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Pnrc : Five Skill 


Btatt College of ^grtculture 
^t Cornell Wlmbztsit^ 



The Queensland flora: 

3 1924 003 539 438 

Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 











ini ,. 1899, 


BABpek's Buildings, Efci^^BETH stbeet, EBispAptij, 


The issue o£ the " Synopsis of the Queensland Flora " having for some 
time been exhausted, it has been deemed advisable to publish another and 
more complete work concerning the plants of the Colony. This will be 
issued in six parts, and each part will be accompanied by a few litho- 
graphic plates. Part I., now issued, contains the Orders Eanunculacea) 
to AnaeardiacesB. 

The arrangement is that of Bentham and Hooker's " Genera 
Plantarum." Where plants are described in the " Flora Australiensis " 
such descriptions are reproduced in full, with any needful further 
descriptive notes which may have come to our knowledge since. In all 
cases where Mb. Bentham gave notes of the genera or species such notes 
I have considered far too important to leave out, so they will be found 
generally intact. 

The explanation of systematic names, and the inclusion of aboriginal 
and local names will doubtless prove acceptable ; and it is hoped that 
the notes upon the economic and other properties will be found of 
service. The authorities and references have been curtailed to little more 
than works dealing with Australian plants. In a large number of cases 
the names of works in which illustrations of certain plants may be found, 
have been quoted ; and frequent references will be found to fungus 
blights which have been observed upon the plants. With regard to 
the localities where each plant has been found, only a few are recorded 
for plants having a wide range, and seldom other than the names of the 
earlier collectors are given. 

As in most works of this kind the right to republish Mb. Bentham's 
excellent "Outlines of Botany" has been acquired from Messes. L. 
Eeeve & Co., of London. 

The naturalised plants will be found numbered in with the 

indigenous species, but will be marked with an asterisk by way of 

distinction. Several strays from cultivation, which at present can 

scarcely be considered as naturalised, are also included. 

T)ecemher, 1899. 


To face page 
Plate I. — Legnephora Moorii ... ... .. .. ... ... •• •■ •• 29 

(A portion of a branch of the male plant in flower) 
Fig. 1, a pedioellated male flower ; Fig. 2, the same, expanded, both natural size ; Fig. 3, 
the same magnified ; Fig. 4, the bract of the pedicels ; Fig. 5, the three outer sepals ; 
Fig. 6, the three inner sepals ; Fig. 7, the six petals ; Fig. 8, the six stamens, all 
magnified to the same scale ; Fig. 9, a petal in diilerent positions, showing the gland 
on its margins ; Fig. 10, a stamen in different positions, before and after dehiscence, 
all more Tnagnified, 

Plate II. — Legnephora Moorii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 

(A portion of a branch of the female plant in flower and in fruit) 

Fig. 11, a female flower on its bracteolated pedicel, nataral size; F'g. 12, the bracteole, 
magnified; Fig. 13, the three outer sepals; Fig. 14, the three inner sepals; 
Pig. 15, the six sterile stamens ; Fig. 16, the three ovaries, all magnified to the 
same scale ; Fig. 17, a sterile stamen ; Fig. 18, an ovary, showing the form of the 
stigma, both more magnified ; Fig. 19, a drupe, seated on the receptacle, from which 
the two others hav,e fallen ; Fig. 20, its putamen ; Fig. 21, the same, seen edgeways, 
all natural size ; Fig. 22, the putamen, seen on its face, showing the three series of 
imbricating, laciniated, flat, pergameneous scales which surround the flat, concave, 
scutiform condyle ; Fig. 23, the same, shown endways, both magnified ; Fig. 24, one 
of the scales, seen in front and edgeways, TTiore magnified ; Fig 26, a cross section of 
the putamen, showing the seed and the hollow between the two plates of the 
condyle along the sutural line of division ; Fig. 26, inner view of half the putamen, 
• showing the hippocrepiform cell of the seed and the groove from the basal hilum to 
the point of the attachment of the seed, at its sinus between the plates of the 
condyle ; Pig. 27, the seed extracted ; Fig. 28, a cross section of the same, showing 
the embryo imbedded in albumen, all equally magnified. All from Micrs' Contri- 
butions, iii pi. 129. 

Plate III. — Paohygone longifolia . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . 34 

Pig. 1, leaf ; Fig. 2. whole drupe ; Pig. 3, inside view of same; Fig. 4, endocarp, outside 

Plate IV. — Pittosporum setigerum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 

(Flowering branch, expanded flower and bud, stamen, and calyx and ovary) 
Plate V. — Saurauja Andreana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 106 

(ITlowering branch and expanded flower) 
Plate VI. — Sterculia Garraways.. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. 136 

(Leaf, flower and fruit) 

Plate VII.- -Sterculia vitifolia .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. 137 

(Leaf, flower and fruit) 

Plate VIII. — Asterolasia Woombye .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. X95 

(Flowering branch and expanded flower) 

Platis IX. — Geijera HelmsiEe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . 206 

Fig. 1, flowering branch; Fig. 2, flower, enlarged; Pig. 8, longitudinal section of flower, 
enlarged ; Fig. 4, anther, with portion of filament, enlarged j Fig. 5, stigma with 
portion of style, enlarged ; Pig. 6, transverse section of ovary, enlarged ; Pig. 7, 
open cocci, natural size ; Fig. 8, endocarp, natural size— From drawimi bv 
Mrs. B, Helms. 


Plate X. — Citrus inodora 

(Branchlet and fruit) 

Plate XI. — EhodosphBera rhodanthema ' 321 

Fig. 1, petal ; Pig. 2, gynfficium and stamens ; Pig. 3, longitudinal section of gynejcium ■ 
Fig. 4, drupe ; Fig. 5, longitudinal section of drupe ; Fig. 6, transverse section of 
drupe; Fig. 7, embryo— J^iom Engl, in A. and C, Dl. Mon. Phane.. iv nl xii 
Pig. 8, inflorescence. 

Plate XII. — Pleiogynium Solandri 324 

Fig. 1, flower-bud, with bracts ; Pig. 2, expanded flower seen from below ; Pig. 3, andrteoium 
with disk ; Pig. 4, anthers, seen from back and front ; Pig. 6, gynoeoium ■ Fig b' 
longitudinal section of same; Pig. 7, immature fruit ; Pig. 8, mature fruit ; Fig 9' 
longitudinal section; Pig. 10, transverse section— i?roTO Endl. in A. and C. Dl. Mon 
Phane., iv. pi. vu. Pig. 11, male inflorescence ; Pig. 12, female inflorescence, 


Outlines of Botany, with Special Eeiekence to Local Floeas 
Chap. I. Definitions and Desckiptive Botany 

§ 1. The Plant in General 

§ 2. The Koot . . 

§ 3. The Stock 

§ 4. The Stem 

§ 5. The Leaves 

5i 6. Scales, Bracts, and Stipules . . 

§ 7. Inflorescence and its Bracts 

§ S. The Flower in General 

§ 9. The Calyx and Corolla or Perianth . . 

§ 10. The Stamens 

§ 11. The Pistil 

§ 12. The Beceptaele and Kelative Attachment of the Floral Whorls 

§ 1.3. The Fruit 

§ 14. The Seed.. 

§ 15. Accessory Organs . . 
Chap. II. Classification, ok Systematic Botany 
Chap. III. Vegetable Anatomy and Physiology 

§ 1. Structure of the Elementary Tissues .. 

§ 2. Arrangement of the Elementary Tissues 

§ 3. Growth of the Organs 

§ 4. Funcbions of the Organs 
Chap. IV. Collection, Pbeseevation, and Deteumination or Plants 
Index of Tekms, ob Glossauy 
The Queensland Flora. 
Class I. Dicotyledons 
Subclass I. Polypetalas . . 
Order I. Ranunculaoese 

or Structure of the Organs 




















Bixineoe . . 


Order XII. 

Pittosporete . . 


Tremaudrese . . 








Portulaoeee . . 




HypericineEe . . 


Guttif ersB 






Sterculiaoese . . 








Zygophyllea3 .. 


Geraniaceffi . . 




Simarubeae . . 




Burseracese ... " 








Celastrineffi . . 






Ampelideffi . . 


Sapindaceffi . . 




































(Fkom Bentham's Flora Australiensis.) 

Chap. I. Definitions and Derckiptive Botany. 

1. The principal object of a Flora o£ a country, is to afford the means of determining (i.e. 
ascertaining the name of) any plant growing in it, whether for the purpose of ulterior study or of 
intellectual exercise. 

2. With this view, a Flora consists of descriptions of all the wild or native plants contained in 
the country in question, so drawn up and arranged that the student may identify with the 
corresponding description any individual specimen which he may gather. 

3. These descriptions should be clear, concise, accurate and characteristic, so as that each one 
should be readily adapted to the plant it relates to, and to no other one ; they should be as nearly 
as possible arranged under natural (184) divisions, so as to facilitate the comparison of each plant 
with those nearest allied to it ; and they should be accompanied by an artificial key or index, by 
means of which the student may be guided step by step in the observation of such peculiarities 
or characters in his plant, as may lead him, with the least delay, to the individual description 
belonging to it. 

4. For descriptions to be clear and readily intelligible, they should be expressed as much as 
possible in ordinary well-established language. But, for the purpose of accuracy, it is necessary 
not only to give a more precise technical meaning to many terms used more or less vaguely in 
common conversation, but also to introduce purely technical names for such parts of plants or 
forms as are of little importance except to the botanist. In the present chapter it is proposed to 
define such technical or technically limited terms as are made use of in these Floras. 

5. At the same time mathematical accuracy must not be expected. The forms and appear- 
ances assumed by plants and their parts are infinite. Names cannot be invented for all ; those 
even that have been proposed are too numerous for ordinary memories. Many are derived from 
supposed resemblances to well-known forms or objects. These resemblances are differently 
appreciated by different persons, and the same term is not only differently applied by two different 
botanists, but it frequently happens that the same writer is led on different occasions to give 
somewhat different meanings to the same word. The botanist's endeavours should always be, on 
the one hand, to make as near an approach to precision as circumstances will allow, and on the 
other hand to avoid that prolixity of detail and overloading with technical terms which tends 
rather to confusion than clearness. In this he will be more or less successful. The aptness of a 
botanical description, like the beauty of a work of imagination, will always vary with the style 
and genius of the author. 

§ 1. The Plant in General. 

6. The Plant; in its botanical sense, includes every being which has vegetable life, from the 
loftiest tree which adorns our landscapes, to the humblest moss which grows on its stem, to the 
mould or fungus which attacks our provisions, or the green scum that floats on our ponds. 

7. Every portion of a plant which has a distinct part ov function to perform in the operations 
or phenomena of vegetable life is called an Org'an. 

8. What constitutes vegetable life, and what are the functions of each organ, belong to Vegetable 
Physiology ; the microscopical structure of the tissues composing the organs, to Vegetable 
Anatomy ; the composition of the substances of which they are formed, to Vegetable Chemistry ; 
under Descriptive and Systematic Botany we have chiefly to consider the forms of organs, that 
is, their Morphology, in the proper sense of the term, and their general structure so far as it 
affects classification and specific resemblances and differences. The terms we shall now define 


belong chiefly to the latter branch of Botany, as being that which is essential for the investigation 
of the Flora of a country. We shall add, however, a short chapter on Vegetable Anatomy and 
Physiology, as a general knowledge of both imparts an additional interest to and facilitates the 
comparison of the characters and affinities of the plants examined. 

9. In the more perfect plants, their organs are comprised in the general terms Boot, 
Stem, Iieaves, Flowers, and Fruit. Of these the three first, whose function is to 
assist in the growth of the plant, are Organs of Vegetation ,- the flower and fruit, whose oHioe is 
the formation of the seed, are the Orgavx of Eeproduction. 

10. All these organs exist, in one shape or another, at some period of the life of most, if not all, 
/Joifprii!(/j)in)?f,s-, technically called j)ftffinof/fl»TOHs or plumerogamous plants : which all bear some 
kind of 'flower and fruit in the botanical sense of the term. In the lower classes, the ferns, 
mosses, fungi, moulds, or mildews, seaweeds, etc., called by botanists cry ptogamoiis plants,^ the 
flowers, the fruit, and not unfrequently one or more of the organs of vegetation, are either 
wanting, or replaced by organs so different as to be hardly capable of bearing the same name. 

11. The observations comprised in the following pages refer exclusively to the flowering or 
phffinogamous plants. The study of the cryptogamous classes has now become so complicated as 
to form almost a separate science. They are therefore not included in these introductory 
observations, nor, with the exception of ferns, in the present Flora. 

12. Plants are 

Monocarpic, if they die after one flowering- season. These include AnnuaU, which flower m 
the same year in which they are raised from seed ; and Biennials, which only flower in the year 
following that in which they are sown. 

Caulocarpic, if, after flowering, the whole or part of the plant lives through the winter and 
produces fresh flowers another season. These include Herbaceous perennials, in which the 
greater part of the plant dies after flowering, leaving only a small perennial portion called the 
Stock or Caudex, close to or within the earth ; Undershrubs, suffruticose or suffrutescent plants, 
in which the flowering branches, forming a considerable portion of the plant, die down after 
flowering, but leave a more or less prominent perennial and woody base ; shrubs (frutescent or 
fruticose plants), in which the perennial woody part forms the greater part of the plant, but 
branches near the base, and does not much exceed a man's height ; and Trees {Arboreous or 
arborescent plants) when the height is greater and forms a woody trunk, scarcely branching from 
the base. Bushes are low, much branched shrubs. 

13. The terms Monocarpic and Caulocarpic are but little used, but the other distinctions 
enumerated above are universally attended to, although more useful to the gardener than to the 
botanist, who cannot always assign to them any precise character. Monocarpic plants, which 
require more than two or three years to produce their flowers, will often, under certain circum- 
stances, become herbaceous perennials, and are generally confounded with them. Truly 
perennial herbs will often commence flowering the first year, and have then all the appearance of 
annuals. Many tall shrubs and trees lose annually their flowering branches like undershrubs. 
And the same botanical species may be an annual or perennial, a herbaceous perennial or an 
undershrub, an undcrshrub or a shrub, a shrub or a tree, according to climate, treatment, or 

14. Plants are usually terrestrial, that is, growing on earth, or aquatic, i.e. growing in wate»; 
but sometimes they may be found attached by their roots to other plants, in which ease they are 
epiphytes when simply growing upon other plants without penetrating into their tissue, parasites 
when their roots penetrate into and derive more or less nutriment from the plant to which they 
are attached. 

15. The simplest form of the perfect plant, the annual, consists of — 

(1) The Boot, or dascending axis, which grows downward from the stem, divides and spreads 
in the earth or water, and absorbs food for the plant through the extremities of its branches. 

(2) The Stem, or ascending axis, which grows upwards from the root, branches and bears 
first one or more leaves in succession, then one or more flowers, and finally one or more fruits. 
It contains the tissues or other channels (217) by which the nutriment absorbed by the roots is 
conveyed in the form oi sap (192) to the leaves or other points of the surface of the plant, to be 
elaborated or digested (2i8), and afterwards redistributed over different parts of the plant for its 
support and growth. 

(3) The Iieaves, usually flat, green, and horizontal, are variously arranged 'on Ihe stem and 
its branches. They elaborate or digest (218) the nutriment brought to them through the stem 
absorb carbonic acid gas from the air, exhaling the superfluous oxygen, and returning the' 
assimilated sap to the stem. 

(4) The Flowers, usually placed at or towards the extremities of the branches. They are 
destined to form the future seed. When perfect and complete they consist : 1st, of a pisUl in the 
centre, consisting of one or more carpels; each containing the germ of one or more seeds ; 2nd of 
one or more stamens outside the pistil, whose action is necessary to fertilize the pistil or enable it 
to ripen its seed-; 3rd, of a perianth or floral envelope, which usually encloses the stamens and 
pistil when young, and expands and exposes them to view when fully formed. This complete 


perianth is double ; the outer one called Galyj:, is usually more green and leaf-like ; the inner 
one, oalled the Corolla, more conspicuous and variously coloured. It is the perianth, and 
especially the Corolla, as the most showy part, that is generally called the flower in popular 

(5) The Fruit, consisting of the pistil or its lower portion, which persists or remains attached 
to the plant after the remainder of the flower has withered and fallen off. It enlarges and alters 
more or less in shape or consistence, becomes a seed-vessel, enclosing the seed until it is ripe, when 
it either opens to discharge the seed or falls to the ground with the seed. In popular language 
the term /nwt is often limited to such seed-vessels as are or look juicy and eatable. Botanists 
give that name to all seed-vessels. 

16. The herbaceous perennial resembles the annual during the first year of its growth ; but it 
also forms (usually towards the close of the season), on its stock (the portion of the stem and root 
which does not die), one or more buds, either exposed, and then popularly called eijes, or concealed 
among leaves. These buds, oalled leaf-buds, to distinguish them from flower-buds or unopened 
flowers, are future branches as yet undeveloped ; they remain dormant through the winter, and 
the following spring grow out into new stems bearing leaves.and flowers like those of the preceding 
year, whilst the lower part of the stock emits fresh roots to replace those which had perished at 
the same time as the stems. 

17. Shrubs and trees form similar leaf-buds either at the extremity of their branches, or along 
the branches of the year. In the latter case these buds are usually axillary, that is, they appear 
in the axil of each leaf, i.e. in the angle formed by the leaf and the branch. When they appear 
at any other part of the plant they are called adventitious. If these buds by producing roots (19) 
become distinct plants before separating from the parent, or if adventitious leaf-buds are produced 
in the place of flowers or seeds, the plant is said to be viviparous or proliferous. 

§ 2. The Root. 

18. Roots ordinarily produce neither buds, leaves, nor flowers. Their branches, a&VLedi fibres 
when slender and long, proceed irregularly from any part of their surface. 

19. Although roots proceed usually from the base of the stem or stock, they may also be pro- 
duced from the base of any bud, especially if the bud lie along the ground, or is otherwise placed 
by nature or art in circumstances favourable for their development, or indeed occasionally from 
almost any part of the plant. They are then often distinguished as adventitious, but this term is 
by some applied to all roots which are not in prolongation of the original radicle. 

20. Roots are 

fibrous, when they consist chiefly of slender fibres. 

tubei'ous, when either the main root or its branches are thickened into one or more short 
fleshy or woody masses called tubers (25). 

taproots, when the main root descends perpendicularly into the earth, emitting only very 
small fibrous branches. 

21; The stock of a herbaceous perennial, or the lower part of the stemof an annual or perennial, 
or the lowest branches of a plant, are sometimes underground and assume the appearance of a 
root. They then take the name of rhizome. The rhizome may always be distinguished from the 
true root by the presence or production of one or more buds, or leaves, or scales. 

§ 3. The Stock. 

22. The Stock of a herbaceous perennial, in its most complete state, includes a small portion 
of the summits of the previous year's roots, as well as of the base of the previous year's stems. 
Such stocks will increase yearly, so as at length to form dense tufts. They will often preserve 
through the winter a few leaves, amongst which are placed the buds which grow out into stems 
the following year, whilst the under side of the stock emits new roots from or amongst the remains 
of the old ones. These perennial stocks only differ from the permanent base of an undershrub in 
the shortness of the perennial part of the stems and in their texture usually less woody. 

23. In some perennials, however, the stock consists merely of a branch, which proceeds in 
autumn from the base of the stem either aboveground or underground, and produces one or more 
buds. This branch, or a portion of it, alone survives the winter. In the following year its buds 
produce the new stem and roots, whilst the rest of the plant, even the branch on which these buds 
were formed, has died away. These annual stocks, balled sometimes hybemacula, offsets, or 
stolons, keep up the communication between the annual stem and root of one year and those of 
the following year, thus forming altogether a perennial plant. 

24. The stock, whether annual or perennial, is often entirely underground or root-like. This is 
the rootstocjc, to which some botanists limit the meaning of the term rhizome. When the stock is 
entirely root-like, it is popularly oalled the crown of the root. 

25. The term tuber is applied to a short, thick, more or less decumbent rootstock or rhizome, as 
well as to a root of that shape (20), although some botanists propose to restrict its meaning to the 
one or to the other. An Orchis tuber, called by some a knob, is an annual tuberous rootstock 
with on^ bud at the top. A potato is an ftunufll tuberous rpptstocjc with several buds, 


26. A bulb is a stock of a shape approaching to globular, usually rather conical above and 
flattened underneath, in which the bud or buds are concealed, or nearly so, uiider scales. These 
scales are the more or less thickened bases of the decayed leaves of the preceding year, or of the 
undeveloped leaves of the future year, or of both. Bulbs are annual or perennial, usually under- 
ground or close to the ground, but occasionally buds In the axils of the upper leaves become 
transformed into bulbs. Bulbs are said to be scaly when their scales are thick and loosely unbri- 
cated, tunicated when the scales are thinner, broader, and closely rolled round each other in 
concentric layers. 

27. A corm is a tuberous rootstock, usually annual, shaped like a bulb, but in which the bud or 
buds are not covered by scales, or of which the scales are very thin and membranous. 

§ 4. The Stem. 

28. Steins are 

erect, when they ascend perpendicularly from the root or stock ; twiggy or virgate, when at 
the same time they are slender, stiff, and scarcely branched. 

sarmentose, when the branches of a woody stem are long and weak, although scarcely 

decumbent or ascending, when they spread horizontally, or nearly so, at the base, and then 
turn upwards and become erect. 

procumbent, when they spread along the ground the whole or the greater portion of their 
length ; diffuse, when at the same time very much and rather loosely branched. 

prostrate, when they lie still closer to the ground. 

creeping, when they emit roots at their nodes. This term is also frequently applied to any 
rhizomes or roots which spread horizontally. 

tufted or caspitose, when very short, close, and many together from the same stock. 

29. Weak climbing stems are said to twine, when they support themselves by winding spirally 
ound any object ; such stems are also called voluble. When they simply climb without twining, 

they support themselves by their leaves, or by special clasping organs called tendrils (169), or 
sometimes, like the Ivy, by small root-like excrescences. 

30. Suckers, are young plants formed at the end of creeping, underground rootstocks. Scions, 
runners, and stolons, or stoles, are names given to young plants formed at the end or at the nodes 
(31) of branches or stocks creeping wholly or partially aboveground, or sometimes to the creeping 
stocks themselves. 

31. A node is a point of the stem or its branches at which one or more leaves, branches, or 
leaf-buds (16) are given off. An internode is the portion of the stem comprised between two 

32. Branches or leaves are 

opposite, when two proceed from the same node on opposite sides of the stem. 

whorled or verticillate (in a whorl or verticil), when several proceed from the same node, 
arranged regularly round the stem ; gemiiiate, temate, fascicled, oi fasciculate, ■when two, three, 
or more proceed from the same node on the same side of the stem. A tuft of fasciculate leaves 
is usually in fact an axillary leafy branch, so short that the leaves appear to proceed all from the 
same point. 

alternate, when one only proceeds from each; node, one on one side and the next above or 
below on the opposite side of the stem. 

decussate, when opposite, but each pair placed at right-angles to the next pair above or below 
it ; distichous, when regularly arranged one above another in two opposite rows, one on each side 
of the stem ; tristicJums, when in three rows, etc. (92). 

scattered, when irregularly arranged round the stem ; frequently, however, botanists apply 
the term alternate to all branches or leaves that are neither opposite nor whorled. 

secund, when all start from or are turned to one side of the stem. 

33. Branches are dichotomous, when several times forked, the two branches of each fork 
being nearly equal ; trichotomous, when there are three nearly equal branches at each division 
instead of two ; but when the middle branch is evidently the principal one, the stem is usually 
said to have two opposite branches ; umbellate, when divided in the same manner into several 
nearly equal branches proceeding from the same point. If however the central branch is larger 
than the two or more lateral ones, the stem is said to have opposite or whorled branches, as the 
case may be. 

34. A culm is a name sometimes given to the stem of Grasses, Sedges, and some other 
Monoootyledonous plants. 

§ 5. Tlie Leaves. 

35. The ordinary or perfect leaf consists of a flat blade or lamina, usually green, and more 
or less horizontal, attached to the stem by a stalk called a footstalk or petiole. When the form 
or dimensions of a leaf are spoken of, it is generally the blade that is meant, without the petiole 
or stalk. 

86. The end by which a leaf, part of the flower, a seed, or any other organ, is attached to the 
stem or other organ, is called its base, the opposite end is its apex or summit, excepting sometimes 
in the case of anther-cells (115). 


37. Zieavea are 

sessile, when the blade rests on the stem without the intervention of a petiole. 

amplexicaul or stejii- clasping, when the sessile base of the blade clasps the stem horizontally. 

perfoliate, when the base of the blade not only clasps the stem, but closes round it on the 
opposite side, so that the stem appears to pierce through the blade. 

decurrent, when the edges of the leaf are continued down the stem so as to form raised lines 
or narrow appendages, called loings. 

sheathing, when the base of the blade, or of the more or less expanded petiole, forms a 
vertical sheath round the stem for some distance above the node. 

38. Leaves and flowers are called radical, when inserted on a rhizome or stock, or so close to 
the base of the stem as to appear to proceed from the root, rhizome, or stock ; cauline, when 
inserted on a distinct stem. Eadical leaves are rosulate when they spread in a circle on the 

39. Reaves are 

simple and entire, when the blade consists of a single piece, with the margin nowhere 
indented, simple being used in opposition to ccmipound, entire in opposition to dentate, lobed, or 

ciliate, when bordered with thick hairs or fine hair-like teeth. 

dentate or toothed, when the margin is only cut a little way in, into what have been 
compared to teeth. Such leaves are serrate, when the teeth are regular and pointed like the teeth 
of a saw ; crenate, when regular and blunt or rounded (compared to the battlements of a tower) ; 
serrulate and crenulate, when the serratures or orenatures are small ; sinuate, when the teeth are 
broad, not deep, and irregular (compared to bays of the coast) ; wavy or undulate, when the edges 
are not flat, but bent up and down (compared to the waves of the sea). 

lobed or cleft, when more deeply indented or divided, but so that the incisions do not reach 
the midrib or petiole. The portions thus divided take the name of lobes. When the lobes are 
narrow and very irregular, the leaves are said to be laciniate. The spaces between the teeth or 
lobes are called sinuses. 

divided or dissected, when the incisions reach the midrib or petiole, but the parts so divided 
off, called segments, do not separate from the petiole, even when the leaf falls, without tearing. 

compound, when divided to the midrib or petiole, and the parts so divided off, called leaflets, 
separate, at least at the fall of the leaf, from the petiole, as the whole leaf does from the stem, 
without tearing. The common stalk upon which the leaflets are inserted is called the common 
petiole or the rhachis ; the separate stalk of each leaflet is a petiolule, 

40. Leaves are more or less marked by veim-s, which, starting from the stalk, diverge or branch 
as the blade widens, and spread all over it more or less visibly. The principal ones, when 
prominent, are often called ribs or nerves, the smaller branches only then retaining the name of 
veins, or the latter are termed veinlets. The smaller veins are often connected together like the 
meshes of a net, they are then said to anastomose, and the leaf is said to be reticulate or 
net-vdned. When one principal vein runs direct from the stalk towards the summit of the leaf, 
it is called the midrib. When several start from the stalk, diverge slightly without branching, 
and converge again towards the summit, they are said to be, parallel, although not mathe- 
matically so. When 3 or 5 or more ribs or nerves diverge from the base, the leaf is said 
to be 3-nerved, 5-nerved, etc., but if the lateral ones diverge from the midrib a little aibove the 
base, the leaf is triplinerved, quintuplinerved, etc. The arrangement of the veins of a leaf is 
called their venation 

41. The Xieaflets, Segrments, Ziobes, or Veins of leaves are 

pinnate, (feathered), when there are several succeeding each other on each side of the midrib 
or petiole, compared to the branches of a feather. A pinnately lobed or divided leaf is called 
lyrate when the the terminal lobe or segment is much larger and broader than the lateral ones, 
compared, by a stretch of imagination, to a lyre ; nmcinate, when the lateral lobes are curved 
backwards towards the base of the leaf ; pectinate, when the lateral lobes are numerous, narrow, 
and regular, like the teeth of a comb. 

palmate or digitate, when several diverge from the same point, compared to the fingers of the 

ternate, when three only start from the same point, in which case the distinction between 
the palmate and pinnate arrangement often ceases, or can only be determined by analogy with 
allied plants. A leaf with ternate lobes is called trifid. A leaf with three leaflets is sometimes 
improperly called a ternate leaf': it is the leaflets that are ternate; the whole leaf is trifoliolate. 
Ternate leaves are leaves growing three together. 

pedate, when the division is at first ternate, but the two outer branches are forked, the outer 
ones of each fork again forked, and so on, and all the branches are near together at the base, 
compared vaguely to the foot of a bird. 

42. Leaves with pinnate, palmate, pedate, etc. , leaflets, are usually for shortness called pinvMte, 
palmate, pedate, eta., leaves. If they are so cut into segments only, they are usually said to be 
pirmatisect, palmatisect, pedatisect, etc., although the distinction beween segments and leaflets, is 
often unheeded in descriptions, and cannot indeed always be ascertained. If the leaves are so 
cut only into lobes, they are said to be pinnatifid, palmatifid, pedatifid, etc. 


43. The teeth, lobes, segments, or leaflets, may be again toothed, If^f^' ^^7','^^'^' . ™ 
compounded. Some leaves are even three or more times divided or compounded, in tne laiier 
case they are termed decompound. When twice or thrice pinnate {bipmnate or tnpmnate}, eaon 
primary or secondary division, with the leaflets it comprises, is called a pmtia. When tne pinna 
of a leaf or the leaflets of a pinna are in pairs, without an odd terminal pinna or leaflet, tne leai 
or pinna so divided is said to be abruptly pinnate ; if there is an odd terminal pinna or leanei, 
the leaf or pinna is unequally pinnate (imparipinnatuvi) . . . 

44. The number of leaves or their parts is expressed adjectlvely by the following numerals, 

derived from the Latin : — 

uni-, bi-, tri-, quadri-, quinque-, sex-, septem-, ooto-, novem-, decern-, raulti- 
1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 6-, 6-, 7-, 8-, 9-, 10-, many- 

prefixed to a termination indicating the particular kind of part referred to. Thus-— 

unidentate, bidentate, multidentate, mean one-toothed, two-toothed, many-toothed, etc. 

bifid, trifid, multifid, mean two-lobed, three-lobed, many-lobed, etc. 

unifoliolate, bifoUolate, multifoliolate, mean having one leaflet, two leaflets, many leaflets, etc, 

um/oliate, bifoliate, multifoliate, mean having one leaf, tWo leaves, many leaves, etc. 

bitemate and triternate, mean twice or thrice ternately divided. 

unijugate, bijugate, multijugate, etc., pinnae or leaflets, mean that there are in one, two, 

many, etc., pairs (juga). 

45. Iieaves or their parts, when flat, or any other flat organs in plants, are 

Unear, when long and narrow, at least four or five times as long as broad, falsely compared 
to a mathematical line, for a linear leaf has always a perceptible breadth. 

lanceolate, when about three or more times as long as broad, broadest below the middle, and 
tapering towards the summit, compared to the head of a lance. 

cuneate, when broadest above the middle, and tapering towards the base, compared to a 
wedge with the point downwards ; when very broadly cuneate and rounded at the top, it is often 
called ^a6eJK/oj'm oi fan-nhaped. 

spathulate, when the broad part near the top is short, and the narrow tapering part long, 
compared to a spatula or flat ladle. 

ovate, when scarcely twice as long as broad, and rather broader below the middle, compared 
to the longitudinal section of an egg ; obovate is the same form, with the broadest part above 
the middle. 

orbicular, oval, oblong, elliptical, rhomboidal, etc., when compared to the corresponding 
mathematical figures. 

transversely oblong, or oblate, when conspicuously broader than long. 

falcate, when curved like the blade of a scythe. 

46. Intermediate forms between any two of the above are expressed by combining two terms. 
Thus, a linear-lanceolate leaf is long and narrow, yet broader below the middle, and tapering to 
a point ; a linear-oblong one is scarcely narrow enough to be called linear, yet too narrow to be 
strictly oblong, and does not conspicuously taper either towards the summit or towards the base. 

47. The apex or summit of a leaf is 

acute or pointed, when it forms an acute angle or tapers to a point. 

obtuse or blunt, when it forms a very obtuse angle, or more generally when it is more or less 
rounded at the top. 

acuminate or cuspidate, when suddenly narrowed at the top, and then more or less prolonged 
into an acumen or point, which may be acute or obtuse, linear or tapering. Some botanists 
make a slight difference between the acuminate and cuspidate apex, the acumen being more 
distinct from the rest of the leaf in the latter case than in the former ; but in general the two 
terms are used in the same sense, some preferring the one and some the other. 

truncate, when the end is cut off square. 

retuse, when very obtuse or truncate, and slightly indented. 

emarginate or notched, when more decidedly indented at the end of the midrib ; obcordate, if 
at the same time approaching the shape of a heart with its point downwards. 

mucronate. when the midrib is produced beyond the apex in the form of a small point. 

aristate, when the point is fine like a hair. 

48. The base of the leaf is liable to the same variations of form as the apex, but the terms 
more commonly used are tapering or narrowed for acute and acuminate, rounded for obtuse, and 
cordate for emarginate. In all cases the petiole or point of attachment prevent any such 
absolute termination at the base as at the apex. 

49. A leaf may be cordate at the base whatever be its length or breadth, or whatever the shape 
of the two lateral lobes, called auricles (or little ears), formed by the indenture or notch, but the 
term cordiform or heart-shaped leaf is restricted to an ovate and acute leaf, cordate at the base, 
with rounded auricles. The word auricles is more particularly used as applied to sessile and 
stem-clasping leaves. 

50. If the auricles are pointed, the leaf is more particularly called auriculate ; it is moreover 
said to be sagittate, when the points are directed downwards, compared to an arrow-head ; 
hastate, when the points diverge horizontally, compared to a halbert. 

.51. A renifm-m leaf is broader than long, slightly but broadly cordate at the base, with rounded 
auricles, compared to a kidney. 


52. In a peltate leaf, the stalk, instead of proceeding from the lower edge of the blade, is 
attached to the under surface, usually near the lower edge, but sometimes in the very centre of 
the blade. The peltate leaf has usually , several principal nerves radiating from the point of 
attachment, being, in fact, a cordate leaf, with the auricles united. 

53. All these modifications of division and form in the leaf pass so gradually one into the 
other that it is often diifioult to say which term is the most applicable — whether the leaf be 
toothed or lobed, divided or compound, oblong or lanceolate, obtuse or acute, etc. The choice of 
the most apt expression will depend on the skill of the describer. 

54. Xieaves, when solid, Steins, Fruits, Tubers, and other parts of plants, when 
not flattened like ordinary leaves, are 

setaceous or capillary, when very slender like bristles or hairs. 

acicular, when very slender, but stiff and pointed like needles. 

subulate, when rather thicker and firmer like awls. 

linear, when at least four times as long as thick ; oblong, when from about two to about four 
times as long as thick, the terms having the same sense as when applied to flat surfaces. 

ovoid, when egg-shaped, with the broad end downwards, obovoid if the broad end is upwards ; 
these terms corresponding to ovate and obovate shapes in flat surfaces. 

globular or spherical when corresponding to orbicular in a flat surface. Round applies 
to both. 

turbinate, when shaped like a top. 

conical, when tapering upwards ; obconical whefl tapering downwards, if in both cases a 
transverse section shows a circle. 

pyramidal, when tapering upwards ; obpyramidal, when tapering downwards, if in both oases 
a transverse section shows a triangle or polygon. 

fusiform, or spindle-shaped, when tapering at both ends ; cylindrical, when not tapering at 
either end, if in both oases the transverse section shows a circle, or sometimes irrespective of the 
transverse shape. 

tenvte, when the transverse section is not angular ; trigonous, triquetrous, if the trailsverse 
section shows a triangle, irrespective in both oases of longitudinal form. 

com/pressed, when more or less flattened laterally ; depressed, when more or less flattened 
vertically, or at any rate at the top; obcompressed (in the achenes of Compositm), when flattened 
from front to back. 

articulate or jointed, if at any period of their growth (usually when fully formed and 
approaching their decay, or in the case of fruits when quite ripe) they separate, without tearing, 
into two or more pieces placed end to end. The joints where they separate are called 
articulations, each separate piece an article. The name of joint is, in common language, given 
both to the articulation and the article, but more especially to the former. Some modern 
botanists, however, propose to restrict it to the article, giving the name of joining to the 

did/ymous, when slightly two-lobed, with rounded obtuse lobes. 

moniliform, or beaded, when much contracted at regular intervals, but not separating 
spontaneously into artielete. 

55. In their consistence Ijeaves or other organs are 

fleshy, when thick and soft; succulent is generally used in the same sense, but implies the 
presence of more juice. 

coriaceous, when firm and stiff, or very tough, of the consistence of leather. 

crustaceous, when firm and brittle. 

inerribranoue, when thin and not stiff. 

scarious or scariose, when very thin, more or less transparent and not green, yet rather stiff. 

56. The terms applied botanically to the consistence of solids are those in general use in 
common language. 

57. The mode in which unexpanded leaves are disposed in the leaf-bud is called their 
vernation vrcefoUation; it varies considerably, and technical terms have been proposed to 
express some of its varieties, but it has been hitherto rarely noticed in descriptive botany. 

§ 6. Scales, Bracts, and Stipules. 

58. Scales (Squamce) are leaves very much reduced in size, usually sessile, seldom green 
or capable of performing the respiratory functions of leaves. In other words, they are organs 
resembling leaves in their position on the plant, but differing in size, colour, texture, and 
functions. They are most frequent on the stock of perennial plants, or at the base of annual 
branches, especially on the buds of future shoots, when they serve apparently to protect the 
dormant living germ from the rigour of winter. In the latter case they are usually short, 
broad, close together, and more or less imbricated, that is, overlapping each other like the tiles 
of a roof. It is this arrangement, as well as their usual shape that has suggested the name of 
8caZes, borrowed from the scales of a fish. Imbricated scales, bracts, or leaves, are said to be 
squarrose, when their tips are pointed and very spreading or recurved. 


59. Sometimes, however, most or all the leaves of the plant are reduced to small scales, in 
which case they do not appear to perform any particular function. The name of scales is also 
given to any small broad scale-like appendages or reduced organs, whether in the flower or any 
other part of the plant. 

60. Bracts (Bractece) are the upper leaves "of a plant in flower (either all those of the 
flowering branches, or only one or two immediately under the flower), when different from the 
stem-leaves in size, shape, colour, or arrangement. They are generally much smaller and more 
sessile. They often partake of the colour of the flower, although they very frequently also 
retain the green colour of the leaves. When small they are often called scales. 

61. Floral leaves or leafy hi acts are generally the lower bracts on the upper leaves at the base 
of the flowering branches, intermediate in size, shape, 'or arrangement, between the stem-leaves 
and the upper bracts. 

62. Braoteoles are the one or two last bracts under each flower, when they differ materially 
in size, shape, or arrangement from the other bracts. 

63. Stipules are leaf-like or scale-like appendages at the base of the leaf-stalk, or on the 
node of the stem. When present there are generally two, one on each side of the leaf, and 
they sometimes appear to protect the young leaf before it is developed. They are, however, 
exoteedingly variable in size and appearance, sometimes exactly like the true leaves except that 
they have no buds in their axils, or looking like the leaflets of a compound leaf, sometimes 
apparently the only leaves of the plant ; generally small and narrow, sometimes reduced to 
minute scales, spots or soars, sometimes United into one opposite the leaf, or more or less 
united with, or adnate to the petiole, or quite detached from the leaf, and forming a ring or 
sheath round the stem in the axil of the leaf. In a great number of plants they are entirely 

64. StipelltB, or secondary stipules, are similar organs, sometimes found on compound leaves 
at the points where the leaflets are inserted. 

65. When scales, bracts, or stipules, or almost any part of the plant besides leaves and flowers 
are stalked, they are said to be stipitate, from stipes, a stalk. 

§ 7. Infloresceiice and its Bracts. 

66. The Inflorescence of a plant is the arrangement of the flowering branches, and of 
the flowers upon them. An Inflorescence is a flowering branch, or the flowering summit of a 
plant above the last stem-leaves, with its branches, bracts, and flowers. 

67. A single flower, or an inflorescence, is terminal when at the summit of a stem or leafy 
branch, axillary when in the axil of a stem-leaf, leaf-opposed when opposite to a stem-leaf. The 
inflorescence of a plant is said to be terminal or determinate when the main stem and principal 
branches end in a flower or inflorescence (not in a leaf-bud), axillary or indeterminate when all 
the flowers or inflorescence are axillary, the stem or branches ending in leaf-buds. 

68. k. Peduncle is the stalk of a solitary flower, or of an inflorescence; that is to say, the 
portion of the flowering branch from the last stem-leaf to the flower, or to the first ramification 
oE the inflorescence, or even up to its last ramifications ; but the portion extending from the 
first to the last ramifications or the axis of inflorescence is often distinguished under the name 
of rhachis. 

69. A Scape or radical Peduncle is a leafless peduncle proceeding from the stock, or from near 
the base of the stem, or apparently from the root itself. 

70. A Pedicel is the last branch of an inflorescence, supporting a single flower. 

71. The branches of inflorescences may be, like those of stems, opposite, alternate, etc. (32, 
33), but very often their arrangement is different from that of the leafy branches of the 
same plant. 

72. Inflorescence is 

centrifugal, when the terminal flower opens first, and those on the lateral branches are 
successively developed. 

centripetal, when the lowest flowers open first, and the main stem continues to elongate, 
developing fresh flowers. 

73. Determinate inflorescence is usually centrifugal. Indeterminate inflorescence is always 
centripetal. Both inflorescences may be combined on one plant, for it often happens that the 
main branches of an inflorescence are centripetal, whilst the flowers on the lateral branches are 
centrifugal ; or vice versd. 

74. An Inflorescence is 

a Spike, or spicate, when the flowers are sessile along a simple undivided axis or rhachis. 

a Raceme, or racemose, when the flowers are borne on pedicels along a single undivided axis 
or rhachis. 

a Panicle, or paniculate, when the axis is divided into branches bearing two or more flowers. 

a Head, or ca,pitate, when several sessile or nearly sessile flowers are collected into si 
compact head-like cluster. The short, flat, convex or conical axis on which the flowers are 
seated is called the receptacle, a term also used for the torus of a single flower (135). The very 
compact flower-heads of Compositai are often termed compound flowers. 


an £7mfccl, or umbellate, when several branches or pedicels appear to start from the same 
point and are nearly of the same length. It differs from the head, like the raceme from the 
spike, in that the flowers are not sessile. An umbel is said to be simple when each of its branches 
or rays bears a single flower ; compound, when each ray bears a partial umbel or umbellule. 

a Corymb, or corymbose, when the branches and pedicels, although starting from different 
points, all attain the same level, the lower ones being much longer than the upper. It is a flat- 
topped ot fastigiate panicle. 

a Cyme or cymose when branched and centrifugal. It is a centrifugal panicle, and is often 
corymbose. The central flower opens first. The lateral branches successively developed are 
usually forked or opposite {dichotomous or trichotomous), but sometimes after the first forking 
the branches are no longer divided, but produce a, succession of pedicels on their upper side, 
forming apparently unilateral centripetal racemes ; whereas if attentively examined it will be 
found that each pedicel is at first terminal, but becomes lateral by the development of one outer 
branch only, immediately under the pedicel. Such branches, when in bud, are generally rolled 
back at the top, like the tail of a scorpion; and are thence called scorpioid. 

a Thyrsus, or thyrsoid, when cymes, usually opposite, are arranged in a narrow pyramidal 

75. There are numerous oases where infiorescenees are intermediate between some two of the 
above, and are called by different botanists by one or the other name, according as they are 
guided by apparent or by theoretical similarity. A spike-like panicle, where the axis is divided 
into very short branches forming a cylindrical compact inflorescence, is called sometimes a 
spike, sometimes a panicle. If the flowers are in distinct clusters along a simple axis, the 
inflorescence is described as an interrupted spike or raceme, according as the flowers are nearly 
sessile or distinctly pedicellate ; although when closely examined the flowers will be found to be 
inserted not on the main axis, but on a very short branch, thus, strictly speaking, constituting a 

76. The catkins (amenta) of Amentaeece, the spadices of several Monocotyledons, the ears and 
spikelets of Grasses are forms of the spike. 

77. Bracts are generally placed singly under each branch of the inflorescence, and under 
each pedicel ; braoteoles are usually two, one on each side, on the pedicel or close under the 
flower, or even upon the calyx itself ; but bracts are also frequently scattered along the branches 
without axillary pedicels ; and when the differences between the bracts and bracteoles are trifling 
or immaterial, they are usually all called bracts. 

78. When three bracts appear to proceed from the same point, they will, on examination, be 
found to be really either one bract and two stipules, or one bract with two bracteoles in its axils. 
When two bracts appear to proceed from the same point, they will usually be found to be the 
stipules of an undeveloped bract, unless the branches of the inflorescence are opposite, when the 
bracts will of course be opposite also. 

79. When several bracts are collected in a whorl, or are so close together as to appear whorled, 
or are closely imbricated round the base of a head or umbel, they are collectively called an 
Involucre. The bracts composing an involucre are described under the names of leaves, leaflets, 
bracts, or scales, according to their appearance. Fhyllaries is a useless term, lately introduced 
for the bracts or scales of the involucre of Compositm. An Involucel is the involucre of a, partial 

80. When several very small bracts are placed round the base of a calyx or of an involucre, 
they have been termed a calycule, and the calyx or involucre said to be calyculate, but these 
terms are now falling into disuse, as conveying a false impression. 

81. A Spatha is a bract or floral leaf enclosing the inflorescence of some Monocotyledons. 

82. PaletE, Pales, or Chaff are the inner bracts or scales in Compositee, Qramine<B, and some 
other plants, when of a thin yet stiff consistence, usually narrow and of a pale colour. 

83. Glumes are the bracts enclosing the flowers of Gyperacene and Graminea. 

§ 8. The Flower in General. 

84. A complete Flower (15) is one in which the calyx, corolla, stamens, and pistils are all 
present ; a perfect flower, one in which all these organs, or such of them as are present, are 
capable of performing their several functions. Therefore, properly speaking, an incomplete 
flower is one in which any one or more of these organs is wanting ; and an imperfect flower, one 
in which any one or more of these organs is so altered as to be incapable of properly performing 
its functions. These imperfect organs are said to be abortive if much reduced in size or 
efficiency, rudimentary if so much so as to be scarcely perceptible. But, in many workjS, the term 
incomplete is specially applied to those flowers in which the perianth is simple or wanting, and 
imperfect to those in which either the stamens or pistils are imperfect or wanting. 

85. A Flower is 

dichlamydemis, when the perianth is double, both calyx and corolla being present and 

monochlamydeous, when the perianth is single, whether by the union of the calyx and 
corolla, or the deficiency of either. 


asepalous, when there is no calyx. 

apetalous, when there is no corolla. 

naked, when there is no perianth at all. 

hermaphrodite or bisexual, when both stamens and pistil are present and perfect. 

male or staminate, when there are one or more stamens, but either no pistil at all or an 
imperfect one. . 

femaU or pistillate, when there is a pistil, but either no stamens at all, or only imperfect 

neutm; when both stamens and pistil are imperfect or wanting. 

barren or sterile, when from any cause it produces no seed. 

fertile, when it does produce seed. In some works the terms barren, fertile, and perfect are 
also used respectively as synonyms of male, female, and hermaphrodite. 

86. The flowers of a plant or species are said coUeotively to be unisexual or declinous when the 
flowers are all either male or female. 

moncecious, when the male and female flowers are distinct, but on the same plant. 
dioecious, when the male and female flowers are on distinct plants. 

polygamous, when there are male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers on the same or on 
distinct plant?. 

87. A head of flowers is heterogavious when male, female, hermaphrodite, and neuter flowers, 
or any two or three of them, are included in one head ; homogamous, when all the flowers 
included in one head are alike in this respect. A spike or head of flowers is androgynous when 
male and female flowers are mixed in it. These terms are only used in the case of very few 
Natural Orders. 

88. As the scales of buds are leaves undeveloped or reduced in size and altered in shape and 
consistence, and bracts are leaves likewise reduced in size, and occasionally altered in colour ; 
so the parts of the flower are considered as leaves still further altered in shape, colour, and 
arrangement round the axis, and often more or less combined with each other. The details of 
this theory constitute the comparatively modern branch of botany called Vegetable Metamor- 
phosis, or Homology, sometimes improperly termed Morphology (8). 

89. To understand the arrangement of the floral parts, let us take a complete flower, in which 
moreover all the parts are free from each other, definite in number, i.e. always the same in the 
same species, and symmetrical or isomerous, i.e. when each whorl consists of the same number 
of parts. 

90. Such a complete symmetrical flower consists usually of either four or five whorls of altered 
leaves (88), placed immediately one within the other. 

The Ca.lyx forms the outer whorl. Its parts are called sepals. 

The Corolla/ forms the next whorl. Its parts, called petals, usually alternate with the 
sepals ; that is to say, the centre of each petal is immediately over or within the interval 
between two sepals. 

The Stamens form one or two whorls within the petals. If two, those of the outer whorl 
(thi outer stamens) alternate with the petals, and are consequently opposite to, or over the centre 
of the sepals ; those of the inner whorl (the inner stamens) alternate with the outer ones, and 
are therefore opposite to the petals. If there is only one whorl of stamens, they most frequently 
alternate with the petals ; but sometimes they are opposite the petals and alternate with the 

The Pistil forms the inner whorl ; its carpels usually alternate with the inner row of 

91. In an axillary or lateral flower the upper parts of each whorl (sepals, petals, stamens, or 
carpels) are those which are next to the main axis of the stems or branch, the lower parts those 
which are furthest from it ; the intermediate ones are said to be lateral. The words anterior 
(front) and posterior (baok) are often used for lower and upper respectively, but their meaning is 
sometimes reversed if the writer supposes himself in the centre of the flower instead of outside 
of it. 

92. The number of parts in each whorl of a flower is expressed adjeotively by the following 
numerals derived from the Greek : — 

mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, 
1-, 2-, 3-, i; S-, 6-, 

prefixed to a termination indicating the whorl referred to. 

93. Thus, a Flower is 

disepalous, trisepalous, tetrasepalous, polysepalous, etc., according as there are 2 3 4 or 
many (or an indefinite number of) sepals. ' ' ' 

dipetalous, tripetalous, polypetalous, etc., according as there are 2, 3, or many petals 
diandrous, triandrous. polyandrous, etc., according as there are 2, 3, or many stamens 
digynous, trigynous, polygynous, etc., according as there are 2. 3, or many carpels. 

And generally (if symmetrical), dimerous, trimerous, polymerous, etc., according as there are 
2, 3, or many (or an indefinite number of) parts to each whorl. 













94. Flowers are unsyimnetrical or anisomerous, strictly speaking, when any one of the whorls 
has a different number of parts from any other ; but when the pistils alone are reduced in 
number, the flower is still frequently called symmetrical or isomerous, if the calyx, corolla, and 
staminal whorls have all the same number of parts. 

95. Flowers are irregular when the parts of any one of the whorls are unequal in size, 
dissimilar in shape, or do not spread regularly round the axis at equal distances. It is however 
more especially irregularity of the corolla that is referred to in descriptions. A slight inequality 
in size or direction in the other whorls does not prevent the flower being classed as regular, if 
the corolla or perianth is conspicuous and regular. 

§ 9. The Calyx and Corolla, or Perianth. 

96. The Cetlyx (90) is usually green, and smaller than the corolla ; sometimes very minute, 
rudimentary, or wanting, sometimes very indistinctly whorled, or not whorled at all, or in two 
whorls, or composed of a large number of sepals, of which the outer ones pass gradually into 
bracts, and the inner ones into petals. 

97. The Corolla (90) is usually coloured, and of a more delicate texture than the calyx, 
and, in popular language, is often more specially meant by the flower. Its petals are more rarely 
in two whorls, or indefinite in number, and the whorl more rarely broken than in the case of 
the calyx, at least when the plant is in a natural state. Double flowers are in most cases an 
accidental deformity or monster in which the ordinary number of petals is multiplied by the 
conversion of stamens, sepals, or even carpels into petals, by the division of ordinary petals, or 
simply by the addition of supernumerary ones. Petals are also sometimes very small, rudimen- 
tary, or entirely deficient. 

98. In very many cases, a so-called simple perianth (15) (of which the parts are usually called 
leaves or segments) is one in which the sepals and petals are similar in form and texture, and 
present apparently a single whorl. But if examined in the young bud, one half of the parts 
will generally be found to be placed outside the other half, and there will frequently be some 
slight difference in texture, size, and colour, indicating to the close observer the presence of both 
calyx and corolla. Hence much discrepancy in descriptive works. Where one botanist 
describes a simple perianth of six segments, another will speak of a double perianth of three 
sepals and three petals. 

99. The following terms and prefixes, expressive of the modifications of form and arrange- 
ment of the corolla and its petals, are equally applicable to the calyx and its sepals, and to the 
simple perianth and its segments. 

. 100. The Corolla is said to be monopetalous when the petals are united, either entirely or at 
the base only, into a cup, tube, or ring ; polypetalous when they are all free from the base. 
These expressions, established by a long usage, are not strictly correct, for monopetalous 
(consisting of a single petal) should apply rather to a corolla really reduced to a single petal, 
which would then be on one side of the axis ; and polypetalous is sometimes used more appro- 
priately for a corolla with an indefinite number of petals. Some modern botanists have there- 
fore proposed the term gamopetalous for the corolla with united petals, and dialypetalous for 
that with free petals ; but the old-established expressions are still the most generally used. 

101. When the petals are partially united, the lower entire portion of the corolla is called the 
tube, whatever be its shape, and the free portions of the petals are called the teeth, lobes, or 
segments (39), according as they are short or long in proportion to the whole length of the 
corolla. When the tube is excessively short, the petals appear at first sight free, but their 
slight union at the base must be carefully attended to, being of Importance in classification. 

102. The SSstivation of a corolla, is the arrangement of the petal^^, or of such portion of 
them as is free, in the unexpanded bud. It is 

valvate, when they are strictly whorled in their whole length, their edges being placed 
against each other without overlapping. If the edges are much inflexed, the sstivation is at 
the same time induplicate ; involute, if the margins are rolled inward ; reduplicate, if the 
margins project outwards into salient angles ; revolute, if the margins are rolled outwards ; 
plicate, if the petals are folded in longitudinal plaits. 

imbricate, when the whorl is more or less broken by some of the petals being outside the 
others, or by their overlapping each other at least at the top. Five-petalled imbricate corollas 
are quincuncially imbricate when one petal Is outside, and an adjoining one wholly inside, the 
three others intermediate and overlapping on one side ; bilabiate, when two adjoining ones are 
inside or outside the three others. Imbricate petals are described as crumpled {corrugate) when 
puckered irregularly in the bud. 

twisted, contorted, or convolute when each petal overlaps an adjoining one on one side, and 
is overlapped by the other adjoining one on the other side. Some botanists include the twisted 
ffistivation in the general term imbricate ; others carefully distinguish the one from the other. 

103. In a few cases the overlapping is so slight that the three sestivations cannot easily be 
distinguished one from the other ; in a few others the aestivation is variable, even in the same 
species, but, in general, it supplies a constant character in species, in genera, or even in Natural 


104. In general shape the Corolla is 

tubular, when the whole or the greater part of it is in the form of a tube or cylinder. 

campanulate, when approaching in some measure the shape of a cup or bell. 

urceotofe, when the tube is swollen or nearly globular, contracted at t'.e top, and slightly 
expanded again in a narrow rim. 

rotate or stellate, when tbe petals or lobes are spread out horizontally from the base, or 
nearly so, like a wheel or star. 

hypoerateriform or salver-shaped, when the lower part is cylindiical and the uppei' portion 
expanded horizontally. In this case the name of tube is restricted to the cylindrical part, and 
the hori?ontal portion is called the limb, whether it be divided to the base or not. The orifice 
of the tube is called its mmtth or throat. 

infundibuliform or funnel-shaped, when the tube is cylindrical at the base, but enlarged at 
the top into a more or less campanulate hmb, of which the lobes often spread horizontally. In 
this case the campanulate part, up to the commencement of the lobes, is sometimes considered 
as a portion of the tube, sometimes as a portion of the limb, and by some botanists again 
described as independent of either, under the name of throat (fauces). Generally speaking, 
however, in campanulate, infundibuliform, or other corollas, where the lower entire part passes 
gradually into the upper divided and more spreading part, the distinction between the tube and 
the limb is drawn either at the point where the lobes separate, or at the part where the corolla 
first expands, according to which is the most marked. 

105. Irregular corollas have received various names according to the more familiar forms 
they have been compared to. Some of the most important are the 

bilabiate or two-lipped corolla, when, in a four or five-lobed corolla, the two or three upper 
lobes stand obviously apart, like an upper lip, from the two or three lower ones, or under lip. 
In Orchidece and some other families the name of lip, or labellum, is given to one of the 
divisions or lobes of the perianth. 

personate, when two-lipped, and the orifice of the tube closed by a projection from the base 
of the upper or lower lip, called a palate. 

ringent, when very strongly two-lipped, and the orifice of the tube very open. 

spurred, when the tube or the lower part of the petal has a conical hollow projection, compared 
to the spur of a cook ; saccate, when the spur is short and round like a little bag ; gibbous, when 
projecting at any part into a slight swelling; foveolate, when marked in any part with a slight 
glandular or thickened cavity. 

resupinate or reversed, when a lip, spur, etc., which in allied species is usually lowest, lies 
uppermost, and vice versa. 

106. The above terms are mostly applied to the forms of monopetalous corollas, but several 
are also applicable to those of polypetalous ones. Terms descriptive of the special forms of 
corolla in certain Natural Orders, will be explained under those Orders respectively. 

107. Most of the terms used for describing the forms of leaves (39, 45) are also applicable to 
those of individual petals ; but the flat expanded portion of a petal, corresponding to the blade 
of the leaf, is called its lamina, and the stalk, corresponding to the petiole, its claw (unguis). 
The stalked petal is said to be unguiculate. 

§ 10. The Stamens. 

108. Although in a few cases the outer stamens may gradually pass into petals, yet, in 
general. Stamens are very different in shape and aspect from leaves, sepals, or petals. It is 
only in a theoretical point of view (not the less important in the study of the physiological 
economy of the plant) that they can be called altered leaves. 

109. This usual form is a stalk, called the filament, bearing at the top an anther divided into 
two pouches or cells. These anther-cells are filled with pollen, consisting of minute grains, 
usually forming a yellow dust, which, when the flower expands, is scattered from an opening in 
each cell. When the two cells are not closely contiguous, the portion of the anther that unites 
them is called the connectivum. 

110. The filament is often wanting, and the anther sessile, yet still the stamen is perfect ; 
but if the anther, which is the essential part of the stamen,- is wanting, or does not contain 
pollen, the stamen is imperfect, and is then said to be barren or sterile (without pollen), 
abortive, or rudimentary (84), according to the degree to which the imperfection is carried! 
Imperfect stamens are often called staminodia. 

111. In unsymmetrical flowers, the stamens of each whorl are sometimes reduced in number 
below that of the petals, even to a single one, and in several Natural Orders they are multiplied 

112. The terms monandrous and polyandrous are restricted to flowers which have really but 
one stamen, or an indefinite number respectively. Where several stamens are united into one 
the flower is said to be synandrous. ' 

113. Stamens are 

monadelphous, when united by their filaments into one cluster. This-cluster either forms 
a tube round the pistil, or, if the pistil is wanting, occupies the centre of the flower. 


fdiadelphous, when so united into' two clusters. The term is more especially applied to 
certain Leguminosa, in which nine stamens are united in a tube slit open on the upper side, 
and a tenth, placed in the slit, is free. In some other plants the stamens are equally 
distributed in the two clusters. 

tnadelplwus, pentadelphaus, polyadelphous, when so united into three, five, or many clusters. 

syngenedous, when united by their anthers in a ring round the pistil, the filaments usually 
remaining free. 

didynamous, when (usually in a bilabiate flower) there are four stamens in two pairs, those 
of one pair longer than those of the other. 

tetradynamous, when (in Crucifera) there are six, four of them longer than the two others. 

exserted, when longer than the corolla, or even when longer than its tube, if the limb be 
very spreading. 

114. An Anther (109) is 

adnate, when continuous with the filament, the anther-cells appearing to lie their whole 
length along the upper part of the filament. 

innate, when firmly attached by their base to the filament. This is like an adnate anther, 
but rather more distinct from the filament. 

versatile, when attached by their back to the very point of the filament, so as to swing 

115. Anther-cells may be parallel or diverging at a less or greater angle, or divaricate, when 
placed end to end so as to form one straight line. The end of each anther-cell placed nearest 
to the other cell is generally called its apex or suvtmit, and the other end its base (36) ; but some 
botanists reverse the sense of these terms. , 

116. Anthers have often, on their conneotivum or cells, appendages termed bristles (setsB), 
spurs, crests, points, glands, etc., according to their appearance. 

117. Anthers have occasionally only one cell ; this may take place either by the disappearance 
of the partition between two closely contiguous cells, when these cells are said to be confluent; 
or by the abortion or total deficiency of one of the cells, when the anther is said to be dimidiate. 

118. Anthers will open, or dehisce, to let out the pollen, like capsules, in valves, pores, or slits. 
Their dehiscence is introrse, when the opening faces the pistil ; extrorse, when towards the 
circumference of the flower. 

119. Pollen (109) is not always in the form of dust. It is sometimes collected in each cell 
into one or two little wax-like masses. Special terms used in describing these masses or other 
modifications of the pollen will be explained under the Orders where they occur. 

§ 11. The Pistil. 

120. The carpels (91) of the Pistil, although they may occasionally assume, rather more 
than stamens, the appearance and colour of leaves, are still more different in shape and 
structure. They are usually sessile ; if stalked, their stalk is called a podocarp. This stalk, 
upon which each Separate carpel is supported above the receptacle, must not be confounded with 
the gynobasis (143), upon which the whole pistil is sometimes raised. 

121. Each carpel consists of three parts : 

1. The Ovary, or enlarged base, which includes one or more cavities or cells, containing 
one or more small bodies called ovules. These are the earliest condition of the future seeds. 

2. the Style, proceeding from the summit of the ovary, and supporting — 

3. the Stigrma, which is sometimes a point (or punctiform stigma) or small head (a 
capitate stigma) at the top of the style or ovary, sometimes a portion of its surface more or less 
lateral and variously shaped, distinguished by a looser texture, and covered with minute 
protuberances called papillm. 

122. The style is often wanting, and the stigma is then sessile on the ovary, but in the perfect 
pistil there is always at least one ovule in the ovary, and some portion of stigmatio surface. 
Without these the pistil is imperfect, and said to be barren (not setting seed), abortive, or 
rudimentary (84), according to the degree of imperfection. 

128. The ovary being the essential part of the pistil, most of the terms relating to the 
number, arrangement, etc., of the carpels, apply specially to their ovaries. In some works each 
separate carpel is called a pistil, all those of a flower constituting together the gyncecium ; but 
this term is in little use, and the word pistil is more generally applied in a collective sense. 
When the ovaries are at all united, they are commonly termed collectively a compound ovary. 

124, The number of carpels or ovaries in a flower is frequently reduced below that of the 
parts of the other floral whorls, even in flowers otherwise symmetrical. In a very few genera, 
however, the ovaries are more numerous than the petals, or indefinite. They are in that case 
either arranged in a single whorl, or form a hea,cl or spike in the centre of the flower, 

125. The terms monogynons, digynous, polygynauis, etc, (with a pistil of one, two or more 
parts), are vaguely used, applying sometimes to the whole pistil, sometimes to the ovaries alone, 
or to the styles or stigmas oijly. Where a more precise nomenclature is adopted, the flower is 

monocarpellary , when the pistil consists of a single simple carpel. 

bi-, tri-, etc., to poly-carpellary , when the pistil consists of two, three, or an indefinite 
number of carpels, whether separate or united. 


syncarpous, when the carpels or their ovaries are more or less united into one oom- 
pound ovary. 

apocarpous, when the carpels or ovaries are all free and distinct. 

126. A compound ovary is 

unilocular or one-celled, when there are no partitions between the ovules, or when these 
partitions do not meet in the centre so as to divide the cavity into several cells. 

plurilocular or several-celled, when completely divided into two or more cells by partitions 
called dissepiments (septa), usually vertical and radiating from the centre or axis of the ovary 
to its circumference. 

M-, tri-, etc., to vwlti-locular, according to the number of these cells, two, three, etc., 
or many. 

127. In general the number of cells or of dissepiments, complete or partial, or of rows of 
ovules, corresponds with that of the carpels, of which the pistil is composed. But sometimes 
each carpel is divided completely or partially into two cells, or has two rows of ovules, so that 
the number of carpels appears double what it really is. Sometimes again the carpels are so 
completely combined and reduced as to form a single cell, with a single ovule, although it really 
consist of several carpels. But in these cases the ovary is usually described as it appears, as 
well as such as it is theoretically supposed to be. 

128. In apocarpous pistils the styles are usually free, each bearing its own stigma. Very 
rarely the greater part of the styles or the stigmas alone, are united, whilst the ovaries remain 

129. Syncarpous flowers are said to have 

several styles, when the styles are free from the base. 

one style, mth several tranches, when the styles are connected at the base, but separate below 
the point where the stigmas or stigmatic surfaces commence. 

one simple style, with several stigmas, when united up to the point where the stigmas or 
stigmatic surfaces commence, and then separating. 

one simple style, with a branched, lobed, toothed, notched, or entire stigma (as the case may 
be), when the stigmas also are more or less united. In many works, however, this precise 
nomenclature is not strictly adhered to, and considerable confusion is often the result. 

130. In general the number of styles, or branches of the style or stigma, is the same as that 
of the carpels, but sometimes that number is doubled, especially in the stigmas, and sometimes 
the stigmas are dichotomously or pinnately branched, or penicillate, that is, divided into a tuft 
of hair-like branches. All these variations sometimes make it a difficult task to determine the 
number ef carpels forming a compound ovary, but the point is of considerable importance in 
fixing the affinities of plants, and by careful consideration, the real as well as the apparent 
number has now in most cases been agreed upon. 

131. The Placenta is the part of the inside of the ovary to which the ovules are attached, 
sometimes a mere point or a line on the inner surface, often more or less thickened or raised. 
Placentation is therefore the indication of the part of the ovary to which the ovules are attached. 

132. Placentas are 

axile, when the ovules are attached to the axis or centre, that is, in plurilocular ovaries, 
when they are attached to the inner angle of each cell ; in unilocular simplepvaries, which have 
almost always an excentrical style or stigma, when the ovules are attached to the side of the 
ovary nearest to the style ; in unilocular compound ovaries, when the ovaries are attached to a 
central protuberance, column, or axis rising up from the base of the cavity. If this column 
does not reach the top of the cavity, the placenta is said to be free and central. 

parietal, when the ovules are attached to the inner surface of the cavity of a one- 
celled compound ovary. Parietal placentas are usually slightly thickened or raised lines, 
sometimes broad surfaces nearly covering the inner surface of the cavity, sometimes projecting 
far into the cavity, and constituting partial dissepiments, or even meeting in the centre, but 
without cohering there. In the latter case the distinction between the one-celled and the 
several-celled ovary sometimes almost disappears. 

133. Each Ovule (121), when fully formed, usually consists of a central mass or nucleus 
enclosed m two bag-like coats, the outer one called primine, the inner one secundine. The 
chalaza is the point of the ovule at which the base of the nucleus is confluent with the coats 
The foramen is a minute aperture in the coats over the apex of the nucleus. 

184. Ovules are 

orthotropous or straight, when the ohalaza coincides with the base (36) of the ovule and 
the foramen is at the opposite extremity, the axis of the ovule being straight. ' 

campylotropous or incwrved, when the ehalaza still coinciding with the base of the ovule 
the axis of the ovule is curved, bringing the foramen more or less towards that base ' 

anatropous or inverted, when the ohalaza is at the apex of the ovule, and the foramen next to 
Its base, the axis remaining straight. In this, one of the most frequent forms of the ovule the 
ohalaza is connected with the base by a cord, called the raphe, adhering to one side of the 
ovule, and becoming more or less incorporated with its coats, as the ovule enlarges into a seed 

amphitropous, or half-inverted, when the ovule being as it were attached laterally the 
ohalaza and foramen at opposite ends of its straight or curved axis are about equally distant 
from the base or point of attachment, i J '» » 


§ 12. The Reci-ptncle and Relative AUachmenI of the Floral Wliorh. 

135. The Receptacle or toruis is the extremity of the peduncle (above the calyx), upon 
which the oaroUa, stamens, and ovary are inserted. It is sometimes little more than a mere 
point or minute hemisphere, but it is often also more or less elongated, thickened, or otherwise 
enlarged. It must not be confounded with the receptacle of inflorescence (74). 

136. A Disk, or disc, is a circular enlargement of the receptacle, usually in the form of a cup 
(cupalar). of a flat disk or quoit, or of a cushion (pulvinate). It is either immediately at the 
base of the ovary within the stamens, or between the petals and stamens, or bears the petals or 
stamens or both on its margin, or is quite at the extremity of the receptacle, with the ovaries 
arranged in a ring round it or under it. 

137. The disk may be entire, or toothed, or lobed, or divided into a number of parts, usually 
equal to or twice that of the stamens or carpels. When the parts of the disk are quite separate 
and short, they are often called glands. 

138. Nectaries are either the disk, or small deformed petals, or abortive stamens, or 
appendages at the base of petals or stamens, or any small bodies within the flower which do not 
look like petals, stamens, or ovaries. They were formerly supposed to supply bees with their 
honey, and the term is frequently to be met with in the older Floras, but is now deservedly 
going out of use. 

139. When the disk bears the petals and stamens, it is frequently adherent to, and apparently 
forms part of, the tube of the calyx, or it is adherent to, and apparently forms part of, the 
ovary, or of both calyx-tube and ovary. Hence the three following important distinctions in the 
relative insertion of the floral whorls. 

140. Petals, or as it is frequently expressed, flowers, are 

hypogynous {i.e. under the ovary), when they or the disk that bears them are entirely free 
both from the calyx and ovary. The ovary is then described as free or superior', the calyx as 
free or inferior, the petals as being inserted on the receptacle. 

perigynons {i.e. round the ovary), when the disk bearing the petals is quite free from the 
ovary, but is more or less combined with the base of the calyx-tube. The ovary is then still 
described as free or superior, even though the combined disk and calyx-tube may form a, deep 
cup with the ovary lying in the bottom ; the calyx is said to be free or inferior, and the petals 
are described as inserted on the calyx. 

epigynous {i.e. upon the ovary), when the disk bearing the petals is combined both with the 
base of the calyx-tube and the base outside of the ovary ; either closing over the ovary so as 
only to leave a passage for the style, or leaving more or less of the top of the ovary free, but 
always adhering to it above the level of the insertion of the lowest ovule (except in a very few 
cases where the ovules are absolutely suspended from the top of the cell). In epigynous flowers 
the ovary is described as adherent or inferior, the calyx as adherent or superior, the petals as 
inserted on or above the ovary. In some works, however, most epigynous flowers are included in 
the perigynous ones, and a very different meaning is given to the term epigynous (144), and 
there are a few cases where no positive distinction can be drawn between the epigynous and 
perigynous flowers, or again between the perigynous and hypogynous flowers. 

141. When there are no petals, it is the insertion of the stamens that determines the difference 
between the hypogynous, perigynous, and epigynous flowers. 

142. When there are both petals and stamens, 

in hypogynous flowers, the petals and stamens are usually free from each other, but some- 
times they are combined at the base. In that case, if the petals are distinct from each other, 
and the stamens are monadelphous, the petals are often said to be inserted on or combined with 
the staminal tube ; if the corolla is gamopetalous and the stamens distinct from each other, the 
latter are said to be inserted in the tube of the corolla. 

in perigynous flowers, t!ie stamens are usually inserted immediately within the petals, or 
alternating with them on the edge of the disk, but occasionally much lower down within the 
disk, or even on the unenlarged part of the receptacle. 

in epigynous flowers, when the petals are distinct, the stamens are usually inserted as in 
perigynous flowers ; when the corolla is gamopetalous, the stamens are either free and hypogy- 
nous, or combined at the base with (inserted in) the tube of the corolla. 

143. When the receptacle is distinctly elongated below the ovary, it is often called a gynobasis, 
gynophore, or stalk of the ovary. If the elongation takes place below the stamens or below the 
petals, these stamens or petals are then said to be inserted on the stalk of the ovary, and are 
occasionally, but falsely, described as epigynous. Eeally epigynous stamens {i.e. when the 
filaments are combined with the ovary) are very rare, unless the rest of the flower is epigynous. 

144. An epigynous disk is a name given either to the thickened summit of the ovary in 
epigynous flowers, or very rarely to a real disk or enlargement of the receptacle closing over the 

145. In the relative position of any two or more parts of the flower, whether in the same or 
in different whorls, they are 

connivent, when nearer together at the summit than at the base. 
divergent, when further apart at the summit than at tlie base. 


coherent, when united together, but so slightly that they can be separated with little or no 
laceration ; and one of the two cohering parts (usually the smallest or least important) is said 
to be adherent to the other. Grammatically speaking, these two terms convey nearly the same 
meaning, but require a different form of phrase ; practically however it has been found more 
convenient to restrict cohesion to the union of parts of the same whorl, and adhesion to the union 
of parts of different whorls. 

connate, when so closely united that they cannot be separated without laceration. Each of 
the two connate parts, and especially that one which is considered the smaller or of the least 
importance, is said to be adnate to the other. 

free, when neither coherent nor connate. 

distinct is also used in the same sense, but is also applied to parts distinctly visible or 
distinctly limited. 

§ IS. The Fruit. 

146. The Fruit (15) consists of the ovary and whatever other parts of the flower are 
persistent {i.e. persist at the time the seed is ripe), usually enlarged, and more or less altered in 
shape and consistence. It encloses or covers the seed or seeds till the period of maturity, when 
it either opens for the seed to escape, or falls to the ground with the seed. When stalked, its 
stalk has been termed a carpophore. 

147. Fruits are, in elementary works, said to be simple when the result of a single flower, 
compound when they proceed from several flowers closely packed or combined in a head. But 
as a fruit resulting from a single flower, with several distinct carpels, is compound in the sense 
in which that term is applied to the ovary, the terms single and aggregate, proposed for the 
fruit resulting from one or several flowers, may be. more appropriately adopted. In descriptive 
botany a fruit is always supposed to result from a single flower unless the contrary be stated. 
It may, like the pistil, be syncarpous or apocarpous (125) ; and as in many cases carpels united 
in the flower may become separate as they ripen, an apocarpous fruit may result from a 
syncarpous pistil. 

148. The involucre or bracts often persist and form part of aggregate fruits, but very seldom 
so in single ones. 

149. The receptacle becomes occasionally enlarged and succulent ; if when ripe it falls oft 
with the fruit, it is considered as forming part of it. 

150. The adherent part of the calyx of epigynous flowers always persists and forms part of 
the fruit ; the free part of the calyx of epigynous flowers or the oalyx of perigynous flowers, 
either persists entirely at the top of or round the fruit, or the lobes alone tall off, or the lobes 
fall off with whatever part of the calyx is above the insertion of the petals, or the whole of 
what is free from the ovary falls off, including the disk bearing the petals. The calyx of 
hypogynotis flowers usually falls off entirely or persists entirely. In general a oalyx is called 
deciduous if any part falls off. When it persists it is either enlarged round or under the fruit, 
or it withers and dries up. 

151. The corolla usually falls off entirely ; when it persists it is usually withered and dry 
(marcescent) , or very seldom enlarges round the fruit. 

152. The stamens either tall off, or more or less of their filaments persists, usually withered 
and dry. 

153. The style sometimes falls off, or dries up and disappears ; sometimes persists, forming a 
point to the fruit, or becomes enlarged into a wing or other appendage to the fruit. 

154. The Pericarp is the portion of the fruit formed of the ovary, and whatever adheres to it 
exclusive of and outside of the seed or seeds, exclusive also of the persistent receptacle, or of 
whatever portion of the oalyx persists round the ovary without adhering to it. 

155.. Fruits have often external appendages, called wings (ales), beaks, crests, awm, etc., 
according to their appearance. They are either formed by persistent parts of the flower more 
or less altered, or grow out of the ovary or the persistent part of the oalyx. If the appendage 
be a ring of hairs or scales round the top of the fruit, it is called a pappus. 

156. Fruits are generally divided into succulent (including fleshy, pulpy, and pdcy fruits) and 
dry. They are dehiscent when they open at maturity to let out the seeds, indehiscent when 
they do not open spontaneously but fall off with the seeds. Succulent fruits are usually 

157. The principal kinds of succulent fruits are 

the Berry, in which the whole substance of the pericarp is fleshy or pulpy, with the 
exception of the outer skin or rind, called the Epicarp. The seeds themselves are usually 
immersed in the pulp ; but in some berries, the seeds are separated from the pulp by the walls 
of the cavity or cells of the ovary, which forms as it were a thin inner skin or rind, called the 

the Drupe, in which the pericarp, when ripe, consists of two distinct portions, an outer 
succulent one called the Sarcocarp (covered like the berry by a skin or epicarp), and an inner 
dry endocarp called the Putamen, which is either cartilaginous (of the consistence of parchment) 
or hard and woody. In the latter case it is commonly called a stone, and the drupe a stone-fruit 
When the putamen consists of several distinct stones or nuts, each enclosing a seed they are 
called pyrenes, or sometimes kernels. ' ' 


158. The principal kinds of dry fruits are 

the Capsule or Pod* which is dehiaoent. When ripe the pericarp usually slits longitudinally 
into as many or twice as many pieces, called valves, as it contains cells or placentas. If these 
valves separate at the line of junction of the carpels, that is, along the line of the placentas or 
dissepiments, either splitting them or leaving them attached to the axis, the dehiscence is 
termed septieidal ; if the valves separate between the placentas or dissepiment, the dehiscence 
is loculicidal, and the values either bear the placentas or dissepiments along their middle line, 
or leave them attached to the axis. Sometimes also the capsule discharges its seeds by slitu, 
chinks, or pores, more or less regularly arranged, or bursts irregularly, or separates into two 
parts by a horizontal line ; in the latter case it is said to be drcumsciss. 

the Nut or Achene, which is indehisoent and contains but a single seed. When the pericarp 
is thin in proportion to the seed it encloses, the whole fruit (or each of its lobes) has the 
appearance of a single seed, and is so called in popular language. If the pericarp is thin and 
rather loose, it is often called an Utricle. A Samara is a nut with a wing at its upper end. 

159. Where the carpels of the pistil are distinct (125) they may severally become as many 
distinct berries, drupes, capsules, or achenes. Separate carpels are usually more or less 
compressed laterally, with more or less prominent inner and outer edges, called sutures, and, if 
dehiscent, the carpel usually opens at these sutures. A Follicle is a carpel opening at the inner 
suture only. In some cases where the carpels are united in the pistil they will separate when 
ripe ; they are then called Gocci if one-seeded. 

160. The peculiar fruits of some of the large Orders have received special names, which 
will be explained under each Order. Such are the siliqua and silicule of Cruoiferffi, the legume of 
Leguminosse, the pome of Pyrus and its allies, the pepo of Cuourbitacese, the cone of Coniferse, 
the grain or caryopsis of Graminea), etc. 

§ 14. The Seed. 

161. The Seed is enclosed in the pericarp in the great majority of flowering plants, called 
therefore Angiospenns or angiospermous plants. In Conifem and a very tew allied genera, called 
Gymnosperms oi gymnospermous plants, the seed is naked, without any real pericarp. These truly 
gymnospermous plants must not be confounded ^ith Labiata, Boraginece, etc., which have also 
been falsely called gynospermous, their small nuts having the appearance of seeds (158). 

162. The seed when ripe contains an embryo or young plant, either filling or nearly filling the 
cavity, but not attached to the outer skin or the seed, or more or less immersed in a mealy, oily, 
fleshy, or horn-like substance, called the albumen or perisperm. The presence or absence of this 
albumen, that is, the distinction between albuminous and exalbuminous seeds, is one of great 
importance. The embryo or albumen can often only be found or distinguished when the seed 
is quite ripe, or sometimes only when it begins to germinate. 

163. The shell of the seed consists usually of two separable coats. The outer coat, called the 
testa, is usually the principal one, and in most cases the only one attended to in descriptions. 
It may be hard and crustaceous, woody or bony, or thin and membranous (skin-like), dry, or 
rarely succulent. It is sometimes expanded into icings, or bears a tuft of hair, cotton or wool, 
called a coma. The inner coat is called the tegmen. 

164. Thefunicle is the stalk by which the seed is attached to the placenta. It is occasionally 
enlarged into a membranous, pulpy, or fleshy appendage, sometimes spreading over a consider- 
able part of the seed, or nearly enclosing it, called an aril. A strophiole or caruncle is a similar 
appendage proceeding from the testa by the side of or near the f unicle. 

165. The Mlum is the soar left on the seed where it separates from the funicle. The 
micropyle is a mark indicating the position of the foramen of the ovule (133) . 

166. The Embryo (162) consists of the Radicle or base of the future root, one or two 
Cotyledons or future seed-leaves, and the Plumule or future bud within the base of the cotyledons. 
In some seeds, especially where there is no albumen, these several parts are very conspicuous, 
in others they are very difficult to distinguish until the seed begins to germinate. Their 
observation, however, is of the greatest importance, for it is chiefly upon the distinction between 
the embryo with one or with two cotyledons that are founded the two great classes of phseno- 
gamous plants, Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons. 

1.67. Although the embryo lies loose (unattached) within the seed, it is generally in some 
determinate position with respect to the seed or to the whole fruit. This position is described 
by stating the direction of the radicle next to or more or less remote from the hilum, or it is 
said to be superior if pointing towards the summit of the fruit, inferior if pointing towards the 
base of the fruit. 

§ 15. Accessory Organs. 

168. Under this name are included, in many elementary works, various external parts of 
plants which do not appear to act any essential part either in the vegetation or reproduction of 
the plant. They may be classed under four heads : Tendrils and Hooks, Thorns and Prickles, 
Hairs and Glands. 

* In English descriptions, pod is moce freqiaently used when it is long and nE^rrgw j capsule, or sometimes 
pouch, when it is short and thick or broad. 


169. Tendrils (cirrhi) are usually abortive petioles, or abortive peduncles, or sometimes 
abortive ends of branches. They are simple or more or less branched, flexible, and coil more or 
less firmly round any objects .within their reach, in order to support the plant to which they 
belong. Hooks are similar holdfasts, hut of a firmer consistence, not branched, and less coiled. 

170. Thorns and Prickles have been fancifully called the weapons of plants, k Thorn 
or Spine is the strongly pointed extremity of a branch, or abortive petiole, or abortive peduncle. 
A Prickle is a sharply pointed excrescence from the epidermis, and is usually produced on a 
branch, on the petiole or veins of a leaf, or on a peduncle, or even on the calyx or corolla. 
When the teeth of a leaf or the stipules are pungent, they are also called prickles not thm-ns. A 
plant is spinous if it has thorns, aculeate if has prickles. 

171. Kairs, in the general sense, or the indumentum (or clothing) of a plant, include all 
those productions of the epidermis which have, by a more or less appropriate comparison, been 
termed bristles, hairs, down, cotton or wool, 

172. Hairs are often branched. They are said to be attached by the centre, if parted from the 
base, and the forks spread along the surface in opposite directions ; pluviose, if the branches are 
arranged along a common axis, as in a feather ; stellate, if several branches radiate horizontally. 
These stellate hairs have sometimes their rays connected together at the base, forining little flat 
circular disks attached by the centre, and are then called scales, and the surface is said to be 

scaly 01 1 -^- 

173. The Epidermis, or outer skin, of an organ, as to its surface and indumentum, is 
smooth, when without any protuberance whatever. 

glabrous, when without hairs of any kind. 

striate, when marked with parallel longitudinal lines, either slightly raised or merely 

furrowed (sulcate) or ribbed (costate) when the parallel lines are more distinctly raised. 

rugose, when wrinkled or marked with irregular raised or depressed lines. 

umbilicate, when marked with a small round depression. 

umbonate, when bearing a small boss like that of a shield. 

viscous, viscid, or glutinous, when covered with a sticky or clammy exudation. 

scabrous, when rough to the touch. 

tuberculate or warted, when covered with small, obtuse, wart-like protuberances. 

muricate, when the protuberances are more raised and pointed but yet short and hard. 

echinate, when the protuberances are longer and sharper, almost prickly. 

setose or bristly, when bearing very stiff erect straight hairs. 

glandular-setose, when the setse or bristles terminate in a minute resinous head or drop. In 
some works, especially in the case of roses and robus, the meaning of setce has been restricted to 
such as are glandular. 

glochidiate, when the setse are hooked at the top. 

pilose, when the surface is thinly sprinkled with rather long simple hairs. 

hispid, when more thickly covered with rather stifif hairs. 

hirsute, when the hairs are dense and not so stiff. 

downy oi pubescent, when the hairs are short and soft ; perbulent, when slightly pubescent. 

strigose, when the hairs are rather short and stiff, and lie close along the surface all in the 
same direction ; strigillose, when slightly strigose. 

tomentose or cottony, when the hairs are very short and soft, rather dense and more or less 
intricate, and usually white or whitish. 

woolly {lanate), when the hairs are long and loosely intricate, like wool. The wool or 
tomentum is said to he Jloccose when closely intricate and readily detached, like fleece. 

mealy i/arinose), when the hairs are excessively short, intricate and white, and come off 
readily, having the appearance of meal or dust. 

canescent or hoary, when the hairs are so short as not readily to be distinguished by the 
naked eye, and yet give a general whitish hue to the epidermis. 

glaucous, when of a pale bluish-green, often covered with a fine bloom. 

174. The meanings here attached to the above terms are such as appear to have been most 
generally adopted, but there is much vagueness in the use practically made of many of them by 
different botanists. This is especially the case with the terms pilose, hispid, hirsute, pubescent, 
and tomentose. 

175. The name of Glands is given to several different productions, and principally to the 
four following : — 

1. Small wart-like or shield-like bodies, either sessile or sometimes stalked, of a fungous or 
somewhat fleshy consistence, occasionally secreting a small quantity, of oily or resinous matter, 
but more frequently dry. They are generally few in number, often definite in ,their position and 
form, and occur chiefly on the petiole or principal veins of leaves, on the branches of inflores- 
cences, or on the stalks or principal veins of bracts, sepals, or petals. 

2. Minute raised dots, usually black, red, or dark-coloured, of a resinous or oily nature, 
always superficial, and apparently exudations from the epidermis. They are often numerous 
on leaves, bracts, sepals, and green branches, and occur even on petals and stamens, more 
rarely on pistils. When raised upon slender stalks they are called pedicellate (or stipitate) 
glands, or glandular hairs, according to the thickness pf the stalk, 


3. Small, globular, oblong or even linear veslolei?, filled with oil imbedded in the substance 
itaelf o! leaves, bracts, floral organs, or fruits. They are often very numerous, like transparent 
dots, sometimes few and determinate in form and position. In the pericarp of Vmhellifcnc they 
are remarkably regular and conspicuous, and take the name of vitta. 

i. Lobes of the disk (137), or other small fleshy excrescences within the flower, whether 
from the receptacle, calyx, corolla, stamens, or pistil. 

Chap. II. Classification, ok Systematic Botany. 

176. It has already been observed (3) that descriptions of plants should, as nearly as possible, 
be arranged under natural divisions, so as to facilitate the comparison of each plant with those 
most nearly allied to it. The descriptions of plants here alluded to are descriptions of species ; 
the natural divisions of the Flora refer to natural groups of species. 

177. A Species comprises all the individual plants which resemble each other sufficiently 
to make us conclude that they are all, or may have been all, descended from a common parent. 
These individuals may often differ from each other in many striking particulars, such as the 
colour of the flower, size of the leaf, etc., but these particulars are such as experience teaches us 
are liable to vary in the seedlings raised from one individual. 

178. When a large number of the individuals of a species differ from the others in any 
striking particular they constitute a Variety. If the variety generally comes true from seed, 
it is often called a Race. 

179. A Variety can only be propagated with certainty by grafts, cuttings, bulbs, tubers, or 
any other method which produces a new plant by the development of one or more buds taken 
from the old one. A Race may with care be propagated by seed, although seedlings will always 
be liable, under certain circumstances, to lose those particulars which distinguish it from the 
rest of the species. A real Species will always come true from seed. 

180. The known species of plants (now near 100,000) are far too numerous for the human 
mind to study without classification, or even to give distinct single names to. To facilitate 
these objects, an admirable system, invented by LinnEeus, has been universally adopted, viz. 
one commen substantive name is given to a number of species which resemble each other more 
than they do any other species ; the species so collected under one name are collectively called a 
GenuS; the common name being the generic name. Bach species is then distinguished from 
the others of the same genus by the addition of an adjective epithet or specific name. Every 
species has thus a botanical name of two words. In Latin, the language usually used for the 
purpose, the first word is a substantive and designates the genus ; the second, an adjective, 
indicates the species. 

181. The genera thus formed being still too numerous (above 6,000) for study without further 
arrangement, they have been classed upon the same principles ; viz. genera which resemble 
each other more than they do any other genera, have been collected together into groups of a 
higher degree called Families and ITatural Orders, to each of which a common name 
h9,s been given. This name is in Latin an adjective plural, usually taken from the name of 
some one typical genus, generally the best known, the first discovered, or the most marked (e.g. 
Ranunculacece iion\ Ranunculus) . This is however for the purpose of study and comparison. 
To speak of a species, to refer to it and identify it, all that is necessary is to give the generic 
and specific names. 

182. iNatural Qrders themselves (of which we reckon near 200) are often in the same manner 
collected into Classes ; and where orders contain a large number of genera, or genera a large 
number of species, they require further classification. The genera of an Order are then collected 
into minor groups called Tribes, the species of a genus into Sections, and in a few cases this 
intermediate classification is carried still further. The names of these several groups the most 
generally adopted are as follows, beginning with the most comprehensive or highest : — 

Classes. Genera. 

Subclasses or Alliances Subgenera. 

Natural Orders or Families. Sections. 

Suborders. Subsections. 

Tribes. Species. 

Subtribes. Varieties. 


183. The characters (3) by which a species is distinguished from all other species of the same 
genus are collectively called the speciAc character of the plant ; those by which its genus is 
distinguished from other genera of the Order, or its order from other Orders, are respectively 
called the generic or ordinal character, as the case may be. The habit of a plant, of a species, a 
genus, etc., consists of such general characters as strike the eye at first sight, such as si?e, 
colour, ramification, arrangement of the leaves, inflorescence, etc., and are chiefly derived from 
the organs of vegetation. 

184. Classes, Orders, Genera, and their several subdivisions, are called natural -v/hen, in 
forming them, all resemblances and differences are taken into account, valuing them according 
to their evident or presumed importance ; artificial, when resemblances and differences in some 
one or very few particulars only are taken into account independently of all others. 


185. The number of species included in a genus, or the number of genera in an Order, is very 
variable. Sometimes two or three or even a single species may be so different from all others 
as to constitute the entire genus ; in others, several hundred species may resemble each other so 
much as to be all included in one genus ; and there is the same discrepancy In the number oi 
genera to a Family. There is, moreover, unfortunately, in a number of lnstances,_ great 
difference of opinion as to whether certain plants differing from each other in certain particulars 
are varieties of one species or belong to distinct species ; and again, whether two or raore groups 
of species should constitute as many sections of one genus, or distinct genera, or tribes of one 
Order, or even distinct Natural Orders. In the former case, as a species is supposed to have a 
real existence in nature, the question is susceptible of argument, and sometimes of absolute 
proof. But the place a group should occupy in the scale of degree is very arbitrary, beingoften 
a mere question of convenience. The more subdivisions upon correct principles are multiplied, 
the more they facilitate the study of plants, provided always the main resting-points for constant 
use, the Order and the Genus, are comprehensive and distinct. But if every group into which a 
genus can be divided be erected into a distinct genus, with a substantive name to be remembered 
whenever a species is spoken of, all the advantages derived from the beautiful simplicity of the 
Liunasan nomenclature are gone. 

Chap. III. Vegetable Anatomy and Physiology. 
§ 1. Structure and Growth of the Elementary Tissues. 

186. If a very thin slice of any part of a plant be placed under a microscope of high magnify- 
ing power, it will be found to be made up of variously shaped and arranged ultimate parts, 
forming a sort of honeycombed structure. These ultimate parts are called cells, and form by 
their combination the elementary tissues of which the entire plant is composed. 

187. A cell in its simplest stateps a closed membranous sac, formed of a substance permeable by 
fluids, though usually destitute of visible pores. Each cell is a distinct individual, separately 
formed and separately acting, though cohering with the cells with which it is in contact, and 
partaking of the common hfe and action of the tissue oE which it forms a part. The membranes 
separating or enclosing the cells are also called their walls. 

188. Botanists usually distinguish the following tissues : — 

(1) Cellular tissue ot parenchyma, consists usually of thin-walled cells, more or less round in 
form, or with their length not much exceeding their breadth, and not tapering at the ends. All 
the soft parts of the leaves, the pith of stems, the pulp of fruits, and all young growing parts, 
are formed ■ of it. It is the first tissue produced, and continues to be formed while growth 
ntinues. and when it ceases to be active the plant dies. 

(2) Woody tissue ot prosenchyma, differs ia having its cells considerably longer than broad, 
usually tapering at each end into points and overlapping each other. The cells are commonly 
thick walled ; the tissue is firm, tenacious, and elastic, and constitutes the principal part of 
wood, ot the inner bark, and of the nerves and veins of leaves, forming, in short, the framework 
of the plant. 

(3) Vascular tissue, or the vessels or ducts of plants, so called from the mistaken notion that 
their functions are analogous to those of the vessels (veins and arteries) of animals. A vessel 
in plants consists of a vertical row of cells, which have their transverse partition-walls obliterated 
so as to form a continuous tube. All phffinogamous plants, as well as terns and a Jew other 
cryptogamous plants, have vessels, and are therefore called vascular plants ; so the inajority of 
cryptogams having only cellular tissue are termed cellular plants. Vessels have their sides very 
variously marked ; some called spiral vessels, have a spiral fibre coiled up their inside, which 
unrolls when the vessel is broken ; others are marked with longitudinal slits, cross bars, minute 
dots or pits, or with traverse rings. The size of vessels is also very variable in different plants ; 
in some they are of considerable size and visible to the naked eye in cross sections of the stem, 
in others they are almost absent or can only be traced under a strong magnifier. 

189. Various modifications of the above tissues are distinguished by vegetable anatomists 
under names which need not be enumerated here as not being in general practical use. Air- 
vessels, cysts, turpentine-vessels, oil-reservoirs, etc., are either cavities left between the cells or 
large cells filled with peculiar secretions. ' 

190. When tissues are once formed, they increase, not by the general enlargement ot the 
whole of the cells already formed, but by cell-division, that is, by the division of young and 
vitally active cells, and the enlargement of their portions. In the formation of the embryo the 
first cell of the new plant is formed, not by division, but around a segregate portion of the 
contents of a previously existing cell, the embryo-sac. This is termed /ree cefZ-fomation in 
contradistinction to cell-division. ' 

191. A young and vitally active cell consists of the outer wall, formed of a more or less 
transparent substance called cellulose, permeable by fluids, and ot ternary chemical composition 
(carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen) ; and of the cell-contents usually viscid or mucilaginous, consist- 
ing ot;)rofopZasm, a substance of quaternary chemical composition (carbon, hydrogen,' oxygen 


and nitrogen), which fills an important part in cell-division and growth. Within the cell (either 
in the centre or exoentrical) is usually a minute, soft, subgelatinouB body called the nucleus, 
whose functions appear to be intimately connected with the first formation of the new cell. As 
this cell increases in size, and its walls in thickness, the protoplasm and watery cell-sap become 
absorbed or dried up, thefiim cellulose wall alone remaining as a permanent fabric, either empty 
or filled with various organised substances produced or secreted within it. 

192. The principal organised contents of cells are 

sap, the first product of the digestion of the food of plants ; it contains the elements of 
vegetable growth in a dissolved condition. 

sugar, of which there are two kinds, called cane-sugar and grape-sugar. It usually exists 
dissolved in the sap. It is found abundantly in growing parts, in fruits, and in germinating seeds. 

dextrine, or vegetable mucilage, a gummy substance, between mucilage and starch. 

starch oifecula, one of the most universal and conspicuous of cell-contents, and often so 
abundant in farinaceous roots and seeds as to fill the cell-cavity. It consists of minute grains 
called starch- granules, which vary in size and are marked with more or less conspicuous 
concentric lines of growth. The chemical constitution of starch is the same as that of cellulose ; 
it is unaffected by cold water, but forms a jelly with boiling water, and turns blue when tested 
by iodine. When fully dissolved it is no longer starch, but dextrine. 

chlorophyll, very minute granules, containing nitrogen, and coloured green under the action 
of sunlight. These granules are most abundant in the layers of cells immediately below the 
surface or epidermis of leaves and young bark. The green colouring matter is soluble in alcohol, 
and may thus be removed from the granules. 

chromule, a name given to a similar colouring matter when not green. 

wax, oils, camphor, and resinous matter, are common in cells or in cavities in the tissues 
between the cells, also various mineral substances, either in an amorphous state or as 
microscopic crystals, when they are called Raphides. 

§ 2. Arrangement of the Elementary Tissues, or Structure of the Organs of Plants. 

193. Leaves, young stems, and branches, and most parts of phtenogamons plants, during the 
first year of their existence consist anatomically of 

1, a cellular system, or continuous mass of cellular tissue, wliioh is developed both vertically 
as the stem or other parts increase in length, and horizontally or laterally as they increase in 
thickness or breadth. It surrounds oris intermixed with the fibrovascular system or it may 
exist alone in some parts of phtenogamous plants, as well as in cryptogamous ones. 

2, Sj fiiro-vascular system, or continuous mass of woody and vascular tissue, which is 
gradually introduced vertically into, and serves to bind together the cellular system. It is 
continued from the stem into the petioles and veins of the leaves, and into the pedicels and parts 
of the flowers, and is never wholly wanting in any phasnogamous plant. 

3, An epidermis, or outer skin, formed of one or more layers of flattened (horizontal), firmly 
coherent, and usually empty cells, with either thin and transparent or thick and opaque walls. 
It covers almost all parts of plants exposed to the outward air, protecting their tissues from its 
immediate action, but is wanting in those parts of aquatic plants which are constantly submerged. 

194. The epidermis is frequently pierced by minute spaces between the cells, called Stomates. 
They are oval or mouth shaped, bordered by lips, formed of two or more elastic cells so disposed 
as to cause the stomate to open in a moist and to close up in a dry state of the atmosphere. They 
communicate with intercellular cavities, and are obviously desighed to regulate evaporation and 
respiration. They are chiefly found upon leaves, especially on the under surface. 

195. When a phsenogamous plant has outlived the first season of its growth, the anatomical 
structure of its stem or other perennial parts becomes more complicated and very different in the 
two great classes of phsenogamous plants called Exogens and Endogens, which correspond with very 
few exceptions to the two classes Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons (167), founded on the structure 
of the embryo. In Exogens (Dicotyledons) the woody system is placed in concentric layers 
between a central pith (198, 1) and an external separable bark (198, 5). In Endogens 
(Monocotyledons) the woody system is in separate small bundles or fibres running through the 
cellular system without apparent order, and there is usually no distinct central pith, nor outer 
separable bark. 

196. The anatomical structure is also somewhat different in the different organs of plants. 
In the Root, although it is constructed generally on the same plan as the stem, yet the regular 
organisation, and the difference between Exogens and Endogens is often disguised or obliterated 
by irregularities of growth, or by the production of large quantities of cellular tissue filled with 
starch or other substances (192). There is seldom, if ever, any distinct pith, the concentric 
circles of fibro-vaseular tissue in Exogens are often very indistinct or have no relation to seasons 
of growth, and the epidermis has no stomates. 

197. In the Stem or branches, during the first year or season of their growth, the difference 
between Exogens and Endogens is not always very conspicuous. In both there is a tendency to 
a circular arrangement of the fibro-vascular system, leaving the centre either vacant or filled 
with cellular tissue (pith) only, and a more or less distinct outer riud is observable even in 

xxii OtJTLllSIES OF 30T^ANY. 

seveval Endogens. More frequently, however, the distinction is already very apparent the first 
season, especially towards its close. The fibro-vascular bundles in Endogens usually anastomose 
but little, passing continuously into the branches and leaves. In Exogens the circle ?^*^°^°- 
vasoular bundles forms a more continuous cylinder of network emitting lateral ofiaets into tne 
branches and leaves. 

198. The Exogenous stem, after the first year of its growth, consists of _ 

1, the pith, a cylinder of cellular tissue, occupying the centre or longitudinal axis ot *^e 
stem. It is active only in young stems or branches, becomes dried up and compressed as the 
wood hardens, and often finally disappears, or is scarcely distinguishable in old trees. 

2, the medullary sheath, which surrounds and encases the pith. It abounds in spiral vessels 
(188, 3), and is in direct connection, when young, with the leaf-buds and branches, with the 
petioles and veins of leaves, and other ramifications of the system. Like the pith, it gradually 
disappears in old wood. 

3, the wood, which lies immediately outside ;the medullary sheath. It is formed of woody 
tissue (188, 2), through which in most cases, vessels (188, 3) variously disposed are interspersed. 
It is arranged in annual concentric circles (211), which usually remain active during several 
years, but in older stems the central and older layers become hard, dense, comparatively Inactive 
and usually deeper colored, forming what is called heart-wood or duramen, the outer, younger, 
and usually paler colored living layers oOQstituting the sap-wood or alburnum. 

4, the medullary rays, which form vertical plates, originating in the pith, and radiating from 
thence, traverse the wood and terminate in the bark. They are formed of cellular tissue, 
keeping up a communication between the living portion of the centre of the stem and its outer 
surface. As the heart-wood is formed, the inner portion of the medullary rays ceases to be 
active, but they usually may still be seen in old wood, forming what carpenters call the silver 

5, the bark, which lies outside the wood, within the epidermis. It is, like the wood, 
arranged in annual concentric circles (211), of which the outer older ones become dry and hard, 
forming the corky layer or outer bark, which, as it is distended by the thickening of the stem, 
either cracks or is oast off with the epidermis, which is no longer distinguishable. Within the 
corky layer is the cellular, or green, or middle bark, formed of loose thin -walled pulpy cells 
containing chlorophyll (192) ; and which is usually the layer of the preceding season. The 
innermost and youngest circle, next the young wood, is the liber or inner bark, formed of long 
tough woody tissue called bast-cells. 

199. The Endogenous stem, as it grows old, is not marked by the concentric circles of 
Exogens. The wood consists of a matrix of cellular tissue irregularly traversed by vertical cords, 
or bundles of woody and vascular tissue, which are in connection with the leaves. These 
vascular bundles change in structure and direction as they pass down the stem, losing their 
vessels, they retain only their bast or long wood-cells, usually curving outwards towards the rind. 
The old wood becomes more compact and harder towards the circumference than in the centre. 
The epidermis or rind either hardens so as to prevent any increase of diameter in the stem, or 
it distends, without increasing in thickness or splitting or casting ofi any outer layers. 

200. In the Xieaf, the structure of tbe petioles and principal ribs or veins is the same as that 
of the young branches of which they are ramifications. In the expanded portion of the leaf the 
fibro-vascular system becomes usually very much ramified, forming the smaller veins. These 
are surrounded and the interstices filled up by a copious and very active cellular tissue. The 
majority of leaves are horizontal, having a differently constructed upper and under surface. 
The cellular stratum forming the upper surface consists of closely set cells, placed vertically, with 
their smallest ends next the surface, and with few or no stomates in the epidermis. In the 
stratum forming the uuder surface, the cells are more or less horizontal, more loosely placed, 
and have generally empty spaces between them, with stomates in the epidermis communicating 
with these intercellular spaces. In vertical leaves (as in a large number of Australian plants) 
the two surfaces are nearly similar in structure. 

201. When leaves are.reduoed to scales, acting only as protectors of young buds, or without 
taking any apparent part in the economy of vegetable life, their structure, though still on the 
same pla.n, is more simple ; their fibro-vascular system is less ramified, their cellular system 
more uniform, and there are few or no stomates. 

202. Bracts and floral envelopes, when green and much developed, resemble leaves in their 
anatomical structure, but in proportion as tbey are reduced to scales or transformed into petals, 
they lose their stomates, and their systems, both fibro-vascular and cellular, become more 
simple and uniform, or more slender and delicate. 

203. In the stamens and pistils the structure is still nearly the same. The fibro-vascular 
system, surrounded by and intermixed with the cellular tissue, is usually simple in the filaments 
and style, more or less ramified in the flattened or expanded parts, such as the anther cases 
the walls of the ovary, or carpellary leaves, etc. The pollen consists of granular cells variously 
shaped, marked, or combined, peculiar forms being constant in the same species, or often in 
large genera, or even Orders. The stigmatio portion of the pistil is a mass of loosely cellular 
.substance, destitute of epidermis, and usually is in communication with the ovary by a channel 
running down the centre of the style. 


204. Tubers, fleshy thickenings of the stem or other parts of the plant, succulent leaves or 
branches, the fleshy, woody, or bony parts of fruits, the albumen, and the thick fleshy parts of 
embryos, consist chiefly of largely developed cellular tissue, replete with starch or other 
substances (192), deposited apparently in most cases for the eventual future use of the plant or 
its parts when recalled into activity at the approach of a new season. 

205. Hairs (171) are usually expansions or processes of the epidermis, and consist of one or 
more cells placed end to end. When thick or hardened into prickles, they still consist usually 
of cellular tissue only. Thorns (170) contain more or less of a fibro-vascular system, according 
to their degree of development. 

206. Glands, in the primary sense of the word (175, 1), consist usually of a rather loose cellular 
tissue without epidermis, and often replete with resinous or other substances. 

§ 3. Growth of the Organs. 

207. Roots grow in length constantly and regularly at the extremities only of their fibres, in 
proportion as they find the requisite nutriment. They form no buds containing the germ of 
future branches, but their fibres proceed irregularly from any part of their surface without 
previous indication, and when their growth has been stopped for a time, either wholly by the 
close of the season, or partially by a deficiency of nutriment at any particular spot, it will, on 
the return of favourable circumstances, be resumed at the same point, if the growing extremities 
be uninjured. If during the dead season, or at any other time, the growing extremity is cut off, 
dried up, or otherwise injured, or stopped by a rock or other obstacle opposing its progress, 
lateral fibres will be formed on the still living portion ; thus enabling the root as a whole to 
diverge in any direction, and travel far and wide when lured on by appropriate nutriment. 

208. This growth is not however by the successive formation of terminal cells attaining at 
once their full size. The cells first formed on a fibre commencing or renewing its growth, will 
often dry up and form a kind of terminal cap, which is pushed on as cells are formed immediately 
under it ; and the new cells, constituting a greater or less portion of the ends of the fibres, 
remain some time in a growing state before they have attained their full size. 

2D9. The roots of Exogens, when perennial, increase in thickness like stems by the addition 
of concentric layers, but these are usually much less distinctly marked ; and in a large number 
of perennial Exogens and most Endogens the roots are annual, perishing at the close of the 
season, fresh adventitious roots springing from the stock when vegetation oommenoea the 
following season. 

210. The Stem, including its branches and appendages (leaves, floral organs, etc.), grows in 
length by additions to its extremity, but a much greater proportion of the extremity and 
branches remains in a growing and expanding state for a much longer time than in the case of 
the root. At the close of one season, leaf-buds or seeds are formed, each containing the germ of 
a branch or young plant to be produced the following season. At a very early stage of the 
development of these buds or seeds, a commencement may be found of many of the leaves it is 
to bear ; and before a leaf unfolds, every leaflet of which it is to consist, every lobe or tooth 
which is to mark its margin, may often be traced in miniature, and thenceforth till it attains its 
full size, the branch grows and expands in every part". In some eases however the lower part of 
a branch and more rarely (e.g. in some Meliacea:) the lower part of a compound leaf attains its 
full size before the young leaves or leaflets of the extremity are yet formed. 

211. The perennial stem, if exogenous (198), grows in thickness by the addition every season 
of a new layer or ring of wood between the outermost preceding layer and the inner surface ot 
the bark, and by the formation of a new layer or ring of bark within the innermost preceding 
layer and outside the new ring of of wood, thus forming a succession of concentric circles. The 
sap elaborated by the leaves finds its way, in a manner not as yet absolutely ascertained, 
into the cambium-region ; a zone of tender thin-walled cells connecting the wood with the bark, 
by the division and enlargement of which new cells (190) are formed. These cells separate in 
layers, the inner ones constituting the new ring of wood, and the outer ones the new bark 
or liber. In most exogenous trees, in teipperate climates, the seasons of growth correspond with 
the years, and the rings or wood remain sufficiently distinct to indicate the age of the tree ; but 
in many tropical and some evergeen trees, two or more rings of wood are formed in one year. 

212. In endogenous perennial stems (199), the new wood or woody fibre is formed towards the 
centre of the stem, or irregularly mingled with the old. The stem consequently either only 
becomes more dense without increasing in thickness, or only increases by gradual distension, 
which is never very considerable. It affords therefore no certain criterion for judging of the age 
of the the tree. 

213. Flowers have generally all their parts formed, or indicated by protuberances or growing 
cells at a very early stage of the bud. These parts are then usually more regularly placed than 
in the fully developed flower. Parts which afterwards unite are then distinct, many are present 
in this rudimentary state which are never further developed, and parts which are afterwards 
very unequal or dissimilar are perfectly alike at this early period. On this account flo (vers in 
this very early stage are supposed by some modern botanists to be more normal, that is, more in 


conformity to a supposed tjpe; and the study of the early formation and growth pf the floral 
organs, called Organogenesis, has been considered essential for the correct appreciation ot ice 
afSnities of plants. In some cases, however, it would appear that modifications of development, 
not to be detected in the very young bud, are yet ot great importance in the distinction ot large 
groups of plants, and that Organogenesis, although it may often assist in clearing up a doubttm 
point of affinity, cannot nevertheless be exclusively relied on in estimating the real value oi 
peculiarities of structure. 

214. The flower is considered as a 6«d (flower-bud, alabastrum) until the perianth expands. The 
period of flowering (anthesis) is that which elapses from the first expanding of the perianth, till 
tbe pistil is set or begins to enlarge, or, when it does not set, until the stamens and pistil wither 
or fall. After that, the enlarged ovary takes the name of young fruit. 

215. At the close of the season of growth, at the same time as the leaf-buds or seeds are 
formed containing the germ of future branches or plants, many plants form also, at or near the 
bud or seed, large deposits, chiefly of starch. In many cases— such as the tubers of a potato or 
other root-stock, tbe scales or thickened base of a bulb, the albumen or the thick cotyledons of a 
seed — this deposit appears to be a store of nutriment, which is partially absorbed by the young 
branch or plant during its first stage of growth, before the roots are sufficiently developed to 
supply it from without. In some cases, however, such as the fleshy thickening of some stems or 
peduncles, the pericarps of fruits which perish long before germination (the first growth of the 

eed), neither the use nor the cause of these deposits has as yet been clearly explained. 

§ 4, Functions of the Organs. 

216. The functions of the Eoot are : — 1. To fix tjie plant in or to the soil or other substance 
on which it grows. 2. To absorb nourishment from the soil, water, or air, into which the fibres 
have penetrated (or from other plants in the case of 'parasites), and to transmit it rapidly to the 
stem. The absorption takes place through ' the young growing extremities of tbe fibres, and 
through a peculiar kind of hairs or absorbing organs which are formed at or near those growing 
extremities. The transmission to the stem is through the tissues of the root itself. The 
nutriment absorbed consists chiefly of carbonic acid and nitrogen or nitrogenous compounds 
dissolved in water. 3. In some cases roots secrete or exude small quantities of matter in a 
manner and with a purpose not satisfactorily ascertained. 

217. The stem and its branches support the leaves, flowers, and fruit, transmit the crude sap, 
or nutriment absorbed by the roots and mixed with previously organised matter, to the leaves, 
and re-transmit the assimilated or elaborated sap from the leaves to the growing parts of the 
plant, to be there used up, or to form deposits for future use (204). The transmission cif the 
ascending crude sap appears to take place chiefly through the elongated cells associated with the 
vascular tissues, passing from one cell to another by a process but little understood, but known by 
the name of endosmose. 

218. Leaves are functionally the most active of the organs of vegetation. In them is chiefly 
conducted digestion or Assimilation, a name given to the process which accomplishes the 
following results : — 1. The chemical decomposition of the oxygenated matter of the sap, the 
absorption of carbonic acid, and the liberation of pure oxygen at the ordinary temperature of the 
air. 2. A counter operation by which oxygen is absorbed from the atmosphere and carbonic 
acid is exhaled. 3. The transformation of the residue of the crude sap into the organized 
substances which enter into the composition of the plant. The exhalation of oxygen appears 
to take place under the influence ot solar heat and light, chiefly from the under surface of the 
leaf, and to be in some measure regulated by the stomates; the absorption of oxygen goes on 
always in the dark, and in the daytime also in certain cases. The transformation of the sap is 
effected within the tissues of the leaf, and continues probably more or less throughout the 
active parts of the whole plant. 

219. The Floral Organs seldom contribute to the growth of the plant on which they are 
produced ; their functions are wholly concentrated on the formation of the seed with the germ 
of a future plant. 

220. The Perianth (calyx and corolla) acts in the first instance in protecting the stamens and 
pistils during the early stages of their development. When expanded, the use of the brilliant 
colours which they often display, of the sweet or strong odours they emit, has not been adequately 
explained. Perhaps they may have great influence in attracting those insects vrhose concurrence 
has been shown in many cases to be necessary for the due transmission of the pollen from the 
anther to the stigma. 

221. The pistil, when stimulated by the action of the pollen, forms and nourishes the voune 
seed. The varied and complicated contrivances by which the pollen is conveyed to the stiema 
whether by elastic action of the organs themselves, or with the assistance of wind of insects or 
other extraneous agents, have been the subject of numerous observations and experiments of the 
most distinguished naturalists, and are yet far from being fully investigated. Their details 
however, as far as known, would he far too long for the present outline. ' 


222. The fruit nourishes and protects the seed until its maturity, and then often promotes its 
dispersion by a great variety of contrivances or apparently collateral circumstances, e.g. by an 
elastic dehiscence which casts the seed off to a distance ; by the development of a pappus, 
wings, hooked or other appendages, which allows them to be carried oft by winds, or by animals, 
etc., to which they may adhere ; by their small specific gravity, which enables them to float 
down streams; by their attractions to birds, etc., who, taking them for food, drop them often at 
great distances, etc. Appendages to the seeds themselves also often promote dispersion. 

223. Hairs have various Jfunctions. The ordinary indumentum (171) of stems and leaves 
indeed seems to take little part in the economy of the plant besides perhaps some occasional 
protection against injurious atmospheric influences, but the root-hairs (216)are active absorbents, 
the hairs on styles and other parts of flowers appear 'often materially to assist the transmission 
of pollen, and the exudations of glandular hairs (175, 2) are often too copious not to exercise 
some influence on the phenomena of vegetation. The whole question however of vegetable 
exudations and their influence on the economy of vegetable life, is as yet but imperfectly 

Chap. IV. Collection, Peesbevation, and Detekmination or Plants. 

224. Plants can undoubtedly be most easily and satisfactorily examined when freshly gathered. 
But time will rarely admit of this being done, and it is moreover desirable to compare them 
with other plants previously observed or collected. Specimenx must, therefore, be selected for 
leisurely observation at home, and preserved for future reference. A collection of such specimens 
constitutes a Herbariwm. 

225. A botanical Specimen, to be perfect, should have root, stem, leaves, flowers (both 
open and in the bud), amA. fruit (both young and mature). It is not, however, always possible to 
gather such complete specimens, but the collector should aim at completeness. Fragments, such 
as leaves without flowers, or flowers without leaves, are of little or no use. 

226. If the plant is small (not exceeding 15in.) or can be reduced to that length by folding, 
the specimen should consist of the whole plant, including the principal part of the root. If it 
be too large to preserve the whole, a good flowering-branch should be selpoted, with the foliage 
as low down as can be gathered with it ; and one or two of the lower stem-leaves or radical 
leaves, if any, should be added, so as to preserve as much as possible of the peculiar aspect of 
the plant. 

227. The specimens should be taken from healthy uninjured plants of a medium size. Or if 
a specimen be gathered because it looks a little different from the majority of those around it, 
apparently belonging to the same species, a specimen of the more prevalent form should be 
taken from the same locality for comparison. 

228. For bringing the specimens home, a light portfolio of pasteboard, covered with calico or 
leather, furnished with straps and buckles for closing, and another for slinging on the shoulder, 
and containing a few sheets of stout coarse paper, is better than the old-fashioned tin box 
(except, perhaps, for stiff prickly plants and a few others). The specimens as gathered are 
placed Ijetween the leaves of paper, and may be crowded together if not left long without sorting. 

229. If the specimen brought home be not immediately determined when fresh, but dried for 
future examination, a note should be taken of the time, place, and situation in which it was 
gathered ; of the stature, habit, and other particulars relating to any tree, shrub, or herb of 
which the specimen is only a portion ; of the kind of root it has ; of the ooloHr of the flower ; 
or of any other particulars which the specimen itself cannot supply, or which may be lost in the 
process of drying. These memoranda, whether taken down in the field, or from the living 
specimen when brought home, should be written on a label attached to the specimen or preserved 
with it. 

230. To dry specimens, they are laid flat between several sheets of bibulous paper, and 
subjected to pressure. The paper is subsequently changed at intervals, until they are dry. 

231. In laying out the specimen, care should be taken to preserve the natural position of the 
parts as far as consistent with the laying flat. In general, if the specimen is fresh and not very 
slender, it may be simply laid on the lower sheet, holding it by the stalk and drawing it slightly 
downwards ; then, as the upper sheet is laid over, if it be slightly drawn downwards as it is 
pressed down, it will be found, after a few trials, that the specimen will have retained a natural 
form with very little trouble. If the specimen has been gathered long enough to have become 
flaccid, it will require more care in laying the leaves flat and giving the parts their proper 
direction. Specimens kept in tin boxes, will also often have taken unnatural bends which will 
require to be corrected. 

232. If the specimen is very bushy, some branches must be thinned out, but always so as to 
show where they have been. If any part, such as the head of a thistle, the stem of an 
Orohanche, or the bulb of a Lily, be very thick, a portion of what is to be the under side of the 
specimen may be sliced off. Some thick specimens may be split from top to bottom before 


233. If the specimen be succulent or tenacious of life, such as a Sedum or an Orchis, it may 
be dipped in boiling water all but the flowers. This will kill the plant at once, and enable it to 
be dried rapidly, losing less of its colour or foliage than would otherwise be the case. /JiPFng 
in boiling water is also useful in the case of Heaths and other plants which are apt to snea men 
leaves during the process of drying. , ., • 

234. Plants with very delicate coroUas may be placed between single leaves ot very mm 
unglazed tissue-paper. In shifting these plants into dry paper the tissue-paper is not to De 
removed, but lifted with its contents on to the dry paper. 

235. The number of sheets of paper to be placed between each specimen or sheet of specimens, 
wUl depend, on the one hand, on the thickness and humidity of the specimens; on the otner 
hand, on the quantity and quality of the paper one has at command. The more and the better 
the paper, the less frequently will it be necessary to change it, and the sooner the plants will dry. 
The paper ought to be coarse, stout, and unsized. Common blotting-paper is much too tender. 

236. Care must be taken that the paper used is well dried. If it be likewise hot, all the better : 
but it must then be very dry ; and wet plants put into hot paper will require changing very soon, 
to prevent their turning black, for hot damp without ventilation produces fermentation and 
spoils the specimens. 

237. For pressing plants, various more or less complicated and costly presses are made. JNone 
is better than a pair of boards the size of the paper, and a stone or other heavyweight upon them 
if at home, or a pair of strong leather straps round them if travelling. Bach of these boards 
should be double, that is made of two layers of thin boards, the opposite way of the grain, and 
joined together by a row of clenched brads round the edge, without glue. Such boards, m deal, 
rather less than half an inch thick (each layer about 2J lines) will be found light and durable. 

238. It is useful also to have extra boards or pasteboards the size of the paper, to separate 
thick plants from thin ones, wet ones from those nearly dry, etc. Open wooden frames with 
cross-bars, or frames of strong wirework lattice, are still better than boards for this purpose, as 
accelerating the drying by promoting ventilation. 

239. The more frequently the plants are shifted into dry paper the better. Excepting for very 
stiif or woody plants, the first pressure should be light, and the first shifting, if possible, after a 
few hours. Then, or at the second shifting, when the specimens will have lost their elasticity, 
will be the time for putting right any part of a specimen which may have taken a wrong fold or 
a bad direction. After this the pressure may be gradually increased, and the plants left from 
one to several days without shifting. The exact amount of pressure to be given will depend on 
the consistence of the specimens and the amount of paper. It must only be borne in mind that 
too much pressure crushes the delicate parts, too little allows them to shrivel, in both cases 
interfering with their future examination. 

240. The most convenient specimens will be made if the drying-paper is the same size as that 
of the herbarium in which they are to be kept. 'J'hat of writing-demy, rather more than 16in. 
by 10 Jin., is a common and very convenient size. A small size reduces the specimens ;^too 
much, a large size is both costly and inconvenient for use. 

241. When the specimens are quite dry and stiff, they may be packed up in bundles with a 
single sheet of paper between each layer, and this paper need not be bibulous. The specimens 
may be placed very closely on the sheets, but not in more than one layer on each sheet, and care 
must be taken to protect the bundles by sufficient covering from the effects of external moisture 
or the attacks of insects. 

242. In laying the specimens into the herbarium, no more than one species should ever be 
fastened on one sheet of paper, although several specimens of the same species may be laid side 
by side. And throughout the process of drying, packing, and laying in, great care must be taken 
that the labels be not separated from the specimens they belong to. 

243. To examine or dissect flowers or fruits in dried specimens it is necessary to soften them. 
If the parts are very delicate, this is best done by gradually moistening them in cold water ; in 
most cases, steeping them in boiling water or in steam is much quicker. Very hard fruits and 
seeds will require boiling to be able to dissect them easily. 

244. For dissecting and examining flowers in the field, all that is necessary is a penknife and 
a pocket lens of two or three glasses from 1 to 2in. focus. At home it is more convenient to 
have a mounted lens or simple microscope, with a stage holding a glass plate, upon which the 
flowers may be laid ; and a pair of dissectors, one of which should be narrow and pointed, or a 
mere point, like a thick needlej in a handle ; the other should have a pointed blade, with a sharp 
edge, to make clean sections across the ovary. A compound microscope is rarely necessary, 
except in cryptogamio botany and vegetable anatomy. For the simple microscope, lenses of J, 
J, 1, and IJin. focus are sufficient. 

245. To assist the student in determining or ascertaining the name of a plant belonging to a 
Flora, analytical tables should be prefixed to the Orders, Genera, and Species. These tables 
should be so constructed as to contain, under each bracket, or equally indented, two (rarely three 
or more) alternatives as nearly as possible contradictory or incompatible with each other, each 
alternative referring to another bracket, or having under it another pair of alternatives further 
indented. The student having a plant to determine, will first take the general table of Natural 
Orders, and examining his plant at each step to see which alternative agrees with it, will be led 

OtlTLiNES OF BOtANt. xxvii 

on to the Order to which it belongs ; he will then compare it with the detailed character of the 
Order given in the text. If it agrees, he will follow the same course with the table of the genera 
of that Order, and again with the table of species of the genus. But in each case, if he finds 
that his plant does not agree with the detailed description of the genus or species to which he 
has thus been referred, he must revert to the beginning and carefully go through every step of 
the investigation before he can be satisfied. A fresh examination of his specimen, or of others 
of the same plant, a critical consideration of the meaning of every expression in the characters 
given, may lead him to detect some minute point overlooked or mistaken, and put him into the 
right way. Species vary within limits which it is often very di£fioult to express in words, and it 
proves often impossible, in framing these analytical tables, so to divide the genera and species 
that those which come under one alternative should absolutely exclude the others. In such 
doubtful cases both alternatives must be tried before the student can come to the conclusion that 
his plant is not contained in the Flora or that it is erroneously described. 

246. In those Floras where analytical tables are not given, the student is usually guided to the 
most important or prominent characters of each genus or species, either by a general summary 
prefixed to the genera of an Order or to the species of the genus, for all such genera or species ; 
or by a a special Summary immediately preceding the detailed description of each genus or 
species. In the latter case this summary is called a diagnosis. Or sometimes the important 
characters are only indicated by italicizing them in the detailed description. 

247. It may also happen that the specimen gathered may present some occasional or 
accidental anomalies peculiar to that single one, or to a very few individuals, which may 
prevent the species from being at once recognized by its technical characters. , It may be useful 
here to point out a few of these anomalies which the botanist may be most likely to meet with. 
For this purpose we may divide them into two classes, viz.! 

1. Aberrations from the ordinary type or appearance of a speeies for which some general cause 
may he assigned. 

A bright, light, and open situation, particularly at considerable elevations above the sea, or 
at high latitudes, without too much wet or drought, tends to increase the size and heighten the 
colour of fiowers, in proportion to the stature and foliage of the plant. 

Shade, on the contrary, especially if accompanied by richness of soil and sufficient moisture, 
tends to increase the foliage and draw up the stem, but to diminish the number, size, and colour 
of the flowers. 

A hot cUmate and dry situation tends to increase the hairs, prickles, and other productions of 
the epidermis, to shorten and stiffen the branches, rendering thorny plants yet more spinous. 
Moisture in a rich soil has a contrary effect. 

The neighbourhood of the sea, or a saline soil or atmosphere, imparts a thicker and more 
succulent consistence to the foliage and almost every part of the plant, and appears not unfre- 
quently to enable plants usually annual to live through the winter. Flowers in a maritime 
variety are often much fewer, but not smaller. 

The luxuriance of plants growing in a rich soil, and the dwarf stunted character of those 
crowded in poor soils, are ,too well known to need particularizing. It is also an everyday 
observation how gradually the specimens of a species become dwarf and stunted as we advance 
into the cold damp regions of the summits of high mountain-ranges, or into high northern 
latitudes ; and yet it is frequently from the want of attention to these circumstances that numbers 
of false species have been added to our Enumerations and Floras. Luxuriance entails not only 
increase of size to the whole plant, or of particular parts, but increase of number in branches, 
in leaves, or leaflets of a compound leaf ; or it may diminish the hairiness of the plant, induce 
thorns to grow out into branches, etc. 

Capsules which, while growing, lie close upon the ground, will often become larger, more 
succulent, and less readily dehiscent, than those which are not so exposed to the moisture of 
the soil. 

Herbs eaten down by sheep or cattle, or crushed underfoot, or otherwise checked in their 
growth, or trees or shrubs out down to the ground, if then exposed to favourable circumstances 
of soil and climate, will send up luxuriant side-shoots, often so different in the form of their 
leaves, in their ramification and inflorescence, as to be scarcely recognizable for the same species. 

Annuals which have germinated in spring, and flowered without check, will often be very 
different in aspect from individuals of the same speeies, which, having germinated later, are 
stopped by summer droughts or the approach of winter, and only flower the following season 
upon a second growth. The latter have often been mistaken for perennials. 

Hybrids, or crosses between two distinct species, come under the same category of anomalous 
specimens from a known cause. Frequent as they are in gardens, where they are artificially 
produced, they are probably rare in nature, although on this subject there is much diversity o£ 
opinion, some believing them to be very frequent, others almost denying their existence. 
Absolute proof of the origin of a plant found wild, is of course impossible ; but it is pretty 
generally agreed that the following particulars must always co-exist in a viild hybrid. It 
partakes of the characters of its two parents ; it is to be found isolated, or almost isolated, in 
places where the two parents are abundant ; if there are two or three, they will generally be 
dissimilar from each other, one partaking more of one parent, another of the other ; it seldom 
ripens good seed ; it will found where one of the parents grows alone. 


Where two supposed species grow together, intermixed with numerous intermediates bearing 
good seed, and passing more or less gradually from the one to the other, it may generally be 
concluded that the whole are mere varieties of one species. The beginner, however, must be 
very cautious not to set down a specimen as intermediate between two species, because it appears 
to be so in some, even the most striking characters, such as stature and foliage. Extreme 
varieties of one species are connected together by transitions in all their characters, but these 
transitions are not all observable in the same specimens. The observation of a single inter- 
mediate is therefore of little value, unless it be one link in a long series of intermediate forms, 
and, when met with, should lead to the search for the other connecting links. 

2. Accidental aberrations from the ordinary type, that is, those of which the cause is unknown. 

These require the more attention, as they may sometimes lead the beginner far astray in his 
search for the genus, whilst the aberrations above-mentioned as reducible more or less to 
general laws, affect chiefly the distinction of species. 

Almost all species with coloured flowers are Ijable to occur occasionally with them all white. 

Many may be found even in a wild state with double flowers, that is, with a multiplication of 

Plants which have usually conspicuous petals will occasionally appear without any at all, 
either to the flowers produced at particular seasons, or to all the flowers of individual plants, or 
the petals may be reduced to narrow slips. 

Flowers usually very irregular, may, on certain individuals, lose more or less of their 
irregularity, or appear in some very different shape. Spurs, for instance, may disappear, or be 
produced on all instead of one only of the petals. 

One part may be occasionally added to, or subtracted from, the usual number of parts in each 
floral whorl, more especially in regular polypetalous flowers. 

Plants usually riionoecious or dioecious may become occasionally hermaphrodite, or her- 
maphrodite plants may produce occasionally unisexual flowers by the abortion of the stamens or 
of the pistils. 

Leaves cut or divided where they are usually entire, variegated or spotted where they are 
usually of one colour, or the reverse, must also be classed amongst those accidental aberrations 
which the botanist must always be on his guard against mistaking for specific distinctions. 


The Figures refer to the Paragraphs of the Outlines. 

Abortive .. 
Abruptly pinnate 
Accessory organs 
Aoicular .. 
Aculeate . . 
Acuminate, acumen 

Adherent ... 

Adnate anther 











140, 145 

63, 145 

.. 114 

17, 19 

Aerial=:growing in the air. 
iEstivation .. .. 102 

Aggregate fruit . . . . 147 

Alabastrum (bud) . . 214 

Alse (wings) . . 37, 155 

Alate=having wings. 
Albumen, albuminous , . 162 
Alburnum . . . . 198 

Alliances . . . . . . 182 

Alternate . . . . 32, 90 

Amentum=:catkin . . 76 

Amphitropous . . . . 134 

Amplexicaul .. ... 37 


Amyloid 192 

Anastomose . . ... 40 

Anatropous . . . . 134 

Androgynous . . . . 87 

Angiospermous .. .. 161 

Anisomerous . . . . 94 

Annuals . . . . . . 12 

Anterior ... .. .. 91 

Anther . . . . 109, 114 

Anthesis (flowering period) 214 
Apetalous ... . . . . 85 

Apex . . . . 36, 47, 115 

Apioulate^with a little point. 
Apocarpous .. ... 125 

Aquatic^growing in water 14 
Aboreous or aborescent 
plants . . . . . . 12 

Aril, arillus . . . . 164 

Arillate (having an aril) 164 

Aristate 47 

Article, articulate, articu- 
lation . . . . . . 54 

Artificial divisions and 
characters . . . . 184 

Ascending 28 

Asepalous 85 

Assimilation . . . . 218 

Auricle . . . . . . 49 

Auriculate=having auricles 50 
Axil, axillary . . . . 17 

Axile (in the axis) . . 132 



Bast-cells . 

.. 198 
85, 110 
36, 48, 115 
.. 198 
.. 157 

Bi- (2 in composition) . . 44 

Bicarpellary ... . . 125 

Bidentate . . ... .. 44 

Biennials . . . . . . 12 

Bifid .. ..■ .. 44 

Bifoliolate . . . . 44 

Bijugate .. 44 

Bilabiate (two-lipped) 102, 105 

Bilocular 126 

Hipinnate . . . . 43 

Bisexual . . . . . . 85 

Biternate . . 44 

Blade 35 

Bracts, bractesE . . 60, 77, 202 
Bracteate=having bracts. 

Bracteoles .. ... 62 

Bristles, bristly . . . . 173 

Bud 16 

Bulb 26 

Bush 12 

GiE3pitose=tufted . . 28 
Callous^hardened and 

usually thickened. 

Calycule, ealyculate . . 80 
Calyx . . . . 15, 90, 96 

Cambium-region.. .. 211 

Campanulate . . . . 104 

Campylotropous . . . . 134 

Canesoent . . . . . . 173 

Capillary=hair-like . . 54 

Capitate . . . . . . 74 

Cupsule 158 

Carpel . . . . 15, 123 

Carpophore .. ... 146 
Cartilaginous^of the con- 
sistence of cartilage or 

Caruncule, carunoulate . . 164 

Caryopis 160 

Catkins 76 

Cauline (on the stem) . . 38 

Caulocarpic .. ... 12 

Cells (elementary) .. 186 

Cells (of anthers) . . 109 

Cells (of the ovary) . . 121 

Cellular system . . . . 193 

Cellular tissue . . . . 188 

Cellulose 191 

Centrifugal .. .. 72 

Centripetal . . . . 72 

Chaff 82 

Chalaza. 133 

Character.. .. .. 183 

Chlorophyll .. .. 192 

Chromule 192 

Ciliate 39 

Circumsciss . . . . 158 

Cirrhus=tendril 169 

Class 182 

Claw (of a petal) . . . . 107 

Climbing stem . . . . 29 

Coats of the ovule ... 133 

Coats of the seed . . 163 

Coccus . . . . . . 159 

Coherent . . . . . . 145 

Oollateral=iuserted one by 

the side of the other. 

Collection of specimens . . 224 

Coma 163 

Common petiole . . . . 39 

Complete flower ... . . 89 

Compound fruit . . . . 147 

Compound leaf . . . . 39 

Compound flower . . 74 

Compound ovary . . 126 

Compound umbel . . 74 

Compressed . . ... 54 

Cone 160 

Confluent 117 

Conical . . . . . . 54 

Connate . . . . . . 145 

Connective, connectivum 109 

Connivent 145 

Contorted, convolute . . 102 

Cordate . . ' . . . . 49 

Cordiform . . . . 49 

Coriaceous . . . . 55 

Corky layer 198 

Corm 27 

Corolla . . . . 15, 90, 97 

Corrugate (crumpled) . . 102 

Corymb, corymbose . . 74 

Costate . . . . . . 173 

Cotton, cottony . . . . 173 

Cotyledons 166 

Creeping 28 

Crenate, crenulate . . 39 



Cristate^having a crest- 
like appendage. 

Crown ot the root . . 24 
Crumpled .. ..102 

Crustaceous ... . . 55 

Cryptogamous plants . . 10 

Culm 34 

Cuneate ... .. ... 45 

Cupular (oup-shaped) ... 136 

Cuspidate . . . . 47 

Cylindrical . . . . 54 

Cyme, cymose . . . . 74 

Deca- or decem- (10 in 

composition) . . 44, 

Deciduous calyx . . • 
Decussate . . 
Definite . . 

Definitions . . . . (p. 

Dehiscence, dehiscent 118, 
Dentate ... 

Descriptive Botany . . (p. 
Determination of plants 
Dextrine . . 

Di- (2 in composition) . 
Diagnosis . . 
Dichlamydeous . . 
Diclinous . . 
Dicotyledonous plants . 




Digitate ... 

Digynous .. . . 98, 

Dimerous . . 


Dicecious . . 




Dissected . . 


Distinct . . 


Diverging, divergent 11^, 
Divided .. 
Dorsal^on the back. 
Double flowers . . 

Down, downy 

Drupe .. 

Dry fruits . . 
Duramen . . 








. i.) 




. i.) 

































Elliptical . . 
Embryo . . 
Endocarp . . 

plants . . 
Endogenous stem 
Ennea- (9 in composition) 


Epicarp . 
Epigynous disk 

.. 47 
162, 166 
.. 157 






.. 157 

173, 193 

.. 140 

.. 144 

Epiphyte 14 

Erect 28 

Exalbuminous (without 

albumen) . . . . 162 

Examination of plants . . 234 

Exogens, exogenous plants 195 

Exogenous stem . . . . 198 

Exserted 113 

Extrorse 118 

Falcate 45 

Families . . , . . . . 181 

Farinose 173 

Fascicled, fasciculate . . 32 

Pastigiate . . ... . . 74 

Fecula ' 192 

Female 85 

Fertile 85 

Fibre 18 

Fibrous root . . . . 20 

Fibro-vasular system ... 193 

Filament ■■109 


Flabelliform^fan-shaped 45 

Fleshy 55 

Floccose 173 

Floral Envelope 15 

Floral leaves ... . . 61 

Flowers . . 15, 84, 213, 219 

Flowering plants . . 10 

Follicle . . 

Foramen ... 

Forked ... 




Frutescent, fruticose 

Function . . 

. . 159 

. . 133 

.. 38 

.. 105 

132, 140, 145 

15, 146, 222 



Ear 76 

Echinate 173 

Elaborated sap . . . . 217 

Elementary cells and tissues 186 

Funicle (funiculus) . . 164 

Funnel-shaped . . . . ] 04 

Furrowed . . . . 173 

Fusiform=spindle-shaped 54 

Genus, genera . . 
Germ, germination 
Gibbous . . 
Glabrous ... 


Glaucous . . 

.. 100 
... 32 
... 180 
.. 215 
. . 105 
175, 206 
.. 173 
.. 173 




Globose, globular 





Gymnospermous . . 

Gynobasis, gynophore 

Habit 183 

Hairs .. 171,205,223 

Hastate 50 

Head 74 

Heart- wood 198 

Hepta- (7 in composition) 92 

Herbaceous perennials . . 12 
Herbarium .. ..224 

Hermaphrodite . . . . 85 

Heterogamous . . . . 87 

Hexa- (6 in composition) 92 

Hilum 162 

ifirsute . . . . . . 173 

Hispid 173 

Hoary 173 

Homogamous ... . . 87 

Hooks 169 

Hybernaculum . . . . 23 

Hybrids 247 

Hypocrateriform (salver- 
shaped) . . . . 104 
Hypogynous .. ... 140 

Imbricate, imbricated 58, 102 
Imparipinnate . . . . 43 

Imperfect . . . . 84 

Incomplete . . . . 84 

Indefinite 92 

Indehisoent . . ... 156 

Indeterminate . . . . 67 

Indumentum . . . . 171 

Induplicate .. ... 102 

Inferior . . . . . . 140 

Inferior radicle . . . . 167 

Inflorescence . . . . 66 

Infundibuliform (funnel- 
Innate anther 
Insertion . . 

Interrupted spike oi 
raceme . . 


Involucre, involucel 
Involute . . 
Irregular . . 

Joint, joining 
Jugum, juga=:pairs 


Laciniate . . 
Lamina . . 
Lanate=woolly . . 


. . 114 

. . 140 



. . 75 
.. 118 
.. 79 
. . 102 
.. 95 
.. 89 

.. 54 


.. 157 

. . 25 

.. 105 
.. 39 
35, 107 
.. 173 
.. 45 
•• 91 



Leaf, leaves 15, 35, 200, 218 

Leaf-bud . . . . 16 

Leaflet 39 

Leaf-opposed . . . . 67 

Legume .. .. ... 160 

Lepidote 172 

Liber . . . . 198, 211 

Limb 104 

Linear . . ... 45, 54 

Lip, lipped . , . . 10.5 

Lobe, lobed .. ... 39 

Loeulioidal 158 

Lower . . . . . . 91 


Lyrate 41 

Male 85 

Marescent . . . . 151 

Mealy 173 

Medullary rays and sheath 198 

Membranous . . . . 55 

Mieropyle 165 

Midrib 40 

Monadelphous . . . . 113 

Monandrous .. ... 112 

Moniliform . . . . 54 

Mono- (1 in composition^ 92 

Monocarpellary .. ... 125 

Monocarpic . . . . 12 

Monochlamydeous . . 85 

Monoootyledonous plants 167 

Moncecious . . . . 86 

Monogynous .. .. 125 

Monopetalous . . . . 100 

Morphology 8, 88 

Mucronate . . . . 47 
Multi- (many, or an in- 
definite number, in 

composition) . . . . 44 

Muricate 173 

Naked 85, 161 

Natural divisions and 

characters . . . . 184 

Natural Order . . . . 181 


Nectary .. .. ... 138 

Nerve . . . . . . 40 

Net-veined . . . . 40 

Neuter ... . . . . 85 

Node 81 

Novem- (9 in composition) 44 

Nucleus of a cell . . .. 191 

Nucleus of the ovule . . 133 

Nut 158 

Obconical . . 
Obovate . . 
Obovoid . . 

. 54 
. 54 
. 47 
. 45 
45, 54 
.. 45 
. 54 
. 54 

Oct- or ooto- (8 in eompo 
sition . . 44, 92 







Organs of vegetation and 














121, 133 

Palate 105 

Palea, paleas . . . . 82 
Paleaceous=of a chaffy 

Palmate . . . . 41, 42 

Palmatifid, palmatisect 42 

Panicle, paniculate . . 74 

Papillse 122 

Pappus . . . . . . 155 

Parallel veins . . . . 40 

Parasite . . . . . . 14 

Parenchyma . . . . 188 

Parietal 132 

Pectinate . . . . . . 41 

Pedate .. .. 41,42 

Pedetifid, pedatisect . . 42 

Pedicel 70 

Pedioellate=on a pedicel. 

Peduncle 68 

Pedunoulate^on a pe- 

Penta- (5 in composition 

Perfect flower 
Perfoliate . 






. . 84 

. . 37 

15, 98, 202, 220 



Pericarp . 




Personate . . 



Petiolule . . ^ 

Phsenogamous, phanero- 
gamous . . 


Phyllodium^a flat petiole 
with no blade. 



Pinnate . . 

Pinnatifid, pinnatiseot 










. 173 

. 43 

41, 42 


Pistil 15, 90, 120, 203, 221 

Pistillate 85 

Pith 198 

Placenta, pliscentation . . 131 

Plant 6 

Plicate 102 

Plumose 172 

Plumule . . . . . . 166 

Pluri=»cu«raJ, in compo- 
Plurilocular .. ..126 

Pod 158 

Podooarp 120 

Pollen . . . . 109, 119 
Poly- (many, or an in- 
definite number, in 
composition) . . . . 92 
Polyadelphous . . . . 113 

Polyandrous . . 92, 112 

Polygamous . . . . 86 
Polygynous . . 92, 125 

Polypetalous . . . . 100 

Pome 160 

Posterior . . . . . . 91 

Prcefoliation . . . . 57 

Preservation of specimens 224 
Prickles .. .. ..170 

Primine 133 

Procumbent . . . . 28 
Proliferous . . . . 17 

Prosenchyma . . . . 188 

Prostrate 28 

Protoplasm . . . . 191 

Pubescent, puberulent . . 173 
Pulvinate (cushion-shaped) 136 
Punctiform=Hke a point 

or dot. 
Putamen . . . . . . 1S7 

Pyramidal . . . . 54 

Pyrenes . . . . . . 157 

Quadri- (4 in composition) 44 

Quincuncial ... .. 102 

Quinque- (5 in composi- 
tion) . . . . . . 44 

Quintuplinerved . . 40 


Baceme, racemose 


Eadical . . 

Eadicle . . 


Eaphides . . 



Eegular . . 

Eenif orm . . 




Bevolute . . 

Ehachis . . 

Bhaphe . . 

Ehizome . . 



Bibbed . . 

Eingent . . 

Boot 15, 18, 



Eosulate . . 




.. 178 
.. 74 

39, 68 
.. 38 
.. 166 
.. 134 
.. 192 
74, 135 
.. 102 
.. 95 
.. 51 
.. 105 
.. 40 
.. 47 
.. 102 

39, 68 
.. 134 

21, 24 
.. 45 
.. 40 
.. 173 
.. 105 
207, 216 
.. 24 

.. 38 
.. 104 

.. 84 


Runner . 



Saccate . . . . . . 105 

Sagittate . . . . . . 5J 

Salver-shaped . . . . 104 

Samara . . . . . . 158 

Sap 192 

Sapwood 198 

Sarcooarp . . . . . . 157 

Sarmentose . . . . 28 

Scabrous 173 

Scales . . 58, 59, 172, 201 

Scaly bulb . . . . 26 

Scaly surface . . . . 172 

Scape 69 

Soariose, scarious . . 55 

Scattered 32 

Scion 30 

Scorpioid cyme . . . . 74 

Section 182 

Secund 32 

Seoundine . . . . 133 

Seed 161 

Segment 39 

Sepals 90 

Septem- (7 in composition) 44 

Septieical . . . . . . 158 

Septum^partition . . 126 

Serrate, serrulate . . 39 

Sessile 37 

Seta, setse (bristles) . . 173 

Setaceous (bristle-like) . . 54 

Setose (bearing bristles) 173 

Sex- (6 in oompoaition) . . 44 

Sheathing . . . . 37 

Shrubs 12 

Silioule, siliqua 196 

Silver grain . . . . 198 

Simple 39 

Sinuate . . . . . . 39 

Sinus 39 

Smooth 173 

Spadix 76 

Spatha 81 

Spathulate . . . . 45 

Species . . . . . . 177 

Specimen . . . . 225 

Spherical . . . . . . 54 

Spike, spioate . . . . 74 

Spikelet 76 

Spinous 170 

Spiral vessels . . . . 188 

Spur, spurred . . . . 105 

Squaan8e=scales . . . . 58 

Squarrose . . . . 58 

Stellate . . 
Stellate hairs 

15, 90, 108, 203 
. . 85 
. . 110 
. . 192 
. . 104 
. . 172 


15, 28, 197, 210, 217 

Stem-clasping . . . . 37 

Sterile 85 

Stigma 121 

Stipella 64 

Stipes, stipitate . . . . 65 

Stipules . . . . . . 63 

Stock . . . . 16, 22 

Stole, stolon . . 23, 30 

Stomates 194 

Stone, stone-fruit . . 157 

Striate 173 

Strigose, strigillose . . 173 

Strophiole, strophiolate. . 164 

Style 121 

Suh^almost, or under, in 


Subclass, suborder . . 182 
Submerged=uuder water. 

Subulate . . . . . . 54 

Succulent . . . . . . 55 

Succulent fruits . . . . 157 

Sucker ... . . . . 30 

Suffrutescent, suffrutieose 12 

Sugar 192 

Sulcate 178 

Superior . . . . . . 140 

Superior radicle . . . . 167 

Superposed=inserted one 
above the other. 

Suture 159 

Symmetrical . . . . 89 

Synandrous . . . . 112 

Syncarpous . . ... 125 

Syngenesious . . . . 113 

Systematic Botany (p. xix) 

Taproot 20 

Teeth . . . . 39, 101 

Tegmen .. .. .. 163 

Tendril . . . . 29, 169 

Terete 54 

Ternate . . . . 32, 41 

Terrestrial^growing on 

the earth . . . . 14 

Testa 163' 

Tetra (4 in composition) 92 

Tetradynamous . . . . 113 

Thorns 170 

Throat 104 

Thyrsus, thyrsoid . . 74 

Tissues (elementary) . . 186 

Tomentose . . . . 173 

Toothed 39 

Torus 135 

Trees 12 

Tri- (3 in composition) 44, 92 

Tribe 182 

Trichotomous . . . . 33 

Trifid 41 

Trifoliolate . . . . 41 

Trigonous . . . . 54 

Tripinnate . . . . 43 




Truncate . . 




.. 40 

.. 54 

.. 32 

.. 47 

.. 12 
101, 104 
Tuber, tuberous . . 20, 25, 204 

Tuberculate . . . . 173 

Tubular 104 

Tufted 28 

Tunioated bulb . . . . 27 

Turbinate=:top-shaped . . 54 

Twiner 29 

Twisted 102 

Type, typical .. .. 181 

Umbel, umbellate, um- 

bellule . . . . 33, 74 

Umbilicate .. .. 173 

Umbonate . . . . 173 

Undershrubs . . . . 12 

Undulate 39 

Unequally pinnate . . 43 

Unguioulate . . . . 107 

Unguis (claw) . . . . 107 

Uni- (1 in composition) . . 44 
Unilateral (one-sided) 

racemes . . . . 74 

Unilocular . . . . 126 

Unisexual . . . . 86 

Unsymmetrioal . . . . 94 

Upper 91 

Urceolate . . . . 104 

Utricle 158 




Vascular tissue . . 

Vegetable Anatomy 8, 

Vegetable Chemistry . . 

Vegetable Homology or 

Vegetable Physiology 8, 
Veins, veinlets, venation 
Versatile anther 
Verticil, verticillate 

Virgate=twiggy . . 
Viscid, viscous . . 
Vitta, vittEe 

Voluble .. .. ;; 

Wart, warted 


Whorl, whorled 

Wing, winged . . 37 


Woody tissue 

Wool, woolly 










Stem, when perennial, consisting of a pith in the centre, of one or more 
concentric circles of woody tissue, and of the bark on the outside. Embryo with 
two cotyledons, the young stem in germination proceeding from between the two 
lobes of the embryo or from a notch at its summit. 

The above characters ore the most constant to separate Dicotyledons from Monocotyledons ; 
these two great classes have, however, each a peculiar habit, which in most cases is easily recog- 
nised. All Queensland trees and shrubs, except Palmn, a few Ferns, and Bamboos, and a few 
others with linear grass-like leaves, are Dicotyledons ; so also are almost all plants with opposite, 
or whorled, or netted-veined leaves, or with the parts of the flower in fours, fives, or eights, or 
with indefinite stamens, all these characters being very rare in Monocotyledons. Benth. Fl. 

(The following short ordinal characters given are not absolute, nor without exception, and are 
inserted for the purpose of calling attention to one or two of the most striking or most important 
features of each Order.) Benth. I. c. 


Petals several, distinct (wanting in a few genera, very rarely united). 

Series I. ThalamiplokjE. — Torus small or elongated, rarely expanded into a 
disk. Ovary superior. Stamens definite or more frequently indefinite. 

Alliance (Cohors) Z. Xtanales. — Stamens indefinite, or if definite, opposite the petals. 
Carpels distinct or united at the base only, superior, or rarely enclosed in a fleshy torus. Embryo 
small, in fleshy albumen. 

(Carpels united in Bvpomatia and Nymphcea. Embryo large, without albumen in some 
Menispermacea and in Nelumbium.) 

I. Bandncdlace,e. Herbs with radical or alternate leaves, or climbers with opposite leaves. 
No stipules. Sepals usually coloured and deciduous. Petals in a single series or none. Stamens 
indefinite. No arillus. 

II. DiLLENiACE^. Trees, shrubs, or undershrubs with alternate leaves. No stipules. Sepals 
usually herbaceous and persistent. Petals in a single series. Stamens usually indefinite. Seeds 
with an arillus or strophiola. 

III. Maqnoliace^. Shrubs or trees, with alternate leaves. Petals indefinite. Stamens 
indefinite. No arillus. (Calyx entire in the bud, irregularly split.) 

IV. Anonaoejb. Shrubs, trees, or woody climbers, with alternate leaves. No stipules. 
Sepals 3. Petals in two series of 3 each (excepting Eupomatia, where sepals and petals are 
combined in a mass). Stamens indefinite. Carpels indefinite. Albumen ruminate. 

V. Menisfebmage^. Twiners, with alternate leaves. No stipules. Flowers small, dicecious. 
Sepals in 2 or more series of 3 or 2 each. Petals smaller than the inner sepals, or none. 
Stamens definite opposite the petals. Carpels 6 or fewer. 

VI. Nymfh£ace^. Aquatic herbs. Leaves usually peltate. Sepals or petals indefinite, or 
rarely in threes. Stamens indefinite. Carpels free or united, the ovules not in the inner angle. 


Alliance XX. Parietales.— .Sf(/mf».s definite nr indefinite. Ovary syneurpmis, with 2 
or more jxtrietal placentas, either 1-celled, or incompletely divided by the placentas iirotrndiny m 
the cavity, or divided by false dissepiments connectiny the placentas. Ovules nsually several to 
each placenta, rarely solitary. 

VII. PAPAVERAOEa:. Herbs with alternate leaves. No stipules. Sepals 2. Petals 4. Flowers 
regular, with indefinite stamens, or irregular, with diadelphous definite s(amens. Albumen 
copious. Embryo small. 

VIII. CEUoiFEEffl. Herbs with alternate leaves. No stipules. Sepals 4. Petals 4. Stamens 
6, tetradynamous or rarely 4. Placentas 2, connected by a false dissepiment. No albumen. 
Embryo curved. 

IX. Cappaeide^. Herbs, shrubs, or tree^. Stipules often prickly. Sepals 4 (2 outer ones 
sometimes united) . Petals 4 (rarely more, or none, or united). Stamens indefinite, or if few, 
not tetradynamous. Placentas 2 or more. No albumen. Embryo curved. 

X. ViOLAEiE/E. Herbs or shrubs. Stipules herbaceous or small. Sepals 5. Petals 5 (often 
irregular). Anthers 5, on short filaments, connivent or connected in a ring round the pistil. 
Placentas usually 3. Albumen fieshy. Embryo rather large. 

XI. BixiNE/E. Trees or shrubs. Stipules none. Sepals 5 or fewer. Petals various, often 
none. Stamens indefinite. Placentas 2, 3-, or more (meeting in the axis in Cochlospermum). 
Albumen fleshy. Embryo rather large. 

Alliance XXX. Poly^allneEe. — Sepals and petals 5 each, rarely fewer. Stamens the 
same nimiber or twice as many, or fewer when the fioieers are irreyular. Ovary iisitally 2-nun'Oits 
{althouyh in most genera occasionally 3 — 5-merous), partially or completely divided into as many 
cells. Ovules indefinite, or solitary with a superior micropyle. AUmmen fleshy. 

XII. PiTTOSPOEE^. Trees, shrubs, undershrubs, or twiners, with alternate leaves. No 
stipules. Flowers regular or oblique. Stamens as many as petals. Embryo minute. 

XIII. TBEMANDEEiE. Shrubs often heath-like, with alternate or whorled or opposite leaves. 
No stipules. Flowers regular. Stamens twice as many as petals. Embryo small or minute. 

XIV. PoLYGALE^. Herbs, undershrubs, or shrubs, with alternate leaves. No stipules. 
Flowers irregular. Stamens monadelphous. Embryo rather large, sometimes almost or quite 
without albumen. 

Alliance XV. Caryo-phylUneeB.— Sepals or calyx-lobes 5 or fewer. Petals 5 or 
fewer. Stamens as many or twice as many, or indefinite. Ovary 1-celled, with central placentas 
(except Frankenia). Albumen mealy. Embryo carved, or rarely straight when the albumen is 

(Ovary half-inferior in Portulaca.) 

XV. Feankeniace^. Small or prostrate undershrubs, or herbs, with small opposite leaves. 
No stipules. Calyx angular, toothed. Petals isomerous with the calyx. Stamens definite. 
Placentas parietal. 

XVI. Caeyophylle.i:. Herbs rarely undershrubs, with opposite entire leaves, Stipules none 
or scarious. Calyx toothed or sepals free. Petals isomerous with the calyx. Stamens definite. 
Placentas central. 

XVII. PoETULACEa. Herbs, often succulent, with alternate or opposite leaves. Stipules 
scarious or changed into hairs. Sepals 2. Petals more numerous than the sepals. Stamens 
indefinite or rarely definite. Placentas central. 

Alliance V. Gnttifer&lea.— Sepals imbricate. Petals as many as sepals, or rarely 
more. Stamens indefinite {except m&tinees). Ovary divided into cells, with axile placentas. 

XVIII. .ffii/ATiNE^E. Herbs or undershrubs, with small opposite' leaves. Stipules small 
Flowers hermaphrodite. Stamens definite. 

XIX. Hypeeicine^. Herbs or shrubs, with opposite leaves. No stipules. Flowers her- 
maphrodite. Stamens indefinite. 

XX. GuiTiFEEffi. Trees or shrubs with opposite leaves. No stipules. Flowers nolveamous 
or unisexual. Stamens indefinite. r j& 

XXI. Teenstkolmiacejs. Trees or shrulis, with often alternate, coriaceous undivided leaves 
very rarely opposite or digitate. Stipules usually' absent. Flowers hermaphrodite or rarelv 
unisexual. Stamens often indefinite. '»icy 

Alliance VI. Ittalyales — Sisals v(flvate (except Echinoearpus). Petals as manv as 
tepaU.or none. Stamens mdefimte or monadelphous (except Lasiopetalete). Ovarv divided i„tn 
cells with axile placentas. ' w ' '""' '""' 

XXII. Malvace^ Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with alternate leaves. Stipules uSuallv nre^ent 
Stamens mpnadelphous. Anthers l-celled, ^ usuauy present, 


XXIII. Steeculiace^e. Herbs, shrubs, or trees, 'with alternate leaves. Stipules usually 
present. Stamens monadelphous, or, if free, definite and alternating with the petals. Anthers 

XXIV. TiMACE*. Trees or shrubs, rarely herbs, with alternate leaves. Stipules usually 
present. Stamens indefinite, free, or scarcely united at the base. Anthers 2-oelled. 

Series II. DisciFLOR.ffi;. — Torus usually thickened or expanded into a disk, 
either free or adnate to the ovary, or to the calyx, or to both, rarely reduced to 
glands, or wanting. Stamens as many or twice as many aa petals, or fewer. 
Ovary superior, or partially immersed in the disk, divided into cells with axile 
placentas, or the carpels distinct. 

(Stamens indefinite in a very few exceptional species. Ovary inferior or enclosed in the 
oalyx-tube in most Rhamnece ; 1-celled in some Olacinem.) 

Alliance VIZ. G-eranlales. — Disk within the stamens, or confluent with the staminal 
tube, or reduced to glands, or ohsolete. Gynmcium Idbed or apocarpous, or sometimes entire. 
Ovules usually 1 or 2 in each cell, 1 or both pendulous with a ventral raphe. 

XXV. LiNE^. Herbs or shrubs, with " undivided alternate leaves. Stipules often present 
Disk small, glandular, or none. Ovary entire. Ovules usually 2 In each cell. Albumen fleshy 
rarely wanting. 

XXVI. MALPiGHiACEa;. Woody climbers (rarely trees or shrubs), with opposite (rarely alternate) 
leaves. Stipules present. Two glands on the outiide of some or all the calyx-lobes (wanting in 
the Australian genera.) Disk large. Gyncecium lobed or apocarpous. Ovules solitary in each 
cell. No albumen. 

XXVII. ZvoopHYLLEffl. Herbs or shrubs, usually articulate or succulent, without glandular 
dots. Leaves 2-foliolate or pinnate, rarely simple. Stipules present. Disk fleshy. Ovary 
angular or lobed. Ovules 2 or rarely more in each cell. Albumen fleshy or none. 

XXVIII. GEKANIACE.E. Herbs or shrubs, articulate or not, with toothed, divided, or compound 
leaves without glandular dots. Stipules usually present. Disk reduced to 5 glands or obsolete. 
Ovary angular or lobed. Ovules 1, 2 or rarely more in each cell. Albumen none or rarely 

XXIX. EuTACEa;. Trees or shrubs, very rarely herbs, with compound or rarely simple leaves, 
always marked with pellucid glandular dots. No stipules. Disk within the stamens. Ovary 
rarely entire, usually lobed or the carpels distinct, with the styles connate or gyncecium entirely 
apocarpous. Ovules 2 in each cell. Albumen fleshy or none. 

XXX. SiMAEUBEffi. Characters of Rutacece, except that the leaves are not dotted and the 
ovules are usually solitary in each cell. Taste generally bitter. 

XXXI. OcHNACE^. Shrubs or trees, with alternate, simple, glabrous, penninerved leaves. 
Stipules various. Sepals 4 — 5, free, often scarious or rigid. Torus enlarging after flowering. 
Stamens definite or indefinite. Anthers linear, often elongate. Ovary often lobed. Ovules 1, 2, 
or more in each cell. 

XXXII. BuKSERACE^. Trees or shrubs, not dotted, but with a balsamic juice. Leaves pin- 
nately or ternately compound. No stipules. Disk free or adnate to the calyx-tube, Ovai-y 
entire. Ovules usually 2 in each cell. Albumen none. Cotyledons much folded or rarely thick 
and fleshy. 

XXXIII. MELiACEa:. Trees or shrubs, with compound or rarely simple leaves. No stipules. 
Stamens monadelphous. Anthers sessile or rarely stipitate within or on the top of the staminal 
tube. Ovary entire. Ovules 2 in each cell. Albumen none or fleshy. 

Alliance VZZX. Olacales. — Disk various or none. Ovary entire. Ovules 1 to i,in 
a solitary cell or lin each cell, pendulous with «. dorsal raphe, the integuments not distinct from 
the nucleus. Seeds solitary in the fruit or in the cells. Albumen copious. 

XXXIV. Olacine^. Trees or shrubs, rarely undershrubs or climbers. No stipules. Petals 
or corolla-lobes valvate (except Villaresia). OvAry 1-oelled or incompletely 3- to 5-celled. Fruit 

XXXV. iLioiNE^ffl. Trees or shrubs. No stipules. Petals or corolla-lobes imbricate. Ovary 
3- or more celled. 

Alliance XX. Celastrales. — Disk thick and fleshy or adnate to the calyx, the 
stamens outside or upon it. Ovary entire {except Stackhousia). Ovules 1 or 2 in each cell, erect 
with a ventral raphe. 

XXXVI. Celastrine«i. Trees or shrubs, with Simple leaves. Stipules none, or minute and 
deciduous. Calyx-lobes imbricate. Petals spreading. Stamens alternating with the petals or 
Jewer, Ovary entire, 


XXXVII. Staokhodsie^e. Herbs or undershrubs, with simple leaves. Calyx-lobes imbricate. 
Petals erect, usaally connate. Stamens alternating with the petals. Ovary lobed. 

XXXVIII. BHAMNEffi. Trees or shrubs, with simple leaves. Stipules usuaUy present. Calyx- 
lobes valvate. Petals small, concave (or none). Stamens opposite the petals. Ovary entire, 
often inferior. 

XXXIX. AMPELIDE.E. Climbers, with simple or compound leaves, the petiole usually expanded 
into a stipule. Calyx-lobes Imbricate. Petalsl valvate. Stamens opposite the petals. Ovary 
entire. Albumen cartilaginous. Embryo small. 

Alliance X'. ' Ssipinda,le&.— Disk fleshy or adnate to the calyx, within or under or out- 
side the stamens. Gynoecium entire, lobed or apocarpous. Ovules 1 or 2 in each cell, ascending 
with a ventral raphe, or reversed, or suspended from an erect funiculus, or pendulous with an 
inferior micropyle. 

XL. SAPiNDAOE.iE. Trees, shrubs, or climbers, with compound or simple leaves. Stamens 
anisomerous with the petals, or twice as many as petals, or of the same number. Often (but not 
always} within the disk. Style 1. Ovules ascending, 

XLI. Anacaediaoes. Trees or shrubs, with compound or simple leaves. Stamens as many 
or twice as many as petals, never within the disk. Ovules suspended from an erect funiole or 
from the top or side of the cell with an inferior micropyle. 


Sepals 3 or more, most frequently 5, usually petal-like and deciduous. Petals 
of the same number or more, or sometimes none, or very small and deformed. 
Stamens indefinite, hypogynous, free. Anthers innate. Gynoecium of several 
carpels, usually free ; ovules anatropous, either solitary and ascending, with a 
ventral raphe, or pendulous with a dorsal raphe, or several. Fruit of one or more 
indehiscent achenes or berries, or follicular capsules, the distinct styles usually 
persistent as short points, or lengthened into long, often bearded tails. Seeds 
without any arillus. Embryo very small, near the base of a copious albumen. — 
Herbs either annual, or with a perennial rootstock, or creeping stolons, with 
radical or alternate leaves, or climbers with opposite leaves. Leaves entire, or 
palmately or pinnately lobed or divided, the petiole often dilated and sheathing at 
the base, or rarely accompanied by stipular appendages. Hairs, when present, 
simple. Flowers regular (or in a few genera, not Australian, irregular), terminal 
or leaf-opposed, rarely axillary, solitary paniculate or racemose. 

The Order is chiefly numerous in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, rare 
within the tiopies, and not represented by many species in the southern hemisphere. The 
Australian ones are nearly all extra tropical, and belong to genera more numerously represented 
in the north. — Benth. 

Tbibb I. Clematldeee. — Sepals valvate. Carpels indehiscent, with 1 pendulous ovuU or 
seed in each. Stems often climbing. Leaves opposite. 

Petals none 1. Clematis. 

Tribe II. Anemoneae. — Sepals imbricate. Carpels indehiscent, with 1 pendulous ovule or 
seed in each. Herbs. Leaves radical or alternate or forming an involucre below the flower. 
Petals minute, narrow. No involucre. Achenes very numerous, in a long, 

close, slender spike 2. MYOsuHua. 

Tbibe III. Ranunculeee. — Sepals imbricate. Carpels indehiscent, ivith 1 ascending ovule 
or seed in each. Herbs. Leaves radical or'altemate. 

Stepals deciduous. Petals 3, 5, or more 3, Ranunodlus. 

1. CLEMATIS, Linn. 

(From the Greek, alluding to the twisting branches.) 
Sepals 4, or rarely 5 to 8, petal-like, valvate in the bud. Petals none, or 
smaller than the sepals, and passing gradually into the stamens. Carpels many, 
with one pendulous ovule in each. Achenes capitate, sessile, or scarcely stipitate, 
terminating in a plumose or simple tail, formed by the persistent and enlarged 
style. — Stem woody and climbing, or rarely dwarf or prostrate. Leaves opposite. 

Clematis.] I. RANUNCULACE/E. 5 

pinnately or ternately divided into three or more petiolulate segments, or rarely 
simple, the petiole often twisted or twining. Flowers axillary or terminal soli- 
tary, or in panicles, which are shortened branches with the leaves reduced to 
small bracts, and often polygamous or dioecious. 

A large genus, dispersed over the temperate regions both of the New and the Old World, rare 
within the tropics. The Australian species are all endemic, although one is closely connected 
with a South Pacific one. They have all simple or once- or twice-ternately divided leaves, 
dioecious, apetalous, white or cream-coloured flowers, the males usually without any ovaries, the 
females with a few imperfect stamens, and the carpels of all have plumose tails. — Benth. 

Anthers linear or oblong, tipped by a subulate or oblong appendage. 
Woody climbers. Leaflets mostly once or twice ternate. 
Anl^er-points slender. Leaflets almost coriaceous, when 

large usually toothed, when small twice ternate . . . 1. C aristata. 
Anther-points very short. Leaflets usually 3, rather large, 

thin, and entire 2. C glycinoidet. 

Anthers short, without any appendage. 
Leaflets ternate, rather large, loosely pubescent under- 
neath var. suhmutica. 

Leaflets mostly twice ternate, small or narrow, glabrous 

or closely pubescent . 3. C microphylla 

var. Fawcettii. 

1. C. aristata (awned), R. Br., Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 6. A woody climber, 
trailing over rocks and bushes, or ascending into tall trees, glabrous, or softly 
pubescent, especially on the inflorescence. Leaves mostly on long petioles, and 
divided into 3-petiolulate segments or leaflets, varying from ovate-cordate to 
narrow-lanceolate, obtuse or acute, 1 to 2 or even Bin. long, usually irregularly 
toothed when large, entire when small, and of a firm consistence when full 
grown, but some of the leaves near the base of the flowering branches are 
occasionally simple, and others have often twice-ternate leaflets. Flowers white 
or yellowish, usually in short panicles or clusters in the upper axils. Sepals 4, 
or very rarely 5, oblong or linear-lanceolate, usually f to lin. long when fully 
out, glabrous or pubescent. Anthers oblong-linear, tipped by a subulate appen- 
dage, often as long as the cells, usually rather shorter, the outer anthers on long 
filaments, the inner ones almost sessile. Achenes numerous, ovate or lanceolate, 
pubescent or glabrous, with a plumose tail often attaining l^in. — F. v. M. PL 
Vict., i. 3 ; Bot. Reg. t. 238. 

Hab.: Killarney. Flowering in Oct. 

Var. Umgiseta, Bail. Bot. Bull. vii. A climber, glabrous except the young shoots and inflores- 
cence. Leaves on slender petioles, leaflets 3, ovate-lanceolate, attaining the length of about 2in. 
and mostly under Jin. broad at the base, where they slightly taper to the rather long petiolules, 
margins bordered by distant setaceous teeth. Flowers yellowish, tomentose, in short racemes, in 
the axils of the leaves. Pedicels rather long and slender. Sepals 4, about 5 lines long, linear- 
lanceolate. Anthers often more ovate than oblong, and usually upon short filaments, the terminal 
awn frequently exceeding in length that of both anther and filament and often three times the 
length of the anther, and tapering to a hair-like point. Female flowers and achenes not to hand. 

Hab.: Upper Nerang, if. Schneider. Flowering in Nov. 

2. C. glycinoides (resembling a Glycine), D0\ Benth. in Fl. Austr. i. 7. A 
woody climber, very near to those forms of C. aristata which have simply ternate 
rather large ovate-lanceolate or cordate leaflets,, but these leaflets are usually of a 
thinner consistence, often broader, and quite entire or rarely with a single tooth 
near the base. Flowers usually smaller, the sepals narrow, from ^ to fin., pubes- 
cent or rarely glabrous. Anthers rather shorter, with a very short obtuse and 
almost gland-like appendage. Achenes glabrous or pubescent, usually narrower 
than in C. aristata, with tails of about 2in. — C. stenosepala, DC. 

Var. svhmutica. Leaf-segments loosely pubescent underneath, sepals shorter, broader, and 
more villous than in the other forms, antJtiers short, tipped by a minute gland or entirely without 
appendage, as in C. microphylla. 

Hab.: Brisbane Biver to Rockingham Bay and beyond. Flowering in Aug. 

6 I. EANUNCULACEiE. [Clematis. 

3. C. microphylla (small-leaved), DC. Fl. Austr. i. 7. A tall 
woody climber, with the habit of the smaller-leaved varieties of C. aristata. 
Leaflets mostly twice ternate, narrow, from ovate-lanceolate or oblong to nearly 
linear, ^ to lin. long, but sometimes simply ternate and larger and broader, or 
three times ternate and much smaller. Flowers rather smaller than in C. artstata, 
usually numerous in short panicles. Sepals cream-coloured, from oblong- 
lanceolate to narrow-linear, mostly about ^in. rarely near lin. long, glabrous or 
pubescent. Stamens with unequal filaments as in C. aristata, but the anthers are 
always very shortly oblong or ovate and very obtuse, without any terminal 
appendage. Achenes of C. aristata, but usually with thicker, often wrinkled or 
warted margins and longer tails.— F. Muell. PI. Vict. i. 4 ; C. hneanfoha, 
Steud. ; Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 4, i. 1 ; C. steaophylla, Fras. ; Hook, in Mitch. 
Trop. Aust. 36 ^. 

Hab. : Darling Downs, Springsure. 

Var. Fawcettii. Leaflets twice ternate, membranous, * to IJin. long, broad or rhomboid- 
lanceolate, incised and acutely toothed, the petioles and p^tiolules rather long. Peduncles 
bearing 3 to 5 flowers on somewhat long pedicels. Sepals about lin. long, and 1 lirie broad, 
acute, margins somewhat tomentose. Anthers oblong, about 1 line long. Styles plumose at 
the ends. — G. Fawcetti, F. v. M. Fragm. x. 1.' 

Var. colorata (coloured). This variety differs from the last mentioned in its dull-purple flowers, 
and in the segments of the leaf being usually narrow-linear. 

Hab. : Killarney. 

2. MYOSURUS, Linn. 

(Inflorescence resembling tail of mouse). 

Sepals usually 5, produced below their insertion into a small spur. Petals 5, 
small and very narrow, almost tubular at the top, often wanting. Carpels 
numerous, with one pendulous ovule in each. Achenes closeljl' packed in a long 
slender spike, flat on the back, or with a raised nerve ending in the short per- 
sistent style. — Small annuals, with linear radical entire leaves. Flowers very 
small, on leafless scapes. 

A genus comprising, besides the following, only one other species, M. aristatus, Geyer, 
distinguished by the more prominent and spreading points of the achenes, which, although 
originally described from Nortlj America and from Chili, has also been found in New Zealand, 
and may not improbably appear in Australia. — Benth. 

1. IVE. minimus (very small), Linn., Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 8. Mouse tail. 
Leaves sometimes not an inch long, sometimes attaining 2 or even 3in., including 
their long petiole. Scapes shorter or longer than the leaves. Sepals yellowish or 
pale green, very small ; petals rarely longer than the calyx, and in the Australian 
specimens often deficient. Stamens usually 4 or 5, and seldom above 10. 
Achenes sometimes near 300, the head lengthening into a spike of 1 to 2in. — 
M. australis, F. v. M. in Trans. Phil. Soc. Vict. i. 6. 

Hab. : Southern Queensland, near the N.S.W. border. — Bev. Dr. Wm. Woolls. 

(From rana, a frog, many species being found in boggy places.) 

Sepals usually 5, deciduous. Petals as many or more, usually marked with a 
small nectariferous pit, or a minute scale near the base. Carpels several, with a 
single ascendipg ovule in each. Achenes in a globular or ovoid head or oblong 
spike, tipped or beaked by the persistent hooked or straight style. — Herbs either 
annual or with a perennial rootstock, and tufted entire or variously out radical 
leaves. Flowering stems either a leafless scape, or several-flowered, bearing few 
leaves and chiefly at the base of the peduncles. Flowers yellow, white, or red. 

A large genus abounding in the temperate arid colder regions of both the northern and southern 
hemispheres, but more especially in the former, and almost confined in the tropics to the higher 
mountain ranges. Benth. 

Bammcuhi,.] 1. RANUNCULACE^. 7 

Sect. 1. Kecatonlai — Carpels smooth. Perennials {In Attstmlia) with a tufted rootstock, 
or creeping or floating stolons. Flowers white or yellow. 

Eadical leaves pinnate, with flat segments or digitate. Flowers yellow. 
Stems tufted or erect or decumbent, without stolpns. Petals usually 5. 
Calyx appressed or spreading, not reflexed. 
Carpels with a much recurved point. Plant hispid, or silky hairy, or 
nearly glabrous. Leaves pinnatiseot, or 3- to 5-lobed, or entire . . 1. 22. lappaceus. 
Calyx reflexed. Stem weak, hirsute. Leaves not pinnate. Flowers , ,,,, , 

small 2. JJ. plebeius. 

Stems creeping, floating, or stoloniferous. Plant glabrous or nearly so. , 

Leaves digitate. Petals usually 6 to 10 3. R. rivuldris. 

Sect. 2. Ecllinella. — Carpels tuberculate or muricate or hispid on the sides. Annuals. 
Flowers yellow. 

Flowers lateral, sessile, or on peduncles shorter than the leaves. 

Hairy plant, with very smaU flowers, often sessile. Carpels usually about , 

1 line long, with a small recurved point 4. iJ. parvi/lorus. 

1. B>. lappaceus (burdock-like), Sm.; DC. Prod. i. 89 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 12. 
A perennial, more or less clothed with soft spreading or rarely silky and appressed 
hairs. Rootstock short, with long fibres and no stolons. Leaves chiefly radical, 
on long petioles, usually divided into 3 or 5 deep lobes or segments, ovate or 
rhomboid-cuneate, either pinnately distinct or, if confluent, almost palmate, 
although the middle lobe is generally longer than the lateral ones, each lobe or 
segment is often again lobed or toothed and sometimes much cut into narrow 
lobes, more rarely the leaves are all entire or shortly 3-lobed. Flowering stems 
either a leafless 1 -flowered scape or branching and, erect or decumbent, bearing 
several flowers and a few leaves, smaller and less divided than the radical ones. 
Flowers of a rich yellow. Sepals hairy or rarely glabrous, usually rauch shorter 
than the petals, appressed or open, but not closely reflexed. Petals usually 5, 
broadly obovate and rather large, with a small glandular pit near the base. Car- 
pels in a globular head, compressed or rarely turgid, glabrous and smopth, with a 
recurved style, usually short, but longer and slender in some western specimens. — 
Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 6 ; F. Muell. PI. Vict. ^i. 7 ; R. colonorum, Endl. in Hueg. 
Enum. 1 ; R. discolor, Steud. in PI. Preiss. i. 263 (calyx certainly not reflexed). 

Hab.: On the ranges about the Brisbane Eiver. Flowering during the winter and spring 

Var. pimpinellifoliits, forma multiplex. Double buttercup. 

This form of our common buttercup has been found by Miss Cameron near Ormiston, Cleyeland 
railway line, and by Miss Schneider, Ngrang. The meeting with so-called double flowers amongst 
wild plants is by no means commoil, and when of compact habit and well formed flowers such 
as the one now under notice are a feal boon to the horticulturist. The flowers of the present 
plant closely resemble those of the Bachelor's Button, so common in the gardens around London, 
which is a form of R. bulbosus. 

2. It. plebeius (common), R. Br. in DC. Syst. Veg. i. 288 ; Benth. EL Austr. 
i. 13. Hirsute with spreading or rarely nearly appressed hairs. Radical leaves 
on long petioles, digitately divided into 3 deeply lobed and toothed cuneate or 
rhomboid segments. Stems weak, decumbent or erect, often above a foot long 
and branched, with a tew leaves, the lower ones more divided than the radical 
ones, with the primary segments petiolate,; the others smaller, more sessile, and 
less cut. Flowers several, small,, on long peduncles- Calyx, reflexed, shorter 
than the petals, very deciduous. Petals obovate or oblong, seldom above 2 lines 
long. Achenes few or numerous, more or less compressed, rather small, with a 
hooked or recurved slender style. — Steud. in PL Preiss. i. 263 : R. Iiirtus, Banks 
and Sol. in DC. Syst. Veg. i. 289 ; F. Muell. PI. Yic. i. 8. 

Hab^: Southern Queensland. 

3. R, rivularis (river kind), Banks and Sol. in DC. Syst. Veg. i. 270 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 13. Stems creeping or stoloniferous, producing at every node 
tufts of radical leaves and erect scapes, or weak slightly branched flowering stems, 
rarely forming short thick rhizomes. Leaves on long petioles, digitately divided 

8 I. RANUNCULACEyB. [Ranumulus. 

into 8, 6, or 7 segments, varying from ouneate to narrow-linear, rarely entire, 
usually 3-lobed, and sometimes much out, but never pinnate, either quite 
glabrous, as well as the whole plant, or rarely with a very few appressed hairs. 
Flowers yellow, usually small, the sepals not reflexed. Petals 6 to 10, about 
twice as long as the sepals, or 5 only in small-flowered varieties, narrow-oblong. 
Achenes rather small and broad, with a firm or slender recurved or rarely nearly 
straight point, not tubercled or muricate. — F. Muell. PI. Vict. i. 8. 

Hab. : Brisbane Biver. 

Var. major. Tufts erect. Leaf-segments J to lin. long or more, often very narrow and much 
out, on petioles of 2 to 6 inches. Flowers rather large. — B. inundatus, B. Br. in DC. Syst. Veg. 
i, 269. B. glabrifolim, Hook. Journ. Bot. i. 243 ; Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 9. B. incisut, Hook, t 
m. Nov. Zeal. 1, 10 t. 4. 

Hab. : Watery places, Main Bange. 

4. Bu parviflorus (small-flowered), Linn.; DC. Prod. i. 42: var. australif ; 
Betith. Fl. Austr. i. 14. A slender hairy annual, either with tufted, erect stems 
of a few inches, or weak, procumbent, and lengthening to a foot or even more. 
Leaves small, orbicular, the lower ones often only 8- or 5-lobed, but mostly 
divided into three segments, either entire or B-lobed, or again cut into narrow 
segments. Flowers small, leaf-opposed, sessile, or on short, slender peduncles. 
Sepals rarely above 1 line long and very deciduous. Petals 5 or fewer, seldom 
much longer than the calyx. Achenes in a small globular head, much com- 
pressed, with a smooth margin, seldom much exceeding a line in breadth in 
Australian specimens, the sides covered with short hairs, or tubercles, or short 
hooked bristles, the style forming usually a very short recurved point, more rarely 
rigid and dilated at the base. — F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 9 ; R. sessiliflorus, E. Br. ; R. 
coUinus, R. Br. ; R. pumilio, R. Br. ; R. leptocaidis. Hook, ; R. pilulifer, Hook. 
Ic. PI. t. 600. 

Hab. : A common weed of moist land in Southern Queensland. 


Sepals usually 6, persistent, imbricate in the bud. Petals 6 or rarely fewer, 
deciduous, imbricate in the bud. Stamens hypogynous, indefinite, few or 
numerous, or rarely definitely 10, free or rarely united in clusters. Anthers 
innate or adnate. Gynoecium of carpels several, free and distinct or cohering at 
the base, or rarely single and excentrical, 1 -celled, with 1 or more ovules in each. 
Styles quite distinct and diverging. Fruit-carpels either indehiscent and suc- 
culent, or opening along the inner edge, or in two valves. Seeds furnished with 
an arillus ; testa crustaceous. Embryo very small, at the base of a fleshy 
albumen. — Trees, shrubs, climbers, or herbs. Leaves alternate or very rarely 
opposite. Stipules minute or none. Flowers usually yellow or white. 

A considerable Order, of which rather the larger portion, with regularly pinnate veins 
prominent on the under side of the leaves, is entirely tropical. 

Tribe I. DelimesD. — Stamens with the filamentf more or less dilated upwards. Anthers 
short, cells divergent or rarely parallel, leaves with parallel lateral nerves, often scabrous. 

Sepals 5. Spreading. Carpels 3 — S (rarely 1 — 2 ?), acuminate, ovules many. 
2-Beriate. Panicles terminal 1. Tetbaobra. 

Tbibe II. JUllenieSB.— Stamens with the filaments not dilated upwards. Anthers linear or 
rarely oblong, cells parallel contiguous. Leaves large, with parallel lateral nerves. 

Sepals 5. Anthers biporous. Carpels 5 — 10, ovules many, scarcely cohering, 
dehiscent at maturity. Trees 2. Wormia. 


Tkibe III. — HlbbertleSB. — Stamens with the filaments not at all or slightly dilated upwards. 
Anthers often oblong, cells parallel, contiguous rarely a little divergent. Leaves small uninerved 
or reticulately penniveined, som^tim^s absent. 

Perfect stamens free or nearly so, more than 10, or, if fewer, on one side of 
the pistil 3. Hibbebtia. 

Perfect stamens 10 or fewer, in a complete ring round the pistil. No 
staminodia within the perfect stamens 4. Ajdbastaa. 

1. TETRACERA, Linn. 
(Supposed resemblanee of carpels to 4 horns.) 
(Euryandra, Forst.) 
Sepals 4 to 6, spreading. Petals just as many as sepals Or rarely fewer. 
Stamens with the filaments dilated upwards. Anthers small, cells distant more 
or less divergent. Carpels 3 to 5, acuminate, ovules many, biseriate, at maturity 
coriaceous, shining, follioulate or dehiscing in two valves. Seeds 1 to 5, with a 
fimbriated or toothed aril. Trees or climbing shrubs, Smooth scabrous, or pubes- 
cent. Leaves with parallel lateral veins. Flowers in terminal or in the upper 
axils, in loose panicles, hermaphrodite or partially unisexual. — B. & H. Gen. PI. 
i. 12. 

Leaves pilose on the under, scabrous on the upper side, primary veins close 

margins dentate. Sepals 4 1. T. Nordtiana. 

Leaves glossy, scabrous on both sides, margins sharply dentate. Sepals 4 . 2. T. Cowleyana. 

Leaves glabrous except the midrib and primary veins, margins usually entire. 

Sepals 4 3. T. Wuthiana. 

Leaves glabrous, primary veins distant, margins entire. Sepals 5 . . . i. T. DcemeUana. 

1. T. Nordtiana (after a lady horticulturist), F. v. M. Fragm. v. 1. A tall 
climbing evergreen shrub with a smooth bark and hard wood. Branchlets densely 
clothed with stellate and scattered longer simple hairs. Leaves ovate, 3 to Sin. 
long, 1| to about Sin. broad, the upper surface scabrous, the under clothed with 
short stellate hairs giving a hoary appearance, the lateral nerves parallel and 
rather close, often projecting beyond the margin and forming glandular teeth, 
more or less decurrent upon the petiole, which latter is from ^in. to lin. long. 
Panicles loose and straggling in the upper axils and terminal, flowers fragrant. 
Bracts and bracteoles small, silky. Sepals 4, scabrous-pilose on the outside, 
nerveles are of unequal size, the 2 outer ones subrotund, 1 to IJ lines long, the 
2 inner ones rotund-ovate, 2 or 3 lines long. Petals 3, white, not much exceeding 
the sepals, cuneate-obovate, emarginate, ciliolate, and soon deciduoUs. Stamens 
numerous, glabrous, capillary, with a cuneate expanded apex, thus separating the 
anther-cells, but less so than in other Australian species. Carpels 8, densely 
hairy, styles very short, glabrous. Eipe carpels, obliquely ovate, about 3 lines 
long. Seeds sub-globose, of a dark or chestnut brown. Arillus 1^ to 2 lines long, 

Hab.: Eockingham Bay, J. Dallachy. 

2. T. Cowleyana (after B. Cowley), Bail. Bot. Bvll. v. Teeweeree, Barron 
Eiver, Cowley. A coarse climber, the branches appearing angular from the bark 
peeling and rolling back from longitudinal fissures, chestnut brown and scabrous, 
leaves scabrous, ovate-lanceolate, often 6in. long and Bin. broad in the centre, 
the apex sometimes sharply acuminate ; petiole lin. or more long, and often 
slender, hispid with appressed hairs, with which the costa and primary nerves on 
the under side are usually clothed ; the primary parallel nerves numerous, regular, 
extending beyond the margin in the form of mueironate teeth. Panicle scabrous, 
from 6 to 9in. long, bracts narrow linear-lanceolate, silky. Pedicles slender. 
Sepals obtuse, velvety, with ciliate edges, the inner ones twice the size of the 

10 II. DILLENIACEiE. [Tetmcm-a. 

outer. Petals veined, 3 lines long, obovate, velvety, with the margin eiliate like 
the sepals. Filaments much dilated, and more or less bifid at the apex. The 
anther-oells thus being widely separated. Carpels usually 3, hirsute, SJ lines 
long. Seeds black, glossy, enveloped in a fringed crimson arillus, which when 
expanded has a diameter of 4 or 5 lines. 

Hab.: Herbert Eiver, H. G. Eaton; Cairns, E. Cowley. 

8. T. Wuthiana (after D. E. Wuth), F. v. M. Fragm. x. 49. A tall 
climber with a smooth bark, and hard wood. Leaves on rather long petioles, 
ovate entire, somewhat acute, 3 to 5in. long If to 2in. broad, texture somewhat 
thiok-chartaceous, smooth, shining on both sides, the primary veins somewhat 
distant and prominent, rarely exserted beyond the margin in minute teeth. 
Panicle pilose with appressed hairs, from a few inches to a foot long, pedicels 2 to 
10 lines long. Bracts lanceolate to subulate-linear 1| line or less long. Flowers 
for the most part bisexual. Bractioles minute silky. Sepals 4, glabrous inside, 
unequal in length and nerveless, 2 or 3 lines long. Petals 8, scarcely equalling 
the sepals, slightly eiliate, white. Filaments suddenly much dilated at the upper 
end ; anther-ceUs thus widely separated. Ovary sericeus, carpels 8. Style 
glabrous 1 line long. Stigma dilated. Eipe fruit not yet obtained. 

Hab. : Daintree Eiver, E. Fitzalan ; Eookingham Bay, J. Dallachy. 
The fungus Dimerosporium Tetracera, Cke., sometimes infests the leaves. 

4. T. Dsemeliana (after B. Dsemel), F. v. M. Fragm. v. 191. A tall 
glabrous climber. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, 4 to Tin. long and about If to 2Jin. 
broad, decurrent upon short petioles, smooth, shining, and remotely-reticulate 
between distant primary veins. Panicle about 7in. long, upon peduncles of 
moderate length. Flowers bisexual. Bracteoles oiliolate. Sepals 5, glabrous, 2 
or 3 lines long, almost ovate, obtuse, nerveless. Petals 4 or 5, glabrous, 
fugaceous, scarcely exceeding the calyx. Stamens numerous. Carpels 8, 
glabrous, tapering into short styles. Eipe fruit as yet not collected. 

Hab. : Cape York. — E. Deamel. 

2. WORMIA, Eottb. 
(After 0. Wormius, a Dane.) 
Sepals 5, spreading. Petals 5. Stamens numerous, with erect linear anthers 
opening at the summit in two pores, the inner ones often longer and recurved. 
Carpels 5 to 10, scarcely cohering, with several ovules in each, dehiscent when 
ripe. Seeds with an arillus. — Trees often very lofty. Leaves large, with raised 
parallel veins diverging from the midrib, the petioles often bordered with narrow 
deciduous wings. Flowers large, in loose terminal panicles, 

A tropical genus, extending over tropical Asia and the Indian Archipelago, with one Mada- 
gascar species. The only Australian one is endemic. Benth. 

1. W. alata (winged), B. Br. in DC. Syst. Veg. i. 434 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 16 ; 
F. V. M. Fragm. vii. 124. Attaining the height of 60ft., with a stem diameter of 2ft. 
Glabrous, or the young parts very slightly hoary. Bark loose, papery, of a reddish 
colour. Leaves oval or nearly orbicular, rounded at both ends, 4 to Sin. long, 
entire or slightly sinuate, rather rough to the touch, with about 9 prominent veins 
on each side of the midrib and transversely reticulate veinlets, the petiole lin. 
long or more, with longitudinal wings about 2 or 3 lines broad, which fall off in the 
greater part of their length. Peduncles terminal, not usually exceeding the leaves, 
bearing 2 or 3 large flowers on pedicels of nearly lin. Sepals 6 to 8 lines long, 
ovate, concave, eiliate. Petals obovate, Ifin. long, narrowed at the base. 

Wormia.] II. DILLENIACEiE. 11 

Stamens very numerous, the inner ones long and recurved, the others shorter, and 
the outermost sometimes small and barren. Gynoecium of 5 to 8 glabrous, deep- 
crimson carpels, tapering into long recurved styles. Ovules 6 to 8 in each carpel. 
Seeds enclosed in a waxy-white arillus. 

Hab.: Tropical coast. 

Wood of a dark colour. Cut one way It shows a pretty red "clash," differing in colour 
but somewhat resembling that of English oak. It is close in grain and easy to work — a good 
cabinetmaker's wood Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods, No. 1. 

2. HIBBERTIA, Andr. 
(After Dr. Hibbert). 

(Hemmistemma, Pleurandra, mid Hibbertia, DC. ; Ochrolasia, Turcz. ; 
Hemistephus, Drummmid). 

Sepals 5, spreading, sometimes shortly united at the base. Petals 5. Stamens 
indefinite, rarely fewer than 12, and then usually all on one side of the carpels, 
either all perfect or some of them reduced to staminodia, all free or the filaments 
shortly and irregularly united at the base. Anthers erect, oblong, or rarely ovate 
or orbicular, opening in longitudinal slits. Carpels usually 2 to 5, rarely 
solitary or more than 5, free or shortly cohering on their inner edge, with 2 to 6 
or rarely only 1 or more than 6 ovules in each. Styles filiform, diverging, 
terminal, or almost dorsal. Fruit-carpels usually dehiscent at the top. Seeds 
reniform or nearly globular, with an entire or divided arillus. — Shrubs or under- 
shrubs, usually much branched and low, erect or procumbent, sometimes almost 
herbaceous or climbing, rarely 5 or 6 feet high. Leaves usually small, alternate 
in aU the Australian species, with a midrib prominent underneath, the lateral 
veins reticulate and rarely prominent. Flowers yellow or white, solitary and 
terminal, or (owing to the shortness or abortion of the flowering shoot) appar- 
ently axillary sessile in a tuft of floral leaves or pedunculate. 

Sect. I. Kemmistemina. — Perfect stamens and staminddia all on one side of the carpels, 
the staminodia outside. Peduncles mostly 2- or more-flotDcred. 

Leaves oblong or lanceolate, flat or the margins slightly recurved. 
Leaves obtuse. 
Leaves with recurved margins, narrowed into a petiole, rusty-brown 

underneath. Sepals obtuse 1. H. Banksii. 

J Leaves flat, closely sessile with a rounded base, white underneath. 

Sepals acute . . 2. H. Brownei. 

Leaves acute or mucronate, white underneath. 

Peduncles lateral, 2- or 3-, rarely 1-flowered 3. -ff. candicans. 

Flowers rather large, midrib of leaf not red i. H. Millari. 

Sect. III. Pleurandra. — Stamens all on one side of the cm-pels without any staminodia. 
Peduncle 1-flowered or none. 

Flowers s'lbsessile. Stamens cohering at the base 5. H. synandra. 

Flowers pedunculate. Leaves narrow-linear, rigid, glabrous or scabrous. 

Calyx glabrous, stellate-tomentose, or, if hirsute, pedicels very short . 6. H. stricta. 

Flowers pedunculate. Leaves obovate, oblong or shortly-linear. 

Peduncles usually short. Ovules 2— r4 1. H. Billardieri. 

Leaves nearly flat, rigidly pungent S. H. acicularis. 

Sect. IV. Eubibbertla. — Stamens placed all round the carpels, with occasionally small 
staminodia outside. 

§ 1. Tomentos(B. — Carpels usually tomentose or scaly and 2-ovulate. Stamens numerous, 
without any or rarely with small staminodia outside. Leaves flat or the margins slightly 
revolute, usUaUy steUately tomentose or scaly. Flowers pedunculate, axillary. 

Tomentum soft and velvety. Leaves oblong, 1 — 2in. long 9. H. velutina. 

10. JS. melhanoides. 
Leaves narrow-linear. Tomentum of peltate scales. Peduncles 1 to 3 

lines • . . 11. i?. lepidota. 

§ 2. Vestitre. — Carpels (usually 3) villous, 4 — 6-ovulate. Stamens with or without staminodia 
outside. Leaves small, narrow, with revolute margins. 
Flowers sessile, or pedunculate not exceeding the leaves 12. H. vestita. 

12 II. piLLENIACEiS. [Hibbertia. 

§ 3. Fasciculatai. — Carpels glabrous. 2 — 6-ovulate. No staminodia. Leaves very narrow, 
convex underneath, the margins not revolute. Bracts small. Flowers sessile. 
Ovules 2, or rarely 3 or 4 in each carpel. Leaves usually fine, much 

clustered, often hirsute or pubescent 13. i?. fasciculata. 

§ 4. Bracteatie. — Carpels glabrous, 1 — 2-ovulate. No staminodia. Leaves flat or convex 
underneath. Flowers closely sessile within broad brown shining bracts, like those of some of 
the Hemihibbertite. 

Leaves very narrow, convex underneath. 
Leaves obtuse. 

Glabrous and green. Leaves not dilated at the top 14. H. virgata. 

§ 5. Subsessiles. — Carpels glabrous. Stamens usually numerous, without staminodia. Leaves 
flat or the margins slightly re-curved. Bracts small or passing into the sepals. Flowers sessile 
or nearly so. 

Carpels 1 — 2-ovulate. Stems erect or diffuse. 
Leaves mostly under lin. long. 
Leaves linear-oblong or scarcely enlarged above the middle. Stems 

usually erect or ascending 15. H. linearis. 

Leaves obovate or cuneate. Stems usually diffuse or prostrate . . 16. H. diffusa. 
Leaves 1 to Bin. long. Plant softly hairy. 

Leaves obovate-oblong, obtuse 15. H. linearis, var. 

Carpels 6 — 8-ovulate. Stems twining or trailing. Leaves large ... 17. H. volubilis. 

§ 6. Hemihibbertia. — Carpels glabrous or rarely villous. Stamens very numerous, with 
several small, subulate or elavate staminodia outside. Leaves flat. Flowers pedunculate. 
Leaves distinctly petiolate, ovate, or oblong, mostly toothed. 

Carpels 3, glabrous, 6- to 8-ovulate IS. H. dentata. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, tapering at the base, and halt stem-clasping . 19. H. glaberrima. 
Leaves narrow-elongate to linear-lanceolate, 6in. long, 2 to 6 lines 

broad 20. H. longifolia. 

Leaves narrow linear-lanceolate, 2 to Bin. long, 2 to 4 lines broad, 

staminodia numerous, carpels 4 21. J?, cenotheroides 

-Leaves linear-lanceolate IJ to BJin. long, 2 to 4 lines broad, staminodia 

few, carpels 3 22. i?. Bennettii. 

1. H. Banksii (after Sir J. Banks), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 20. Young branches 
and under side of the leaves densely clothed with a short, soft, rusty tomentum. 
Leaves oblong, obtuse, 2 to Sin. long, ^ to near lin. broad, the margins more or 
less recurved, narrowed into a short petiole, glabrous above and somewhat shining 
when old, the pinnate and anastomosing veins prominent underneath. Spikes 
terminal, 1-sided, rusty-villous, about lin. long, the flowers closely sessile. Sepals 
about 4 lines long. Petals longer. Stamens about 20, obtuse, with half as many 
staminodia outside, about one-third shorter. — Hemistemma Banksii, E. Br. in DC. 
Syst. Veg. i. 414. 

Hab.: Endeavour Eiver, Banks. 

2. H. Brownei (after Robert Brown), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 21 . Young branches 
clothed with a short rusty down. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or scarcely 
pointed, 2 to Sin. long, closely sessile and very obtuse or rounded at the base, the 
margins flat, glabrous, and at length almost shining above, white underneath, 
with the midrib alone prominent and rust-coloured. Spikes terminal, 1 -sided, 
silky-villous. Sepals scarcely 4 lines long, acute. Stamens nearly as in H. 

Hab. : Eecorded, for Queensland by F. v. M. 

3. H. candicans (whitish), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 21. Like H. dealhata in the 
white tomentum that covers the under side of the leaves, but it is rather more 
silky or rusty on the peduncles and calyx, the leaves are rather narrower, and the 
inflorescence is very different ; peduncles all axillary, | to lin. long, bearing at 
their extremity 1 to S sessile flowers, and bracts and sepals usually broader. 
Stamens and carpels the same as in H. Banksii. — Hemistemma candicans, Hook, 
f. in Kew Journ. Bot. ix. 48, t. 2. 

Hab.: Cape York, ikf'GiKiOTuj/; Albany Island, i^. Muelltr. 

Hibbertia.] II. DILLENIACE^. 13 

4. H. IVEillari (after T. Barclay Millar), Bail. 2nd Suppl. 8yn. Ql. Fl. 5. 
Branches slender, reddish-brown, silky-hoary or more or less clothed with white 
silky hairs. Leaves linear, acute, and apiculate, 2 to Sin. long, 1 to 1 J line broad, 
margins revolute, the upper surface glabrous, hoary-white on the under side, the 
midrib prominent but not rusty as in H. angiistifolia. Spikes fin. long, terminal 
or in the upper axils bearing 1 or 2 flowers. Sepals ovate, about 4 to 5 lines 
long, silky-hairy outside. Petals cuneate, about 6 or 7 lines long, the end deeply 
emarginate. Stamens about 20, with a few filiform staminodia outside. Anthers 
oblong, longer than the filaments. Carpels 2, villous. 

This species is very closely allied to Hemistemma angustifolia, R. Br., but of a more robust 
habit, with fewer and larger flowers in the spike, and wanting the prominent rusty-red midrib of 
the leaf of that species. — Bail. 

Hab. : Musgrave, T. Barclay Millar. 

5. H. synandra (anthers close together), F. v. M. Fragm. iv. 151. An erect 
branching shrub. Leaves subcoriaceous, lanceolate or broad-linear, 4 to 6 lines 
long, 1 to 1|^ line broad, margins revolute, deep glossy-green above, slightly 
canescent underneath. Flowers solitary, subsessile. Sepals 2 to 4 lines long, 
sparsely puberulous, outer ones oblong-lanceolate, inner ones broad or orbicular. 
Petals obcordate-ovatei about 5 lines long. Stamens about 20, unilaterals, fila- 
ments about 1 line long, cohering at the base, anthers linear, no staminodia. 
Carpels slightly silky, oblique ovate, ovules often 3. Seeds glossy-brown. 
Arillus white, thin. ' 

Hab.: Eockingham Bay. J. Dallaehy. 

6. H. Stricta (erect), R. Br. Herb. ; F. Muell. PI. Vict. i. 15 ; Benth. Fl. 
Aicstr. i. 2. Erect, spreading, or diffuse, but scarcely prostrate, sometimes throw- 
ing up almost simple stems of 6in. from a thick rhizome, sometimes attaining 
several feet in height, more or less hoary or scabrous, with a minute stellate tomen- 
tum, although sometimes appearing glabrous at first sight. Leaves narrow-linear, 
erect or spreading, rather obtuse, mostly J to ^in. long, the closely revolute margins 
disclosing little more than the midrib underneath. Flowers nearly sessile, or on 
pedicels of 2 or 3 lines in length. Sepals usually about 8 lines long, oblong, 
lanceolate, or the inner ones ovate. Stamens usually 8 to 12. Carpels tomen- 
tose, or very rarely glabrous, with 4 to 6, or very rarely more ovules in each. 
Arillus usually very small. — Pleurandra stricta, R. Br. in DC. Syst. Veg. i. 422 ; 
P. riparia, R. Br. in DO. 1. c. i. 419 ; P. ericifolia, DC. 1. c. i. 420 ; Hook. f. Fl. 
Tasm. i. 17 ; P. eistiflora, Sieb. in Spreng. Syst. Cur. Post. 191 ; Reichb. Icon. 
Exot. t. 79. 

Hab. : Various parts of Southern Queensland. 

Var. canescens. Leaves and calyx more or less hoary with stellate hairs. Flowers pedunculate 
or more rarely nearly sessile. Ovules usually 4. 

Var. hirtiflora. Leaves nearly as in the var. canescens. Calyx usually large, more sessile, 
and hirsute with spreading hairs. Ovules usually 6 to 8 or more. 

7. H. Billardieri (after Dr. J. J. Labillardike), F. v. M. PL Vict. i. 14 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 28. Stems weak, sometimes short and erect, but more fre- 
quently trailing to the length of 2 or 3 feet or more over other shrubs, the 
branches clothed with stellate hairs, often mixed with long spreading ones. 
Leaves from obovate, ovate or oval-oblong to oblong-euneate or narrow-oblong, 
the larger ones ^ to lin. long, but in the commoner slender varieties not half that 
size, the margins recurved, more or less stellately pubescent, especially under- 
neath, and scabrous above, but becoming glabrous with age. Pedicels terminating 
short, leafy shoots, or apparently axillary, slender, and recurved, J to ^in. long. 
Sepals 2 to 3 lines long, or in some varieties rather shorter or longer, the outer 

14 II. DILLENIACE^. [Hibbertia. 

ones usually pointed, the inner broader and more obtuse, glabrous, or nearly so. 
Petals broad. Stamens usually 10 to 12. Carpels downy or villous, with 2 to 4 
ovules. Arillus sometimes almost enveloping the seed, sometimes very short. — 
Pleurandra ovata, Labill. PI. Nov. Holl. ii. 5, t. 143 ; Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 16. 
Hab. : Southern Queensland, common. 

8. H. acicularis (needle-like), F. Muell. PL Vict. i. 17 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. 
i. 29. Nearly or quite glabrous, procumbent or diffuse, with a thick woody stock, 
and numerous branches, short and intricate, or lengthened to a foot. Leaves 
narrow-linear, rigid, with a stiff, often pungent point, about 3 to 6 lines long, 
the margins recurved. Pedicels terminal or axillary, often on very short shoots, 
with a few leaves at the base sometimes reduced to minute bracts, recurved, J to 
fin. long. Sepals glabrous, or very slightly downy, about 2 lines long. Stamens 
usually 8, or fewer. Carpels downy, or rarely glabrous, with 2, or very rarely 4 
ovules. — Pleurandra acicularis, Labill. PI. Nov. Holl. ii. 6, t. 144 ; Hook. f. Fl. 
Tasm. i. 15. 

Hab. : Common on ironbark forest land in southern Queensland. 

9. H. velutina (velvety) E. Br. ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 80. Shrub, all parts 
clothed with a whitish velvety tomentum ; height 4 to 6ft., and spreading ; 
branches prominently angled. Leaves oblong-ovate, 1 to nearly 2in. long, 
3 to 7 lines broad, much tapering towards a petiole of , about a line 
long ; midrib very prominent, lateral veins patent and distinct, margins 
recurved. Peduncles axillary near the ^nds of the branches, flattened, f to fin. 
long, with a narrow bract close under the calyx. Sepals 3 or 4 lines long, outer 
ones acute, inner ones obtuse, and wider. Petals broadly obovate, about i^in. 
long. Stamens numerous. Carpels 8, at first silky then rather echinate, 2- 

Hab. : On summit of Mount Harold, off Tringilburra Creek, and Walsh's Pyramid, Mulgrave 

10. H. melhanoides (Melhania-like), F. r. M. Fragm. iv. 116. An erect shrub 
of 8 to 4ft. ; thinly clothed with a stellate pubescence, branches angular. Leaves 
If to 3in. long, 5 to 9 lines broad, oblong-lanceolate, quite entire, smooth, 
glaucous, and somewhat scabrous on the under surface. — Petioles very short. 
Peduncles solitary, very short, slender, angular. Bracts If to 2f lines long. 
Outer sepals 4 to 6 lines, 1 -nerved, almost lanceolate, inner one ovate or roundish. 
Petals obcordate, stamens 40 to 60, filaments 1 to If line long. Staminodia 
few. Anthers f to 1 line. Style scaly below the middle. 

Hab. : Eookingham Bay. 

11. H. lepidota (scaly), R. Br. in DC. Syst. Veg. i. 432 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. 
i. 31. Branches stiff but slender, covered as well as the leaves and sepals with a 
close silvery or slightly rusty tomentum, consisting of minute peltate scales with 
scarious edges. Leaves linear, rather acute, mostly f to fin. long, concave, the 
margins not revolute. Flowers rather small, on pedicels of 1 to 3 lines, solitary 
or 2 or 3 together in the axils. Sepals broad, very obtuse, about 2 lines long, or 
3 when in fruit, the 2 outer rather shorter. Stamens about 12, mostly, but not 
all, on one side of the carpels, with several small staminodia outside. Carpels 2, 
scaly-tomentose, 2-ovulate. 

Hab. : Northeote, B. C. Burton. 

12. H. vestita (clothed), A. Cunn. Herb. ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 31. Branches 
elongated, decumbent or erect, clothed as well as the young leaves with short 
spreading hairs. Leaves narrow-linear, obtuse, 3 to 4 lines long, rigid with 
recurved margins, often glabrous when full grown. Flowers nearly sessile, in 
clusters of floral leaves shorter than them, the inner ones passing into §mall lin^a^r 

Hihh,;ti,i.] II. DILLENIACE^. 15 

bracts. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, or the outer ones scarcely acute, 3 or 
even 4 lines long, with rather silky hairs outside. Petals obovate, deeply emar- 
ginate. Stamens above 30, with several short filiform or clavate staminodia 
outside. Carpels 3, villous, 6-ovulate. The general aspect is sometimes that of 
H. serpyllifolia, but it is readily known by the stamens. 

Hab. : Open forest land near Moreton Bay, A. Cunningham; Stradbroke Island, Fraser ; 
Glasshouse mountains, F. Mueller ; swamps towards Durval, Leichhardt. 

Var. thymifolia. Leaves shorter, often recurved at the end. — Near Moreton Bay, A. 

13. H. fasciculata (fascicled), R. Br. in DC. Syst. Vey. i. 428 ; Benth. Fl, 
Austr. i. 33. Stems erect, procumbent or prostrate. Leaves very narrow- linear, 
clustered and crowded, 2 to 3 lines or rarely Jin. long, hirsute with soft rather 
spreading hairs, or at length glabrous, obtuse, or scarcely pointed, the margins 
never revolute or recurved, but rather turned upwards so as to leave the under 
surface convex with the prominent midrib. Flowers sessile, on very short leafy 
shoots along the branches, with 2 or 8 small sepal-like bracts at their base. 
Sepals 2 to 3 lines long, broadly ovate, membranous at the edge, the outer ones 
narrower and less obtuse. Petals obcordate. Stamens usually 8 to 12, without 
staminodia. Carpels usually 3, glabrous, with two erect ovules in each. — Hook, 
f. Fl. Tasm. i. 13 ; H. amjmtifolia (partly), F. Muell. PI. Vict. i. 18 ; H. virgata, 
Hook. Ic. PI. t. 267, not E. Br. ; H. prostrata, Hook. Journ. Bot. i. 246 ; 
Pleurandra camforosma, Sieb. in Spreng. Syst. Cur. Post. 191 ; H. camphor osma, 
A. Gray Bot. Amer. Expl. Exped. i. 21. 

Hab. : Southern parts of the colony. 

14. H. virgata (twiggy), R. Br. in DC. Syst. Veg. i. 428 ; Benth. 1<1. Austr. i. 
34. Diffuse or erect, glabrous, with numerous thin but stiff and often wiry 
branches. Leaves narrow-linear, obtuse or scarcely acute, mostly about I'in. long, 
but sometimes much longer, stiff and rather thick, the margins not revolute, and 
sometimes almost terete. Flowers sessile, surrounded by 2 or 3 very broad 
scarious pale brown bracts fully half as long as the calyx. Sepals about 4 lines 
long, obtuse or more frequently acute, or with a short sharp point, glabrous and 
more scarious than in any other species. Petals broadly obovate, scarcely emar- 
ginate. Stamens 10 to 15, without staminodia. Carpels 8, glabrous, 2-ovulate. 
— Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 14 ; H. angustifolia, var., F. Muell. PI. Vict. i. 19. 

Hab.: Southern parts of the colony. 

15. H. linearis (leaves linear), R. Br. in DC. Sijst. Veg. i. 428 ; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 36. Much branched, erect or divaricate, or rarely decumbent, glabrous 
in all its parts, or with a very minute pubescence on the young shoots. Leaves 
in the normal forms linear, rather acute or obtuse, with a short recurved point, 4 
to 8 lines long, or nearly lin. when luxuriant, the margins flat or slightly 
recurved, and not convex underneath. Flowers on very short peduncles, and 
usually surrounded by rather longer floral leaves, with small acuminate brown 
"bracts at the base of the peduncle, and one or two at the summit passing into 

the sepals. Sepals all or the inner ones only obtuse, glabrous with thin margins, 
2J to 3 lines long. ' Petals obovate, scarcely notched. Stamens 15 to 20, without 
staminodia. Carpels usually 3, rarely 2 or 1, glabrous, 2-ovulate. 

Hab. : Moreton Island, M'Gillivray, F. Mueller. 

Var. floribunda. Sepals more acute and rather hairy. Stamens more numerous. Peel's 

Island, A. Cunningham. 

Var. ? obtusifolia. More rigid than the normal form, more frequently erect, and more or less 
hairy, with a minute crisped or shortly stellate tomentum, sometimes densely and softly pubes- 
cent, and very rarely glabrous. Leaves from linear to broadly oblong spathulate, very obtuse or 
truncate, in some southern specimens above IJin. long, and mostly narrowed into a short petiole. 
Flowers rather larger than in the normal variety, with numerous stamens. — H. obtusifolia, DC. 
Syst. Veg. i. 429 ; H. canescens, Sieb. in Spreng. Syst. Cur. Post. 21X. 

16 II. mLLENIACE^. [Hibbertia. 

16. H. diffusa (wide-spreading). R. Br. in DC. Syst. Veg. i. 429 ; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 36. Stems low, usually diffuse or prostrate, with numerous short 
ascending branches, pubescent or at length glabrous. Leaves from obovate to 
linear-cuneate, very obtuse or truncate, seldom above ^in. long, and then often 2- 
or 8-toothed. Peduncles very short. Sepals broadly oblong, obtuse, about 4 
lines long, the outer ones rather shorter and narrower. Petals obovata, entire. 
Stamens about 20 to 25, without staminodia. Carpels usually 3, or rarely 2 or 
4, glabrous, 2-ovulate. 

Hab. : Southern parts of the colony. 

17. H. volubilis (twining), Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 126 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 37. 
Stems woody, trailing, or twining and climbing to the height of 20 to 30ft. 
the young parts more or less clothed with silky hairs. Leaves from obovate to 
lanceolate, obtuse or acute, IJ to Sin. long, narrowed below, but slightly enlarged 
and stem-clasping at the base, leaving a raised ring on the stem, as in most 
Candolleas, glabrous above, silky-hairy underneath. Flowers the largest of the 
genus, nearly sessile, the upper leaves passing into sepal-like bracts. Sepals 8 
lines to lin. long, ovate-acuminate, very silky-hairy outside. Petals obovate, 
entire. Stamens very numerous, without staminodia. Carpets usually 6, but 
sometimes up to 8, glabrous, 6- to- S-ovulate. — Dillenia scandens, Willd. Spec. ii. 
1251 ; Dillenia volubilis, Vent. Ohoix, t. 11 ; D. speciosa, Bot. Mag. t. 449, not of 

Hab. : Both southern and northern parts of the colony. 

18. H. dentata (leaves toothed), R. Br. in DC. Syst. Veg. i. 426 ; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 38. Stems woody at the base only, trailing or twining, glabrous or the 
young branches pubescent. Leaves distinctly petiolate, oblong, obtuse or acute, 
1^ to 2|in. long, flat, marked with a few distant callous teeth, or slightly sinuate, 
rounded at the base, glabrous or pubescent when young. Flowers rather large, on 
short peduncles, with 1 or 2 small bracts at their base. Sepals ovate, ^in. long, 
the inner ones obtuse, the outer rather shorter and more acute, rarely all aoumi- 
nate, pubescent or silky-hairy. Petals obovate, entire or scarcely notched. 
Stamens very numerous with slender filaments, the anthers short, although not 
so broad as in the BrachyantJiera, and a considerable number of filiform or olavate 
staminodia outside. Carpels 3, glabrous, 6- to 8-ovulate.' — F. Muell. PI. Vict. i. 
217 ; Bot. Reg. t. 282 ; Bot. Mag. t. 2338 ; Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 317. 

Hab. : Towards the N.S.W. border. 

19. K. glaberrima (smooth without indumentum), F. Muell. Fragm. iii. 1 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 89. Perfectly glabrous. Leaves (the upper ones only 
known) oblong-lanceolate, obtuse with a short glandular point, 1 to l^in. long, 
quite entire, tapering below the middle almost into a petiole, and slightly 
expanded so as to half-clasp the branch. Peduncles axillary or terminal, about 
l^in. long. Innermost sepals fully 6 to 7 lines long, and very broad, the others 
gradually diminishing to the outermost, which is lanceolate and about 3 lines. 
Petals not much longer than the calyx. Stamens very numerous (200 to 30 )), 
with numerous (2 or 3 dozen) short olavate staminodia outside. Carpels 3, 
glabrous, with aljout 8 ovules in each. 

Hab. : Inland northern parts of the colony. 

20. K. longifolia (long-leaved), F. v. M. Fragm. iv. 115. A perfectly 
glabrous shrub about 2ft. high. Leaves narrow-elongate to linear-lanceolate, 
quite entire, about fiin. long, and 2 to 6 lines broad, narrowly stem-clasping, the 
apex attenuated. Peduncles 1 to Ifin. long. Bracts about ^in, long, linear- 

mUertia.] II. DILLENIAOE^. 17 

subulate. Sepals 6 to 10 lines long, outer ones tenui-acuminate, inner ones 
subovate or lanceolate-ovate. Petals not incised at the top. Stamens 200 to 
300, filaments about 2 lines long, slender, a few reduced to staminodia. Styles 
about 2 lines. Carpels acute. 

Hab. : Bockingham Bay. 

Specimens of this species have been several times forwarded to me as a suspected poisonous 

21. H. oenotheroides (like evening primrose), F. v. M. Fragm. vii. 37. 
Plant perfectly glabrous, branches angular. Leaves narrow or linear-lanceolate, 
2 to Sin. long, 2 to 4 lines broad, rarely broader, pale underneath the base, not 
broadly stem-clasping, margins entire recurved, apex acute. Peduncles about 4 
lines long. Bracts subulate-linear, about 5 lines long. Sepals about 8 lines 
long, the outer ones subulate-acuminate. Petals about 10 lines, obcordate, 
bilobed. Stamens about 110, filaments 2 lines long. Anthers scarcely 1 line. 
Staminodia capillare about 60. Carpels 4. 

Hab. ; Gilbert Eiver, R. Daintree. 

22. H. Bennettii (after F. Bennett), Bail. Ql. Agri. Journ. June 1899. A 
spreading shrub from 6 to 18in. high, quite glabrous, branches angular. Leaves 
linear-lanceolate, 1^ to 3|^in. long, 2 to 4 lines broad, slightly expanding and 
shortly clasping the stem at the base, veins obscure, pale on the under side, 
margins revolute, apex subulate. Peduncles terminal on the branchlets, somewhat 
flattened, 6 to 12 lines longs, bracts at the base short, clasping the peduncle, the 
one close under the flower narrow lanceolate, 3 to 4 lines long, often patent. 
Sepals ovate-lanceolate, 6 to 8 lines long, 8 to 4 lines broad, the inner ones the 
broadest, with more scarious margins. Expanded flower nearly 2in. diameter. 
Petals obovate or broad-cuneate, with minute mucro in the centre but scarcely 
showing lobes, about 8 or 9 lines long and nearly as broad. Stamens numerous, 
filaments about 2 lines long. Anthers oblong, obtuse opening laterally, about 
I line long ; only a very few of the outer filaments wanting anthers. Carpels 3, 
glabrous, 3-ovulate.. Seeds globose, brown, 1^ line diameter. 

Hab. : Irvinebank, F. Bennett, who says that the plant is known locally as the " Arsenic 
Plant " and that it is considered exceptionally poisonous to stock. 

4. ADRAST.ffiA, DC. 

(After the Goddess). 

Sepals 5. Petals 5. Stamens 10, or occasionally fewer, in a single series, 
' filaments dilated and regularly cohering in a short tube round the pistil. Carpels 
and fruit of Hibbertia. 

The genus consists of only one species, with the habit of a Hibbertia or Candollea. — Benth. 

1. A. salicifolia (willow-leaved), DC. Syst. Veg. i. 424; Benth. Fl. Amtr. 
i. 46. Branches rather slender, apparently erect, the young ; ones silky-hairy. 
Leaves linear or linear-oblong, mostly with a minute fine point, f to IJin. long, 
often bordered by a few remote and minute callous teeth, glabrous above when 
old, more or less silky underneath. Flowers small, sessile in clusters of small 
leaves in the older axils. .Sepals lanceolate, very acute, nearly 3 lines, long. 
Petals scarcely longer, obovate- oblong, obtuse. Anthers oblong, longer than the 
filaments. Carpels 2, glabrous, l-ovulate. — Hibbertia salicifolia, F. Muell. Fragm. 
i. 161. 

Hab. : In the southern swamps of the colony. 



Sepals and petals several, imbricate, and often passing gradually from the one 
to the other, deciduous ; or in the Australian genera the calyx exceptionally 2 or 
3-cleft. Stamens indefinite, hypogynous ; filaments often thickened or dilated, 
anthers adnate. Carpels indefinite, rarely solitary, free or partially cohering. 
Ovules 2 or more, attached to the inner angle of the cavity, or rarely ascending 
from the base. Stigma sessile. Eipe carpels opening in 2 valves or indehiscent. 
Seeds with a crustaoeous testa, often succulent externally ; albumen copious, oily. 
Embryo minute, near the hilum, with divaricate cotyledons. — Trees or shrubs, 
often aromatic. Leaves alternate, undivided, reticulately penninerved, entire or 
toothed, with or without stipules. Flowers axillary or terminal, solitary or 
fasciculate, often large. 

An Order chiefly distributed over tropical and eastern temperate Asia and North America, and 
only represented by two somewhat anomalous genera in the southern hemisphere. Benth. inpatt. 

Teibe I. Wlnterete. — Powers hermaphrodite or rarely polygamous-dioecious. Carpels- 
verticillate or solitary. Stipules none. 

Sepals 2 or 3, united in the bud in a globular calyx, irregularly split or separ- 
ating when open. Carpels baccate 1. Dkimys. 

Sepals 2, at first entire, at length opening on one side to tbe base. Fruit 

globose, 8 or more celled ... 2. Galbdlimima. 

1. DRIMYS, Forst. 

(Alluding to the acridity of the plants.) 

(Tasmannia, R. Br.) 

Sepals 2 or 3, membranous, united in the bud in a globular calyx, irregularly 
split or separating when open. Petals usually few. Filaments thick, the anther- 
cells parallel or divergent. Carpels various^ in number, mostly solitary in the 
Australian species, containing several ovules. Berries indehiscent. — Glabrous and 
aromatic trees or shrubs. Leaves marked with pellucid dots. Peduncles (in the 
Australian species 1-flowered) arising from the axils of deciduous scales at the 
base of the new shots, but as these shoots are rarely developed till the fruit has 
ripened, the flowers appear to be in terminal umbels with a central bud. Flowers 
of a greenish-yellow, white, or coloured. 

Leaves on very short petioles, the lamina ending at the base in two minute 

auricles 1. D. dipetala. 

Leaves on longer petioles, the lamina tapering much towards the base, 

without auricles , 2. D. membranea. 

Leaves large, subeoriaceous, very obtuse and tapering towards the rather 

long petiole, under side grey 3. J5. semeearpoides. 

1. B. dipetala (two petals), F. v. M: PL Vict. i. 21 ; Benth. Fl. Amtr. i. 
49. A tall shrub. Leaves oblong- lanceolate or rarely oval-oblong, acute or 
acuminate, usually 3 to 6in. long, narrowed towards the base, but all (except 
sometimes a few of the smaller leaves of lateral shoots) abruptly obtuse or 
minutely biauriculate at the very base, on an exceedingly short broad petiole, or 
almost sessile. Peduncles exceeding lin. in length. Sepals and petals 2 each. 
Carpels often 2 or 3, but 1 only usually enlarges. Stigma short or linear, more or 
less unilateral. Berry ovoid, fully ^in. long, purple or white and succulent. Seed 
reniform black. 1 — Tasmannia insipida, R. ,, Br., and T. dipetala, E. Br.- also T. 
montieola. A. Eich. Sert. Astrolab. 50 t. 19. 

Hab. : Mount Lindsay, Mount Mistake, and frequently met with on the low land along the 
North Coast railway line. 

2 D. membranea (referring to the thin leaves), F. v. M, Fragm. v. 175. 
A small glabrous tree. Leaves lanceolate tapering much towards each end, 3 to 
5in. long, J to lin. broad, ' without auricles at the base of lamina, somewhat 

Driwi/s.] III. MAGNOLIAOE^. 19 

glaucous on the under side, the reticulate veins not so prominent as in D. dipetala, 
and the petioles longer than in that species. Peduncles very slender, about lin. 
long. Petals very few, often 2 or 3. Anthers ovate-cordate J line long. Carpels 
2 or 8. Stigma deourrent. 

Hab. : Hills about the Mulgrave Biver. 

8. S. semecarpoides (like a Semeoarpus), i*". v. M. Vict, f^at., March, 1 >91. 
A tree said to attain the height of about 25ft. Leaves on petioles often lin. long, 
ohartaceous, glabrous, from ovate to elongate-elliptic, but gradually narrowed into " 
a cuneate base, rounded-blunt at the summit, attaining Sin. in length and 2Jin. 
in breadth, very grey on the under side, punotular-rough, the costular veins very 
thin, venules much concealed. Peduncles about 2 or 8in. long, glabrous. Flowers 
unknown. Pedicels few or two, or even solitary. Sepals two, very small, 
roundish. Ripe carpels solitary, almost globular, J to ^in. in diameter. 

Hab.: Rockingham Bay, Dallachy, F. v. M., Fragm. vii. 18; Russell Creek, W. Sayer, F. u. 
M., I.e. 

This species diSfers from D. Howeana in almost entire absence of aroma, in leaves of larger 
size, of thinner texture, of far less prominent venulation, and with the dots not transparent, in 
the perfect separation of the sepals, and probably also in characteristics of the flowers. It comes 
very near to Drimys rivularis VieiUard, of New Caledonia, but the petioles are much longer, the 
venules of the leaves more occult, the inflorescence is less ramified, the ovularies are fewer, and 
also in this case the flowers, which in an only specimen available here for comparison are not 
developed,. may be different. — F. v. M. 

2. GALBULIMIMA, Bail. Bot. Bull. ix. 5. 

(Named from the resemblance of the fruit to a galbulus). 

Sepals 2, deciduous, at first entire but at length opening on one side down to 
the base, 2-seriate. Petals none, except the single outer series of staininodia be 
regarded as such. Stamens numerous in many series, on a raised torus ; 
filaments much flattened, linear, bearing on the back, nearer the base than the 
apex, 2 adnate oblong anthers. Ovary glandular hirsute with about 7 or 8 
prominent angles ; stigmas purplish, more or less recurved and papillose. Berry 
globose, 8 or more celled, 5 usually with matured seed. Seeds with a loose 
outer ragged coat ; testa smooth, cartilaginous ; albumen copious, oily. Embryo 
not particularly small near the hilum, apical with reference to the position of the 
seed in the berry. An evergreen tree of about 50ft., foliage and fruit possessing 
a strong resinous odour. The nearest ally of this new genus seems to be 

1. G. baccata (berry-like fruit). Bail. Bot. Bull. ix. 5. An evergreen tree of 
about 60ft. in height, having a stem diameter of about Ifft ; the young 
branchlets with a bronzed appearance from numerous bright ferruginous scales. 
Leaves alternate, margins entire, oblong-lanceolate, attaining the length of 4Jin. 
on petioles of about fin. ; the upper face dark green, glossy ; under side covered 
with minute scurfy glands or scales, pellucidly-dotted. Flowers axillary, 
solitary, on peduncles of about -^in., bearing near the top 2 or 8 thick angular 
bracts ; pedicel short ; bud ovoid ; sepals 2, one entirely overcovering the other ; 
petals wanting ; stamens numerous, the outer series without anthers ; filaments 
much flattened, linear, bearing in the lower half; 2 parallel, oblong, sessile 
anthers. Ovary angular, sessile, clothed with ferruginous bright hairs. Fruit 
globose, crimson, resembling a fleshy Callitris fruit in its form and markings. 
Seeds compressed, embedded in the substance of the fruit. 

Hab. : Bumundi, E. H. Anmdell; Boar Pocket and Evelyn, Herberton district, J. F. Bailey. 
Wood of a light colour, centre brown, soft and light, 

20 lY. ANONACE^. 

Order IV. ANONACE^. 

Sepals usually 3, distinct, or more or less united in a 3-lobed or 3-toothed 
calyx (in Eupomatia united in one mass with the petals). Petals usually 6, hypo- 
gynous, in two rows, 3 outer ones alternating with the sepals, 8 inner ones alter- 
nating with the outer, sometimes all united in a ring at the base, those of each 
row valvate or imbricate in the bud. Stamens indefinite, usually very numerous, 
closely packed on the thickened torus, roiind or under the carpels, linear or wedge- 
. shaped, with 2 adnate anther-cells on the back or edges, often concealed by the 
more or less dilated summit of the connectivum. Gynoecium of several, often 
very many carpels, distinct (except in Eupomatia), closely packed on the centre of 
the torus, terminating each in a capitate stigma, or in a thick oblong or rarely 
more slender style, stigmatic on the top or inner side. Ovules in each carpel 
either 1 or 2, ascending from the base, or two or more attached to the inner angle 
of the cavity, anatropous. Fruit either of several distinct carpels, sessile or 
stalked, indehiscent and fleshy or pulpy, sometimes opening along the inner edge, 
or the carpels more or less united in a single mass. Seeds with or without an 
arillus. Albumen copious, always ruminate. Embryo very small, near the 
hilum. — Trees, shrubs or woody climbers. Leaves alternate, simple, and quite 
entire, without stipules. Flowers sessile, or on 1-flowered pedicels, solitary, or 
few together, terminal, lateral, or axillary, usually of a greenish-yellow or purple 

A large Order, widely distributed over the New World as well as the Old, but chiefly confined 
to the tropics. — Bentli. 

Tribe I. Vvarleie. — Petals 2-seriate, one or both series imbricate in bud. Stamens many, 
closely packed'; their anther-cells usually concealed by the overlapping connectives. Ovaries 

Flowers 2-sexual ; ovules many, rarely few ; torus almost flat .... 1. XJvabia. 
Sepals valvate in the bud ; connective not concealing the anther-cells . 2. Fitzalania. 

Tbibe II. Unonese. — Petals valvate or open in bnd, spreading in flower, flat or concave at the 
base only, inner subsimilar or none. Stamens many, close-packed, their antherr-cells concealed by 
the overlapping connectives. Ovaries usually indefinite. 

Petals lanceolate, flat ; spreading from the base. Ovaries many, 2- 
seriate. Ripe carpels indehiscent 3. Cananga. 

Petals subulate-linear. Ovaries 3. Ripe carpels or berries few-seeded 4. Ancana. 

Petals flat, spreading from the base. Ripe carpels indehiscent. Ovules 

1 — 2, basal or sub-basal 5. Polyalthia. 

Tribe III. Mitrephoreee. — Petals valvate in the bud, outer spreading ; inner dissimilar, 
concave, connivent, arching over the stamens and pistils. Stamens many, close-packed, anther- 
cells concealed by the overlapping connectives. 

Inner petals clawed, usually smaller than the outer . 

Ovaries indefinite, ovules many 6. Mithephora. 

Petals connate towards the base Ovaries 6 7. Haplostichanthus. 

Tribe IV. Xylopies. — Petals valvate in the bud, thick and rigid, connivent, inner similar 
but smaller, rarely none. Stamens many, close-packed, anther-cells concealed by the produced 
connectives. Ovaries indefinite. 

Outer petals broad ; torus convex. Ovules 2 — many 8. Melodorum. 

Tribe V. Dlillusefe. — Petals imbricate or valvate in bud. Stamens often definite, loosely 
imbricate, anther-cells not concealed by the overlapping conjiectives. Ovaries solitary or indefinite. 

Petals valvate, inner largest, ovules indefinite .9. Saccopetalum. 

Petals and sepals united in a corneal mass, which falls off entire . . 10. Ecpomatia. 

1. UVARIA, Linn. 

(Fruit resembling grapes.) 

Sepals broad. Petals 6, imbricate in the bud in each row, spreading. 

Stamens numerous and closely packed, rather flat, the connective produced 

into a shortly ovoid or truncate appendage, concealing the cells in the normal 

Uvaria.] IV. ANONACE^. 21 

species. Receptacle slightly raised. Carpels numerous, with a short truncate 
style, and several ovules in two rows along the inner angle. Berries distinct, 
sessile, or stalked, usually with several seeds. Stems climbing or trailing. 
Flowers usually rather large, leaf-opposed or axillary. 

A considerable genus, chiefly Asiatic, with a few African species. The following Australian 
ones are both endemic. 

Petals all broad. Anthers dilated at the top, concealing the lateral cells . 1. U. membranacea. 

Outer petals ovate, contracted upwards, inner ones ovate-lanceolate . . . 2. U. Goezeana. 

1. U. membranacea (membranous), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 51. A tall woody 
climber, quite glabrous, except a slight tomentum on the petioles and buds. 
Leaves on short stalks, oval-oblong, obtuse, or with a very short, broad point, 6 
to lOin. long, 3 to 3^in. broad, oblique, and somewhat cordate at the base, 
thin and membranous, with distant primary veins branching into the reticulate 
smaller venation. Flowers large, solitary, on peduncles of about fin. Petals 
obovate, very obtuse, fully lin. long, narrowed, and slightly united at the base. 
Connective truncate and dilated above the anther-cell. Ripe carpels numerous, 
upon a globose receptacle, oblong, Ifin. long, with a diameter of fin., deep- 
scarlet on stipites of about Ifin. Seeds lenticular, 5 lines diameter, with a more 
or less prominent border. 

Hab. : Somerset, McGillivray, flowering specimens. Bailey, fruit June, 1897. 

At Somerset the leaves are attacked by the blight fungus Phyllosticta Uvaria. Berk. 

2. U. Goezeana (after B. Goeze), F. p. M. Fragm. vii. 125. A glabrescent 
climber, attaining the height of 80ft. Leaves on short petioles, elliptical or 
lanceolate-ovate to elongate-lanceolate, 3 to 6in. long, 1 to 2in. broad, upper side 
shining, under side glaucous. Pedicels leaf-opposed, slender, 1 to Ifin. long, 
with a solitary bract below the middle. Flowers fragrant, sepals 3 to 4 lines 
long, rhomboid-ovate. Petals yellowish, thinly pilose, outer ones ovate, nearly 
lin. long, imbricate at the base, inner ones ovate-lanceolate, not imbricate at the 
base. Stamens 70 to 80, scarcely f line long, anther connective truncate and 
dilated, concealing the cells. Stigma depressed, black. Carpels about 20, 
moniliform, of from 6 to 9 articles, each 4 to 5 lines long. 

Hab. : Mountains around Eockingham Bay, J. Dallachy (F. v. M. I.e. 

2. FITZALANIA, F. v. M. 

(After E. Fitzalan.) 

(Uvaria heteropetala, F. v. M. Fragm. iii. 1.) 

Sepals small, distinct, deciduous, lanceolate-ovate. Petals 6, hypogynous, 

sessile, 2-seriate, the inner longer than the outer, which in the bud are sub- 

valvate at the base, and quite valvate at the upper part, inner ones imbricate in 

the bud. Stamens many-seriate, compressed, cuneate, indefinite. Anthers 

subsessile, coniective not dilated, anther-cells dorsal. Torus depressed, tomen- 

tose. Carpels numerous, free, 2-seriate, with 6 to 8 ovules in each. Stigmas 

subsessile, depressed. Berries cylindric-globose, few-seeded and not constricted 

between the seeds. Seeds in 1 series. — F. v. M. Frcujm. iv. 33. 

1. P. heteropetala (petals not all alike), F. i:. M. Fragm. iv. 33. A 
scrubby shrub of 8 to 10ft., the young branches densely pubescent. Leaves on 
very short petioles, broadly ovate, obtuse, or shortly acuminate, 2 to 4in. long, 
not coriaceous, glabrous above, loosely pubescent underneath. Flowers dark 
purple, solitary, on very short recurved terminal or lateral pedicels. Sepals 
ovate-lanceolate, villous, 3 to 4 lines long. Petals imbricate in each series, the 
outer ones broadly ovate, attaining at least 7 lines, and probably longer when 
full grown, silky-villous outside, glabrous inside, the inner ones narrower and 

22 iV. ANONACE^. [Fitzalania. 

perhaips longer. StaWiens numerous, the short triangular • terminal appendage 
not dilated, showing the rather large dorsal parallel cells. Carpels numerous, 
densely hirsute ; stigma small. Ovules 6 to 8 in each carpel, in 2 series. Fruit 
i to lin. long, turged, obtuse, fin. thick. Seeds large, roundish. — Uvaria 
lister opetala, F. v. M. in Fl. Austr. i. 51. 

Hab. : Port Denison and Burnett Eiver. This plant differs from Uvaria in the stamens, which 
are those of Saccopetalmn. The habit and foliage are also more those of the latter genus than 
of Uvaria, but the petals certainly appear fo be imbricate in each row, and the outer ones are 
jauch more developed than is usual in Saccopetalum. The flowers in the specimens seen are, 
however, still young and insufficient for fixing the precise affinities of the species. — Benth. 

3. CANANGA, Eumph. 

(Malay name of one species.) 

Sepals 3, ovate or triangular, valvate. Petals 6, 2-seriate, subequal or inner 
smaller, long, flat, valvate. Stamens linear, anther-cells approximate extrorse ; 
connective produced into a lanceolate acute process. Ovaries many, style oblong, 
stigmas subcapitate ; ovules numerous, 2-seriate. Eipe carpels many, berried, 
stalked or sessile. Seeds many, testa crustaceous, pitted, sending spinous processes 
into the albumen.— Tall trees. Leaves large. Flowers large, yellow, solitary or 
fascicled on short axillary peduncles. 

1. C. Odorata (fragrant), H. F. and T. Fl. Ind. A tall tree with straight 
trunk ; bark smooth ; shoots glabrous. Leaves ovate-oblong, 5 to Sin. long, 2 to 
Sin. broad, finely acuminate, puberulous on the under side, rounded at the base, 
margins wavy. Petiole about fin. long. Peduncles solitary or several from old 
scars ; pedicels about lin., recurved horny, with a few basal and a median scaly 
bract. Flowers usually 3-nate, drooping, yellow, odorous. Petals about 3in. 
long, subequal, narrow-linear, silky when young. Carpels about 12, glabrous 
long-stalked, ovoid or obovoid, black, 6 to 12-seeded. Uvaria odorata Lamb. 111.' 
t. 495, f. 1 ; Blume Fl. Jav. Anon. t. 9. 

Hab. : Scrubs of tropical parts of the colony. 
Wood of a grey colour, close-grained and hard. 

4. ANCANA, F. v. M. 

(After Baron Anca). 

Sepals 3, free, persistent, much shorter than the petals. Petals 6, equal 
subulate-linear, iDiseriate-valvate in the bud. Stamens numerous, 4-angular- 
cuneate. Torus hemispherical. Carpels 8, with capitate sessile stigmas, ovules ' 
several. Berries containing few seeds. F. v. M. Fragm. v. 27. 

1. A. stenopetala (slender petals), F. v. M. Fragm. v. 27 and vii. 126. A 
scandent shrub, the branchlets more or less hairy. Leaves chartaceous, 8 to 4i 
in. long, f to l^in. broad, shining on both sides, copiously netted-veined, base 
obtuse, apex acuminate. The Sparsely scattered hairs rigid, at length glabrate. 
Pedicels thick. If to 2f lines long. Bracts and bracteoles like the sepals but 
smaller, the tawny appressed hairs with which they are covered almost silky. 
Flowers fragrant. Sepals 2 lines long, acute, opposite to the interior petals! 
Petals lin. long, narrow, and tapering from the base, somewhat thick, bearing 
more or less of a tawny, hoary covering. Anthers nearly sessile. Fruit yellow. 

Hab. . Scrubs of the southern parts of the colony. 

5. POLYALTHIA, Blume. 
Sepals broad. Petals 6, valvate in the very young bud, in two rows but 
spreading or open long before they have attained their full size, nearly equal and 
flat, usually narrow. Stamens numerous, narrow-wedge-shaped, the connective 

i'ohiahUa.] IV. ANONAOEii!;. 23 

flattened at the top, concealing the cells. Torus slightly raised. Carpels several, 
with a short, oblong, or capitate style, and 1 or 2 erect ovules. Berries stalked, 
globular or ovoid. — Trees or shrubs. Flowers solitary or clustered, axillary or 

A considerable genus, chiefly Asiatic, with one African species, one of the Queensland species 
extending to New Caledonia. Benth. 

Carpel shortly stalked 1. P. nitidudma. 

Carpels sessile or nearly so 2. P. Armitiana. 

1. Pi nitidissima (very bright), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 51. A tree of 15 to 50 
or 60ft., glabrous in all its parts. Leaves elliptical, or the upper ones almost 
lanceolate, obtuse or obtusely acuminate, 2 to 3in. long, narrowed into a petiole 
varying from 2 to 5 lines, smooth and shining, the veins fine and reticulate, but 
not numerous. Peduncles solitary, axillary, 3 to 6 lines long, or more when in 
fruit, with 2 or 8 small bracts near the base. Sepals short and broad. Petals 
linear, rather thick, 5 or 6 lines long when fully out, but spreading very early. 
Stamens very short, and closely packed. Carpels 10 to 20 in the flower, much 
fewer in the fruit, and then globular or shortly ovoid, 1-seeded, shortly stalked. 
— Unona nitidissima, Dun. Anon. 109, t. 23 ; TJnona fulrjens, Labill. Sert. Austr. 
Caled. 57, t. 56 ; IJnoym nitens, F. v. M. Fragm. iii. 2. 

Hab. ; Scrubs on islands in Moreton Bay, and northward. Also found in New Caledonia. 

In some specimens the torus, after flowering, becomes thick and woody, enclosing several 
cavities, probably a deformity occasioned by the puncture of some insect. Labillardifere describes 
and figures the carpels as having several ovules, but this is a, mistake. His own specimens, 
quite similar to the Australian ones, have but one erect ovule in each. — Benth. 

Wood of. a dark grey colour, close-grained, nicely marked, and with a strong spice-like 
fragrance when fresh cut. Bail. Cat. Ql. Woods, No. 3. 

2. p. Armitiana (after W. E. Armit), F. r. M. in Austr. Joiirn. of Pliarm. 
Jan. 1887, ind Syst Cens. Austr. PI. 5. 

I can find no description of this plant in the Journal of Pharmacy above quoted. After the 
description of Mitrephora Froggattii Baron Mueller says : — " Mr. Armit's collection from tribu- 
taries of the Gilbert River contains an Anonaceous plant possibly conspeoifio with the one just 
described ; but the lateral nerves of the leaves are thinner, more approximated, and less curved, 
while the fruits are not unlike those of Polyalthia Holtzeana, but seem not provided with con- 
spicuous stipes ; the flowers of Armit's plant are unknown. It has meanwhile been specifically 
designated under the discoverer's name." 

6. MITREPHORA, Blume. 

Sepals 8, orbicular or ovate. Petals 6, 2-s6riate, valvate ; outer ovate, thin, 
veined; inner clawed, vaulted and cohering. Stamens oblong-cuneate ; above 
anther-cells dorsal, remote. Carpels oblong ; style oblong or clavate, ventrally 
furrowed ; ovules 4 or more, 2-seriate. Eipe carpels globose or ovoid, stalked 
or subsessile. — Trees. Leaves coriaceous, strongly ribbed, plaited in vernation. 
Flowers usually terminal or leaf-opposed, sometimes 1-sexual. — Hook. Flora 
British India i. 76. 

1. IVI. Proggattii (after Froggatt), F. c. M. Austr. Joiirn. of Pharm. 
ii. 8. So far as known, a tree of about 20ft. ; the branchlets 
soon glabrous. Leaves on very short petioles, as much as Sin. long 
and 3in.' broad, chartaceous, elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, nearly or quite 
blunt at the base, glabrous on both sides, slightly dotted, of a , rather 
dark green and shining on both sides, particularly beneath ; distantly costate- 
nerved, prominent on the under side of Ifeaf; veins thin, reticulate. Peduncles 
obliterated ; pedicels axillary or lateral, solitary or 2 together, about twice as long 
as the petals, thin-downy, minutely Sealy-bracteate at the base. All flowers seen 

24 IV. ANONACEiE. [MUrephom. 

only starainate. Sepals minute, about 1 line long, nearly deltoid, membranous. 
Petals black-purplish, somewhat curved inwards, 2 or 3 lines long ; outer ones 
almost orbicular and nearly sessile, the inner ones considerably longer than the 
outer, roundish or obeordate-rhomboid, attenuated into a stalk-like base, bicallous 
above the middle inside, all as well as the downy on the outside, and valvate 
in the upper part before expansion. Head of stamens rather depressed. Anthers 
numerous, broadly cuneate, truncate, almost sessile ; connectives dark, their flat 
summits forming an even surface for the head of stamens ; cells pale. Torus 
very convex, velvety-hairy. Fruit unknown. 

Hab. : Mossman Eiver.— Collected by Saj/er and. Froggatt. 

In the absence of pistils it remains uncertain whether this interesting plant should be placed 
in the genus Mitrephwa or Goniothalamus ; but it is not dissimilar to M. reticulata, differing in 
glabrous more distinctly petiolated leaves, in fewer and larger flowers, and in dark-coloured 
petals, the inner quite blunt. In some respects it reminds of the Oroplieas, particularly O. zey- 
lanica, though the stamens are so different. — F. v. M. in Austr. Journ. of Pharmacy, Jan. 1887. 

7. HAPLOSTICHANTHUS, F. v. M. in Vict. Nat. 1891. 

Sepals 3, deltoid, early valvate ; petals 6, uniseriate-valvate in bud, completely 
connate towards the base, thus forming a 6-lobed corolla, 3 of the lobes deltoid, 
3 doubly as long and almost semi-elliptic, all remaining much connivent ; torus 
depressed ; stamens about 30, of pyramidate-cuneate, their connectives at the 
summit slightly convex, or almost truncate and somewhat peltate, concealing the 
cells ; ovularies 6, with sessile depressed stigmas ; fruit unknown. Shrub with 
comparatively small chartaceous leaves, and with short-stalked, solitary, dark- 
coloured flowers of remarkable smallness. 

This new Anonaceous genus seems best placed in the tribe of Mitrephorece, but it agrees with 
the otherwise very different Hexalobus in the downward conspicuously-connate petals. As regards 
the 6 petioline parts, placed in a single row, this plAnt seems to stand alone in the whole order, 
large as it is. The circumscription, however, of many of the genera needs revision also in this 
order, as much new material has been obtained during later years, affecting the generic limits as 
drawn formerly. The style and stigma offer good notes for primary distinctions also. — F.v.M.l.c. 

1. H. Johnsoni (after S. Johnson), F. v. M., Vivt. Nat. 1891. Young 
branehlets thinly pubescent. Leaves almost sessile, rather narrowly lanceolate, 
acuminate, but at the base obliquely rounded, when young scantily beset with 
appressed hairlets, subsequently glabrescent, paler green beneath, from 1 to 3in. 
long, j to nearly lin. broad, thinly venulated. Peduncles recurved, measuring 
at flowering time -J-in. or less, occasionally supported at the base by a spinescently 
indurated bud. Sepals about lein. long, pale-brown. Flowers as small as those 
of Bocagea pisocarpa, Polyalthia moonii, and Popowia australis, measuring, even 
when flattened out, only ^in. in diameter. Corolla outside beset with minute 
appressed hairlets, the connate portion quite as long as the 8 deltoid lobes, without 
any sutural indications ; the 3 longer lobes somewhat triangular at the summit. 
Stamens only about ^in. long. Ovularies silky, during anthesis not emerging 
beyond the stamens. — F. v. M. I.e. 
Hab. : Mount Bartle-Frere, Stephen Johnson. 

(Leaves of one species honey-scented.) 
Sepals small, united at the base. Petals 6, valvate in the bud in 2 rows, the 
outer ones broad, thick, concave, connivent or scarcely open, the inner ones 
smaller. Stamens numerous, the connective ovate or truncate, concealing the 
cells. Torus convex or conical. Carpels several, with an oblong thick style 
and 2 or more ovules in each, attached to the inner angle. Berries distinct, 
sessile or stalked. Stems woody, usually climbing. Primary veins of the leaves 
prominent underneath. Flowers terminal or leaf-opposed. 

Mdiiilorum.] IV. ANONACE^. 25 

The genus comprises several species, dispersed over tropical Asia and the Indian Archipelago. 
The Australian species all endemic. 

Woody climber. Outer petals about 6 lines 1. M. Leichhardtii 

Woody climber. Outer petals about 4 lines 2. M. Uhrii. 

Small tree. Outer petals narrow-lanceolate, inner ones 4-angled subulate . 3. M. Maccreai. 

1. JM. Iieichhardtii (after L. Leichhardt), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 62; 
Memnijara, N. Q'land, Thozet. A strong woody climber, the young growth more 
or less rusty-tomentose. Leaves on short petioles, oblong, obtuse or obtusely- 
acuminate, 3 to 6in. long, coriaceous, glabrous somewhat shining, sprinkled with 
a few almost microscopic fringed scales or stellate hairs on the under side, the 
veins not very prominent. Peduncles -J to lin. long, rusty-tomentose. Flowers 
brown, fragrant, about lin. in diameter. Sepals 3 lines long, spreading. Outer 
petals exceeding 6 lines, slightly tomentose, very obtuse, concave and connivent, 
the inner ones thicker and rather shorter. Stamens very numerous. Berries 
stipitate, either depressed - globose 4 or 5 lines diameter and 1 -seeded, or 
oblong 2-seeded with a slight transverse furrow between the seeds, or moniliform, 
consisting of 2 depressed-globose 1 -seeded or oblong 2-seeded portions. Ripe 
about January, edible. — Unona Leichhardtii, F. v. M. JFragm. iii. 41. 

Hab. : Scrubs of the south and north. 
Fruit eaten by natives, Thozet. 

2. M. Uhrii (after — Uhr), F. r. M. Fragm. vi. 2. A climbing shrub, with 
ferruginous-tomentose branchlets. Leaves on very short petioles, 8 to 5in. long, 
1| to 2in. broad, nerves of the underside prominent, glabrescent on the upper 
side, ovate, obtusely acuminate. Peduncles few-flowered, pedicels short. Sepals 
cordate-deltoid, 1 or 2 lines long, velvety. Petals coiriaceous, outer ones deltoid- 
cordate, 4 lines long, interior ones rhomboid, ferruginous-velvety. Stamens very 
numerous, almost a line long, glabrous, clavate, connective of anther peltate. 
Styles compressed-cylindrical. Carpels ferruginous-silky. 

Hab. : Scrubs of Rockingham Bay, J. Dallachy (F. v. M. I.e.) 

3. M. Maccreai (after Dr. W. Maccre), F. c. M. Fraym. vi. 176. A tree 
Of 40 to 50ft., branches clothed with brownish or hoary hairs. Leaves 1-J to 
4^in. long, f to l^in. broad, chartaceous, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, the upper side 
glabrous, under side slightly hairy, petioles very short. Peduncles short, 
1-flowered. Calyx-lobes deltoid, about 1^ line broad; Petals, outer ones narrow, 
lanceolate, thick, ^in. long, inner ones tetragonus-subulate. Anthers numerous, 
^ line long, connective, lanceolate-acuminate, cell very slender. Styles 
very short and bearded at the apex. Berries about 10, stipitate, f to l|-in. long, 
pyriform, red inside. Seeds angular, ovate, 4 or 5 lines long, smooth and of a 
shiny brown outside. 

Hab. : Bockingham Bay, J. Dallachy (F. v. M. I.e.) 

g. SACCOPETALUM, Bennett. 
(From bag-like form of petal.) 

Sepals small. Petals 6, valvate in 2 rows, the outer one small and resembling 
the sepals, the inner large, erect, and very concave. Stamens numerous, but 
loosely imbricate, showing the anther-cells on their backs, just below the short 
tips. Torus nearly globular. Carpels several, with an ovoid or oblong thick 
style, and 6 or more ovules in each attached to the inner angle. Berries globular. 
Trees or shrubs, with deciduous leaves. Flowers usually appearing on the young 
shoots before or with the young leaves. 

A small genus, dispersed over India and the Archipelago ; the Australian species endemic. 

Branchlets densely hairy, leaves 3 or 4in. long, carpels very hairy \. S. Bidwilli. 

Branchlets never densely hairy, leaves about IJin. or more long, carpels very 

slightly hairy 2. S. Brahei. 

26 IV. ANONACE^. [Saccopetatum. 

1. S. Bidwilli (after J. C. Bidwill), Benth. Fl. Aiistr. i 53. A shrub, the 
branehlets densely hirsute with short rusty hairs. Leaves very shortly stalked, 
oblong or obovate oblong, obtuse or very shortly acuminate, 3 to 4in. long, 
rounded at the base, glabrous above, hairy underneath. Flowers lateral, solitary 
or 2 together, on very short pedicels. Sepals thin, lanceolate, hairy, about 2 lines 
long. Outer petals similar, but twice aa long. Inner petals when fully developed 
Ijin. long, not saccate at the base only, as in most other species of the genus, 
but hollowed into a broad boat-shape all the way up, with the upper end turned 
inward, thin, and very hairy both inside and out. Stamens numerous, the 
anther-cells contiguous and conspicuous, terminated by the small flat tip of the 
connectivum. Carpels very hairy in the flower, when ripe nearly sessile, oblong, 
6 to 8 lines long, thick and hard, covered with rusty hairs, containing 3 to 6 
flattened seeds. 
Hab.: Wide Bay. 

2. S. Brahei (after W. Brahe), F. v. M. Fragm. viii. 159. Branchlets only 
slightly, never densely, hirsute. Leaves l^in. long, broad-lanceolate, acute or 
acuminate, narrowed to a very short petiole. Pedicels lateral or terminal, 
solitary or in pairs, slender, and 3 to 5 times as long as the small flowers. Sepals 
and exterior petals about 1 line long, interior petals about ^in. long, saccate at 
the base, the margins velvety. Anthers imbricate, cordate, about ^ of a line 
long. Carpels about 20, very slightly pilose. 

Hab. : Port Denisou. 

10. EUPOMATIA, E. Br. 

{Eu, well ; poma, a lid ; the calyptra consolidation.) 

Sepals and petals completely consolidated into one mass, the upper part falling 
off in a conical lid, leaving the lower companulate tube (or enlarged peduncle) 
filled with the thick flat-topped torus. Stamens inserted on the margin of the 
torus, the inner one in many rows, converted into petal-like obovate staminodia, 
the x)uter ones in fewer rows, perfect, linear-lanceolate, curved, with acuminate 
tips and longitudinal dorsal anther-cells. Carpels many, immersed in the torus, 
appearing like the cells of a single inferior ovary, the stigmas adnate on the flat 
areolate surface ; ovules several in each carpel or cell. Fruit several -celled, 
formed of the enlarged perianth-tube more or less enclosing the carpels, becoming 
turbinate or ureeolate and succulent. Seeds 1 or 2 in each cell, irregularly 
angular ; albumen ruminate, and embryo precisely as in the more normal Anon- 
acea. Small trees, shrubs, or undershrubs, quite glabrous. Leaves alternate, 
entire, shortly petiolate. Peduncles short, 1-flowered, terminal or lateral. 

The genus is confined to Australia. 
Petioles shortly deourrent. Flowers terminal. Outer staminodia spreading 

and longer than the stamens. Fruit turbinate . X. E. Bennettii. 

Petioles not decurrent. Flowers lateral. Staminodia all oonnivent, shorter 

than the stamens. Fruit ureeolate 2. E. laurina. 

1. Z:. Bennettii (after G. Bennett), F. v. M. Fragm. i 45, Benth. Fl. Austr. 
i 54. A shrub or undershrub. Roots fleshy, almost tuberous. 1 to 2ft. high 
and quite glabrous. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acuminate or acute, 3 to 5in. long, 
narrowed at the base into a short petiole, which ' is again enlarged at the base 
and shortly decurrent on the stem, leaving oblique raised lines when they fall off. 
Flowers solitary, terminal, on a short peduncle above the last leaf, when fully 
expanded rather more than lin. diameter. Petal-like staminodia very nume- 
rous, yellow, the outer ones stained with orange or blood-red, beset with stipitate 
glands and bordered with stellate hairs spreading and completely concealing the 
perfect stamens, which are reflexed on the peduncle, the inner staminodia shorter 

Etiromatia.] IV. ANONACEyB. 27 

and connivent. Fruit turbinate, about fin. diameter, the pericarp thin; the top 
convex, with the tips of the carpels distinctly prominent, the base of the perianth 
scarcely projecting as a slight ring round the edge. — FJ. laurina, Hook, in Bot. 
Mag. t. 4848. 

Hab. : Scrub land north and south. Flowering from September to March. 

2. E. laurina (laurel -like), R. Br. in Flind. Voy. ii. 597, t. 2 ; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 54. An erect glabrous tall shrub or small tree with weak branches. 
Leaves evergreen, oblong or almost elliptical, shortly acuminate, 3, 4, or some- 
times Sin. long, narrowed into a short petiole which is not decurrent on the 
branch. Flowers solitary, on short lateral or nearly axillary peduncles, the buds 
at first oblong, becoming nearly globular and about ^in. diameter before opening ; 
when the bud has fallen the stamens expand to about lin. diameter. Petal-like 
staminodia connivent or the outer ones scarcely open, glabrous or with a very few 
stipitate glands ; perfect stamens longer, erect or 'Spreading, the linear anthers 
tipped by a short fine point, the filaments dilated. Fruit urceolate-globular, 
nearly fin. diameter, the persistent base of the perianth forming a narrow rim 
projecting above the nearly flat top. — F. v. M. Fragm. i. 45. 

Hab. : In most southern and northern coast scrubs. Flowering about November. 

Wood close-grained, of a light colour, and prettily marked. — Bailey's Gat. Ql. Woods No. 3a. 


Flowers dioecious. Sepals usually 6 in 2 series, rarely 9 or 12 in 3 or 4 series, 
or very rarely 5 or fewer, imbricate or very rarely talvate in each series, the inner 
ones the largest. Petals usually 6, smaller than the sepals (except in 
Sairopetalum), nearly equal but imbricate in 2 series in the bud, rarely fewer or 
none. Male fl. : Stamens usually 6, free and opposite the petals, or united in a 
central column, rarely 9 or more or only 8. Female fl. : Staminodia usually 6, 
free. Carpels distinct, usually 3, sometimes 6 or more or only 1, containing 1 or 
very rarely 2 amphitropous ovules peltately attached to the inner angle. Style 
terminal, usually recurved, and often expanding into a short sessile stigma. 
Fruit-carpels drupaceous, nearly straight, or more frequently curved, so that the 
remains of the style are near the base, the putamen then becoming more or less 
horseshoe- shaped, with an inner projection of the endocarp bearing the plaeentaa. 
Seed taking the shape of the cavity, with a thin membranous testa. Albumen 
sometimes fleshy, entire or rutnihate, sometimes thin or none. Emhryo nearly as 
long as the albumen or occupying the -wrhole seed, the radicle pointing to the 
remains of the style. — Climbers usually woody, or in a very few non-Australian 
species erect herbs or shrubs. Leaves alternate, without stipuleisj entire or rarely 
palmately lobed, usually with 3 or more palmate ribs at the base. Flowers small, 
in axillary panicles, racemes, or cymes. 

A considerable tropical Order, both in the New and the Old World, a very few species extending 
into more temperate regions in North America, eastern Asia, and southern Africa. — Benth. 

Tbibe I. Tinosporeee. — Flowers 3-merous. Ovaries usually 3. Drupes with a subterminal 
rarely ventral or subbasal style-scar. Seed oblong or subglobose ; albumen copious or scanty ; 
cotyledons foUaceous, usvMly spreading laterally. 

Flowers in simple racemes. Inner sepals broad and thin. 

Carpels of the fruit ovoid, the style at the top. Seed albuminous, 
hearly Straight . 1. TiNospoE.t. 

Male fiowers paniculate, female spicate. Carpels of fruit oblique, ovate 
turgid, echinulate-scabrous .... . . 2. Pawoettu. 


Tmbe II. Coccules. — Flowers 3-vierous. Ovaries usually 3. Drupes with u subbasal 
rarely subterminal style-scar. Seed horseshoe-shaped, albumen copious ; embryo slender ; 
cotyledons linear or slightly dilated. 

Flowers in much-branched cymes. Carpels of the fruit broad, the 

style near the base. Seeds albuminous 3. Pebicampylus. 

Petals 5 to 8. Ovaries 3. Styles compressed. Sepals 8 to 12, inner 

imbricate in subgenus Hypserpa 4. Limacia (Hypseepa). 

Sepals imbricate. Petals 3. Stamens 9 to 12. Carpels 3, 2-ovulate . S. Adeliopsis. 

Sepals 9, 3-seriate. Petals 6. Stamens 6, free. Anthers didymous- 
globose, almost 4-lobed. Drupe renate-ovate, turgid. Seed reniform 6. Tkisticocalyx. 

Tbibe III. Cissampelidefe. — Flowers 3 — 5-merous. Ovaries usually solitary. Drupes 
with a subbasal style-scar ; endocarp dorsally muricate or echinate. Seed horseshoe-shaped : 
albumen scanty ; embryo linear ; cotyledons oppressed. 

Sepals 2 to 5, very small. Petals 3 to 6, thick and fleshy, almost 
globular. Anthers 2 or 3. Carpels 3 to 6. Flowers racemose . . 7. Saecopetalum. 

Sepals 6, 'membranous. Petals 3, somewhat fleshy. Stamens 3, 
connate in a very short column. Flowers in racemose-panicles . . 8. Leichhaebtia. 

Sepals 6 to 10, free. 
Petals free, smaller than the sepals, concave, of both male and 
female 3 to 5. Anthers 4 or 5. Carpels solitary. Flowers 

umbellate 9. Stephania. 

Sepals 4. free. Petals of male 4-connate, of female 1. Male flowers 
cymose ; female racemose 10. Cissampelos. 

Teibe IV. Pachygrones. — Flowers usUMlly 3-merous. Ovaries usually 3. Drupes with 
subbasal or ventral style-scar. Seed curved-lwoked or inflexed; albumen none; cotyledons thick, 

Sepals, petals, and stamens 6 each 11. Pachygone. 

Sepals and petals 6 each. Stamens 9 12. Fycnaebhena. 

Sepals 9. Petals 6. Stamens 3 13. Pleooyne. 

Sepals 9. Petals very minute, bilobed. Stamens 6 14. Husemankia. 

1. TINOSPORA, Miers. 

(Small seeds.) 

Sepals 6, in 2 series, the inner ones large. Petals 6, smaller than the sepals, 
nearly flat. Male flowers : Stamens 6, free, thickened towards the top, the 
anther-cells lateral. Female flowers : Staminodia 6. Carpels 8, stigma jagged. 
Drupes ovoid, the remains of the style nearly terminal. Putamen slightly con- 
cave on the inner face, the internal projection hemispherical and hollow, forming 
an empty cell. Seeds disk-shaped, albuminous. Cotyledons ovate, spreading 
laterally. Leaves cordate or truncate at the base. Flowers usually clustered in 
long, simple racemes. 

A small genus, chiefly Asiatic, but extending also to tropical Africa. The Australian species 

1. T. smilacina (Smilax-like), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 56. A glabrous twiner, 
the branches somewhat succulent. Leaves ovate, deeply and broadly cordate at 
the base, or almost hastate with rounded auricles, obtuse or scarcely acuminate, 
8 to 4in. long, 5-nerved, the smaller pinnate veins scarcely prominent, on petioles 
of about lin. Flowers green, the male racemes 2 or 8in., the female about lin. 
long ; pedicels about 1 line. Sepals : 8 outer ones very small and triangular, 8 
inner ones about 1 line long, ovate, thin, spreading. Petals about half as long as 
the inner sepals, obovate. Anthers terminal, ovoid, almost globular, the cells 
almost parallel. Drupe red, oblong, about 3 lines long. Ripe in June. 

Hab. : Cape York and Thursday Island. 


Pl. II. 

Mi&rs from Contr to Boh 


2. FAWCETTIA, F. v. M. 

(After 0. Fawoett). 

Sepals 6, membranous, 3 outer ones ovate-lanceolate, 3 inner ones longer, 
broadly or orbicularly-ovate, imbricate in the bud. Petals 6, a little longer than 
the outer sepals, obcordate or rhomboid-orbicular, membranous. Stamens 6, free, 
filaments planiuscula. Anthers cordate, bursting longitudinally. Stigma terminal. 
Endocarp eohinulate- scabrous outside. Condyle (a name of Miers for the in- 
trusion of the endocarp) ample, 1-celled. Seed longitudinally horseshoe-shaped. 
Albumen even. Cotyledons very broad, plain, divergent, quite entire ; radicle 
slender, very short. — A climbing shrub. Leaves cordate or ovate-lanceolate. 
Fruit red. 

1. r. tinosporoides (Tinospora-like), F. v. M. Fragm. x. 93. Leaves 2 to 
Sin. long, 1 to 2in. broad, glossy, 3 — 5-nerved, and reticulate-veined, on petioles 
of about lin. Panicles from the old leafless branches ; male about 6 or Tin. 
long, the branchlets about lin. or less. Interior sepals entire, about f of a line 
long. Petals green. Anthers yellow. Female flowers not seen. Carpels f to 
lin. long. Seeds very bitter. Endocarp dark, parchment-like. 

Hab. : Southern scrubs. 


(Fringe or border bearing.) 

Flowers diceeioua. Male : Sepals 6, 2-seriate, subequal, elliptical scarcely 
acute, pilose outside, the outer ones a little narrower, imbricate in the bud. 
Petals 6, squamiform, opposite the sepals and 6 times shorter, cuneate-rotundate, 
the sides glandulously fleshy, glabrous. Stamens 6 of equal length and opposite 
to the petals ; filaments terete, thickening upwards. Anthers subglobose, twice 
as broad at the filament, dorsifixed, introrse, 2-celled, cell-connective narrow, 
separation a trifle excurrent, fissures transverse on both sides, dehiscence 
2-valved. Female : Sepals as in the male. Petals none. Stamens 6, sterile, 
opposite and half the length of the sepals, cuneate-linear, apex dilated and trun- 
cate, subcanaliculate, with semi-immersed concave glands. ■ Ovaries 3, gibbose- 
globose, pilose, 1-celled, 1-ovulate. Style very short or obsolete. Stigma 
cordate-orbiculate, concave, entire, horizontally reflexed. Drupes 3 or less by 
abortion, compressed-globose, fleshy, stigma near the base ; putamen cuneate- 
orbicular much compressed, thin bony, both faces with a prominent horseshoe- 
shaped sear, witt 3 series of imbricating laciniated, flat, pergamenous scales, 
surrounding the flat, concave, scutiform condyle. — From Miers' Contri. to Bot. 
iii. 288. 

1. !■. XVIOorei (after C. Moore), Mien Contri. to Bot, iii. 289. A tall 
puberulent scrub-climber. Branches terete, striate, compressed at the nodes. 
Jjeaves 2f to 5^in. long, 2 to 5fin. broad, ovate, the lower ones very obtuse or 
truncate, narrowing above the centre, to an acute point, margins crispate- 
undulate, 5 to 7 nerves from the base, rigid and prominently reticulate, shining 
on the upper with a yellowish or whitish thin down on the underside ; petiole 2 
to 3in. long, thin puberulous. Panicles (male) axillary, tomentose, longer than 
the petioles, alternately branched ; branches often 2 to 4 in a verticil, trichbtomous 
at the apex, branches few-flowered. Sepals elliptical, both sides puberulent. 
Racemes (female) axillary or terminal of few flowers. Drupes subglobose, 
glabrous. — ^Miers I.e. Cocculus Moorei, P. v. M. Fragin. i. 162. Pericampylus 
incanus, Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 58. 

Hab. . Scrubs of southern arts of Queensland. 



Sepals 6 in 2 series, the inner ones larger. Petals 6, smaller than the sepals, 
the edges embracing the stamens. Male flower : Stamens 6, free, the anther- 
cells lateral. Female flower : Staminodia 6'. Carpels 3, the styles 2-cleft. 
Drupes globular, somewhat flattened, the remains of the style near the base. 
Putamen horseshoe-shaped, crested on the back, the sides concave. Seed horse- 
shoe-shaped. Embryo in the axis of the albumen, with narrow cotyledons closed 
against each other. Leaves broad. Cymes dichotomously branched. 

The genus is limited to the following species. 

1. P. incanus (hoary), Miers ; Hook, and Thorns. Fl. Ind. i. 194 ; Benih. Fl. 
Austr. i. 56. Achenium with the younger branches shortly tomentose or at 
length glabrous. , Leaves nearly orbicular, sometimes slightly peltate, 2 to ,4in. or 
sometimes above 5in. diarneter, glabrous above, usually hoary underneath, on 
petioles of 1 to 2in. Flowers very small, in axillary dichotomous cymes, 
shorter than the leaves. Sepals hairy on the back., Drupes TeA.^Coccithis 
Mom-ei, P. V. M. Fragm. i. 162. 

Hab. : Woody valleys, Moreton Bay and Wide Bay, C. Moore.' W. Hill, P. Mueller. 

The root-bark contains an active poisonous principle, T. L. Bancroft. 

Miers in Gontri. Bot. iii. p. 118 has the following note after his description of Pericampylus 
incana : — "The authors of the Flora Indica have absorbed in this the only species they 
acknowledge in the genus ; and Mr. Bentham has done the same in his Flora Auitraliensis i. 58 : 
a plant from Australia which is extremely different, not onjly in a specific, but in a generic point 
of view ; it is the Gocculus Moorei of Dr. Mueller, which I have elsewhere described as the type 
of a distinct genus, under the name of Legnephora." As Mr. Miers disowns the Australian 
plant, being that named by him P. incanus, I have considered it advisa-ble in the present 
work to insert both the notice given in the Flora Australiensis and almost all the generic and 
specific descriptions of the plant from Miers Contri. iii. 118 of the Australian plant under 
the name Legnephora ; and also a copy of his excellent plate of the same. 

4. LIMACIA, Lour. 

(Fruit resembling shell of a snail.) 

Sepals 6, 2-seriate, Outer smaller. Petals 6, much smaller, auricled, embracing 
the stamens. Male flowers: Stamens 3, 6, or 9, free; anthers adnate, bursting 
vertically. Female flowers : Staminodia 6, clavate. Ovaries 3 ; style short, 
compressed. Drupes obovoid or reniform, style-scar subbaisal; endocarp 3-celled, 
2 lateral cells empty. Seeds elongate, eiiibracirig the intruded endocarp. Ein- 
bryo slender, cotyledons elongate, J-terete, appressed. 

Selwynlaj F. v. M. — Sepals about 9, outer 2 to 4 smaller, unequal, roundish-oval,, inner 5 
to 6 suborbicular, imbricate in the bud. Petals 7 to 9, shorter than the inner sepals, free, 
spathulate-cuneate, membranous. Stamens 9 to 10, clavate-cwneate, free. ■■, Anthers terminal, 
almost i-lobed-globose, 2-celled, dehiscing longitudinally. Carpels drupaceous, pyrifonn-gldbose. 

1. H. Selwynii (after Bishop Selwyn), F. v. M. A tall climber, glabrous 
except for the white mealy substance which frequently covers the branches. 
Branchlets striate, often elongated and slender when bearing inflorescence. 
Leaves alternate, thin-chartaceoua, from ovate-lanceolate to oblong or linear- 
lanceolate, 3 to Sin. long. 1 to 2^in. broad, the apex often elongated, rounded at 
the base, primary nerves distant, very oblique and looping distant from the 
margin, 3-5-nerved at the base, the transverse-reticulation fine, margins entire ; 
petioles slender but thickening towards the top, ^ to IJin. long. Inflorescence 
supra-axillary, very slender panicles. Male flowers pedicellate about 2 lines 
diameter ; bracts minute orbicular, eiliate. Sepals orbicular, more than twica the 
size of the bracts, marked by 3 to 5 veins all starting from the base but' not 

Liwacia.] V. MENISPERMACEiE. 81 

reaching the apex, margins entire. Petals very minute, thick and somewhat 
triangular, shorter than the stamens and hidden by these organs in the expanded 
flower. Stamens 12, filaments cuneate. Anthers almost white. Drupe red 
when fresh, oval, compressed, about 5 lines long, drying a dark colour. 

The above is written from the examination of specimens received from E. Cowley, Kamerunga, 
and these in general appearance seem identical with a small specimen since received by me from 
the late Baron Mueller ; his description and mine in some respects differ, but not, in my 
opinion, sufficient to found distinct species upon. The Baron first mentioned his plant as a 
Cocculus, then gave it generic rank as Selwynia, and lastly as Hypserpa (a genus of Loureiro 
included by present botanists in Limacia). It will be observed from the generic characters, 
copied from Hook. Fl. of Brit. Ind., of Limacia, and the brief generic characters of Selwynia, 
from F. V. M. Fragm. iv., that some alterations will have to be made in the generic characters of 
Limacia to admit the Queensland plant. I 

5. ADELIOPSIS, Benth. 

(Named so on account of some doubt regarding the plant.) 

Sepals 6 in 2 rows, the inner ones considerably larger, and 2 or 3 outer smaller 
bracts, all much imbricate in each row. Petals 3, smaller than the inner sepals, 
broad and slightly concave. Male flowers : Stamens 9 to 12 ; filaments linear- 
terete ; anthers small, globose-didymous. Female flowers : Staminodia wanting. 
Carpels 3, with a large, incurved, broad and thick stigma, and 2 ovules in each 
carpel, inserted one above the other on the inner angles. Fruit unknown. 
Flowers clustered in short axillary spikes, or racemose panicles. 

1. A. decumbens (spreading over the ground), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 59. 
Branches rather thick, densely clothed with a soft velvety tomentum or almost 
hirsute, and, from the name given, probably decumbent and not climbing. 
Leaves ovate or oval-oblong, Ij to 2in. long, very obtuse, rounded at the base, 
thickly coriaceous, softly tomentose or velvety on both sides when young, be- 
coming nearly glabrous above when old, the thickened revolute nerve-like margin- 
terminating at the top of the midrib on the under side in a prominent hirsute 
gland or tuft of hairs. Flowers small, in little clusters along the rhachis of short 
axillary spikes or branches of the panicle, ^ to 2in. broad, the outer bracts very 
small, acute, and hairy, the outer sepals also hairy, but rather larger and more 
obtuse, the inner sepals much larger, orbicular, and glabrous, except the ciliate 
edge, the petals about two-thirds as large as the inner sepals and quite glabrous. 

Hab. : Cape York Peninsula. 


(Three rows of sepals). 

Male flowers : Sepals 9, 3-seriate, outer ones small lanceolate, intermediate 
ones longer, inner ones larger, narrow-ovate. Petals 6, smaller than the inner 
sepals. Stamens 6, free, filaments thickened upwards ; anthers subglobose- 
didymous, 4-celled. Female flowers : Drupes " renate-ovate turgid." Style-scar 
a little from the base ; putamen reniform-globose, somewhat compressed, ven- 
trically concave, with an intruding process. Seed reniform, albumen fleshy, 
uniform, embryo radicle short, cotyledons oblong. — Scandent pubescent shrubs. 
Leaves coriaceous, broadly ovate, not peltate. Male flowers in axillary racemes, 
usually in many-flowered clusters. 

Leaves 3 to 4in. long. Flowers glabrous 1. 2'. pubescens. 

Leaves 2in. long. Flowers pubescent 2. T. diffums. 

1. T. pubescens (downy), F. v. M. A woody climber, the young branches 
pubescent. Leaves petiolate, broadly ovate, shortly acuminate or rarely obtuse, 
3 to 4 in. long, 5-nerved at the base, coriaceous, glabrous and shining ot slightly 
scabrous above, pubescent underneath. Male racemes axillary, often 2 or 3 

82 V. MENISPERMAGEiE. [Tristichocahjx: 

together, many-flowered but much shorter than the leaves, pubescent. Pedicels 
clustered, about 1 line long. Flowers glabrous, scarcely more than 1 line 
diameter when open. Sepals 9, in 3 series, the outer ones small and lanceolate, 
the next longer, the innermost still larger, narrow-ovate. Petals about half as 
long as the inner sepals. Stamens 6 ; anthers globose-didymous, almost 4-lobed. 
Pachygone? pubescens. — Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 58. 
Hab, : Quail Island, — Flood (F. v. M.) 

2. T. diffusus (diffuse), Miers Contrib. to Bot. iii. 286. Branches scandent, 
flexuose, slender, terete, ferruginous, tomentose. Leaves 2in. long, about lin. 
broad, elliptical, acutely cuneate, apex shortly acuminate, sharply or obtusely 
attenuated, 5-nerved from the,, base, nerves branching from the outside, the 
branches looping within the margin, puberulent, upper side shining, under side 
hoary glaucous, texture somewhat thick, margins revolute and tomentose ; on 
slender pubescent petioles about 8 lines long. Panicles (male) axillary, solitary 
or in twos, loosely branched, corymbose, trichotomously divided, tomentose, 1 to 
IJin. long and about lin. broad ; the short secondary branchlets each bearing 
about three alternate pedicellate flowers ; pedicels about 1^ line long, the 
expanded flowers about 2 lines diameter. Sepals 9, ciliate, pubescent, rotate, 
3 exterior ones lanceolate, 8 intermediate ones lanceolate-oblong, acute, 3 interior 
ones elliptical, of equal length but twice as broad as the intermediate ones. 
Petals 6, interior ones one-third the length of the interior sepals, glabrous, cuneate- 
subtrilobed, lobes rotund, lateral ones involute. Stamens 6, a little exceeding 
the petals. 

Hab. : In the interior, Sir Thos. Mitchell. 

(Petals fleshy.) 

Sepals 2 to 5, small. Petals 3 to 6, thickly fleshy, nearly globular. Male 
flowers : Stamens united in a column, divided at the top into two or three short 
horizontal lobes, each bearing a 2-oelled anther. Female flowers : Carpels 3 to 6, 
with recurved lobed stigmas. Drupes flattened, the remains of the style near the 
base. Putamen horseshoe-shaped, the sides concave. Seed horseshoe-shaped. 
Embryo curved, linear, in rather copious albumen ; cotyledons closed ; racemes 

The genus is limited to the following species. 

1. S. Karveyanum (after Dr. W. H. Harvey), F. v. M. PL Viet. i. 27 and 
221, t. suppl. 3 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 56. A tall woody climber, with thick terete 
stems. Leaves broadly ovate or orbicular, acuminate or rarely obtuse, and some- 
times angular or lobed, attaining 4 to 6in. in breadth, deeply cordate at the base 
or sometimes slightly peltate, 7 to 9-nerved, quite glabrous, on a petiole of 1 to 
Sin. Eacemes simple, axillary or mostly lateral below the leaves, solitary or 
clustered, 1 to Sin. long. Bracts small. Pedicels about 1 line long. Flowers 
reddish-yellow, scarcely 2 lines diameter, the sepals usually shorter than the 
thick almost gland-like petals. Drupes 3 or 4 lines diameter, almost pear-shaped. 

Hab. : Scrubs of the south. 

The root-bark contains an .active poisonous principle. — Dr. T. L. Bancroft. 


(After L. Leichhardt, the explorer.) 

Sepals 6, membranous, of equal length, all free, imbricate in the bud, obovate. 

Petals 3, somewhat fleshy, obcordate-reniform, sometimes shorter than the calyx, 

opposite the outer sepals. Stamens 3, all connate in a very short column, 

L,'irl,lmnhia.] V. MENISPERMACE/E. 33 

Anthers opposite the petals, close together forming a head. Female flowers and 
fruit unknown. — ^^An evergreen glabrous climber. Leaves ohartaceous, ovate- 
lanceolate. Inflorescence in racemose, axillary and terminal panicles. 

1. Ii. clamboides (Clambus-like), F. v. M. Fragm. x. 68. Leaves 8 to 7in. 
long, deep-green and very glossy on the upper surface, the apex shortly acuminate, 
prominently reticulate. Panicles a few or several inches long. ; pedicels capillare 
1^ to 3 lines long, scattered or fasciculate ; bracts very minute. Sepals about 1 
line long, staminal column and anthers of about an equal length. 

Hab. : Tropical scrubs. 

9. STEPHANIA, Lour. 

(Alluding to the anthers being united and forpiing a crown.) 
(Clypea, Blmne.) 
Male flowers : Sepals 6, 8, or 10, in 2 series. Petals 3, 4, or 5, shorter than 
the sepals, obpvate. Stamens united in a column bearing a flat disk, with- the 
sessi,le anthers confluent into a single ring round the margin. Feipale flowers : 
Sepals 3, 4, or 5. Petals as many. Carpel 1, with a divided stigma. Drupe 
compressed, the scar of the style not far from the base. Putamen horseshoe- 
shaped, with an open concavity on each side. Seed curved, with little albumen. 
Embryo linear, with closed cotyledons. Leaves mostly peltate. Flowers in 
simple or compound umbels. 

A small genus, extending over tropical or subtropical Africa and Asia. One of the Queensland 
species common over the whole range, the other endemic. 

Stems glabrous or pubescent . . 1. S. liernandiafolia. 

Stems prickly 2. S. aculeata. 

1. S. hernandisefolia (Hernandia-like), Walp.; Hook, and IJumis. Fl. Ind. 
i. 196 ; Benth. Fl. Aiistr. i. 56. A glabrous or more -or less pubescent climber. 
Leaves broadly ovate, orbicular, or nearly triangular, usually more or less peltate 
at the base, the larger ones 3 or 4in. long, on a petiole of 2 or 3in., but often 
much smaller, glabrous or pubescent underneath. Peduncles axillary, shorter 
than or rather longer than the petioles, bearing an umbel of about 5 rays, each 
ray terminated by a head or partial umbel of 8 to 12 small sessile or shortly 
pedicellate flowers, or the partial umbel again compound. — F. v. M. PI. Vict, 
i. 220 ; Clypea liernandifolia, W. and Am. Prod. i. 14 ; Wight, Ic. t. 939. 

Hab.: Coast lands, south and north. 

The root of this plant is bitter, and an extract of it is extremely poisonous to frogs. — Dr. 
T. L. Bancroft. 

2. S> aculeata (prickly). Bail. A prickly climber, the stems ribbed, 
prickles reflexed, Of irregular length. Leaves broadly triangular, and more or 
less peltate at the base, 2 to 2 Jin. long, and the same broad at the base, apex 
glandular apiculate, lower angles rounded, 5 to 7-nerved, margins entire, 
glabrous, pale or glancescent on the under side. Petioles slender, armed with 
reflexed prickles, 1 to l^in. long. Panicles of male flowers axillary, very slender, 
2 to 4in. long, the branches almost capillary, with few small lanceolate petiplate 
leaves or bracts, on lateral shoots ; these bracts are often larger and of a similar 
shape to the stem leaves. Flowers minute, mostly under 1 Hne in difl,meter when 
expanded. Sepals 6, imbricate, obovate, prettily veined. Petals 6, scarcely half 
the length of the sepals, rotundate, imbricate. Stamens united in a very short 
column, bearing at the summit 3 rather large didymous anthers. Female flowers 
and fruit unknown. ' 

Ha,b.: Mount Gravatt and Taylor's Range. 

This hitherto undescribed plant is probably plosely allied to the trqpical African species, of 
which also the fruit is unknown — S. latificata, Miers. The flowers of that plant, however, are 
said to have but 3 petals. 

An extract of the root extremely poisonous,— P'". T. L, Bancroft, 


(Fanciful resemblance to the ivy and the vine.) 

Sepals 4 (5 to 6), erose. Petals 4, connate, forming a 4-lobed cup. Anthers 
4, connate, encircling the top of the staminal column, bursting transversely. 
Female flowers : Eacemose, crowded in the axils of leafy bracts. Sepals 2 (or 
sepal and petal 1 each), 2-nerved, adnate to the bracts. No staminodes. Ovary 
1 ; style short, 3-fid or 3-toothed. Drupe ovoid, style-scar subbasal ; endocarp 
horseshoe-shaped, compressed, dorsally tubercled, sides excavated. Seed curved ; 
embro slender ; cotyledons narrow, half-terete, appressed. Suberect or climbing 
shrub. Leaves often peltate. Male flowers cymose. 

The species of this genus are met with in all hot climates. 

1. C. pareira (so named under the idea that it yielded the pamira brum 
of commerce), Linn. A lofty climber, the branehlets rarely glabrous. Leaves 1 
to 4in. diameter, orbicular-reniform or cordate, usually peltate, obtuse and 
mucronate, petiole long as the leaf or longer. Male cymes f to Hin. (sometimes 
replaced by a shoot with small leaves and small axillary cymes), axillary or nearly 
so, usually 2 to 3 superposed, decompound ; bracts minute, rarely foliaceous ; 
peduncles long, slender, pubescent, tomentose or hirsute. Female racemes with 
large reniform bracts, 1 or 2 axillary, the bracts lax or densely imbricate, 
usually hoary, sometimes petiolated ; pedicels very short. Oyaries rarely glab- 
rate. Drupes 2 lines diameter, subglobose, hairy, scarlet. 

Hab. ; Tropical scrubs. The root of this plant is employed in India as a mild tonic and 

11. PACHYGONE, Miers. 

Sepals 6 or 9, in 2 or 3 series, the inner ones larger, imbricate. Petals 
6, shorter than the sepals, embracing the stamens at the base. Male flowers: 
Stamens 6, free, incurved at the top, anthers small, globose-didymous. Female 
flowers : Staminodia 6 ; carpels 3, with thick horizontal stigmas. Drupes reni- 
form, the scar of the style near the base ; putamen slightly excavated, with an 
internal process. .Seed horseshoe-shaped, without albumen, cotyledons semi- 
terete, almost horny, the radicle very short. Leaves ovate. Flowers in racemes, 
the males clustered along the rhachis, the females solitary. 

Leaves broad ovate or ovate-cordate, pilose on under side, 2 to Sin. long, Sin. 

broad 1. P. Bulkii. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 6 to 9in. long; Sin. broad, rounded and slightly- 
peltate at the base . . ' . . 2. P. longifolia, 

1. P. Hullsii (after C. Hulls), F. /. M. Fragtn. ix. 81. A tall climber 
clothed with a yellowish or brownish tomentum. Leaves chartaceous, broadly 
ovate or ovate -cordate, about 5in. long and 3in. broad, quintuplinerved or here 
and there triplinerved at the base, the apex acute> sparsely or the under side 
densely pilose or when old nearly glabrous and shining on both sides, and the 
reticulation prominent, petioles about l^in. long. Eacemes solitary or in pairs, 
about 5in. long ; pedicels sparsely tomentose, 1 to 2 lines long, bracts subtending 
the flowers narrow, silky tomentose. Sepals 6, glabrous. Petals 6, inflexed, 
stamens 6, free. Anthers cubical-rotund, slightly didymous, bursting longitudi- 
nally. Stigma somewhat broad. Carpels of female flowers 8, sessile. Stami- 
nodes 6, slender. 

Hab. : Bockhampton and in the tropical scrubs northward. 

2. P. longifolia (long-leaved). Bail. n. sp. A strong climber, almost or quite 
glabrous, the branches deeply striate. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 6 to 9in. long, 
and about Sin. broad at the rounded slightly peltate base ; thinly coriaceous, the 
lateral nerves distant, except those near the base, which are somewhat crowded 



/» * 

f:Elliolt, Lifh. 

PcuzJvuc/orije/ lMn^i/'o-ti(^,Baxi< 

E Wills. 

P"rh!„io,i,'.] V. MENISPERMACEiE. 35 

prominent as well as the reticulation ; petioles from 1^ to 2in. long, articulated 
near the top, and prominently swelled at each attachment. With the leaf -bearing 
shoot were received 2 panicles about 6in. long, bearing rigid branches of about 
Ifin. long, with few pedicellate flowers (those termed panicles were old and dry 
and possibly may be terminal leafless shoots and the supposed branches really 
short racemose panicles). Drupes red, broad pyriform, the style-scar very near the 
base, compressed, about IJin. long and nearly as broad, the transverse section 
8 or 9 lines. Pericarp somewhat fleshy ; endocarp roughly tuberculose. 

Hab. . Moiuilyan Harbour, )('. Mugford. 

I should not have published the above Imperfect description had not Mr. Mugford left the 
district, and I have no one in the locality now to collect and forward me additional specimens 
of the species. The leaves of the present plant closely resemble those figured by Miers in Cont. 
to Bot. iii. pi. 144 of Spirospermum ijenduliflonim (Thouars). 

12. PYCNARRHENA, Miers. 
(Referring to the dense fascicles of male flowers). 
Sub-erect or climbing shrubs. Flowers axillary, fascicled or shortly panicled, 
dioecious. Male flowers : Sepals 6, with 3 bracts, inner larger, orbicular; petals 
6, small-lobed ; stamens 9, filaments very short ; anthers sub-didymous, bursting 
transversely. Female flowers unknown. Drupe broadly oblong, sub-gibbous, 
style-scar lateral ; endocarp sub-reniform. Seed slightly concave ventrally, 
albumen none; cotyledons oblong, half- terete, very thick, slightly incurved ; 
radicle minute, ventral.— Hook. Fl. of Brit. Ind. i. 105. 

1. P. australiana (Australian), P. v. M. Vict. Nat,, Sept., 1886. A tall 
climber. Leaves glabrous (as far as seen), attaining llin. in length with a 
breadth of Sin., thiek-chartaceous, shining on both sides, hardly paler on 
the back, ovate or elliptical, protracted into a short and blunt apex, distinctly 
penninerved and finely net- veined, on short petioles. Inflorescence axillary or 
lateral, with minute appressed hairs ; the pedunples few or many together, 
rather elongated, 1 to l^in. long, branching cymosely about lin. wide. Pedicels 
2 lines long, or scarcely any. Sepals almost orbicular, in 3 rows, the outer 3 
considerably shorter, the other 6 nearly equal, about 1 line long ; the petals much 
smaller and almost rhomboidal. Stamens very short, the filaments nearly 
cuneate, united at the base. Anthers of the genus. Female flowers unknown. 
Carpels about |-in. long, glabrous, obliquely ovate-globular, on often very short 
stipes ; exocarp somewhat fleshy, endocarp thinly cartilaginous. Seeds obliquely 
ovate, about 4 lines long. Cotyledons very convex outward. — F. v. M., I.e. 

Hab. : Endeavour Eiver and near Trinity Bay. 

The above species, Baron Mueller says, differs from P. pleniflora in shorter petioles, larger 
leaves, long peduncles, more distinctly pedicellate flowers, different proportionate size of sepals, 
and rather larger carpels ; from P. tumefacta in leaves also dark-green underneath, not distinctly 
dilated petioles, 6 inner sepals, and perhaps also in fruit, but the disposition of the flowers is 
similar ; from P. lueida and P. manilleiisis, the congener is far more removed. P. nova- 
guinensis, as yet imperfectly known, is in some respects allied to the Queensland species. — 
F, V, M., I.e. 

13. PLEOGYNE, Miers. 

(Stigmas numerous.) 

Outer sepals about 6, very small, 3 inner ones much larger, valvale in the bud, 
connivent at the base and recurved at the top when open. Petals 6, much 
shorter, the margins dilated and involute. Male flowers ; Stamens 3 ; filaments 
linear-terete ; anthers small, globose-didymous. Female flowers with 6 carpels 
(Miers). Drupes 3 to 6, reniform, with the scar of the style lateral, the put^men 

36 V. MENISPEEMACE^. [Flou/i/mf. 

not excavated on- the sides, not with any internal process.- Seed reniform, 
without albumen ; cotyledons thick and fleshy, scarcely separable ; radicle scarcely 
distinct. — Flowers in short axillary branching panicles. 

Bentham remarks that this genus is distinguished from all. except the African Tru-lhlii, by 
the remarkably valvate inner sepals. 

1. P. australis (Austradian), Benth. Fl. Amtr. i. 59. A climber, with a 
soft pubescence like that of Pdicampylua, sometimes very copious, sometimes 
quite disappearing from the upper surface of the leaves. Leaves from ovate to 
oblong, obtuse or scarcely acute, the large ones 3 to 4in. long, rounded but mot 
cordate at the base, at length rather coriaceous and shining above, reticulate 
perininerved. Males cymes or single flowers in little axillary solitary or clustered 
panicles, seldom above lin. long and softly pubescent ; inner sepals about 1 
line long, the outer ones very minute. Female inflorescence probably more 
simple. Drupes about 5 lines broad, glabrous, with a very thin endocarp. — 
MicrocUsia, Benth. in Benth. and Hook. Gen. PI. i. addend. 

Hab.: Coastal scrubs. 

14. HUSEMANNIA, F. v. M. in Wing's So. Se. Kecord, iii. 187. 

(After Dr. Theodor Husemann, of Goettingen.) 

Sepals 9, in 3 series ; the 2 outer ones very minute, the 8 inner ones much 
longer, ovate-roundish, valvate and slightly induplioate in the bud. Petals very 
minute, flat, bilobed at the summit, much contracted at the base. Stamens of 
male flowers 6, free except at the base ; filaments thickened upwards ; anthers 
nearly globular but somewhat didymoi^, their cells opening by anterior almost 
semicircular slits ; the connective narrow and not produced beyond the cells. 
Ovaries of female flowers 6 ; stigma of each awl-shaped, recurved, undivided, 
finally becoming nearly basal. Carpels on a conspicuous stipe, oblique-ovate, 
somewhat impressed on both sides, rather acutely margined ; pericarp almost 
coriaceous ; internal process erect, thin, flat, extending to somewhat beyond the 
middle of the cavity. Seeds nearly cylindrical, conduplicate by horseshoe-like 
curvature, no albumen, integument smooth ; cotyledons for the greater part of 
their length turned dorsally towards the pericarp ; radicle extremely short. A 
tall climber, with large, almost ovate, somewhat pointed and stiff leaves. 
Flowers in spioate-panieulate clusters of very small, dark, silky-hairy flowers, 
with short stamens and stipitate carpels. 

1. H. protensa (referring to its extending habit), F. v. M. A tall climber. 
Leaves sometimes 15in. long and over 6in. in width, but often much 
smaller, glabrous and shining, distantly penninerved, the closely reticulate veins 
prominent on the under side. Petioles I to 3in. long, thickened and velvety 
towards the top. Panicles about 15in. loijg, and thinly velvety. Flowers scarcelj 
^in. long, t"he inside of the sepals and both sifles of tbe. petals glabrous. Carpels 
about fin. long, thinly brown-velvety, stipe about ^in. — F. v. M. in Wing's 
So. Sc. Rec. 

Hab.: The tropical scrubs. 


Sppals 3 to 5, petals 3 or more and stamens 6 or more, either. all free and 
hypogynous, or the inner ones or all adnate at the base to the torus or ovary^ or 
inserted on its summit. Anthers innate or adnate, the cells opening in longi- 
tudinal slits. Gyncecium of 8 or more carpels, either free and distinet, or 
immersed in the torus so as to iorm a several-celled ovary. Styles or stigmas 


free or adnate on an epigynous disk. Ovules solitary, and suspended from the 
apex of the cavity, or indefinite and attached to the sides of the cavity, not to 
its inner angle. Ripe carpels indehiscent, free or united in a fleshy or spongy 
fruit. Seeds immersed in a fleshy or pulpous arillus, or naked, the embryo either 
small, enclosed in the embryo-sac and half immersed in a cavity of a farinaceous 
albumen near the hilum, or without albumen, large, with thick fleshy cotyledons, 
and a remarkably developed plumule. — Aquatic herbs, with a submerged root or 
rhizome. Leaves carried by their long petioles to the surface of the water or 
raised above it, usually peltate or deeply cordate, or a few remaining under water 
and deeply cut. Flowers growing singly on long radical scapes or axillary 
peduncles, either on the surface of the water or raised above it. 

The Order, although not numerous in species, is found in pure, quiet, or slowly-flowing 
waters nearly all over the globe. The three Australian species belong to the three genera 
considered as typical of as many tribes or sub-orders, raised by some botanists to the rank of 
distinct Orders. All three genera are common to the New and the Old World. They are absent, 
however, from the southern Australian colonies as well as from New Zealand. — Benth, 

Suborder I. CabombeSB.— ScjxiJs and petnh 3 each, free. Carpels free. Ovules few. 
Seeds albmninous. 

Sepals and petals 3 each. Carpels 6 or more, free, on a small torus. Ovules 
few. Flowers small 1. BIsasenia, 

Suborder II. NymphSBa. — Sepals i to 6. Petals and stamens indefinite. Carvels con- 
fluent with one another or with the disk into one ovary. Ovules many. Seeds albuminoid. 

Sepals 4 to 6. Petals and stamens numerous, the outer ones free, the inner 
more and more adnate to the torus. Carpels immersed in the torus in a ring 
round a central conical projection ... 2. Nymph,«a. 

Suborder III. Ifelumbleae. — Sepals i to 5. Petals and stamens indefinite. Ca/rpels 
irreguhtr, scattered, sunk in pits of the turbinate disk. Ovules 1 to 2. Seeds albuminous. 

Sepals 4 or 5. Petals and stamens numerous, hypogynous. Carpels half 
immersed without order in the flat top of the torus. No albumen .... 3. Nelumbium. 

1. ERASE NIA, Sehreb. 

(Its name in Guiana.) 

(Hydropeltis, Mich.) 

Sepals 3, petal-like, and petals 3, hypogynous. Stamens 12 to 18, hypogynous ; 
filaments subulate, anther-cells lateral. Carpels 6 to iS, free, on a small torus, 
attenuate at the top into short styles, stigmatic along the ijiner edge. Ovules 2 
or 3, pendulous from the dorsal side of the cavity. Bipe carpels coriaceous, 
indehiscent. Seeds albuminous. 

The genus is limited to the following species. 

1. B. peltata (peltate), Pursh. Fl. N. Amer. 389 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 60. 
Water shield. Rhizome prostrate at the bottom of the water. Stems forked, 
leafy, covered as well as other submerged parts, especially when young, with a 
thick coating of transparent jelly. Leaves floating on the surface of the water, 
peltately attached by their centre to long petioles, oval, entire, 3 to 4in. long and 
about half as broad. Peduncles axillary, bearing solitary flowers of a dull purple 
on the surface of the water. Sepals and petals very much alike, about 4 or 5 
lines long when they first open, but lengthening to 7 or 8 lines. Carpels shorter'. 
A. G-ray, Gen. 111. t. 39. ; Hydropeltis pmyurea, Mich. Bot. Mag. t. 1147. 

Hab. : Queensland lagoons. This species. is also found in North America and the East Indies. 

S8 ?I. NYMPll^ACEiE. 

2. NYMPHiEA, Linn. 

(From Xyiiip/u; a water nymph.) 

Sepals 4, inserted near the hase of the torus. Petals numerous, passing 
gradually from the sepals to the stamens, inserted on the torus or ovary, the 
outer petals near the base, the inner stamens almost at the top. Filaments of 
the outer stamens dilated and petal-like, with small lateral anther-cells, of the 
inner ones narrow or filiform, with longer anthers opening inwards. Carpels 
several, immersed in a ring in the fleshy torus, having the appearance of a 
several-celled ovary, with a conical or globular process in the centre. Styles 
thick, radiating, free or united at the base, often with an incurved appendage 
beyond the stigmatic portion. Ovules numerous, pendulous from the sides of 
the cavity. Fruit a spongy berry, breaking up irregularly when ripe. Seeds 
embedded in pulp, arillate, albuminous. Ehizome perennial. Leaves floating, 
peltate or very deeply cordate. Flowers large, solitary, floating on the surface of 
the water or slightly raised above it, on long radical peduncles. 

The species of this genus are met with in most temperate and tropical regions. 

Rhizome globose, rather large. Leaves sharply toothed, flowers white, petals 
obtuse, stamens without appendages beyond the anther 1. ^^ lotus. 

Rhizome globose, rather large. Leaves more or less toothed, often 18in. in 
diameter, with much raised reticulations underpeath. Flowers often 10 or 
12in. across, anther appendage very short or none 2. .N. gigantea. 

Rhizome globose, small. Leaves usually quite entire, the reticulation on the 
underside not raised. Anther appendage very short or none, petals more 
acute than in N. gigantea 3. ^. Brownii. 

Rhizome not preserved. Leaves quite entire, cordate, 1 to Sin. long ; flowers 
white, often stained with purple, sepals and petals acute. Expanded 
flowers about IJ to 2in. diameter i. N. tetragona. 

Rhizome erect, prominently tubereulose. Leaves broadly oblong, often purplish 
on the underside. Flowers yellow 5. N. Jlava. 

1. N. lotus, var. australis (Austrahan), Syn. Ql. Flora 10. This plant is of 
more compact growth and taller than other Australian species. Leaves in shape 
and size much like those of X. gyjantea, thick, somewhat spongy on the under 
surfac 3, where the reticulation is prominent, but the veins are not so much raised 
as in N. c/iijantea, margins bearing distant bristle-like teeth. Flowers 4 or 5in. 
diameter, very fragrant, often raised some distance above the water, white, but 
sometimes the sepals and outer petals tinged with pink or blue. Petals usually 
more or less obtuse. Anthers without appendages, except the somewhat subulate 
points be considered as such. 

Hab. : Still waters off the Barron River. 

2. If. gigantea (large), Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 4647 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 61. 
Blue water lily ("Arnurna," Mitchell, Palmer: "Yako-kalo," Eockhampton, 
Tlwzet; "Kaooroo," Cleveland Bay, Tlwzet ; " Moi-u," Brisbane; "Thindah" 
(root), " Thoolambool " (stalk), " Mille " (seedhead), Cloncurry (Mycoolon tribe), 
Palnier.- " Thoongoon " (root), " UrguUathy " (seedstalk), " Irrpo " (seedhead), 
Mitchell, f aimer). Leaves orbicular or very broadly ovate, very deeply cordate 
the early leaves as well as the flowers much smaller thkn the ultimate ones but 
always with prominently raised reticulation on the under side, margins entire or 
with distant short teeth. Flowers blue, 6 to 12in. across ; petals and stamens 
numerous, filaments fihform or the outer ones flattened, but narrowed under the 
anther ; connective scarcely projecting beyond the cells. Stigmas thick, radiat- 
ing, united at the base, either without any or with only a very short terminal 

Hab : Waters of the southern and northern parts of the colony. The tubers after m-enam- 
twn, the seedheads, and also the flower-stalis of the unexpanded fleers afer being broken and 
deprived of their fibrous part, are eaten by natives.— TAoxet, Palmer, "loKen ana 

S^i/mpkma.] VI. NYMI>H.EACE^. 39 

3. N. Brownii (after Dr. R. Brown), Bail. The small blue water lily of our 
tropics. Leaves smaller but much the shape of those of iV. rjiriantea, margins 
slightly repand, entire, texture thin and the reticulation on the underside never 
raised. Flowers blue, 4 or 5in. diameter. Sepals spotted and as well as the 
petals often somewhat acute. Stamens numerous, filaments flattened. Anthers 
with very short or no terminal appendage. From note in Flora Australiensis 
i. 61, it seems that Mr. Bentham concurred with some other botanists in con- 
sidering this northern plant only a form of N. ciUjantea. Baron Mueller gave it 
in his publications as -V. stellata, and the author of the Flora Australiensis says 
that Robert Brown was in favour of placing it under this name. In the synopsis 
of the Queensland Flora I recorded it as N. cmrulea, considering it agreeing best 
with the species so named, which at the present time is merged by botanists into 
N. stellata. It will be seen to differ from N. stellata in the want of prominent 
anther-appendages and from ^V. gigantea in the absence of the prominent raised 
reticulation on the underside of the leaves. Therefore it is here given as a 
species bearing the name of the botanist who probably first recorded it. 

Hab.: Waters of the northern parts of the colony. 

4. UT. tetragona (four-angled), (n'oir/i. A small plant ^yith oblong- orbicular 
leaves 1 to Sin. long, the basal-lobes acute, sometimes spreading ; petioles 
smooth, slender. Flowers white or more or less stained with purple. Sepals 
lanceolate, about lin. long, the petals somewhat longer. Anther without 
appendages, but the cells not extending to the end of the obtuse apex. Seeds 
somewhat flask-shaped, bearing many longitudinal ciliate ribs. — N. pijgmaa, Ait. 
Hook. Fl. Brit. Ind. i. 115 ; X. minima, Bail. Syn. Ql. Flora 10. 

Hab.: Still shallow waters off the Barron Kiver. The rootstock not preserved for examination ; 
in the Indian specimens said to be woolly, with soft black hairs. 

5. W. flava (yellow), Leit. Hook, in Bat. Mag. t. 6917. Rhizome erect, 7 or 
more inches long and often more than l^^in. thick, having the appearance of being 
prominently tuberculous from the swelled persistent bases of fallen leaves ; from 
near the crown are emitted long white stout fleshy running stems, which form 
fresh plants at distant intervals. Leaves orbicular, elliptic or broadly oblong, 
6in. or more in diameter, on pale-green petioles ; upper side deep-green, the under 
side more or less of a purplish colour, margins entire, slightly undulate, sinus 
narrow, basal lobes subacute, the nerves and veins not prominent on either side. 
Flowers pale yellow, about 4in. in diameter, each bloom remaining perfect for 
several days. Sepals lanceolate, more or less tinged on the back with purplish- 
red. Petals similar in shape but smaller than the sepals, the inner ones smaller 
than the outer, pale-yellow on both sides. Stamens numerous, sub-erect, outer 
filaments much the longest and dilated at the centre, inner filaments linear. 
Anthers linear, connective hardly produced, tips rounded, cells parallel. Stig- 
matic-rays 8, short, broad, obtuse incurved, inappendiculate. Berry globose, 
about lin. in diameter, almost white, marked with short transverse scars. Seeds 
globose-oval, 3 lines long, silky- villous. 

Besides Sir J. D. Hooker's account in Bot. Mag. I.e., there are two accounts with figures in 
The Garden xxiii. and xxvii. 

Hab.: This beautiful Florida water-lily was introduced some 14 or 15 years ago (without name) 
by the Queensland Acclimatisation Society ; soon after which it was planted out in one of the 
ponds at Bowen Park. It soon took possession of the pond, and is now said to have become 
quite naturalised in the still waters about Wellington Point. — Colw Kifford. According to Hook. 
I.e., this spfeciefe was first figured in an American work on Ornithology about the year 18.S2.' The 
present desoi'iption refers to the plants growing in Queensland waters. 

40 VI. NYMPH^CE^. 

8. NELUMBIUM, Juss. 
(From Indian name Xduwbo.) 

Sepals' i or 5, ftee. Petals and stamens numerous, hypogynous. Anthers 
opening inwa,r'ds, the connective produced in a club-shaped appendage. Carpels' 
several, half-imniersed ill the flat top of an obconical torus, the styles shortly 
projectilig, with somewhat dilated terminal stigmas. Ovules 1 or 2 in e^ch 
carpel, suspended from the top of the caVity with a, dorsal raphe. Nuts globose- 
oval, shortly protruding from the Cells of the large flat-topped torus. Seeds with 
a spongy testa, without albumen ; cotyledons thick and fleshy, enclosing a much- 
deveiloped plumula ; radicle very short. Leaves peltate, supported above the 
Water on erect petioles. Flowers solitary, on erect scapes above the water. 

Besides the following Asiatic and Australian species there is a second one from the West 

1. N. speciosum (showy), Willd.; Wight III. l.t. 9; Benth. 1<1. Austr. i. 
62. Pink water lily, sacred lotus. Aquaie, N. Queensland, Thozet. An erect 
large water herb with a milky juice ; robtstock stout, creeping. Leaves raised 
high above the water,, orbicular, peltate, somewhat concave, 1 to 2ft. diameter, 
quite entire or slightly sinuate, glabrous and often somewhat glaucous. Peduncles 
and petioles 3 to 6ft. high, full of spiral vessels, smooth or more often bearing 
scattered prickles. Flowers pink, 4 to Sin. or more across, appendages to the 
anthers linear-clubshaped. Fruiting torus resembling a wasp's nest, 2 to 4in. 
diameter ; the nuts oblong or roundish, about ^m. long, nearly black. 

Hab. : Waters of northern Queensland, where the roots and seeds are eaten by the aborigines, 
as they were by the Egyptians and are by the native population of India at the present time. 


Flowers hermaphrodite, regular, or in Famariea, irregular. Sepals 2' or 3, 
rarely 4, free, imbricate, very caducous. Petals 4, 6, or rarely 8 or 12, hypo- 
gynous, free, imbricate, and often crumpled in the bud, in 2 rarely 3 series, 
deciduous. Stamens hypogynous, indefinite, and free, or in Fumariem definite, 
with the filaments usually united. Anthers erect, the cells opening longitudinally. 
Ovary free, either 1-celled with parietal placentas often protruding into the 
cavity, or rarely completely several-celled by the placentas meeting in the axis, 
or ^-celled by a false dissepiment connecting 2 parietal placentas. Style short or 
none ; stigmas as many as placentas, usually confluent and radiating on the disk- 
like or dilated top of the ovary or style. Ovules indefinite, anatropous, ascending 
with an inferior micropyle or horizontal. Fruit capsular, usually opening in 
pores or valves. Seeds globular or subreniform. Embryo mimite, at the base of 
a fleshy albumen. — Herbs or rarely small shrubs, glabrous and often glaucous 
or hispid, the juice usually coloured. Leaves alternate or the floral ones alnlost 
opposite, entire, lobed or dissected without stipuleS. Flowers usually solitary on 
long peduncles, either terminal or in the upper axils. 

The Order belongs almost entirely to the temperate or subtropical regions of the northern 

Sdbokdeb I. Papavereee. — Patau alike. Stamens nmnerous. Capsule utually nlwrt, 
opening hy sftwt valves or pores. 

Stigmas 4 or more, radiating on a sessile disk 1. Papavek. 

Stigmas 4—6, rrtdiating from the top of a dejpressed style 2. Ahgemone. 

SuBORDKR II. Fumarieee. — Inner and outer petals dissimilar. Stamens definite. 
Stamens 6, diadelphous, outer petals spurred. Fruit indehiseent, 1-seeded . . 3. Fomabia. 


1. PAPAVER, Linn. 

(The old Latin name.) 

Sepals 2, rarely 3. Petals 4, rarely 6. Stamens indefinite. Placentas of the 
ovary 4 or more, covered with ovules and projecting more or less into the cavity, 
rarely meeting in the centre ; stigmas radiating on the convex or almost conical 
disk-like summit of the ovary. Capsule opening in transverse pores hetvreen the 
placentas under the disk, with very short opercular valves. Seeds furrowed. — 
Herbs with a milky juice. Leaves usually lobed or cut. Peduncles long, the 
buds nodding. 

Capsule ovoid-oblong, smooth ; stigmatic rays 6 to 8 . . . .... 1. P. horriduvi. 

Capsule subglobose, glabrous ; stigmatic rays 8 to 12 ... . .... 2. P. rhaas. 

1. P. horridum (horrid), DC. Beivth. Flora Austr. i. 63. An erect annual, 
beset with subulate prickles or stiff bristles, but otherwise glabrous and usually 
glaucous. Leaves narrow-oblong or lanceolate, irregularly pinnatifid and coarsely 
toothed, the radical ones contracted into a petiole, the stem ones sessile or 
partially stem-clasping. Flowers small for the genus, of a pale brick or red 
colour. Sepals hispid. Petals nearly ovate, about fin. long. Capsule ovoid- 
oblong, perfectly smooth and glabrous, the terminal disk at first pyramidal, at 
length nearly flat, usually with 6, 7, or 8 stigmatic rays. Placentas as many, 
projecting in the cavity but not meeting in the centre. — 7'. r/ariepmum , DC. Bot. 
Mag. t. 3623. 

Hab.: Southern parts of the colony, also in extratropical South Africa. 

Dr. T. L. Bancroft states that this plant does not contain morphihe, but an active principle 
quite as poisonous as morphine. 

2. P. '''rhaeas (Greek name for wild poppy), Linn. The common corn poppy. 
A branching hispid annual. Leaves 1 — 2-pinnatifid, with the lobes more or less 
cut, ascending, awned. ,Scapes with spreading or appressed hairs. Flowers 3 — 4in. 
diameter, scarlet, the pairs of petals unequal ; filaments filiform. Stigma 
convex, rays overlapping, 8 to 12. Capsule subglobose, glabrous. 

Hab.; Only met with as a stray from garden culture. A plant of Europe met with also in 
W. Asia, N. Africa. 

The petals readily impart their red color to water. The milky juice possesses sedative action. 

2. *ARGEMONE, Linn. 

(Named from supposed medicinal properties.) 

Sepals 2 or 3. Petals 4 — 6. Stamens indefinite. Ovary 1 -celled ; style very 
short, stigma 4 — 7 lobed ; ovules numerous, on 4 — 7 parietal placentas. Capsule 
short, dehiscing at the top by short valves thali alternate with the stigmas and 
placentas. Seeds many. An erect prickly herb ; juice yellow. Flowers yellow 
or white, showy. 

1. A. mexicana (Mexican), Linn. Figo del Inferno of the Spaniards; 
prickly poppy. A robust plant almost woody at the base, 2 to 4ft. high, with 
spreading branches and sessile half-amplexicant sinuate-pinnatifid variegated 
green and white prickly lea,ves. Flowers 2 or Sin. diameter. Sepals horned art 
the top. Capsule about lin. long, terete, usually bristly, elliptic or oblong. 

Hab.: An American weed naturalised in many parts of the colony. Some years ago this was 
the one njet with about Brisbane, but at present tliiie one more generally met with is the variety 



3. *FUMARIA, Linn. 

(From the smoky odour of the plants). 

Sepals 2, small. Petals 4, erect or conniving ; 2 outer ones dissimilar, anterior 
flat or concave, posterior gibbous or spurred at the base ; 2 inner clawed, tips 
free or cohering, keeled. Stamens 6, diadelphous ; posterior bundle with a basal 
spur enclosed in the petal-spur ; mid-anther of each bundle 2-celled, lateral 
6-celled. Ovary 1 -celled ; style filiform, stigma entire or shortly lobed ; ovules 
2, on 2 placentas. Fruit indehiscent, globose, 1-seeded. — Annual, rarely peren- 
nial herbs, usually branched, often scandent. Leaves much divided, segments 
very narrow. Flowers small, white, rose-coloured, or purplish, in terminal or 
leaf-opposed racemes. Generally to be met with as weeds in cultivation plots of 
the temperate regions of the old world. 

1. r. parviflora (small-flowered), ' Lawi. The common small-flowered 
fumitory. Plant diffused, pale-green, much branched. Leaves with flat seg- 
ments. Racemes 1 to 2in. long, flowers white or rose-coloured, with purple 
tips, J to ^in.; sepals lanceolate, much smaller than the corolla-tube, pedicels 
exceeding the bracts. Fruit globose, rugose, dry, rounded at the top, with 2 pits. 

This and some other species are met with as weeds of cultivation. 


Flowers hermaphrodite, regular, or with the outer petals larger. Sepals i, 
free, imbricate in 2 series, the outer ones often saccate at the base. Petals 4, 
rarely wanting, the laminse spreading in the form of a cross ; torus usually 
bearing 4 glands opposite the sepals. Stamens usually 6, of which 2 outer ones 
shorter or rarely wanting, 4 inner ones longer, in pairs alternating with the outer 
ones.' Anthers 2-celled, attached by the base. Ovary 1- called, with two parietal 
placentas or rarely a single one, or more frequently divided into two cells by a 
thin membranous septum connecting the two parietal placentas. Style simple, 
often very short or none ; stigmas 2, erect, or divaricate, or united into a single 
capitate or minute stigma. Ovules 1, 2, or more in each cell, horizontal or 
pendulous from the parietal placenta. Fruit a pod, either long and narrow, and 
then called a siliqua, or short and broad, called a silicule, usually 2-celled, each 
cell opening by a deciduous valve, leaving persistent the thin septum surrounded 
by the nerve-like placentas, which form a rim called the replum ; exceptionally 
the pod is 1-seeded and indehiscent, or separating into 2 indehiscent cocci or into 
2 or more bead-like articles. Seeds attached in each cell in 2 rows, one pro- 
ceeding from each edge of the septum, but when each seed is as broad as the cell 
they overlap each other, so as to appear to be and to be described as in a single 
row; testa cellular, sometimes winged, often exuding when soaked a thick 
coat of mucilage. Albumen usually none. Embryo usually curved, the coty- 
ledons plano-convex with the radicle curved against their edge, when they are 
said to be accumbent, or over the back of one of them, when they are incumbent : 
in the latter case they are either flat or more or less folded over the radicle, or 
conduplicate. — Herbs or rarely undershrubs, without milky juice. Hairs simple, 
stellate or attached by the centre. Leaves simple, usually alternate, entire, 
lobed or pinnately divided, the radical ones often lyrate and the stem ones 
aurieled. Stipules none. Flowers usually in terminal racemes, which are at 
first corymbose but lengthen out as the fruiting advances, and usually without 

Oruciferai form a very large Order, dispersed over nearly the whole globe, but most abundant 
in the temperate and cold regions of the northern hemisphere. Ttey are rare within the tropics, 


especially in districts where there are no high mountain ranges. The Order is one of the most 
easily recognised by the flowers or fruits, but to determine the genera and species it is 
absolutely necessary to have the pod and the seed in a good state. — Benth. 

Series A. 

Pods long or short, dehiscing throughout their length, terete, 4-anglod or compressed dorsally 

(parallel to the septum). 
Tribe I. A.rAl>iAoiB.--Pod.f narrow, loni). Seeds usually l-xcriate. Cotyledons accumbent. 

Sepals spreading, not saccate ; pods tumid. Seeds minute, 2-seriate. 

Flowers usually yellow 1. Nastuktiiim. 

Sepals not saccate ; pods flat, usually acute. Stamens simple. Flowers 

white or purple 2. Caedamine. 

Tribe II. Abyssineae. — Pods short, broad. Seeds usually 2-seriate. Cotyledons accum- 

Stamens often appendaged. Pods usually orbicular and 4-seeded. Hoary 
herbs 3. Alyssdm. 

Tribe III. Sisymbrieae. — Pods usually sessile, long, narrow. Seeds usually 1-seriate. 
Cotyledons straiylit,Jiat, incumbent. 

Sepals erect or spreading. Pods many-sSeded, valves 1 — 3-nerved. Seeds 
usually 1-seriate. Hairs simple or none Sisymbeicm. 

Teibe IV. Camelineae. — Pods short or long. Seeds usually 2-seriate. Cotyledons flat, 

Fruiting racemes erect. Petals obovate, or if narrow erect and short. 

Septum broader than the transverse diameter of the pod 5. Blennodia. 

Fruiting racemes erect. Petals tapering into a long subulate, often twisted, 

point ^ 6. Stbnopetalum. 

Fruiting peduncle recurved, pod ripening underground 7. Geococcus. 

Teibe V. Brassicaas. — Pods short or long. Cotyledons longitudinally folded or deeply 

Pods long. Seeds 1-seriate 8. Beabsica. 

Seeies B. 

Pods short, dehiscing throughout their length, compressed laterally (at right angles to the 

septum) . 

Teibe VI. Ziepidlnes. — Cotyledons incumbent, straight, curved, or longitudinally folded. 

Pods many-seeded^: valves not winged 9. Capsella. 

Pods either indehiscent or separating into 2 indehisoent cocci .... 10. Senebieea. 
Pods few-seeded ; valves winged or not, dehiscent 11. Lepidium. 

Tribe VII. TlllaspideSB. — Cotyledons accumbent, straight. 
Pods compressed, notched ; valves winged or keeled 12. Thlaspi. 


(Very old name for cress plant.) 

Sepals short, equal, spreading. Petals scarcely clawed. Pods nearly cylin- 
drical, short or elongated, the valves convex, slightly 1 -nerved, the septum trans- 
parent ; style short or long, with an entire or 2-lobed stigma. Seeds usually 
distinctly ranged in 2 rows, small, turgid, with short free funieles. Cotyledons 
accumbent. — Herbs, either glabrous or pubescent, with simple hairs. Leaves 
entire, lobed, or pinnately divided. Flowers small, generally yellow. 

A considerable genuS, dispersed over the greater part of the globe, and very difficult both as 
to the discrimination of its species and as to its distinction from other genera. The Australian 
species is one of the most widely diffused. — Benth. 

Flowers yellow 1. N. palustre. 

Flowers white. Half -aquatic perennial. Petals obovate 2. N. officinale. 

1. N. palustre (found in marshy places), DC. Syst. Veg. ii. 191 ; Betuh. Fl. 
Amtr. i. 65. An erect or decumbent or almost trailing annual or biennial, from 
a few inches to 2ft. or more in length, quite glabrous or very rarely pubescent. 

44 VIII. CRUCIFER^. [Kasturtiuni. 

Leaves toothed or pinnately lobed, or the lower ones sometimes lyrate, auriculate 
at the base, the Idbes ovate, oblong, or rarely lanceolate, a,lways irregular, con- 
fluent and usually sinuate or toothed. Eacemes short, loose, without bracts. 
Flowers small, yellow, the petals scarcely exceeding the calyx. Style short. Pod 
• sessile, turgid, oblong, obtuse, straight or slightly curved, generally 2 to 4 lines 
long and about If line broad, but occasionally rather longer and narrower. — 
Keichb. Ic. Fl. Germ. ii. 53 ; N. terrestre, R. Br. in Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2, iv. 
110; Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 21; F. v. M. Fl. Vict. i. 81 ; .V. xemipinnatifidum, 
Hook. Journ. Bot. i. 246. 
Hab. . Many parts of the colony, north and south. 

2. N. '^'offlcinale (oflScinal), B. Br.; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 65. European 
watercress. Stems creeping and floating, much branched. Leaves pinnate, the 
upper with 3 to 7 pairs of leaflets and a terminal one which is usually larger, 
varying from roundish to ovate or lanceolate, obtuse, sinuate, or dentate. Flowers 
white, small, in short racemes. Petals longer than the sepals. Pods 4 to 12 
lines long, stalked, spreading or curved upwards. Seeds small, 2-seriate. 

Hab. ; Naturalised in many mountain streams. 

2. CARDAMINE, Linn. 

(Named from supposed medicinal qualities.) 

Sepals equal at the base. Petals clawed. Pod elongated, linear, compressed ; 
valves usually flat, without conspicuous nerves, opening elastically ; septum 
transparent ; style short or long ; stigma entire or 2,-lobed. Seeds flattened, not 
bordered, in a single row (except in C. emitylis). — Herbs, usually flaccid and 
glabrous. Leaves entire or more frequently pinnately divided, in a few species 
not Australian opposite Or whorled. Flowers erect or nodding, white, purple, or 
lilac, not yellow. Pods usually slender. 

A large genus, widely spread over the temperate and colder regions both of the northern and 
southern hemisphere. — Senth, 

Seeds reticulate and pitted, rather large. 
Leaves entire or sinuate-toothed, the stem ones sagittate. Plant of 2 to Sft. 1. C. stylosa. 
Petals very narrow, small, nearly erect. 

Seeds nearly the breadth of the septum, in a single row . 2. C. Iiirsuta. 

Seeds numerous, small, almost biseriate. Valves of the pod convex . . 3. C eiistylis. 

1. C. stylosa (style prominent), DC. Syst. Veg. ii. 248 ; Benth. Fl. Amtr. i. 
68. A rather coarse glabrous herb, branching; and decumbent, or nearly erect, 
usually 2 to 8ft. high and sometimes attainitig 5ft. Leaves obloag-lartceolate, 
entire or sinuate, and minutely but remotely toothed, the lower ones narrowed 
into a long petiole, the upper ones sessile but narrow below the middle and 
clasping the stem by their sagittate base, the longest 3 to 5in. long. Flowers 
small, white, with obovate spreading petals. Fruiting racemes long and rather 
rigid, the pedicels very spreading, 3 to 4 lines long. Pods 1 to l^in. long and | 
to 1 line broad, with a vety faint nerve on the valves. Seeds oval, dark-coloured, 
reticulated with raised longitudinal nerves and trd,nsverse pits between them. — 
Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 18 ; F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 34 ; ArdbU qigantea, Hook. Ic. t. 
259 s C. divaricata, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Z. i. 18. 

Hab.: On ranges southern parts of the colony. 

2. C. hirsuta (Hairy), Linn.; DC. Prod. i. 152 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 70. 
A much-branched decumbent or tufted annual, seldom above Bin. high, eithet 
quite glabrbus or slightly hirsute with short spJeadihg hairs. Leaves pinnately 
divided, the lower ones with 1 ovate or mounded terminal segment and a few 
smaller petiolulate lateral ones, oi sometimes reduced to the terminal one, the 
upper leaves few with narrow lobes. Flowers very small, the petals narrow and 
erect or scarcely spreading. Stamens often reduced to 4 (especially in European 

Cnrdawine.] VIII. CKUCIFER^. 45 

specimens). Fruiting racemes usually short and rather dense, the pedicels not 
very spreading. Pods erect, slender, usually 7 to 9 lines long, and scarcely 
more than ^ line broad, the stigma sessile or on a style not longer than the 
breadth of the pod. Seeds smooth, as broad as the septum, and in a single row 
as in all the preceding species. — Reichb. le. Fl. Germ. ii. t. 26 ; Hook. f. Fl. 
Tasm. i. 20; C. pannflom, Linn. ; DC. Prod. i. 152 ; also F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 
86, partly ; C. dehilU, Banks in DC. Syst. , Veg. ii. 265 ; ( '. paiicijw/a, Turcz. in 
Bull. Mosc. 1854 ii. 295. 
Hab.: Not uncommon damp land in the southern parts pf the colony. 

3. C eustylis (style prominent on fruit), F. v. M. in Trans. Vict. Inst. i. 
114 ; PL Vict. i. 37 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 70. An erect annual, much branched 
from the base, scarcely exceeding 6 to Sin. in height and quite glabrous. Leaves 
pinnately divided, the lower ones with ovate segments, the others with narrower 
ones, all usually with a few teeth or lobes. Flowers smaller than in C. Idrsuta, 
the petals narrow, erect, and scarcely exceeding the calyx. Fruiting racemes 
short, leafless. Pods rather spreading, slender, 6 to 9 lines long, tipped by a 
style of \ to near 1 line, the valves convex, smooth, without nerves. Seeds very 
numerous and small, much narrower than the septum, and showing 2 distinct 

Hab.: Eiver banks in tropical parts of the colony. 

3. ALYSSUM, Linn. 
(Supposed by the ancients to have the power of allaying anger.) 
(Meniocus, Desv.) 
Sepals rather short, equal at the ,base. Petals rather short, entire or bifid. 
Stamens often bearing a tooth or small appendage on the filaments of some or 
all of them. Pod short, from nearly orbicular to oblong, very flat or turgid ; 
the valves flat, concave, or turgid in the centre and flat on the margins, the sep- 
tum membranous ; style short or long, with an entire stigma. Seeds 2 to 10 in 
each cell. Cotyledons accumbent. — Br3,nching herbs or small shrubs, usually 
hoary with stellats tomentum. Leaves undivided, usually linear. Racemes 
without bracts, with white or yellow flowers. 

A large genus, dispersed over the temperate regions of the Old World, but chiefly in the 
Mediterranean region and western Asia. None are found in America, eastern Asia, or in the 
Pacific Islands. The only Australian species is identical with one common in the eastern 
Mediterranean region. — Benth. 

1. A. linifoliutn (flax-leaved), Steph. in Willd. Spec. PI. iii. 467 ; Benth. Fl. 
Aiistr. i. 71. A small, but hard, wiry, and much-branched erect annual, hoary, 
with a minute, qlose, stellate tomentum. Leaves linear, oblpng, oblong-spathu- 
late or almost obovate, mostly under \m., bat the longest sometimes nearly lin. 
long, quite entire. Flowers white, very small. Pods orbicular or broadly ovate, 
2 to 3 lines long, minutely hoary ; the valves flat and without nerves ; style 
small, subulate. Seeds 4 to 6 in each cell. — Meniocus Unifolius, DC. Syst. Veg. 
ii. 325 ; Deless.'Ic. Sel. ii. t. 42 ; M. Serpyllifolin^, Desv. ; DC. I.e. ; M. aiistra- 
lasicm, Turcz. in Bull. Mosc. 1854, ii. 297. 

Hab.: Inland downs country. 


(Name given by Greeks to some fragrant plant ; not at present day recognised). 

Sepals equal or the lateral ones slightly saccate. Petals usually elongated, 
with long claws. Pod linear-elongated, cylindrical or flattened, several-seeded, 
the valves usually convex and 3 -nerved ; septum membranous ; style usually 
short, with an entire or slightly 2-lobed stigma. Seeds in a single row, not 

46 VIII. CRUCIFER^. [SUiimbrium. 

bordered, oblong, with filiform funicles. Cotyledons incumbent. — Herbs, usually 
annual or biennial, glabrous, hirsute or tomentose. Leaves entire or pinnately 
lobed or divided. Flowers yellow, or rarely white or pink. 

A large genus, chiefly European and Asiatic, with a few North American and a very few 
Antarctic species. — Bentli. 

-1. S. officinale (officinal). Scop.: DC. Prod. i. 191 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 71. 
An erect annual, more or less pubescent, a foot high or rather more, with very 
rigid spreading branches. Leaves deeply pinnatifid, with few lanceolate slightly 
toothed lobes, the terminal one 1 to l|in. long, the others smaller, often curved 
backwards towards the stem, the upper leaves sometimes undivided and hastate. 
Flowers very small, yellow. Pods about Jin. long, thick at the base, tapering to 
the point, more or less hairy, almost sessile, and closely pressed against the axis 
in long, slender, stiff racemes. — Reichb. Ic. Fl. Germ ii, t. 72. 

Hab. : Southern parts of the colony, on roadsides and waste places about townships. 


(Mucus emitted by seeds when soaked.) 

Sepals short, open, equal at the base or slightly saccate. Petals obovate or 
short and narrow. Pod linear or linear-oblong (short in a variety of B. trlsecta), 
terete or 4-angled, the valves very convex, without nerves or with a prominent 
midrib ; septum membranous or almost spongy ; stigma capitate, sessile or on a 
very short style. Seeds oblong or ovoid, more or less distinctly 2-rowed, not 
bordered, when soaked usually emitting a copious fibrous mucus ; funicles free, 
filiform. Cotyledons incumbent. — Herbs or low undershrubs, glabrous or hoary- 
tomentose with simple or stellate hairs. Leaves entire or pinnatifid. Flowers 
white, yellow, or pink, the racemes without bracts. 

A genus limited to extratropioal or subtropical Australia, differing from Suymbnum, to which 
some species have been referred, in the seeds never so completely overlapping each other a-s to 
form a single row, and generally in the copious mucus of the seeds, which is, however, not 
constant in all the species. From Capsella it differs in the longer pod and in the dissepiment 
broader in proportion to the transverse diameter of the pod. — Benth. 

Glabrous undershrubs. Leaves or their lobes linear-filiforin. Pods slender. 

Leaves mostly 3-cleft 1. B. trisecta. 

Ammals, glabrous or -with simple hairs. Leaf-lobes narroic. Pods slender, 
scarcely contracted at the base. 

Glabrous . 2. JS. nasturtimdes. 

Hoary, with simple hairs 3. B. eremigera. 

A mvaals, with stellate pubescence. Leaves pinnatifid or toothed. Pods acute 
at the top and at the base; valves very convex. 

Pod rather slender, glabrous 4. B. cardaminoides. 

Pod thicker in the middle, hirsute or stellately tomentose. Petals twice 
as long as the calyx, white or pink. 

Calyx about 1 line long 5. B. lasiocarpa. 

Calyx 2J lines long 6. B. canescens. 

Perennials, with stellate pubescence. Leaves toothed or pinnatifid. Pods 
acute at the top and at the base ; valves very convex. 
Hoary. Pod at least 5 times as long as broad 7. B. Cunninghamii. 

1. B. trisecta (referring to leaves), Benth. Flora Aiistr. i. 74. A perfectly 
glabrous often glaucous undershrub or almost a shrub, 1 to several feet high. 
Leaves numerous, often clustered, linear-filiform, sometimes rather thick, divided 
into 3 (rarely 2 or 5) unequal linear-filiform segments, the whole leaf seldom 
above lin. long, except in very luxuriant specimens. Flowers white, scented. 
Sepals 1 to IJ line long. Petals obovate, spreading. Fruiting raceme 4 to 6in. 
long or rarely more, with slightly spreading pedicels of J to Jin. Pod sessile on 
the pedicel, usually narrow-linear, 4 to 6 lines long, but sometimes very short. 


straight or curved, the stigma sessile or nearly so ; valves convex, with a slender 
longitudinal nerve. Seeds numerous, small, oblong-ovoid, those which I have 
soaked scarcely emitting any mucus. — Sisyuilrriiiiii trim-tuiit, F. v. M. in Trans. 
Vict. Inst. i. 114 ; PI. Vict. i. 39. 
Hab.: Downs of the southern parts of the colony. 

2. B. nasturtioides (Nasturtium-like), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 74. A glabrous 
annual, the central scape erect and leafless, the lateral branches decumbent at 
the base and leafy, from 2 or Sin. to nearly 1ft. long. Leaves usually pinnately 
divided into a few linear rather thick segments, the radical ones often 2in. long, 
the others much smaller. Flowers yellow, rather small. Fruiting racemes 
loose, 3 to 6in. long, with slender pedicels. Pod narrow, 4 to 7 lines long, 
nearly straight and scarcely contracted at the base ; stigma sessile or nearly so ; 
valves slightly convex, the longitudinal nerve very slender and sometimes quite 
inconspicuous. Seeds small, ovate, emitting a considerable mucus when soaked. 
— Erysiuium nasturtium, F. v. M. in Linnsea xxv. 368 ; Sisymbrium nasturtioides, 
F. v. M. in Trans. Vict. Inst. i. 115 ; PI. Vict. i. 39. 

Hab.: Southern localities. 

3. B. eremigera (desert, place of growth), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 74. Annual 
and erect or branching and decumbent at the base, more or less hairy with short 
simple hairs, from a few inches to l^ft. high. Leaves deeply and irregularly 
pinnatifid, with few oblong-linear or linear, sometimes falcate lobes. Flowers 
small, yellow. Fruiting racemes loose, 2 to 4in. long, with slender spreading 
pedicels. Pods like those of B. iiasturtioides, mostly about Jin. long, slender, 
straight or curved, not contracted at the base ; stigma sessile or nearly so ; 
valves with a slender nerve. Seeds small, oblong-ovate, emitting mucus when 
soaked. — Sisymbrium eremic/erum, F. v. M. Fragm. ii. 143. 

Hab.: Maranoa. 

4. B. cardaminoides (Cardamine-like), F. c M. Herb, (as a Sisymbrium) ; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 75. A slender or small annual like B. nasturtioides, but more 
or less clothed with a minute stellate pubescence, sometimes scarcely visible 
without a lens. Leaves pinnatifid, the radical ones with rather numerous small 
ovate triangular or lanceolate lobes, the terminal ones confluent, the lower ones 
becoming distinct segments along the petiole ; stem-leaves few and small, with 
few short lobes. Flowers white (or pink ?), the sepals barely 1 line long. Petals 
obovate, twice as long. Fruiting raceme loose and slender, 2 to 4in. long, with 
slender spreading pedicels. Pod 4 to 6 lines long, scarcely 1 line broad, usually 
curved, narrowed towards the base, glabrous or with a very minute stellate 
tomentum ; valves very convex and keeled. Seeds small, ovate, emitting mucus 
when soaked. 

Hab.: Southern localities, F. v. 31. 

5. B. lasiocarpa (hairy pods), F. c. M. in Trans. Phil. Sue. Vict. i. 100 atid 
PL Vict. i. 40, t. 2 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 76. (" Woombun Woombun," St. 
George, Wedd.) An annual, hoary with stellate pubescence, the central scape 
short and erect, the lateral stems decumbent and leafy at the base, branching 
and attaining 1ft. or more. Radical leaves petiolate, lyrate-pinnatifid, 1, 2, or 
even 3in. long ; stem-leaves smaller, pinnatifid, or the upper ones toothed only. 
Flowers pink or white. Calyx about 1 line, petals obovate, fully twice as long. 
Fruiting racemes loose, 2 to 4in. long, with divaricate pedicels of 4 to 6 lines. 
Pods not above Jin. long, turgid, curved, tapering at the top with a short slender 
style, contracted at the base, hispid with simple or stellate hairs ; valves very 
convex, with the midrib scarcely conspicuous. Seeds ovate, the mucus copious, — 
Erysimum blennodioides, F. v. M. in Linnaea, xxv. 367. 

Hab.: St, George, J. Wfdd. 

48 VIII. CRUCIFER^. [Blennodia. 

6. B. canescens (hoary), R. Br. in App. Sturt Exped. 4; Benth. Fl. Amtr. 
i. 76. Annual, but the lateral branching stems apparently harder at the base at 
the close of the season, so as to be almost woody ; the whole plant hoary with a 
short, soft, stellate pubescence. Leaves lanceolate or oblong-linear, the radical 
ones about 2in. long, pinnatifid and narrowed into a petiole, the upper ones 
linear, toothed, or entirg. Flowers large, pink, resembling those of a Matthiola. 
Calyx 2^ lines long, hoary. Petals fully twice as long, with long claws. Fruit- 
ing racemes rather loose, 2 to 6in. long, the pedicels short, slightly spreading. 
Pod linear, 1 to l^in. long, slightly pubescent, with convex valves, crowned by 
the large persistent stigma. Seeds oval-oblong, smooth. 

Hab.: Inland localities, F. o. M. 

7. B. Cunninghamii (after A. Cunningham), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 76. A 
tufted herbaceous perennial, more or less hoary, with soft stellate hairs, occasion- 
ally mixed with simple ones ; annual stems erect or decumbent at the base, from 
a few inches to 1ft. high, slightly branched. Radical leaves petiolate, 1 to 2in, 
long, oblong or lanceolate, coarsely toothed or shortly pinnatifid ; stem-leaves 
few and small, from lanceolate to nearly obovate. Flowers small, appareiotly 
white. Fruiting racemes loose, 2 to 4in. long, with spreading pedicels. Pod 4 
to 5 lines long, acute at the top and at the base, tipped by a very short subulate 
style, pubescent with simple or stellate hairs, or nearly glabrous ; valves very 
convex, with a prominent midrib. Seeds oval-oblong, smooth, the mucus rather 

Hab.: Maranpa. 


(Narrow petals.) 

Sepals narrow, erect, equal at the base. Petals shortly lanceolate above the 
claw, tapering to a point, often long and twisted. Pod globular, ovoid, or shortly 
linear, the valves very convex, usually without any conspicuous nerve ; septum 
membranous ; stigma globular, sessile or rarely on a very short style. Seeds 
several, small, in 2 rows, not bordered, with free filiform funicles ; cotyledons 
incumbent. — Annuals, usually slender and glabrous, rarely tomentose and more 
rigid. Leaves linear. Flowers orange-yellow or white. 

The genus is limited to Australia. — Benth. 

Pods erect, 2 to 4 times as long as broad. 
Hoary tomentose. Pedicels as long as the pod. Petals 3 times as long as 

the calyx I. S. velMtimiin. 

Glabrous or slightly tomentose. Pedicels shorter than the pod. Petals 

about twice as long as the calyx . . . . , . . . 2. iS. limar,e. 

Pods spreading or pendulous. 

Sepals IJ line or more, petals more than twice as long. Pedicels slender, 
two or three times as long as the sepals, slightly hoary with appressed 
hairs. Leaves entire or remotely toothed S.S. nutans. 

1. S. velutinum (plant velvety), F. v. M. PL Vict. i. 49 ; Benth. Fl. A%ostr. 
i. 78. Erect and rather rigid, 1 to ijft. high, white or hoary, with a very short 
stellate tomentum, which disappears from the older leaves and the base of the 
stem. Leaves narrow-linear, rather thick, entire or with a few minute distant 
teeth, the lower ones IJ to 2in. long, the upper ones much shorter. Flowers 
erect, on pedicels about as long as the calyx. Sepals about 2 lines long, tomen- 
tose. Petals yellowish, the long slender point fully three times as long as the 
calyx. Fruiting pedicels erect, 3 to 6 lines long. Pod elliptical-oblong or almost 
ovoid, about 8 lines long, very turgid, glabrous ; valves nerveless ; iovules 8 to 12 
in each cell. 

Hab.: Amby Downs, 

Stmop,<tnl,wi.] VIII. CRUCIFER^. 49 

2. S. lineare (leaves linear), B. Br, in DC. Syst. Veg. ii. 613 ; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 78. Usually erect, slender, little branched and quite glabrous, f to l-|-l:t. 
high. Leaves few, narrow-linear, 1 to 1-Jin. long, entire or occasionally pinnatifid, 
with 1 or 2 short linear lobes on each side. Flowers small. Sepals not If line 
long. Petals of a brownish-yellow, the narrow-linear exserted portion not longer 
than the sepals. Fruiting racemes slender but rigid, with erect pedicels not half 
so long as the pod. Pods erect, oblong, 2 to 3 lines long and scarcely 1 line 
broad, glabrous, the valves usually showing the midrib. Seeds 8 to 12 in each 
cell, small, ovate, smooth.— Hook. Ic. PI. t. 618 ; Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 22 ; F. 
V. M. PI. Vict. i. 49. 

Hab.: Interior of the colony, Darling Downs. 

3. S. nutans (nodding), F. v. M. Fragm. iii. 27 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 79. 
An erect annual, about Sin. high in the single specimen seen, slightly hoary with 
appressed hairs. Leaves linear, entire or remotely toothed, about lin. long, 
narrowed at each end. Racemes loose. Pedicels much longer than the calyx, 
slender, erect when in flower, reflexed when in fruit. Sepals about If line long. 
Petals with a filiform point of 4 or 5 lines. Pod broadly oval-oblong, about 4 
lines long, very turgid, glabrous, ripening 3 or 4 seeds in each cell. 

Hab.: Inland localities, Cooper's Creek, &c. 

7. GEOCOCCUS, J. Drumm. 
(From its burying its seed-vessels in the earth.) 

Sepals short, spreading, equal at the bp,3e. Petals small. Pod oblong, slightly 
compressed, obtuse, the valves convex, with a prominent midrib ; stigma sessile, 
entire. Seeds few, the two series rather distinct, oblong, not bordered, with long 
funicles ; cotyledons incumbent. — A stemless herb, with radical pinnately-divided 
leaves, ripening its pods underground. 

The genus is limited to the following species. 

1. Cr. pusillus (small), J. Drumm. in Hook. Keio Journ. vii. 52; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 80. A stemless, tufted annual. Leaves all radical, spreading. If to 3 
in. long, pinnately divided, with triangular or shortly lanceolate lobes, the lower 
ones distinct, the ultimate ones confluent. Flowers in our specimens imperfect, 
on short, erect, radical peduncles. Petals, according to Drummond, oblong, not 
clawed, shorter than the calyx. Fruiting peduncles lengthening to from f to 
lin., recurved so as to bury the pod in the ground. Our pods are irregularly 

Hab.: Inland localities. 

This curious little plant may possibly prove to he a condition of some species having usually 
dimorphous flowers, in which the more perfect ones are not developed. If so, it may very likely 
be a Blennodia,, of some species of which it has the radical leaves. — Benth, 

8. *BRASSICA, Linn. 
(From the Celtic word for cabbage.) 

Sepals erect or spreading, lateral, usually saccate at the base. Pods elongated, 
terete or angular, often with an indehiscent 1-seed beak ; valves convex, 1 — 3- 
nerved, lateral nerves flexuose ; style beaked or ensiform : stigma truncate or 
2-lobed. Seeds l-seriate, globose or sub-compressed ; cotyledons incumbent, 
concave or conduplicate, the radicle within the longitudinal fold. Glabrous or 
hispid herbs ; rootstock often woody. Leaves large, pinnatifid or lyrate, rarely 
entire. Flowers yellow, in long racemes. 
Distributed over the temperate regions of the Old World, 

50 VIII. CKUCIFEE^. [Bramra. 

1. B. (Sinapis) nigra (black), B,ms. Black mustard. Annual, hairy or quite 
glabrous, especially in the upper parts, the lower leaves and stems generally 
slightly hispid. Stems 2ft. or more high. Leaves mostly deeply divided, with 
one large terminal ovate or oblong lobe and a few small lateral ones, the upper 
leaves often small and entire. Flowers rather small. Pods on short pedicels, 
closely pressed against the axis of the long slender racemes, glabrous, seldom 
more than ^in. long, with a. slender style, slightly conical at the base, the valves 
marked with a strong midrib. 

Hab.: Europe. A stray weed from cultivation plots in southern Queensland. 

9. CAPSELLA, Mcench. 
(A diminutive of capsula, a capsule.) , 

(Microlepidium, P. v. M.) 
Sepals spreading, equal at the base. Petals short. Pod ovoid or oblong, 
laterally compressed or nearly terete, the valves very turgid or boat-shaped, 
keeled, the septum thin ; style short or stigma sessile. Seeds several, in 2 rows, 
not bordered, on free funicles ; cotyledons incumbent or rarely aecumbent.— 
Small or weak annuals. Eadical leaves rosulate, entire or lobed. Eacemes 
slender, with small white flowers. 

A small genus dispersed over the temperate regions of both the northern and southern 
hemispheres. Two of the following species are exclusively Australian. The genus is nearly 
allied to Blennodia, but the pod is shorter and more compressed laterally, the septum being 
usually narrower than the transverse diameter. — Benth. 

plant little branched J to IJft. Leaves pinuatifid. Pods euneate- 
triangular, with numerous seeds \. G. bursa-pastoris. 

Plant dwarf, beset with short hairs. Leaves linear, blunt, entire. Pod 

ellipsoid turgid. Seeds generally 4 in each cell 2. C. Andmana. 

Plant only a few inches high. Leaves divided into linear-lanceolate 
lobes. Pod rhomboid-rotund, about 4-seeded . 3. C. humistrata. 

1. C. *bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse), Mcench. Stems erect, from a few 
inches to 1ft. or more high, rather rough and often hairy with a few oblong or 
lanceolate entire or toothed leaves clasping the stem with projecting auricles. 
Eadical leaves spreading on the ground, pinnatifid, with a large ovate or triangular 
lobe or sometimes entire. Eoot tapering often to a great depth. Flowers scarcely 
1 line in diameter. Pods in a long loose raceme, usually triangular-truncate at 
the top, with the angles slightly rounded and narrowed at the base, sometimes 
notched at the top and almost oboordate ; pedicels slender, style short, valves 
smooth. Seeds many, 10 to 12 in each cell, oblong punctate. — Thlaspi bursa- 
pastons, Linn. 

Hab.: Become naturalised near townships. 

2. C. Andraeana (after H. Andrs), F. v. M.; Wing's Sou. Sc. Bee, Mar. 
1885. Annual, dwarf, erect. Stem as well as branches, flower-stalks, and 
stalklets beset with short papillular hair. Leaves short, linear, blunt, entire, 
glabrous ; racemes short. Flowers minute, sepals soon spreading, petals white or 
yellowish, not or little longer than the sepals ; filaments partly dilated at the 
base ; anthers yellowish, cordate-roundish ; stigma sessile. Pod small, ellipsoid, 
or globular-ovate, turgid, glabrous, not divided nor dilated at the summit, on a 
stalklet of usually the same length ; valves subtilely 1 -nerved, not keeled nor 
much compressed ; septum lanceolar. Seeds generally 4 in each cell, ovate- 
roundish, compressed, brown-yellowish, margined by indurated through mois- 
ture much-expanding mucus. 

Hab.: Southern localities. 

In some respects allied to G.pilulosa, in others to C, huviistrata, — F, v. M., l.c, 

Capselhi.] VIII. CRUCIFER^. 51 

3. C. humistrata (found on damp spots), F. v. M. Fraym. xi. 25. An 
annual glabrous plant of a few inches high. Leaves divided into linear-lanceolate 
lobes. Racemes 1 to 4in. long, flowers numerous, pedicels spreading, very slender, 
from 1| line under the flower to 4 lines under the fruit. Sepals ovate or oblong, 
I to f line long. Petals oblong-ovate, attenuated at the base, yellow, about 1 
line long, entire. Stamens 6, filaments free, subulate-linear; anthers yellow, 
almost round, introrse. Pods 1| to 2 lines long, rhomboid-rotund, often 4- 
seeded, much compressed, with the base somewhat acute and the apex very 
shortly acuminate, entire. Seeds roundish-oval, i to f line long, with pellucid 

Hab.: South Queensland. 

10. SENEBIERA, Poir. 

(After J. de Senebier). 

Sepals short, spreading, equal at the base. Petals short. Pod laterally com- 
pressed, orbicular or broader than long, either indehiscent or separating into two 
nuts, each with a single seed. Embryo bent in a circle, or the radicle incumbent 
on the back of the cotyledons, but with the bend above the attenuated base of the 
cotyledons, not at their junction with the radicle. — Annuals or biennials, much 
branched and usually prostrate. Leaves entire or pinnately divided. Flowers 
very small, in short leaf-opposed racemes. 

There are several species dispersed over the warm as well as the temperate regions both of the 
New and the Old World, and more especially near the sea, the following ones extending to 
Australia Benth. 

Pods 1 line broad, slightly wrinkled, on slender pedicels. 

Leaves lineajr, entire I. S. integrifoUa. 

Leaves pinnate 2. S. didyvia. 

1. S. integrifolia (entire-leaved), DC. in Mem. Soe. Hist. Nat. Par. ann. 7, 
144, t. 8, avd Syst. Veg. ii. 522 ; Benth. Fl. Amtr. i. 82. A rigid, glabrous, 
somewhat glaucous annual (or bienniel?), usually decumbent, and very much 
branched. Leaves linear, usually acute, f to lin. long or rather more, narrowed 
into a petiole, quite entire or very rarely with 1 or 2 small teeth. Flowers very 
small and numerous, in terminal or leaf-opposed racemes usually much longer 
than the leaves ; pedicels slender, rarely exceeding 1 line. Pods like those of S. 
didyma, of the same size, and reticulate when young, becoming often warted or 
even corky when old. — S. linoides, DC. ; Harv. and Sond. Fl. Cap. i. 27. 

Hab.: Bird Island, Wreck Beef, Denham. 

The species has a wide range on the seacoasts of S. Africa and Madagascar, and we have it 
also from Pratas and other islands of the Chinese seas. S mexicana. Hook, and Am. Bot. 
Beech. 276, is the same plant, but was probably gathered in the islands of Loo Choo and Bonin, 
and not in Mexico. — Benth. 

2. S. didyma (double-podded), Pers. Syn. ii. 185 ; Benth. Fl. Amtr. i. 83. 
Wart cress. A much-branched, prostrate annual, spreading on the ground from 
6in. to 1ft. or more, glabrous, or with a few long loose hairs. Leaves pinnately 
divided into 7 to 11 narrow segments, which are usually again cut into 2 to 4 
unequal linear or lanceolate lobes, the lower leaves often once pinnate, with 
oblong or obovate, entire or shortly lobed segments. Flowers very small and 
numerous, in leaf-opposed racemes, which seldom, even in fruit, exceed the 
leaves, the pedicels slender, 1 to 2 lines long. Pods about f line long and 1 line 
broad, wrinkled, formed of 2 ovoid distinct lobes, which separate into 1 -seeded 
nuts when ripe. — Reiohb. Ic. Fl. Germ. ii. t. 9 ; 8. pinnatifida, DC. Syst. Veg. 
ii. 523 ; Prod. i. 203. 

A common weed in sandy soil, especially near the sea, in all warm countries, perhaps in- 
digenous to N. Australia, and now established in the neighbourhood of towns in almost all the 
CololiieS; — Benth, ' : 


11. LEPIDIUM, Linn. 

(Pod scale-like.) 
(Monoploca, Baiujii.) 
Sepals short, equal at the base. Petals short, equal, sometimes wantirig. 
Pod ovate or shortly oblong, rarely orbicular, usually much compressed laterally 
and notched at the tpp, the valves boat-shaped, keeled' or winged, the septum 
narrow ; style filiform or stigma sessile. Seeds solitary in each cell, suspended 
from the top of the septum with a free funicle ; cotyledons incumbent in all 
except one species not Australian. — Herbs, undershrubs, or even small shrubs, 
very variable in habit. Leaves in the Australian species narrow or entire. 
Flowers small, white, the racemes without bracts. 

A large genus, spread over the temperate and warmer regions of the globe, but not alpine 
and scarcely Arctic. 

Leaves all quite entire. Pod usually conspicuously winged. 

Leaves broadly ovate or orbicular X. ^. strfnigylopjiyllum. 

Petals none. Stkmeris 4. Pod- wings almost united with the style 2. L. monoplocoiaes. 
Leaves mostly toothed or lobed. Flowers very small. Pod- wings 
small or none, except in L. papillosum. 
Petals none. Leaves narrow-linear, the upper ones auricled. 

Stems papillose. Stamens 4. Pod about 2 lines long, with 2 short 

lobes or wings %. L. papillosum. 

Stems glabrous. Leaves linear or cuneate, not auricled, the 
radical ones pinnatifid. Stamens 2. Pod about 1^ line, scarcely 
lobed 4. X. ruderale, 

1. Jm. Strongylophyllum (upper leaves round), F. v. M. Herb.; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 84. Apparently shrubby, quite glabrous, with the branches denuded at 
the base. Leaves in the upper part of the branches, broadly ovate or nearly 
orbicular, or the upper ones elliptical-oblong, ^ to fin. long, entire, rather thick, 
narrowed into a short petiole. Flowers unknown. Fruiting raceme evidently dense, 
with spreading pedicels of about 2 lines, the thick rhachis 1 to near 2in. long. 
Pods only known by the persistent replum, which is oblong-lanceolate, nearly 3 
lines long, f line broad in the centre, terminating in a subulate style of about 1 
line, and the scars of a funicle on each side at the upper angle of the replum show 
that there had been a single pendulous seed in each cell as in other Lepidia. 

Hab.: Inland localities. 

2. I.. monoplOCOides (like a Monoploca), F. v. M. in Trans. Phil. 8oc. 
Vict. i. 35 and PL Vict. i. 47 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 85. An erect branching annual 
of about 6in., glabrous or slightly rough with minute papillae. Leaves narrow- 
lijiear, entire and not auricled, the lower ones sometimes 2in. long, but mostly ^ 
to lin. Flowers very minute, without petals and with only 4 stamens. Fruiting 
racemes 2 to Sin. long, with rigid, rather spreading, flattened pedicels, of 1^ to 2 
lines. Pod orbicular, scarcely 2 lines long, flat, winged all round, the wings 
united with the style at the top, and projecting beyond it in 2 minute, connivent, 
acute lobes, forming a short point to the pod. Seeds with a viscid, clear mucus, 
as in several of the preceding species. 

Hab.: Southern Queensland. 

3. Ii. papillosum (Papillose), F. v. M. in Linnma xxv. 370 and PI. Viet. i. 
46 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 86. An erect branching annual, usually under 6in., but 
according to F. v. Mueller sometimes 1ft. high or more, the stems covered with 
little transparent papillse, and exhaling an unpleasant scent. Radical leaves 
petiolate, often 2in. long or more, linear-oblong, coarsely toothed or irregularly 
pinnatifid, the upper ones lanceolate or linear-cuneate, with a few remote teeth, 
and clasping the stem by their auricled base, ^ to lin. long and all glabrous. 
Flowers very small, without petals and with only 4 stamehs. Fruiting racemes 
mostly 2 to 4in. long, with rigid, flattened, rather spreading pedicels, of about 2 

Lepidiu,,,.] VIII. CRUCIFEE^. 5S 

lines. Pod obovate, about 2 lines long, the valves winged only above the middle, 
forming 2 rounded terminal lobes, a little more than ^ line long, with the stigma 
sessile in the rather narrow sinus. Seeds exuding a viscid, clear mucilage in 
great abundance. 

Hab.: Southern Queensland. 

4. Ii. ruderale (found in waste places), Linn.; DC. Prod. i. 205 ; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 86. An annual, biennial, or sometimes perennial, glabrous or with a 
few minute scattered hairs, commencing to flower when very small, but growing 
out to 1 or even 2ft., with hard stems and numerous divaricate, thin, wiry 
branches. Radical leaves once or twice pinnatifid, with narrow-linear lobes, but 
soon decaying ; stem-leaves linear or rarely almost oblong-cuneate, usually with 
a few irregular teeth, especially towards the top, sometimes almost pinnatifid, the 
uppermost often linear and entire. Flowers minute, without petals and with only 
2 stamens. Fruiting racemes usually rather loose but rigid, 2 to Sin. long, with 
slender stiff spreading pedicels of 2 or 3 lines, but sometimes the racemes remain 
short and dense as when in flower. Pods ovate, 1 to near 1\ line long, minutely 
2-lobed at the top, with a short style between the lobes. Seeds ovate, usually 
exuding no mucus. — Reichb. Ic. Fl. Germ. ii. t. 10 ; Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 25 ; 
F. V. M. PI. Vict. i. 45 ; L. puberulum, Bunge, PL Preiss. i. 261 ; L. hyssopi- 
folium., Desv. Journ. Bot. iii. 164 and 179 ; L. frutirulosum, Desv. I.e. 165 and 
180 (a tall luxuriant form). 

Hab.: Common in Southern Queensland along the fences around cultivation paddocks. 

12. THLASPI, Linn. 

(Pods compressed.) 

Sepals erect, equal at the base. Petals obovate, equal. Pod short, ovate, 
obovate, obcuneate or oblong, much compressed laterally, notched or rarely acute 
at the top, the valves boat-shaped, keeled or winged, the septum narrow ; style 
filiform or stigma sessile. Seeds 2 or rarely 3 or 4 in each cell, not winged ; 
cotyledons accumbent. — Annual or perennial herbs, the radical leaves usually 
spreading, entire or toothed, those of the stem often auricled at the base. Flowers 
white, pink, or pale purple, rarely yellow. 

A considerable genus spread over the temperate and colder regions of the northern hemi- 
sphere, with a very few S. American species, and none from S. Africa. 

1. T. cochlearinum (like a oochlearia), F. v. 21. PI. Vict. i. 51 ; Benth. Fl. 
Amtr. i. 88. An erect, rigid, branching annual. Gin. to 1ft. high, slightly pubescent, 
with a few short, mostly simple and reflexed hairs. Leaves lanceolate or linear- 
oblong, entire or with 1 or 2 coarse teeth or lobes on each side, narrowed into a 
petiole, the lower leaves about 2in. long, the upper ones few and smaller. 
Flowers white, rather large. Sepals open, IJin. long. Petals much larger. 
Fruiting racemes loose, about 2in. long, with half-spreading pedicels of 6 to 8 
lines. Pod broadly oval, 4 to 5 lines long, obtuse at the top but not notched, 
pubescent with short, rigid, reflexed hairs ; styles subulate, nearly 1 line long. 
Valves keeled, but not distinctly winged. Seeds 2 to 4 in each cell, flat, 
orbicular, emitting a clear, viscid mucus when soaked ; cotyledons accumbent.— 
Eunomia cochlearina, F. v. M. in Linnsea, xxv, 869. 
Hab.: Southern Queensland. 


Flowers usually hermaphrodite. Sepals 4 to 8, eitber in a single series, free or 
united iii a ca,mpanulate calyx, or 2 outer and 'I inner ones. Petals usually 4, 
imbricate, rarely 2 or none. Torus either small or expanded into a disk or 
lengthened into a straight or curved stalk to the ovary. Stamens inserted at the 


base or the summit of the torus or stalk of the Ovary, definite or indefinite, all 
perfect or some reduced to staminodia. Ovary 1-celled, with. 1 or usually 
several parietal placentas, which sometimes . protrude so as to divide the ovary 
into imperfect cells. Stigma sessile or borne on a distinct style. Ovules usually 
numerous, rarely solitary, anatropous. Fruit either a capsule, with the valves 
separating from the persistent septum or placentas as in Cruciferm, or mdehiscent 
and succulent, or rarely dry. Seeds reniform or angular, without or with only 
a very thin albumen. Embryo curved, the cotyledons incumbent, folded, or 
convolute, very rarely flat.— Herbs or shrubs, rarely trees. Leaves alternate, or 
very rarely opposite, simple, or consisting of 1 to 6 digitate leaflets, with or 
without stipules, which when present are occasionally prickly. Flowers either 
solitary or clustered in the axis of the leaves, or more frequently in terminal 

The Order is pretty generally distributed over the warmer and tropical regions of both the 
New and the Old World. Of the following genera two oiily, of one species each and both 
anomalous in the Order, are peculiar to Australia (one met with in Queensland, the other in 
West Australia). The other three are widely-spread tropical genera. — Benth. 

Tribe I. Cleomeae. — Herbs with a capsular fruit. 
Torus short, the stamens inserted immediately within the sepals and petals. 
Seeds several. 

Stamens 4 to 6, or rarely 8 1. Cleome. 

Stamens 8 to 16 2. Polanisu. 

Torus elongated, bearing. the stamens at the top under the ovary. 

Stamens all perfect, with long filaments. Leaves alternate, with digitate 
leaflets. Sepals 4. Seeds several 3. Gynandropsis. 

Tribe II. Cappareae. — Shrubs or trees, with an indehiscent succulent fruit. 

Ovules and seeds many. Torus short without any basal appendage .... 4. Cappakis, ; 
Ovules and seeds usually solitary. Leaves minute or none. Flowers diceoious. 
Sepals imbricate. Torus small. Filaments long .5. ApopHYLLtrir. 

1. CLEOME, Linn. 

(Name used by a Latin physician to designate a plant unknown to modern 


Sepals 4, sometimes united in a 4-toothed calyx. Petals 4, nearly equal. 
Stamens 6, rarely 4 or 8, all or some only perfect, inserted on the short torus 
immediately within the petals. Ovary sessile or stalked, with many ovules, the 
stigma sessile or on a short subulate style. Capsule usually elongated, sessile or 
stipitate. Seeds many, reniform, usually rough or woolly. — Herbs, either 
glabrous or glandular-pubescent. Leaves with 8 to 7 digitate leaflets, or in some 
species not Australian simple. Flowers solitary or in terminal racemes. 

A large genus, chiefly abundant in the warm parts of America, and in the hot sandy districts 
of N.E. Africa and S.W. Asia. 

Stemless, with radical leaves and 1-flowered scapes 1. C. oxalidea. 

Erect and leafy, with racemose flowers 2. C. tetrandra. 

Plant, toothed prickly 3. C. pungens. 

1. C. oxalidea (Oxalis-like), F. v. M. Fragm.. i. 69 ; Benth. Fl. Amtr. i. 90. 
A little glabrous, glaucous, almost stemless annual. Leaves radical, consisting of 
3 obovate or orbicular leaflets, 2 to 4 lines long, on a slender petiole longer than 
themselves. Scapes filiform, 1-flowered, If to 2in. long. Sepals about 1 line 
long. Petals of a pale pink, ovate, about 2 lines long. Stamens 6 to 8, with 
linear-oblong anthsrs attached near the base. Capsule sessile, linear-oblong or 
narrow-linear, f to lin. long. 

Hab.: Northern inland localities. 

Gteom:] IX. CAPPARIDEiE, 155 

2. C. tetrandra (stamens often four), Bankn in DC, Prod., i. 240; Benth. Fl. 
Atistr. i. 90. An annual, either glabrous or sprinkled with a few short glandular 
hairs, the stems often several together, slender, ascending from a few inches to 
l^ft. Leaves chiefly at the base of the stems on long petioles, with 3 or 5 linear- 
lanceolate or narrow- oblong leaflets sometimes above an inch long, the upper 
leaves few, small, with only 8 leaflets or simple. Eaceme loose and slender, with 
filiform pedicels. Sepals ^ to 1 line long. Petals narrow, 8 to 6 lines long, 
nearly equal. Stamens 4 to 6. Capsule sessile, slender, 1 to Ifin. long, with a 
short subulate style, the valves thin .and minutely striate. Seeds transversely 

Hab.: Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

3. C. *punsens (pungent), Willi,. Spider-flower. A robust annual clothed 
with a glandular pubescence, having a heavy scent, 2 to 5ft. high. Stipules 
spiny. Leaves petiolate, of from 5 to 7 lanceolate leaflets ; petioles and midribs 
prickly. Stamens 6, long exserted from the corolla. Ovary much shorter than 
the gynophore. Ripe capsule about 4in. long. 

Hab.: A South American plant now naturalised. Near towns, a stray from garden culture : 
considered a good bee plant 

2. POLANISIA, Rafin. 
(Stamens unequal.) 

Sepals and petals 4 each, as in Cleome. Stamens usually 8 or more, inserted 
on the short torus. Ovary and capsule sessile or stalked, with many ovules and 
seeds, as in Cleome. — Herbs, with the habit of Cleome, from which the genus only 
differs in the increased number of stamens. Flowers in terminal racemes. 

The genus is distributed over the warmer and tropical regions of both the New and the Old 
World. The only Australian species is a common tropical weed. 

1. P. viscosa (viscid), DC. Prod. i. 242 ; Benth. Fl. Atistr. i. 90. An erect 
branching annual or biennial, usually about 1ft. high, more or less covered with 
short, glandular, viscid hairs. Leaflets 3 or 5, very rarely 7, from obovate or 
oblong-cuneate to linear-lanceolate, the largest usually 1 to IJin. long, but mostly 
much smaller. Flowers yellow, in terminal racemes. Sepals about 2 lines, 
petals twice or thrice as long, from narrow-oblong to almost ovate. Stamens 
from 8 to 16. Capsule from oblong-linear about lin. long to narrow-linear and 
Sin. long strongly striate, the nerves very oblique and anastomosing in the short 
pods, nearly parallel in the long ones, and always glandular-pubescent. Seeds 
wrinkled. — Cleome ilava, Banks, in DC. Prod. i. 241. 

Hab.: Common In most parts of Queensland. 

Var. grandiflora. Slightly pubescent. Leaflets narrow. Sepals about 4 lines, petals nearly 
lin. long. Capsule above 4 in. long, N.W. coast, Bynoe ; Sweers Island, Henne. 

Some specimens from the gravelly bed of the Victoria River, F. v. Mueller, have shot out from 
the flowering racemes numerous branches crowded with small leaves, and very small axillary 
flowers almost without stamens, but producing smaU slender capsules, the whole plant assuming 
the appearance of the P. micrantha, Boj., from Madagascar. Other specimens from the same 
locality have all the leaves entire or 3-lobed, but these have no flowers to determine the species 
with certainty. 

The species is a common weed throughout India, extending into tropical Africa. — Benth. 


(Stamens appearing to be on the style.) 

(Eoeperia, F. v. M.) 

Sepals and petals 4 each, as in Cleome. Torus produced into a long slender 

gynophore, bearing at its summit about 6 stamens with filiform filaments. Ovary 

sessile or stalked within the stamens, with many ovules, the stigma sessile or on 

56 IX. CAPP ABIDED. [Gunandropsh. 

a subulate style, and the capsule sessile or stalked and many-seeded, as in Gleom.e. 
—Herbs, with the habit of GUome, from which the genus only differs in the long 
stalk-like torus bearing the stamens. Flowers in terminal racemes. 

Gynandropsis, like the last two genera, is dispersed over the tropical regions both of the New 
and the Old World. — Benth. n mr 77 s 

Flowers yellow. Capsule not striate ... 1- ^- ZlZliZ',77n 

Flowers white or purplish. Capsule striate 2. G. pentaphylla. 

1. G. Muelleri (after Baron v. Mueller), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 91. An erect 
annual, covered with a glandular viscid pubescence. Leaflets 3 or 5, lanceolate 
or oblong-linear, those of the upper leaves f to lin. long on a long petiole. 
Flowers yellow, on short pedicels in the upper axils, forming a terminal leafy 
raceme. Sepals i to near lin. long, narrow, acuminate, unequal. Petals fully 
Sin. long, oblong, narrowed into a long claw. Stamens 5 to 7, the stipes or 
elongated torusoften IJin. long. Capsule linear, 2 to 2^in. long, not striate, but 
rough with short, glandular hairs, terminated by a slender style of nearly lin. — 
limperia cleomoiflen, F. v. M. in Hook. Kew Journ. ix. 15. 

Hab.: Gulf country. 

2. Cr. pentaphylla (leaf of five parts), DC. An erect herb of 1 to 3ft., 
or sometimes shrubby below and taller, or reduced to 8 or 4in.; the extremities 
and young leaves usually thinly pilose or pubescent. Leaves 5-foliolate, the 
upper 8-foliolate ; leaflets obovate or oblanceolate, acute-acuminate or obtuse, 
denticulate-serrulate or entire. Racemes glutinous, with simple or 3-foliolate 
bracts. Flowers white or purplish. Capsule narrow-linear, tapering into the 
style, usually puberulous or minutely setulose, 8 to 4in. long, gynophore f to 2in.,, 
with the scar of the stamens near the middle style, variable in length or stigma 

Hab.: This Indian plant is now met with in most warm countries. 

4. CAPPARIS, Linn. 

(Name used by ancients for common caper plant, one of the genus.) 

(Busbeokia, Endl.) 

Sepals usually 4, rarely 5, free or the outer ones united in the bud into an 

entire calyx, which splits irregularly as the flower expands. Petals usually 4, 

imbricate. Stamens indefinite, inserted on the short torus, the filaments free, 

filiform. Ovary borne on a long stalk, 1 to 4-celled, with 2 to 6 placentas and 

several or manv ovules ; stigma sessile. Berry stalked, globose or elongated, 

very rarely dehiscent. Seeds several, immersed in pulp, with a hard or coriaceous 

testa and convolute embryo.— ^Trees or shrubs, sometimes climbing, unarmed or 

prickly. Leaves simple, membranous or coriaceous ; stipules prickly or 

setaceous, often only on the young or barren shoots. 

A large genus, distributed over the tropical and warm regions both of the New and the Old 
World ; and divisible, chiefly from remarkable difierences in the calyx, into several sections, of 
which two only are Australian — one (Eucapparis) comprises the greater number of the Asiatic 
and African species, but is not American ; the other (Butbeckia) is confined to Australia and 
Norfolk Island. The Australian species of both sections are all endemic, and many of them 
are remarkable for producing slender barrep shoots, with very prickly stipules, and small leaves 
so very differently shaped from those of the flowering-branches that where we have specimens 
of these barren branches only it is impossible to identify them. — Benth. 

Sect. I. ZSucapparlB. — Sepals 4, rather large, imbricate in 2 series. Berry globular or 

Flowers on slender pedicels in terminal umbels. Outer sepals equal . . . 1. C. uvibellata. 
Flowers lateral or axillary, pedicels solitary or one above the other. One of 
the outer sepals larger and saccate or concave at the base. 
Stamens 12 or under. Flowers small. 
Pedicels usually 2, one over the other. Flowers very tomentose . . . 2. C. lasiantha. 
Pedicels 4 or 5, one above the other. Flowers slightly pubescent . . . 3. C. quiniflora. 

Onpim-h.] IX. CAPPARIDBi^. 57 

Stamens numerous, or more than 15. 

Sepals very unequal, the largest Jin. . . . . . . 4. C. nummularia. 

Sepals slightly unequal, about 3 lines .... , . 5. C sarmentosn. 

Flowers small Sepals 2 lines. Petals 4 line;; . . . 6. C. uberiflora. 

Sect. II. Busbeckia. — Two outer sepals broad, very concave, completely united in the bud, 
and separating irregularly as the flower expands. 

Leaves mostly ovate or oblong. 
Leaves mostly 2 to 4in. long. Ovary glabrous, JPruit from J to a little 
more than lin. diameter. 
Flowers mostly axillary, distant. 

Leaves ovate. Buds ovoid, acuminate, lin. long, almost woody . . 7. C ornans. 

Leaves ovate or oblong. Buds globular, Jin. long, coriaceous . . . 8. C nobilis. 

Leaves ovate. Buds 4-angled 9. C canescens. 

Leaves oblong. Buds globose-pyramidal 10. C Shanesiana. 

Flowers in a terminal corymb or short raceme. Buds globular . . .11. G. lucida. 

Leaves mostly 1 to IJin. long. Ovary tomentose. Fruit 2in. diameter . 12. C. Mitchelli. 
Leaves lanceolate or long and narrow. 

Leaves obtuse at the base. Petiole very short . . .... . . 13. C loranthifolia 

Leaves coriaceous, narrowed into a rather long petiole .... . 14. C. umbonata. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, membranous. Petioles short 15. C. humistrata. 

Leaves very narrow, on very short petioles 16. C. Thozetiana. 

1. C. umbellata (form of inflorescence), R. Br. in DC. Prod. i. 247 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 93. Shrubby, -with the young branches tomentose. Stipulary 
spines small, nearly straight or recurved. Leaves from ovate to narrow-oblong, 
mostly 1| to 2in., or when full grown Sin. long, at first membranous, softly 
pubescent or tomentose, at length stiff and usually glabrous, on petioles of about 
2 lines. Pedicels slender, 6 to 9 lines long, usually 6 to 8 together in terminal 
umbels, sessile above the last leaves, or sometimes on short, lateral, leafless 
branches. Buds small, globular. Outer sepals thin, but stiff, equal, 2 to 2f 
lines long, orbicular, concave, slightly imbricate, glabrous, inner ones scarcely 
longer, much imbricate. Petals about 3 lines long, pubescent. Stamens 
numerous. Ovary glabrous, with 8 to 10 ovules to each placenta. Berry 
globular, smooth, in our specimens not lin. diameter, on a stipes of lin. 
Seeds separated by spurious partitions. 

Hab.: Coast scrubs from Port Denison to Cape York. 

The species is mostly nearly allied to the common Indian C. sepiaria, differing chiefly in its 
sessile umbels and less numerous flowers. 

2. C. lasiantha (alluding to clothing of flowers) R, Br. in DC. Prod. i. 247 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 94. " Wyjeelah" or " Thulla-Kurbin," Cloncurry, Palmer. A 
much-branched shrub, clothed with a soft tomentum, usually rust-coloured on 
the young branches and inflorescence, afterwards paler, and sometirnes disap- 
pearing on the old leaves. Leaves from ovate to narrow-oblong or almost 
lanceolate, obtuse, 1 to 2in. long, rounded at the base, with a very short petiole, 
thickly coriaceous when full grown, with very oblique primary nerves. Pedicels 
axillary, solitary or 2 together, one above the other, much shorter than the leaves. 
Outer sepals very concave and unequal, slightly imbricate, softly tomentose, the 
larger one about 3 lines long and almost saccate at the base ; inner sepals and 
petals ovate, 4 to 5 lines long, very tomentose outside. Stamens about 12. 
Ovary glabrous, with 10 to 12 ovules to each placenta. Young fruit ovoid, on a 
slender stipes of IJin. 

Hab.: Many parts of the colony. 

Pulp of fruit eaten by natives. — Palmer. 

3. C. quiniflora (alluding to number of flowers together), DC. Prod. i. 
247 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 94. Branches weak and flexuose, the young ones and 
very young leaves rusty-tomentose, but soon becoming glabrous. Leaves ovate, 
obtuse or acuminate, 3 to 4in. lorig, rounded or almost cordate at the base,,, on 
petioles of 3 to 4 lines, rather coriaceous. Pedicels usually under ^in. long, 3 to 

58 IX. CAPPAEIDEiE. [Capra'-i^. 

5 together, one above the other, in lateral clusters along the leafless tops of the 
side-branches, or above the upper axils. Outer sepals thin, slightly pubescent, 
unequal, the larger one saccate at the base and about 3 lines long ; inner sepals 
and petals longer, oval-oblong, pubescent. Stamens few. Fruit glabrous, 
globular, | to lin. diameter, on a stipes of about lin. Some barreri shoots, with 
very small ovate, rhomboid, or oblong leaves, assume a totally different aspect 
from the rest of the plant. 

Hab.: Ranges about Cairns to Cape York, the Hammond Island, Torres Straits. Also in 
New Caledonia. 

4. C. nummularia (leaves roundish, like a piece of coin), DC; Benth. 
Fl. Amtr. i. 94 ; " Longullah " and " Mijah," Cloncurry, Palmer. 
A dense or rambling shrub 5 or 6ft. high, or in some situations 
nearly prostrate or reclining on rocks, with hard tortuous branches. 
Stipular spines short, straight or recurved. Leaves broadly ovate or orbicular, 
very obtuse or sometimes emarginate, with a minute point in the notch, ^ to fin. 
long, rather thick, on petioles of 8 to 4 lines. Peduncles axillary, solitary, lin. 
long or more. Outer sepals glabrous, very unequal, imbricate, the large one 
broadly hood-shaped, acuminate, fin. long, the other much narrower and 
concave. Inner sepals and petals apparently longer and glabrous, but very 
imperfect in our specimens. Stamens very numerous. Berry ovoid, succu- 
lent, fully l^in. long, marked with longitudinal ribs, bursting when ripe like 
the fruit of a Momordica, on a stipes of at least Ifin. — F. v. M. Fragm. i. 143 
and 244. 

Hab.: Many parts of the colony. About Boulia, Burke River, it forms handsome large, dense 
Fruit eaten by natives, 

5. C. sarmentosa (branches straggling), A. Cimn. Herb. ; Benth. Fl. AuUr. 
i. 95. A slender tree, supporting itself on the branches of others, the younger 
branches slightly rusty-tomentose. Stipulary spines very short and hooked. 
Leaves almost sessile, broadly ovate, obovate or orbicular, obtuse, ^ to fin. long 
or sometimes much smaller, thin and glabrous when full grown. Flowers 1 or 2 
together in the upper axils, on pedicels of 4 to 6 lines. Outer sepals glabrous, 
slightly unequal, about 3 lines long ; inner pepals and petals rather longer, 
slightly tomentose or pubescent. Stamens 15 or more. Berry ovoid, not large, 
on a slender stipes of about an inch. 

Hab.: Brisbane river, and many other southern localities. 

The twigs sometimes infested with the fungus Didymosphosria conoidella. Sacc. and Berk. 

6. C. uberiflora (flowers numerous), F. v. M. Fragm. ix. 172. A glabrous 
(except the petals) climbing shrub. Leaves deep-green and membranous, oblong- 
lanceolate, 2^ to Bin. long, IJ to Sin. broad, the apex usually with a minute 
sharp point, tapering to a slender petiole of about ^in. Stipular spines on the 
older branches, none on the flowering branchlets, in pairs, small, recurved. 
Peduncles axillary near the ends of the branchlets, often attaining l^in. in 
length, thin and compressed, bearing at the end a dense or more or less elongated 
raceme of rather small white flowers. Pedicels filiform, about Jin. long. Sepals 
boat-like, about 2 lines long. Petals linear, 4 lines long and 1 broad, tomentose, 
densely so near the base. Stamens rather numerous, filaments flexuose, very 
slender, fin. long. Berry oval, on a slender stipes of fin. 

Hab.: Brook Island, Dallachy; Cairns, L, J. Nugent— the above from these specimens. 

7. C ornans (alluding to beauty of flowers), F. v. M. Herb.; Benth. Fl. Aiistr. 
i. 95. A woody climber, the branches hoary with a minute pubescence. Leaves 
ovate, obtuse, 2 to Sin. long, narrowed at the base, on petioles of i to lin., 
glabrous on both sides. Stipulary spines conical, reflexed, often wanting on the 

Cai>parh.] TX. GAPPAEIDB^. 59 

flowering branches. Pedicels solitary in the upper axils, H to 2in. long. 
Flowers large and showy. Outer sepals united into an ovoid acuminate bud of 
above lin. long, of a woody texture, and bursting irregularly; inner sepals 
orbicular, woolly inside, thick but petal-like. Petals (4 ?) obovate, more than 
2in.long. Stamens numerous, about Sin. long. Ovary glabrous. Fruit not seen. 
Hab.: Port Denison. 

8. C. nobilis (referring to size of plant), F. r. M. Herb.; Benth. Fl. Amtr. 
i. 95. " Rarum," N. Queensland, Thozet. A small tree, either perfectly glabrous or 
the young shoots and the under side of the leaves slightly covered with a close 
minute pubescence. Stipularly prickles short and conical, seldom seen on the 
flowering-branches. Leaves oval-oblong or oblong, acute, shortly acuminate or 
obtuse, 2 to 4in. long, coriaceous and often shining above, on petioles of 3 to 6 
lines. Pedicels solitary in the upper axils or very rarely 2 together, about lin. 
long. Buds globular, about ^in. diameter, often slightly emarginate at the top, 
showing the tips of the 2 outer sepals, which are perfectly united into a 
coriaceous calyx bursting or splitting irregularly ; inner sepals broadly ovate, -^-in. 
long, firm in the centre, thin on the edges. Petals 4, white, larger and thinner 
than the sepals, pubescent inside. Stamens very numerous. Fruit globular, 
about lin. diameter, with a small protuberance at the top, the stipes -l-in. to 
nearly 2in. long. Seeds numerous, embedded in a hard almost woody pulp. — 
Busbeckia nobilis, Endl. Prod. Fl. Norf. 64 ; Busbeckia arborea, F. v. M. Fragm. 
i. 163. 

Hab.: Prom the Brisbane river scrubs to Eookhampton. 

Wood of a light or whitish colour, cloge-graiued, firm, should be useful for engraving. — 
Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No. 4. 

Fruit eaten by natives, Thozet. 

Var. pubescens. Petioles shorter, leaves more pubescent underneath, fruit scarcely umbonate. 
Brisbane river, A. Cunningham. 

The same species is also found in Norfolk Island. 

9. C. canescens (alluding to colour of foliage), Banks in DC. Prod. i. 246 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 96. "Mondoleu," N. Queensland, Thozet. Habit and foliage 
so nearly that of C. nobilis that some specimens without the buds are difficult to 
distinguish from it, but in general they are of a paler more glaucous green, 
either minutely pubescent or glabrous. Stipulary prickles subulate, wanting on 
the flowering branches. Leaves as in C. nobilis, or more frequently broader and 
more obtuse, mostly 1^ to 2in. long, those of the barren shoots sometimes broadly 
ovate-cordate with a prickly point. Pedicels solitary or 2 together in the upper 
axils or terminal, 1 to 2in. long. Buds tomentose, larger than in C. nobilis, and 
prominently 4-angled. Flowers, of which I have only seen fragments, ap- 
parently like those of C. nobilis. Fruit (not yet ripe) as in C. nobilis, but on a 
longer stipes. 

Hab.: Bay of Inlets, Northumberland islands and Keppel Bay, Burdekin and Lynd rivers. 
Fruit eaten by natives, Thozet. 

Var. glauca. Leaves 3 to 4in. long, very thick and glaucous. Between the Flinders and 
Lynd rivers. — F. Mueller. 

10. C Shanesiana (after P. A. O'Shanesy), F. v. 21. Fragm. x. 94. A small 
tree with a rough bark. Branches spreading. Stipulary spines often absent, 
short, thick, and slightly curved. Leaves 3 or 4in. long, 1 to l^in. broad, 
oblong to lanceolate-oval, the under side velvety pubescent ; petioles 8 to 9 lines. 
Flowers large, mostly forming a terminal corymb, pedicels of flowers 1^ to 2iii. 
long, lengthening under the fruit to 3in., and with the branchlets and calyx 
velvety. Buds about lin. long, the lower portion globose, the upper pyramidal, 
longitudinally sulcate-angular. Petals 1-jin.; style 2J to Sin. long, slightly 
woolly, ovary glabrous. Fruit globose rugose, muricate-tuberculous umbonate, 
2in. diameter. 

Hab.: Brigalow scrubs, Bockhampton and Herbert's Creek. 

60 IX. CAPPARIDEi^. [Capparh. 

11. C. lucida (leaves shiny), R. Br. Herb. : Benth. Fl. Amtr. i. 96. 
Aboriginal name at Cloncurry " Thoogeer," Pahner. A shrub, very nearly allied 
to C. nobilis, but more often pubescent. Leaves ovate or oblong, obtuse, 2 to 3 
or rarely 4in. long, coriaceous and shining when old, but often thinner than m 
C. nobilis and more reticulate. Flowers white, rather smaller than in C. nobilu, 
and usually several together in a terminal cluster or short raceme, the outer 
ones in the axils of the uppermost leaves. Buds globular, on pedicels of about 
lin. Fruit globular, like that of C. nobilis.— Thylacium lucidum, DC. Prod. i. 
254 ; Busbeckia corymbifiora, F. v. M. Fragm. i. 163. 

Hab.: Burdekin river, Howitt's isles, Hope islets, Port MoUe and Port Denison. 
Eipe fruit eaten by natives, Palmer. 

12. C. Mitchelli (after Sir T. Mitchell), Lindl. in Mitch. Three Exped. i. 
315 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 96. Native pomegranate ; Bumble ; " Kam-doo-thal," 
Cloncurry, Pa;«?er; "Hondo," N. Queensland, Thozet ; " Eeger," St. George, 
Wedd. A much-branched shrub, more or less clothed with a minute yellowish 
or whitish tomentum, sometimes soft and dense, sometimes disappearing on the 
older leaves. Stipular prickles short, somewhat hooked, often wanting on the 
flowering branches. Leaves ovate or oblong, obtuse, 1 to l-|in. long, narrowed 
into a petiole of 2 to 3 lines, coriaceous and rather thick, obscurely veined. 
Pedicels few, axillary, 1 to l^in. long, thickened upwards. Buds ovoid- 
globular, usually acuminate, nearly \vd.. long. Outer calyx thick, opening 
irregularly or sometimes into 2 valvate concave sepals. Inner sepals 4 to 8 lines 
long, more or less pubescent, especially at the base, thin and glabrous on the 
edges. Petals similar but larger. Ovary tomentose, on a long neary glabrous 
stipes. Berry globular, 2in. diameter when ripe. Seeds 4 to 5 lines long, 
embedded in a hard dry pulp. — Busbeckia Mitchelli, F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 53, t. 
suppl. 4. 

Hab.: A common tree inland. 

The aborigines and bushnien consider the bark to possess healing properties, and use it in 
oases of sores and piles. 

Wood whitish, close-grained, hard ; suitable for engraving or carving. — Baileifs Cat. Ql. 
Woods No. 6. 

Fruit eaten by natives, Thozet, Palmer. 

Twigs sometimes infested with th? fungus Calonectria Otagensis. 

13. C. loranthifolia (Loranthus-leaved), Lindl. in Mitch. Trop. Amtr. 
220 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 97. A scrubby bush with more or less tomentose 
branches. Leaves from oblong-linear to broadly lanceolate, obtuse or acute, IJ 
to 2Jin. long, obtuse at the base, on a petiole of 1 or rarely 2 lines, coriaceous 
and at length glabrous. Pedicels in the upper axils about lin. long, thickened 
upwards. Buds ovoid, scarcely acuminate, the outer calyx not so thick as in the 
other species of the section Busbeckia. Inner sepals larger, thickened in the 
centre. Petals longer, thinner, villous inside. Stamens numerous. Ovary 

Hab.: Not uncommon inland. 

14. C> umbonata (form of fruit), Lindl. in Mitch. Trap. Austr. 257 ; Benth. 
Fl. Amtr. i. 97. A shrub with tomentose branches like the last, but the leaves 
usually much longer, often 7 to Sin. long, and rarely under 3in., always lanceo- 
late, and narrowed into a rather long petiole. Pedicels axillary, thickened 
upwards, 1 to l^in. long. Buds ovoid, the outer calyx very thick and coriaceous. 
Petals as in C. Mitchelli. Fruit apparently small, glabrous, not always marked 
with the terminal protuberance which suggested the specific name ; the stipes 
very long. 

Hab.: Brigalow scrub on the Belyando, Dawson Eiver, and other localities. 

nai>imris.\ IX. CAPPARIDBiE. 61 

15. C. humistrata (spreading on the ground), F. o. M. FrMjiti. v. 156. A 
procumbent pubescent shrub, with terete, spreading, softly pubescent branches. 
Stipulary spines setaceous-subulate, scarcely curved. Leaves f to l^in. long, 
ovate-lanceolate, mucronulate, chartaceous, margins slightly recurved, pale green ; 
petioles short. Flower pedicel about fin. long, axillary, solitary, buds about 
4 lines long. Sepals roundish, contracted at the apex. Petals scarcely exceeding 
^in., slightly pubescent near the base. Stamens about 30, ovary glabrous 
apiculate. Fruit ? 

Hab.: Near the town of Stan well. 

16. C. Thozetiana (after M. A. Thozet), F. v. M. Fragm. v. 104. An erect 
shrub resembling a Bossieea, glabrous or nearly so ; branchlets terete, slightly 
flexuose. Stipulary spines 1 to If lines long, subulate, slightly curved. Leaves 

1 to 2in. long, If to 2 lines broad, linear, margins recurved, apex mucronulate, 
base obtuse, on very short petioles. Flowers axillary, solitary, on pedicels of 
about lin.; bud before expanding about 3 lines diameter, globose, inner sepals 
obovate-cuneate ; much shorter than the petals. Petals 6 — 6 lines long, velvety- 
pubescent beneath. Stamens 16 to 20. Ovary glabrous, very shortly obtuse- 

Hab.: Near Eockhampton. 

5. APOPHYLLUM, F. v. M. 
' (Plant leafless.) 

Flowers dioecious. Sepals 3 or 4, imbricate, 2 outside the others. Petals 

2 or 4, sessile, imbricate. Maleflower : Stamens 8 to 16, inserted on the short 
torus with filiform filaments. Ovary none. Female flower : Stamens none, or 
rarely 1 to 3. Ovary stipitate with a sessile stigma ; ovules 1 or 2, attached to 
the sides of the cavity above the middle. Berry shortly stipitate. Seeds 1 or 2, 
with a smooth testa and involute cotyledons. Leaves very few, small, alternate. 

The genus is limited to the following species, and differs from Capparis only in its dioecious 
flowers and the usually solitary ovule. — Benth. 

1. il.. anomalum (strange appearance), F. v. M. in Hook. Kew Journ. ix. 
307 ; Beyith. Fl. Austr. i. 97. A shrub or tree, almost leafless, with cylindrical, 
often pendulous branches, silky-white when young but soon becoming glabrous. 
Leaves on the young shoots few, linear or linear-acute, 2 to 8 lines long and very 
deciduous, or rarely above fin. long and more persistent. Flowers small, 
fragrant, either growing singly along the young shoots or in short lateral racemes 
or clusters. Petals 1 to If lines long. Sepals rather more than 1 line long, 
pubescent. Petals unequal, as long as or longer than the sepals, pubescent inside 
at the base. Fruit nearly globular, the size of a small pea. 
Hab.: In the interior, Mitchell. 

Ordee X. YIOLARIE^. 

Flowers usually hermaphrodite. Sepals 5, imbricate. Petals 5, imbricate, 
equal or unequal, with the lower one larger, or spurred or otherwise dissimilar. 
Stamens 5, hypogynous or nearly so, the anthers erect and connivent or coilnate 
round the pistil, sessile or on short filaments, the connective often very broad, 
with the anther-cells opening inwards. Ovary free, sessile, 1 -celled, with usually 
3 parietal placentas, and several or rarely only 1 or 2 anatropous ovules to each 
placenta. Style usually simple, often thickened or curved at the top. Fruit a 
capsule, opening in as many valves as placentas, or rarely an indehiscent berry. 


Seeds with a fleshy albumen ; embryo axile, usually straight, the cotyledons 
usually broad and flat, the radicle next the hilum. — Herbs or shrubs. Leaves 
usually alternate, simple, and rarely lobed or cut, with lateral stipules. Flowers 
axillary, solitary, or in cymes or panicles, very rarely in racemes. Pedicels 
usually with 2 bracteoles. Capsules often opening elastically. 

An Order generally dispersed over the globe. The two Queensland genera have a very wide 
geographical range. 
Herbs or undershrubs, with very irregular flowers. Fruit capsular. 

Sepals produced into a small appendage, or at least a protuberance below their 

insertion. Lower petal spurred or saccate 1. Viola. 

Sepals not produced at the base. Lower petal saccate or gibbons at the base . 2. Ionidium. 

1. VIOLA, Linn. 

(Derived from its Greek name.) 

Sepals produced into a small appendage or protuberance below the insertion. 
Petals spreading, the lowest usually larger, spurred or saccate at the base. 
Anthers nearly sessile, the connectives flat, produced into a membranous 
appendage beyond the cells, those of the 2 lower anthers usually bearing a small 
dorsal reflexed protuberance or spur. Style variously thickened or dilated at the 
top, straight with a terminal stigma, or incurved with the stigma in front. 
Capsule opening elastically in 3 valves. Seeds ovoid -globular with a erustaceous 
testa. — Herbs, with the stipules usually foliaceous and persistent. Peduncles 
axillary, 1-flowered. Most species, besides the perfect flowers, produce later in 
the season small apetalous but very prolific flowers. 

A very large genus, most of the species natives of the temperate regions of the northehi hemi- 
sphere, or of the high mountains of South America, with a very few dispersed over Africa, 
Australia, and New Zealand. The Australian species are either quite endemic or extend only to 
Norfolk Island and New Zealand. They are aU perennials. — Benth. 

Stemless, with a tufted or creeping rhizome. 

Leaves lanceolate, oblong, or scarcely ovate. No stolons. Stipules 
adnate 1. V. betoniccefolia. 

Leaves nearly orbicular. Stolons creeping. Spur reduced to a slight 
protuberance. Stipules free 2. V. hederacea. 

1. V. betonicaefolia (Betony-leaved), Sm,; DC. Prod. i. 294; Betith. Fl. 
Amtr. i. 99. Glabrous or pubescent, stemless, and without stolons, and often 
tufted, the stock either ending underneath abruptly, with thick spreading fibres, 
or tapering into a horizontal or descending root. Leaves radical, from lanceolate 
to oblong or nearly ovate, mostly obtuse, and 1 to l|in. long, entire or slightly 
crenate, truncate or slightly cordate, rarely narrowed at the base, with the long 
petiole usually dilated at the top. Stipules linear, adnate to the petiole. Scapes 
of the perfect flowers usually considerably longer than the leaves, with the 
subulate bracts below the middle. Flowers violet, rather large. Sepals 
lanceolate, acute, 2| to nearly 3 lines long, with short blunt basal appendages. 
Lateral petals usually copiously bearded inside, the upper ones less so, the lowest 
not at all ; spur broad and obtuse, much shorter than the sepals. Style thickened 
upwards, concave at the top, not winged. Apetalous flowers on very short 
scapes.— Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 27 ; F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 64 ; V. phyteumcefolia and 
V. loTigiscapa, DC. in Herb. Lamb., from the char, in G. Don, Gen. Syst. i. 322. 

Hab.: Near Brisbane. 

Received also from Norfolk Island, Sackhouse, and the species is nearly allied to V. Patrinii, 
DC, which is common in India, eastern Siberia, and China, and only appears to differ from V, 
betoniccefoUa in the rather longer spur and the style usually broadly winged, 

Vhhi.] X. VIOLARIEiE. 68 

2. V. hederacea (like the English ground-ivy), Labill. PL Nov. Holl. i. 66, 
t. 91 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 99. Glabrous or pubescent, densely tufted or widely 
creeping by its numerous stolons, very rarely emitting weak leafy stems. Leaves 
reniform, orbicular, or spathulate, usually under ^in. diameter, but when 
very luxuriant, 1 to l^in., entire or irregularly and sometimes coarsely toothed. 
Stipules free, brown, lanceolate-subulate, Scapes usually longer than the leaves, 
the bracts about the middle. Flowers usually small, blue, rarely white, but 
sometimes fully fin. broad. Sepals lanceolate, with only a slight protuberance 
below their insertion. Petals glabrous, or the lateral ones slightly pubescent 
inside, the spur of the lower one reduced to a slight concavity. Lower anthers 
with a very slight dorsal protuberance. Style bent at the base, the upper part 
cylindrical, truncate at the top, but not thickened. Seeds usually dark-colouted, 
but sometimes white. — DC. Prod. i. 805 ; Hook. Exot. PL iii. t. 225 ; Reichb. 
Icon. Exot. t. 110; Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 26; F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 65; 
F. Sieberiana, Spreng. Syst. Cur. Post. 96 ; Erpetion reniforme, Sweet, Brit. Fl. 
Gard. ii. t. 170 ; E. hederaceum, E. petiolare, and E. spatJvidatwn, G. Don, Gen. 
Syst. i. 385. 

Hab.: Moreton Bay, Fitzalan. 

2. lONIDIUM, Vent. 

(Name from resemblance to violet.) 

(Pigea, DG.) 

Sepals not produced at the base. Petals spreading, the lowest sometimes 
slightly larger than the others, more frequently very much larger with a broad 
claw, gibbous or saccate at the base. Anthers nearly sessile, or on distinct 
filaments, the connectives flat, produced into a membranous appendage beyond 
the cells, those of the 2 lower ones bearing a dorsal reflexed protuberance, spur, 
or gland, the two rarely united into one. Style thickened and incurved at the top, 
with the stigma in front. Capsule opening elastically in 3 valves. Seeds ovoid- 
globular, with a crustaceous testa. — Herbs or small shrubs. Leaves alternate or 
rarely opposite, usually narrow. Stipules small and narrow. Peduncles axillary 
or in a terminal raceme, 1 or several-flowered. 

A considerable genus, chiefly tropical, and the greater number of species American ; four or 
five are found in tropical Asia and Africa, and one of these occurs in Australia, the others here 
enumerated are aU endemic. — Benth. 

Peduncles axillary, 1 -flowered, or very rarely here and there 2-flowered. 

Lower petal more than twice as long as the calyx. 
Leaves entire, or rarely toothed. Appendages of the lower filaments 
nearly glabrous. Seeds striate 1. I. suffruticosum. 

Leaves toothed. Appendages of the lower filaments woolly-hairy. 

Seeds smooth 2. I. aurantiacum. 

Peduncles 1-fiowered in the upper axils, the upper ones longer than the 

leaves, and forming a terminal leafy raceme 3. I. Veriwnii. 

Peduncles slender, much longer than the leaves, with a leafless raceme of 
2 or more flowers. 
Upper leaves often opposite. Sepals lanceolate, shorter than the lateral 
petals . . . . .... . . 4. I. filiforme. 

1. I. suffruticosum (shrubby), Oing. in DC. Prod. i. 311 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. 
i. 101. Much-branched, glabrous, or very slightly pubescent, and usually from 
1 to l^ft. high, and more or less woody at the base. Leaves alternate, narrow- 
linear, or rarely linear-oblong or lanceolate, entire or rarely toothed, mostly 1 to 

64 X. VIOLAEIiE. [Tonidmm. 

2in. long. Peduncles axillary, filiform, l-flowered, 2 to 4 lines long, with a pair 
of minute bracts under the pedicel. Sepals lanceolate, very acute, with a 
very prominent green midrib, IJ to 2 lines long. Lateral petals rather longer 
than the calyx, with a broad-ovate falcate base, and a small, ciliate, obtuse 
extremity, sometimes expanded into a small lamina ; upper petals smaller ; lowest 
petal purple or rarely yellow, about |in. long, the claw longer than the other 
petals, saccate at the base, the lamina broadly ovate and longer than the claw. 
Filaments at least half as long as the anthers, the 2 lower ones with a thick spur, 
either quite glabrous or with a minute tuft of hair. Seeds elegantly marked 
with longitudinal striae. — Wight, Ic. t. 308 ; Pigea Banksiana, DC. Prod. i. 307. 
Hab : Most parts of the colony. 

The species is widely spread over tropical Asia and Africa. 

2. I. aurantiacum (orange-coloured), F. v. M. Herb.; Benth. Fl. Aiistr. i. 
102. Pubescent with short spreading hairs or rarely glabrous, often woody at 
the base, branched, 6in. to 1ft. high or rather more. Leaves linear or oblong- 
lanceolate, 1 to l^^in. long, bordered with small, distant, acute teeth. Flowers 
axillary, on peduncles of 8 to 4 lines, as in I. sujfruticosum, and nearly similar in 
structure, but the lower petal is smaller and always yellow, the broad lamina 
usually shorter than the, long narrow claw, which is scarcely saccate at the base, 
and the appendages of the filaments of the lower stamens are covered with long 
woolly hairs. Seeds, in the few capsules I have seen, smooth and not striate. 

Hab.: Georgina Eiver, J. Coghlan. 

3. I. Vernonii (after W. Vernon), F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 223 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. 
i. 108. Glabrous, with erect, slender, but stiff stems, little branched, except at 
the base, and usually about 1ft. high, as in 1. filiforme, but the branches more 
angular. Leaves all alternate, linear or narrow-lanceolate, rarely above lin. 
long, and the upper ones much smaller and vary narrow. Peduncles l-flowered, 
as in I. suffruticomm, but only in the upper axils, and the upper ones longer than 
the small floral leaves, so as to form a terminal leafy raceme. Flowers blue, very 
much like those of I. filiforme, the lower petal of the same shape and size, except 
that the claw is distinctly spurred at the base, and the lateral petals are more 
obtuse than in that species ; stamens the same, except that the subulate ap- 
pendages at the top of the anther-cells are still more minute. 

Hab.: What may be a form of this species has been gathered near the Pine Eiver. 

4. 1. filiforme (thread-like), F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 66; Benth. Fl. Austr. i, 103. 
A perfectly glabrous herb, said by some collectors to be annual, but certainly in 
many instances forming a perennial rootstock. Stems slender, but stiff and 
wiry, simple or branched, usually 1 to 2ft. high, but when eaten down sending 
up numerous short erect branches. Leaves alternate or the upper ones opposite, 
narrow-linear, mostly 1 to 2in. long, entire, the lowest ones shorter, broader, and 
petiolate. Flowers blue, in slender leafless racemes, on terminal or axillary 
peduncles, always much longer than the leaves, the pedicels under a line long. 
Sepals shorter than the lateral petals, lanceolate, acute. Lower petal usually 
fully l^in. long, ovate, narrowed into a concave claw, saccate at the base, but 
varying considerably in size and breadth ; lateral petals broadly falcate, acute, 
about 2 lines long ; upper ones smaller. Anthers with an orange ovate appen- 
dage at the top of the connective, and two minute subulate appendages on the 
cells themselves ; the two lowest have also a small glandular protuberance on the 
back at their base. — Pigea filifonnis, DC. Prod. i. 307 ; I. Unarioides, Presl. Bot. 
Bm. 12. 

Hab.: Common in many localities. 

XT. BlXINEiE. 65 


Flowers regular. Sepals 2 to 6, usually 4 or 5 and imbricate. Petals either 
none, or as many as the sepals, or indefinite, imbricate or contorted in the bud, 
deciduous. Stamens hypogynous or slightly perigynous, indefinite or very rarely 
definite. Anthers 2-celled, opening by longitudinal slits or rarely by terminal 
pores. Torus often bearing glands or a glandular disk. Ovary free, usually 1- 
celled, with 8 or more, rarely 2 or 1, parietal placentas. Styles or stigmas as 
many as placentas, free or united. Ovules 2 or more to each placenta, amphi- 
tropous or anatropous. Fruit succulent or dry, opening in valves, bearing the 
placentas in the middle, or indehiscent. Seeds usually few, with a copious and 
fleshy or rarely thin albumen. Embryo in the axis, straight or curved, the radicle 
next the hilum, the cotyledons usually broad. — Trees or shrubs, in one genus 
twiners. Leaves alternate, simple, and often toothed, or rarely palmately lobed 
or divided. Flowers axillary or terminal, solitary or in clusters, corymbs, racemes, 
or panicles. 

A considerable Order, dispersed over the tropical or warm regions both of the Old and the 
New World. 

Tkiee I. Sixes. — Petals broad, contorted, without a scale or basal appendage. Anthers 
bursting by pores or short slits. 
Capsule almost 3 — 5-celled. Seeds curved. Trees or shrubs. Leaves 

digitate. Flowers large 1. Coohlospekmum. 

Tkibe II. Flacourties. — Petals small, imbricate or none. Anthers short, bursting by slits. 
Seeds straight. Trees or shrubs. Leaves simple. Flowers small. 
Sepals 4 to 6. Petals as many. Anthers with an appendage .... 2. Scolopia. 
Sepals 4 to 6. Petals none. Anthers without any appendage .... 3. Xylosma. 


(Seeds twisted.) 

Flowers hermaphrodite. Sepals 5, imbricate, deciduous. Petals 5, large. 
Stamens numerous. Anthers oblong or linear, opening in terminal pores or very 
short fissures. Placentas 3 to 5, projecting more or less into the cavity of the 
ovary, with numerous ovules. Style simple. Capsule 3 to 5-valved, the mem- 
branous endocarp separating from the pericarp. Seeds kidney-shaped or spirally 
curved, covered with wool or bordered by long hairs. — Trees, shrubs, or rarely 
undershrubs, usually yielding a yellow juice. Leaves palmately lobed or divided. 
Eacemes loose, few-flowered, in the upper axils or in terminal panicles. Flowers 
large, yellow. 

Besides the 2 foUowing species of the 4 peculiar to Australia, there is 1 known from 
southern India, 2 from Africa, and about 5 from South America. 
Calyx and inilorescence glabrous or slightly glandular pubescent. 

Leaves glabrous, with deep ovate-lanceolate or oblong lobes ... . . 1. C. Gillivresi. 

Leaves glabrous, divided to the base into narrow-oblong, pedate segments . 2. C. Gregorii. 

1. C. Gillivrsei (after John M'GilUvray), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 106. The 
specimens are perfectly glabrous, except a very slight pubescence on the branches 
of the panicle and pedicels. Leaves palmately divided to within J or Jin. of the, 
base, into 5 or 7 ovate-lanceolate or oblong-acuminate slightly toothed lobes, of 
which the central largest ones are usually 2 to Sin. long, the 2 outermost short 
and very acuminate. Panicles short and loose. Pedicels J to lin. long. Sepals 
very unequal, glabrous except at the base, the edges very thin. Anthers about 
IJ line long. Capsule obovoid-oblong, rarely Bin. long, truncate at the top, and 
very much depressed in the centre. Seeds enveloped in a very deciduous wood, 

Hab.: Thursday and other islands off the N.E. coast, Bordekin Eiver, Port Denjson, 
Used by the natives for fibre. — Roth, 

66 XI. BIXINEJ;. [Cochlospermum. 

2. C. Gregorii (after Hon. A. C. Gregory, the explorer), F. o. M. Fragm 
i. 71 ; Bnith. Fl. Amtr. i. 106. A small tree, quite glabrous except a very sligHt 
glandular pubescence on the branches of the inflorescence and pedicels. J-'eaves 
pedately divided to the base into about 7 narrow-lanceolate entire segments, the 
central ones 2 to Sin. long, the common petiole 3 to 6in. Panicles apparently 
short and not much divided, or reduced to a single raceme. Pedicels about ^m. 
long. Sepals and petals as in the last species. Style fihform, shghtly thickened 
towards the top. Outer stamens, as in all the other species, on longer filaments 
than the inner ones, but the difference is rather more decided m this species. 
Placentas 5. Fruit not seen, 

Hab.: Gilbert River. 

2. SCOLOPIA, Schreb. 

(Some species being very thorny.) 

(Phoberos, Lour.) 

Flowers hermaphrodite. Sepals 4 to 6, slightly imbricate when very young, 

but open long before flowering. Petals as many and nearly similar. Stamens 

indefinite, inserted on the thickened torus, with or without glands. Anthers 

short, the connective terminating in a thick process. Ovary with 3 or 4 placentas 

and few ovules. Style filiform, with an entire or lobed stigma. Fruit a berry. 

Seeds 2 to 4, with a hard testa. Cotyledons leafy. — Trees, often armed with 

axillary spines. Leaves simple, with pinnate veins, entire or toothed. Flowers 

small, in axillary racemes. 

The genus is dispersed over southern and eastern Africa and tropical Asia. The Australian 
species is endemip. — Benth. 

1. S. Brovrnii (after E. Brown), F. v. M. Fragm. iii. 11 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. 
i. 107. Perfectly glabrous in all its parts. Leaves from ovate to oblong- 
lanceolate, mostly acuminate, obtuse or almost acute, rarely rounded at the top, 
1| to Sin. long, always narrowed into a petiole of 3 to 4 lines, entire or slightly 
undulate-toothed, rather thick and smooth, obscurely triplinerved, but all the 
veins less conspicuous than in most species, either without glands or with 2 or 3 
marginal glands underneath. Racemes short and axillary or forming a terminal 
panicle of 1 to 2in. Pedicels 2 to 3 lines. Calyx 4-cleft, smaller than in S. 
crenata, apparently persistent. Petals 4, rather longer than the calyx, deciduous. 
Stamens numerous, with slender filaments, surrounded by a ring of glands, 
either distinct and shortly club-shaped or irregularly connate. Anthers small, 
the process of the connective glabrous and usually as long as the cells. Placentas 
3, with about 4 ovules to each. Stigma slightly 3-lobed. 

Hab.: Coast scrubs south and north. 

Wood pinkish, darkening towards the centres ; close-grained, tough. — Bailey^s Cat. Ql. 
Woods No. 7a. 

This species has much the foliage of some forms of the Indian C. crenata, but is readily known 
by the glands of the disk. — Benth. 

3. XYLOSMA, Forst. 
(From Greek, on account of wood of one species being bitter.) 

Flowers dioecious. Sepals 4 or 5, small, imbricate. Petals none. Male 
flowers : Stamens indefinite, often surrounded by a glandular disk ; anthers 
short, without appendage. Female flowers : Ovary inserted on an annular disk, 
with 2 or rarely more placentas, and 2 or few ovules to each ; style entire or 
divided, with dilated stigmas, or rarely stigma sessile. Berry small, indebisc^iit, 

X,/!osmn.] XI. BIXINB^. 67 

Seeds 2 to 8, with a smooth crustaoeous testa. Cotyledons broad. — Trees, often 
thorny. Leaves toothed or rarely quite entire. Flowers small, axillary, clustered, 
or shortly racemose. 

A genus widely dispersed over the tropical and subtropical regions of the New and the Old 
World. The only Australian species is endemic. 

1. X. ovatum (from form of leaf), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 108. Glabrous in all 
its parts, the branches short and slender, rough with lentioels, and in our speci- 
mens without thorns. Leaves mostly ovate, obtuse, about IJin. long, quite 
entire, narrowed into a very short petiole, thinly coriaceous, with numerous fine 
reticulate veins ; a few lower leaves short and almost orbicular, and the upper 
ones narrow. Male flowers not seen. Female flowers very small, 5 or 6 together 
in very short axillary racemes. Pedicels about 1 line long, in the axils of small, 
ovate, ciliate bracts. Sepals 4, orbicular, ciliate, about ^ line long. Disk deeply 
lobed or divided. Ovary ovoid, conical, but scarcely tapering into a distinct 
style, with a broad, thick, slightly 2-lobed stigma. Placentas 2, very prominent, 
forming a complete dissepiment above the insertion of the ovules, but far from 
meeting below. Ovules 2 to each placenta. Fruit a berry about 4 lines diameter, 
black, maturing 1 to 4 seeds. Testa brown outside, smooth. 

Hab,: N.E. coast. 

This appears to come nearest to X. orbiculatum, Porst., which, judging from Fiji Island 
specimens, has a similar almost sessile stigma, but its leaves are much larger and broader, and 
the ovary has 3 placentas, a 3-lobed stigma, and more than 2 ovules to each placenta. — Benth. 


Flowers hermaphrodite, regular or oblique. Sepals 5, distinct and imbricate, 
or rarely connate at the Ijase. Petals 5, imbricate, the claws or narrowed base 
usually erect and connivent or cohering in a tube, rarely spreading from the base. 
Stamens 5, hypogynous, free, alternating with the petals. Torus small, rarely 
produced into a short gynophore, sometimes bearing 5 glands. Ovary 1-celled, 
with 2 or rarely 3 to 5 parietal placentas, or divided into cells by the protrusion 
of the placentas, which often . unite in the axis, at least after flowering. Style 
simple, with an entire, small, capitate, or dilated stigma. Ovules several, super- 
posed in 2 rows on each placenta, horizontal. Fruit either a capsule opening 
loculicidally, the valves sometimes splitting also septicidally, or succulent and 
indehiscent. Seeds several or rarely solitary in each cell, dry or enveloped in 
pulp, with a thin testa, smooth or rarely muricate, and a hard albumen. 
Embryo very small, in a cavity of the albumen next the hilum. — Trees, erect 
shrubs, or undershrubs, with flexuose, decumbent or twining branches. Leaves 
alternate, entire, toothed, or rarely lolaed, without stipules. Flowers white, blue, 
yellow, or rarely reddish, terminal or axillary, solitary and nodding, or in short 
racemes or corymbose panicles. 

With the exception of Pittosporum itself, the genera are all limited to Australia. 

* Anthers ovate or oblong. Capsule dehiscent. Petals (except in Bursaria) erect at the base. 

Trees or erect shrubs. Petals erect at the base. Capsule thick or 
coriaceous. Seeds several. 

Seeds thick, not winged. ' Flowers usually small 1. Pittospoedm. 

Seeds flat, horizontal, winged. Flowers large, yellow 2. Hymenosporum. 

Erect shrubs, often prickly. Petals ' small, spreading from the base. 

Capsule thin, small, and flat. Seeds 1 or 2 in each cell, vertical, flat . 3. Buesaeia. 
Undershrubs or twiners, , Petals erect at the base. Capsule membranous 

or thinly coriaceous, Seeds thjoji or Jjorizgntal ..,.,,.. 4, Maeianihus, 


** Anthers ovate or oblong. Berry indehiscmt. Petals erect at the base. 
PrieHy shrub, with small; leaves and small sessile solitary flowers. Berry 

globular 5- Citeiobatus. 

Undershrubs or twiners. Flowers pedunculate. Berry ovoid or oblong . . 6. Billardieka. 
**• Anthers linear, or longer than the filaments. Petals spreading from the base, or nearly so. 

Undershrubs or twiners. 
Fruit dehiscent. Anthers turned to one side, opening in terminal pores . . 7. Cheibantheka. 

^ 1. PITTOSPORUM, Banks. 

(From the gummy matter surrounding the seeds.) 
Petals usually connivent or cohering in a. tube at their base or above the middle. 
Anthers ovate-oblong. Ovary sessile or shortly stipitate, incompletely or almost 
completely 2-celled, or rarely 8 to 5-eelled ; style short. Capsule globose, ovate 
or obovate, often laterally compressed ; the valves coriaceous or thick and hard, 
bearing the placentas along their centre. Seeds thick or globular, not winged, 
often enveloped in a viscous liquor. — Shrubs or trees, glabrous or rarely tomen- 
tose. Leaves usually evergreen, entire or minutely toothed, the upper ones 
frequently collected into a false whorl. Flowers not large, axillary or terminal, 
solitary or in close corymbose panicles. 

A large genus, dispersed over the warmer regions of Africa, Asia, the Pacific islands, and New 
Zealand. The Australian species are all endemic excepting one which is common to eastern 
tropical Asia and the eastern Archipelago. 

Flowers numerous, small, in compound terminal corymbs, with the lower 
branches axillary. 

Leaves ovate-rhomboid, toothed. Sepals obtuse 1. P. rhombifolium. 

Leaves oblanceolate, aristate. Sepals broadly ovate 2. P. setigerum. 

Leaves from obovate to oblong or lanceolate, quite entire. Sepals 

subulate or su-bulate-pointed. Plant glabrous S. P. melanospermum. 

Peduncles all terminal, clustered, short, each bearing a short simple cyme 
or umbel. 
Glabrous, or the young shoots and inflorescence very slightly pubescent. 

Flowers about |in. long . 4. P. undulatum. 

Young shoots and inflorescence rusty-tomentose or hirsute 
Flowers about Jin. Capsule {in., very rough . . . . . 5. P. revolutum. 

Veins of the leaf dark-coloured, 8 to 10 lines . . 6. P. venulosum. 

Flowers 3 to 4 lines. Capsule under Jin. 
Leaves on long petioles, ovate to oblong-lanceolate. Tomentum 

short and crisp, ferruginous 7. P. ferrugineum. 

Leaves of thin texture, petioles of medium length. Capsule 

velvety 8. P. Wingii. 

Leaves nearly sessile, oblong-laneeolate. Tomentum almost 

hirsute, very dense 9. P. rubiginosum. 

Pedicels axillary, solitary or clustered, l-flowered', the uppermost some- 
times in a terminal cluster. Leaves glabrous, flat. Flowers yellow 10. P. phillyrceoide!. 

1. P. rhombifolium (form of leaf), A. Cunn. in Hook. Ic. PI. t. 621 ; Benth. 
Fl. Austr. i. 110. A tree attaining, according to A. Cunningham, 60 to 80ft. , 
glabrous in all its parts. Leaves rhoniboid-oval or rarely broadly oblong- 
lanceolate, mostly 3 to 4in. long, coarsely and irregularly toothed from the middle 
upwards, narrowed into a petiole of J .to lin., coriaceous and shining, but with 
the pinnate and netted veins prominent on both sides. Flowers white, numerous, 
and rather small, in a dense terminal compound corymb, the branches sometimes 
minutely glandular. Sepals . obtuse, rather more than 1 line. Petals oblong, 
about 3 lines long, spreading from below the middle. Ovary shortly stipitate, 
the thick placentas nearly meeting, each bearing about 12 to 14 ovules. Capsule 
more or less obliquely pear-shaped or almost globular, usually about 3 lines long, 
and ripening 2 or 3 black seeds. 

Hab.: Wide Bay, forests on the Brisbane ; Arauoaria range, between Brisbane and Dawson 
rivers and edge of the Killarney scrub, near Warwick. 

Wood whitish, close-grained, tough, rather hard, considered suitfiljle foi' carving and engrav- 
ing. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No. 8, 




Tittosporiirny selil^^eriaru, Ba£ly. 

Pittosponm.] XII. PITTOSPORE^. 69 

2. P. setigerum (bristle-bearing), Bail. A small glabrous tree. Branchlets 
furrowed, with the bark often reddish. Leaves coriaceous, the reticulate veins 
close and raised, 2-|- to 4in. long, f to lin. wide, tapering from above the middle 
to a rather long slender petiole, the apex terminating in a prominent bristle. 
Flowers, judging from the dried ones, seemingly light-yellow in a broad-spreading 
terminal panicle longer than the leaves. Pedicels slender. Sepals broadly ovate, 
minute. Petals free, patent, about 2^ lines long, obtuse, veins obscure. Stamens 
shortly exceeding the petals. Ovary on a short glabrous stipes, densely covered 
with a white tomentum. Capsule globose, 4 lines diameter, exuding an amber- 
coloured resin or gum. Seeds black, angular, from 2 to 6 in each capsule. 

Hab.: Walsh River, T. Barclay-Millar. 

3. P. melanospermum (black seed), F. v. M. Fraiim. i. 70 ; Benth. Fl. 
Amtr. i. 111. A small tree, quite glabrous, or with a scanty minute glandular 
pubescence on the inflorescence. Leaves from obovate to oblong or even 
lanceolate, shortly acuminate, mucronate or obtuse, 2 to 4in. long, entire and flat 
or slightly undulate on the margin, narrowed into a petiole of 4 to 5 lines, 
coriaceous, but not shining, of a pale hue and prominently veined. Corymbs 
compound, terminal, many-flowered, but shorter than the last leaves. Flowers 
small, the sepals subulate or lanceolate-subulate, the petals 8 or scarcely 4 lines 
long, spreading from about the middle. Ovary shortly stipitate, with 10 to 12 
ovules to each placenta. Capsule obliquely globular or pear-shaped, somewhat 
compressed, with few or sometimes a single black seed. 

Hab.: Tropical parts of the colony. 

Var.(?) lateralis. Corymbs usually lateral. York Sound, A. Cunningham ;■ Whitsunday 
Island, Henne. 

4. P, undulatum (leaves wavy), VeV't. Hart. Cels. t. 76 ; Xeiith. Fl. Austr. i. 
111. Mock orange. A tree, attaining in favourable situations 40ft., or accord- 
ing to M'Arthur 60 to 90ft., although ,in barren exposed localities it remains a 
shrub, quite glabrous, except a slight appressed pubescence on the young shoots 
and inflorescence. Leaves from oval-oblong to lanceolate, mostly B to 6in. long 
and acuminate, flat or undulate on the margin, narrowed into a petiole of i to 
fin., coriaceous and shining, with the veins little conspicuous, the upper ones 
often almost whorled. Peduncles several, in terminal clusters, much shorter 
than the leaves, mostly bearing a simple cyme or umbel of 3 or 4 rather large 
white flowers, and one or two often 1 -flowered. Sepals lanceolate, acuminate, 
often connate at the base. Petals 5 to 6 lines long, spreading from the middle. 
Ovary almost sessile, hairy, the 2 placentas united at the base, each bearing 
numerous ovules. Capsule nearly globular, rarely attaining |in., smooth, with 
thick coriaceous valves and numerous seeds. — DC. Prod. i. 346 ; Andr. Bot. Eep. 
t. 388 ; Bot. Reg. t. 16 ; F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 71 and 224. 

Hab.: A common tree upon the ranges of southern Queensland. 

Wood of a light colour, close in grain, and tough. — Bailey's Gat. Ql. Woods No. 9. 

The barl? contains a dye. 

5. P. revolutum (petals rolled back), Ait. Hort. Keto. ed. 2 ii. 27 ; Benth. 
Fl. Austr. i. 111. A tall shrub, the young shoots tomentose. Leaves ovate- 
elliptical or elliptical-oblong, shortly acuminate, 2 to 4in. long, scarcely undulate, 
narrowed into a petiole, usually very short, but sometimes near Jin., coriaceous, 
glabrous above when full grown, clothed underneath with a loose rusty tomentum 
easily rubbed off, the upper ones often almost whorled. ^ Peduncles terminal, few 
or solitary, usually decurved, bearing sometimes a single rathet large flower, 
but more frequently a short dense ovate or corymbose raceme. Sepals lanceolate- 
subulate. Petals nearly Jin. long, oftpn united to above the middle, shortly 
spreading or recurved at the top. Ovary very hirsute, with very numerous oVules 
to each placenta ; stigma peltate. Capsule J to fin. long, the hard almost woody 

70 XII. PITTOSPOEE^. [Pittospomm. 


valves rough outside. Seeds numerous, red or brown.— DC. Prod. i. 346 ; Bot. 
Reg. t. 186 ; F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 224 ; P. fidvum, Budge in Trans. Linn. Soe. x. 
298.' t'. 20 ; DC. I.e. ; Sweet, Fl. Austral, t. 25 ; P. tomentomm, Bonpl. Jard. 
Malm. 56 ' t. 24 ; Sweet, Fl. Austral, t. 33 ; DC. I.e. ; P. Jdrstitum, Link, 
according to Putterl. 'Syn. Pittosp. 9. 

Hab.: Moreton Bay, Brisbane Eiver, and other southern parts. 

6. P. venulosum (leaves beautifully veined), F. v. M. Fragm. vi. 186. A 
small tree of about 30ft.; the ultimate branchlets almost verticillate, slightly 
ferruginous - tomentose. Leaves lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 
almost whorled, 2 to 4in. long, | to l^in. broad, the reticulations close and deep- 
coloured, margins thickened, tapering to the petioles. Flowers in a terminal 
corymbose panicle. Capsule globose-pyriform, 2 rarely 3-valved, slightly com- 
pressed, 8 to 10 lines long, yellow inside. Seeds 1 to 1^ line long. 

Hab.: Ranges of the tropical coast," as Bookingham Bay, &c. 

7. P. ferrugineum (shoots rusty-tomentose), Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2, ii. 27 ; 

Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 112. A tree, flowering sometimes as a shrub, but attaining 
a height of 50 to 60ft., the young shoots thickly clothed with a loose rusty 
tomentum which soon wears off. Leaves from obovate or ovate, and obtuse or 
scarcely acuminate, to oblong or almost lanceolate, acuminate, and 3 to 4in. long, 
quite entire, narrowed into a petiole of f to fin., rusty-tomentose on both sides 
whsn very young, but glabrous above, or on both sides when full grown. 
Peduncles terminal, usually clustered several together above the last leaves, each 
one bearing a cluster or umbel of rather small flowers, but sometimes the 
common peduncle grows out and the inflorescence becomes a thyrsoid or 
pyramidal panicle, not a corymb, as in P. melanospermum. Sepals lanceolate or 
lanceolate-subulate. Petals narrow, about 3 lines long, spreading only above the 
middle. Ovary villous, with 12 to 16 ovules to each placenta. Capsule sessile, 
nearly globular, scarcely 4 lines broad, ripening usually 3 or 4 black seeds.^DC. 
Prod. i. 346 ; Bot. Mag. t. 2075 ; P. tinifoUum flinifoliwn by an error of the 
press), A. Cunn. in Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 1, iv. 109 ; P. omtifoliwm, F. v. M, 
Fragm. ii. 78. 

Hab.: Common in the tropical parts. 

Wood light grey, close in grain and tough. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No: 10. 

Extends over the Malayan peninsula and adjoining islands and the Philippines. The Austra- 
lian specimens have rather larger flowers and narrower-pointed sepals than the common Malayan 
form ; but in this respect the Malacca specimens are very variable, some of them precisely 
resembling some of the Australian ones. 

8. P. Wingii (after the editor of Southern Science Record), F. v. M. in So. 
Sc. Rec, March, 1885. Leaves of almost herbaceous texture, on very short stalks, 
ovate or elongate-lanceolate, acuminate, hardly or slightly recurved at the margin, 
beneath prominently penninerved and as well as the branchlets brownish silky- 
tomentose ; corymb umbelliform, solitary short-stalked or almost sessile ; sepals 
velvet-hairy, narrow-lanceolate, gradually pointed ; corolla about one-third longer 
than the calyx, its tube widened upwards, shorter than the bluntish and not 
much-spreading lobes ; anthers fully half as long as the filaments, many times 
longer than broad ; ovary brownish -silky ; capsules not large, rather turgid, 
almost globular or somewhat depressed, velvet-hairy ; valves 2, hard ; funicles 
thick and very short. Seeds several, from garnet colour turning brown-black, 
somewhat viscid. 

Hab.: Bellenden Ker and other high ranges of the tropical parts of the colony. 

9. P. rubiginosum (foliage reddish-coloured), A. Cunn. in Ann. Nat. Hint 
ner. 1, iv. '108; Benth. Fl. Awtr. i. 112. A sparingly branched shrub; the 
branchlets, petioles, and inflorescence densely clothed with a rust- coloured 
tomentum, consisting of much more spreading hairs than in P. ferruginmm. 

Pittosporum.] XII. tlTT^OStOEE.^. 7l 

Leaves almost whorled, oblong-lanceolate, acutely acuminate, 5 to lOin. long, 
entire or slightly sinuate-toothed, narrowed at the base, but almost sessile, 
herbaceous, glabrous above, softly pubescent underneath. Peduncles stout. 
Sepals with scattered hairs, the petals 3 times as long as the sepals, cohering 
for about two-thirds of their length into an almost cylindrical tube, thin summits 
pointed and much recurved ; filaments twice as long as the anthers. Capsule 
lArge, rugose, ovate-cordate, deep yellow. 

Hab.: Common on the ranges about Bellenden Ker. 
Sometimes infested with the fungus Sphcerella mbiginosa. — Cke. 

10. P. phillyraeoides (Phillyrea-like), DC; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 112. A 
small graceful tree or slender shrub, quite glabrous in all its parts. Leaves 
usually oblong or linear-lanceolate with a small hooked point, 2 to 4in. long, 
quite entire, narrowed into a petiole, thick coriaceous and indistinctly veined, but 
in some forms short and broadly oblong, in others long and narrow. Pedicels 
axillary, solitary or in sessile or shortly pedunculate clusters or umbels, or the 
uppermost forming a terminal cluster. Flowers yellow, usually about 4 lines 
long, often dioecious, the females rather larger and fewer together than the males. 
Sepals short and very obtuse. Petals united to the middle or still higher, 
spreading at the top. Ovary pubescent, almost completely 2-celled, with 6 to 8 
ovules in each cell. Fruit ovate or round-cordate, much compressed, quite 
smooth, varying from 4 to 9 lines in length, but usually about ^in. Seeds few, 
dark or orange-red.— Putterl. in PL Preiss. i. 192 ; F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 72 ; P. 
angnstifoliwn, Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 1859 ; P. lonc/ifolmm and P. Roeanwii, Putterl. 
Syn. Pittosp. 15, 16 ; P. lif/ustrifaUuni , A. Cunn. in Putterl. I.e. 16, and in Ann. 
Nat. Hist. ser. 1, iv. 110 ; Putterl. in PI. Preiss. i. 190; P. oleafolium, A. Cunn. 
in Putterl. Syn. Pittosp. 17 ; P. acaoioides, A. Cunn. in Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 1, 
iv. 109 ; P. salicinum, Lindl. in Mitch. Trop. Austr. 97 ; P. lanceolatum, A. Cunn. 
in Mitch. I.e. 272 and 291. 

Hab. : Common on the inland downs. 

Wood of a light colour, close-grained, and very hard. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No. 11. 

(Seeds winged.) 

Petals connivent or cohering in a tube to above the middle. Anthers ovate- 
oblong. Ovary incompletely 2-celled ; style short. Capsule ovate, compressed, 
with thick coriaceous valves. Seeds numerous, horizontally imbricated, flat, 
reniform, surrounded by a membranous wing. — A shrub or tree, with the habit of 
Pittosporum, from which it only differs in its large flowers and in its seeds. 

The genus is limited to a single species, endemic in Australia. 

1. H. flavum (yellow flowers), J*, c. M. Fragm. ii. 77; Benth. Fl. Aust. 
i. 114. A haindsome evergreen shrub or tree, glabrous, except a loose pubescence 
on the inflorescence, and sometimes on the under side of the leaves. Leaves 
ovate-oblong or oblanceolate, acuminate, entire, from 3 to 5 or even 6in. long, 
narrowed into a petiole of |^in. or more, the upper ones often almost verticillate. 
Panicle terminal, loose, corymbose, often 6 to Sin. diameter, with small linear or 
lanceolate bracts. Flowers large, yellow. Sepals oblong-lanceolate, 3 to 4 lines 
long. Petals silky-tomentose outside, the erect base or broad claws nearly lin., 
the spreading lamina nearly |in. long. Ovary linear, silky-tomentose, with 
numerous ovules. Capsule stipitate, much flattened, lin. or more long and 
nearly as broad. Seeds, including the wing, fully 4 lines broad.— Piito.s^jorMwi 
flavum, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 4799. 

Hab.: Wide Bay district, Brisbane Biver, Ipswich, and many other localities in the south of 
the colony. 

Wood whitish, close-grained, and tough. — Bailey's Gat. Ql. Woods No. 12. 


3. BURSARIA, Cav. 
(Capsules pouch-like.) 

Petals narrow, spreading from near the base. Anthers ovoid. Ovary incom- 
pletely 2-celIed ; style short. Capsule shortly stipitate, flat, broadly orbicular, 
opening round the edge, with thinly coriaceous flat valves. Seeds 1 or 2 in each 
cell, flat, reniform, not winged. — Eigid, much branched shrubs or trees, often 
thorny. Leaves small, entire. Flowers small, in terminal panicles. Sepals 
very fugacious. 

Leaves J to lin. long, glabrous 1. B. s^iinosa. 

Leaves 2 to 3in. long, hoary tomentose 2. B. incana. 

Leaves 2 Jin. long, lanceolate, almost membranous 3. B. tenuifolia. 

1. B. spinosa (spiny) Cav. Ic. iv. 30, *. 350; Bmth. Fl. Austr. i. 114. A 
shrub or small tree, glabrous, and when young very bushy, the smaller branches 
often reduced to short subulate thorns. Leaves very variable, most frequently 
clustered, obovate, oblong or cuneate, obtuse, truncate or notched, ^ to lin. long, 
narrowed at the base, and sometimes shortly petiolate, green on both sides ; in 
luxuriant specimens they vary to oblong-lanceolate, 1 to 2in. long ; in a few 
others they have occasionally a few coarse teeth at the top. Flowers white, 
usually very numerous, in a broad, pyramidal, terminal panicle, arranged along 
its branches in short racemes, on pedicels of 1 to 3 lines ; occasionally the 
panicles are reduced to short racemes or to 1 or 2 terminal flowers. Bracts 
minute and very fugacious. Sepals small, also falling off long before the petals 
open. Petals narrow, about 2 lines long. Capsule 8 to 4 lines or, in the var. 
incann, sometimes 5 lines broad. — DC. Prod. i. 847; Bot. Mag. t. 1767; Hook. 
f. Fl. Tasm. i. 39 ; F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 74 ; Itea spinosa, Andr. Bot. Eep. t. 314. 
Hab.: Common in southern Queensland. 

2. B. incana (young shoots and foliage hoary), Lindl. in Mitch. Trap. Austr. 
224. A small erect tree, the shoots, inflorescence, and under side of the leaves 
hoary- white, with a dense soft or close thin tomentum. Leaves 2 or 3in. long, 
oblong, obtuse, sometimes toothed at the end. Flowers and capsules of 
B. spinosa, but larger. 

Hab : Mostly upon the ranges of the southern parts of the colony. 

Wood white or light coloured, suitable for engraving, &a. — Bailey's Gat. Ql. Woods No 13. 

3. B. tenuifolia (thin-leaved). Bail. A tall shrub or small tree, the 
branchlets more or less corrugated and bearing prominent lenticels. Leaves 
lanceolate, about 2^in. long, the apex obtuse, tapering to a rather slender petiole 
2 or 8 lines long, smooth and rather glossy with the erecto-patent parallel nerves 
prominent above, the under side covered with a thin tomentum, the nerves and 
principal veins showing as dark lines, margins entire. Panicles elongated upon 
peduncles of from only a few lines to 2in. Flowers pedicellate, bracts narrow- 
lanceolate, an upper one often very narrow, ferruginous. Sepals lanceolate, 
ciliate. Petals recurved, oblong- linear, 2| lines long, marked with 3 lines ; 
filaments about as long as the petals, subulate. Ovary glabrescent. 

Hab.: Barron Eiver, E. Cowley; Shaw Island, Lord Lamington; Northcote, iJ. G. Burton; 
Herberton, J. F. Bailey. This species has more membranous leaves, more slender branchlets 
and panicles than any of the other species of the genus. 


(Dedicated to the Virgin Mary.) 

(Calopetalum, Harv.; Oncosporum, Putterl.; and Bhytidosporum, F. v. M.) 

Petals connivent at the base or above the middle, spreading at the top. Anthers 

oblong or ovate, shorter than the filaments. Ovary sessile or shortly stipitate, 

usually completely 2-celled, glabrous, except very rarely in M. laa-iflorvs. Capsule 

Marianthus.] XII. PITTOSPOEE^. 7B 

ovoid or oblong, turgid or slightly compressed, membranous or slightly coriaceous, 
the valves sometimes splitting septicidally. Seeds ovoi'd, reniform or globular. — 
Undershrubs, with procumbent, flexuose, or more frequently twining branches. 
Leaves entire, toothed, or the lower ones occasionally lobed. Flowers blue, white, 
and reddish, in terminal compact panicles, usually corymbose or almost umbel- 
late, rarely solitary or apparently axillary from the extreme shortness of the 
flowering branch. 

The genus is limited to Australia. It differs from Billardiera solely in the capsular not 
baccate fruit. The petals are in general more spreading than in Billardiera. — Benth. 

1. Itt, procumbens (procumbent), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 117. A low, pros- 
trate or suberect, much-branched shrub, the branches sometimes flexuose and 
nearly 1ft. long, but usually much shorter, glabrous or slightly pubescent. 
Leaves crowded and sessile, in the northern varieties usually linear or linear- 
cuneate, pointed, entire or rarely toothed at the top, 4 to 6 lines long, rigid, with 
recurved margins ; in the southern forms usually shorter, more cuneate or even 
obovate or ovate, and often toothed. Flowers small, white or tinged with red, 
solitary or 2 or 3 together, terminal or appearing axillary from the shortness of 
the flowering shoots, the pedicels 1 to 2 lines long and always shorter than the 
leaves at the time of flowering, rather longer and recurved ' when in fruit. 
Sepals lanceolate-linear, very pointed. Petals about 3 lines long or smaller, 
spreading from below the middle. Filaments dilated to the middle. Ovules 6 to 
8 in each cell of the ovary. Style short. Capsule truncate, 8 lines broad and 
not quite so long. Seeds usually 8 or 4 in each cell, ovoid-reniform, transverse 
and laterally-attached, deeply wrinkled. — Pittospormn procumbens and P. nanum, 
Hook. Comp. Bot. Mag. i. 275 ; Bursaria procumbens, Putterl. Syn. Pittosp. 20 ; 
Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 89 ; B. diosmoides, Putterl. I.e. (from the description I have 
not seen Sieber's n. 554) ; B. Stiiartiana, Klatt, in Linnasa, xxviii. 568 ; 
Ehytidosporuvi procumbens, F. v. M. 1st Gen. Eep. 10; PI. Vict. i. 75 ; Campy- 
lanthera ericoides Lindl. in Mitch. Three Exped. ii. 277. 
Hab, : Southern parts of the colony. 


(Derived from local name, " Orangethorn.") 

(Ixiosporum, F. v. M.) 

Petals connivent or connate to above the middle, in a cylindrical tube spreading 
at the top. Anthers oblong, shorter than the filaments. Ovary 1 -celled, with 2 
to 6 parietal placentas ; style short. Fruit coriaceous or hard, globular, inde- 
hiscent. Seeds few or many, nearly globular, often enveloped in a viscous fluid. 
— Eigid much-branched shrubs, armed with short thorns or abortive branches. 
Leaves small, entire or toothed. Flowers small, sessile and usually solitary, 
surrounded by small sepal-like bracts. 

The genus is limited to Australia. 

Leaves cuneate, sessile, 4 to 6 lines long. Placentas 2, with 8 to '10 ovules 

each. Fruit 2 to 5 lines diameter, with few seeds 1. C multiflorus. 

Leaves obovate petiolate, 6 lines long. Placentas 5, with very numerous 

ovules. Fruit lin. diameter or larger, with numerous seeds 2. C. pdudflorue. 

Leaves entire, lanceolate, IJin. long. Fruit 5 lines diameter 3. C. lancifaliibe. 

1. C. multiflorus (flowers numerous), A. Cunn. in Loud. Hort. Brit, (name 
only) and in. Putterl. Syn. Pittosp. 4 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 121. (" Kary," Eock- 
hampton, Thozet.) A straggling or prostrate very much branched shrub, with 
slender branches, rough with a minute pubescence, and bearing numerous subu- 
late thorns or abortive branches. Leaves sessile, ovate, orbicular, obovate, or 
broadly cuneate, usually 4 to 6 lines long, entire or with a few small pointed or 
prickly teeth, rather thin^ green and glabrous on both sides. Flowers about 2 

74 XII. MTTOSfORE^. [Citriohabus. 

lines long, always solitary in the axils, and not very numerous on the bush, not- 
withstanding the specific name. Ovary pubescent, with 2 parietal placentas and 
8 to 12 ovules to each. Berry 2 to 5 lines diameter, containing from 2 to above 
a dozen seeds, which are not viscid. 

Hab.: Southern parts of the colony. 

Wood close in grain and very tough, colour light. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No. 13a. 

2. Ca pauciflorus (few flowers), A. Cunn. in Loud. Hort. Brit. Suppl. 686 
(iimne only) ; Bentli. Fl. Austr. i. 122. Habit of C. midtijiorus, but stouter and 
more rigid, the branches similarly rough, with a minute pubescence, and thorny. 
Leaves from obovate to cuneate-oblong, rarely orbicular, mostly entire and obtuse, 
but occasionally mucronate or truncate and 3-toothed, rarely exceeding Jin. in 
length, often petiolate and more rigid than in C. rivultiflorm. Flowers larger 
than in that species, the petals 4 to 6 lines long, united into a complete tube to 
two-thirds of their length. Ovary pubescent, with 5 parietal placentas, covered 
with innumerable minute ovules. Style longer than in G. multiflorus. Fruit 
attaining 1 to Ifin. diameter, with a thick coriaceous pericarp. Seeds numerous, 
in a viscid pulp. — Lviosporim spinescens, F. v. M. Fragm. Phyt. Austr. ii. 76. 

Hab.: Coast scrubs of central parts of the colony. 

Wood close-grained, of a light uniform colour, and hard. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No 14. 

8. C> lancifolius (lance-leaved). Bail. A small tree, bark whitish, branch- 
lets slender, and the smaller ones often terminating in sharp spines. Leaves 
alternate, lanceolate, membranous, about IJin. long, |^in. broad, on very short 
slender petioles, the veins very oblique, looping far within the margin, delicately 
reticulate and dotted with guttate oil-cells, margins entire. Flowers axillary 
or lateral, solitary or in pairs, on very short peduncles, bracts minute. Sepals 5, 
linear, recurved. Petals 5, linear, more or less imbricate, cohering in a tube of 
nearly their whole length. Stamens 5, shorter than the petals and opposite 
them ; filam_ents flattened but tapering towards the anther, which is sagittate, free 
with 2 cell-slits the length of the anther. Style glabrous, stigma truncate or 
very shortly and obtusely lobed ; ovary silky-hairy, seems to be 1-celled, superior. 
Fruit a berry, nearly globose, about 5 lines in diameter, with a thin coriaceous 
pericarp. Seeds 9 in the fruits opened, enveloped in a viscous fluid, somewhat 
reniform, flattened, dark-brown. 

Hab.: Killarney, on border of scrub, in flower, .7. F. Bailey ; Warwick, fruit specimen, C. J. 

(After J. J. Labillardiere.) 
Petals connivent or cohering in a tube to above the middle, spreading at the 
top. Anthers oblong or ovate, shorter than the filaments. Ovary sessile, or 
nearly so, completely or rarely imperfectly 2-celled, glabrous or pubescent. 
Fruit succulent or fleshy and indehiscent, ovoid or oblong. Seeds ovoid reniform 
or globular, often enveloped in a viscid pulp. — Undershrubs, with the branches 
usually twining. Leaves entire or sinuate. Flowers greenish-yellow, purple, or 
rarely blue, either solitary or clustered and pendulous, or in terminal cyiies 
and erect. 

The genus is limited to Australia, and differs from Mananthus only in the baccate, not 
capsular, fruit. 

1. B. scandens (climbing), Svi. Bot. Nor. Holt. i. t, 1; Benth. Fl. Amtr. 
i. 123. Stems twining, often to a considerable extent, or short and flexuose 
nearly glabrous or more or less silky or velvety-pubescent, or hairy. Leaves from 
ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate or linear, obtuse or with a recurved point usuallv 
1 to 2in. long, entire or often with undulate margin, usually narrowed into a 

Biltardiera.] Xll. PITT08POREJ2. 75 

short petiole. Flowers from greenish or pale yellow to violet or purple, pendulous 
on slender terminal pedicels varying from a line or two to above ^in., solitary or 
very rarely 2 together. Sepals lanceolate or lanceolate-subulate. Petals spread- 
ing from above the middle, so as to form a narrow-campanulate corolla, 8 to 10 
lines or rarely lin. long. Ovary glabrous or pubescent, 2-celled, with a very 
short style and broad hollow stigma. Berries cylindrical or ovoid-oblong, 2-celled, 
glabrous or downy. Seeds numerous, in a close double row in each cell and 
embedded in pulp. — DC. Prod. i. 345 ; Bot. Mag. ,t. 801 ; Sweet, PI. Austral, 
t. 54 ; F. V. M. PI. Viet. i. 79 ; B. latifolia, Putterl. Nov. Stirp. Dec. 47, but not 
of Klatt, Linntea, xxviii. 570 ; B. f/randiflnra, Putterl I.e. 48 (all the above refer- 
ring to specimens with pubescent ovaries and fruits) ; B. mutahilu, Salisb. Parad. 
Lond. t. 48 ; Bot. Mag. t. 1313 ; DC. Prod. i. 845 ; Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 87 
(with glabrous ovaries and fruits) ; B. angustifolia, DC. Prod. i. 345 ; B. 
canariensis, Wendl. Hort. Herrenh. t. 15. 

Hab.: Sandy coast lands in the south of the colony. 

(Supposed resemblance of anthers to fingers of the hand.) 

Petals spreading from nearly the base,- obovate-oblong. Anthers longer than 
the filaments, all turned towards one side, opening by two pores at the top. 
Ovary 2-eelled with a subulate style. Capsule oblong, hard, opening loculicidally 
in 2 valves, the valves also splitting septicidally. Seeds nearly globular. — 
Branches fiexuose or twining. Leaves narrow. Flowers in terminal corymbs or 
cymes, or drooping from terminal solitary pedicels. 

The genus is limited to Australia. 

1. C> linearis (linear leaves), A. Cunn. in Bot. Reg. under t. 1719 ; Benth. 
Fl. Amtr. i. 127. A low glabrous shrub or undershrub, with erect twiggy 
branches of 6in. to 1ft., or rarely longer. Leaves linear, acute or rather obtuse, 
f to l^in. or rarely 2in. long, entire or minutely toothed, flat, and f to 1 line 
broad, or the margins incurved, so as to be almost terete, with smaller leaves 
often clustered in the axils. Flowers blue and showy. Sepals lanceolate, 2 to 
2^ lines long. Petals 8 to 10 lines. Filaments short. Anthers rather longer, 
but not reaching to the middle, and often not one-third of the length of the 
petals. Capsule very like those of Mariantlvus pictios and* lineatus (two W. Aust. 
plants), oblong, much flattened, hard, but dehiscent when ripe. — Hook. Ic. PI. t. 
47 ; Fl. des Serres viii.t. 856 ; F. v. M. Fragm. i. 76 ; C. cyanea, Brongn. Voy. 
Coq. t. 77. 

Hab.: Stanthorpe (in flower in Aug.) 


Flowers regular. Sepals 4 or 5, very rarely 8, free, valvate in the bud. Petals 
as many, hypogynous, spreading, induplicate-valvate in the bud. Stamens twice 
as many, hypogynous, free ; filaments short ; anthers oblong or linear, 2 or 4- 
celled, opening in a single terminal pore. Torus small or rarely expanded into a 
disk between the petals and stamens. Ovary sessile or nearly so, usually 
2-celled ; style filiform, deciduous, entire or minutely 2-lobed. Ovules solitary 
in each cell, or 2, one above the other, or rarely an additional small collateral 
one, pendulous, anatropous, with a ventral raphe. Capsule usually flattened, 
2-celled, opening loculicidally at the edges. Seeds pendulous, the raphe usually 
expanded at the chalazal extremity into a twisted or strophiola-like appendage, rarely 


wanting ; the testa crustaceous, glabrous or hairy ; albumen fleshy or almost 
cartilaginous. Embryo small, straight, with a superior radicle. — ^Bhrubs usually 
heath-like, glabrous or glandular-hairy, with small alternate opposite or verticil- 
late leaves, rarely with a stellate tomentum and larger leaves. Flowers solitary, 
on axillary pedicels, usually red or purple. In many species, as in Pittosporea 
and PolygalecB, a flower may here and there be found with a 3-merous ovary 
and fruit. 

The Order is strictly confined to Australia, and although showing some affinity with 
Cheiranthera in Pittosporece, as well as with Polygaleie proper, it is yet very different from 
either ; the connection with Lasiopetalece, insisted upon by Steetz, appears to rest almost entirely 
on the valvate calyx, and on an occasional resemblance in habit, which is, however, partaken in 
by Bauera and several other genera of Australian heath-like shrubs, which have little else in 
common. — Benth. 


(Prom tetra, four, and theka, a box. Anthers 4-celled.) 

Stamens apparently in a simple series, the anthers continuous with the 
filaments, 2-celled or 4-celled with 2 of the cells in front of the 2 others, more or 
less contracted into a tube at the top. Disk none. Capsule opening only at the 
edges. Seeds with an appendage at the chalazal end, usually contorted and 
glabrous or glandular-hairy. Leaves alternate, verticillate or scattered, heath- 
like and entire, or flat and toothed, or reduced to minute scales. 

1. T. thymifolia (thyme-leaved), Sm. Exot. Bot. i. 41 t. 22. Intermediate 
between T. ciliata and T. ericifolia, it has usually the tall habit of the former, 
but is much more pubescent or hirsute. Leaves almost all verticillate in threes 
or fours, ovate-elliptical or lanceolate, the margins more or less recurved or 
revolute. Flowers of T. ciliata, except that the sepals are usually ovate- 
lanceolate, more acute or acuminate than in either of the two allied species, and 
seldom reflexed. Ovary glabrous, or more frequently pubescent, with 2 super- 
posed ovules in each cell, and occasionally a third collateral one. Capsule broad, 
2 to 4 lines long. Seed hairy. 

Hab.; Sandy coast lands of the southern parts of the colony. Flowering about from Feb. to 


Flowers hermaphrodite, irregular. Sepals 5, free, much imbricate, the 2 
inner ones usually larger and petal-like. Petals 3 or 5, rarely all free, most 
frequently 2 or 4 in pairs united at the base with the lower concave or helmet- 
shaped petal or keel and often with the staminal tube. Stamens 8, rarely 5 or 
4, usually united to above the middle in a sheath open on the upper side. Anthers 
erect, 1 or 2-celled, usually opening by a single terminal or oblique pore. Torus 
small, or rarely expanded into a disk within the stamens. Ovary free, 2-celled 
or rarely 1 -celled, or in a few flowers 3 to 5-oelled. Style simple, usually curved 
at the top, with a variously shaped entire or 2-lobed stigma. Ovules usually 
solitary in each cell, pendulous, anatropous with a ventral raphe. Seeds pendu- 
lous, the crustaceous testa often hairy, and bearing a caruncle at the hilum or at 
the opposite end. Albumen fleshy or rarely deficient. Embryo straight, with 
flat, convex, or rarely thick and fleshy cotyledons. — Herbs, undershrubs, or small 
shrubs, rarely tall shrubs, climbers or trees (one tree in Queensland, Xanthophyllum), 
glabrous or hairy, but without stellate hairs. Leaves usually alternate and 
entire, without stipules, very rarely opposite. Flowers solitary or in spikes or 
racemes, rarely paniculate, the pedicels usually articulate at the base, with a sub- 
tending bract and 2 bracteoles. 


A considerable Order, widely dispersed over nearly the whole globe. Of the four Australian 
genera, one is the largest and most extensively diffused of the whole Order, here represented by 
a very few species of an Asiatic or African type ; two others are Asiatic, extending to Australia ; 
the third is endemic. - Benth. 

Sepals nearly equal. Anthers 4 or 5. Flowers minute, in terminal spikes 1. Salomonia. 
Inner sepals larger and petal-like. Anthers 3. 
Capsule ovate or orbicular, scarcely contracted at the base. Seeds not 
Lateral petals united with the carina (which is always crested in the 

Australian species) 2. Polyoala. 

Lateral petals adnate to the staminal column, but distinct from the 

carina (which is not crested) 3. Comesperma. 

Capsule cuneate, \ery narrow at the base. Seed hairs forming a long coma 3. Cojiespebma. 
Sepals neai'ly equal. Petals 5. Stamens 8, free, 1 or i.:aperfeotly 2- 
celled. Ovules numerous. Fruit globose, indehisoent 4. Xanthophyllcm. 

1. SALOMONIA, Lour. 

(After the Hebrew king Solomon.) 

Sepals nearly equal, the 2 innermost rather larger. Petals 3, united in a single 
corolla open on the upper side, the keel not crested. Stamens united nearly to 
th-e top into a sheath open on the upper side, and adhering to the corolla at the 
base ; anthers 4 or 5. Ovary 2-eelled. Capsule thin, flat, obcordate or trans- 
versely oblong, usually ciliate, opening loculicidally at the edges. Seeds orbi- 
cular, with a minute or without any caruncle. — Small slender herbs, either 
annual or parasitical on roots. Leaves alternate, sometimes reduced to minute 
scales. Flowers very small, in terminal spikes. 

The few species known are all natives of tropical Asia, the most common one extending into 
Australia ; but none have yet been found in Africa. 

1. S. oblongifolia (oblong-leaved), DC. Prod. i. 334 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 
138. A slender glabrous annual, erect and simple, or slightly branched at the 
base, 3 to 5, or rarely 6in. high. Leaves sessile, the larger ones oblong, 3 to 4 
lines long, and scarcely above 1 broad, the lower ones small and ovate. Flowers 
pink, scarcely a line long, in terminal leafless racemes or loose spikes of about an 
inch or rarely longer. Capsule about 1 line broad, but not so long, flattened, 
didymous, bordered with a fringe of hairs or slender teeth.— Deless. Ic. Sel. iii. t. 
19 ; S. obmiata, Wight, Illustr. t. 22. 
Hab.: All along the Queensland coast. 

■ 2. POLYGALA, Linn. 

(From supposed eifect of increasing the secretion of milk.) 

Sepals unequal, the 2 innermost, or wings, large and petal-like. Petals 3, 
united in a single corolla open on the upper side, the keel bearing a crest-like 
appendage on the back near the top, or rarely (in species not Australian) 8-lobed. 
Stamens 8, united to above the middle in a sheath open on the upper side, and 
adnate to the petals at the base. Ovary 2-celled. Style various. Capsule thin 
or rarely coriaceous, flattened, obovate, ovate, or orbicular, usually notched at the 
top, opening loculicidally at the edges. Seeds ovate or oblong, hairy or glabrous, 
but the hairs not lengthened into a coma, with or without a caruncle at the 
hilum. — Herbsi undershrubs, or shrubs. Leaves usually alternate or whorled. 
Racemes or spikes terminal or lateral, rarely axillary. 

A very large genus, abundant in tropical countries, and generally also in temperate regions, 
except in Australia, where it is, with one exception, limited to the tropical districts, and in New 
Zealand, where it is entirely absent. Of the 7 Australian species, 3 are widely spread over 
tropical Asia, and the 4 others, although endemic, are nearly connected also with corresponding 
Asifttio ones. — Benth, 

78 XIV. POLYGALE^. [Pohmla. 

Perennial. Style with 2 stigmatie lobes, one above the other. Seeds 

obovate, shortly villous 1- -P- japomca. 

Annuals. Seeds oblong villous, the hairs much longer at the end furthest 
from the hilum. 
Eaeemes long, terminal. Inner sepals petaloid, obtuse. Crest fringed. 

Stigma simple, terminal, capitate . ... 2. P. leptalea. 

Kaceraes terminal and extra-axillary. Pedicels curved 3. P. persicarimfolia. 

Eaeemes lateral. Inner sepals herbaceous, mucronate, usually falcate. 
Crest fringed. Style with 1 large hooked or reflexed stigmatie lobe. 
Eaeemes shorter than the leaves, or if longer, very dense. Leaves 
from obovate to linear. 

Capsules broadly winged and ciliate 4. P. rhinanthoides. 

Capsules wingless and glabrous or nearly so .... ... 5. P. arvensis. 

1. F. japonica (Japanese), Houtt. Syst. 8, t. 62,/. 1, according to DC. Prod. 
i. 824 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 139. Eootstock perennial, often woody with age, 
emitting numerous rather slender leafy stems, decumbent or erect, rarely more 
than 6in. long, more or less pubescent. Leaves nearly sessile, the lower ones 
ovate, obtuse and small, the upper ones elliptical or lanceolate, acute, |^ to f or 
rarely lin. long, of a rather firm consistence, glabrous and almost shining, 
distinctly veined. Racemes lateral, sometimes of 2 or 3 flowers only, and shorter 
than the leaves, sometimes 6 to 8-flOwered and longer. Bracts small and 
deciduous, but less so than in most species. Outer sepals narrow-lanceolate; 
inner ones ovate, obtuse, 2 to 3 lines long and not oblique. Keel-petal crested. 
Ovary glabrous. Style thickened, incurved, with 2 uiiequal stigmatie lobes, the 
upper one arching over the lower short one. Capsule about 3 lines long and 
broad, including the rather broad wing. Seeds obovate, slightly pubescent, with 
a 3-lob6d caruncle. — P. veronicea, F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 184. 

Hab.: Dawson, Brisbane, and Condamine Elvers. 

Also in the hilly regions of tropical Asia and northward to Japan. I can, indeed, find no 
difference between the Australian and the Japanese specimens, except that the flowers in the 
latter are rather larger ; but several Khasia specimens are precisely like the Australian ones. 
P. elegans. Wall., from East India and China, differs slightly in the racemes most frequently 
terminal with numerous flowers. — Benth. 

2. P. leptalea (weak plant), DC. Prod. i. 825 ; Benth. Fl. Amtr. i. 139. 
An erect, glabrous, slender annual, simple or slightly branched, usually 1 to l^ft. 
high. Leaves few, linear, the longer ones about lin., the uppermost much 
smaller, and the lower ones sometimes shortly oblong. Flowers small, 
numerous, pendulous, in a 1-sided terminal raceme, on pedicels which rarely 
attain 1 line. Outer sepals narrow-oblong, obtuse, the lowest rather larger and 
concave ; inner sepals nearly twice as large, petal-like, broadly oblong, obtuse, 
2 to 2^ lines long. Keel-petal crested. Style scarcely thickened, much curved, 
inflexed at the summit with an entire capitate stigma. Capsule broadly oblong, 
rather shorter than the inner sepals, with a narrow transparent wing. Seeds 
hirsute with reflexed hairs, the caruncle very small. — P. oligophylla, DC. Prod. 
i. 325. 

Hab.: Endeavour and Gilbert Elvers ; also Eockingham Bay. 
Frequent in northern and eastern India. 

3. P. persicariaefolia (Persicaria-leaved), DC. HooL in FL of Brit. Ind. 
i. 202. An erect or ascending slightly pubescent very much branched slender 
herb, 6 to 16in. high. Leaves linear or elliptic-lanceolate, flaccid, hardly 
petiolate. Racemes terminal and extra-axillary, slender, 1 to 2in. long, lax- 
flowered. Pedicels slender, curved. Bracts small, subulate. Wings broad- 
obovate, rather longer than the elliptic notched ciliate capsul^. S^ed? villous, 
Strophiole small, galeate. 

Hab,: Tropical parts of the colony. 

Polygala.] XIV. POLYGALEiE. 79 

4. P. rhinanthoides (Rhinanthus-like), Soland. in Herb. R. Br.: Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 140. An erect branching slightly pubescent annual, from an inch or 
two to above a foot high. Leaves oblong-linear, or rarely obovate-oblong, 
obtuse or rarely acute, f to l^in. long, glabrous or ciliate, narrowed into a short 
petiole. Eacemes lateral, short, rather dense, 6 to 10-flowered. Outer sepals 
lanceolate, with a fine point ; inner sepals broadly ovate, oblique, mucronate, 
ciliate, 2 to 8 lines long. Keel-petal crested. Ovary broad, ciliate. Style 
slightly thickened, much curved, entire, with a broad almost petaloid decurved 
stigma, bearded underneath. Capsule 4 lines long and broad, including abroad 
wing, pubescent and ciliate. Seeds oblong, hirsute with reflexed hairs, the 
caruncle deeply 8-lobed. 

Hab.: Endeavour Eiver, R. Brown. 

5. P. arvensis (field), Willd. Spec. PI. iii. 876 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 140. 
A procumbent or rarely erect annual, branching at the base only, sometimes not 
exceeding a couple of inches when in full fruit, sometimes the prostrate or 
ascending branches extending to 6 or Sin. or even more, and usually pubescent. 
Leaves fromobovate to oblong or linear, \ to fin. long or rarely more. Flowers 
few, in short sessile racemes, usually lateral, often shorter than the leaves, and 
rarely lengthening to an inch. Outer sepals very small and narrow ; inner 
sepals ovate-falcate, acute or mucronate, 2 to 3 lines long, herbaceous and 
glabrous or slightly pubescent. Corolla about as long, the lateral petals rather 
large, the crest of the keel fringed. Ovary glabrous. Style scarcely thickened, 
with an almost petaloid uncinate-decurved stigma, glabrous and glandular under- 
neath. Capsule rather broad, glabrous or slightly pubescent, not winged. Seeds 
very hairy.— DO. Prod. i. 826. 

Hab.: Eocbhampton to the Endeavour Eiver. 

A very common East Indian weed, variable in foliage and stature ; the foUowiug forms 
appearing sometimes constant enough to be considered as distinct species : — 

Var. dbovata. Leaves all obovate, giving the plant the aspect of a young Euphorbia helioscopia. 
Cavern Island, Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

Var. squarrosa. Leaves narrow. Flowers small and numerous, in oblong racemes, mostly 
terminal, the inner sepals narrow and falcate. P. squarrosa, Soland. ms. Endeavour Eiver, 
R. Brmon ; Upper Victoria Eiver, F. v. Mueller. 

3. COMESPERMA, Labill. 

(From hairyness of seeds.) 

Sepals unequal, the 2 innermost, or wings, large and petal-like. Petals 3, the 
keel not crested, the two lateral ones separately attached to the staminal column, 
and either overlapped by the keel or outside it at the top. Stamens 8, united to 
above the middle in a sheath, open on the upper side and adnate to the petals at 
the base. Ovary 2-eelled. Style incurved, obliquely stigmatic and more or less 
2-lobed at the top. Capsule coriaceous or almost membranous, usually cuneate 
and much narrowed at the base, rarely nearly orbicular, opening loculicidally at 
the edges. Seeds ovate or oblong, pendulous, pubescent or hairy, the hairs 
lengthening into a coma whenever the capsule is narrowed at the base, without 
any caruncle at the hilum, but the raphe often expanded into a oaruncular 
appendage at the opposite end. — Herbs, undershrubs or shrubs, erect or twining. 
Leaves alternate, usually small. Eacemes terminal. 

A strictly Australian genus, with which was formerly united the Brazilian Bredemeyera 
(Catocoma, Benth.) ; but, besides the difference in habit, the latter has a more or less fleshy 
capsule, and the seeds have a long coma proceeding from the hilum ; whilst in Coniesperma the 
coma, when present, consists of the hairs of the testa, which always extend to the base of the 
capsule, although the seed is often not half so long. In two species the capsule is that of a 
Polygala, and the seeds have no coma ; but in those the insertion of the lateral petals, very 
different from that of Polygala and approaching that of Monnina, is strongly marked. In P. 
volubilis (which was chiefly taken into account in verifying the characters for our " Genera 

80 XIV. POLYGALEiE. [Cwi'sperma. 

Plautarum ") the arrangement o{ the petals is nearer to that of Polygala, but there the earpo- 
logical characters are yery decided. Besides that, the genus Gomesperma is so natural a one that 
it is never liable to be confounded with any of those allied to it in structure. The precise 
arrangement of the petals in the smaller-flowered species, very difficult to ascertain in dried 
specimens, requires verification from the living plant. — Benth. 
Capsule sessile. Seeds filling the cells, without a coma. Stems leafless. 

(Sect. Frosthemosperma, F. v. M.) 

Capsule orbicular. Flowers in a short terminal raceme 1. G. spharocarpum. 

Capsule narrowed into a stipes, containing the long coma of the seeds, which 

only occupy the broad part of the cells. 

Outer sepals all free, much shorter than the wings. 
Branches twining or very short and almost leafless. 

Leaves few, mostly obtuse. Capsule not winged. Flowers blue or 

white. Pedicels glabrous 2. C. volubile. 

Stems erect, leafy. 
Leaves flat, ovate or oblong. 
Leaves small, broadly ovate, mueronate, crowded. Flowers 1 to 

IJ line 3. C secundum. 

Leaves oblong, somewhat acute, pale on nnder side ... 4. C pracelsum. 

Leaves obtuse, green . . ... 5. C. retusum. 

Leaves mueronate, very glaucous 6. C sylvestre. 

Leaves linear with revolute margins. Keel-petal not horned . . 7. C ericinum. 

Outer sepals all free, nearly as long as the wings. (Sect. Xsocalyx, 

Stems very slender, almost leafless 8. C. defoUatum. 

1. C> sphaerocarpum (capsule almost round), Steetz, in PI. Preiss. ii. 314; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 143. Eootstock woody but not thipk, with slender, broom- 
like, or flexuose stems, sometimes perhaps slightly twining, f to Ifft. long, 
glabrous and slightly sulcate. Leaves reduced to minute distant scales, or the 
lo-wjer ones rarely 2 lines long, and linear. Flowers 3 to 6, in a short loose 
terminal raceme, on pedicels of 1 to 2 lines, the bracts very minute and deciduous. 
Outer sepals oblong, rather acute, almost scarious, about half the length of the 
inner ones, which are broadly obovate, blue and petal-like, 2 to nearly 3 lines 
long. Corolla and style of C. scoparium. Capsule nearly orbicular, about 2 lines 
diameter, slightly cuneate at the base or at length c^uite obtuse, glabrous. Seeds 
ovate, shortly pubescent, with a short membranous hairy appendage at the lower 
or ehalazal end. 

Hab.: Ranges about Brisbane. 

2. C. volubile {iyi\nmgh&hii),Labill.Pl.Nov.Holl. ii. 24 t. 163; Benth. Fl. 
Amtr. i. 144. A glabrous twiner, with numerous branches, sometimes extending to a 
considerable length, rarely short and flexuose, or almost erect. Leaves few, the lower 
ones oblong-linear or lanceolate, sometimes above an inch long and narrowed into 
a petiole, the upper ones linear or rarely obovate, small and distant. Racemes 
axillary or terminal, loose, 1 or rarely 2in. long, sometimes 2 or 3 together. 
Flowers blue or rarely white, on pedicels of 1 to 2 lines. Outer sepals very 
broad, obtuse, about 1 line long ; inner sepals fully 8 lines long, nearly orbicular, 
distinctly clawed. Keel- petal with 2 oblong lateral lobes turned inwards in 
aestivation and overlapped, at least at the top, by the 2 large, obovate lateral 
petals. Style dilated upwards but not winged. Capsule 4 to nearly 5 lines 
long, rounded, truncate and often slightly acuminate at the top, nearly 1 -^ line 
broad, and gradually narrowed into a rather broad stipes. Seeds oblong, the long 
hairs forming the coma much fewer on the sides than on the edges. — DC. Prod, 
i. 334 ; Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 31 ; F. v. M. PL Vict. i. 191 ; C. tortuomm, Steetz, 
in PI. Preiss. ii. 303 ; C. gracile, Paxt. Mag. v. 145, with a fig. 

Hab.: Common on the damp sandy land of the southern coast, 
Var, alba only differs in the flower being white, 

Gntw^^penna.] XIV. POLYGALE^. 81 

8. C. secundum (one-sided), Banlts in DO. Prod. i. 334 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. 
i. 145. A low much-branched rigid shrub, with the habit of some Kpacridar, the 
branches softly pubescent. Leaves crowded, spreading, ovate, mucronate, % to 
8 lines long, rigidly coriaceous, rough with minute tubercular hairs. Flowers 
very small and numerous, in slender one-sided racemes of 1 to 2in., on very short 
pedicels. Outer sepals short, very broad and obtuse ; inner sepals nearly three 
times as long, although scarcely exceeding 1 line, apparently pink. Keel-petal 
very broad, overlapping the narrow lateral ones. Style not winged. Capsule 
fully ^in. long, truncate, 8-toothed, and scarcely 1 line broad at the top, tapering 
into a slender stipes twice as long as the oblong part. Seed elongated, without 
any appendage, the long coma apparently very deciduous, but not seen quite ripe. 

Hab.: Endeavour Eiver and Cape Flinders. 

4. C> prsecelsum (tallest of the genus), F. v. M. Fraym. xi. 2. A till 
shrub, said to attain the height of 12ft., tlie leafy branchlets scabrous-pubetulent. 
Leaves glabrous, crowded, oblong or broadly-linear and somewhat acute, ^ to fin. 
long, under side pale. Flowers in short few or many-flowered corymbs. Bracts 
deltoid-lanceolate. Sepals, outer ones free, rotund-deltoid ; inner ones pale, 3 
lines long. Capsule oblong-cuneate, 4 or 5 lines long, IJ line broad at the top, 
where it is emarginate. Seeds oblique ellipsoid, 1 to IJ line long, velvety, the 
margins hairy but without appendage at the chalazal end. 

Hab.: Ranges about Eockingham Bay. 

5. C. retusum (form of capsule), Lahill. PI. Nov. Hnll. ii. 22 t. 160; Benth. 
Fl. Austr. i. 145. Glabrous, erect, shrubby and much-branched, often several 
feet high, the branches mostly erect and not sulcate. Leaves oblong, obtuse, 
rarely above Jin. long, flat but rather thick, the midrib not prominent. Racemes 
short and dense, usually several in a terminal, leafy, fiat corymb or pyramidal 
panicle. Outer sepals ovate, obtuse, about 1 line long ; inner sepals nearly 3 
lines. Petals rather shorter^ the keel not horned. Capsule usually about 5 lines 
long, emarginate, with rounded lobes, and about IJ line broad at the top, 
narrowed into a stipes much longer than the broad part. Seeds comose, without 
any membranous appendage. — DC. Prod. i. 334 ; Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 32 ; F. 
V. M. PI. Vict. i. 190. 

Hab.: Sandy coast lands of the southern parts of the colony. 

6. C. sylvestre (found in forests), Until, in Mitch. Trap. Austr. 8J2 ; Benth. 
Fl. Austr. i. 146. A glabrous and erect shrub of several feet, resembling C. 
retusum., with which F. v. Mueller proposes to unite it, but much more glaucous. 
Leaves larger, often fin. long and sometimes 9 lines broad, mucronate or 
pungent, often concave above. Flowers rather larger, with broader outer sepals. 
Capsule about fin. long. — F. v. M. Fragm. i. 49. 

Hab.: Open forest near Mounts Faraday and Pluto : sandy forest tableland on the Sutor 

7. C. ericinum (heath-like), BO. Prod. i. 834 ; Benth. FL Austr. i. 146. 
Glabrous or minutely pubescent, usually erect, with rigid branches 1 to 2 or 'even 
3ft. high, woody at the base. Leaves linear, erect or spreading, crowded or 
rather distant, obtuse or acute, rarely above jin. long and usually shorter, the 
margins recurved or more frequently quite revolute. Racemes usually several 
and short in a leafy panicle, but longer and less dense than in 0. retusum, rarely 
slender, and lengthening out to 3 or 4in. Outer sepals all free, ovate or ovate- 
lanceolate, f to 1 line long ; inner sepals about 3 lines. Keel-petal not horned. 
Capsule 3 to 4 lines long, truncate, with rounded angles or entirely rounded at the 
top, narrowed into a stipes usually longer than the broad part. SfeedS oblong, 
comose,! with a very small membrane at the lower or chalazal end. — Hook. f. Fl, 

82 XIV. POLYGALE^. [Cuinesperma. 

Tasm. i. 82 ; F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 190 ; C. coridifoUum, A. Cunn. in Field. N. 8. 
Wales, 337 ; C. latifolium, Steetz, in PL Preiss. ii. 295 ; C. acutifolium,, Steetz, 
I.e. 296; C. UnaricBfoliun, , A. Cunn. in Steetz, I.e. 297. 

Hab.: Moreton Bay, Glasshouses and Burnett Ranges. 

Var. patentifolimn. Leaves very spreading, often pungent, very broad at the base. — Burnett 
ranges in the interior of N. S. Wales, F. v. Mueller. G. patentifolium, F. v. M. Fragm. i. 48. (See 
F. v. M. PI. Viet. i. 190.) 

Var. oblcmgatum, B. Br. Leaves oblong-linear, obtuse and muoronate, longer and with less 
revolute margins than usual. — East eoast, R. Brown, 

8. C. defoliatum (few leaves), F. c. M. PI. Vict. i. 189 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. 
i. 148. Allied in habit to C. nudiusculum with the flowers of C. calyrtuga. 
Rhizome woody, with rigid and rush-like but slender and sometimes almost 
filiform stems, 1 to 2ft. high and glabrous. Leaves very few and distant, small, 
narrow-linear or sometimes all reduced to small linear scales. Racemes slender, 
1 to 2in. long. Flowers rather larger than in C. calymega. Outer sepals all free, 
oblong, nearly as long as the inner ones. Capsule 3 or 4 lines long, contracted 
into a long narrow stipes. Seeds comose, without any terminal appendage. — C, 
■)vudiuscidum, Steetz, in PL Preiss. ii. 308, not DC. 

Hab. : Islands of Moreton Bay. 


(Leaves of some species yellowish.) 

Sepals 5, nearly equal. Petals 5 or 4, nearly equal, the inferior keel-shaped, 
not crested. Stamens 8, distinct, 2 hypogynous, 6 attached to the base of the 
petals. Ovary stipitate, 1 -celled ; style curved; ovules various in number and 
insertion. Fruit 1 -celled, indehiscent, 1 -seeded. Seeds exalbuminous extro- 
phiolate. — Timber trees. Leaves large, coriaceous, generally of a yellowish-green. 

Abundant in the Malay Archipelago and Malacca, a few also in continental India. Only the 
one here mentioned in Australia. 

1. X. miacintyrii (after D. Macintyre), F. v. M. Fraym. v. 8 and 57. 
Usually forming a small erect tree about 30 or 40ft. high, with a whitish bark 
on the trunk, reddish upon the branehlets. Leaves alternate, ovate or lanceolate, 
entire, 2 to 4in. long, f to 2in. broEtd, glabrous and shiny on both sides, with 
often 1 or 2 glands on the under side, obtuse, penninerved, and reticulate veined ; 
petioles short, eglandulose. Racemes axillary or terminal, the peduncle rhachis 
and pedicels shortly pubescent. Bracteoles 3, almost ovate, about 3 or 4 lines 
long, , soon falling. Outside of sepals puberulous, about If line long, ovate- 
orbicular. Petals 3 or 4 lines long, oblong-cuneate, lanuginoso-pubescent at the 
base. Stamens 8, filaments linear-setaceous If to 2^ lines long", the lower part 
broad and ciliolate ; anther yellow. Style scarcely 2 lines long, glabrous in the 
upper part. Stigma 2-lobed. Disk annular, glabrous. Ovary stipitate, hoary- 
tomentose. Fruit globose. — Macintyria octandra, F. v. M. Fragm. v. 8. 

Hab.: Common in the tropical scrubs. 

Wood of a greyish colour, soft and easy to work, very light ; useful for cigar boxes, lining, &c. 

■The fruit is sometimes infested with the fungus Glceosporium carpophyllum, Mass.; 

XV. frankeniacej:. m 


Flowers regular, hermaphrodite. Calyx tubular, persistent, with 4, 5, or rarely 
6 lobes, valvate in the bud, and as many prominent angles and furrows. Petals 
as many, hypogynous, imbricate in the bud, free, the claws with an adnate plate 
or appendage on the inner face, the lamina spreading. Stamens usually 6, some- 
times 4 or 5 or indefinite, hypogynous, free or shortly united in a ring at the 
base, filaments filiform or flattened ; anthers 2-celled, versatile. Ovary free, 
sessile, 1-celled, with 8, rarely 2 or 4 parietal placentas, or very rarely a single 
one. Style filiform, with as many branches as placentas, the' stigmas capitate or 
oblique. Ovules several, or rarely solitary, to each placenta, attached to rather 
long ascending funicles, amphitropous or nearly anatropOus, with an inferior 
micropyle. Seeds ovoid or oblong, testa crustaeeous, the hilum almost 
terminal. Embryo straight, in a mealy albumen, the radicle next the hilum, 
shorter than or as long as the cotyledons. — Low herbs or undershrubs, much 
branched and jointed at the nodes. Leaves opposite, small, without stipules, 
often clustered in the axils. Flowers usually pink or purple, sessile in the forks 
of the branches, forming a more or less dense, terminal, leafy cyme, sometimes 
contracted into a globular head. 

The Order consists of a single genus, closely allied to the small group of Dianthew, amongst 
Oaryophyllete, but distinguished by the parietal placentation of the ovary, and by the terminal 
hilum in the seed. The species are chiefly maritime, and generally distributed over the tem- 
perate regions of the globe, more especially of the northern hemisphere, less abundant within 
the tropics. — Benth. 

1. FRANKENIA, Linn. 
(After John Franken.) 
Characters and distribution those of the Order. 

1. r. pauciflora (few flowers), DC. Prod. i. 350; Benth. Fl. Amtr. i. 151. 
Shrubby and procumbent or almost erect at the base, with ascending, erect, or 
divaricate dichotomous branches, nearly glabrous or hoary with a short down or 
scaly pubescence, often very low and spreading, sometimes above a foot high, 
attaining even 3ft. according to F. v. Mueller. Leaves opposite or the upper ones 
in whorls of 4, oblong or linear, obtuse or rarely almost acute, the margins usually 
revolute so as only to show a dorsal furrow, when very narrow above 3 lines long, 
but usually much shorter, the very short sheathing petioles ciliate on the edge, 
with smaller leaves often clustered in the axils. Flowers closely sessile in the 
last forks, forming a more or less dense terminal leafy cyme and sometimes 
unilaterally arranged along its branches owing to the abortion of one branch of 
each fork. Calyx 3 to 4 lines, or rarely only 2J lines long. Petals with their 
claws cohering in an angular tube, the longitudinal appendage not very prominent, 
the lamina ibovate, entire or crenulate. Stamens 5 or 6, with their filaments 
slightly dilated and usually cohering. Placentas 3 or rarely 2, with 2 to 4 ovules 
to each.— Bot. Mag. t. 2896 ; Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 40; F. scabra, Lindl. in 
Mitch. Trop. Austr. 305. 

Var. serpyllifolia. Pubescent or hirsute. Leaves, especially the lower pnes short, from oblong 
to broadly ovate, the margins often much less recurved than in the typical F. pauciflora. — F. 
serpyllifolia, Lindl. in Mitch. Trop. Austr. 305. — Nive Biver, Mitchell; Murchisen River, 
Drummond. Allied to this variety is the plant from Port Jackson, which De CandoUe, Prod. i. 
349, referred with doubt to the F. pulverulenta, Linn. The specimens in the herbarium of the 
Paris Museum have much the aspect of the latter species (very prostrale, with small broad flat 
leaves, more petiolate than is usual in F. pauciflora), yet I think they may prove to be only on? 
gf its nuruerpus varieties, very near tp tlje serpyllifolia.— J^enth, 

84 XV. FKANKENIACEiE. [Franlama. 

Var. thymoidcs. More woody, erect, and much-branched, with the habit ot Thymus valparis, 
hoary all over, with a minute scaly indumentum. Leaves oblong, very obtuse, much revolute, 
1 to nearly 2 lines long. Flowers rather small, the appendage of the petal-claws very prominent. 
Ovules 4 to 6 to each placenta. — Mount Goningbear, Victorian expedition. — F. fruticulosa, DC. 
Prod. i. 350, appears to connect this variety with the more common forms. — Benth. 

Hab.:' At the Georgina this variety is thickly, but loosely, incrusted with salt, even when found 
growing within a stone's throw of fresh water. 


Flowers regular, usually hermaphrodite. Sepals 4 or 5, persistent, free or 
united in a toothed calyx, imbricate in the bud. Petals either as many as the 
sepals, bypogynpus or slightly perigynous, entire or lobed, imbricate and freciuently 
contorted in the bud, or rarely minute and scale-like or none. Stamens 8 — 10 
or fewer, inserted with the petals. Filaments filiform. Anthers 2-celled. Torus 
small or in a few Sileneqi, lengthenei into a gynophore, or in some Ahinem forming 
a sm8,ll disk, shortly adhate to the base oi the calyx, or short glands between the 
stamens. Ovary free, 1-celled or partially divideu especially at the base into 2 
to 5 cells. Styles 2 to 5, linear and stigmatic along the inside from the base or 
towards the top, free or more or less united into 1 branching style. Ovules 2 
or more, often numerous, attached to a short or columnar placenta in the centre 
of the ovary, amphitropous and usually curved. Capsule membranous or crus- 
taceous, very rarely succulent, opening at the top in as many or twice as many 
teeth or valves as there are styles, very rarely indehiscent. Seeds several, rarely 
solitary by abortion, with a membranous or crustaceous testa. Albumen mealy. 
Embryo curved round the albumen, or rarely straight or nearly so, and excen- 
trical, with the radical inferior, or when the embryo is circular turned upwards. — 
Herbs, very rarely shrubby at the base, usually thickened and jointed at the nodes. 
Leaves opposite and entire, usually connected by a transverse line or short sheath 
at the base. Stipules none, or small and scarious. Inflorescence centrifugal, 
usually forming a terminal leafy cyme, rarely paniculate or racemose, or the 
the pedicels all axillary. 

A large Order, especially abundant in the extratropical regions of the northern hemisphere, 
rather less so in the high mountain-ranges of tropical America and Asia, and in the more 
temperate regions of the southern hemispherej very rare in hot tropical countries. Of the 
Australian genera none, are endemic. One, Polyewrpcea, is chiefly tropical and almost limited 
to the Old World ; aiioiher, Drymaria, is also chiefly tropical, but almost entirely American ; a 
third, Colobanthus, is chiefly extratropical and limited to the southern hemisphere ; a fourth, 
Stellana, has almost as Wide a raiige as the Order itself ; the remaining genera and species, 
whether indigenous or introduced, are all European or Bast-Mediterranean. — Benth. 

Tribe I. Sllentiie. — Stpdls united in a 4 or 5-toothed calyx. Petals and stamens hypo- 
gynous, often raised on a stalk-Uke torus. Styles distinct from the base. Stipules 0. 

Calyx broadly or obSBurely 5-nerved. Styles 2 1. Gypsophila. 

Calyx obscurely veined. Styles 2 2. Saponakia. 

Calyx 10-nerved. Styles 3 . . . 3. Silene. 

Calyx 10-nerved. Styles 5 ... 4. Lychnis. 

Tribe II. Alsineee. — Sepals free or only united by the disk at their base. Petals and 
stamens hypogynons or slightly perigynous, the torus not elongated. Styles distinct from the base. 
Stipules notie, or rarely small and scarious. 

Petals usually 2-cleft, 

Capsule cylindrical pr conical, opening equally in twice as many teeth as 

styles. Styles 5, opposite the sepals, or rarely 4 or 3 . . , 5. Cerastium. 

Capsule globular or ovoid, opening in as many 2-olett valves as styles. 

Styles 3, or if 5 alternate with the sepals 6. Stellaria. 

Petals entire or none. 

Sepals 5. Styles usually 3. Capsule globular or ovoid. 

No stipiiles. Petals none 6. SiEMiARiA. 

Stipules small and scarious. Petals pink . , 8. Spergularu. 

Stipules small and scarious. Leaves clustered so as to appear verticiUate 7. Speroula. 


Tribe III. Polycarpos, — Sepals of Alsineie. FeUUs usually very small or none. Stamens 
h or fewer, hijponynnus or slightly periinjmus. Style dnr/lc at the lias'e, with 2 or 3 branches or 
minute teeth. Stipnles scarious or very minnte. 

Petals lobed. Style very short. Stipules minute 9. Dbymakia. 

Petals entire. Style short. Stipules scarious 10. Polycabpon. 

Petals entire or notched. Style elongated. Stipules and sepals scarious . .11. Polycarp^ea. 

(From its preference for chalky soils.) 
Calyx campanulate or turbinate-tubular, 5-toothed or 5-lobed, broadly 5- 
nerved, membranous between the nerves. Petals 5, with a narrow claw, and 
without any scale. Torus small. Stamens 10. Styles usually 2. Capsule 
globular or ovoid, opening to the middle or lower dowp in 4 valves. Seeds 
nearly reniform ; embryo curved round 'the albumen. ^Herbs, mostly glaucous, 
sometimes glandular or hirsute. Flowers usually small, numerous, and 
paniculate, or solitary in the forks of the stem. 

A genus litnited to the extratropical regions of the northern hemisphere in the Old World with 
the exception of the following species. It is chiefly distinguished from Saponaria by the 
calyx. — Bentlt. 

1. G. tubulosa (tubular), Bom. Diagn. PI. Or. i. 11 ; Benth. Fl. Austr, i. 
155. A slender erect dichotomous annual, often not above 2 or 3in., but some- 
times 8 to lOin. high, more or less viscid-pubescent, and often slightly hirsute. 
Leaves linear-subulate, rarely attaining |^in. and often much shorter. Pedicels in 
the forks, or sometimes appearing axillary from 1 branch only being developed, 4 
to 8 lines long, erect or spreading. Calyx erect, H line long, narrower than in 
most Gypsophilas, with 5 prominent nerves, the teeth short and obtuse. Petals 
red, narrow-oblong, a little longer than the calyx. Capsule ovoid-oblong, rather 
exceeding the calyx. Seeds black, elegantly pitted under a lens. — F. v. M. PI. 
Vict. i. 206 ; Bichoglottw tubulosa, Jaub. and Spaeh, 111. PI. Or. i. 14 t. 6 ; B. 
aitstrnli-1, Schlecht. Linnasa, xx. 631. 

Hab.: Stanthorpe and a few other localities in the south. 

A native of the East Mediterranean region of Europe and Asia, possibly introduced into 
Australia and New Zealand, where it is also found ; yet from the localities where it was so early 
collected by R. Brown, and its general difiusiou over extratropical Australia, it is difficult to 
conceive how a plant unknown in those parts of Europe whence the early colonists proceeded 
should have so promptly established itself. It is allied to the more common G. muralis, which, 
however, has not beeh detected in Australia, and is always quite distinct, especially in the form 
of the calyx, which is that of a true Gypsophila, whilst G. tubulosa is in this respect almost 
intermediate between that genus and Saponaria. — Benth. 

*2. SAPONARIA, Linn. 
(Bruised leaves when agitaited in water produce a lather, like soap.) 
Calyx more or less tubular, ovoid or oblong, 5-toothed, nerves obscure. Petals 
5, clawed ; limb entire or notched, with or without a basal scale. Stamens 10. 
Disk small, or produced into a gynophore. Ovary 1 -celled, or imperfectly 
2 or 3-celled. Styles 2, rarely 8 ; ovules many. Capsule ovoid or. oblong, rarely 
subglobose, 4 -toothed. Seeds reniform or subglobose, hilum marginal ; embryo 
annular. — Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves fiat. Flowers in dichotomous 

Chiefly Mediterranean and West Asiatic. 

1. S. vaccaria (from r<mai-iu.s, a cow-herb), Linn. Cowherb. A tall, 
robust, simple or sparingly branched, perfectly glabrous annual, 12 to 24in! 
high. Leaves radical, oblong, 1 to Sin. long, 3 to 9 lines broad, stem ones 

86 XVI. CAEYOfHYIiLE^. [Saponaria. 

sessile and linear-oblong. Cymes corymbose, many-flowered. Pedicels slender. 
Calyx ^in. long, teeth triangular, margins scarious, with 5 broad green nerves, 
ventricose in fruit. Petals rosy, short, arose, obovate. Capsule included, broad 
ovoid. Seeds large, globose, black, granulate. 
Hab.: A weed in cultivation paddocks, often introduced with wheat and other seeds. 

*3. SILENE, Linn. 
(Gummy secretion of leaves supposed like saliva.) 

Calyx 10-nerved, rarely many-nerved, 5-toothed or 5-lobed.' Petals 5, with a 
narrow claw, and usually with a double scale. Stamens ,10- Torus usually 
elongated. Styles usually" 3. Capsule opening in 6 or rarely 3 teeth or short 
valves. Seeds laterally attached ; embryo curved round the albumen. — Herbs. 
Flowers solitary or cymose, often forming unilateral spikes or an oblong thyrsus 
or panicle. 

A very large genus, chiefly abundant in Europe, N. Africa, and temperate Asia; with a few N. 
American and S. African species, and only introduced into Australia. 

1. S. gallica (French), Unn.; DC. Pmd. i. 371 ; Benth. Fl. Aiistr. i. 155. 
Catohfly. A hairy, slightly viscid, much branched annual, 6in. to nearly 1ft. 
high, erect or decumbent at the base. Lower leaves small and obovate, upper 
ones narrow and pointed. Flowers small, nearly sessile, generally alL-turned to 
one side, forming a simple or forked terminal spike, with a linear bract at the 
base of each flower. Calyx very hairy, with 5 slender teeth, at first tubular, 
afterwards ovoid and much contracted at the top. Petals very small, entire or 
notched, pale red or white, or in one variety with a dark spot.^ — S. anglica, 
lusitanica, cerastoides and quinquevidnera, Linn.; Eeichb. Ic. Fl. Germ. vi. t. 272, 

Hab.: A plant probably of South European origin, now common in sandy, gravelly, and waste 
places, especially near the sea, in most parts of the world, as in this colony. 

*4. LYCHNIS, Linn. 
(From the Greek for lamp, alluding to brilliancy of flowers of some species.) 

Calyx inflated, 5-toothed, 10-nerved. Petals 5, claws narrow, lamina 2-fid or 
laciniated. Stamens 10. Ovary 1 -celled, with numerous ovules ; styles 5, 
rarely 4. Capsule toothed at the top. Seeds tuberculate or smooth. — Herbs, 
with the habit of Silene. 

Natives of the Arctic and temperate northern regions and of the Andes of South America. 

1. Ii. githago (from the seed resembling a black aromatic grain, Gith or 
Git, used by the Romans in cookery), Lam. Corn cockle. A tall, erect annual, 
clothed with long, whitish, appressed hairs. Leaves long, narrow. Flowers on 
long leafless peduncles, rather large and red, remarkable for the long green linear 
lobes of the calyx projecting much beyond the petals ; the latter broad, undivided, 
without scales. Stamens 10. Styles 5. Capsule opening in 5 teeth. 

Hab.: A weed of cultivation belonging to Europe or the East Mediterranean. 

5. CERASTIUM, Linn. 

(Capsules horn-shaped.) 

Sepals 5, rarely 4. Petals as many, usually notched or 2-cleft. Stamens 10 
or fewer. Styles 5 or 4, opposite the sepals, or rarely 8. Capsule cylindrical or 
conical, often incurved, opening at the top in twice as many teeth as styles, all 

Cerastiim.] XVI. CARYOPHYLLE^. 87 

equal. Seeds more or less reniforni,— Herbs, usually pubescent or hirsute. 
Leaves rarely subulate. Cymes terminal, dichotomous, leafy, or the floral leaves 
reduced to small or scarious bracts. Seeds usually pitted or muricate. 

A considerable genus, distributed chiefly over the temperate regions of the northern hemi- 
sphere, more especially in the Old World, rare within the tropics except in mountain regions. 

1. C. vulgatum (common), fJnii.: DC. Prod. i. 415; Bemth. FL Austr. i, 
156. Mouse-ear chickweed. A coarsely pubescent usually more or less viscid 
annual, branching at the base, sometimes dwarf, erect, and much branched, at 
others loosely ascending to 1ft. or even 2ft., occasionally forming at the end of 
the season dense matted tufts, which may live through the winter and give it the 
appearance of a perennial. Radical leaves small and petiolate ; stem leaves 
sessile, from broadly ovate to narrow oblong. Sepals 2 to 2| lines long, green 
and pubescent, but with more or less conspicuous scarious margins. Petals 
seldom exceeding the calyx, and often much shorter, sometimes very minute or 
even none. Stamens often reduced to 5 or fewer. Capsule cylindrical, often 
curved and projecting beyond the calyx. — Reichb. Ic. Fl. Germ. v. t. 228, 229 ; 
C. viscosmn, Linn.; DC. I.e. 416. 

Hab.: The southern parts of the colony. 

6. STELLARIA, Linn. 

(Star-like flowers.) 

Sepals 5, rarely 4, Petals as many, usually 2-cleft, rarely wanting. Stamens 
10 or fewer. Styles 3, rarely 2 or 4, or very rarely 6, and then alternate with the 
sepals. Capsule globular, ovoid or oblong, opening to below the middle in twice 
as many valves as styles, or in an equal number of 2-cleft valves. — Herbs, usually 
diffuse, tufted or ascending, glabrous or pubescent. Leaves rarely subulate. 
Flowers solitary, or in loose leafless or leafy cymes. Seeds usually pitted oi 
muricate. , 

A considerable genus, spread over nearly the whole globe, although within the tropics confined 
to mountain districts. 

Petals longer than or nearly as long as the sepals. 
Leaves mostly sessile, linear or lanceolate. Pedicels axillary. Perennials. 

Leaves rigid and pungent, mostly linear-lanceolate, often recurved . . 1. S. puiifjens. 

Leaves linear, slender . . . . 2. .S. glauca. 

Leaves mostly petiolate, ovate or ovate-lanceolate. Pedicels axillary. 

Perennial without any pubescent line . 3. S. Jlaccida. 

Leaves sessile or petiolate, broadly ovate. Pedicels in the forks. Annual, 

with a pubescent line down each internode . . . i. S. media. 

1. S. pungens (pungent), Brongn. Voy. Cvq. t. 78 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 157. 
Perennial and very much branched, decumbent or ascending amongst bushes, 
often to 3 or 4ft., with angular branches, smooth and shining, glabrous, or 
hirsute with loose scattered hairs. Leaves lanceolate to linear, rigid and pungent, 
mostly 3 to 4 lines long, and never exceeding fin., often spreading or recurved, 
all sessile or scarcely narrowed at the base, the lower ones sometimes small and 
crowded. Pedicels axillary, very variable in length, but usually considerably 
exceeding the leaves. Sepals rigid, pungent, about 3 lines long, the outer ones 
prominently 3-nerved. Petals about as long or rather longer, deeply cleft. — 
Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 44 ; F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 209 ; S. squarrosa, Hook. Journ. 
Bot. i. 250. 
Hab.: Stanthorpe, towards the border of New South Wales. 

2. S. glauca (grey-green colour of foliage), With.; DC. Prod. i. 397 ; Benth. 
Fl. Austr. i. 158. Perennial, usually glabrous, smooth and shining, with slender 
ascending or erect branches, often 1 to 2ft. high, but sometimes low and intricate. 
Leaves linear, acute, f to IJin. long, or the upper ones short. Pedicels axillary 

88 XVI. CARYOI'HYLLE^. [Stetlaria. 

or terminal, slender but rigid, longer than the leaves. Sepals very aei^te, 
3-nerved, about 3 lines long when in flower. Petals about as long, or rather 
longer, deeply cleft. Capsule ovate, much shorter than the calyx, which usually 
lengthens after flowering.— Eeiehb. Ic. Fl. Germ. v. t. 228 ; Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. 
i. 44 ; F. V. M. PI. Vict. i. 210 ; S. angvstifolia, Hook. Journ. Bot. i. 250. 

Hab.: Many localities in the southern parts of the colony. 

3. S. flaccida (flaccid). Hook. Comp. Bot. Mag. i. 275 ; Be7ith. Fl. Austr. i. 
158. Apparently perennial, with weak and decumbent very intricate branches, 
often extending to several feet, glabrous and shining, or with loose spreading 
scattered hairs, especially about the nodes. Leaves ovg, lanceolate, very acute, 
thin and flaccid, often undulate on the margin, narrowed and ciliate at the base, 
rarely exceeding ^in. without the petiole, which is long in the lower leaves, short 
or none in the upper ones. Pedicels all axillary, and usually 1 to l^in. long. 
Sepals 2 to 21 lines long, broadly lanceolate, acute, with a scarious border, 
usually 3-nerved, but the latera,! nerves often, very faint, often, ciliate. Petals 
rather longer, deeply cleft. Capsule ovoid, usually exceeding the calyx.— 
S. media, var.. Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 43; F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 211. 

Hab.: Southern parts of the colony. 

*4. S. media (mediate), Linn. DC. Prod. i. 396 ; Benth. Fl. Atistr. i. 159. A 
weak, much-branched annual, glabrous with the exception of a pubescent hne 
down one side of each internode, and a few long hairs on the petioles, and, some- 
times on the sepals. Leaves ovate, shortly pointed, the lowest on long petioles, 
short and broad, and sometimes cordate, the upper ones on shorter petioles or 
quite sessile, | to fin. long, thin and flaccid. Pedicels slender, often drooping, 
in the forks of the branches, the upper ones usually forming a rather dense leafy 
cyme, very rarely one of the lowest axillary from the abortion of one fork. 
Sepals about 2 lines long, oJDtuse or rarely rather acute, thin but green, with 
scarcely prominent nerves, and usually pubescent. Petals about as long, deeply 
cleft. Capsule scarcely longer than the calyx. — Reichb. Ic. Fl. Germ. v. t. 222. 

Originating, probably, in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere in the Old World, 
ttis pltot is now a common weed in cultivated places, especially gardens, as well as in waste 
places almost all over the globe, and as such is found in all of the Australian colonies. — Benth. 

*7. SPERGULA, Linn. 

(Because it scatters its seed.) 

Sepals 5. Petals 5, entire. Stamens 10, rarely 5. Ovary 1-celled ; ovules 
many. Styles 5. Capsule 5-valved, valves entire and laterally compressed, 
margins acute or winged.-^-Herbs, with dichotomous or fasciculate branches and 
small scarious stipules. Flowers pedicellate, 

1. S. arvensis (field), Linn.; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 161. A slender annual, 
branching at the base into several erect or ascending stems, 6 to' 12in. high, 
glabrous or slightly pubescent. Leaves nearly subulate, 1 to 2in. loiig, in 
opposite clusters and spreading so as to appear verticillate. Stipules scarious, 
very minute, sometimes very difficult to see. Floweirs small, white, on long 
pedicels, in terminal forked cymes. Sepals 5. Petals 5, undivided, generally 
rather shorter than the calyx. Stamens 10, or occasionally 6 or fewer. Styles 
5, alternate with the sepals. Capsule deeply 5-valved. Seeds slightly flattened, 
with or without a scarious border. 

Hab.: This common weed of Europe and ' temperate Asia has-been met with in several 
localities in the southern parts of the colony. 



(Altered from Si>cn/ula.) 

(Lepigonum, Fries.) 

Sepals 5. Petals 5, entire or rarely none. Stamens 10 or feiyer. Styles 8. 
Capsule 3-valved. — Herbs, usually diffuse. Leaves linear or filiform, often 
clustered in the axils so as to appear verticillate. Stipules small, scarious. 
Flowers pedicellate, pink or white, in the forks of the stem or in terminal 
cymes or 1-sided racemes. Seeds with or without a scarious border. 

A small genus, widely dispersed over the temperate or subtropical regions oJ the globe, chiefly 
in maritime or saline localities, or heathy places, differing from Arenaria almost solely in the 
presence of stipules. The Australian species is the same as the common northern one. — Benth. 

1. S> rubra (red), Pers. Syn. i. 504 (as a subgenus of Arenaria); Benth. Fl. 
Amtr. i. 161. An annual, biennial or rarely perennial, glabrous or with a short 
viscid pubescence in the upper parts, with numerous stems branching from the 
base and forming spreading or prostrate tufts 3 or 4in., or when luxuriant 6in. 
long. Leaves narrow-linear, the scarious stipules at the base short but con- 
spicuous. Flowers very variable in size, usually pink, on short pedicels, in 
forked cymes, usually leafy at the base. Petals shorter or rather longer than 
the sepals. Seeds more or less flatttened, often surrounded by a narrow scarious 
border or wing.— A. Gray, Gen. 111. t. 108 ; Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 41 ; F. v. M. 
PI. Vict. i. 207 ; Arenaria rubra and A. meilia, Linn.; DC. Prod. i. 401 ; Lepi- 
ffonuw ritbruin, etc., Fries., Nov. Fl. Suec. Mant. iii. 32 ; L. hretifolmm, Bartl. in 
PI. Preiss. i. 243 ; L. anceps and L. laxijiuritm, Bartl. I.e. 244 (of these last I 
have only seen authentic specimens of L. ancep.t) ; Spenjiolaria rupestris, Fenzl. in 
Hueg. Enum. 9 ; Schlecht. in Linnssa, xx, 632. 

Hab.: Southern parts of the colony. 

Widely spread over Europe, temperate Asia, and North America, and some pajrts of South 
America, chiefly, in maritime countries or in sandy heathy places more inland. There are two, 
often rather marked varieties ; one chiefly occurring inland has slender leaves, small flowers, 
aJld short capsules, with the seeds less frequently bordered than in the larger variety, which has 
a sometimes perennial stock, thicker somewhat fleshy leaves, and larger flowers. Both forms 
occur in Australia and pass into each other as they do in Europe ; the larger and more succulent 
ones are, however, the most common in Australia. — Benth. 

9. DRYMARIA, Willd. 
(From the plants being found in forests.) 

Sepals 5, herbaceous or sqarious at the edge. Petals 5, 2 — 6-cleft. Stamens 
5 or fewer, slightly perigynous. Style 3-cleft. Capsule 3-valved. Seeds later- 
ally attached ; embryo curved round the albumen. — Herbs, usually diffuse, rarely 
erect, with dichotomous branches. Leaves flat, broad or narrow. Stipules very 
small, sometimes very fugacious or wanting. Flowers pedicellate, usually small, 
either solitary in the forks or in little axillary or terminal cymes. Petals usually 
shorter than the calyx. 
The genus comprises a considerable number of American species. 

1. S. diandra (two stamens), Blume, Bijdr. tot de Fl. van Nederl. Indie 63 ; 
F. r. M. Papuan Plants 86. Leaves glabrous, rhomboid or cordate-orbicular, 
conspicuously stalked. Stipules fringy-cleft ; cymes paniculate, with elongated 
glandular-powdery peduncles. Flowers small ; sepals only slightly scarious, 
their middle nerve forming a narrow pulverulent keel ; petals deeply cl^ft into 2 
segments, stamens usually 2, style almost none, stigmas 2. Fruit valveless or 
imperfectly 2-valved. Seeds large, 1 rarely 2, closely filling the cavity of the 
pericarp, black, opaque, glandular-scabrous. — P. v. M. Papuan Plants 86. 
Hab.: Tropical parts of the colony. 

% XVI. caryophylle^. 

10. POLYCARPON, Linn. 

(Plant loaded with seed.) 

Sepals 5, keeled, scarious on the margin. Petals 5, small, entire or notched. 
Stamens 3 to 6. Style short, 3-cleft. Capsule 3-valved. Seeds laterally 
attached near the base ; embryo exoentrical, curved or nearly straight, the 
cotyledons incumbent or oblique. — Herbs, either diifuse or dichotomously 
branched, glabrous or pubescent. Leaves flat, usually ovate or oblong, often 
apparently, but not really, in whorls of 4. Stipules scarious. Flowers small, 
numerous, in terminal cymes, with scarious bracts. 

A genus of very few species, dispersed over the temperate and tropical regions of the globe, 
The Australian species is identical with the commonest northern one. — Senth. 

1. P. tetraphyllum (four-leaved), Linn. /.; DC. Prod. iii. 876 ; Benth. Fl. 
Aiixtr. i. 162. A glabrous, much branched, spreading or prostrate annual, 
seldom more than 3 or 4in. long. Leaves obovate or oblong, really opposite, but 
placed as they usually are under the forks two pairs are so close together as to 
assume the appearance of a whorl of 4. Flowers very small and numerous, in 
loose terminal cymes. Sepals barely 1 line long. Petals much shorter and very 
thin. Stamens usually 3. — F. v. M. PL Vict. i. 205. 

Hab.: Common in the southern parts. 

Very common in sandy situations, chiefly not far from the sea, in Europe, temperate Asia, the 
greater part of Africa, and in many parts of North and South America ; but unknown in tropical 
or subtropical Asia. 

11. POLYCARPiEA, Lour. 

(From the abundance of seed.) 

(Aylmeria, Mart.) 

Sepals 5, either entirely scarious, or herbaceous in the centre and scarious on 

the margin, but not keeled. Petals 5, entire or toothed. Stamens 5, hypogynous 

or slightly perigynous, free or united with the petals in a ring or tube. Style 

elongated, 3-furrowed, 3-toothed, or shortly 8-lobed at the top. Capsule 3-valved. 

Seeds obovoid or flattened ; embryo curved or nearly straight ; cotyledons usually 

(perhaps always) accumbent. — Annual or perennial herbs, erect or diffuse. 

Leaves narrow-linear or rarely ovate, often clustered in the axils so as to appear 

verticillate. Stipules scarious. Flowers usually numerous, in terminal cymes, 

sometimes loose and paniculate, sometimes dense and capitate, often remarkable 

for the white, pink or purple scarious sepals and bracts. 

The genus is dispersed over the tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World, one — the 
commonest species — extending also into tropical America: The 6 Queensland species are all, 
except one, tropical ; one is the abovementioned common one, the 5 others are endemic. — Benth. 
in part. 

Sect. I. Planchonia, J. Gay. — Petals and stamens united in a cup or tube, icithout 

Stems hard and almost woody at the base, the radical leaves soon disappear- 
ing. Leaves all narrow. Flowers 3 to 4 lines. 
Stems tall, pubescent. Corolla-tube shorter than the free part. Stamens 

the length of the petals. Capsule short, obtuse 1. P. longMora. 

Stems slightly pubescent. Capsule fusiform 2, P. Burtoni. 

Stems short, glabrous. Corolla-tube longer than the free part. Stamens 
much longer than the petals. Capsule oblong, tapering at the top . . . 3. P. spirostyles. 
Stems herbaceous, several from a rosette of oblong or obovate radical leaves. 

Stem-leaves narrow. Flowers IJ to 3 lines 4. P. synandra. 

Seoi. II. Polycarpia. — Petals and stamens free or united in a ring at the base, witliout 

Stems simple or hard and woody at the base. Eadical leaves soon disap- 
Flowers IJ line. Petals rounded and very obtuse. Capsule much shorter 

than the sepals , .5. P. corymhosn. 

Flowers less than 1 line. Petals oval-oblong, acute, or toothed at the top. 
Capsule rather shorter or longer than the sepals ... 6. P. hrevi flora. 

Polycarpo'.a] XVI. CARYOPHYLLE^. 91 

1. P. longiflora (long-flowered), 7-<". r. M. in Rep. Bahb. K.t'pcd. 8 ; Bnith. Fl. 
Austr. i. 164. Pubescent, erect and rigid, 1 to 2£t. high, divided at the base into 
several erect branches. Leaves narrow-linear, acute or ending in a hair-like 
point, rigid, silky-hairy, often above ^in. long, with smaller ones clustered in 
their axils ; the upper ones small and distant. Flowers large, brown red or 
purple, shortly pedicellate in dense terminal corymbose cymes or heads. Sepals 
fully 3 lines long, scarious, with a prominent midrib, the inner ones narrower, 
more acute and more deeply coloured than the outer. Petals hypogynous, uniteii 
with the stamens in a campanulate tube not 1 line long, their free parts con- 
siderably longer and shortly bifid at the point. Filaments about as long as the 
petals. Ovary almost sessile. Style long and subulate. Capsule short ovoid, 

Hab.: North-western parts of the colony. 

Var. leucantha. Leaves larger, broader, and less rigid. Sepals completely scarious and 
white, without any prominent midrib. 

2. P. Burtoni (after R. C. Burton), Bail. Proc. Roij. Soc. Ql. Stems 
several, 9 to 12in. high, erect from a hard woody base, slightly pubescent. 
Leaves, those at base of stem linear-spathulate, about lin. long, those of the stem 
almost filiform, about i|^in. long, with bristle-like points. Flowers in terminal 
dense corymbs. Sepals narrow-lanceolate, 3 to 5 lines long, scarious, pinkish, 
with a midrib of a deep purple. Petals united with the stamens in a tube about 
2|- lines long, purple, the free parts about the same length, and more or less 
lobed ; filaments very slender, and with the free parts of the petals reflexed after 
flowering. Style shortly lobed at the end. Capsule fusiform. Seeds numerous. 

Hab.: Northern parts, inland. 

B. P. spirostyles (twisted styles), F. v. M. in Rep. Babb. Kxp. 8 ; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 166. Glabrous and often very glaucous, woody at the base, with 
numerous rigid opposite or diehotomous branches, our specimens not exceeding 
6in. Leaves very narrow-linear, the margins revolute so as to be almost terete 
and filiform, rarely exceeding Jin., often clustered. Stipules small, with subulate 
points. Flowers large, on very short pedicels, either few in the upper forks or 
forming at length a broad corymbose cyme. Sepals 3 to 4 lines long, acute, 
white and scarious with a prominent midrib, the outer ones shorter and broader 
than the inner. Petals and stamens perigynous, united in a tube of fully 2 lines, 
with the slender filaments projecting considerably beyond the free oblong tops of 
the petals. Ovary shortly stipitate, tapering into a long spirally twisted deciduous 
style. Capsule stipitate, oblong, tapering at the top, nearly as long as the sepals. 
Seeds numerous, very small. 

Hab.: Gilbert Eiver, Herberton, Northcote. 

Mr. S. B. J. Skertchly states that at Herberton this plant is intimately associated with 
copper deposits, and Mr. J. Brownlie Henderson, Government Analyst, found distinct traces of 
copper in plants brought from that district (Report on Mines of Watsonville, cl:c., Geol. Surv. Q. 
1897). Mr. Skertchly informs me that the plant is a sure indication of copper deposits and is 
now frequently used by practical miners as a guide to that mineral. 

4. P. synandra (anthers cohering), F. v. M. in Rep. Babb. Exp. 8 ; Benth. 
Fl. Austr. i. 165. A glabrous annual, with a rosette of petiolate spathulate or 
oblong radical leaves. Stems several, erect or decumbent, not above 6in. high, 
with diehotomous or clustered branches. Leaves narrow-linear, with recurved or 
revolute margins, the longer ones above -Jin., but mostly shorter, and not much 
clustered. Stipules small, with fine points. Flowers rather larger than in P. 
corymbosa, in small rather loose corymbose cymes, all more or less pedicellate, 
the floral leaves all reduced to scarious bracts. Sepals about 2 lines or nearly 3 
lines long in the capitate variety, white and scarious with a prominent midrib 

9^ Xyi. CAEYOPHYLLE^. [PolycarpcBd. 

often purple. Petals united with the stamens in a tube of about 1 line, their free 
part shorter and entire, sometimes very short, the filaments about the same 
length. Ovary sessile, with a subulate style. Capsule oblong, tapering at the 
top, with few seeds. 

Hab.: North -western parts of the colony. 

Var. gracilis. More slender. Sepals about IJ line long. Petals rather broad, notched. 

5. P. corymbosa (corymbose). Lam. Illustr. n. 2798 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 
166. Minutely pubescent or rarely almost glabrous, with erect, rather slender, 
but stiff branches, ^ to 1 or even IJft. high. Leaves from narrow-linear to 
almost subulate, rarely linear-lanceolate, flat or with revolute margins, the longer 
ones -J- to lin., with small ones clustered in their axils, the upper ones much 
smaller and often few and distant. Stipules tapering to a fine point. Flowers 
numerous, in dense terminal corymbose cymes, sometimes all forming one dense 
mass on the top of an otherwise simple stem, sometimes the cymes numerous and 
loosely paniculate. Floral leaves all reduced to scarious bracts. Sepals about 1^ 
line long, white and scarious, without any prominent midrib, but tapering to a 
fine point. Petals quite free, not |- line long, broadly ovate, very obtuse and 
rather firm. Stamens often shorter. Style very short. Capsule ovoid or oblong, 
much shorter than the sepals. — DC. Prod. iii. 374 ; Wight. Ic. Pi. Ind. Or. 
t. 712. 

Hab.: Port Curtis. 

The species is common in tropical Asia and Africa and is found also in Brazil and Guiana. 

6. P. breviflora (flowers short), F. v. M. in Fu'p. Babb. Flr.p. 9 ; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 156. Glabrous or pubescent, and very nearly allied to P. corymbosa, 
but more slender and divaricately branched, and at once known by its very much 
smaller flowers. Sepals scarcely 1 line long, broader and less acuminate than in 
P. corymbosa, petals much narrower, not so obtuse and usually denticulate at the 
top ; stamens much more perigynous ; capsule longer in proportion, occasionally 
even exceeding the sepals. 

Hab.: Various localities throughout the colony. 


Flowers regular, hermaphrodite. Sepals fewer than petals, usually 2, free or 
rarely adnate to the ovary at the base, usually broad, imbricate in the bud. 
Petals 4 or 5, rarely more, hypogynous or rarely perigynous, imbricate in the 
bud. Stamens inserted with the petals and often adheiing to their base, of the 
same number or fewer and opposite to them or indefinite ; anthers 2-celled. 
Ovary free or rarely half-inferior, 1-celled. Style more or less deeply divided 
into 3 or rarely 2 or more than 3 branches, stigmatic along the inner side. 
Ovules 2 or more, amphitropous, with an inferior micropyle, attached to funicles 
erect from the base of the cayity, and free or united in a central column, or in as 
many clusters as style-branches. Seeds several or solitary by abortion, usually 
more or less reniform, with a lateral hilum ; testa crustaceous, sometimes with a 
caruncle at the hilum. Embryo more or less curved round the mealy albumen, 
or rarely nearly straight with very little albumen. — Herbs, rarely shrubby at the 
base, usually glabrous and succulent or clothed with long hairs. Leaves alternate 
or opposite, entire. Stipules scarious or split into hairs or none. Flowers 
terminal and solitary, or in racemes, cymes or panicles, or rarely axillary. Petals 
usually very fugacious or withering in a mass. 

A small Order, chiefly American, with a few species dispersed over other parts of the world, 
especially S. Africa and Australia. The Queensland genera are none of them endemic, 1 of them 
being chiefly American. Of the other two, 1 is generally distributed over the globe, the 


other a naturalised plant. The chief characters, derived irom the ovary and seeds, are those o^ 
Caryophylleie, from which I'urtidiicete differ in habit, in the number and position of the stamens, 
and especially in their calyx. -Benlh. in part. 

Ovary half-interior. Petals and stamens periyynous 1. Poiitulaci. 

Ovary superior. Petals and stamens hypogynous. 
Petals free. 

Sepals very often deciduous. Stamens S or many. Seeds strophiolate . 2. Talinum. 

Stamens indefinite, often numerous, rarely and irregularly reduced to 5 . 3. Calandhinia. 

1. PORTULACA, Linn. 

(From the English name of Purslane.) 

Sepals 2, united at the base in a tube adnate to the ovary, the free part 
deciduous. Petals 4 to 6, perigynous. Stamens indefinite, often numerous, 
sometimes 6 to 8, inserted with the petals. Ovary half-inferior, with several 
ovules. Style deeply 2 to 8-cleft. Capsule membranous, half-inferior, the free 
part circumsciss at maturity. Seeds reniform, shining, often granulate. — Herbs, 
more or less succulent. Leaves alternate or opposite, often clustered in the axils, 
the floral ones usually forming an involucre round the flowers. Stipules scarious, 
or more frequently reduced to a tuft of hairs, sometimes very minute or none. 
Flowers terminal, sessile, or pedicellate. 

The species are mostly American, with a very few tropical Australian, Asiatic, or African 
ones, 2 of them widely dispersed over cultivated or sandy places in various parts of the globe. 
One of these is included among the Australian ones, of which the remainder are all endemic. — 

Leaves mostly alternate. 

Stipular hairs minute or none. 
Leaves oblong-ouneate. Eoot slender. Capsule closely sessile ... 1, P. oleracea. 
Leaves linear-terete. Eoot usually tuberous. Capsule narrowed into a 

short stipes . . ... 2. P. napiformis, 

Stipular hairs numerous and conspicuous. 

Leaves thick and short 3. P. australis. 

Leaves linear-terete, almost filiform 4. P.filifolia. 

Leaves all opposite. 

Stipular hairs short, but conspicuous. Flowers usually 3, within the floral 

leaves, and shortly pedicellate. Style-lobes subulate 5. P. digyna. 

No stipular hairs. Flowers solitary and sessile, within 4 bract-like floral 
leaves. Style-lobes flat and transparent. 

Leaves lanceolate or linear . . 6. P. oUgosperma. 

Leaves orbicular .... 7. P. Ucolor. 

Leaves cordate-orbicular 8. P. Armitii. 

1. P. oleracea (from being used as a pot-herb), Linn.; DC. Prod. iii. 853 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 16Q. " Thukouro," Cloncurry, PaZme;-. Pigweed, Alow, 
prostrate, or spreading annual, seldom exceeding 6in., somewhat succulent, and 
quite glabrous. Leaves mostly alternate, cuneate-oblong, obtuse, very rarely 
exceeding fin., usually narrowed into a short petiole, the stipular hairs very 
minute, and sometimes quite disappearing. Flowers terminal and sessile, between 
2 or more floral leaves, rarely solitary, usually several together in little heads 
which are either single or several in a dichotopaous cyme. Sepals not much 
more than 2 lines long. Petals 5, scarcely longer than the calyx, slightly united 
at the base, yellow and very fugacious. Stamens 10 to 12 or rarely fewer. Style 
short, with 6 linear stigmatic lobes. Capsule sessile. Seeds minutely tuber- 
culate, the funicles often united at the base into 5 clusters.— A. Gray, Gen. 111. t. 
99 ; F. V. M. in Eep. Babb. Exped. 10. 

Hab.: Common. 

The stalks are roasted in the ashes, which softens them, then eaten ; also eaten raw. The 
plant Is gathered in heaps, and after drying a little time the seeds fall off and are gathered 
with mussel-shells, ground between two stones and roasted.— PaJmer-. 

Var. grandiftora. Sepals more obtuse, 3 to 4 lines long. Georgina River. 

The species is common in maritime or sandy localities in most tropical countries, extending 
into the warm parts of the temperate regions, both of the northern and southern hemispheres. 

94 XVIl. PORTULACE^. iroituLacu. 

,2. P. napiformis (turnip-like root), F. v. M. Herb.; Benth. Fl. Amtr. i. 169. 
"Karedilla," Cloneurry, Roth. Glabrous, with decumbent or erect stems of 6in. 
to near 1ft., the tap-root thickening into an oblong tuber. Leaves alternate, 
linear, succulent, apparently terete, f to lin. long. Stipular hairs exceedingly 
minute. Flowers smaller than in P. oleracea, usually 3 together, between 2 to 4 
involucral leaves, but not quite sessile. Stamens about 16. Style rather long, 
4-cleft at the top. Capsule small, contracted into a short stipes. Seeds smaller 
than in P. oleracea, black and shining, finely granulated. 

Hab.: Leiohhardt district. 

The species is allied to the East Indian P. tuberosa, Eoxb. but the flowers and fruits are much 
smaller, not so closely sessile, and there are not the long stipular and involucral hairs of that 
species. — Benth. 

3. P. australis (Australian), Endl. Atakta, 1, t. 6; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 169. 
Apparently decuipbent and much branched, the stipular and involucral hairs 
copious, but otherwise glabrous. Leaves alternate, oblong, elliptical, thick, 
under jin. long. Flowers yellow, 1 or 2 together, sessile between 2 to 4 in- 
volucral leaves. Stamens numerous (Eockhampton specimens 20). Style 
elongated, 5 or 6-cleft (Eockhampton specimens 4 or 5). Seeds shining, 
granulate, the funicles united into as many clusters as styles. 

Hab.: Leiohhardt district and Gulf of Carpentaria. 

It is not improbable that both this species and P. filifolia may prove to be forms of the tropical 
African P. foliosa. — Benth. 

4. P. filifolia (thread-like leaves), F. v. M. Fragm. i. 169 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. 
i. 169. Annual, with erect or decumbent stems of J to 1ft., the stipular and 
involucral hairs long and copious, but otherwise glabrous. The roots sometimes 
thick, but never tuberous. Leaves alternate, linear-terete, almost filiform, | to 
lin. long. Flowers rather large, yellow, 1 to 3 together, sessile between 2 to 4 
involucral leaves. Sepals 2 to 2J lines, and petals twice as long. Stamens 
numerous. Style elongated, usually 4-cleft. Seeds shining, granulate, the 
funicles united in as many clusters as styles. 

Hab.: In the interior common. 

This may be a variety of P. australis, and only appears to differ from the tropical African P. 
foliosa in its more slender leaves, and from P. tuberosa, Boxb., in the roots not tuberous and in 
the large flowers. — Benth. 

5. P. digyna (two-branched style), F. v. M. Fragm. i. 170 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. 
i. 170. A procumbent, glabrous annual of a few inches, with dichotomous or 
opposite branches. Leaves all opposite, ovate obovate or nearly orbicular, 2 to 3 
lines long, very shortly petiolate. Stipular hairs very short. Flowers pink, very 
small, pedicellate, 1 to 3 together, between 2 or 4 involucral leaves, forming 
dichotomous leafy cymes. Sepals not 2 lines long. Petals 4, rather longer. 
Stamens about 10. Style long, with 2 long linear stigmatic branches. Ovules 
about 6, the funicles forming 2 clusters. Capsule elongate-conical, covered in the 
upper pairt with oblong papillae. Seeds 1, 2, or 8, black, smooth, and shining. 

Hab.: Northern interior and Stanthorpe. 

6. P. Oligosperma (few-seeded), F. v. M. Fragm. i. 170 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. 
i. 170. A little slender annual of 2 or scarcely Bin. with numerous opposite 
branches. Leaves all opposite, . oblong, narrow-lanceolate or linear and semi- 
terete, 8 to 4 lines long. Stipular hairs none or quite microscopic. Flowers 
very small, pink, terminal, solitary and closely sessile within 2 or 4 involucral 
leaves, which do not exceed the (jalyx-tube, so that the flower appears pedicellate, 
with 4 calyx-like braqts-at th§ summit of the pedicel. Sepals scarcely 1 ling 

Portulaca.] XVII. POETULACE^. SJ5 

long, and the petals apparently not longer. Stamens about 6, the anthers very 
transparent. Style divided into 2 to 4 lanceolate, transparent, and very delicate 
lobes. Seeds few, black, granulate. 

Hab.: Cape River. 

The Sturt's Creek specimens have smaller and rather broader leaves, and in the flower I 
examined the lobes of the style were broader than in those from Victoria Biver, but both are 
probably forms of one species, nearly allied to the Bast Indian P. quadriftda, but at once known 
by the absence of stipular hairs. — Benth. 

7. P. bicolor (two-coloured), F. ,'. M. Fmgm. i. 171 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 
170. A minute, prostrate, tuberous-rooted plant, with opposite branches, rarely 
above Ifin. long. Leaves all opposite, broadly ovate or orbicular, scarcely ex- 
ceeding 2 Unes. Flowers as in P. oligosperma, minute, solitary, terminal, and 
closely sessile belween 4 bract-like floral leaves (appearing pedicellate, with 4 
calyx-like bracts at the summit of the pedicel). Sepals not 1 line long. Petals 
minute, yellow. Stamens about 6. Style with 4 (or sometimes 2 ?) lanceolate, 
transparent, very delicate lobes. Capsule short, broad. Seeds several, small, 
black, granulate. 

Hab.: Keppel Bay, E. Br.; Bustard Head, Jas. Keys. 

8. P. Armitii (after W. E. Armit), F. i: M. Fragm. x. 97. Plant about 2 
or Sin. high. Leaves 1^ to 3 lines long, opposite, cordate-orbicular, on very 
short petioles. Stipular hairs none. Pedicels 1^ line or less. Flowers solitary, 
deciduous, part of the calyx, 3 to 5 lines long. Petals purple, 8 lines long. 
Anthers oblong-oval. Style-branches shortly exserted and dilated. Operculum 
1 to IJ line long. Seeds numerous, turgid, shining. 

Hab.: Robertson Biver. 

*2. TALINUM, Adans. 

(Said to be the name given to the plant by the negros of Senegal, who eat 

it as a salad.) 

Sepals 2, herbaceous, ovate, deciduous or rarely subpersistent. Petals 5, hypo- 
gynous. Stamens indefinite, 6 to numerous, adhering to the base of the petals. 
Ovary free, ovules numerous. Style 3-fid or 3-sulcate. Capsule globose or ovoid, 
chartaceous, 3-valved. Seeds subglobose or compressed, strophiolate. — Succulent 
herbs or shrubs. Leaves fiat, alternate or subopposite, no stipules. Flowers 
racemose or paniculated. ' 

Found in warm countries throughout the world. 

1. T. patens (spreading), Willd. A succulent perennial. Stems almost 
simple, 1 to 2ft. high, leafy to the middle, where the panicle begins. Leaves 
opposite or alternate, 2 to 6in. long, 1 to 2|^in. broad, tapering much towards the 
base. The upper part of the plant composed of a panicle bearing dichotomous 
cymes of pink flowers. Pedicels filiform ; sepals roundish, deciduous ; petals 
small, obovate ; stamens 15 to 20; style-branches divergent; capsule globose. 
Seeds minutely granulose. 

Hab.: A S. American plant often found as a stray from garden culture near towns, 

8. CALANDRINIA, H. B. and K. 

(After J. L. Calandrini.) 

Sepals 2, persistent or rarely deciduous. Petals 5 or more, or rarely fewer, 
hypogynous. Stamens indefinite, numerous or few, free or united in a ring at 
the base, or adhering to the petals. Ovary free, with several ovules, rarely 
reduced to 1 or 2. Styles 3 or rarely 4, free or united in a single style, 3 or 
4-eleft, or furrowed at the top. Capsule globose, ovoid or oblong, opening in 

96 XVII. POETULACE^. [Calandrinh . 

3 or 4 valves, or almost indehisoent. Seeds reniform-globular or flattened, not 
stropMolate, shining or granulate. Embryo curved round the albumen. — Herbs, 
rarely half-shrubby at the base, glabrous or hirsute. Leaves alternate or in 
radical tufts, more or less fleshy. Stipules none. Flowers either solitary 
pedunculate and axillary, or arranged in terminal racemes or heads. Petals 
usually very fugacious. 

A large genus, which besides numerous tropical; subtropical, or southern American species, 
only contains the Australian ones here described, which are all endemic. Formerly confounded 
with Talinum, it has been well distinguished from that gejius chiefly by the. absence of any 
stropbiola or caruncle to the seeds, and differs from dlaytonia in the stamens always indefinite, 
even when reduced to a number about the same as or fewer than that of the petals. — Benth. 

Stamens numerous (20 to 100). 
Scapes leafless, 1-flowered. Leaves radical, narrow-linear . . . . 1. C. uniflora. 
Stems more or less leafy, several-flowered. 
Perennial. Petals very broad. Anthers linear oblong. Styles united 

at the base 2. C. balonensis. 

Annuals. Petals oval-oblong. Anthers short. Styles free to, the base. 

Styles and capsular valves 3 ... 3. C. polydndra.. 

Style scarcely any, capsular valves 4 . . . ' i. C. pleopetala: 

Stamens few. Capsule ovoid or oblong, very readily dehiscent. 
Stamens mostly 8 to 10. Seeds pitted. Sepals broad and very obtuse. 
Leaves oblong or shortly linear. 

Stems short, .ascending or diffuse . 5. C pusilla. 

Stems twining . . ... 6. C. voluUlis. 

Stamens mostly 3 to 5. Seeds very smooth and shining. 
Bracts very small. Sepals under 2 lines and often under 1 line, acute. 
Leaves oblong or linear-oblong, thick. Racemes loose. Pedicels at 

length a to 5 lines, reflexed ... .... . 7. C. calyptrata. 

Sepals obtuse 8. C. pumila. 

Stamens feto. Capsule globular, or shortly ovoid, very smooth and shining, 
and scarcely dehiscent. , , 

Leaves linear-terete. Stamens about 15. Anthers oblong! Capsular 

valves separating at the base 9. C. spergularina. 

Leaves linear-terete. Stamens few. Seeds striate. Capsule cylindric, 

conical . . 10. C ptychosperma. 

Leaves short and broad. Capsule 3-valved, ovate ... .... 11. C. pogonophora. 

1. C. uniflora (one-flowered), F. v. M. in Trans. Phil. Inxt. Vict. iii. 41, and 
Fraijm. i, 177 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 172. Rootstock simple, cylindrical, erect, 
bearing a dense tuft of narrow-linear leaves of 2 to 4in. Scapes numerous from 
amongpt the leaves, 8 to lOin. high, 1-flowered and leafless, except 1 or 2 minute 
scales. Flowers rather large. Sepals broad and thin, 3 to 4 lines ibng. Petals 
usually 6 or 7. Stamens very numerous, the inner ones much loiiger than the 
outer ; anthers oblong. Styles 4, erect, shortly plumose and stigmatic along 
their whole length. Capsule about as long as the sepals, 4-valved. Seeds 
numerous, black and shining. 

Hab.: Gilbert and Norman Elvers. 

The species is nearly allied, to two Chilian ones, C. rupestris. Barn., and C. graminifolia, 
Philippi. — Benth. 

2. C. balonensis (from Balonne River), Ldndl. in Mitch. Trop. A2istr. 148; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 172. Apparently perennial, erect, branching, 6in. to 1ft. 
high or rather more. Leaves thick and fleshy, the lower ones oblong-spathulate 
or obovate, lin. long or less, the upper ones linear or lanceolate, often above 2in. 
Flowers large, purple,' in loose terminal racemes, on pedicels of about lin. 
Bracts scarious, acuminate, mostly opposite, but only one of each pair has a 
flower in its axil. Sepals very; broad and obtuse, herbaceous, obscurely veined, 
with a scarious margin. Petals very broadly obovate, fully fin. long. Stamens, 
very numerous ; anthers narrow-oblong. Style 3-lobed, the lobes thick and 
nearly twice as long as the entire base. 

Hab.: Sandy soil oni the Balonne river, Mitchell. 

nalamlrini,,.] XVII. PORTULACE^. 97 

3. C> polyandra (sbamens numerous), Benth. Fl, Aiistr. i. 172. Annual, 
with decumbent or ascending branches of 6in. to 1ft. Leaves few, chiefly in the 
lower part of the stem, thick and fleshy, the lowest broadly linear or almost 
spathulate, the upper ones narrow-linear, occasionally almost opposite, mostly 1 
to l^in. long. Flowers of a red-purple, rather large, few together in a terminal 
raceme, the pedicels lin. or more. Bracts small and scarious. Sepals very 
broad, rather obtuse, thin and slightly coloured, with scarcely prominent veins. 
Petals narrow-obovate, about ^in. long. Stamens very numerous, irregularly 
united at the base ; anthers short. Style divided to the base into 3 linear 
stigmatio branches. Capsule ovoid or oblong, 3-valved. Seeds very numerous 
and small, black, minutely pitted. — Talinum polyanclrum , Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 4833. 

Hab.; In the interior. 

4. C> pleopetala (petals numerous), F. i: M. Fraym. x. 70. A glabrous 
perennial, the radical leaves crowded, somewhat broad-linear, the stem ones short 
or wanting. Raceme of few or many flowers. Bracts very short, scarious. 
Pedicels spreading or refracted. Sepals persistent, ovate or orbiculate-cordate. 
Petals 8 or 9, 2 or 3 times larger than the calyx, cuneate-oblong. Stamens 
numerous ; anthers ovate-rotund. Style scarcely any. Stigma 4-lobed, 
pubescent. Capsule cylindrical-oblong. Many-seeded 4-valved. Seeds brown, 
reniform-ovate, shining, smooth. 

Hab.: Bowen Downs and Mueller's Range. 

5. C. pusilla (small), Lindl. in. Mitch. Trop. Austr, 360 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. 
i. 174. A small annual, the stems ascending from 1 to 3 or 4in. or rarfely higher. 
Leaves radical or on the lower part of the stem, about ^ to lin. long, much more 
succulent than in C. calyptmta, oblong or linear, mostly petiolate, but dilated and 
stem-clasping at the base. Racemes occupying a great part of the stems, but 
loose and few-flowered, with minute scarious bracts, except the lower ones, which 
are sometimes leafy. Flowers apparently pink, like those of C. calyptrdta, except 
that the sepals are very broad and obtuse, coloured, with scarious margins, 
attaining 1\ line when in fruit. Petals 5 or 6, oblong, stamens 5 to 8 ; anthers 
small. Style divided to the base into 3 short, thick, stigmatic branches. Capsule 
narrow, longer than the calyx, opening in 3 valves. Seeds numerous, much 
smaller than in C. calyptrata and minutely pitted. 

Hab.: On the Maranoa. 

6. C. VOlubiliS (twining) Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 174. Allied to C. pusilla, and 
with that species considered by F. v. Mueller as a Variety of ( '. calyptrata, but the 
seeds and flowers are different. Leaves crowded on a short, succulent,: branching 
stock, linear-oblong, 1 to l|in. long, narrowed below the middle, but dilated at 
the base. Flowering branches twining, almost leafless, except minute scarious 
bracts. Pedicels flexuose, 2 to 6 lines long. Sepals very obtuse, broad and 
succulent, 1| line when in flower, 2 lines when in fruit. Petals about as long, 
withering into a calyptra on the young fruit. Stamens 8 to 10, the filaments 
slightly dilated at the base, but scarcely united; anthers sma,ll. Style cleft almost 
to the base into 3 linear stigmatic branches. Capsule acuminate, twice as long as 
the sepals. Seeds strongly pitted. 

Hab.: Stanthorpe. 

7. C. calyptrata (withered petals form a calyptera or covering to the fruit), 
Hook./, in Hook. le. PI. t. 296 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 174. A small annual, with 
petiolate linear-oblong or linear-spathulate radical leaves. Stems branching, 
prostrate or ascending, from 1 or 2 to 7 or Sin. long. Leaves few, smaller than 
the radical ones, varying from linear to almost obovate. Flowers very small, in 
a loose flexuose raceme, the pedicels 2 to 6 lines long, reflexed after flowering. 

98 XVII. PORTULAOEiB. [CalamMnia. 

Bracts very small, the upper ones often scarious. Sepals acute, about 1 line long 
in flower, nearly 1^ when in fruit. Petals about as long, often persistent a long 
time after flowering, withered into a small calyptra on the top of the young fruit. 
Stamens about 5, with slender, free filaments ; anthers ovate. Style very short, 
with 3 very short, oblong, stigmatic branches. Capsule rather longer than the 
calyx, 3-valved. Seeds numerous, small, very smooth and shining. — Hook. f. 
Fl. Tasm. i. 143 ; Claytonia ealyptrata, F. v. M. Fragm. iii. 89. 
Hab.: Darling Downs, &c. 

8. C. pumila (dwarfish), F. r. M. Fragm. x. 68. A small, tufted, glabrous 
plant, with a thick succulent root. Leaves radical or nearly so, oblong or almost 
ovate, 3 to 4 lines long, but narrowed into a petiole twice that length. Eaeemes 

1 to 4-flowered. Bracts small, scarious. Pedicels never very divergent. Sepals 
persistent, ovate or cordate-orbiculate. Petals 5, ovate. Stamens very few.' 
Capsule almost globose, 3-valved, many-seeded. Seeds very minute, smooth, 
almost ovate, brown, shining. — C. ealyptrata, var. pumila, in Flora Austr. i. 175. 

Hab.: Balonne Biver. 

9. C. spergularina (Spergularia-like), F. v. M. Fragm. i. 175 ; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 176. A small annual, with a tuft of linear-terete leaves under lin. long. 
Stems slender, decumbent, slightly branched, 2 to 4in. long or scarcely more. 
Leaves few, small, linear-terete. Flowers pink, very small, in a rather rigid 
often flexuose raceme on pedicels of 1 to 8 lines. Bracts very minute and 
scarious. Sepals acute, a little more than 1 line long in flower, IJ line when in 
fruit. Petals 6, not twice as long as the calyx. Stamens about 15 ; anthers 
oblong, the cells adhering in the centre only. Style divided to the base into 3 
linear stigmatic branches. Capsule small, the valves remaining coherent at the 
top, separating at the base, and falling off together. Seeds small, smooth, and 

Hab.: Cape York, Torres Straits, and Gulf of Carpentaria. 

10. C. ptychosperma (referring to plait-like marking of seeds), F. v. M. 
Fragm. x. 70. Plant small, glabrous. Leaves, the radical ones crowded, 1 to 
l-J-in. long and 1 line thick, acute ; stem ones shorter. Racemes few-flowered. 
Bracts scarious, 1 to IJ line long. Sepals persistent, roundly-ovate, acute, about 

2 lines long. The dying petals forming a "eonioal calyptra about 2 lines long. 
Stamens not numerous. Capsule 3 lines long, cylindric- conical. Seeds \ line, 
neither rough nor reticulate but longitudinally striate. 

Hab.: Bowen Downs. 

11. C. pogonophora (beard-bearing), F. v. M. Fragm. x. 69. A small 
perennial. Leaves J to ^in. long, lanceolate or rhomboid- ovate, sessile, bearded 
at the axil, crowded near the base of the stem. Racemes few- flowered, bracts 
minute-scarious. Pedicels 2 or 3 times as long as the calyx. Sepals 2 or 3 lines 
long, acute, deciduous. Corolla somewhat short. Capsule 3-valved, almost 
ovate, exocarp thin-cartilaginous, endocarp membranous. Seeds , pale-red, 
pyramidal-trigMious, nearly J line long, thinly reticulate or papilulose. 

Hab.: Leichhardt district. 


Flowers regular, hermaphrodite. Sepals 2 to 5, free, imbricate in the bud. 
Petals as many, hypogynous, imbricate in the bud, occasionally wanting. 
Stamens as many or twice as many, hypogynous, free ; anthers 2-celled. Torus 
small, without any disk. Ovary free, with as many cells as there are sepals ; 
styles as many, free from the base, with terminal capitate stigmas, Ovules 


several in each cell, attached to the inner angle, anatropous. Capsule opening 
septicidally, the valves flat or concave, with the margins inflexed, leaving more 
or less of the dissepiments attached to the central column. Seeds straight or 
curved, testa crustaoeous, usually wrinkled or ribbed, albumen none or very thin. 
Embryo filling the seed, cotyledons short, radicle next to the hilum. — Herbs or 
low undershrubs, aquatic, creeping or diffuse. Leaves opposite or rarely verticil- 
late, entire or seriate. Stipules in pairs. Flowers small, axillary, solitary or in 
clusters or cymes. 

A small Order, dispersed over nearly the whole globe, allied to Hypericinea &nd CaryophyUece, 
but differing from the former in habit, in the stipules, and in the perfectly isomerous flowers, 
from the latter chiefly in the ovary and fruit and want of albumen to the seeds; there is also 
considerable affinity, especially in habit, with Lythrarieie and Crassulaceee. The only two genera 
of the Order, both of them of wide geographical range, are represented in Australia. — Benth. 

Sepals membranous, obtuse. Capsule membranous. Glabrous, aquatic or creep- 
ing herbs. Flowers 2 to 4-merous 1. Elatine. 

Sepals herbaceous in the middle or keeled, acute. Capsule almost crustaceous. 
Herbs or undershrubs. Flowers usually 5-merons, rarely 3 to 4-merous 2. Bekqia. 

1. ELATINE, Linn. 

(Leaves resembling the fir-tree.) 

Flowers 3 or 4-merous, rarely 2-merous. Sepals membranous, obtuse, not 
keeled. Ovary globular. Capsule membranous, the dissepiments either disap- 
pearing or remaining attached to the central column. — Small glabrous herbs, 
either aquatic or creeping on mud. Leaves opposite or verticillate. Flowers 
usually solitary in the axils, and very small. 

The genus is widely dispersed over the temperate and subtropical regions of the globe. The 
Australian species is considered by some as endemic, by others as identical with an American 
one. — Benth. 

1. E. americana (American), Am. in. Edinb. Journ. Nat. So. i. 431, var. 
australiensis ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 178. A small, tender, glabrous annual, prostrate 
and creeping over mud in dense tufts, sometimes not lin. in diameter, sometimes 
extending over a considerable surface. Leaves in the ordinary form ovate, 
obovate, or broadly oblong, 2 to 3 lines long, thin and of a bright green ; but in 
some luxuriant specimens ovate-lanceolate or oblong, and exceeding |^in., almost 
always bordered by a few distant glands. Stipules very minute and deciduous, or 
rarely more persistent, and f line long. Flowers very minute, sessile and solitary 
in one axil only of each pair of leaves, and in Australia almost always 3-merous. 
Sepals usually very minute and transparent, and the petals so very small and 
fugacious as to be rarely found in dried specimens, except in some western ones, 
where the petals are reddish and fully i line long. Stamens 3. Ovary depressed- 
globular, with 3 cells and 3 minute, punctiform, almost sessile stigmas. Capsule 
often 1 line in diameter, the dissepiments sometimes complete, sometimes 
obliterated at maturity. Seeds cylindrical, more or less curved or nearly straight, 
marked with longitudinal furrows and minute, transverse wrinkles. — Hook. f. Fl. 
Tasm. i. 47 ; E. minima, Fisch. and Mey. in Linnsa, x. 73 ; F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 
195 ; E. gratioloides, A. Cunn. in Ann. Nat. Hist. iii. 26. 
Hab.: Brisbane River and south Queensland generally. 

2. BERGIA, Linn. 

(After Dr. P. J. Bergius.) 

Flowers 5-merous, or rarely 8 — 4-m6rous. Sepals herbaceous or keeled in the 

centre, acute, usually membranous and transparent on the edges. Ovary ovoid 

or globular. Capsule somewhat crustaceous, the valves sometimes induplicate on 

the edges and carrying off nearly the whole of the dissepiments, sometimes nearly 

100 XVIII. ELATINE^. [Ber,,w. 

Hat, leaving more or less of the dissepiments attached to the axis.^Herbs or 
undershrubs, prostrate or much branched, often pubescent. Leaves opposite, 
entire or more frequently serrate. Flowers axillary, solitary or clustered in 
cymes, small, but usually larger than in Elatiw. 

The genus is widely distributed over the warmer regions of the globe. 
Flowers small, clustered in the axils. Stamens of the same number as 
the petals and sepals. 

Stems pubescent 1- S- 'immannioides. 

Flowers solitary, pedicellate. Stamens twice the number of the sepals 
and petals. 
Stem woody, prostrate and tortuous. Pedicels short. Outer filaments 
much broader. Styles filiform . 2. B. perennis. 

1. B. ammannioides (like an Ammania), Roth, Nov. Fl. Sp. 219 ; Benth. 
Fl. Austr. i. 180. A rigid, much-branched annual, erect or decumbent, pubes- 
cent or hirsute, with spreading hairs, usually 6in. to 1ft. high. Leaves from 
oval-elliptical to oblong or lanceolate, the larger ones ^ to lin., but mostly 
smaller, more or less serrate with mucronate or glandular teeth, narrowed at the 
base. Stipules lanceolate, serrate. Flowers very small, in dense axillary clusters, 
on very short filiform pedicels,' usually 5-merous, but sometimes 4-merous or 8- 
merous. Sepals very narrow, acute, ciliate, about \ line long. Petals narrow, 
very thin, about as lopg as the sepals. Stamens of the same number as the 
sepals and petals. Capsule rather shorter, the boat-shaped valves separating 
septieidally so as to leave the axis almost wholly without any remains of the 
dissepiments. Seeds 'very small, ovoid, nearly straight. — Elatine ammannioides, 
Wight, in Hook. Bot. Misc. iii. 93, t. 5 ; Wight, 111. t. 25a ; F. v. M. Fragm. 
ii. 147. 

Hab.: Thursday Island and various other localities. 

The species is common in East India and the warmer regions of Africa. 

2. B. perennis (perennial), J^. v. M. Herb.; Benth. Fl. Amtr. i. 181. 
Stems prostrate, woody, tortuous, with very short leafy branches, glabrous or 
with a very few short hairs. Leaves from ovate to elliptical-oblong, mostly 3 to 
4 lines long, rather rigid, glabrous and glaucous, often ciliate towards the base 
and narrowed into a short petiole. Stigmas lanceolate, ciliate. Flowers usually 
5-merous, on solitary pedicels, rarely exceeding the length of the leaves. Sepals 
broadly-lanceolate, keeled, with scarious margins, nearly 2 lines long. Petals 
longer, rather narrow. Stamens usually 10, the 5 outer filaments dilated, espe- 
cially below the middle. Styles filiform. Capsule rather shorter than the calyx, 
the valves leaving much of the dissepiments attached to the central column. 
Seeds oblong, curved, slightly furrowed and transversely wrinkled like those of 
Elatine. — Elatine perennis, F. v. M. Fragm. ii. 146. 

Hab,: Banks of the rice swamps near Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller. The species is nearly aUisd 
to the S. African B. anagalloides, E. Mey, which is a perennial with the same styles and stamens, 
but its flowers are rather larger, on longer pedicels. — Benth. 


Flowers regular, hermaphrodite. Sepals 5, rarely 4, imbricate in the bud. 
Petals as many, hypogynous, imbricate and usually contorted in the bud. 
Stamens indefinite, hypogynous, usually united or clustered into 8 or 5 bundles ; 
anthers 2-celled. Ovary consisting of 3 to 5 carpels more or less united, either 
1 -celled with the placentas on the inflexed margins of the carpels or completely 
divided into cells by the union of the placentas in the axis. Styles as many as 
carpels, free or rarely united at the base, with terminal stigma's. Ovules usually 
several to each cell or placenta, anatropous, Fruit capsular or rarely fleshy and 

XlX. HYtERIClNte^. 101 

indehisoent. Seeds straight or rarely curved, without albumen. Embryo straight 
or rarely curved, the radicle next the hilum.-^Herbs, shrubs, or rarely trees. 
Leaves opposite or rarely vertioillate, simple or entire or with glandular teeth. 
Stipules none. Flowers terminal or rarely axillary, solitary or in cymes or 
panicles. Leafy parts often marked with glandular, pellucid, or black dots. 

The Order is dispersed over the greater portion of the globe, although represented in Australia 
by only one or two species, and those not ondemio. It is closely allied to Guttiferce and Tern- 
strcemiaceai. — Benth . 

1. HYPERICUM, Linn. 

(A name of Dioscorides.) 

Sepals 6. Petals 5, not wholly inside. Capsule opening septicidally. Seeds 
not winged. Embryo oblong or cylindrical, with short cotyledons. — Herbs or 
shrubs. Leaves either small or thin, entire, or rarely minutely toothed. Flowers 
yellow or rarely white. 

A large genus with nearly the same extensive geographical range as the Order. 

Breot or ascending. Leaves usually subcordate 1. H. gramineum. 

Procumbent. Leaves usually oblong or obovate 2. H. japonicnm. 

1. H. gramineum (often found among grass), Font.; DC. .Prod. i. C48 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 182. A glabrous perennial, with erect or ascending angular 
stems, usually about 1ft. high, but sometimes nearly twice that height, 
or much shorter, slender, but rather rigid, branching at the base only or in the 
inflorescence. Leaves closely stem-clasping, ovate to oblong-lanceolate; obtuse, 
rarely exceeding |-in., entire, with numerous pellucid dots, the margins more or 
less revolute. Flowers 3 or more, in the forks or terminating the branches of a 
dichotomous cyme, with a pair of leafy bracts at the base of each fork ; the 
pedicels erect and rigid, j to Jin. long. Sepals lanceolate, acute, appressed, 2 to 
3 or rarely 4 lines long. Petals entire, longer than the sepals. Stamens very 
variable in number, usually rather numerous and free. Styles 8, distinct. 
Capsule 1 -celled, 3-valved, with narrow-linear placentas and numerous small 
seeds.— DC. Prod. i. 548 ; Labill. Sert. Austr. Caled. .53, t. 53 ; Hook. f. Fl. 
Tasm. i. 53 ; F. v. M. PI. Viet. i. 193 ; Ascyruni mvolutum, Labill. PI. Nov. HoU. 
ii. 32, t. 174 ; Hypericum mvolutum, Chois. in DC. Prod. i. 549 ; H. pedicdlare, 
Endl. in Hueg. Enum. 12 ; Brathys Billardicri and B. J'^'ocsJm, Spach. in Ann. 
Se. Nat. Ser. 2, v. 367. 

Hab.: Frequent in all parts. 

The species in the original form, above described, is common also to New Zealand and New 

2. H. japonicum (Japanese), TInmb. Fl. Jap. 295, t. 31 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. 
i. 182. Very nearly allied to H. r/ramineum, and considered by F. v. Mueller as a 
variety only. It is piuch less rigid and usually very procumbent or diffuse, with 
ascending branches, terete or scarcely angled. Leaves smaller, flatter, and more 
obtuse, not so broad at the base. Flowers smaller, on shorter pedicels, the sepals 
less acute and the petals very seldom exceeding them. — DC. Prod. i. 548 ; Hook, 
f. Fl. Tasm. i. 53 ; Axcyron humifusimi, Labill. PI. Nov. HoU. ii. 33, t. 175 ; 
H. pmilluw, Chois. in DC. Prod. i. 549 ; Bmthy.s humifusa, Spach, in Ann^ Se. 
Nat. ser. 2, v. 367. 

Hab.; Common in southern parts. 



Flowers regular, usually dioecious or polygamous. Sepals 2 to 6 or rarely 
more, much imbricate or in decussate pairs. Petals 2 to 6, rarely more, imbricate 
or contorted. Male flowers : Stamens usually indefinite, free or variously united ; 
anthers adnate, innate, or sometimes immersed in the mass of filaments. Ovary 
none, or rudimentary, or more or less developed. Female or hermaphrodite 
flowers : Staminodia or stamens usually fewer and more free than in the males. 
Ovary 2 or more celled, rarely 1-celled, with 1 or more ovules in each cell, erect 
from the base or attached to the central angle. Stigmas as many as cells, radiat- 
ing or united into one, sessile or raised on a simple or rarely branched style. 
Fruit usually fleshy or coriaceous, indehiseent or opening septicidally in as many 
valves as cells. Seeds thick, often arillate, without albumen. Embryo filling 
the seed, often apparently homogeneous, consisting either of a fleshy radicle, with 
minute or without any cotyledons, or of thick fleshy cotyledons, with a very 
short, usually inferior radicle. — Trees or shrubs, exuding a yellow resinous juice. 
Leaves opposite or rarely vertieillate, thickly coriaceous and entire. Flowers 
terminal or axillary, solitary, clustered or in trichotomous cymes or panicles. 

A tropical Order both in the New and in the Old World. 

Teibe I. Garcinies. — Ovary cells 1-ovnled ; stigma sessile or subsessile, peltate, entire or 
with radiating lobes. Berry indehiseent. Embryo of a solid tigellus with minute cotyledons or 

Calyx of 4 or 5 sepals .1. Gabcinia. 

Tribe II. CalophylleSB. — Ovary with 1, 2, or i erect ovules; style slender (rarely styles 
2); stigma peltate or i-Jld or acute. Fruit fleshy, rarely dehiscent. Embryo of 2 -fleshy free or 
consolidated cotyledons, with a small radicle. 

Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled ; style 1, stigma peltate .... . . . . 2. Calophyllcm. 

Ovary 1-celled, 4-ovuled ; style 1, stigma 4-fid . . 3. Katea. 

1. GARCINIA, Linn. 

(Name in honour of Laurence Garoin, M.D., a French botanist.) 

Flowers polygamous or dioecious. Sepals J , in opposite pairs. Petals 4 or 5. 
Male flowers : Stamens indefinite, free, tetradelphous or monadelphous ; anthers 
erect or peltate, dehiscing longitudinally or ciroumscissile. Female or hermaph- 
rodite flowers : Staminodia various, free or united ; ovary 2 or many-celled ; 
stigmas sessile, lobed, smooth or tuberculate ; ovules solitary. Fruit a berry ; 
embryo an undivided thick radicle (tigella*). — Glabrous trees, usually with a 
yellow juice. Leaves coriaceous or submembranous, opposite, or ternately verti- 
eillate. Flowers solitary, fascicled or subpaniculate, axillary or terminal.— 
Oliver in Fl. Trop. Africa. 

Leaves narrow lanceolate, 2 to Sin. long 1. G. Mestoni. 

Leaves lanceolate-ovate, 3 to Sin. long > 2. Gf. Warrenii. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, 3 to 4in. long. Fruit yellow, oval, IJin. I6ng . . . 3. G. Clierryi. 

1. Cr. IXEestoni (after A. Meston), liail. Sep. Bell. Ker Exped. 1889. 
Meston's mangosteen. An erect, slender, graceful tree of 20ft. or more, 
branches drooping. Leaves glossy dark-green, opposite, narrow-lanceolate, the 
points much elongated, 2 or Sin. long, somewhat wavy but with entire edges ; 
petioles slender, ^in. or more long. Flowers (only a few very early buds seen, 
and these much injured by insects) probably small, either terminal or leaf- 
opposed, nearly sessile, with a few small bracts at the base. Sepals 4, small, 
imbricate. Petals white and seem to be hairy. Fruit depressed-globular, a 

• A latinised word from the French tigella, diminutive of tige, .a stem ; the portion of the 
embryo between the radicle and the cotyledons. 

Garcinia.] XX. GUl^TlFER^. - loS 

pleasing green, 2in. diameter, but not fully grown, 8-celled. Seeds somewhat 
rugose. Stigmatio lobes 8, closely sessile on the fruit ; the sepals closely 
appressed, persistent under the fruit, and probably not much enlarged. 

Hab.: Bellenden Ker Range, at an altitude of 2000 feet. 

Fruit of this tree were gathered in the ripe state by Messrs. Meston and Whelan on their first 
ascent of Bellenden Ker in 1889, and they describe the fruit as possessing a sharp, pleasant, 
acid flavour and very juicy, about Sin. in diameter. 

2. Cr. Warrenii (after Dr. Warren), F. r. M. Vict. Nat. A glabrous tree 
of about 40ft., the branehlets robust, angular. Leaves 8 to 5in. long, of firm 
texture, mostly lanceolate-ovate, the primary lateral veins numerous, and some- 
what prominent, particularly on the under side ; petioles short. Flowers rather 
large, crowded into axillary clusters, the pedicels short and thick. Sepals almost 
semiorbicular, the inner only about ^in. long, though exceeding the outer. 
Petals 4, pale, obovate or verging somewhat into an orbicular form, incurved, 
with broad base, sessile, seldom longer than 4 lines, in front slightly and 
irregularly denticulate, staminal mass of the male flowers divided almost to the 
base into 4 ovate lobes, about half as long as the petals, and to which they 
somewhat adhere. Anthers almost quadri valvular, extremely numerous, densely 
covering the inner side of the lobes to near the base, pale, partly on very short 
filaments, partly sessile, their cells divergent, widely dehiscent ; .rudimentary 
style rather thick, angular, about |-in. long, with a convex stigma. Female 
flowers and fruit not yet seen. The staminal arrangement resembles somewhat 
G. cornea and 6r. merguensis, and the leaves (J-. neglecta, Vieillard, and the 
venulation of them is much more prominent than in G. suhtilinerrix. — 
F. v. M. I.e. 

Hab.: This second species of the genus was found by Stephen Johnson near the Coen River 
in 1891. 

3. Cr. Cherryi (after F. J. Cherry), Bail. n.sp. A glabrous tree, about 
30ft., with a somewhat thick bark, grey outside, the branehlets often dichotomous 
and rough from prominent lenticels. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, 3 or 4in. long and 
1^ to 2in. broad above the middle, the lateral nerves distant, erecto-patent ; the 
apex obtusely acuminate, tapering at the base to a petiole of about 6 or 9 lines. 
Flowers solitary, near the ends of the branehlets, on flattened peduncles from 
6 to 9 lines long. (Flowers only seen in the bud state.) Buds globose. Sepals 5, 
imbricate. Petals 5, imbricate, larger but similar to the sepals. Stamens nume- 
rous. Lobes of stigma foliaceous. Fruit yellow, oval, l^in. long, slightly 
exceeding lin, in diameter. Seeds 4, compressed, oblong, about 7 or, 8 lines 
long, 4 to 4f lines wide. 

• Hab.: Coen, F. J. Cherry, who says " the fruit does not taste badly, and birds and insects are 
very fond of it." 


(Name alluding to the beautiful leaves.) 

Flowers polygamous. Sepals and petals together, 4 to 12, imbricate in 2 or 8 
series. Stamens indefinite, free or nearly so ; filaments shortly filiform ; anthers 
ovate or oblong, 2-celled, opening longitudinally. Ovary 1 -celled, with a single 
erect ovule ; style elongated, with a peltate stigma. Drupe indehiscent, with a 
crustaceous endocarp. Seed erect, ovoid or globular, the testa thin, or thick and 
hard, or spongy and then often adhering to the endocarp. — Trees, with the leaves 
marked with numerous closely parallel transverse veins. 

The genus is tropical, chiefly Asiatic, with a few American species. 

Glabrous. Leaves oblong, or obovate-oblong, obtuse or emarginate . . . 1. C. iiwphyllum. 
Young parts tomentose. 

Leaves elliptic or linear-lanceolate, acuminate 2. C. tomentosum. 

Leaves oblong, cuneate at the base. Fruit ribbed 3. C. costatum. 

Leaves linear-oblong, apex blunt, base cuneate . . ... . 4. C, australianum. 

104 XX. GUTTIFEE^. [Calophyllum. 

1. C. inophyllum (alluding to the thread-like veins of leaf), Linn.; Benth. 
Fl. Austr. i. 188. Alexandrian laurel ; Tacamahac tree ; Doomba tree of India. 
A middling-sized glabrous tree. Leaves petiolate, broadly oblong or oboyate- 
oblong, rounded at the apex, about 6in. long, coriaceous and glossy on both sides, 
veins many, fine. Kacemes in the upper axils often shorter than the leaves. 
Flowers fin. diameter, white, fragrant ; buds nearly globular, sepals 4, the 2 
inner ones more petal-like than the outer ones. Petals 4, longer than the calyx. 
Stamens numerous, more or less united at the base into 4 (or more ?) bundles. 
Ovary globose, stipitate, style much exceeding the stamens, stigma peltate-lobed. 
Fruit globose, lin. or more in diameter, smooth, yellowish. — Wight. I.e. t. 77. 

Hab.: Bockingham Bay and other parts of the tropical coast. 

The following analysis of the fruit is by Mr. K. T. Staiger, F.L.S.:— Shells, 62-5 per cent.; 
kernels, 37-5 per cent. Greenish-yellow oil, 43 per cent.; dry residue, 27, per cent.; moisture, 
30 per cent. Ashes of whole kernels, 1-66 per cent.; ashes of exhausted residue, 6-15 per cent. 
Mr. Staiger finds the green oil on saponification gives a bright-yellow soap, the green pigment of 
the oil having changed into a bright yellow. 

Wood of a reddish colour and pretty wavy figure, strong and durable ; a useful wood for the 
joiner and cabinetmaker. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No. 16. 

Ehede states that the resin is emetic and purgative. It is mostly used externally for plasters, 
like turpentine. 

2. C. tomentosum (tomentose), Wir/ht. 111. i. 128 ; It. t. 110 ; Hook. Fl. 
Brit. Iiiil. i. 274. Keena or Poon spar tree. A tall straight tree, branches J- 
angled, young parts tomentose. Leaves elliptic or linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 
margins wavy, 3 to 5in. long, IJ to 2in. broad, coriaceous, shining ; veins many, 
close, slender, equally prominent on both sides ; petiole ^ to fin. long, often 
tomentose. Eacemes in the axils of the upper leaves or forming a terminal 
panicle, pubescent. Flowers upwards of ^in. diameter, pedicels long, slender. 
Sepals orbicular, outer ones smaller than the inner. Petals 4, ovate-oblong, 
larger than the sepals. Fruit fin. long, obliquely ovoid, pointed. 

Hab.: Tropical coast scrubs. 

A common tree in India and Ceylon. 

This yields the Poon spars of commerce. It is used for bridgework in India, where the seeds 
are also said to give an oil. Yields a slightly astringent dark-coloured gum, soluble in water, 
which contains : Water, 18'5 per cent.; tannin, 4 per cent.; arabin, 77'5 per cent. — Lauterer. 

Wood of a red colour, strong and durable ; also a useful wood for the joiner and cabinet- 
maker. — Bailey'' s Cat. Ql. Woods No. 16a. 

3. C< COStatum, Bail. n.sp. A lofty tree, the branchlets not prominently 
angular, puberulent. Leaves oblong, tapering much towards the base, 2 to 2fin; 
long, 1 to l^in. broad, sometimes very shortly and broadly acuminate, margins 
somewhat wavy, lateral nerves numerous, oblique, midrib channelled above, 
prominent and more or less hairy on the under side. Petioles about -J^in. long, 
flattened and puberulent. No flowers seen. Fruit picked off the ground under 
the trees, roundish-oval, pointed at each end, the largest measuring about l^in. 
long and lin. diameter, epicarp thin, dark, and more or less prominently ribbed. 

Hab.: Kvelyn, J. F. Bailey, June, 1899. Figured in Q. Ag. Jl. vol. v. 

4. C. australianum, F. v. M.; J. Vesque's Guttifera in A. and C; DC. 

Mono. Phane. Branches acutely 4-angled, slender, ferruginous-tomentose. 
Leaves linear-oblong or lanceolate, petiolate, the apex obtuse, somewhat acute at 
the base, both sides shining ; nerves somewhat ferruginous-tomentose, charta- 
ceous, 4 to 7in. long, 1 to 2in. broad. Petioles concave above, slightly pilose. 
Racemes axillary, short, bearing few flowers. (Flowers not seen.) Fruit globose, 
about 6 lines diameter. Epicarp thin, fragile, red with a pale-violet pruinose 
covering. Endocarp thin, crustaceous. Putamen ellipsoid, about 5 lines long, 
8 or 4 lines broad. — J. Vesque I.e. 

Hab.: Rockingham Bay, ■). Dallachy, F. i. M. I.e. 

XX. GUTTIFEftl^. 106 

3. KAYEA, Wall. 

(Named after Dr. R. Kaye Greville.) 

Trees. Leaves opposite, veins rather distant, arched. Flowers hermaphrodite, 
either large and solitary or small and collected in terminal panicles. Sepals and 
petals 4 each, imbricate. Stamens numerous ; filaments slender, free or connate 
at. the base. Anthers small, subglobose, 2-celled, dehiscence vertical. Ovary 
1 -celled, style slender, stigma acutely 4-fid ; ovules 4, erect. Fruit sub- 
drupacious, fleshy, indehiscent, 1 to 4-seeded. Seeds thick, testa thin and 
crustaceous.— Hooker's Flora of British India i. 276. 

1. K. Iiamachiana (after J. MoD. Larnach), F. v. M. Vict. Xat. Jan. 1887. 
Supposed to be a tree about 20ft. in height, the bark of the branchlets somewhat 
cracked. Leaves on very short petioles, elliptic-lanceolate, in rather distant 
pairs, chartaceous ; on the specimens seen from 5 to 7in. long and from 1^ to 
2in. broad, nearly smooth, and scarcely shining on the upper surface, rounded at 
the base, the apex slightly pointed, very thinly penninerved, the faint reticulations 
immersed. Inflorescence in short terminal panicles or bundles without common 
peduncle ; bracts obliterated or very fugitive ; pedicels about the length of the 
calyx, bearing very minute deltoid bracteoles below the middle. Flower-buds 
globular, calyx glabrous, measuring hardly Jin., thinly coriaceous, pellucid and 
imbricating at the edge, the sepals finally enlarged to an inch long, the two outer 
ones roundish, rough, developing a brownish film, the two inner ones niore oval. 
Petals roundish, membranous, glabrous. Stamens numerous, slightly connate 
at the base. Filaments very thin, the summit pointed. Anthers almost orbicular, 
fixed above the base ; the cells surrounding the short and broad connective, 
dehiscent along the margin. Style glabrous, subulate-filiform, short ; stigmata 
minute, pointed. Fruit indehiscent, rather large, globular, somewhat pointed, 
1-seeded, the pericarp coriaceous, the one seed filling the cavity, basifixed, sessile. 
Arillus none ; testa chartaceous, smooth ; embryo almost globular, carhulent. 

Hab.: Mossman Eiver. 

The descriptive notes were elaborated by Baron Mueller from specimens with young flower 
buds and with over-ripe fruit. 

This Australian species is evidently nearest allied to K. racemosa, but it has only faint nerves 
to the leaves, shorter petioles, and pluriseriate stamens ; and perhaps the fruit of K. racemosa, 
when discovered, may show differences also. — Vict. Nat., I.e. 


Sepals 5, rarely 4 to 7, free or slightly connate, the innermost often larger. 
Petals 5, rarely 4 to 9, free or connate below, imbricate or contorted. Stamens 
numerous or definite, free or connate, usually adnate to the base of the deciduous 
corolla ; anthers basifixed or versatile, dehiscing by slits or rarely by terminal 
pores. Ovary free or half inferior, sessile 3 to 5-celled, or many-celled ; styles 
as many, free or connate, stigmas usually small ; ovules 2 or many in each cell, 
rarely solitary, never orthotropous. Fruit baccate or capsular. Seeds few or 
numerous, placentas axile, ailbumen scanty or none, rarely copious; embryo 
straight or hippocrepiform, cotyledons various. — Shrubs, rarely climbing, or trees. 
Leaves alternate, simple, entire or often serrate, usually coriaceous, exstipulate. 
Flowers showy, seldom small, usually subtended by 2 sepal-like bracts, rarely 
diclinous, axillary, 1 or more together, rarely in lateral or terminal racemes or 
Rare in temperate, abundant in tropical, Asia and America. 



(After — Sauraujo, a Portuguese botanist.) 

Sepals 5, strongly imbricate. Petals 5, usually connate at the base. Stamens 
numerous ; anthers dehiscing by pores. Ovary 8 to 5-celled ; styles as many, 
distinct or connate ; ovules numerous. Fruit baccate, rarely dry and sub- 
dehiscent. — Trees or shrubs. Branches usually brown, with whitish tubercular 
dots, at first as well as the leaves more or less strigose, pilose, or scaly. Leaves 
approximate at the ends of the branches, usually serra,te, with parallel veins 
diverging from the midrib. Inflorescence lateral, often from the axils of fallen 
leaves, cymose, subpaniculate, rarely few-flowered. Bracts usually small, remote 
from the calyx. Flowers usually hermaphrodite. 

Met with in tropical and subtropical Asia and America. 

1. S. Andreana (after E. Andre), Oliver (iiieditedj, F. v. M. in letter. A 
large spreading shrub, the branchlets, petioles, nerves on the under side of the 
leaves and inflorescence, more or less thickly covered with ferruginous strigose 
hairs. Leaves oblong-lanceolate attenuate-acuminate, 5 to 8|^in. long, 2 to Sin. 
broad near the middle, the parallel nerves and cross veins prominent, margins 
setose-denticulate ; petioles J to fin. long. Peduncles solitary, in the upper axils, 
from as long to twice as long as the petioles, bearing near the end from 1 to 3 
flower-buds with a pair of bracts near them. Bracts narrow-linear, 4 or 5 lines 
long. Pedicels about 3 lines. Calyx densely-hairy, the sepals or calyx-lobes 
with a broad glabrous margin, 4 lines long. Petals white, oblong, sometimes 
twice as long as the sepals. Stamens numerous, filaments broad, frequently 
connate ; anthers oblong opening in longitudinal slits. Styles 6 or fewer, 
connate near the base. Ovary glabrous, 5-celled. Fruit not seen quite ripe, 
oval, 6 or 6 lines long, seems to burst into valves near the top. Seeds very 
numerous, brown and very prominently reticulate, — Dillenia Andreana, F. v. M. 
Fragm. v. 175. 

Hab.: Freshwater Creek near Cairns and creeks about Bellenden Ker, from which specimens 
I have drawn up the diagnosis here given. My specimens were identified as belonging to 
Oliver's species by Baron von Mueller in 1889. 


Flowers regular, usually hermaphrodite or rarely partially dioecious or poly- 
gamous. Sepals 5, rarely 3 or 4, more or less united in a lobed or entire calyx, 
the lobes valvate or very rarely slightly imbricate. Petals 5, hypogynous, usually 
adnate at the base to the staminal column, contorted in the bud, rarely wanting. 
Stamens indefinite, hypogynous, more or less united at the base, the column 
divided into filaments at the top or bearing the filaments outside, below or up to 
the top. Anthers from globose to linear, often reniform or variously waved, 
1 -celled or spuriously divided into two cells by a thin and incomplete longitudinal 
septum. Torus small or conical and protruding into the centre of the ovary, not 
expanded into a disk. Ovary 2 or more-celled (very rarely reduced to a single 
carpel), entire or lobed, the carpels verticillate round the axis or (in genera not 
Australian) irregularly clustered. Style simple at the base, divided at the top 
into as many or twice as many branches or stigmas as there are cells, or rarely 
entire and clavate. Ovules 1 or more in each cell, ascending or horizontal, with 
a ventral or superior raphe, or reversed and pendulous, with the raphe dorsal. 
Fruit dry or rarely baccate, the carpels separating and indehiscent or 2-valved, or 
united in a loculicidally dehiscent capsule. Seeds with the testa usually 
cruslaceous, without or with very little albumen ; cotyledons usually folded and 

pl. y. 



Scvurazy'oyjiriyCljreccricu, oiwai 


often enclosing the curved or rarely straight radicle.— Herbs, shrubs, or soft- 
wooded trees, the hairs usually stellate. Leaves alternate, mostly toothed, lobed 
or divided, with palmate nerves or divisions, rarely digitately compound. Stipules 
free, usually subulate or small and deciduous, rarely leafy. Peduncles usually 
1 -flowered and articulate above the middle, rarely bearing a bract at the joint or 
several-flowered, all axillary or the upper ones forming a terminal raceme or 
panicle. Bracteoles either none or 8 or more, free or united, forming an 
involucre close to or adherent to the calyx. Flowers often large, usually purple, 
red, or yellow. 

A large Order generally dispersed over all except the coldest regions of the globe, distinguished 
from SUrculiaceiB and Tiliacece by the 1-celled anthers, and from all others by the valvate calyx 
and monadelphous hypogynous stamens. Of the 15 following genera, 12 are more or less 
tropical, 7 being common to the warmer regions of both the New and the Old World ; 4, 
MalvaMrum, Modiola, Pavonia, and Fugosia, chiefly American, or American and African, but not 
Asiatic ; and 1, Thespesia, African and Asiatic. Lavatera is a Mediterranean form, represented 
by one species in extratropical Australia, the remaining 2 are endemic or nearly so, Plagi- 
antlms being also represented in New Zealand and Lagunaria in Norfolk Island. — Benth. in part. 

Tribe I. nXalveSB. — Staminal column bearing filaments to the summit. Style-branches 
the same number as ovary-cells. Mature carpels separating more or less from the aj:is (imperfectly 
"otn some Abutila). 
Ovules solitary in each cell, ascending with a ventral raphe. 

Styje-branches lined with decurrent stigmas. 

Bracteoles 3 to 6, united at the base 1. Lavatbba. 

Bracteoles 3, distinct 2. Malva. 

Stigmas terminal, capitate or truncate. Bracteoles 1 to 3 distinct, or none . 3. Malvastrum. 
Ovules solitary in each cell, pendulous or horizontal with a dorsal raphe. 
Bracteoles none. 

Styles with decurrent stigmas. Flowers more or less dioecious 4. Plaoianthds. 

Stigmas terminal, capitate, or truncate .5. Sida. 

Otules 2 or more in each cell. Bracteoles none. Stigmas terminal. Capsule 

5 to 20-celled, separating or cohering at least till the seed has shed ... 6. Abutilon. 

Bracteoles 8. Carpels with transverse septas inside 7. Modiola. 

Tbibe II. TTrene's. — Staminal column truncate or S-toothed at the smnniit, bearing the anthers 
or filaments on the outside. Style-branches twice the number of carpels. Carpels 1-seeded. 

Bracteoles 5, united at the base. Carpels muricate or gloohidiate 8. Urena. 

Brapteoles 5 or more, usually free. Carpels reticulate or smooth 9. Pavosia. 

Tribe III. KibisceSB. — Staminal column truncate or 5-toothed at the summit, bearing the 
anthers or filaments on the outside, or rarely at the summit also. Style-branches or stigmas the 
same number as ovary-cells. Carpels united in a several-celled capsule, loculicidal or indehiscent. 
Style branched at the top or with radiating stigmas. Ovary 5 celled. 

Bracteoles 5 or more, free or united (sometimes very deciduous). Hairs or 

tomentum stellate 10. Hibiscus. 

Bracteoles 3 (sometimes very deciduous). Tomentum of scurfy scales . .11. Lagunaria. 
Style undivided, with decurrent stigmas. 

Bracteoles 3 to 5, narrow, not cordate, sometimes very small. 

Ovary 3, 4, or rarely 5-oelled. Capsule coriaceous, loculicidal .... 12. Fdgosia. 
Ovary 5-celled. Capsule woody, sometimes indehiscent .... 13. Thespesia. 

Bracteoles 3, broad, cordate 14. Gossypium. 

Tribe IV. BombaceSB. — Staminal column in the Australian genera (only one genus repre- 
sented in Queensland) divided at the top into numerous filaments, in other genera the filaments or 
anthers variously arranged. Style undivided, or with very short stigmatic lobes as many as ovary- 
cells. Carpels united in a loculicidal or indehiscent capsule. — A large tropical tribe, difficult to 
distinguish from arborescent HibiscecB by a general character, although each genus has peculiarities 
not found among Hibisceai. 
Calyx truncate in the bud, afterwards 3 to 5-cleft. Capsule 5-valved, densely 

woolly inside. Leaves digitate 1.5. Bombax. 

1. LAVATERA, Linn. 

(After the Lavaters of Zurich.) 

Bracteoles united into a 3 to 6-cleft involucre. Calyx 5-lobed. Staminal 
column divided to the top into several filaments. Ovary-cells indefinite, 
1 -ovulate. Style-branches of the same number as cells, filiform, stigmatic along 

108 XXII. MALVACE^. [Lavatera. 

the inaer side. Fruit-carpels in a depressed circle, indehiscent, verticillate round 
the torus or axis, which is usually prominent beyond them, either conical or 
variously dilated above them. Seed ascending. — Herbs, shrubs, or trees, tomen- 
tose or hirsute. Leaves angular or lobed. Flowers pedunculate, axillary or in a 
terminal raceme. 

The greater number of species are from Western Europe or the Mediterranean region, one 
extending into central Asia ; there are also two from the Canary Islands, besides the subjoined 
Australian species, which is endemic but nearly allied to one of the European ones. — Benth. 

1. Iia plebeia (plebeian) /Si?»s in Bot. Mag. t. 2269 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 
185. A coarse, erect herb, becoming woody at the base and attaining the height 
of 5 to 10ft., more or less scabrous or softly tomentose with minute stellate hairs. 
Leaves on long petioles, orbicular-cordate, 5 or 7-lobed, the lower ones sometimes 
attaining 6in. diameter, the upper ones 1 to 2in.; the lobes short, broad, very 
obtuse and crenate, the central one of the upper leaves often longer than the 
others. Stipules narrow-lanceolate or triangular. Pedicels axillary, usually 
clustered, rarely solitary, sometimes very short and rarely exceeding lin. Invo- 
lucre deeply 3-lobed, the lobes ovate, obtuse, shorter than the 5-lobed calyx. 
Petals pale-rose or whitish, 1 to l^in. long. Carpels of the fruit 6 to 15, in a 
close ring, with flat backs and sharp angles, the receptacle projecting from the 
central depression as a small conical point. — Hook. Fl. Tasm. i. 46 ; F. v. M. PL 
Vict. i. 166 ; Malva Behriana, Schlecht ; Lavatera Behrimia, Schlecht ; Malta 
Preissiana, Miq. 
Hab.: Southern parts of the colony. 

In the early . days of South Australia the aborigines of the Adelaide tribe largely used the 
young fleshy roots of this mallow for food, cooking in ovens sunk in the ground. — F. M. B. 

*2. MALVA, Linn. 
(NaUie from its emollient qualities.) 

Bractioles 8, distinct. Sepals 5, connate at the base. Petals emarginate, 
connate at the extreme base. Staminal-tube antheriferous to the top, without 
sterile teeth. Ovary many-celled ; styles as many as the carpels, stigmas linear ; 
ovules 1 in each cell. Eipe carpels 1 -seeded, indehiscent, separating from a short 
conical torus. Seeds ascending. — Downy herbs. Leaves lobed. Flowers in 
axillary tufts. 

The species of this genus are only found in the temperate regions of the Old World. 

The following species are met with as cultivation weeds. 

Plant erect, pubescent. Flowers in nearly sessile clusters 1. ilZ. verticillata. 

Plant erect, glabrous. Peduncle as long or longer than the flowers ... 2. M. sylvestris. 

Plant spreading, slightly pubescent, claw of petal bearded 3. M. rotundifolia. 

Plant spreading, slightly pubescent, claw of petal glabrous i. M. parviflora. 

1. M. verticillata (whorled), Linn. Stem branched, 2 to 4ft. high. 
Leaves cordate, orbicular, 5 or 6-lobed, downy; petiole 6 or Tin. Flowers 
small, nearly sessile, densely crowded. Bracteoles linear. Sepals deltoid- 
lanceolate. Petals notched, slightly longer than the sepals. Carpels 10 to 12, 
enclosed within the accrescent calyx, netted on the sides, prominently ribbed at 
the back. 

Hab.: Naturalised on waste places about townships. 

2. M. sylvestris (forest plant), Linn. Annual, 1 to 8ft. high. Leaves 
cordate, rounded, lobed ; petiols 4 or 5in. Peduncles about lin. Bracteoles 
ovate, entire, shorter than the bell-shaped calyx. Corolla l^in. diameter. Petals 
notched, claw-bearded. Carpels reticulate, downy or glabrous. 

Hab.: Naturalised on waste places about townships. 

MolM.\ XXII. MALVACE^. 109 

3. ]V[. rotundifolia (ronnd-leaveil), Limi. A much-branched, decumbent, 
or prostrate herb, sparingly villous. Leaves suborbicular, lobed, crenate ; petiole 
6 or Tin. Peduncles l^in. Bracteoles lanceolate half the length of the broadly- 
lanceolate sepals. Corolla lin. diameter. Petals wedge-shaped, notched, twice 
the length of the sepals. Ripe carpels about 15, downy, flat or wrinkled. 

Hab.: Naturalised on waste places about townships. 

4. ]¥[. parviflora (small-flowered), Linn. A comparatively small spreading 
herb, slightly downy. Leaves roundish, obsoletely lobed. Peduncles short, 
spreading after flowering. Bracteoles linear. Sepals broad, acute. Petals 
notched, scarcely exceeding the sepals, claw glabrous. Carpels wrinkled, angular. 

Hab.: Naturalised on waste places about townships. 

8. MALVASTRUM, A. Gray. 

(Altered from Malva.) 

Bracteoles either none or 1 to 3, small and distinct. Calyx 5-lobed. Staminal 
column divided to the top into several filaments. Ovary-cells 5 or more, 1- 
ovulate ; style-branches of the same number as the cells, filiforrn or club-shaped, 
with terminal small or capitate stigmas. Fruit carpels seceding from the short 
axis, indehiscent or slightly 2-valved, occasionally produced at the top into 
erect connivent beaks. Seeds ascending, reniform. — Herbs or undershrubs. 
Leaves entire or divided. Flowers red or yellow, shortly pedunculate or sessile, 
axillary or in terminal spikes. 

A considerable genus, chiefly American, with a few South African species. 

The genus, formerly confounded with Malva and Sida, is readily distinguished from the 
former by the styles, from the latter by the ascending ovules and seeds. 

Tomentum stellate. Flowers mostly in a short terminal spike .... 1. M. spicatum. 
Hairs appressed, parallel. Flowers mostly axillary. Calyx broad . . . i. M. tricuspidatum. 

1. M. spicatum (flowers in spikes), A. Gray, PI. Fendl. 22, and Bot. Amer. 
F.rpl. E.rped. i. 147 ; Benth. B'l. Austr. i. 187. An erect branching herb of 1 to 
2ft., becoming almost woody at the base, scabrous or softly tomentose with 
stellate hairs. Leaves petiolate, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute or obtuse, 1 to 
2in. long, irregularly serrate or crenate, very rarely obscurely 3-lobed. Flowers 
rather small, yellow, sessile in a dense terminal spike, rarely exceeding 1 to Ifin. 
in length, and often leafy at the base. Bracts narrow, shorter than the calyx, 
usually 2-lobed. Bracteoles 8, filiform, closely appressed to the calyx. Calyx 
softly pubescent, the lobes acuminate, and often bordered by long hairs. Petals 
about 4 to 5 lines long. Carpels H to 12, not close-pressed, angular on the edges, 
pubescent on the top, without points. — Malva spicata, Linn. ; Cav. Diss. t. 20, f. 
4 ; DC. Prod. i. 430 ; M. ovata, Cav. Diss. 81, t. 20, f. 2 ; M. timoriensis, DC. 
Prod. i. 480 ; M. brachystachyaj F. v. M. in hinusea,, xxv. 378. 

Hab.: Common in Queensland. 

The species is common in tropical America, and has been found also in the Cape de Verd 
Islands and in Timor. 

2. Dfl. tricuspidatum (referring to the points on the Carpel), A. Gray, PI. 
Wright, and Bot. Amer, Kxpl. Exped. i. 148 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 187. An 
erect branching herb, 2 to 8ft. high, hard and almost woody at the base, although 
sometimes annual, the branches sprinkled or covered with closely appressed hairs. 
Leaves on rather long petioles, from broadly ovate to lanceolate, 1 to 2in. long, 
irregularly toothed, hairy. Flowers yellow, almost sessile in the axils of the 
leaves, or clustered towards the ends of the branches. Calyx broadly 5-lobed, 

110 XXII. MALVAGEiE. [Malvastrum. 

with 3 small, narrow, external bracts. Carpels 8 to 12 or even more, closely 
packed in a depreseed ring, each one reniform, with 3 minute unequal points on 
the upper edge, 1 at the inner angle, 2 dorsal. — Malva tricmpidata. Ait.; DC. 
Prod. i. 430 ; Sida carpinoides, DC. Prod. i. 460. 

Hab.: Frequentln southern parts. 

This species, probably of American origin, is much more widely scattered over the warmer 
regions of the Old World than the M. spicatnm. 


(Kef erring to the oblique petals.) 
(Asterotriehon and Blepharanthemum, KhUsch; Lawrencia, Hook.; Halothamnus, F. v. M.) 
Braoteoles none or distant from the calyx. Calyx 5-toothed or 5-lobed. 
Staminal column divided at the top into several filaments. Ovary-cells 2 to 5, 
rarely 1 or indefinite, 1-ovulate. Style-branches as many as cells, filiform or 
club-shaped, stigmatic along the inner side, either the whole length or near the 
top. Fruit -carpels 1, 2, or more, seceding from the axis, indehiscent or irregularly 
breaking up. Seeds pendulous, with a dorsal raphe. — Shrubs or rarely herbs. 
Leaves entire or rarely lobed. Flowers usually small and white, more or less 
completely dioecious, axillary or terminal, usually clustered, rarely solitary or in 
short panicles. 
The genus is confined to Australasia. 

Sect. Xiawrencia (Wrenoiala, A. Gray.) — Calyx with 5 prominent anglet. Herbs or tortuous 
shrubs. Leaves thick or small, entire or toothed at the top, nearly glabrous or scurfy. 
A decumbent, much-branched herb, glabrous or slightly hoary . ... 1. P. glomeratus. 
A tortuous, branching shrub, covered with scurfy scales 2. P. microphyllui. 

1. P, glomeratus (flowers clustered), £ewt/i. in Joum. Linn. Soc. vi. 103; 
Fl. Austr. i. 190. A glabrous or slightly hoary, decumbent and much-branched 
herb, with ascending branches often above 1ft. high. Leaves cuneate-oblong, 
toothed at the end, resembling those of P. spi^;atus, but usually narrower and 
more gradually narrowed into the petiole. Flowers all axillary, usually 3 together 
and sessile, forming distant clusters along the leafy branches and never collected 
into a spike, the ends of the branches all barren. Flowers nearly those of 
P. spicattis, but smaller, and the stamens and styles much shorter. — Lawrencia 
glonierata, Hook. Ic. PI. t. 417. 

Hab.: Southern parts of the colony. 

2. P. microphyllus (small leaves), F. v. M. Fragm. i. 29 ; Benth. Fl. 
Austr, i. 190; Halothamnus micropJ^llus, F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 159. A 
dwarf rigid shrub, clothed with scurfy scales, very tortuous and branchy, the 
smaller branches slender and often spinescent. Leaves from linear to oblong- 
cuneate, rarely exceeding ^in. and usually much smaller, obtuse or 8 -toothed at 
the end, more or less tapering at the base. Flowers small, sessile or nearly so, 
1 to 3 together in the axils, not spicate. Calyx when in flower not above 1^ line 
long. Carpel usually single, enclosed in the calyx and membranous. 

Hab.; Southern border of .the colony. 

5. SIDA, Linn. 

(A Greek name of a plant.) 

Braoteoles none, or small and distant from the calyx. Calyx 5-toothed or 
5-lobed. Staminal column divided at the top into several filaments. Ovary-cells 
5 or more, verticillate, 1-ovulate. Style-branches as many as cells, filiform or 
slightly clavate, with terminal, capitate or truncate stigmas. Fruit-carpels either 
obtuse or with connivent points, seceding from the axis, indehiscent or ppening 

Sida.] XXII. MALVACE^. Ill 

shortly at the top in 2 valves. Seeds pendulous or horizontal, with a dorsal 
raphe. — Herbs or shrubs, usually clothed with a soft or whitish stellate tomentum. 
Stipules in all the Australian species except N. Hookeriana, subulate and de- 
ciduous. Flowers sessile or pedunculate, axillary or in terminal heads, spikes, or 
racemes, of various colours and sometimes large, but most frequently rather 
small, yellow, or whitish. 

The genus, even as now limited to the exclusion of the Almtilons, is large and widely spread 
over the warmer regions of the globe, but most abundant in America. Of the Australian species 
three are common tropical weeds, the remainder all endemic. — Benth. 

§ 1. Calyx without prominent ribs or angles. Carpels strongly reticulate on the sides (except 
S. pleiantlia), indehiscent or 7iearly so, never aristate. Perennials or shrubs. Leaves undivided. 
Flowers 1 or 2 together, on slender pedicels, articulate near the top. 
Calyx-lobes obtuse, not protruding beyond the broad part of the fruit. 
Carpels strongly wrinkled on the back. Fruit 2J to 4 lines diameter 1. ,S'. corrugata. 
Leaves roundish. Peduncles 4in. long. Calyx-lobes nearly deltoid. 

Carpels prickly on the back 2. S. Spenceriana. 

Leaves linear. Peduncles under lin. long. Calyx-lobes deltoid. 

Carpels hairy 3. S. argeiitea. 

Carpels not or very slightly wrinkled. Fruit not exceeding 2 lines 

diameter. Leaves and flowers very small 4. S. intricata. 

Calyx-lobes acute or scarcely acuminate, remaining herbaceous, and not 
much enlarged after flowering. 

Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, cordate at the base 5. S. macropoda. 

Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, not cordate 6. S. virgata. 

Calyx-lobes acuminate, with long, subulate, wooUy points 7. S. cryphiopetala. 

Calyx-lobes enlarged and thinner or scarious after flowering. Leaves 
lanceolate or oblong. Carpels 6 to 8. Fruiting calyx about Jin, 
diameter, slightly spreading ; lobes narrow, ovate-lanceolate ... 8. S. petropMla. 

Flowers clustered, several together. Pedicels short, not articulate. 
Flowers nearly sessile. Tomentum dense, or rarely scanty. Carpels 

reticulate on the side 9. S. subspicata. 

Flowers pedicellate. Tomentum thin or floccose. Carpels not reticulate 10. S. pleiantha. 

§ 2. Calyx 5-angled, prominently 10-ribbed. Carpels not reticulate on the sides, and opening in 

2 short valves at the top. Herbs or undershrubs. Leaves undivided. 

Leaves ovate or narrow, whitish with a close tomentum on both sides. 

Carpels 5 11. S. spinosa. 

Leaves ovate or narrow, whitish with a close tomentum underneath. 

Carpels about 10 . 12. S. rhombifolia. 

Leaves broad, cordate (or rarely narrow). Tomentum soft, loose, or vel- 
vety. Carpels about 10 13, S. cordifolia. 

§ 3. Calyx with 15 or 20 nerves prominent when in fruit. Carpels numerous. Styles free to 

the base. Leaves undivided. 

Calyx enlarging little after flowering, open at the top 14. S. platycalyx. 

Fruiting calyx very large, membranous, quite closed over the fruit . . .15. S. inclusa. 

1. S. corrugata (fruit furrowed), Lindl. in Mitch. Three Exped. ii. 13 ; 
Benth. Fl. Amtr. i. 192. Eootstock and often the base of the stem woody, the 
branches usually diffuse or procumbent and under 1ft. long, or in some varieties 
elongated, slender, and divaricate, attaining fully 2ft., more or less hoary as well 
as the leaves with stellate hairs or short pubescence. Leaves orbicular, ovate or 
lanceolate, crenate, mostly i to lin. long, cordate or obtuse at the base, on 
petioles shorter than the laminse, and sometimes very short. Pedicels axil- 
lary, 1 to 3 together, filiform or slender, rarely as long as the leaves, articulate 
below the top. Calyx tomentose, 2 to 2^ lines long, the lobes broad and obtuse, 
spreading under the fruit. Petals yellow, about twice the length of the calyx. 
Stamens 10 to 15. Fruit depressed-globular, varying from 2| to near 5 lines 
diameter, tomentose or nearly glabrous, the obtuse often-raised centre marked 
with radiating furrows formed by the grooved connivent summits of the carpels, 
the circumference deeply wrinkled. Carpels 6 to 10, indehiscent, strongly reticu- 
late on the sides. Seeds glabrous or slightly tomentose. — F. v. M, PI. Vict. i. 163. 

Hab-: On the Maranoa, Mitchell ; in the interior, Leichhardt. 

112 XXII. MALVACE^. [SMa. 

This plant assumes forms apparently so distinct that it is difficult to believe that some of 
them ought not to be considered as species. In attempting, however, to fix their limits, so 
many intermediate specimens have presented themselves that I feel compelled to follow F. v. 
Mueller in uniting them under one name. The following appear to be the most marked. — 
Benth. in Fl. Auntr. 

u. orbicularis. Stems short, diffuse, and tomentose. Leaves orbicular or broadly ovate, 
deeply and coarsely crenate, cordate at the base. Flowers and fruits rather large. S. cor-rugata, 
Lindl. I.e. ; S. interstans and S. apodochroma, F. v. M. in Linnsea, xxv. 383. Chiefly in Victoria 
and N. S. Wales. 

6. ovata. Stems usually more slender and elongated. Leaves mostly cordate-ovate, with 
small and regular crenatures, often softly tomentose. Petioles often short, and sometimes very 
short. . Flowers and fruits rather small. S. fibulifera, Lindl. in Mitch. Three Exped. ii. 45 ; 
SJiliformis, A. Cunn. in Mitch. Trop. Austr. 361. — N. Australia (including a var. with very short 
pedicels), Queensland, N. S. Wales, Victoria, and S. Australia. S. pedunculata, A. Cunn. ms., 
from Peel's Range, is a remarkable form, densely tomentose, with the lower leaves 2in. long, 
and the lower peduncles elongated, bearing a leafless raceme of several flowers, with rigid 
stipulary bracts ; the inflorescence in the upper part quite normal. S. nematopoda, F. v. M. 
in Linnsea, xxv. 882, has smaller and less wrinkled fruits, ilthough still much more so than in 
S. intricata, and the foliage is quite that of the present variety. 

c. angiistifolia. Stems slender, often nearly glabrous as well as the leaves. Leaves cordate- 
lanceolate, deeply, toothed. Flowers and fruits small. Extends over the whole range of the 
species, and the only form hitherto found in W. Australia.— S. Imviillima, F. v. M. in Trans. 
Phil. Soc. Vict. i. 12, is a small hoary form, with larger leaves, a,pproaching sometimes the 
first variety. Some specimens of A. Cunningham's from Dirk Hartog's Island have, the leaves 
more densely white-tomentose. 

d. trichopoda. Like the last, but the lanceolate or oblong-linear leaves are never cordate at 
the base, and the slender pedicels mostly exceed the leaves.— S. tHcltopoda, F. v. M. in Linnsea, 
xxv. 384. On nearly the whole range of the species, excepting W. Austi'alia. 

e. goniocarpa, F. v. M. Foliage of the last var., but the fruit larger, the angles of each 
carpel bordered by vertical wings, forming on the fruit as many very prominent angles as there 
are carpels. Nangavera in N. S. Wales, Victorian Exvedition. 

2. S. Spenceriana (after Mrs. F. Spencer), F. r. If. in Wing's South. Sci. 
Rec, vol. I. (New Series), April, 1885. Plant dwarf, covered with orbicular, 
silver- shining, densely-ciliate scales. Stipules linear-setaceous. Leaves from 
roundish to nearly ovate, irregularly denticulate, \ to l^in. long, flat, on petioles 
of moderate length. Peduncles filiform, 1 -flowered, about 4in. long, jointed near 
the summit. Pruit-bearing calyx, r^ot fin. diameter, lobes nearly deltoid. 
Carpels numerous, broader than high, much-compressed, obliqae-ovate, short- 
pointed at the summit, prickly at the back, narrowly reticulate at the sides, 
tardily separating, Seeds slightly downy. — Baron v. Mueller in Wing's So. Sc. 
Eec, April, 1885. 

Hab.: Thargomindah, Paroo Eiver, and Yappunyah. 

3. S. argentea (silvery), Bail. Ql. Joum. Agri. vol. I. part 1, July 1897. 
The stems, petioles, as well as most other parts of the plant closely clothed with 
silvery peltate, ciliate scales. Stems or the lower branches from a procumbent 
stem erect, slender, about 12in. high. Leaves rather distant, erecto-patent, 
narrow-linear, 1 to 2 Jin. long, 1 to 2 lines broad, slightly tapering towards the 
point, rounded at the base to a petiole of a few lines. Stipules subulate, nearly 
as long as the petioles. Peduncle axillary, solitary, filiform, about 8 or 9 lines, 
articulate above the middle. Calyx under 4 lines diameter, lobes deltoid, silky- 
hairy on the inside. Petals twice as long as the calyx, broadly-cuneate, almost 
roundly-lobed at the end, veined. Stamens under 10. Style-branches recurved. 
Carpels hairy, probably few, but only imperfect specimens to hand. 

Hab.: Eulo, Paroo River, J. F. Bailey, Dec. 1896. The thick coating of the silvery scales 
gives to the thin stems the appearance of silver rods. 

4. S. intricata (intricate), F. r. M. in Trans. Phil. Soc. Vict. i. 19, and in 
Huok. Ken- Juurn. viii. 9 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 193. This form also is now 
reduced by F. v. Mueller (PI. Vict, i, 163) to the S. corrugata. I am inclined 

Sida.] XXII. MALVACE^. 118 

however to keep it distinct, as the characters appear on the dried specimens to be 
tolerably constant (Benth.). It is a small or slender, very much branched tomentose 
undershrub, resembling the var. orata of S. corruyata in general characters, but 
with much smaller leaves and very much smaller ilowers, on short slender 
pedicels, the fruits not above 2 lines diameter, consisting of 5 to 8 tomentose 
carpels, not furrowed at their points, and smooth or only very slightly wrinkled 
on the back. 
Hab.: Various localities. 

5. S. macropoda (long- footed), F. v. M. Herb.; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 198. 
An erect, branching shrub, densely clothed with a stellate tomentum, thick and 
often yellowish on the branches, almost velvety on the leaves. Leaves ovate- 
cordate, obtuse, 1 to 2in. long, crenate, thick and soft, deeply wrinkled above, 
prominently veined underneath. Pedicels filiform, sometimes exceeding the 
leaves. Calyx-lobes acuminate or acute, closed over the fruit or spreading. 
Petals yellow, only shortly exceeding the calyx. Fruit 3 or 4 lines diameter, 
with the radiating striae in the centre and the carpels wrinkled on the back as in 
iS'. comir/ata , from which this species differs in stature, foliage, and the acute 

Hab.: Various localities in the tropics, and Gulf of Carpentaria. 

Var. (?) cardiophylla, P. v. M. Tomentum more dense, but closer ; leaves shorter, and nearly 
orbicular ; pedicels shorter. — Sturt's Creek, F, v. Mueller. This may possibly be a distinct 
species, but the specimens are not sufficiently advanced to determine. In other specimens in 
young bud only, these buds are sessile or nearly so ; the pedicel probably grows out rapidly 
before the flower expands, and may sometimes remain very short. This will likely be met with 
in the colony. — Benth. 

6. S. virgata (twiggy). Hook, in Mitch. Trop. Austr. 361 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. 
i. 194. This resembles at first sight, especially in the leaves, the .S'. ealyxhymenia 
(an inland species, so far not been met with in Queensland), and in 
some respects some narrow-leaved forms of 8. corrugatq, ; but the calyx 
does not enlarge as in the former, and its lobes are not pbtuse as in the latter, 
and the stellate tomentum is dense and soft, almost woolly, and often fulvous. 
It appears to be an erect shrub, with long twiggy branches. Leaves shortly 
petiolate, lanceolate, or oblong-linear, often exceeding lin., obtuse at the base, 
denticulate, less tomentose above than underneath. Pedicels slender, but rarely 
as long as the leaves. Calyx very tomentose, not prominently ribbed, the acute lobes 
about as long as the cup. Petals yellow, twice as long as the calyx, varying from 
3 to 4 lines. Fruit about 3 lines diameter, depressed, with the centre slightly 
projecting. Carpels 6 to 8 or rarely more, their radiating summits scarcely 
furrowed, wrinkled on the back, strongly reticulate on the sides. 

Hab.; On the Mara^oa, and other localities. 

7. S. cryphiopetala (petals hidden in the calyx), F. v. M. Fragm. iii. 4 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 194. A shrub, nearly allied to S. virgata, but the tomentum 
longer and denser, almost woolly or floccose. Leaves ovate-lanceolate or cordate, 
often 2in. long. Calyx densely woolly hirsute, the lobes attaining 3 or 4 lines, 
including their long soft hirsute filiform points, exceeding the petals in the 
specimens seen. Carpels 5 or more, wrinkled on the back, reticulate on the 
sides, their summits forming a strongly projecting centre to the fruit. 

Hab.: Inland tropical parts. 

8. S. petrophila (found on rocks), F., v. 2[. in Linnm, xxv. 881 ; Benth. 
Fl. Austr. i. 19i. A, hoary tomentose erect shrub of 2 to 4ft., with the habit, 
foliage, and inflorescence of S. calxhymenia, but the flowers are not nearly so 
broad, the unexpanded bud rather ovoid than .depressed-globular, the petals 
longer than the calyx, and , the fruiting calyx not nearly so much enlarged, the 

114 XXII. MALVACE^. [Sida. 

ovate-lanceolate lobes not exceeding 3 lines in length, not half so broad as in S. 
cali/xhijinenia, and of a much thicker consistence. Fruit dbpressed, tomentOse, 
wrinkled on the circumference and furrowed between the carpels as in S. calyx- 
hymenia, but the carpels are usually about 7. 
Hab.; Inland. 

9. S. subspicata (somewhat spicate), F. v. M. Herb.; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 
195. An erect shrub, sparingly tomentose and green, or densely tomentose like 
8. virgata and §. macropoda, but at once known by the inflorescence. Leaves 

■from cordate-ovate to lanceolate, 1 to 2in. long, obtuse, crenate, cordate or 
rounded at the balse, slightly wrinkled above, with the veins prdminent under- 
neath, scabrous, velvety or densely totnentose. Flowers srriall, nearly sessile, 
clustered or rarely solitary, the upper clusters forming often an irregular terminal 
spike, with few small floral leaves. Calyx not ribbed, the lobes acute, at least as 
long as the tube and closing over the fruit, but not covering it. Petals nearly 
twice as long. Stamens often under 10. Fruit nearly globular, but grooved 
between the carpels ; carpels 5 or 6, tomentose, reticulate on the side, but not 
wrinkled on the back, and not acuminate. 
Hab.: Common throughout the colony. 

10. S. pleiantha (numerous flowers), F. v. M. Herb.; Benth, Fl. Austr. i. 
195. A shrub or undershrub, with elongated branches, green or hoary with a 
loose stellate tomentum, sometimes floccose. Leaves petiolate, the smaller ones 
nearly orbicular, -J-in. long, the larger ones ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 1 to 2in., 
toothed, rounded or scarcely cordate at the base. Flowers small, clustered several 
together, the pedicels 2 to 4 lines long, not articulate. Calyx broadly oampanulate, 
when in flower about 1^ line long, with ovate-acute tomentose lobes, somewhat 
enlarged when in fruit, the lobes broad, herbaceous, glabrous, and connivent over 
the fruit, with projecting undulate sinuses. Stamens often not more than 10. 
Fruit depressed-orbicular, about 3 lines diameter, nearly glabrous, not wrinkled, 
but strongly grooved between the carpels. Carpels 7 to 10, not reticulate on 
the sides. 

Hab.: Peak Downs, F. v. Mueller. 

11. S. spinosa (see note below for derivation), Linn.; DC. Prod. i. 460; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i., 196. An annual or sometimes perennial, and woody at the 
base, with the habit and inflorescence of the narrow-leaved forms of S. rhowhifolia, 
but the whole plant, including both sides of the leaves, whitish with a minute 
tomentum, which is soft and more dense on the calyx. Leaves from ovate to 
lanceolate. Carpels almost always 5 only, more erect and less readily detached 
than in 8. rhombifolia, often slightly reticulate, awhless or with short awns. — 
A. Gray, Gen. 111. t. 123. , 

Hab,: Tropical parts. 

The species is not uncommon in tropical Asia, more rare in America. It derives its name 
from the stipules in falling off often leaving a prominent tubercular base, more distinct in this 
than in any other species, although the character is even here not constant. 

121 S. rhombifolia (name frpm form of leaf), Linn.: DC. Prod. i. 462 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 196. A perennial or iindershrub, very variable in stature, 
sometimes tall and erect with the larger leaves ovate and Sin^ long, the 
Australian specimens more generally representing the more spreading forms, with 
rigid virgate minutely tomentose branches, and small narrow leaves, rarely 
exceeding lin., varying from ovate-lanceolate to narrow-lanceolate, or from 
nearly obovate to oblong-euneate, always shortly petiolate, toothed, nearly 
glabrous above and more or less whitened underneath with a short tomentum. 
Pedicels mostly longer than the petiole and sometimes as long as the leaf, 


articulate about the middle. Flowera rather small, yellow. Calyx broad, 
glabrous or slightly hoary, prominently 10-ribbed at the base. Carpels about ]0, 
with or without terminal erect-connivent awns, angled at the back, neither 
wrinkled nor reticulate, opening at the top into two very short valves. 

Hab.: Abundant. 

The species is one of the commonest tropical weeds, both in the New and the Old World, and 
includes S. retvsa, Linn., S. rhomboideu, Eoxb., S. philippica, and S, compresm, DC, and several 
other published forms. 

Var. (?) incana. Leaves whitish on both sides as in S. spinosa, but carpels about 10, with 
long awns. — Nicholson Eiver, F. v . Mueller ; Comet Eiver, LeicMiardt ; the specimens not 

13. S« cordifolia (leaves heart-shaped), Linn.; DC. Prod. i. 464 ; Benth. Fl. 
4'ustr. i. 196. A rather coarse, branching, erect, or rarely decumbent herb or 
undershrub, more or less clothed with a soft stellate tomentum or velvety hairs, 
the branches often also hirsute with spreading hairs. Leaves on rather long 
petioles, broadly cordate or almost orbicular or rarely ovate-lanceolate, 1 to If or 
rarely 2in. long, usually soft and thick. Flowers small, yellow, on short axillary 
pedicels or clustered into short leafy racemes. Calyx 10-ribbed at the base, softly 
tomentose. Carpels about 10 or sometimes fewer, smooth or slightly wrinkled, 
opening at the top in 2 valves, and in the usual form terminating in rather 
long erect-connivent awns. 

Hab.: Peak Downs and other inland parts. 

The species is very abundant in almost all tropical countries, and includes S. althmfolia, Lam., 
and several other supposed species. 

Var. (?) mutica. Carpels without the awns which generally distinguish the species. The 
leaves are very soft and velvety, but small and narrow ; the specimens have, however, lost those 
of the primary branches. — Maoarthur Eiver, Gulf of Carpentaria. 

14. S. platycalyx (broad calyx), F. v. M. Herb. ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 197. 
Shrubby and densely clothed with a soft floccose or velvety stellate tomentum. 
Leaves ovate-cordate or nearly orbicular, obtuse, crenate, lin. long or more, soft 
and thick. Pedicels as long as the leaves, soft, articulate above the middle. 
Calyx broadly campanulate, about 6 lines long, with a broadly obtuse base, the 
lobes erect or spreading, shorter than the tube, densely tomentose outside, each 
sepal marked with 3 prominent ribs, with another almost equally prominent at 
the junction of the sepals. Petals broad, shorter than the calyx. Stamens very 
numerous, the staminal tube almost truncate at the top. Carpels about 24, 
closely packed in a tomentose ring round the base of the styles, which are free 
almost to the base With small capitate stigmas. Fruit not seen. 

Hab.: Tropics. 

15. S. inclusa (enclosed), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 197. A shrub, densely velvety 
tomentose or almost floccose. Leaves ovate or orbicular, often cordate, obtuse, 
crenate, mostly above lin. long. Flowers not seen. Fruiting calyx on peduncles 
of about lin., membranous and inflated, above lin. diameter, tomentose, marked 
with numerous longitudinal veins or ribs, the short lobes connivent, so as com- 
pletely to enclose the fruit. Carpels numerous, stellate-hirsute, echinate with 
rather soft hirsute spines, forming a depressed orbicular fruit of nearly lin. 

Hab.: Georgina. 

This species and S. platycalyx are distinguished in the genus by their many-ribbed calyx ; as 
the one is only known in fruit, and the other in flower, or scarcely pa,st, the distinction between 
the two cannot be established with certainty, but S. platycalyx certainly shows np tendency to 
the singular enlargement of the calyx of S. inclusa. — Benth, 


6. ABUTILON, Gartn. 

(Of Arabic origin, alluding to the yellow colour of the Mediterranean species.) 

Bracteoles none. Calyx 5-lobed. Staminal column divided at the top into 
several filaments. Ovary-cells 5 or more, verticillate, each with 3, or more, rarely 
2, ovules. Style-branches as many as cells, filiform or club-shaped, with terminal 
stigmas. Fruit-carpels united at the base or entirely seceding, rounded or angular 
or with diverging points (not connivent) at the top, opening in 2 valves, without 
internal appendages. Seeds nearly reniform, the upper ones usually ascending, 
the lower ones pendulous or horizontal. — Herbs or shrubs, rarely trees, usually 
clothed with a soft stellate tomentum. Leaves usually cordate, angular or lobed, 
rarely narrow ; petioles usually long (except in ^. m.s/(M?n,;. Stipules in all the 
Australian species subulate and deciduous. Flowers in the Australian species 
axillary, yellow or rarely white, the pedicels articulate above the middle or near 
the top. 

A large genus, distributed over the tropical and warm regions of the globe, ehieffy American. 
The genus has frequently been united with Sida, but the characters derived from the diverging 
carpels with more thah 1 ovule in each, as contrasted with the converging uniovulate carpels of 
Sida, are too constant and convenient to be neglected in groups so very numerous in species. 
The differential characters given to several of the following species from the tropical regions, 
or from the deserts of the interior, are as yet very unsatisfactory, owing to the imperfect state 
of many of the specimens, often mere fragments. — Benth. 

§ 1. Capsule truncate or concave at the top. Carpels (usually 2 or 3-seeded) angular-pointed 
or awned at the upper outer edge, persistent, or rarely at length deciduous leaving the filiform 
placenta attached to the axis. 

Carpels (usually 10 or fewer) not exceeding the calyx-lobes, the points erect, 
or rarely divergent. Stems usually (perhaps always) shrubby. 
Calyx-lobes shorter than the tube. 
Petals adnate high up the glabrous staminal tube. Calyx tubular, lin. 

long 1. ^. tubulosum. 

Petals shortly adnate to the pubescent base of the staminal tube. 
Calyx J to fin., lobes acuminate or rather obtuse, spreading, much 
J shorter than the tube. 

Petals above lin. long 2. A. leucopetalmn. 

Petals shortly exceeding the calyx 3. A. Mitchelli. 

Calyx about Jin., rather inflated, truncate, sinuate, or with very 
short obtuse lobes. 
Petals very small. Staminal column much loriger than the calyx 4. A. micropetalum. 
Calyx-lobes longer than the tube or cup, acuminate. 
Calyx-lobes very concave and prominently keeled. Carpels about 10, 

scarcely acuminate .... 5. A. otocarpum. 

Calyx-ribs or angles scarcely prominent. Carpels 4 or 5, acuminate . 6. A. subviscosum. 
Carpels usually exceeding the calyx-lobes, the pointj often divergent. 
Herbs usually tall, sometimes hard, almost woody at the base. 

Stems coarse and erect. Leaves broadly cordate. 
Capsule truncate. Carpels numerous, the points very short. Tomen- 
tum close and dense, usually without spreading hairs. 

Stipules small and subulate. Flowers mostly axillary T. A. indicum. 

Stipules broadly semisagittate. Flowers in ternjinal leafless racemes 

or panicles 8. .4. auritum. 

Capsule contracted and angular at the top. Carpels numerous, with- 
out points. Tomentum dense, mixed with long spreading hairs . . 9. ^1. graveolem. 
Stems rather slender. Leaves ovate or cordate-lanceolate. Capsule 
truncate, with short divergent points 10. A. oxycarpum. 

§ 2. Carpels (often 1-seeded by abortion) rounded or angled at the top, quite distinct, and 
seceding from the axis when fully ripe (Gayoides, Endl.) 

Carpels numerous (about 20), closely packed, very hirsute. Tall herbs, 
with large, broadly cordate leaves. ' '' 

Carpels angular at the top, leaving persistent filiform placentas . . . 9. A. graveolens. 
Carpels rounded sit the top, completely deciduous . . , . ... .11. 4. mi^tiQum 

Almtilon.] XXII. MALVACE^. il7 

Carpels rarely more than 10, glabrous or slightly tomentose, not scarlous. 

Leaves mostly cordate orbicular. 
Densely velvety-tomentose (shrubby?) Petals shortly exceeding the 

calyx 12. A.Cmminghamii. 

Low undershrub, shortly tomentose or pubescent, often with spreading 

hairs. Petals fully twice as long as the calyx 13. A. Fraseri. 

Distinct as the two sections are in some instances, they are closely connected by A . graveoleng 
and some other intermediate species, • 

1. A. tubulosum (tubular), Hook.; Walp. Ann. ii. 158; Benth'. Fl. Austr. 
i. 200. Tall and shrubby, clothed with a dense, soft, close or velvety tomentum. 
Leaves deeply cordate, ovate or lanceolate, almost acuminate, crenate, attaining 
3 to 4in., very soft and velvety. Pedicels much shorter than the leaves. Buds 
acuminate, prominent-angled. Calyx tubular, about lin. long, with 10 slightly 
prominent ribs, softly tomentose, the lobes acuminate, much shorter than the 
tube. Petals (yellow ?) nearly fin. longer than the calyx, the claws adhering to 
nearly the middle of the glabrous staminal column. Capsule angular, about half 
the length of the calyx, softly villous ; carpels 7 to 10, strongly acuminate on 
their outer edge, containing each usually 3 seeds. — Sida tubulo-ta, A. Cunn.; 
Hook, in Mitch. Trop. Austr. 390. 

Hab.: Open woods on the Mooni and Dawson Rivers. 

Var. (?) breviflm-um. Petals shorter and broader, but glabrous and more adnate than in A. 
leucopetalum ; the specimen, however, scarcely sufficient for accurate determination. — Dawson 
Biver, Benth. in Fl. Austr. 

2. A. leucopetalum (petals white), F. v. M. Herb. ; B.enth. Fl. Austr. i. 200. 
A tall shrub, clothed with a soft velvety tomentum like A. tubulbium, but inter- 
mixed with long, spreading hairs on the branches, and paler on the under side of 
the leaves. Leaves deeply cordate, from orbicular to "nearly lanceolate, often 
shortly acuminate, irregularly crenate or almost lobed, mostly shorter than in A^ 
tubulosum. Flowers large and white, on short ' pedicels. Calyx broadly tubular- 
campanulate, J to fin. long, 10-ribbed, scarcely acuminate in the bud, the lobes 
obtuse or shortly acuminate, shorter than the tube. Petals more than twice as 
long as the calyx, adnate only to the pubescent base of the staminal tube. 
Capsule as in A. tuhulunum, but fully as long as the calyx-tube. — Sida leucopetala, 
F. V. M. Fragm. ii. 12. - 

Hab.: Inland. 

3. A. IVIitchelli (after Sir T. Mitchell), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 201. Apparently 
shrubby, clothed with a dense, soft, velvety tomentum mixed with long spreading 
hairs. Leaves deeply cordate, orbicular or broadly ovate, often; shortly acuminate, 
H to 2iin. long, crenate, very soft and thick. Pedicels shorter than the petioles. 
Calyx campanulate, 10-ribbed and somewhat 5-angled, 4 to 5 lines long, the 
acuminate spreading lobes shorter than the tube. Petals (yellow ?) shortly exceed- 
ing the calyx, pubescent at the base. Ovary-cells and style-branches about 10. 
Fruit not seen. 

Hab.: Gullies in the ranges on the Maranoa. The plant has at first sight the aspect of A. 
muticum, but the calyx and ovary are quite different. i . 

Var. (?) moUissivm. Tomentum very dense and soft, but without the long hairs of the other 
specimens. Stony Bidge, Mitchell. 

4. A. micropetalum (small petals), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 201. Shrubby, 
very densely and softly tomentose or velvety. Leaves deeply cordate, acuminate, 
2 to 4in. long, crenate. Pedicels short, in the upper axils. Calyx loosely cam- 
panulate, almost inflated, very Shortly sinuate-toothed or almost truncate, 4 to 5 
lines long, tomentose, slightly Spangled and 10-ribbed. Petals, in some flowers 

lis XXII. Malvaceae. [AhutUon. 

at least, very small. Stamens very numerous, the slender column much longer 
than the calyx. Capsule as long as the calyx, truncate at the top ; carpels about 
10 to 12, persistent angular, or scarcely pointed at the upper outer edge.— Siao 
micropetala, R. Br. Herb. 

Hab.: Hilla about Shoalwater Bay, B. Brown. 

5. A. otocarpum (eared capsule), F. v. 21. in Trans. Phil. Soc. Vict. 1855, 
13, and in Hook. Kew Journ. viii. 10 ; Benth. Fl. Amtr. i. 202. " Ballan-boor," 
Cloncurry, Palmer. A tall shrub, densely clothed with a soft velvety tomentum, 
the branches and petioles almost villous. Leaves deeply cordate, orbicular or 
broadly ovate, mostly Ij to 2^in. long, rarely acuminate, crenate, very soft and 
thick. Pedicels much shorter than the leaves, often crowded at the ends of the 
branches. Calyx 4 to 6 lines long, very prominently 5-angled, deeply divided 
into very concave, almost boat^shaped, strongly keeled, acuminate lobes, making 
the calyx intruded at the base. Petals slightly exceeding the calyx. Capsule 
villous, shorter than the calyx-lobes, narrowed at the top, depressed in the centre ; 
carpels about 10, rather obtuse or scarcely pointed on the upper outer edge. Seeds 
3 or fewer. 

Hab.: Stokes Range, on Gilbert River. 

The natives peel the bark off, scrape it clean with mussel shells; and use it for making strong 
netting ior game. — Palmer. 

6. A., subviscosum (somewhat viscid), Benth. Fl.Austr. i. 202. Apparently 
shrubby, with much of the aspect of A. indicum., but the branches, petioles, and 
pedicels greener and. clothed with a viscid stellate pubescence intermixed with 
longer hairs. Leaves broad, deeply cordate, abruptly acurtiinate, 8 to 4in. long, 
irregularly toothed, softly but sparingly pubescent above, tomentose and whitish 
underneath. Pedicels short. Calyx with slightly prominent angles, pubescent, 
deeply divided into acuminate lobes about fin. long. Petals exceeding the calyx, 
but imperfect in our specimens. Capsule shorter than the calyx-lobes, consisting 
of about 5 erect carpels, acuminate with rather long points. 

Hab.; Subtropical regions of the interior. 

7. A. indicum (Indian), G. Don, Gen. Si/st. i. 504 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 202. 
A tall biennial or perennial, clothed with a whitish tomentum, usually very close 
and short. Leaves cordate-orbicular, irregularly crenate, toothed or almost lobed, 
usually acuminate, attaining sometimes 5 to 6in., the upper ones much smaller. 
Pedicels shorter than the leaves. Calyx campanulate, 5 to 6 lines long, angular 
in the bud, the ribs scarcely prominent when in flower, deeply divided into 
acuminate lobes. Petals yellow, longer than the calyx. Capsule hairy, exceeding 
the calyx, truncate, and attaining sometimes 7 or 8 lines diameter at the top ; 
carpels about 20, acute-angled or minutely acuminate at their upper outer edge, 
like all the preceding species not readily separating at maturity. Seeds 3 or 
fewer in each carpel. — Sida indica, Linn.; DC. Prod, i, 471 ; Wight, Ic. PI. t. 12 ; 
Sida asiatica, Linn.; DO. Prod. i. 470 ; Abutilon asiaticum, G. Don, Gen. 
Syst. i. 508. 

Hab.: Keppel Bay and Shoalwater Bay, Percy Island, Port Denison, Gulf of Carpentaria. 
The species is widely spread over tropical Asia and Africa. 

8. A. auritum (ear-form of stipule), G. Don, Gen. Syst. i. 500 ; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 208. A tall herb or perhaps undershrub, softly clothed with a soft 
tomentum. Stipules broad, semisagittate, often 4 to 6 lines long, and persistent. 
Leaves deeply cordate, acuminate, denticulate, 2 to 4in. long, softly pubesoent- 
tomentose above, white underneath. Flowers rather small, of a brown-reddish 
yellow, on very short pedicels, in almost leafless, terminal, branching racemes or 

Abutiton.] ttli. MALVACE^. il9 

panicles, with a broad, whitish, deciduous, stipular bract under each pedicel. 
Calyx obtusely 6-angIed, softly tomentose, deeply divided into broad acuminate 
lobes. Petals not twice as long. Stamens not very numerous. Capsule longer 
than the calyx, hirsute, truncate ; carpels numerous, with short divaricate points. 
—Sidaaurita, Wall.; DC. Prod. 1. 468; Bot. Mag. t. 2495. 

Hab.; Keppel Bay, Percy Island. 

The species is also found in Java and in the Philippine Islands. 

9. A. graveolens (heavy-scented), W. and Am. Prod. Fl. Pen. Ind. Or. i. 
56 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 204. A coarse annual or perhaps perennial, from 1 to 
5ft. high, clothed with a viscid strong-scented tomentum, intermixed, especially 
on the branches and petioles, with long spreading hairs. Leaves broadly orbicular- 
cordate, resembling those oiE A. Avicemm but softer. Flowers yellow, rather 
large,' on pedicels about as long as the petioles. Calyx about 5 lines long, deeply 
divided into acuminate lobes, each with a prominent midrib. Petals twice as 
long. Capsule exceeding the calyx, 8 to 10 lines diameter, hirsute, contracted at 
the top so as to approach in form that of^. muticum, and the carpels are nume- 
rous and closely packed as in that species, but angular or very shortly pointed at 
the top and less deciduous, generally leaving the filiform placentas attached to 
the axis, the species thus connecting the true Abutila with the section Oayoides. — 
Hook. Comp. Bot. Mag. i. t. 2; Sida graveolens, Eoxb.; DC. Prod. i. 473. 

Hab.: Piper's Island and many parts along the tropical coast. 

The species is widely spread over East India and tropical Africa. The petals have there 
usually a dark spot at the base which does not appear in our Australian specimens. 

10. A. oxycarpum (carpels sharp-pointed), F. v. M. Herb.; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 204. Herbaceous, diffuse or erect, attaining 2 or 3ft., clothed with a 
close tomentum or soft velvety pubescence, sometimes almost hirsute, the branches 
usually slender and divaricate. Leaves from cordate-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 
crenate, obtuse or acuminate, 1 to Bin. long. Pedicels slender, often 2 together, 
1 to 2in. long. Flowers small, yellow. Calyx deeply cleft, about 2 lines long. 
Petals not twice as long. Capsule closely tomentose or pubescent, about 4 lines 
long, truncate and somewhat dilated at the top ; carpels rarely above 10 and 
often much feWer, with short divaricate points at the outer angle, not separating 
till the seeds shed, and then leaving the filiform placentas attached to the axis. 
Seeds 2 or rarely 8. — Sida oxycarpa, F. v. M. Fragm. ii. 12. 

Hab.: Keppel Bay, Brisbane Eiver, Eockhampton, and other places. 

There are two principal forms in our herbaria : 1, acutatum, softly tomentose, pubescent or 
almost hirsute ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, or lanceolate, acuminate ; the most common Brisbane 
and N. S. Wales form ; and 2, incanum, tomentum close and white ; leaves broadly cordate- 
ovate, obtuse or acuminate ; chiefly within the tropics and in the west. Both are readily 
recognized by the small calyx, : iisually not half so long as the capsule. 

Var. (?) malvdtfoUum. Less tomentose, but hirsute with long spreading hairs. Leaves 
cordate-ovate, very obtuse, crenate, and more or less distinctly 3-lobed. Sepals almost as long as 
the carpels. — Mount Murchison in N. S. Wales, Dallachy. This may prove to, be a^distinct 
species. — Benth. in Fl. Austr. 

11. A. muticum (without points to carpels), G. Don, Gen. Syst. i. 502; 
Benth. Fl. Aiistr. i. 204. Tall and erect, with the habit of A. graveolens, with 
which it is often confounded, but differs in the fruit. Tomentum dense and soft, 
but not usually mixed with spreading hairs. Leaves cordate-orbicular, often 
acuminate and irregularly toothed, 2 to Sin. diameter, thick and soft. Pedicels 
rarely exceeding the petioles. Calyx fin. long, the lobes equal to or longer than 
the tube, the ribs not very prominent. Petals not twice as long, often with a 
dark base as in ^. graveolens. Capsule longer than the calyx, depressed-globular 

126 XXII. MALVACEJE. [Abiuilon. 

with a concave centre, 7 to 8 lines diameter, densely villous ; carpels about 20, 
closely packed, rounded or very obtuse at the top and separating completely 
without leaving the persistent placentas of A. /]raveolens. — Sida mutica, Delil.; 
DC. Prod. i. 470. 

Hab.: Keppel Bay, Percy Island, sources of the Burdekin and oh the' Dawson, and Eock- 
hampton. , , 

The specimens are not complete, but agree well with those frofa tropical Africa, where the 
species is common and generally referred to A. asiaticiim, but is not Sida asiatica of Linnteus. 
S. tomentosa, Eoxb., appears to be an E. Indian form of the same species, with the tomentum 
mixed with spreading hairs as in A, graveolens, from which it cannot ajways be distinguished 
without good fruit. It is this form which is represented as Sida graveolens, Bot. Mag. t. 4134. 
—Benth. in Fl. Austr. 

12. A. Cunninghamii (after Allan Cunningham), Benth. Fl. Aiistr. i. 205. 
Allied to A. Fraseri, but apparently shrubby, much branched and densely clothed 
with soft, short, but velvety tomentum, without spreading hairs. , Leaves cordate- 
orbicular, very obtuse, crenate, 1 to 2in. diameter, thick and soft. Flowers on 
rather long peduncles in the upper axis. Calyx 4 to 5 lines long, uensely tomen- 
tose, deeply divided into broad acuminate lobes. Petals about |^in. long. Carpels 
10 or fewer, distinct and seceding completely from the axis, rounded at- the top, 
densely but closely tomentose, and not scarious. 

Hab.: Estuary of the Burdekin. 

18. A. Fraseri (after C. Fraser), Hook. ; Walp. Ann: ii. 158; Jiefith. Fl. 
Austr. i. 205. A low branching undershrub, rarely exceeding 1ft., shortly 
tomentose or pubescent, with longer hairs occasionally intermixed. Leaves cor- 
date, from orbicular to ovate, crenate, often all under lin. diameter, but some- 
times Ifin. Pedicels rarely exceeding the petioles. Flowers rather large. Calyx 
3 to 4 lines long, tomentose-pubescent and sometimes hirsute^ di^ded ,to about 
the middle. Petals more than twice as long. Fruit usually exceeding the calyx, 
slightly tomentose or pubescent, 3 to 4 lines diameter, depressed iii the centre ; 
carpels 6 to 10, very disinct, and seceding completely from the axis, obtuse or 
almost pointed at the top, not scarious. Seeds 1 or 2 in each carpel, glabrous or 
minutely pubescent. — Siria Franeri, Hook, in Mitch. Trop. Austr. 368, 

Hab.: On the Maranoa, Sutton River and Broadspund, Comet Eiver. 

Vax. halophilnm. Leaves usually orbicular, very obtuse, often truncate or retuse, the carpels 
5 or 6 lines long and very broad and obtuse. — A. halophiVuin, F. v. M. in Linnsea, xxv. 381.-^ 
N. S. Wales, S. Australia, and on Queensland border. 

-7. MODIOLA, Moench. 

, (Carpels resembling the nave of a vpheel.) 

Calyx 5-cleft, with 8 bract'eoles at the base. Carpels numerous, arranged 
circularly, 2-valved, spuriously 2-celled transversely by the inflexion of a vajlve- 
like process, 2-seeded. Badicle in the upper seed superior, in the lower seed 
inferior. — Prostrate and usually creeping herbs. Leaves divide^. Peduncles 
axillary, 1 -flowered. — A. Gray. 

1. IME. multifida (leaf much divided), Mcench. Stems diffuse, more or less 
hirsute, often rooting at the joints. Leaves 1 to 2in. diameter, palmately 3 to 5- 
lobed ; segments incised and toothed. Pedicels longer than the petioles. 
Bracteoles linear-lanceolate. Segments of the calyx ovate-lanceolate. Petals 
obovate, purplish-red, a little longer than the calyx. Stamens 15 to 18. Carpels 
15 to 20, lunate, much compressed, hispid on the back, wrinkled on the sides 
towards the base. A rigid process rising from the back on the insides of the 
carpel extends to the axis, separating the upper from the lower seeds. — Malva 
CaroUniana, Linn. 

Hab.: This American plant has become naturalised near many southern townships. 

XXli. MALVACJE^. l2l 

8. URENA, Linn. 
(Its Malabar name.) ' 

, Braoteoles 6, united in a 5-cleft involucre, adnata to the calyx at the base. 
Calyx 5-toothed or 5-Iobed. Staminal column bearing several filaments or almost 
sessile anthers outside, below the truncate or 5-tQothed summit. Ovary-cells 5, 
1 -ovulate ; style-branches 10, with terminal capitate stigmas. Fruit-carpels 
seceding from the axis, indehiscent, muricate, or covered with hooked bristles. 
Seeds ascending. — Rigid tall herbs or shrubs, more or less scabrous-tomentose. 
Leaves usually angled or lobed, at least the lower ones. Flowers sessile or on 
very short peduncles, often clustered, axillary or in terminal leafy racemes. 

Besides the one or two species common in all tropical regions, the genus comprises two or 
three tropical Asiatic ones which appear distinct. As a genus, Urena scarcely differs, from 
Pavonia. — Benth. ' 

1. U. lobata (lobed), Linn.; DC. Prod^i.iil, \&r. grandiflora; Benth. B" I. 
Auxtr. i. 206. A hard erect herb or shrub of 2 to 4ft., covered on the stems and 
under side of the leaves with a whitish, close, often scabrous tomentum. Leaves 
petiolate, the lower ones nearly orbicular, the upper ones ovate or lanceolate, 
palmately 8 to 7-veined, irregularly toothed, angular, or broadly and shortly 
lobed, glabrous above or slightly scabrous-tomentose. Flowers sessile or nearly 
so. Involucre deeply-cleft into narrow-lanceolate lobes, in the single Australian 
specimen nearly Jin. long, and fully twice as long as the calyx, but often not 
longer than the calyx or shorter. Petals pink, about lin. long in this specimen, 
but often much smaller. Carpels in our specimen shortly muricate.— Bot. Mag. 
t. 3043 (with short involucres). 

Hab.: Prom Brisbane northward. 

The species is widely spread over tropical America, Africa, and Asia, and is very variable in 
the shape of the leaf and proportions of the involucre, calyx, and petals, as well as in the carpels, 
more or less glochidiate or muricate ; and most probably the U. sinuata, Linn., almost equally 
common, is only a variety with deeply-cut leaves. 

2. U. Armitiana (W. E. Armit), F. v. M. Frm/ni. x. 78. Ah erect shrub, 
stellate-pillose. Leaves cordate-ovate, angulat-denticulate, 1 to IJin. long, the 
lower ones larger and on longer petioles than the upper, under side pale, nerves 
glandular. Flowers racemose or paniculate. Pedicel 1 to 8 lines. Involucre- 
tube 1 to 2 lines Ictng, lobes linear-lanceolate, 4 to 6 lines long. Calyx almost 
membranous, lobes puberulent at the margin, narrow-lanceolate. Petals rose- 
coloured, about 8 lines long. Staminal-tube glabrous ; anthers 10, nearly sessile. 
Style-branches very short ; stigmas barbillate. Carpels If to 2-J^ lines long, not 
alochidiate. Seeds rugulose and puberulent. 

Hab.: Etheridge Biver. 

9. PAVONIA, Cav. 
(After J. Pavon.) 

(Greevesia, F. v. M.) 
Bracteoles 5 or more, free or united at the base. Calyx 5-toothed or 5-lobed. 
Staminal column bearing several filaments on the outside, below the truncate 
or 5-toothed summit. Ovary-cells 5, 1-ovulate ; style-branches 10, with terminal 
capitate stigmas. Fruit-carpels seceding from the axis, indehiscent or 2-valved 
at the top, with or without 1 or 3 awns or points, but not covered by the hooked 
bristles of TJrena. Seeds ascending. — Herbs or shrubs, tomentose, hirsute, or 
glabrous. Leaves often angled or lobed. Flowers on axillary pedicels . or in 
terminal heads or clusters. 

A large genus, chiefly South American, with a few species scattered over the warmer regions 
of the Old World. The Australian species is the same as, one of the South American 
ones.- Senth. 

12^ XXIi. MAliVACEiE. [Paronia. 

1. P. hastata (Halbert-headed form of leaf), Car. Diss. 138, t. 47,/. 2; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 207. A low spreading shrub, more or less hoary, with a minute 
close stellate tomentum. Stipules subulate. Leaves petiolate, from ovate- 
cordate to oblong-hastate, obtuse, 1 to 2in. long, coarsely crenate, scabrous above, 
hoary-tomentose underneath ; when hastate, the lateral-lobes short and obtuse. 
Pedicels usually shorter than the leaves. Bracteoles 5, ovate, herbaceous, nearly as 
long as the calyx. Calyx tomentose, 2 to 3 lines long, divided to the middle into 
5 ovate lobes. Petals in the perfect flowers twice as long as the calyx, of a 
reddish-purple with a dark centre, but in other flowers, equally fertile, they are 
very small and closed over the stamens, which are then reduced to 5, whilst they 
are much more numerous in the perfect flowers. Carpels obovoid, indehiscent, 
usually pubescent, strongly reticulate and with a slightly raised dorsal rib, — DC. 
Prod. i. 443 ; Eeichb. Icon. Exot. t. 227 ; Greevesia cleisocaly.r, F. v. M. in Kew 
Journ. viii. 8 (founded on clandestine-flowered specimens). 

Hab.: Moreton Bay, Brisbane River to Expedition Eange. 

Also a native of Monte Video in South America, where, as well as in Australia, it produces 
both kinds of flowers, although the clandestine ones appear never to have been observed until 
pointed out by P. v. Mueller. —Benth. 

10. HIBISCUS, Linn. 
(The ancient name of the Mallow.) 
(Abelmoschus, Medik.; Paritium, A. St. Hil.) 
Bracteoles several, rarely reduced to 5 or fewer, usually narrow, free or more 
or less united, sometimes Very small. Calyx 5-lobed or 5-toothed. Staminal 
column bearing usually numerous filaments on the outside below the truncate or 
5-toothed summit. Ovary 5-celled, with 3 or more ovules in each cell ; style- 
branches 5, spreading, or rarely erect and subconnate or exceedingly short, with 
terminal dilated or capitate stigmas. Capsule membranous or coriaceous, loculi- 
cidally 5-valved, the endooarp not usually separating, and rarely produced into 
spurious dissepiments apparently doubling the number of cells. Seeds reniform 
or nearly globular, glabrous-pubescent or woolly. — Herbs, shrubs, or trees, hispid 
tomentose or glabrous, the hairs almost always stellate. Leaves various, often 
deeply divided. Stipules in the Australian species subulate or small and 
deciduous, except in H. tUiaceus. Flowers usually large, the petals almost always 
marked with a deeper colour at the base. Filaments usually short and numerous, 
crowded along the greater part of the elongated staminal column, rarely elon- 
gated, fewer and placed close round the top of the short column. Bracteoles 
usually persistent, but in a few species so deciduous as only to be seen on the very 
young buds. 

A very large genus, widely dispersed over the tropical regions of the globe, a few extending 
into more temperate climates both in the northern and southern hemispheres. Of the Australian 
species four are generally distributed over E. India and Africa ; of three others belonging to the 
section Abelmoschus, one is found in the Indian Peninsula, another is cultivated, if not wild, in 
the Indian Archipelago, the third is nearly allied to a corresponding E. Indian species, but in 
some respects distinct; an eighth species, of the section Paritium, is a common maritime tropical 
tree ; the remaining 18 are all endemic. 

§ 1. Bracteoles free (sometimes very deciduous). Calyx 5-toothed, iplitting open on one side 
and deciduous. Tall annuals i (Abelmoschus, Ifcdifc. J 

Glabrous or the inflorescence tomentose. Bracteoles small, falling off 

from the young bud. Flowers white . . . 1. H. ficulneits. 

Hispid. Bracteoles 8 to 12, linear, persistent. Flowers red .... 2. if. rhodopetalus. 

Glabrous or slightly setose. Bracteoles 5, broad -lanceolate, persistent. 

Flowers yellow 3. H. Manihot. 

Flowers white, with a reddish centre i. H. Notho-Mamhot. 

§ 2. Bracteoles free. Calyx shortly S-lobed, inflated. Herb with 
deeply lobed leaves. (Trionum, Medik.) 5. H. triumiin. 

Uibhcus.] XXII. MALVACE^a:. 128 

§ 3. Bracteolef free. Calyx deeply S-lobed, the lobes 1 or 3-nerved, without thickened inarginK. 
Seeds bordered or covered by long woolly hairs. Low or slender shrubs or undcrshrubs, 
(Bombicella, DC.) 

Staminal tube short with long filaments round the summit 6. H. brachysiphonius. 

Staminal tube slender, the short filaments extending to the middle or 
Plant densely and rigidly velvety-tomentose. Leaves ovate or lanceo- 
late, mostly undivided. Braoteoles small 7. H. microchltenus. 

Plant close, rigid stellate hairs. Leaves (upper ones) narrow- 
lanceolate. Braoteoles 8 or 9, about 1 line long 8. H. Burtonii. 

§ 4. Bracteoles free. Calyx deeply 5-lobed, the lobes with a central neroe and thickened nerve- 
like margins. Seeds glabrous. Tall herbs or shrubs, often more or less armed with short prickles 
(except the last species). 

Herb, glabrous or with scattered hairs. Calyx ribs ciliate. Flowers 

white or pink 9. if. radiatus. 

Tall shrubs, glabrous or with scattered hairs. 
Flowers axillary, without bracts under the pedicels. 

Flowers yellow. Calyx ciliate or setose 10. H. divaricatus. 

Flowers yellow, with dark centre. Bracteoles 12. Calyx deeply 

divided, velvety-hirsute 11. H. Fitzgeraldi. 

Flowers white. Calyx about lin. long, lobes deltoid-lanceolate, 

immarginate • • r 12. H. Blsworthii. 

Flowers white. Calyx densely tomentose 13. H. heterophifUus. 

Flowers in a terminal raceme, with a trifid bract under each pedicel. 

Calyx densely hirsute 14. H. diversifolius. 

Tall shrub, densely velvety-tomentose or villous. Flowers large, pink. 

Calyx densely hirsute 15. if. splendens. 

Tomentose or densely villous, shrubs, without prickles. Calyx tomen- 
tose or villous. 
Flowers IJ to 2in. long 16. H. zonatus. 

§ 5. Bracteoles free. Calyx deeply S-lobed, tlie lobes 1 oi' 3-nerved, without thickened margins. 
Seeds glabrous or shortly pubescent. 

Low or slender shrubs or undershrubs, glabrous, soabrous-jlubescent or 
bristly hispid. 
Leaves undivided. 

Scabrous-pubescent. Leaves ovate-lanceolate or oblong . . . . 17. H. leptocladus. 
Glandular viscid and rigidly setose. Leaves broad-cordate or 

orbicular 18. H. setulosus. 

Leaves deeply divided. Hirsute and densely setose. Calyx not Jin. 

Capsule glabrous 19. J?, geranoides. 

Small velvety-tomentose shrubs or undershrubs. Leaves shortly lobed. 

Bracteoles several, subulate 23. ff. Krichauffianus. 

(See also 7, H. microchlanus.) 

Bracteoles 5, broadly ovate 22. H. Normani. 

Tall coarse herbs or shrubs, densely tomentose and often setose. 
Bracteoles small, subulate. Capsule very prominently angled . . .20. H. vitifolius. 
Bracteoles dilated above the middle. Capsule not angled . . . . 21. if. panduriformis. 
§ 6. Bracteoles united at least at the base. Calyx 5-lobed. 
Tomentose shrubs or undershrubs. Leaves crenate or broadly and 
shortly lobed. 
Involucral teeth or lobes short or broad. Filaments long and few. 

Calyx-lobes obscurely nerved 24. H. Sturtii. 

Involucral bracts united at the base only. Filaments short and 

numerous. Calyx-lobes 1-nerved, with thickened margins . . .16. H. zonatus. 
Calyx-lobes 5, ovate-lanceolate. Corolla 2-ooloured, purple and yellow 35. H. phyllochlanus. 
Glabrous tree. Leaves broad-cordate, entire . 26. H. tiliaceus. 

1. H. flculneus (fig-leaved), Linn.; DC. Prod. i. 448 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 
209. " Cooreenyan," Cloncurry, Palmer. An erect annual of several feet, 
glabrous except a few scattered hairs on the leaves, and a velvety pubescence on 
the racemes and calyces. Leaves orbicular, 2 to Sin. diameter, the lower ones 
with 6 or 7 short broad lobes, the upper ones more deeply divided, with obovate 
or oblong lobes, all usually crenate. Flowers white, turning at length reddish, 
on short pedicels, in a terminal leafless raceme. Bracteoles few, small and so 

124 t:±lL MALVACEifi. [Hibiscus. 

deciduous as only to be seen on the very young buds. Calyx about fin. long, 
shortly 5-toothed, splitting laterally and deciduous. Petals lin. or rather more, 
glabrous. Capsule ovoid-oblong, "acute, 5-angled, pubescent. Seeds hairy. — 
Ahelmosclms ficulneus, W. et. Arn. Prod. i. S3; Wight, Ic. t. 154; A. cdburiihciis, 
F. V. M. Fragm. i. 67. 

Hab.: In basaltic tropical and subtropical plains, Fitzroy Plains, and Eockhamptoii. 

The species is common in some parts of the B. Indian peninsula, and includes H. strictus, 
Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 206, and probably also H. prostratvs, Boxb. I.e. 208. The plant figured by 
Beichenbach, Icon. Exot, t. 161, with persistent broid bracts, is a different species. — Benth. 

Stem and root of young plant roasted in the ashes and eaten, like a potato. — Palmer. 

2. H. rhodopetalus (red petals), F. v. M. Herb.; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 209. 
An erect or decumbent coarse annual, of 1^ to 8ft., more or less hirsute with long 
bristly hairs. Leaves (except the lowest) more or less deeply 5-lobed, the lobes of 
the lower ones short and broad, of the upper ones oblong or lanceolate, often 2 to 
Sin. long, more or less toothed, the lowest leaves often entire and cordate, and the 
uppermost lanceolate-hastate, Flowers large, red, on axillary pedicels longer 
than the petioles. Bracteoles 8 to 12, linear, distinct, persistent, shorter 
than the calyx. Calyx pubescent, 6 to 7 lines long, minutely 5-toothed, splitting 
laterally and deciduous. Petals 1\ to above 2in. long. Capsule oblong-ovoid, 
acute, 5-angled, longer than the bracteoles, very hispid. — Abelmoschiis rhodopetalus, 
F. v. M. Fragm. ii. 112. 

Hab.: Woody streams, Point Pearce, and Brisbane Elver. 

This species is very nearly allied to the common East Indian H. Ahelmosclms, LinB., differing 
chiefly, as observed by F. v. Mueller, in the colour of the flowers (red not yellow) and in smaller, 
more divided leaves. — Benth. 

3. H. ManihOt (Manihot), Linn.; DC. Prod. i.-448; Benth.. Fl. Austr. i. 
210. A tall herb, sprinkled with a few pungent bristly hairs, more copious on 
the peduncles, otherwise glabrous. Leaves deeply pinnate ; lobes 5 to 9, 
lanceolate, the larger ones narrow, 4 to 5in. long, more or less toothed. Flowers 
large, yellow with a purple eye, on rather long pedicels in the axils of the upper 
reduced leaves. Bracteoles 5, herbaceous, biroadly lanceolate, fully lin. long, 
roughly pubescent, persistent long after the flower has fallen. Calyx , shorter 
than the bracteoles, shortly 6-tooted, tomentose, deciduous. Petals fully 2|^in. 
long. Capsule oblong. If to 2in. long, 5-angled, hispid especially on the angles 
with stiff bristly hairs. — Bot. Mag. t. 8152; Abetmoschus Manihot, "W&l-p. Rep. i. 
311 ; Hibisais pentaphyllus, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 212. 

Hab.: Shoalwater Bay and other tropical parts. 

The species is frequently cultivated in eastern tropical Asia and in the islands of the Archi- 
pelago and the Pacific, but we have no certain record of it in a wild state. — Benth. 

4. H. STotho-lVEanihOt (a spurious form), F. v. M. Fragm. v. 57, ix. 130. 
A shrub, 15ft. high. Leaves palmately divided into front) 5 to 9 lanceolate, 
acuminate, irregularly toothed lobes, the larger ones about 6in. long and f to lin. 
broad ; petioles 1 to bfin. long, glabrous. Stipules b or 4 lines long, caducous, 
linear-subulate. Pedicels axillary ; involucral bracts 5 or 6, lanceolate, acute, 
slightly pilose. Calyx silky inside,, bilabiate, the apex of the lips with 2 or 8 short 
teeth or entire. Corolla white with a reddish centre, about 2in. long, staminal 
column about lin.; anthers yellow. Capsule 1^ to 2fin. long, ovate, acuminate, 
6-angled, hispid. Seeds numerous, ovate or renate-globose, puberulent, about 
If line. 

Hab.: Eockingham Bay, J. Dallachy (F. v. M.) 

5. H. trionum (said to be derived from three divisions of the 
leaf), Lirm.; DC. Prod. i. 458 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 210. Bladder 
ketmia. An erect annual or perennial of short duration, usually 
1 to 2ft. high, scabrous-pubescent or shortly hirsute. Leaves 2 to Sin. Ion?, 

Hihism^.] XXII. MALVACE^. 125 

deeply 3 or 5-lobed with oblong or lanceolate irregularly- toothed lobes. Flowers 
rather large, pale-yellow with a dark-purple centre, on; axillary pedicels. 
Bracteoles 7 to 12, linear-setaceous. Calyx about ^in. long when in flower, twice 
that size in fruit, inflated, membranous with about 20 raised veins, glabrous or 
slightly hirsute, very shortly 5-lobed. Capsule ovoid-globose, hirsute, enclosed in 
the calyx. Seeds glabrous.— Bot. Mag. t. 209 ; Reichb.' Fl. Germ. v. 181 ; F. 
V. M. Fragm. ii. 115; H. Richardsoni, Sweet; Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 175; H. 
trionioides, G. Don, Gen. Syst. i. 483 ; H. tridactylites, Lindl. in Mitch. Three 
Exped. i. 85. 

Hab.: Between the Burnett and Dawson Rivers. 

A weed in the cultivation paddocks of the southern Downs. 

Common throughout Africa and southern Asia, extending northwards to China and the Amur. 
Found also in New Zealand. — Benth. 

6. H. brachysiphonius (short-tubed), F. v. M. Fragm. i. 67 and 243 ; 
Benth. Fl. Amtr. i. 210. A low perennial or undershrub, with erect or decumbent 
stems, rarely above 1ft. long, slightly hirsute with short stifl' stellate hairs. 
Lower leaves small, orbicular, undivided, crenate ; upper ones divided into 3 
obovate or oblong-cuneate coarsely crenate or lobed segments or deep lobes, mostly 
1 to l|^in. long. Flowers rather small, pink, on axillary or terminal pedicels, 
sometimes very long. Bracteoles about 10, rather rigid, linear, shorter than the 
calyx. Calyx ciliate with a few stiff hairs, deeply divided into lanceolate 1- 
nerved lobes, not thickened at the margin. Petals about ^in. long. Staminal 
column short, bearing round the summit about 20 filaments much longer than in 
most species. Style-branches long, with large capitate stigmas. Capsule nearly 
globular, glabrous, 4 to 6 lines diameter. Seeds 4 to 6 in each cell, tomentose- 

Hab.: Mooni River, Peak Downs, Comet River, and other parts. 

7. H. microchlaenus (bracteoles minute), F. v. M. Fragm. ii. 116 (under H. 
solcmifolius) ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 211. Apparently shrubby, densely clothed 
with a scabrous, rigid-velvety, or softer and almost floccose stellate tomentum. 
Leaves on rather short petioles, from ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 1 to l^in. longy 
obtuse, slightly toothed, thickly and rigidly tomentose. Flowers apparently pink 
or purple, on pedicels rather longer than the petioles. Bracteoles 7 to 9, some-' 
times very minute, sometimes half as long as the calyx. Calyx Jin. or rather 
more, densely scabrous-tomentose, deeply divided into lanceolate 1 -nerved lobes. 
Petals 1 to IJin. long, more or less stellate-tomentose outside where exposed in 
the bud. Capsule globular, glabrous or slightly hairy. Seeds more or less 
bordered or covered with long woolly hairs. — H. brachychlcsnus, F. v. M. 
Fragm. iii. 5. 

Hab.: Cape River. 

8. H. Burtonii (after R. C. Burton), Bail. Bot. Britt. ii. '7. A rather 
straggling small shrub, closely clothed with short rigid stellate hairs, which are 
somewhat longer on the leaves. Lower leaves not collected, those of the flowering 
shoots preserved, narrow-lanceolate or linear-oblong, 1 to l^in. long, rounded at 
the base, on petioles of 2 to 5 lines ; margins slightly crenate or deeply and 
irregularly toothed. Flowers small, solitary, on slender axillary pedicels of about 
fin. long. Bracteoles 8 or 9, subulate, not, over a line in length, covered with 
scabrous stellate hairs hke the other parts of the plant. Calyx scarcely Jin. long, 
very deeply divided into narrow-lanceolate lobes, the midrib and also a parallel 
vein or rib near each margin prominent, scabrous, with :St6l|ate hairs outside, 
glabrous on the inside. Corolla probably lilac, the petals but slightly exceeding 
the calyx-lobes, hairy on the back, with rather stiff mostly simple hairs. 

126 XXII. MALVACE^. [tiihucm. 

Staminal column about as long as the petals. Style-branches spreading; 
stigmas hispid, with white hairs. Capsule somewhat globose, not exceeding the 
calyx, more or less covered by short, bristle-like, usually simple hairs. Seeds 
bordered by silky laeiniate scales. 

Hab.: MeKinley Kanges and Buckley Biver, B. C. Burton. 

At first sight specimens of this plant remind one of Solanum discolor, and it is probable that 
shoots of it may have been mixed with those of H. microchltena and the Wesfern species if. 
Pinonianus, both of which Baron von Mueller at one time named H. solanifoUus. H. Burtonii 
has much smaller flowers than either of the two species above named. 

9. H. radiatus (radiated), Cav. Diss, 150, t. 54, /. 2 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 
212. An erect annual (or rarely perhaps perennial) of 2 to 3ft., glabrous or hispid 
in the lower part with a few rigid hairs, and often bearing also small conical 
prickles. Lower leaves broad and shortly lobed, upper ones deeply 3 to 5-lobed 
or the uppermost undivided, the lobes narrow, toothed and unequal, the central 
one often 2 to Sin. long. Flowers white or pink with a dark centre, on axillary 
pedicels usually very short, rarely attaining lin. Bracteoles about 10, narrow- 
linear, often spreading or reflexed, and ciliate with a few rigid hairs. Calyx 
about fin. long, deeply divided into lanceolate acuminate lobes of a thin texture, 
but marked with a prominent midrib and thickened marginal nerves, more or less 
rigidly ciliate. Petals 1 to l^in. long. Capsule globose, glabrous in the Aus- 
tralian specimens. Seeds few, glabrous. — DC. Prod. i. 449 ; Bot. Mag. t. 1911 ; 
F. V. M. Fragm. ii. 117. 

Hab.: Palm Islands and Curtis Island. 

The species extends over E. India and tropical Africa, but the extra- Australian specimens I 
have seen have always hirsute and less obtuse capsules. H. Lindleyi, Wall. PI. As. Bar. i. 4, t. 
4, is probably a purple-flowered variety. H. cannabinus, Linn., cultivated in Asia and Africa for 
its fibre, differs from H. radiahis only in the glands on the calyx. — Benth. 

10. H. divaricatus (spreading), Orah. in Edinh. Phil. Journ. July. — Oct. 
1880; BeMh. Fl. Austr. i. 212. " Ngar-goUy," Cloncurry, Palmer; " Ithnee," 
Mitchell, Palmer. A tall erect glabrous shrub, with the foliage of some varieties 
of H. heterophyllus and the flowers of H. radiatus, the branches often beset with 
small conical prickles. Leaves on short petiolfes, entire or deeply 8-lobed, from 
round-cordate to ovate-lanceolate or oblong, often fully 4in. long,, more or les,s 
toothed. Flowers large, yellow with a crimson eye, on short pedicels in the axils 
of the upper reduced leaves. Bracteoles 10 to 12, linear, rigid, ciliate. Calyx 
deeply divided into lanceolate lobes, with prominent midribs and margins as in 
H. radiatus, rigidly ciliate or rarely minutely tomentose. Petals 2 to 2Jin. long. 
Capsule ovoid-globose, densely silky-hairy. — Abelmoschus divaricatus, Walp. Eep. 
i. 809 ; Hibiscus magmficus, F. v. M. Fragm. ii. 118. 

Hab.: Shoalwater Bay, N.E. coast, Newcastle Bange, Mackenzie and Dawson Elvers. 
One of P. V. Mueller's specimens, -with the calyx not ciliate but minutely tomentose, seems to 
connect this species with some forms of H. heterophyllus. — Benth. 
Buds eaten raw, and the thick root is peeled and eaten raw. — Paliner. 

11. H. Fitzgerald! (after E. Fitzgerald), F. v. M. Fragm. vjii. 242. A 
handsome tall shrub, the stem and branches ahnost glabrous or sparsely aculeate. 
Leaves glaucous. green, ovate or rotundate, crenately dentate, shortly or not lobed, 
about lOin. long, on petioles of about 6in. Flowers large, yellow with a dark- 
purple centre, on axillary pedicels. Bracteoles about 12, linear-subulate, thinly 
tomentose. Calyx deeply divided, and more or less velvety-hirsute, with yellowish 
hairs. Staminal-column 2 or 3 times shorter than the petals ; filaments purple, 
style shortly lobed. Ovary densely silky-hairy. 

Hab.: Bowen Biver. 

12. H. Elsworthii (after G. Elsworth), F, v. M. Fragm. viii. 241. Shrubby, 
the branches slightly pilose. Leaves 2 to 3in. long, ovate, acuminate, slightly 
cordate at the base, glabrous above, with a light-coloured thin tomentum' 

Hibiscus.] XXII. MALVACE^. 127 

beneath, nearly chartaoeous, margins crenulate. Petioles an inch or shorter. 
Stipules linear-subulate, soon falling off. Pedicels axillary, solitary. Bracteoles 
short, broad, subulate-linear, about 12, sparsely pilose as well as the calyx. 
Calyx about lin. long, lobes deltoid-lanceolate, immarginate, inside velvety. 
Petals white, sparsely pilose. Staminal-oolumn glabrous. Style-branches 3 or 4 
lines long. 
Hab.: Edgeoombe Bay. 

13. XI. heterophyllliS (leaves various), Vent. Hon. Malm. t. 103; Benth. 
Fl. Austr. i. 212. Native rosella; " Batham," N.Q., Thozet ; " Yarra," 
Taromeo, Shirley. A tall shrub, small erect tree, glabrous except a stellate 
tomentum on the inflorescence and very young shoots, the branches often bearing 
small conical prickles. Leaves entire or deeply 3-lobed, linear, lanceolate or 
elliptical-oblong, often 5 to 6in. long, usually serrulate or crenulate, in some 
specimens white underneath. Flowers large, white with a purple centre, on short 
pedicels in the upper axils. Bracteoles about 10, linear, rigid, not ciliate. Calyx 
often above lin. long, deeply divided into lanceolate lobes, densely covered with a 
stellate tomentum often concealing the venation, which, as in H. radiatus, con- 
sists of a midrib and the thickened margins of each lobe. Petals nearly Sin. 
long. Capsule . ovoid-globular, acute, densely setose or silky-hairy. Seeds 
glabrous. — Bot. Reg. t. 29 ; DC. Prod. i. 450 ; H. grandiflorus, Salisb. Par. 
Lond. t. 22. 

Hab.: Broadsound, Shoalwater Bay, Percy Isle, Port Curtis, Brisbane River, and Rook- 

Boots of young plants, young shoots, and leaves eaten without any preparation by natives of 
N.Q.— rftozet. 

The northern specimens belong mostly to a broader-leaved form, distinguished by A, Cunning- 
ham under the name of H. Margerice.— Benth. 

Wood of a pale yellow, open grain, smooth and tough ; suitable probably for making musical 
instruments, being considered a good conductor of sound. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No. 17. 

The gum contains true bassorin. Analysis : Bassorin 78%, water 2i%.—LautereT. 

14. H. diversifolius (various-leaved), Jacq.; DC. Prod. i. 449 ; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 213. A tall rigid herb or undershrub, sprinkled with a rigid pubescence, 
the branches and petioles more or less beset with small conical prickles. Leaves 
broadly cordate or nearly orbicular, irregularly toothed, angular or more or less 
5-lobed. Flowers in a terminal raceme, on very short pedicels in the axils of 
small lanceolate or 3-fid flora,l leaves, often reduced, especially the upper ones, 
to small linear bra,cts. Bracteoles linear, and calyx with marginate lobes, as in 
H. radiatus, but the lobes are narrower, and usually densely hispid with rigid 
bristly hairs. Capsule acuminate, very hispid. Seeds glabrous.— Bot. Eeg. t. 
381 ; H. Beckleri, F. v. M. Fragm. ii. 117, 

Hab. : Eockhampton, TJiozet ? 

The species is chiefly found in S. Africa, Mauritius, and Madagascar, but is also common in 
waste places in the Fiji and other S. Pacific islands. In E. India it appears to be in gardens 
only. — Benth. 

15. H. splendens (showy flowers), Fraser: Grrah. in Edinh. Phil. Journ., 
j^pf, — June, 1830 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 213. A tall shrub, of great beauty, attaining 
12 to 20ft., densely clothed with a soft velvety tomentum, the branches and 
petioles armed with small scattered prickles or bristles. Leaves on long petioles, 
broadly ovatcrcordate or palmately 3 or 5-lobed, often 6 or 7in. long, the lobes 
oblong-acuminate or lanceolate, often narrowed at the base. Stipules often 2 on 
each side. Flowers very large, rose-coloured, on pedicels about as long as the 
petioles. Bracteoles 10 to 15 or sometimes many more, linear- subulate, as long 
the calyx, densely hispid or softly villous. Calyx at least lin. long, densely 

128 XXII. MALVACE^. [Hibiscus. 

topientose or hispid, deeply divided into lanceolate lobes, with a dorsal and 
marginal nerve, as in H. radiatiix. Petals Sin. long or more, glabrous: ■ Capsule 
silky-hairy. Seeds glabrous.— Bot. Mag. t. 3025 ; Bot. Reg. t. 1629 ; Abehnoschm 
splendens, Walp. Eep. i. 309. 
Hab.: Percy Island, N.E. coast, Eookhampton, Moreton Bay. 

16. H. zonatus (zoned), F. v. M. Fragm. i. 221 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 218. 
A shrub with a scabrous tomentum, sometimes short and close, sometimes dense 
and velvety, the rather slender branches occasionally hirsute, or bristly.: 'Leaves 
from orbicular-cordate to ovate, the larger ones attaining 3 or 4in., and shortly 
and broadly 3, 5, or Trlobed, the upper ones entire or toothed and often narrow. 
Flowers rather large, pink, on very short pedicels in the upper axils. Bracteoles 
narrow and rigid, rarely exceeding half the length of the calyx, free or slightly 
united at the base. Calyx nearly fin. long, densely tomentose, deeply divided 
into lanceolate lobes, prominen,tly 1-nerved and with thickened margins, as in the 
preceding species. Pejials 1^ to 2in. long, pearly glabrous. Style-branches 
short, spreading. Capsule very hispid, nearly globular, shorter than the calyx. 
Seeds glabrous. m ,! i 

Hab.: Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria. 

17. II. leptOCladus (slender-branched), Benth. Fl. Austin, i. 214. Appar- 
ently a low herb or undershrub,"'with slender branches, rough with short rigid 
stellate hairs. Leaves on rather long petioles, ovate-lanceolate, lanceolate or 
oblong; 1 to 2in. long, irregularly toothed, narrowed or rounded at the base, 
roughly pubescent on both sides with rigid stellate hairs. Flowers apparently 
pink, on rather long pedicels in the upper axils. Bracteoles about 7 to 9, linear- 
subulate, rarely exceeding half the length of the calyx. Calyx about ^in, long, 
pubescent or hispid with stiff stella,te hairs, deeply divided into lanceolate- 
acuminate 1 or 3-nerved lobes, without thickened margins. Petals 1 to l|in. 
long, glabrous. Capsule nearly globular, Seeds 2 or 3 in each cell, glabrous. 

Hab.: Islands of Carpentaria Bay, Daintree and Gilbert Rivers. ' 

This species resembles in some respects H. microchkenus, but is much more slender and less 
tomentose, and both petals and seeds appear to be quite glabrous. — Benth. . ;<• ,,:_.; t 

18. -H. setulosus (bristly), F. v. M. Fragm. i. 221 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 214. 
A much-branched, viscid, strong-scented shrub of several feet, covered with 
resinous glands, the branches very hispid with long spreading bristles. Leaves 
broadly cordate or orbicular, mostly 1 to l^in. long, toothed, more or less hirsute 
or pubescent with scattered rigid stellate hairs. Flowers rather large, pink with 
a dark centre, on axillary pedicels about as long as the petioles. Bracteoles 
linear, rigid, about as long as the calyx. Calyx ' about fin. long, pubescent and 
glandular like the leaves, deeply divided into lanceolate 8-nerved lobes. Petals 
about IJin. long. Staminal-column conspiicuoiisly produced above the filaments 
and 5-toothed. Capsule globular, hispid, shorter than the calyx. Seeds glabrous 
or minutely scabrous. 

Hab.: Gulf of Carpentaria. 

19. H. geranioides (Geranium-like), A. Cunn. Herb.; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 215. 
A low branching annual of 1 to 2ft., densely hispid with long rigid stellate hairs 
or bristles. Leaves deeply divided into 8 or 5 oblong-linear or cuneate segments, 
mostly about lin. long, lobed or coarsely toothed, the lobes or teeth obtuse, hispid 
on both sides. Flowers small for the genus, on hispid pedicels often as long as 
the leaves. Bracteoles 8 to 10, linear-subulate,- hispid. Calyx 4 to 5 lines long, 
hirsute, deeply divi&ed into lanceolate-acuminate 3-nerved lobes. Petals about f 
to liii. long, dark at the base. Filaments short, along the upper nart of the 
column. Stigmas capitate. Capsule small, globular,! glabrous; Seeds glabrous, 

Hab.; Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria. "; ' 

Hibiscus.] tXll. MALVACEAE. 129 

20. K. vltifOliUB (vine-leaved), TAnn.: JXJ. Prod. i. 450 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. 
i. 216. A coarse, erect, divaricately-branched herb of several feet, in Indi& 
usually shortly tomentose, more hispid in Africa, and in the Australian specimens 
still more beset v?ith rigid hairs. Leaves broadly cordate, 2 to 3in. long and 
broad, usually broadly 3 or 6-lobed and toothed, very densely and softly villous- 
tomentose. Flowers rather large, pale-yellow with a purple centre, on short 
pedicels, the upper ones forming a short dense leafy raceme. Bracteoles 7 to 10, 
linear-subulate, shorter than the calyx. Calyx deeply divided into broadly 
lanceolate lobes, often enlarging after flowering. Capsule depressed globular, 
beaked in the centre, 5 to 8 lines diameter, hirsute with scattered hairs, the 5 
acute angles raised into wings and transversely veined. Seeds glabrous. — F. v. 
M. Fragm. ii. 114. 

Hab.: Keppel Bay, Percy Island, Dawson Eiver, Palm Islands. 

A very common species in E. India, extending into the warmer regions of Africa, and intro- 
duced into the W. Indies, readily known by its winged capsules. — Benth. 

21. H. panduriformis (Fiddle-shaped), Burm. Fl. Ind. 151, t. 47,/. 2 ; Benth. 
Fl. Avutr. i. 215. " Bee-allo," Mitchell Eiver, Palmer. A tall, coarse herb or 
shrub, densely covered with a tomentum, usually thick and velvety on the upper 
side of the leaves, closer and whiter on the under side and on the petioles and 
branches, where it is often intermixed with long spreading bristly stellate hairs. 
Leaves broad-cordate, 3 or 4in. long arid broad, or rarely narrow, usually 5- 
angled or broadly lobed and irregularly crenate. Flowers yellow, on very short 
pedicels in the axils of the upper reduced leaves, the side-branches often assum- 
ing the appearance of several-flowered peduncles. Bracteoles 6 to 8, linear or 
linear- spathulate, often as long as the calyx, more herbaceous than in most 
species and always dilated above the middle. Calyx 7 to 9 lines long, densely 
tomentose-hirsute, the lobes lanceolate, 1-nerved. Petals 1 to 2in. long, densely 
hirsute where exposed in the bud. Capsule ovoid-globular, very hispid. Seeds 
shortly puljescent or rarely glabrous. — DC. Prod. i. 455 ; F. v. M. Fragm. ii. 
115 ; H. tubtdosus, Cav. Diss. 161, t. 68, f. 2 ; DC. Prod. i. 447. 

Hab.: Bockhampton. 

The species is widely spread over tropical Asia and Africa. Burmann's figure represents a 
narrow-leaved form, not as yet found in Australia, and rare in India. — Benth, 

Natives of Mitchell Biver make the bark, after being cleaned and twisted, into bags for carrying 
roots, game, (fee. — Palmer. 

22. H. Normani (after W. H. Norman), F. v. M. Fragm. iii. 4 ; Be^ith. Fl. 
Auatr. i. 216. An undershrub, with apparently simple erect stems of about 1ft., 
densely velvety-tomentose. Leaves petiolate, from ovate to lanceolate, acute or 
obtuse, 2 to Sin. long, obscurely sinuate-toothed, tomentose on both sides, 
especially underneath. Peduncles If to 2in. long. Involucre of 5 broadly ovate 
or rhomboidal leafy bracteoles, nearly as long as the calyx, distinct or scarcely 
united at the base. Calyx tomentose, about fin. long, deeply divided into ovate- 
lanceolate 3-nerved lobes. Petals about twice as long or rather more, glabrous. 

Hab.: Palm Island, Pitzroy Island. 

23. K. Krichauffianus (after F. E. H. W. Krichauff), F. v. M. Rep. Babb. Exped. 
7 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. 1. 216. An undershrub, with the habit and foliage of some 
varieties of H. Sturtii, but the tomentum closer and whiter. Leaves ovate or 
ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, 1 to Ifin. long, irregularly and usually rather deeply 
crenate-to.othed. Flowers rather larger than in most forms of H. Stunii. Brac- 
teoles linear-subulate, almost free, shorter than the calyx and sometimes very 
short. Calyx very tomentose. Petals 1 to l|in. long. Seeds slightly pubescent. 

Hab.: Cooper's Creek. 

180 XXII. MALVACE^. [Rihucus. 

24. H. Sturtii (after Captain C: Sturt), Hook, in Mitch. Trap. Austi: 363 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 216. A rather rigid, simple or branched undershrub, rarely 
exceeding 1ft., clothed with a whitish tomentum, either short and rather close, 
or dense and velvety or sometimes almost fioceose. Leaves broadly cordate or 
ovate, rarely ovate-lanceolate, mostly 1 to l^in. long, obtuse, irregularly crenate- 
toothed, usually rather thick and soft. Flowers few in the upper axils, rather 
small, white, pink, or yellow (at Rockhampton, F. c. M.) Involucre obconical or 
campanulate, with 7 or 8 teeth or short lobes, very variable in shape, but usually 
nearly as long as the calyx. Calyx very tomentose, the lobes shorter or rarely 
longer than the cup, thick and soft, obscurely 8-nerved. Petals varying from | 
to fully l^in. long. Staminal column slender, with scattered filaments as in most 
species, but the filaments not so numerous and longer than usual, showing an 
approach to those of H. biachy>iipho7iim. Capsule globular, silky. Seeds 
glabrous or rarely woolly. — F. v. M. Fragm. ii. 18. 

Hab.: Mackenzie, Burdekin, Suitor, and Dawson Rivers, Peak Downs, Fitzroy Island, Maranoa 
and Belyando Eivers. 

This very variable species, remarkable for its cup-shaped short-lobed involucre, presents in our 
specimens the following principal forms : — 

a. grandiflora. Involucre shorter than the calyx, with triangular or lanceolate, somewhat 
acute, erect teeth. Petals above lin., and often IJin. long. — Mount Goningbear, in N. S. Wales. 

b. Muelleri. Involucre of the preceding variety with the small flowers of the following one. ' 
— Gathered by most ooUeotors, as well as the following variety. 

c. Sturtii. Involucre as long as the calyx, dilated, and spreading at the top, with short broad 
rounded lobes. Calyx 3 to 4 lines long, with rather short lobes. Petals rarely exceeding lin., 
and often much smaller. — The most common N. S. Wales form. 

d. campylochlamys, F. v. M. Both involucre and calyx more or less deeply divided into 
lanceolate acuminate lobes. Calyx otherwise rather longer than in the preceding varieties. — 
Victoria Eiver and Sturt's Creek, F. v. Mueller ; Dampier's Archipelago, A. Cunningham. In the 
latter specimens the seeds are woolly, but in the Victoria Eiver plant they appear to be glabrous, 
as in the other varieties. 

c. platychlamys. Very densely clothed with a somewhat rigid, velvety tomentum. Involucre 
v6ry spreading, often above lin. diameter, with broad lobes. Calyx exceeding Jin., with large 
ovate or ovate-lanceolate lobes. — Victoria Eiver, F. v. Mueller. 

25. H. phyllochlsenus (referring to the leafy involucre), F. i . M. Fragm. 
ix. 128. Plant covered with a rusty or brown stellate tomentum. Leaves li 
to 2in. long, lanceolate- oblong, crispate rugose, crenate-serrate, on petioles of 
from 2 to 6 lines, base obtuse, apex somewhat acute. Peduncles solitary, 
1-flowered, 1 to l-|-in. long. Bracteoles 5, herbaceous, glabrescent, ovate-lanceolate. 
Calyx nearly lin. long. Corolla l^in., slightly ciliate, two-coloured — purple and 
yellow. Staminal column short, glabrous. Style-branches villous. Capsule 
silky-hispid. Seeds glabrous. 

Hab.: Expedition Eange. 

26. H. tiliaceus (leaves Tilia-like), Linn.; DC. Prod. i. 454; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 218. " Talwalpin," Moreton Bay, Watkins. A small tree. Leaves on 
long petioles, orbicular-cordate, shortly acuminate, entire or crenulate, white or 
hoary underneath with a close short tomentum, nearly glabrous above, 8 to 5in. 
diameter. Stipules large, broadly oblong, very deciduous. Flowers large, yellow 
with a dark crimson centre, on short peduncles in the upper axils or at the ends , 
of the branches. Involucre campanulate, divided to about the middle into 10 to 
12 lobes, about half the length of the calyx. Calyx nearly lin. long, with 
lanceolate 1 -nerved lobes. Petals 2 to Sin. long, slightly tomentose outside. 
Capsule nearly lin. diameter, the valves bearing the dissepiments in their centre, 
and their thin margins turned inwards so as to make the capsule appear 10-celled. 
— Parititim tiliaeeum, St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Mer. i. 256 ; Wight, Ic. PI. t. 7. 

Hab.: Islands of the Bay of Carpentaria, Eockhampton, Brisbane River. 
A common seacoast tree in most tropical countries, particularly abundant in the islands of th? 
Pacific. — Benth. i 

Mibiscu..] XXII. MALVACE^. 131 

In Central America the fibre is known as " majagu," and in Bengal as " bola,'' and being little 
affeeted by moisture is therefore selected by surveyors for measuring lines. The Queensland 
blacks at one time used the roots and young growth of this tree for food. In the West Indies, 
in times of scarcity of bread-fruit, the mucilaginous bark is said to be sucked for food. 

Wood close-grained, colour invisible green, beautifully marked, easy to work, and takes a good 
pohsh ; supposed by some to resemble Pollard oak.— Bailey's Cat. Ql. M'oods, No. 19. 

11. LAGUNARIA, G. Don. 

(After Andreas Laguna.) 

Bracteoles 3 or 4, broad and united at the b'ase, often very deciduous. Calyx 
very shortly 5-lobed. Staminal column bearing numerous filaments on the 
outside below the 5-crenate summit. Ovary 5-celled, with several ovules in each 
cell. Style clavate at the top, with 5 distinct ovate radiating stigmas. Capsule 
loculicidally 5-valved, the endocarp villous inside and separating from the pericarp. 
Seeds reniform, thick, glabrous. — A tree. Leaves entire, sprinkled or curved, 
with scurfy scales. Flowers large, axillary, on short thick pedicels. 

The genus, scarcely perhaps sufficiently distinct from Hibiscus, is limited to a single species, 
represented, however, by two distinct varieties — one Australian, the other peculiar to Norfolk 
Island. — Ben til. 

1. Ii. Fatersoni (after "Colonel Paterson), Don, Gen. Syst. i. 485, var. 
hracteuta ; Benth. Fl. Avstr. i. 218. A tree, the young parts and inflorescence 
more or less covered with minute scurfy scales, but otherwise glabrous. Leaves 
petiolate, oblong or broadly lanceolate, rarely ovate-oblong, 3 to 4in. long, entire, 
somewhat coriaceous, white underneath when young, glabrous and pale-green on 
both sides when full grown, the scales of the under surface almost disappearing. 
Pedicels very short and angular. Bracteoles 3 to 5, very obtuse, united in a 
broad, shortly-lobed eup, usually persistent at the time of flowering in the Austra- 
lian variety, but sometimes even these falling off early. Calyx 4 to 5 lines long. 
Petals narrow, above l-Jin. long, slightly tomentose outside. 

Hab.: Port Denison, Port Cowper, Cumberland Islands. 

The Norfolk Island form (Hibiscus Patersonius, Andr. Bot. Eep. t. 286; H. Fatersoni, DC. 
Prod. i. 454 ; Laguncea Patersonia, Bot. Mag. t. 769 ; L. squaniea, Vent. Jard. Malm. t. 42) is 
much more scaly-tomentose, the leaves are broader and very white underneath, and the 
bracteoles fall off at so very early a stage that they have always been said to be entirely wanting. 
I had, on that account, at first considered the Australian plant as distinct, but I have since seen 
the bracts on very young buds of the Norfolk Island one, and observe them to be here and there 
very deciduous on Australian specimens, and the other characters, although as far as hitherto 
known constant, may not be sufficient to distinguish the two as more than varieties or 
races. — Benth. 

Wood firm, close in grain, nearly white, and easy to work. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods, No. 20. 

12. FUGOSIA, Juss. 

(After Bernard Cienfuegos.) 

Bracteoles 3, distinct and narrow, or several united in a 3 to 6-toothed 
involucre. Calyx 5-Iobed. Staminal column bearing numerous filaments on the 
outside, below the truncate or 5-toothed summit, or rarely quite to the top. 
Ovary 3 to 5-celled, with 3 or more ovules in each. Style thickened towards the 
top, grooved or divided into short, erect lobes, with decurrent stigmas. Capsule 
loculicidally 3 to 5-valved. Seeds obovoid-globular or slightly reniform, usually 
pubescent or woolly. Cotyledons much folded over the radicle. — Shrubs or under- 
shrubs, with the habit of Hibiscus, but usually more glabrous. Leaves entire or 
lobed, rarely divided. Stipules small or subulate and deciduous. Flowers usually 
large, yellow or purple. Calyx often marked with black dots, but not the 

The genus comprises several species from tropical and subtropical regions of America, and one 
from Africa, but none from Asia. It is very nearly allied on the one hand to Hibiscus, on the 
other to Gosaypium, differing frort) the former chiefly in the style, frojn the latter in the 
bracteoles; — Benth. 

132 XXII. MALVACEAE. \_Fiujom(. 

1. P. australis (Australian), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 220. An undershrub of 
several feet, hoary with a dense but very short tomentum. Leaves broadly or 
narrow-ovate, obtuse, If to 2|in. long, entire or more or less sinuate or 3-lobed. 
Flowers rather large, pink, on very short pedicels, which are often clustered 2 or 
3 together at the top of axillary peduncles, with a bract or small leaf under each. 
Bracteoles 3, linear, distinct. Calyx from | to fin. long, tomentose and marked 
with black glandular dots, the lobes lanceolate or almost linear, varying very 
much in length. Petals Ifin. long, slightly tomentose outside. Capsule obovoid- 
oblong, shortly acuminate, tomentose, 3 or 4-valved. Seeds numerous, woolly. — 
Gos$ypmin aiistrale, F. v. M, Fragm. i. 46, and iii. 6. 

Hab.: Georgina Eiver to Gulf of Carpentaria. 

In habit and foliage this much resembles the Brazilian /''. yWonjidi/bZia, St. Hil., which has, 
however, more numerous bracteoles and yellow flowers. — Benth, 

13. THESPESIA, Corr. 

(Name derived from its being planted near place of worship in India.) 

Bracteoles 1 to 5, small or deciduous. Calyx truncate, minutely 5 -toothed or 
rarely 5-lobed. Staminal column bearing numerous filaments on the outside, 
below or up to the summit. Ovary 5-ceUed, with few ovules in each cell. Style 
club-shaped at the top, 5-furrowed or obscurely divided into erect stigmatic lobes. 
Capsule hard, almost woody, indehiscent or loculicidally 5-valved. Seeds obovoid, 
glabrous or woolly. Cotyledons very much folded, enclosing the radicle, often 
black-dotted. — Trees or tall herbs. Leaves large, entire or angularly lobed. 
Flowers large, usually yellow. 

A small genus, limited to tropical Asia, the Pacific isles, and eastern Africa, the Australian 
species being one which extends over the whole range. Closely allied to Hibiscus, Fugosia, and 
Gossypium, it differs from the former chiefly in the style, from the two latter generally either in 
the calyx or bracts, and from all in the more woody capsule. — Benth. 

1. T. populnea (Poplar-leaved), Corr.; DC. Prod. i. 456; Benth. Fl. Amtr. 
i. 221. Indian tulip-tree. A tree, with the young parts and under side of the 
leaves sprinkled with minute rust-coloured scales, otherwise glabrous. Leaves 
broad-cordate, acuminate, entire, 4 or Sin. long. Flowers reddish-yellow, rather 
large, on axillary pedicels usually shorter than the petioles. Bracteoles 1 to 3, 
lanceolate and deciduous, or sometimes wanting. Calyx very open, 6 to 8 lines 
diameter, truncate, with minute teeth. Petals broad, l\ to 2in. long. Capsule 
fully Ifin. diameter, hard and woody, indehiscent or opening longitudinally when 
very dry. — Wight, Ic. t. 8. 

Hab.: Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, Torres Straits, and N.E. coast. 

Flowering in May and June. 

The species is widely spread over the seaooasts of tropical Asia, extending from eastern Africa 
to the Pacific Islands. It is also introduced into the West Indies. — Benth. 

14. GOSSYPIUM, Linn. 
(From the Arabic name for softness.) 
(Sturtia, R. Br.) 
Bracteoles 8, large and cordate.' Calyx much shorter, truncate or shortly 
5-lobed. Staminal column bearing numerous filaments outside, below or up to 
the top. Ovary 5, rarely 4-oelled, with several ovules in each cell. Style club- 
shaped at the top, furrowed, with deourrent Stigmas. Capsule loculicidally 5, 
rarely 4-valved. Seeds angular or nearly globular, very woolly or nearly 
glabrous ; cotyledons very much folded, enclosing the radicle.— Tall herbs. 

Gossypium.] XXII. MALVACE.<E. l8g 

shrubs, or almost trees. Leaves 3 to 9-lobed, or rarely entire. Flowers large, 
yellow or purple. Bracteoles entire, toothed or cut, usually, as well as the calyx 
and cotyledons, marked with black dots. 

The genus, besides the Australian species, which is endemic, comprises the cultivated Cotton, 
whose various forms, described as species, races, or varieties, are distributed either as indigenous 
or introduced plants over the warmer regions both of the New and the Old World, but not 
hitherto found in a wild state in Australia. — Benth. 

1. G. Sturtii (after Captain C. Sturt), F. v. M. Fragni. iii. 6 ; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. 1. 222. A shrub of several feet, glabrous and more or less marked with 
black dots. Leaves on rather long petioles, broadly ovate, entire, 1 to 2in. long, 
rather coriaceous and glaucous. Flowers large, purple with a dark centre, on 
short pedicels in the upper axils. Bracteoles cordate, entire, f to lin. long, 
many-nerved and black-dotted. Calyx not half so long, broad, truncate with 
minute or narrow-linear teeth, copiously black-dotted. Petals fully 2in. long. 
Capsule ovoid, shortly acuminate, much longer than the calyx, usually 4-celled, 
glabrous but copiously black-dotted. Seeds very sparingly and shortly woolly. — 
Sturtia gossypioides, R. Br. App. Sturt. Bxped. 6. 

Hab.: In the interior. 

15. BOMBAX, Linn. 

(From the Greek bombyx, raw silk.) 

(Salmalia, Schott.) 

Calyx cup-shaped, truncate, or splitting into 3 to 5 lobes. Staminal column 

divided into numerous filaments, of which the inner ones, or nearly all, are more 

or less connected in pairs and united at the base into 5 or more bundles. Ovary 

5-celled, with several ovules in each cell ; style club-shaped or shortly 5-lobed at 

the top. Capsule woody or coriaceous,, opening loculicidally in 5 valves, the cells 

densely wooUy inside. Seeds obovoid or globular, enveloped in the wool of the 

pericarp ; albumen thin ; cotyledons much folded round the radicle. — Trees. 

Leaves digitate, with leaflets usually entire. Peduncles 1 -flowered, axillary or 

terminal. Flowers white or red. 

The species are chiefly South American, with one from tropical Africa, and another from 
tropical Asia extending also into Australia. — Benth. 

1. B. malabaricum (of Malabar), DC. Prod. i. 479 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 
223. . Silk-cotton tree. A large tree, the trunk covered with short conical 
prickles. Leaves on long petioles, deciduous ; leaflets 5 to 7, petiolulate, elliptical- 
oblong, acuminate, 4 to 6in. long, coriaceous, entire, glabrous. Flowers large, 
red, on short pedicels, clustered towards the ends of the branches, which are then 
destitute of leaves. Calyx above lin. long, thick and coriaceous, glabrous outside, 
silky-hairy inside, dividing into short, broad, obtuse lobes. Petals fully 3in. long, 
oblong, tomentose outside, nearly glabrous within. Staminal column short, 
filaments much longer, but shorter than the petals, 5 innermost forked at the 
top, each branch bearing an anther, about 10 intermediate ones simple, and the 
numerous outer ones shortly united in 5 clusters. Capsule large, oblong, and 
woody. — Salmalia malabarica, Schott, Meletem. 35 ; Bomhaa- heptaphylla, Cav.; 
Roxb. PI. Corom. iii. 43, t. 247 ; Wight, 111. t. 29. 

Hab.; This tree is of frequent occurrence on the borders of northern river scrubs, and there 
are probably two varieties if not species, but the specimens hitherto received do not allow of 
their determination. 

In India the wood is not considered durable except under water. The cotton which 
surrounds the seeds is used for stuffing pillows, &o. Dr. Dymock Says that according te 
Mahometan writers the young roots have restorative, astringent, and alterative properties. 

Analysis of gum : Water 17-3, arabin 20-5, metarabin 16-4, impurities 12-3, tannin 33-5. — 

Wood light, coarse-grained, and soit.—Bdiley't: Cat. Ql. Wooda No. 22. 

184 XXlll. STfiRCULIACE^. 


Flowers regular, hermaphrodite or unisexual. Calyx usually persistent, more 
or less deeply divided into 5 or rarely 4 or 3 valvate lobes or segments, or rarely 
Splitting irregularly, or the sepals entirely free. Petals either 5, hypogynous, 
free, or adhering to the staminal column, contorted-imbricate in the bud, or small 
and scale-like, or none. Stamens usually united into a ring, a cup, or tube, with 
5 terminal teeth or lobes (staminodia) alternating with the petals, and one or 
more anthers sessile Or stipitate (on distinct filaments) in each interval, the 
anthers 2-celled and opening outwards, in longitudinal slits, or exceptionally the 
anthers are numerous or the staminodia wanting, or the stamens 5, free and 
alternate with the sepals, or the anther-cells confluent or opening in terminal 
pores. Ovary free, 2 to .5-celled, with the carpels more or less united, rarely 10 
or 12-celIed, or reduced to a single carpel. Style entire, or divided into as many 
branches as there are cells, or rarely styles as many, nearly or quite free. Fruit 
various. Seeds sometimes hairy but not woolly, sometimes enveloped in pulp or 
strophiolate, the testa coriaceous, occasionally enclosed in an outer membranous 
integument ; albumen fleshy or none ; cotyledons usually foliaoeous, flat or 
folded, the radicle shorter, next the hilum or rarely distant from it. — Herbs, 
shrubs, or trees, the tomentum or hairs stellate, rarely mixed with simple hairs. 
Leaves alternate or irregularly opposite, sirhple and pinnately or palmately nerved, 
entire toothed or lobed, or digitately compound. Stipules rarely wanting. 

A large Order, chiefly tropical, dispersed over the New and the Old World, with some extra- 
tropical Kenera in S. Africa or Australia, and very few species without the tropica in the northeirn 
hemisphere. Of the 15 Queensland genera 10 are common to the tropical regions of the Old 
World or both of the Old and the New World, the remaining 5 are endemic in Australia, with the 
exception of single species of Riilingia and Kerandrcnia, found in Madagascar. — Benth. (in part). 

Thiee I. Sterculleee. — Flowers iiiiiKexual or polygamous. Calyx often coloured. Petals 
none. Anthers 5 to 15, sessile or stipitate, surrounding the ovary at the top of a column or gyna- 
phore. Fruit-carpels separate, sessile or stipitate. — Trees. Leaves simple or digitate. 

Anthers irregularly clustered. Seeds albuminous. 

Ovules 2 or more in each cell. Carpels follicular or opening along the 

inner edge 1. Stekculia. 

Ovules single in each cell. Cai'pels winged, indehiscent 2. Tabeietia. 

Anthers 5, in a ring. Ovules solitary. Carpels large, indehiscent. Albumen 

none . ... 3. Hebitibba. 

Tbibe II. Helicteres. — Flowers hermaphrodite. Petals 5, clawed, deciduous. Anthers on 
short filaments, surrounding or alternating with 5 teeth of the column or staminodia. Leaves simple. 

Anther-cells divaricate. Capsule membranous, inflated 4. Kleinhovia. 

Anther-cells divaricate or confluent into one. Fruit-carpels distinct, or 

. spirally twisted • • ; , 6. Helicteees. 

Anther-cells parallel. Fruit woody, 5-valved. Seeds winged 6. Ptebospekmcm. 

Tkibe III. Dotnbeyete.— J^'ioK-ers hermaphrodite. Petals flat, persistent, longer than the 
calyx. Anthers in the only Queensland plant of the tribe 5. 

Stamens 5 (or in Abronia more), united at the base in a short cup or ring, or 
rarely free, with or without intervening staminodia, and surrounding the 
sessile ovary. 
Stamens 5, united in a cup, with 5 intervening elongated flat staminodia 7. Melhania. 

Tbibe IV. Kermannies. — FUnvcrs hermaphrodite. Petals marcescent, flat. Stamens 3. 
No staminodia. 

Stamens 5, united at the base without intervening staminodia. 

Ovary 5-celled 8. Melochia. 

Ovary of one 1-oelled carpel . . 9. Walthekia. 

Tbibe V. Buettnerieee. — Flowers hermaphrodite. Petals with a short, broad, ven/ concave 
base, and n sessile or stipitate lamina. 

Lamina of the petals stipitate, longer than the calyx. Staminodia o, obcor- 

date, with 2 to 4 stamens between each . . lo. Abeoma. 


Lamina of the petals short, sessile. Stamens o. 

Staminodia single between each '2 stamens, lanceolate 11. RnLixoiA. 

Staminodia 3 between each 2 stamens, all linear-spa thulate, or the central 
one lanceolate, and the lateral ones subulate 12. CoMjucnsoNiA, 

Tkibe VI. Xiasiopetaleae. — Flowerx hermaplirodite. Petals small and scaU-like or none. 

Anthers (linear-oblong) opening outwards in parallel slits. 
Calyx herbaceous, scarcely enlarged, and not coloured after flowering. 

Staminodia large. Carpels membranous, winged 13, Sehixoia. 

Calyx enlarged after flowering, thin and coloured. Staminodia single or 

none. Capsule or carpels membranous, rounded or rarely winged . . 14. Kkb.iudkenia. 
Calyx strongly ribbed after flowering. Staminodia 3 between each 2 

stamens. Capsule hard or woody 15. Hannai-obwa. 

1. STERCULIA, Linn. 
(Derived from the bad scent of the flowers of some species.) 

(Brachychiton, Triohosiphon, aitd Pcecilodermis, Schott ; Delabechia, Lindl.) 

Flowers unisexual or polygamous. Calyx more or less deeply 5-cleft, rarely 4- 
cleft, usually coloured. Petals none. Staminal column adnate to the gynophore, 
bearing at the summit 15 or rarely 10 stamens, irregularly clustered in a head. 
Carpels of the ovary 5, distinct or nearly so, with 2 or more ovules in each. 
Styles united under the peltate or lobate stigma. Fruit-carpels distinct, spreading, 
either firm or woody, and scarcely opening along the inner edge, or thinner and 
opening as follicles, even long before they are ripe. Seeds 1 or more in each 
carpel, rarely winged ; albumen adhering to the cotyledons, often splitting in two, 
assuming the aspect of fleshy cotyledons ; real cotyledons flat or nearly so, and 
thin, the radicle next the hilum or at the opposite end, or intermediate. — Trees. 
Leaves undivided or lobed, or digitately compound. Flowers in panicles or rarely 
racemes, mostly axillary, sometimes very short ; terminal flowers usually female ; 
in these the staminal column is shorter and the anthers less perfect than in the 
males, surrounding the base of the ovary ; in the males the ovary is often entirely 

A large genus, almost entirely tropical, and more abundant in Asia than in Africa or America, 
where however several species are found. The Australian ones are all endemic. 

The species of this genus were distributed by Schott into a number of genera, founded chiefly 
on the flowers and habit, afterwards reduced and rearranged by E. Brown, chiefly on carpological 
characters, without reference to habit or calyx. The majority of the Australian ones belong to 
the group distinguished by E. Brown chiefly by the seeds having a loose outer coating covered 
with hairs, which in some species are so adhesive that the seeds fall out in their inner coating 
only, leaving the outer coating adhering to the equally hairy endocarp, with the appearance of 
the cells of a beehive ; and by the radicle next to the hilum. The seeds do not appear to cohere 
in all the species ; in some they are hitherto unknown, and in flowers and habit S. raiiiiflora 
and S. rupestris, and S. quadrifida are more different from each other than from species belong- 
ing respectively to other groups. Among species not Australian, the position of the radicle 
unites two very heteromorphous ones under Firmiana, and would (as observed to me by M. 
Poinsot, of the Paris Herbarium) lead to separate S. mexieana froin other digitate-leaved 
American species. I have, therefore, with Kndlicher and others, considered Schott and Brown's 
genera as sections only. — Benth. 

Sect. I. Sterculla. — Radicle at the end remote from the hilmn. Seeds and inside of the 
carpels glabrmiB. 
Leaves large, entire. Calyx-lobes 4, cohering at the tips . . .... 1. S. quadrifida. 

Leaves large, entire. Calyx-lobes expanding 2. S. laurifolia. 

Sect. 2. Sracliyclliton. — Radicle next the hilum. Seeds and inside of the carpels usually 
villous, often cohering. Leaves entire or lobed (digitate only on some branches of S. rupestris.) 
Calyx-lobes spreading. 

Calyx-lobes (where known) with induplieate margins. Seeds (where known) 
scarcely cohering. Leaves tomentose or pubescent, at least underneath. 
Flowers large, sessile. (ISrachgchitoii, Schott). 

136 XXIII. STEKCULIACE*. [$terciiUa. 

Leaves greyish-white, entire or 3-lobed, nearly orbicular in outline. 

Flowers in short axillary racemes S. S. Garrawayx. 

Leaves green and softly tomentose or pubescent on both sides. 
Leaves broad, entire, or obscurely 5 or 7-lobed. Calyx broadly cam- 

panulate i. S. ramiflora. 

The leafy parts and inflorescence clothed with loose short stellate 
pubescence (tomentum). Leaves entire or shortly lobed, orbicular- 
cordate. Inflorescence at the ends of the branohlets ... .5. S. vitifolia. 

Leaves 3-lobed. Calyx tubular-campanulate . 6, S. Bidtcilli. 

Leaves palmately 5 or 7-lobed 8. S. lurida. 

Leaves white underneath. 

Leaves angular or obscurely S or 7-lobed 7. S. discolor. 

Calyx-lobes strictly valvate. Outer coating of the seeds usually remaining 

adherent to the endooarp. Leaves glabrous. Flowers in short panicles. 

Calyx narrow, lobes lanceolate, shorter than the tube. Leaves palmately 

5 or 7-lobed ( Trichosiplwn, Schott) 9. S. Tricliosiphon. 

Calyx broadly campannlate, deeply lobed (Pacilodermis, Schott). 
Leaves large, palmately 5 or 7-lobed. Flowers quite glabrous . . . .10. S. acerifolia. 
Leaves entire, ovate or cordate, or 3-lobed, acuminate. Flowers tomen- 
tose outside when young, glabrous inside. Follicles stipitate . . .11. S. diversifoUa. 
Leaves cordate-acuminate, entire. Flowers tomentose outside, hirsute 

inside at the base. Follicles nearly sessile 12. iS. caudata. 

Leaves entire and lanceolate, or digitate. Flowers tomentose outside. 
FoUioles long-stipitate 13. S. rupestris. 

1. S. quadrifida (alluding to the four division of flower), R. Br. in 
Benn. PI. Jar. Bar. 233 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 227. " Ko-ral-ba," Cooktown, 
Roth; " Convavola," N.Q., Thozet ; "Ku-man," Atherton, Roth. A tree of 
medium size, with a somewhat smooth grayish bark, glabrous, except the 
inflorescence. Leaves petiolate, ovate or cordate, obtuse or acuminate, mostly 8 
to Sin. long. Eacemes several, crowded within the uppermost leaves, 1 to 2in. 
long, clothed with a stellate tomentum. Bracts broad, acuminate, very deciduous. 
Pedicels 2 to 4 lines. Calyx about 4 lines long, tomentose, cleft to the niiddle, 
the lobes usually 4, lanceolate, connivent and cohering at the tips. Staminal 
column short. Follicles sessile, ovoid, 2 to Sin. long, hard and almost woody, 
minutely tomentose or glabrous. Seeds 2 to 4, ovoid, black, the radicle remote 
from the hilum. 

Hab.: Islands of Torres Straits, delta of the Burdekin and Port Denison, Wide Bay, 
Moreton Bay. 

The northern specimens have longer and more acute leaves, and rather smaller flowers on 
longer pedicels than the eastern ones. — Benth. 

Wood of a light-grey, close-grained, light and easily worked. The bark yields a useful fibre"; 
the seeds also are edible and of agreeable flavour. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No. 23. 
Fibre from bark used for making kangaroo nets, &o. — Both. 

2. S. laurifolia (Laurel-leaved), F. v. M. Fragm. vi. 172. A tree of about 
60ft. Leaves simple, entire, glabrous, 8 to 6in. long, 1-| to 2in. broad, shortly 
acuminate. Nerves and veins prominent, dotted on the upper side, and often 
bearded at the axils of the primary nerves on the under side. Petioles slender, 
somewhat terete, about 2in. Flowers numerous in panicles. Pedicels articulate 
about the middle. Calyx-lobes 5, yellow, valvate in the bud, when expanded 
about 8 lines long, narrow-lanceolate and velvety as well as the pedicels. 
Staminal column 1^ line high, almost ovate, the head containing about 15 yellow 
anthers scarcely J line long. Column almost 1^ line high. Disk annular, 
tomentose. Female flowers and fruit unknown. 

Hab.: Rockingham Bay, J. Dallachy. 

3. S. Garravrayse (after Mrs. J. Garraway), Bail. Ql. Joum.ofAgri., June, 
1899. " Morna," Palmer Eiver, Roth. A tiee attaining a height of 23ft., with 
a rough bark. Branchlets and leaves clothed with a thin, hoary, stellate pubes- 
cence. Leaves orbicular-cordate, entire or very bluntly 8 or 5-lobed, the middle 
lobe the smallest when only 3-lobed, the entire ones about Ifin. diameter ; others 



s. ^ 

4 ;:^?^ -' ^, 

FE/liot/-, Lil-h. 


PL. V^JI. 


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1 ' 

"\'A' ^*' 

' 1- 


SJbercuHcu vitifx>Lici4:Bcui: 

Gcv^Frirhtinxt Offvc^.3rt^'bact>^,£i- 

Stercutia.] XXIII. STEROULIACE/E. 137 

Sin. long, 4in. broad. Nerves 5 — 7, palmate, prominent, as are the transverse 
veins ; margins entire. Petioles slender, 1 to Sin. long, strongly striate. Flowers 
in short, few-flowered, axillary racemes. Calyx campanulate, about 9 lines long, 
dull red, cleft for about a-quarter down, lobes rounded, the margins induplicate ; 
inside the tube, above the base, is a ring of broad, divided, tomentose reflexed 
scales. Staminal column densely clothed with rather large stellate hairs for half 
its length from the base, the filaments thence free and glabreseent to the head of 
anthers. No abortive ovary. Female flowers in appearance like the male ; stipes 
of ovary with a dense ring of sessile sterile anthers at the top. 0\'ary consisting 
of 6 connate carpels ; styles almost straight and free to the stigmas, densely 
stellate tomentose throughout. Stigmas recurved. Follicles on stipes of about 
8 lines besides the 2-lines original stipes of the ovary, 2^in. long, fin. broad in 
the centre, rostrate at the end, sparsely stellate tomentose outside, densely villous 
inside, as well as the loose integument of the seeds. Seeds yellow, closely packed, 
about 12 or IS in each follicle. 

Hab.: Palmer River, Mrs. J. Ganaway, who also forwarded some excellent sketches of the 
present and several other Palmer River plants. In flower about March. In many respects the 
present species approaches S. ramiAora, Benth. The leaves, however, are never angular or 
acuminate, and the flowers are pedicellate (not nearly sessile as given in the Fl. Austr. i. 217 
for S. raviijlora). 

Fruit eaten raw, Palmer River. — Roth. 

4. S. ramiflora (flowers on the branches), y5'c«t/i.i'7.^Mst/-.i. 227. "An-gi-ur," 
Princess Charlotte Bay, Roth. A shrub or small tree, clothed with a soft stellate 
tomentum or pubescence, which rarely disappears on the upper surface of the 
older leaves. Leaves on long petioles, broadly ovate-cordate or nearly orbicular, 
mostly acuminate, entire, angular or obscurely 3 or 5-lobed, often attaining 6 
or Bin. Flowers few, large, red, nearly sessile, and clustered in the axils of the 
upper leaves. Calyx broadly campanulate, 1 to l^in. long, the lobes shorter 
than the tube, spreading, obtuse, 3-nerved in the centre, with broad induplicate 
margins ; inside the tube at the base are 5 small, inflexed, and very villous 
double scales. Staminal column slender, hirsute at the base. Ovary pubescent ; 
stigmas recurved. Follicles shortly stipitate, 3 to 4in. long, glabrous outside, 
villous inside, stipitate (according to E. Brown), with very numerous seeds ; I 
have not seen them perfect. — Brachychiton paradoxum, Schott, Meletem. 34 ; 
Braehycliiton ramiflorum, R. Br. in Benn. PI. Jav. Rar. 284. 

Hab.: Tropical parts. 

Seeds roasted and eaten. — Both. 

5. Sa vitifolia (Vine-leaved), Bail. A small tree, the branchlets, foliage, 
and inflorescence densely clothed with a loose, short, stellate, light-brown 
pubescence ; branchlets rather slender, reddish-brown beneath the pubescence, 
somewhat terete, internodes often long. Leaves orbicular-cordate, 3 to 6in. 
diameter, entire or more or less 3-lobed, the lobes short and very obtuse, very 
rugose on the upper, prominently and closely reticulate on the under side, both 
surfaces clothed with a short, close, stellate pubescence ; petioles rather slender, 
from 2 to nearly 5in. long. Flowers few, in pedunculate cymes at the ends of 
the branchlets ; buds cylindrical-conic, about 8 lines long, S lines broad ; lobes 
induplicate ; expanded flower 8 to 9 lines diameter, seems to be of a purplish-red 
inside, densely stellate, hairy outside ; inside of tube and lobes nearly glabrous. 
Staminal column glabrous under the head of anthers, hairy towards the base. 
Follicles rostrate-cymbiform, without the stipites 2jin. long, densely villous 
inside. Stipites rather long. Seeds about 6, villous. 

Hab.: Fairview Telegraph Station ; Laura, T. Barclay -Millar. 

6. S. Bidwilli (after J. C. Bidwill), Hook. Herb.: Benth. Fl. Aititr: i. 228. 
A shrub or tree, softly pubescent or tomentose in all its parts, closely allied to 
8. ramifioin, but differing in the leaves almost always deeply 8-lobed with 

188 XXIII. STEECULIACE^. [Stercutia. 

acuminate lobes, green, and softly villousi on both sides, and especially in the 
calyx, which is narrow, tubular-campanulate, 1 to IJin. long ; the red colour and 
induplicate lobes are the same as in X. rmniflora. — Brdcliychiton Buhiilli, Hook. 
Bot. Mag. t. 5183. 

Hab.: Here and there in southern localities. 

7. S. discolor (two-coloured), F. c. M.; Benth. Fl. Au-'^tr. i. 228. A tall 
tree, the young shoots tomentose. Leaves very broadly cordate, nearly orbicular, 
shortly acuminate, angular or very shortly and irregularly 5 or 7-lobed, glabrous 
above, white underneath with a very close tomentum, mostly 4 to 6in. diameter. 
Flowers (if correctly matched) like those of S. ramiflora, and similarly clustered. 
Calyx H to 2in. long, broadly campanulate, tomentose inside and out, divided to 
the middle into broad lobes with induplicate margins. Follicles very shortly 
stipitate, 4 to Gin. long, acuminate ; densely rusty-tomentose outside. — Brachy- 
chiton discolor, F. v. M. Fragm. i. 1. 

Hab. : Pine Kiver and other southern localities. 

Wood soft, coarse in grain, and light-coloured. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No. 24. 

8. S> lurida (lurid), F. v. M.: Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 228. A tree. Leaves on 
long petioles, deeply 5 or 7-lobed, the lobes sinuate or even lobed as in S. acerifolia, 
and of the same size, but softly pubescent, especially underneath. Flowers like 
those of S. discolor, of a livid variegated colour. Calyx campanulate, 1^ to 2in. 
long, divided to the middle into broadly ovate lobes, with the margins thin and 
induplicate. Follicles (according to F. v. Mueller) shortly stipitate, large, 
tomentose, many-seeded. — Brachychitnn luridum, F. v. M. Fragm. i. 1, andii. 177. 

Hab.: Southern scrubs. 

9. S. Trichosiphon (staminal column hairy), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 229. 
Broad-leaved bottle-tree; " Ketey," N.Q., Tlwzet. A deciduous tree, quite 
glabrous, leafless when in flower. Leaves 4 to Bin. long and broad, more or less 
deeply cut into 5 or rarely 7 palmate lobes, sometimes broad and shortly 
acuminate, sometimes lanceolate with long points, and glabrous on both sides. 
Racemes short, mostly simple. Calyx narrow, tubular-campanulate, about fin. 
long, the lobes lanceolate, spreading, much shorter than the tube. Staminal 
column swollen and hairy in the middle. Stigma peltate. Follicles shortly 
stipitate, glabrous, oblong-triangu.lar, 2 to Sin. long. — Trichosiphon australe, 
Schott, Melet. 84 ; Brackychiton platanoides, R. Br. in Benn. PI. Jav. Ear. 234. 

Hab.: Northumberland Island, Burdekin, Suttor and Dawson Rivers, Wide Bay, Leichhardt 

Wood soft, spongy. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No. 25. 

Boots of young plants and seeds eaten by natives of N.Q. — Thozet. 

10. S. acerifolia (Maple-leaved), A. (Jnnn. in Loud. Hon. Brit. 392 f partly;: 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 229. Flame-tree. A large timber-tree, quite glabrous. 
Leaves on long petioles, deeply 5 or 7-lobed ; lobss oblong-lanceolate or almost 
rhomboid, occasionally deeply sinuate, the whole leaf often 8 or lOin. diameter, 
thin but shining and glabrous on both sides. Flowers of a rich red, in loose 
axillary racemes or small panicles of 2 to Sin. Calyx broadly campanulate, fin. 
long, quite glabrous, with short broad lobes, valvate in the bud. Ovary raised on 
a short column, quite glabrous, the carpels quite distinct, and the styles scarcely 
cohering at the broad radiating stigmas. Follicles large, on long stalks, quite 
glabrous. — Brackychiton aivrl folium, F. v. M. Fragm. i. 1, and ii. 177. 

Hab.: Common in the south, and here and there met with in the north. 

Wood soft, light-coloured, and of light weight. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods Xo. 26. 

Stercuiia.] XXIII. STERCULIACE^. 139 

11. S. diversifolia (leaves various), (t. Don, Gen. Syst. i. 516 ; Benth. Fl. 
AuHr. i. 229. Kurrajong ; "Dewtie," Taromeo, Shirley; "Kalan," Palmer 
River, Both. A tree of from 20 to 60ft., quite glabrous except the flowers. 
Leaves on long petioles, glabrous and shining, either entire and from ovate to 
ovate-lanceolate, or more or less deeply 3 or rarely 5-lobed, the 2 lateral lobes 
sometimes very short, sometimes all lanceolate, 2 or Sin. long, the simple leaves 
or their lobes always ending in long points. Flowers in axillary panicles, rarely 
exceeding the leaves. Calyx very broadly campanulate, slightly tomentose when 
young, attaining when fully out 7 to 9 lines diameter, acutely lobed to the middle, 
of a yellowish- white and glabrous except the ciliate margins outside, reddish and 
glabrous within. Staminal column also glabrous. Ovary slightly tomentose. 
Follicles nearly ovoid, 1 J to 2 or even Sin. long, thick and glabrous, on stalks of 
1 to 2in., the endocarp and outer coating of the seeds very shortly hirsute and 
cohering. — Purilndermh jjopulnea, Schott, Melet. 33; BrnchycJiiton pnpulmwn, R. 
Br. in Benn. PI. Jav. Ear. 234 ; F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 156, and Suppl. 5. 

Hab.: Dawson Eiver, Eookhamplon, and in the interior. 

Wood soft, of coarse grain. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No. 27. 

Twine made from bark by Palmer Eiver natives Roth. 

Specimens from this locality show entire leaves, linear-lanceolate to 6Jin. long and 13 lines 
broad, with the same long thread-like points, coriaceous, with petioles 13 to 14 lines long. Fruit 
also larger than in normal' form. 

12. S. caudata (tailed), Hewanl in Herb. (Junn.; Benth. FL Awstr. i. 230. 
" Kel-lan," Princess Charlotte Bay, Roth. A tree, quite glabrous except the 
flowers. Leaves ovate-cordate, entire, long-acuminate, mostly 3 or 4in. long, the 
veins more transverse than in any other species, some occasionally narrow-oblong 
or linear. Flowers rather small, in short axillary panicles, the rhaohis and 
pedicels quite glabrous. Calyx broadly campanulate, deeply lobed, 6 to 7 lines 
diameter when fully out, very tomentose outside, pubescent inside, especially at 
the bottom, but without appendages. Staminal column slender in the males, 
short in the females, pubescent at the base. Ovary very tomentose. Follicles 
glabrous, ovoid, rather large and thick, almost sessile. — Brackychiton diremi folium , 
R. Br. in Benn. PI. Jav. Ear. 234. 

Hab.: Princess Charlotte Bay.— TF. E. Roth. 

Fibre used for dilly bags. — Roth. 

18. S. rupestris (from growing in rocky places), Benth. Fl. Awstr. i. 230. 
Narrow-leaved bottle-tree; " Binkey," N.Q., Thozet. A considerable tree, the 
trunk often swelling out to a large size, contracted at the top and bottom. Leaves 
quite glabrous, ejther quite entire, oblong-linear or lanceolate, 3 to 6in. long, or 
digitate, consisting of 5 to 9 linear-lanceolate sessile leaflets, often above 6in. 
long. Panicle tomentose, usually longer than the petioles. Calyx about 4 lines 
long, campanulate, deeply lobed, tomentose both inside and out. Staminal 
column short, hirsute at the base. Follicles ovoid, acuminate, about lin. long, 
on stalks longer than themselves. Seeds, when deprived of the outer coating, 
which remains adherent to the endocarp, smooth and shining, marked with a 
large scar at the chalazal end, but the radicle in those I have opened always next 
to the true hilum. — Delabechea rupestris, Litadl. in Mitch. Trop. Austr. 166 ; 
Brackychiton Delabechii, F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 157. 

Hab.: Isolated summits of the Grafton range; Wide Bay; Dawson, Mackenzie, and Burnett 
Elvers ; Eockhampton, Peak Downs. 

The digitate leaves grow on luxuriant barren branches. — Benth. 

Wood soft and spongy.— Bai^rj/'s Cat. Ql. Woods No. 28. 

Natives ot N. Queensland eat the roots of the young plants and seeds, Palmer, Thozet. They 
also refresh themselves with the mucilaginous sweet substance afforded by the tree, and also 
make nets of its fibre, Thozet. 


2. TARRIETIA, Blume. 

(Java name for the original species.) 

(Argyi-odendron, F. v. M.) 

Flowers unisexual. Calyx S-cleft. Petals none. Staminal column short, 
adnate to the gynophore, bearing at the summit 10 to 15 anthers irregularly 
clustered in a head. Carpels of the ovary 3 to 5, nearly distinct, 1-ovulate, rarely 
2-ovulate. Styles as many, shortly filiform, stigmatic on the inner edge. Fruit- 
carpels or samaras distinct, spreading, indehiscent, produced at the back into a 
wing. Seed oblong, albumen splitting in two, cotyledons flat. — Tall trees. 
Leaves digitately compound, glabrous or scurfy. Flowers small and numerous, 
in ^xillary or lateral panicles. 

Besides the Australian species, which are endemic, there is another from the Indian 

Leaflets 3 or 4, silvery or coppery on the under side . ... . . 1. T. Argyrodendron. 

Leaflets 3 to 9, glabrous 2. T. actinophylla. 

1. T. Argyrodendron (leaves silvery beneath), Benth. " Boiong." All 
the varieties form tall straight- stemmed trees, with broad, flat abutments at the 
base ; glabrous except minute scurfy scales on the young shoots, inflorescence, 
and under side of the leaves. Leaflets 3 or 4, or sometimes on young trees 6, 
petiolate, usually lanceolate, 3 or 4in. long, silvery on the under side. Petioles 
very variable in length, sometimes only a few lines, at other times from 1 to 
nearly 2in. Panicles dichotomous, the upper ones sometimes exceeding the 
leaves. Flowers very numerous. Calyx broadly campanulate, about 3 lines 
diameter. Carpels with a semi-orbicular or with a straight wing about lin, long. 
— Argyrodendron trifoliolattmi, F. v. M. Fragm. i. 2, ii. 177 ; Fl. Austr. i. 231. 

Hab.: A common tree in the scrubs of southern Queensland. 

The common or silvery-leaved " stavewood." Wood light-coloured, close-grained, tough and 
firrri ; may be used as a substitute for English beech. — Bailey's Gat. Ql. Woodn No. 29. 

Var. 1, grandiflora', Benth. Fl. Austr. Calyx 4 lines diameter. Stigmas short and broad. — 
Port Denison, Benth., I.e. 

Var. 2, angustifolia, Bail. Cat. Ql. Woods, No. 29b, and No. 1 Occasional Papers on the Ql. 
Flora, 1886. This differs in foliage, the 3 leaflets being naiTow, often under Jin. wide, and 2 or 
Sin. long. Petioles of normal form, silvery or approaching coppery on the under side. — 
Endeavour Biver. Wood of a light-grey colour, close-grained, hard and tough, suitable for 
making tool handles. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods, No. 29a. 

Var. 3, macrophylla, Bail. Bot. Bull. ix. 5. A large tree. Leaflets 3, rarely 2, silvery with a 
slightly brownish tinge on the under side, oblong, often abruptly acuminate, 5 to lOJin. long, IJ 
to 3Jin. broad, on nearly terete, striate, petioles, 3 to over 6in. long. Flower-panicles rather 
large and loose, flowers small. Carpels not seen. — Wood light-coloured, prettily figured, tough 
and firm. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No. 29 bis. 

Var. 4, trifoliolata (leaves of 3-leaflets) {!'. trifoliolata, P. v. M. Fragm. ix. 43). A tall tree. 
Leaves with slender petioles 2 or Sin. long, usually bearing 3 lanceolate leaflets 3 or 4in. long, 
often dark from the numerous small coppery-coloured scales on the under side. Fruit usually 
coppery like the leaves, the wing nearly 2in. long. This tree is plentiful in many scrubs north 
and south. Wood similar to the foregoing kinds, but rather darker; known as "stavewood," 
Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No. 29a. Leaflets sometimes infested with the fungus Dimerosporiuvi 
Tarrietim, Cke. and Mass. 

Var. 5, peralata (wings of seed very large). Bail. Occ. Pap. on Ql. PI. No. 1. Johnstone 
River Bed Beech. "Peirir," Upper Barron River, J. F. Bailey. A large erect tree, the 
stem often exceeding 5ft. in diameter. Leaves trifoliolate, the petioles somewhat angular, 
mostly 2 or 3in. long. Leaflets lanceolate, from 4 to Tin. long and from 1 to 2in. broad 
towards the middle; the indumentum more silvery than usual in this species, but with the 
same numerous small brown scales. Inflorescence not sent by collectors. Samaroid carpels 
muricate, oval or globose, J to Jin. long by about Jin. diameter, furnished with an oblong, 
oblique, erect wing 2 to 4in. long by about Ijin. broad, clothed with the same rusty stellate scales 
as the under side of the leaves. Wood resembling cedar in appearance, but harder ; suited for 
indoor and cabinet work; soon 4eoays if exposed to bad vreathei.— Bailey's Cat. 01. 
Wood.:: No. 29o. 

Tanietia.] XXIII. STERCULIAOE^. 141 

2. T. actinophylla (leaves radiating), Bail. Syn. Ql. Flora, p. 37. A large 
tree, the young growth and inflorescence more or less covered with scurfy 
tomentum, otherwise glabrous. Petioles 3 to 9in. long, often curved ilpward at 
the end and bearing from 3 to 9 radiating oblong-lanceolate leaflets 3 to 9in. long, 
including the often rather elongated petiolule. Flowers in loose, broad panicles, 
6 to 15in. long. Calyx densely tomentose ; deeply lobed, campanulate, expanding 
to about 3 lines. Carpels 1 to 2in. long, including the wing, which is from ^ to 
lin. broad. 

Hab.; Southern, and particularly mountain, scrubs. 

Wood very toup;h, thought to resemble the English ash and to bend even better than that 
wood, therefore should be useful for chair-making and similar work. — Bailey's Oat. Ql. Woods 
No. 30 


(After C. L. L. Heritier.) 

Flowers unisexual. Calyx 5-toothed or 5-cleft. Petals none. Staminal 
column slender, bearing on the outside below the summit a ring of 5 anthers 
with parallel cells. Carpels of the ovary 5, nearly distinct, 1-ovulate ; style 
short, with 5, rather thick stigmas. Fruit-carpels woody, indehiscent, keeled or 
almost winged on the back. Seeds without albumen, cotyledons very thick, the 
radicle next the hilum. — Trees. Leaves undivided, coriaceous, scurfy under- 
neath, penninerved. Flowers small, in axillary panicles. 

The genus consists of two tropical Asiatic seacoast trees, of which the one extending to 
Australia has the widest range.— Benth. 

1. El. littoralis (found on the coast), Ait.; DC. Pivd. i. 484 ; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 231. A tree, attaining a considerable size. Leaves very shortly 
petiolate, oval or oblong, the larger ones fully 8 by 4in., but often much smaller, 
quite entire, coriaceous, glabrous above, silvery underneath with a close scaly 
tomentum. Flowers small, numerous, in loose tomentose panicles in the upper 
axils, much shorter than the leaves. Calyx about 2 lines long. Staminal column 
.in the males, pistil in the females, much shorter than the calyx. Fruit-carpels 
sessile, ovoid, 2 to Sin. long, thick and almost woody, with a slightly projecting 
inner edge, and a strong, projecting, almost winged keel along the outer edge. 

Hab.: In Queensland, as in India, this tree is found on the coast and in tidal forests. In 
Bengal it is known by the name of " Sundri," is considered durable, tough, and heavy, and 
used extensively in boat-building, buggy-shafts, and furniture. 

The wood of the Queensland tree is firm, close-grained, and dark-coloured. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. 
Woods No. 31. 

(After M. Kleinhoff.) 
Braeteoles small, ensiform. Sepals 5, deciduous. Petals 5, unequal, upper 
with longer claws, margins involute. Staminal column dilated above into a bell- 
shaped 5-fid cup, divisions each with 8 extroirse 2-eelled anthers, cells divergent. 
Ovary inserted in the staminal cup, 5-lobed, 5-celled ; style slender, stigma 5-fid. 
Capsule membranous, inflated, pyriform, loculicidally 5-valved. Seeds 1 or 2 in 
each cell, tubercled ; albumen scanty or none ; cotyledons convolute ; radicle 
next the hilum. — A tree with palminerved, ovate, acuminate, quite entire leaves, 
and loose cymose inflorescence. 

1. K. hospita (stranger), Lhin. A tree with straight trunk, smooth bark, 
and spreading head. Leaves on petioles of about lin. long, cordate, ovate, sub- 
acuminate, entire, palmately 3 to 5-ribbed, smooth on both surfaces, 6 to 12in, 

142 XXIII. STERCULIACE^. [Kleinhovia. 

long by 2 to Sin. broad. Stipules ensiform. Flowers purplish or rose-coloured. 

Petals 5, shorter than the lanceolate sepals. Seeds tubercled. — Rump. 
Amb. iii. 113. 

Hab.: Near Port Douglas. 


(From the Greek, alluding to the twisted carpels.) 

(Methorium, Schott.) 

Calyx tubular, 5-oleft at the top, often oblique. Petals 5, equal or the 2 upper 
ones broader, the claws elongated, and all or two of them often with a lateral 
appendage. Staminal column adnate to the gynophore, truncate at the top, or 
more frequently bearing 5 teeth or small lobes (stamipodia), with 1 or two stipitate 
anthers between each, anther-cells divaricate, often confluent into one. Ovary 
nearly sessile on the top of the staminal column, 5-lobed, 5-celled, with several 
ovules in each cell, Styles 5, subulate, more or less connate, slightly thickened 
and stigmatic at the top. Fruit carpels distinct or separating, opening along 
their inner edge, straight or spirally twisted. Seeds with little albumen, coty- 
ledons leafy, folded round the radicle.— Trees or shrubs, with stellate or branched 
tomentum. Leaves entire, serrate or obscurely lobed. Flowers axillary, solitary 
or clustered. Bracteoles none or distant from the calyx. Capsules usually 
tomentose, the clusters of tomentum often forming long woolly processes. The 
appendages on the claws of the petals appear to vary in different flowers of the 
same species. 

A considerable genus, dispersed over the tropical regions both of the New and the Old World, 
but chiefly American. Of the Queensland species one is a common Asiatic one, the other is 
endemic. The frequently unilocular anthers closely connect the genus with MalvaeeiB. The 
other characters are, however, more of Stercvliacece, and in some species the anthers are 
distinctly bilocular. — Benth. (in part). 

Leaves hairy above, serrate. Fruit IJin. long . . 1. H. spicata. 

Leaves glabrous above, entire. Fruit size of a pea . . . . . . 2. iJ. semiglahra. 

1. H. spicata (flowers in spikes), C'olebr. (Masters) in Hook. Fl. Brit. Ind. '*' 
A shrubby plant. Leaves 2 to 6in. long, 1 to 2in. broad, from ovate-oblong to 
lanceolate, acuminate, obliquely subcordate at the base, unequally serrate, on 
petioles of from 3 to 9 lines, stellate, hairy above, downy beneath ; stipules 
setaceous, as long as the petiole. Peduncles shorter than the leaves, 8-flowered ; 
pedicels shorter than the flowers. Calyx nearly fin., campanulate curved, 
distending at the base, downy. Ripe carpels If to If in.; stalks exserted from the 
persistent calyx, oblong-lanceolate, beaked, very shaggy. 

Hab.: Inland, North Queensland. 

2. H. semiglabra (almost glabrous), F. r. M. Fragm. iv. 43. A shrub of 
about 3ft. high. Leaves on short petioles, narrow-lanceolate, entire, glabrous on 
the upper, velvety with stellate hairs on the under side, from 2 to 4in. long, apex 
acute, base obtuse. Peduncles axillary, fasciculate, bearing 2 or a cyme of few 
flowers. Pedicels scarcely 3 lines long. Calyx shortish. Petals scarcely 2 lines 
longer than the calyx. Carpels erect, cohering in a globose woolly-tomentose 
fruit the size of a pea. Seeds glabrous, 2 to 4 in each. 

Hab : Eookingham Bay, Dallachy. 

Var. procumbens. Branches procumbent, J to 2ft. long ; tomentum looser ; leaves smaller 
and rounder, velvety- villous on the upper side; staminodia longer. Macadam range, 
F. V. Mueller. 

Var. (?) jiugeUaris. Branches prostrate, 1 to 2ft. long ; leaves nearly sessile, cordate or 
orbicular, 1 to IJin. long ; cymes on long slender peduncles. Port Essington, ^rmstronij. '■ 



(Winged seed.) 
Bracteoles 3, entire or laoiniate, sometimes very deciduous or perhaps none. 
Calyx tubular, 5-cleft, deciduous. Petals 5, often very long, deciduous. 
Staminal column adnate to the gynophore, divided at the top into 5 linear-clavate 
staminodia, with 3 stipitate anthers between each ,• anther-cells linear, parallel. 
ovary sessile in the top of the column, 5-celled with several ovules in each cell. 
Style undivided, club-shaped, and 5-furrowed at the top. Capsule woody or 
coriaceous, ovoid or oblong, terete or angular, opening loculicidally in 5 valves. 
Seeds ascending, produced into a wing at the top ; albumen little or none ; 
cotyledons wrinkled or folded ; radicle inferior, rather long.— Trees or shrubs, 
clothed with a stellate tomentum or scurfy scales. Leaves coriaceous, often 
oblique, entire, cuneate-toothed or angled at the upper end, penninerved or 
several-nerved at the base. Peduncles short, axillary, 1-flowered. Flowers 
often several inches long. 

The genui3 is limited to East India and the Archipelago, the Australian species being probably 
the same as one of the Asiatic ones. — Bentli. 

1. P. acerifolium (Maple-leaved), Willd.; W. awl Am. Prod. 69? Benth. 
Fl. Amtr. i. 233. I have seen a fragment only in very young bud, which agrees 
with this species in the very angular rusty- tomentose young calyx, and in the 
bracteoles divided into narrow-linear lobes and falling off' at a very early stage. 
There are 3 leaves only, the largest is, as in /'- acm/oHwOT, coriaceous, broad at 
at the end, cordate at the base, nearly glabrous above, tomentose underneath, with 
about 11 prominent nerves radiating from the petiole ; but it is much narrower 
than usual in that species, measuring 9 by 4in. The two others are as yet not 
half developed, but are broader in proportion, and although the specimen is 
insufficient for identification, it shows no character to separate it from P. 
acerifolium. — Wight, Ic. t. 631. 

Hab.: Given as a Queensland tree, because a tree was at one time growing in the Brisbane 
Botanic Gardens, which was said to have been obtained on the southern border of the colony. 

7. MELHANIA, Forsk. 

(After Mount Melhan, in Arabia Felix.) 

Bracteoles 3, persistent. Calyx divided almost to the base into 5 segments. 
Petals 5, persistent. Staminal cup very short, bearing 5 ligulate staminodia 
and 5 stipitate anthers alternating with them, the anther-cells parallel. Ovary 
sessile, 5-celled with 1 or more ovules in each cell. Style usually short, with 5 
subulate branches, stigmatic along the inner side. Capsule opening loculicidally 
in 5 valves. Seeds with albumen ; cotyledons folded, 2-cleft ; radicle inferior. — 
Herbs, undershrubs, or small shrubs, softly tomentose. Leaves ovate or cordate, 
serrate-crenate. Peduncles axillary, 1 or few-flowered. Bracteoles often exceeding 
the calyx. Flowers yellow. 

' The genus extends over the tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World, but is most 
abundant in Africa. The Australian species are the same as the Indian ones. The habit is that 
of some Malvacece. — Benth. (in part). / 

Leaves scarcely toothed. Style elongate. Capsule shorter than calyx ... 1. M. incana. 
Leaves crenate-dentate. Style short. Capsule exceeding the calyx ... 2. M. abyssinica. 

1. Dfl. incana (hoary), Heyne ; W. and Am. Prod. 68 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 
234. A rather slender shrub of 1 or several ft., hoary or white except the upper 
side of the leaves, with a close or velvety tomentum. Leaves shortly petiolate, 
oblong or ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, scarcely toothed, 1 to 2 or even Sin. long, 
tomentose on both sides, or nearly glabrous above. Peduncles bearing 1, 2, or 

144 XXIII. STERCULIACEiE. [Melhania. 

rarely 3 or 4 flowers, the pedicels very short. Braoteoles narrow-linear or 
subulate, rather shorter than the calyx. Sepals lanceolate-subulate, tomentose, 
about 4 to 6 lines long. Petals rather longer, broad, yellow. Staminodia linear, 
often 8 lines long ; anthers shorter, linear, on short filaments. Style elongated. 
Capsule tomentose, shorter than the calyx, with 2 or 3 seeds in each cell.— 
M. obloncjifolia, F. v. M. Fragm. i. 69. 

Hab.: Broadsound, Eockhampton and Burdekin Elvers, Port Curtis, Port Denison. 

The species is also found in the East Indian peninsula, and a alight variety or closely allied 
species in tropical Africa. 

2. M. abyssinica (Abyssinian), A. Rich, Fl. Abyss, i. 76, *. 18. Stock 
woody, tortuous, divided above into a number of crowded, subcsespitose, erect 
branches, the latter covered with greyish down. Leaf-stalks less than lin. long, 
shorter than the subeordate, oval obtuse, crenate-dentate leaves, which are 
unieostate, downy on both services, paler beneath. Stipules hair-like. Peduncles 
axillary, equal to or exceeding the petioles, simple or bifurcate. Buds oblong, 
cylindrical. Flowers when expanded fin. across. Bpicalyx 1- sided, of 8 linear- 
subulate bracteoles as long, or nearly so, as the ovate-lanceolate downy sepals. 
Petals yellow, convolute. Style short. Capsule roundish or slightly pointed, 
villose, slightly exceeding the persistent calyx. Seeds punctate, tuberculate. — 
Mast, in Oliv. Fl. Trop. Afr. i. 231 ; Brotera ocata, Cav. Ic. v. 20, t. 433 ; B. 
Lepiieurii, Guill. et Perr., Fl. Seneg. i. 85 ; Melhania orata, Boiss., Fl. Orient i. 
841 ; M. Leprieurii, Webb, Fl. Nigrit. 110, t. 4, 5. 

Hab.: Near Westwood Station, Central Eailway, Dr. T. P. Lucas. 

The small fragmentary specimen sent to me by Dr. Lucas for determination was certainly 
belonging to the above plant, but not sufficient to point out any distinctive form, neither can it 
as yet be stated with certainty whether it is indigenous or only an introduction. 

8. MELOCHIA, Linn. 

(Name in Arabic.) 

(Riedleia, Vent.) 

Calyx 5-lobed or 5-toothed, campanulate or inflated. Petals 5, spathulate or 
oblong. Stamens 5, united at the base, without any or with very minute tooth- 
like intervening staminodia ; anther-cells parallel. Ovary sessile or shortly 
stipitate, 5 -celled with 2 ovules in each cell, styles 6, free, or united at the base, 
often thickened at the stigmatic top. Capsule opening loculicidally in 5 or fewer 
valves, some of the cells occasionally abortive. Seeds usually solitary in each 
cell, ascending, with more or less of albumen ; embryo straight, with flat 
cotyledons — Herbs, shrubs, or rarely trees, the stellate tomentum occasionally 
mixed with spreading hairs. Leaves serrate. Flowers small^ axillary or terminal, 
clustered or in cymes or panicles. 

A large genus, dispersed over the warmer regions of the globe, the herbaceous and suflruticoae 
species chiefly Ajnerioan. The two Australian species are both herbaceous ; one belongs to the 
American series, the other is Asiatic. — Benth. 

Capsule very angular, pyramidal, much longer than the calyx 1. M. pyramidata. 

Capsule small, globular 2. M. corchorifolia. 

1. IVE. pyramidata (shape of capsule), Li^m.; DC. Prod. i. 490; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 234. Herbaceous, with a hard almost woody base, although s6metimes 
annual only. Branches slender, divaricate, often 2 or 8ft. long, slightly 
pubescent in a decurrent line or all over. Leaves petiolate, lanceolate, or the 
lower ones ovate, the larger ones 1 to 2in. long, serrate, usually glabrous. 
Flowers small, purplish, 2 to 4 together in little almost sessile axillary umbels. 

Mehrhia.] XXIII. STERCULIACE^. 145 

Calyx lO-ribbed. Petals about 2 lines long. Capsule 3 to 4 lines long, acuminate, 
the very prominent angles produced into short horizontal points, giving each 
valve a rhomboidal, and the whole capsule a pyramidal shape. — A. Gray, Gen. 

Hab.: Bookhampton, Wallace. 

The species is very generally distributed over tropical America, and occurs also in E. Africa, 
the Mauritius, and the Pacific Islands. 

2. IVE. corchorifolia (Corchorus-leaved), Linn. Spec. 944 ; BentU. Fl. Austr. 
i. 235. Herbaceous, with the habit of M. pyramidata, but usually more erect, 
glabrous or with slightly pubescent decurrent lines. Leaves petiolate, from 
broadly ovate to lanceolate, mostly 1 to 2in. long, serrate or crenate, glabrous. 
Flowers small, purplish, nearly sessile in clusters, usually several together in a 
broad, terminal, sessile cyme, rarely a few smaller clusters in the upper axils. 
Calyx 6-angled. Petals about 2 lines long. Capsule small, depressed-globular, 
with scarcely prominent angles, spinkled with a few hairs, the valves very rarely 
splitting septicidally. — Riedleia corchorifolia, DC. Prod. i. 491 ; W. and Arn. 
Prod. i. 66. 

Hab.: The far northern parts of the colony. 

The species is common in E. India, and includes M. concatenata, Linn., and M. supina, Linn., 
with all the synonyms referred to these plants respectively by Wight and Arnott (I.e., under 
Riedleia). Some of the Australian specimens are much starved, with small, occasionally 
axillary, heads of flowers, apparently approaching M. nodiflora, Sw., another widespread tropical 
species, which however not only has all the flowers in axillary clusters, but the capsule is much 
more deeply furrowed, and usually septicidal as well as looulioidal, the carpels often entirely 
separating. — Benth. 

9. WALTHERIA, Linn. 

(After A. P. Walther.) 

Calyx 5-lobed. Petals 5, spathulate, persistent. Stamens 5, united at the 
base, without intervening staminodia ; anther-cells parallel. Ovary sessile, con- 
sisting of a single 1-locular, 2-ovulate carpel, style excentrical, thickened or 
fringed upwards. Capsule 2-valved, 1-seeded. Seed ascending, albumen fleshy ; 
embryo straight, cotyledons flat. — Herbs, undershrubs, or rarely trees, the stellate 
tomentum usually mixed with spreading hairs. Leaves serrate. Stipules narrow. 
Flowers usually small, axillary or terminal in clusters, heads, cymes, or panicles. 

The species are mostly American, two are African, and two from the Pacific islands. The 
Australian species is one which is very generally dispersed over the tropical regions of both the 
Old World and the New. — Senth. 

1. IV. americana (American), Linn.; DO. Prod. i. 492 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. 
i. 236. A perennial or undershrub, 1 to 2ft. or more high, densely tomentose or 
softly villous in every part. Leaves shortly petiolate, from ovate to oblong, 1 to 
IJin. long, obtuse, toothed and plicately veined. Flowers small, yellow, in dense 
heads, almost sessile in the axils of the leaves, or the upper ones clustered in a 
short spike, or irregularly collected into dense cymes or leafy corymbs. Bracts 
narrow. Calyx 1| to 2 lines long. Petals nearly twice as long, ^ narrow. — 
W. indica, Linn.; DC. Prod. i. 493. 

Hab.: Cape Flinders, Port Denison, and other tropical parts. 

The species is common within or near the tropics all round the globe. 

10. ABROMA, Jacq. 
(So called on account of it not being fit for food.) 
Calyx 5-cleft. Petals 5, the claw dilated and concave at the base, the lamina 
stipitate, ovate, plane. Staminal cup with 5 obcordate lobes (staminodia) alter- 
nating with the petals, anthers 2 to 4 in each siiius, nearly sessile, with divaricate 
cells. Ovary sessile, 5 -celled with several ovules in each cell ; styles 5, short, 

146 XXIII. STEECULIACE^. [Ahroma. 

eonnivent. Capsule membranous, truncate, 5-angled, the angles winged and 
produced at the top into as many horn-Uke points, opening at the top loculicidally 
and aepticidally. Seeds several, albuminous ; embryo straight, with flat cotyle- 
dons. — Tall shrubs or small trees, with stellate pubescence. Leaves entire or 
palmately lobed. Peduncles leaf-opposed or terminal, few-flowered. Dissepiments 
of the capsule fringed at the inner edge with long hairs. 
A genus of two or three species from tropical Asia, one of them the same as the Australian one. 

1. A. fastuosa (disdainful), li. Br.; DC. Prod. i. 485; Benth. Fl. Austr.. 
i. 286. A tall shrub, the branches softly pubescent, and bearing a few minute 
conical prickles. Leaves shortly petiolate, obliquely cordate-ovate, acuminate, 4 to 
6in. long, undivided, slightly sinuate-toothed, nearly glabrous above, softly 
pubescent underneath. Peduncles very much shorter than the leaves, bearing a 
cluster of 3 to 5 shortly pedicellate flowers, one only usually fertile. Bracts 
linear, deciduous. Sepals narrow-lanceolate, about ^in. long. Petals rather 
exceeding them, the broadly ovate lamina supported above the concave base by a 
filiform stipes. Capsule hirsute with a few rigid hairs, or at length glabrous, 
Ifin. long, the wings of the angles nearly ^in. broad, besides the long incurved 
points of their upper angle. Seeds 10 to 12 in each cell. — Gasrtn. Pr. i. t. 64 ; 
Salisb. Parad. Lond. t. 102. 

Hab.; Tropical parts of the colony. 

The species is widely distributed over the Eastern Archipelago. 

This plant yields excellent strong fibre. 

11. RULINGIA, R. Br. 

(After J. P. Ruling.) 

(Achilleopsis, Turcz.) 

Calyx 5-lobed. Petals 5, broad and concave or convolute at the base, with a 
small, broad, or linear ligula at the top. Stamens shortly or scarcely connate at 
the base, 5 without anthers (staminodia), linear-lanceolate and petal-like, alternate 
with the petals and eonnivent or spreading ; 5 short, opposite the petals, and 
perfect, the anther-cells parallel. Ovary sessile, S-celled with 2 or rarely 3 ovules 
in each cell, styles connate, at least at the top, or rarely quite free. Capsule 
tomentose or beset with prickles or soft setffi, opening loculicidally in valves, or 
the carpels separating. Seeds 1 or 2 in each cell or carpel, ascending, usually 
strophiolate. Albumen fleshy; cotyledons flat. — Shrubs or undershrubs, with 
stellate tomentum or hairs. Leaves entire, toothed, or lobed. Stipules narrow, 
deciduous, the upper ones often laciniate. Flowers mostly white, small, in leaf- 
opposed or terminal, rarely axillary cymes. Petals shorter than the calyx. 
Strophiola of the seeds small, variable in shape in the same species. 

The genus is confined to Australia, with the exception of one Madagascar species. — Benth. 
A. Leaves of the jlowering branches or their lobes lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, mostly above 1 
and often 2 or 3in. long, entire or sen-ate, not undulate, crenate or crisped. Capsule loculicidal. 

Leaves or their lobes quite entire, softly hoary-tomentose ]. R. salvifolia. 

Leaves or their lobes serrate, velvety or hirsute, at least underneath. 

Capsule scarcely dehiscent, nearly glabrous, with rigid prickly setse ... 2. R. pannosa. 

Capsule dehiscent, tomentose with soft pubescent setse ... . . . d. R. rngosa. 

1. B>. salvifolia (Sage-leaved), Benth. FL Austr. i. 238. An apparently 
erect shrub, clothed with a soft but dense and close whitish tomentum. Leaves 
on very short .petioles, lanceolate or lanceolate-linear, S to 4in. long, entire or 
deeply divided into 3 lanceolate lobes, the middle one the longest, all quite entire 
and softly tomentose on both sides, especially underneath. Cymes pedunculate, 

Riilinf/w.] XXni, STERCULIACE^. 147 

but shorter than the leaves. Calyx spreading, about 3 lines diameter. Ligula of 
the petals linear, usually pubescent. Stamens very shortly united. Fruit not 
seen — Thoiiiasia (.') salvitoUa, A. Ounn. Herb.; Steetz, in PL Preiss. ii. 388. 
Hab.: Brisbane River, ^. (Juimiiighum; Uinto's Gmig, Fraser. 

2. R. pannosa (alluding to the clothing), R. Br. in Bot. Mag. t. 2191 ; 
Bmth. Fl. Austr. i. 228. A shrub of several feet, but flowering young so as to 
appear an undershrub, softly hirsute with velvety stellate hairs. Leaves on the 
full-grown plant shortly petiolate, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, mostly 2 to Sin. 
or sometimes longer, toothed, rounded or cordate at the base, scabrous-pubescent 
above, with impressed veins, densely velvety or hirsute underneath ; on the 
younger plants they are broader and often 3 or 5-lobed. Cymes shortly pedun- 
culate. Calyx tomentose, spreading to 3 or 4 lines diameter. Ligula of the 
petals linear, rather short. Staminodia pubescent, united with the perfect 
stamens higher up than in most species. Ovary glabrous, granulate. Capsule 
nearly glabrous, globular, hard and almost indehiseent, beset with rigid subulate 
bristles, glabrous except a stellate tuft at the tip. — Steetz, in PI. Preiss. ii. 351 ; 
F. V. M. PI. Vict. i. 160 ; Cmnmersonia dasyphylla, Andr. Bot. Eep. t. 603 ; 
Buettnena dasyphyUa, J. Gay, in DC. Prod. i. 486, and in Mem. Mus. Par. x. 
200, t. 12 ; B. pannom, DC. Prod. i. 486. 

Hab.: Southern parts of Queensland. 

3. Bi. rugosa (rugose), Steetz ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 238. A shrub so closely 
resembling R. pannosa in indumentum and foliage that it is difficult to distinguish 
it without the fruit. Leaves usually narrower, more rugose, and almost bullate. 
Flowers in cymes, scarcely exceeding 2 lines in diameter when expanded. Ligula 
of the petals marked with 3 dark lines. Ovary tomentose. Capsule about 4 lines 
diameter without the setae, not so hard as in R. pannosa, and readily dehiscent, 
beset with soft pubescent setse, which is long in some specimens, short in others. 

Hab.: Capalaba, J. Shirley. 

12. COMMERSONIA, Forst. 

(After M. Commerson.) 

Calyx 5-lobed. Petals 5, broad and concave at the base, with a small broad or 
linear ligula at the top. Stamens united in a short cup at the base, 5 perfect 
with short filaments opposite the petals, alternating with staminodia in threes, 
the central one of each three lanceolate or spathulate, the latter ones linear or 
spathulate, attached at the base either to the central one or to the adjoining 
anther-bearing filament. Ovary sessile, 5-celled, with 2 to 6 ovules in each cell ; 
styles distinct or united at least at the top. Capsule beset with soft pubescent 
setse, opening loeuUcidally in 5 valves. Seeds usually 2 or 3, ascending, with a 
small strophiola ; albumens fleshy ; cotyledons flat. — Trees or shrubs, with 
stellate tomentum or hairs. Leaves toothed or lobed, often oblique. Flowers 
small, in terminal, leaf -opposed, or axillary cymes. 

The species are all Australian, one is also widely dispersed over Eastern India, the Archi- 
pelago and Pacific Islands, the others are endemic. — Benth. 
Tall shrubs or trees. Leaves mostly above Sin, long, acuminate. Ligula 
of the petals linear or oblong. 
Staminodia all linear-spathulate, elongated, the lateral ones attached to 

the central 1- C?. Fraseri. 

Central staminodia lanceolate, lateral ones filiform. 
Lateral staminodia attached to the central one. Ligula of the petals 

oblong, rather short 2. C Leichhardtii. 

Lateral staminodia attached to the anther-bearing filaments. Ligula 
of the petals long and linear , , 3, C ecHnata, 

148 XXIII. STERCULIACE^. [Cowmersonia. 

1. C. Praseri (after C. Fraser), /. Gay; in Mew,. Mm. Par. x. 215, t. 16 ; 
Bcnth. Fl. Austr. i. 242. A tall shrub, with tomentose or hirsute branches. 
Leaves cordate-ovate, acuminate, 3 to 6in. long, irregularly toothed, often oblique 
at the base, glabrous or slightly pubescent above, white -tomentose or softly 
hirsute underneath, the lower ones in the young plants broad and 3 or 5-lobed. 
Gymes loosely dichotomous, many-flowered, but shorter than the leaves. Calyx 
tomentose, fully 3 lines diameter, the lobes acute. Petals with a very short 
broad concave base, the ligula oblong- spathulate, nearly as long as the ca,lyx. 
Stamiuodia linear-spathulate, as long as the petals, the central one of each three 
rather broader and lanceolate at the base, the lateral ones filiform at the base and 
shortly adnate to the central one ; anther- bearing filaments very short. Capsule 
large, densely beset with soft villous setae.^ — Steetz, ii) PI. Priess. ii. 359 ; F. v. 
M. PI. Vict. i. 148. 

Hab.: Southern Queensland. 

2. C. Iieichhardtii (after L. Leichhardt), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 2.42. A 
medium-sized shrub, the branches densely velvety-tomentose or hispid. Leaves 
ovate-lanceolate or cordate, 2 to Sin. long (or specimens narrow-lanceolate- 
oblong), unequally toothed, rather harshly velvety-tomentose on both sides. 
Cymes nearly sessile, few-fiowered. Calyx very tomentose, spreading to about 
5 lines diameter ; lobes broad and acute, sometimes reddish inside. Petals 
glabrous, violet, with an oblong ligula much shorter than the calyx. Central 
staminodium of each 3 lanceolate and fine-pointed, lateral ones filiform, attached to 
it near the base. Anther-bearing filaments very short. Ovary glabrous. 

Hab.: Boyd and Cape Elvers and Eookingham Bay. 

3. C. echinata (capsule prickly), Forst.; DG. Prod. i. 486 ; Benth. Fl. Amtr. 
i. 243. Brown kurrajong ; "Dim," Maroochie. A tall shrub or small tree, the 
young branches and inflorescence whitish-tomentose. Leaves ovate or cordate, 
acuminate, 3 to 6in. long or even more, irregularly toothed or nearly entire, often 
oblique at the base, glabrous or slightly-tomentose above, more densely whitish- 
tomentose underneath. Cymes pedunculate, many-flowered, but shorter than the 
leaves. Calyx tomentose, nearly 8 lines diameter, the lobes acute. Petals with 
a very short concave broad base, the ligula narrow-linear, nearly as long as the 
calyx. Central staminodium of each three lanceolate, pubescent, much shorter 
than the petals, lateral ones small, filiform, recurved, attached to the very short 
anther-bearing filaments. Anther-cells less divaricate than in the other species. 
Capsule often ^in. diameter, without the long, poft, villous setae which cover it. 

Hab.: Cape York, Endeavour Eiver, Pinq Eiver, Upper Brisbane Eiver, and other localities. 

Wood soft, close-grained, white, and light. The bark yields a strong fibre, which was used by 
the aborigines for net-making and fishing lines. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No. 32. 

13. SERINGIA, J. Gay. 
(After M. Seringa.) 

Calyx deeply 5-lobed, scarcely enlarged after flowering, and neither scarious 
nor coloured. Petals none. Stamens 5, alternate with the calyx-lobes, alter- 
nating with 5 subulate staminodia, and slightly united with them at the base ; 
anther-cells parallel, opening by dorsal slits. Ovary 5-celled, with 2 or 3 ovules 
in each cell ; styles cohering at the summit or nearly from the base. Fruit- 
carpels distinct, winged on the back, opening in 2 valves, Seeds atrophiolate, 
albuminous, embryo straight, with flat cotyledons. — Shrub, with the habit nearly 
of a Cqmmersonia. Flowers in dense, terminal, or leaf-opposed cymes. Braoteoles 

The genus is now limited to a single Australian species. — Benth. 

Seringia.] XXIII. STERCULlACE^. l49 

1. S. platyphylla (broad-leaved), ,/. Gay, In Mem. Mhs. Par. vii. 44S, t. 16, 
17 ; Benth. Fl. Aiistr. i. 244. A tall shrub, with the habit nearly of Coinnier>:oiiia 
Fraaei-i, the young branches loosely whitish or rusty-tomentose. Leaves ovate to 
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, coarsely toothed, 3 to 4 or even 5in. long, often 
oblique at the base, glabrous or sprinkled with minute stellate hairs, densely 
tomentose underneath. Cymes rather dense and many-flowered, but much 
shorter than the leaves. Calyx angular in the bud, attaining, when fully out, 
about 2 lines in length. Filaments and staminodia nearly similar, rather thick. 
Anthers oblong. Carpels about as long as the calyx, densely pubescent, the short 
broad vertical wing truncate at the top.^DC. Prod. i. 488 ; Steetz, in PI. Preiss. 
ii. 349 ; Laslapetalvm arboivxcen.t, Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2 ii. 86. 

Hab.: South Queensland. 

(After — Keraudren, a French nobleman.) 
Calyx 5-lobed, enlarged and scarious or thin and coloured after flowering, the 
midrib of each sepal usually thickened without lateral ribs. Petals none, or 
minute and scale-like. Stamens 5, alternate with the sepals, free or shortly 
united at the base, with or without intervening staminodia, anther-cells parallel, 
opening by dorsal slits. Ovary 3 to 5-celled, with 3 or more ovules in each cell ; 
styles cohering at the summit. Capsule membranoud, villous or shortly setose, 
opening loculicidally, and usually separating into distinct carpels. Seeds 
strophiolate, albuminous ; embryo straight or curved, with flat cotyledons. — 
Shrubs more or less stellate-tomentose. Leaves entire or sinuate-lobed. Stipules 
narrow, or small and deciduous. Cymes terminal or opposite the upper leaves, 
few-flowered. Bracteoles none. 

Besides the Australian species, there is one other from Madagascar, which on a further 
examination proves more nearly allied to K. Innceolata than had appeared to us when preparing 
the "Genera Plan tarum." The genus has the anthers of Seringia and Hannafordia, wiih the 
calyx nearly of Thomania, and must include species in which, as in the Madagascar one, the 
carpels do not appear to separate, as well as those in which they are quite distinct. — Benth. 

Bracts narrow. Carpels several-seeded, not always separating, the seeds 
nearly straight. Leaves mostly lanceolate, 1 to 3in. 
Leaves quite glabrous and smooth above. Capsule scarcely septicidal. 
Leaves broad-lanceolate. Carpels angular, villous and setose .... 1. if. laiwcolata. 
Leaves narrow-lanceolate or linear. Carpels rounded on the back, very 

villous, but not setose .... . . . 2. 7v'. Hillii. 

Leaves very rugose and pubescent above . . 3. K. Hookeriana. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, cordate at the base, 2 to 4in. long. Seeds black 4. Ii. adenolasia. 

1. K. lanceolata (lanceolate), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 245. A tall shrub, the 
young branches rusty-tomentose. Leaves shortly petiolate, oblong-lanceolate, 
3 to 4in. long, rather thick, entire, glabrous above and smooth, or with the veins 
slightly impressed, white-tomentose underneath. Cymes short, few-flowered, 
very tomentose. Bracts narrow, deciduous. Calyx tomeiitose, spreading to 4 or 
5 lines diameter, divided to about the middle, the midribs prominent and 
pubescent inside, the lobes of the fruiting calyx attaining 8 or 4 lines or more. 
Petals none. Filaments rather long, with slender staminodia; intervening.. 
Anthers linear. Ovary 5-eelled, hirsute. Capsule truncate at the top, fully -^in. 
diameter, scarcely septicidal, but distinctly furrowed between the carpels, each 
carpfel Very angular on the edges, so as to make the capsule appear ahiiost 
10-winged, but it is so hispid and beset with short, soft, hirsute setas a's almost to 
disguise its form. Seeds several in each cell, obovoid ; embryo straight. — 
Siirinffia lanceolata, Steetz, in PL Preiss. ii. 349. 

ffab.: Port Bowen, R- Brown, A. Cunningham ; also in LeicKhardt's collection. 
It is this species which is closely allied to one from Madagascar, which I had formerly referred 
to, Thomasia, on account of its capsule not separating into distfeict carpels. — Benth. 

150 XXlII. S'TERCULIACEitl. [Kernudrenia. 

2. K. Hillii (after Walter Hill), F. ,. M. Herb.: Benth. Fl. Amtr. i. 246. 
Very near to K. lanceolata, with the same inflorescence and flowers. Leaves 
much narrower, linear-lanceolate or linear, If to Bin. long, coriaceous, glabrous 
without impressed veins above, white-tomentose, and often sprinkled with rusty 
stellate hairs underneath. Anther-bearing filaments scarcely dilated. Ovary of 
K. lanceolata. Capsule not so large, very hirsute, but without prominent setse, 
furrowed between the carpels, which are rounded on the back, and not angular. 
Seeds of K. lanceolata. 

Hab.: Southern Queensland, about the Brisbane River. 

3. K. Hookeriana (after Dr. Hooker), Walp. Ann. ii. 164 ; Benth. Fl. 
Aiistr. i. 246. Blanches rusty-tomentose or hirsute. Leaves mostly oblong- 
lauceolate, 1-| to Sin. long, entire, green, very rugose and velvety-pubescent 
above, densely white-tomentose underneath ; the lower leaves or those of some 
branches often broader and shorter, almost ovate. Cymes or racemes 2 to 4- 
flowered, terminal or opposite the upper leaves, on very short peduncles. Bracts 
narrow, deciduous. Calyx divided nearly to the base into acute lobes, 3 or 4 
lines long when in flower, 5 or 6 when in fruit. Petals small and scale-like or 
none. Filaments short, alternating with subulate staminodia. Anthers linear, 
much incurved. Ovary 5-celled, tomentose. Capsule very hirsute, 4 to 5 lines 
diameter, the carpels distinct and separating, each opening in 2 valves. Seeds 
several in each, cell obovoid ; embryo straight. — fieringia corollata, Steetz, in PI. 
Preiss. ii. 330 ; Keraudrenia integrifolia, Hook, in Mitch. Trop. Austr. 341, not 
Steud.; E. Hookeri, F. v. M. Fragm. i. 28, 242. 

Hab.: Keppel Bay ; Suttor, Burnett, Upper Pine, and Brisbane rivers ; on the Maranoa and 
southward to Lindley's Eange ; Robinson's Eange. 

The petals are certainly present in those Carpentaria specimens which I have examined, and 
as certainly wanting in the flowers I opened of the more southern specimens, and the two are 
distinguished under different names in E. Brown's herbarium and notes, but I can discover no 
other character whatever. — Benth. 

4. K. adenolasia (hairs glandular), F. v. M. Fragm. x. 96. Plant glandular- 
hirsute. Leaves herbaceous, ovate-lanceolate, cordate at the base, the margins 
irregularly crenate-denticulate, 2 to 4in. long, 8 to 20 lines Ijroad, rugose. 
Stipules 2 or 3 lines long, not membranous, rhomboid or ovate-lanceolate. 
Peduncles bearing few flowers. Bracts small, linear-lanceolate. Calyx bluish, 
angular-plicate before expansion, fin. broad when expanded ; lobes acuminate. 
Petals very minute, rhomboid-orbicular. Anthers yellow, bent like a horseshoe, 
2-lobed at the base. Filaments very short, turgid downwards. Staminodia 5, 
linear-setaceous. Capsule stellate-hirsute and setulose. Seeds black, 1 line long, 
with a minute strophiole. 

Hab.: Eobinson Eiver, W. E. Armit. 

15. HANNAFORDIA, F. v. Muell. 
(After James Hannaford.) 
Calyx 5-lobed, somewhat enlarged after flowering, with prominent raised ribs, 
8 to each sepal, besides those connecting the sepals. Petals 5, lanceolate, slightly 
concave, shorter than the calyx. Stamens 5, opposite the petals ; staminodia 3 
or fewer between each 2 stamens, linear-subulate, all slightly connected in a ring 
at the base ; anther-cells parallel, opening by dorsal slits. Ovary 3 or 4-celled, 
with 3 or 4 ovules in each cell. Style simple. Capsule hard, almost woody, 
opening loculicidally in 8 or 4 valves. Seeds strophiolate, albuminous ; embryo 
straight, with flat cotyledons. — Shrub, with the habit of a Thomasia, but without 
stipules. Bracteoles 8, persistent. 

The genus is limited to a few species. It has the anthers of Keraudrenia and Seringiu , mih 
the calyx nearly of Guichenotia. — Benth. 

ttannafordia.] XXIlI. StEKCULlACE^. ISl 

1. H. Shanesii (after P. A. O'Shaiiesy), h'. v. M. Fragm. vi. 176. A shrub of 
about 2ft., with velvety-tomentose branches. Leaves from 1| to 2iin. long, 5 to 
10 lines broad, oblong, base cordate, repand-denticulate or almost entire, on 
petioles of 2 to 1 lines ; glabresoent on the upper, velvety on the under side. 
Peduncles bearing 2 or few flowers. Pedicels about 2 lines long. Bracteoles 3, 
1 line long. Calyx campanulate, lin. long, striate, lobes 5, lanceolate, stellate- 
tomentose outside, glabrous and somewhat scarlet within. Petals dark purple, 
narrow-lanceolate, glabrous. Stamens 5 fertile, opposite the petals. Staminodia 
3, subulate, 2 lines long. Anthers erect, extrorse, oblong. Ovary velvety, 4 or 
5-celled. Capsule globose, about 5 or 7 lines, valves glabrous inside. Seeds 2 to 
4 in each cell, black. — F. v. M. I.e. and x. 96. 

Hab.: Leichhardt district, O'Shntiesy (F. v. M. I.e.) 


Flowers regular, hermaphrodite or rarely unisexual. Sepals 6, rarely 3 or 4, 
free or more or less cohering, usually valvate. Petals as many or fewer or none, 
alternate with the sepals, inserted round the base of the torus. Stamens 
indefinite, rarely reduced to very few, inserted on the torus, which is often raised 
or disk-like. Filaments free or slightly united at the base. Anthers 2-celled, 
with parallel or rarely divaricate cells, opening in longitudinal slits or in terminal 
pores. Ovary free, sessile, 2 or more celled. Style simple and entire, or divided 
at the top into as many stigmatic teeth or lobes as there are cells. Ovules 1, 2, 
or more in each cell, erect, pendulous, or horizontal. Fruit capsular or inde- 
hiscent, with single or several-seeded cells, where several-seeded the cells often 
subdivided by spurious vertical or transverse partitions. Seeds without any 
arillus, the testa usually coriaceous or crustaceous. Albumen fleshy, rarely 
deficient. Embryo straight or rarely curved or slightly folded. Cotyledons leafy 
or rarely fleshy ; the radicle next to the hilum, usually shorter than the cotyledons. 
— Trees, shrubs, or rarely herbs. Leaves alternate or very rar§ly opposite, 
simple, with pinnate or palmate nerves, entire, toothed, or rarely lobed. Stipules 
usually free and small or deciduous. Flowers axillary, terminal or leaf-opposed, 
usually in little cymes, often almost umbellate, either solitary and sessile or 
pedunculate, or arranged in panicles, 

A large Order, chiefly tropical or subtropical, spread over both the New and the Old World, 
with one extratropical genus {Tilia) in the northern and another (Aristotelia) in the southern 
hemisphere. The Australian genera are none of them endemic, the extratropical Aristotelia is 
common to Chili and New Zealand. The others are all tropical and Asiatic, GreiHn extending 
into Africa and Carchorus also partially into America, whilst Triumfetta belongs equally to the 
New and the Old World.— Bcnt/i. 

Series A. Holopbtala. — Petals glabrous or rarely downy, coloured, thin, 
unguiculate, entire or nearly so, imbricate or twisted in the bud. Anthers 
globose or oblong, opening by slits. 

Tkiee I. Brownlowieee. — Sepals combined below the cup. Anthers cjlohose, cells 
ultimately confluent at the top. 
Anthers short, with confluent cells. Calyx irregularly 3 to 5-lobed. Petals 

entire. Capsule loculicidal, each valve 2-winged 1. Bekkya. 

Tkibe II. Grewieae. — Sepals distinct. Petals glandular at the base. Stamens springing 
from the apex of a raised torus. 

Anthers short, with 2 parallel distinct cells opening longitudinally. Sepals 
distinct. Petals entire. 
Drupe iijdehiscent, not echinate, entire or 2-lobed. Petals narrow, short, 

with a foveolate base. Trees or shrubs 2. Gpewia. 

Fruit globular, echinate, indehiscent, or separating into 1-seeded cocci. 
Petals narrow, with a foveolate or pubescent base. Shrubs or herbs , . 3. TRinMrKXTA, 

i5^ XXIV. tiliaCe^. 

Tbibe m. •rHiex.— Sepals distinct. Petals not gUndular. Stamens springing from a 

contracted torus. 

Capsule 2 to 5-oelled, with several seeds in each, opening in valves, usually 
long and smooth, rarely short and echinate. Petals usually obovate or 
broad, without a foveola. Shrubs or herbs 4. Coechokus. 

Series B. HETEEOPBTALa;.— Petals sepaloid, incised or none, induplicate or 
imbricate, not twisted. Anthers linear, opening by a terminal pore. 

Tribe IV. Sloaniese.— Anthers linear, dehiscent at the apex. Disk stameniferous, plan.e 
or pulvinate. Sepals and petals inserted immediately around the stamens. 

Sepals 4, imbricate in 2 series. Capsule echinate, 4-valved .5. Sloanea. 

Tribe V. Elasocarpese.— ^nt/iers linear, dehiscent at the apex. Petals around the base of 
a raised torus, from the inside of which the stamens arise. 

Sepals 4 or 5, valvate. Fruit a berry 6. Aeistotelia. 

Sepals 4 or 5, valvate. Fruit a drupe 7. El«ocakpds. 

1. BERRYA, Eoxb. 
(After Dr. A. Berry.) 

Calyx campanulate, irregularly 3 to 5-lobed. Petals 5, without any foveola at 
the base. Stamens numerous, free, without staminodia ; anthers subglobose, the 
cells at length confluent into one. Torus not raised. Ovary (2 ? or) 3-celled, 
with 4 ovules in each cell ; style subulate (2 ? or) 8-lobed (or the styles distinct ?). 
Capsule nearly globular, opening loculicidally in 2 or 3 valves, each valve bearing 
2 vertical, diverging, coriaceous wings. Seeds 1 or 2 in each cell, densely covered 
with rigid hairs ; albumen fleshy ; cotyledons leafy, flat. — Trees. Leaves entire, 
5 or 7-nerved. Flowers small, white, the umbel-like cymes arranged in a terminal 

The genus consists of a single species, common to tropical Australia and Asia. 

1. B. Ammonilla (its name in Ceylon), Roxh. PI. Coram, iii. 60, t. 264, 
var. rotundifolia (round-leaved) ; Benth. Fl. Aiistr. i. 268. A small tree, the 
young branches slightly tomentose. Leaves cordate-orbicular, very obtuse, B or 
4in. diameter, rigidly membranous, glabrous when full-grown. Flowers of the 
Australian variety unknown, except from some fragments remaining about the 
fruits seen by R. Brown, in which he ascertained that the calyx was lobed and 
the stamens numerous. Capsule (always ?) .2-celled, the wings broadly obovate, 
about i^in. long, sinuate-erenate on the margin. Seeds 1 or 2 in each cell, 

■ Hab.: Cape York and Torres Straits Islands. 

The shape of the fruit and its wings and the seeds are the same as in the Asiatic S, 
Ammonilla, Eoxb., DC. Prod. i. 517, Wight, 111. t. 34; but as that species has acuminate leaves 
and a 3-celled capsule, I had at first thought that this one might be distinct. I find, however, 
some Ceylon specimens with the same rounded leaves, and the Australian specimens are not 
sufficient to show whether the reduced number of carpels is more than accidental. — Benth. 

2. GREWIA, Linn. 

(After Dr. W. Grew.) 

Sepals 5, distinct. Petals 5, with a foveola or thickened cavity at the base, 
usually shorter than the calyx, inserted round the base of the tours. Stamens 
indefinite, inserted on the raised torus. Ovary 2 to 4-celled, with 2 or more 
ovules in each cell ; style subulate, minutely toothed or lobed. Drupe containing 
1 to 4 pyrenes or nuts, entire or 2 or 4-lobed, the nuts either 1 -seeded or 2 or 
more seeded, and then divided by transverse partitions between the seeds. Seeds 
ascending or horizontal, the albumen usually copious, the cotyledons flat. — 
Trees or shrubs, the hairs or tomentum stellate. Leaves entire or serrate, 3 to 

(^reu'ia.] XXIV. TILIACE^. 153 

7-nei-ved. Stipules narrow, deciduous. Flowers usually yellow, the umbel-like 
cymes axillary or terminal. In the Australian species (except (J. brevifora) the 
ovary is 2-celled, but each cell is subdivided by a vertical, nearly complete parti- 
tion, so as to appear 4-celled, with two or rarely more superposed ovules in each 
half-cell, each half-cell forming in the fruit a separate nut, with 1 or rarely more 
superposed seeds in each. 

The genus is a large one, widely spread over the tropical and subtropical regions of the Old 

Leaves glabrous or nearly so, 3-nerved at the base. Flowers hermaphrodite. 
Sepals 7 to 9 lines. Petals small, the foveola very large. Torus elon- 
gated. Fruit depressed-globose, not lobed, Jin. diameter or more . . . 1. G. orientalis. 
Sepals about 4 lines. Petals very small, the foveola large. Torus short, 

fruit small, 2-lobed (unless reduced to 1 carpel) 2. (?. muUiflorn. 

Leaves softly velvety-tomentose underneath, 3 or 5-nerved. Flowers her- 
maphrodite. Petals small, foveola large 3. G. latifolia. 

Leaves white-tomentose underneath or scabrous, 3 or 5-nerved. Flowers 
polygamo dioecious. 
Leaves obovate-oblong to lanceolate. Foveolate base of the petals broader 

than the lamina i, G. polygavia. 

Leaves small, ovate-obtuse. Stamens in the female flowers 1 or 2 

apparently perfect, without staminodia. Buds not striate . . . . 5. G. xcahrella.. 
Leaves large cordate-ovate. Buds of male flowers globose, in the female 

oblong. Corolla purple 6. G. pleiostigma. 

1. Gr. orientalis (Oriental), Linn.; W. ami Am. Frod. 76; Benth. Fl. Auntr. 
i. 270. A tall, rather weak shrub, glabrous, except a minute tomentum on the 
young shoots, or sparingly sprinkled on the under side of the leaves and more 
abundant on the inflorescence. Leaves shortly petiolate, from oval-oblong to 
oblong-lanceolate, acuminate,' 3 to 4in. long, minutely crenulate, 3-nerved at the 
base. Peduncles 1 or 2-flowered, axillary or the upper ones forming a short 
terminal panicle. Sepals rusty-iomentose, 7 to 9 lines long. Petals not half so 
long, the foveolate base broader than and almost as long as the lamina, pubescent 
round the edge. Torus elongated. Stamens very nmnerous. Drupe depressed- 
globular, I to fin. diameter, flat-topped, slightly furrowed but not lobed, minutely 
tomentose with a few short straight hairs intermixed, containing usually 4 nuts, 
each with 2 or 3 horizontal, superposed seeds, separated by transverse partitions. 

Hab.: Islands of the Gulf of Gulf of Carpentaria, N.E. coast, Northumberland Islands. 

The species is not uncommon in Ceylon and a part of the Indian Peninsular. 

Var. latifolia. Leaves ovate-cordate, crenate, fruit more densely pubescent. Port Denison, 

2. G. multiflora (numerous flowers), Juss. in Ann. Mux. Par. iv. 89, t. 47, 
/. 1 ; Benth. Fl, Austr. i. 270. A shrub or tree, with rather slender branches, 
glabrous or sprinkled with a few appressed simple or stellate hairs. Leaves from 
ovate-acuminate to elliptical-oblong or almost lanceolate, 8 or -lin. long or some- 
times more, serrate, 8-nerved at the base. Peduncles axillary, usually 2 or 3 
together, 2 to 5-flowered. Sepals lanceolate, about 4 lines long, minutely 
tomentose. Petals very short, the broad foveolate base villous round the edge, 
not longer than the short torus, the lamina still smaller. Stamens niumerous. 
Ovary hirsute, with 2 superposed ovules in each half-cell. Drupe small, sprinkled 
with a few rigid hairs, deeply 2-lobed or entire by the abortion of one carpel, with 
2 nuts in each carpel, each containing a single seed. — DC. Prod. i. 508. 

Hab.: Percy Islands, A. Cunningham. 

The species was originally described from Philippine Island specimens ; our Australian ones 
agree well with Jussieu's figure, as well as with Cuming's specimens, n. 461, 701, and 1515. 
The common East Indian G. sepiaria, Eoxb., as well as G. prunifolia, A. Gray, Bot. Amer. 
Explor. Exp. i. 77, said to be a common shrub on the leeward coast of the Fiji Islands, appear 
from our specimens to be the same species, which we have also from Java and Singapore, 
although not included in Miguel's Flora. It is, however, frequently confounded with G. leevigata, 
Vahl., which differs in longer flowers, a more raised torus, and several other points. — Benth. 

154 XXIV. TILIACEJE. [Greivia. 

3. G. latifolia (broad-leaved), F. v. M. Herb.; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 271. 
A shrub or tree, the branches stellate-tomentose. Leaves petiolate, broadly 
cordate, ovate, 3 or 4in. long, irregularly serrate, scabrous-pubescent above and 
wrinkled, softy tomentose or hirsute underneath. Peduncles 2 or 3 together, 2 to 
5-flowered, of unequal length, but scarcely exceeding the petioles. Sepals softly 
villous, 4 to 5 lines long, acute. Petals about one-third as long, the broad 
foveolate base as long as the small lamina. Torus considerably elevated. 
Stamens numerous. Ovary hirsute, 2-celled, with 2 superposed ovules in each 
half-cell. Fruit depressed-globular, 5 or 6 lines diameter, hirsute when young, 
at length shining and nearly glabrous, 2-lobed, each lobe containing 2 1 -seeded 
nuts and slightly furrowed between them. — (t. Richardiana , Hook, in Mitch. 
Trop, Austr. 883 ; not Walp. 

Hab.: Islands oft the N. coast, Bustard Bay, Brisbane River, Moreton Island, Peak Downs, and 
St. George's Bridge, on the Balonne. 

The foliage is nearly that of G. asiatica, Linn., with the fruit of G. polygama, Eoxb., and the 
flowers different from both. In some flowers I have seen the style divided some way below the 
dilated fringed stigmas. — BentJi. 

4. Cr> polygama (male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers on the same 
plant), Uuxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 588 ; Be/nth. Fl. Austr. i. 271. " Kooline," .Cloncurry, 
Palmer; "Karoom," Eockhampton, Thozet ; " Ouraie," Cleveland Bay, Thozet 
a,n& Morrill ; " Pam-mo," Butcher's Hill, Roth; "Kou-nung," Middle Morehead 
Eiver, Roth. An erect shrub, the branches tomentose or softly hirsute. Leaves 
almost sessile, from obovate- oblong to oblong-elliptical or almost lanceolate, 2 to 
Sin. long, serrate, wrinkled and softly pubescent or scarcely scabrous above, 
velvety -tomentose underneath. Flowers dicecious, 3 or 4 together on very short 
peduncles. Sepals about 4 lines long, silky-tomentose outside. Petals about one- 
third as long, the oblong lamina twice as long as the broad foveolate base. Male 
flowers : Stamens about 20, on the very hirsute torus, with a very rudimentary 
pistil or none at all. Female flowers : Stamens very short, with small anthers. 
Ovary very hirsute, with 2 superposed ovules in each half-cell. Style short, with 
broad, spreading, fringed, stigmatic lobes. Drupe depressed-globular, 5 or 6 
lines diameter, hirsute when young, at length smooth and shining, 2-lobed, each 
lobe containing 2 1-seeded nuts and slightly furrowed between them. 

Hab.: Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, Swears Island, Cape York and Port MoUe, Bay of 
Inlets, Keppel Bay, Percy Islands, Eockhampton, Port Denison. 

The species spreads over a great part of East India. 

Fruit eaten by natives. 

5. Gr. SCabrella (rough), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 272. A shrub with the habit 
of G. orbifolia, but the tomentum rather more sparing. Leaves broadly ovate, 
but not so rounded as in that species nor quite so rigid, 1 to l^in. long. Flowers 
in small sessile clusters, apparently dioecious, the males not seen. Female 
flowers : Sepals softly tomentose, 2 to 2| lines long, the buds not striate, as in 
G. orbifolia. Petals nearly as long as the sepals, glabrous, with a small foveola at 
the base, less distinct than in most species. Stamens 1 or sometimes 2 or 3, 
apparently perfect, without staminodia. Ovary oblong, villous, with 2 super- 
posed ovules in each half-cell. Style very short, with broad, fringed, spreading,- 
stigmatic lobes. 

Hab.: Mackenzie and Dawson Bivers, F. v. Mueller. 

6. Gt. pleiostigina (stigmas numerous), F. r. M. Fragm. viii. 4. An erect 
dicecious tree attaining the height of 60ft., the trunk seldom 'exceeding a diameter 
of lOin. Branches spreading horizontally ; bark smooth, very fibrous ; branohlets 
sparsely tomentose. Leaves cordate-ovate, often measuring 9in. in length and 
Sin. in breadth ; deeply and somewhat obliquely cordate at the base, and bordered 

Gmna.] XXIV. TILIACE^. 15S 

with small sharp teeth ; quintuplinerved, penninened, and transverse reticula- 
tions ; under side thinly tomentose, upper with sparsely scattered stellate hairs. 
Petioles from 1 to l-|in. long. Stipules very soon deciduous, deltoid or lanceolate- 
ovate, about 2 lines long, entire. Flowers in axillary cymes, common peduncle 1 
to 2in., each cyme often 6in. diameter. Flowers in twos or threes at the ends of 
the branchlets of the cyme, shortly pedicellate and surrounded by a more or less 
complete whorl of short, thick bracteoles. Buds before opening globose, or 
oblong. Sepals 5, mealy on the outside,' hoary, frosted inside, about 8 lines long, 
lanceolate, valvate. Corolla of 5 petals, which are imbricate at the top and 
scarcely exceeding 2 lines long, rich-purple, glabrous except for a ring of hairs. 
The female flowers oblong in the bud, ovary globose, 4 or 5-celled, hirsute with 
white hairs and surrounded with staminodia. Stigma 3, once or twice forked. 
Male flowers on separate trees ; buds globose. Stamens numerous, free, sur- 
rounding a small, silky, abortive ovary, crowned by a 3 or 4-branched style. 

Hab.: Mulgrave River. 

The above description is from these specimens, collected in 1889, and referred to in Report 
on the Botany of the Bellenden Ker Expedition, with the following remarks upon the wood : — 
"The wood of this tree, on account of its elasticity and toughness, may in a few years be in 
demand for the manufacture of oars, shafts, and for other purposes where strength and elasticity 
are required, for which other species of this genus are found valuable in India." Baron 
Mueller named and first described the species from specimens collected at Rockingham Bay by 
J. Dallaohy. 


(After G. B. Triumfetti.) 

Sepals 5, distinct, usually concave, or with a dorsal point or appendage at the 
top. Petals 5, thickened arid globular, or foveolate at the base, inserted round 
the base of the torus, rarely wanting. Stamens indefinite, or rarely reduced to 5 
or 10, free, inserted on the raised torus ; anther-cells opening longitudinally. 
Ovary 2 to 5-celled, with 2 collateral ovules in each cell ; style filiform, stigma 
minutely 2 to 5-toothed. Fruit globular or nearly so, echinate or bristly, inde- 
hiscent or (in species not Australian) separating into cocci. Seeds in each coccus 
or cell solitary, or, if 2, separated by vertical dissepiments, pendulous, 
albuminous; embryo straight; cotyledons flat, » leafy. — Herbs, undershrubs, or 
shrubs, with the hairs or tomentum stellate. Leaves serrate, entire, or 3 or 
5-lobed. Flowers yellow, in little pedunculate or almost sessile cymes or clusters, 
either leaf-opposed or lateral, rarely strictly axillary. Petals usually narrow and 
not exceeding the calyx, especially in the Old World species. 

A considerable genus, widely spread over the tropical regions of both the New and the Old 
World. Of the Australian species, one, a maritime plant, extends to several of the South Paoifio 
islands, the others are all endemic. 

Ovary 3 to 5-celled. Fruit 3 to 8-celled, with 1 seed in each cell. 
Leaves round-dordate, entire or lobed. Fruit rather large, with 2 cells 
and seeds to each carpel. 
Stems prostrate. Leaves mostly lobed. Sepals 4 to 5 lines with minute 

pointed appendages 1- ^^ prociimbens. 

Shrubby. Leaves roundish, hairy on both sides, with crisp margins. 

Sepals narrow, with a minute terminal appendage at the back . . 2. T. Winneckeana. 
Shrub, sometimes tall. Leaves polymorphous, often rhomboidal. 

Sepals oblong-apioulate 3. T. rhomboidea. 

Undershrub of a few feet, lower leaves lobed, upper ones ovate- 
lanceolate. Fruit 5-valved ■ 4. T. pilosa. 

Fruit beset with long bristles, very dark coloured 4-celled 5. T. mgncann. 

1. T. procumbens (procumbent), Forst.; DC. I'rod. i. 508 ; Bentli. Fl. Au.^tr. 
i 273. Stems procumbent or prostrate and rooting at the joints, often attaining 
several feet, the branches shortly ascending, tomentose. Leaves petiolate, broadly 
ovate-cordate or orbicular, obtuse, 1 to 2in. long, entire, crenate, or more or less 

156 XXIV. TILIACEiE. [rrkm/etta. 

deeply divided into 8 or 5 lobes, nearly glabrous above, more tomentose under- 
neath. Peduncles short, few-flovs^ered. Sepals 4 or 5 lines long, with small 
pointed appendages. Ovary hirsute and papillose, 3 or 4-celled, each cell again 
divided into 2. Fruit globular, about -^in. diameter, glabrous or villous, covered 
with hard conical prickles ; endocarp hard, divided into 6 or 8 one-seeded cells. — 
Guillem. in Ann. Sc. Nat. Par. ser. '2, vii. 865 ; Hook and Arn. Bot. Beech. 60. 

Hab.: Maritime sands, Cape York, Northumberland Islands, Fitzroy Island, Frankland 
Islands, Howick Islands. 

The species is found in several islands of the Eastern Archipelago, and the Pacific, where the 
leaves are usually entire or not very deeply 3-lobed ; Cunningham's specimens agree very well 
with these, in all the others (generally far advanced) the leaves are deeply 3 or 5-lobed, with 
glabrous fruits. — Bentli. 

2. T. Winneckeana (after M. Winnecke), F. r. M. in Appetwl. to Mr. 
Winnecke's R:vplo. Diary, 1888. Leaves roundish or verging into an oval form, 
denticulated and somewhat crisp at the margins, velvet-hairy on both sides. 
Sepals narrow, dorsally terminated by a minute conical appendage. Petals downy 
towards the base. Stamens numerous. Ovary 3-celled. Fruit large, on a 
slender stalklet, almost globular, indehiscent, thinly tomentose, copiously beset 
by long, spreading, bristle-like, hooked prickles, the latter nearly glabrous at the 

Hab.: Inland southern border. 

Allied to T. leptacantha, but the fruits are much larger and not glabrous. — F. i . Mueller, I.e. 

3. T. rhomboidea (rhomboid), Jac(j., DC. Fmd. i. 507. Chinese Burr. A 
small shrub, glabrous or pubescent. Leaves polymorphous, ovate-rhomboid or 
cordate, 3 to 7-nerved, the apex acute or somewhat 5-lobed, serrate, variable in 
amount and quality of pubescence. Flowers about Jin. diameter, yellow, in 
small dense cymes. Pedicels short. Flower-buds oblong, club-shaped, apiculate. 
Sepals oblong, apiculate. Petals oblong, ciliate at the base. Stamens 8 to 15. 
Capsule globose, the size of a small pea, albido-tomentose between the spines ; 
spines hooked, glabrous or ciliated, 8 to 5-valved. — Masters in Fl. of Brit. Ind. 
and Trop. Afr. 

Hab.: Cairns, Townsville, Cooktown, &c., where it has probably been introduced by the 

This pest, in one or other of its many forms, is found in India, Ceylon (ascending to 4000ft. 
in the Himalaya), Malay Islands, China, Tropical Africa, and West Indies. 

4. T. pilosa (hairy), Roth.: F. r. M. Frar/m. iv. 28. Plant herbaceous, bristly, 
bristles bulbous at the base. Upper leaves 3 to 4in. long, 2^in. broad, ovate or 
ovate-lanceolate, lower ones 3-lobed, stellate-hairy on both sides ; petioles hairy, 
about fin. long. Stipules subulate-aristate, shorter than the petiole. Peduncles 
shorter than the petioles. Flowers yellow, fin. diameter. Sepals linear, apiculate. 
Petals oblong-spathulate, scarcely shorter than the sepals, ciliate at the base. 
Stamens about 10 or more. Fruit globose, tomentose, covered with long hooked 
spines which are glabrous along the upper, hispid along the lower edge, 5-celled, 
cells 2-seeded. 

Hab.: Mount Elliott, E. Fitzalan. 

5. T. nigricans (blackish), Bail. Plant erect, 2 to 8ft. in height, clothed 
in most parts with short stellate hairs all round the stem and branches, but 
frequently more dense on one side than on the other ; very dense on the back of 
the leaves. Branches nearly terete, stipules rather persistent, narrow, 4 lines 
long. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, palmately 3 to 5-nerved, 2^ to 3-^in. long, 1^ to 
2Jin. broad, coarsely serrate. Petioles slender, 1 to l|in. long. Flowers yellow, 
solitary, or few in a pedunculate umbel. Bracts filiform, 2 lines long. Pedicels 

TriumMta.] XXIV. TILIACE.E. 157 

about as long as the bracts. Buds narrow-oblong, crowned by the spreading sepal 
appendages. Sepals linear, 4 lines long, without the thread-like appendages. 
Petals spathulate, shorter than the sepals. Stamens 15 to 20, filaments glabrous. 
Style sulcate, glabrous. Ovary setose, 4-celled, 2 ovules in each cell. Fruit about 
4 lines diameter, dark-coloured, 4-c8lled, 2 seeds in each cell ; outside covered 
with slightly hairy hooked setae about 4 lines long, the sharp hook at the ends 
often of lighter colour, glabrous between the set® except for a few stellate hairs. 
Seeds oval, rough. 

Hab.: Herberton and TuUy River, J. F. Bailey. This plant is likely to become a pest, and 
should be included in " Noxious weeds to be destroyed." The fruit very dark or blackish on the 
specimens received. 

4. CORCHORUS, Linn. 

(From its supposed medicinal properties.) 

Sepals 5, rarely 4. Petals as many, without any cavity at the base. Stamens 
indefinite, rarely few, inserted on a torus scarcely raised, but occasionally 
expanded in a disk round their base ; anther-cells opening longitudinally. Ovary 
2 to 5-eelled, with several ovules in each cell ; style short, simple. Capsule either 
long without prickles, or short or globular and more or less warted, muricate or 
echinate, opening loculicidally in 2 to 5 valves, with several seeds in each cell, 
rarely separated by transverse partitions. Seeds pendulous or horizontal, 
albuminous ; embryo usually curved, with leafy cotyledons. — Herbs, undershrubs, 
or shrubs, with simple or stellate hairs. Leaves serrate. Peduncles very short, 
lateral or leaf-opposed, bearing 1 or several flowers. Bracts small. Flowers 
usually small, yellow. 

A considerable genus, of which a. few species appear to be limited to tropical America or to 
Australia, the remainder generally dispersed over various tropical regions in the Old as well as 
the New World. The fruit in this genus' is often indispensable lor determining the species. — 

Annuals (or biennials'), glabrous or loosely pubescent. 
Capsule globular or ovoid, very obtuse. Capsule slightly warted, 2 or 

3 celled 1. C. hygrophilus. 

Capsule (J to fin. long) rather thick, angular or winged. 
Capsule acute or acuminate, angular but not winged. Stamens 

numerous 2. (,'. Cunninghamii. 

Capsule 3-winged, truncate at the top, with 3 diverging points. 

Stamens under 20. Flowers very small 3. C. acutangulus. 

Capsule linear, not winged. 

Capsule under Jin., 2 or 3-celled. Leaves without setse. Flowers very 
small. Stamens few. Pubescent plants. Capsule 2-celled, refiexed, 

very hirsute, rather acute .... 4. C. pumiliq. 

Undershrubs w shrubs more or less tomentose or hirsute. 
Fruiting pedicels recurved. Capsule linear, curved or twisted, more or 
less torulose, 2 or 3-oelled. 
Low diffuse shrubs or undershrubs. Capsule few-seeded, 

Sepals under 2 lines. Stamens about 10. Capsule 3 or 4 lines 

long, very hispid, slightly curved .... 4. C. pumilio. 

Sepals 3 to 4 lines. Stamens numerous. Capsule tomentose, 

slender but not twisted . . o. C tomentellus. 

Erect or decumbent shrubs. 

Tomentum scabrous or almost villous. Sepals 2 or 3 lines. Petals 

narrow 6. C. sidoides. 

Stems purplish, decumbent. Pods 3 or 4in. long, erect. Valves 
3 or 4, scabrous, ending in a short straight point 7. 0. trilocularis. 

1. C. hygrophilus (found near water), A. Cunn. Herb.; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 
276. A tall, erect, glabrous herb, apparently annual. Leaves petiolate, ovate or 
ovate- lanceolate, acuminate, 3 to 5in. long, acutely and irregularly toothed. 
Cymes several-flowered, reflexed, shortly pedunculate, but rarely equalling the 

158 XXIV. TILIACEiE. [Con-horu.^<. 

petioles. Flowers small, the buds obovoid, contracted at the base. Petals- the 
length of the calyx. Stamens numerous, on a raised torus. Capsule globular 
or ovoid-oblong, very obtuse, 2 to 4 lines long, more or less tuberculate, 2 or 8- 
eelled. Seeds 8 or more in 2 rows in each cell, without transverse partitions. 

Hab.: Cleveland Bay, A. Gunni'n,gham. 

2. C. Cunninghamii (after A. Cunningham), F. v. M. Fragm.. iii. 8 ; Bmth. 
Fl. Austr. i. 276. A tall, erect, glabrous herb, annual, or sometimes perhaps 
perennial. Leaves petiolate, from cordate-ovate to lanceolate, acuminate, 2 to 4in. 
long, coarsely serrate, without setffi. Peduncles short, bearing a cyme of 3 to 7 or 8 
flowers, on rather long pedicels. Buds obovoid, narrowed at the base. Stamens 
numerous, on a raised torus. Ovary narrowed at the the top. Capsule narrow- 
oblong, acute, |- to fin. long, slightly 3 or 4-angled, 3 or 4-celled, with numerous 
seeds in each cell. 

Hab.; Dawson and Burnett rivers and Moreton Bay, F. v. Mueller ; Brisbane River, Fraser 

8. C. acutangulus (alluding to angles of fruit). Lam.; W. mid Am. Prod. 73 ; 
Benth. Fl. Ai(str. i. 277. An annual, sometimes very small, but attaining 2ft., 
decumbent or erect, slightly pubescent and often sprinkled with a few rigid hairs. 
Leaves petiolate, ovate, serrulate, without setae. Flowers 1 to 3, nearly sessile, 
and very small. Sepals little more than 1 line long. Stamens 15 to 20. Capsule 
straight, I to fin. long, rather thick, prominently 3-angled, or with 3 longi- 
tudinal wings, truncate at the top, with 3 spreading points or teeth, 3-celled. 
Seeds numerous. Very rarely the capsule has 4 cells and as many wings and 
teeth.— Wight, Ic. t. 739. 

Hab.: Cape York. The species is common in tropical Asia and Africa, and occurs also — 
perhaps introduced — in some parts of S. America. — Benth. 

4. C. pumilio (small), R. Br. Herb:; Benth. FL Austr. i. 277. A small, 
rigid, much-branched herb or undershrub, not much more than ^ft. high, hirsute 
with spreading stellate hairs, the slender branches appearing almost woody at the 
base, although the plant flowers the first year. Leaves petiolate, ovate or oblong, 
obtuse, rarely above ^in. long, crenate, rugose and plicate, sprinkled with rigid 
stellate hairs. Flowers very small, in sessile clusters. Buds narrow-oblong. 
Sepals very narrow, acute, hirsute, 1 to IJ line long. Petals narrow. Stamens 
about 10. Ovary very hirsute. Capsules reflexed, linear, 8 to 4 lines long, 
slightly curved, rather. acute, very hirsute, 2-eelled, with few oblong seeds. 

Hab.: Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Broion. 

5. C. tomentellus (tomentose), F. v. M. Fragm. iii. 10 ; Benth. Fl. Aiistr. 
i. 278. A low, diffuse, stellate-tomentose shrub or undershrub. Leaves petiolate, 
from ovate to ovate-oblong, obtuse, f to lin. long, crenate, slightly plicate and 
rugose, rather loosely stellate-tomentose, especially underneath. Flowers 
pedicellate, in nearly sessile clusters, much larger than in C. vermicular is. Buds 
obovoid. Sepals 8 to 4 lines long. Stamens numerous, the torus expanded into 
a prominent disk round their base. Capsule very slender, tomentose, ^ to fin. 
long, 3-valved, with few distant seeds, but scarcely contracted between them. 

Hab.: Mackenzie Biver, F. Mueller. It is possible that this may prove a form of the very 
variable G. sidoides, but besides the difference in habit and foliage, the flowers appear to be 
larger and the disk much more developed. — Benth. 

6. C. sidoides (Sida-like), F. v. M. Fragm. iii. 9 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 278. 
An erect shrub of several feet, the branches densely but rather loosely tomentose. 
Leaves shortly petiolate, from oval-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, 1 to 2in. 
long, rather thick, crenate, plicate and rugose, or on luxuriant specimens longer 

Corchoms.] XXIV. TILIACE^. 169 

and thinner, scabrous tomentose above, more densely tomentose underneath. 
Flowers in nearly sessile clusters. Calyx tomentose-villoua, 2 to 3 lines long, the 
buds often tipped by the tooth-like points of the sepals. Petals narrow, in some 
flowers very small. Stamens numerous, on a small torus. Capsule slender, f to 
near 2in. long, tomentose or villous, more or less torulose, 2 or 3-celled. Seeds 
oblong, often distant in each cell, although rather numerous on the whole. 

Hab.: Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria. 

7. C. trilocularis (capsule 3-eelled), LIuh.: Masten in Fl. Trap. Africa, i. 
262. Annual or perhaps perennial, with numerous erect or decumbent purplish, 
smooth or pilose, branching stems. Leaves elliptic, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 
1 to Bin. long, \ to lin. wide, orenate- serrate, either with or without basal lobes. 
Petioles very short, pilose. Stipules setaceous. Pedicels 2 to 3-flowered. Petals 
spathulate, bright yellow. Pods 2 to Sin. long, erect, straight or curved, slender, 
3 to 4-angled, 3 to 4-valved ; valves scabrous, deeply pitted on the inner surface, 
and ending in a short straight point. Seeds numerous. 

Hab.: Rookhampton, Burdekin Biver, and Rockingham Bay, F, u. M. in f'ragm. viii. 5. 


5. SLOANEA, Linn. 

(After Sir Hans Sloane, principal founder of the British Museum.) 

(Including Echinocarpus australis, Benth.) 

Sepals or calyx-lobes 4 or 5, valvate or imbricate in 2 rows. Petals none or 
1 — 4, imbricate or subimbricate, entire or dentate. Stamens numerous, free, 
covering the broad, thick, pitted disk from the petals to the ovary ; anthers linear, 
the cells placed back to back, and opening from the top in a slit extending more 
or less down the sides. Ovary 3 or 4 -celled, with several ovules in each cell ; 
style subulate. Capsule thickly coriaceous or woody, densely echinate or covered 
with setsB, 3 or 4-celled or 1-celled by abortion, opening in 3 or 4 valves. Seeds 
several, or solitary and pendulous, ovoid ; testa hard ; albumen fleshy ; cotyledons 
broad, flat. — Trees. Leaves entire or sinuate-toothed, with pinnate veins. 
Peduncles axillary, 1 -flowered, solitary or clustered, or forming terminal panicles. 

The Australian species are endemic. The authors of the " Genera. Plantarum " seemed to 
consider that the distinction between the genera Sloanea and Echinocarpus was scarcely enough 
to keep them apart, and Baron Mueller having described 3 out of the 4 Australian species under 
Sloanea, I have thought it better to follow him in this instance. 

Leaves obovate-oblong, 6in. or more long, coriaceous, sinuate-toothed. 

Petals glabrous. Capsule 3 — 4-valved ... 1. S. iiustralis. 

Leaves lanceolate-ovate, 3 to Sin. long, chartaceous, nearly or quite entire. 

Petals velvety. Cupsule 2-valved . . . . 2. S. Langii. 

Leaves obovate, 2 to 6in. long, thin, coriaceous, crenulate. 

No petals. Capsule pyriform-ovate, 2-valved 3. S. ilacbrydei. 

Leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 3 to .5in. long, coriaceous, remotely 

No petals. Capsule 2-valv6d, about Jin. long 4. ,S. Woollsii. 

1. S. australis (Australian), F. c. M. Fraijnt. iv. 91 ; (Echinocarpus, Benth. 
Fl. Aiistr. i. 279). A large tree, bark thin, scaly; branchlets furfuraceous, adult 
foliage glabrous. Leaves obovate-oblong, 6 to 12in. long, shortly acuminate, 
more or less sinuate-toothed, much narrowed towards the base, but obtuse or 
slightly cordate at the petiole, coriaceous. Inflorescence furfuraceous-pubescent, 
forming a terminal raceme to the branchlets shorter than the last leaves. Pedicels 
1 to 2in. long. Sepals ovate-oblong, 4 or 5, about 4 lines long. Petals glabrous, 
white, 4 or 5, oval, about 7 lines long, 8 or 4 lines broad in the middle. 

160 XXIV. TILIACEJi. [Sloanea. 

Filaments short. Anthers scarcely pointed. Style acute, much longer than the 
stamens, the exserted portion deeply furrowed. Ovary 4-celled. Capsule opening 
in 4 hard almost woody valves, or sometimes 3-valved, about fin. long, external 
sets short and exceedingly densely crowded. 

Hab.: Marooohie, Rockingham Bay, F. v. M.; Herberton scrubs, J. F. Bailey. 

Wood pinkish, close-grained,' light, suitable for lining boards. — Bailey's Gat. Ql. Woods No. 32a. 

2. S. Iiangii (after Dr. G. Lang), F. v. M. Fragm. v. 28. A small tree, 
with a white, smooth bark ; branchlets almost glabrous. Leaves 8 to 5in. long, 
lanceolate-ovate, chartaeeous, glabrous, quite entire or indistinctly remotely den- 
ticulate, penninerved and copiously reticulate. Stipules long, persistent, canalicu- 
late, almost silky, 3 lines long, denticulate. Flowers light-yellow, solitary or in 
corymbs. Pedicels 1 to 2in. long, very slightly velvety. Sepals valvate, white, 
lanceolate or orbicular-ovate, 4 to 6 lines long, the outside slightly the inside 
distinctly velvety. Petals white, ovate, thinner than the sepals, ■ and a little 
imbricate and thinner on both sides. Stamens numerous, very short ; anthers 
oblong-linear, about 2 lines long ; style subulate, 1| line long. Ovary 3-oelled. 
Capsule mostly 2-valved, hispid. 

Hab.: Mount Elliott, E. FiUalan (F. v. M.) : Herberton scrubs and Tully River, J. F. Bailey. 

3. S. IKEacbrydei (after J. Macbryde), F. v. 'M. Fragm. vi. 170. A large 
tree ; wood yellow ; branchlets at length glabrous. Leaves obovate, 2 to 6in. 
long, 1 to 2in. broad, chartaeeous or thinly coriaceous, orenulate or repandly- 
dentieulate, glabrous, base cuneate, lateral nerves distant with transverse and 
reticulate veins between. Flowers fragrant, in corymbose racemes, on el6ngated 
pedicels. Sepals 4, white, fleshy-coriaceous, valvate, ovate, about 4 lines long. 
Petals none. Anthers 60 to 70, tetragonous-linear, puberulous, 1^ line long, 
conneotivum acute, style short. Ovary ovate, 2-celled. Capsule nearly lin. long, 
slightly compressed, pyriform-ovate, 2-celled, woody, awned outside with subulate 
setsB 1 to 1^ line long. 

Hab.: Rockingham Bay, J. Dallaehy (F. v. M.) 

4. S. Woollsii (after Eev. Dr. W. Woolls), F. v. M. Fragm. vi. 171. A tall 
tree with a deeply sulcate bark ; branchlets slightly velvety. Leaves lanceolate 
or ovate-lanceolate, 2 to 5in. long, l|in. broad, dark green and bordered by some- 
what remote blunt teeth, on petioles about lin. long. Flowers in racemose 
corymbs ; pedicels 1 to Ifin. long. Sepals 4 or 5, rhomboid-orbicular, slightly 
imbricate, hoary-velvety on both sides. Petals none. Stamens numerous ; 
filaments very short or scarcely any. Anthers almost linear. Capsule about 
fin. long, 2-valved, woody, covered with somewhat soft prickles on the outside, 
glabrous inside. Seeds pendulous, mostly solitary, ovate or ellipsoid, turgid. 

Hab.: Mount Mistake and Bunya Mountains. 

Wood of a light colour, close-grained and tough, useful for flooring and lining boards. When 
newly cut has somewhat the scent of Deleij.— Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No. 33. 


(After the philosopher.) 

(Friasia, DC.) 

Sepals 4 or 5, valvate. Petals as many, imbricate, 3-lobed, toothed or entire 

inserted round the base of the thickened torus. Stamens indefinite, inserted on 

the torus, within a glandular ring ; anthers linear, the cells placed back to back 

and opening from the top in short confluent slits. Ovary 2 to 4-celled with 2 

ovules in each cell ; style subulate. Fruit a berry. Seeds few, ascending or 

Aiistotelia.] XXIV. TILIACEiE. 161 

pendulous; testa hard, often pulpy outside; albumen fleshy; embryo straight, with 
flat or undulate cotyledons.— Shrubs. Leaves mostly opposite or nearly so, entire 
or toothed. Flowers axillary or lateral, in racemes, or in the Australian species 
solitary or 2 or 3 together, often polygamous. 

Besides the 2 Queensland species, which are endemic, the genus has 1 in Tasmania, 2 from 
New Zealand, and 1 from Chili. 

Leaves ovate, acuminate, pubescent underneath. Berry globose . ... 1. A. australasica. 
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, pale underneath. Fruit ovate-acuminate, red, 6 

to 9 lines long 2. A. megalosperma. 

1. A. australasica (Australasian), F. r.. M. Fraym. viii. 2. A slender 
shrub of several feet, with a few soft hairs on the young branches, petioles, and 
principal veins on the under side of the leaves, otherwise glabrous. Leaves 
opposite, on slender petioles, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, pale on the under side, 

2 to Sin. long, serrate, 3-nerved at the base. Peduncles about 2in. long, usually 
axillary, bearing 1 to 3 flowers. Pedicels about 9 lines long, with 2 narrow 
bracteoles, about f line long at the base, which are soon deciduous. Sepals 5, 
ovate-oblong, about 2 lines long, membranous, pilose, with woolly-eiliate 
margins. Petals about 3 lines long, glabrous, tender, obovate-cuneate, the apex 
shortly 3-lobed. Stamens 12 to 16 ; filaments short. Anthers pointless, narrow- 
oblong. Ovary somewhat glabrous. Style scarcely 1 line long, filiform. Stigma 
very minute. Berry globular, about 4 lines diameter, nearly dry. 

Hab.: Southern parts of the colony ; North Coast line of railway. 

2. A., megalosperma (long-seeded), F. v. M. Fracpn. ix. 81. A small tree, 
the branchlets at first with appressed hairs. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 2 to 4in. 
long, long-acuminate, pale on the under side. Peduncles very short or wanting ; 
pedicels from 8 to 12 lines long, solitary or in pairs. Sepals lanceolate-linear, 8 
lines long, puberulous inside. Petals 5, almost oblong, imbricate, shortly 
crenulate at the top, silky at the base. Stamens 12 ; anthers 1 line long, point- 
less, oblong-linear, hispidulous at the apex. Style undivided, 1^ line long, 
subulate. Stigma very small. Ovary glabrous. Fruit ovate, acuminate, red, ^ 
to fin. long, 1 to 2-eelled, 1 seed in each cell. Pericarp coriaceous ; seeds about 

3 lines long ; testa brown, very thin. 
Hab.: Rockingham Bay, J. Dallachy (P. v. M.) 

7. ELiEOCARPUS, Linn. 
(Supposed resemblance of the fruit of some species to the Olive.) 
(Monooera, Jack.) 
Sepals 4 or 5, usually valvate. Petals as many, fringed, lobed, or rarely entire, 
inserted round the base of the torus, induplicate-valvate, and embracing some of 
the outer stamens in the bud. Stamens indefinite, inserted on the torus, within 
a glandular ring ; anthers oblong or linear, opening at the top in 2 valves (that 
is, the cells placed back to back and opening in short, terminal, confluent slits). 
Ovary 2 to 5-celled, with 2 or more ovules in each cell ; style subulate. Fruit a 
drupe, with a hard often bony putamen, 2 to 5-celled or 1 -celled by abortion. 
Seeds solitary in each cell, pendulous (or rarely erect ?) ; testa hard ; albumen 
fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat or undulate. — Trees. Leaves alternate or rarely 
opposite, entire or serrate. Flowers in axillary racemes, sometimes polygamous. 
A large tropical Asiatic genus, extending to the Pacific Islands, New Caledonia, and New 
Zealand. The Australian species are all endemic. — Benth. 
Young growth rusty-pubescent, the leaves becoming glabrous, ovate, 
obovate, 2 to 4in. long, 1 to 2in. broad. 
Sepals 4. Petals 4, 7 lines long, top 3-lobed, silky outside. Drupe 
velvety, nearly globular, 1 Jin. long, putamen smooth . 1. E. Bancroftii. 

162 XXIV. TTLIACB^. [Elmocarpu 

Leaves oblong, IJ to 3in. long, IJ to IJin. broad. Drupe bright-blue, 

ovoid, 6 to 7 lines long, i or 5 lines diameter, putamen tubereulate . . 2. E. ariihermcus. 

Leaves oval-elliptical, 2 to 4in. long. Petals divided into about 7 linear 

obtuse lobes. Drupe globular-ovoid, blue, putamen rugose or tubereulate 3. E. obovatus. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 3 to 4in. long. Petals divided into 10 to 12 acute 
lobes, some united in pairs. Drupe globular-ovoid, blue, putamen 
rugose . . . . . 4. E. cyaneus. 

Leaves oblong, lanceolate, often with glaucous patches, 4 to Sin. long, 1 to 

IJin. broad. Drupe ovoid, about Jin. long, putamen rugose . . . 5. E. Kirtonii. 

Leaves coriaceous, oblong-lanceolate, 3 to Sin. long, 1 to IJin. broad. 

Drupe oval, Jin. long, brown, with sometimes a bluish tinge . . 6. E. emnmtdi. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 5 to 6in. long. Petals dividedinto about 5 deeply- 
fringed lobes, silky on the margins near the base. Drupe globular, 
blue, often more than lin. diameter, tubereulate I.E. f/randis. 

Leaves coriaceous, 2 to Sin. long, 10 to 15 lines broad, lanceolate. Petals 

nearly entire, silky outside. Drupe elliptical, about 8 lines diameter 8. E. foveolatus. 

Leaves 2 to 4in. long, 1 to IJin. broad. Petals silvery-silky outside. Drupes 

blue, Jin. diameter 9. E. ruminatus. 

Leaves chartaoeous, broad-lanceolate, 4 to 6in. long, 1 to IJin. broad. 

Petals finely fringed 10. E. Grahami. 

Leaves oval-lanceolate, 2J to 3iin. long, thin-coriaceous. Petals minutely 

denticulate . . . . " ... . . 11. E. sericopetahts. 

1. £. Bancroftii (after Dr. T. L. Bancroft), F. c. M. et Bail, in Proc. Roy. 
Soc. Ql. vol. ii. 142. Ebony-heart, of Cairns. A large handsome tree, 
often attaining more than 100ft. in height, with a diameter of more than 
2ft. of stem. Bark scaly, of a brownish colour, about -J-in. in thickness, 
resembling the American Lignum-vitm, and might serve for the same purposes. 
The young growth and inflorescence clothed with a short rusty pubescence, the 
older leaves glabrous. Leaves clustered at the ends of the branches, ovate, 
obovate, or lanceolate, 2 to 4in. long, 1 to 2in. broad ; the smaller ones at times 
very obtuse, tapering into a petiole of from 1 to nearly 2in. long ; the midrib and 
few distant primary veins prominent, the small reticulations also often distinct, on 
both sides. Flowers in lateral or axillary umbel-like racemes, bearing at the 
summit 3 to 5 rather large flowers, with often 1 or 2 lower down the stalk ; 
pedicels about 5 lines long. Sepals 4, valvate, rigidly coriaceous, oblong or 
lanceolate, about 5 lines long and 2 lines broad, densely clothed on the inside by 
rather long silky hairs, the outside rusty. Petals 4, broadly cuneate, about 7 
lines long and 6 lines broad at the top, which is wavy and lobed with 3 short 
obtuse lobes ; the outside of the petals slightly silky. Stamens numerous, over 
25 ; filaments flexuose, inserted on an annular lobed disk ; anthers linear, about 
2 lines long, the terminal 2-valved opening prominent, giving a lobed appearance 
to the apex. Ovary 4-celled ; ovules generally 4 in each cell, hairy. Style 
subulate, hairy at the base. Stigma small. Drupe velvety, ovoid or nearly 
globular, about Ijin. diameter ; in drying, when fully ripe the thin epicarp readily 
separating from the mealy rather thick sarcocarp, this also separating freely from 
the hard smooth-pitted putamen. Putamen thick, but the 4 cells prominently 
marked, 3 of which are abortive ; thus the fruit contains but a solitary seed, 
which resembles the kernel of a peach-stone, has an agreeable flavour, and is 
eaten by the settlers. 

Hab.: Johnstone River p^nd other tropical hillside scrubs. 

Wood hard and durable, resembling the American Lignum-vitaa, and might serve for the 
same purposes. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No. 33o. 

2. H. amhemicus (from Arnheim's Land), F. i: M. Rep. Intercol. E.rhib. 
1867 ; E. ohoi-atm, var. (?) foveolatun, Bentli. Fl. Av-ttv, i. 281. A small tree, 
height about 80ft., diameter of trunk about 8in., with a whitish-grey smooth 
bark; wood white, with a closely interlocked grain. The bark of the smaller 
branches or branchlets dark-brown and closely dotted with lenticels. Leaves 
oblong or broadly and obtusely ovate, 1^ to Bin. long, 1| to Ifin. broad, obscurely 

Klu'ocarini!<.] XXIV. TILIAOEJ;!. 168 

orenate ; the primary veins with glandular pits in their axils. Racemes soKtary 
or m pairs, about lin. long (no flowers sent with Ml-. Jacobson's specimen^^). 
Drupe bright-blue, oxoid, 6 or 7 lines Ion-, 4 or 5 hnes diameter ; sarcocarp of 
an agreeable acid flavour, putamen very prominently tubcrculate ; 1-seeded. 

Hub.: Near Musgiave Electric Telegraph Station, Cape York Peninsular, Geo. Jacobnon. 

Uoodol a light color with close interlocked grain and prettily marked.— yi««™'s CaJ, 01. 
lVoo<h No. 33d. a ^ j a •» 

S. £1. obovatus (obovate leaves), (i. Don; Ucvth. Fl. Amtr. i. 281. 
" Woolah," Moreton Bay, WntkhiH. A tree attaining 60ft., glabrous in all its 
parts. Leaves from oval-elliptical to obovate-oblong or almost lanceolate, obtuse 
or obtusely acuminate, 2 to 4in. long, irregularly sinuate-crenate, narrowed at the 
base, thinly coriaceous, the smaller veins much less numerous and less conspicuous 
than in K. i-ijanem. Racemes solitary or clustered, many-flowered, but shorter 
than the leaves. Flowers small, white. Sepals acute, 11 line long. Petals 
rather longer, divided to about the middle into about 7 linear obtuse lobes. 
Anthers short, obtuse or scarcely -pointed. Ovary glabrous, 2-celled, with 4 
ovules in each cell. Drupe globular or ovoid, often blue, the putamen rugose or 
tuberculate — F. v. M. Fragm. ii. 80 ; K. parvifloim, A. Rich. Serf. Astrol. 67, 
t. 24 ; K. paucijionm, Walp. Rep. i. 364 (a mistake in the name and a wrong 

Hab.: Many parts of South Queensland. 

Wood light-coloured, close-grained, firm, and easy to work. — Bailey's Cat, Ql. Woods No. 34. 

4. E. cyaneus (blue). Ait. Epit. Uort. Kew .• Bmtli. FL Amir. i. 281. A 
tree, usually small, glabrous in all its parts. Leaves elliptical-oblong or oblong- 
lanceolate, acuminate, 3 or 4in. long or more when luxuriant, more or less serrate, 
acute at the base, coriaceous and very conspicuously reticulate. Racemes loose, 
shorter than the leaves. Sepals acute, 8 to 4 lines long, glabrous. Petals as 
long or rather longer, divided into 10 to 12 acute lobes, here and there united in 
pairs. Stamens numerous, within the undulate glandular disk. Anthers linear, 
the upper valve with a short point. Ovary glabrous, 2-celled, with 8 to 10 ovules 
in each cell. Drupe usually 1-seeded, globular or ovoid, blue outside, the 
putamen 4 to 6 lines long, hard and rugose. — DC. Prod. i. 519 ; Bot. Mag. t. 
1757; F. V. M. PI. Vict. i. 152; K. reticularis. Sm. in Rees' Cycl. xii.; Bot. 
Reg. t. 667. 

Hab.: All parts of South Queensland. The flowers usually white but in some inland localities 

Wood close-grained and light-coloured. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No. 85. 

5. E. Kirtonii (after — Kirton), F. v. M. (inedit.) White beech of Bunya 
Mountains. A tall tree, often over 100ft. high, producing a fine timber ; 
glabrous except the young shoots, which are more or less silky and often covered 
here and there with glaucous patches. Leaves oblong, lanceolate, acuminate, 
4 to Sin. long, 1 to l-J-in. broad, more or less cuneate at the base to a petiole of 
under lin., sharply serrate and prominently reticulate. Inflorescence not seen. 
Drupe ovoid, about |-in. long, usually 2-seeded; putamen rugose. 

Hab.: Forests of the Bunya Mountains. The trees are also abundant on Mount Mistake. 
Thus the tree seems only to be met with in high mountain scrubs. 

Wood light-brown, fine-grained, suitable for furniture ; thought to somewhat resemble English 
sycamore. — Bailey's Gat. Ql. Woods No. 33a. 

6. 1S= eumundi (found at Eumundi), Bail. Proc. Roy. Sac. of QL, April, 
1894. A tree of considerable size and erect growth. Leaves more coriaceous 
than most other Australian species, mostly oblong-lanceolate, 8 to 5in, long and 
1 to li-in. broad near the middle, on somewhat slender petioles of li to 2in. in 
length'; the margins entire or with distant rather prominent blunt teeth in the 

164 XXIV. TILIACE^. [Elaocarpm. 

upper part ; apex often elongated, but blunt. The young growth, petioles, and 
midrib more or less clothed with appressed, short gray hairs, which are also 
sometimes found sparsely scattered over the lamina on the under surface. 
Inflorescence lateral on the two-year-old wood. Eacemes seldom exceeding 2in. 
in length, pedicels about -|in. Flowers not seen. Drupe (not quite ripe) oval, 
fin. long ; pericarp juicy, sharply acid ; putamen deeply pitted, containing 1 or 2 
seeds. The fruit structure reminds of the Indian species E. ohlonga, 

Hab.: Eumundi, Field, Naturalists, March, 1894. 

7. Zi. grandis (one of the largest trees in scrubs, hence the name), F. v. M. 
Fragm. ii. 81 ; Benth. Fl. Atistr. i. 281. Quandong ; " Moorqun," Upper Barron, 
./. F. Bailey : " Caloon," Nerang, Schneider. A tall tree, glabrous except the young 
shoots, slightly silky-hairy. Leaves on short petioles, oblong or lanceolate, obtuse 
or scarcely acuminate, 4 to 6in. long, crenulate, narrowed at the base, scarcely 
coriaceous, the smaller veins not prominent. Flowers large, in short dense racemes. 
Sepals fully Jin., including their long subulate, points. Petals longer, divided into 
about 5 deeply fringed lobes, silky-pubescent on the margin towards the base. 
Stamens very numerous ; anthers linear, the upper valve pointed and ending in 
1 or 2 short fine setae. Ovary silky-tomentose, 6-oelled, with about 4 ovules 
in each cell. Drupe blue, globular, lin. diameter ; putamen hard and rugose. 

Hab.: A scrub tree ot North and South Queensland. 

The large flowers, pubescent petals, and pointed anthers, refer this species to the section 
Monocera, usually considered as a distinct genus, but the group is neither natural nor accurately 
defined. — Benth. 

Wood of a light colour, grain close, considered a useful timber where toughness is required. — 
Bailey's Gat. Ql. IVoods No. 36. 

8. a. foveolatus (foveolate) F. v. M. Fragm. v. 157, vi. 172, viii. 2. 
Branchlets silky-tomentose or glabrescent with age. Leaves coriaceous, 2 to Sin. 
long, 10 to 15 lines broad, almost entire or repand-crenulate, lanceolate, point 
obtuse, rusty-tomentose on the under side and foveolate in the axils of the 
principal nerves ; reticulation copious, the upper side glabrous. Petioles 6 to 18 
lines long. Eacemes about 2in. long. Pedicels 6 to 8 lines long, rather stout, 
curved at the end, with a clothing of rusty hairs as well as the peduncles. Flower 
buds almost globose. Sepals fugaceous, 2 to 2|- lines long, silky outside. Petals 
valvate, almost entire, silky outside. Stamens 30 to 40. Anthers a line or a 
little more long. Style short, about a ].ine long. Ovary ovate, 8-celled. Fruit 
elliptical-ovate, about 8 lines diameter, on a peduncle of about 6 lines. 

Hab.: Mountain Eanges, Rockingham Bay, J. Dallacliy (F. v, M.) 

9. E. ruminatus (ruminate), F. v. M. Fracpn. viii. 1, x. 4. A tree of about 
60ft., the branchlets glabrescent. Leaves 2 to 4in. long, 1 to l^in. broad, ovate- 
lanceolate, acuminate, repand-serrulate, under side pale, reticulation close, often 
foveolate at the axils of the principal nerves. Eacemes 2 to Sin. long, hoary 
when young. Flower buds pyramidal-ovate. Petals silvery-silky outside. 
Stamens 20 to 25, anthers mucronulate, ovary silky. Fruit blue, about 6 lines 
diameter. Pericarp slightly spongy and acid. Putamen woody, usually 1-seeded. 

Hab.: Dense scrubs, Eockingham Bay, J. Dallacliy (F. v. M.) 

10. E. 'Grrahami (after Dr. George Graham), F. v. M. Fragm. x. 3. A 
tall tree, the branchlets silky tomentose. Leaves chartaceous, broad-lanceolate, 
4 to 6in. long, 1 to IJin. broad, point slender, crenate- serrulate, the principal 
nerves on the under side silky-pubescent, the reticulation a little prominent. 
Eacemes Sin. long, numerous, slightly pilose. Pedicels 4 to 8 lines long, 
capillary. Bracts and bracteoles subulate, about 1 line long. Flower buds 

FJceocarpm.] XXtV. TILIACE^. 165 

slender-conical. Sepals 5, linear-lanceolate, almost 3 lines long. Petals narrow- 
oblong, fringe very fine. Stamens 15 to 17, puberulous. Anthers barbellate- 
mucronulate, about 1 line long. Style setaceous, 3 to 4 lines long, glabrous. 
Disk annular, glabrous. Ovary 2-celled. 
Hab.: Daintree River, E. Fitzalun (P. v. M.) 

11. E. sericopetalus (silky petals), F. r. M. Fvagm. vi. 171. A tree 40ft. 
or more high. Leaves oval-lanceolate, 2^ to B^in. long, thin-coriaceous, finely 
crenulate cuneate and entire at the base, usually shortly and obtusely acuminate 
at the point, glabrous on each face, nerves slender and patent, not foveolate, the 
upper reticulation somewhat prominent. Eacemes with the short peduncle 1^ to 
2^in. long, thinly hoary-silky. Flower buds globose, nodding. Pedicels 3 to 4 
lines long. Sepals rigidly valvate, lanceolate, 2 lines long, inserted with the 
petals below the disk. Petals white, oblong, membianous, somewhat acute, 
imbricate above, almost valvate below, quite entire except the minutely denticulate 
apex, outside hoary-silky. Stamens 40 to 60, very shortly pubescent. Anthers 
pointless, linear-tetragonal, about f line long. Style about | line long, subulate. 
Disk flattened, annulate, very slightly crenulate. 

Hab.: Mountains about Eookingham Bay, J. Dallachy (F. v. M.) 


Flowers regular, hermaphrodite. Sepals 5, rarely 4, free or united at the base, 
imbricate or rarely almost valvate. Petals as many, hypogynous or rarely 
slightly perigynous, imbricate, usually contorted. Stamens as many as petals or 
twice or rarely thrice as many, united into a ring or short tube at the base ; 
anthers 2-celled, with parallel cells opening longitudinally. Glands 5, adnate to 
or embedded in the outside of the stamina! tube or rarely wanting. Disk none 
(besides the staminal tube). Ovary free, entire, 3 to 6-celled. Ovules 2 or rarely 
1 in each cell, pendulous, anatropous, with a ventral raphe. Styles 8 to 5, 
distinct or more or less united, with terminal usually capitate stigmas. Fruit 
either a capsule, separating into cocci, usually dehiscent, or a drupe, with as many 
pyrenes as carpels, or more frequently reduced by abortion to 1. Seeds 1 or 2 in 
each coccus or pyrene ; testa membranous or almost coriaceous ; albumen fleshy, 
abundant or thin or entirely wanting. Embryo usually straight, with flat, ovate 
cotyledons ; radicle superior. — Herbs, shrubs, or rarely trees, glabrous or rarely 
hirsute or tomentose. Leaves alternate or very rarely opposite, simple and 
entire or slightly serrate. Stipules lateral or within the petiole, sometimes 
minute or wanting. 

An Order formerly almost limited to the genus Linum, but lately extended to include several 
small Orders or genera, chiefly tropical, from both the New and the Old World. 'J he two 
Australian genera are the only two large ones, both of them widely dispersed, one chiefly in 
temperate regions, the other within the tropics. — Benth. 

Tbibe I. Eulinefe. — Petals contmted, fugacious. Perfect stamens, as many as petals. 
Capsule septicidally dehiscent. Herbs, rarely shrubs. 
Calyx glabrous or pubescent. Styles 5. Capsule 5, apparently 10-celled, with 

1 seed in each cell . . • 1- Linum. 

Calyx glabrous. Styles 3 or 4. Capsule 3 or 4-celled 2. Beinwakutia. 

Tbibe II. SZugToniese. — Petals contorted, fugacious. Perfect stamens 2 or 3 times as many 
as the petals. Fruit a drupe. Usually scandent shrubs, with hooked woody tendrils. 
Sepals subacute, tomentose, ebracteate ... . . 3. Hugonia. 

Tribe III. Brytliroxyleae. — Petals imbricate, rarely contorted, with a scale on the inner 

face, at length deciduous. Perfect stamens twice as many as the petals. Fruit a drupe. Shrubs 
or trees. 

Pedicels axillary. Petals with a double scale. Drupe 1-seeded . . . i. Ekythkoxvlon. 

166 XXV. LINE^. 

1. LINUM, Linn. 

(From Linon, the old Greek name.) 

Sepals 5. Petals 5, contorted, without appendages. Stamens 5, perfect ; 
staminodia as many, alternating with the stamens, minute, tooth-like or hair- 
like, or sometimes scarcely conspicuous. Glands 5, small, scarcely prominent on 
the staminal tube, opposite the petals. Ovary 5-celled, with 2 collateral ovules in 
each cell. Capsule dividing into 5 cocci, with 2 seeds in each separated by an 
imperfect partition, or into 10 1-seeded cocci when the partition is more complete. 
Albumen thin. — Herbs. Leaves narrow, entire. Stipules none or minute and 

A large genus, widely distributed over the temperate or warmer extratropical regions of the 
clobe, with a few tropical American species. The Australian species are endemic, but very 
glosely allied to some of the commonest blue-flowered species of the northern hemisphere. — Benth. 

Sepals acute or acuminate. Styles free . . . . 1. L. usitatissimum. 

Sepals acute or acuminate. Styles united to above the middle . . . 2. L. marginale. 

Sepals very obtuse . ... , S. L. sucedccfoliuvi. 

Mowers small, yellow . . . . 4. i. gallicum. 

*1. Xi. usitatissimum (most useful), Lirew. An erect annual 2 to -Ift. high. 
Stem cylindrical, simple or corymbosely branched above. Leaves linear or 
lanceolate, narrow, sub-3-nerved, without stipular glands. Flowers blue, lin. 
diameter, in broad cymes. Sepals ovate-acuminate, margins white, 3-nerved, 
eglandular, margins ciliate or not. Styles quite free, stigmas linear-clavate. 
Capsule scarcely exceeding the sepals. 

Hab.: Europe. A stray from cultivation. 

2. Ii, marginale (alluding to scarious border of sepals), A. Cunn.; Planch, in 
Hook. Land. Journ. vii. 169 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 283. A glabrous herb, 
forming a thick perennial rootstock, but also sometimes apparently annual, with 
erect or ascending slender stems of 1 to 2ft., corymbosely branched above the 
middle. Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, acute or the lowest almost obtuse, 
often all under "lin., but the upper ones sometimes lin. long. Stipular glands 
wanting. Flowers blue, on erect pedicels, forming a loose, irregular, terminal 
corymb. Sepals ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute or cuspidate, 2 to 3 lines long 
with a strong midrib, the margins thin and often with a narrow scarious border. 
Petals from a little longer to twice as long. Styles united to above the middle. 
Capsule dividing into 10 1-seeded cocci. — Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 46 ; F. v. M. PI. 
Vict. i. 178 ; L. angmti folium, DC. Prod. i. 426 (as to the New Holland locality) ; 
Bartl. in PI. Preiss. i. 161. 

Hab.: Darling Downs. 

3. I., susedaefolium (Sureda-leaved), Plawh. in Hook. Loml. Jown. vii. 
168 ; Benth. Fl. Amtr. i. 283. Apparently an annual, with numerous short erect 
stems. Leaves crowded, linear, obtuse, 3 or 4 lines long, without stipular glands. 
Flowers and fruit of the small varieties of L. mair/inale, except that the sepals 
are very obtuse, those of the lower flowers almost dilated at the top. 

Hab.: Balonne River, Mitchell (Herb. Lindl.) The specimen is very imperfect. It is probably 
a variety of L. marcjvude, with which some specimens in F. v. Mueller's Herbarium with less 
pointed sepals than usual would seem to connect it. — Benth. 

*4. Z.. gallicum (French), Linn. Plant glabrous, usually producing many 
erect, slender stems. Leaves linear-lanceolate. Flowers small, yellow, in a 
terminal corym. Sepals ciliate at the base, subulate at the apex. Petals blunt, 
twice as long as i^he calyx. 

Hab.: Mediterranean region. Now and again has been met with about Brisbane. 

XXV. LINK^. 167 

*2. REINWARDTIA, Dumort, 

(After K. G. K. Reinwardt.) 

Sepals 5, quite entire, lanceolate, acuminate. Petals 5, contorted, fugacious, 
much longer than the sepals. Stamens 5, hypogynous, connate below, alternating 
with as many interposed subulalt; staminodes. Glands 2 or H, adnate to the 
staminal ring. Ovary 3 to 5-celled, 2-o\ ulate (the cells falsely 2-celled) ; styles 
;-> to 4, filiform, free or connate below, stigmas subcapitate ; ovules 1 in each cell. 
Capsule globose, splitting into 6 to 8 cocci. Seeds reniform. — Undershrubs. 
Leaves alternate, quite entire or crenate-serrate ; stipules minute, subulate, 
caducous. Flowers yellow, in axillary and terminal cymose fascicles, rarely 

1. R. trigyna (three-styled), Plam-h. in Hook, Fl. Brit. Ind. An under- 
shrub, 2 to 3ft. high, spreading by suckers (surcuhgerus). Leaves 1 to '6m. long, 
elliptic-obQvate, usually rounded and mucronate at the tip. Flowers often lin. 
diameter. Styles 8, free or connate at the base. Capsule shorter than the 
sepals. — Linum trifjynum, DC. . 

Hab.: This Indian plant i? frequently met with, as a stray from garden oultm-e, near the 
principal towns. 

3. HUGONIA, Linn. 
(After Dr. A. J. Hugo.) 

Sepals 5. Petals 6, contorted, fugacious. Stamens 10, hypogynous, with 
glandular swellings on the basal ring between the filaments, which are connate 
below. Ovary 5-ceIled ; styles 5, filiform; stigmas capitate; ovules 2, collateral 
in each cell. Drupe globose. Seeds compressed, albuminous ; embryo straight 
or slightly curved, cotyledons flat. — Climbing shrubs, often tomentose. Leaves 
alternate, setrate, stipulate. Inflorescence various. Flowers yellow, lower 
peduncles converted into spiral hooks. 
Besides our species the genus is met with in tropical Asia and Africa. 

1. I£. .Jenkinsii (after W. S. Jenkins), F. r. M. Fraipn. v. 7. A showy 
climbing shrub, the branchlets slightly angular, dark but often with a glaucous 
covering. Stipules very short, unequal, setaceous. Leaves on somewhat short 
petioles, coriaceous, ovate to narrow-lanceolate, glabrous, repand-crenulate, 
attaining a length of about 7in. and a breadth of over 2in., glossy on both faces. 
Lateral nerves somewhat distant, the reticulation copious. The cieri or tendrils 
alternate or subopposite, stout, suloate-striate, usually situated at the base of the 
present year's growth. Inflorescence racemose panicles in the upper axils. Bracts 
and bracteoles lanceolate-subulate. Pedicels short. The two outer sepals 
herbaceous, the others with membranous margins. Petals yellow, 3 to 4 lines 
long, obovate-cuneate, truncate or emarginate, on very short claws, contorted in 
the bud, soon deciduous. Stamens glabrous, some connate to near the middle. 
Anthers with oblique-ellipsoid cells. Styles capillary, 2 or 3 lines long, fi'ee, 
glabrous. Fruit globose-ovate, yellowish when fresh. Embryo green. 

Hab.: Eockingham Bay, Dallachy (P. v. M.) ; Daintree Biver, E. Fitlnlun (F. v. M.) ; 
Jlourilyan Harbour, W. MiKjfurd. 


(From the red colour of wood of some species.) 

Sepals 5, rarely 6, united into a lobed calyx, or free. Petals as many, with a 
2-lobed appendage inside below the lamina. Stamens 10, rarely 12, the basal 
tube short, without glands, or more or less thickened into 10 glands, the filaments 
attached inside just below the crenulate top. Ovary 3 rarely 4-celled, with 1 or 

l68 XXV. LINEJE. [Erythroxylon. 

rarely 2 ovules in each cell. Drupe usually 1-seeded. Albumen copious, or thin, 
or none. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves entire. Stipules united into one within the 
the petiole, deciduous, or persistent especially on the leafless base of the young 
shoots. Flowers small, whitish, solitary or clustered in the axil of leaves or of 
leafless stipules. 

A large tropical genus, abundant in S. America, less so in Africa and Asia. The two Aus- 
tralian species are perhaps endemic, but there is so much general similarity in the species of this 
genus, and their characters so vague and variable, that it is exceedingly difficult to determine 
their limits. — Benth. 

Leaves oblong or narrow-elliptical, lin. long or less, or the smaller ones 

cuneate-obovate, the veins few 1. E. australe. 

Leaves obovate or ovate-elliptical, li to 2Jin. long, or the smaller ones rarely 

lin., the veins numerous and finely reticulated 2. E. elUpticum. 

1. E. australe (Australian), F. v. M. in Trans. Vict. Inst. iii. 22 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. 
i. 284. A small tree or glabrous shrub, with slender divaricate branches. Leaves 
elliptical-oblong, or the smaller ones cuneate or almost obovate, in some specimens 
all under l^in* long, in more luxuriant ones about lin., the pinnate veins fewer 
and less reticulate than in many other species. Stipules small and deciduous. 
Pedicels solitary or rarely clustered, short or rarely attaining 3 lines, with minute 
bracteoles at their base. Flowers very small. Calyx not 1 line long, divided to 
below the middle, the lobes almost or quite valvate. Inner appendage of the 
petals with 2 very short crested lobes. Styles free or shortly cohering at the base. 
Drupe oblong, 3 to 3-J lines long, 3-eelled, but with only 1 seed. Albumen thin ; 
radicle slender, shorter than the ovate cotyledons. 

Hab.: Brigalow scrub on the Burdekin, Suttor, and Dawson Eivers, F. v. Mueller ; Comet 
Eiver, Leichhardt ; Eookhampton and Fitzroy Eiver, Thozet ; and many other localities in the 
south of the colony. 

The late Mr. Staiger finds that the leaves do not contain cocaine, but they contain coea-tannic 
acid, and also a yellow dye-stuff which may prove of value. 

Wood red in colour, close in grain, and prettily marked. — Bailey's Gat. Ql. Woods No. 37. 

2. E. ellipticum (elliptic), R. Br. Herb.; Benth. Fl. Amtr. i. 284 {in part), 
This species forms a tree about 86ft. high, with a trunk diameter of 12 or more 
inches. The young branches flattened. Leaves obovate or ovate-elliptical, very 
obtuse, 1\ to 2^in. long or the smaller ones rarely only lin., on petioles of about 
1 line, rather thin, the primary nerves not much more prominent than the 
reticulation, with very numerous and finely reticulated veins. Stipules usually 
about 2 lines long, and always longer than the petioles, deciduous. Flowers in 
axillary clusters of 3 to 6, the pedicels 2 to 4 lines long, with minute bracts at 
their base. Calyx about 1 line long, divided nearly to the base into lanceolate 
acute lobes, very slightly imbricate or almost valvate. Petals more than twice 
the length of the calyx, boat-shaped, very deciduous, the 2-lobed inner appendages 
very prominent and crumpled. Styles quite free, recurved. Drupe oblong, with 
a reddish, sweet pericarp, 3 to 4 lines long, 3-celled, 2 outer cells empty, the centre 
cell 1-seeded. 

Hab.: Near Telegraph Station, Walsh Eiver, T. Barclay-Millar. Previously only known from 
Dr. Eobt. Brown's specimens gathered about 1802 on the mainland off Groote Bylandt. 

The timber is excellent, resembles tulip-wood, is close in grain, and very durable. 

Bark rough-corky, becoming hard with age. 

Wood of a dark-brown colour, with light stripes, nicely marked, close-grained and firm ; easily 
worked, and should be valuable for cabinet work. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No. 38. 


Flowers usually hermaphrodite. Calyx 5-cleft, the segments imbricate or rarely 
valvate, all, or more frequently 4 only (or rarely 3 or none of them), bearing 2 
glands outside. Petals 5, usually equal, concave, toothed or notched, on 


slender claws. Disk scarcely prominent. Stamens usually 10, all perfect, or 
some of them deformed or without anthers, or sometimes wanting, the filaments 
usually united at the base ; anthers 2-celled. Ovary usually 3-oelled, or the 3 
carpels distinct, with 1 ovule in each, ascending from a pendulous ventral funicle. 
Styles distinct, or united, or one only developed, with small terminal stigmas. 
Fruit-carpels 3 or fewer, either united in a berry, drupe, or hard capsule, or more 
frequently forming separate indehiscent nuts or winged samarte. Seeds without 
albumen, the testa usually membranous and double. Embryo straight or curved; 
cotyledons thin or fleshy, often unequal ; radicle short, superior. — Trees, shrubs, 
or rarely undershrubs, frequently chmbing. Hairs usually closely appressed and 
fixed by the centre. Leaves mostly opposite, with glands at the top of the 
petiole, and often on the margin underneath. Stipules usually small, deciduous, 
or none. Flowers usually yellow, red, or white, in racemes either simple and 
terminal or collected in corymbs or umbels, the pedicels articulate on the common 

A large tropical and subtropical Order, abundant in S. America, much less so in Africa and 
Asia. The only two Australian species belong to small genera spread over the Eastern Archi- 
pelago and S. Pacific Islands. Both genera are exceptional as being deprived of the oalyoine 
glands so general in the Order. — Benth. 

Tkise I. Banisterles. 

Carpels with 1 vertical, large, oblong or incurved wing. Flowers in irregular 

corymbs. Styles 3 . . . 1. Etssoptebys. 

Tribe II. Kirefe. 

Carpels with several (7 or more) small linear, stellately spreading wings. 

Flowers in sample racemes. Styles 1 or 2, unequal 2. Tristellateu. 


(From the tubercles which cover the wings of the fruit.) 

Calyx without glands. Petals scarcely clawed. Stamens all perfect, the 
filaments thickened at the base ; anthers without appendages. Ovary 3-lobed, 
8-celled, villous ; styles 3, slender, with capitate stigmas. Samaras 1 to 3, 
expanded at the summit into a wing, of which the upper margin is thickened, 
tuberculate on the sides below the wing. Seeds oblong, with a slightly curved 
embryo. — Woody climbers. Leaves opposite. Inflorescence terminal or apparently 
axillary from the reduction of the flowering branches, compound, irregularly 
corymbose. Peduncles bracteate at the base, with 2 bracteoles at the articulation 
of the pedicels. 

A small genus, dispersed over the Eastern Archipelago, one of the species extending into 
Australia . — Benth. 

1. B» timorensis (also of Timor), Blume; A. Juss. ^lalpuih. 133; Benth. 
Fl. Austr. i. 285. A tall climber, the young shoots hoary-pubescent. Leaves on 
rather long petioles, broadly cordate-ovate or orbicular, obtuse or rather acute, 
3 to Sin. long, somewhat coriaceous, glabrous above when full grown, hoary- 
pubescent underneath, with 1 or 2 prominent glands at the top of the petiole, 
those on the margin of the leaf very small. Flowers on pedicels of 2 or 3 lines, 
in short racemes arranged in irregular corymbs. Bracts and bracteoles very 
small. Fruit carpels or samaras pubescent, the lateral tubercles very prominent, 
the wing broadly semicircular, about fin. long and 5 or 6 lines broad. — Deless. 
Ic. Sel. iii. t. 35. 

Hab.: Cape Cleveland, A. Cunningham; Pitzroy Biver, Thozet. The specimens are in fruit 
only, but agree perfectly with those we have in the same state from Timor. Some other species 
from the Archipelago are closely allied, but differ chiefly in the longer and narrowei- wing of the 
samaras. — Benth. 


(Referring to the star-like wings of the 3 carpels.) 

Calyx without any or with very minute glands. Petals distinctly clawed. 
Stamens all perfect, filaments rigid, truncate, and articulate at the top ; anthers 
acute. Ovary :-J-lobed, style single or 2, or very rarely 3 unequal ones, the others 
reduced to small papillaa. Fruit-carpels 3, each one bearing about 7 small hnear 
stellately spreading wings. Seeds obovoid ; testa membranous, cotyledons fleshy, 
hooked. — Woody climbers. Leaves opposite or whorled, the petioles bearing 1 or 
2 glands at the top, and minute stipules at the base. Flowers yellow, in terminal 
or lateral racemes. 

A small genus ranging over Madagascar and the Indian Archipelago, one species from the 
latter region extending into Australia. — Benth. 

1. T. australasica (Australasian), A. Bkh. Sert. Astml. 38, t. 15 ; Benth. 
Fl. Austr. i. 280. A tall, glabrous climber. Leaves opposite, on rather short 
petioles, ovate, acute, 2 to 4in. long, membranous, the glands of the petiole 
usually single and sometimes wanting. Eacemes terminal, loose, 4 to 6in. long, 
Pedicels opposite, -| to lin. long, articulate, with 2 minute bracteoles below the 
middle. Petals 3 or 4 lines long, spreading, the lamina ovate-cordate, the claw 
slender. Filaments much thickened below the middle, and very shortly united. 
Fruit (only seen in Archipelago specimens) quite glabrous, the wings of the carpels 
unequal, the longest often 3 lines long. 

Hab.: Brown's River, M'GiUivray. 

The species is found in various islands of the Indian Archipelago. The specimens described 
under the name of Platynema laurifolium by Wight and Arnott, in .Jameson's Journal, and 
inserted in their " Prodromus," p. 107, as of doubtful Ceylonese origin, provsd afterwards to have 
been from Singapore. — Benth. 


Flowers usually hermaphrodite and regular. Sepals 5 or 4, very rarely 6, free 
or connate at the base, imbricate or rarely valvate in the bud. Petals as 
many, free, imbricate or contorted, rarely valvate or wanting. Disk convex or 
depressed, rarely annular or undeveloped. Stamens usually the same or twice 
the number of the petals, the filaments most frequently with a scale or wings at 
or below the middle ; anthers 2-celled, opening longitudinally. Ovary sessile or 
shortly stalked, often angular, with as many cells as petals or sepals, rarely 
more or fewer ; style simple, with a simple or rarely lobed stigma. Ovules 2 or 
more in each cell, rarely solitary, pendulous or ascending, with a ventral raphe. 
Fruit sometimes drupaceous, never baccate, more usually separating into inde- 
hiscent or 2-valved cocci, the endocarp occasionally separating. Seeds solitary or 
rarely several, pendulous ; testa membranous, crustaceous, or thick and 
mucilaginous when wetted ; albumen usually thin. Embryo as long as the seed, 
green, straight, or rarely curved ; cotyledons oblong or linear, radicle short, 
superior. — Shrubs, undershrubs, or herbs, the branches usually divaricate and 
articulate at the nodes. Leaves opposite, or rarely alternate by the abortion of 
1 of each pair, 2- foliate or pinnate, rarely simple, the leaflets usually entire. 
Stipules in pairs. Peduncles axillary, 1-flowered, or rarely branching into cymes. 
Flowers mostly white, yellow, or red. 

A small Order, nearly allied on the one hand to MuLijifiliiacea', on the other to Gvnininoeui and 
Eutacaz, dispersed chiefly over the subtropical regions of both the Old and New World, and most 
abundant in dry desert or saline regions. The three Australian genera are all common to Africa 
and Asia, and one of them extends also to Europe and America. — Benth. 


Seeds exalbuminous. 
Leaves pinnate. Petals 5, flat. Pi'nitot 5 hard, indehisoent, usually prickly 
or tuberculate oooci . . . . . . ... ... 1. Tribuluk. 

Leaves simple. Petals H, oonoave. Fruit a drupe with ahaid 1-seeded nut 2. Niteaeia. 
Seeds albuminous 
Leaves with 2 leafletsor lobos. Petals ior j, flat. Fruit a i or5-angled or 

winged capsule ... . . ... . . . .... 3. ZvooPHyLLUM. 

1. TRIBULUS, Linn. 

(From tfibo, to tear ; referring to the prickly fruits.) 

(Tribulopis, E. Br.) 

Sepals 5, rarely 6. Petals as many, flat. Disk annular, 10-lobed or sinuate, 
with a gland at tiie base of each of the inner stamens, alternating with the petals. 
Stamens twice as many as petals, the filaments filiform, without appendages. 
Ovary of 5 or sometimes more cells, with 1 or 2 to 6 superposed ovules in each 
cell. Fruit separating into as many cocci as carpels, hard, indehiscent, and 
each usually bearing 2 or more prickles or tubercles. — Herbs, usually prostrate 
or divaricate and hairy. Leaves abruptly pinnate, opposite, with one of each pair 
smaller than the other, or sometimes abortive or all alternate. Stipules small, 
lanceolate, or falcate. Pedicels solitary in the axil of the smaller leaf of each 
pair, or opposed to the leaf when alternate. Flowers white or yellow. 

The genus is dispersed over the greater part of the tropical and warm regions of the globe, 
extending into Europe and N. America. Of the Queensland species, one is abundant in Asia, 
Africa, and S. Europe, another is most common in tropical America, less so in Asia and Africa, 
and the others are all endemic— Bent/j. 

Leaves, at least the upper ones, opposite. Glands of the disk not very 
prominent. Ovules 2 or more in each cell. (Tribulus proper). 
Cocci rounded at the back, without angular or winged edges. 
Cocci with 2 or 4 prickles, rarely minute or deficient. 
Leaves almost all opposite. Ovules 3 or 4 in each cell. 
Annual. Flowers small. Petals about Jin. . 1. T. terrestris. 

Perennial. Flowers large. Petals about Jin. . . . 2. T. cistoides. 

Flowers large. 

Cocci 2 maturing, each 7 lines diameter, silky . . . . . . 3. T. occidentalis. 

Cocci covered with numerous nearly equal prickles . . ... 4. T. hystrix. 

Leaves (except T. minutus) all alternate. Glands of the disk prominent. 
Ovules solitary. Fruit pyramidal, the cocci with 2 or 4 tubercles or 
small prickles below the middle. (Tribulopis, R. Br.) 
Leaflets 2 pairs, the lowest much smaller. Perfect stamens usually 5 5. T. pentandrus. 

Leaflets about 3 pairs, ovate, or lanceolate, the lowest distant from the 

stem. Anthers 10, nearly similar. Flowers small . . . . 6. T. Solandri. 

Leaflets 4 to 6 pairs, linear. Anthers 10, similar. Flowers large ... 7. T. anriustifolius. 
Leaflets 2 or 3 pairs, linear. Flowers small, 5 perfect. Anthers 5, sterile. 8. T. lejjtophyllus. 
Leaflets 3 to 6 pairs, small, ovate or lanceolate. Leaves mostly opposite. 

Anthers 10, similar. Flowers very small , 9. T. miimtux. 

1. T. terrestris (from its prostrate habit), Linn.; DC. Prod. i. 703 ; Benth. 
Fl. Austr. i. 288. Cat's-head, or Catrops. A prostrate annual or biennial, more 
or less hirsute or silky-hairy, especially the young shoots, the stems extending 
often to 1 or 2ft. Leaves opposite, unequal ; leaflets of the larger one usually 5 
to 7 pairs, obliquely oblong, 8 to 5 lines long. Pedicels shorter than the opposite 
larger leaf. Flowers small, the sepals rarely attaining 2 lines and often much 
less, the petals rather longer, but very rarely nearly twice as long. Anthers 10, 
all small and perfect. Ovules 3 or 1 in each cell. Cocci 5, hard, 2 to 3 lines 
long, glabrous or hairy, rounded on the back, with 2 marginal, divaricate, 
horizontal, subulate or conical prickles about half-way up, and often 2 smaller 
reflexed ones lower down, the rest of the surface usually tuberculate or shortly 

l72 XXVII. ZYGOPHYLLE^. [Trihulus. 

muricate. Seeds 2 to 4 in each coccus, horizontal and separated by transverse 
partitions.— Eeichb. Ic. Fl. Germ. v. t. 161 ; F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 99 ; T. 
lanuginosus, Linn.; DC. Prod. i. 704 ; Wight, Ic. t. 98 ; T. acanthococcics, F. 
V. M. in Trans. Phil. Sec. Vict. i. 9. 

Ilab.. Common in many parts of the colony both north and south. 

The species is a common weed in S. Europe, temperate Africa, and S. Asia. — Bentli. 

2. T. cistoides (flowers like the Eock Eose), LAnn.; DC. Prod. i. 703 ; Benth. 
Fl. Austr. i. 288. A perennial, forming at length a thick rootstook. Branches 
procumbent or ascending, attaining 1 to 2ft. Indumentum more silky than in T. 
terrestris. Larger leaf of each pair with frequently 7 or 8 pairs of leaflets. 
Flowers large, on longer peduncles than in T. terrestris ; the sepals 8 or 4 lines 
long, very acute, silky-hairy ; the petals obovate, at least fin. long. Anthers 
usually (perhaps not always) oblong or linear. Fruit like that of T. terrestris or 
rather larger, with 2 or very rarely 4 prickles to each coccus. — A. Gray, 111. Gen. 
N. Am. t. 145. 

Hab.: Gulf of Carpentaria, Northumberland Island, R. Brown; Port Curtis, Port MoUe, 
M'Oillivray ; Lord Howick's ^roup, F. v. Mueller ; Port Denison, Fitzalan. 

The species is frequent in the West Indies and many parts of tropical America, and in the 
Pacific Islands, rare in tropical Asia and Africa. — Benth. 

3. T. occidentalis (Western. First found in Western Australia), R. Br., 
in Ajjp. Sturt Exped. A diffuse or prostrate plant, the branches densely 
tomentose-hirsute or woolly. The upper leaves opposite, the larger one of each 
pair with 8 or 9 pairs of leaflets, silky-hairy, the base oblique, the apex pointed, 
about 5 lines long and 2 lines wide. Pedicels slender, 1-^ to If in. long. Sepals 
narrow, 6 lines long. Petals of a deep-yellow, exceeding an inch in length, 
cuneate, 6 lines broad at the upper end. Stamens 10, long as the sepals ; anthers 
all perfect, oblong ; ovary covered with long barbellate bristles ; style glabrous, 
together with the ovary equalling in length that of the stamens. Cocci usually 
but 2 coming to maturity, each of which are about 7 lines long and 5 lines broad, 
and clothed by a dense covering of soft white silky hairs, and numerous long 
hairy-subulate spines, thus the extreme diameter of fruit, including spine, will 
often measure over l^in. The fruit examined not fully ripe. 

Hab.: Diamantina, Dr. Thos. L. Bancroft. 

The first specimens of this plant. Dr. Kobt. Brown tells us, were gathered on the west coast of 
Australia, or on some of its islands, by the naturalists of the " Beagle." App. I.e. Mr. Bentham, 
Fl. Austr. i. 289, says: "In J. MoDouall Stuart's collection is a fragmentary specimen from 
Fink Elver, with a much larger flower, which may possibly be a variety of T. hystrix, but is 
indeterminable without fruit." Both these notices agree with the Diamantina plant, and 
differ, in my opinion, sufficiently from T. hystrix to bear Dr. Brown's name as above. 

4. T. hystrix (fruitlets porcupine-like), R. Br. in App. Sturt Exped. 6 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 289. A diffuse or prostrate perennial or undershrub, the 
branches densely tomentose-hirsute or woolly. Lower leaves (at least in some 
specimens) alternate, upper ones opposite, the larger one of each pair with 6 to 8 
or even more pairs of leaflets, rather broad and softly silky-hairy. Flowers 
smaller than in T. cistoides, but much larger than in T. terrestris, the petals 
generally about ^in. long. Ovary very hirsute, with 3 or 4 ovules in each cell. 
Cocci very villous, covered all over with hairy prickles, either subulate from the 
base or more or less thickened and conical. 

Hab.: Towards the Gull of Carpentaria. 

5. T. pentandrus (five stamens), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 290. A slender, 
branching, prostrate annual, often attaining 1ft. in length, more or less hairy. 
Leaves all alternate, with 2 pairs of oblong-lanceolate leaflets, the terminal ones 
4 to 8 hnes long, the lower pair much smaller, usually not half the size. Flowers 


small, on slender pedicels. Petals oblong. Stamens usually 5, with globose or 
ovoid perfect anthers, and 5 small with imperfect capitate anthers, or entirely 
wanting. Ovules solitary in each cell of the ovary. Fruit pyramidal, 1 to 1-j 
line long, with 2 small tubercles at the base of each coccus. — Trihulopia pentandra, 
R. Br. in App. Sturt Bxped. 7 ; F. v. M. Fragm. i. 48 ; Trihulm Bruimii, 
F. v. M. PI. of Vict. i. 99. 

Hab.: Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, B,. Br. (Benth. I.e.) 

6. T. Solandri (after Dr. Solander), F. v. M. PL Vict. i. 99 (partly) ; Benth. 
Fl. Austr. i. 290. An annual, with prostrate or ascending stems, pubescent or 
nearly glabrous. Leaves alternate ; leaflets usually 3 pairs, rarely 2 pairs, 
obliquely ovate or oblong-falcate, 3 to 6 lines long, the lowest pair distant from 
thg stem and nearly of the size of the others, all glabrous except the ciliate 
margins or slightly hairy, those of the upper leaves sometimes narrower and 
lanceolate. Flowers small. Stamens usually all perfect, with small anthers. 
Fruit pyramidal, about 3 lines long, glabrous or slightly tomentose, with 2 pairs 
of prominent reflexed tubercles below the middle of each coccus. — Tribulopis 
Solandri, R. Br. in App. Sturt Exp. 7. 

Hab.: GiVoexi 'BiV/ex, F. v. ibieller ; Endeavour Eiver, Bfmfa ; Lizard Island, Jlf'GiZJiwraj/. 

7. T. angustifolius (narrow-leaved), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 290. Annual or 
sometimes forming a perennial rootstock, with procumbent, ascending, or erect 
stems, glabrous or silky-pubescent. Leaves all alternate ; leaflets 4 or 5 pairs or 
sometimes more, linear, attaining lin. in length, more or less silky-pubescent. 
Flowers large, the petals usually exceeding \m. Stamens all perfect, with 
small anthers. Fruit 3 lines long, beside the rigid persistent style, which is 
about as long, with 2 minute tubercles at the base of each coccus. — Tribulopis 
angustifolia, R. Br. App. Sturt Exped. 7 ; Tribulopis Solandri, F. v. M. Fragm. i. 
47 ; Tribulus Solandri, var. angustifolia, F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 99. 

Hab.: Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Br. (Benth. I.e.) 

8. T. leptophyllus (slender-leaved), Bail. Bot. Bull. 3 A procumbent silky- 
pubescent annual extending 2 or more feet. Leaves all alternate ; leaflets 2 or 3 
pairs, linear, the end ones the longest, often attaining over lin. length. Flowers 
small, yellow, on filiform pedicels, often as long or nearly as long as the leaves. 
Petals under 3 lines long. Stamens 5, perfect anthers, and 5 smaller ones with 
imperfect capitate anthers, ovary silky. Fruit tomentose, mixed with long hairs, 
3 lines long, pyramidal. Style rigid, persistent, about half as long as the fruit ; 
coccus tubercles basal. 

Hab.: Walsh Eiver, T. Barclay-Millar. 

This new species is very closely allied to T. angustifolius, Benth., differing from that species 
in the less number of leaflets, in its small yellow flowers, and in only half the stamens having 
perfect anthers. 

9. T. minutus (small), Leichh.; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 291. Pubescent, 
apparently prostrate, and more slender than any other species. Leaves mostly 
opposite, those of each pair unequal or one occasionally abortive, the larger one of 
3 to 5 pairs of obovate or oblong leaflets, about 2 or rarely 3 lines long. Flowers 
very small. Stamens 10, with the anthers all similar. Glands prominent. 
Ovules solitary (or sometimes 2 ?) in each cell. Fruit nearly of T. Solandri, but 
smaller ; each carpel bearing a pair of small, reflexed, conical spines about the 
middle, and a pair of minute tubercles lower down. 

Hab.: ? Leichhardt Expedition. 

This species Bentham considered to connect the two groups, having the opposite leaves gf 
Trilvlus proper, with the fruit of Tribulopis. 


2. NITRARIA, Linn. 

(First found near nitre-works in Siberia.) 

Calyx snaall, 5-lobed. Petals 5, concave with inflexed points, induplicate- 
valvate in the bud. Disk not prominent. Stamens 15, rarely 10 to 14, the 
filaments free, without appendages. Ovary sessile, 2 to 6-celled, terminating in a 
short thick style, with 2 ■ to 6 adnata stigmas ; ovules solitary in each cell, 
ascending from pendulous funiculi, which are more or less adnate to their inner 
face. Fruit a drupe, with a berry-like sarcocarp ; putamen ovoid-acute, hard, 
marked outside with irregular depressions, and opening at the top in 6 short, 
pointed valves, of which 8 inner ones ^■maller. Seeds solitary, pendulous, 
without albumen. — Eigid shrubs, often thorny. Leaves alternate or clustered, 
undivided, succulent. Stipules small. Flowers small, white, in once or twice- 
forked scorpioid cymes. 

The genus, besides the widely-spread Australian species, comprises one other from Northern 
Alrica. The raphe of the seed is described as dorsal by Spach, but we have always found it 
ventral in the ovary, although the seed sometimes hangs obliquely. — Benth. 

1. N. Schffiberi (after — Schoeber), Linn.; DC. Prod. iii. 456; Benth. Fl. 
Auxtr. i. 291. A rigid, spreading shrub, attaining 3 to 6ft., glabrous or hoary 
with a very minute down, the smaller branches occasionally spinescent. Leaves 
from cuneate-oblong to lanceolate or linear, the lower ones obtuse and often lin. 
long, those of the smaller branches smaller and more acute, all entire, thick and 
fleshy. Cymes usually shortly pedunculate, the flowers sessile or shortly 
pedicellate along the scorpioid branches. Petals about 1^ line long. Ovary 8- 
celled. Drupe varying from ovoid-globular to ovoid-oblong, the putamen from J 
to more than |in. long, the depressions in the lower part round or oblong, the 
upper part marked with 6 furrows, along which the valves ultimately ojen. 
Only 1 seed or very rarely 2 come to maturity. — Andr. Bot. Eep. t. 529 ; N. 
Billai-dkii, DC. Prod. iii. 456 ; F. v. M. PL Vict. i. 92, t. Suppl. 7 ; N. 
Olifieri, Jaub. and Spach. 111. PI. Or. iii. 143, t. 295; Zyc/ophyllnm mixtralasicuin, 
Miq. in PL Preiss. i. 164. 

Hab.: Towards the South Australian border, on saline land, F. v. M. probably. 

The species is spread over the hot, more or less saline, tracts of Western Asia and northern 
Africa. A careful examination leaves no doubt of the identity so often suggested of the Aus- 
tralian a,nd northern plants. — Benth. 


(From the leaves being in pairs.) 

Sepals 4 or 6. Petals as many, flat, contracted into a short claw. Disk 
concave, angular or cup-shaped. Stamens twice as many as petals, inserted at 
the base of the disk ; filaments filiform, with an adnate scale or wing-like 
appendage at the base, which however is wanting in some of the Australian 
species. Ovary sessile, 4 or 5-angied, narrowed at the top into an angular style, 
4 or 5-celled, with 2 or more superposed ovules in each cell. Fruit capsular, with 
4 or 5 angles or vertical wings, indehiscent or separating into cocci or opening 
loculicidally, the endocarp sometimes separating. Seeds 1 or more in each cell, 
pendulous ; albumen scanty. — Shrubs or undershrubs, often prostrate. Leaves 
opposite, with 2 distinct leaflets or rarely 2-lobed, frequently fleshy. Stipules 
small. Peduncles 1 -flowered, axillary, solitary, or rarely 2 together. Flowers 
white or yellow. 

A considerable and widely-spread genus, though confined, with one exception, to the Old 
World, and chiefly numerous in the desert or saline regions of central and western Asia, North 
and South Africa. The Australian species are all endemic, — Benth. 

Zyqophijlhm.} XXVI.T. ZYGOPHYLLE^. 175 

Filaments winged at the base. Capsule angular, loonlioidal. 

Capsule broad and truncaie at the top, lln' angles usii;iHy pvoducfd into 

short appendages. J'lowera mostly "i iiii'.njuK . 1, Z. npicidaliuii. 

Capsule equally it)anded at the lop and the baso. 

Capsule 4 to 8 linos long, the oclls 2 to 4-sei'doil. Wings of the 

filaments toothed. Flciwcvs usually 4-mpi'ous . . . . 2. Z. iiliniccscerix. 

Capsule '2 to 3 lines long, the cells l-s!oedocl. Wings of the filauients 

small and entiie. Flowris usually S-mei-ous . . . S. X. iodoearpiiiii. 

Capsule oblong, the angles produced at the top into erect appendages . 4. Z. prismaloUiecum. 
Filaments subulate, not winged. 

Capsule angular, loculioidal, broad and truncate at the top, narrow at 

the base . . . ,5. X. Ilillardieri. 

Capsule indehiscent, the angles produced into broad membranous wings 6. Z. fnitkidosum. 
Varieties with leaves 2-lobed instead of 2-foliolate occur in Z. iodoca rpum, Z. prixmatotjieciim, 
Z. Bilhirdicri, and Z. fntticulnxiiiii. ; with lobed or crenate leaflets in Z. fjluiicesccns and Z. 
lodocarpmn ; and forms or states witli minute flowers in several of the species. 

1. Z. apiculatum (capsule apieulated), F. i\ M. in Lirmaa xxv. 878, and PI. 
Vict. i. 101. A diffuse, glabrous undershrub. Leaflets 2, obliquely obovate or 
rarely oblong, -Jf to lin. long, on a short common petiole. Flowers usually 5- 
merous. Filaments with rather broad wings, adnate to above the middle and 
toothed at the top. Capsule about 4 lines long, opening loculicidally, broader and 
truncate at the top, the ancles very obtuse, and produced at the upper outer 
corner into a short obtuse appendage. Seeds usually solitary in each cell. — 
Bcepera latifolia, Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 60 ; Zi/iiopliyUuiii tcrminale, Turcz. in Bull. 
Mosc. 1858, i. 487. 

Hab.: Darling Downs ; Mackenzie and Dawson Bivers,i^. v. M. (a very small-flowered variety). 

2. Z. glaucescens (glaucous), F. v. M. PL Vict. i. 228. Herbaceous, diffuse 
or erect and glabrous. Leaves of 2 broad leaflets as in Z. apiculatum, the petiole 
occasionally winged at the base. Flowers usually 4-merous. Filaments with 
toothed wings as in Z. apiculatum. Capsule usually above fin. long, opening 
loculicidally, the angles equally rounded at the. top and the base. Seeds 2 or 3 
or sometimes 4 or 5 in each cell. — Z. qlauciim, F. v. M. in Trans. Vict. Inst. 
i. 29; and PL Vict. i. 102 ; not of Sender.' 

Hab.: Eange about Toowoomba. 

Var. lobulatum, Benth. A small annual. Leaflets irregularly 2 or 3-lobed or deeply crenate. 
Flowers and fruit precisely as in the ordinary form. — Z. crenatum, F. v. M. in Linnsea, xxv. 374, 
and PI. Vict. i. 103, t. 6. On the Lachlan and Murray Elvers, and in the interior of S. Australia 
and Queensland, F. v. M. 

3. Z. iodocarpum (violet fruited), F. v. M. in Linnma, xxv. 372, and PI. 
Vict. i. lO.j. A small, much-branched, diffuse annual. Leaflets oblong- cuneate 
or almost linear, very obtuse, rarely ^iu. long, the petiole often 2-winged, espe- 
cially towards the top. Flowers very small, usually 5-merous, the petals not 
2 lines long. Filaments dilated at the base into short, narrow, entire wings, 
entirely adnate or very shortly free. Capsule 2 or rarely 3 lines long, loculicidal, 
the angles equally rounded at the top and the base. Seeds solitary in each cell. 

Hab.: Queensland, F. v. 31. I 

4. Z. prismatothecum (prism-shaped fruit), F. v. M. in Linnaa, xxv. 375. 
A much-branched, small annual. Leaves rather thick, the leaflets, in the few 
specimens seen, short and confluent with the more or less dilated petiole, so as to 
form a single two-lobed leaf. Flowers, which I have not seen, small and 
4-merous according to F. v. Mueller, the filaments dilated at the base and 
toothed or entire. Capsules nearly sessile, oblong, 4-angular, about 4 lines long, 
of equal breadth at the base and the top, where the angles terminate in small 
erect leafy appendages. Seeds solitary in each cell. 

Hab.: Border-land adjoining S. Australia, F. v. M. 

The very few specimens seen have all the foliage oi the 2-lobed varieties of Z. iodocarpum, Z. 
Billardieri, and Z. fruticulosum, but as in those species there is probably also a variety with 
normally 2-foliolate leaves. — Benth, 

176 XXVII. ZYGOPHYLLE^. [Zygophi/llum. 

5. %. Billardieri (after J. J. Labillardiere), DC. Prod. i. 705 ; Benth. Fl. 
Aicstr. i. 293. Herbaceous, prostrate or diffuse and much-branched. Leaves oblong, 
cuneate or linear, rarely obovate, ^ to lin. long, the petioles not usually winged. 
Flowers usually 4-merous, the size of those of Z. apiculatwn. Sepals narrow, very 
acute. Petals about 3 lines long. Filaments subulate or slightly flattened, 
but not winged. Capsule 3 to 5 lines long, loculicidal, broad and truncate at the 
top, narrowed to the base, the angles acute or shortly pointed or scarcely rounded 
at the upper outer corner. Seeds 1 or rarely 2 in each cell. — Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. 
i. 60 ; F. V. M. PI. Vict. i. 104 ; Bcepera Billardieri, A. Juss. in Mem. Mus. Par. 
xii. 454 (by inference) ; Z. amriiophilum. F. v. M. in linnsea, xxv. 376, in adnot. 

Hab.: Warrego. 

6. Z. fruticulosum (shrubby), DC. Prod. i. 705 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 294. 
A low diffuse or divaricately branched shrub. Leaflets obliquely oblong or 
lanceolate, rarely ovate. Flowers 4-merous, the size of those of Z. apieulatum. 
Filaments subulate, without wings. Capsule ^in. long, indehiscent, or at length 
separating septicidally into cocci opening inside, the angles expanded into broad 
membranous wings, rounded at both ends and not splitting. Seeds solitary in 
each cell. — F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 105 ; Fuepera fabagifolia, A. Juss. in Mem. Mus. 
Par. xii. 525, t. 15 ; Deless. Ic. Sel. iii. t. 42 ; Miq.'in PI. Preiss. i. 164. 

Hab.: Balonne Eiver, F. v. M. 

Var. bilobiim. Leaflets narrow, continuous with the petiole, as in Z. prisirmtotfiecmn. — Rcepera 
aurantiaca, Lindl. in Mitch. Three Exped. ii. 70 ; Z. aurantiacvm, F. v. M. in Linnsea, xxv. 
376 (note).. 


Flowers usually hermaphrodite, regular or irregular. Sepals \ 5, or rarely 
fewer, free, or rarely connate at the base, imbricate or (in genera not Australian) 
valvate in the bud. Petals as many or rarely wanting, hypogynous or slightly 
perigynous, variously imbricate in the bud. Torus more or less expanded into a 
disk, often bearing 5 glands alternate with the petals, and usually protruding 
into a short axis in the centre of the ovary. Stamens usually twice the number 
of the petals, 5 of them occasionally without anthers, or rudimentary, or in 
irregular flowers, 3 or more without anthers or wanting ; filaments either free 
and filiform, or dilated or connate at the base ; anthers with 2 parallel cells. 
Ovary usually 3 to 5-lobed, with as many cells, the carpels adnate to the axis up 
to the insertion of the ovules, and often produced above that into a beak bearing 
the style or stigmas ; stigmas as many as cells, either raised on the style or sessile 
on the carpels, radiating from a connate base or rarely entirely connate. Ovules 
either 1 in each cell or 2 inserted nearly at the same point, 1 ascending, the 
other pendulous, or several in 1 or 2 rows. Fruit either a lobed capsule, the lobes 
1-seeded, separating from the axis with the seed, and elastically rolled upwards 
along the beak, leaving the placentiferous portion attached to the axis, or the 
lobes several-seeded, remaining attached to the axis, but opening loculicidally, or 
in genera not Australian the fruit is a berry or separates into indehiscent cocci. 
Seeds pendulous or ascending ; t^sta thin or rarely crustaceous ; albumen usually 
scanty or none. Embryo straight or curved, radicle short and straight or long 
and curved or forked over the cotyledons. — Herbs or shrubs, or rarely, in genera 
not Australian, trees. Leaves opposite or alternate, toothed, lobed, or divided, 
very rarely quite entire. Stipules usually 2. Peduncles axillary, 1 or 2-flowered, 
or bearing an umbel of several flowers, very rarely a cyme or raceme. 

The Order is chiefly dispersed over the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, very 
abundant in Southern Africa, with a few extratropioal South American and tropical species. 
Of the four Australian genera, two are common in the northern hemisphere, a third, although 


chiefly Amerioan, is represented in Australia by species of an extratropical European as well as 
Amerioan type, and the fourth is almost entirely South African. The Order is very closely allied 
to Zygophyllece. — Benth. 

Tribe I. CteranleBB.— FtoHves injiilar. Sepals imbricate, (ilmidx alternate with the netaU. 
Anthenferous stamens as many or double or treble the number ofpetaU. 
Capsule beaked, the lobes 1-seeded, and elastically rolled upwards along the 
beak. Leaves toothed, lobed, or divided. 

Anthers usually 10. Tails of the carpels glabrous inside 1. Geranium. 

Anthers 5. Tails of the carpels bearded inside 2. Ebodiuw. 

Tribe II. Pelarg-oniete.— .fifu ylands. Stamem declinate. 
Flowers irregular, the upper sepal furnished with a linear tube or spur adnate 

to the pedicel. Anthers 5, 6, or 7 . 3. Pelargonium. 

Tribe III. Oxalldeae. — Flowers regular. Sepals imbricate. Glands none. Stigmas capitate. 
Capsule opening loculioidally, the valves adhering to the axis. Leaves with 3 

or many leaflets 4_ Qxalis. 

1. GERANIUM, Linn. 

(From supposed resemblance of capsule to the head and beak of a crane.) 

Flowers regular. Sepals 5. Petals 5. Glands 5, alternating with the petals. 
Stamens 10, all usually bearing anthers. Ovary 5-lobed, beaked, the beak 
terminating in the style, with 5 short stigmatic lobes. Ovules 2 in each cell. 
Capsule-lobes 1-seeded, separating from the placenta- bearing axis, enclosing the 
seed, and curled upwards on a long awn detached from the beak, and glabrous 
inside. Radicle of the embryo turned back on the folded or convolute cotyledons. 
Herbs, rarely undershrubs. Leaves opposite or alternate, toothed, lobed, or 
divided, the lobes or segments palmate, or rarely (in species not Australian) 
pinnate. Peduncles axillary or in the forks, 1 or 2-flowered. 

A large genus, widely distributed over nearly the whole globe, but more abundant in the 
northern hemisphere, and rare within the tropics. The Queensland species is also in New 
Zealand and S. America, and extends up the whole length of that continent to the N.W., and in 
a slight variety also over most temperate parts of the northern hemisphere, but does not occur 
in S. Africa. — Benth. 

1. G-. dissectum (referring to the cut leaves), Linn.; DC. Frod. i. 643, var. 
australe ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 296. Usually perennial, forming at length a thick 
rootstook, descending into a taproot. Stems diffuse, procumbent or shortly erect, 
more or less hairy with spreading or reflexed hairs, or hoary with a short pubes- 
cence. Leaves on long petioles, nearly orbicular in their circumscription, deeply 
divided into 5 or 7 segments, each one again more or less cut into 3 or more lobes, 
varying from broadly euneate-oblong to linear, and usually pubescent or hairy, 
especially underneath. Peduncles 2-flowered, or rarely 1 or 3-flowered. Sepals 
3-nerved, obtuse, acute, or very shortly mucronate ; usually 2 or 3 lines long. 
Petals cuneate-obovate, entire or slightly notched, from rather longer than the 
sepals to twice as long. Anthers all perfect. Lobes of the capsule sprinkled 
with hairs, not wrinkled. Seeds covered with minute reticulations or rarely 
smooth.— Hook. f. Fl. N. Zeal. \. 89, and Fl. Tasm. i. 56 ; F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 
178 ; G. pilosum, Forst.; DO. Prod. i. 642 ; Nees, in PI. Preiss. i. 162 ; O. 
parnflorum, Willd.; DO. Prod. i. 642 ; G. philonothum, DO. Prod. i. 689 (from 
the character given) ; G. }}otentilloide.s, L'H6r., DO. Prod. i. 639 ; Hook. f. Fl. N. 
Zeal. i. 40; Fl. Tas. i. 57 ; G. australe, Nees, in PI. Preiss. i. 162. 

Hab.: Southern parts. 

The original form of G. dissectum, as generally diffused over the temperate regions of the 
northern hemisphere, in the Old World, is an annual, with the petals very rarely exceeding the 
sepals, and the seeds very prominently reticulate. In the eastern United States of N. America, 
under the name of G. carolinianum, Linn., it is also annual or biennial, but has the petals often 
rather larger and the reticulations of the seeds are finer and less prominent. West of the 
Eocky Mountains the stock often appears to be perennial, and then it is undistinguishable from 

178 XXVIII. GEKANIACE.^. [Gcnnuum. 

some Australian forms. The commonest Australian form frequently sent from extratropical 
S. America, and, extends all along the mountainous regions of that continent to IMexico and the 
llocky Mountains, often apparently together with and passing into the northern annual variety. 
The Australian plant again, both in that country and in New Zealand, is very variable, and may 
be generally subdivided into two principal races, although I have, after repeated trials, found it 
impossible to distribute our numerous specimens quite satisfactorily into the two groups, viz.: — 

u. pilosiim. Boot thick. Stems erect, ascending or procumbent, usually hirsute. Seeds 
strongly reticulate. Common on downs country, the rootstock greatly relished by sheep. 

h. jwtetitilloideK. Eoot and stock less thickened. Stems more slender and prostrate, less 
hairy, and usually only slightly hoary with more appressed pubescence. Seeds more finely 
reticulate, or rarely almost smooth. To this variety belongs generally the G. jwtentilloides of 
authors, and G. australe, Nees. It appears to be rather the morec ommon form in the East, whilst 
the var. pttomim is more frequent in the West. But both are found throughout extratfopieal 
Australia. — Bmth, Common on coast side of range. 

2. ERODIUM, L'Her. 

(Fruit supposed to resemble the head and beak of the heron.) 

Flowers regular or nearly so. Sepals 5. Petals 5. Glands 5, alternating with 
the petals. Stamens 5 bearing anthers, opposite the sepals, and 5 staminodia, 
usually scale-like, alternating with them. Ovary 5-lobed, beaked, the beak 
terminating in the style, with 5 short stigmatic lobes. Ovules 2 in each cell. 
Capsule-lobes 1-seeded, separating from the placenta -bearing axis, enclosing the 
sfeed and curled upwards on a long elastic awn, which separates from the beak 
and is usually twisted and bearded inside with long hairs. Eadicle of the embryo 
turned back on the folded or convolute cotyledons. — Herbs or rarely undershrubs. 
Leaves unequally opposite or alternate, pinnately or rarely ternately lobed or 
divided. Peduncles axillary, bearing an umbel of several flowers, or rarely 
1 -flowered. 

The species are numerous in Europe, North Africa, and temperate Asia, 2 or 3 are natives of 
S. Africa, and 2 or 3 more are now widely dispersed as weeds over many parts of the globe. 
Two of these are in Australia, one of them perhaps indigenous, but the common Australian 
species is endemic. — Benth. 

Leaves of 3 lobed or divided segments, the middle one the largest .... 1. K. cygiwrum. 
Leaves pinnate with deeply-lobed narrow segments . . 2. K. cicutarium. 

1. E. cygnorum (swan-like), Nec^, in PL Preisx. i. 162 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. 
i. 297. An annual or biennial, with the habit of the coarser forms of 
E. cicutarium, sometimes slightly pubescent, sometimes very hispid, with the 
hairs of the stem spreading or reflexed. Leaves deeply 3-lobed or divided to the 
base into 3 lobes or segments, usually obovate or cuneate, and more or less 
deeply toothed or again 8-lobed, the central lobe larger, broader, and more lobed 
than the lateral ones. Flowers blue, usually 2 to 5 in the umbel. Sepals 
pointed. Petals obovate, scarcely exceeding the calyx or shorter. Filaments 
broad at the base, with subulate points ; staminodia scale-like, often toothed. 
Capsule-lobes glabrous, hairy or hispid ; beak usually above 2in. lone. — F v M 
PL Vict. i. 172. 

Hab.: Many parts in the south ; Peak Downs, t\ v. M.; Maranoa Biver, Mitchell. 

2. E. cicutarium (Hemlock-leaved), UHh-.; DC. Prod. i. 646 ; Beiith. Fl. 
Aitstr. i. 298. Usually an annual, but often forming a dense tuft, with a thick 
taproot, which may last over a second year, always more or less covered with 
spreading hairs, which are sometimes viscid. Stems sometimes exceedingly 
short, but lengthening out to near 1ft. Leaves mostly radical, pinnate, the 
segments distinct and deeply pinnatifid, with narrow, more or less cut lobes. 
Peduncles erect, bearing an umbel of from 2 or 3 to 10 or 12 small purple or pink 

KroiHum.] XXVIII. GREANIACE/T:. 170 

flowers. Sepals pointed, about the length of the obovate entire petals. 
Filaments and staminodia lanceolate-subulate. Lobes of the capsule slightly 
hairy, the beak | to l|in. long.— Nees, in PL Preiss. i. 161 ; Eeichb. I'e. Fl. 
Germ. v. t. 183. 
Hab.: Southern Downs country. 

A very common weed in Europe and temperate Asia, and found in many other parts of the 
world, in many cases introduced, as in several or perhaps all of the Australian localities, but too 
widely spread now to be omitted from the Flora, even if it be not rarely indigenous.— Benth . 


(Fruit supposed to resemble the head and beak of a stork.) 

Flowers irregular. Sepals 5, shortly united at the base and produced into 
a tube or spur, adnate to the pedicel. Petals 5 or fewer, the 2 upper ones 
different from the others (usually larger), and inserted on the sides of or behind 
the spur. Disk without glands. Stamens usually 10, hypogynous, shortly united, 
5 to 7 or rarely only 2 or 8 bearing anthers, the remainder without anthers or 
rudimentary. Ovary and fruit of Erodium. Cotyledons fiat or folded. — Herbs, 
undershrubs, or shrubs. Leaves opposite or rarely alternate, entire, toothed, 
lobed, or variously divided. Peduncles usually axillary, bearing an umbel of 
several Howers. 

A very large genus, but which, with the exception of 3 N. African or Levant species and the 2 
Australian ones, is confined to S. Africa. — Benth. 

1. P. australe (Australian), Willd.; DC. Prod. i. 654; Benth. Fl. Aimtr. i. 
298. Herbaceous, often flowering the first year, but forming a perennial root- 
stock, either horizontal and almost creeping, or short and thick. Leafy stems 
decumbent or erect, sometimes short, but usually attaining 1ft. or more, 
generally pubescent or hirsute with spreading hairs. Leaves reniform-cordate, or 
very rarely broadly ovate-cordate, crenate, or very shortly lobed, very obtuse, 
rarely 2in. diameter, and usually much smaller, softly pubescent or hirsute. 
Stipules broad. Peduncles usually longer than the leaves, but not so long as in 
P. Rodneyanmn, and sometimes very short. Flowers small, in an umbel, some- 
times very dense, almost reduced to a head, sometimes loose with pedicels of fin. 
or more. Sepals acute, 2 to 3 lines long, usually very hairy, the decurrent tube 
rarely so long, and sometimes very short. Petals from a little longer than the 
sepals to about half as long again. Capsule-lobes pubescent, the beak from 
f to fin. long, the awns of the lobes bearded inside' as in Erodiwm. Seeds 
smooth.— Sweet, Geran. t. 68 ; Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 57 ; F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 
170 ; P. glomeratum, Jacq.; DC. Prod. i. 659 ; P. inodorum, Willd.; DC. I.e.; 
Sweet, Geran. t. 56 ; P. littorale, Hueg. Bot. Arch. t. 5 ; P. crinitim, Nees, in 
PL Preiss. i. 168 ; P. stenantlmm, Turcz. in Bull. Mosc. 1858, i. 149 ; P. Drmii- 
mondi, Turcz. I.e. 421 (a robust form with large flowers). 

Hab.: Stanthorpe, on rocks. 

4. OXALIS, Linn. 

(From oxys, sharp, the plants being very acid.) 

Flowers regular. Sepals 5. Petals 5. Disk without glands. Stamens 10, 
free or united at the base, all bearing anthers. Ovary 5-lobed, 5-eelled, without 
any beak or with a very short one ; styles 5, with terminal stigmas, capitate or 
lobed ; ovules 1,2, or several in each cell. Capsule opening loculicidally, the 
valves persistent on the axis. Seeds with an outer fleshy coating, opening 
elastioally, with the appearance of an arillus ; testa crustaceous ; albumen fleshy ; 

180 XXVIII. GERANIACE^. [Oxalh. 

embryo straight. — Herbs. Leaves alternate or radical, compound ; leaflets _ 3, 
digitate, or, in species not Australian, 3 or more and pinnate. Stipules scale-like 
or^none. Peduncles axillary or radical, 1-flowered or bearing an umbel of several 

A large genus, especially abundant in South America and extratropieal South Africa, with a 
very few species widely dispersed over the temperate or tropical regions of the globe- Of the 
two Queensland species, one is common to New Zealand and Antaretio America, and perhaps not 
different from a common northern one. — Bentli. 

Stemless. Flowers lilac. Peduncles radical, many-flowered 1. O. corymhosa. 

Stem elongated. Flowers small, yellow. Peduncles axillary, 1 or more- 
flowered . . . 2. 0. corniculat'i. 

Stems slender. Leaves abruptly pinnate. Peduncles terminal 3. 0. sesdlis. 

1. O. corymbosa (corymbose), 1)0. Stemless, with a rather deep trans- 
parent, olavate tuber, at the top of which are formed numerous bulbils, with 
brown membranous coats. Peduncles and petioles 6 to 12 lines long,' more or 
less pilose. Leaflets 8, sessile, 1 to 2in. broad, deeply qbcordate at the apex, 
cuneate at the base, pubescent beneath, and more or less marked, especially near 
the margins, with glandular yellow dots similar to those on the back of the sepals. 
Flowers in each corymb from 10 to 20. Sepals lanceolate, 2 or 3 lines long, 
rather blunt, with 2 linear dots on the back near the apex. Petals red, about 
3 times as long as the sepals, oblong. Capsule oblong, seeds numerous, dpwpy. 
— 0. hipunctata, Grah.; 0. Martiana, Zucc. 

Hab.: This South American species has become quite a pest in Queensland gardens. Accord- 
ing to Baker, Fl. Mauritius, it has also become naturalised at Mauritius. 

2. O. corniculata (small horn bearing), Linn.; DC. Prod. i. 692 ; Benth. 
FL Austr. i. 301. Yellow-wood Sorrel. A decumbent, prostrate or ascending, 
much-branched, delicate perennial or sometimes annual, more or less pubescent, 
of a pale green, from a few inches to a foot long. Stipular scales small, adnata 
to the petiole. Leaves alternate ; leaflets 3, broadly obcordate, usually 3 or 4 
lines long, but sometimes half that size. Peduncles axillary, about the length of 
the petioles, bearing an umbel of several small yellow flowers, rarely reduced to 
1 or 2, on reflexed pedicels. Capsule column-like, often above |in. long, with 
several seeds in each cell, rarely short and few-seeded. — Eeichb. Ic. Fl. Germ. v. 
t. 199 ; Wight, Ic. t. 18 ; Hook f. Fl. Tasm. i. 59 ; F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 177 ; 
0. microphylla, Poir.; DC. Prod. i. 692; 0. pennnans, Haw.; DC. I.e. 691 (from 
the character given) ; Oi Preissiana and 0. cognata, Steud. in PI. Preiss. i. 160. 

Hab.: Islands of the coast as well as on the mainland, Keppel Bay, B. Brown : Percy Island, 
A. Cunningham and others ; and in the interior as far north as the Burdekin, F. v. M., Mitchell ; 
throughout the colony. 

B. O. sessilis (sessile), Hamilt. Stems 1 to 6in. high, slender. Leaves 1 to 
near 2in. long, crowded with from 5 to 7 pairs of ciliate leaflets, the lowest 
smallest, orbicular-ovate, the middle ones truncate at the base, the terminal with a 
contracted oblique base and arched midrib, the lateral nerves prominent, 
horizontal, wavy ; petiole puberulous. Pedicels sessile ; sepals exceeding the 
pedicels, about 2 lines long, striate, with scarious margins. Corolla purple or 
red, or appears so in the dry specimen. Capsule slightly exceeding the calyx. 
Seeds tuberculate. — Hook. Fl. Brit. Ind. i. 437 (in part) ; 0. Petemii, Klotz ; 
Biophytum Apndiscias, TurcZ. 

Hab.; Musgrave Electric Telegraph Station, T. Barclay-Millar, 

Leaves endowed with gentle movements under the influence of light, darkrjess, or shoqks, like 
those pf Mimosa pudica, iC-c, 



Flowers regular and hermaphrodite, or very rarely unisexual. Calyx usually 
small, 4 or 5-lobed, or divided into as many distinct imbricate sepals, rarely large, 
or with fewer or more numerous or valvate lobes. Petals of the same number as 
sepals, free or rarely cohering, hypogynous or slightly perigynous, imbricate or 
valvate in the bud. Stamens usually free, either equal in number to the petals 
'and alternate with them, or double the number, or rarely more numerous, when 
twice as many as petals the sepaline ones (those opposite the sepals) usually 
longer than the others. Anthers usually versatile, with 2 parallel cells opening 
longitudinally, the connective occasionally tipped by a gland or projecting 
appendage. Torus usually more or less thickened into an entire crenate or lobed 
disk, within the stamens, under or round the ovary. Gynoecium of 4 or 5, rarely 
more or fewer carpels, more or less united into a single lobed or entire ovary, or 
rarely quite distinct, with one cell to each carpel. Styles as many as carpels, 
either free at the base but united upwards, or united from the base ; stigma 
terminal, entire or lobed. Ovules usually 2 in each cell, superposed or rarely 
collateral or solitary, or more than 2 ; the micropyle superior. Fruit separating 
into 2-valved or rarely indehiscent cocci, or the carpels united in an indehiscent 
berry or drupe, or rarely in a loculicidally dehiscent capsule, the endccarp 
frequently separating from the pericarp. Seeds usually solitary in each cell ; 
testa crustaceous and often shining, or rarely coriaceous or membranaceous ; 
albumen fleshy or none. Embryo straight or curved, large in proportion to the 
seed ; cotyledons flat or rarely folded ; radicle superior.- — Trees or shrubs, very 
rarely herbs, marked with glandular pellucid dots on the leaves and other thin 
herbaceous parts. Indumentum usually stellate, if any. Leaves opposite or 
alternate, simple or compound, entire or rarely toothed or lobed. Stipules none. 
Flowers axillary or terminal, solitary, clustered, eymose, or paniculate, very 
rarely racemose and seldom if ever spicate. 

A large Order, ranging over the hotter and temperate regions of the whole World, but chiefly 
abundant within the tropics, in South Africa and in Australia. Among the Australian genera, 
the large tribe of Boroniem is entirely endemic, with the exception of one New Zealand and one 
New Caledonian species. The monotypie genera, Bosistoa, Medicosvia, and Pentaceras, and the 
small genus Geijera, are also endemic. Melicope extends to the Pacific Islands, and the 
remaining genera range over tropical Asia, three of them extending into Africa. Zanthoxylum 
alone, a wide-spread tropical genus, is common to America and Australia, and even here the 
Australian species belong to the exclusively Australasian section Blaeliburnia. — Benth. 

Difficult as it is to distinguish Rutacea by well-marked floral or carpological characters from 
Geraniacece, ZygophyUece, or Simarubece, they are so readily known by their dotted exstipulate 
leaves, that the ambiguous genera are remarkably few. They have usually been distributed into 
3 or 4 Orders, Rutacece (including or not Biosmea;), Zanthoxylem, and Aurantiece, upon characters 
which break down upon a close scrutiny ; the Toddalieie being much nearer to the Aurantieas 
than to the Zanthoxyleee proper, which again have only vague differences to distinguish them 
from Boroniem. We therefore, in our " Genera Plantarum," proposed the union of the whole into 
1 Order, divided into 2 series, according as the ovary is lobed or entire, and subdivided into 7 
tribes, of which 4 only are Australian. — Benth. 

Tribe I. Boronieae. — Shrubs, very rarely arborescent. Leaves simple, 3-foliolate or rarely 
pinnate, with opposite small leaflets. Ovary lobed. Fruit separating into distinct, 2-valved cocci. 
Endocarp separating elastically. Seeds albrtminmis. Embryo usually terete. 

(The tribe differs from the S. African Diosmece chiefly in the presence of albumen.— SctiS/i.) 

Leaves opposite (except in one Zieria) simple or compound. 

Petals 4, united or connivent in a cylindrical or campanulate corolla, 

Leaves petiolate, simple .... ■ . . 8. Coerea. 

Petals 4, free, spreading. 

Stamens 4, inserted on 4 prominent glands or lobes of the disk .... 1, Ziehia. 
Stamens 8. Disk without prominent glands (excepting B. tetrandra) . 2. Boeonia. 
Leaves alternate, simple. 
Flowers distinct or in sessile, erect heads. 

Petals free. Stamens twice as many, monadelphous. 

Stamens all perfect C. Philoteeca. 


Petals free. Stamens twice as many, free. 
Calyx inconspicuous or non^. Petals induplicate-valvate, tomentose 

outside 7. Astekolasu. 

Calyx distinct but shorter than the petals. 
Petals broad, much imbricate, not scurfy, without inflexed tips. 
Filaments hairy. 

Anthers minutely or not at all apiculate 4. Ebiostemon. 

Anthers tipped with long, horn-like, hairy appendages .... 3. Ceowea. 
Petals valvate or slightly imbricate, with inflexed valvate tips, glabrous 
or scaly. 
Ovary of 5, rarely fewer carpels, the styles attached below the 

middle 5. Phebalium. 

Petals free. Stamens of the same number, free . 16. Geijeba. 

TuiBE II. Zantboxyleae. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves pinnate or S-foliolate with opposite 
leaflets, or 1-foliolate {truly simple in Geijera), the leaflets usually large. Ovary lobed. Fruit 
separating into distinct 2-valved cocci. Endocarp persistent, or separating elastically. Seeds 
Kith or with,out albumen. Cotyledons usually flattened and broader than the radicle. 

Stamens twice as many as petals. 
Leaves all or mostly opposite. Cocci dehiscent. 

Leaves pinnate. Petals valvate or slightly imbricate. Seeds without 

albumen 9. Bosistoa. 

Leaves 3-foliolate. Petals valvate or slightly imbricate, with inflexed 

lips .10. Melicope. 

Leaves 1-foliolate. Petals large, broadly imbricate, not inflexed . . .12. Medicosma. 
Leaves alternate, pinnate. Petals valvate. Cocci winged, indehiscent . . 17. Pentaceras. 
Stamens the same number as petals. Cocci dehiscent. 

Leaves all or mostly opposite, usually 3-foliolate 11. Evodia. 

Leaves simple. Stamens 8. Filaments almost ovate, 4-petaloid, sterile . 13. Bbombya. 
Leaves simple, or 2 or 3-foliolate. Stamens 10, free, all fertile .... 14. Pagetia. 

Leaves alternate, simple 16. Geijeka. 

Leaves alternate, pinnate 15. Zanthoxtlum. 

(See also Flindersia among MeliaceiB.) 
Leaves simple. Petals decid,uous. Cocci 5 to 9 18. Pleiocooca. 

Teibe III. Toddaliece. — Trees or shrtibs, with the liabit of Zanthoxylese. Ovary not lobed. 
Fruit several-celled, indehiscent, or rarely loculicidally dehiscent. Seeds albuminous (in the 
Australian genus). 

Leaves 1-foliolate. Stamens twice as many as petals 19. Acbonychia. 

Leaves simple. Stamens 10 20. Halfoedia. 

Tkibe IV, AurantieSi — Trees or shrubs. Leaves pinnate, with usually alternate leaflets, 
or 1-foliolate or simple. Stamens twice as many as petals or more. Ovary not lobed. Fruit 
indehiscent. Seeds without albumen. 

Leaves all or mostly pinnate. No thorns. 
Flowers in terminal, flat, corymbose panicles. Filaments subulate 

Petals valvate or nearly so. Cotyledons much folded. Flowers small . 22. MiCBOMELDJr. 
Petals imbricate, erect. Cotyledons flat. Flowers large . . ... 23. Mureaya. 

Flowers in oblong, pyramidal, or loose axillary or terminal panicles. Fila- 
ments dilated at the base or middle. 

Ovules solitary. Leaflets few 21. Glycosmis. 

Ovules 2 in each cell. Leaflets numerous .... 24. Clacsena. 

Leaves all simple or 1-foliolate, coriaceous. Thorns axillary. 

Ovary 5 or fewer-celled, with 1 or 2 ovules in each cell 25. Atalantia. 

Ovary 6 or more-celled, with 4 or more ovules in each cell 26. Citeus. 

]. ZIERIA, Sm. 

(After M. Zier.) 

Calyx 4-oleft. Petals 4, imbricate or almost valvate in the bud, spreading. 
Disk witb 4 distinct gland-like lobes, alternating with the petals. Stamens 4, 
inserted on the outside of the glands of the disk. Carpels 4, distinct or nearly 
so ; styles nearly terminal, short and united at least at the top ; stigma capitate, 
4-furrowed or shortly 4-lobed. Ovules 2 in each carpel, superposed. Cocci 4, 
2-valved, the endocarp cartilaginous and separating elastically. Seeds solitary. 

Zm-io.] XXIX. KUTACEi^. IS'd 

or rarely 2 iu each coccus, oblong; testa crustaoeous.— Shrubs or rarely small 
trees, glabrous, hirsute or tomentose. Leaves usually opposite, with 3 leaflets, 
rarely alternate or simple. Flowers white, usually small, axillary, in small 
trichotomous cymes or rarely solitary. 

The species are all enrlemic in Australia, and F. v. Mueller considers them as forming a 
section only of BoronUt : but the characters and habit appear to me sufficiently distinct to justify 
the maintenance of so old-established and generally adopted a genus. — Benth. 

Anthers distinctly apioulate. Plant glabrous or slightly pubescent. 
Leaflets with revolute margins. Cymes pedunculate. 
Branchlets angular, glabrous. Leaflets J to lin. on a distinct common 

petiole 1. Z. Icnvigata. 

Branchlets terete, pubescent. Leaflets under Jin., sessile, appearing 

vertioillate 2. z. aspalathoides. 

Anthers minutely apiculate. Plant pubescent or hirsute, rarely tomentose. 
Flowers 1 to 3, small. Calyx-segments very narrow, nearly as long as 

the petals s. z. pilosa. 

Anthers not apiculate. Calyx-lobes short. 
Flowers 1 to 3, on short axillary pedicels. Leaves densely pubescent or 
Leaflets 3, small, obovate or obcordate. Flowers very small .... 4. Z. obcordata. 
Flowers in pedunculate cymes or heads, with leafy bracts. Leaves 
densely tomentose or villous. 

Leaves all 3-foliolate. Cymes not capitate 5. Z. cytisoides. 

Flowers in loose pedunculate cymes, with small bracts. 
Glabrous or slightly pubescent. 

Leaflets flat, lanceolate. Petals distinctly inibricate 6. Z. Smithii. 

Leaflets narrow-linear. Flowers small, the petals almost valvate . 7. Z. granulata. 

1. Z. laevigata (smooth-leaved), Sm.: DC. Prod. i. 723 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. 
i. 304. A glabrous, erect shrub, the branchlets angular. Leaflets 3, on a 
common petiole of 1 to 3 lines, linear, pointed, J to lin. long, the margins closely 
revolute. Cymes few-flowered, mostly about as long as the leaves. Calyx-lobes 
short and broad. Petals fully 8 times as long as the calyx, broad, imbricate, 
slightly tomentose outside. Connective of the anthers distinct, produced beyond 
the cells into a short point or appendage. Style very short. Cocci and seeds of 
Z. Smithii. — Deless. Ic. Sel. iii. t. 49 ; Paxt. Mag. Bot. ix. 77, with a fig.; 
Boronia Icevigata, F. v. M. Fragm. i. 101 ; Z. remluta, A. Cunn. in Field, N. S. 
Wales, 380. ' 

Hab.: Sandstone rocks near Mount Pluto, Mitchell; Mount Lindsay, Fraser. 

Var. lasAAora. Leaflets longer (1 to IJin.), on a longer common petiole. Flowers much 
smaller, in a looser cyme. Petals not twice as long as the calyx. — Stradbroke Island, Fraser ; 
Moreton Island, F. v. Mueller. 

2. Z. aspalathoides (Aspalathus-like), A. Cunn. Herb.; Benth. hi. Austr. 
i. 305. A heath -like shrub, the branches terete and pubescent, but usually with 
a decurrent glabrous line. Leaflets 3, sessile or with the common petiole so 
exceedingly short that they appear verticillate, lanceolate or linear, rarely above 
3 lines long, or when very luxuriant 4 or 5 lines, the margins revolute, glabrous 
or slightly pubescent. Cymes usually 8-flowered, rather longer than the leaves. 
Calyx-lobes broad, obtuse or acute. Petals about 2 or 3 times as long. Anthers 
tipped with a small obtuse appendage. --L'occih^V^ larir/ata, F. v. M. PI. Vict. .i. 
Ill (In part). 

Hab.: Near Mount Playfair, F, r. M. 

3. Z. pilosa (pilose), Rudiie, in Trans. Linn. Suv. x. 293, t. 17 ; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 305. A shrub or undershrub, the branches terete and densely pubescent 
or hirsute. Leaflets 3, with a short common petiole, linear, oblong or lanceolate, 
obtuse, f to fin. or rarely lin. long, the margins recurved or revolute, slightly 
pubescent or glabrous above, more or less hirsute or tomentose underneath. 

184 XXIX. RUTAOEiE. [Zieria. 

Flowers small, solitary and nearly sessile or 2 or 3 together on short pedicels. 
Calyx hirsute, with linear- subulate or narrow-lanceolate lobes, nearly as long as 
the petals and always much narrower than in any other species. Anthers 
minutely apiculate. Cocci hirsute, broader than in most species. — DC. Prod. i. 
723 ; Z. ■paudjiora, Sm. in Eees. Cycl. xxxix.; DC. I.e.; Z. Idrsuta, DC. I.e.; 
Deless. Ic. Sel. iii. t. 50 ; Boronia hirsuta, F. v. M. Fragm. i. 101. 

Hab.: Herberton, Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, and J. F. Bctiley a form of the above species. 

4. Z. obcordata (form of leaflets), A. Cunn. in Field, N. S. Wales, 330 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 305. A shrub of low growth, with elongated diffuse branches, 
teiete and softly hirsute. Leaflets 3, with a very short common petiole, obovate 
or obcordate, 2 to 4 lines or rEirely ^in. long, softly pubeSdent or tomentose aboVe, 
more hirsute or velvety and whitish underneath, the margins recurved or 
revolute. Flowers 1 to 3 in the axils, very small, on short slender pedicels, 
the petals not above 1 line and the calyx about half as long with broad and 
obtuse segments. Anthers not apiculate. Cocci small, glabrous. — Boronia 
minutiflora, F. v. M. Fragm. i. 100. 

Hab.: Glasshouse Mountains. 

5. Z. cytisoides (resembling a Cytisus), Sm.; DC. Prod. i. 723 ; Benth. Fl. 
Aimtr. i. 306. A much-branched shrub, hoary all over with a soft close or more 
or less velvety tomentum. Leaflets 3, with a common petiole of 1 to 3 lines, 
obovate-oblong, about ^ or rarely fin. long, obtuse or minutely pointed, the 
margins revolute, narrowed at the base. Cymes dense but few-flowered, rarely 
much exceeding the leaves. Bracts leafy, as long as the pedicels or often nearly 
as long as the flowers. Calyx rather short, with broad acute segments. Petals 
rarely twice as Ibng, much imbricate in the bud. Anthers not apiculate. 

Hab.: Sbutliern localities inland. 

6. Z. Smithii (after Sir James Smith, founder of the Linnean Society), 
Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 606 (1810) ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 306. A tall shrub or small 
ti'ee, glabrous or slightly pubescent with a very minute usually stellate down, the 
branches terete or compressed, occasionally covered with glandular tubercles. 
Leaflets 3, with a distinct common petiole, lanceolate or the larger ones oblong, 
elliptical, acute or rarely obtuse, 1 to 2in. long in the original form, flat or the 
margins slightly recurved. Flowers usually about 3 lines diameter, in axillary 
2 — 3-chotomous cymes, shorter than the leaves. Calyx-lobes broad and short. 
Petals fully 3 times as long as the calyx, tomentose outside. Anthers obtuse, not 
apiculate. Cocci about 2 'lines long, glabrous, usually glandtilar-tuberculatte. 
Seeds shining, finely reticulate-striate. — Bot. Mag. t. 1395 ; Bonpl. .Jard. Malm. 
62, t. 24 ; Z. lanceolcita, R. Br.; DO. Prod. i. 723 ; Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 65 ; 
Boronia nrborescens, F. v. M. Fragm. i. 100, and PI. Vict. i. 111. 

Hab.: Brisbane Eiver, A. Cunninglmm ; Stradbroke Island, Fraser. 

Var. parvifoUa. Leaflets rarely exceeding lin.; cymes often as long. — Sandy Bay and Cape 
Hervey, B. BrmBn; New England, Stuart. 

Var. macrophylla. More arborescent; leaflets often 3in. long; flowers larger than in the 
ordinary form ; seeds broader and less reticulate. — Z. arborescens, Sims ; Hook. Journ. Bot. i. 
256 ; Z. macrophylla, Bonpl.; Deless. Ic. Sel. iii. t. 48 ; Bot. Mag. t. 4451. To this variety 
belong the Tasmanian and many of the Victorian specimens. 

The stamens in this and other Zierias are figured in Delessert's " loones," by some mistake, as 
attached inside instead of outside the glands or lobes of the disk. The name of Z. kmceolata 
was adopted by Smith (in Eees' Cyol. xxxix.), on the consideration that the synonym quoted in- 
the Bot. Mag. was a sufficient publication ; Andrews' name, had, however, been published a year 
previous to the plate in Bot. Mag. — Benth. 

7. Z. granulata (granulated), C. Moore in Herb. Hook. ; Benth. Fl. Aiistr. i. 
307. A tall shrub or small tree, glabrous or very minutely pubescent, and 
densely covered with glandular tubercles as in some varieties of Z. Smithii, with 

Zu'i-ia.] XXlt. RUTACE.E. 1S5 

which F. V. Mueller proposes to unite it. It differs chiefly in the narrow-linear 
leaflets, 1 to 2in. long, the margins revolute and whitish underneath, and in the 
very small flowers, with the petals almost strictly valvate. Cocci glabrous. — 
Boriinia (/ranulata, F. v. M. Fragm. i. 101. 
Hab.: Belmont, near Brisbane. 

2. BORONIA, Sm. 

(After F. Borone.) 

Calyx 4-cleft. Petals 4, either much imbricate or valvate in the bud, spreading. 
Disk thick, entire or (in one species only) with 4 gland-like lobes. Stamehs 8, 
inserted outside the disk ; anthers either all similar and perfect or 4 different 
from the others and imperfect. Carpels of the ovary 4, distinct or nearly so ; 
styles terminal, united ; stigma entire or 4-lobed. Ovules 2 in e'ach carpel, 
superposed or rarely collateral. Cocci usually 4, 2-valved, the endocarp carti- 
laginous and separating elastically. Seeds solitary or rarely 2 in each coccus, 
oblong ; testa crustaceous. — Shrubs, undershrubs, or rarely annuals, glabrous-, 
pubescent or hirsute, rarely tomentose. Leaves opposite, simple, pinnate with a 
terminal leaflet, or once or twice ternately compound, the rhachis usually 
articulate at each pair of leaflets and often dilated between them. Peduncles 
axillary or terminal, either 1 -flowered and jointed with a pair of minute bracts at 
the joint, or bearing an umbel or dichotomous cyme of several flowers with 
small bracts at the base of the pedicels. Flowers red, white, purple or blue. 
Calyx-segments or sepals usually valvate when the petals are valvate and some- 
times also when they are imbricate, but in the latter case the sepals are usually 
also imbricate at the base. In some species the anthers and stigma are different 
in different individuals of the same variety. In most of the species the filaments 
of the sepaline stamens (those alternating with the petals) are longer and more 
distinctly clavate or capitate and glandular at the top than the petaline ones. 
Anthers usually very shortly stipitate, rather below the obtuse summit of the 

The species are all limited to Australia. 

Series €. Valvatae. — Petals strictly valvate. Sepals usually valva.te. 
Sepals longer than the petals. Leaves mostly or aU pinnate . . . l.B. artemisitsfoUa: 

Sepals much smaller than the petals. 
Inflorescence entirely axillary. 

Peduncles 1-flowered. ^ 

Leaflets (usually 5 or 7) obovate or ouneate, glabrous, complicate. 

Flowers tomentose, rather large . . . 2. B. erinntha. 

Leaflets 7 to 13 or more, small, linear or oblong, the margins revo- 
lute. Sepals lanceolate, subulate-acuminate .... . . . S. B. alulatn. 

Leaflets 3, rarely 5, the margins recurved or revolute, tomentose or 

hoary underneath . . . i. B. ledifolia. 

Leaves simple. 

Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate. Flowers about 4 lines . . . . i. B. ledifolia. 
Leaves oblong-lanceolate. Flowers about 2 lines . . 5. B. lanceolata. 

Peduncles bearing an umbel of several flowers. 

Leaves simple, lanceolate, tomentose underneath. Flowers small . 5. B. lanceolata. 
Leaves pinnate, glabrous. Flowers in umbels, 1—5. Filaments 

ciliate • . G. B. Bnwmani. 

Section II. Pilina.tSB. — Petals imbncate. Anthers nearly uniform. Leaves pinnate. 
Peduncles mostly axillary. 
Peduncles mostly 3 or several-flowered. (Eastern species.) 

Glabrous. Leaflets small, thick, obovate ... . . .... 7. -B. nderop-liylla. 

Glabrous. Leaflets linear or oblong in distant jiairs 8. B.pinnatn. 

Series III. Variabiles.^-PctaZ.^ imbricate. Anthers nearly ■uniform. Leaves simple or 
S-foliolate, or the terminal leaflet or all three ayain S-foliolate. Flowers axillary, red or pinl;. 

Terminal leaflets or all three dentate, or again 3 or .'5-foliolate. Erect or 

spreading shrub. Peduncles usually 3 to 5-flowered . ... . . 10. B. anemonifolia. 

186 XXIX. EUTACEiE. [Soroma. 

Leaves mostly 3-foliolate. 
Common petiole distinct. 
Leaflets fiat, linear oblong or obovate. Anthers apiculate. Pedioels_ 

1-flowered 9. B. polygaUfolia. 

Leaflets linear-terete, mueronate. Anthers not apiculate. Pedicels 1 

to 3-flowered 11. B.falci/oUa. 

Leaves linear or lanceolate, acute, or the lower ones rarely euneate. 

Low undershrub. Flowers all axillary. Sepals short 9. B. polygaUfolia. 

Series IV. Terminales. — Petals imbricate. Anthers nearly uniform. Leaves all simple 
{except in B. filifolia, inornata, aiid oxyantha). Flowers mostly or all terminal, sessile or on short 
1-flowered peduncles. 

Terminal flowers solitary, or rarely 2 or 3, sessile or shortly pedicellate. 
Leaves linear or lanceolate, rarely oblong-cuneate, flat. 
Small undershrub. Filaments nearly glabrous. Anthers not apiculate 12. B. parviflora. 

1. B. artemisisefolia (Artemisia-leaved) F. c. M. Frac/m. i. 66; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 311. A shrub, clothed all over with a soft, hoary, close or velvety 
tomentum. Leaves all, or nearly all, pinnate. Leaflets 7 to 11 or more, crowded 
on a short common petiole, linear, obtuse, rarely exceeding |-in. and often much 
shorter, the margins closely revolute. Peduncles axillary, solitary, short, 
1-flowered. Sepals lanceolate, tomentose, valvate, attaining 3 to 4 lines. Petals 
lanceolate, valvate and tomentose like the sepals, but smaller and enclosed ih 
them in the bud. Filaments slightly hirsute, clavate and glandular at the top. 
Anthers scarcely apiculate. Ovary pubescent. Seeds smooth but scarcely 

Hab.: Islands of Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown. 

2. B. eriantha (alluding to the woolly flowers), Lindl. in Mitch. Trap. Austr. 
298 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 813. A glabrous shrub, the branches angular. Leaves 
pinnate ; leaflets 3 to 9, obovate or oblong-cuneate, obtuse or with a recurved 
point, rarely above 3 lines long, rather thick, arid often folded upwards length- 
wise, the margins never recurved. Peduncles axillary, short, 1 or rarely 
2-flowered. Sepals ovate, acute, glabrous outside, minutely tomentose inside. 
Petals more than twice as long, attaining 3 or 4 lines, rather narrow, valvate, 
hoary-tomentose outside, with a prominent midrib. Filaments usually* ciliate ; 
anthers apiculate. 

Hab.: Near Mt. Pluto, Mitchell. 

With the aspect of B. microphylla this has the floral characters of B. ledifolia, with which 
F. V. Mueller proposes to unite it, but besides a totally difierent habit, the leaflets are thick, 
equally green on both sides, with the margins flat or folded upwards, not recurved with a pale or 
hoary-tomentose under surface as in B. ledifolia. — Benth. 

3. B. alulata (small- winged), Soland. in Herb. Banks ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 
313. Apparently a divaricate or diffuse shrub, the young branches glandular- 
tomentose. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets 7 to 13 or even more, oblong or linear, 
rarely almost ovate, obtuse, 2 to 8 lines long, the margins revolute, glabrous 
above when full-grown, hoary-tomentose underneath. Peduncles very short, 
axillary, 1-flowered. Sepals lanceolate, subulate-acuminate, from half to nearly as 
long as the petals. Petals about 3 lines long, mueronate, valvate in the bud but 
rather broad, glabrous outside with a prominent midrib, slightly tomentose 
inside. Filaments clavate and glandular upwards. 

Hab.: Endeavour Biver, Banks and Solander, E. Brown (Hb. Brit. Mus. and R. Br.) 

4. B. ledifolia (Ledum-leaved), J. Gai/ : DC. Prod. i. 722 ; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 314. An erect shrub, the young branches glandular-tomentose. Leaves 
simple, 3-foliolate, or rarely pinnately 5 or even 7-foliolate ; leaflets linear, 
oblong-linear, lanceolate or rarely broadly oblong, when single oCtpii above liu. 
long, when several rarely above Hn., the margins recurved or revolute, glabrous 

Bornnia.] XXIX. RUTACE^. 187 

above when full-grown, hoary or rusty underneath with a minute tomentum. 
Peduncles axillary, 1 -flowered, shorter than the leaves. Sepals broad, obtuse but 
valvate. Petals twice as long or more, attaining 4 or 5 lines, valvate in the bud, 
minutely tomentose outside, with a prominent midrib. Filaments short, as in 
several allied species, slightly oiliate or glabrous, clavate and glandular upwards ; 
anthers more or less apiculate. Ovules usually, as in some allied species, almost 
or quite collateral. Style clavate, with a slightly furrowed stigma. Seeds smooth 
but not shining. — Eeichb. Icon. Exot. t. 74 ; LaxiopHalum ledifoUum, Vent. Jard. 
Malm, under n. 59 ; Juiostemon panulo.i-um, Sm. in Rees, Cycl. xiii.; Boronia (! ), DC. Prod. i. 722. 

Hab.: Burnett River, J<'. v. 31.; Moreton Bay and Islands, A. Cimninyham, Friiser, etc. 

Var. rosiiiarlidfoUu. Leaves rigid, usually narrow, small, and all simple. Peduncles very 
short. — B. roxiiiariiiifoUa, A. Cunn. in Hueg. Enum. 16. To this form belong especially most of 
the Moreton Bay and other south Queensland coast specimens. 

5. B. lanceolata (lanceolate), 7^'. r. M. Frarpn. i. 66 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 
314. A tall shrub with tomentose branches. Leaves simple, petiolate, oblong- 
lanceolate, obtuse or mucronulate, 1 to 2in. long, flat or the margins recurved, 
glabrous above, tomentose underneath. Peduncles very short, bearing an umbel 
of 3 to 5 small flowers, rarely reduced to a single flower. Sepals small, ovate, 
with a subulate point, sometimes very short, sometimes nearly as long as the 
petals. Petals broad, attaining about 2 lines in length, valvate in the bud, 
tomentose outside with a prominent midrib. Filaments glabrous, thickened and 
glandular at the top ; anthers scarcely apiculate. Seeds smooth but not shining. 

Hab.: Cave Creek, Dalby, IF, E. Armit (F. v. M.) 

6. B. Bowmani (after E. Bowman), F. c. M. Fmgm. iv. 135 ; B. platyr- 
rJiachis, F. v. M. Fragm. vii. 37. A slender-branched glabrous or nearly glabrous 
shrub with pinnate foliage. Leaflets usually 5, broad-linear, entire on a more or 
less winged rhachis. Peduncle axillary, short or very short, 1 to 5-flowered in 
the umbel. Sepals valvate, lanceolate. Petals lanceolate, about 2 lines long, 
greenish. Stamens with ciliate filaments, apiculate. Style very short, glabrdus. 
Stigma minute. Cocci 2 lines long. Seeds black, hardly exceeding 1^ line long. 

Hab.: Cape River, Bowman (P. v. M.) ; Percy and Gilbert Rivers, R. Daintree (P. v. M.) 

7. B. microphylla (small-leaved), Sieb. in Spreng. Syst. Cur. Post 148 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 318. A low stunted shrub, glabrous but often very glandular. 
Leaves pinnate : leaflets 5 to 11, obovate or oblong-cuneate, obtuse or acute, 
rarely above 3 lines long, and usually about 2 lines, thick and rigid. Peduncles 
in the upper axils, 1 to 3-flowered. Flowers of B. pimiata, or rather smaller, 
the anthers often conspicuously apiculate. Stigma slightly enlarged. Seeds in 
our specimens shining and reticulate. — Eeichb. Icon. Exot. t. 72. 

Hab.: Stanthorpe. 

8. B. pinnata (leaves pinnate), Hm. Tracts, 290, t. 4; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 
318. A glabrous shrub, attaining several feet, but sometimes dwarf or diftuse, 
the small branches more or less angular. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets 5 to 9 or 
rarely more, linear or oblong-lanceolate, acute, rigid, the pairs rather distant and 
the common petiole often dilated between them. Flowers rather large, usually 3 
or more together, in loose axillary or subterminal corymbose cymes. Sepals 
small, acute. Petals attaifiing 3 to 6 lines, imbricate, glabrous or minutely 
tomentose inside, usually mucronate. Filaments woolly-hairy, especially towards 
the thickened summit; anthers very minutely or not at all apiculate. Style 
short. Seeds smooth and shining. — DC. Prod. i. 721 ; Andr. Bot. Eep. i. 58 ; 
Vent. Jard. Malm. t. 38 ; Bot. Mag. t. 1763 ; P. v.' M. PI. Vict. i. 115 ; B. 
florihimda, Sieb. in Spreng, Syst. Cur. Post. 148; Eeichb. Icon. Exot. t. 71. 

Hab : Islands of Moreton Bay and similar localities in the south of Queensland. 

188 XXIX. EIJTACE^. [Boronia. 

9. B. polygalifolia (Polygala-leaved), Sm. Tracts 297/ i. 7; BentlK Bl. 
Austr. i. 8. Usually a low glabrous undershrub with a thick rhizome as in B. 
parriflora, or a small shrub, rarely stouter and 1 to 2ft. high. Leaves either 
simple with lanceolate or linear-lanceolate acute leaflets, mostly under ^in., but 
sometimes nearly lin. long, or 8-foliolate with small acute leaflets, on a short 
common petiole. Pedicels axillary, solitary, and 1 -flowered. Sepals short. 
Petals 2 or 8 times as long, imbricate, pink, and glabrous. Filaments hairy and 
glandular towards the top. Anthers conspicuously apiculate, the appendage erect 
or recurved. Seeds opaque and usually minutely tuberculate. — DC. Prod. i. 722; 
F. V. M. PI. Vict. i. 114; B. hyssopifolia, Sieb. in Spreng. Syst. Cur. Post. 148 ; 
Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 66 ; B. tetrathecoides, DC. Prod. i. 722 ; Hook. Comp. Bot. 
Mag. i. 277. 

Hab.: Stradbroke Island and many other localities in southern Queensland. 
Var. robusta. Leaves 3-folioIate, as in var. trifoliolata, but the stems are stout and the plant 
more shrubby, attaining 2ft. or more. — Moreton Island, F. v. M. 

10. B. anemonifolia (Anemone-leaved), A. Cunn. in Field, N.S. Wales, 380 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 321. A shrub of 2 or 8ft., glabrous or pubescent, and often 
glaucous. Leaves either simply 3-foliolate with the leaflets 3-toothed, or all 8 
leaflets or the terminal one only again 8-foliolate or pinnately 5-foliolate, or 
sometimes some of them a third time divided, and all usually thick, linear-euneate 
or, if entire, acutely linear. Flowers in axillary cymes of 3, 5, or even more, 
very rarely reduced to single flowers. Stamens and fruit of B. polygalifolia. 

Hab.: Newcastle and Burnett Rivers, F. i\ M.; near Lindley's Eange, Mitchell. 

Var. anethifolia. Leaves still more compound, often bipinnate, and leaflets narrower and more 
acute than in other varieties. Flowers 3 or more in the cyme. — B. anethifolia, A. Cunn.; Endl. in 
Hueg. Enum. 16 ; Lindl. Bot. Eeg. 1841, under n. 47 ; B. bipinnata, Lindl. in Mitch. Trop. 
Austr. 225. — The common form in the interior of Queensland and N. S. Wales'. — Benth. Fraser's 
Island, Miss Lovell. 

11. B. falcifolia (curved leaves), A. Cunn.; Lindl. in Bot. Eeg. 1841, under 
n. 47 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 322. A glabrous, erect, heath-like shrub, with virgate 
branches. Leaves rather crowded, 3-foliolate ; leaflets linear-terete, mueronate, 
mostly -^ to -Jin. long, on a common petiole rather shorter than themselves. 
Pedicels 1 to 3-flowered, in the upper axils. Bracts linear-subulate. Sepals 
lanceolate, subulate-pointed. Petals rather longer than the sepals, attaining 8 to 
4 lines, acute, imbricate, glabrous. Filaments clavate and glandular upwards ; 
anthers not apiculate. Stigma in some specimens capitate, in others not thicker 
than the style. — B. paleifoUa, Endl. in Hueg. Enum. 16 (through a misreading 
of Cunningham's label). 

Hab.: Islands of Moreton Bay A. Cunningham, F. v. Mueller, and others ; Wide Bay, Bidwill. 

12. B. parviflora (flowers small), Sm. Tracts, 295, t. 6; Benth. Fl. Austr. 
i. 324. A small, glabrous undershrub, forming a thick woody rhizome with 
numerous prostrate, ascending, or erect branching stems, usually under 6in. but 
sometimes nearly 1ft. long. Leaves all simple, from oblong to linear-lanceolate, 
rather acute, rarely -J^in. long. Flowers small, terminal, solitary or few in a leafy 
terminal cyme, on short thickened pedicels, one or two rarely axillary by the 
abortion of the flowering branch. Sepals acute, 1^ to 2 lines long. Petals not 
much exceeding them, imbricate, glabrous. Filaments glabrous or slightly hairy 
and glandular towards the top ; anthers very minutely or not at all apiculate. 
Ovary glabrous ; style short and thick. Cocci small. Seeds smooth and shining. — 
DC. Prod. i. 721 ; F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 118 ; B. piloneina, Labill. PI. Nov. Holl. 
i. 98, t. 126 ; DC. Prod. i. 722 ; Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 66. 

Hab.: Islands of Moreton Bay. 

Some specimens much resemble at lirst sight some of the smaller forms of B. polygalifolia, 
but a careful examination of the inflorescence will always suffice to distinguish them, in- 
dependently of the seeds. — Benth. 


a. CROWEA, tim. 

(After JaiiiGs Crow, a British botanist.) 

Calyx 5 -cleft. Petals 5, imbricate in the bud. Disk annular. Stkmens 10, 
shorter than the petals ; filaments flattened, ciliate or -woolly ; anthers linear, 
hirsute, tipped with long hirsute appendages. Ovary 5-lobed ; styles inserted 
above the middle of the carpels, immediately united into one filiform style with a 
small or globular stigma. Ovules 2, superposed or almost collateral. Cocci 2- 
valved, rounded or truncate at the top, the endocarp cartilaginous and separating 
elastically. — Glabrous shrubs or andershrubs. Leaves alternate, simple. 
Flowers rather large, red, purple or green, glabrous, solitary, axillary or 

The genus is oonlined to Australia. It is united by F. v. Mueller with Eriostemon, from which 
it differs chiefly in the long hairy appendages of the anthers. — Benth. 

X 1. C. saligna (Willow-leaved), Anclr. Bot. Rep. t. 79; Benth. Fl. Austr. \. 
329. Shrubby and erect, the branches prominently angular. Leaves mostly 
lanceolate, narrowed at each end, acute or obtuse, 1 to 2in. long, of a mueh 
thinner consistence than those of Kriostemon .mlicifolitis, which this species some- 
times resembles, in some specimens passing into a broadly oblong or elliptical- 
ovate shape, in others almost linear, like those of C. exalata. Flowers red, on 
axillary pedicels shorter than the leaves, thickened upwards, with 2 very minute 
bracts at their base. Sepals short and broad. . Petals 7 to 9 lines long. 
Appendage of the anthers longer than the cells memselves. Style very short, 
with a large globular stigma. Cocci short, united to near the top. Seeds 
reticulate, somewhat shining. — Vent. Jard. Malm. t. 7 ; Bot. Mag. t. 989 ; DC. 
Prod. i. 720 ; C. latifolia, Lodd. in G. Don, Gen. Syst. i. 792 ; l<hiostem.on Crou'ei 
(partly), F. v. M. PL Vict. i. 119. 

Hab.: Southern localities. 

C. latifolia, Paxt. Mag. Bot. xiv. 222, with a fig., is one of the commonest forms of this species, 
In some specimens from Manly Beach, Woolls (Herb. Muell.), the leaves are nearly twice as 
broa,d. In others from between Bichmond Elver and EaymoM Terrace, A. Ralston (Herb. 
Muell.), they are linear, elongated, mostly rounded or truncate atlthe top. Again, in numerous 
specimens collected by R. Broicn on the Hawkesbury River, they are linear, but smaller and 
more crowded, -approaching those of C. exalata : but in all the pedicels are axillary and 
leafless. — Benth. 


(Alluding to the woolly stamens.) 

Calyx 5-cleft or rarely 4-cleft. Petals 5, rarely 4, imbricate. Disk usually 
more or less thickened. Stamens 10, rarely 8, shorter than the petals ; filaments 
hairy, attenuate or rarely obtuse at the top ; anthers usually tipped with a very 
small point or appendage. Carpels 5, rarely 4 or fewer, distinct from the base 
(or in one species united to the middle), usually produced into a short appendage 
above the cells ; styles inserted below the middle and immediately united into 
one ; stigma small. Ovules 2 in each cell, superposed. Cocci 2-valved, usually 
more or less beaked at the top or at the outer angle ; the endocarp cartilaginous 
and separating elastically. Seeds solitary.— Shrubs, either glabrous or slightly 
pubescent, without scurfy scales. Leaves alternate, simple, entire, the glands 
often large and prominent. Inflorescence axillary or terminal ; peduncles bearing 
a single flower, or an umbel of few white, pink, or rarely blue flowers. Calyx 
small, with short broad lobes or sepals. 

Besides the Australian species, which are all endemic, the genus comprises one from New 
Caledonia. F. v. Mueller proposes to extend its limits so as to include Phebalium, Microcyhe, 
Qele^novia, Croicea, Philotheea, Drummondita, and Asterolasia, which are all no doubt nearly 

190 XXIX. EUTACE^.. [Kriostninm. 

enough related to it to be equally well regarded as sections or as substantive genera ; but as the 
majority of them have been long established and universally adopted, and are distinguished by 
characters easily recogniiSed, their union into one vast genus seems to me to be scarcely 
justified. — BeiitJi. _ 
Inflorescence axillary. 

Filaments clavate and glandular at the top. 
Leaves linear or lanceolate, thick, obscurely 1-nerved. Bracts on the 

pedicel several, imbricate . 1. E. salicifoliiis. 

Leaves oblong, finely 3-nerved. Bracts on the pedicel 1 to 3, distant 2. E. Banksii. 
Filaments subulate at the top, usually flattened below. 
Flowers S-merous. 
Leaves oblong or lanceolate, 1 to 3 or 4in. long, flat, 1-nerved. 
Pedicels rigid, usually several-flowered. Carpels free from the 

base, rostrate when ripe 3. £. myopm-oidex. 

Leaves linear, or linear-spathulate, mucronate, with recurved 

margins and a prominent midrib i. E. hispidnlus. 

Leaves narrow-linear, convex underneath or terete. 

Filaments flat . ■ 5. -B. scaber. 

Inflorescence terminal, appearing sometimes lateral by the elongation of 
the side shoots. 
Flowers solitary or rarely 2 or 3 together. 
Leaves small, flat or with recurved margins. 

Leaves not above 2 lines long, thick, warted or crenate with large 

prominent glands 6. -E. difformis. 

Leaves flat, oblong or linear, 3 to 4 lines, crenate, with a prominent 

midrib 6. A', difformis, var. 

Leaves flat, linear-cuneate, 2 to 4 lines, slightly crenate, nerveless . 7. E. parvifolius. 

1. E. salicifolius (Willow-leaved), Sm.; DC. Prod. i. 720; Benth. Fl. 
Aiistr. i. 331,. An erect shrub, the branches rigid and often angular, glabrous or 
minutely hoary. Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, mostly 1 to 2in. long, rather 
thick and rigid, glabrous when full-grown, obscurely 1-nerved. Peduncles 
axillary, short and 1-flowered, with a few broad scale-like imbricate bracts at the 
base, hoary with a minute tomentum as well as the calyx and petals. Sepals 
short, orbicular, rigid. Petals pink, attaining about fin. Filaments flattened, 
densely fringed with wooMy hairs, clavate and glandular at the top, bearing the 
anthers on a short stipes as in Boronia ; anthers tipped with a very short, broad, 
recurved appendage. Ovary glabrous; style slightly pubescent below the middle. 
Cocci truncate at the top, but not beaked, transversely wrinkled. Seeds smooth 
and shining. — Rudge, in Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. t. 26 ; Deless. Ic. Sel. iii. t. 46 ; 

. Bot. Mag. t. 2854 ; K. lanceolatm, Gsertn. f. Fr. iii. 154, t. 210 ; Croirea m-ahra, 
Grab, in Edinb. Phil. Journ. 1827, 174. 

Hab.: Queensland, /''. r. M. (locality not given). . 

The names or numbers of this and Crowed xaligna, 295, interchanged in many herbaria, and 
Fl.Mixt. n. 536, and others. — Benth. 

The synonym often quoted of J?. a?(s/j-rt2a.iia, Sm., isan error. Smith mentions no species in 
Trans. Linn. Soc. iv. 221, but in describing the genus gives the station Australasia, which has 
been mistaken for a specific name. — Benth. 

2. Xa. Banksii (after Sir Joseph Banks), A. Cunn.; Endl. hi Hueg. Enum. 15 ; 
Benth. Fl. Amtr. i. 332. A large shrub, the young branches angular and loosely 
hairy. Leaves from obovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, often oblique, obtuse, 1 
to Ifin. long, contracted into a very short petiole, thinly coriaceous, finely veined 
and obscurely 3-nerved, glabrous or slightly hairy. Peduncles very short, 
axillary, 1 or rarely 2-flowered, usually with 2 or 3 scale-like distant bracts. 
Sepals small, ciliate. Petals attaining about 3 lines, hoary outside, with a 
prominent midrib. Filaments slightly flattened, woolly outside, clavate and 
glandular at the top as in F. salicifolius ; anthers not apieulate. Ovary glabrous, 
style pubescent. Carpels of the fruit 4 or 5 lines long, truncate, very shortly 

Hab.: Sandy shores of the Endeavour River, Bank.'< and Solandfr. R. Brown, A. Cunningham. 
'J'he leaves have very much the aspect of the phyllodia of some Acacias. — Be?ith. 

Erw.'<t,'iiwn.\ XXIX. RUTACE^. 191 

3. Xi. myoporoides (Myoporum-like), /'('. I'ml. i. 720 ; Unuh. B'l. Ausir. 
i. 338. A stout, usunlly tall, glabrous ahrub, with the habit of a iMyo/inrum, the 
glandular tubercles sometimes very prominent, sometimes almost inconspicuous. 
Leaves sessile, from obovate-oblong to lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, obtuse or 
rarely acute, always mucronate, 1 to 3 or rarely above 4in. long, rather firm and 
sometimes coriaceous, fiat with the midrib prominent underneath. Peduncles 
shorter than the leaves, usually bearing an umbel of 3 to 9 flowers, very rarely 
reduced to 1 or 2, especially on the smaller-leaved branches. Flowers white or 
pink, rather large, the petals attaining about 4 lines. Filaments flat, more or 
less ciliate, attenuate at the top. Ovary glabrous. Cocci beaked. — Bot. Mag. t. 
3180; Deless. Ic. Bel. iii. t. 47; F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 122; K. cuspidaPus, A. 
Cunn. in Field, N. S. Wales, 831 ; K. neriifolim, Sieb. in Spreng. Syst. Cur. 
Post. 164 ; K. laniifoHua, F. v. M. in Trans.' Vict. Inst. i. 32. 

Hab.: Glasshouse Mountains. 

Var. mincyr. Leaves rarely much above lin. long, peduncles mostly 1 or 2-flowered. — E. 
intermedius. Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 4439. I cannot, however, see in them any near approach to E. 
Im.rifolius. — Benth. Hab.: Stanthorpe. 

4. IS. hispidulus (stiff hairs), Sieh. in Hpremj. Syst. Ciu-. Post. 164: ; Benth. 
Fl. Austr. i. 338. Shrubby, with elongated branches, more or less pubescent. 
Leaves sessile, linear or 'linear-spathulate, mucronate with a straight or recurved 
point, ^ to lin. long, the margins revolute, usually pubescent especially under- 
neath, rarely glabrous, often tuberculate with prominent glands. Peduncles 
axillary, shorter than the leaves, 1 or rarely 2-flowered, the pedicel thickened 
under the flower. Petals attaining 3 or 4 lines. Stamens, style, and fruit of 
E. biLvifolius. 

'Hab.: Stanthorpe. 

F. V. Mueller considers this as a variety of E. itixifoliux. The foliage appears to me, how- 
ever, to be constantly distinct. — Benth. i 

5. E. scaber (rough), Paxt. Mag. Bot. -xiii. 127, trith a figure ; Benth. Fl. 
Austr. i. 334. A shrub, with the general aspect of E. hupidulus, but with 
glabrous or very minutely pubescent branches. Leaves sessile, narrow-linear, 
acute and mucronulate, under lin. long, thick and very convex underneath, flat 
or channelled above and often almost terete, the margins never revolute, more 
or less tuberculate with prominfent glands. Inflorescence and flowers of K. 
obovalis. Carpels much compressed, prominently rostrate. 

Hab.: Glasshouse Mountains. 

This is considered by F. v. Mueller as a variety of E. liuxifolius. It appears to me to be 
nearer to E. obovalis, and differs from both chiefly in ioha,ge.—Jlent)i. 

6. E. difformis (leaves of irregular form), A. Cunn.; PJndl. in Hueg. Enum. 
15 ; Benth. Fl Austr. i. 835. A much-branched, compact shrub, glabrous or the 
younger branches minutely pubescent. Leaves in the normal form, small, 
numerous, obovate, oblong, or almost rhomboidal, very obtuse, rarely above 2 
lines long, usually tuberculate or as it were crenate, with 2 or 3 very large 
prominent glands, thick and convex, the margins often recurved, glabrous on 
both sides. Flowers small, terminal, solitary or 2 or 3 together, on very short 
pedicels. Calyx very small. Petals 2 to nearly 3 lines long, usually pubescent 
outside. Filaments flattened, densely ciliate ; anthers shortly apiculate. Ovary 
villous ; style short. Cocci very shortly beaked. — F. v. M. PI. Vict. i. 123 ; /■/. 
rJuimbeus, Lindl. in Mitch. Trop. Austr. 293. 

Hab.: Mantua Downs, Mitchell ; between Mackenzie and Dawson Bivers, F. v. Mueller ; near 
Warwick, BeMer ; near Broadsound, Herb. F. v. M. 

Var. (?) Sviithianus. Quite glabrous. Leaves fiat, thin, oblong or linear, glandular crenate, 3 
to 4 lines long, with a conspicuous midrib. Petals usually glabrous.— A'. Smithiamis, Hill, in 
Herb. Muell, — Benth, Hab.: Wide Bay, W. Hill : near Brisbane. 

192 XXIX. RUTACE^. [Erio.temon. 

7. E. parvifolius (small-leaved), It Br. Herb.: Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 335. A 
low, erect, compact, much-branched, glabrous shrub. Leaves crowded, linear- 
cuneate, obtuse, 3 to 4 lines long, slightly glandular -crenate, flat, coriaceous, 
without any conspicuous midrib. Flowers small, terminal, solitary, shortly 
pedicellate, glabrous. Sepals small. Petals 2 to 2^ lines long. Filaments 
flattened, eiliate ; anthers minutely apiculate. Cocci short, truncate, obscurely 
beaked. Seeds minutely tuberculate. 

Hab.: Shoalwater Bay, R. Brown (Herb. R. Br.) 

5. PHEBALIUM, A. Juss. 

(One of the ancient names of the Myrtle.) 

Calyx small, 5-cleft or 5-toothed. Petals 5, valvate or laterally imbricate, but 
always with valvate inflexed tips. Disk narrow or angular. Stamens 10, shorter 
or longer than the petals ; filaments glabrous or rarely slightly eiliate, filiform or 
rarely flat, subulate at the top ; anthers tipped with a small gland or not at all 
apiculate. Carpels 5, rarely 4 or fewer, distinct from the base or nearly so, 
usually produced into a short or long appendage above the cells ; styles inserted 
below the middle and immediately united into one ; stigma small ; ovules 2 in 
each cell, superposed. Cocci 2-valved, usually more or less beaked at the top or 
the outer angle ; the endoearp cartilaginous and separating elastically. Seeds 
usually solitary. — Shrubs, either glabrous or slightly stellate-pubescent or clothed 
with scurfy scales, very rarely hirsute. Leaves alternate, simple, entire or 
slightly toothed, the glands often large and prominent. Inflorescence axillary or 
terminal, peduncles rarely 1-flowered, usually forming an umbel-like shqjrt 
raceme, rarely reduced to a compact head. Flowers small, white or yellow, very 
rarely and exceptionally 4-merous or 6-merous. 

Besides the Australian species, which are all endemic, the genus comprises one from New 
Zealand, nearly allied to, but apparently distinct from, one of the Australian ones. F. v. 
Mueller unites the genus with Erioatenion, but the asstivation of the corolla, besides the habit 
and a number of smaller characters, appear to me sufficient to warrant the maintaining it as 
distinct. Practically, the section Leionema may be at once distinguished from Eriostemon by 
the strictly valvate corolla, and Phehalinm proper by the scurfy scales always present at least on 
the flower and ovary. — Benth. 

Sect. I. Xieionema; F. v. M. — Glabrous or pubescent plants without scurfy scales. Petals 
strictly valvate, glabrous. . 

Flowers terminal. Stamens usually exserted. 

Leaves obtuse, J to Jin., thinly coriaceous 1. P. elatius. 

Leaves small, obovate or orbicular, rigid but not thick, flat or concave 2. P. rotundi folium. 

Sect. 2. XSupliebaliuni. — Tlie whole plant or at least the inflorescence and calyx, and often 
the petals aiul ovary, more or less covered with scurfy peltate scales, often fringed at the edge, those 
of the ovary often closely imbricate in mie mass. Petals laterally imbricate or rarely almost 
valvate in the bud, ivith inflexed valvate tips. 

Umbels terminal. 

Leaves linear-cuneate, truncate or emarginate 3. P. glandulosmn. 

Leaves oblong or linear, rounded or obtuse at the top, | to IJin. long . 4. P. squamulosum. 
Leaves oblong, lanceolate or linear, obtuse or acute, from Jin. to 3, 4, or 

Sin. long, glabrous above, silvery underneath 5. P. Nottii. 

Umbels terminal and lateral, loose. Leaves oblong or lanceolate or linear, 
1 to 2in. long or more. 
Leaves silvery-white underneath. Petals -distinctly imbricate, not scaly 6. P. Billardieri. 

1. P. elatius (tall), Benth. Fl. Amtr. i. 840. A tall shrub, glabrous or the 
branches very minutely pubescent, and usually tuberculate with prominent 
glands. Leaves linear-cuneate or oblong, obtuse, \ to fin. long, entire or 
crenulate, thinly Coriaceous, smooth and shining, narrowed into a very sliort 
petiole. Peduncles 2 or more-flowered, terminal or in the uppermost axils, form- 

Phehdiuw.] XXIX. RUTACEiE. I93 

ing short terminal leafy corymbs or ovate panicles. Calyx very small. Petals 
valvate, not 2 lines long. Stamens exserted ; filaments subulate, glabrous ; 
anthers small. Ovary glabrous, on a raised almost stalk-lilie disk. Cocci 
obliquely obovate, very minutely beaked, about 2 lines long. Seed dark brown, 
shining. — Knostemon elatior, F. v. M. Fragm. i. 181. 

Hab.: Stanthorpe. 

The species is very closely allied to the New Zealand P. nudum, Hook., differing chiefly in 
much smaller flowers, the calyx-lobes less prominent, the inflorescence not so flat-tonned, etc — 
Benth. "'■ 

2. P. rotundifolium (leaves round), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 341. An erect 
much- branched shrub, the young branches minutely pubescent. Leaves crowded, 
almost imbricate, small, obovate or orbicular, obtuse or minutely mucronate, 
mostly 2 to 3 lines long, flat or concave, coriaceous, glabrous, very shortly 
petiolate or almost sessile. Flowers several, in a terminal sessile umbel, almost 
contracted into a head in our specimens, which are not fully out. Sepals small. 
Petals valvate, glabrous. Filaments filiform, glabrous. Ovary glabrous, on a 
very short disk, the terminal appendages of the carpels very short. — Eriostemon 
i-otiindif alius, A. Cunn., Endl. in Hueg. Enum. 15. 

Hab.: Stanthorpe. 

3. P. glandulosum (plant glandular), Hook, hi Mitch. Trap. Austr. 199 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 342. Very closely allied to some of the smaller much- 
branched forms of P. squamulosum, with the same scurfy indumentum, 
inflorescence, and flowers, and recently united with that species by F. v. Mueller. 
(PL Vict. i. 130). It appears however to me to differ sufficiently in the leaves, 
which are narrowly linear-euneate, emarginate or almost 2-lobed at the end, with 
revolute or recurved margins varying from 2 or 3 lines to fin. in length. In the 
ordinary form also the branches and leaves are covered with large glandular 
tubercles. — P. sediflonim, F. v. M. in Trans. Vict. Inst. i. 30 ; Eriostemon 
sediflorm, F. v. M. Fragm. i. 102. 

Hab.: On the Upper Maranoa, Mitchell; southern coast lands. 

4. P. squamulosum (scaly), Vent. Jard. Malm. t. 102 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 
342. An erect shrub, varying in height, but never arborescent, the young 
branches brown with scurfy scales. Leaves shortly petiolate, oblong or linear, 
obtuse but often muoronulate, | to l^^in. long, somewhat coriaceous, the margins 
flat or slightly recurved, smooth above or slightly glaijdular-tuberculate, covered 
underneath with scurfy peltate scales. Flowers yellow, in terminal sessile, 
simple or compound umbels or corymbs, not exceeding the last leaves, the 
pedicels, calyx, and petals covered with comparatively large scurfy scales. Calyx 
very short, truncate, with minute or short and broad teeth. Petals barely 2 lines 
long, slightly imbricate with inflexed valvate tips. Stamens exserted (1 or 2 
occasionally wanting) ; filaments glabrous ; anthers tipped by a small gland. 
Ovary densely covered with white or brown scurfy eiliate scales. Cocci small, 
broad, obscurely beaked. Seeds scarcely shining. — DC. Prod. i. 720 ; A. Juss. in 
Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Par. ii. 132 ; P. elaagnifolium, A. Juss. I.e. 132, t. 11 ; 
P. aureum, A. Cunn. in Field, N. S. Wales, 331, with a figure (the specimens not 
so stunted as represented in the plate) ; Eriostemon lepidotus, Spreng. Syst. ii. 
322 ; F. V. M. Fragm. i. 104, and PL Vict. i. 130. 

Hab.: Stanthorpe, Main Eange, Peak Downs, Eockhampton, etc. 

6. P. STottii (after Dr. Nott), F. v. M. Fragm. vi. 22. A shrub of about 
10ft. in height, branches scaly. Leaves for the most part between f and IJin. 
long, and 2 to 3 lines broad, cuneate or ovate-oblong ; obtuse, retuse, flat, a little 
repand ; densely scaly on the under, and minutely scabrous on the upper side, 
on conspicuous petioles. Flowers lepidote, at the end of the branchlets, solitary or 

194 XXIX. EUTACE^. [Phebalium. 

in twos or threes on short pedicels of f rom 1 to 3 lines. Bracts linear-canaliculate, 
caducous. Calyx almost campanulate, about 2|^ lines long, 6 or 7-cleft. 
Petals 6 or 7, lanceolate, 3 or 4 lines long, pale purple inside. Stamens 12 to 14. 
Anthers oblong, scarcely 1 line long. Style long as the stamens, and like the 
filaments glabrous, stigma small, peltate. Ovary densely lepidote, 6 or 7-merous. 
Cocci rhomboid-ovate, 2 lines long. 
Hab.: Queensland, F. v. M. 

6. p. Billardiere (after Dr. J. J. Labillardiere), A. Jiiss.: Benth. Fl. Amtr. 
i. 344. An erect shrub or small tree, the branches angular and clothed with 
small broVn scurfy scales. Leaves oblong, lanceolate or linear, obtuse or acute, 
rarely under fin. and often Bin. long, or in very luxuriant specimens 4 or 5in. 
long, entire, coriaceous, flat or with recurved margins, glabrous above, silvery- 
white underneath with minute scales. Flowers in axillary corymbs, shortly 
pedunculate, but always shorter than the leaves ; peduncles and pedicels thick 
and scaly. Calyx small, lobed. Petals about 2 lines long, glabrous, slightly 
imbricate, with inflexed valvate tips. Stamens exserted ; filaments often hairy 
in the lower portion. Ovary glabrous. Cocci small, broad, with a very short 
beak. Seeds shining. — Eriostemon sqiiamms, Labill. PI. Nov. Holl. iii. t. 141 ; P. 
retusum, Hook. Journ. Bot. i. 254, and Ic. PI. t. 57 ; P. elatum, A. Cunn. in 
Fields N. S. Wales 331 ; P. elceagnoides, Sieb. PI. Exs. 
Hab.: Fraser's Island, H. Trijon. 

6. PHILOTHECA, Eudge. 

(Eeferring to the tube formed by the lower part of the stamens.) 

Calypc 5-cleft. Petals 6, imbricate in the bud. Disk slightly lobed. Stamens 
10, shorter than the petals ; filaments united into a glabrous tube at the base, 
free upwards, and very hairy ; anthers oblong, all perfect, minutely apiculate. 
Carpels 5, nearly distinct from the base ; styles inserted below the middle, and 
immediately united in a single style, hirsute in the middle ; stigma small. Ovules 
2 in each carpel, superposed. Cocci truncate, 2-valved, the endoearp cartilagi- 
nous and separating elastically. — Erect, heath-like shrubs, glabrous or nearly so. 
Leaves crowded, alternate, narrow-linear. Flowers terminal, nearly sessile, 
solitary, or 2 or 3 together. 

A genus entirely Australian, differing from Eriostemon only in the monadelphous stamens. — 

Leaves obtuse, mostly under 3 lines long 1. P. australis. 

Leaves 3-angled, semi-terete, acute, 4 to 7 lines long 2. P. calida. 

1. P. australis (Australian), Rudge, in Trans. Linn. Soc. xi. 298, t. 21 ; 
Benth. FL Amtr. i. 348. Glabrous or sprinkled with a minute pubescence. 
Leaves numerous, linear, obtuse, rarely exceeding 3 lines, rather thick, flat or 
channelled above, very convex underneath, or almost terete. Flowers usually 
solitary, but sometimes 2 or 3 together. Sepals small, broadly triangular. 
Petals 3 or 4 lines long, broadly lanceolate, minutely hoary-pubescent on both 
sides, except a broad glabrous central line outside. Stamens rather shorter than 
the petals. Cocci shortly beaked. — Eriostemon salsolifolius, Sm. in Rees, 
Cycl. xiii. 

Hab.: Near Mount Faraday, Mitchell. 

Y&r. parviflmra. Leaves more oiliate. Flowers much smaller; the petals scarcely 2i lines 
jong.— P. ciliata, Hook, in Mitch. Trop. Austr. 347. 

2. P. calida (the most northern species), F. v. M. Fracpn. vii. 21 and 38. 
Branches and foliage glabrous. Leaves trigono-semiterete, acute, crowded, 4 to 
7 lines long, and about f line thick. Sepals oval, imbricate, 2 lines long, yellow, 

Pl. VIII. 




F Wills 

Aster olxi&ia. woombzfe.; Bazl^ 

PhUotlu'ca.] XXIX. RUTACEiE. 195 

slightly ciliate. Petals imbricate, sometimes \m. long, laneeolate-oblong. The 
staminal tube with a ring of hairs a little above the base, free filaments villous. 
Fertile anthers yellow, narrow oblong-linear, about 1 line long, slightly bearded 
at the base. Style oapillaceous, glabrous, nearly lin. long. Stigma depressed- 
globose, I line broad. Carpels 5, erect, sessile, blunt, glabrous. 
Hab.: Gilbert River, sandstone tablelands, and Cave Creek, F. v. M. I.e. 

(Stellate pubescence.) 
Calyx often very minute or obsolete. Petals 5, tomentose outside, valvate and 
usually induplicate in the bud. Disk none. , Stamens 10 or more, free, filaments 
filiform, glabrous or very slightly ciliate, anthers not apiculate. Carpels 2 to 5, 
united to the middle, or nearly to the top, into a single shortly-lobed or truncate 
ovary of 2. to 5 cells. Style inserted between the lobes, filiform, with usually a 
large reflexed peltate or deeply-lobed stigma. Cocci tardily separating, truncate, 
and often beaked, 2-valved ; endocarp cartilaginous, separating elastically. — 
Shrubs or undershrubs, more or less stellate-tomentose, or the tomentum united 
into scurfy scales. Leaves alternate, simple. Flowers sessile or pedicellate, 
axillary or terminal, solitary or a few together. 
The genus is limited to Australia. 

1. A., woombye (found at Woombye), Bail. A tall shrub, clothed in most 
parts with an elseagnoid indumentum. Leaves membranous, upper face glabrous, 
deep-green, the under side grey, with close, silvery, stellate scales, and scattered 
brown ones, linear, almost linear-lanceolate, 1^ to 2fin. long, 3 or 4 lines broad, 
apex obtuse ; petioles 2 or 3 lines, margins slightly repand, alternate, the two 
last ones close under the flower-head, nearly opposite. Flowers 6 to 10 or more 
in heads or clusters at the ends of the branchlets. Primary peduncle very short 
or wanting, sometimes is seen a secondary peduncle bearing three flowers. 
Pedicels 3 or 4 lines long. Calyx-teeth triangular, the points sometimes elongated 
and recurved, ^ to f line long. Petals much imbricate in the lower part, valvate 
at the top, white with brown stellate scales on the back, the face glabrous, about 
2 lines long. Stamens 10, filaments white, longer than the petals, filiform, 
glabrous or roughened by a few minute glands. Anthers oblong, yellow, f line 
long. Style thicker and. shorter than the filaments, glabrous. Stigma scarcely 
lobed. Ovary very scaly, showing 5 cocci in the flowers examined. 

Hab.: Woombye, North Coast Railway, W. French. 

8. CORREA, Sm. 

(After Correa de Serra.) 

(Didymeria, Lindl.) 

Calyx cup-shaped, truncate and 4 or 8-toothed, or 4-lobed. Petals 4, valvate, 
connate in a cylindrical or campanulate tube, sometimes separating as the flower 
expands, spreading at the top. Disk shortly lobed. Stamens 8, free ; anthers 
without appendages. Ovary of 4 carpels nearly distinct from the base ; styles 
inserted above the middle, and immediately united into one filiform style, with a 
small often shortly 4-lobed stigma ; ovules 2 in each carpel, superposed. Cocci 4, 
truncate, 2-valved, the endocarp cartilaginous and separating elastically. — Shrubs 
or rarely small trees, stellate-tomentose or rarely glabrous. Leaves opposite, 
petiolate, simple. Flowers rather large and showy, red, yellow, white or green, 
usually pendulous, solitary or 2 or 3 together, axillary or terminal. Petals 
usually mealy-tomentose outside. 
Thegenus is limited to Australia, 

196 XXIX. KUTACE^. [Coma. 

1. C. speciosa (showy), Ait. E.i-pit. Hmt. Ki-w 866 ; Benih. Fl. Amtr. i. 354. 
A shrub, variable in size and habit, usually rigid and low, and rarely exceeding 
6 to 8ft., the stellate tomentum very variable, usually loose and abundant on the 
branches or sometimes on the whole plant, dense and soft on the under side of 
the leaves, disappearing on the upper surface or sometimes on the whole plant, 
except the peduncles and flowers. Leaves very shortly petiolate, from broadly 
ovate or cordate to narrow-oblong or lanceolate, obtuse or retuse, usually from f 
to l^in. long, rarely all under lin., or the larger ones attaining 2in. Flowers 
red, varying to white or yellowish-green, terminal, shortly pedicellate and 
pendulous, or a few rarely erect, solitary or 2 or 3 together. Calyx hoary or 
rusty-tomentose, truncate, with 4 minute teeth. Petals hoary-tomentose outside, 
united the greater part of their length into a cylindrical or slightly campanulate 
corolla of f to Ifin., with 4 spreading lobes. Stamens exserted, the filaments of 
those opposite the petals more or less dilated below the middle. — DC. Prod. i. 
719 ; F. V. M. PL Viet. i. 136. 

Hab.: Stanthorpe district, 

9. BOSISTOA, F. v. M. 

(After J. Bosisto.) 

Flowers hermaphrodite ? Calyx small, 5-toothed. Petals 6, valvate or slightly 
imbricate, with inflexed tips. Disk thick. Stamens 10. Ovary of 5 distinct 
carpels ; styles almost terminal, united upwards, but soon separating ; ovules 2 
in efaeh carpel, superposed. Cocci distinct, large, coriaceous, 2-valved ; endocarp 
cartilaginous, separating. Seeds solitary ; testa membranous ; albumen none ; 
cotyledons thick and fleshy, radicle small. — A tree. Leaves opposite, pinnate. 
Panicles terminal. 

The geijus is limited to Australia, and allied in some respects to Melicope and Evodia, but very 
different in habit as well as in the seeds, which have the structure of Pilocarpus and some other 
American genera. — Benth. , 

1. B. sapindiformis (Sapindum-like), F. v. M. Herb.; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 
859. " Towra," Nerang, Schneider. A tree with the habit of a Ciipania, the 
young shoots, petioles and inflorescence minutely pubescent. Leaves pinnate ; 
leaflets 3 to 11, opposite in pairs, the terminal odd one occasionally wanting, 
oblong-lanceolate, 4 to Sin. long, more or less serrate- toothed, especially above 
the middle, narrowed at the base and attaining a width of 4in., on a short 
petiolule or nearly sessile. Panicles terminal, trichotomous, shorter than the 
leaves. Buds globular. Calyx small, very shortly and unequally toothed. 
Petals about 2 lines long. Filaments dilated at the base, attenuated upwards, 
glabrous ; anthers large. Carpels very hirsute, on a raised disk. Styles short. 
Cocci broadly and very obliquely ovate, about lin. long, hard, almost woody, 
tomentose and rugose outside. — Evodia pentacocca, F. v. M. Fragm. iii. 41. 

Hab.: Nerang Creek, Bockhampton, Mt. Dryander, and other parts. 

Wood close in the grain, yellow ; very liable to split in drying. — Bailey^s Cat. Ql. Woods No. 39. 

Very hard timber used for handspikes and levers. — Schnieder. 

10. MELICOPE, Forst. 

(Referring to the glands of the flower being notched.) 

Flowers more or less unisexual. Sepals 4. Petals 4, valvate, or slightly 
imbricate, with inflexed tips. Disk thick, entire or lobed. Stamens 8. 
Ovary of 4 nearly distinct carpels ; styles inserted above the middle, united 
immediately or at the summit into one, with a capitate 4-lobed stigma ; ovules 2 
in each carpel, superposed or collateral. Cocci distinct, spreading, 2-valved ; 

Melicope.] XXIX. RUTACE^. 197 

endocarp cartilaginous or horny, separating. Seeds usually solitary ; testa 
crustaceous, shining ; albumen fleshy, embryo straight or slightly curved, with 
oblong or ovate cotyledons. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves opposite, 3-foliolate, or (in 
species not Australian) 1-foliolate or simple. Flowers rather small, in terminal 
or axillary cymes or panicles. 

Besides the Australian species, which are endemic, there are 2 from New Zealand and a few 
from the Pacific Islands. F. v. Mueller proposes to unite Melicope with Evodia, but the double 
number of stamens is a more constant character than many others distinguishing the received 
genera of Zanthoxylece. — Benth. 

Leaves of a single leaflet. Petiole short. Petiolule scarcely any. 
Peduncles axillary, often very short, bearing often many flowers, on 
pedicels of about 6 lines . 1. lU. Fareana. 

Leaves frequently of 5 leaflets, 2 rather distant pairs and a terminal one. 

Panicles terminal. Filaments glabrous. Cocci transversely wrinkled 2. M, neurococca. 

Leaves of 3 leaflets, rarely reduced to the terminal one. Panicles 

terminal or in the upper axils. Filaments ciliate. Cocci divaricate 3. M. erythrococca. 

Leaves of 3 leaflets, terminal one often 5in. long. Panicle terminal, 
about half as long as the petiole. Flowers few. Pedicels long as 
flowers 4. J/. Broadbentiana. 

Leaves of 3 leaflets, from 5 to lOini long. Petioles shorter than leaflets. 
Panicles axillary. Pedicels short. Petals minutely pubescent out- 
side. Filaments ciliate 5. M. australasica. 

Leaves of 3 leaflets, emarginate, subcoriaceous. Sepals minute. Petals 
thick, with incurved tips. Filaments broad, nearly glabrous. Disk 
yellow. Ovary glabrous. Style hairy on the lower half 6. 31. chooreechillum. 

Leaves of 3 or reduced to a single leaflet, 3 to Tin. long, pubescent. 
Peduncles axillary. Flowers shortly pedicellate. Sepals orbicular. 
Petals thick, linear. Filaments and style hairy. Ovary glabrous . 7. M. pubescens. 

1. Ttl. Fareana (after M. Fare), F. v. M. Fragm. ix. 101. A small tree. 
Leaves unifoliolate, glabrous, ovate-lanceolate, chartaceous, 3 to 6in. long, 1 to 
2in. broad, obtuse or acute, nerves very slender, widely spreading oil dots 
crowded. Petiole lin. or less long ; petiolule scarcely any. Peduncles short, 
sometimes very short, bearing few or many flowers. Pedicels 3 to 6 lines long, 
thickened upwards, and as the calyx glabrous. Sepals 4, rarely 5, about 2 lines 
long, lanceolate. Petals 4, rarely 5. Slightly imbricate, the apices minutely 
inflexed. Stamens 8, a little shorter than the petals, all fertile, filaments 
eglandulose, coherent at the base by their dense woolly clothing, the upper part 
glabrous. Anthers dorsally fixed, oblong-ovate, dehiscence introrse. Disk 
annular. Carpels 4, rarely 5. Style capillary, about 2 lines long. 

Hab : Eockingham Bay, Barron Eiver, and other parts in the tropics. 

2. M. neurococca (referring to the nerves of cocci), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 
360. A small tree, the young branches, petioles, and peduncles pubescent with 
simple spreading hairs. Leaves of each pair generally unequal, the larger one 
with a common petiole of 2in. or more, the other with a much shorter petiole ; 
leaflets 3, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, acuminate, mostly 3 to 4in. long, 
glabrous above, sprinkled with a few hairs underneath. Panicles terminal, 
trichotomous, corymbose. Sepals small, orbicular, concave, ciliate. Petals 
about 2 lines long, glabrous, valvate or nearly so. Filaments glabrous, dilated 
to the middle. Ovary hirsute, the carpels almost distinct from the base. Styles 
inserted below the summit. Cocci distinct, nearly erect, broad, about 3 lines 
long, the valves coriaceous and transversely virmkledL.-^Evodia neurococca, F. v. 
M. Fragm. i. 28 and ii. 103. 

Hab.: Brisbane Eiver, W. Hill and F. v. Mueller : Wide Bay and Archer's Creek, used by the 
natives to make their spades, Leichhardt. 

Wood very hard, and close-grained, of a uniform light-yellow colour.— Bailey' >: Cat. Ql. 
Woods No. 40. 

198 XXIX. RUTACE^. [Melicope. 

3. I/[. erythrococca (ooeci of a reddish colour), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 360. 
" Thal-ango-thera," Forest Hill, Macartney. A lofty tree with a smooth whitish 
bark, quite glabrous. Leaves glabrous, at least on the old trees, opposite, sub- 
opposite or alternate. Leaflets 3 or rarely 1 only, oblong-laneeolate, obtuse, 1^ 
to Sin. long, coriaceous, entire or obscurely crenulate, on a common petiole of f 
to l^in. Panicles terminal or in the upper axils, loose, scarcely longer than the 
leaves. Sepals small, triangular, shghtly ciliate. Petals 1| line long, slightly 
imbricate, valvate at the tips, minutely pubescent outside. Disk obscurely lobed. 
Filaments dilated and ciliate to above the middle. Ovary slightly hirsute, the 
carpels almost distinct. Styles inserted above the middle. Cocci 4 or very rarely 
5, very spreading, ovate, about 2 lines long, wrinkled, of a reddish colour. — 
Evodia erythrococca, F. v. M. Fragm. i. 28. 

Hab.: Wide Bay, C. Moore ; Moreton Bay and Brisbane Biver, W. Hill; Maokay, W. Macartney. 
The bark possesses a most peculiar acrid pungency, and promotes a great flow of saliva. 

4. T/L. Broadbentiana (after K. Broadbent), Bail. A slender erect shrub, 
glabrous except the very young growth, branchlets 4-angular. Leaves in nearly 
equal pairs, sometimes one slightly shorter than the other ; petiolules slender, 
2 to BJin. long ; terminal leaflet often 5^in. long and 2^in. broad, ovate- 
lanceolate, often long-acuminate, equal sided to a petiolule nearly lin. long, 
lateral ones smaller, sessile or nearly so, and very unequal-sided, the lamina on 
the upper side terminating some distance above the base, all the leaflets very 
thin ; primary veins few, parallel, about 5 on each side of midrib with fainter 
intermediate one ; veinlets few. Panicle terminal, trichotomous, not more than 
half the length of the petiole. Flowers few, small ; pedicels long as the flower ; 
sepals 4, very obtuse. Petals 4, white, minutely dotted, ovate-oblong, under 2 
lines long. Stamens 8 (4 long, 4 short) the long ones alternating with the 
petals, the filaments thickened downwards, the lower half hairy. Disk broadly 
lobed. Ovary glabrous, 4-lobed. Styles glabrous, free at base, erect, inserted 
slightly below the apex at the internal angle of the carpels. Fruit not obtained. 

Hab.: Palm Camp (4000ft. altitude), Bellendeu Ker, Bellenden Eer Exped. 1889. 

5. M. australasica (Australasian), F. v. M.; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 860. A 
handsome tree, glabrous in all its parts. Leaves digitately 8-foliolate, the 
common petiole several times shorter than the leaflets ; leaflets oblong-elliptical, 
or rarely obovate-oblong, obtuse or shortly acuminate, 6 to lOin. long, somewhat 
coriaceous, entire. Panicles axillary, trichotomous, loose and many-flowered, 
but much shorter than the leaves. Pedicels short. Sepals ovate. Petals narrow, 
about 4 lines long, of a firm consistence, reflexed above the middle, minutely 
pubescent outside. Filaments slightly dilated, ciliate and rigid, especially the 
larger ones, subulate upwards ; anthers small. Disk inconspicuous. Carpels 
nearly glabrous, but tapering into 'strictly terminal short pubescent styles united 
at the summit. Cocci erect, distinct, angular, acuminate, not 2 lines long. 
Seeds shining. — Evodia octandra, F. v. M. Fragm. ii. 102. 

Hab.: Pine River, W. Hill (F. v. M. Fragm. ix. 102), where the trees are said to attain 50ft. 
in height and have a white, variegated bark ; filaments somewhat broad and smooth. 

6. M. chooreechillum (native name of Mount Bartle Frere), Bail. Eep. 
Bot. Bellenden Ker E.rped. A large shrub or small tree, glabrous, branches thick. 
Leaves opposite, of unequal size in each pair. Petioles 1 to 2^in. long, sulcate 
on the upper side. Leaflets 3, obovate, tapering from a broad emarginate end to 
the top of the petiole, IJ to Sin. long, f to IJin. broad, of a thick cartilaginous 
or coriaceous texture ; veins faint in the fresh leaf, but prominent in the dried 
specimens, the primary ones anastomosing far within the margin, the under 
virface closely covered with small dots (oil-dots). Flowers in short trichotomous 

Mdicop,'.] XXIX. RUTACE^. 199 

panicles, length of the petioles, pedicellate. Sepals 4, obtuse, minute. Petals 
4, about 4 lines long, linear, white, thick, the apex incurved, Stamens 8; 
filaments broad at the base, very nearly glabrous. Anthers oblong-rotund. Disk 
a yellow ring. Ovary glabrous, 4-celled. Style hairy on the lower half. Stigma 
shortly 4-lobed. 

Hab.: Summit of Bartle Frere, Bellenden Ker Exped. 1899. 

7. IMC. pubescens (pubescent). Bail. Bot. Bull. No. 3. A small tree, with 
Ught-coloureld bark, the branchlets somewhat flattened and usually opposite, the 
whole leafy part of the plant and inflorescence softly pubescent. Leaves opposite, 
3-foliolate, often on lateral shoots reduced to a single leaflet or pair of leaflets on 
a petiole of ^in. or less. The pairs of leaves sometimes, but not always, of 
unequal size ; leaflets sessile, lanceolate, glabrous except the veins on the upper 
surface, often sharply acuminate, the lateral ones unequal-sided at the base, 3 to 
7in. long, 1 to 2Jin. broad; veins prominent on both sides, the primary ones 
looping some distance from the margin, margins entire ; oil dots minute, not 
numerous. Flowers in lateral and axillary triohotomous cymes ; peduncles 
shorter than the petioles ,• flowers on short pedicels, calyx-lobes 4, nearly 
orbicular, about 1 line. Petals 4, valvate, recurved when the flower is fully 
opened, thick linear, with inflexed tips, about 8 or 4 lines long, disk entire, 
glabrous. Stamens 8, those opposite the petals shorter than the other four, 
filaments much dilated and ciliate in the lower half. Style terminal, rather 
thick, long as the stamens, hairy in the lower half. Stigma small, slightly 
lobed. Ovary glabrous, 4-celled, 2 ovules in each cell. Fruit not yet collected. 

Hab. Yandiua and top o.f Blaokall Bange, March, 1891 (in full flower), Field Naturalists. 

11. EVODIA, Forst. 

(Sweet smell of foliage.) 

Flowers more or less unisexual. Sepals 4 or 5, imbricate. Petals 4 or 5, 
valvate or very slightly imbricate. Disk sinuate. Stamens 4 or 5 ; filaments 
subulate or slightly dilated. Ovary of 4 or 5 carpels, usually distinct and style- 
like in the male flowers, more or less united in the females, styles attached below 
the middle, more or less united with a 4 or S-lobed stigma. Ovules 2 in each 
carpel, collateral or superposed. Fruit separating more or less completely into 
coriaceous 2-valved cocci, the endocarp separating elastieally. Seeds with a 
orustaceous testa, usually smooth and shining ; albumen fleshy ; embryo straight 
with ovate cotyledons. — Unarmed trees or shrubs. Leaves opposite, usually 
digitately 3-foliolate or pinnate, rarely 1-foliolate or simple ; leaflets entire, often 
large. Cymes or panicles axillary or rarely terminal. Flowers small. 

A considerable genus, spread over tropical Asia and the islands of the Pacific and of the 
Madagascar group ; all but one of the Australian species are endemic. The genus differs from 
Melicope chiefly in the stamens equal to, not double, the number of petals, from Zanthoxylwm ' 
by the leaves all or mostly opposite, generally by the more valvate petals and mora united styles, 
besides minor characters offering occasional exceptions. — Ben th. 

Petioles 1 to 2in. long. Leaflets IJ to Sin. long, lanceolate, central one 

somewhat petiolulate. Cymes axillary or lateral ; flowers crowded. 

Sepals small, orbicular. Petals about 2 lines long, glabrescent. 

Filaments eiliate, slightly dilated 1. E. micrococca. 

Petioles 5 to 6in. long, minutely pubescent. Leaflets sessile, 6 to lOin. 

long, thin-chartaoeous, shortly acuminate. Cymes many-flowered. 

Petals deciduous. Carpels glabrous on the outside, puberulent inside 2. E. xanthori/lnides. 
Petioles 2 to Sin. long, semi-cylindrical. Leaflets 4 to lOin. long, thin 

coriaceous. Cymes umbellulate, many-flowered. Sepals orbicular. 

Petals reddish outside, densely bearded. Filaments glabrous. Style 

short, glabrous. Ovary densely tomentose . :-i. A'. Bonwiekii. 

200 XXIX. EUTACE^. [Erodia. 

Petioles IJ to 5Jin. long, margins slightly winged' in the upper part, 

often terete in the lower portion. Leaflets 3J to lOin. long, sessile, 

thin-herbaceous. Panicle in the upper axils 3 to Tin. long, lower 

branches distant. , Petals scarcely J line long. Stamens shorter. 

Style pubescent. Cocci rugose i. E. alata. 

Petioles 1 to Sin. long. Leaflets 2J to 5in. long, shortly petiolulate. 

Cymes lateral ; flowers dense, peduncles short. Calyx puberulent. 

Petals pink, 3 lines long. Filaments 4 lines long. Style 3 or 4 lines 

long 5. E. accedens. 

Petioles 2 to Sin. long. Leaflets oblong-acuminate, 5 to 6in. long, 

coriaceous, glabrous, except the young growth. Panicles or cymes 

near the ends of the branohlets. Sepals minute. Petals 1 line long, 

base or claw woolly. Filaments hairy at the base &. E. littoralis. 

Petioles 4 to Sin. long, somewhat terete. Leaflets 5 to 6in. long, 

chartaoeous, petiolulate. Panicles terminal. Peduncles long, thinly 

pubescent. Flowers minute, shortly pedicellate. Petals scarcely 1 

line long. Filaments slightly silky I.E. vitiflora. 

1. E. micrococca (small-fruited), F. r. M. Fracpji. i. Hi, and ii. 180; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 861. A tree often of considerable size, quite glabrous. 
Leaves digitately 3-foliolate with long petioles ; leaflets obovate-oblong, obtuse, 
mostly 1^ to 3in. long, entire, narrowed at the base, the central one almost 
petiolulate. Flowers in dense cymes or trichotomous panicles on short lateral 
peduncles below the young shoots. Sepals 4, orbicular, small. Petals 4, about 
2 lines long, glabrous, slightly imbricate, with inflexed valvate tips. Filaments 
slightly dilated, ciliate, the attenuate tips folded inwards in the bud, exserted in 
the open flower. Cocci not 2 lines long, not separating so completely as in the 
Melicopes, rugose-glandular outside. Seeds black and shining. 

Hab.: Many parts of southern Queensland. 

Wood of a light-yellow colour, close in the grain, and tough. — Bailey's Gat. Ql. Woods No. 41. 

2. E. xanthoxyloides (Xanthoxy Ion-like), F. i\ M. Fragm. iv. 155. A 
tree, the bark smooth. Leaves trifoliolate. Petioles minutely puberulent, 5 to 
Bin. long. Leaflets 6 to lOin. long, thin-chartaceous, sessile, ovate, shortly 
acuminate, glabrous above, the nerves on the under side puberulent, margins 
entire. Cymes many-flowered. Peduncle and pedicels of fruiting specimens 
giabreseent, 2 to 4 lines long. Calyx 1 line or shorter, repandly 4-lobed. 
Petals deciduous (not seen). Cocci subovate, turgid, very obtuse, 3 to 4 lines 
long, outside glabrous, inside with an appressed pubescence. Seeds globose- ovate, 
scarcely 2 lines long, dark-brown, shining. 

Hab.: Rockingham Bay, J. Dallachy (P. v. M., I.e.) 
Wood hard, heavy-scented, yellowish (F. v. M., I.e.) 

8. E. Bonwickii (after J. Bonwick), F. v. M. Fragrh. v. 56. A large tree. 
Leaves trifoliolate, glabrous. Petioles 2 to Sin. long, semi-cylindric. Leaflets 
7 to loin, long, 8-|- to 4fin. broad, obovate-lanceolate, sessile, the under side pale. 
Cymes umbellate, many-flowered. Primary peduncles about lin. long, secondary 
shorter, thinly pubescent. Pedicels almost silky. Sepals imbricate, orbicular, 
nearly 1 line long. Petals valvate, about If line long, glabrous and reddish 
outside, the inside densely bearded. Filaments subulate, about f line long, 
glabrous. Anthers purple, oblong, glabrous, % line long. Disk inconspicuous. 
Indumentum of ovary yellow. Style ^ line long, glabrous. Stigma minute, 
undivided. Cocci 4, almost globose, slightly compressed, about 2 lines long. 
Seeds black, shining. 

Hab.: Eookingham Bay, J. DallacJiy (F. v. M., I.e.) 

4. E. alata (winged), F. v. M. Fragm. vii. 142. A tree, seldom tall, with a 
short velvety pubescence. Leaves trifoliale. Petioles 1| to 5fin. long, the upper 
portion more or less winged at the edges, the lower portion nearly terete. Leaflets 

Kvadia.] XXIX. RUTACE.^. 201 

sessile, 3^ to lOin. long and often over Sin. broad, quite entire or slightly repand, 
thin-herbaceous. Panicles in the upper axils 3 to 7in. long, the lower blanches 
rather distant. Flowers minute, greenish, clustered or here and there solitary. 
Sepals deltoid. Petals rhomboid-ovate, scarcely f line long. Stamens shorter 
than the petals, some sterile. Style short, pubescent. Stigma deeply 4-lobed. 
Cocci rotundly-obtuse, deeply bivalved. Epicarp rugose. Seeds globose, about 1 
line diameter. 
Hab.: Many parts of the tropics, and sometimes somewhat south. 

5. IS. accedens (near to another species), Blume ; F. v. M. Frarpn. ix, 102. 
" Bunnec-walwal," Moreton Bay ; " Boogoobi," Herberton, J. F. Bailey. An erect 
tree 70 to 80ft. high, thinly-pubescent or glabrous. Bark light-coloured, somewhat 
thick and corky. Leaves trifoliolate. Petioles 1 to 3in. long. Leaflets 2J to Sin. long, 
ovate, shortly acuminate, chartaceous, pale on the under side, shortly petiolulate. 
Cymes lateral, the flowers crowded, pink, turning bluish as they die away. Peduncles 
short. Pedicels about as long as the flowers. Calyx-lobes about 1 line long. 
Petals 2 to 8 lines long, slightly imbricate. Filaments glabrous, filiform, 4 lines 
long. Anthers oblong. Disk lobes semi-orbicular. Style 8 to 4 lines long, 
shortly pubescent. Stigma minute, capitate, 4-lobed. Ovary velvety. Cocci 4 
or less by abortion, slightly compressed, globose-ovate, about 8 lines long. Seeds 
dark reddish-brown, ovate-globose, IJ line long. — E. Elleryana, F. v. M. Fragm. 
v. 4, 56, 179, and vii. 22. 

Hab.: Not uncommon in damp scrubs in both southern and northerri^ Queensland. 
Wood very white, light and soft, furnishing a good substitute for that of the European lime- 
tree. — Bailey's Gat. Ql. Woods No. 42. 
Leaves sometimes infested with the fungus Phyllosticta Evodite, Cke. 

6. IS. littoralis (of the coast), Endl, Bot. Bull. xiv. 7. An erect tree, 
glabrous except for a slight pubescence on the young growth and inflorescence, 
about 50ft., with a light-coloured bark, the branchlets very stout, terete, but 
bluntly 4- angled at the ends where the leaves and flowers are borne. Leaves 
somewhat crowded towards the end of the branchlets, digitately 3-foliolate, on 
petioles 2 to 2|^in. long ; leaflets oblong, lateral ones oblique at the base, the 
middle one sometimes tapering into a petiolule, all obtusely acuminate, 5 or Gin. 
long, and 1^ to 2in. broad, texture thick, deep-green, and somewhat glossy. 
Flowers small, white, in triohotomous panicles, the flowers borne in clusters of 3, 
4, or more at the ends of the branchlets of the panicle. Sepals 4 minute. 
Petals 4, oblong, 1 line long, with reflexed tips, the base or very short claw woolly 
at the sides, stamens 4 ; filaments subulate, slightly hairy at base. Anthers 
ovate-oblong, light-coloured. Disk prominent, annular. Ovary deeply 4-lobed, 
glabrous ; style short, thick. Fruit as yet not obtained. 

Hab.: Eumundi, Field Nat. Excursion, Nov., 1895. 

The above is, I believe, identical with the Norfolk Island tree described by Steph. Endlicher, 

and I think this the first time the tree has been met with in Australia since collected by Allan 

Cunningham near the Brisbane Eiver in 1829. One of these specimens now in my possession 

has but imperfect flowers, and the leaflets are somewhat larger than those gathered at Eumundi. 


7. IS. vitiflora (vine-flowered), F. i-. M. Fragm. vii. 144. A shrub with 
glabrous trifoliolate leaves. Petioles 4 to 5in. long, nearly terete, slightly 
canaliculate. Leaflets ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 5 to 6in. long, 2 to 2^in. 
broad on narrow petiolules of about f or lin. long. Panicles terminal, very 
slightly pubescent. Peduncles about 2in. long, flowers minute in small umbels 
on the branches. Pedicels about 1 line long. Calyx-lobes deltoid. Petals 
scarcely 1 line long, valvate, slightly silky. Stamens shorter than the corolla. 
Anthers ovate, about ^ line long. Ovary tomentose. 

Hab.: Bockingham Bay, J. Dallachy (F. v, M., I.e.) ; near E. aromatica, according to 
F. V. M., I.e. 


12. MEDICOSMA, Hook. f. 

(Having the odour of lemons.) 

Sepals 4, broad, imbricate. Petals 4, broad, much imbricate in the bud, the 
tips erect or recurved. Disk lobed. Stamens 8, filaments dilated, almost 
cohering by their woolly margins ; anthers oblong. Ovary slightly 4-lobed, 
4-celled. Style almost terminal, filiform, with a small 4-lobed stigma ; ovules 
2 in each cell, collateral. Fruit separating into distinct, 2-valved cocci ; endocarp 
separating elastically. Seeds with a crustaceous shining testa, albumen fleshy ; 
embryo straight with broad cotyledons. — A tree. Leaves mostly opposite, 
1-foliolate. Flowers large, in axillary panicles. 

The genus is limited to a single species endemic in Australia. P. v. Mueller proposes to 
include it as well as Melicope (with which it agrees in the double number of stamens) under 
Evodia, but the habit, that of Acronychia, and the large, much-imbricate petals, appear to be a 
sufficient distirfction, unless nearly the whole of Zanthoxylece be united into one genus. — Benth. 

1. nZ. Cunninghamii (after A. Cunningham), Hook./, in Benth. and Hook. 
Oen. PL 297 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 362. A small tree, glabrous, or the young 
shoots and inflorescence minutely pubescent. Leaves mostly opposite, consisting 
of a single leaflet obscurely articulate on a short petiole, oblong- elliptical or 
rarely obovate-oblong, obtuse or acuminate, 3 to Gin. long. Panicles axillary, 
8-chotomous, with few large flowers. Sepals orbicular, 2 to 3 lines long, with a 
prominent midrib. Petals nearly fin. long, broadly ovate, minutely tomentose 
outside, with a prominent midrib. Disk thick and glabrous. Ovary hirsute ; 
style slender. Cocci about 3 lines long, quite distinct, scarcely coriaceous, hirsute. 
Seeds black. — Acronychia Cunninghamii, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 3994 ; F. v. M. 
Fragm. i. 27 ; Evodia Cunninghamii, F. v. M. Fragm. iii. 2. 

Hab.: Brisbane River, Moretou Bay, A. Cunningham ; common in the southern scrubs. 

The subsucoulent cocci, originally described in our " Genera Plantarum," are shown by 
subsequently received specimens to have been diseased. — Benth. 

Wood of a light-yellow colour, close in the grain. A good cabinetmaker's wood. — Bailey's 
Gat. Ql. Woods No. 43. 

13. BROMBYA, F. v. M. 

(After Eev. Dr. J. E. Bromby.) 

Calyx 4-lobed. Petals 4, deltoid or ovate-cordate, sessile, valvate. Disk 
quadrisinuate. Stamens 8 ; filaments almost ovate, those opposite the petals 
sterile with very small anthers, those opposite sepals fertile, the point subulate. 
Anthers introrse, 2-celled, dehiscing longitudinally. Style short. Stigma minute, 
4-lobed. Ovary of 4 carpels, coherent inside. Ovules 2, superposed.^-F. v. M. 
Fragm. v. 4. , 

1. B. platynema (broad filaments), F. v. M. Fragm. v. 4 and 66. A 
glabrous shrub or tree. Leaves simple, opposite, ovate, shortly acuminate, 2 to 
4^in. long, IJ to 2in. broad, base cuneate to a petiole of J to lin. long. Panicles 
about as long as the leaves, the branches divergent. Pedicels about 1 line long. 
Calyx lobes deltoid, scarcely J line long. Petals white, about 1 line. Filaments 
ciliate, sterile ones spathulate-ovate, fertile ones acute, ovate. Fertile anthers 
cordate. Disk and style glabrous. Cocci 4, alrhost ovate, 2 lines long, 2-valved, 
1 (rarely 2) seeded. Seeds almost oval, black, 1 line long. 

Hab.: Ranges about Rockingham Bay, J. Dallachy (F. v. M., I.e.) 


14. PAGETIA, F. v. M. 

(After Dr. J. Paget.) 

Flowers hermaphrodite. Calyx 5-parted, lobes semi-ovate. Petals 5, almost 
valvate in the bud. Stamens 10, free, all fertile. Filaments linear-subulate. 
Anthers ovate-cordate, dorsally attached, cells longitudinal. Hypogynous disk 
annular. Ovary 5-celled, 5-sulcate, or the 5 carpels confluent. Styles 5, short, 
twisted into 1, or reduced to 1 in the southern species. Stigmas minute. Ovules 
fasciculate. Eipe carpels bivalved. Seeds 1 or 2, matured, .af5Bxed laterally. 
Strophiole cordiform, membranous. Albumen none. Cotyledons ovate, plano- 
convex, not convolute, green, base emarginate. Radicle very short, cylindric, 
superior. — Trees, with opposite, simple, or here and there bi-tri-foliolate 
leaves and terminal trichotomous panicles of white flowers. — F. v. M. Frag. 
V. 178-215. 

Leaves mostly l-£oliolate. 
Leaflets 3 to 4in. long, 2 to 4in. broad, broadly ovate. Styles 5 . . . . 1. P. medicinalis. 
Leaflets 4 to 6in. long, IJ to 2Jin. broad, narrow-oblong. Style single . . 2. P. monostylis. 

1. P. medicinalis (medicinal), F. v. Fragm. v. 178-215, vi. 167, ix. 103. 
A tall tree, with opposite glabrous branchlets and leaves. Bark smooth, whitish. 
Leaves 8 to Bin. long, 2 to 4in. broad, on petioles of only a few lines, entire, 
shortly and obtusely acuminate, the under side pale, copiously veined, rarely all 
trifoliolate. Panicles about as long as the leaves. Flowers numerous in 
crowded cymes, very thiply puberulent. Calyx scarcely f line long, persistent. 
Petals deciduous, ovate, sessile, scarcely 2 lines long. Stamens opposite 
the sepals, longer than those opposite the petals. Anthers pale-yellow, 
blunt, scarcely ^ line long, with an introrse dehiscence. Style scarcely 1 line 
long, glabrous. Ovary depressed-globose, thinly pubescent. Disk glabrous. 
Carpels ovate or rhomboid-globose, slightly compressed, 5 to 6 lines long. Seeds 
brown, glabrous. Strophiole 2 to 2^ lines, cordiform. — F. v. M., I.e. 

Hab.: Near Eockhampton, Messrs. Tliozet and O'Shanesy (F. v. M.) ; Crocodile Creek, 
Bowman (F. v. M.) ; Mount Buzzard, J. Dallachy (F. v. M.) ; Wide Bay, Leichhardt (F. v. M.) 

2. P. monostylis (single-styled), Bail. Bot. Bull. xiii. 7. An erect, glabrous 
tree of about 60ft. in height, with a rather smooth, whitish bark ; branchlets 
usually ternate, flattened, green, and cane-like, smooth except for the numerous 
lenticels ; internodes long. Leaves opposite, mostly 1-foliolate with very short 
petioles, oblong, 4 to 6in. long, If to 2|-in. broad, base usually cuneate, apex 
often abruptly acuminate, blunt ; the first leaves of the young growth are 
represented by linear, membranous bud-scales about lin. long, 2 lines broad, and 
very deciduous ; the pair of leaves under the inflorescence are 2 or 3-foliolate, the 
lateral leaflets often oblique at the base and nearly or quite sessile, lanceolate, 
about 3in. long. Flowers white, in terminal trichotomous, corymbose panicles, 
peduncles flattened, pedicels hairy. Bracts minute, hairy. Sepals about J line ■ 
long, tomentose. Petals tomentose, 2 or 3 lines long. Stamens 10 ; filaments 
flattened, glabrous. Djsk a glabrous, thick, slightly-lobed ring. Ovary hairy, of 
5 pustulate lobes. Style glabrous, shorter than the stamens ; stigma capitate, 
globose, slightly sulcate. No ripe fruit obtained. 

Hab.: Eumundi, Field Nat. Excursion, Nov. 1895. 

This graceful tree differs from P. medicinalis, P. v. M., in having narrow-obloijg not broadly 
ovate leaves ; the oil-dots are more prominent also in this fresh species. The flowers also have 
but one style. Further distinction will probably be found in the ripe fruit. The foliage has 
been distilled and a fair quantity of oil obtained, which has not yet been tested for medicinal 
virtues said to be contained in the leaves of the northern tree. 


(Wood of a yellow colour.) 
(Blackburnia, Forst.) 
Flowers more or less unisexual. Calyx 3, 4 or 5-lobed. Petals 8, 4 or 5, 
imbricate or rarely Valvate or wanting. Disk small or obsolete. Stamens in the 
niales 8, 4 or 6, the ovary rudimentary or conical, or of 8, 4 or 5 distinct style- 
like carpels. Female flowers without stamens or with scale-like staminodia. 
Ovary of 1 to 5 distinct carpels. Styles nearly terminal, distinct or united 
upwards ; ovules 2 in each carpel, usually collateral. Fruit of 1 to 5 distinct 
cocci, dry or drupaceous, usually 2-valved ; the endocarp separating or adherent, 
beeds with a hard or crustaceous shining testa ; albumen fleshy ; embryo straight 
°^ ™'^™<^' yith broad flat cotyledons.— Shrubs or trees, often armed with 
scattered prickles, and sometimes climbing. • Leaves alternate, usually pinnate. 
J^ lowers small, m axillary or terminal cymes or panicles. 

A large genus, dispersed over the tropical and subtropical regions of the whole world, Of the 
louowmg species, two are endemic in Australia, the third is also in Norfolk Island. All three 
rest of the ^^^ °° -B'acftMniw, characterised chiefly by solitary carpels, which are rare in the 

Tree the trunk and branches prickly and here and there prickles upon 
the petioles, rhachis and costules. 

Leaflets 9 to 13, oblong-elliptical, acuminate, U to 4in. long . . . 1. Z. brachyacanthum. 
liee, the trunk and branches often prickly. 

Leaflets 5 to 9, oblong-lanceolate, 3 to 6in. long, 1 to 2in. broad . . 2. Z. veneficum. 
Tall climber, all parts prickly. 

Leaflets 5 to 9, broadly ovate, 3 to Sin. long, the margins with bristly 

J fl . ■ ■ ", B. Z. torvum. 

ijeanets scarcely oblique, not coriaceous. Panicles terminal. Flowers 

very numerous, under IJ line 4. Z. parviflora. 

■ Vn^" ''^^'^'^yacanthum (alluding to the short prickles), F. v. M. PL rict. 
1. 108; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 863. Satin-wood. A small tree, the trunk and 
branches covered with short conical prickles. Leaves pinnate, the common 
petiole 6 to lOin. long. Leaflets usually 9 to 13, opposite in pairs, with or with- 
out a terminal odd one, petiolulate, from ovate to oblong-elliptical, shortly 
acuminate, 2 to 8in. or more long, equal or oblique at the base, coriaceous and 
shining. Panicles axillary and terminal, much shorter than the leaves, irregularly 
2— 8-chotomous. Flowers white, on very short pedicels, the males nearly 3 lines 
long, the females shorter. Sepals 4, small and broad. Petals obtuse, much 
imbricate. Ovary rudimentary in the male flowers, in the females consisting of a 
single carpel with a large oblique stigma, nearly sessile or on a very short style, 
terminal but excentrical. Fruit opening wide to the middle in 2 valves. Seed 
black. — Benth, I.e. 

Hab.: Common on the southern ranges ; also met with at a few places in the tropics, according 
toP. V. M. ' " y ' b 

Wood a glossy yellow, superior to the wood used in Europe under the name of " satinwood." 
—Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No. 45. 

2. %, veneficum (poisonous), Bail. 1st Suppl. Synop. Ql. Flora ii., Bot. BulL 
vii. A medium-sized tree, glabrous, the branches and sometimes the stem 
prickly. Leaves (including the petiole) from 6 to 12in. long. Leaflets 5 to 9, 
opposite in pairs, with or without a terminal oddone, petiolulate, oblong- 
lanceolate, shortly acuminate, unequally sided at the base, 8 to 6in. long, 1 to 
2in. broad, the primary veins prominent, almost transversely spreading, prickles 
none or scarcely any on the rhachis, petiolule 1 or costules. Panicles terminal 
and in the upper axils, trictotomous. Flowers small, in threes or fours at the 
ends of the branchlets of the panicle. Pedicels short. Buds globose. Sepals 4, 
scarcely over ^ line in diameter. Petals 4, ovate, spreading, 2i lines long, 

Zmitho.vtjlunu] XXIX. RUTACEiE. 205 

imbricate in the bud. Filaments 4, flattened, longer than the petals, arching 
over the ovary. Anthers connivent, somewhat cordate, rather large. Ovary with 
8 prominent wing-like angles. Stigma sessile. 

Hab.: Johnstone Kiver, Dr. Thou. L. Buiirroft, who reports the wood and bark to be 
poisonous ; Barron Biver, E. Cowley. 

Wood yellow, of close grain, and easy to viovk.— Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No. 44a. 

The bark possesses a poisonous principle as toxic as strychnine, to whose physiological action 
it has some resemblance. ~T. L. Bancroft. 

3. Z. torvum (unapproachable), F. c. M. Fragm. vii. 140. A tall scrub 
climber, the stems often several inches thick and arriied with similar prickles to 
the other species. The branchlets, petioles, and peduncles clothed with a very 
short cano-fuscus pubescence and prickles. Leaves impari-pinnate. Leaflets 5 
to 9, subcoriaceous, 3 to Sin. long, ovate, very shortly petiolulate, oblique, rounded 
at the base, somewhat long and obtusely acuminate, the margins with distinct 
bristle-like teeth, both sides glabrous and glossy. Panicles about 4in. long, 
shortly branched. Pedicels about as long as the flowers. Bracteoles at the base 
of the pedicels, very minute, linear- subulate. Petals imbricate, lanceolate-ovate, 

1 line long, base truncate, yellow. Filaments of the male flower setaceous, 
almost 2 lines long. Anthers cordate-ovate, dorsally attached. Ovary of female 
flowers 4. Styles very short, coherent. Stigmas united into 1, peltate, 4^3, 
maturing 2 — 1, scarcely 8 lines, compressed, almost lenticular, obtuse. Seeds 
\\ line, ovate-globular, glossy black, solitary. 

Hab.: Many of the northern range scrubs. 

Wood yellow and close-grained. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No. 44. 

4. Z. parviflorum (small-flowered), Benth. Fl. Amtr. i. 863. A small tree, 
glabrous and unarmed, or with very few minute distant prickles. Leaves pinnate, 
with a common petiole of 4 to 6in., angular but not winged ; leaflets usually 9 to 
11, opposite in pairs, the terminal odd one occasionally wanting, ovate-lanceolate, 
acuminate, rarely above 2in. long, entire or slightly denticulate, usually oblique, 
the upper edge most rounded at the base, membranous or at length scarcely 
coriaceous. Panicles terminal, 3-chotomous, broad, with numerous small 
4-m6rous flowers. Sepals small, triangular. Petals scarcely IJ lines long, 
slightly imbricate. Stamens in the males 4, about as long as the petals. Ovary 
rudimentary, of 1 or 2 carpels. Female flowers not seen. Cocci solitary, 8 to 4 
lines long, coriaceous, rugose outside, opening broadly to below the middle in 

2 valves, endocarp persistent. Seeds with a hard bony testa enveloped in a thin 
black shining epiderm. 

Hab.: Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria. 

16. GEIJERA, Schott. 

(After J. D. Geijer.) 

Flowers hermaphrodite. Sepals 4 or 5. Petals 4 or 5, valvate or imbricate. Disk 
thick and fleshy. Stamens 4 or 5 ; filaments subulate. Ovary depressed, partly 
immersed in the disk, 4 or 5-lobed ; styles terminal, immediately united into a single 
short style, with a capitate 4 or 5-lobed stigma. Fruit of 4 or 5 or sometimes fewer 
distinct, 2-valved cocci, the endocarp adherent or partially separating. Seeds 
with a hard or crustaceous shining testa ; albumen fleshy ; embryo straight ; 
cotyledons broad. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple, not articulate on 
the petiole. Flowers small, in terminal panicles. Sepals small. 

The genus is limited to Australia, and differs from" Zanthoxylum chiefly in the simple leaves 
and hermaphrodite flowers. — Benth. 

Panicles spreading. Petals imbricate. Carpels corrugated, oblong ....]. G. Helmsia. 
Panicles compact. Petals imbricate. Leaves broad. Carpels globose . . 2. ff. Miielleri. 

Panicles loose. Petals valvate. 

Leaves from ovate to lanceolate. Carpels globose . 3. G. xalicifoliu . 

Leaves linear. Carpels globose . , , , , , . 4. G. parnfloru. 

206 XXIX. RUTACE^. [Gdjera. 

1. Cr. Helmsise (after Mrs. Helms), Bail. A small glabrous tree with greyish 
bark ; the branchlets wrinkled. Leaves smooth, ovate, tapering towards each end, 
2 to 3^in. long, 1 to 2in. broad in the centre, obtuse or obtusely-acuminate, some- 
what thick, coriaceous ; petioles about fin. long. Glossy on both sides, but rather 
pale on the under side. Oil-dots small and numerous, not seen well without a 
lens ; primary lateral nerves distant, fine, reticulate veins obscure. Panieles 
terminal and from the axils of the upper leaves, about Sin. long and 4in. broad. 
Flowers white and numerous, differing from G. Muelleri in nothing except in 
their somewhat larger size. Cocci 2 or 3 maturing, 4 or 4J lines long, 3 lines 
broad, and deeply corrugated on the outside, cohering at the base. Endocarp 
freely separating, yellowish. Seeds pyriform, brown, with a large hilum, 
probably never so glossy as in other species. 

Hab.: Childers, Mrs. Helms. 

This new species differs from G. Muelleri somewhat in foliage, but principally in the oocci 
and seed. The cocci are very like those of Melicope neurococca. 

2. G-. IVEuelleri (after Baron von Mueller), Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 364. 
Nankeen dye-wood. A glabrous tree. Leaves ovate or obovate-oblong, 2 to Bin. 
long, narrowed into a rather long petiole, coriaceous, with a prominent midrib, 
the lateral veins slender and rather distant. Panicle compact, scarcely equalling 
the last leaves. Flowers rather larger than in the other species. Petals nearly 
1| line long, distinctly imbricate, obtuse, without inflexed tips. Cocci 2 to 8 
lines long, distinctly but very shortly beaked, very spreading, but cohering at the 
base. Epicarp slightly tuberculous. Endocarp persistent. Seeds glossy, black.— 
Goatesia paniculata, F. v. M. Pragm. iii. 26 (in part). 

Hab.: Cumberland Islands, if. Brmon ; Araucaria woods near Moreton B&j, F. v. Mnellei- ; 
Curtis Island, Henne. 

This species was generically distinguished by F. Mueller, on account of the imbricate sestivation 
of the petals, and a slight difference in the fruit, but the habit is that of the other species, and 
the genus is too closely allied to Zanthoxyhmi, which contains species with valvate as well as 
with imbricate testivation, to admit of dividing it solely on that ground. — Benth. 

Heart-wood dark, beautifully clouded, the rest of a light color, all hard and close-grained, 
suitable for cutting into veneers for cabinet work. — Biiiley's Gat. Ql. Woods 4.5a. 

3. Gr. salicifolia (Willow -leaved), Srhott Fraijm. Bid. t. 4 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. 
i. 864. A moderately-sized tree, glabrous or with a minute hoary pubescence on 
the inflorescence, and sometimes on the underside of the leaves. Leaves from 
ovate to ovate-lanceolate or rarely oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or acuminate, mostly 
3 to 4in. long, entire. Coriaceous, narrowed or rarely rounded at the base, with a 
rather long petiole. Panicles rather loose, broadly pyramidal, but much shorter 
than the last leaves, alternately branched, with numerous small white flowers. 
Petals about 1 line long, valvate. Cocci often reduced to 1 or 2, obovoid, not 
beaked, 2 to 3 lines long. Epicarp slightly tuberculous, the endocarp persistent 
or partially separating. Seeds glossy, black. — G. latifolia, Lindl. in Mitch. Trop. 
Austr. 236. 

Hab.: Broadsound, R. Broii-n ; Moreton Bay and Brisbane Eiver, A. Cunninghavi, F. v. Mueller, 
and others ; Brigalow scrub on the Burdekin, and near Warwick, F. v. Mueller ; Wide Bay, C. 
Moore ; Port Denison, Fitzalan ; Bockhampton, Thozet ; Mantua Downs, Mitchell. 

Sohott's figure represents a remarkably narrow-leaved form, which I have only seen in Brown's 
specimens, and in those from Warwick and Bockhampton. These, however, pass into the 
common broad-leaved form. — Benth. 

Wood of a light-yellow (no dark heart- wood), hard, close-grained, of a somewhat greasy 
nature ; suitable for engraving, skate-rollers, and hand-screws. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Voods No. 46. 

4. G. parviflora (small flowers), Lindl. in Mitch. Trop. Austr. 102 ; Benth. 
Fl. Austr. i. 364. " Wilga," southern border. A tall shrub or small tree, with 
slender, erect or pendulous branches, glabrous or the inflorescence and young 
parts slightly hoary. Leaves linear, acute or obtuse, 3 to 6in, long, and rarely 

Pl. IX. 

E Elliott, LIth. 


G&i/eroy Helms tc&-, ^aily. 

(Mi'-i-d.] XXIX. RUTACE^. 207 

above 8 lines broad, coriaceous, narrowed into a rather short petiole, the midrib 
prominent underneath. Flowers and fruit of tf. sididfolia, or the flowers some- 
times, but not always, rather smaller. — 6'. peiuhda, Lindl. in Mitch. Trop. Austr. 
251. Possibly a variety only of G. aaVu-ifolia, Benth. 

Hab.: Broadsound, R. Brown; Burdekin River, F. v. Mueller ; Belyando Eiver, Mitchell. 

Wood hard, tough, of close grain, yellow, and when fresh of an agreeable fragrance. — Bailey's 
Cat. Ql. n'oods No. 47. 

17. PENTACERAS, Hook. f. 

(Referring to arrangement of carpels.) 

Sepals 5. Petals 5, valvate. Torus thick. Stamens 10 ; filaments subulate, 
glabrous. Ovary of 5 nearly distinct carpels, each with a glandular terminal 
appendage. Styles inserted below the middle and immediately united into one 
filiform style, with a small stigma ; ovules 2 in each carpel, superposed. Fruit- 
carpels 5 or fewer, often solitary by abortion, indehiscent, expanded all round 
into a membranous wing, forming obovate or oval-oblong samarse, the centre 
almost drupaceous, with a cartilaginous endocarp. Seeds usually solitary ; testa 
thick ; albumen not copioas ; embryo straight, with ovate cotyledons. — Trees. 
Leaves alternate, pinnate. Flowers numerous, small, paniculate. 

The genus is limited to a single species, endemic in Australia. It differs from Evodia in its 
habit, alternate leaves, and in some measure in the ovary resembling that of several Biosmea, 
and from that and all other Zanthoxylece by the fruit, which, at first sight, is like that of an 
Ailanthus ; but the dotted leaves and superposed ovules, which place it among Batacece, besides 
the inflorescence and other minor characters, amply distinguish Pentaceras from Ailanthus — 

1. P. australis (Australian), Hook. f. in Benth. and Hook. Gen. PI. 298; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 865. A glabrous tree, small according to A. Cunningham, 
attaining 60ft. according to W. Hill. Leaves pinnate, with a common petiole of 
from 4 or 5in. to nearly 1ft.; leaflets usually 7 to 11, opposite in pairs, with a 
terminal odd one, ovate to lanceolate, obtuse or acuminate, 2 to 4in. long, entire 
or obscurely crenate, the lateral ones more or less oblique and dScurrent on the 
petiolule on the lower side, like those of a Clausena. Panicles large, terminal, 
spreading, loose, with numerous white flowers, pedicellate along the ultimate 
branches. Petals about IJ line long. Stamens nearly as long as the petals. 
Ovary glabrous. Ripe samarse 1 to IJin. or rather more in length, ^ to Jin. 
broad. — Cookia australis, F. v. M. Fragm. i. 25 and iii. 27 ; Ailanthus punctata, 
F. V. M. Fragm, iii. 42. 

Hab.: Brisbane Eiver, 4. CMmTOm^ftam, • Moreton Bay district ; M'Connell's Brush, Lfjc/i7iard(. 

Wood of a light-yellow, close-grained, and hard. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. Woods No. 48. 

18. PLEIOCOCCA, F. v. M. 
(Cocci numerous.) 

Calyx 4-lobed, persistent. Petals deciduous. Filaments linear-subulate, 
ciliate. Anthers and styles not seen. Cocci or carpels 5 to 9, slightly attached 
to the axis for about a third of their length, the upper two-thirds free, tardily 
separating into 2 valves. Endocarp not readily separating. Seeds 1 — 2. 
Albumen very large. Embryo straight. Cotyledons nearly plane, oblong. 
Radicle slender. — A small tree with large opposite coriaceous leaves and axillary 
cymes of flowers. Carpels fleshy, epioarp sharply acid. — F. v. M. Fragm. ix. 
117 (in part). 

The genus seems intermediate between Evodia and Acronychia, 

20S XXIX. RUTACE^. [Pleiococca. 

1. P. Wilcoxiana (after J. Wilcox), F. v. M. Fragm. ix. 117. So far as 
observed a small tree. Branchlets stout, deep green. Leaves of a single leaflet, 
on a petiole of about lin., 6 to 8in. long, 2|- to 3^in. broad, oblong, obtuse or 
abruptly acuminate at the apex, and slightly cordate at the base, coriaceous and 
glossy, the primary nerves thread-like, but as well as the reticulate veinlets 
prominent, especially in the dry leaf. Flower cyme in the upper axils often 
reduced to a slender racemose panicle. Pedicels about 8 lines long, enlarging 
upwards. Fruit globular in outline, about fin. diameter, composed of from 5 to 
9 white, fleshy, sharply acid and juicy carpels attached only by the inner angle to 
the axis, free above and connivent at the apex, the base of each carpel shortly 
prolonged below the attachment in the form of a short blunt spur. Seeds 1 or 2 
in each carpel, flattish, reniform, tuberculous, blackish. 

Hab.T Scrubs about Eumundi. 

19. ACRONYCHIA, Forst. 

(Referring to the hooked tips of petals.) 

(Cyminosma, Gcertn.) 

Flowers polygamous. Calyx 4-lobed. 'Petals 4, valvate. Torus thick. Stamens 

8 ; filaments subulate. Ovary 4-celled ; style terminal ; stigma entire or 

obscurely 4-lobed, ovules 2 in each cell, superposed. Fruit 4-celled, usually 

succulent, with a coriaceous or hard endocarp, opening loculicidally, or drupaceous 

and indehiscent. Seeds usually solitary in each cell, with a crustaceous black 

testa ; albumen fleshy ; embryo straight ; cotyledons oblong. — Trees or shrubs. 

Leaves opposite or alternate, 1-foliolate. Flowers white or yellowish, in axillary 

or rarely terminal small panicles or loose cymes. 

The genus extends over tropical Asia and the islands of the S. Pacific, to New Caledonia and 
New Zealand. Of the Australian species, one is also found in New Caledonia, the six others are 
endemic. — Benth. (in part). 
Petioles often long. 
Flowers minutely tomentose, in short oblong panicles. Petals ovate. 

Fruit 4-seeded . . . ... 1. A. Baueri. 

Petioles lin. long. 
Leaves 3 to 7in. long. 

Fruit oval, Jin. long, 1-seeded . . 2. A. tetrandra. 

Flowers glabrous, in axillary 3-chotomous cymes. Petals narrow. 
Leases thin and scarcely coriaceous. Fruit 4-angled, depressed on 

the summit . . 3. ^. Icevis. 

Leaves very coriaceous. Fruit obovoid-globular i. A. imperfmata. 

Leaves 3-foliolate. Fruit yellow, 4-seeded .5. A.melicopoides. 

Fruit reddish, about Jin. diameter, juicy, acid . . . 6. A. Scortechinii. 

Branchlets hirsute. Leaves often large. 

Fruit white, epioarp acid, large, irregularly corrugated T. A. vestita. 

1. A.. Baueri (after F. Bauer), Schott Fragm. Rut. t. 3 ; Benth. Fl. Aiintr. i. 
366. A small or moderate-sized tree, glabrous or the young shoots or inflorescence 
minutely hoary-tomentose. Leaves opposite, of a single leaflet, on a rather long 
petiole, ovate, elliptical or obovate, obtuse or very shortly and obtusely acuminate, 
narrowed at the base, 3 to 4 or very rarely Sin. long, thinly coriaceous. Panicles 
axillary, oblong, the side branches and pedicels very short, sometimes reduced to 
a small spike. Flowers small, not numerous. Sepals very broad, short, ciliate. 
Petals ovate, valvate with inflexed tips, minutely pubescent outside, 1 to 1-J- line 
long. Filaments thin, dilated, and ciliate to above the middle. Ovary pubescent ; 
style pubescent, short, with a rather large stigma. Fruit nearly globular or 
4-angled, obtuse or shortly acuminate, |in. diameter or rather smaller, not very 
succulent. Testa of the seeds hard and bony. — A. Hillii, F. v. M. Fragm. i. 26. 

Hab.: Northumberland Islands andEiohmond district, R. Brown ; Moreton Bay and Brisbane 
Eiver, A. Gunninghavi, P. Mueller, and others ; Five Islands, A. Cunningham. 

Wood of a uniform yellow, or sometimes darker towards the heart, rather hard and close- 
grained. — Bailey's Cut. (Jl. Jrooda S'o. 49, 

Acronychta.\ XXIX. EUTACE^. 209 

2. A., tetrandra (four stamens), F. v. M. Frar/m,. ix. 104. A shrub with 
very thinly pubescent branches. Leaves of a single leaflet, ovate-lanceolate, 
sometimes very shortly obtusely acuminate, 3 to 7in. long and about 2 to Sin. 
broad, chartaceous, glabrous, petioles about lin. long. Panicles short and almost 
racemose, or on slender peduncles of about Sin. long, shortly branched towards 
the end, the small flowers velvety, on pedicels as long as themselves. Calyx 
4-lobed, lobes deltoid. Petals ovate, acute, 1^ line long, valvate, silky outside, 
tomentose inside. Stamens shorter than the petals ; filaments pilose, anthers 
oordate-rotundate, emarginate, yellow. Disk annular, glabrous. Style very 
short. Ovary velvety, 4-celled. Fruit oval, about -J-in. long, 1-seeded. — Eoodia 
haplophylla, F. v. M. Fragm. v. 179. 

Hab.: On the ranges about Rockingham Bay, J. Dallachy (F. v. M., l.o.) 

3. A., laevis (fruit smooth), Forst. Cluir. Gen. 63, t. 27 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 
366. A tree, sometimes large, glabrous except the stamens. Leaves irregularly 
opposite or alternate, of a single leaflet, obovate-oblong to oblong-elliptical, 
obtuse, 1^ to 3 or rarely nearly 4in. long, coriaceous when old. Cymes 2 or 
3-ohotomous, usually shortly pedunculate and few-flowered. Sepals very short, 
rounded, glabrous. Petals narrow, induplicate-valvate, with inflexed tips, 2 to 2|^ 
lines long, glabrous. Filaments rather thick, dilated and ciliate towards the base, 
subulate and inflexed at the top. Ovory hirsute round the base of the style, 
otherwise glabrous ; style rather long, the stigma not thickened, obscurely 4-lobed. 
Fruit succulent, with a crustaceous 4-C6lled endocarp, obtusely 4-angled, truncate 
at the top and depressed in the centre, -Jin. diameter or rather smaller. — Lawsonia 
Acronychia, Linn, f.; Labill. Sert. Austr. Caled. 66, t. 65 ; Cyminosiim uhlomji- 
folium, A. Cunn. in Bot. Mag. 3222 ; Acronychia laurina, F. v. M. Fragm. i. 27. 

Var. normalis. Sometimes forming a rather large tree. Fruit hardly showing angles, leaves 
scarcely glossy, and smaller than in other forms. Hab.: Mountain scrubs and creek sides in 
southern and northern Queensland. 

Wood close-grained, hard, and light-coloured. —BaiJej/'s Gat. Ql. Woodx No. 50. 

Var. purpurea. A small tree. Fruit axillary, of a purplish or plum colour, leathery, with 
very prominent angles, very hollow; dark-green foliage. Hab.: Creek sides in southern 

Var. leiicocarpa. A slender often tall tree. Fruit white, somewhat fleshy, with obtuse angles, 
borne in lateral cymes ; leaves bright glossy-green, about 4in. long, and 1 to IJin. wide. Hab,: 

4. A. imperforata (referring to the minute oil-dots), F. o. M. Fraijm. i. 26; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 367. Usually a small tree, very nearly allied to A. hecis. 
Leaves of the same shape and size, but on much shorter petioles, and much more 
coriaceous, the minute pellucid dots only visible before a strong light. Inflores- 
cence and flowers as in 4. Icevis, except that the peduncles are much shorter and 
the flowers rather larger. Filaments much ciliate. Fruit somewhat obovoid and 
obscurely or not at all angular, and not depressed at the top. 

Hab.: N.E. coast, R. Brown; Brisbane Biver, W. Hill, F. v. Mueller; Herberton, J.F.Bailey. 
Wood of a bright-yellow and hard. — J. F. Bailey. 

5. A. melicopoides (Melicope-like), F. v, M. Fragm. v. 3. Tree attaining 
a height of from SO to 50ft., with a smooth grey bark. The branchlets, petioles, 
and peduncles clothed with a very thin pubescence. Leaves trifoliolate. Petioles 
1 to Sin. long, leaflets sessile, glabrous, lanceolate-ovate, 4 to 5in. long, thin- 
coriaceous. Cymes axillary and terminal, common peduncle about lin. long, the 
secondary ones opposite, |in. or shorter. Pedicels 1 to 1| line. Bracts and 
braoteoles deltoid, minute. Sepals or calyx-lobes rounded, about 1 line long. 
Petals 4, yellow, about 3^ lines long, sessile, inflexed at the apex, linear- 
semilanceolate, glabrous. Filaments 2| to S lines long, flattened towards the 

210 XXIX. EUTAGEjE. [Acrony cilia. 

base, subulate towards the top, ciliate. Anthers subovate, dorsally fixed, introrse, 
^ line or more long. Style somewhat long, tomentose in the lower portion, 
stigma small. Fruit yellow, about 5 lines long, 4-seeded, seeds black. — Evodin 
acmm/cJiordes, F. v. M. Fragm. iv. 117. 

Hab.: Ranges, Rockingham Bay, J. Dallachy (F. v. M., l.o.) ; Herberton, J. F. Bailey. 

Wood hard, of a light colour.-- J. F. Bailey. 

6. A.. Scortechinii (after Eev. B. Seortechini), Bail. Scorteehini's Crab 
or Logan Apple. A small tree, the branohlets often of a reddish colour. Leaves 
obtuse-lanceolate or obovate, subcoriaceous, 2 to Sin. long ; petioles about Jin. 
long. Cymes axillary, few-flowered. Peduncle slender, about as long as the 
petioles ; the 3 branches usually bearing 2 flowers at their extremities. Pedicels 
about 2^ lines. Sepals very short, broad, glabrous. Petals 4J lines long, ciliate. 
Filaments dilated at the base, tapering upwards, margins densely ciliate except 
towards the top. Fruit globular, reddish, exceeding fin. diameter, 4-celled, with 
a juicy epicarp. Seeds oval, testa brown, slightly rugose. 

Hab.: Borders of scrubs, Logan Eiver, Rev. B. Seortechini; Fraser's Island, Miss Lovell' 
The fruit of this tree, which is of a sharp, pleasant acid taste and red colour, is useful for 
jam-making. The Logaii River specimens I have referred to at times as a form of A. acidula, 
F. V. M., and the Fraser's Island ones as a form of A. imperforata, but now consider these two 
forms identical, and, although agreeing often somewhat in foliage and flowers, distinct from all 
others of the genus in fruit. 

7. A. vestita (branches clothed with tomentum), F. r. M. Fragm. iv. 155, 
ix. 104. A small round-headed tree with a somewhat smooth light-coloured bark. 
Branchlets slightly or densely clothed with short hairs which extend more or less 
to the petioles and the principal nerves of the leaves on the under side. Petioles 
from 1 to 2in. long. Leaves 3 to Sin. or more long, and some 4in. or more 
broad, thin-coriaceous, ovate-oblong or ovate-lanceolate. Cymes of few flowers 
on rather long slender peduncles. Fruit white, the large ones about lin. 
diameter, almost globose in outline, very irregularly corrugated, often forming a 
point at the apex and slightly tapering at the base, hard when dry but in a fresh 
state the epicarp fleshy with a sharply acid juice. Seeds oblique-oval, nearly 
black. If to 2 lines longj more or less rugose. — A. acidula, F. v. M. Fragm. iv. 

Hab.: Borders of scrubs in the tropical parts of the colony. 

Wood of a light colour, soft, and easy to work. — Bailey^ Cat. Ql. IF'oods No. 51. 

20. HALFORDIA, F. v. M. 
(After Dr. G. B. Halford, Professor of Medicine, Melbourne University.) 

Calyx 5-toothed. Petals 5, valvate in the bud. Stamens 10, free, all fertile. 
Filaments linear-subulate, ciliate. Anthers 2-celled, minutely apiculate. Style 
simple. Stigmas very minute. Fruit with a somewhat juicy epicarp, 8 — 5- 
celled. Seeds albuminous, pendulous, solitary in each cell. Embryo straight. 
Cotyledons leafy, narrow-oblong, radicle a little longer than broad. — Small trees 
with simple, alternate or subopposite leaves and terminal panicles of flowers. 

Evergreen trees of southern and northern Queensland. 

Fruit purple i, h. dmpifera. 

Fruit red 2. i?. scleroxyla. 

1. K. drupifera (Plum-like), F. r. M. Fragm. v. 43, ix. 103. Small tree, 
branchlets angular. Leaves glabrous, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, with the 
short petiole 3 to 5in. long and 1 to Ifin. broad, somewhat thinly pelluoidly- 
punctate, obtuse-acuminate, and decurrent upon the petiole. Paniculate cymes 
terminal with numerous shortly pedicellate white flowers. Pedicels with minute 

Halfordia.] XXIX. EUTACE^. 211 

bracteoles at the base. Calyx about 1 line long. Petals 2,^ lines long, narrow- 
lanceolate. Filaments linear-subulate, ciliate, those opposite the petals shorter 
than those opposite the calyx-lobes. Anthers yellow, cordate, about J line long, 
minutely apiculate. Style simple, very short, glabrous. Stigma very minute. 
Ovary glabrous, disk 10-ribbed. Drupe purple, about ^in. long, oval with a 
truncate base. Putamen bony. Seeds ellipsoid-cylindric, slightly angular, 2^ 
lines long. Testa black, smooth, fragile. Albumen amygdaloid. Embryo about 
2 lines long. — Eriostemon Leichhardtii, F. v. M. Fragm. v. 5. 

Hab.: Fraser's Island. 

Wood of a yellowish colour, close in grain, tough and durable. — Bailey's Cal. Ql. Woods No. 52. 

2. H. SCleroxyla (alluding to its hard wood), F. v. M. Fragm. vii. 142. 
"Ghittoe," Herberton, J. F. Bailey. A tree of about 60ft., but flowering as a 
shrub. Bark grey. Leaves coriaceous, obovate-lanceolate, tapering and decurrent 
upon the petiole, upper side glossy. Drupe a pretty red colour, globose-ovate, 
truncate or introrse at the base, 4 to 8 lines long, pericarp acidulous. 

Hab.: Scrubs about Bookingham Bay, J. Dallachy {F. v. M., I.e.) ; Evelyn to Bussell Eiver, J. 
P. Bailey. 

Wood when freshly cut yellowish, turning brownish with age ; hard, tough, and very inflam- 
mable even in a green state. — J. F. r 

21. GLYCOSMIS, Corr. 

(Name from its fragrance.) 

Calyx 5-cleft, the lobes broadly imbricate. Petals 5, imbricate in the bud. 
Stamens 10, filaments dilated at the base, anthers often tipped with a small gland. 
Ovary 3 to 5 or rarely 2-eelled ; style very short, thick and persistent, the stigma 
scarcely broader, ovules solitary in each cell. Berry succulent or almost dry, 
usually 1-seeded. Seeds with a membranous testa, without albumen ; cotyledons 
fleshy.— Unarmed trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, pinnate, with few alternate 
leaflets or 1-foliolate. Flowers small, in axillary or terminal panicles. 

A genus of very few species, dispersed over . tropical Asia and the Eastern Archipelago, the 
Australian one being the most widely spread over the whole region. — Benth. 

1. G. pentaphylla (number of leaflets), Cory.; Oliv. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 
V. Suppl. 37 ; Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 867. A tall shrub or small tree, quite glabrous. 
Leaves occasionally 1-foliolate, on short petioles, but more generally pinnate, with 
2 or 3 leaflets, from ovate-elliptical or ovate-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 
obtuse or acuminate, 2 to 4 or rarely 5in. long. Panicles dense, shorter, or 
scarcely longey than the petiole of the pinnate leaves. Petals about 2 lines long. 
Ovary 5 or sometimes 4-celled, contracted into a very short, thick style. Berry 
globular, fin. in diameter, or smaller. 

Hab.: Northumberland Islands, B. Brown ; islands of Torres Straits, F, v. Mueller ; scrub near 
Eockhampton, Thozet. 

The species has a very wide range in tropical Asia, and is very variable in the size of the 
leaves and the flowers, full details of which and of the consequently extended synonymy of the 
species will be found in Oliver's paper above quoted. .The character given above has special 
reference to the Australian variety, which is almost identical with the Chinese and Eastern 
form, usually distinguished as Q. citrifolia, Lindl.; Benth. in Fl. Hongk. 51, and figured as 
Limannia parvifolia, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 2416. — Benth. 

22. MICROMELUM, Blume. 

(Small Apple ; fruit small.) 

Calyx 5-toothed or entire. Petals 5, valvate in the bud or nearly so. Stamens 

10 ; filaments linear-subulate. Ovary 2 to 6 usually 5-eelled, the dissepiments 

spirally twisted after the flowering ; style deciduous with a small capitate stigma ; 

212 XXIX. RUTACE^. [Mwromsluw, 

ovules 2 in each cell, superposed. Fruit a dry berry. Seeds usually 1 or 2 ; testa 
membranous ; albumen none ; cotyledons leafy, very much folded. — Unarmed 
trees. Leaves alternate, pinnate, with alternate oblique leaflets. Flowers small, 
in terminal corymbose panicles. 

Besides the Australian species, which is widely dispersed over tropical Asia and the Eastern 
Archipelago, only 2 are known, from Penang or the Philippine Islands. — Benth. 

1. JStm pubescens (pubescent). Blame: Olio, in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. Suppl. 
40 ; Benth. Fl. Amtr. i. 368. A small tree. Young branches and leaves more or 
less pubescent. Leaflets 9 to 15, or sometimes more, from ovate to broadly 
lanceolate, 1 to Sin. long, obtuse or shortly acuminate, oblique at the base, often 
becoming glabrous above, pubescent underneath. Corymbs nearly sessile above 
the last leaves, many-flowered. Calyx more or less 5-toothed. Petals about 2 
lines long, more or less pubescent. Ovary usually hairy. Berry small, ovoid, 
glabrous or pubescent, red when fully ripe. 

Hab.: Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, B. Brown ; Albany and Cairncross Islands, and from 
the Burdekin to Moreton Bay, F. v. Mueller ; Cape Upstart and Barnard Isles, M'GiUivray ; Wide 
Bay, Bidicill ; Bockhampton, Thozet, to the scrubs of the Brisbane Eiver. 

The various forms assumed by this species and the consequent synonymy are given in detail 
by Oliver in the above-quoted paper. The Australian specimens belong to the small-flowered 
variety, with rather broad leaflets, common in the S. Pacific islands, which I formerly described 
as M. glabrescens, in Hook. Lond. Journ. ii. 212. — Benth. 

Wood of a light colour, and close-grained. — Bailey's Cat. Ql. ^Voods No. 53. 

23. MURRAYA, Linn. 

(After Professor Murray.) 

Calyx 5-cleft. Petals 5, narrow, imbricate in the bud. Stamens 10, free ; 
filaments subulate; anthers small. Ovary 2 to 5-celled. Style elong&ted, at 
length deciduous, stigma capitate. Ovules solitary or 2 in each cell, superposed 
or nearly collateral. Berry 1 or 2-seeded. Testa glabrous or woolly ; albumen 
none ; cotyledons equal, not folded. — Unarmed trees or shrubs. Leaves pinnate, 
leaflets alternate, usually oblique at the base. Flowers often rather large, in 
terminal corymbs, or few together in the upper axils. 

The genus comprises a few species, dispersed over tropical Asia and the Eastern Archipelago ; 
neither of the Australian ones are endemic. — Benth. 

Ovary 2-celled. Flowers nearly Jin. long .... 1. Jkf. exotica. 

Ovary 5-oelled. Flowers numerous, not 3 lines long 2. M. crenulata. 

1. IME. exotica (exotic), Linn.; Oliv. in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. Suppl. 28 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 8(59. A shrub or small tree, glabrous, or the young branches 
and petioles pubescent. Leaflets usually 5 to 7, from ovate, cuneate-obovate, or 
almost rhomboidal to ovate-lanceolate, f to 2in. long, coriaceous and shining 
when full-grown. Flowers white, very fragrant, in compact, terminal, sessile 
corymbs, or few together in the common varieties. Petals nearly fin. long, erect 
at the base, spreading in the upper half. Ovary 2-celled. Berry globular or 
almost ovoid, usually 2-seeded. — Wight, Ic. t. 96. 

Hab.: Islands of the Gulf of Carpentaria, R. Brown ; scrub near Eookhampton, Thozet. 

These specimens are past flower, and have only a few young fruits, which are more ovoid than 
they generally are in the species, but in other respects they appear to belong as well as Brown's 
to the few-flowered var. 2 of Oliver, or M. panimlata, Jack. The species is common from 
N.W. India to the New Hebrides. — Benth. 

From my observations of this species at Tooloomba, the leaflets resemble those of the normal 
form, never being so long as in the form paniculata, and in habit this plant differs from both, 
it having a very straggling habit. 

M,n;iwdi(m.] XXIX. IlUTACEyE. 213 

2. IMC. crenulata (leaflets crenulated), Oliv. in Joicm. Linn. Soc. v. Suppl. 
29 ? Benth. Fl. AuHr. i. 869. A glabrous shrub or tree. Leaflets usually 7 to 
11, very oblique, from oval-oblong to oblong-elliptical, obtuse or shortly 
acuminate, 2 to Sin. long, entire or obscurely crenulate. Flowers (in the 
Philippine specimens) in terminal corymbs, much more numerous and much 
smaller than those of M. exotica. Petals 2^ to nearly 8 lines long. Fruit 
depressed-globular, 5 or 6 lines diameter, S-cefled, but with 8 or 4 cells abortive. 
Seeds 1 or 2 ; cotyledons plano-convex, thick and fleshy. — Glycomim crenulata, 
Turcz. in Bull. Mosc. 1868, i. 250. 

Hab.: Eastern subtropical Australia, Herb. F. v. M. 

These specimens are in fruit only, but the foliage, the inflorescence, and calyx are so precisely 
those of the Philippine Island ones that there is little doubt that they belong to the same species. 
The structure of the fruit is quite that of Murraya ; the cotyledons of the seed very readily 
distinguish it from Micrmnelum, which in many respects has a similar habit and inflorescence. — 

24. CLAUSENA, Burm. 

(After P. Clauson, a Danish botanist.) 

Calyx 4 or o-cleft. Petals 4 or 5, broad, imbricate in the bud. Stamens 8 or 
10 ; filaments dilated at the base or in the middle ; anthers short. Ovary 4 or 
5-celled, or rarely 2 or 8-celled ; style deciduous, with an entire or lobed stigma ; 
ovules 2 in each cell, collateral or superposed. Berry ovoid, oblong or globular. 
Seeds with a membranous testa ; no albumen ; cotyledons plano-convex.— 
Unarmed trees or shrubs. Leaves pinnate, with alternate, usually oblique 
leaflets. Flowers small, usually clustered in terminal or axillary panicles or 
racemes. Berries small. 

The genus, although not large, comprises more species than any other one of the tribe 
Aurantiete, and extends over tropical Asia and Africa ; the only Australian species known is 
endemic. — Benth. 

1- Ca brevistyla (style short), Oliv. i/i Journ. Linn. Soc. v. Suppl. 81 ; 
Benth. Fl. Austr. i. 369. Apparently a shrub, glabrous, or the young branches 
and petioles slightly pubescent. Leaflets 10 to 15, very obliquely ovate or some- 
what rhomboidal, shortly and obtusely acuminate and emarginate, mostly 2 to 
4in. long, membranous, often obscurely sinuate-dentate, on petiolules of about 
2 lines. Flowers 4-merous or 5-merous, in terminal, loose, oblong or pyramidal 
panicles. Petals about 2 lines long. Filaments thick and dilated at the base, 
arched. Ovary glabrous or nearly so, narrowed at the base, 4 or 5-celled. Style 
very short. Fruit not seen. 

Hab.: Hope Islands, M'Gillivray. 

The species is allied to C. heptaphylla, W. and Arn., from E. India, but the leaflets are much 
more oblique, the style much shorter, besides minor difierences. — Benth. 

25. ATALANTIA, Corr. 

(Mythological Atalanta, the daughter of Schoeneus.) 

Calyx 3 to 5-cleft. Petals 3 to 5, imbricate in the bud. Stamens twice as 
many or rarely more, free or irregularly united at the base ; anthers ovate or 
oblong. Ovary 2 to 5-celled ; style deciduous, with a capitate stigma ; ovules 
solitary or 2 in each cell, collateral or rarely superposed. Berry globular, with a 
thickened rind, 1 to 5-seeded. Seeds obovoid or oblong, testa membranous? 
albumen none ; cotyledons flat or convex, more or less fleshy. — Shrubs or small 

2l4 XXiX. HtJTACEJS. [Atatantia. 

trees, unarmed or thorny. Leaves simple, coriaceous. Flowers in axillary 
clusters or short racemes or small cymose panicles, occasionally solitary. Fruits 
usually larger than in the preceding genera. 

The genus is dispersed over tropical Asia. The Australian species are both endemic ; one, 
however, is in some measure doubtful, the flowers being unknown, and the other is slightly- 
anomalous in character, though congener in essential points and h