foot of the earth. Each shoot to be secured by 
a stout hooked peg. Peg down the shoots in March, and cut 
off tips at same time. During summer allow young shoots 
to grow up in centre of plant. In October cut off close to 
young shoots, those shoots which have borne flowers. 

Pergolas. — Rough stems or branches of trees arranged 
so as to form a picturesque archway, over which free-growing 
roses may ramble. 

Pillar Roses. — Roses with long erect shoots capable of 
being loosely trained up a post or pillar. Example : Amadis. 

Rambling Roses. — Roses with long flexible shoots, capable 
of growing without artificial support over tree-stumps, etc. 
Example ; Dundee Rambler. 

Robust. — Uinusually strong growiirg roses. 

Rooteries. — Roots and stumps of trees arranged in a 
picturesque fashion, with climbing roses rambling over them. 

Scion. — The shoot or bud to be united by budding or 
grafting to the shoot or stem of another plant called the stock. 

Standards. — Roses budded on stems of dog rose or briar, 
and with a clear stem of three or more feet. 

Stock. — A plant to which a shoot or bud is attached by 
the process of grafting or budding. 

Suckers. — Shoots issuing from the roots of roses. Those 
issuing from roots of grafted or budded roses should be 
promptly removed; but those proceeding from own-root 
roses may remain to bear flowers. 

Vigorous. — A term applied to roses that make strong 
growth each season. 

Weeping Roses. — Roses budded on a tall briar stem, and 
having long, drooping shoots. Example : Gracilis. 







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Duke of York Ghina 
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Lemon wh. 
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Soft white 
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1881 
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Madame Alpli. Lavallue //, /' 
,, Alphonsu Scux H.l'. 
,, Aniadieu Tea 
,, Anatole Leroy H.P. 
,, Andr^ Leroy H.P. 
,, Angelina Bour. 
,, Antoinet. Chretiens'. P. 
,, Angele Jacquier Tea 
,, Auguste Perrin P. Ifoi.s. 
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„ Badin Tea 
,, Baron 'Voillard Bonr. 
„ Barthelemy Levet Tea 
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„ Bellon H.P. 
,, BcIIenden Ker Bour. 
„ Benoist H.P. 
,, Benoit Desroches Tea 
,, Benoit Riviere Tea 
„ Berard Tea 
,, Bernard Tia 
„ Bornutz H.P. 
„ Bertrand //./'. 
,, Bcssonncau Tea 
„ Bijou //./'. 
,, Boegner H.P. 
, Bois H.P. 
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Rosy flesh 
Rosy white 
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Currant red 
Deep rose 
Salmon rose 
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1884 
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1886 
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„ Dellespaul Tea 
„ Dellevaux H.P. 
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„ Delville H.P. 
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„ de RochetontaineSo?(r6. 
„ Derouet H.P. 
„ de St. Joseph Tea 
„ Desbordeaux H.P. 
„ Devoncout Tea 
„ de Selve H.P. 
„ de S^vign^ Bourb. 
„ D&ir H.P. 
„ D&ir^Giraud H.P. 
„ Desseilligny Tea 
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,, de Tartas Tea 
,, de Terrouenne H.P, 
,, de Vatry Tea 
„ de Watteville Tea 
„ Derepas Matrat Tea 
„ Devert H.P. 





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Medium siza 
Small, cluster 
Small, cluster 
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Tender 
Large, full 
Large, sweet 
Large, full 
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Med. Apr. 
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Med. Mar. 

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Moderate 
Vigorous 
Vigorous 
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Satin rose Vigorous 
Cham. yell. Extra vig. 
Yell., carm. Vigorous 
Silvery rose Vigorous 
Dr., apricot Free 
Sal. white j Vigorous 
Amar'th rd. Vigorous 
Clear red Free 
Rosy carm. , Vigorous 
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White, yell. Vigorous 
Orange yell. Vigorous 
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Pale flesh '. Free 
Creamy ro. Vigorous 
Sulphur yel. Moderate 
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Silv. pink Extra vig. 
Salmon yel. Vigorous 
Bright rose Moderate 


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Cop. red, ro. 
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1878 
1878 


1878 
1883 

1858 
1883 

1882 
1888 

1862 
1892 
1860 

1877 
1870 
1876 


idame Etienne Levet H. T. 
, Eug^neChambeyran.ff.P 
, Eugene Mallet Nois. 
, Eugene Resal C%ima 
, Eugtoe SebiUe H.P. 
, Eugene Verdier 

(Guillot) ' H.P. 
, Eugene Verdier 

(E. Verdier) H.P. 
, Eugene Verdier Tea 
■ Eugteie BouUet H.T. 
, Eugenie Fremy JI.P. 
, Faloot Tea 
, Fanny de Forest P.N. 
, Fanconnier H.P. 
, F. Brassao Tea 
F. Bruel H.P. 
, B'erdinand Jamin H.P. 
, Francisque Morel Tea 
, Fran9oi3 Janiu H.P. 
, Francois Pittet Jfois. 
, Frederic Weiss Poly. 
, Freeman Tea 
, Frenlou Tea 
, Furtado Tea 
, Furtado H.P. 
, Gabriel Luizet H.P. 
, Gaillard Tea 
, Galli-Marie H.P. 




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Maurice Rouvier Tea 
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May Quennell H.P. 
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Melanie Lemari^ China- 
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Melanie Willermoz Tea 
Melville Tea 
Mercedes Prov. 
Mercedes Everg. 
M^re de St. Louis H.P. 
Merrie England H.P. 
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Praire du Ternoir H.P. 
Preciosa H.T. 
Prefet Limbourg H.P. 
Prefet Rivaux H.P. 
Premier Esaai Bug. 
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„ Constant Tea 

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„ Gr^vy n.P. 

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,, Joachim Crespo H.P. 

„ Lenaertes H.P. 

„ h6on de St. Jean H.P. 

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„ Thiers H.P. 

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P. Riffiaut Tea 
Pride of Reigate H.P. 
Pride of Waltham //. P. 







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Sceur des Anges H.P. 
Sojur S^verin Tea 
Sophie Coquerelle H.P. 
Sophie de Marsilly P.A[. 
Sophie de laVilleboinetiT.P. 
Sophie Fropot H. P. 
Sophie Stern H.P. 
Soupert et Notting P.M. 
Souvenir d'A. Lincoln H.P. 

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Extia sweet 
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Good foim 
Good form 
Globular 
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Dwarf Beds 
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„ de Victor VerdierS'.P. 
„ de William Wood IT. P. 
„ de Wootton H.'J. 
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,, du Capt.des Marc H.P. 
„ du Dr. Jamin H. P. 
„ du Dr. Passot Tea 
,, du Gen. Charreton Tea 


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Spectabilis A yr. 
Spenser H. P. 
Splendens Ayr. 
Spiniosissima S R. 
Spong Prov. 
Stan well Perpetual P.S . 
Star of Waltham H.P. 
St. George H.P. 
Stephanie Charreton H. P. 
Sulphureux Tea 
Sultan of Zanzibar H.P. 
Sunset Tea 
Surpass6 Tout Gall. 
Suzanne Bouyer H.P. 



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SYNONYMS. 



157 



SYNONYMS. 



Ik the preceding list several varieties are prefixed by an 
asterisk. This denotes that the particular variety indicated 
thus has one or more other names by which it is known. These, 
together with additional varieties not so marked in the 
schedule, we give in the following list : — 



PROPER NAME. 

Abel Carrik-e 

Adam 

Alba Rosea 

Alfred Colomb 

Avocat Duvivier 

Baron de Bonatetten 
Belle de Bordeau 

Charles Lefebvre 

Cloth of Gold 

Comtesse de Choiseul 

Due de Rohan 

Duchesse de Caylus 
Duke of Wellington 

Dulce Bella 

Eugenie Verdier 

Fortune's Yellow 

Grand Mogul 
Jean Ducher 

Lady Mary Pitz-William .. 

Lelia ... 

Marie Baumann 

Maurice Bernardin 

Mrs. Harkness 
Mrs. W. J. Grant ... 
Prince Camille de Rohan . 
Souvenir de S. A. Prince . 
Unique Blanche 



Quoted in error. 
PrSsident. 

{Josephine Malton. 
Madame Bravy. 
Madame de Serlot. 
f Marshall P. Wilder. 
\ Wilhelm Koelle. 

Marshal Vaillant. 

Monsieur Boncemie. 

L' Enfant Troum. 
I Marguerite Braxsac. 
\ Paul Jamain. 

Chroniatella. 

Marie Rady. 

itrs. Jotoett. 

Penelope Mayo. 

HosiMste Jacobs. 

Dr. Grill. 

Marie Finger 

Beauty of fllaztmrood. 

Jean Soupert. 

Rvby Gold. 
f Lady Alice. 
\ Princess A lice, 

Louise Pegronny, 

Madame LavalUe. 

1 Exposition, de Brie. 
Ferdinand de Lesseps. 
Sir Garnet Wolseley. 
Pavl's Early Blush, 
Belle iiebreehl. 
La Bosie're. 
The Queen, 
Unique, de Provence, 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



l)eu) Roses a Specialitp- 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦■ 



. Rose firowers Know . 

how greatly new Varieties 
vary in Price, and will , , 
recognise how difficult / J^ i 
it is to quote in a ^ >■■ 

standard work. 




f 



^ 



Will be pleased to 

post a Catalogue, and 

give Special Prices for 

both old and new varieties 

upon application. 



ADVERTISEMENTS, 



Salisbury Roses. 

KEYNES' HEALTHY. STURDY PLANTS. 

Being raised in a soil peculiarly adapted to the production 
of an abundance of fibrous roots, and not specially fed for 
exhibition, these thrive where others fail. 

OVER 100,000 GROWN EVERY YEAR. 

Roses of all Kinds-OLD and NEW. 
Roses-for Cutting. 

Roses— for Garden Decoration. 
Roses— for Climbing. 
Roses— for Beds. 
Roses— for Forcing. 



Send a Post Card for Illustrated Catalogue. 



KEYNES.WILLIAMS&Co., 

The Nurseries, SALISBURY. 

Established i6o years. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



ROSES! 






ROSES! 






ROSES! 



THE BEST AND CHEAPEST IN THE WORLD. 



12 ACRES OF ROSES. 



100,000 Magnificent Plants to Select from. 
ROSES A SPECIALITY. 

THOUSANDS OF UNSOLICITED TESTIMONIALS. 
DESCRIPTIVE CATALOQUE FREE ON APPLICATION. 



ADBBESS- 



JAME5 WALTERS, 

Ro$e Grower and Durserptnati, 
Mount Radford Nurseries, 

EXETER, DEVON. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



DICKSON'S 

WORLD - FAMED 

IRISH PEDIGREE SEEDLING ROSES 

Have been awarded Twolve GoM Medals by the National 
Rose Society, 



jllex. Dickson ^ Sons 

Are the only Raisers whose introductions have received 
SUCH great distinction. 



The following superb varieties are now ofTered for the first time : 

ULSTER (H.P.), awarded Gold Medal; BESSIE BROWN (H.T.J, awarded 

Qold Medal and Silver MedaU ; SHANDON (H.T.) ; and Mrs. EDWARD 

MAWLEY (Tea) awarded Gold Medal, N.R.S. 

DESCRIPTIONS ON APPLICATION. 



DICKSON'S '^^'-'^^^^sl^ .'I'"" 

Give the utmost satisfaction, owing to their great hardiness, vigour, and 
abundance of fibrous roots, 

FLOURISHING WHERE OTHERS HAVE FAILED. 

These world-famed Roses received the highest award at the World's Fair, 
Chicago, 1894, and have been winners of numerous First Prizes, Gold 
Medals, and Challenge Cups at the leading shows in the United Kingdom. 
The Rose Grounds at the Newtownards Nurseries and Ledbury are 
amongst the most extensive in the world, while the collection is the most 
complete, consisting of 

250»000 Standarast Dwarfs, cnmbers, $c., 

OF THE BEST QUALITY. 



Descriptive Catalogue Free on application. 

Royal Nurseries, Newtownards, co. Down 

AND UPLANDS, LEDBURY, HEREFORDSHIRE. 

.ESTABLISHED 1836. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 




95 Highest Awards. Gold Medals 
from all the principal exhibitions. 

ICHTHEMIC 6DAN0 

ADJUDGKD by the most eminent growers through- 
out the World 

THE MOST RELIABLE, 

THE RICHEST FOOD, and 
THE MOST NATURftL FERTILISER 

FOR EVERY FORM OF GROWTH . 

Send for Book, " All about Ichthemic'' by the late 
Dr. Taylor, F.G.S., GRATIS AND POST FREE. 

This GUANO, for the convenience of small users, 
is put up in handsome enamelled Tins at 6d. and 
iB. ; sealed bags, 7 lbs., 2«. 6d. ; 14 Ibl., 4s. 6d. ; 
carriage forward. Larger bags, 28 lbs., 7fl. 6d. ; 
56 lbs., 12s. 6d. ; I cwt., 20s., carriage paid. 

May be obtained from the principal Nurserymen, 
Seedsmen, Florists, and Chemists, or DIRECT OF 

WMi COLCHESTER) xiToi^AirD. 

Skipping Depdts all aver the Worlds 



Price Sixpence, Post Free. 

GUIDE TO 

PRINTING # PUBLISHING. 

A Manual of Information to Authors 

AND OTHERS ON 

Printing, Publishing, Binding, and Copyright of 
Books, Pamphlets, &c. 



MAONG THE CONTENTS, CHAPTERS ON THE FOUOW/NQ SUBJECTS 
ARE GIVEN; 



Methods of Publishing. 

Manuscript or " Copy." 

To Ascertain Size of Book from MS. 

Literary Assistance. 

Choice of Type. 

Stereotyping and Electrotyping. 

Copyright. 

How to Correct Printer's Proofs. 



Typographical Marks Explained. 
Sizes of Type and Illustrations. 
Choice of Size and Quality of Paper. 
Binding, Covers, and Wrappers. 
Advertising and Sale. 
Publisher's Commission. 
Specimens of Wood Engraving, 
Photo Process Work, &c., &c. 



W. H. & L. COLUNGRIDGE, City Press, 148 & 149, Aldersgate 
Street, London, E.C, 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Price One Shilling. Crown 8vo, Cloth Boards. 
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CYCLE i REPAIRING. 

A HANDY MANUAL 

FOR 

Cycle Dealers, Ironmongers, Assistants, 
Mechanics, &g. 

FULLY ILLUSTRATED WITH UPWARDS OF 100 DESCRIPTIVE DESIGNS. 

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Price One Shilling, Post Free. 

THE ART OF TICKET WRITING. 

A COMPLETE GUIDE 

For the AMATEUR in the 

Production of Tickets, SViowbllis, &c.. Profusely Illustrated. 

By a Professional Ticket ^Vriter. 

Amongst ike Contents will be found Chapters en 
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Cutting.— Ticket Ink's ; How to Select and Mix ; Gum, Varnish, &c.— Gilding, Silver- 
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Ruling, Outlining, Arrangement of Colours.— Holland Blinds.— Paper Letters.— 
Mounts and Mount Cutting Materials, &c., &c., &c. 

London : Office of the *' Warehouseman & Draper,'' 148 & 149, Aldersgate 
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MONTHLY, PRICE SIXPENCE. Annual Subscription, 6s. Post Free. 

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And PROTESTANT BEACON. 

THIS, the OLDEST OF ALL THE RELIGIOUS PERIODICALS, 
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sincerity and truth, let their denominational distinctions be what they 
may. It was edited by the late Rev. D. A. DoUDNEY, D.D., for more 
than fifty-three years. 



THE GOSPEL MAGAZINE VOLUME, containing Twelve 

Months' Numbers, neatly bound in Cloth, Price 7s. 6d. 
Cases for Binding the Gospel Magazine, Cloth lettered, is. 

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and may be had of a^ Booksellers. 

. .IRONMONGERY, . 

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Published Monthly, 



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