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Full text of "The seal of safety; year book v.2, of the Max Ams machine co"

i!i!!ilii!liilL 



THE 

Seal Of Safety 




HuU (floUcgc of Agriculture 
At Gfnrnell UntBersitjj 



Cornell University Library 
TX 603.A52 



The seal of safety; year book v.2, of the 




3 1924 003 559 865 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tiiis book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924003559865 




Limited Edition of which 
this is No — 



.11 







_.-A-Mfei' 











The 
Seal of Safety 

YEAR BOOK 

Volume II. 

OF THE 

Max Ams Machine Co. 

MOUNT VERNON NEW YORK 

CHAS. M. AMS, President 

1915 

Issued by the Publicity Department 
C. H. STECKER 












FOREWORD 

For the information of those who failed to procure a copy of 
the first volume of "The Seal of Safety" Year Book for 1914, 
a brief summary of the contents of the volunne is here presented. 

The Photogravures on India tint paper consisted of the por- 
traits of Mr. Max Ams, founder of the company ; Mr. Charles 
M. Ams, president; Mr. Julius Brenzinger, vice-president and 
superintendent; and Mr. Emil Ams, secretary and export man- 
ager. In addition to these full page photos, there were several 
plates of illustrations of the early types of machines used when 
the sanitary can first bid for recognition. 

The final sixty pages of the volume, on India tint paper, also 
full page illustrations, were devoted to a line of can-making 
machinery manufactured by The Max Ams Machine Company. 

The opening chapters contained a condensed history of can- 
ning and preserving from the beginning of the experimental 
stages in 1782 up to and including the present sanitary methods, 
with brief notes on the early canners in this country ; the primi- 
tive can and machinery up to and including the sanitary can and 
improved automatic machinery in use to-day. 

An elaborate article on "The Canning of Vegetables and 
Fruits," by Dr. Bitting, was followed by "A New Method of 
Canning," by Dr. Koch of Germany; "Salmon," by Secretary 
Crawford, and "Sulphuring Dried Fruits," by J. K. Armsby. 
Then followed a brief synopsis of the National Canners' Associa- 
tion and research laboratory, a list of associations, local, state 
and national, with officers of the canning and packing industries, 
jobbers, dry fruit brokers, wholesale grocers, etc., etc., bureau 
of adjustment, arbitration and agreement for cities and states, 
with names of the members for each place. 

Legal matters pertaining to the canning and packing indus- 
tries included the Sherman Anti-Trust Law, U. S. Patent Law, 
and laws, rules and regulations of interest to the trade, such as 
labeling, misbranding, guarantees, sale, delivery and acceptance 
of canned foods, owners' responsibility, adulterated food, Cana- 
dian regulations, trade-marks, reference tables, range of can 
sizes handled by Ams machines, and valuable "Don'ts" used in 
the care and operations of machines, besides other valuable and 
useful information, such as tables of references, weights, meas- 
ures, coins, etc., etc. 



THE CANNING INDUSTRY 



THE CANNING INDUSTRY 

It is a well-known fact that one of the progressive policies 
to gain the greatest prominence during the past few years is 
pure food. It is one that has taken hold upon the imagination 
of the public as none other has taken hold. The National Can- 
ners' Association has taken most significant action in promoting 
the pure food cause. This association unanimously declared 
that the national food laws shall be strictly enforced, and that 
efforts be made to obtain drastic regulations uniformly through- 
out the states. Sanitary code for canneries to be urged by all 
legislatures, guarantees for the use of good materials, enforce- 
ment of healthful conditions in operations of factories, and 
among employees, cleanliness of utensils, machinery, etc., etc., 
and the elimination of any feature that would interfere with 
purity of the product. 

This action and attitude is of the greatest importance to the 
health and well-being of the public. 

Canned foods are to-day the nation's staff of life, three bil- 
lion cans of food products were consumed last year, having a 
retail value of more than six hundred million dollars. Without 
canned foods, our great cities would always be on the edge of a 
famine. One-half of the vegetables and fruits produced would 
go to waste if it were not for the canneries. The greatest force 
for better foods is the sound progressive policy adopted by the 
canners, who maintain standards higher even than those de- 
manded by the laws. 

As the pioneers of the Ams sanitary system, we enjoy this 
distinction in a peculiar way. We have brought the machinery 
used in hermetically sealing tin cans to a high plane of efficiency, 
and are striving for still better results, realizing, that there is a 
broad field for progressive development, and where formerly, un- 
der the old obsolete way, food containers contributed more leaks 
than did healthy cans, to-day under the "AMS" system, there is 
not one per cent of leakage in the packing of food products. 
This conveys only a vague idea of the immense saving that has 
taken place over what would otherwise prove to be a waste under 
the old conditions. 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



In presenting this second voliune of "The Seal of Safety" 
for the year 1915, The Max Ams Machine Co. gratefully ac- 
knowledges the generous response received from all those who 
share with us an interest in the greatest of all industries — ^the 
canning of food products — ^in fact, all kinds of products in con- 
tainers produced under sanitary systems, conditions and envi- 
ronments. And while the canning of food products is practic- 
ally one hundred years old, the sanitary system now employed in 
many factories is scarcely more than a dozen years old; still in 
its infancy, yet progressing and developing with enormous 
strides. 

The bringing out this past year of new Double Seamers, 
called the No. 98-AT Automatics, with a capacity of upward of 
fifty can tops sealed per minute, created quite a sensation in the 
trade, and proved to be the forerunner of a second machine 
called the No. 498 with a capacity of upward of one hundred per 
minute. 

These new creations are from our vice-president and super- 
intendent, Mr. Julius Brenzinger, whose genius as a creator of 
new machinery for the canning industry, has proved to be the 
greatest boon to the trade, in that it enables the producing of 
enormous outputs of food products, which a few years ago were 
considered impossibilities, and as a result of these enormous out- 
puts, the price of canned foods has been within the reach of every- 
one. In addition to these Double Seamers which are illustrated 
in the machinery section, wiU also be found new Gang Slitter, 
Body Former, Lining Machine, Crimping Machine, Flanger, 
Power Presses and other can-making machines, catalogue and 
full description of which will be sent upon application. 

With greatly increased facilities Ams Power Press depart- 
ment handles the most intricate and scientific problems of press 
users, including all variety of feeds, dies and special devices. 
Our extensive line of standard presses is an appealing force to 
all who are seeking the maximum output at the minimum out- 
lay, and, as every press is subject to a thorough try out, a most 
liberal guarantee accompanies each machine. A generously il- 
lustrated press catalog has recently been issued, a copy of 
which every press user should have. We build complete lines 
of Sanitary Can making machinery. 

All of these machines are mediums which contribute in the 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



greatest measure to the successful production of pure food con- 
tainers. 

Inside of another twelve months the Max Ams Machine Com- 
pany will occupy its new and commodious plant in Bridgeport, 
Conn. 

The art of enclosing and preserving, within durable and im- 
pervious containers, is now providing a perennial supply of 
wholesome delicacies. The canned vegetables are better than the 
average of the same kinds found, in natural condition, in the 
markets. One can readily prove this statement by making a test 
in the market. For both fresh and canned vegetables are sold 
side by side, and we venture to say that if your dealer is par- 
ticular in the selection of fresh vegetables he is likewise as careful 
to purchase the best of canned vegetables. 

Take the methods of the ordinary farmers, for instance, in 
contrast with the certain position which must be taken by the 
special class of agriculturalists, called "canned food gardeners." 
To gain the largest returns, in season of plentiful supply, the 
farmer naturally allows his vegetables to reach the utmost stage 
of development in bulk. For his returns are usually in ratio 
to crop yield. Economy in labor is also effected by a thorough 
stripping, at time of gathering, rather than by careful Select- 
ing just that which is most sightly and palatable at a particular 
stage of growth. Hence beans, for example, are allowed to 
grow until there are seeds developed within the pods and 
coarse strings on their backs, and com will have advanced to a 
stage of solidity and toughness that makes chewing consciously 
laborious and food a hard-earned nutriment, instead of a de- 
lightful repast. 

The canned food gardener, on the other hand must direct 
his efforts to secure highest quality, in accordance with the 
stipulated requirements of the canner's contract. The careful 
attention of the grower to the conditions affecting the produc- 
tion of quality is not only stimulated by th^ penalties attach- 
ing to failure in results, but also by the supervision of the 
canner's inspectors. 

Charles M. Ams, president of the Max Ams Machine Co., 
who already has been written in recorded annals as a strong 
and devoted advocate of sanitary systems, not only in the line 
of canning food products but in every department of economic 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



welfare, is placing many of his theories into practical operation 
on his SjSOO-acre "Royal Farms" in Amston, Conn., where the 
latest appliances and scientific experiments are in progress in 
developing and producing certified food products. 

In fact, some of the larger and most reputable of canners 
are controlling and guiding the production of the crops which 
are to furnish the raw material for their canning industry. 

The canner's art has proved such a boon to humanity that 
it would be a shame to discredit it altogether merely because 
of an occasional failure. Not every fresh egg is really fresh. 
Most of us have met with a bad one some time or other. Not 
every apple in the basket is really good, some may have a soft 
spot or a grub within. Just in the same way not every tin of 
food reaches the consumer in absolute perfection, but the pro- 
portion of bad tins is so smaU that it is safe to say the risk 
with canned foods (and common sense) is less than the risk with 
fresh foods. The canned food is prepared in a country of 
abundance, is taken just at the most favorable moment for 
preservation, is picked over and packed with special care and 
skill. The methods in vogue dealing with fresh foods are very 
often primitive, unscientific, and haphazard in the highest de- 
gree. Had it not been for the canner's art thousands of our 
population would never have known the taste of dozens of 
choice and delicious foods. The canning industry has done far 
more than any other industry to conserve the food products of 
the world and thus reduce the cost of living. If it were not 
for the canning of fruits and vegetables they would indeed be 
luxuries for the rich during a great portion of the year. If 
the canners cannot afford, during the periods of abundance to 
pack more than they can reasonably hope to dispose of during 
that season, because there is no demand for goods packed during 
a previous season, then much of the practical benefit from such 
food conservation would be lost. The producer or grower will 
also be a heavy loser. 

Only a few years ago, as everyone knows, considerable doubt 
and skepticism were evinced by many consumers toward canned 
food, but this feeling has been entirely overcome and perfect 
confidence is now reposed by the consuming public in canned 
foods, with the result that the canning industry has grown by 
leaps and bounds. Under the present improved methods of put- 

10 



Mount Veenon, N.Y. 



ting up canned foods, they can be held indefinitely in perfect 
condition. 

The very first consideration under all food laws is whole- 
someness. Every canner knows that even with the most approved 
machinery and methods of canning an occasional "slow leaker" 
will develop through defective tin or an improperly constructed 
can. As a practical matter the real protection of the consumer 
of canned food lies in the examination of the appearance or the 
condition of the can and not in the knowledge of the date when 
packed. A can of food when "collapsed" — ^that is, not showing 
any bulging or swelling, but furnishing evidence of a good 
vacuum — will in nine hundred and ninety-nine times out of a 
thousand be in good condition and safe for human food. This, 
taken together with a good appearance of the contents when the 
can is opened, furnishes a practical guarantee of wholesome- 
ness regardless of the age. It is along this line that the con- 
sumers of canned foods should be educated. 

The primary object of the pure food laws is the protection 
of the consumer by the prevention of adulteration and mis- 
branding. The consumer is unquestionably entitled to foods 
that are sound and wholesome and which are truthfully labeled; 
that is, labeled to show exactly what they are, without any false 
representation as to the ingredients, methods or place of manu- 
facture. A perfectly sterilized, processed and sealed can of 
food carried under favorable conditions will remain absolutely 
sweet and sound indefinitely, while on the other hand a can im- 
perfectly processed, sterilized and sealed will deteriorate rapidly. 

It is to be regretted that there is still a disposition on the 
part of a few graduate enthusiasts to distort the truth and revel 
in sensations. 

Contrary to the opinion the reformers try to force upon the 
public, the canners as a whole are not in' favor of child labor ; 
are not seeking child labor, and, if the fact were known, actually 
do not want the children around the factories. Where children 
are found in the factories it is through force of necessity, because 
the parents will not come to work unless the children are allowed, 
and the most serious problem the canner has to solve is to get 
sufficient labor. Better factories, improved working conditions 
and higher wages have not solved the question of a sufficient 
supply, and when the crops come on and must be handled the 

11 



The Max Ams Machine Co, 



canners are compelled to take the children to get the adult 
workers. When we speak of children, we mean the little tots, not 
the boys and girls of 15, 16 or 17 years of age, who of their 
own accord choose to earn some vacation money doing light work 
preparing fruits or vegetables for canning, much as they most 
certainly have to do in their own home for their meals, and who 
have a right to work if they care to, and upon whom such work 
is a blessing as compared to some occupations they might other- 
wise fall into. 

The greater part of the work of the modem cannery is done 
by machinery, beans are stripped from vines and sliced, peas 
are vined, podded and assorted according to size. Sweet corn is 
husked and cut from the cob at the rate of over one hundred 
per minute. Hand work is reduced to a minimum. Fresh run- 
ning water is constantly flowing in every part of the factory, 
and machines, conveyors, knives and parts that come in contact 
with fresh food are washed with running water, and at night 
when the day's work is done, the cleaning down of the machines, 
walls and floors is accomplished by scalding steam. 

The canner knows the importance of cleanliness and he has 
the facilities for keeping his factory clean. 

The people of the United States are a peculiarly self-suffi- 
cient sort. They move along in an irresponsible manner from 
day to day, regardless of any thought or consideration for their 
future welfare, simply enjoying the contentment that comes to 
a people who revel in prosperity, and who say, let us live to-day 
for we are not sure what the morrow will bring forth. The 
economic problems do not seem to disturb their equilibrium and 
complacency. They require a jolt, and a good, hard one to 
awaken them to any danger of threatening gathering of the 
storm. 

A warning is sent broadcast over the land against the policy 
of indifference to the growing difficulty of the nation conserving 
and developing its food supply in proportion to the demand 
created by a population which increased farther than the pro- 
duction of those things needed for its maintenance at reasonable 
cost. 

Take for instance the period from 1900 to 1910. While the 
population increased twenty-one per cent or 16,000,000 people, 
the increase in our farm lands was only four per cent, or in 

12 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



plain figures and facts, to-day one-fourth or twenty-five per 
cent of our people are producing or trying to produce what 
seventy-five per cent of the population are consuming. It does 
not take a very wise man to appreciate the seriousness of this 
inverse ratio. These things cannot continue. Food cannot be 
cheaper until these conditions are reversed and seventy-five per 
cent, or a more equal ratio, will produce what the one hundred 
per cent require. 

The question has been asked, "Are we not in the same posi- 
tion as the Roman Empire was in.-"' The fall of the Roman 
Empire was due to the constant depletion of her farms, the non- 
production of her soil, decreased yield per acre, and the conges- 
tion of her cities and attendant immoralities. In the first volume 
of "The Seal of Safety," a brief outline of the canning indus- 
try was presented from the time that Nicholas Appert, the 
Frenchman, in 1810 issued his monograph on preserving foods 
in hermetically sealed containers. The pioneers in the United 
States who labored against tremendous difficulties in their efforts 
to produce wholesome food products and also to find a market 
for the same, found it very trying owing to the unwarranted 
prejudice existing. However these pioneers, like all path-finders, 
continued, and after many years of hard work finally received 
recognition. There has come to our notice additional names of 
men prominent in this field in their day and generation, through 
whose untiring zeal and devotion have left an honorable record 
and are entitled to be placed on the honor roll. 

These men were not all confined to one state or one section 
of the United States. In every state, from Maine to Florida, 
from New York to California, may be found a name prominent 
in his day as having performed his part in promoting and ex- 
tending the canning of food products. 

The secret of canning in those early days was very zealously 
guarded, and on every building could be found a sign reading 
"Keep Out," "No Admittance," "Beware of the Dog." How 
time and conditions change the affairs of business as well as 
industries to-day ! Everywhere you will find signs "Visitors 
Always Welcome," "Come in and Inspect Our Premises." 

In the early history of the canning of food products, the 
containers were glass or porcelain jars. William Underwood, 

13 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



who was the pioneer canner in this country, made use of this style 
from 1820 to 1839 when he began to substitute tin for glass. 

The methods of can-making were very slow, sixty cans a day 
being a master workman's output. The body of each can had to 
be measured, marked and cut out from the tin plate by hand 
shears, and to make the seam of lap secure and air-tight it was 
thought necessary to pile on the solder until a ridge of an eighth 
of an inch thick was bmlt up from end to end. It was also a 
slow and difficult operation to make the covers and bottoms. 
Each one had first to be drawn on the tin with a compass and 
then cut out with shears and, finally, with a mallet the edge 
struck up or bent over on an upright piece of iron called a 
"heading stake." The tops and bottoms, like the seams, were 
soldered on with a heavy beading of metal and enough solder 
was used on one can to make a dozen to-day. 

So was bom the tin can, which in its younger days was called 
a "tin canister." 

For the next fifteen years canned foods were never mentioned. 
They were always spoken of as hermetically sealed foods in can- 
isters or tin cases. 

In the sales books canisters were abbreviated thus, "cans," 
and by such abbreviation tin packages for food came ultimately 
to be known as cans. 

A letter written regarding a can-opening device by William 

Underwood in 1844! reveals an interesting fact in connection with 

this subject. 

Your samples of canisters reached me yesterday, and I find the 
oval cases just such as I have been selling for the past two years. 
Indeed, I have a new method. The cases are made in two pieces 
and are joined by a band of tin running around the canister which 
may be easily detached and is the best way of opening them. 

Many unaccountable losses were sustained by packers in 

those days, when in certain years their foods would not keep at 

all. Numerous theories were presented in their vain efforts to 

learn the cause of these mysterious spoilages, the year 1850 

was especially vexatious as one writer put it: 

The season ending last year has been a very strange one, our her- 
metically sealed foods spoiled although they were put up with the 
greatest care and of the best quality, and we can only add that the 
whole air was pregnated with cholera that acted upon animal mat- 
ter as it did upon vegetables. We wish you to be very particular 
and not suffer any of our hermetically sealed foods to leave your 
hands until you have opened a few cans from each case. 

14 




C. W. Carter, vice-president of James T. Connor, Assistant General 

Berger & Carter Co., San Francisco, Manager and Director of Sales. Max 

Cal., Coast Selling Agents for Max Ams Mach. Co. 
Ams Mach. Co. 



Mount Veknon, N.Y. 



At another time a new theory was advanced that certain 
cans spoiled because of freezing. This was accepted and held 
good for some time. And again others were advanced, but the 
real cause was not suspected. In 1830 Dr. Jacob Bigelow wrote 
a treatise on "The Elements of Technology," and in a chapter 
on the Preservation of Organic Substances, he makes the follow- 
ing reference to the Appert process : 

The remarkable effect of this process has been explained hj at- 
tributing the preservation of the article to the total exclusion of 
atmospheric air. But as air, in common cases, is always present in 
sufficient quantities to excite fermentation, it is supposed that the 
application of heat serves to fix the small portion of atmospheric 
oxygen which is present by combining it with some principle in the 
other substances so that it is no longer capable of producing the 
fermentative action which in parallel cases leads to decomposition. 

It is only within the last fifteen years that the theory of the 
"vacuum" has been abandoned, as formerly it was believed by 
many of the packers that without it canned foods would not 
keep. And it is not strange that this idea should have prevailed 
so persistently, for the science of bacteriology has only within 
two decades been applied to the canning industry. The re- 
searches in bacteriology, which in 1895 were begun at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, showing conclusively 
that the seemingly mysterious spoiling of canned food which was 
so often experienced by the packers was due to imperfect sterili- 
zation or processing, through lack of sufficient heat to destroy 
the bacteria which, under ordinary conditions are ever present 
upon the food which is to be preserved. 

Stimulated by these early researches, much interest in scien- 
tific sterilization was awakened. Other laboratories began to 
investigate, including that of the Department of Agriculture at 
Washington. That department has devoted much time to in- 
vestigation of this subject and has maintained for several years 
at least one experimental cannery, while special investigations 
have been carried on in various other parts of the country. 

The latest phase of this scientific control of this important 
food industry is due to the business sagacity and foresight of 
the canners themselves. Appreciating the dependence of their 
industry upon the scientific and efficient management of its pro- 
cesses, the National Canners' Association has established in 
Washington a laboratory supported chiefly by the can manu- 
facturers and the canners. Here the problems of the industry 

15 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



• — mechanical, chemical and biological — ^are worked out under 
the direction of Dr. Bigelow and Dr. Bitting who for years were 
in charge of this kind of investigation in the Department of 
Agriculture. 

It seems fitting that this should be known as the National 
Canners' Laboratory, for the industry long since ceased to be of 
sectional character and exists in all quarters of the country. 
The problems are not all solved yet, however, nor has that one 
laboratory a monopoly in this line of work. Even in New Eng- 
land, where aside from the canning of fish and a few vegetables 
the industry is relatively small, researches have been going on 
more or less continuously at the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology and its closely allied laboratories, and inquiries come to 
its stafi^ from all parts of America. 

The canned foods industry of the United States began in 
New England, and here also at the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, began the practical application of science to it. 
Thus in less than a century there has developed an industry 
supplying canned foods to the value of approximately $200,- 
000,000 yearly, and showing an increased growth in the last ten 
years, of nearly 60 per cent. From a small beginning in 
1821, the canned foods business has grown to be economically 
one of the most important industries of the country and Ameri- 
can canned foods are now to be found in every quarter of the 
globe. The Ams sanitary system and machinery have followed 
the foods, and there is scarcely a country on the globe where 
Ams machinery is not found. 

THE CARE OF CANNED FOODS 

There are many who seem to think that if care has been used 
in packing of food product, further precautions in its hand- 
ling are unnecessary. This is a most unfortunate viewpoint and 
needs prompt correction. Damage may result from improper 
handling to both the container and the contents. Both must 
be attractive to the eye in order to command sale. 

First the cans may become rusted, due to having been 
stacked in a factory, where steam reaches them during the day 
and cooling at night causing condensation upon the surface; 
also to storing in damp warehouses or in cellars. The presence 

16 



Mount Veknon, N.Y. 



of rust upon a can gives an appearance of age or suggests a 
cheap article hardly worth ordinary care. Wherever rust has 
once started it is an easy point of attack in the future and the 
process may continue until there is penetration of the can and 
consequent spoilage. The presence of rust upon the cans before 
they are labeled will show through the label after a time, thus 
detracting from their appearance. Rust can be prevented in a 
large measure by lacquering, and while cans so treated at one 
time were looked upon with suspicion, lacquering is now re- 
garded as an excellent preventive of damage from the outside, 
and is certain to come into more general use as its object be- 
comes better understood. Rusting should be prevented as far 
as may be possible by storing in dry quarters, by avoiding sud- 
den changes in temperature, which will cause precipitation of 
moisture upon the surface, and by the use of dry packing cases. 
The use of green wood and water-soaked lumber for boxes is 
no economy, simply because they cost one or two cents less. 

A very common mistake is shipping in dirty cars. It is very 
little work to sweep a car clean, and if this is not done the pres- 
ence of dirt, sand, traces of lime, etc., will be distributed by the 
motion of the car, soiling the boxes and a greater or less num- 
ber of the labels. The condition of the boxes appeal to the re- 
tailer, the same as does the label to the consumer, and the cleaner 
they are the better. There is no easier way of "hammering" 
the price of a canned article than to have it handled in a soiled 
package. 

It is an almost universal custom to stencil all cases in making 
shipment, but in small orders the shipping tag is sometimes 
used. Such tag should always be attached to the end, as the 
tacks used may puncture a can if used upon the side or top. 
This may seem to be such a small matter as to be scarcely worthy 
of attention, but there have been many hundreds of goods 
spoiled in this way. 

Canned foods should not be stored where they will freeze, 
for while slight freezing does not seriously injure the quality, 
in no case does it make an improvement. If cans are once frozen 
it is better that they should remain in this condition than to 
permit a recurrence. Several short freezings are much more 
injurious than one continuous freeze. The effect of freezing in 
general is to soften fruit more or less and to destroy its char- 

17 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



acteristic flavor. The effect of a hard freeze is to break some 
of the cans. 

Canned foods should not be stored where there is excessive 
heat, as against radiators or close to steam pipes. The quality 
is injured more rapidly by heat than by cold, though the ulti- 
mate effect is much the same — softening of contents and loss of 
flavor. In this case color may also be affected, pears and peaches 
may be made more or less pink and fruits with high color may 
assume a gray tint. 

Upon receiving a shipment of canned foods, the cases should 
be opened and examined for can leaks. One broken can, no 
matter what may be the cause, can stain a remarkable number if 
the case be allowed to stand at the top of a stack. Cans which 
have been dented or mashed in shipment or handling should be 
sorted out and disposed of early. A hard dent on the edge of a 
can tends to become a leaker, and one mashed on the side may 
have the ends bulged out presenting the appearance of a swell. 
The exercise of a little judgment under such circumstances will 
be the means of keeping a clean stock to the end. 

In packing in sanitary cans and in the attempt to give fuU 
weight as demanded by the pure food laws, many canners are 
overfilling. When cans are overfilled, there will be more or less 
puflBng of the ends when they are stored in a warm place, and 
there will be the usual collapse, or the ends can be pushed in 
when they are kept in a cool temperature. The test of the true 
swell and an overfill is to place the cans in a cool cellar or in a 
refrigerator. A swelled or spoiled can will not coUapse at the 
ends, while an overfilled can will do so. 

There are some lines of canned foods which should be dis- 
posed of early and not carried from one year to another. As a 
general proposition, fruits containing pits, as cherries and 
plums, acid fruits like strawberries and loganberries, apples, 
apple cider, blueberries and rhubarb, should be sold as early as 
possible. 

Marked improvement has been made in canning foods in the 
past few years and it becomes necessary that similar conditions 
follow in their handling from the factory to the consumer. 

While The! Max Ams Machine Co. enjoys the keenest inter- 
est in everything pertaining to the canning industry in all its 
branches, and studies its varied evolutions with each succeeding 

18 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



year, meeting new requirements with new and improved ma- 
chinery, it cannot overlook the fact that too httle attention is 
given to the very tools that the canner depends upon for the 
successful output of his products. He would devote more atten- 
tion and care to a dollar watch than to a $500 piece of machinery ; 
this is a strange phenomenon in human nature, but nevertheless 
a fact. 

The necessary wrenches and tools are always sent out with 
every machine ; and instructions as to when and how to use them, 
but operators are so careless and indifferent to the use of these 
adjuncts that many machines are damaged and some hopelessly 
ruined. 

On another page of this volume, there is a series of "Don'ts" 
that every canner should study and be governed by, and yet, 
it may be very appropriate here and at this time to call attention 
to the extensive experience and knowledge attained by those who 
have made a careful study of efficiency in machinery, and meth- 
ods for attaining the best results. 

The things that we can lay down and say we must have are : 

ProdMctibility. — It seems reasonable\ that we should ask 
for productibility, the ability to produce. It is of prime im- 
portance, for it is what we buy the machine for, and if we can- 
not get productibility we have not spent our money wisely. 

Durability. — Is it unreasonable to suppose that, having 
paid coin of the realm for a machine, we are not entitled to dura- 
bility? Productibility, of course, is qualified by durability. If 
it is not a durable machine its ability to produce ceases. So it 
is reasonable to ask that a machine be durable, that it wiU do the 
amount required in a given time and do it easily and comfort- 
ably, and have a sufficient factor of safety in the design of its 
parts to provide for a continuous performance of the work for 
which it was installed. 

Adaptability. — The ability of the machine to meet condi- 
tions. A machine has been purchased for a given purpose. 
The machine should meet these conditions. It is of little interest 
that it may be able to produce work for somebody else; that it 
may meet Jones's conditions. What you purchased it for was 
that it should meet your conditions. 

We have, then, three essentials in machine tool design: Pro- 
ductibility, which means the ability to produce; durability, or 

19 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



the ability to stand up and do the work and adaptability, or the 
ability to meet our conditions. 

There are several factors which enter into the question of 
productibility, each of which is, in a way, related to thef others. 
If, for any reason, the machine is not in service it is not produc- 
ing and is, therefore, inefficient. 

Continuous operation is an essential factor which is depend- 
ent not only on durability but on adaptabihty as well. If minor 
details of construction are constantly giving trouble it is not a 
durable machine, and if long delays are frequently occasioned by 
the necessity of changing or providing complicated and expen- 
sive tool equipments the machine is not adaptable, and the ex- 
penditure, therefore, has not been wisely made. 

Then comes the matter of bearings and lubrication and it is 
lubrication of bearings on machinery. Generally, bearings are 
either flooded with oil, the surplus running over the machine or 
dropping on the floor, or they are dry and continually causing 
trouble on account of burning or sticking. 

Our draftsmen give particular attention to the design of 
bearings. It is safe to say that the bearings of a machine are as 
important as any other part and receive their full share of at- 
tention when the machine is planned. To allow the bearings on 
an expensive machine to run dry and burn out is gross negligence 
and should not be tolerated under any conditions. 

It is better to use a surplus of lubricant than too little, but 
either system is costly and should not be followed. The waste of 
lubricant may be as expensive as the damage done by allowing 
bearings to run dry. 

Power plant operating engineers have set an example that is 
worthy of emulation. Instead of being proud of the large 
amount of lubricants they use, they are bragging about the 
smallness of their requirements in order to keep machinery un- 
der their charge running successfully. Instead of flooding bear- 
ings, the bearings are carefully watched, and just the amount of 
lubricant required is fed to each bearing. Instead of allowing 
bearings to run dry and thus demand costly repairs, the lubrica- 
tion is given close attention, and if from any cause there is not 
sufficient lubrication to maintain proper conditions, immediate 
attention is given and lubrication is provided. 



Mount Veknon, N.Y. 



Conditions in most shops are exactly opposite. One grade of 
lubricant is purchased and used for all purposes and under all 
conditions. Men go to the source of supply as they please and 
either fill, or have filled, their oil cans, and then they begin to 
lubricate. Bearings that are doing little work are oiled as fre- 
quently as those bearing heavy burdens, or are neglected alto- 
gether. The results are wasted lubricant or ruined bearings. 
In these days, when efficiency and economy are the watchwords, 
the question of proper lubrication! might receive more attention 
to good advantage. One hundred per cent oiling efficiency means 
that every drop of oil supplied to a bearing must perform its 
functions to the very best advantage, and it is right here that 
Ams machinery has made its splendid record. 

One word regarding belting, on which a great deal may be 
said. Belting is an expensive item that the canner has to contend 
with, so it naturally comes in for considerable thought. The fol- 
lowing points may be worth while : 

Don't use anything but an endless belt if possible. It runs 
better, is easier on machine and saves a great deal of time over 
the laced belt. A good cabinet glue is as good to use on the joint 
as almost any belt cement, and is easier to pry open when the belt 
needs tightening. 

Don't run the flesh side of belt next to pulley. If the flesh 
side gave as good service as the tanned side, the tanner would 
have no need of devoting so much time and care to getting a 
good face on the belt. 

Don't use old varnish, or some belt dressings that are now on 
the market, to get your belt to pull. After a few applications 
the belt will become hard and slick on the face, then there is 
nothing you can do but dope it up again, and before long it 
will commence to crock. An occasional application either of 
neatsf oot oil or a cheap grade of castor oil will make the belt pull 
better and keep more life in the leather, which, of course, will 
make the belt last longer. Always be sure and remove any dust 
from face of belt before using the oil. 



SI 



REPORT OF THE GERMAN CANNERS' 
LABORATORY 

A report covering activities in the laboratory of Serger and 
Hempel in Germany, reviews the factors which tend to defeat the 
canners' efforts to put up sterUe goods. These factors are: 

(1) Incorrect reading of temperature and time by factory 
operatives. 

(2) False indications of pressure through defective pressure 
gauges. 

(3) False indications of the pressure gauge by reason of 
improper manipulation of the retort (failure to expel air, cold 
pressure). 

(4) Improper choice of temperature and time of sterilization. 

(5) Presence of especially resistant micro-organisms. 

Any one of these factors alone is capable of resulting in 
unsterile goods, but it is not uncommon for several to come into 
play at the same time. Attention is called to what every up-to- 
date canner should not only know, but constantly bear in mind, 
namely, that a prompt investigation of each day's pack will re- 
veal insufficient sterilization in time to permit the canner to 
avoid loss by reprocessing goods, which are otherwise sure to spoU. 

In the German laboratory it is customary to incubate the 
various sized cans at 37 °C. for the following lengths of time: 

Small cans (below % lb.) 40 hours 

% to 1 lb. cans 60 hours 

2 to 4 lb. cans 75 hours 

6 to 10 lb. cans 100 hours 

In the case of goods destined for shipment to tropical coun- 
tries the cans are further kept for an equal length of time at 
45 °C. and if they remain sterile are closely examined for any 
change in the physical appearance and character of the con- 
tents. This is important in the case of goods containing meat 
products, especially those containing gelatine (souse, scrapple) 
which unless properly prepared often deteriorate when subjected 
for some time to tropical heat. Tests of this character were 
carried out on goose liver paste, boiled sausage, fish sausage, and 
others, and a test shipment was made to Brazil and back. The 




Nicolas Appert gave to tlii- 
world in IHO-l the- ])r()ce,ss ot 
preserving food products, which 
has been full}' described in tlic 
"Seal of Safety 1914," X'olunie 
No. 1. 

From a photograph of a 
miniature in possession of his 
ftrandson, Chevalier Appert, 
Paris. 



William Underwood came to this 
country from England in 1830, was 
one of our pioneer canners, and 
packed many food products. In 1830 
he packed large quantities of pie 
fruit in bottles, in 1835 Imported to- 
mato seed in order to grow tomatoes 
for ketchup. 



Thomas Ken sett was a gentle- 
man of the old school. He packed 
lobsters and oysters in New York in 
1819, and obtained a patent in 1825 
in the art of preserving. Later in 
1848 he engaged in business in Balti- 
more. 



George Burnham, of the firm of 
Burnham & Morrill Co., was born 
in Portland, Me. He entered the 
canning business in 1845. In the 
year of 1846 he packed green corn 
in Portland on Burnham's wharf 
until 1867. He went to France in 
1866 to learn the process of packing 
sardines. 

Louis McMurray, one of the most 
distinguished and successful pioneers 
of canned food, was born in Mary- 
land. He was one of the first to ex- 
port, shipping large quantities to 
California and Europe. 

Courtesy of F. N. Barrett, 

Amer. Grocer. 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



appearance of the goods at the end of their long round-trip 
indicated that German packers were capable of putting up goods 
which would stand severe requirements. 

It was observed during the year that the time of steriliza- 
tion was often prolonged at a cost of deteriorated quality, es- 
pecially in the case of asparagus. The contents were sterile 
but the goods had been cooked to pieces and were unsalable. As 
asparagus is peculiarly sensitive to over-cooking, experiments 
were undertaken in the experimental factory connected with the 
laboratory to determine the minimumi time of sterilization which 
would give absolute quality goods. These experiments indicated 
the following times : 

For 1-lb. cans. . 7 min. at 116°C. (240°F.) 
For 2-lb. cans.. 81/2 min. at 116°C. (240°F.) 
For 4-lb. cans.. 13 min. at 116°C. (240°F.) 

In investigating the cause of springers numerous samples of 
the following kinds of foods were examined — asparagus, peas, 
mixed vegetables, Zeltower beets, cauliflower, beans, kohlrabi, 
cherries, spinach, eels in jeUy, canned sausage, turtle soup, tur- 
tle meat in jelly, etc. All cases of springers were found to be 
due to bacteria, chiefly of the following varieties — ^bacillus sub- 
tiUus (hay bacillus), proteus vulgaris, proteus mirabilis, bacillus 
megathrium, bacterium' aceti, and cocci, diplococci, and strep- 
tococci of not further characterized species. 

In determining the cause of spoilage Dr. Serger lays stress 
on the determination of the particular kind of organism which 
is responsible. If only one bacterium is found then it is very 
probable that spoilage is due to a leaky can and that the trouble 
does not necessarily afi'ect the whole pack. 

The reason why we generally find only one organism where 
spoilage has been due to a leaky can is explained as follows: 
Usually the leak is very small and a single spore finds entrance. 
Before other spores enter, the first comer, finding itself in a 
favorable medium, begins to grow and multiply and so possesses 
the field by reason of its numbers, thus preventing the develop- 
ment of other varieties which may subsequently succeed in enter- 
ing. It is a well-known fact that each species of micro-organism 
gives off substances which are poisonous to many other varieties, 
and for this reason various processes of fermentation may be 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



kept "pure" after they have once become well started. If, how- 
ever, the contents of the can are not sterile, all the germs present 
start with an equal chance and different colonies start simul- 
taneously at different points, giving rise to a heterogeneous 
population. 

An abnormal case of infection of a canned product is de- 
scribed as f oUows : A canning factory put out a line of canned 
ham which was packed by the vacuum process. No trouble had 
been experienced with this product for years, but during the 
past year there occurred many cases of explosions of ten-pound 
cans. A bacteriological investigation showed a profuse infec- 
tion with hay bacillus (bacillus subtillus), which is extremely 
resistant to heat so that it survived the ordinary sterilization 
process. As the hay baciUus is only rarely to be found in food 
products a long search was made for the source of infection, 
which was finally located in the presence of a hay loft which had 
been recently installed near the cannery. With the removal 
of the hay loft from the vicinity the trouble disappeared. 

That canners sometimes have to count on the possibility of an 
accidental contamination of their water is shown by the follow- 
ing incident: The cannery was troubled by very hard water 
which often showed a bitter taste. Analysis showed the presence 
of an abnormally high chlorid content and investigation proved 
that the source of supply was contaminated by the refuse water 
of salt works, and this knowledge permitted steps to be taken 
to remedy the matter. 

A number of cases of unsatisfactory canned milk were 
brought to the attention of the laboratory. In a sample of 
homogenized whole milk the walls of one can were found to be 
covered with innumerable specks of milk albuminoids, while an- 
other showed clumps of coagulated casein. Both cases were 
traced to an unsatisfactory condition of the original milk as to 
freshness. It is pointed out that a simple test to determine 
whether a milk is suitable for canning is to boil a sample. If 
the milk coagulates it is unsuitable for the purpose, even though 
it may otherwise appear all right. Coagulation will take place 
when the acidity is between 9 and 15 Soxhlet degrees (1 Soxhlet 
degree equals number of ccm. of fourth annual caustic soda solu- 
tion required to neutralize 100 ccm. of milk). For safety's 
sake, however, it is better never to try to can milk which has a 

34 



Mount Veenon, N.Y. 



higher acidity than 5 degrees, since a tolerably acid milk which 
will withstand the boiling test at 212°F. without coagulating will 
do so when processed at 220 °F. 

A common fault in canned milk was found to be the use of 
too high temperatures for sterilization whereby the taste and 
flavors were impaired, and the milk was sometimes found to be 
off color. Experiments conducted in the experimental factbry 
showed the following temperatures to be the most suitable : 

10-lb. can 60 min. at 220° to 223°F. 

8-lb. can 60 min. at 220° to 223°F. 

4.-lb. can 40 min. at 216° to 220°F. 

2-lb. can 40 min. at 216° to 220°F. 

1-lb. can 40 min. at 216° to 220°F. 

The process is to be followed by thorough cooling with flow- 
ing water, the cooling to be finished in the following times : 

10-lb. can 2 hours 

2-lb. can 1% hours 

1-lb. can 1 hour 

The laboratory encountered a new product during the year 
in the shape of a yeast extract, which, when mixed with boiling 
water, gave a very good bouillon, and proved to be an excellent 
axJdition to canned vegetable soups in giving them an agreeable 
meat flavor, being in fact scarcely distinguishable in taste from 
good beef extract. This opens up to soup canners an impor- 
tant new material, as brewery yeast is produced in enormous 
quantities in every beer consuming country. No satisfactory 
use has heretofore been found for it, so brewers have been ac- 
customed to throw away the excess not needed for the actual 
brewing process. 

The care exercised by the German patent office in issuing pat- 
ents on new food preparations is exemplified by a case in which 
an inventor proposed to take out a patent on a new flavoring 
substance from the hulls of legumes. The laboratory was re- 
quested to test the inventor's claims, and as the test resulted sat- 
isfactorily the patent was issued. The fact that yeast extract 
closely resembles beef extract in flavor, however, should not 
fraudulently be taken advantage of. 

German packers of mushrooms have been accustomed to using 
sodium sulphite for bleaching these goods. Experience proved 

25 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



that the subsequent washing out of the bleaching agent was not 
always a success, with the result that the sulphite was reduced ia 
the can to sulphide, producing blackening of the metal and 
leading to difBculties with the pure food authorities, on account 
of the presence of stiU undecomposed sulphite. It is therefore 
pointed out that care must be taken to thoroughly wa^h out 
the sulphite. Mushroom packers who feel that they must use a 
bleaching material are recommended to use hydrosulphite, the 
excess of which can be completely oxidized in inert sulphates. 
Hydrosulphite for this purpose is sold under the name of 
"Geblitol." 

German cans for food-preserving purposes are made dif- 
ferently from those used in the United States. In making the 
cans the Germans first make the body, the seam being held by 
solder appHed in such a way that the contents cannot possibly 
come in contact with the solder. Next the bottom is crimped on, 
a tight joint being secured by a thin rubber ring. After the 
can is filled the cover is crimped on, a tight joint being secured 
between cover and joint by another rubber ring. German canned 
goods therefore necessarily come in contact with a larger or 
smaller area of rubber, and hence a series of troubles due to 
reaction between the constituents of the rubber and the pre- 
served goods. This necessarily brings up the subject of the com- 
position of rubber rings most suitable for canning factory pur- 
poses. This subject has been treated at length in previous re- 
ports from the laboratory, and may be resumed here as foUows : 

(1) If the rings contain sulphur, this substance must be so 
firmly combined that no hydrogen sulphide wiU be evolved when 
the ring is gently warmed with 4 per cent tartaric acid or a sim- 
ilar strength of acetic acid. 

(2) When the ring is heated to 177°C. (260°F.) in the 
presence of water, 4< per cent tartaric acid solution or 2 per cent 
salt solution, it must fully retain its desirable physical proper- 
ties and give off no taste or odor. 

(3) Lead and zinc must not be present in any form. 

(4) The rings must not contain more than 77 per cent of 
incombustible substance. This requirement indicates that the 
rubber rings used in Germany are composed of only one-quarter 
combustible substance, and probably not all of this is rubber. 



36 



■(i^'^''t-±(--- (■'^^-(■'-■'-^~iJ^'i^.^<^-^'yi-^^.yy-y^'^''.'.'^-y^i^^ f-~''lL 




1 Prune Orchard, San Jose. -I Peacli Orchard, Santa Clara 

2 Peach Orchard, San Joaquin A'alUy 
A'allev. 

3 E. r. Dee, of Berger & Carter 

Co. Author of Canning Industry, •> Apricots in Bloom, Saratoga, 

California. Cal. 



CANNING INDUSTRY IN CALIFORNIA. 

From a humble beginning under the primitive conditions of 
early days to the present high state of development, the evolu- 
tion and growth of the canning industry in California has been 
rapid and continuous and the value of canned foods packed 
annually in the Golden State now exceeds twenty millions of 
dollars. 

California is the second state in the Union in point of size, 
and, between the low-lying coast vaUeys and the foothill and 
mountain slopes, may be found every conceivable climatic vari- 
ation. Three great advantages of the California climate — abun- 
dant heat, continuous sunshine, and absence of excessive humidity, 
considered in connection with the fertility of the soil and the 
unusual length of the growing season — insure the characteristic 
excellence of California fruits; while the relative geographical 
location of the diflFerent fruit-growing districts practically pre- 
cludes the possibility of a total crop failure. The texture, color 
and ripening season of various fruits are materially aflfected by 
modification of climatic conditions, hence fruit produced in cer- 
tain sections of the state is often more suitable for canning pur- 
poses than the same variety grown elsewhere. 

About six years after the discovery of gold in 184<9, the first 
experiments were made in planting fruit-trees commercially and 
the first canning establishment commenced operations some three 
years later. 

D. Provost, who in 1858 operated a small packing-house at 
Market and Valencia Streets, San Francisco, is generally accred- 
ited with the distinction of undertaking the first commercial can- 
ning on the Pacific Coast. Provost acted as agent for his 
brother, Stephen H. Provost, who was a member of the firm of 
WeUs, Provost & Co., of Yonkers, N.Y. This concern packed 
pickles, jams, etc., in bulk and shipped around the Horn in sail- 
ing vessels to San Francisco where the goods were repacked in 
suitable containers for the CaKfomia market. In 1860 Provost 
enlarged the field of his activities and began to pack jams and 
jellies made from California fruits in addition to repacking bulk 
goods from the East. A small concern, known as Erzgarber & 
Goetzen, was established in 1859 which packed jams and jellies 

27 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



in a small way. This business was taken over by Sol. Wangen- 
heim & Co. in 1875 and carried on until 1887 when it was dis- 
continued. 

During 1859 the late Francis Cutting, who may be consid- 
ered the real pioneer of the canning industry on the Pacific 
Coast, started a cannery on Main Street in San Francisco where 
he packed fruits, jams and jellies in glass and tin, although the 
supply of California fruit then available was very limited. Cut- 
ting also packed tomatoes as well as soups and other specialties 
and it has been authoritatively stated that a considerable por- 
tion of his pack found its way to the front during the CivU War. 
The earliest record of packing California apricots, peaches and 
plums is found in Cutting's inventory of 1863 in which year his 
total pack, including tomatoes, jellies and jams, was 7,000 cases. 

Until 1866 the Cutting Packing Co. was the only concern 
handling fruit to any extent as Provost operated on a very small 
scale. In 1867 Provost discontinued business, and P. D. Code, 
who had been employed by him, founded the firm of P. D. Code 
& Co. This concern is still in existence under another name, hav- 
ing operated successively as the Code-Elf elt Co., the Code-Port- 
wood Canning Co., and, at the present time, as H. G. Prince & 
Co. The first cherries canned in California were packed by P. D. 
Code & Co. in 1867. 

In the spring of 1864, G. W. Hume, who for several years 
had been fishing in the waters of the Sacramento River, and 
Andrew Hapgood, a tinsmith, started a Salmon cannery on 
a barge at Sacramento. During their first season 1,000 cases 
of fish were packed in 2%-pound cans and, although unfor- 
tunately half of the pack swelled and was a total loss, the re- 
mainder was sold by William T. Coleman & Co. for $5.00 per 
dozen. In 1866 Hume operated, at Oak Point, Washington, 
the first salmon cannery in the Colmnbia River region; and as 
the G. W. Hume Co. still operates one fish cannery and two 
fruit canneries (one under the name of the Carquinez Packing 
Co.), this concern must be conceded the distinction of being the 
oldest canning establishment on the Pacific Coast operating 
under the original designation. 

Josiah Lusk, in 1867, packed berries in 5-gallon cans but 
was unable to market them for several years. The J. Lusk 

28 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



Canning Co., of Oakland, was the result of the development of 
Josiah Lusk's original venture. 

The brokerage firm of A. Lusk & Co., composed of William 
Jacobs and Albert Lusk, was formed in 1860. In 1867 this 
concern began handling canned foods for the Cutting Packing 
Co., and in 1881 merged with the J. Lusk Canning Co. In 
1893 A. Lusk & Co. reorganized and became the Cahfomia 
Canneries Co., Ltd., which concern is still in existence. 

The most prominent individuals and companies engaged in 
packing food products in California prior to 1890 were: 1858, 
D. Provost; 1859, Francis Cutting; 1864, G. W. Hume; 1867, 
P. D. Code & Co. ; 1867, Josiah Lusk ; 1871, J. M. Dawson Co. ; 
1871, C. James King of William; 1876, Golden Gate Packing 
Co. ; 1880, Fontana & Co. ; 1881, A. Lusk & Co. ; 1882, G. W. 
Hume Co. ; 1882, Sacramento River Packers' Assn. ; 1893, 
California Canneries Co., Ltd. 

Several of these concerns are still in existence. The G. W. 
Hume Co., the Golden Gate Packing Co., and the California 
Canneries Co., Ltd., stiU operate under their original names, 
while P. D. Code & Co. operates as H. G. Prince & Co. The 
Cutting Packing Co., the J. M. Dawson Co. (later the San 
Jose Fruit Packing Co.), C. James King of William (later 
the King, Morse Co.), and Fontana & Co. were absorbed by 
the California Fruit Canners' Association. 

In 1881 the principal canners placed their goods under con- 
trol of a corporation known as the Union Packing Co. William 
T. Coleman & Co. of San Francisco, who at that time controlled 
the stock of the J. Lusk Canning Co., were appointed sole 
agents for distribution of products, and the late Frank S. 
Johnson, then president of the Johnson-Locke Mercantile Co. ; 
was in charge of this department. Another corporation known 
as the Packers' Exchange, was formed at the same time, and 
Wm. Jacobs of A. Lusk & Co., was in charge of the purchas- 
ing. These two corporations did business for one season only 
and until the business of that season was finally wound up. 

In 1885, a corporation known as the California Canned 
Goods Association was formed for the purpose of advancing the 
interests of the fruit-canning industry. Isidor Jacobs of A. 
Lusk & Co., was president of this association, P. D. Code of 
the Code-Elf elt Co., was vice-president, and I. H. Morse was 

99 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



secretary. The association lasted but two years, yet during this 
time accomplished much toward arousing interest in the neces- 
sity for estabhshing grades and maintaining the superiority of 
goods packed under a label bearing the name "California" ; and 
it was through this organization that agitation was first begun 
to prevent the fraudulent use of this name on eastern packed 
goods. Individual canners, after some years, finally secured 
Federal court injunctions which put a stop to this practice. 

In 1887 the eastern peach crop was a total failure, and 
canned fruit prices advanced 80%. 

The California Fruit Canners' Association, which has for 
years been the dominant factor in the . canning business on the 
Pacific Coast, was organized on June 15, 1899; and the efforts 
toward consolidation of the California packers were crowned 
with partial success. The association included originally the 
following plants : Cutting Packing Co., San Jose Fruit Packing 
Co., King, Morse Co., Oakland Preserving Co., Fontana & Co., 
Sacramento Packing Co., California Fruit Preserving Co., and 
Marysville Packing Co. In 1900, nine more plants were taken 
over, including: Hunt Bros. Fruit Packing Co., Rose City 
Packing Co., A. F. Tenney Canning Co., Courtland Canning 
Co., Whittier Cannery, Chico Canning Co., Lincoln Fruit Pack- 
ing Co., Sutter Canning & Packing Co., and Southern California 
Packing Co. Thus, at the end of the second season, the Cali- 
fornia Fruit Canners' Association controlled twenty-seven plants 
in twenty-two cities. During the season of 1914<, seventeen 
canning factories were operated by the association. 

Until 1878 only two grades were packed — extras and extra 
standards. In 1878 standards, in 1880 seconds, and in 1892 
water goods were added to the grades, and each packer desig- 
nated his grades according to his fancy. 

The pioneer canners contended with many difficulties, as they 
were practically cut off and isolated from the outside world, and 
not the least of these difficulties was the manufacture of cans, 
which were aU made by hand. In 1862 Francis Cutting im- 
ported tinplate which cost $16.00 gold per box, $20.00 per box 
was frequently paid even in later years, and the price of solder 
and other material was proportionate. G. W. Hume obtained 
tinplate in 1864 from the hardware house of Holbrook, Merrill 

30 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



& Stetson, then located in Sacramento, but many of the canners 
imported direct from England. 

The first company organized for the purpose of making 
cans and selling them in the open market was the Pacific Can 
Co. in 1883. Prior to this time every packer made his own 
cans. In 1896 the Pacific Can Co. absorbed their only active 
competitor, the Eagle Automatic Can Co., and reorganized the 
Pacific Sheet Metal Works. In 1901 the American Can Com- 
pany was organized. The Los Angeles Can Company is an 
active competitor in California. 

The history of the sanitary can in California is very obscure. 
The earliest authentic record belongs to J. C. Ainsley Packing 
Company of Campbell, who purchased a No. 2 Max Ams double 
seamer in February, 1902. An invoice of the Hickmott As- 
paragus Canning Company, covering sanitary cans sold the 
Ainsley people in September, 1900, is conclusive proof that both 
companies used this type of can at a very early date. 

The Sanitary can finally became recognized among the Cali- 
fornia canners in 1910 and was quite generally used in 1911, 
thus conclusively proving that the CaHfomia packers were the 
first to use the sanitary can extensively. At present this type of 
can is used altogether throughout the state, and the old style 
packers' can is now somewhat of an oddity. 

Fruits and vegetables, especially fruits, constitute the major 
portion of the food products canned in CaHfomia, although the 
amount and variety of fish packed annually is constantly increas- 
ing and the output of condensed milk is by no means negligible. 
California leads the world in the production of canned fruits. 

APPLES. 

California is the ninth state in the Union in the production 
of apples. In 1912 the total acreage devoted to apples was 
61,684 acres, containing 2,352,811 bearing and 1,523,598 non- 
bearing trees. 

The limitations of the apple-growing regions are not clearly 
defined, as there are flourishing orchards on the slopes of the 
Sierra Nevada mountains at an elevation of 4,500 feet, and the 
region between 2,000 to 3,500 feet above sea level is commonly 
supposed to be best adapted to this fruit. The earliest canning 

31 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



date for apples is July eighteenth. Although approximately 
fifty-eight varieties are grown in California, but few of them are 
of interest! to the canning trade, and by far the greater portion 
of the fruit is shipped green to eastern points and Europe. 

APRICOTS. 

CaHf omia leads the world in the production of apricots and 
enjoys a practical monopoly of commercial apricot growing and 
packing. In 1912 the total acreage devoted to apricots was 
44,944 acres, containing 2,877,593 bearing and 493,141 non- 
bearing trees. 

Although the occurrence of even light frost during the period 
of blooming and setting may strip the trees of fruit without 
damaging tender leaves and twigs, apricot orchards are to be 
found in nearly all fruit-growing sections of the state, thus un- 
questionably proving the universal mildness of the climate. The 
trees grow rapidly and in some localities yield paying crops dur- 
ing the third summer in the orchard. Individual trees frequently 
produce a ton or more of fruit annually and it is recorded that 
an old orchard of Royals in Alameda County yielded crops vary- 
ing from eight to fourteen tons to the acre, for several succes- 
sive years. 

The earliest canning date for apricots is about June fifth and 
the later varieties are available until about August twenty-fifth. 
Although approximately eighteen varieties of apricots are grown 
in California, all of them are not desirable for canning and the 
most favored, in their order of popularity, are Royal, Blenheim, 
Moorpark, Hemskirke and Tilton. 

CHERRIES. 

California is the first state in the Union in the production of 
cherries, although Washington and Oregon are rapidly coming 
to the front. In 1912 the total acreage devoted to cherries was 
8,180 acres, containing 505,123 bearing and 231,087 non-bear- 
ing trees. 

The earliest canning date for cherries is about May fifteenth, 
and Royal Anne's are usually available until about July eigh- 
teenth. Approximately twenty-six varieties of cherries are grown 
in California, but the Royal Anne, Black Tartarian and Black 



Mount Veenon, N.Y. 



Republican, in order of their popularity, are most favored by 
canners. 

PEACHES. 

California is the first state in the Union in the production of 
peaches and is the only section of the country where clingstones 
are produced to any extent. In 1902 the total acreage devoted to 
peaches (both frees and clings) was 104,459 acres, containing 
8,341,036 bearing and 2,104,707 non-bearing trees. The peach 
was the first fruit to ripen on the improved trees brought to Cali- 
fornia by the early American settlers, and the magnificence of the 
fruit is proverbial. Nearly every county in the state reports 
possession of peach-trees and in all districts, from the great in- 
terior valleys to the Sierra Nevada foothills, size, beauty, firmness 
and delicacy of flavor are characteristic of the fruit. The San 
Joaquin valley is the greatest peach district in the state, and 
nearly all of the San Joaquin canneries operate on peaches ex- 
clusively. 

Nearly all varieties of the peach have been tried in California, 
but, as is the case with other fruits, certain varieties are especially 
suitable for canning purposes. Color is an important item and 
canners invariably demand fruit that is free from color around 
the pit. Approximately sixty varieties of peaches are grown in 
California, clingstones predominating, and the pack of clings 
amounts to 75% of the total peach pack of the state. Owing to 
the tremendous quantities of peaches handled annually it is only 
natural that the lye-peeling process should attain its highest 
development in this state, and so much care and eff^ort has been 
expended in perfecting this process that peaches properly peeled 
with caustic soda are beyond criticism. The earliest canning 
date for peaches is July second, and the later varieties are fre- 
quently available until the first week in November. The favored 
varieties of clingstones produced for canning purposes in Cali- 
fornia are Phillips, Tuscan and Levy. The popular freestones 
are the Lovell, Muir, Crawford and Elberta varieties. 

PEARS. 

California is the first state in the Union in the production of 
pears, and pear-trees are the oldest deciduous fruit-trees in the 

33 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



state. In some instances pear-trees planted by the pioneers in 
the old mining districts resemble adjacent oaks, and a tree, over 
half a century old with a trunk more than seven feet in circum- 
ference, is still in existence near San Jose, yielding annually 
about fifteen hundred pounds of fruit. The pear is grown ex- 
tensively throughout the state, having a wider range than the 
apple, and the fruit frequently attains great size. It is reported 
that a pear grown near MarysviUe in 1904! was nine inches high, 
sixteen inches in circumference at the base and weighed five 
pounds. 

The earliest canning date for pears is July sixteenth, and 
Winter Bartletts are often available until November eighteenth. 
It is noteworthy that the Vaca valley, which is famous for early 
fruits, also markets very late pears, and Bartletts have been 
picked in this district as late as November nineteenth. Approxi- 
mately twenty-four varieties of pears are grown in Cahfomia, 
but the Bartlett is the favorite for all purposes. 

PLUMS. 

California leads the world in the production of plums (con- 
sidering prunes as plums) but the value of this fruit to the can- 
ning industry is immaterial in comparison with the vast quantities 
of dried product. In 1912 the acreage devoted to prunes was 
90,441 acres, containing 7,920,799 bearing and 1,123,854! non- 
bearing trees, while the acreage devoted to plums (other than 
prunes) was 14,964 acres, containing 1,178,436 bearing and 
317,960 non-bearing trees, thus making a total of 105,405 acres 
devoted to the production of plums of all kinds. It may be here 
remarked that all prunes are plums, but all plums are not prunes. 
A prune is a plum which can be dried without fermentation with- 
out removing the pit, and plums which cannot be so treated are 
not prunes — common names to the contrary notwithstanding. 

The earliest canning date for plums is June twenty-fifth, 
while Damson plums may usually be obtained as late as October 
twenty-third. Approximately thirty-nine varieties of plums (in- 
cluding prunes) are grown in California, of which several varie- 
ties are favored for canning. A small quantity of stewed dried 
prunes is packed annually, but this end of the business has not 
attained appreciable proportions. 

34 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



MISCELLANEOUS FRUITS. 

California produces great quantities of grapes, figs, nectar- 
ines, etc., but these fruits pertain more particularly to the wine 
and dried fruit industries and their importance to the canning in- 
dustry is comparatively insignificant. 

BERRIES. 

California produces enormous quantities of berries of all 
kinds and the expression "strawberries the year 'round" is fre- 
quently used to astonish eastern visitors and impress upon them 
the mildness and salubrity of the California climate. Black- 
berries, Strawberries, Loganberries, Raspberries and Gooseber- 
ries, named in order of their value to the canning industry, are 
the principal berry crops and of these the Loganberry alone is 
peculiar to the Pacific Coast. This variety was originated by 
Judge J. H. Logan of Santa Cruz, and is a cross between the 
California wild blackberry and a red raspberry — probably the 
Red Antwerp. The first plant, which was a chance hybrid, was 
multiplied by its originator and fruited for more than ten years. 
Since this variety was first given to the public by the University 
of California in 1893, it has been propagated by nursery men 
and sold in large quantities. 

VEGETABLES. 

California vegetables, so far as the canning industry is con- 
cerned, are confined to tomatoes, asparagus, peas, string beans 
and chili peppers. Com, which is one of the staples in the east, 
cannot be grown successfully and has never been canned to any 
extent in California, although attempts have been made at various 
times. 

Tomatoes are grown extensively throughout the state and a 
majority of the canners pack not only the regular tomato grades, 
but pulp and chili sauce as well. The earliest date for tomatoes 
is August twentieth, and the season frequently extends through 
the middle of November. 

Asparagus is indigenous to the islands and delta of the Sac- 
ramento River, and several exclusive asparagus plants are oper- 
ated in this district. Although the season is short, the asparagus 

35 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



pack is of considerable importance, as California is the principal 
producer. The earliest canning date for asparagus is March 
twelfth and the season continues until July seventh. 

Peas are packed to a limited extent only; in fact there are 
but five canneries in the state handling any appreciable quantity. 
The earliest canning date for peas is April twentieth, and they 
have been packed in some seasons as late as July thirty-first, but 
the heavy packing is confined to one month between the middle of 
May and the middle of June. 

ChiU peppers, as canned food, are rapidly becoming popular 
in the East, and are now used extensively for soups, sandwiches 
and salads and for garnishing egg dishes, etc. Peppers thrive 
in Orange County, near Los Angeles, and are prolific in growth. 
A full grown bush is about thirty inches in height and resembles 
a tomato plant. The fruit matures in August and bears until 
frost. 

SALMON. 

Fish canning is one of the oldest branches of the canning in- 
dustry in California; in fact, one of the first canneries estab- 
lished in the state, that of G. W. Hume at Sacramento, operated 
exclusively on salmon caught in the Sacramento River. Although 
in 1866 Hume transferred his field of operations to the Columbia 
River region in which he was the pioneer canner, he returned to 
California in 1882 and established a cannery at Benicia which is 
stiU in operation. During the interim a number of small plants 
started up along the lower Sacramento River, but none of them 
were of any importance. In 1879 the Sacramento River Packers' 
Association started a plant on Chipps Island opposite Antioch 
which operated for a number of years, but the salmon canning 
business gradually declined and in 1901 operations ceased alto- 
gether. Although fishing has always been carried on to some 
extent as in former times, the catch has been mild — cured instead 
of canned — and until the outbreak of the war in Europe, 70% 
of this pack was exported to Germany. Prevailing conditions, 
however, have closed this market indefinitely and as the past 
season witnessed a revival of interest in salmon canning, it is 
possible that it may again become an important branch of the 
industry in this state. 

36 



Mount Veenon, N.Y. 



The Chinook salmon is the principal variety frequenting Cal- 
ifornia waters and other species are rarely found. The banner 
season for the California salmon packers was in 1882 when 
242,000 cases were packed, and from this time on the quantity 
steadily decreased until the canneries discontinued operations in 
1901. The salmon pack during the 1914 season was approxi- 
mately 18,000 cases. 

SARDINES. 

California is the only part of the United States in which sar- 
dines are canned, as the true sardine is not obtainable outside of 
California waters. The center of this industry is Monterey Bay, 
where two plants are operated, midway between Monterey and 
Pacific Grove. The fish were formerly marketed as mackerel but 
later investigation proved that they are true sardines (Sardinia 
caeruleus) and they are now labeled accordingly. 

California sardines, which are enormous compared with the 
variety found in the Mediterranean waters, are packed in No. 1 
flat oval sanitary cans. The cans are subjected to approximately 
an eight-minute exhaust at 212° F. and after sealing are cooked 
for sixty minutes at 240° F. 

TUNA. 

Tuna canning is the real infant branch of the industry in 
Calif omia, as the first commercial canning of this fish began in 
1907 when approximately 500 cases were packed, and since the 
first successful season the demand for the temptingly delicate 
tuna fish has increased to such an extent that eleven plants, ex- 
cluding a small Japanese factory on Magdalena Bay, Lower 
California, are now in operation during the season, while ex- 
tensive enlargements are contemplated. 

Although commonly known as tuna or tunny, the true name 
of this fish is albicore, a near relation of the tuna. Practically 
nothing is known of the natural habitat or characteristics of the 
albicore as it does not spawn in rivers after the manner of the 
salmon, but, except at certain brief seasons, disappears toward 
the open sea. As the commercial importance of this fish became 
recognized, the vital necessity for accurate information regard- 
ing its characteristics was impressed upon the Federal Govem- 

37 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



ment by interested parties and investigations are now being con- 
ducted in conjunction with the University of California. 

For the purposes of this article it may be stated that the 
albicore or tuna is found along the west coast of Central America 
and Lower California and comparatively small numbers go as far 
north along the coast of California as the Santa Barbara Islands. 
The seat of the tuna canning industry, however, is in San Diego 
and San Pedro (the sea port of Los Angeles), from which points 
the fishing boats put to sea. The fishing, and consequently the 
canning season, is usually about two weeks earlier in San Diego 
than in San Pedro, but the length of the season is approximately 
equal. 

The tuna travels in large schools and the fish are extremely 
active and voracious. Fishing is carried on with open sail-boats 
and gasohne launches which cruise in the Santa Barbara Channel 
and in the! open ocean. The fish are caught with short lines at- 
tached to stout bamboo poles and are beheaded and cleaned im- 
mediately, for if the blood is not drained from the body, the 
flavor of the meat is tainted and the fish rendered unfit for 
canning. 

On arrival at the cannery, the fish are placed in perforated 
bottom steel baskets and subjected to a pre-cook in large rectan- 
gular cook boxes or retorts. The pre-cook or first process is for the 
purpose of softening the flesh and trying out the oil and is car- 
ried on for approximately two hours at a temperature of from 
212° to 220° F. After the first process the fish is given a final 
cleaning, and the black meat is separated from the white. The 
latter is packed in sanitary cans containing 2 ounces of olive or 
cottonseed oil (preferably the latter) and one-half ounce of salt 
per No. 1 flat can; the cans are sealed and are then subjected to 
the final process in a closed retort for sixty minutes at 242° F. 
After the final cook the cans are washed, either in boiling lye or 
in a sawdust drum to remove the film of oil and after cooling they 
are ready for the warehouse. 

The sanitary standard set by the tuna packers is unusually 
high. The white meat of the fish, which is not unlike breast of 
chicken, is the only part used for canning and the work of oiling 
and salting, in fact, all operations except the cleaning and pack- 
ing are performed by continuous automatic machinery. The 
packing is done by lace capped, white uniformed girls, and in 

38 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



general the tuna canneries are remarkable for their cleanliness 
and sanitary condition. 

The annual pack of tuna has either doubled or tripled each 
year as shown in the following table and, as by-products are 
rapidly being developed, the prospect of a large increase in the 
tuna business is anticipated: 

1907 500 cases (approximately) 

1908 1500 

1909 6000 

1910 12000 

1911 20000 

1912 60000 

1913 112000 

1914. 300000 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

In addition to the three varieties of fish referred to above, 
several specialties are packed in California to a limited extent. 
Experiments in canning shad-roe are being conducted on the 
lower Sacramento River, and a small plant near Pebble Beach 
in Monterey County has packed Abalone for several years. 

In conclusion, it may be stated that the canning industry in 
California, is, as a whole, still in its infancy and every future 
indication points to a tremendous increase in the preservation of 
food products in this State. 



39 



CALIFORNIA GRAPE INDUSTRY. 

Grape growing in California has reached a high state of ef- 
ficiency. An official report of this industry for 1913 has recently 
been made public. There are 330,000 acres of growing vines in 
the State, this total includes 170,000 acres of wine grapes, 110,- 
000 acres of raisin grapes and 50,000 acres of table grapes. 
Some of these vineyards would command $200 per acre, while 
some are considered to be worth a great deal more. At the con- 
servative average of $200 per acre, these vineyards show a value 
of $66,000,000. There are 700 wineries, big and little, in the 
State, and their estimated value is $84,000,000. 

CALIFORNIA'S RECORD. 

The following statistics show the different articles shipped 
from the State in 1913 and to what extent: 

15,000 cars lumber, 10,000 cars wine, 4,000 cars codfish, 5,000 
cars beans, 2,000 cars wool, 231 cars green cherries, 6,363 cars 
green grapes, 2,485 cars green pears, 470 cars green apricots, 
1,000 cars green peaches, 3,250 cars raisins, 35,000 cars 
oranges, 800 cars almonds and English walnuts, 9,000 cars 
canned fruits, 1,000 cars green apples, 169 cars green apricots, 
100 cars dried apples, 100 cars honey, 2,395 cars green peaches, 
1,668 cars green plums, 200 cars green figs, 2,250 cars dried 
prunes, 4,000 cars green vegetables. 

PRUNE CONSUMPTION. 

Prune consumption in the United States is estimated at an 
annual average of 112,000,000 pounds; annual exports for three 
years, 127,316 tons, an average of 42,438 tons per year. This 
year's crop has been seriously injured and present indications 
point to a very heavy shortage; some claim barely sufficient to 
meet home requirements. California leads the world. 

THE CALIFORNIA OLIVE INDUSTRY. 

The olive-tree reproduces itself from the seed and from cut- 
tings. The seedlings, however, do not come true to the parent tree 

40 




1 Olive Branches. 3 Pruning Trees. 

2 Olive Plants in Greenhouse. i Filling Barrels for Shipping. 




5 Emptying Filled Barrels. 

6 Assorting Olives. 



7 Olives Curing in Brine. 

8 Anis Double Seamers in Curtis 
Olive Cannery. 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



— reverting to the wild or primitive type. These seedling trees 
must be budded or grafted to the desired variety. There are 
some eighty different varieties — ^five being used for Curtis ripe 
olives and the balance for olive oil. 

The method of reproduction by cutting insures a tree of true 
variety. Three-inch cuttings are placed in hot sand beds, being 
heated underground by hot water pipes. This greatly aids quick 
and sure rooting. When well rooted they are transferred to the 
nursery and when two years or more old are set out. The lath 
roof on nursery is used in order to prevent scorching of tender 
shoots in the Summer, and as a support for canvas coverings in 
time of frosty weather, which would kill and curl the young 
growth. The olive is an evergreen tree and grows in North 
America only on the west coast between latitudes thirty and 
forty. 

Nurseries are started about March first. 

Olive orchards are started in April. The trees are set about 
thirty-five feet apart and are very often intersected with other 
crops to produce an income until the olive comes into bearing — 
six years after planting. 

A modem California irrigating system is used. The water 
is lifted in the pump-house and through underground concrete 
pipes goes to several large reservoirs or standpipes. The water 
is then conducted through a system of underground pipes to out- 
lets at the end of each row of trees. The water overflows into 
furrows and irrigates the trees. All California citrus groves are 
irrigated by the same method which greatly simplifies ploughing 
and harrowing inasmuch as there are no ditches or overground 
pipes to contend with. 

Concerning the pruning of the olive, there has been less 
known in the past and more learned within the last few years 
than with any other branch of its culture. The olive by means 
of pruning, in California, is made to bear a good average crop 
of well-sized fruit each year, whereas in foreign countries the 
usual occurrence is a "bumper" crop of small fruit one year and 
a lighter crop of large-sized olives the succeeding season. 

The olive is borne only on the two-year portion of the 
branches, which parts never again produce fruit. Pruning must 
therefore consist of the cutting away of a portion of the wood 
during a season of heavy new growth, and in stimulating the 

41 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



growth of new wood (suckers) during a Spring that would 
otherwise produce little or no new wood. It is readily seen that 
pruning can regulate the annual growth of new wood on the 
branches which in ttim two years later regulates the production 
of the fruit. 

Expert pruning is an art. All dead wood is regularly re- 
moved and large branches at a time cut out to admit light and 
Summer heat, which wiU effectually remove from groves situated 
inland from the coast aU black scale, the only pest affecting the 
ohve in Cahfomia. The twigs and small branches pruned off 
may be used as nursery stock. Pruning is done in the late Winter 
and early Spring. The closed season is from early March to 
October. During this period the trees are carefully cared for by 
cultivation, irrigation and fertilization ; the plant is thoroughly 
overhauled, improved and repaired, the coming pack is sold on 
"futures." 

The olive tree flower is star-shaped, creamish white with yel- 
low center. It is very small — one-eighth to three-sixteenths inch 
in diameter — with a faint and pleasiug odor. The leaves of the 
trees are long and slender, of a slightly glazed but somber green 
top, while the under side is covered with a velvety and silvery 
sheen. Different varieties of trees are known by the various 
leaves, some being wider and of different shades. 

The first irrigating of the season is done just prior to the 
breaking of the buds. The water, of course, gives vitaKty and 
assists setting. The blossoms poUen profusely, and it has been 
noticed that a mixed variety grove will often produce better than 
one of a single species. Without doubt cross pollenation is a 
material agent. Little data is at this time available concerning 
this matter, yet numerous experiments are now being carried on, 
and it is hoped that the next few years will make possible a thor- 
ough understanding of this feature. 

The fruit is now set and in a few of the earlier districts the 
trees appear with branches ladened. No mere photograph can do 
justice to the majestic beauty of a stately Mission ohve-tree in 
the full grandeur of its bearing period. The fruit at first ap- 
pearance from the blossom is of course green. In Europe, as it 
attains size, it is harvested in this immature condition and 
pickled. California, however, uses only thoroughly ripe and 
mature fruit in which the oil cells have fully developed. 

43 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



Olive oil is a food supreme and is made solely from ripe 
olives. It would therefore appear quixotic to consider a green 
olive other than as an indigestible relish. In September and 
October the olive turns from its brighter emerald green to a straw 
green cast. Flakes of red soon appear, first on the side getting 
the most sunlight, until the whole olive has this red appearance. 
From this a purple shade is developed which eventually evolves 
into the deep purplish black of the thoroughly ripened fruit. 
The appearance of the tree may be imagined when it is con- 
sidered that it holds fruit of all degrees of ripeness and naturally 
presents a color scheme bewildering yet at the same time har- 
monious. 

The olive was introduced into California by the Franciscan 
Padres during the eighteenth century. The trees, brought either 
from Spain or Mexico, were planted around their early Mission, 
and have through the environment of favorable soil and climatic 
condition of California, evolved a variety called the "Mission." 
This olive has slightly different characteristics from any foreign 
variety and is particularly adapted to curing in its ripe state. 
Without doubt, were it to be transplanted to its native soil, it 
would revert to its original type. 

Starting with its harvesting, the oHve moves with machine- 
like rapidity. Care in picking is demanded of the grower. Men 
on the ladders must pick — not strip — a branch, they must place 
— not throw — ^the fruit into the picking bag. The slogan, "there 
is reason," is well known. 

Three separate pickings are made in order to get fruit of the 
same degree of ripeness. An expert picker will harvest only 
about three hundred pounds of fruit in a day. 

The best method is to deliver all fruit in water. Some packers 
handle olives over hundreds of miles, however, solely in boxes, on 
trucks, in wagons, on trains, etc. Every drop, jolt, or jar that 
an olive receives before its cure, leaves a bruise which wUl, after 
processing, develop fruit with soft spots. 

Immediately after picking the grower transports the olives 
to a central portion of the grove where water is available. He 
fills a fifty-gallon barrel two-fifths full, and then proceeds to 
pour the fruit therein through the five-inch bung hole in the end. 
The fruit falls on a water cushion. Olives are filled to within two 

43 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



inches of the top of the barrel. The remaining space is filled 
with liquid. 

Usually sixty barrels of olives compose a car shipment. The 
barrels are stood on end in the car with the large five-inch bung 
end up. Also in this end of the barrel is a one-eighth-inch 
gimlet hole which is provided with a plug. At time of ship- 
ment this plug is removed, so that any changes in temperature 
or slight fermentation of the shipping solution will in no way 
affect the olive. 

Even though ripe olives are delivered from an orchard not a 
mile distant from the plant "quality" demands that they be 
transported in solution by the barrel method. Dry fruit in boxes 
is accepted only for the purpose of expressing olive oil. 

The barrels received are rolled to the edge of the unloading 
platform. The bung end is set immediately over a hopper filled 
with water. The end of the barrel is struck sharply with a bung 
starter, and the fruit, together with the shipping solution, 
quickly flows into the hopper. By sliding the hopper the 
olives and solution are poured into boxes. Fruit is allowed to 
drain in the boxes and is then weighed. It wiU be seen that every- 
thing possible is done to prevent a bruise — ^the water acts in every 
way as a cushion. A long fall and hard drop means soft olives. 

One of the simpler operations is the weighing of the fruit. 
This is done on a platform-scale by the usual method of deducting 
tare from gross. For each delivery the grower is furnished with 
a ticket receipt showing number of barrels received and gross, 
tare, and net weight of the olives. A duplicate of this ticket 
is placed in the tin clip which follows each lot of fruit through 
all the remaining processes of the factory. This ticket also con- 
tains spaces for listing the entire chronology of the particular 
batch of olives. In the event of an unsatisfactory finished article 
the trouble can always be located by referring to the slip, as all 
information, even back to the grower, is obtainable. 

Quality demands that no stems shall be found in the can. 
The first step within the factory is the stemming table and 
grader. The finding of several stems on opening a can of ripe 
olives is not a pleasant introduction to the consumer. Women 
are continuously employed in stemming. Nimble and skilled 
fingers rapidly pick the stems from the olives as they are slowly 

44 



Mount Veenon, N.Y. 



carried by on the wide belt of the stemming table. A belt ele- 
vator takes the stemmed olives to the top of the grader. 

The grader is built in several sections, each of which takes 
out a certain grade. This is accomplished by allowing all of 
the olives other than the largest size to fall through an accurate- 
ly calipered aperture, and being then run over the next section 
(really another entire grader), which relieves the next smaller 
grade, and so on by this means the largest, heaviest and most 
likely to bruise is handled the least. 

Each section of the grader is composed of highly-polished 
and accurately-turned steel shafting rolls which are set at the 
proper calipered space on either side of a small round belt which 
runs in a milled steel groove between the rolls. The roUs re- 
volve away from the belt which give the olive a twisting or 
turning motion. The belt pulls the olive along the length of 
the rolls, giving it every opportunity in its twisting movement 
to fall through between the belt and roUs. Provided it is not 
of sufficient size to fulfil the requirements of the particular grade 
being taken out in that section, it is carried to the next. 

Although through numerous experiments it has been able to 
develop a mechanical contrivance to accurately grade and select 
the oHve as far as size is concerned, still no genius has ever 
yet in the least been successful in evolving a mechanical selection 
for color, degree of ripeness and culls. Each size and variety 
of olive requires a varying treatment in its cure. For instance 
a black, thoroughly ripe olive and one inclined to be soft cannot 
take the same heavy treatment in the curing that wiU be given 
a red to purple olive of crisp texture. This means a large addi- 
tion to the costs, as separating the different kinds is made 
necessary. 

The three principal sizes of olives are delivered by the grader 
to each of the three wide belts. From these moving belts the 
women pick the variously colored olives and place them on the 
small side belts. Some are selecting black fruit and others cull 
out flawed olives. A harmonious and uniform result, both with 
respect to size and color, is being delivered to the boxes. Here 
each size and kind is reweighed, the total being checked against 
the weight of the entire lot, as first listed on the batch ticket. 
Any error is therefore impossible. 

45 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



After sorting, olives of one particular size and kind are 
placed in the concrete curing vats. A new tag for each assort- 
ment of the original lot contains as usual the grower's name, 
lot number, date of delivery, number of pounds, and spaces for 
its entire processing record. The raw ripe fruit is full of tannic 
acid and is consequently bitter — much like quinine. The stand- 
ing joke at an olive cannery is to induce the visitor to sample 
the uncured fruit. 

The olives are cured in various brine solutions which event- 
ually relieve them of the acid and develop that delicious and zest- 
ful piquancy known only to the patron of the California ripe 
olive. 

Quality is produced by scientific and experienced men. The 
best salt dissolved in the purest of water, brought from nearby 
mountains, is used. The curing process consumes from eighteen 
to thirty-five days, according to the varying condition of the 
fruit. 

Every batch is inspected and treated twice daily. The cur- 
ing department is composed of vats which are used several times 
each season. After passing through these channels the olives 
finally reach the packing room, where they are filled in bottles, 
small cans and up to five-gallon cans. Ams double seamers are 
used in sealing hermetically a perfect and tight double seam. 
No solder, acid or heat is required in the sealing operation. 



46 



THE TUNA FAMILY. 

The California leaping tuna is famous the world over. There 
is scarcely a fisherman of note anywhere who has not at one time 
or other journeyed to the little island city of Avalon, Catalina 
Island, California, to engage in the wonderful sport provided by 
this gamest of fish. It will battle for hours before it can be 
brought to gaff, and great skill and care is required in playing 
the big fellow. 

But this fighting, leaping tuna is not plentiful and is not 
particularly good eating. It is his cousin, the long fin tuna, that 
is so good to eat and is found in such large quantities off the 
southern coast of California. While the long fin tuna will put up 
a good fight for a short time, little difficulty is found in catching 
them in large quantities. They travel in big schools and take 
the bait as fast as you can throw it overboard. They live in 
deep water and come to the surface only when the weather is 
mild. 

FISHING FOR TUNA. 

In the early summer, fleets of small power-boats start out 
from various points along the Southern California sea-coast and 
are busy well into the fall supplying the canneries of the Cali- 
fornia Tuna Packers' Association. There are fully one hundred 
of these sturdy little fishing boats engaged in the tuna industry. 
The boats are all operated under their own power and carry 
from three to five fishermen. They are well built and seaworthy 
crafts and journey from five to fifty miles off coast in search 
of the schools of tuna. When the fishing is good they will bring 
in as much as five tons in one boat; at other times they wiU 
scour the ocean for days and return without a fish. 

The fish are all caught with hook and line — no seines are used 
as the long fin tuna is much too large and powerful. They weigh 
as much as seventy-five pounds, though the average is about 
twenty-five pounds, and they are extremely active and rush 
through the water at a terrific speed. 

PREPARING TUNA MEAT. 

The fish are cleaned as soon as caught and are brought in 
each night fresh and sweet. On their arrival at the cannery they 

47 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



are thoroughly washed with salt water. They are then packed in 
clean trays and loaded on iron racks which are rolled into big 
steel cookers. These cookers are equipped with temperature 
gauges and the heat is kept at just the right point until the fish 
have been thoroughly and properly cooked. 

After the fish are taken from the cookers, the process of elim- 
ination begins. When the skin, bones and dark meat have been 
separated from the white, delicately flavored tenderloin, 53% 
has been discarded. It is only this white tenderloin that is packed 
by the California Tuna Packers' Association. The dark meat, 
skin, bones, and other waste material is disposed of as various 
by-products. By this elimination of all waste matter, California 
tuna becomes the most economical as well as the choicest canned 
fish on the market. 

PACKING THE COOKED MEAT. 

The white tuna meat resembles breast of chicken or turkey 
more than anything else — ^both in flavor and appearance. It is 
carefully packed with oil in sanitary tins. After the tins are 
sealed they are placed in a large steel retort and again cooked 
with steam to insure thorough sterilization. After passing 
through this process, the perfect tins are stacked and held from 
two to six weeks before being given a final test and inspection 
which will make it certain that, whenever the can is opened, the 
tuna meat wiU be found sweet and wholesome. 

The surroundings under which tuna packing is carried on by 
members of the California Tuna Packers' Association are abso- 
lutely sanitary. Tables and floors are constantly washed and 
scoured and kept spotlessly clean. 

HOW TO SERVE TUNA. 

AVhen the tuna has passed through all the various processes 
of preparation and has been finally delivered to the ultimate con- 
sumer, it is ready to serve. All that need be done is to empty 
it from the can into a clean platter, garnish with lettuce leaves 
and slices of lemon and you have prepared a tempting, nourish- 
ing dish at a minimum of cost and eff'ort. Made up as a salad 
it rivals chicken and is such an excellent substitute that very few 
people can tell the difference. 

48 




1 Retorts. 

2 The Tuna. 



3 Tuna Tenderloins. 

4 The Cooker. 




■-,,: .^/.A^.iAMU.LU.J^JU..i4^UZlZZjUyCjr..UZiu2M/M 



5 Los Angeles Tuna Co. em- 7 Pacific Tuna Canning Co. 
ployees. 

6 Canning Tuna. 



8 The Pride of California. 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



Tuna is delicious served cold in salads, sandwiches, etc., it is 
ideal for lunches, picnics, suppers and teas where you want some- 
thing very good but very easily and quickly served. Yet it will 
be enjoyed most as a regular dinner dish. With very little effort 
it can be prepared in a great variety of appetizing dishes such 
as tuna loaf, creamed-on-toast, escalloped, fish cutlets, fish cakes, 
croquettes, etc., etc. 

THE ECONOMY OF TUNA. 

Canned tuna has no equal. All the bone and waste is elim- 
inated. It requires much less fuel and labor to prepare, even in 
the most elaborate dishes. 

Its exceptional merit and many unusual qualities already 
mentioned have made it immediately popular wherever it has been 
introduced. Tuna is a real California treat with merit that ap- 
peals to everyone — those who eat to live as well as those who live 
to eat. 

THE TUNA INDUSTRY. 

The packing of California tuna has become an industry of 
national importance in a very few years. In less than six years its 
seasonal output has grown to more than 200,000 cases. One of 
the chief markets lies across the continent in the North Atlantic 
States, where they have been brought up on fish and know good 
sea-food when they taste it. 

The California Tuna Packers' Association has been formed 
only to regulate the standard of quality of the tuna sent out by 
California to the markets of the world. Its aim is to enforce a 
rigid inspection of all tuna put up by members of the association 
and to label all tuna that has successfully passed this inspection 
with the association seal, so the jobber, dealer and consumer will 
know it is safe to handle and buy this tuna because the asso- 
ciation seal guarantees its purity and high quality. 



49 



THE HAWAIIAN PINEAPPLE INDUSTRY. 

The pineapple is supposed to be a native of Brazil, whence 
it passed to other parts of tropical America, including the West 
Indies, and more lately to parts of Africa and Asia. 

It became known to Europeans about the middle of the six- 
teenth century. We hear of it in England a hundred years later, 
some having been sent as a present to Cromwell, and in 1661 
it was served at a banquet given by Charles H. In 1718 the 
cultivation of pineapples was first successfully established in 
England, in the garden of Sir M. Decker, of Richmond, Surrey. 
The plants were grown in pits heated with bark, and watered 
with tepid water. 

The development of the pineapple industry is one of the 
most remarkable in the history of the Hawaiian Islands. In 
1906 the value of canned pineapple shipped to the mainland of 
the United States from Hawaii was $250,990. This has grown 
in eight years to an estimated value of over $6,000,000 for a 
pack of 2,250,000 cases. 

In planting pineapples the land is first plowed two or three 
times, harrowed and disced until the soil is in perfect tilth, 
then the fields are laid out in blocks 200 to 300 feet wide and 
of varying lengths, with a wagon road and drain ditch around 
each block. These blocks of land are then furrowed with small 
plows. Some planters make rows four feet apart and set plants 
two feet apart in the row. Others plant two rows with twelve to 
sixteen inches between, then a space of six to seven feet, two 
more rows, and so on. By the latter method there is always 
room to run a horse cultivator without injuring the plants, and 
about the same number of plants can be set to the acre — about 
5,000. For eighteen months after planting the only attention 
the pineapple plant requires is frequent hoeing and cultivating 
to keep the land free from weeds and the soil loose and moist. 
The lands devoted to pineapple culture in the Hawaiian Islands 
have an annual rainfall of from fifty to eighty inches, well dis- 
tributed throughout the year. 

50 




1 Pineapple 6 weeks old. 

2 Pineapple Cannery, Libby Mc- 
Neil & Libby. 



3 Pineapple pickers. 

4 Field ready for picking. 




S, 6, 7 Machinery for preparing and labeling pineapples. 
8 Hawaiian Pine Apple Cannery. 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



The pineapple harvest begins the latter part of June and 
ends about the first of October, though the bulk of the crop 
ripens in July and August. A few pineapples for table purposes 
may be found any month in the year. There are about 24,000 
acres of land used in the cultivation of pineapples in the 
Hawaiian Islands, 20,000 of which are on the Island of Oahu. 
As there is never any frost in the Hawaiian Islands, and no seri- 
ous insect pests, the crop is a very sure one. 

The fruit is received at the canneries the same day it is 
picked, having been left on the plant until fully ripe, since the 
pineapple receives its sugar from starch in the stock of the plant 
which is converted to sugar and drawn into the fruit during the 
last days of ripening. The operation of canning is simple, quick 
and sanitary. The crown of the fruit is cut off in the field and 
when the fruit arrives at the cannery it passes into a machine 
which first cuts off both ends, then takes out the core and re- 
moves the rind, leaving the pineapple a perfect cylinder, slightly 
smaller in diameter than the tin in which it is to be packed. 
The fruit is then conveyed to a slicing machine which slices the 
whole pineapple at one operation, making every slice the same 
thickness. From the slicer the fruit passes on to a moving belt 
which carries it past a Une of packers who select the perfect slices 
for the first grade, slices which are not perfect going into the 
second grade and the broken slices are made into grated. 

The sanitary can is very necessary for the successful canning 
of the pineapple, and is the only kind used in Hawaii, as a can 
with a full open top is required to pack the slices to the best 
advantage. 

From the packing table the tins are conveyed to syrup ma- 
chines where a syrup of clear water and granulated cane-sugar 
is put over the fruit, thence to the exhaust box and double seamer. 
After the cover is on the tin the fruit is given a cook varying 
from fifteen to thirty minutes. 

There are nine canneries in the Hawaiian Islands. They can 
nothing but pineapples and are modern in every particular, using 
aU the latest devices for economy and efficiency. 

The pineapple pack in Hawaii this season is expected to 
reach 2,250,000 cases. Canning pineapples was begun there only 

51 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



in 1900, and the rapid progress since that year is shown in the 
following records of cases packed: 

1901 2,000 

1902 6,000 

1903 9,800 

1904 25,500 

1905 51,300 

1906 84,300 

1907 186,300 

1908 410,000 

1909 498,000 

1910 625,000 

1911 751,000 

1912 1,200,000 

1913 1,500,000 

1914 (estimated) 2,250,000 

This rapidly increasing output has been readily absorbed in 
the United States until the past season. 



53 



SALMON CANNING— AN INDUSTRIAL 
ROMANCE 

by 

Miller Freeman, Publisher Pacific Fisherman. 

"No, don't give me beef. Some of that salmon. You've no 
idea how I've thirsted and hungered for some nice tinned salmon. 
To my mind there's nothing so tasty." 

— The Adventures of Captain Kettle. 



S3 



'^ iit . ■ i/^,_i^^4^.^/,i<t<i^-^^j<Sj<iiii^£^<^.i^^<i&i^^ 




^amm^^ 



Simply Types 






:<^;>i£^,^ 




"^/7<iy- 



*<i:iii2,.i<ik«<iiUU LiZjLuj'UjJiji*^ 



1 Cannery ship "St. Paul" North- 
western I''isheries Co. 

3 Typical Puget Sound Purse 
Seine Boat. 

3 One Division of Puget Sound 
Purse Seine P'leet at anchor, Kanaka 
Bnv, Wash. 



4 Largest Salmon Cannery in 
World-Pacific American Fisheries, 
BcUingham, M'ash. 

5 Fishing Vessel at Public Land- 
ing. 

(i Hodgson & Grahame Cannery, 
Richardson, M'ash. 



THE SALMON CANNING INDUSTRY 

The life history of the Pacific salmon and the story of the 
conception and growth of the gigantic manufacturing business 
founded upon its great periodic runs, make up a narrative whose 
cold facts ring like fiction, and through which runs the bright 
thread of human interest. 

Salmon are unique among the creatures which swim the sea. 
Bom in the sandy upper reaches of streams which flow to the 
Pacific, they migrate oceanward in early youth, disappearing 
from all haunts of fish as known to man. At the expiration 
of a definite life cycle, ranging from two to six or seven years 
according to the species, the mature fish leave their mysterious 
abode in the bosom of the ocean. Returning to the streams, 
they fight their way through rapids and over waterfalls re- 
sponding at any cost to the inexorable call of the creative in- 
stinct until they have reached the spawning grounds miles from 
tidewater. With the execution of the procreative act, the sal- 
mon dies, stem nature having decreed that when the seeds of a 
new generation have been sown, the old shall cease to be. 

There are five distinct species of Pacific salmon, members of 
the same scientific family, but varying greatly in size, general 
appearance and texture and color of the flesh. These species 
are according to accepted nomenclature: the Chinook, known 
also as the King in Alaska, the Spring on Puget Sound, and the 
Quinnat in California; the Red, known on Puget Sound as the 
Sockeye and in the Columbia River as the Blueback; the Coho 
or Silver, better known under the trade name as medium red; 
the Pink and the Keta. Although approximately the same in 
food value, differences in color and appearance have caused some 
of the species to be prized above the others by consmners. The 
order in which they appear above represents approximately 
their relative market value. 

Strange to say, California, now the least important canned 
salmon producer of the coast states, was the cradle of the in- 
dustry. That the decline of the industry there was not due to 
the fact that fishing operations have been carried on their long- 
est time will be seen later. 

55 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



The founders of the business were G. W. and William 
Hume and Andrew S. Hapgood, Maine men who had settled 
on the western coast early in the sixties. Under the firm name 
Hapgood, Hume & Co., the first cannery was established and 
operated in 1864 at Washington, Yolo County, California. The 
idea of canning the fish, which then swarmed the Sacramento, 
seems to have first occurred to the Humes who were fishermen. 
Hapgood had previously been engaged in lobster canning on 
the Atlantic coast and was taken in because of his practical 
experience as a canner. The plant was built upon a scow 
moored near the river bank. 

The first pack of 2,000 cases was made laboriously by hand, 
employing only the crudest methods. The late R. D. Hume, of 
the original firm, describes in detail the first operations. A 
comparison of salmon canning as described by Mr. Hume with 
the present day operations as outlined later in this article will 
show more clearly than words the forward strides which have 
been made. Mr. Hume says: 

Before the arrival of Mr. Hapgood (from Maine) the Hume 
brothers had purchased a large scow, on which they proposed to 
do the canning of salmon, and had added an extension to the cabin 
18 by 24 feet in area, to be used as a can-making shop. This 
had a shed on the side next to the river for holding any cans 
that might be made in advance of the packing season. A few 
days after the arrival of Mr. Hapgood (March 23, 1864), the 
tools and machinery were packed and put in position. Mr. 
Hapgood made some stovepiping and two or three sheet-iron fire- 
pots, and in a short time was ready for can-making. The fol- 
lowing list of tools and machinery will show how primitive 
our facilities were as compared with present methods. One 
screw hand-press, one set cast-iron top dies, one set cast-iron 
bottom dies, one pair squaring shears, one pair rotary shears, 
one pair bench shears, one pair hand shears or snips, one pair 
24-inch rolls, one anvil (weight 50 pounds) one forging ham- 
mer, one tinner's hammer, one set punches for making stove- 
pipe, one rivet set, one grooving set, two iron slabs grooved on 
one side to mold strips of solder, one iron clamp to hold bodies 
of cans while soldering the seams, one triangular piece of cast- 
iron abqut three-eighths of an inch in thickness and six inches 
in length, with a wooden handle attached to the apex, also used 
for holding can bodies in place while being seamed. 

The process of canning was as follows: The bodies of 
the cans were first cut to proper size by the squaring shears, a 
line was then scribed with a gauge ' three-sixteenths of an 
inch from one edge, and they were next formed into cylindrical 
shape by the rolls. They were then taken to the soldering bench, 
and one edge lapped by the other until the edge met the line that 
had been scribed and fastened there by being soldered a small 
part of the length to hold them in place for the further purpose of 
seaming. They were then placed either in the iron clamp, which 

56 



iiii <.Ji^^.iiiUeuiUy(UiJ^^^UJiiiZiUUZU£li'.^^ 




'\'/at?'.«:k<i2*a52ii&^i^3iyi«S^^ '■"'*" 



*«-»4, 







'S^^^iUii.i^i.i.Ci-iiuyJ^MU^^^tUjU^ 



ifiMiui^^^Ju^iiA 



1 A purse seiner in operation. 10 A typical salmon trap. 

8 Towing 30,000 sockeye salmon to 

the cannery. ^^ Carlisle Packing Co., Village 

9 Net drying yards of a P. S. Point. Wash. 
cannery. 



V .i.5^ <iiii^.^«^s£-ii4^I^Zi>^.62.i^££4^^ 




¥=:■■ 

12 Brailing a salmon trap. 14 Emptying trap into boat. 

13 Hoisting the trap. 15 Hoisting fish out of trap. 




"^ZiiilCxk^JUMi^UA^ib-iiUi^^ 



16 Gang knives cutting salmon to 18 Dressing stalls where fish are 

fit cans. washed. 



17 40,000 salmon ready for the 
Iron Chink. 



19 Filling cans. 



.(:gi'^t..iCUA,CUj(^^jLu:juMMMjlZiZ4^^JZ/iZlyf2^^ 




20 Loading the retorts. i.3 Machine fillers. 

22 Exhaust boxes. 2+ Gang knives. 

21 The late Geo. T. Myers. 



Mount Veenon, N.Y. 



had a piece of wood attached to its under side, and held firmly, 
the clamp being closed by the operation of a treadle, or were 
slipped on a piece of wood, which was bolted to the bench, while 
being held in place by the triangular hand seamer, which was 
pressed down on the lap of the seam by the left hand of the 
operator. When this had been done a piece of solder, which 
had been prepared by shaking in a can together with rosin, was 
placed on the seam and melted and rubbed lengthwise of the 
seam. After cooling the bodies were ready for the end or bottom, 
which operation was brought about by first cutting out circular 
blanks with the rotary shears, and then placing them in the cast- 
iron die, and bringing the handle of the screw press around with 
a swing with force enough to form up the end or bottom. 
In this operation there were many difficulties, as the ends or 
bottoms would many times stick to the upper part of the die 
and refuse to come off, and finger nails were pretty short in 
those days. To get the ends out of the lower part of the die 
was not so bad, as a wooden plunger operated by a treadle 
knocked them out, but sometimes they were in pretty bad shape. 
When the bottoms or ends were ready they were slipped on the 
bodies, and the edge of the bottom roUed about in a pan of pow- 
dered rosin until the seam was well diisted. A piece of solder 
similar in size and preparation as used for the side seam was 
placed in the can. They were then placed on the smooth side of 
the cast-iron slabs, and the operator, with a hot soldering copper 
shaped to fit the circle of the can, melted the solder and, by turn- 
ing the can rapidly, soldered the full circumference. The output 
of this can factory was very imperfect, as at least one-half of 
the seams burst, owing to lack of experience of the manager or 
want of good judgment. 

When the can-making was well under way Mr. Hapgood then 
turned his attention to getting the apparatus for canning on 
board the house-boat. This in the cooking department consisted 
of a kettle made of boiler iron about 36 inches in diameter and 
5 feet in depth, set in a brick furnace and fired from underneath. 
Alongside was a round bottom, cast-iron pot holding about 60 gal- 
lons of water and heated in the same manner. These kettles with a 
dozen coolers or circular sheet-iron pans with ropes attached 
and with holes cut in the bottoms for drainage, a set of S-inch 
blocks and tackle, with a sheet-iron fire-pot and a scratch awl, 
completed the bathroom outfit. The can filling and soldering 
room was furnished with a table through the center, where cut- 
ting the salmon in pieces to suit and the filling of the cans was 
done. On each side of the room there was a bench running the 
full length, on the end of one of which the cans were placed to 
receive the pickle, which was used at that time instead of the 
small quantity of salt that is placed in the cans during the oper- 
ations of these later days. After the salmon had been cleaned 
by removing the entrails and washing them outside the covered 
portion of the scow, they were brought inside and placed on the 
table, and a man with a butcher knife in one hand and a stick 
in the other, which had a mark showing the length of the pieces 
desired, cut gashes in the side of the salmon as a guide, and 
then cut the fish into sections corresponding to the length of the 
mark on the stick. He then proceeded to cut the sections in 
pieces to suit the cans. Then three or four operators placed the 
salmons in the cans and shoved them along the table to where a 
boy wiped the top edge and passed them along to two others 
who placed tops which fitted inside of the rim. The cans were 
then taken in wooden trays to the bench opposite the starting point, 

57 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



which was fitted with four sheet-iron pots, and at the one nearest 
the entrance to the house on the scow a man put a soldering flux 
on the top edge, which was made bj adding zinc to muriatic acid, 
and then with a pointed soldering copper and a stick of solder 
melted the solder until a small portion could be drawn around 
the groove formed by the edge of the can and the bevel of the top. 
From there the cans were taken to the other parts of the bench, 
where two men finished soldering the head in, and then taken to 
the third man, who soldered, or, as it was called, buttoned the 
end of the seam lap. The cooking department or bathroom, as 
it was called, was separated from the filling and soltlering room 
by a partition. The cans were shoved through a hole in the 
partition. 

At this time the process was a secret. Mr. Hapgood did the 
cooking and ail the work done inside, no one but a member of the 
firm being allowed to go in. This privacy was continued until 
the firm moved to the Columbia River, and, the labor becoming 
too arduous for Mr. Hapgood to perform alone, a boy by the 
name of Charlie Taylor was taken in as an assistant. * • * 

But to return to the original proposition: When the filled 
cans had been soldered and entered the bathroom they were put 
in the coolers and lowered into the cast-iron pot, one cooler of 
cans being cooked at a time. The cooler was lowered into the 
boiling fresh water untU the cans were submerged to within one 
inch of the top ends and left to cook for one hour; then they 
were hoisted out and the vent-holes in the center of the top sol- 
dered up, after which they were dumped into the boUer-iron 
kettle, which held a solution of salt and water of density sufficient 
to produce, when boUing, a heat of 228° to 230° F. They were 
cooked in this solution for one hour and then taken out of the 
kettle with an iron scoop shaped like a dip net, with a wooden 
handle about six feet in length. They were dumped into a tank 
of water on the other side of the partition which separated the 
bathroom from the packing room through an opening in the 
partition, receiving many a bump and bruise in the operation. 
Then they were washed with soap and rag to remove the dirt 
and grease, each can being handled separately. When this was 
done they were piled on the floor of the pacWng room and in a 
few days were painted with a mixture of red lead, turpentine, 
and linseed oil, for at that time buyers would have no canned 
salmon, no matter how good the quality, unless the cans were 
painted red. 

It was George T. Myers who established the first sahnon 
cannery on Puget Sound, who perceived the opportunity and 
was willing to venture the risk and stake what he had to find 
out whether he wa^ right. The history of his career is a remark- 
able one in many ways and one which should be of great interest 
to those who are engaged in the salmon canning business. It 
cannot be taken up in detail here. If it could, it would make 
an attractive story, one that would have an episode as good and 
as strange as fiction at every turn, but it will have to suffice 
to give a brief outline, just the bare facts, in this clironicle. 

58 







25 Showing 150,000 cases of salmon 37 Millions of canned salmon la 
ready for labeling and boxing. the warehouse. 

26 Ready for the retorts. 39 Cooling room. 

28 Two Pacific Coast Specialties. 




30 Lummi Bay Packing Co. 33 Pacific American Fisheries, 

Anacortes. 

31 Manhattan, Port Angeles. 33 Apex Fish Co., Anacortes. 



Mount Veenon, N.Y. 



Salmon for the canneries are caught after leaving salt water 
but some time prior to approaching the spawning grounds. The 
supply is derived chiefly from three forms of apparatus, or gear 
as the fishermen call it, namely, the trap, purse seine and gill net. 

Traps are simply long arms of webbing stretched on piles 
and reaching channelward from shore to intercept a portion of 
the passing schools of fish. The tendency of the fish generally 
to follow always alongside something rather than to strike out 
across open water is employed to trap it. The fish follow the 
"lead" arriving finally at the "pot" on the outer extremity and 
from this they are unable to escape. 

The purse seine in the last analysis is a sort of moving trap. 
It is a long net which is cast in a circle about a school of fish 
and then drawn together at the bottom like an old-fashioned 
purse, hence the name. The nets are mounted on fast motor 
boats which are able to follow the schools and are consequently 
very eifective. 

The general principle of gill netting is too well-known to 
require detailed description. The gill nets employed by salmon 
fishermen diff^er only in length and mesh size from those com- 
monly used in other fisheries. 

Since bait is so indelibly associated with fishing, it might 
be interesting to mention that no lure of any sort is employed 
in taking salmon for the canneries, as the fish do not feed after 
entering fresh water. 

It has been estimated that there are approximately 12,000 
boats employed in salmon fishing operations on the Pacific Coast, 
having a total valuation of $35,000,000 and carrying over 
30,000 men. 

Cannery tenders, a special type of motor tugs, having fish 
carrying holds, collect sahnon from the traps and fishing vessels 
delivering them to the cannery. Here they are pitched into 
conveyors which land the fish on the floor of the fish room, where 
they are sorted according to species and fed to the "Iron Chink" 
or butchering machine. 

This device, the only one of its sort in the world, severs the 
head, tail and fins and removes the entrails, passing the fish to a 
dress crew, which thoroughly washes them, removing all traces 
of blood, etc. The fish are then laid upon small slotted plat- 

59 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



forms, carried to revolving gang knives and cut into proper 
lengths for cans of various capacity. The pieces of fish fall 
into bins from which they are fed to the magazine of machine 
fillers, where plungers operating at a high rate of speed place 
the desired amount in each can. 

In the sanitary process, now rapidly coming into general 
favor, the cans pass on chain belts from the fillers to the top- 
pers, which place a top lightly on each can. They then enter 
the exhaust box undergoing a lengthy path in live steam, the 
heat of which creates a partial vacuum in the can. On emerg- 
ing from the exhaust box, cans are fed to Ams double seamers, 
which hermetically close the tops and the containers are then 
ready for the retort. 

After being arranged in large trays piled six tiers deep on 
small cars, the cans are run into the retorts and cooked in steam. 
Following the cooking the trays are lowered into or carried 
automatically through a bath of lye-water to remove dirt and 
grease and are set out in the warehouse to cool. 

The brisk popping noise of the collapsing can tops as cool- 
ing reduces the pressure with the can is probably the sweetest 
music that a salmon packer can hear for it indicates that his 
pack is being properly processed. From this point on, the treat- 
ment is the same as in all ordinary canned foods, labelling, box- 
ing and shipping following in rapid succession. 

In the beginning the operations described above were carried 
on by hand and even at a comparatively recent date it was still 
necessary to clean fish by the slow expensive method and fill 
the cans in the same fashion. Now with the introduction of 
modern machinery and the advent of the sanitary can, human 
hands touch the fish only during the washing received after the 
fish leave the "Iron Chink," and the enterprising manufacturers 
of that device recently announced that they would soon add an 
attachment which would retire the dress gang and make the 
process absolutely automatic from the ocean to the consumer. 

Nothing better expresses the extent of the salmon canning 
industry than the plain unembeUished statistical figures of which 
fortunately there is no lack. Starting a little over half a cen- 
tury ago in a humble way with a pack of only 2,000 cases, the 
trade reached its apex last year with a pack of 8,063,4)47 cases 

60 



Mount Veenon, N.Y. 



of forty-eight pounds each. Its founders were not plungers 
and for the first two years did not increase the size of the pack. 
Three years from the inception of the industry the pack doubled. 
Three years later it had passed the 100,000-case mark and with 
a slow but steady increase reached the half million mark nine 
years later. Four years later, or in 1882, the first pack of a 
million cases was made and by 1895 it had doubled again. 
Eighteen ninety-five witnessed the first pack of 3,000,000 cases 
and four years later, in 1901, this had jumped to five million. 
Ten years afterward more than 6,000,000 cases were packed, 
and last year this record was eclipsed by 2,000,000 cases more. 

There are nearly three hundred plants located in Alaska, 
British Columbia, Washington, Oregon and California, repre- 
senting to-day a total investment of $100,000,000 and employ- 
ing directly an army of 50,000 people. 

It is estimated roundly that the coast salmon canners spent 
$50,000,000 in putting up the 1913 pack. Mere numerals 
convey but slight impression of their true significance and while 
manifestly large, the sum of $50,000,000 does not give the 
average reader an accurate idea of its immensity. It is perhaps 
more forcible when it is stated that this sum would pay the wages 
of a man working for $2.50 a day for some 4,000 centuries. 

This money was divided among two great classes. First 
those employed directly in the industry and who are dependent 
on it for support, and secondly, those who are engaged in the 
preparation and distribution of the supplies which are re- 
quired. The first class received the lion's share, $11,000,000 
being paid to those employed in the canneries, while $10,000,000, 
nearly as much, went to the men who caught the fish which filled 
the cans. 

The balance was distributed to those who furnished the 
equipment and materials necessary in the business. The manu- 
facturers of tin-plate, cans and solder received $8,000,000. The 
upkeep of machinery, the canneries' fleet of vessels and gear 
cost the cannerymen another $5,500,000. FuUy $3,000,000 
alone to those who transported the supplies and pack between 
canneries and coast centers of distribution. The box-makers of 
the coast divided $1,500,000 among themselves, while those who 
insured and warehoused the pack took $1,000,000 as their toll. 

61 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



The printers of the labels in which the 387,000,000 cans were 
wrapped earned half a million, while a similar sum was paid 
for lacquer, varnishes and paints. Fuel, light and power con- 
sumed half a million, and the wholesale grocery trade took a 
like sum for the food served in the messhouses. The sum of 
$7,500,000 went to cover taxes and general overhead represent- 
ing a multitude of expenditures for new machinery, the salaries 
of those engaged in the office and incidentals. 

An adequate conception of the quantity of some of the sup- 
plies required by the business can be gained from the fact that 
26,432,000 square inches of tin-plate went to make containers 
for last year's pack. Four hundred million labels were used to 
wrap the cans which were placed in 8,000,000 boxes fastened 
with 320,000,000 nails. 

The growth of the world market for canned salmon has 
stimulated quite an interest in the product on the other shores 
of the Pacific, the only other place where our species of salmon 
occur. Within the past few years the business has been given 
quite an impetus in Siberia and Japan which are now coming 
rapidly to the front as salmon producers. 

Naturally one of the first questions arising in the mind of 
the observer in this field is of the permanency of the business. 
How can hundreds of millions of salmon be taken from the 
waters each year and the supply be maintained? The answer 
lies in an instance in which man's ingenuity has supplemented 
the efforts of nature after her delicate balance has been dis- 
turbed. The reproductive power of salmon is remarkable, some 
female fish often carrying as many as 3,000 eggs. If it were 
not for this wise provision on nature's part the great salmon 
runs could not be maintained even in a primeval state, for nat- 
ural enemies make fearful inroads on the eggs and young fish. 
In order to overcome the toll taken in this way, nature has pro- 
vided a wide margin of productivity. 

By increasing the efficiency of nature's original processes, 
it has been possible in many cases not only to maintain the run 
in streams which were being heavily fished, but to increase it. 
At various suitable points along the spawning streams the Fed- 
eral Government, States, and salmon packing companies, have 
erected hatcheries. Here the eggs are collected, fertilized and 










34 Eskimo Children eat canned „.3f Geo. T Myers & Co. Cannery, 

hitltah Bay, Alaska. 

35 Pacific American Fisheries, Ex- 37 Alaska P<ir.Vevo' i . i t 
cursion Inlet, Alaska. ship with salmon "' ^'' " '°"*°S 










38 A stack of two million cans. 41 Northwestern Fish Co. Santa 

39 Machines clean 12,000 fish per Ann Cannery, Alaska. 

hour. 43 Ams No. 58 double seamer in 

40 G. G. Suddock. Northwest G. W. Hume, cannery, 
representative Berger & Carter Co. 



Mount Veenon, N.Y. 



developed, resulting in the saving of many eggs which would 
otherwise never have hatched. 

The efficiency of this operation has been further increased 
in recent years by introducing nursery ponds in which the young 
salmon are retained and reared until able to avoid to a large 
degree their natural enemies. In this way it is practical to 
replace year after year, by artificial propagation, the fish which 
have been taken for food owing to the superior results obtained 
by that method. 

The real menace to the salmon fisheries lies not in fishing 
operations as long as they are properly conducted, but in indus- 
trial developments along the streams in which the fish spawn. 
It was in this way that California's salmon fisheries were de- 
stroyed. Extensive mining operations, principally hydraulic, 
filled the Sacramento and its tributaries with waste products 
which killed the fish. Under regulations preventing the intro- 
duction into salmon streams of industrial waste products which 
might injure the fish, the enforcement of the commercial fishing 
laws, and reasonable attention to propagation, there is no reason 
why the business should not continue on its present scale for 
generations. 



SWELLS AND SPRINGERS 

BY 

W. D. BIGELOW 

Bacteriologist Research Laboratory 

National Canners' Association 

Washington, D. C. 



65 



SWELLS AND SPRINGERS 

by w. d. bigelow 
Chief Chemist, National Canners Association, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

The subject I have been asked to discuss this morning is one 
that would require a volume for its adequate consideration. It 
will be necessary, therefore, to confine ourselves to broad, funda- 
mental principles. It would be much easier to occupy the time 
alloted by a detailed discussion of one of the phases of the sub- 
ject. I realize, however, that the questions you have asked me 
indicate difficulties that frequently present themselves, and I 
shall cover as well as I can the outlhie suggested in your invi- 
tation to me to present this paper. This outline is as follows: 

(1) What constitutes a "sweU" or "springer"? 

(2) What are the conditions of the product or of the process which 

might be a causative agent in producing swells or springers? 

(3) Where should the line be drawn as to what class of foods coming 

into this category might be safely and properly used as food 
products? 

(a) Should canned fruits or vegetables belonging to the class of 

"sweUs" be permitted to be processed, or to be sold to be 
worked up into other products, such as the making of pie stock, 
or working up into butters, jams or marmalades? 

(b) How may such class of fruits that have been worked up into 

various by-products be detected by commissioners? 

(c) Does the presence of tin in excessive quantities denote that such 

products are made from swelled canned goods? 

In considering this problem it is necessary to bear in mind 
the two general types of cans which are now used for the pres- 
ervation of food. These are known respectively as the "hole and 
cap" can and the "open top" or "sanitary" can. 

The hole and cap can is the one whose ends are soldered and 
which is closed after the introduction of the food by soldering 
in place a cap with a vent hole, which is then tipped with solder. 

In the case of the open top can, one end is left entirely off 
until the can is filled, and then the entire end is crimped on to the 
can by rollers, tightness being assured by means of a gasket of 
some elastic or compressible material, such as rubber composition. 

A "swell" in canned foods is a can which has undergone de- 
composition by micro-organisms, accompanied by the generation 

67 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



of gas, which first releases the vacuum and then causes pressure 
in the can. This decomposition is often of putrefactive nature 
and may be rapid or slow, according to the organism and tem- 
perature. 

Swells are due either to defective sterilization, or to leaky 
cans. It is sometimes difficult to measure the heat conductivity 
of a given product. Fruit which is thoroughly ripe has a ten- 
dency to cook up more than fruit that is greener, and thus lessen 
the heat conductivity of the Uquid in the can. In the case of 
many products, such as com, the heat required to penetrate to 
the center of the can increases with the consistency of the prod- 
uct. If the processor underestimates the ripeness of a batch of 
fruit, therefore, or the consistency of a homogeneous product, 
or the amount of sugar added, swells may result. 

Owing to defects in the manufacture of the can, or in the 
plate from which the can is made, there are occasional leaks, 
sometimes so small that even when filled with air under a pressure 
of 20 or 30 pounds the air that bubbles through them when 
placed under water is in such fine particles that it is difficult to 
see. When such cans are filled with food the bacteria that pass 
through these openings cause decomposition, and when pressure 
results the openings are sometimes closed by particles of food 
and are difficult to find. 

A "springer" is a can whose ends are more or less bulged, 
owing to pressure from hydrogen generated as a result of the 
chemical action of the contents on the metal of the container, or 
because the can was overfilled or insufficiently exhausted. 

In springers where the pressure is catised by overfilling the 
can, or by insufficient exhaust, this pressure does not increase 
with time, but remains constant except as it is influenced by tem- 
perature of storage. The ends of the cans are somewhat dis- 
tended and may be easily pressed into place with the fingers. 
When the fingers are removed the ends may resume a convex 
position, or may remain concave or flat (according to the pres- 
sure within the can) until the can is jarred, and sometimes un- 
til the temperature to which it is subjected is increased. A num- 
ber of packers have put up products in the fall which appeared 
normal till the following summer, when springers developed, and 
when these were held till the cool weather of the following fall 
tlie ends resumed their normal concave position. Thus it has 



Mount Veenon, N.Y. 



frequently happened that foods packed, for instance, in New 
York, Maryland or Alaska, have been sold by packers who had 
no suspicion that they were abnormal in any way, and yet those 
that remained on the retailers' shelves the following summer, 
especially in the southern states, developed springers as a re- 
sult of increased temperature. 

Springers of this nature are found chiefly in open top cans, 
and only rarely in hole and cap cans. With the latter there is 
always sufficient head space, otherwise the soldering iron would 
heat the air space to so great an extent that it would be impossi- 
ble to seal. It so happened that the use of the open top can 
was enormously increased at just the time when there was an 
effort on the part of the Federal government, and also of the 
best canners, to secure a full can. It was immediately seen that 
it was possible to fill the open top can full. As a result a large 
amount of food was packed in the open top cans with very little 
head space, sometimes practically none. Now if such food 
were not heated to a pretty high temperature before it was 
capped, expansion naturally occurred after the product was 
shipped to a warmer climate and springers resulted. Many of 
the best firms found that a large proportion of their pack of some 
products consisted of springers immediately after canning; that 
is, the ends of the cans did not collapse on cooling, but remained 
somewhat distended. As packers become more familiar with the 
open top can and learn the amount of head space requisite and 
the necessity of a thorough exhaust, this difficulty is disappear- 
ing and springers of this nature will probably not be found to a 
large extent in the future. 

The case is somewhat different when pressure is due to hy- 
drogen generated by the action of acid fruits on the metal of 
the can. It is ordinarily taken for granted that the hydrogen 
thus generated is due to the action of the acid of the fruit on 
the tin. I think this is a mistake. I think it results, in large 
part, at least, from the action of the acid on the iron and that the 
amount of hydrogen liberated in the can is usually a measure 
rather of the iron that has been dissolved than of the tin. The 
metallic taste in a product of this nature is certainly due to dis- 
solved iron. Of course, where any great amount of iron is dis- 
solved in the product, the tin is also dissolved, but passes largely 
into an insoluble form. 

69 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



This question has been studied for several years and in sev- 
eral laboratories. Exhaustive investigations, devoted to this 
point and to the kindred question of the action of the foods on 
the container, have been conducted (involving the expenditure 
of over $25,000), and the work is now being broadened and in- 
creased. Considerable progress has been made, but the solution 
is not yet in sight. 

In this connection I wish to point out the relation of spring- 
ers to certain other difficulties of the canner. The natural acids 
of the fruits attack the container, dissolving the iron and car- 
rying tin into the food and into the liquor, where it is largely, 
often chiefly precipitated in insoluble form. This liberates hy- 
drogen, which directly causes springers. While in the nascent 
state this hydrogen bleaches many of the colored fruits. When 
lacquer is used in an attempt to prevent this action pinholes 
often result, leading to the spoilage of a considerable percentage 
of the pack, and with some products an undesirable flavor is im- 
parted by the lacquer. These difficulties all come from a common 
cause and wiU only be overcome by understanding and removing 
the cause. This statement, however, does not include the solvent 
action on the metals of the can of amino bodies in certain foods, 
such as shrimp, pumpkin and asparagus. (U. S. Dept. Agr. 
Bureau of Chem. Cir. 79.) 

According to the amount and character of the fruit acid pres- 
ent, the tin and especially the iron of the container are more or 
less attacked, the latter causing the astringency which is often 
called the "tin" taste of some canned food, and yielding spring- 
ers of the class we are now discussing. Since the action is chemi- 
cal it is influenced by time and temperature of storage. It pro- 
gresses more rapidly in summer than in winter; more rapidly in 
a hot warehouse than in one that is cold. The amount of hydro- 
gen generated depends first on the temperature and time of ster- 
ilization ; second, on the promptness and efficiency of cooling af- 
ter sterilization; third, on the time of storage (the age of the 
canned product) ; fourth, on the temperature of storage. The 
relative importance of these four factors cannot be stated. In 
some cases the amount of tin and iron dissolved and the amount 
of hydrogen generated are greater within a week after canning 
than after two or three years, if cooled promptly and handled 
reasonably well. 

70 



MoxjNT Vernon, N.Y. 



The time that elapses before springers of the type now un- 
der consideration are formed depends on the four conditions 
mentioned above, and also on the fill of the can, i. e., the amount 
of air space left, and on the vacuum in the can, or, in other 
words, the temperature of the product when the cans are sealed. 

Since the amount of hydrogen increases with time and tem- 
perature of storage, the pressure on the tin gradually increases 
until it cannot be distinguished by pressing with the hand from 
swells. Finally the pressure becomes so great that a seam is 
sprung, causing leaks and leading to infection and decomposi- 
tion. 

In distinguishing between swells and springers it is impor- 
tant to bear in mind that the former usually progress rapidly 
and the latter slowly or not at all. Swells, therefore, usually 
become hard, or even burst, before they reach the retail trade. 
In fact, it is the custom of canners to store their goods and 
permit such swells to develop as far as practicable before they 
leave the factory. After this it is usually only an occasional 
can that develops a leak and becomes infected. When a large 
percentage of a lot of canned food shows convex ends which may 
be pressed into place with the fingers, they are usually springers 
and not swells. Moreover, when decomposition has progressed 
so far that the ends begin to bulge, the odor on cutting the can 
is unmistakable, and even before that the peculiar aroma char- 
acteristic of the food is destroyed. In this cormection I msh to 
disclaim, the idea that food whose appearance, odor and taste are 
acceptable to the consumer is necessarily free from decomposi- 
tion or suitable for consumption, whether it be fresh or pre- 
served. There is a great difference, however, between decomposi- 
tion in the open and in a confined space like a sealed tin can. 
In the open, decomposition is more or less localized and its vola- 
tile products to which the characteristic odor of decomposition 
is due are largely dissipated, especially on cooking. ' In the can, 
decomposition when it occurs is much more general throughout 
the mass and these volatile products are confined and are evi- 
dent when the can is opened. A striking illustration of this is 
found in peas and corn held in the market till quite stale. They 
may be quite acceptable when prepared for the table in an open 
kettle, according to kitchen practice, and yet when canned have 
an offensive odor. 

71 



The Max Ams Machine Co, 



I feel that I am very safe in the statement that when decom- 
position has proceeded within the can to a sufficient extent to 
cause a perceptible bulging of the ends, the odor of decomposi- 
tion is evident on cutting the can, even though it may have been 
vented and resterilized. Many consumers would doubtless over- 
look this distinction in some cases just as they overlook staleness 
in market vegetables and incipient decomposition in fish and shell 
fish purchased as fresh. For the reasons given above, however, 
it is more evident than the same degree of decomposition in mar- 
ket fruits and vegetables. It should be evident to any careful 
observer and does not require the highly developed sense of taste 
and smell possessed by tasters of coff^ee and tea, and especially 
of wine. 

It must be borne in mind that, as stated above, springers 
due to overfilling or insufiicient exhaust wiU be found in the mar- 
ket less frequently as packers learn the proper fill and exhaust. 
Springers due to hydrogen are found in strongly acid foods 
and are largely confined to the more acid fruits. The non-acid 
foods that attack tin or iron rarely form springers of this class. 
The three great staples in canned foods, tomatoes, peas and com, 
neither attack the metals of the container to an appreciable ex- 
tent, nor form springers due to hydrogen. 

The third topic assigned me is: "Where should the line be 
drawn as to what class of foods coming into this category might 
safely and properly be used as food products ?" I will say with- 
out reservation that swells should not under any circumstances be 
used as foods. Sometimes, especially in the case of fruit, such 
swells are the result not of bacterial decomposition but of the 
action of yeasts, and the products are simply sour. With the 
exception of highly nitrogenous material, it is probable that tox- 
ins are not formed in such swelled goods. In my opinion, how- 
ever, it is to meet such conditions that a clause has been included 
in the Federal law, and all state laws, forbidding the sale of 
products which in whole or in part are "filthy, decomposed or 
putrid." Certainly that clause should be held to cover all foods 
which it properly describes, whatever their form and manner of 
preservation, and all canned foods which are "swells" as a re- 
sult of decomposition by micro-organisms are intended to be 
covered by this clause and should be covered by it. They should 
not be used as food or in the preparation of food. 

72 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



With springers the case is widely different. Springers due 
to overfilling or insufficient exhaust are sound and edible in all 
respects. As I have already stated, however, this type of spring- 
er will soon be almost a matter of history. With springers 
of the second type, after the action of the acid on the metal has 
proceeded to such an extent that the product cannot be distin- 
guished from a true swell, it. is my opinion that they should be 
condemned and destroyed. The strong metallic taste due to dis- 
solved iron, is commonly so pronounced in such cases as to make 
the produce unpalatable. Moreover, as I have said before, it 
cannot by outward appearance be distinguished from a swell. 

As just stated, in the case of springers due alone to over- 
filling the can or insufficient exhaust, the contents are sterile 
and sound in every way and their use as food, or for the manu- 
facture of foods, should be permitted. It is obvious that their 
sale on the market in that form is impossible and in my opinion 
it should not be possible. The bulged end, even if it can be 
readily pushed in place with the fingers, is taken by the con- 
sumer as a warning sign, indicating decomposition. It is a safe 
and reasonable sign and one which the consumer should continue 
to use. If food products of this nature are to be sold, there- 
fore, the cans must be heated, vented, resealed and again 
sterilized. 

I realize that the work of food commissioners would be simpli- 
fied if the venting of an open top can, for instance, were held 
to be prima facie evidence of decomposition. Such a practice, 
however, is not logical nor necessary in order to protect the con- 
sumer. It should not be possible, acting under the name of the 
law, to prevent or restrict the sale of food that is sound and 
wholesome, prepared under good conditions, and in every respect 
suitable for consumption. Such a decision is unjust to the manu- 
facturer and prejudicial to the public good in so far as it is un- 
economic. 

It is a recognized principle of legislation that the public 
health must be protected even though hardship to many be 
worked thereby. This principle, however, does not apply to the 
question under discussion. Danger to the public health is not 
involved. As far as I can learn, there is no evidence and no 
reason to suppose that illness is ever caused by a product of 
this nature. 

73 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



When a can of food has undergone decomposition by micro- 
organisms to such an extent as to cause the slightest bulging of 
the ends, it is practically impossible for it to be reprocessed in 
such a manner that the decomposition will not be betrayed to a 
careful observer by the odor. By reprocessing I refer, in this 
connection, merely to venting and resterihzing in the can, and not 
to cooking in an open kettle with or without added sugar and 
flavor in the preparation of other products. 

Again, it may be found advisable to vent all cans used for 
ce]~tain products, such as meat, fish and shellfish. It has always 
been customary in packing salmon in hole and cap cans to close 
the vent in the middle of the cap immediately after sealing, heat 
in the process retort, revent to allow the air to escape, close the 
second vent and sterilize. Since the advent of the open top can 
without vent holes, I am told by my associate, Dr. Bitting, that 
the product may be somewhat inferior. It appears that by the 
second venting of the cap of the old can, there are expelled not 
only air but also gases caused by heating the fish and whose re- 
tention in the absence of vent holes gives the product a stale odor 
and flavor. By interrupting the process and venting the open 
top cans this can be avoided, as in the hole and cap can. Recent 
experiments conducted by Dr. Bitting with crabs gave the same 
results. It is believed that this diflSculty has been practically 
overcome by using two sealing machines. With the first one the 
cover is loosely crimped on the can, which is then given a thor- 
ough exhaust and sealed while hot in the second machine. At 
the same time it is possible that with some products the high- 
est degree of excellence cannot be secured even with the open 
top can without venting after a preliminary heating in the 
process retort. 

I regret that the subject assigned me includes one question 
which I cannot answer: 

"How may such class of fruits that have been worked up into 
various by-products be detected by commissioners?" 

If this practice were extensive I would suggest that it might 
be handled by factory inspection, but conducted as I am in- 
formed it is, in a small way, irregularly and only by men who 
have no connection with any legitimate industry, the inspection 
of the factories where such by-products are made appears to be 
out of the question. 

74 



Mount Veenon, N.Y. 



Of course, it is obvious that swells in an advanced state of 
decomposition cannot be used in the preparation of any food 
whatever. There is no doubt but the great majority of so- 
called swells which are used in the preparation of products of 
this nature are not really swells in the sense of having been 
caused by decomposition, but owe their distension to hydrogen 
gas formed by the action of the fruit acids on the metal of the 
container. 

At the same time the situation is different from that found in 
reprocessing foods in the can. In the case of certain fruit 
products which have begun to swell, even as a result of decom- 
position, it is probably sometimes possible, by boiling the prod- 
uct in an open kettle, to eliminate the odor of decomposition to 
such an extent that it is masked to the ordinary taste and smell by 
the addition of the sugar and flavors. This practice is most re- 
prehensible and all possible effort should be made to stop it. 
Its detection, however, in the finished product, is attended by 
considerable difliculty. Probably the best method is by means of 
the microscope. Even if the decomposition has not proceeded to 
an advanced degree, when it has occurred in enclosed space such 
as a sealed tin can it is found to be quite general and the his- 
tology of the product is changed. Unfortunately, this method 
can only be employed by analysts with long training and ex- 
perience in structural botany and there are very few analysts in 
the country who are competent to undertake the study of the 
question. It is hoped that in the near future more attention will 
be given to this line of work. Chemical methods have not been 
thoroughly worked out and I do not know that they are possi- 
ble, though undoubtedly progress can be made in this field. The 
determination of the character and amount of acid in fruit prod- 
ucts is often of value. In this manner a clue to decomposition can 
sometimes be obtained by the fact that the normal acid of the 
fruit in question is not present in proper amount. Lactic acid, 
which usually accompanies decomposition in tomatoes, is not ordi- 
narily found in the decomposition of fruits. It would be strange, 
however, if the application of bio-chemistry to the problem did 
not disclose some by-products of the life of micro-organisms that 
might be considered suflicient evidence of decomposition. The at- 
tention that has been paid to the detection of decomposition in 
food is not at aU commensurate with our needs. The situation 

75 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



calls for work of a different type from any that has been largely 
utilized in detecting food adulteration. Such methods are need- 
ed, however, not for the examination of products of the type 
mentioned, but, broadly speaking, for the detection of decom- 
position in food, whether fresh or preserved, and whatever the 
manner of its preservation. 

Perhaps the most striking feature of the packing of foods in 
recent years is the progress that has been made in the cleanli- 
ness and sanitation of factories and in washing the raw products 
and hand-sorting and trimming to exclude from the finished 
product rot and decay, which, when we come to think of it, is 
decomposed matter and just as objectionable as that found in a 
swelled can. Notwithstanding this progress, however, the amount 
of such decomposed matter that reaches our tables in our foods, 
both fresh and manufactured, is still so great that the amount of 
decomposition introduced into pie filling, jams and fruit butters 
in the form of blown cans dwindles into insignificance. I do not 
depreciate the gravity of the latter practice, hut wish to empha- 
size the fact that to give it serious consideration before a more 
determined effort is made to insure a more satisfactory sanitary 
condition in food factories of all Tcmds is like "straining at a gnat 
and swallowing a camel." 

The final question asked me is : 

"Does the presence of tin in excessive quantities denote that 
such products are made from swelled canned foods?" 

Most emphatically it does not. Of course, the decomposition 
that causes the swelling of canned fruits increases their acid 
content and hence their action on the tin and iron. At the same 
time, some products which are badly decomposed, even though the 
pressure has become so great that the can has burst, are not as 
acid and do not attack the metals of the container as badly as 
other products which are entirely fresh and sterile. Probably 
an excessive amount of tin or iron in pie stock, butters, jams 
and similar materials, may indicate that the product has been 
made from canned material which has attacked the metal of the 
container to such an extent that it could not be sold as canned 
food, whether decomposed or not. In the absence of evidence 
of decomposition probably it may be held that in working over 
such products in this manner their inferiority is concealed and 
for that reason their sale is illegal. 

76 



Mount Vkrnon, N.Y. 



The charge of selling food containing "filthy, decomposed or 
putrid" material is a very serious one and its full meaning should 
be preserved. This can only be done by limiting the application 
of that term to products whose decomposition can be demon- 
strated. 

The presence of tin is obviously not an indication of decom- 
position and to hold it prima facie evidence of decomposition is 
unnecessary as a precaution and would weaken the law and lessen 
the sense of fairness and justice so necessary to its proper en- 
forcement. 

DISCUSSION* 

Commissioner Caspari, of Maryland: I would like to ask 
Dr. Bigelow a question. We have had very recently a large lot 
of blueberries brought in which the packer claimed were spring- 
ers; and they were apparently so, but upon opening them we 
found there was a continuous escapement of gas in small quan- 
tities near the center of the can and there was no disagreeable 
odor there, but we found that the amount of tin taken up by the 
fruit was quite excessive, decidedly above that laid down by the 
government as permissible, which is, I believe, 300 milligrams. 
These show between five and six hundred milligrams. The packer 
claimed these goods were in a sound condition and asked permis- 
sion to work them over. It occurred to me that a condition of 
that kind, even if it comes under the head of a springer, is 
hardly permissible, and I would like to ask Dr. Bigelow what he 
thinks when springers show evidences of gas disengagement in the 
center of the can and where the amount of tin taken up by the 
fruit is quite considerable. Would Dr. Bigelow consider that 
fit for subsequent use? 

Dr. Bigelow : As a rule bubbles of gas throughout the mass 
indicate bacteriological decomposition, and if so, the product 
should be condemned; but in such a case you can always get 
additional evidence. In swells the microscope will reveal bac- 
teria or yeasts. You can determine whether the bacteria are 
there and alive and acting. If yeasts are present you can detect 
alcohol. In a product of that sort the proof of decomposition is 
not a difficult matter by the methods we have now at our dis- 

*To accentuate important points some of tlie discussion, not germane, has been 
omitted. 

77 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



posal. I would go farther and get this confirmatory evidence. 

Now as to the amount of tin present, that is a subject I 
don't know as much about as I thought I did awhile ago. We 
find that the major part of tin is insoluble and I am more con- 
cerned now about the iron in a can of food than the tin. 

Dr. Caspari: On the face of it, then, you would hardly 
consider the cans suitable for condemnation on account of the 
tin content.? 

Dr. Bigelow: I don't know. But in my mind it reaches 
that point when the amount of iron dissolved becomes such as to 
be evident to the taste and to impair the quaUty of the food — 
then I feel that it is certainly no longer suitable for sale. 

Dr. Caspari: The claim has been made frequently with us 
by canners that under such conditions as I have named they 
should be allowed to retain the goods and use them over again 
for other purposes, and I have held that that was not proper, 
but I should be very glad to change my opinion on the basis of 
better knowledge on the subject from experts like yourself. 

Dr. Bigelow: When decomposed, the food should be de- 
stroyed. I feel that very strongly ; but I also think that a great 
many mistakes have been made in regard to decomposition. I 
regard that as a very serious charge and for that reason action 
should be taken all the more carefully. We should be very 
careful not to bring that charge when it is not true — is not 
justified by the facts. 

Dr. Caspari: It was argued in my office some time ago 
that a springer was an incipient swell, that it was a baby form 
of the second condition. Do you hold that opinion? 

Dr. Bigelow: No, that is not true. The reverse is true, 
that every swell has gone through the stage of being a springer. 
But swells develop very rapidly, and the most of them develop 
within two or three weeks after canning, so that if you find 
after the goods have been shipped that a considerable propor- 
tion of the shipment is springers you can know that if such a 
large percentage were going to be swells they would have de- 
veloped already. I would examine those springers very care- 
fully then. But where you find that goods have been shipped 
— ^have been manufactured long enough to have been shipped 
out — and contain a great many springers you will usually find 
them to be sterile. 

78 



MoxjNT Vernon, N.Y. 



Now, in a sweet-potato cannery in Dr. Caspari's state, last 
fall, I asked the manager if he had much trouble with spring- 
ers. No, he said he had had trouble with only one shipment. 
He sold one shipment the spring before in Baltimore and instead 
of sending the goods into consumption there, the firm he sold 
them to had sent them to Texas and the consignee there had 
refused to accept them and sent them back, and they all came 
back springers. He said he would go and get some of them 
and show them to me. He was gone about half an hour. It 
was rather a cold day and there had been a frost the night be- 
fore. I waited around and finally he came back and said, "I 
can't find a springer in the lot and they were all springers when 
they came back last summer." Here was a lot that was normal 
when shipped, became springers in the summer and was again 
normal when I saw it in October. 

Dr. Caspari: Would you place any value at all upon the 
chemical examination of canned tomatoes? 

Dr. Bigelow: In canned tomatoes I think a decrease in 
citric acid would indicate decomposition, but I have seen very 
few cases of canned tomatoes that show decomposition. Toma- 
toes do not act much on the metal. Consequently the only class 
of springers we have to deal with in tomatoes are those due to 
overfilling and I have not seen many of them. 

Dr. Caspari : We have found in a few cases that the citric 
acid content has fallen to below that quantity which is normal 
where the lactic acid has gone to .6 per cent. 

Dr. Bigelow: That indicates decomposition in tomato 
pulp. 

Commissioner Crumbine, of Kansas : Dr. Bigelow has said 
that the presence of excessive tin in products made from canned 
goods does not necessarily indicate decomposition. I would 
like to ask a question about that, and it is this: Is it commer- 
cially profitable or is it customary to make jams and marma- 
lades and other related products of that kind from canned goods, 
and if it is customary or commercially profitable to make these 
articles from canned goods, when such products show excessive 
tin, and are put up in glass, isn't that evidence of something 
rotten in Denmark.'' 

Dr. BiGEiiOw : I think in such a case the presence of tin is 
probably an indication that canned food has been used for that 

79 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



purpose which could not have been sold as canned food. It is 
not complete evidence of that fact, but is an indication of it. I 
would not say decomposed food had been used, because there 
is a great deal more fruit in bulged cans due to the generation 
of hydrogen because of the action of the fruit on the metal than 
is due to decomposition; but I think even such products used 
for jams, pie fillings, etc., should be condemned. I think they 
are largely springers, or if they appear to be swells because the 
top of the can is "hard" instead of being so "soft" you can 
push it back with the fingers, even that distension of the ends 
of the can is due to the action of the acid in the fruit on the 
container. I do not argue that they ought to be used as food. 
The consumer will refuse to buy such cans and they become un- 
merchantable in that form. The flavor would sometimes be ruined 
by the iron taste and it ought not to be possible for a manufac- 
turer of by-products to take a product that is in such form that 
he can't sell it as such and conceal its inferiority and sell it in 
another form, such as jam. 

Dr. Caspaki: He oughtn't to work it up into another 
product. 

Dr. BiGEiiOw: And I think the clause of the law "which 
conceals damage or inferiority" is violated by that practice, pro- 
vided the product is one which could not be sold in its normal 
form. I think it can be reached under that clause. 

I would not say it would not be economical to make over any 
canned food. In the last year we have seen so much canned 
food sold below cost of manufacture that you can conceive of 
foods canned in a season of great plenty being sold at such a 
low price that, the season following, it might be economical to 
use them instead of fresh fruits. So I would not want to say 
that a canned food which was normal could not be used in the 
manufacture of the products mentioned. But I would regard 
the presence of tin as very suspicious, and when present in large 
amount, it would probably bring the product under the clause 
mentioned in the law. The use of decomposed food is a serious 
matter and we ought not to minimize its danger, but, more than 
that, the charge that a product is decomposed ought to be re- 
stricted to cases where we are sure that the product is decom- 
posed. 

80 



Mount Vernon, N.Y, 



Me. Taylok, of Louisiana: Do you find that when canned 
goods are punctured and give off a bad odor and taste, they are 
decomposed? Do you think any further examination would be 
necessary ? 

Dk. Bigelow : I don't think so, but we have to be Careful 
how we judge. 

Mk. Taylok: We had a case in Louisiana just before I 
came away. We seized a case of canned goods and the odor was 
bad. We had the regular hearing, sent out notices and so on, 
and the attorney for the defense came in at the hearing and 
complained that the examination was entirely incompetent be- 
cause we had not made a chemical and bacteriological exam- 
ination. We are going to court on that very su^jject and the 
fact is, the attorney had his expert's report there which stated 
that the goods were apparently not injurious to health. It 
did not say they were not decomposed, however. We are going 
to court on that question, because we have all the authorities, 
including Dr. Bigelow, with us. 

De. Bigelow: I would be very glad to see my paper used 
in such a case. 

De. Ceumbine : What becomes of swells the retailer finds on 
his shelves and sends back to the wholesaler.'' Are they sent in 
to the factories to be worked over? Should they ever leave the 
state? The Commissioner might not know anything of this. 
Would the wholesaler favor a law to give jurisdiction to the 
Commissioner in the state in which those swells were found, 
so that the wholesaler would not be obliged to give credit for 
returns to the retailer for claims on these goods unless on the 
certification of the Commissioner? It is a plan for the purpose 
of having a food commissioner know what is going on, and to 
enable him to keep an eye on the disposition of such goods. 

De. Bigelow: That is a thought that had not occurred 
to me. But this suggestion by Dr. Crumbine brings up one 
of the greatest difficulties the canners have to contend with. 
They protect their customers by a guaranty that they will 
reimburse them for all swells that occur within a certain time 
after the sale is made. Now it very often happens that the 
swells on older goods are returned to the canners, and they 
have to take them, too. Very often they do accept older 
goods than the guaranty covered. The retailers send them 

81 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



back even after they have kept them on their shelves for a very 
long period of time. 

Now the question comes, why do the canners want these goods 
back? Why do they pay freight on them clear back to the 
factory — a long distance sometimes. We immediately suspect 
that they want to make some illegal use of the product. But I 
have been in several canneries when such a shipment came back 
and I must admit that I was very much surprised at what I 
saw. 

As a usual thing (I think I may safely say in the majority 
of cases) the shipment does not consist of swells, but of cans 
that are perfectly normal except that the label is soiled or 
discolored. Sometimes they are not the goods of the packer to 
whom they are sent at aU. Sometimes they are a different 
product altogether from what he puts out. The dealer makes a 
claim for reimbursement on tomatoes, perhaps, but the cans 
returned are peas, sent back to a man who never packed peas, 
and the cans are labeled "Peas." 

The reason for mistakes of this character is that this work 
of sorting out swells is put on the cheapest sort of labor they 
have. The result is, the packer is oftentimes called upon to 
reimburse a dealer for sweUs in a shipment of goods he never 
made at all, goods put out by somebody else, and it is even said 
that several canners are called upon to reimburse a dealer for 
the same goods and probably for goods that are not spoilt at all. 

Now I anticipated that this question would probably be 
asked me and I put in my pocket the other day copies I had 
made of two letters that came into the office on this very point. 
They are from a firm in Maryland, well known by Dr. Caspari 
as one of the best firms of his state, and I would like to read 
one letter to show the character of the firm and the other 
letter to show their experience with matters of this very kind. 

July 3, 1914. 
National Canners Association, Washington, D.C. 

Gentlemen: We are sending you to-day by Parcel Post 
four samples of goods. Will you not kindly make an examina- 
tion of these four tins and advise us whether or not they are safe 
to be eaten? Of course we know this corn looks very badly 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



and we were going to throw it away, but if there is nothing 
deleterious to health in them we thought it might be a better 
plan to give them to some institution for the poor, but before 
doing so want to be sure that there would be no chance of 
their being hurt by the goods. We have had several samples 
examined once or twice before by chemists and they report 
them all right, but we want to again assure ourselves before giv- 
ing them to the institution we have in mind. 

Thanking you in advance for this courtesy, beg to remain. 

Yours very truly, 



July 7, 1914. 

Mr. Frank E. Gorrell, Secy., National Camner^ Asso., Waish- 
mgton, D.C. 

Dear Mr. Gorrell : I do not know whether or not we are 
the only people troubled with the question of swells and the 
method of examining them, but I am free to admit that we 
have a good deal of trouble along these lines. 

Our swell claims are, of course, not of any excessive cash 
value, as we pack only beans, peas and com, none of which as 
far as I am informed run a very high amount of spoilage, but on 
the other hand we have all kinds of trouble with people returning 
us goods as swells, which are as good as the day we shipped 
them out except for needing a new label and a little cleaning up, 
which condition is usually produced by bad storage facilities. 

I would like to know if the National Canners Asso. has ever 
taken any action along these lines and whether their Publicity 
Bureau has looked into the matter of trying to help the canners 
in making a demand for better conditions, a trade demand and 
not an individual complaint. I recall very clearly a splendid 
article written by a Baltimore canner and published in the 
Canners' Magazine which took in all of these points. 

To show you the way these things are done, last year we 
had one lot of seven cases shipped back to us reported as swells. 
The commodity was corn. Out of the seven cases there were 
six cases perfectly good, needing a new label and a little care 
to put them into perfectly salable condition ; 3 dented cans, and 

83 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



21 tins swells or leaks. This percentage holds good in a number 
of claims which we have had a chance to examine and, as all 
other concerns, we ship goods to such distant points that some- 
times it does not pay to have them returned. We know that 
the larger percentage of our so-called swell bUls are illegitimate 
claims. Further than this, the merchants as a rule deduct the 
freight from all of their shipping points to the home house in 
case these goods are requested to be centralized. 

Any assistance I could give you along these lines would cer- 
tainly be gladly rendered and we would like to know the status 
or the canners' stand on this subject. 

Sincerely yours, 



Now one thing more: The cans are often sold under con- 
tract, which permits two cans in every thousand of each size 
to be defective. If a larger number than this are defective, the 
contract requires the can manufacturer to reimburse the can- 
ner, not only for the value of the cans, but also for the 
value of the food they contain — that is, "factory cost." This 
sometimes amounts to a great deal, but the packer cannot make 
a claim unless he has the cans and can demonstrate that the 
trouble was due to defective cans. It becomes, therefore, a 
matter of great importance to the packer that swells be re- 
turned to him. 

The canners would certainly welcome any plan that would 
save them this freight if it could be arranged and have the de- 
mands made for reimbursement handled properly. I am sure 
they would be very much interested in any plan that might be 
suggested for that. 

If it is practicable to have aU. returns of that kind approved 
by the Food Commissioner in the State in which the swells are 
found, I don't see myself why it should not be done. I should 
think it might handicap the matter if inspections were slow — 
if the inspector was slow in coming around to attend to the 
matter — ^because in some cases decomposition proceeds very 
rapidly and then the grocer doesn't want to hold them long 
because they become annoying. But all details of that kind 
could be worked out, I suppose. 

84 



Mount Vernon, N.Y, 



Commissioner Feaey, of South Dakota: Concerning this 
same trouble I corresponded with some packers as to a plan of 
procedure, as to whether it would be satisfactory to take up 
swells and open the cans and destroy the goods and send the 
labels to the jobber. The jobbers were unanimously opposed 
to that plan of procedure. They said they had to have the 
goods intact shipped back. I went over that correspondence, 
and as a result of the opinions they seemed to hold in the 
matter, I did not adopt that plan. I had rubber stamps made, 
reading "Condemned" in large letters, and then, underneath, 
"This food must not be used after (giving the date) in South 
Dakota," and signed. We stamped that on every swell we 
came across, and it has worked out very satisfactorily. The 
retailer holds those goods and gets credit for them if he can — 
but I think the real benefit of this lesson is the education of 
the retailer against overloading his stock. It is a shame the 
way they do that. We get in enough stuff to last four years. 
The retailer likes to keep his shelves full; and he takes goods 
off the front layer as he sells them, and when he gets new goods 
just puts them in the front and shoves the old ones back, and 
as a consequence you always find the swells back against the 
walls. And that whole thing originates through the fault of 
the grocery salesman from the canner or jobber because he 
wants to send in large orders and get his commission, and I 
believe the solution of the whole difficulty lies largely in the 
education of the retailer to practice more care in buying and not 
to Overload beyond what he knows he will need. 

Dr. Bigelow : In regard to that rubber stamp, Dr. Frary, 
were your inspectors careful to put that only on goods which 
actually were swells, and not to put it on cans because they had 
discolored labels and looked old .'' 

Commissioner Frary: Yes, they were careful what they 
put it on. 

Dr. Bigelow : That would prevent the great difficulty com- 
plained of in this letter I just read. 

Commissioner Frary: Yes, and your canner had this 
trouble from jobbers who sent back goods that did not come 
from that canner. This would be only human nature, though, 
I suppose. I would like to tell you about an instance of that 

85 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



kind I happen to know about. I received several letters from 
one of the jobbers complaining to me that he had lost money 
because he had received returns of shoe-pohsh and plug tobacco, 
and I wrote back and told him that I had considerable difficulty 
in securing good inspectors and he must overlook a few mistakes 
caused probably by a desire on the part of the retailer to 
get a Httle out of it. But we don't condemn goods on account 
of a stained label. That doesn't harm the goods any, except 
perhaps in the eye of the purchaser. 

Now in the case Dr. Caspari spoke of, is it not possible that 
some of that gas he spoke of finding is dissolved from the 
hydrogen under pressure? 

Dr. BiGEiiOw: Probably not if the mass has a foamy ap- 
pearance throughout. 

Commissioner Frary: The difficulty we have met with is 
to tell which is which from the outside. The question which 
occurs to me is why berries cause so much trouble — is it the 
acidity or the seeds or what.? 

Dr. Bigelow : I don't think the seeds have anything to do 
with it. Of course some fruits are more strongly acid than 
others. Blueberries grown in some sections of the country are 
very acid, and there are sour cherries, and some plmns attack 
the metal a great deal more than others. Fruits are different 
in the same localities at different times. This is a matter you 
cannot determine entirely by the variety of the fruit. I know 
of one firm in New York that has two canneries fifteen or twenty 
miles apart. In one plant they have had a great deal of 
trouble from pinholing. At the other factory they have had 
no trouble at all. They don't know what causes it ; there is no 
difference in the process. There is something there we don't 
understand about the action of the fruit on the metal. It may 
be that the acidity is higher in one place than the other. We 
don't know. 

Me. Frick, of Tennessee: I would like to ask if the in- 
spector is justified in condemning all swells. Are you able to 
tell whether the stuff is fit for food or not? 

Dr. Bigelow: I think that a swell caused by decomposition 
should always be condemned. Certainly a springer, where caused 
by the action of the contents on the metal, which has gone so 

86 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



far it may be confused with a hard swell, should be condemned. 
I think there is no question of that. With regard to other 
springers, that have not gone that far, I should cut the cans 
and judge of them then. I think there is no difficulty in teUing 
their condition by the odor, for trained men, that is. Even 
when such goods would be accepted by many consumers, they 
can be distinguished by an observant inspector. There is no 
difficulty in his telling whether it is decomposed or not. 

Mr. FaicK : I understand there is no diflFerence. 

De. Bigelow: Now in the case of jams, pie-fiUing, etc., 
manufactured from material that has begun to decompose on 
the market and is no longer salable as fresh food, if that food 
is worked up into a by-product in such a way that the decom- 
position is concealed I would take the same objection to it as 
if it were a swell. 

Ma. Toiman: Is it a wise matter to allow manufacturers 
to reprocess springers, then? Can you do it with any safety 
at all.? 

Dk. Bigelow: The idea of the question is that the manu- 
facturer may be influenced by liis interests and reprocess goods 
that are beginning to decompose? I would say there is just the 
same possibility of that as when he puts up his goods fresh. 
There is a difference in the degree of trimming and sorting at 
different factories when goods of that kind are prepared from 
fresh goods, and the manufacturer who wiU use rotten material 
in his fresh raw product wiU probably do the same thing if 
he is working over cans which were springers. 

Me. Tolman: The point is, can you tell? 

De. Bigelow : I think you can, yes. I think there is no diffi- 
culty in doing that. A man who has made a study of these 
goods, like a superintendent of the canning establishment or a 
buyer, is very competent to handle them — or an inspector who 
has had experience in this matter and given it attention. 

The Peesident : It is getting late and we must be getting 
on with our program. 

CoMMissiONEE Feaey : Well, this is one of the most im- 
portant questions we have before us, I believe. I would like to 
ask Dr. Bigelow if in the case of a vegetable or any food prod- 
uct, a swell should also be condemned. 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



De. Bigelow: Yes, I think a swell should always be con- 
demned. I would condemn it on general principles. 

CoMMissiONEE Frary : Anything that approaches a hard 
swell in the case of vegetables.'' 

Dr. Bigelow: I should condemn them whether they were 
vegetables or fruits, but I would not call them decomposed unless 
I had positive evidence that they were decomposed. There is no 
question but that the odor is very pronounced if decomposition 
has occurred in the can. 



88 



LEGAL MATTERS FOR THE CANNERS 



89 



Central District 
Chicago Lab'r't'ry 

St. Paul 

St. Louis " 

Cincinnati " 

New Orleans " 



Western District 
San Francisco Lab'r't'ry 
Seattle 

Denver " 

Honolulu " 



REORGANIZATION OF FOOD AND DRUG 

INSPECTION WORK, BUREAU OF 

CHEMISTRY. 

The food and drug inspection work of the Bureau of Chem- 
istry has been reorganized by dividing the country into three 
districts — Eastern, Central, and Western. The branch labora- 
tories of the bureau have been divided among these districts as 
f oUows : 

Eastern District 
Washington Lab'r't'ry 
New York 
Boston 
Philadelphia 
Buffalo 
Savannah 
San Juan 

The dividing line between the Eastern and Central Districts 
runs along western boundaries of Pennsylvania and West Vir- 
ginia and follows State lines south, including Georgia and Flori- 
da in the Eastern District. The dividing line between the Central 
and Western Districts runs south on the State lines, following the 
eastern boundary of Montana, including the whole of Colorado 
in the Western District and the whole of Texas in the Central 
District. 

The laboratories at Pittsburgh, Kansas City, Nashville, Oma- 
ha and Portland, Ore., were closed about April first. 

Mr. W. G. Campbell, formerly chief inpector of the bureau, 
has been appointed chief of the Eastern District, with head- 
quarters at Washington, D.C. 

Mr. L. M. Tolman, formerly chief of the Food Inspection 
Division of the bureau, has been appointed chief of the Central 
District, with headquarters in Chicago. 

Mr. B. R. Hart, formerly chief of the Cincinnati laboratory, 
has been appointed chief of the Western District, with headquar- 
ters in San Francisco. 

The district chiefs will have general supervision over all em- 
ployees and all work in connection with the enforcement of the 
Food and Drugs Act in their respective territories, subject to the 
approval of the chief of the bureau. 

The reorganization became effective on the first of March, 
1914!. 

91 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



INSTRUCTIONS TO FOOD AND DRUG INSPECTORS REGARDING 
MEAT INSPECTION. 

(Letter based on the report of a joint committee, representing the 
Bureau of Animal Industry and the Bureau of Chemistry, appointed 
to devise plans for cooperation in meat inspection. These instructions 
have been approved by the chiefs of the bureaus.) 

Since the abrogation of Regulation 39, as announced in F.I.D. No. 
151, it becomes the duty of food and drug inspectors to include meat 
and meat food products in those classes of foods and drugs over 
which they have been required heretofore to maintain supervision 
under the law. 

The principal, if not the exclusive charge for prosecutions against 
the sale and shipment of meat, will be under paragraph 6 of section 
7 of the act, which states that an article shall be deemed to be adul- 
terated, "if it consists in whole or in part of a filthy, decomposed, or 
putrid animal vegetable substance, or any portion of an animal unfit 
for food, whether manufactured or not, or if it is the product of a 
diseased animal, or one that has died otherwise than by slaughter." 

The application of this law to meat and meat food products wUl be 
effected by cooperation between the Bureau of Animal Industry and 
the Bureau of Chemistry. Such cooperative work may be classified 
under two general heads: 

(1) Those cases where evidence of sale and interstate delivery is 
obtained by food and drug inspectors and examination of the product 
made by B. A. I. inspectors. 

(3) Those cases where both the evidence of sale and shipment and 
the examination are made by officials of the Bureau of Animal Indus- 
try. It is anticipated that most of the prosecutions will be brought 
under the first classification, permitting thereby to employees of both 
bureaus the performance of those duties only with which tiiey are now 
familiar. 

Upon locating shipments which appear to be violative of the Food 
and Drugs Act, arrange at once for the delivery of samples to the 
nearest B. A. I. official in charge. 

The character of the shipment and its location may frequently make 
it practicable and advisable to have the entire consignment rather than 
a sample inspected. The judgment of the B. A. I. officer will deter- 
mine this. A written report of the examination will he submitted to 
you and it should specify in what particular the product is in violation 
of the above-quoted paragraph; that is, in what manner "filthy," to 
what extent "decomposed," and in what respect "unfit for food," or to 
use the terms of the Meat-Inspection Act, "unsound," "unhealthful," 
"unwholesome," or "otherwise unfit for food." 

Should the examination indicate a violation of the law, reports 
should be made in the following manner: 

(1) Seizure action under section 10: Transmit immediately, in ac- 
cord with general instructions, all facts relative to quantity, sMpment, 
etc., together with a verbatim report of the examination of the sample 
by the B. A. I. official. 

(2) Criminal action under section 2: In this case the coUeeKon of a 
sample is imperative. It should be delivered direct to the official 
making examination or otherwise should be properly sealed and de- 
livered to the officer in charge, who may then refer it to a subordinate. 
This sample after examination should be returned to you when the writ- 
ten report is submitted and should be properly sealed in glass jars or 
other suitable containers and delivered to the laboratory to which you 
are submitting samples at that time. All reports required under pres- 
ent instructions in such cases should be submitted by you and the re- 
port of the B. A. I. official in charge or a copy thereof should be in- 

9S 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



eluded with your collection report. The description of sample slip, 
which is delivered to the laboratory receiving the sample, should bear a 
notation setting forth the circumstances under which collection was 
made, the nature of examination and results thereof. 

If the report of the B. A. I. official shows the product not to be 
adulterated it will be sufficient to transmit such report with the in- 
formation and records required of unofficial samples only. In such 
instances delivery of samples to the laboratory may be omitted unless 
supplemental or additional examination be deemed necessary. 

Subhead 2 of the general classification refers to those cases which 
are prepared exclusively by inspectors of the Bureau of Animal In- 
dustry. On account of the small number of food and drug inspectors 
it will not be possible always for officials of the Bureau of Animal 
Industry to communicate readily with them, looking to appropriate in- 
vestigations of questionable shipments which may have been brought 
to the attention of the B. A. I. inspectors. The latter will be ac- 
quainted fuUy with the character of instructions issued to food and 
drug inspectors. If you receive at any time requests from employees 
of the Bureau of Animal Industry to assist in the completion of some 
investigation which they have undertaken with a view to bringing prose- 
cutions independently under the Food and Drugs Act, cooperate with 
them in every way practicable, giving them the benefit of your knowl- 
edge and experience in such work. 

A. STENGEL, Acting Chief Inspector. 

FOOD INSPECTION DECISION NO. 153. 

Amendment to Regulation 9, Relating to Guaranties by Whole- 
salers, Jobbers, Manufacturers, and Other Parties Residing 

in the United States to Protect Dealers from Prosecution. 

Regulation 9 of the Rules and Regulations for the Enforce- 
ment of the Food and Drugs Act, June SO, 1906 (34 Statute, 
page 768) is hereby amended, effective May 1, 1915, so as to 
read as follows: 

Regulation 9, Guaranty. 
(Section 9.) 
(a) It having been determined that the legends "Guaran- 
teed under the Food and Drugs Act, June 30, 1906" and "Guar- 
anteed by (name of guarantor), under the Food and Drugs Act, 
June 30, 1906," borne on the labels or packages of food and 
drugs, accompanied by serial numbers given by the Secretary of 
Agriculture, are each misleading and deceptive, in that the pub- 
lic is induced by such legends and serial numbers to believe that 
the articles to which they relate have been examined and approved 
by the Government and that the Government guarantees that 
they comply with the law, the use of either legend, or any simi- 
lar legend, on labels or packages should be discontinued. Inas- 

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much as the acceptance by the Secretary of Agriculture for filing 
of the guaranties of manufacturers and dealers and the giving by 
him of serial nmnbers thereto contribute to the deceptive charac- 
ter of legends on labels and packages, no guaranty in any form 
shall hereafter be filed with and no serial number shall hereafter 
be given to any guaranty by the Secretary of Agriculture. All 
guaranties now on file with the Secretary of Agriculture shall be 
stricken from the files and the serial numbers assigned to such 
guaranties shall be canceled. 

(b) The use on the label or package of any food or drug of 
any serial number required to be canceled by paragraph (a) of 
this regulation is prohibited. 

(c) Any wholesaler, manufacturer, jobber, or other party re- 
siding in the United States may furnish to any dealer to whom 
he seUs any article of food or drug a guaranty that such article 
is not adulterated or misbranded within the meaning of the Food 
and Drugs Act, June SO, 1906, as amended. 

(d) Each guaranty to afi'ord protection shall be signed by, 
and shall contain the name and address of, the wholesaler, manu- 
facturer, jobber, dealer, or other party residing in the United 
States making the sale of the article or articles covered by it to 
the dealer, and shall be to the effect that such article or articles 
are not adulterated or misbranded within the meaning of the Fed- 
eral Food and Drugs Act. 

(e) Each guaranty in respect to any article or articles should 
be incorporated in or attached to the bill of sale, invoice, bill of 
lading, or other schedule, giving the names and quantities of 
the articles sold, and should not appear on the labels or packages. 

(f) No dealer in food or drug products wiU be liable to 
prosecution if he can establish that the articles were sold under a 
guaranty given in compliance with this regulation. 

W. G. McAdoo, 

Secretary of the Treasury. 
D. F. Houston, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 
Wm. C. Redfield, 

Secretary of Commerce. 
Washington, D.C., May 5, 1914. 

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FOOD INSPECTION DECISION NO. 154.. 

Regulation of marking the quantity of food in package form. 

Under section 3 of the Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 
1906 (34 United States Statutes at Large, pages 768 to 772), 
as amended by the act of March 3, 1913, entitled "An act to 
amend section eight of an act entitled 'An act for preventing the 
manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated or misbranded 
or poisonous or deleterious foods, drugs, medicines, and liquors, 
and for regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes, ap- 
proved June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and six' " (37 United 
States Statutes at Large, Page 732), Regulation 29 of the Rules 
and Regulations for the Enforcement of the Food and Drugs 
Act is hereby amended so as to read as follows: 

STATEMENT OF VTEIGHT, MEASURE, OR COUNT. 

(Section 8, paragraph third, under "Food," as amended by act 
March 3, 1913.) 

(a) Except as otherwise provided by this regulation, the 
quantity of the contents, in all cases of food, if in package form, 
must be plainly and conspicuously marked, in terms of weight, 
measure, or numerical count, on the outside of the covering or 
container usually delivered to consumers. 

(b) The quantity of the contents so marked shall be the 
amount of food in the package. 

(c) The statement of the quantity of the contents shall be 
plain and conspicuous, shall not be a part of or obscured by any 
legend or design, and shall be so placed and in such characters 
as to be readily seen and clearly legible when the size of the 
package and the circumstances under which it is ordinarily ex- 
amined by purchasers or consumers are taken into consideration. 

(d) If the quantity of the contents be stated by weight or 
measure, it shall be marked in terms of the largest unit contained 
in the package; for example, if the package contain a pound, 
or pounds, and a fraction of a pound, the contents shall be ex- 
pressed in terms of pounds and fractions thereof; or of pounds 
and ounces, and not merely in ounces. 

(e) Statements of weight shall be in terms of avoirdupois 
pounds and ounces ; statements of liquid measure shall be in terms 
of the United States gallon of 231 cubic inches and its customary 

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subdivision?, i.e., in gallons, quarts, pints, or fluid ounces, and 
shall express the volume of the liquid at 68°F. (20°C.); and 
statements of dry measure shall be in terms of the United States 
standard bushel of 2,150.42 cubic inches and its customary sub- 
divisions, i.e., in bushels, half bushels, pecks, quarts, pints, or 
half pints : Provided, That, by like method, such statements may 
be in terms of metric weight or measure. 

( f ) The quantity of solids shall be stated in terms of weight 
and of liquids in terms of measure, except that in case of an 
article in respect to which there exists a definite trade custom 
otherwise, the statement may be in terms of weight or measure in 
accordance with such custom. The quantity of viscous or semi- 
solid foods, or of mixtures of solids and liquids, may be stated 
either by weight or measure, but the statement shall be definite 
and shall indicate whether the quantity is expressed in terms of 
weight of measure, as, for example, "Weight 12 oz." or "12 oz. 
avoirdupois," "Volume 12 ounces," or "12 fluid ounces." 

(g) The quantity of the contents shall be stated in terms of 
weight or measure unless the package be marked by numerical 
count and such numerical count gives accurate information as to 
the quantity of the food in the package. 

(h) The quantity of the contents may be stated in terms of 
minimum weight, minimum measure or minimum count, for ex- 
ample, "minimum weight 16 oz.," "minimum volume 1 gallon," or 
"not less than 4 oz" ; but in such case the statement must ap- 
proximate the actual quantity and there shall be no tolerance be- 
low the stated minimvun. 

(i) The following tolerances and variations from the quan- 
tity of the contents marked on the package shall be allowed: 

( 1 ) Discrepancies due exclusively to errors in weighing, 
measuring, or counting which occur in packing conducted in 
compliance with good commercial practice. 

(2) Discrepancies due exclusively to differences in the ca- 
pacity of bottles and similar containers resulting solely from 
unavoidable difficulties in manufacturing such bottles or con- 
tainers so as to be of uniform capacity : Provided, That no great- 
er tolerance shall be allowed in case of bottles of similar con- 
tainers which, because of their design, can not be made of ap- 
proximate uniform capacity than is allowed in case of bottles or 

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similar containers which can be manufactured so as to be approx- 
imate uniform capacity. 

(3) Discrepancies in weight or measure, due exclusively to 
differences in atmospheric conditions in various places and 
which unavoidably result from the ordinary and customary ex- 
posure of the packages to evaporation or to the absorption of 
water. 

Discrepancies under classes (1) and (2) of this paragraph 
shall be as often above as below the marked quantity. The 
reasonableness of discrepancies under class (3) of this para- 
graph will be determined on the facts in each case. 

( j ) A package containing 2 avoirdupois ounces of food, or 
less, is "small" and shall be exempt from marking in terms of 
weight. 

(k) A package containing 1 fluid ounce of food, or less, is 
"small" and shall be exempt from marking in terms of measure. 

(1) When a package is not required by paragraph (g) to 
be marked in terms of either weight or measure, and the units of 
food therein are six or less, it shall, for the purpose of this regu- 
lation, be deemed "small" and shall be exempt from marking in 
terms of numerical count. 

W. G. McAdoo, 

Secretary of the Treasury. 
D. F. Houston, 

Secretary of Agrictdture. 
William C. Redfield, 

Secretary of Commerce. 

Washington, D.C., May 11, 1914.. 

FOOD INSPECTION DECISION 157. 

Amending Regulation 29, which relates to marking the quantity 
of food in package form. 

Paragraph (h) of Regulation 29 of the Rules and Regu- 
lations for the Enforcement of the Food and Drugs Act is 
hereby amended by striking out the words "minimum weight 16 
oz." and inserting in lieu thereof the words "minimum weight 
10 oz." so that paragraph (h) as amended shall read as follows: 

The quantity of the contents may be stated in terms of 
minimum weight, minimum measure, or minimum count, for ex- 

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ample, "minimum weight 10 oz." "minimum volume 1 gallon," or 
"not less than 4 oz. ;" but in such case the statement must ap- 
proximate the actual quantity and there shall be no tolerance 
below the stated minimum. 

W. G. McAdoo, 

Secretary of the Treasury. 
D. F. Houston, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 
Wm. J. Haukis, 

Acting Secretary of Commerce. 

Washington, D.C., July 26, 1914. 

GENERAL INFORMATION. 

7. Individual guaranties required by Food Inspection Decision 

No. 153. 

Regulation 9 of the Rules and Regulations for the Enforce- 
ment of the Food and Drugs Act (Food Inspection Decision No. 
153) requires that guaranties, filed with this department, shaU 
be stricken from the files on May 1, 1915, and that serial niun- 
bers assigned thereto shall not be used on the label or package 
of any food or drug after that date. 

This regulation contemplates that on and after May 1, 1915, 
guaranties, if given with respect to any article of food or to any 
drug, shall not appear on the label or package, but shall be in- 
corporated in or attached to the bill of sale, biU of lading, or 
other schedule, giving the names and quantities of the articles. 
If the goods are properly described in the biU of sale or other 
document, they may be referred to in the guaranty as listed in 
the bill of sale or other document, without repetition of the de- 
tailed description. Guaranties may be written, printed, or 
stamped on the bill of sale or other document, and, in order to 
afl'ord protection, must conform to paragraph (d) of the regu- 
lation. 

8. Filing of guaranties and issuance of serial numbers prior 
to May 1, 1915. 

Regulation 9 of the Rules and Regulations for the Enforce- 
ment of the Food and Drugs Act (Food Inspection Decision No. 
153) provides that guaranties, filed with the department of ag- 

98 



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riculture, shall be stricken from the files ort May 1, 1915, and 
the serial numbers assigned thereto shall not be used on the label 
or package of any food or drug after that date. It is believed 
accordingly that manufacturers and dealers will prefer to guar- 
antee their goods in accordance with paragraphs (d) and (e) of 
the regulation, rather than to submit general guaranties and re- 
quest serial numbers, which can not be used after May 1, 1915. 

9. "In paclcage form." 

Representations have been made to the department that cer- 
tain articles of food are not "in package form" within the mean- 
ing of the Food and Drugs Act, as amended by the act of March 
3, 1913 (37 Stat., 732). It is the view of the department that 
the meaning of the phrase "in package form" is so clear that 
manufacturers and dealers will have little difBculty in determin- 
ing whether or not articles of food in which they deal are inclu- 
ded within it. If doubt arises in administering the law whether 
individual articles of food or classes of foods are "in package 
form," the department will determine the question, for adminis- 
trative purposes, upon the facts in each case. 

10. Inquiries regarding cases pending in the courts to he 

addressed to the United States Attorney. 
The Bureau of Chemistry receives frequent inquiries, both 
by letter and in person, concerning cases arising under the Food 
and Drugs Act in which court proceedings have been instituted. 
All inquiries of this nature should be addressed to the United 
States Attorney for the district in which the case is pending. 

11. Establishment of Office of State Cooperative Food amd 

Drug Control. 

The need of close and cordial cooperation between State and 
Federal officials charged with the enforcement of food and drug 
laws has long been recognized. It is the desire of the depart- 
ment to promote such cooperation in every possible way, and 
with this end in view a new organization has been formed in the 
Bureau of Qiemistry known as the Office of State Cooperative 
Food and Drug Control. J. S. Abbott, formerly dairy and food 
commissioner of the State of Texas, has been appointed chemist 
in charge of this office. 

9Q 



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12. Decree hy the Argentine Repttblic regarding the shipment 
of food products of amkmal origm. 

Translation from the Official Bulletin of the Argentine Re- 
public, March 9, 1914 : 

Abticus 1. It is decreed — That the following regulations proposed 
by the National Department of Hygiene for the shipment of food 
products of animal origin be herewith approved. 

1. In virtue of those that determine the regulations at present in 
force, it is required of manufacturers or importers of products of 
animal origin to indicate henceforward clearly on the packages of each 
shipment the class of alimentary substance from which each canned 
product, be it fish, tunny fish, sardines, etc., or any other class of 
meat of domestic or other animals, has been made up; without which 
requirement such goods will not be permitted to enter the country. 

2. In like manner it is required to announce on the shipment the 
name of the manufacturer and the source of origin, in accordance 
with the rules established in the article already cited. 

3. There is allowed a period of six months from the date of official 
publication of this resolution for those thereby aflFected to arrange to 
carry out the conditions set by the preceding articles, with the under- 
standing that in case they do not do so they shall incur the penalties 
which are set by the regulations now in force. This period of time 
should be understood, concerning shipments of merchandise in steam- 
ers which sail from foreign ports, as beginning with the date of the 
completion of the time granted, which will under no circumstances be 
prolonged. 

Ahticu; 2. Let it be commimicated, published, given to the National 
Register, and archived. 
Plaza. MIGUEL S. ORTIZ. 

Food Inspection Decisions Nos. 153i and 155, amending Regu- 
lation 9 of the Rules and Regulations for the Enforcement of 
the Federal Food and Drugs Act, Relating to Guaranties. 

GUARANTY LEGENDS ON PACKAGES. 

The purpose of Regulation 9, as amended by F. I. D. No. 
153 and F. I. D. No. 155, is to prevent the use upon the label or 
package of any food or drug of a statement which, in any way, 
might be construed as implying that the article of food or drugs 
has been guaranteed or approved by the Government. The 

guaranty legend "Guaranteed by under the Food 

and Drugs Act, June 30, 1906," or any similar guaranty legend, 
should not be used on products packed or labeled on or after May 
1, 1916. On and after November 1, 1916, no such guaranty 
legend should appear on any article of food or drugs while in 
the channels of commerce described in the Federal Food and 
Drugs Act. In the opinion of this department, it would not 
constitute a sufficient compliance with the regulation if only 

100 



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the serial number issued by this department should be blotted out 
from the guaranty legend heretofore in common use. The use 
of the words "under the Food and Drugs Act of June 80, 1916," 
should also be discontinued, and any statement to the effect that 
the article is guaranteed should contain no reference to the Uni- 
ted States or to the Department of Agriculture. 

No objection, however, would be made by this department to a 
statement, if true, that the guarantor himself guarantees the 
contents of the package to be pure, wholesome, or free from 
adulteration; nor, in the opinion of the department, would it 
constitute a violation of the regulation if it were stated, in sub- 
stance, that the article is warranted by the manufacturer, or 
other designated person, to comply with the requirements of all 
State laws or of the laws of certain named States. 

TIME or TAKING EFFECT. 

Food Inspection Decision No. 153 was supplemented, on 
May 29, 1914, by Food Inspection Decision No. 155. The last- 
mentioned decision postpones the effective date of the new regu- 
lation until May 1, 1916, except that, as the goods packed and 
labeled prior to May 1, 1916, in accordance with law and with 
the regulations in force prior to May 5, 1914, it further post- 
pones the effective date of the regulation until November 1, 
1916 ; provided, however, that compliance with the terms of Reg- 
ulation 9 as amended will be permitted at any time hereafter. 

Under Food Inspection Decision Nos. 153 and 155 it will not 
be necessary to wait until May 1, 1916, to remove the serial num- 
ber and guaranty legend from packages of food or drugs, but 
the use of either the serial number or the guaranty legend may 
be discontinued at any time. In that event, however, in order for 
guaranties under the Federal Food and Drugs Act to afford the 
dealers protection from prosecution under the act, all the re- 
quirements prescribed in Regulation 9, as amended by Food In- 
spection Decision No. 153, should be complied with. 

Effect of Amendment on Gtuircmt.ies Filed Under Present 
Regulation 9. 
It is not intended that the provision in paragraph (a) of 
Food Inspection Decision No. 153, which states that — 

AH guaranties now on file with the Secretary of Agriculture 
shall be stricken from the files, and the serial numbers assigned 

101 



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to such guaranties shall be canceled, shall affect the validity of 
such guaranties in respect to the particular articles of food or 
drugs covered thereby which have been sold or delivered by the 
guarantor to his vendee prior to the date when such guaranties 
shall have been stricken from the records of the department. 

FORM OF GUARANTY IN FUTURE. 

The amended regulation contemplates that guaranties given 
under the Food and Dnigs Act on and after May 1, 1916, shall 
be incorporated in or attached to the bill of sale, invoice, biU of 
lading, or other schedule, giving the names and quantities of the 
articles. If the goods are properly described in the bill of sale 
or such other document they may be referred to in the guaranty 
as listed in the bill of sale or other document, without repetition 
of the detailed description. Guaranties may be printed or 
stamped on the bill of sale or other document referred to in para- 
graph (e), and, in order to afford protection, must conform to 
paragraph (d) of the regulation. The signature of the guar- 
anty may also be printed or stamped on the bill of sale, or on 
the invoice, or on the bill of lading, or other schedule, describ- 
ing the goods sold, if transmitted by the guarantor direct to the 
dealer. 

The department has no authority to prescribe the exact 
wording which must be used in making a guaranty, nor can it 
determine whether any particular guaranty submitted to it is 
legally sufficient to protect dealers from prosecution under the 
Food and Drugs Act. In the opinion of the department, how- 
ever, a guaranty, if worded substantially according to the fol- 
lowing form, will comply with all the requirements of the act: 

I (we), the undersigned, do hereby guarantee that the articles of 
food (and drugs) listed herein (or specifying the same) are not adul- 
terated or misbranded within the meaning of the Federal Food and 
Drugs Act, June 30, 1906, as amended. 

(Signature and address of guarantor.) 

The signature of the party making the guaranty should be followed 
by his address. 

Regulation 9 as amended describes a form for and a method 
of giving a guaranty, the legal sufficiency of which, under the 
Food and Drugs Act, is believed to be unquestionable. In the 

102 



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event that guarantors desire to give general guaranties to their 
vendees, or desire to use any form of guaranty different from 
that described in Regulation 9, as amended, it will be necessary 
for them to consider and decide for themselves whether such form 
is legally sufficient to protect a dealer from prosecution. 

In a decision reported in Notice of Judgment No. 2471 the 
court held invalid a general guaranty in the following form : 

The undersigned, , of Chicago, State of Illinois, United 

States of America, does hereby warrant and guarantee unto 

that any and all articles of food and drugs, as defined by the act of 
Congress approved June 30, 1906, entitled "An act for preventing the 
manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated or misbranded or 
poisonous or deleterious foods, drugs, medicines, and liquors, and for 
regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes, which the undersigned 
has sold since October 1, 1906, or shal] at any time hereafter prepare, 

manufacture for, sell, or deliver to said , wiU comply with all 

the provisions of said act of Congress, and are not and shall not be in 
any manner adulterated or misbranded within the meaning of said act. 

It is expressly understood that this shall be a continuing guaranty 
untU notice of revocation be given in writing and notice of acceptance 
of the guaranty is hereby waived. 

Dated at Chicago this , 1906. 

(Signed) 

In a later case the court sustained a prosecution based on a 
similar form. 

OPINIONS REGARDING THE WEIGHT AND VOLUME 
REGULATIONS (F. L D. NO. 154-). 

QUANTITY or CONTENTS ON SHIPPING CASES. 

"If two or more packages of food, each of which bears a 
statement of the quantity of the contents on the outside thereof, 
in conformity with the Food and Drugs Act as amended March 
3, 1913, and the regulations thereunder, are placed in a box, bag, 
barrel, crate, or similar container for convenience in shipping 
only, it is not required that the quantity of the contents shall be 
stated also on such box, bag, barrel, or other container. If, 
however, the quantity of the contents be stated on any such box, 
bag, barrel, or container, the statement should be plain and 
correct."- — C. L. Alsbekg. 

"cull" beans or beans which ABE MOLDY, MUSTY, ETC., TOMA- 
TO SAUCE FEOM DECOMPOSED TOMATOES IN BAKED BEANS. 

"The attention of the Board of Food and Drug Inspection 
has been called to the practice of using 'cull' or other beans which 

103 



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are moldy, musty, or otherwise decomposed in various canned 
food products, such as baked beans or pork and beans. Products 
made from such material are manifestly contrary to section 7, 
paragraph 6, in case of foods, of the food and drugs act. 

"The use of tomato sauce or pulp which is prepared from de- 
composed tomato or trimming stock, in the preparation of baked 
beans or other food products with tomato sauce, is also deemed to 
be in violation of the law." — C. L. Alsbeeg. 

WEIGHTS or CliAM MEAT B.EQ.UIEED IN CANS. 

"Food Inspection Decision No. 144 states that in canned food 
products the can serves not only as a container but also as an 
index of the quantity of food therein. It should be as full of 
food as is practicable for packing and processing without injur- 
ing the quality or appearance of the contents, and such products 
as require the addition of brine, water, etc., for proper prepara- 
tion should contain only sufficient liquid to fill the interstices and 
cover the product. 

"The board has received many inquiries from canners of 
clams regarding the weights of clams which cans should contain 
in order to comply with the requirements of the above decision. 
The subject has, therefore, been investigated by the Bureau of 
Chemistry. As a result of this investigation it is the opinion of 
the board that cans which contain the weights of drained clam 
meat shown below will satisfactorily fulfil the requirements of 
Food Inspection Decision No. 144. These weights are 'cut-out' 
weights; i.e., the weights of meat left in the can after all free 
liquor has been drained off. 

"Cut-out" 

Diam. Height. Weights 

T3^e of can. Inches Inches of clams 

No. 1, Regular or oyster 2 11/16 4 5 

No. 1, Maine style 3 4 7/16 8 

No. 2, Short or picnic 3% 4 gi/j 

No. 2, Regular 3% 4 9/16 10 

"When cans of other sizes are used, they should contain pro- 
portional weights of meat. 

"It should be remembered that a loss of weight almost in- 
variably occurs when clams are processed, and due allowance 
should be made for this loss in weighing the clams into the can. 
It is believed that the experience of the packers is such that 

104 



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there will be no difficulty in making the proper allowance for 
shrinkage in processing, thus avoiding shortage from this cause. 
It may be said that the investigations made in the bureau indicate 
that the loss in weight in processing varies from about 5 to 16 
per cent, the average loss being about 10 per cent of the weight 
of clams placed in the cans. The weights of drained clam meat 
should not fall below those given above, or, if a variation occurs, 
it should be as often above as below the weights specified." — 
C. L. Alsberg. 

ADDITION OF CORNSTARCH TO CANNED CORN. 

"The com ripened very late, and, in spite of the fact that the 
corn is of the finest quality and flavor, it lacks sufficient starch 
to pack properly on account of the fact that the liquids will 
separate from the solids in the canning, and, therefore, in order 
to produce a satisfactory product it is necessary to add corn- 
starch to the extent of 1 to 1% per cent. 

"In the opinion of the board, on the facts as above stated, 
and, if no inferiority of the corn is concealed, this addition would 
be permitted, under Regulation 25, section 7 (a), which states 
that 'When a substance of a recognized quality commonly used 
in the preparation of a food or drug product is replaced by 
another substance not injurious or deleterious to health, the name 
of the substituting substance shall appear upon the label.' If a 
product prepared as indicated, were plainly labeled 'Sweet Corn 
with added Starch,' there would not appear to be any violation 
of the Food and Drugs Act. 

"It is, however, plain to the board that starch may be added 
to sweet corn in a manner whereby inferiority is concealed, and 
whereby water is added, which addition of starch would clearly 
constitute a violation of the act. The canners are, however, fa- 
miliar with the conditions under which they are working, and 
the board is not ; the canners should, therefore, be able to decide 
the proper course from the above statement of facts." — ^A. S. 
Mitchell. 



The bureau has received a number of inquiries regarding the 
form of label which should be used on the product heretofore 
designated as "soaked peas." This question was fully answered 

105 



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by the Board of Food and Drug Inspection in the letter quoted 

below : 

We have been endeavoring to secure as much information as possible, 
both from our experts and from the canning trade, as to proper label- 
ing of this product. From the information thus gathered it appears 
that the proper designation for this product is "soaked dried peas" or 
"soaked ripe peas" as the case may be. The Board of Food and Drug 
Inspection is of the opinion that the terms "dried peas" and "ripe peas" 
are not proper designations for these products, inasmuch as they are 
the names of other definite substances. Our inquiry does not show 
that there is any particular objection in the trade to the term "soaked 
peas." It would appear that the term "soaked peas" is a shortened 
expression of the legend "soaked dried peas" or "soaked ripe peas" 
which has naturally grown up among the manufacturers and which 
from long usage has come to represent to both the consumer and the 
trade, a definite food product. The board is of the further opinion, 
however, that no objections could be raised to the designation of these 
products as "peas, prepared from dried peas," or "peas, prepared 
from ripe peas," as the case may be, provided the modifying phrase 
"prepared from dried (or ripe) peas" be plainly stated in immediate 
connection with the word "peas," the whole phrase thus forming the 
name of the product. We understand that the trade recognizes a dif- 
ferende between dried peas and ripe peas, the dried peas being the 
peas gathered in the succulent state and dried and the ripe peas being 
those which have ripened on the vine. 

R. E. DOOLITTLE, 
Acting Chairman, 
Board of Pood and Drug Inspection. 

THE TEKM "STRINGLESS BEANS." 

"Inquiry regarding the use of the expression 'stringless 
beans' has been taken up with the Bureau of Plant Industry. 

"We are informed that the term 'stringless' applies more 
particularly to a condition of growth than to a variety of beans, 
although there is a great diversity among varieties in respect to 
stringiness. If the so-called stringless varieties are processed, 
while they are in the proper state of development, the term 
'stringless' could be applied very properly to the stock so han- 
dled. There is bound to be, however, a greater or less percentage 
of the product of any variety which will carry more or less 
fibrous matter (strings). In other words, many of the better 
sorts of beans, if picked and processed when young enough, will 
give a brand of goods which could properly be designated 
'stringless.' If the same varieties are allowed to come to a later 
stage of development and approach more nearly to maturity, 
they wiU become tough and fibrous. 

"It is the opinion of the bureau that the term 'stringless' 
may properly be used for a high-grade brand of canned beans, 

106 



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regardless of the name of the variety from which the stock was 
derived, provided they are canned at the proper stage of de- 
velopment, as indicated above."— C. L. Alsbekg. 

"lemon cling" and "yellow cling" on canned peaches. 

"Regarding the use of the terms 'Lemon Chng' and 'Yellow 
Cling' on canned peaches, a declaration of the varietal name is 
not required upon the label. Where such a name is given, how- 
ever, it must be the true name of the variety. 

"The Lemon Cling is a well-known variety of peach which 
is somewhat widely grown in California and is highly esteemed 
for canning. If the peaches in question, which are labeled 'Lem- 
on Cling' are not of that variety, it would be obviously im- 
proper to so label them. Should the words 'Yellow CUng' be 
substituted on the label for 'Lemon Cling' the product would be 
understood to belong to anyone of the yellow clingstone varie- 
ties. We are informed that practically all of the peaches which 
are commercially canned in California are yellow-fleshed clings." 
— C. L. Alsbekg. 

THE TERM 

"Labeling of caviar made from whitefish to which a harm- 
less vegetable dye had been added. 

"This question has been taken up at some length with the 
Commissioner of Fisheries. The bureau is informed that the 
term 'caviar' can properly be applied to any kind of fish eggs 
prepared after a special method. The eggs first prepared and 
most extensively used were those of the sturgeon and to many 
people the term 'caviar* is synonymous with 'sturgeon caviar.' 
In view of this fact and of other considerations, it is believed 
that the name of the particular fish from whose eggs caviar is 
made should appear on the label. In the case in point an ap- 
propriate label would be 'whitefish caviar.' This bureau will 
make no objection to the use of the term 'caviar' on a product 
prepared according to the usual method and made from the 
roe of whitefish, provided the name of the fish is given in con- 
junction with the word caviar. 

"There is no objection to the use of a harmless coloring 
matter in a product of this kind, provided a clear declaration 

107 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



of the presence of added color is made on the label. It should, 
of course, be understood that the product should not be labeled 
in such a way as to lead the purchaser to believe it to be an 
imported product." — C. L. Alsbeeg. 

LABELING OF BUTTER BEANS 

"While undoubtedly the term butter beans is used in some 
localities in describing a variety of lima beans, it would seem 
that there is considerable evidence to show that in certain mar- 
kets of the North the wax string bean is thus designated. It 
would seem, therefore, that in order to avoid confusion the term 
should be applied to lima beans only in those regions where 
this is the common name for that product."- — C. L. Alsbeeg. 

BUYERS' LABELS 

For their best protection packers should exercise great care 
in seeing that labels furnished by buyers fully comply with the 
law. Such labels may be furnished in entire good faith and 
with the guaranty on the part of the buyer to protect the pack- 
er in their use. This is good as far as it goes, but, if the 
goods should be labeled in transit, the packer under the law 
could be held hable for putting on the labels. Under these 
circumstances the buyer's guaranty of the buyer would not 
serve to relieve the packer from prosecution. 

COVE OYSTERS 

"This Board has issued no ruling against the use of the 
word 'Cove' on the labels of canned oysters and no such ruling 
is contemplated. It is the understanding of the Board that this 
is a trade term which has been established by long usage as a 
designation for canned oysters." — C. L. Alsbeeg. 

LABELING OVER-FILLED SWEET POTATOES 

"If the appearance of swelling is actually due to the fact 
that the cans have been overfilled, there can be no objection to 
making some statement on the label which will notify the cus- 
tomer of this fact. The Board is not prepared to recommend 
any particular form of statement, but would not object to the 

108 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



expression, 'Can Over-filled.' This statement will have no weight 
if the swelling be actually due to decomposition." — C. L. Als- 

BEUG. 

PLACE OF MANUFACTURE ON LABEL 

Fully covered by Regulation 18, subdivision (b) of the 
Rules and Regulations for the enforcement of the Food and 
Drugs Act, which reads as follows: 

(b) When a person, firm or corporation actually manufactures or 
produces an article of food or drug in two or more places, the actual 
place of manufacture or production of each particular package need 
not be stated on the label except when in the opinion of the Secretary 
of Agriculture the mention of any such place, to the exclusion of the 
others, misleads the public. 

USE OF COMBINATION VIGNETTE ON LABELS 

There would appear to be no objection to the use of a 
combination vignette on the label of a can containing one of the 
fruits represented, provided the name of the fruit actually 
canned is clearly stated upon the label. 

USE OF LABELS OF PREDECESSOR 

This matter was submitted to the Bureau of Chemistry and 
reply received to the following eflFect: "Regulation 18 of the 
Rules and Regulations promulgated by the three secretaries 
under authority conferred upon them by the Food and Drugs 
Act, June 30, 1906, requires that if the name of the manufac- 
turer is given on the label, it must be that of the true manu- 
facturer. If the name of the company appearing on the labels 
is the true name of the manufacturer, there can be no objec- 
tion to the use of the name of that company on the labels. 

"If, however, the name of the company appearing on the 
labels is not that of the true manufacturer, but is a predeces- 
sor of the manufacturer, such fact should appear on the label, 
if the old labels are to be used." 

The meaning of the above is that where the name of the 
company is changed the labels should be imprinted to show 
the fact. 

109 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



REGARDING WEIGHT AND VOLUME REGULATIONS 
(F. L D. NO. 164) 

MISLEADING TUADE TEEMS INDICATING SIZES OF CONTAINEES 

Reply to a request for the criticism of a carton which con- 
tained 4 dozen cans of deviled ham and bore the following 
statements : In large type, "4 doz. ^ cans" ; in smaller type, 
"Contents of each can 3 oz." 

"While the requirements for branding as given in the regu- 
lations for the enforcement of the amendment of March 3, 
1913, to the Food and Drugs Act (Food Inspection Decision 
No. 154) apply particularly to the small cans or units in the 
package, and the branding of the quantity of the contents up- 
on packing cases containing a number of units branded in con- 
formance with the law and the regulations is not obligatory 
(see Service and Regulatory Announcements No. 5, Letter 34), 
nevertheless if the packing cases are branded the statements 
must be in accordance with the requirements of the act. 

"The statement reading '4 doz. % cans' upon a package of 
cans containing 3 ounces is considered false and misleading and 
not in conformance with the requirements of the act, notwith- 
standing the further statement, made in smaller type, 'Con- 
tents of each can 3 oz.' " — C. L. Alsbeeg. 

NET WEIGHT OP COMB HONEY. 

The net weight of comb honey is considered to be the weight 
of the honey and comb, exclusive of the wooden section. It is 
believed that the tare weight of these sections is easily ascer- 
tained and that the filled sections can be readily sorted into 
approximately similar weights which may be marked in ac- 
cordance with paragraph (h) of Food Inspection Decision No. 
154. 

The individual units must be marked, and the shipping case 
may be if desired. The marking should be done previous to 
their introduction into interstate commerce. 

While the regulations do not prescribe the manner of mark- 
ing, as to whether a rubber stamp may be used, the law re- 
quires that the statement shall be plain and conspicuous. Stamp- 
ing by means of anilin ink is frequentlj' illegible owing to fail- 

110 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



ure to print or to the running of the ink. If such a stamp is 
used, care should be taken to make the statement plain and 
conspicuous, as required by the act. 

OILS OF THE NATURE OF COTTONSEED OIL. 

"Regarding the statement of the quantity of the contents 
upon cottonseed oil, the opinion of this department is that oils 
of the nature of cottonseed oil are not viscous substances under 
ordinary conditions within the meaning of the regulations. Cot- 
tonseed oil should, therefore, be considered as a liquid and 
marked in terms of volume, gallons, half gallons, quarts, pints 
and fractions thereof, or, if the quantity is less than 1 pint, in 
terms of fluid ounces." — C. L. Alsberg. 

CONTENTS must BE MARKED IN TEEMS OF THE LARGEST UNIT. 

"Labels reading 'C.M.A. Brand, Weight of Contents, 16 oz.,' 
is not in conformance with the requirements of the regulations 
as laid down in Food Inspection Decision No. 154<. Note the 
requirements under paragraph (d) that the quantity of the 
contents shall be marked in terms of the largest unit contained 
in the package." — A. S. Mitchell. 

EXTENSION OF TIME FOR THE USE OF LARGEST UNIT LABELS. 

"Regarding the use of the expression 'Contents 26 Fluid 
Ounces,' for the marking of the quantity of the contents upon 
liquids, the form of statement submitted does not comply with 
the requirements that the statement be made in terms of the 
largest unit contained in the package, which is in this case 1 pint. 

"The following decision has been reached by the depart- 
ment concerning labels where there was evident intent to com- 
ply with the requirements of the law: 

"In order to prevent unnecessary destruction of labels and 
cartons which were printed before the issuance of Food In- 
spection Decision No. 154, the department has decided that, 
prior to June 1, 1915, it wiU not recommend proceedings solely 
upon the charge that the statement of the quantity of the con- 
tents on a package, if otherwise satisfactory, is not in the terms 
of the largest unit in the package, provided that upon inves- 

111 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



tigation it is found that the labels or cartons bearing such state- 
ments were printed prior to May 11, 1914, and plainly indicate 
an honest attempt to comply with the provisions of the law." — 
C. L. Alsberg. 

LABELS BEABING ALTERNATIVE STATEMENTS. 

"The use of one label at the same time for large and small 
bottles of liquids, the label bearing a statement reading: 'Con- 
tents — ^Large bottles 28 oz., Small bottles 14< oz.' 

"A statement of this character is not in compliance with 
the regulations and is not satisfactory. Each size of bottle 
should be labeled with a plain statement of the quantity of its 
contents in terms of the largest unit. The statement upon large 
bottles should read '1%. pints' or '1 pt. 12 fl. oz.' and upon the 
small size '14 fluid ounces.' " — A. S. Mitchell. 

CONTENTS BLOWN IN BOTTLES MUST BE PLAIN AND CONSPICUOUS. 

"The Food and Drugs Act as amended by the act of March 
3, 1913, provides that the quantity of the contents in the case 
of food in package form must be plainly and conspicuously 
marked on the outside of the package. Subdivision (c) of Reg- 
ulation 29 as amended (Food Inspection Decision No. 154) 
provides that 'the statement of the quantity of the contents 
shall be plain and conspicuous, shall not be a part of or ob- 
scured by any legend or design, and shall be so placed and in 
such characters as to be readily seen and clearly legible when 
the size of the package and the circumstances under which it is 
ordinarily examined, by purchasers or consumers are taken into 
consideration.' 

"It would appear that a statement blown in the bottle 
would be satisfactory if plain and conspicuous and in confor- 
mity in other respects with the regulations. Such a statement 
should, of course, apply to the quantity of the contents ajid 
not to the capacity of the bottle. 

"I am of the opinion that the statement upon the crown cork 
would not be conspicuous within the meaning of the act and 
would not comply with the terms of the regulation quoted 
above." — C. L. Alsberg. 

112 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



CONTENTS MADE BY MEANS OF PEEEORATIONS NOT PLAIN AND 

CONSPICUOUS. 

"Food Inspection Decision No. 154, containing the regula- 
tions under the amendment to the Food and Drugs Act re- 
quiring a statement of the quantity of the contents upon food 
products in package form. 

"Inasmuch as the statement is required to be plain and con- 
spicuous, statements made by means of perforations in the label 
or wrapper are deemed hot in compliance with this require- 
ment." — C. L. Alsbeeg. 

TOMATOES WITH PUREE. 

"It is the understanding of the Bureau that the term 'puree' 
implies a certain degree of concentration. A product consist- 
ing mainly of tomato pulp which has been put through a cy- 
clone, or a cyclone and finishing machine, would hardly be en- 
titled to the name 'puree.' 

"There appears to be no objection to the sale of tomatoes 
with puree made from trimmings under the label 'Tomatoes 
with Puree,' provided the statement that the product is made 
from trimmings is printed in a conspicuous manner. 

"One label has come to the attention of the Bureau which 
bears the legend 'Puree from Trimmings with Tomatoes' on 
one face, while the other face bears a picture of a whole tomato, 
above which is printed the name of the brand and below the 
name of the canning company. Such a label is not regarded as 
proper, but no objection will be made to it if the legend 'Puree 
from Trimmings with Tomatoes' is also printed across the face 
bearing the picture of the tomato." — C. L. Alsbeeg. 

MEANING OF THE TEEM "OEANGEADE." 

"Concerning the labeling of an orange beverage, it is noted 
that the product is made from orange peel, orange juice, citric 
acid, sugar, water, and color, and that the word 'orangeade' ap- 
plied to this product. 

"It is the opinion of the Bureau that the word 'orangeade' 
should be applied only to a product consisting of orange juice, 
sugar, and water, flavored with more or less orange peel. The 

113 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



above product, which contains citric acid as a substitute for 
orange juice, would not, in the opinion of the Bureau, be prop- 
erly described as orangeade. It should be plainly labeled to 
show that it is an imitation or compound. If the product is 
termed a compound, the ingredients used, including an artificial 
color, should be plainly stated on the label in connection with 
the term compound." — C. L. Alsberg. 

MEANING OF THE TERM "OKANGEADE POWDEB,." 

"It would not be proper to apply the term 'orangeade pow- 
der' to a product made by mixing citric acid, oil of orange, and 
artificial color. Such a product might be sold under a label 
which clearly indicates it to be a compound or imitation, as 
provided for in section 8, paragraph 4, under foods, of the 
Food and Drugs Act. If labeled as a compound, the ingredi- 
ents should be stated, including the presence of artificial color." 
— C. L. Alsbeeg. 

CALCULATION OF GLUTEN OB, PROTEIN IN GLUTEN FLOUR, ETC. 

"It is stiU the practice of many manufacturers and dealers 
in cereal products to calculate the percentage of protein or 
gluten in wheat flour and gluten flour by multiplying the per- 
centage of total nitrogen in the product by the factor 6.25. 

"At the time of the adoption of certain food standards by 
this department (see Circular No. 19, Office of the Secretary of 
Agriculture) this factor was generally used, but subsequent in- 
vestigations have shown it to be incorrect, and in 1911 the As- 
sociation of Official Agricultural Chemists adopted the factor 
5.70. Regulation 4 for the enforcement of the Food and Drugs 
Act prescribes the methods of analysis adopted by that associ- 
ation for the examination of food products in connection with 
the enforcement of that act. 

"It is, therefore, the opinion of this Bureau that all state- 
ments of protein or gluten content on labels of wheat flour, glu- 
ten flour, or other wheat products should be calculated by mul- 
tiplying the percentage of nitrogen, as determined by the 
Kjeldahl or Gunning method, by the factor 5.70, and after June 
30, 1915, this bureau will regard as misbranded such products 
in which an excessive amount of gluten or protein is declared on 

114 



Mount Veenon, N.Y. 



the label owing to the use of the incorrect factor 6.25." — C. L. 

Alsbekg. 

THE TEEM "hOMINY FEED." 

"We are of the opinion that hominy feed is a mixture of 
the bran coating, the germ, and part of the starchy portion of 
the corn kernel obtained in the manufacture of hominy grits 
for human consumption. We are further of the opinion that 
hominy feed is adulterated if it contains any ori all of the ma- 
terials which are cleaned from the com before it is subjected to 
the actual milling process which finally results in hominy grits. 
In other words, it does not make any difference whether part of 
the cleanings from com are obtained in the elevator and part 
in the miU; none of these cleanings from the com is, in our 
opinion, a proper constituent of hominy feed. 

"The case is analogous to mixtures of wheat bran and 
screenings. Some of the screenings may be obtained from the 
wheat in the elevator and some in the mill, yet they are never- 
theless screenings. Wheat bran is the coarse, outer coating of 
the wheat berry obtained in the usual commercial milling process 
from wheat that has been cleaned and scoured, and is adulterated 
if it contains any of the cleanings or screenings obtained from 
the wheat before it goes to the break rolls." — C. L. Alsberg. 



"The letter quoted below is a reply to the following in- 
quiry: We put in packages of food flavors holding 5 and 15 
drachms and wish to know whether they can be labeled 'Con- 
tents five drachms' and 'Contents fifteen drachms,' respectively. 

"The subject of this inquiry is covered by paragraph (d) of 
the regulations under the weight and volume amendment to the 
Food and Dmgs Act (F. I. D. No. 154.). 

"There appears no objection to the statement of 5 drachms, 
provided fluid drams are intended. Expressions of weight, 
however, should be in avoirdupois pounds, ounces, and frac- 
tions thereof, inasmuch as drams are units of troy weight. A 
statement reading '15 drams' is not in strict conformance with 
paragraph (d), inasmuch as 8 drams constitute 1 fluid ounce. 

"Also note the exemptions for small packages given in para- 
graphs (j) and (k)." — A. S. Mitchell. 

lis 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



PACKAGES CONTAINING MOIIE THAN 1 PINT OF LIQUID. 

"Inquiry whether a statement in fluid ounces is satisfactory 
where the contents of the package consists of more than 1 pint, 
the intention of the regulation was to require the statement in 
terms of the largest unit contained in the package, as '1 pint and 
8 fluid ounces' or '1%.' " — ^A. S. Mitchell. 

LABELING OF CANNED SOAKED PEAS. 

"In the opinion of the Bureau the use of a vignette show- 
ing peas in the pod would not be considered proper on a label 
for canned soaked peas, for the reason that it might lead the 
purchaser to believe the product to be canned fresh peas. There 
would be no objection, however, to the use of a pictorial design 
which would not mislead purchasers as to the nature or quality 
of the product, such, for example, as a vignette showing a dish 
containing shelled peas." — C. L. Alsberg. 

ADDITION OF TUMERIC TO PREPARED MUSTARD. 

"The addition of tumeric to prepared mustard is not pro- 
hibited, provided the coloring added by means of tumeric does 
not conceal damage or inferiority. Such inferiority might arise 
from deficiency in mustard or the substitution of charlock, starch, 
or other cheap filler for mustard. The presence of tumeric 
should in all cases be declared upon the label."- — C. L. Alsberg. 

LABELING OF ARTIFICIALLY TREATED WATERS. 

"If salts are added to a natural water the quantity of salts 
need not be stated, but the facts regarding such treatment must 
appear on the label in such a manner and in type of such size as 
to make it clear and not misleading. Such words as 'fortified,' 
'concentrated,' 'added salts,' etc., do not convey the proper in- 
formation to the purchaser and are considered misleading and 
objectionable. It would be entirely satisfactory, however, to 
say: 'Contains added sodium chlorid,' 'Contains added sodium 
bicarbonate,' 'Artificially treated with sodium chlorid and sodium 
bicarbonate,' 'Fortified with magnesium sulphate,' or to use any 
truthful legend of a similar import wliich conveys the proper 
information to the consumer." — C. L. Alsberg. 

116 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



QUANTITY DISTINCT FKOM QUESTIONS OF BRANDING CHAHACTEE 

OF CONTENTS. 

"Regarding the interpretation of section (b) of Food In- 
spection Decision No. 154, this regulation was intended to ex- 
clude from the statement of the net weight of food products in 
package form all linings of packages, premiums which might 
be enclosed in the package of food, printed circulars and simi- 
lar objects sometimes enclosed. It was not intended to exclude 
brine, syrup, oil, or the usual condiments which are a necessary 
part of canned foods ; the statement of the quantity of the con- 
tents may include such substances. 

"The regulations, Food Inspection Decision No. 154, ap- 
ply only to the marking of the quantity of the contents, and 
are not intended to treat of questions of misbranding as to the 
nature of the contents, to questions of adulteration by mixing 
and packing water with the product, or of substitutions of 
cheaper and inferior substances for the product. Violations of 
this character are covered by different paragraphs of the act 
and are the subject of Food Inspection Decision No. 1441." — 

A. S. MiTCHELI.. 
THE EXPRESSION "nO. %," REFERRING TO THE SIZE OF CANS. 

"The statement 'No. %' on a shipping box which contains 
two dozen cans, each of which bears a true declaration of the 
quantity of the contents, is in comformity with the Food and 
Drugs Act as amended March 3, 1913, and the regulations 
thereunder. You are informed that the use of the statement 
'No. %' will be permitted in the marking of outside shipping 
containers. This will not permit the use of the term '% cans,' 
which is considered misleading as indicated in a previous letter." 

C. L. AliSBERG. 



"The terms 'sugar com' and 'sugar peas,' as applied to 
varieties which are distinctly sweet, is not regarded as objec- 
tionable. The terms 'sweet com' and 'sugar com' are used in- 
terchangeably, and the term 'sugar peas' is used also for some 
of the higher grades of wrinkled peas which are used in canning. 
The term 'sweet peas' would not be regarded as a synonym for 

117 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



'sugar peas,' since the former term is confined exclusively in 
horticultural literature to the types of peas grown for their 
flowers. Sugar is customarily used in connection with the can- 
ning of both com and peas for the purpose of sweetening the 
liquor, and it should be understood that the use of sugar in 
canning com or peas does not justify the use of the terms 
'sweet corn' and 'sugar peas' for such products. As stated 
above, the use of these terms is only proper when the varieties 
are distinctly sweet. In this connection, the provisions of Food 
Inspection Decision No. 66 should be borne in mind. 

"It is the opinion of the Bureau that the term 'Champion' is 
objectionable in connection with the labeling of peas, since the 
use of this word 'Champion' is often used as a contraction of 
the name 'Champion of England.' This is a recognized horti- 
cultural name for a standard variety of peas. The use of the 
word 'Champion' would only be regarded as proper in connec- 
tion with peas belonging to the 'Champion of England' variety." 
— C. L. Alsberg. 

MAB.MALADES. 

"Relative to standards for marmalade published in Circular 
No. 19, the Bureau is now making a study of this question, and 
pending further information no action will be brought against 
marmalade made from clean, sound, properly matured and pre- 
pared fresh fruit and sugar (sucrose), even though the pro- 
portions of fruit and sugar vary within reasonable limits from 
those laid down in Circular No. 19, namely, 45 pounds of fruit 
to 55 pounds of sugar. As the bureau has not yet completed 
its investigations on this subject, no more definite statement 
regarding the permitted variation can be made at this time. 
The product must, of course, conform in name to the fruit used. 

"If new standards are drawn, a reasonable time wiU be al- 
lowed manufacturers in which to dispose of goods wliich they 
have on hand before action is taken against products not con- 
forming to the new standards." — C. L. Alsbekg. 

"jelly" not products made from gelatin. 

"In the opinion of the Bureau, the term 'jelly' without modi- 
fication is applicable only to a product prepared according to 

118 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



definition 12 (Circular No. 19), under Fruit and Fruit Prod- 
ucts, the gelatinous consistency of which is derived entirely from 
the fruit. A product which is thickened by means of gelatin 
could not properly be labeled as fruit jelly, but should be desig- 
nated in such a way as to clearly indicate the nature of the 
product." 

AliCOHOL IN rnUIT JUICES. 

"An investigation by the Department of Agriculture shows 
that fruit juices such as peach and cherry juices, to which 
alcohol has been added, are imported or shipped in interstate 
commerce under the designations 'peach juice,' 'cherry juice,' 
etc. 

"It is the opinion of this Department that such names as 
'peach juice,' 'cherry juice,' etc., should be applied only to the 
unfermented juices of the corresponding fruits, containing no 
added sugar, alcohol, or other substances. 

"Fruit juices to which alcohol has been added should be 
plainly labeled to show this, and cannot properly be designated 
'peach juice,' 'cherry juice,' etc. 

"After September 1, 1914!, goods labeled contrary to the 
above ruling were denied entry, and, if found in interstate comr 
merce, appropriate action will be taken." — C. L. Alsbekg. 

ARSENIC AND LEAD IN FOOD AND FOOD PRODUCTS. 

"For some time the Bureau of Chemistry has been investi- 
gating the presence of arsenic and lead in certain food products 
and has found that these metals are usually introduced into 
such products through the use of impure raw materials or from 
the apparatus or utensils employed in the processes of manu- 
facture. 

"The poisonous properties of arsenic and lead are well 
known, and this Bureau holds that food containing arsenic or 
lead, added in any manner, is adulterated, in that it contains 
an added poisonous or deleterious ingredient which may render 
the product injurious to health. Manufacturers of all food 
products or ingredients of foods are, therefore, warned to be 
on the lookout for the presence of arsenic or lead in such prod- 
ucts and to take such precautions as are necessary to avoid its 

119 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



presence in the finished product or to secure its elimination 
therefrom."- — C. L. Alsbekg. 

FOOD INSPECTION DECISION No. 166 

WINE. 

"As a result of investigations carried on by this Department 
and of the evidence submitted at a public hearing given on 
November 5, 1913, the Department of Agriculture has con- 
cluded that gross deceptions have been practiced under Food 
Inspection Decision No. 120. The Department has also con- 
cluded that the definition of wine in Food Inspection Decision 
No. 109 should be modified so as to permit correction of the 
natural defects in grape musts and wines due to climatic or 
seasonal conditions. 

"Food Inspection Decisions Nos. 109 and 120 are, there- 
fore, hereby abrogated and, as a guide for the officials of this 
Department in enforcing the Food and Drugs Act, wine is de- 
fined to be the product of the normal alcoholic fermentation of 
the juice of fresh, sound, ripe grapes, with the usual cellar 
treatment. 

"To correct the natural defects above mentioned the fol- 
lowing additions to musts or wines are permitted: 

"In the case of excessive acidity, neutralizing agents which 
do not render wine injurious to health, such as neutral potassium 
tartarate or calcium carbonate; 

"In the case of deficient acidity, tartaric acid; 

"In the case of deficiency in saccharine matter, condensed 
grape must, or a pure dry sugar. 

"The foregoing definition does not apply to sweet wines 
made in accordance with the Sweet Wine Fortification Act of 
June 7, 1906 (34 Stat., 215). 

"A product made from pomace, by the addition of water, 
with or without sugar or any other material whatsoever, is not 
entitled to be called wine. It is not permissible to designate 
such a product as 'Pomace wine,' nor otherwise than as 'imita- 
tion wine.' " 

D. F. Houston, Secretary of Agriculture. 

Washington, D.C., June 12, 1914. 

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Mount Veenon, N.Y. 



WINES MANUFACTURED PRIOa TO JUNE 12, 1914<. 

Proceedings under the Food and Drugs Act, with respect 
to fermented beverages not prepared in conformity with this 
decision, but which, it is claimed, have been manufactured in 
good faith in compliance with either Food Inspection Decision 
No. 109 or Food Inspection Decision No. 120, will not be rec- 
ommended by the Department of Agriculture, prior to June 12, 
1916, if it shall appear, upon investigation, that the articles 
with respect to which the claim is made were actually manu- 
factured prior to June 12, 1914i, and are labeled in conformity 
with either Food Inspection Decision No. 109 or Food Inspec- 
tion Decision No. 120, as the case may be. 

WEIGHT NOT EEaUIRED ON WBAPPED HAMS AND BACONS. 

The question has been raised whether the act of March 3, 
1913 (37 Stat., 732), known as the Net Weight Amendment 
to the Food and Drugs Act, requires that the weight of the 
meat be marked upon the paper, cloth, or gelatin covering with 
which single hams and single sides or strips of bacon are wrapped 
or coated. 

In the opinion of the Department single hams and single 
sides or strips of bacon when so covered with paper, cloth, or 
gelatin are not "in package form" within the meaning of the 
Net Weight Amendment, and consequently it is not required 
that the quantity of the meat be stated on such coverings. 

POOD PRODUCTS SHIPPED IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE AFTER 
SEPTEMBER 3, 1914. 

First. — That the penalties of the act of fine, imprisonment, 
or confiscation cannot be enforced for violation of the net- 
weight amendment in respect to domestic food products pre- 
pared, or foreign food products imported, prior to September 
3, 1914. 

Second. — That if, after September 3, 1914, packages of 
food products not marked as required by this amendment be 
shipped in interstate or foreign commerce, or otherwise brought 
within the jurisdiction of the Food and Drugs Act, the burden 
will be upon the person guilty of the violation to show that 

121 



The Max Ams Machine Co, 



the article, if domestic, was prepared, or, if foreign, was im- 
ported, prior to September 3, 1914. 

Third. — Persons guilty of violations who cannot make proof 
that the preparation in the case of domestic, or importation in 
the case of foreign, food products was prior to September 3, 
1914, will be subject to the penalties of the Food and Drugs 
Act. 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR CANNED FOOD CASES. 

Approved at Baltimore, Md., February 4, 1914, in joint 
conference by the following committees in attendance: Canners' 
Conference Committee, National Wholesale Grocers' Confer- 
ence Committee, representatives of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Co., acting for the railroads; committee from National Box 
Makers' Association. 

The report of the conference with specifications was sub- 
mitted to the convention on the same date and unanimously 
passed by the convention of canners. 

Boxes must be made from sound grade of lumber, dry and 
well seasoned, with no loose knots in any part. 

Thickness of lumber in any part of the finished box must 
not be less than required by these specifications : 

BOXES HOLDING 2 DOZEN NO. 1, 4 DOZEN NO. 1, 2 DOZEN NO. 2, 
AND BOXES OP LESS CAPACITY. 

Ends. — % in. Dis, 1 or 2 pieces, when made of 2 pieces to 
be fastened with two corrugated metal fasteners, at least l}i 
in. long by % in. wide; or tongued, grooved and securely 
glued; or, cleated with two cleats on each end, % in. wide by 
% in. thick. Each cleat nailed with five nails sufficiently long 
to go through both thicknesses and clinch. 

Sides. — % in. thick Dis, not more than 2 pieces to be nailed 
to the end with at least 5 5-d cement coated or barbed fuU 
length nails at each nailing end. 

T. & B. — % in. Dis, or bottoms only may be smoothly sawn, 
not more than 3 pieces to be nailed to the end with 5 5-d cement 
coated or barbed full length nails at each nailing edge. 

122 



Mount Veenon, N.Y. 



24 NO. 2, NO. 3, 4% IN., 5 in., and 5I/2 in. 

Ends. — % in. thick Dis, 1 or 2 pieces. When made of 2 
pieces to be fastened with two corrugated metal fasteners, at 
least lys in- long by % in. wide; or tongued, grooved and 
securely glued; or, cleated with two cleats on each end, 1 in. 
wide by % in. thick. Each cleat nailed with five nails suffi- 
ciently long to go through both thicknesses and clinch. 

Sides. — % in. thick Dis or bottoms only may be smoothly 
sawn, not more than 3 pieces to be nailed to end with 5 5-d 
cement coated or barbed full length nails at each nailing place. 

T. & B. — % in. Dis, or bottoms only may be smoothly 
sawn, not more than 3 pieces to be nailed to the end with 5 5-d 
cement coated or barbed full-length nails at each nailing edge. 

CASES HOLDING 6 NO. 10 CANS. 

Specifications for this case shall be the same as 24 No. 2%, 
except that sides are to be nailed to end with 4 5-d cement 
coated or barbed full length nails at each nailing edge. 

12 NO. 10 CANS, WHEN PACKED TWO HIGH OU DOUBLE DECKEE. 

Ends. — 13/16 in. thick Dis, not over 3 pieces, each piece 
fastened together with two corrugated fasteners 1^ in. long 
by % in. wide; or, 13/16 in. thick Dis not over 3 pieces, when 
cleated with two wooden cleats on each end ; cleats not less than 
% in. thick by 1% in. wide. Each cleat nailed with not less 
than 6 nails sufficiently long enough to go through thicknesses 
and clinch. 

Sides. — % in. thick Dis, not over 3 pieces, to be nailed to 
end with not less than 6 6-d cement coated or barbed full length 
nails at each nailing edge. 

T. & B. — % in. Dis, or bottoms only may be smoothly sawn, 
not more than 3 pieces, nailed to end with at least 6 6-d cement 
coated or barbed full length nails at each nailing edge. 

Resolved, That the specifications of a standard case ap- 
proved by the National Canners' Convention, become effective 
July 1, 1914, except in such cases where shocks or cases were 
purchased prior to this date, and on and after July 1, 1915. No 
goods will be accepted in cases that do not comply with these 
specifications. 

133 



The Max Ams Machine Co, 



Further Resolved, That these resolutions be sent to W. T. 
Carter, who will refer them to the Official Classifications Com- 
mittees, for the purpose of making them effective. 

CANNED GOODS FOOD GUARANTY 

Approved by Joint Conference Committees of the National 
Wholesale Grocers' Association of the United States, and the 
National C^nners' Association. 

I (we), the undersigned, DO HEREBY WARRANT and 
GUARANTEE that the articles of foods and drugs which the 
undersigned has sold, or shaU. at any time hereafter prepare or 

manufacture for, or sell or deliver to do and 

will comply with the United States Food and Drugs Act, June 
30, 1906, and all amendments thereto, and are not and shall 
not be adulterated or misbranded within the meaning of the 
said act and amendments, and that they conform also to the 
food laws of the states to which I (we) ship them. 

However, if the guarantor shall use labels furnished by the 
buyer under specific labeling instructions, said guarantor shall 
not be responsible to the buyer for misbranding, but guarantees 
only that the contents comply with said food laws. 

This shall be a continuing guaranty until notice of revoca- 
tion be given in writing. Notice of acceptance of this guaranty 
is hereby waived. 
Dated at this 

day of 191 

REMSEN BOARD SANCTIONS MODERATE USE OF 
ALUM IN FOODS 

The United States Department of Agriculture has issued a 
bulletin announcement of the final decision by the Remsen 
Referee Board on the general subject of alum in foods. 

The decision of the Remsen Board followed the submission 
of questions to that Board with reference to the use of aluminum 
compounds, and whether they contained added poisonous or 
deleterious ingredients, and whether they are injurious to the 
strength of food. These questions were submitted to the Board 
following experiments conducted under the direction of the De- 
partment, and individual expressions are given by individual in- 

124 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



vestigators of the Remsen Board. The conclusions by the Board 
are summed up as follows: 

In their report the Board first define their understanding 
of the terms "small quantity" and "large quantity," as applied 
to alum baking powders, as foUows : 

"By the term 'small quantity' we understand such an amount 
as may be ingested in the normal use of biscuits, pastry or other 
articles leavened with baking powder, as these foods are prac- 
tically used in the ordinary American family. This amount 
wiU not average more than 25 to 75 milligrams (0.39 to 1.16 
grains) of aluminum daily for the days of consumption of such 
articles. 

"By the term 'large quantity' we understand such an amount 
of aluminum as would be ingested only under very unusual con- 
ditions, as, for example, where the flour consumption is mainly 
in the form of biscuits or other articles leavened with aluminum 
baking powders. This amount may reach 150 to 200 milligrams 
(2.31 to 3.09 grains) of aluminum per day. A person subsist- 
ing mainly on baking powder biscuits, as may happen in camp 
life, might ingest an amount in excess of 200 milligrams per 
day. With this possibility in mind, we have also studied the 
effects of amounts up to and exceeding 1,000 milligrams (15.4! 
grains) of aluminum per day." 

With this understanding of the terms the Board give the 
following answers to the questions submitted to them : 

"Aluminum compounds when used in the form of baking 
powders in foods have not been found to affect injuriously the 
nutritive value of such foods. 

"Aluminum compounds when added to foods in the form 
of baking powders, in small quantities, have not been found to 
contribute any poisonous or other deleterious effect which may 
render the said food injurious to health. The same holds true 
for the amount of aluminum wliich may be included in the ordi- 
nary consumption of aluminum baking powders furnishing up 
to 150 milligrams (2.31 grains) of aluminum daily. 

"Aluminum compounds when added to foods, in the form 
of baking powders, in large quantities, up to 200 milligrams 
(3.09 grains) or more per day, may provoke mild catharsis. 

"Very large quantities of aliuninum taken with foods in the 
form of baking powders usually provoke catharsis. This action 

125 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



of aluminum baking powders is due to the sodium sulphate 
which results from the reaction. 

"The aluminum itself has not been found to exert any dele- 
terious action injurious to health, beyond the production of 
occasional colic when very large amounts have been ingested. 

"When aluminum compounds are mixed or packed with a 
food, the quality or strength of said food has not been found to 
be thereby reduced, lowered or injuriously affected." 

In short, the Board concluded that alum baking powders are 
no more harmful than any other baking powders, but that it is 
wise to be moderate in the use of foods that are leavened with 
baking powder. 

CIRCULAR No. 68 OF THE BUREAU OF CHEMISTRY. 

While it is believed to be possible for manufacturers of 
tomato products to keep within the limits given — 25 miUion 
bacteria per cubic centimeter, 25 yeasts and spores per one- 
sixtieth cubic millimeter and molds in less than 25 per cent of 
the fields — and that these are the desirable maximum limits, 
they are in no case to be regarded as the final standard by which 
products of this nature are to be judged. Such products should 
be judged by no single factor but by all the factors involved, 
including the degree of concentration. 

/ 

PACKAGES OF FISH IN BRINE. 

It is the opinion of the Department that packages contain- 
ing fish in brine should bear a plain and conspicuous statement 
showing the net weight of the fish exclusive of the brine. 

PACKAGES OP OLIVES IN BRINE. 

In the opinion of the Department packages of olives in 
brine should be marked with a statement of the net weight of 
the olives exclusive of the brine. This should be stated in terms 
of the largest unit contained in the package. 

TOMATOES PACKED IN BRINE. 

It is the opinion of the Bureau that canned tomatoes, when 
labeled as such, must comply strictly with the requirements of 

136 



Mount Veenon, N.Y. 



Food Inspection Decision No. 144, and that the addition of 
water, brine, or juice in excess of that naturally present in the 
tomatoes canned would constitute an adulteration. 

There would appear to be no objection, however, to packing 
whole tomatoes in brine if sold under a label which clearly dis- 
tinguished them from canned tomatoes. In declaring the quan- 
tity of the contents of the food in such a package the statement 
should be based upon the weight of the tomatoes, exclusive of 
the brine. 

BROOKS LAW IN NEW YORK STATE IN EFFECT. 

The Brooks Law requiring the exact weight or measure to 
be plainly marked on all articles sold in the state of New York, 
became eifective February eighth. Weight, measure, or nu- 
merical count of contents must be indicated on the outside of 
all goods. The Bureau of Weights and Measures has taken 
steps to enforce penalties for violations of the law, which pro- 
vides a fine of from $25 to $100 for a first or second offense 
and from $100 to $500 for a third offense. 

Canned foods must be marked by the weight of the total 
contents in terms of pounds or ounces, or by the weight of the 
fruit or vegetable and the weight of the immersing fluid sepa- 
rately, or by the total contents in terms of gallons, quarts, pints, 
half pints, gills or fluid ounces. 

NEW YORK LAW REGARDING FRUIT PACKAGES. 

The law that all boxes, half boxes, crates, baskets, etc., 
holding fruit shall have stamped on them the approximate 
net weights or number of fruits as follows: 

Grapes, crates net weight 24-lbs. 

" baskets net weight 6-lbs. 

Plums, crates net weight 20-lbs. 

" baskets net weight S-lbs. 

Pears, boxes net weight 46-lbs. 

" half boxes net weight 23-lbs. 

Peaches — Number of fruit per box or approximate net weight. 
Apples — Number of fruit per box or approximate net weight. 

This virtually means that there must be stamped somewhere 
on each of these packages these net weights, or the number of 
peaches or number of apples in each box, otherwise there may 

137 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



be trouble as the Commissioner of Weights says that he intends 
to enforce this law. As other cities are also taking this matter 
up, it is urged that fruit be marked or stamped correctly. 

STOPPING GOODS IN TRANSIT. 

The rights of the packer of canned foods to withhold ship- 
ment or toi stop the goods in transit, where the packer has rea- 
son to believe that the buyer is in a weak financial condition and 
will not be able to make payment for the goods on arrival, are 
summed up as follows: 

"In the absence of insolvency on the part of the buyer, the 
packer has no legal right to withhold the shipment ; that is, if 
he does withhold shipment in the absence of insolvency of the 
buyer, he does so at his own risk. He would be fully protected 
in this if insolvency on the part of the buyer should happen 
pending the arrival of the goods at their destination. By 'in- 
solvency' it is not to be understood that the parties had actually 
taken the benefit of or had been forced into insolvency or bank- 
ruptcy, but a general inability to pay one just and admitted 
debt would probably be sufficient evidence. 

"This is the situation as far as the law is concerned. The 
packer will therefore have to decide for himself whether he 
feels justified in taking the risk of withholding shipment or 
taking some steps whereby he may be protected in making the 
shipment." 

It will thus be seen that the determination of a matter of 
this kind is left largely to the discretion of the seller, unless, of 
course, the buyer should become insolvent between the date of 
the sale and the date of delivery, in ivhich case the packer 
would be fully justified in withholding shipment or in stopping 
the goods in transit. 

OFFICIAL WEIGHTS FOR CANNED FOODS. 

The following is a list of the official arbitrary weights of 
contents to be used on labels to comply with the various State 
and National Pure Food Laws, as agreed upon by the Coopera- 
tive Committee of the National Wholesale Grocers' Association 
and the National Canners' Association. 

138 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



These weights allow for reasonable tolerances; in other 
words, cans reasonably well filled will weigh more than the 
weight expressed below. The following legend is recommended: 
"Contents" to be expressed .... Pounds Ounces. 



No. Lbs. Ozs. 



No. 



Apples 3% 

4i%-inch 3 

5-inch 3 

Si/g-inch 3 

8 

10 

Apple Butter 1 

1 

4%-lnch 3 

5-lnch 3 

Apple Sauce 2% 

10 

Asparagus, Round 

Salmon 1 

Square 1 

Flat 2 



!% 



Square 3 

8 

10 

Beans (Wax and 
Refugee) 1 

1% 

3 

4%-inch 3 

5-inch 3 

8 

10 

Beans (Red Kidney) 1 

3 

478-inch 3 

10 

Beans (Lima) .... 1 
1% 



10 

Beans (Baked) ... 1 

3 

4%-inch 3 

10 

Beets 3 

3 

10 

Blackberries, H. S.. 3 

Water 2 

H. S 31/ 

3 

10 

Blueberries, H. S.. . 2 



10 

13 

14 

3 

6 

14 

11 

11 

1 

1 

13 

11 

15 

15 
3 
3 

14 


10 



11 

14 

3 

15 



3 

6 

10 

4 



11 

11 

14 

4 

11 

11 

5 

3 

10 

4 

1 

4 

5 

3 

14 

13 

8 

4 



Water 



.10 



Cabbage 3 

California Fruits, 
Extra (Tall).. 1 
Extra Standards 

(TaU) 1 

Seconds (Tall).. 1 
Extra (Flat).... 1 
Seconds (Flat).. 1 

Extra li/a 

Seconds 1% 

Extra 31/2 

Extra Standards. 31/3 

Standards 2% 

Seconds 2% 

Water 21/2 

Pie 2% 

Extra 5-inch 3 

Extra Standards. 8 
Water 8 

California Fruits, 

Pie 8 

Extra 10 

Water 10 

Cherries, H. S 2 

Water 2 

H. S 21/2 

10 

Clams 1 



Lbs. Ozs. 

1 3 

6 12 

3 



Corn 



10 

Gooseberries, H. S. 1 

Water 1 

H. S 3 

Water 2 

H. S 3% 

10 

Hominy 2% 

4%-inch 3 

514-inch 3 

10 

Milk Baby 

Family 

Tall 

Hotel 

Okra 2 

3 

10 










IS 

15 

15 

14 

1 



14 

14 

14 

13 

12 

12 

4 

8 

4 

4 

14 

6 

5 

3 

IS 

9 

S 

10 

11 

4 

8 

13 

11 

S 

3 



7 

IS 



4 

11 

6 

11 

15 

3 

3 



14 



139 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



No. 

Okra and Tomatoes 2 
3 

Oysters, 3-11/16x3% 
2-11/16x3-6/16 .. 

2-11/16x4 1 

33/8x3-5/16 

3%x3-15/16 

33/8x4-9/16 3 

Peaches, H. S 1 

H. S. (Flat).... 11/2 

H. S 3 

Water 3 

H. S 3% 

Water 3% 

H. S. 4%-inch . . 3 
10 

Peach Butter 3 

Pears, H. S 3 

Water 3 

H. S 3% 

H. S. 4%-mch . . 3 
10 

Peas 1 

1% 

3 

10 

Pineapple (Buffet) 1 

(Flat) 3 

(Tall) 3 

3 

2% 

4%-inch 3 

Pineapple 8 

Plums, H. S 2 

H. S 3% 

Water 31/2 

H. S. 4%-inch . . 3 
10 

Pork and Beans ... Vj 



1 

2 

2% 

4%-inch 3 

10 

Pumpkin 2 

2% 

4%-inch 3 



Lbs. 
1 
2 







1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
6 
1 
1 
1 
1 



Ozs. 

2 



3 

4 

5 

6 

8 
10 
10 

3 

4 

3 
14 
13 



6 

4 

4 

3 
14 



8 
11 
15 

4 
12 

9 

3 

5 

4 
15 
15 



6 
14 
13 

1 

6 

6 

9 
11 

5 



3 
14 

3 
14 

1 



No. 

Si/g-inch 3 

10 

Raspberries, H. S.. 2 

Water 2 

H. S 21/2 

10 

Rhubarb 21/2 

10 

Salmon ^ 

(Tall, Flat and 
Oval) 1 

Sardines 14 

% 

Sauerkraut 3 

sy^ 

4y8-inch 3 

Si/a-inch 3 

10 

Shrimp (Wet and 
Dry) 1 

iy2 

Spinach 3 

iVz 

4%-inch 3 

S-inch 3 

5y2-inch 3 

10 

Squash, 4y8-inch . . 3 
10 

Strawberries, H. S. 1 

H. S 2 

H. S 21/2 

10 

Succotasli 1 

2 

10 

Sweet Potatoes, 

4%-inch 3 

5-inch 2 

10 

Tomatoes 1 

IK, 

. .'.'.'.:'.'.'.'.'.'.v.'.'.'. 214 

4%-inch 3 

5-inch 3 

5y2-inch 3 

8 

10 



Lbs. 
2 
6 
1 
1 
1 
6 
1 
6 





1 
1 



Ozs. 

5 

8 

5 

3 
14 
10 
IS 

4 

7% 

15% 

3% 
11 

3 
13 



4 

4 

4 

9 

2 

9 
14 
14 

4 

4 

1 

9 
11 

4 
12 

4 
11 

4 

9 

15 



4 
11 
13 

3 
13 



1 

5 

4 

7 



130 



Mount Veenon, N.Y. 



ENFORCEMENT OF FEDERAL AND STATE FOOD 

LAWS AFFECTING CANNERS AND OTHER 

FOOD MANUFACTURERS. 

GENEKAI. SYNOPSIS OF FOOD LEGISLATION AFFECTING THE MANU- 
FACTURE AND SALE OF CANNED FOODS NATIONAL 

CANNERS' ASSOCIATION BULLETIN NO. 28. 

The purpose of the Federal Act, as set forth in its caption, 
is to prevent the manufacture, sale or transportation in inter- 
state commerce of adulterated or misbranded or poisonous or 
.deleterious foods, drugs, medicines or liquors, and for regulating 
traffic therein, and for other purposes. 

ADULTERATION 

under the National Law is defined as follows: 

First. If any substance has been mixed and packed with 
it so as to reduce or lower or injuriously affect its quality or 
strength ; 

Second; If any substance has been sustituted wholly or in 
part for the article; 

Third. If any valuable constituent of the article has been 
wholly or in part abstracted ; 

Fourth. If it be mixed, colored, powdered, coated or stained 
in a manner whereby damage or inferiority is concealed ; 

Fifth. If it contain any added poisonous or other added 
deleterious ingredient which may render such article injurious 
to health ; provided, that when in the preparation of food prod- 
ucts for shipment they are preserved by an external applica- 
tion applied in such manner that the preservative is necessarily 
removed mechanicsilly, or by maceration in water, or otherwise, 
and directions for the removal of said preservative shall be 
printed on the covering of the package, the provisions of this 
Act shall be construed as applying only when said products are 
ready for consumption. 

Sixth. If it consists in whole or in part of a filthy, decom- 
posed or putrid animal or vegetable substance, or any portion 
of an animal unfit for food, whether manufactured or not, or 
if it is the product of a diseased animal, or one that has died 
otherwise than by slaughter. 

131 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



MISBBANDING 

under the National Law is defined as follows : 

First. If it be an imitation of or offered for sale under the 
distinctive name of another article; 

Second. If it be labeled or branded so as to deceive or mis- 
lead the purchaser, or purport to be a foreign product when 
not so, or if the contents of the package as originally put up 
shall have been removed in whole or in part and other contents 
shall have been placed in such package, or if it fail to bear a 
statement on the label of the quantity or proportion of any mor- 
phine, opium, cocaine, heroin, alpha or beta eucaine, chloroform, 
cannabis indica, chloral hydrate or acetanihd, or any derivative 
or preparation of any of such substances contained therein ; 

Third. If in package form, the quantity of the contents 
be not plainly and conspicuously marked on the outside of the 
package in terms of weight, measure or numerical count; pro- 
vided, however, that reasonable variations shall be permitted, 
and tolerances and also exemptions as to small packages shall 
be established by rules and regulations made in accordance with 
the provisions of section three of this Act; 

Fourth. If the package containing it or its label shall bear 
any statement, design or device regarding the ingredients or 
the substances contained therein, which statement, design or de- 
vice shall be false and misleading in any particular. 

This Act of Congress and the rules and regulations made by 
the three Secretaries under its authority, are applicable to ai> 
tides of food, drug or liquor being transported from one State, 
territory or district or insular possession to another for sale, 
or, having been transported, should remain unloaded, unsold, 
or in original unbroken packages, or to such articles sold or 
offered for sale in the District of Columbia or the territories or 
insular possessions of the United States, or imported from a 
foreign country for sale or intended for export to a foreign 
country. 

The three Secretaries formulated forty rules and regulations 
for the enforcement of the above act. 

The special provisions of the National Law, so far as the 
same relate to adulteration and misbranding and are applicable 

133 



Mount Veknon, N.Y. 



to the manufacture, transportation and sale of canned foods, 
have been adopted by the following States : 



Alabama, 

Arizona, 

Arkansas, 

California, 

Colorado, 

Connecticut, 

Delaware, 

District of Columbia, 

Florida, 

Georgia, 

Hawaiian Islands, 

Idaho, 

Illinois, 

Indiana, 

Iowa, 

Kansas, 



Kentucky, 

Louisiana, 

Maine, 

Maryland, 

Massachusetts, 

Michigan, 

Minnesota, 

Mississippi, 

Missouri, 

Montana, 

Nebraska, 

Nevada, 

New Hampshire, 

New Jersey, 

New Mexico, 

New York,* 



North Carolina, 

North Dakota, 

Ohio, 

Oklahoma, 

Oregon, 

Pennsylvania, 

Rhode Island, 

South Carolina, 

South Dakota, 

Texas, 

Utah, 

Vermont, 

Virginia, 

Washington,! 

West Virginia, 

Wisconsin, 

Wyoming. 



The amendment of the National Law, by the Act of Con- 
gress of March 3, 1913, requires aU food in package form to 
be marked with 



STATEMENT OF WEIGHT, MEASURE OB, COUNT. 

The regulation for the enforcement of this amendment speci- 
fies the manner in which the statement must be made, namely : 

(a) It must appear on the outside of the covering or con- 
tainer usually delivered to consumers ; 

(b) It must be plain and conspicuous, not obscured by any 
legend or design, so placed and in such characters as to be 
readily seen and clearly legible when the size of the package 
and the circumstances under which it is originally examined by 
the purchaser or consumer are taken into consideration ; 

(c) The quantity of the contents must be stated in terms 
of the largest unit contained in the package and fractions 
thereof. 



♦Attention ia called to Act of 1885 hereinafter quoted. 

tSpecial statute covering labeling of canned Salmon, as hereinafter noted. 

133 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



It therefore appears that compliance with the terms of the 
National Law, as now amended, will meet the requirements of 
all State laws except the following: 

CALIFOUNIA. 

This State reqxiires that the words "net contents," or the 
words "net weight," or the words "net measure," or the words 
"net count" shall appear with and as a part of the designation 
of the quantity of the commodity in the package. 

CONNECTICUT. 

Under the Connecticut law the term "package" has been con- 
strued to mean such things as cases of bottles and other enclosed 
packages. We have, therefore, heretofore advised the stenciling 
of cases to show the net contents of cans enclosed, where goods 
are intended for shipment into the State of Connecticut. 

FLOEIDA. 

By the law of this State the word "net" is required to be 
placed after the statement of the weight or measure, as for in- 
stance, 8 oz. net, etc. 

NEW YORK. 

By the laws of this State canned foods must be marked in 
one of the following ways : 

1. Weight of the total contents, including syrup or brine, 
in terms of pounds and ounces; 

2. Weight of fruits or vegetables and the weight of syrup 
or brine separately, both being expressed in the same terms and 
one immediately under the other; 

3. Total contents in terms of gallons, quarts, pints, half 
pints, gills and fluid ounces. 

Where the weight of contents is expressed in one-quarter 
pounds, one-half pounds, pounds or multiples of the half-pound, 
or in terms of gallons, quarters, pints, half-pints or giUs, the 
letters shall be bold-faced type at least one-ninth of an inch in 
height; othenvise, the letter shall be bold-faced type not less 
than three-sixteenths of an inch in height. 

The average of twelve cans shall not vary more than three 
per cent from the amount stated on the can. 

134 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



If the marking is placed on an uncovered part of the tin, 
the letters must be not less than three-eighths of an inch in 
height. 

A New York statute enacted in 1885 requires that canned 
foods shall be branded with "the name, address and place of 
business" of the packer, or the name of the wholesaler and the 
name "of the State, county and city, town or village where 
packed, preceded by the words 'packed at.' " 

This statute, so far as we are aware, has never been enforced, 
nor has any action been brought under it. Attention is now 
called to it because it is on the statute books, and especially be- 
cause the recently appointed Superintendent of Weights and 
Measures has announced that he intends to enforce its provi- 
sions. This announcement was made several months ago, but so 
far we are not advised that any action looking to the enforce- 
ment of the act has been taken. 

KHODE ISLAND. 

The Rhode Island law as amended at the last session of the 
legislature, requires the quantity of contents to be plainly and 
conspicuously marked on the outside of the package in terms 
of weight, measure or numerical count; provided, however, that 
reasonable variations shall be permitted, in accordance with rules 
and regulations to be adopted. 

This amendment is now in effect, but provides that no 
penalty shall be enforced thereunder prior to November 1, 1915. 
The regulations for its enforcement have not yet been promul- 
gated. 

WASHINGTON. 

The laws of the State of Washington require that salmon 
packed on Puget Sound and prepared for sale and export by 
being hermetically sealed in cans made of tin or other metal, 
shall be labeled with the words "Puget Sound Salmon," to- 
gether with the name of the person engaged in the business of 
such preparation for export and sale, and the name of their 
place of business ; and that the cans shall likewise be packed in 
cases marked by label or otherwise in plain letters with the name 
of the place where said salmon were caught, and also the name 
of the State in full and the name of the party or parties putting 
up the same. 

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SUGGESTIONS. 



1. The general purpose of food legislation, as shown by 
the text of the laws now being considered, are three-fold, namely : 

(a) To protect the pubUc health. 

(b) To prevent fraud and deception. 

(c) To prevent unfair competition. 

Legislation designed for these purposes is a valid exercise 
of the police power of the State, and as such is constitutional. 

2. These laws make the sale, etc., of adulterated or mis- 
branded foods an offense, and fix a penalty for their violation. 

3. All manufacturers of canned foods would do well to 
thoroughly familiarize themselves with the provisions of the 
National Food and Drugs Act and the regulations for its en- 
forcement, as the same are now in effect. These are the funda- 
mental principles underlying most of the food legislation of 
the country, and compliance with their provisions wiU meet 
the requirements of State laws, except as herein otherwise noted. 

4. In making a statement of quantity of contents upon the 
label of food packages, we would suggest as follows : 

(a) Every such statement should be plainly and conspicu- 
ously printed. It must be a correct statement. 

(b) Where the quantity in a package will vary, it is ad- 
visable to state the minimiun weight or measure the package 
will contain. Do not use the word "minimum" or any similar 
language; make a definite, unqualified statement. The varia- 
tion must not be below the amount stated oftener that it is 
above the amount stated. If you attempt to state the average 
weight or measure, you must be sure it wiU be the average on 
every case of goods you put out. It is not sufficient to have 
one case of goods average above the stated weight or measure, 
and another case average below the weight or measure stated. 
Every case of goods should average correctly. 

5. The terms "net weight" or "net measure" mean exclu- 
sive of all wrappers, containers, etc. They mean that the actual 
weight or measure of the commodity in the package must be 
stated. 

We advise, therefore, that instead of saying "net weight" 
or "net measure," the terms "weight of contents," or "measure 
of contents" be employed. This applies to all goods except 

136 



Mount Veenon, N.Y. 



those destined for States requiring the use of the term "net" in 
connection with the statement of the quantity of contents. 

6. Weights should be stated in terms of pounds, ounces 
and grains avoirdupois. Measure should be stated in terms 
of gallons, quarts and fluid ounces. 

7. The statement of contents should be printed in type 
proportionate in size to the other type on the label. It is not 
sufficient to make this statement in type equal in size to the 
smallest type employed for the expression of other matters on 
the label. 

8. All canned foods must be honestly filled; that is, all 
cans must be as full of the material being packed as can be 
done without injuring its quality or appearance; and if the 
use of water, brine or syrup is necessary, no more of such water, 
brine or syrup shall be used than is required to fill the spaces 
between the material being packed. 

9. Pulp from trimmings, cores and other waste material 
must not be added to canned tomatoes, nor must tomato juice 
in excess of the amount present in the tomatoes be used in can- 
ning. It is likewise unlawful to add any water to canned toma- 
toes. All of these matters constitute adulteration. 

10. No fraud or deception may be practiced in the prepara- 
tion of canned foods, nor may they be so labeled as to convey 
an impression in any way false or misleading. 

11. All canned foods bearing a serial number guaranty 
must be labeled in accordance with law as it existed on the 5th 
of May, 1914i. Such goods may be shipped interstate until 
May 1, 1916, and until November 1, 1916, provided they are 
labeled prior to May 1, 1916, in accordance with the law in 
force on the 5th of May, 1914. 

12. Products shipped into a State before September 3, 
1914, either to wholesaler or retailers, and not thereafter 
shipped out of the State nor within the State in original pack- 
age, will not be subject to the weight or measure branding re- 
quirements of the National law, but only to the State require- 
ment. 

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For the convenience of the members of the Association, we 
append herewith a list of the Food Officers of the various States 
of the Union. 

STATE OFFICIALS. 

Alabama. — C. H. Billingsley, Food, Drug and Feed Clerk, 
Montgomery. 

Arizona. — Charles A. Merserve, Director State Laboratory, 
University of Arizona, Tucson. 

Arkansas. — John H. Page, Commissioner of Agriculture, Little 
Rock. 

Califoenia. — M. E. Jaffa, M.D., Director, State Food and 
Drug Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley. 

Colorado. — John Lynch, Food and Drug Commissioner, Capi- 
tol Building, Denver. 

Connecticut. — Frank H. Stadtmueller, Dairy and Food Com- 
missioner, Hartford. 

Delaware. — ^A. E. Frantz, M.D., Secretary, State Board of 
Health, Wilmington. 

District op Columbia. — ^William C. Woodward, M.D., Health 
Officer, Health Department, Washington. 

Florida. — R. E. Rose, State Chemist, Tallahassee. 

Georgia. — ^R. E. StaUings, State Chemist, Atlanta. 

Idaho. — John K. White, State Food Commissioner, Boise. 

Illinois. — ^W. Scott Matthews, State Food Conmiissioner, Chi- 
cago. 

Indiana. — H. E. Barnard, State Food and Drug Commissioner, 
Indianapolis. 

Iowa. — ^W. B. Barney, State Dairy and Food Commissioner, 
Des Moines. 

Kansas. — S. J. Crumbine, Secretary, State Board of Health, 
Topeka. 

Kentucky. — R. M. Allen, Chief, Food and Drug Department, 
Lexington. 

Louisiana. — Oscar Dowling, President, State Board of Health, 
New Orleans. 

Maine. — A. M. G. Soule, Chief, Bureau of Inspection, Augusta. 

Maryland. — Charles Caspari, Jr., State Food and Drug Com- 
missioner, Baltimore. 

138 



Mount Veenon, N.Y. 



Massachusetts. — Herman C. Lythgoe, Analyst, State De- 
partment of Health, Boston. 

Michigan. — James W. Helme, State Dairy and Food Commis- 
sioner, Lansing. 

Minnesota. — Joel G. Winkjer, State Dairy and Food Commis- 
sioner, St. Paul. 

Mississippi. — 'W. F. Hand, State Chemist, Agricultural College. 

Missouri. — F. H. Fricke, State Food and Drug Commissioner, 
St. Louis. 

Montana. — F. W. Cogswell, Secretary, State Board of Health, 
Helena. 

Nebraska. — Charles E. Harmon, Deputy Food Commissioner, 
Lincoln. 

Nevada. — S. C. Dinsmore, State Food and Drug Commissioner, 
Reno. 

New Hampshire. — Irving A. Watson, Secretary State Board 
of Health, Concord. 

New Jersey. — R. B. Fitz-Randolph, Chief Food and Drugs 
Division, Trenton. 

New York. — Calvin J. Huson, Commissioner of Agriculture, 
Albany. 

North Carolina. — ^W. A. Graham, Commissioner of Agricul- 
ture, Raleigh. 

North Dakota. — E. F. Ladd, State Food Commissioner, Agri- 
cultural CbUege. 

Ohio. — S. E. Strode, Dairy and Food Commissioner, Columbus. 

Oklahoma. — J. C. Mahr, Commissioner of Health, Oklahoma 
City. 

Oregon. — J. D. Mickle, Dairy and Food Commissioner, Port- 
land. 

Pennsylvania. — J. M. Foust, State Dairy and Food Commis- 
sioner, Harrisburg. 

Rhode Island. — Frank A. Jackson, Chairman, Board of Food 
and Drug Inspection, Providence. 

South Carolina. — E. J. Watson, Commissioner of Agricul- 
ture, Columbia. 

South Dakota. — Guy R. Frary, Food and Drug Commissioner, 
Vermilion. 

Tennessee. — ^Lucius P. Brown, State Food and Drug Com- 
missioner, Nashville. 

139 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Texas. — C. O. Yates, Food and Drug Commissioner, Austin. 

Utah. — ^Willard Hansen, Dairy and Food Commissioner, Salt 
Lake City. 

Veemont. — B. H. Stone, State Board of Health, Burlington. 

ViEGiNiA. — B. L. Purcell, State Dairy and Food Commissioner, 
Richmond. 

Washington. — J. H. Perkins, Commissioner of Agriculture, 
Seattle. 

West Virginia. — John N. Millan, Secretary, State Board of 
Agriculture, Charleston. 

Wisconsin. — J. Q. Emery, State Dairy and Food Commis- 
sioner, Madison. 

Wyoming. — Maurice Groshon, Dairy, Food and Oil Commis- 
sioner, Cheyenne. 

FOOD STANDARDS FIXED BY THE CANADIAN 
GOVERNMENT 

The Government has announced the adoption of a number 
of food standards for Canada, including canned peas, fruit and 
fruit products. 

GKEEN and ripe CANNED PEAS 

The following standards of quality have been established 
for canned peas: 

1. Canned peas, unless specially designated as below, shall 
be prepared from the harvest of the year in which they are 
canned, and shall be the unripe peas of the crop of that year. 

2. Ripe peas may be canned, provided that the label shows 
quite clearly that they are such. This may be done either by 
labeling them as canned ripe peas, or by the use of the word 
soaked. 

3. Mixtures of ripe and unripe (or green) peas shall be 
plainly labeled in such a way as to show that they are mixtures. 

4. Peas which do not comply with the above regulations 
shall be deemed to be adulterated under the act. 

fruit and fruit products defined 

1. Fruits are the clean, sound, edible, fleshy, fructifications 
of plants, distinguished by their sweet, acid and ethereal flavors. 

2. Dried fruit is the clean, sound product made by drying 

140 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



matured properly prepared fresh fruit in such a way as to take 
up no harmful substances ; and conforms in name to the fruit 
used in its preparation. 

3. Evaporated fruit is dried fruit in whose preparation ar- 
tificial heat has been employed. 

4. Evaporated apples shall contain not more than 27 per 
cent of moisture. 

5. Canned fruit is the sound product made by sterilizing 
clean, sound, properly matured and prepared fresh fruit, by 
heating with or without sugar, and keeping in suitable, clean, 
hermetically sealed containers; and conforms in name to the 
fruit used in its preparation. 

6. Preserve is the sound product made from clean, sound, 
properly matured and prepared fresh fruit and sugar syrup, 
with or without spices and vinegar, and conforms in name to 
the fruit used in its preparation. 

7. Jam, marmalade, is the sound product made from clean, 
sound, properly matured and prepared fresh fruit or fruit pulp 
and sugar, with or without spices or vinegar, by boiling to a 
semi-solid consistence; and conforms in name to the fruit used 
in its preparation. 

8. Fruit butter is the sound product made from fruit juice, 
and clean, sound, properly matured and prepared fruit, boiled 
to a semi-solid mass of homogeneous consistence, with or without 
the addition of sugar and spices or vinegar, and conforms in 
name to the fruit used in its preparation. 

9. Jelly, fruit jeUy, is the sound, semi-solid gelatinous prod- 
uct made by boiling clean, sound, properly matured and pre- 
pared fresh fruit with water, concentrating the expressed and 
strained juice, to which sugar is added, and conforms in name to 
the fruit used in its preparation. 

10. When jam, marmalade, fruit butter, or jelly contains 
other fruit or fruit juice than that which gives its special name 
to the article, the fact of the presence of such other fruit shall 
be stated upon the label, in lettering as large and as distinct as 
that used in naming the fruit principally present. This re- 
quirement does not, however, apply to the use of fruit juice, 
up to the amount of ten (10) per cent of weight of the jam, 
etc., used instead of water in the manufacture of the jam, etc. 

141 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



11. When the sugar in preserve, jam, marmalade, fruit but- 
ter or jelly is whoUy or partially replaced by glucose, or by any 
other substitute for sugar, the fact of such substitution shall 
be stated upon the label in plain lettering. 

FOOD COLORING REGULATIONS IN CANADA 

Regulations governing the use of coloring matter in food 
products have been made by order-in-council and announced. 
Pure whole milk cheese, confectionery, ice cream and ices and 
butter may hereafter be artificially colored, provided that only 
harmless coloring matter are used and no declaration of their 
presence will be necessary. 

Spirits, vinegar, sauces, non-excisable fermented beverages 
and summer or so-called "temperance" beverages may be colored 
with caramel only without declaration of coloring. In all other 
cases the presence of artificial coloring matter must be declared 
on the label in legible type. 

The coloring matters which are regarded as harmless to 
health are: Caramel, cochineal, saffron, chlorophyll and innoc- 
uous vegetable color extractives, also the folloTving coal-tar 
dyes, which must be free from arsenic and heavy metal except 
iron, and must not be used in quantities exceeding two grains 
per pound; amaranth, poncean, erythrosin, orange, naphthol 
yellow, light green, indigo carmine di-sulphonic acid. Copper 
salts may be used to color peas provided that the amount of 
copper in the peas does not exceed eighty parts by weight per 
million in the drained peas, or ten parts per million in the im- 
bedded liquid. 

48,000 VARIETIES OF TIN CONTAINERS 

At present the American Can Company is producing about 
48,000 different kinds of containers, the largest sellers being fish, 
fruit and vegetable cans. Containers for coffee, milk, tea, bis- 
cuits, tobacco, phonograph needles, talcum and tooth powders, 
soap, etc., are also important products, running well into the 
hundreds of millions. 

JAPANESE CRAB 

The "Japanese Crab" is the best-known of specie. He 
measures ten feet between the claws, each of which is five feet 

143 



Mount Veenon, N.Y. 



long, though the body, however, is comparatively small and is 
triangular in shape. These crabs are caught in nets out in the 
open sea, from three to five miles from shore, the net baited with 
fish being sunk to the bottom of the ocean. The fishermen, on 
becoming adept can tell on pulling the rope which holds the net, 
whether they have caught any crabs or not, without hauling it 
to the surface of the water. After feeling that they have a 
sufficient quantity in the net, they pull it into the boat, when the 
meat is extracted from the shell and placed, after salting it, in 
a receptacle where it remains until the day's work is ended, when 
it is taken to the factory, where it is prepared, canned and de- 
livered to us as you see it on the tables. 

REGISTRATION OF PATENTS IN THE PHILIPPINES 

An act was passed at the last session of the Philippine Leg- 
islature providing for the registration and protection of patents 
and trade-marks in the Philippine Islands. Any patent or 
trade-mark registered in the United States Patent Office, upon 
being filed in the Executive Bureau of the Philippines, shall re- 
ceive the same protection as is accorded in the United States, 
and persons infringing such patent or trade-mark shall be liable 
to the same penalties, provided the rights of property in patents 
and trade-marks secured in the Philippine Islands under the 
Spanish laws shall be respected as if such laws were in full force 
and eff^ect. To file a patent for protection, a certified copy of 
the patent should be sent, with a fee of 2 pesos ($1) and a let- 
ter of transmittal, to the chief of the division of archives, pat- 
ents, copyrights, and trade-marks, of the Executive Bureau of 
the Philippine Islands. A certified copy of a patent may be filed 
by another than the owner of the patent if such agent is given 
power of attorney. Assignments of patents may be filed in the 
same manner. Any questions arising under this act shall be 
determined by courts of first instance of the Supreme Court of 
the Philippines. This law became efi'ective February 10, 1913. 

ANNUAL LOSS BY INSECT PESTS 

In 1904 the United States Department of Agriculture made 
a study of the annual losses to the people of this country by the 
ravages of destructive insects. So far as we know, the estimates 

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The Max Ams Machine Co. 



published in the Year-book for 1904! have not been disproven or 
disputed. Behold some of the figures: 

OuE Annual Losses by Insect Pests 

Percentage Amount 

Product of Loss of Loss 

Cereals 10 $200,000,000 

Hay 10 53,000,000 

Cotton 10 60,000,000 

Tobacco 10 5,300,000 

Truck crops 20 53,000,000 

Sugars 10 5,000,000 

Fruits 20 27,000,000 

Farm forests 10 11,000,000 

Miscellaneous crops 10 5,800,000 

Total $420,100,000 

The codlin moth and other apple pests cost us about $8,250,- 
000 a year for spraying operations and $12,000,000 a year in 
shrinkage of value in the apple crop. 

The chinch bug wheat pest sometimes costs us $20,000,000 a 
year. 

The cotton boll weevil costs the cotton planters $20,000,000 
a year. 

The tree insect pests cost the nation $100,000,000 a year. 

The grasshoppers, cut-worms, army-worms, wire-worms, leaf- 
hoppers and other insects cost the nation, annually, more millions 
than can be counted separately ; but the total for aU insect pests 
is $420,100,000. Now, have we not paid this price about long 
enough .'' 

The American people do not realize that scores of species of 
the birds that sportsmen and pot hunters are regularly allowed 
to shoot for sport are of immense value to agriculture. 

"PTOMAIN POISONING" NOT DUE TO PTOMAINS 

Like many names given hastily or carelessly, this term is now 
known to be inexact as generally applied. Dr. H. J. Hutchens, 
Professor of Bacteriology in the University of Durham, brings 
out quite clearly that the symptoms of poisoning often attributed 
to some article of food are not due to ptomains, but to toxins 

144 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



formed by bacteria; that sometimes these toxins are in the food 
before it is eaten, but more often only the bacteria themselves are 
there, and it is their activity in the digestive organs that causes 
the serious or even fatal symptoms usually described as ptomain 
poisoning. Dr. Hutchens writes: 

"The term ptomain poisoning is inexact, because it leads by 
inference to the assumption that the symptoms are due to 
ptomains, while, in fact, as wiU be shown, these substances are 
not the cause of the disease. The word ptomain was introduced 
by the Italian toxicologist Selmi, to describe certain chemical sub- 
stances more or less allied to the vegetable alkaloids which had 
been found in putrescent meat and decomposing albuminous mat- 
ter. . . . 

"They are found in only very small amounts in decomposing 
animal matter, and it is only when meat is in so advanced a stage 
of decomposition as to be totally unfit for human food that they 
are present at all. Moreover, many of the ptomains are non- 
poisonous, and the majority of those that act as poisons exert 
their influence on the nervous system rather than on the alimen- 
tary system. 

"Food poisoning is, therefore, the result of the action of the 
specific toxins of bacteria on persons who consume meat or other 
food infected with living organisms or their toxins, or both. 
The non-specific products should also, perhaps, be included ; for 
though the evidence so far available is against the view that they 
take any part in the production of food-poisoning, it cannot be 
stated as a definitely ascertained fact that they never exert any 
influence. This definition at once excludes from the category of 
food-poisoning all cases of poisoning following the consumption 
of food containing arsenic, lead, strychnin, or other well-defined 
chemical substance, whether administered intentionally for crim- 
inal purposes or taken by accident. On the other hand, the gen- 
erally accepted use of the term does not include such diseases as 
enteric fever, Malta fever, etc., though these are also the direct 
result of eating food specifically contaminated with the organ- 
isms of those diseases." 

This is an excellent, and we may say, authoritative explana- 
tion of what ptomain poisoning really is. Reading it carefully 
we gain from it additional knowledge of a subject which, through 
the ignorance of the general public and, it would seem, a goodly 

145 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



portion of the medical profession in the United States, has be- 
come a matter of great interest to canned food packers. We do 
not directly charge the American medical profession with igno- 
rance of ptomains yet the average physician seems unable to dis- 
associate ptomain poisoning from canned foods, and for this 
there is no warrant. 

PARCEL POST RATE 

Fifty-Pound Paecel Post Limit Now in Effect 

Changes of importance in the parcel post regulations, ef- 
fective January 1, 1914. In brief form, the amendments to the 
government's rules involving the shipment, rates and delivery 
of mail packages are as follows: 

On and after January 1, 1914, the limit of weight of parcels 
for delivery in the first and second zones will be fifty pounds (in- 
stead of twenty pounds as at present), and the rate in the first 
zone wiU be as follows: Local rate, 6 cents for one pound, 7 
cents for five pounds, 10 cents for ten pounds, 12 cents for fifteen 
pounds, 15 cents for twenty pounds, 17 cents for twenty-five 
pounds, 20 cents for thirty pounds, 22 cents for thirty-five 
pounds, 25 cents for forty pounds, 27 cents for forty-five 
pounds, and 30 cents for fifty pounds. 

The zone rate in the first zone wiU be 5 cents for one pound, 
9 cents for five pounds, 14 cents for ten pounds, 19 cents for fif- 
teen pounds, 24 cents for twenty pounds, 29 cents for twenty- 
five pounds, 34 cents for thirty pounds, 39 cents for thirty-five 
pounds, 44 cents for forty pounds, 49 cents for forty-five 
pounds, and 54 cents for fifty pounds. In the second zone the 
rates on one pound or over will be the same as in the first zone. 

The new regulations provide that in the third, fourth, fifth, 
sixth, seventh and eighth zones the limits of weight rise to twenty 
pounds (instead of eleven pounds as at present), and the rates 
of postage for parcels weighing over four ounces in these zones 
will be as f oUows : 

Third zone: Six cents for the first pound and 2 cents for 
each additional pound or fraction. Fourth zone: Seven cents 
for the first pound and 4 cents for each additional pound or 
fraction. Fifth zone: Eight cents for the first pound and 6 
cents for each additional pound or fraction. Sixth zone : Nine 

146 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



cents for the fii'st pound and 8 cents for each additional pound 
or fraction. Seventh zone : Eleven cents for the first pound and 
10 cents for each additional pound or fraction. Eighth zone: 
Twelve cents for the first pound and 12 cents for each additional 
pound or fraction. 

Approximately every place within fifty miles is embraced 
within the first zone. The second zone is the area within a radius 
of 150 miles ; the third, all points within SOO miles; fourth, with- 
in a distance of 600 miles; fifth, within 1,000 miles; seventh, 
within 1,400 miles, and eighth zone, all places outside the seventh 
zone, including the Philippines, Canada, Mexico, Cuba, Porto 
Rico and Panama. 

Parcels weighing four ounces or less were mailable on Janu- 
ary 1, 1914), at 1 cent for each ounce or fraction thereof, re- 
gardless of the distance. 

Books were admitted to the parcel post service on March 15, 
1914. 



147 



TRADE-MARKS 



List of trade-marks applied to canned foods and registered in the 
Patent Office since the middle of December, 1913, to November 11, 1914, as 
shown by publication in the Official Oazette. For further information on 
any subject relating to trade-marks, copyrights and patents, write the 
Trade-Mark Title Company, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



REGISTERED TRADE-MARKS 1914. 

Oijj Faithful. Trade-mark No. 95^54. Owner, Northern Pickle Co., 
Tacoma, Wash. Used on pickles, pork and beans, sauerkraut, prepared 
mustard and boiled cider. 

Evee-Weu,. Trade-mark No. 95,249. Owner, Everett & Treadwell 
Co., Kingston, N.Y. Used on their products. 

Skowfiakei. Trade-mark No. 95,438. Owner, Kentucky Refining Co., 
Louisville, Ky. Used on cottonseed oiL 

Stab op Italy and picture of queen and angels. Trade-mark No. 
95,573. Owner, Aclulle Starace, New York, N.Y. Used on olive oiL 

En-Be-Co. Trade-mark No. 95,464. Owner, Nicholas Burke Co. Ltd., 
New Orleans, La. Used on canned vegetables, wheat flour, spices and 
syrup and flavoring extracts for foods. 

HuKEiCANE. Trade-mark No. 95,403. Owner, Cross, Abbott Co., 
White River Junction, Vt. Used on canned vegetables, canned fruits, can- 
ned salmon, coffee and tea. 

HtTKEEMEL. Tradc-mark No. 97,073. Owner, National Preserve Co., 
St. Louis, Mo. Used on table syrups and fruit preserves. 

Letter L With Wiifos. Trade-mark No. 95,470. Owner, The Porto 
Rico Fruit Exchange, San Juan, Porto Rico. Used on oranges, lemons, 
limes, citron, shaddock (grape-fruit), and pineapples, either in tiieir natural 
state or canned. 

De. Satman's and portrait of Dr. Sayman. Trade-mark No. 95,481. 
Owner, Thomas M. Sayman, St. Louis, Mo. Used on vanilla extract for 
foods. 

Dk. Satman's and portrait of Dr. Sayman. Trade-mark No. 95,482. 
Owner, Thomas M. Sayman, St. Louis, Mo. Used on vanilla extract for 
foods. 

Velvet. Trade-mark No. 95,600. Owner, Central Fruit Co., South 
Lake Weir, Fla. Used on citrus fruits; namely, oranges, grape-fruit, tan- 
gerines, lemons and limes. 

Green Seai. Trade-mark No. 95,645. Owner, McCormick & Co., of 
Baltimore, Md. Used on table relishes and salad dressing. 

SiirooKTTM and picture of a totem pole. Trade-mark No. 95,650. Owner, 
Northwestern Fruit Exchange, Portland, Ore. Used on fresh fruits. 

Fort Carroll. Trade-mark No. 95,615. Owner, Fleming & Co., Bal- 
timore, Md. Used on canned fruits and canned vegetables. 

CouETEST. Trade-mark No. 95,654. Owner, Pacific Fisheries & Pack- 
ing Co., Aberdeen, Wash. Used on canned salmon. 

Whtte Heather. Trade-mark No. 95,683. Owner, Union Lard Cor- 
poration, New York, N.Y. Used on cooking oil. 

150 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



SuN-KisT. Trade-mark No. 96,385. Owner, The J. K. Armsby Co., 
Chicago, 111., and San Francisco, Cal. Used on canned vegetables. 

Flag or Pennant. Trade-mark No. 95,958. Owner, Stewart Fruit 
Co., Los Angeles, Cal., and San Francisco, Cal. Used on their fruits. 

Fkom the Land of Sunshine. Trade-mark No. 95,974. Owner, The 
J. K. Armsby Co., Chicago, 111., and San Francisco, Cal. Used on canned 
fruits and vegetables and dried fruits. 

Splendola. Trade-mark No. 95,915. Owner, Fannie L. Ives, Meriden, 
Conn. Used on vegetable pickles, condiments and relishes. 

BoT Dressed as a Tramp. Trade-mark No. 96,066. Owner, Violante, 
Balbi & Co., New York, N.Y. Used on canned tomatoes and tomato 
paste. 

De-Ltjxe. Trade-mark No. 95,910. Owner, P. Hohenadel, Jr. Can- 
ning Co., Rochelle, lU. Used on canned corn and canned peas. 

Eagle. Trade-mark No. 95,903. Owner, G. C. Francis, Florin, Cal. 
Used on fresh grapes. 

Craig-Y-Nos. Trade-mark No. 95,943. Owner, James Nathaniel Rey- 
nolds, Lindsay, Cal. Used on citrus fruits. 

Inspector. Trade-mark No. 95,873. Owner, Best-Clymer Co., St. 
Louis, Mo. Used on mince pie filling, fruit preserves, apple-butter, and 
fruit jelly. 

French-Island. Trade-mark No. 95,937. Owner, Onalaska Pickle & 
Canning Co., Onalaska, Wis. Used on canned vegetables. 

Gold Lace. Trade-mark No. 95,950. Owner, Southern Citrus Cor- 
poration, Lynchburg, Va. Used on citrus fruits. 

Harvest Moon. Trade-mark No. 95,951. Owner, Southern Citrus Cor- 
poration, Lynchburg, Va. Used on citrus fruits. 

Glen Rosa. Trade-mark No. 95,934. Owner, North Ontario Packing 
Co., Los Angeles, Cal. Used on dried fruits and raisins.. 

Forest King. Trade-mark No. 95,935. Owner, North Ontario Pack- 
ing Co., Los Angeles, Cal. Used on dried fruits and raisins. 

Capstan. Trade-mark No. 95,913. Owner, Hustisford Canning Co., 
Hustisford, Wis. Used on canned vegetables of all kinds. 

G. Sasso & Sons with fanciful design. Trade-mark No. 95,946. Owner, 
G. Sasso & Sons, Brooklyn, N.Y. Used on olive oil. 

Baby and photograph of George Theodore Richardson. Trade-mark 
No. 96,095. Owner, Borden's Condensed Milk Co., New York, N.Y. Used 
on condensed milk. 

Paul and Virginia. Trade-mark No. 96,185. Owner, James Nathan- 
iel Reynolds, Lindsay, Cal. Used on citrus fruits. 

PiEDiGROTTA. Trade-mark No. 96,110. Owner, Crisafulli Bros., New 
York, N.Y. Used on tomato paste with basil. 

Olga. Trade-mark No. 96,153. Owner, J. S. McKenzie & Co. Inc., 
New York, N.Y. Used on canned sardines, canned herring, and canned 
salmon. 

151 



The Max Ams Machine Co, 



Amazo. Trade-mark No. 96,381. Owner, American Maize-Products 
Co., Portland, Me., and New York, N.Y. Used on glucose, corn syrup 
and other articles. 

CoEsr Kino. Trade-mark No. 96,382. Owner, American Maize-Producta 
Co., Portland, Me., and New York, N.Y. Used on glucose and other 
articles. 

Cream of Cobn. Trade-mark No. 96,383. Owner, American Maize- 
Products Co., Portland, Me., and New York, N.Y. Used on glucose, sugar 
and other articles. 

Stbaeites. Trade-mark No. 96,457. Owner, Pellier Freres, Mans, 
France. Used on their products. 

Chasseur. Trade-mark No. 96,458. Owner, Pellier Freres, Mans, 
France. Used on their products. 

Crowit or Araoost, and picture of crown. Trade-mark No. 96,415. 
Owner, Fernando Palleres E'Hijos, Torosa, Spain. Used on olive oiL 

Fedelis. Trade-mark No. 96,409. Owner, Gordon, Sewall & Co., Hous- 
ton, Tex. Used on canned fruits and canned cooked fish. 

Little Jack. Trade-mark No. 96,430. Owner, The H. D. Lee Mer- 
cantile Co., Salina, Kan. Used on their products. 

SiBiLiA. Trade-mark No. 96,464. Owner, Achille Starace, New York, 
N.Y. Used on macaroni, canned anchovies, and sardines, and the relish 
antipasto, composed of a combination of tunny, mushrooms, stuffed olives, 
sardines, miniature artichokes, truffles and pearl onion put up in cans. 

Cladwater Farms and picture of cows near a stream of water. Trade- 
mark No. 96,585. Owner, James S. Harlan, Essex, N.Y. Used on milk, 
cream, butter, dressed poultry, eggs, fresh fruits and vegetables. 

Eureka. Trade-mark No. 96,434. Owner, Lofaro & Rossi, Utica, 
N.Y. Used on olive oil. 

Amerosi. Trade-mark No. 96,451. Owner, Carl L. Olsen & Kleppe, 
Stavanger, Norway. Used on fish packed in cans or other hermetically 
sealed receptacles. 

People in a Two-Wheeled Cart Drawn by a Horse. Trade-mark No. 
96,575. Owner, A. Cusimano & Co., New Orleans, La. Used on tomato 
paste. 

Odiva. Trade-mark No. 96,413. Owner, Ernest L. Heebner, New 
York, N.Y. Used on canned sardines. 

Picture or an Indian Woman. Trade-mark No. 96,572. Owner, 
Corn Products Refining Co., New York, N.Y. Used on table syrups, corn 
starch, edible corn oU, jams, jellies, and com-syrup apple jelly. 

Buckeye. Trade-mark No. 96,450. Owner, The Ohio Dairy Co., 
Toledo, Ohio. Used on evaporated milk and condensed milk. 

Target and representation of same. Trade-mark No. 96,455. Owner, 
Palo Seco Fruit Co., South Easton, Mass. Used on fresh pineapples. 

Snow and picture of a house. Trade-mark No. 96,428. Owner, Lane 
& Hawkins Manufacturing Co., not Incorporated, Chicago, 111. Used on 
horse radish. 

152 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



Mojo. Trade-mark No. 96,158. Owner, The Mosel-Johnson Co., Steu- 
benville, Ohio. Used on their products. 

Mico. Trade-mark No. 96,155. Owner, Joseph Howard Mercian, New 
York, N.Y. Used on canned or preserved fish. 

Sirir-KisT. Trade-mark No. 96,083. Owner, The J. K. Armsby Co., 
San Francisco, Cal. Used on sahnon. 

Moonstone. Trade-mark No. 96,140. Owner, Melville E. Johnson, 
Palatka, Fla. Used on citrus fruits; viz, oranges and grape-fruit. 

Makigoub. Trade-mark No. 96,099. Owner, Best-Clymer Manufac- 
turing Co., St., Louis, Mo. Used on fruit jelly, mustard, fruit preserves, 
and mince pie filling. 

Pink RABBrr. Trade-mark No. 96,093. Owner, Best-Clymer Manu- 
facturing Co., St. Louis, Mo. Used on fruit preserves. 

Bullion. Trade-mark No. 96,300. Owner, Southern Citrus Corpora- 
tion, Lynchburg, Va. Used on citrus fruits. 

State Faik. Trade-mark No. 96,174. Owner, Oostburg Canning Co., 
Oostburg, Wis. Used on canned vegetables. 

May-Pole. Trade-mark No. 96,151. Owner, Charles J. McDonald, 
Elyria, Ohio. Used on canned pork and beans with tomato sauce. 

N ATOM a. Trade-mark No. 96,153. Owner, Charles C. McDonald, 
Elyria, Ohio. Used on canned pork and beans with tomato sauce. 

Manola. Trade-mark No. 96,307. Owner, Strohmeyer & Arpe Co., 
New York, N.Y. Used on preserved fish, canned fish, canned fruits, can- 
ned vegetables, olive oil, and peppers. 

Gold Seal, the outer seal being in red and the inner seal and the 
picture of the animal seals being in gold. Trade-mark No. 96,623. Owner, 
Alart & McGuire, New York, N.Y., assignors to Alart & McGuire Co., 
New York, N.Y., a corporation of New York. Used on their products. 

Worth-While and monogram of letters M. B. N Co. Trade-mark 
No. 96,596. Owner, MuUen-Blackledge-NeUis Co., Brazil, Ind. Used on 
their products. 

Triumph. Trade-mark No. 96,387. Owner, The Arthur Chemical Co., 
New Haven, Conn. Used on flavoring extracts for foods. 

Bear and picture of two bears. Trade-mark No. 96,398. Owner, Cali- 
fornia Associated Raisin Co., Fresno, Cal. Used on dried fruits. 

Tbe-Vtn. Trade-mark No. 96,393. Owner, Best-Clymer Manufacture 
ing Co., St. Louis, Mo. Used on fruit preserves. 

Speedway. Trade-mark No. 96,595. Owner, Charles C. McDonald, 
Elyria, Ohio. Used on canned pork and beans with tomato sauce. 

Needmore. Trade-mark No. 96,567. Owner, Hustisford Canning Co., 
Hustisford, Wis. Used on canned vegetables of all kinds. 

Monogram of Letters O D Co Used With Shield. Trade-mark No. 
96,449. Owner, The Ohio Dairy Co., Toledo, Ohio. Used on evaporated 
milk and condensed nulk. 

153 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Figure of a Fish. Trade-mark No. 96,837. Owner, Tazaburo Suzuki, 
Sunamura, Japan. Used on their products. 

H. G. Phikce & Co. Trade-mark No. 96,827. Owner, H. G. Prince & 
Co., Fruitvale, Cal. Used on canned fruits and canned vegetables. 

Mission. Trade-mark No. 96,839. Owner, Redbanks Orchard Co., 
Visalia, Cal. Used on grapes. 

Mountain Scene. Trade-mark No. 97,026. Owner, Alpine Evapor- 
ated Cream Co., San Francisco, Cal. Used on evaporated and condensed 
milk. 

OuE Seal. Trade-mark No. 97,093. Owner, Vaughn-Crutehfield Co., 
Winston-Salem, N.C. Used on flavoring extracts for foods. 

Pa and Ma and picture of an old man and lady. Trade-mark No. 
96,769. Owner, American Pickle & Canning Co., Des Moines, Iowa. Used 
on canned vegetables, pickles, tomato catsup and prepared table mustard. 

Bob Evans and picture of Admiral Robley D. Evans, deceased. Trade- 
mark No. 96,795. Owner, The Dolan Mercantile Co., Atchison, Kan. Used 
on canned salmon, canned oysters, canned fruits, canned vegetables, canned 
hominy, canned pork and beans, tea and blended coflfee. 

Temptoe. Trade-mark No. 97,688. Owner, Best-Clymer Manufactur- 
ing Co., St. Louis, Mo. Used on mince meat, fruit jelly, fruit preserves, 
apple-butter, honey, cane syrup, sorghum, corn syrup, molasses, mustard 
and maple syrup. 

Blue Ribbon and ribbon bow. Trade-mark No. 96,884. Owner, Rich- 
ard HeUman, New York, N.Y. Used on mayonnaise dressing. 

Figure of a Fish on a Fork Handle. Trade-mark No. 96,927. Owner, 
M. Amieux & Cie, Nantes, France. 

Conserves Alimentaires Maison Fondee en 1829 Pellier Fberes le 
Mans (France). Trade-mark No. 96,991. Owner, Pellier Freres, Mans, 
France. Used on all their products. 

CiTT OF Lights and Letters F-R-V, with picture of a fox. Trade- 
mark No. 96,958. Owner, Fox River Valley Co., Aurora, 111. Used on 
cider vinegar, and distilled vinegar, whole cloves, whole allspice, ground 
white pepper, ground black pepper, mustard seed, leaf sage, leaf mar- 
joram, and caraway seed, cane molasses, rice, evaported milk. 

SuNKisT. Trade-mark No. 99,835. Owner, The J. K. Armsby Co., 
Chicago, 111., and San Francisco, Cal. Used on catsup, pickles, olive oil, 
jams, jellies, olives, tea, coffee, dried beans for food. 

Royal George. Trade-mark No. 97,016. Owner, Percival H. Trout- 
man, Canon City, Colo. Used on jams, jellies, camied fruits, apple-butter, 
and fresh boxed apples. 

Natural. Trade-mark No. 98,737. Owner, Arbuckle Brothers, New 
York, N.Y., and Chicago, lU. Used on mustard, nutmeg, sage, mace, white 
pepper, red pepper, black pepper, Jamaica ginger, allspice, cloves, cinna- 
mon and flavoring extracts. 

Gray Goose, picture of same. Trade-mark No. 97,009. Owner, 
Sprague, Warner & Co., Chicago, 111. Used on canned fruits, canned veg- 
etables, and canned fish — to wit, canned peaches, pears, tomatoes, corn, 
oysters and salmon. 

154 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



NoEMAKiTA. Trade-mark No. 96,467. Owner, Tokstad-Burger Co., 
New York, N.Y. Used on canned fish. 

PicTtjRE OF A Cup, Plate and Patty. Trade-mark No. 96,480. Owner, 
Workman Packing Co., San Francisco, Cal. Used on tamales and kerno 
(consisting of maize, chicken and a special sauce). 

Atlas and representation of Atlas. Trade-mark No. 96,396. Owner, 
John W. and Herbert W. Brown, Bayamon, Porto Rico and Philadelphia, 
Pa. Used on grape-fruit, oranges and pineapples. 

Banker's and picture of man handing something to the cashier. Trade- 
mark No. 96,453. Owner, Pacific Fisheries and Packing Co., Aberdeen, 
Wash. Used on canned salmon. 

Message and picture of a messenger boy. Trade-mark No. 96,454. 
Owner, Pacific Fisheries & Packing Co., Aberdeen, Wash. Used on can- 
ned salmon. 

Gem and picture of little girl. Trade-mark No. 96,441. Owner, Joseph 
Howard Mercian, New York, N.Y. Used on canned or preserved fish. 

Red Mill. Trade-mark No. 96,449. Owner, Joseph Howard Mercian, 
New York, N.Y. Used on canned or preserved fish. 

FntSKOT and picture of a small boy holding a fish in one hand. Trade- 
mark No. 96,443. Owner, Joseph Howard Mercian, New York, N.Y. Used 
on canned or preserved fish. 

Zeno and picture of a sea horse. Trade-mark No. 96,444. Owner, 
Joseph Howard Mercian, New York, N.Y. Used on canned or preserved 
fish. 

Sweet Alice and head of woman. Trade-mark No. 96,395. Owner, 
M. Brawer & Son, New York, N.Y. Used on horse radish, olives, honey, 
syrup, olive oil, catsup, mustard, salad oil, vinegar, mustard oil, Worces- 
tershire sauce and pickles. 

VijfTA and picture of dwarfs carrying a fish. Trade-mark No. 96,389. 
Owner, Raymond Barvier, New York, N.Y. Used on preserved fish products. 

O. K. and fanciful design. Trade-mark No. 96,600. Owner, E. A. 
O'Kelly & Co., London, England. Used on dates (for use in food). 

FicTtTBE OP AD- Angel Seated OX A Globe. Trade-mark No. 96,578. 
Owner, Fantini & Latorraca, New York, N.Y. Used on olive oil. 

GusTALF. Trade-mark No. 96,826. Owner, Pellier Freres, Mans, 
France. Used on their products. 

White Feost. Trade-mark No. 97,061. Owner, Kentucky Refining 
Co., LouisvUle, Ky. Used on cotton seed oil. 

Reception-. Trade-mark No. 100,144. Owner, Norton & Curd Co., 
Louisville, Ky. Used on rice, seeded raisins, alimentary paste products, 
canned fruits and canned vegetables. 

Uneed. Trade-mark No. 96,813. Owner, Lofaro & Rossi, Utica, N.Y. 
Used on olive oil. 

Beiahdale. Trade-mark No. 96,802. Owner, Grocers' Wholesale Co., 
Des Moines, Iowa. Used on canned vegetables, canned fruits, spices and 
canned fish. 

155 



The Max Ams Machine Co, 



Golden Glory. Trade-mark No. 97,624. Owner, Libby, McNeill & 
Llbby, Chicago, 111. Used on canned fruits and canned vegetables. 

Blue and Gold. Trade-mark No. 97,634. Owner, Minnesota "Valley 
Canning Co., Le Sueur, Minn. Used on canned vegetables; viz., canned 
peas and corn. 

Derby Winner and picture of man seated on a horse. Trade-mark 
No. 98,547. Owner, Menzol & Co., New York, N.Y. Used on sardines. 

Thousand Acres. Trade-mark No. 97,589. Owner, Bitter Root Val- 
ley Orchards, Inc., Ravalli County, Mont. Used on fresh apples, pears 
and cherries. 

White Rock and pictures of a chicken. Trade-mark No. 97,594. 
Owner, Cereal Food Co., Peoria, lU. Used on canned vegetables. 

CoLCOLOR and monogram of letters C C. Trade-mark No. 98,099. 
Owner, Ungemach A. G. Els. Conserven Fabrik & Import-GeseUschaft, 
of Strassburg, Germany. Used on coloring matters for use as ingredients 
in foods. 



CoLCo-DiEFDSER — no claim to word "difFuser." Trade-mark No. 
Owner, Ungemach A. G. Els, Conserven-Fabrik & Import-Gesellschaft, 
Strassburg, Germany. Used on coloring matters for use as ingredients 
in foods. 

Letter A Upon a Shield used in connection with a basket of fruit. 
Trade-mark No. 97,933. Owner, Benjamin Lewis Aldridge, Maple Shade, 
N.J. Used on poultry, eggs, fresh fruits and vegetables, preserved fruits 
and vegetables, and nuts. 

Un-Gro-Co. Trade-mark No. 98,018. Owner, C. C. Truax & Co., To- 
ledo, Ohio, assignor to United Grocer Co., Toledo, Ohio, a corporation of 
Delaware. Used on all their products. 

Col Carter and head of man. Trade-mark No. 98,017. Owner, 
Sprague, Warner & Co., Chicago, III. Used on canned com. 

Ritter. Trade-mark No. 98,008. Owner, The Philip J. Ritter Con- 
serve Co., Philadelphia, Pa. Used on catsup, pork and beans, apple butter, 
soups, pure fruit preserves, pure fruit jams, pure fruit jellies, mustard, 
olives, honey, and compound fruit jams. 

Caprice. Trade-mark No. 97,988. Owner, George Lueders & Co., New 
York, N.Y. Used on olive oil. 

Red Ribbon. Trade-mark No. 98,030. Owner, Yakima County Hor- 
ticultural Union, North Yakima, Wash. Used on second quality of fresh 
deciduous fruits, apples and pears. 

Autocrat. Trade-mark No. 97,970. Owner, Harder & De Voss, 
Hamburg, Germany. Used on their products. 

Seaketch. Trade-mark No. 97,931. Owner, Alaska Fish Co., Seattle, 
Wash. Used on canned salmon. 

Our Hobbt Quality. Trade-mark No. 97,995. Owner, Frank Mosca, 
New York, N.Y. Used on olive oil and macaroni. 

Ponce de Leon. Trade-mark No. 97,986. Owners, S. A. & W. H. 
Leonard, Blountstown, Fla. Used on table syrup made from pure sap of 
Florida sugar cane. 

156 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



Stjnkt-Vau; and picture of an orchard. Trade-mark No. 96,974. 
Owner, Libby, McNeill & Libby, Chicago, 111. Used on canned fruits and 
canned fish. 

Sapsfcker. Trade-mark No. 96,957. Owner, Fort Ogden Citrus Asso- 
ciation, Fort Ogden, Fla. Used on citrus fruits. 

B1.ACK Hills. Trade-mark No. 96,933. Owner, Black Hills Whole- 
sale Grocery Co., Rapid City, S.D. Used on canned fruits, canned vege- 
tables, canned fish, coffee, spices and mince meat. 

Representation of a Qtjadbilateeal Figure. Trade-mark No. 96,929. 
Owner, The J. K. Armsby Co., San Francisco, Cal. Used on raisins, dried 
fruits, nuts, canned fruits, canned vegetables, canned chili, canned pimien- 
toes, canned milk, canned salmon, olives, olive oil, catsup, pickles, dried 
beans, coffee, tea and butter. 

Marigold and picture of same. Trade-mark No. 96,945. Owner, Clos- 
sett & Devers, Portland, Ore. Used on tea, flavoring extracts for foods 
and spices. 

Vega. Trade-mark No. 96,983. Owner, Cora F. Moore, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. Used on canned soups. 

Pickwick. Trade-mark No. 97,058. Owner, Kansas City Wholesale 
Grocery Co., Kansas City, Mo. Used on their products. 

Frontier. Trade-mark No. 97,167. Owner, Nave-McCord Mercantile 
Co., St. Joseph, Mo. Used on vinegar, tapioca, tea, sugar, rice, pepper, 
jelly powder, buckwheat flour, jellies, jams, preserves, pickles. 

Great Seal and figure of a seal. Trade-mark No. 97,086. Owner, 
The Styron-Beggs Co., Newark, Ohio. Used on flavoring foods. 

La Formica. Trade-mark No. 97,041. Owner, Angeli de C. Davini, 
Lucca, Italy. Used on olive oil. 

Empire. Trade-mark No. 97,156. Owner, John McCormick, New 
York, N.Y. Used on citrus fruits, such as oranges, grape-fruit and tan- 
gerines, mandarins and kumquats. 

Namco. Trade-mark No. 97,074. Owner, North American Mercantile 
Co., San Francisco, Cal. Used on canned crab meat, tuna, clams, and 
shrimps, peanut butter and peanuts. 

Chicken of The Sea. Trade-mark No. 97,193. Owner, White Star 
Canning Co., Los Angeles, Cal. Used on tuna fish and pure olive oil, 
and olive oil with cottonseed oil and salad oil. 

White Beauty. Trade-mark No. 97,609. Owner, Grayson Oil & Cot- 
ton Co., Sherman, Tex. Used on cooking oil made from cottonseed oil. 

Ghanadaisa and picture of woman. Trade-mark No. 97,639. Owner, 
Florence Netter Newfeld, New York, N.Y. Used on canned sardines. 

Commander. Trade-mark No. 97,640. Owner, North Ontario Pack- 
ing Co., Los Angeles, Cal. Used on dried fruits and raisins. 

Clover and picture of same. Trade-mark No. 97,716. Owner, Mo- 
hawk Condensed Milk Co., Rochester, N.Y. Used on condensed milk. 

BoviNiNE and picture of cow. Trade-mark No. 97,590. Owner, The 
Bovinine Co., New York, N.Y. Used on beef juices and meat extracts. 

157 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Bust Picture of an Indian Holding a Tomahawk. Trade-mark No. 
98,434. Owner, Stone-Ordean-Wells Co., Duluth, Minn. Used on their 
products. 

Coalado. Trade-mark No. 98,330. Owner, H. Schlinck & Cie., A. G., 
Hamburg, Germany. Used on cocoanut fat, especially, substitute of cocoa 
butter, food greases, and food oils; namely, cocoanut oil, palm oil, earth 
nut oil, oUve oil, sesame oils, beef fat, suet, margarin. 

Apex. Trade-mark No. 98,306. Owner, Meyer & Carmody Import 
Co., Inc., New York, N.Y. Used on olives, sardines, peanut butter and 
salad dressing. 

RocHmA. Trade-mark No. 98,289. Owner, Italian Importing Co., 
Des Moines, Iowa. Used on olive oil. 

Dasco. Trade-mark No. 98,355. Owner, Davies & Sullivan Co., New 
York, N.Y. Used on coflFee, tea and olive oil. 

Imferatob. Trade-mark No. 98,305. Owner, Menzel & Co., New York, 
N.Y. Used on sardines. 

OAKI.AND. Trade-mark No. 98,313. Owner, Oakland . Vinegar & Pickle 
Co., Saginaw, Mich. Used on cider vinegar. 

Baby Stuakt and picture of a baby. Trade-mark No. 98,325. Owner, 
Sprague-Warner & Co., Chicago, IlL Used on canned peas. 

Wedgewood, picture of a vase. Trade-mark No. 98,335. Owner, Down- 
ing-Taylor Co., Springfield, Mass. Used on mince meat, tomato catsup, 
cornstarch and table syrup. 

Acco, figure of Atlas. Trade-mark No. 98,237. Owner, Atlanta Can- 
ning Co., Atlanta, N.Y. Used on canned vegetables. 

YouTt Kind. Trade-mark No. 98,392. Owner, W. H. J. Kavanaugh, 
Chicago, 111. Used on fresh Colorado Rocky Ford gems, melons, and can- 
taloupes, and fresh Colorado pink meat gems, melons, and cantaloupes and 
fresh celery. 

Letter Y. Trade-mark No. 99,412. Owner, Yakimi Valley Fruit 
Growers' Association, Yakima, Wash. Used on canned, dried and evapor- 
ated fruits and jellies. 

Pride. Trade-mark No. 98,435. Owner, Sulzberger & Sons Co., New 
York, N.Y. Used on apple butter, fruit jellies, fruit jams and preserves. 

Colonial. Trade-mark No. 98,436. Owner, Sulzberger & Sons Co., 
New York, N.Y. Used on fruit jellies and fruit jams. 

Red Cedar. Trade-mark No. 98392. Owner, Inderrieden Canning Co., 
Chicago, 111. Used on canned vegetables. 

Angler. Trade-mark No. 98,393. Owner, Inderrieden Canning Co., 
Chicago, 111. Used on canned vegetables. 

Marceixa. Trade-mark No. 98,394. Owner, Inderrieden Canning Co., 
Chicago, 111. Used on canned vegetables. 

King Fisher. Trade-mark No. 99,395. Owner, Inderrieden Canning 
Co., Chicago, 111. Used on canned vegetables. 

VicTORENE. Trade-mark No. 99,376. Owner, The N. K. Fairbanks Co., 
Chicago, 111. Used on edible fats and oils. 

158 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



Reward. Trade-mark No. 97,991. Owner, J. S. McKenzie & Co., Inc., 
New York, N.Y. Used on canned salmon, canned corn and canned 
peaches. 

Vanity Fair. Trade-mark No. 97,992. Owner, J. S. McKenzie & Co., 
New York, N.Y. Used on canned salmon, canned corn and canned 
peaches. 

Lemolivoil. Trade-mark No. 97,953. Owner, Carlo Antonio Covina, 
New York, N.Y. Used on a specialty of olive oil flavored with essence 
of the outer rind of lemons. 

BtrcKEYE. Trade-mark No. 98,013. Owner, Ernest Schnitzler, Weirs- 
dale, Fla. Used on oranges. 

Amo. Trade-mark No. 98,010. Owner Roethlisberger & Co., New 
York, N.Y. Used on olive oil. 

Nomad. Trade-mark No. 97,958. Owner, U. H. Dudley & Co., New 
York, N.Y. Used on dates. 

RoB-RoY and figure of man. Trade-mark No. 98,011. Owner, F. E. 
Royston & Co., Aurora, 111. Used on canned vegetables, canned pork and 
beans, peanut butter, olives, tomato catsup, vinpgar and blended coffee. 

Seminoue. Trade-mark No. 97,949. Owner, Chase & Co., Jacksonville, 
Fla. Used on citrus fruits and tomatoes. 

Adas. Trade-mark No. 98,150. Owner, Frank J. Horton, Youngs- 
town, Ohio. Used on tea, coffee, spices and flavoring extracts for foods.) 

Shepford. Trade-mark No. 98,151. Owner, Alexander J. Howell,, 
Syracuse, N.Y. Used on cheese, bacon, peanut butter, potato chips, horse 
radish, welsh rabbit, and dried beef. 

Goij)Esr Gage, figure of same. Trade-mark No. 98,301. Owner, Fer- 
nando R. Sari, Washington, D.C. Used on olive oil. 

AiMO, picture of a castle. Trade-mark No. 98,338. Owner, James 
Turnbull, Rosewell, N.M. Used on fresh apples, pears, peaches, plums,, 
cherries, strawberries, raspberries, and cantaloupes. 

Romana, picture of a woman. Trade-mark No. 98,376. Owner, Pas- 
quale Giunta & Son, Philadelphia, Pa. Used on olive oil. 

Rogue. Trade-mark No. 98,170. Owner, The Macleay Estate Co., 
Portland, Ore. Used on canned salmon. 

LuxtTRY. Trade-mark No. 98,111. Owner, The Arthur Chemical Co., 
New Haven, Conn. Used on flavoring extracts for foods. 

SuMMORE. Trade-mark No. 98,339. Owner, Jarvis A. Wood, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. Used on citrus fruits — viz., grape-fruit. 

Lookout. Trade-mark No. 98,213. Owner, The Sunset Packing Co., 
West Pembroke, Me., and New York, N.Y. Used on canned herring. 

Cyrilla. Trade-mark No. 98,331. Owner, Leo E. Schoenfeld, Chicago, 
111. Used on their products. 

HoMESPusr. Trade-mark No. 98,358. Owner, Thos. P. Dietrick, Rich- 
mond, Va. Used on their products. 

159 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Sttef Rjdee. Trade-mark No. 99,310. Owner, Hawaiian Pineapple 
Co., Ltd., Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii. Used on canned pineapple. 

Red Flowee. Trade-mark No. 99,211. Owner, Hawaiian Pineapple 
Co., Ltd., Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii. Used on canned pineapple. 

Plantation. Trade-mark No. 99,312. Owner, Hawaiian Pineapple 
Co., Ltd., Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii. Used on canned pineapple. 

Pakadisb Island. Trade-mark No. 99,213. Owner, Hawaiian Pineapple 
Co., Ltd., Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii. Used on canned pineapple. 

Relt. Trade-mark No. 99,360. Owner, J. F. Pyle & Son, San Jose, 
Cal. Used on sauces and canned fruits and vegetables. 

Panama Pacific. Trade-mark No. 99,304. Owner, Hawaiian Pine- 
apple Co., Ltd., Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii. Used on canned pine- 
apples. 

Scene. Trade-mark No. 99,657. Owner, Freeman G. Davis, Lewis- 
ton, Me. Used on canned baked beans and tomatoes. 

Mono and Monogram of Lettebs. M I E U. Trade-mark No. 
99,896. Owner, Monopol Import Export Union, Inc., New York, N.Y. 
Used on bullion cubes, chicken broth cubes, soup flavors, turtle extract, 
canned vegetables, vegetables soup powder, canned sardines, beef extract 
tablets. 

Watchman. Trade-mark No. 99,596. Owner, Kadiak Fisheries Co., 
Seattle, Wash. Used on canned salmon. 

Neweka. Trademark. No. 99,597. Owner, Kadiak Fisheries Co., 
Seattle, Wash. Used on canned salmon. 

PoiNSEiTA. Trade-mark No. 99,598. Kadiak Fisheries Co., Seattle, 
Wash. Used on canned salmon. 

Snow Flake. Trade-mark No. 99,911. Owner, Snow Flake Canning Co., 
Brunswick, Me. Used on canned corn. 

Tioga. Trade-mark No. 99,733. Owner, Grifath-Durney Co., San 
Francisco, Cal. Used on fresh and canned pineapples. 

Best Value. Trade-mark No. 99,825. Owner, The Weidman Co., 
Cleveland, Ohio. Used on their products. 

Golden Elk. Trade-mark No. 99,879. Griffith-Durney Co., San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. Used on canned and fresh pineapples. 

Mauna Loa. Trade-mark No. 99,736. Owner, Hawaiian Pineapple 
Co., Ltd., Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii. Used on canned pineapple. 

CttiTERioN. Trade-mark No. 99,752. Owner, Kadiak Fisheries Co., 
Seattle, Wash. Used on canned salmon. 

Meeito. Trade-mark No. 99,818. Owner, Union Fisherman's Co- 
operative Packing Co., Astoria, Ore. Used on canned salmon. 

Pacific Gems. Trade-mark No. 99,981. Owner, Hawaiian Pineapple 
Co., Ltd., Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii. Used on canned pineapple. 

Hawaiian Club. Trade-mark No. 99,983. Owner, Hawaiian Pine- 
apple Co., Ltd., Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii. Used on canned pine- 
apple. 

160 



Mount Veenon, N.Y. 



Ahtisto. Trade-mark No. 98,515. Owner, Grossfeld & Roe Co., Chi- 
cago, 111. Used on canned fruits, canned vegetables, canned fish, evapor- 
ated vegetables and coifee. 

Mountain Scene. Trade-mark No. 98,537. Owner, Hoquiam Packing 
Co., Hoquiam, Wash. Used on canned salmon and clams. 

Nectaelene. Trade-mark No. 98,492. Owner, Ryland W. Eames, 
Vale, Ore. Used on canned syrups. 

Conductor and picture of conductor and passenger train. Trade- 
mark No. 98,539. Owner, The H. T. Lange Co., Eau Claire, Wis. Used 
on canned vegetables, sauerkraut and pork and beans. 

Veeibest and picture of girl. Trade-mark No. 99,034. Owner, Ar- 
mour & Co., Chicago, 111. Used on fish generally, including sardines, sal- 
mon and tuna. 

Tango and picture of man and woman dancing. Trade-mark No. 
98,588. Owner, The Sunset Packing Co., West Pembrooke, Me. Used on 
sardines. 

Claremont. Trade-mark No. 98,691. Owner, H. G. Prince & Co., 
Fruitvale, Cal. Used on canned fruits and canned vegetables. 

Monogram op Letters P P P P Co enclosed in a hexagon. Trade- 
mark No. 98,690. Owner, Premier Packing Co., San Diego, Cal. Used on 
canned tuna. 

Boston. Trade-mark No. 98,635. Owner, Boston Food Products Co., 
Boston, Mass. Used on canned cod fish balls, canned brown bread and 
canned baked beans. 

Lawndale and picture of house. Trade-mark No. 98,610. Owner, 
West Side Wholesale Grocery Co., Chicago, 111. Used on canned fruits 
and vegetables and fish. 

Golden Gate. Trade-mark No. 98,866. Owner, Golden Gate Packing 
Co., San Jose, Cal. Used on canned and preserved fruits and vegetables. 

Caltjsa. Trade-mark No. 99,063. Owner, Premier Packing Co., San 
Diego, Cal. Used on canned fish. 

Beacon. Trade-mark No. 99,058. Owner, McCready & Webster, Bal- 
timore, Md. Used on canned fruits, canned vegetables and canned oysters. 

Pigeon and picture of a bird on a branch of a tree. Trade-mark No. 
99,046. Owner, E. M. Frye & Co., Harrington, Me. Used on canned blue- 
berries. 

Stronghold and picture of a castle. Trade-mark No. 99,040. Owner, 
Diehm-Fansler Grocery Co., East St. Louis, 111. Used on canned fruits, 
tomato catsup, canned vegetables and canned salmon. 

Champion State. Trade-mark No. 99,389. Owner, Grand River Can- 
ning Co., Markesan, Wis. Used on canned vegetables. 

Crown and picture of a crown. Trade-mark No. 99,329. Owner, The 
Macleay Estate Co., Portland, Ore. Used on canned salmon. 

Lanco. Trade-mark No. 99,926. Owner, The H. T. Lange Co., Eau 
Claire, Wis. Used on canned vegetables and evaporated milk. 

161 



The Max Ams Machine Co, 



Big F. Trade-mark No. 99,967. Owner, Frick Bros., New Iberia, La. 
Used on canned fruits and vegetables. 

Magnolia. Trade-mark No. 100,105. Owner, Dunbars, Lopez & Du- 
kate Co., New Orleans, La. Used on canned shrimp. 

Blub Bied and picture of bird. Trade-mark No. 100,177. Owner, 
Stone-Ordean-Wells Co., Duluth, Minn. Used on their products. 

PicTUKE OF THE Devil. Trade-mark No. 100,229. Owner, Wm. Un- 
derwood Co., Boston, Mass. Used on canned fish, ham, poultry and beef. 

Ye Old White Hoese Cellar and picture of a white horse. Trade- 
mark No. 100,175. Owner, Percy Steet, New York, N.Y. Used on sauce 
put up in bottles. 

Thelco. Trade-mark No. 100,713. Owner, The H. Lesinsky Co., El 
Paso, Tex. Used on canned fruits, canned vegetables, canned fish and 
canned oysters and shrimp. 

Vee Gee and letters V G. Trade-mark No. 100,659. Owner, Henry 
von Glahn & Son, Brooklyn, N.Y. Used on canned vegetables, canned 
fruits and canned fish. 

Silver Boy. Trade-mark No. 100,640. Owner, Spitalnik & Bushel, 
New York, N.Y. Used on salad oil made from cottonseed, tomato catsup, 
white vinegar, and cider vinegar. 

Wedding Breakfast. Trade-mark No. 100,700. Owner, Farrell & Co., 
Omaha, Neb. Used on table syrups, sorghum, and maple syrup molasses. 

Alaflaga. Trade-mark No. 100,691. Owner, Alabama-Georgia Syrup 
Co., Montgomery, Ala. Used on table syrups. 

Monogram of Lettters D L & D Co, used in connection with other 
features. Trade-mark No. 100,296. Owner, Dunbars, Lopez & Dukate 
Co., New Orleans, La. Used on canned shrimp. 

Red Seal. Trade-mark No. 100,479. Owner, Armour & Co., Chicago, 
111. Used on sardines. 

La Famosa. Trade-mark No. 100,836. Owner, Henry F. C. Kilian, 
New York, N.Y. Used on canned vegetables, canned fruits, canned salmon 
and canned jam. 

Pride of Norway. Trade-mark No. 100,843. Owner, Otto L. Kuehn 
Co., Milwaukee, Wis. Used on canned sardines. 

Penguin. Trade-mark No. 100,844. Owner, Otto L. Kuehn Co., Mil- 
waukee, Wis. Used on canned sardines. 

Zoo. Trade-mark No. 100,845. Owner, Otto L. Kuehn Co., Mil- 
waukee, Wis. Used on canned sardines. 

Domino. Trade-mark No. 100,846. Owner, Otto L. Kuehn Co., Mil- 
waukee, Wis. Used on canned sardines. 

Kayak. Trade-mark No. 100,847. Owner, Otto L. Kuehn Co., Mil- 
waukee, Wis. Used on canned sardines. 

Cob Style. Trade-mark No. 100,586. Owner, The MoUen Thompson 
& James Co., Cleveland, Ohio. Used on canned corn. 

Dixie. Trade-mark No. 100.814. Owner, B. A. Hancock, Atlanta, Ga. 
Used on vinegar, sauerkraut, pickles, mustard, jellies and preserves. 

162 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



Caravel. Trade-mark No. 100,848. Owner, La Manna, Azema & 
Farnan, New York, N.Y. Used on canned sardines and olive oil. 

RosEBERBT. Trade-mark No. 100,818. Owner, Hawks, Inc., Bloom- 
ington, lU. Used on their products. 

Montrose. Trade-mark No. 100,748. Owner, Augusta Canning Co., 
Brunswick, Me. Used on canned corn, succotash and lima beans. 

RoMOLo-MoNTi. Trade-mark No. 100,739. Owner, Michele Ajello, 
Brooklyn, N.Y. Used on canned olive oU, fruits and vegetables. 

Chic-I-Nuna. Trade-mark No. 100,886. Owner, Premier Packing 
Co., Chicago, 111. Used on canned albicore. 

Relt. Trade-mark No. 100,886. Owner, J. F. Pyle & Son, San Jose, 
Cal. Used on sauces and canned fruits and vegetables. 

Monogram or Letters S B. Trade-mark No. 100,900. Owner, Segger- 
man Bros., Inc., New York, N.Y. Used on green, dried and evaporated 
apples. 



163 



ASSOCIATIONS 

,, IN THE 

CANNING AND PACKING 
INDUSTRIES 



WHEN AND WHERE PAST NATIONAL CONVENTIONS 

WERE HELD, AND NAMES OF THE 

PRESIDENTS. 

Atlantic States Packers' Association R. Tynes Smith, President 

Western Packers' Canned Goods Association Peter Whitmer, President 

Canning Machinery and Supplies Association F. O. Conant, President 

Detroit— 1900 

Atlantic States Packers' Association J. C. Winters, President 

Western Packers' Canned Goods Association A. H. Trego, President 

Canning Machinery and Supplies Association I. V. McCagg, President 

ROCHESTEB — 1 901 

Atlantic States Packers' Association F. F. Hubbard, President 

Western Packers' Canned Goods Association J. W. Cuykendall, President 

Canning Machinery and Supplies Association J. A. Chisholm, President 

Milwaukee — 1 902 

Atlantic States Packers' Association F. F. Hubbard, President 

Western Packers' Canned Goods Association J. W. Cuykendall, President 

Canning Machinery and Supplies Association J. A. Chisholm, President 

Washington, D. C— 1903 

Atlantic States Packers' Association Willard G. Rouse, President 

Western Packers' Canned Goods Association A. C. Fraser, President 

Canning Machinery and Supplies Association Fred H. Knapp, President 

Columbus, O. — 1904 

Atlantic States Packers' Association Willard G. Rouse, President 

Western Packers' Canned Goods Association A. C. Fraser, President 

Canning Machinery and Supplies Association Fred H. Knapp, President 

National Canned Goods and Dried Fruit Brokers' Association 

Thomas J. Meehan, President 

Columbus, O. — 1905 

Atlantic States Packers' Association George G. Bailey, President 

Western Packers' Canned Goods Association A. C. Fraser, President 

Canning Machinery and Supplies Association C. A. Suydam, President 

National Canned Goods and Dried Fruit Brokers' Association 

Walter A. Frost, President 

Atantic City, N. J. — 1906 

Atlantic States Packers' Association George G. Bailey, President 

Western Packers' Canned Goods Association Lon A. Sears, President 

Canning Machinerr and Supplies Association C. A. Suydam, President 

National Canned Goods and Dried Fruit Brokers' Association 

Walter A. Frost, President 

106 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Buffalo, N. Y.— 1907 

*National Canners' Association George G. Bailey, Preaident 

Western Packers' Canned Goods Association Lon A. Sears, President 

Atlantic States Packers' Association Hugh S. Orem, President 

Canning Machinery and Supplies Association . . . . E. M. Lang, Jr., President 

National Canned Goods and Dried Fruit Brokers' Association 

Walter A. Frost, President 

ClNCHflTATI, O.— 1908 

National Canners' Association Charles S. Crary, President 

Canning Machinery and Supplies Association E. M. Lang, Jr., President 

National Canned Goods and Dried Fruit Brokers' Association 

Walter A. Frost, President 

Louisville, Kt. — 1909 

National Canners' Association Charles S. Crary, President 

Canning Machinery and Supplies Association. . . .George W. Cobb, President 

National Canned Goods and Dried Fruit Brokers' Association 

Frank L. Deming, President 

Atlantic City, N. J. — 1910 

National Canners' Association Lon A. Sears, President 

Canning Machinery and Supplies Association. . . .George W. Cobb, President 

National Canned Goods and Dried Fruit Brokers' Association 

Charles S. Jones, President 

Milwaukee, Wis. — 1911 

National Canners' Association W. R. Roach, President 

Canning Machinery and Supplies Association Thomas A. Scott, President 

National Canned Goods and Dried Fruit Brokers' Association 

Charles S. Jones, President 

RoCHESTEtt, N. Y. — 1912 

National Canners' Association S. F. Haserot, President 

Canning Machinery and Supplies Association. . . .Thomas A. Scott, President 

National Canned Goods and Dried Fruit Brokers' Association 

Joseph H. Kline, President 

Louisville, Ky. — 1913 

National Canners' Association Bert M. Fernald, President 

Canning Machinery and Supplies Association . . W. C. Langbridge, President 

National Canned Goods and Dried Fruit Brokers' Association 

Richard Dallam, President 

Baltimoke, Md. — 1914 

National Canners' Association W. C. Leitch, President 

Canning Machinery and Supplies Association .. W. C. Langbridge, President 

National Canned Goods and Dried Fruit Brokers' Association 

Richard Dallam, President 

* The National Canners' Association came into existence at this meeting, near the close 
of which it took hold. 



167 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



PROGRAM OF THE SEVENTH ANNUAL CONVENTION 

OF THE NATIONAL CANNERS' ASSOCIATION 

AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES. 

The seventh annual convention of the National Canners' Asso- 
ciation and its allied industries will be held in Baltimore, Md., 
February 2-6, 1914, inclusive. 

We cordially invite the entire canning industry and its 
friends, the members of the Canning Machinery and Supplies 
Association and the National Canned Foods and Dried Fruits 
Brokers' Association, and welcome them to participate in the 
events of what should prove for all a most resultful week. 

B. M. FEB.NALD, 

President National Canners' Association. 

W. C. Langbeidge, 
President Canning Machinery and Supplies 
Association. 

RicHAED Dallam, 

President National Canned Goods and 
Dried Fruits Brokers' Association. 

The committees appointed by the Baltimore Canned Goods 
Exchange to prepare for the convention and care for the visitors 
on that occasion are made up of the following well-known gentle- 
men: 

Convention Committee 

F. A. Torch, Chairman Rufus M. Gibbs 

D. H. Stevenson H. W. Krebs 

Ed. A. Kerr Albert T. Myer 

Geo. N. Numsen J. Cecil Smith 

Sub-Committees 

HOTEL 

D. H. Stevenson, Chairman A. Hampton Steele 
W. C. West Thos. L. North, Jr. 

168 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



PUBLICITY AND PEESS 

Ed. A. Kerr, Chairman John R. Baines 

H. S. Orem Arthur Judge 

FINANCE 

Geo. N. Numsen, Chairman B. Hamburger 
Wm. A. Wagner L. Langrall 

ATTENDANCE 

Rufus M. Gibbs, Chairman Robert A. Sindall 
Wm. Silver L. G. Kraft 

ENTERTAINMENT 

H. W. Krebs, Chairman W. E. Wilson 

John S. Gibbs, Jr. Chas. G. Summers, Jr. 

W. F. Assau 

MACHINERY HALI, 

Albert T. Myer, Chairman Walter J. Phelps 

H. P. Strasbaugh Jas. B. Piatt 

Richard Dorsey Frank A. Curry 

RECEPTION 

J. Cecil Smith, Chairman C. J. Schenkel 

E. C. White A. J. Hubbar 

Thos. J. Meehan C. F. Butterfield 

The sessions of the National Canners' Association will be held 
in the assembly rooms of the Hotel Belvedere. 

PROGRAM 

Monday, February 2. 

Machinery Hall open all day. There will be no session of the 
convention this day. Everyone is urged immediately upon arrival 
to come to the secretary's office at the Belvedere Hotel and reg- 
ister. 

It is exceedingly important that each person register imme- 
diately upon arrival, as the official badge will he necessary to 
obtain admission to the Machinery Hall and convention halls. 

Monday Evening at 8 O'clock Meeting of the Directors of 
National Canners' Association, at the Hotel Belvedere. It Is 
Important for all Directors to Attend This Meeting. 

169 



The Max Ams Machine Co, 



Tuesday, February 3, 10 O'Clock A.M. 

OPENING SESSION 

Assembly Rooms, Hotel Belvedere. 
Machinery Hall closed until 1 o'clock p.m. 

F. A. Torsch, President, Baltimore Canned Groods Exchange, 
presiding. 

Invocation — His Eminence James Cardinal Gibbons. 

"Maryland, My Maryland !" — His Excellency Phillips Lee Golds- 
borough, Governor of Maryland. 

"The Dignified Mission of Canned Foods" — ^His Excellency 
Charles R. Miller, Governor of Delaware. 

Baltimore Greetings — Honorable James H. Preston, Mayor of 
Baltimore. 

Response — ^William C. Leitsch, First Vice President, National 
Canners' Association, Columbus, Wis. 

Addresses of Presidents — Hon. B. M. Femald, President, National 
Canners' Association ; W. C. Langbridge, President, Canning 
Machinery and Supplies Association ; Richard Dallam, Pres- 
ident, National Canned Goods and Dried Fruits Brokers' As- 
sociation. 
The recommendations of the president of the National Can- 
ners' Association will be furnished in printed form, together with 

the report of the secretary and treasurer. 

Announcement of convention and special committees. 

Tuesday Aeternoon 

Machinery Hall open. No session of National Canners' As- 
sociation, except special committee work. 

Reception by the visiting ladies and the ladies of Baltimore to 
Mrs. M. V. Terhune (Marion Harland). 

Music — Tea. 

Tuesday Evening 

A typical Maryland oyster roast, tendered by the host, the 
Baltimore Canned Goods Exchange. 

Place : The cannery of the John Boyle Company, South Wolfe 
Street, comer Thames Street. 

Hour: 7 o'clock. 

Oysters in practically every known Maryland style — ^raw, 
roasted and steamed. Elaborate entertainment. 

170 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



Wednesday, Februaky 4, 10 O'Clock A.M. 
Assembly Rooms, Hotel Belvedere. 

Machinery Hall closed until 1 o'clock p.m. 

"Reciprocal Insurance" — John C. Bardwell, St. Louis, Mo. 

"Important Factors Affecting Crop Production" — Dr. H. J. 
Wheeler, Manager Agricultural Service Bureau, American 
Agricultural Chemical Co., Boston, Mass. 

Address — Hon. J. Harry Covington, Interstate and Foreign 
Commerce Committee, House of Representatives. 

"Federal Government and Food Products" — O. B. McGlasson, 
President National Wholesale Grocers' Association, Chi- 
cago, 111. 

"Links in the Chain of Distribution"— Col. John A. Lee, Chi- 
cago, HI. 

"Retailer's Confidence" — John A. Green, Secretary National Re- 
tail Grocers' Association, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Report of Committee on Nominations. 

Election of officers of the National Canners' Association. 



Wednesday Mobning, 10 O'Clock 

Meeting of Canning Machinery and Supplies Association, 
Hotel Belvedere. Nomination of officers and other association 
business. 



Wednesday Afternoon and Evening 

Machinery Hall open. 

National Canners' Association Committee meeting. 
Ladies will visit the famous Walters Art Gallery, Mount 
Vernon Place. 



Wednesday Evening 

Session in Albaugh's Lyceum Theater, Charles Street, near 

Preston. 
Address — Mrs. M. V. Terhune (Marion Harland). 
"The Housewife's Debt to the Canned Food Industry" — Mrs. 
Winnifred Harper Cooley, National President of Associated 
Clubs of Domestic Science, New York. 

171 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



"Solving a Great Problem" — Hugh S. Orem, former President 
of Baltimore Canned Goods Exchange. 

Moving Pictures: Catching Salmon — Miller Freeman, Secre- 
tary Alaska and Puget Sound Packers' Association. Capt. 
J. J. Reynolds, Secretary Oregon-Washington-Califomia 
Coast Salmon Packers' Association, Portland, Ore. 

Canning Hawaiian pineapple. 



Thuesday, February 5, 10 O'Clock A.M. 
Assembly Rooms, Hotel Belvedere. 
Machinery Hall closed until 1 o'clock p.m. 
"Fire Insurance Canners' Exchange, Chicago" — George G. 

Bailey, Treasurer Advisory Board, Rome, N.Y. 
Address — ^Dr. C. L. Alsberg, Chief, Bureau of Chemistry, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 
"Export Trade in Canned Products ; How to Get It and How to 
Keep It" — Hon. Wm. C. Redfield, Secretary of Commerce, 
Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. 

Reports of All Committees 

Cooperative Committee with Wholesale Grocers — ^L. A. Sears, 
Chairman. 

Committee on Legislation — ^E. V. Stockham, Chairman. 

Committee on Scientific Research — Henry Burden, C/uiirman. 

Committee on Adjustment — E. V. Stockham, Chairman. 

Committee on Sanitation — Wm. C. Leitsch, Chairman. 

Committee on Publicity^ — F. L. Deming, Chairman. 

Committee on Contracts and Terms, Weights and Measure- 
ments — L. A. Sears, Chairman. 



Thursday Afternoon 

Machinery Hall open. 

Automobile ride for ladies into the famously beautiful coun- 
tryside of Baltimore. Entertainment and refreshments at the 
Country Club. 

172 



MouNX Vernon, N.Y. 



Thuesday Evening 

Theater Parties — ^American Can Company. 
Ford's Opera House, Fayette Street, near Eutaw Street. 

(Doris Keane in "Romance"). 
Auditorium Theater, Howard Street, near Franklin Street. 

(PoK Players in "The Fortune Hunter"). 



Friday, Februauy 6 

Visit to research laboratories of the National Canners' As- 
sociation, Washington, D.C., at 1739 H Street, N.W. Visitors 
will be the special guests of the laboratories. 

The laboratories will be open each day during the convention 
and full inspection is cordially invited. 



Resume of Social Functions 

Tuesday ^fierwoom— Reception to Mrs. Terhune. Ladies. 

Tuesday Evening — Oyster Roast, Cannery of John Boyle Com- 
pany, Wolfe and Thomas Streets. Ladies and gentlemen. 

Wed/nesday Afternoon — ^Visit to Walters Art Gallery. Ladies. 

Wednesday Evening — Series of lectures on domestic science and 
kindred subjects, Lyceum Theatre. 

Thursday Afternoon — ^Automobile ride into the country, and en- 
tertainment and refreshments at Country Club. Ladies. 

Thursday Evenmg — Theatre parties tendered by the American 
Can Company, Ford's Opera House — ^Doris Keane in "Ro- 
mance." Auditorium, Poll Players in "The Fortune 
Hunter." 



PROGRAM OF THE ELEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING, 

NATIONAL CANNED FOODS AND DRIED 

FRUITS BROKERS' ASSOCIATION 

Banquet Hall, Hotel Belvedere, Baltimore, Md., 1914. 
Tuesday, Februauy 3, 10 A.M. 
1. Joint meeting with National Canners' Association and Can- 
ning Machinery and Supplies' Association, in Convention 



Hall, Hotel Belvedere. 



173 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Tuesday, Febkuaey 3, 2 P.M. 

2. Meeting of members of National Canned Goods and Dried 

Fruits Brokers' Association, in Banquet Hall, Hotel Belve- 
dere. 

3. Roll call. 

4. Reading of minutes of previous meeting. 

5. Greeting on behalf of Maryland Brokers, by Mr. Thomas J. 

Meehan, of T. J. Meehan & Co., Baltimore, Md. 

6. Appointment of committee on nominations and committee on 

resolutions. 

7. Report of president. 

8. Report of secretary. 

9. Report of treasurer. 

10. Report of standing committees. 



Thursday, February 5, 10 A.M. 

11. Address, "The Broker from the Jobber's Point of View," by 

Mr. Walter B. Timms, of Austin, Nichols & Co., New York. 

12. Address, "The Broker from the Packer's Point of View," by 

Mr. Samuel F. Haserot, of the Haserot Canneries Co., Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

13. Address, "The Broker as Seen by Himself," by Willard G. 

Rouse, Easton Commission Co., Easton, Md. 

14. Address, "Some Legal Aspects of the Brokerage Business," 

by Mr. S. A. Williams, Counsel for the National Canners' 
Association. 



Wednesday, February 4, 10 A.M. 

15. Address, Hon. B. M. Fernald, President National Canners' 

Association. 

16. Address, Mr. O. B. McGlasson, President National Whole- 

sale Grocers' Association. 

17. Address, Mr. W. C. Langbridge, President Canning Ma- 

chinery and Supplies Association. 

174 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



Wednesday. Februauy 4, 2 P.M. 

18. Consideration of unfinished business. 

19. New business. 

20. Report of committee on resolutions. 

21. Report of committee on nominations. 

22. Election of ofiicers. 

23. Adjournment. 

PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION 

Some reasons for becoming a member of the National Can- 
ners' Association are as follows: 

1. To get acquainted with other business men. 

2. To learn from other canners actual trade conditions. 

3. To better trade credits and collections in general, 

4. To learn that good conditions are not the result of in- 

dividual effort. 

5. To get better results by co-operation. 

6. To learn to work together for the common good. 

7. To help support the canning industry since the canning 

industry supports you. 

8. To do your share in keeping factories and business 
methods clean and attractive. 

9. To get for canned foods the endorsement of the best 

schools, churches and housewives. 
10. To get away from self, find good in others and be one 
in the best association, composed of the best canners 
having the best factories, doing the best business, with 
the best buyers at the best terms and all to be made 
better as the membership increases. 

NATIONAL CANNERS' ASSOCIATION MOVES TO 
LABORATORIES. 

On June 27th, 1914, the office of the National Canners' Asso- 
ciation moved from the Woodward Building, where it has been 
since it went to Washington, about a year ago, to the Laboratory 
Building at 1739 H Street N.W. This brings the whole business 
under the one roof, and makes it much more handy for all par- 
ties concerned. Those who have visited the Laboratories know 
that the building is a handsome one, and that the new arrange- 
ment permits an even better housing than before. 

175 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF NATIONAL CANNERS' ASSOCIATION 
SINCE ITS ORGANIZATION 

1907 

George G. Bailey, President, Rome, N.Y. 
Chables S. Ceary, Vice-President, Waukesha, Wis. 

Executive Committee 

George G. Bailey, Rome, N.Y. R. I. Bentley, San Francisco, Cal. 

Charles S. Crary, Waukesha, Wis. J. S. Hughes, St. Paul, Miim. 

W. R. Roach, Hart, Mich. 

1908 

Charles S. Crary, President, Waukesha, Wis. 
L. A. Sears, Vice-President, ChiUicothe, Ohio. 

Executive Committee 

Charles S. Crary, Waukesha, Wis. George G. Bailey, Rome, N.Y. 

L. A. Sears, CUllicothe, Ohio. Hugh S. Orem, Baltimore, Md. 

W. R. Roach, Hart, Mich. 

1909 

Charles S. Crary, President, Waukesha, Wis. 
L. A. Sears, Vice-President, ChUlicothe, Ohio. 

Executive Committee 

Charles S. Crary, Waukesha, Wis. S. F. Haserot, Cleveland, Ohio. 

L. A. Sears, ChiUicothe, Ohio. Hugh S. Orem, BaJtimore, Md. 

W. R. Roach, Hart, Mich. George G. Bailey, Rome, N.Y. 

1910 

L. A. Sears, President, ChiUicothe, Ohio. 
W. R. Roach, Vice-President, Hart, Mich. 

Executive Committee 

L. A. Sears, ChiUicothe, Ohio. Hugh S. Orem, Baltimore, Ma. 

W. R. Roach, Hart, Mich. S. F. Haserot, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Crafton Johnson, Greenwood, Ind. Gene Dickinson, Eureka, 111. 

C. S. Crary, Waukesha, Wis. W. O. Hoffecker, Smyrna, Del. 
George G. Bailey, Rome, N.Y. 

1911 

W. R. Roach, President, Hart, Mich. 
S. F. Haserot, Vice-President, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Executive Committeb 

W. R. Roach, Hart, Mich. E. V. Stockham, Ferryman, Md. 

S. F. Haserot, Cleveland, Ohio. M. W. Jones, Vinton, Iowa. 

Gene Dickinson, Eureka, lU. F. F. Wiley, Edinburg, Ind. 

H. C. Hemingway, Syracuse, N.Y. L. A. Sears, ChiUicothe, Ohio. 

C. H. Bentley, San Francisco, Cal. P. L. Deming, Chicago, IlL 

W. C. Leitsch, Columbus, Wis. W. O. Hoffecker, Smyrna, Del. 

C. T. Lee, Chicago, lU. B. M. Fernald, West Poland, Me. 

176 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



1912 

S. F. Haserot, President, Cleveland, Ohio. 
B. M. Febnald, Vice-President, West Poland, Me. 



Executive Committee 



S. F. Haserot, Cleveland, Ohio. 

B. M. Femald, West Poland, Me. 
W. R. Roach, Hart, Mich. 

L. A. Sears, Chillicothe, Ohio. 
E. V. Stockham, Ferryman, Md. 

C. T. Lee, Chicago, 111. 

C. H. Bentley, San Francisco, Cal. 
Richard Dickinson, Eureka, 111. 



H. C. Hemingway, Syracuse, N.Y. 
M. W. Jones, Waterloo, Iowa. 
F. L. Deming, Chicago, 111. 
T. J. Gorman, Seattle, Wash. 
W. O. Hoffecker, Smyrna, Del. 
W. C. Leitsch, Columbus, Wis. 
F. W. Donthitt, Big Stone City, S.D. 



1913 

Beet M. Fernald, President William C. Leitsch, 1st Vice-President 

Frank E. Gobrell, Secretary, Treasurer, Director of Publicity 

LoTjis Dashiell, Assistant Secretary 

1914 

William C. Leitsch, President, Wisconsin. 

George N. Numseh, 1st Vice-President, Maryland 

Frank E. Gorrell, Secretary and Treasurer, Washington, D.C. 

Loots Dashieix, Assistant Secretary, Washington, D.C. 



Executive Committee 



B. M. Femald Maine 

W. C. Leitsch Wisconsin 

Samuel F. Haserot Ohio 

Wm. R. Roach Michigan 

L. A. Sears Ohio 

E. V. Stockham Maryland 

Charles T. Lee Illinois 

C. H. Bentley California 

H. C. Hemingway New York 

Richard Dickinson Illinois 



Frank L. Deming Illinois 

W. O. Hoffecker Delaware 

T. J. Gorman Washington 

F. W. Douthitt South Dakota 

George B. Morrill Maine 

S. F. Taylor New York 

Geo. N. Numsen Maryland 

Floyd Mattice Indiana 

George E. Lichtv Iowa 

G. E. Grier . . .". California 



Vice-Presidents 



Wm. C. Smith Indiana 

W. O. Hoffecker Delaware 

E. E. Chase California 

M. H. Hegerle Minnesota 

R. B. Gillette Missouri 

Frank Gerber Michigan 

S. B. Orr Ohio 

N. J. Griffith New York 

E. F. Trego Illinois 

F. D. Bolton Virginia 



D. J. Fitzgerald Wisconsin 

W. J. Parker Utah 

0. H. Mitchell Iowa 

F. A. Torsch Maryland 

J. T. Barron Oregon 

Wm. Moore Illinois 

C. H. Musselman Pennsylvania 

J. O. Holt Oregon 

F. A. Seuf ert Oregon 

W. A. Lowman Washington 

C. S. Baxter Maine 



Directors 

B. M. Fernald, Fernald, Keen & True Co., West Poland, Me. 
W. R. Roach, W. R. Roach & Co., Hart, Mich. 
E. V. Stockham, Ferryman, Md. 

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L. A. Sears, The Sears & Nichols Co., Cbillicothe, Ohio 

Charles T. Lee, Libby, McNeill & Libby, Chicago, 111. 

George N. Numsen, William Numsen & Sons Co., Baltimore, Md. 

C. H. Bentley, California Fruit Canners' Association, San Francisco, CaL 

S. F. Haserot, The Haserot Canneries Co., Cleveland, Ohio 

Wm. C. Leitsch, Columbus Canning Co., Columbus, Wis. 

Richard Dickinson, Dickinson & Co., Eureka, 111. 

W. O. Hoffecker, J. H. Hoffecker Canning Co., Smyrna, Del. 

F. W. Douthitt, Big Stone Canning Co., Big Stone City, S.D. 

E. S. Thorne, Geneva Preserving Co., Geneva, N.Y. 
Frank Gerber, Fremont Canning Co., Fremont, Mich. 

J. F. Rourke, Grand Island Canning Co., Grand Island, Neb. 

S. G. Chamberlain, Pierce City Packing Co., Pierce City, Mo. 

J. G. M. Barnes, Kaysville Canning Co., Kaysville, Utah 

George B. Chatham, Lowell Canning Co., Lovcell, Wis. 

H. C. Hemingway, H. F. Hemingway & Co., Syracuse, N.Y. 

M. W. Jones, Sac City Canning Co., Sac City, Iowa. 

Frank L. Deming, Pacific-American Fisheries, Chicago, 111. 

T. J. Gorman, Gorman & Co., Seattle, Wash. 

S. Frederic Taylor, Borden's Condensed Milk Co., New York, N.Y. 

J. Ed. Guenther, Blue Grass Canning Co., Owensboro, Ky. 

Charles S. Stevens, Stevens Bros., CedarvUle, N.J. 

J. W. McCall, Gibson Canning Co., Gibson City, 111. 

George B. Morrill, Burnham & MorrUl Co., Portland, Me. 

J. W. Cuykendall, Atlantic Canning Co., Atlantic, Iowa 

W. A. Baldwin, Haiku Fruit & Packing Co., Haiku, Maui, T.H. 

Geo. E. Litchy, Waterloo Canning Corp., Waterloo, Iowa. 

Charles Latchen, Wabash Canning Co., Wabash, Ind. 

F. A. Seufert, Seufert Bros. Co., The, Dallas, Ore. 
Chas. S. Stevens, Stevens Bros., Cedarville, N. J. 

F. J. Mattice, Rochester Canning Co., Rochester, Ind. 

G. E. Grier, Pasadena Canning Co., Pasadena, Cal. 



STANDING COMMITTEES 
NATIONAL CANNERS' ASSOCIATION 

1914 

Advisory Board 

J. W. McCall, Chairman, Illinois. 
Frank Van Camp, Indiana. W. T. P. Wardrop, Illinois. 

George G. Bailey, New York. J. T. Dorrance, New Jersey. 

W. S. Thomas, Michigan. F. M. Shook, Ohio. 

William Moore, Illinois. E. Reynolds, Wisconsin. 

Co-oPERAn\'E Committee With Wholesale Grocers 
L. A. Sears, Chairman, Ohio. 
C. T. Lee, Illinois. W. S. Thomas, Michigan. 

Legislation 
E. V. Stockham, Chairman, Maryland. 
George N. Numsen, Maryland. Henry Burden, New Ybrk. 

J. P. Olney, New York. W. A. Wagner, Maryland. 

C. W. McReynolds, Indiana. 

1T8 



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Scientific Reseauch 
Henry Burden, Chairman, New York. 
Gen. Henry G. Sharpe, Washington, L. A. Sears, Ohio. 

D.C. W. R. Roach, Michigan. 

Dr. W. D. Bigelow, Washington, B. M. Fernold, Maine. 

D.C. C. S. Jones, Illinois. 

Dr. A. W. Bitting, Washington, J. C. Puetz, Illinois. 

D.C. R. I. Bentley, California. 

S. F. Haserot, Ohio. 

H. A. Baker, Secretary, New York. 

AHBITEATIOIf 

E. V. Stockham, Chairman, Maryland. 
D. C. Pierce, New York. C. S. Stevens, New Jersey. 

SANlTATIOir 

F. M. Shook, Chairman, Ohio. 
C. T. Lee, IlUnois. F. F. Wiley, Indiana. 

Resolutions 
C. T. Lee, Chairman, Illinois. 
Floyd Mattice, Indiana. J. C. Winters, New York. 

W. R. Olney, New York. George E. Stocking, Illinois. 

F. M. Shook, Ohio. E. E. Chase, California. 

PuBLicmr 
F. L. Deming, Chairman, Illinois. 
M. W. Jones, Iowa. Ira S. Whitmer, Illinois. 

F. F. Wiley, Indiana. James Hutchinson, Wisconsin. 

Frank Gerber, Michigan. Chas. Satchem, Indiana. 

Contracts, Teems, Weights and Measubes 
Richard Dickinson, Chairman, Illinois 
Geo. G. Bailey, N.Y. W. R. Roach, Mich. 

J. C. Winters, N.Y. L. A. Sears, Ohio 

CANNING MACHINERY AND SUPPLIES' ASSOCIATION 

W. C. Langbridge, President Albany, N.Y. 

A. F. W. St. John, Vice-President Columbus, Ohio 

Thomas A. Scott, Treasurer Cadiz, Ohio 

H. A. Hanna, Secretary Cadiz, Ohio 

R. H. Lang, Clerk Portland, Me. 

Directors 
W. A. Chapman, Silver Creek, N.Y. T. A. Scott, Cadiz, Ohio 
L. A. Faber, Philadelphia, Pa. H. M. Kronan, Baltimore, Md. 

Ogden S. Sells, Buffalo, N.Y. R. A. SindaU, Baltimore, Md. 

NATIONAL CANNED GOODS AND DRIED FRUITS BROKERS' 

ASSOCIATION 

Secretary's Office, 326 W. Madison St., Chicago. 

OlTICERS 

President: 

Richard Dallam Bel Air, Md. 

Smith- Webster Co. 
1st Vice-President: gnd Vice-President: 

W. H. NiOHOLLS Chicago, 111. Ciias. A. Carey Philadelphia, Pa. 

W. H. Nicholls & Co. Null & Carey. 

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3rd Vice-President: 

RuFt73 H. DiiAPEtt Duluth, Wis. 

Draper Brokerage Co. 
Secretary : Treasurer : 

Ja8. M. Hobbs Chicago Hexey Colberg Chicago 

Flannery & Hobbs. Henry Colberg. 

DiBECTOKS 

One Tear: Two Tears: 

Frank Aplin New York, N.Y. Oscar HoflFman. .San Francisco, CaL 

J. K. Armsby Co. Hoffman & Greenlee. 

Paul W. Paver Chicago, 111. Claude Van Zandt.Fort Worth, Tex. 

The J. M. Paver Co. Claude Van Zandt & Co. 



Three Tears : 
James I. Munoz, Jacksonville, Fla. 
John S. McDaniel, Easton, Md. 



NATIONAL CANNED GOODS AND DRIED FRUITS BROKERS' 
ASSOCIATION COMMITTEES 

Advisobt 

Jos. H. Kline, Chairman, Cleveland, Ohio. 
Charles S. Jones Peoria, III. Walter A. Frost Chicago, HL 

Co-operation 

John A. Lee, Chairman, Chicago, lU. 

Harry C. Taft,. .San Francisco, Cal. John Chany Boston, Mass. 

Fred Fabian. . .Salt Lake City, Utah H. F. C. Kilian New York City 

ARBITRATIOlf 

WUliam Silver, Chairman, Aberdeen, Md. 

Fred A. Alpin New York, N.Y. J. L. Ford, Jr St. Louis, Mo. 

John R. Adams Chicago, 111. C. P. McFarland. .Los Angeles, CaL 

Factory Sanitation 

Waiiam Silver, Chairman, Aberdeen, Md. 

H. C. Gilbert Indianapolis, Ind. Charles Corby New York City 

M. G. Block Kansas City, Mo. F. W. Smith Los Angeles, CaL 

Commerce and Transportatioit 

George R. Freeman, Chairman, Fargo, N.D. 

F. W. Stith Los Angeles, CaL H. Goldschmidt . .San Antonio, Tex. 

T. J. Preece Minneapolis, Minn. James R, Baker Chicago, IlL 

Finance 

Luman R. Wing, Chairman, Chicago, 111. 
George Petti John Chicago, 111. W. R. Conover Boston, Mass. 

Pure Food 

Charles S. Jones, Chairman, Peoria, 111. 

F. E. Booth San Francisco, Cal. F. B. Greene Portland, Me. 

C. A. Taylor Brunswick, Ga. W. R. Chace Cincinnati, Ohio 

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Standards 
P. W. Paver, Chairman, Chicago, 111. 

Thomas J. Meehan.. Baltimore, Md. H. M. Reed Waterloo, Iowa 

Ralph Crary Waukesha, Wis. A. B. Field San Francisco, Cal. 

EXTEBTAINMENT 

J. Cecil Smith, Chairman, Baltimore, Md. 

E. C. Shriner Baltimore, Md. C. W. Baker Aberdeen, Md. 

Thomas J. Meehan. .Baltimore, Md. R. Harry Webster Bel Air, Md. 

Co-OPEHATioN With Caufobnia Dkied Fruits Association 

Oscar Hoffman, Chairman, San Francisco, Cal. 
C. C. Kinsey San Francisco, CaL Walter A. Field, San Francisco, Cal. 

NATIONAL WHOLESALE GROCERS' ASSOCIATION 



Oscar B. McGlasson Chicago 

Vice-Presidents : 

Wm. C. McConatjghy D. C. Shaw Pittsburg, Pa. 

Parkersburg, W. Va. O. J. Moore Sioux City, Iowa 

P. C. Descher Sacramento, Cal. Geo. W. FERGUsoN.Springfield, Mass. 

Secretary : 
Alfred H. Beckmann 6 Harrison St., New York City 

Treasurer : 
Theodore F. Whitmaush New York 

BALTIMORE CANNED GOODS EXCHANGE 

F. A. ToRSCH, President Baltimore, Md. 

Geo. N. Numsen, Vice-President Baltimore, Md. 

Leander Langrall, Treasurer Baltimore, Md. 

Wm. F. Assait, Secretary Baltimore, Md. 

Morris Soper, Counsel Baltimore, Md. 

Chas. GiASER, Chemist Baltimore, Md. 

Executive Committee 
Hugh S. Orem. Albert R. Myer. 

John S. Gibbs, Jr. 

Arbitration Committee 
E. C. White. W. A. Wagner. 

C. J. Schenkel. J. R. Baines. 

James B. Piatt. 

Committee on Commerce 
R. M. Gibbs. Louis Grebb. 

C. J. Brooks. D. H. Stevenson. 

John SchaU. 

CoJtMiTTEE ON Legislation 
George N. Numsen. A. T. Myer. 

George T. Phillips. W. E. Robinson. 

E. H. Miller. 

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The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Committee on Claims 

H. S. Orem. C. F. ButterfieW. 

B. Hamburger. W. A. Silver. 



Frank Curry. 



Hospitality Committee 



T. J. Meehan. H. W. Krebs. 

E. A. Keer. 

Brokers' Committee 

H. A. Waidner. Henry Fleming. 

William Grecht. 

PACKERS' CANNED FOOD WESTERN ASSOCIATION 

Wm. Moore, President Hoopeston, lU. 

F. Gerber, Vice-President Fremont, Mich. 

Geo. W. Drake, Secretary and Treasurer CirclevUle, Ohio 

ILLINOIS CANNERS' ASSOCIATION 

E. F. Trego, President Hoopeston, lU. 

R. DiCKursoM-, Vice-President Eureka, 111. 

H. D. Barxes, Secretary and Treasurer Elgin, 111. 

INDIANA CANNERS' ASSOCIATION 

W. H. Dyer, President Vincennes, Ind. 

N. L. HuTTo, Vice-President SharpsviUe, Ind. 

Harry W. McCartney, Secretary and Treasurer. .Greenwood, Ind. 

OHIO CANNERS' ASSOCIATION 

S. B. Ork, President CirclevOle, Ohio 

J. F. Montgomery, Vice-President Columbus, Ohio 

F. M. Shook, Secretary and Treasurer Urbana, Ohio 

Directors: 
L. A. Sears C. C. McDonald 

I. E. Crampton H. L. Harding 

F. Reichelderfer. 

NEW YORK STATE CANNED GOODS PACKERS' ASSOCIATION 

N. J. Griffith, President .T. Stittville, N.Y. 

F. D. Smith, Vice-President Springville, N.Y. 

A. R, Hatfield, Secretary Utica, N.Y. 

A. R. Hunt, Treasurer Oswego, N Y 

IOWA CANNERS' ASSOCIATION 

George E. Lichty, President Waterloo 

George Kelley, Vice-President Grinnell 

E. W. ViHDEN, Secretary and Treasurer GUman 

MINNESOTA CANNERS' ASSOCIATION 

M. H. Hegehle, President St. Bonifacius, Minn. 

A. A. Chapman, Vice-President Olivia, Minn. 

F. W. DouTHrrT, Secretary and Treasurer Big Stone City, S.D. 

MISSOURI VALLEY CANNERS' ASSOCIATION 

R. B. Gillette, President MarionviUe, Mo. 

H. N. Brown, Vice-President Odessa, Mo. 

J. P. Harris, Secretary and Treasurer Prairie Grove, Ark. 

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WISCONSIN PEA PACKERS' ASSOCIATION 

J. W. Hutchinson, President Randolph, Wis. 

A. T. HiPKE, Vice-President New Holstein, Wis. 

W. H. Fromm, Treasurer Cedarburg, Wis. 

J. A. Hageman, Secretary Fort Atkinson, Wis. 

MICHIGAN CANNERS' ASSOCIATION 

Frank Gerbee, President Fremont, Mich. 

W. H. Godfrey, Vice-President, Secretary and Treasurer 

Watervleit, Mich. 

OREGON-WASHINGTON-CALIFORNIA COAST SALMON 
PACKERS' ASSOCIATION 

F. A. Seupekt, President The Dallas, Ore. 

G. W. Sanborn, Vice-President Astoria, Ore. 

J. J. Reynolds, Secretary and Treasurer Portland, Ore. 

CALIFORNIA CURED FRUIT EXCHANGE 



R. C. Kells, President 

E. E. Ogden, Vice-President. 
S. O. Walker, Secretary . . . 



BRITISH COLUMBIA PACKERS' ASSOCIATION 



W. H. Barker, President 

W. H. Baknee, President 

A. Jarvis, Vice-President 

J. M. Whitehead, Secretary and Treasurer . 



ASSOCIATION OF ALASKAN SALMON PACKERS 

J. T. Barron, President Portland, Ore. 

F. C. Johnston, 1st Vice-President Seattle, Wash. 

G. T. Myers, Snd Vice-President Seattle, Wash. 

Miller Freeman, Secretary Seattle, Wash. 

DRIED AND CANNED FRUITS ASSOCIATION OF 
CHICAGO 

W. H. Eagle, President Chicago, 111. 

C. V. Inderrieden, Vice-President Chicago, 111. 

J. C. Veale, Treasurer Chicago, 111. 

J. M. HoBBS, Secretary Chicago, 111. 

OREGON AND WASHINGTON CANNERS' ASSOCIATION 

J. O. Holt, President Eugene, Ore. 

J.J. Stengle, Vice-President Woodburn, Ore. 

H. C. AtwEiLL, Secretary and Treasurer Forest Grove, Ore. 

NATIONAL KRAUT PACKERS' ASSOCIATION 

W. H. Erdrich, President Bellevue, Ohio 

Anthony Meexer, Vice-President Lansing, 111. 

A. E. Slessman, Secretary and Treaswrer Fremont, Ohio 

Directors: 

L. S. Foster Phelps, N.Y. 

E. E. Franks Milwaukee, Wis. 

D. S. Dunkin Cleveland, Ohio 

183 



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NATIONAL APPLE SHIPPERS' ASSOCIATION 

R. H. Pexnington, President EvansvUIe, Ind. 

E. W. J. Heaett, Vice-President Boston, Mass. 

Wayne M. Feestch, Treasurer New York, N.Y. 

R. G. Phillips, Secretary Rochester, N.Y. 

Executive Committee: 

A. Warren Patch, Chairman Boston, Mass. 

E. N. Loomis New York City C. B. Schaf er . . . Gasport, N.Y. 

D. N. Minnick. . . Chambersburg, Pa. L. K. Sutton .. Columbus, Ohio 

CANNERS' LEAGUE OF CALIFORNIA 

E. E. Chase, President San Jose, Cal. 

J. K. Abmsby and F. F. Stetson, Vice-Presidents 

San Francisco and Los Angeles, Cal. 

Jay Deming, Treasurer San Francisco, Cal. 

H. P. DiMOND, Secretary San Francisco, Cal. 

Executive Committee: 
C. L. Tilden, Chairman R. I. Bentley 

J. H. Hunt R. M. Barthold 

Walter M. Field F. A. Wilder 

C. H. Workman A. C. Baumgartner 

UTAH CANNERS' ASSOCIATION 

W. J. Paekeu, President Ogden, Utah 

James Anderson, Vice-President Morgan, Utah 

H. L. Hebrington, Secretary and Treasurer Ogden, Utah 

WESTERN FRUIT JOBBERS' ASSOCIATION 

William L. Wagner, President Chicago, 111. 

W. T. Tidwell, Secretary Denver, Col. 

W. M. RoTLANCE, Treasurer Provo, Utah 

T. D. Turner, 1st Vice-President Oklahoma City 

T. A. Cahgill, Snd Vice-President Houston, Tex. 

J. M. Kij;iN, Srd Vice-President Los Angeles, Cal. 

NORTHWEST CANNERS' ASSOCIATION 

J. O. Holt, President Eugene, Ore. 

J. J. Stengle, Vice-President Woodburn, Ore. 

H. C. Atwell, Secretary and Treasurer Forest Grove, Ore. 

VIRGINIA CANNERS' ASSOCIATION 

F. D. Bolton, President Fincastle, Va. 

J. W. HuDDLESTON, Vicc-Prcsident Thaxton, Va. 

W. C. Smiley, Secretary and Treasurer Roanoke, Va. 

Executive CoMMrrrEE; 

W. G. Spigle J. L. Moomaw 

W. P. Crumpacker F. D. Bolton 

O. B. Jamison W. C. Smiley 

G. C. Flora J. L. Fisher 

H. A. Stanley W. P. Basley 

S. W. Huddleston J. J. Fisher 

D. W. Goode Will Rucker 

J. W. Huddleston J. W. Bowie 
C. E. Bolton 

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NATIONAL PICKLE PACKERS' ASSOCIATION 

William Ballistoer, President Keokuk, Iowa 

Frank A. Browst, Secretary and Treasurer Chicago, 111. 

PUGET SOUND SALMON CANNERS' ASSOCIATION 

Will A. Lowman, President Anacortes, Wash. 

L. H. Waicefield, Vice-President Anacortes, Wash. 

Miller Freeman, Secretary Seattle, Wash. 

David Campbeli., Treasurer Bellingham, Wash. 

THE TRI-STATE PACKERS' ASSOCIATION 

W. O. HorrECKER, President Smyrna, Del. 

Robert Fogo, Vice-President New Jersey 

Harry L. CANNOif, Vice-President Delaware 

F. A. ToKSCH, Vice-President Maryland 

C. M. Dashiell, Secretary and Treasurer Princess Ann, Md. 

Executive Committee: 

C. S. Stevens. A. R. Merritt. 

Luke F. Smith. Leander LangraU. 

George L. Pheiffer. Charles T. Wrightson. 

Daniel Hirsch. H. B. Messenger. 

J. S. Reynolds. Fred R. Owens. 

John W&tkins. Albanus PhilUps. 

E. C. White. Henry W. Roberts. 

C. W. Baker. L. M. Milbourne. 

AMERICAN SPECIALTY MANUFACTURERS' ASSOCIATION 

Walter B. Cherry, President Syracuse, N.Y. 

H. F. Thujthorst, Secretary New York 

Victor Garrett, Treasurer New Jersey 

MAINE CANNERS' ASSOCIATION 

Clin TOST L. Baxter, President Portland, Me. 

Geo. B. Morrill, Vice-President Portland, Me. 

Horace F. Webb, Secretary Portland, Me. 

Diuectors: 
Clinton L. Baxter Bert M. Fernald 

Geo. B. Morrill H. F. Webb 

H.E.Thurston F. B. Greene 

J. P. Jordan Fenton Tomlinson 

SOUTHERN CANNERS' ASSOCIATION 

B. A. Graddock, President Humboldt 

J. C. Sattndehs, Jr., Vice-President 

Festus Rhodes, Secretary Whiteville 

NATIONAL FRUIT AND PRODUCE BROKERS' 
ASSOCIATION 

formed in CLEVELAND, MARCH, 1914 

L. A. BoCKSTAHLER, President Cleveland, Ohio 

R. C. RiTTENHOusE, Vice-Presidcnt Chicago, 111. 

A. H. Gerber, Secretary and General Manager Pittsburgh, Pa. 

C. P. Early, Treasurer Boston, Mass. 

E. E. Koch, Associate General Manager Detroit, Mich. 

185 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



CALIFORNIA FRUIT CANNERS' ASSOCIATION 



William Fries, President 

S. L. Goldstein, Vice-President and Treasurer . . 
R. I. Bentlet, Md Vice-President and Treasurer. 

W. C. B. DE Fkemeey, 3rd Vice-President 

R. I. Bentlet, General Manager 

M. J. Fontana, General Superintendent 

T. B. Dawson, Assistant General Superintendent . . 

C. H. Bentlet, Manager Sales Department 

Chas. B. Carr, Secretary 

Geo. McLean, Assistant Secretary 

Douglas Cushman, Auditor 



NEW YORK FRUIT EXCHANGE 

W. A. Camp, President C. E. Maxwell, Secretary 

H. L. Thompson, Vice-President Antonia Zucca, Treasurer 

AMERICAN DAIRY, FOOD AND DRUG ASSOCIATION 

De. S. J. Crttmbine, President Kansas 

Dr. E. F. Ladd, 1st Vice-President North Dakota 

H. S. Smith, Snd Vice-President Utah 

A. M. G. Saule, Srd Vice-President Maine 

W. M. Allen, Secretary North Carolina 

Frank A. Jackson, Treasurer Rhode Island 

Executive Committee : 
James H. WaUis, of Idaho; Barney, of Iowa, and 
Winkjer, of Minnesota. 

Committee op Co-operation : 
W. Scott Matthews, of Illinois, and F. H. Frick, of ilissouri. 

NATIONAL FOOD TRADES CONFERENCE 

Louis Runkel, President 

American Specialty Manufacturers Association 

ViCE-PRESmENTS : 

H. W. HoopEs National Confectioners' Association 

T. F. Whitmarsh National Wholesale Grocers' Association 

W. M. McCoRMiCK. .Flavoring Extract Manufacturers' Association 
C. F. Mueller, Jr.. National Macaroni Manufacturers' Association 

Secretary: 
John A. Green, Secretary of National Retail Grocers' Association 

NEW YORK RETAIL GROCERS' ASSOCIATION 

William Jeffrey, President Hornell, N.Y. 

PEtTEE Becker, 1st Vice-President Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Ueban F. Jehle, Snd Vice-President Buffalo, X.Y. 

P. A. De Puyt, Srd Vice-President Rochester, N.Y. 

Fred Claeke, Treasurer Gloversville, N.Y. 

186 



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NORTH PACIFIC FRUIT DISTRIBUTORS 

H. F. Davidsok, President Hood River, Ore. 

W. M. Yost, Vice-President Meridian, Idaho 

H. C. Sampson, Secretary and Treasurer Spokane, Wash. 



THE ASSOCIATION OF PACIFIC FISHERIES 

E. B. Demiktg, President Pacific American Fisheries Co. 

C. H. BuscHMAN, 1st Vice-President Northwestern Fisheries Co. 

F. B. Petekson, Snd Vice-President Red Sahnon Canning Co. 

T. Nelson, 3rd Vice-President 

Union Fishermen's Co-operative Packing Co. 

Capt. J. J. Reynolds, Secretary and Treasurer 

The executive committee consists of the above named gentlemen 
and E. E. Ainsworth, of Ainsworth & Dunn; J. T. Barron, of the 
TWinket Packing Co.; W. T. Chutter, of the Booth Fisheries Co.; 
T. J. Gorman, of Gorman & Co. ; G. P. Halferty, of the Pacific 
Fisheries and Packing Co. ; W. F. Robinson, of the Robinson Fisher- 
ies Co. ; C. A. Sutter, of the Fidalgo Island Packing Co. ; W. Timson, 
of the Alaska Packers' Association; F. M. Warren, of the Alaska- 
Portland Packers' Association, and Frank Wright, of the Carlisle 
Packing Co. 



HAWAIIAN PINEAPPLE PACKERS' ASSOCIATION 

F. W. Macfaklane, President 

J. D. Dole, Vice-President 

W. P. Thomas, Secretary and Treasurer 

C. H. Medcalf, Assistant Secretary 



PACIFIC FISHERIES SOCIETY 

Cael Westerfeld, President San Francisco, Cal. 

Henry O'Malley, 1st Vice-President Oregon City, Ore. 

Prop. Trevor KiNCAro, Snd Vice-President Seattle, Wash. 

John N. Cobb, Secretary Seattle, Wash. 

Russell Palmer, Treasurer Seattle, Wash. 

The constitution also provides that the President of the United 
States, and the governors of the states of Washington, Oregon, Cal- 
ifornia, Arizona, Nevada, Idaho and Montana, and the territories 
of Alaska and Hawaii, shall be honorary members of the Society. 



PACIFIC COAST FISHERIES ASSOCIATION 

Carl Sutter, President Seattle, Wash. 

James T. Barron, 1st Vice-President Portland, Ore. 

Frank B. Peterson, Snd Vice-President San Francisco, Cal. 

Thomas Nelson, Srd Vice-President Astoria, Ore. 

These officers, together with the following men, will compose 
the executive board: 

F. M. Warren, Portland, Ore. E. A. Sims, Port Townsend, 
T. J. Gorman, Seattle, Wash. Wash. 

Frank Wright, Village Point, Chris. Buschmann, Seattle, Wash. 

Wash. W. F. Robinson, Anacortes, Wash. 

Frank Berry, Tacoma, Wash. 

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ALASKA PACKERS' ASSOCIATION 

H. F. FoBTMANN President 

Louis Schloss 1st Vice-President 

William Timson Snd Vice-President 

I. LiEBES Treasurer 

A. K. TiCHENOR Secretary 

G. E. Geaky Cashier 

DlHECTORS: 

Henry F. Fortmann Louis Sloss 

George L. Payne Mark L. Gerstle 

Isaac Liebes Henry E. Botbin 

John Daniel Jefferson F. Moser and 

W. B. Bradford Wm. Haas 
Wm. Timson 



PENNSYLVANIA CANNERS' ASSOCIATION 

C. H. MussELMAN, President Bigleville, Pa. 

Wm. E. Mohris, Vice-President Lansdale, Pa. 

D. E. WiNEBREHNER, Jr., Secretary Hanover, Pa. 

Board of Dihbctors: 

One Year: Two Years: Three Years: 

C. C. Smith J. T. Smith J. H. Garrahan 

A. I. Judge Honorary Life Member 

ASSOCIATION OF PACIFIC FISHERIES 

The Association of Pacific Fisheries is a new organization, em- 
bracing the salmon fishing and canning industries and other fishing 
interests on the Pacific Coast. At a meeting of the Executive Com- 
mittee, held at Seattle in June, permanent by-laws were adopted. 

The Following Officers Were Elected: 

E. B. Deming, President Bellingham, Wash. 

Chris. Nuschmann, 1st Vice-President Seattle, Wash. 

J. T. Bakrox, Snd Vice-President Portland, Ore. 

Thomas Nelson, 3rd Vice-President Astoria 



isa 



REFERENCE TABLES 



ADDITIONAL REFERENCE TABLES 

WILL BE FOUND IN 

VOLUME No. 1, 1914 



REFERENCE TABLES 

COMPARISON OF METRIC SYSTEM WITH THE UNITED STATES 
METHOD OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 

(Arranged in Alphabetical Order.) 

Are (100 square meters) = 119.6 square yards. 

Bushel = 2150.42 cubic inches, 36.24 liters. 

Centare (1 square meter) := 1550 square inches. 

Centigram (1/100 gram) = 0.1543 grain. 

Centiliter (1/100 liter)=2.71 fluid drams, 0.338 fluid ounce. 

Centimeter (1/100 meter )= 0.3937 inch. 

1 Cubic centimeter = 16.23 minims (Apothecaries) . 

10 Cubic centimeters =^ 2.71 fluid drams (Apothecaries). 

30 Cubic centimeters = 1.01 fluid ounces (Apothecaries). 

100 Cubic centimeters = 3.38 fluid ounces (Apothecaries). 

473 Cubic centimeters ^ 16.00 fluid ounces (Apothecaries). ■ 

500 Cubic centimeters = 16.90 fluid ounces (Apothecaries). 

1000 Cubic centimeters =: 33.81 fluid ounces (Apothecaries). 

Decigram (1/10 gram)^ 1.5432 grains. 

Decimeter (1/10 meter) ^3.937 inches. 

Deciliter (1/10 liter) =0.845 gill. 

Decagram (10 grams)=0.3527 ounce. 

Decaliter (10 liters)=9.08 quarts (dry), 2.6418 gallons. 

Decameter (10 meters)^393.7 inches. 

Dram (Apothecaries or Troy)^3.9 grams. 

Foot = 0.3048 meter, or 30.48 centimeters. 

Gallon = 3.785 liters. 

Gill = 0.118295 liter, or 142 cubic centimeters. 

Grain (Troy) =0.064804 gram. 

Grain = 0.0648. 

Gram =^ 15.432 grains. 

Hectare (10,000 square meters)= 2.471 acres. 

Hectogram := 3.5274 ounces. 

Hectoliter (100 liters)= 2.838 bushels, or 26.418 gallons. 

Hectometer (100 meters)=328 feet 1 inch. 

Hundredweight (112 pounds Avoirdupois )= 50.8 kilograms. 

Inch = 0.0254 meter. 

Inch = 2.54 centimeters. 

Inch =: 25.40 millimeters. 

Kilogram = 2.2046 pounds, or 35.274 ounces. 

Kiloliter (1000 liters) = 1.308 cubic yards, or 264.18 gallons. 

Kilometer (1000 meters) =0.62137 mile (3280 feet 10 inches). 

Liter = 1.0567 quarts, 0.264 gallon (liquid), or 0.908 quart (dry) 

Meter = 39.3700 inches, or 3.28083 feet 

Mile = 1.609 kilometers. 

Mile = 5280 feet, or 1609.3 meters. 

Millier or tonneau = 2204.6 pounds. 

Milligram = 0.0154 grain. 

Millimeter (1/1000 meter) =0.0394 inch. 

Myriagram = 22.046 pounds, 

Myrjameter (10,000 meters) =6.2137 mUes. 

Ounce (Avoirdupois) =28.350 grams. 

Ounce (fluid)= 28.3966 cubic centimeters. 

Ounce (Troy or Apothecaries) =31.104 grams. 

Peck = 9.08 liters. 

190 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Pint (Uqmd)= 0.47318 Uter. 

Pound (Avoirdupois) =453.603 grams. 

Pound (English)=0.4S3 kilogram. 

Pound (Troy)= 373.25 grams. 

Quart (liquid) =0.94636 liter. 

Quintal = 220.46 pounds. 

Scruple (Troy)= 1.296008 grams. 

Ton = 20 hundredweight = 2240 pounds (Avoirdupois) 1016.070 kilograms. 

Yard = 0.9144 meter. 

TABLE OF MULTIPLES 
Centimeters X 0.3937 = inches. 
Centimeters X 0.0328 = feet 

Centimeters, cubic, x 0.0338 := apothecaries' fluid ounces. 
Diameter of a circle X 3.1416 =: circumference. 
Gallons X 3-'''8S = liters. 
Gallons X 0.833565 = imperial gallons. 
Gallons, imperial, X 1.199666 = U. S. gallons. 
Gallons x 8.33605 = pounds of water. 
Gallons, imperial, X 10 = pounds of water. 
Gallons, imperial, X *.S4102 = liters. 
Grains X 0.0648 = grams. 
Inches X 0.0254 = meters. 
Inches X 25.4 = millimeters. 
Miles X 1-609 = kilometers. 
Ounces, Troy, x 1.097 = ounces of avoirdupois. 
Ounces, avoirdupois, X 0.9115 =: ounces Troy. 
Pounds, avoirdupois, X 0.4536 = kilograms. 
Pounds, avoirdupois, X 0.8228573 = pounds Troy. 
Pounds, Troy, X 0.37286 = kilograms. 
Pounds, Troy, X 1.21527 = pounds avoirdupois. 
Radius of a circle =: 6.283185 X circumference. 
Square of the radius X 3.1416 = area. 
Square of the circumference of a circle X 0.07958 = area. 

MISCELLANEOUS MEASURES 

Bale of cotton (in America)^ 400 pounds. 

Bale of cotton (in Egypt) ^90 pounds. 

Bag of Sea Island cotton = 300 pounds. 

Cable = 120 fathoms. 

Can = 35 pounds. 

Cask of lime = 240 pounds. 

Hogshead = 63 gallons. 

Keg (nails) ^ 100 pounds. 

Noggin or Nog. = 5/16 of a pint. 

Pipe = 2 hogsheads. 

Stone =: 14 pounds. 

Tun = 2 pipes. 

Cubic foot of water weighs 62.4 pounds. 

Cubic foot of water is 7.48 gallons. 

Gallon of water weighs 8 1/3 pounds. 

Gallon of water is 231 cubic inches. 
In England, wool is sold by the sack, or boU, of 22 stones, which, at 14 
pounds to the stone, is 308 pounds. 

A pack of wool is 17 stones and 2 pounds, which is rated as a pack load 
for a horse. It is 240 pounds. 
Sack of flour = 280 pounds. 
A tod of wool is 2 stones of 14 pounds. 
A wey of wool is 614 tods. Two weys, a sack. 
A clove of wool is half a stone. 

191 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



CONVENIENT MULTIPLES FOR CONVERSION 



To Convert 

Grains to grams, 
Ounces to grams, 
Pounds to grams, 
Pounds to kilograms, 
Hundredweights to kilograms. 
Tons to kilograms, 
Grams to grains, 
Grams to ounces, 
Kilograms to ounces, 
Kilograms to pounds, 
Kilograms to hundredweights. 
Kilograms to tons, 

1 Yard = 0.9 144 meter. 



Multiply by 

.065 
28.35 
453.6 
.45 
50.8 
1016. 
15.4 
0.35 
35.3 
2.2 
.02 
.001 
1 square meter = 
pints or 0.22 



To Convert 


Multiply by 


Inches to millimetera, 


25.4 


Inches to centimeters, 


2.54 


Feet to meters. 


.3048 


Yards to meters, 


.9144 


Yards to kilometers, 


.0009 


Miles to kilometers. 


1.6 


Millimeters to inches. 


.04 


Centimeters to inches. 


.4 


Meters to feet. 


3.3 


Meters to yards. 


1.1 


Kilometers to yards. 


1093.6 


Kilometers to miles. 


.62 


= 1.1968quareyards. lliter = 


= 1.760 


gallons. 





STANDARD WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 



Square Measure 



144 square inches (sq. in.) 
9 square feet 
30 Ji square yards 
16 square rods or square poles 
40 square rods or square poles 

4 roods 
160 square rods 
640 acres 

A township is 6 miles square 
A section is 1 mile square 
M section is H inile square 
1-16 section is K mile square 



-1 square foot 

= 1 square yard 

= 1 square rod, or square pole 
1 square chain 
1 rood 
=1 acre 

= 1 acre =43560 sq. ft. 
= 1 square mile 
= 36 sections 
= 640 acres 
= 160 acres 
=40 acres 



Cubic Measure 



1728 cubic inches (cu. in.) 

27 cubic feet 

128 cubic feet 

40 cubic feet 

42 cubic feet 



= 1 cubic foot 

= 1 cubic yard 

= 1 cord of wood 

= 1 shipping ton, Mdse. 

= 1 shipping ton, lumber 



Geographical and Nautical Measure 

6086. 44 feet =1000 fathoms =1 nautical mile 

1 nautical mile =1. 153 statute miles 

1 nautical mile per hr. =1 knot 
60 nautical miles =69.17 statute miles =1 degree 



Paper Measure 





24 sheets 
20 quires 


= lqv 
= lre 




Time Measure 


60 
60 
24 
7 
30 
12 


seconds 

minutes 

hours 

days 

days 

months, 365 days 


= 1 minute 
= 1 hour 
= 1 day 
= 1 week 
= 1 month 
= 1 year 




Circular Measure 


60 
60 
30 
90 
4 


seconds 

minutes 

degrees 

degrees 

quadrants, 12 

signs, or 365 

degrees 


= 1 minute 
= 1 degree 
= 1 sign 
= 1 quadrant 

= 1 circle 



2 reams 
5 btmdles 



= 1 bundle 
= 1 bale 



Cloth Measure 

2)4 inches =1 nail 

4 nails = 1 quarter 

4 quarters = 1 yard 

Mariners' Measure 



6 feet 
120 fathoms 
7H cable lengths 
5,280 feet 
feet 



6.0S5 

3 

4 

6 

IS 

218 

2.5 



1 fathom 
= 1 cable length 
= 1 mile 
= 1 statute mile 
= 1 nautical mile 
Miscellaneous 
inches = 1 palm 

inches =1 hand 

inches =1 span 

inches = 1 cubit 

inches = 1 Bible cubit 

feet = 1 military pace 



192 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



WEIGHTS AND HOUSEHOLD MEASURES 

45 drops of water make a teaspoonful. 

1 teaspoonful equals 1 fluid dram. 

1 dessertspoonful equals 2 teaspoonfuls, or 2 drams. 

1 tablespoonful equals 2 dessertspoonfuls, or 4 teaspoonfuls. 

2 tablespoonfuls equal 8 teaspoonfuls, or 1 fluid ounce. 

1 common size wineglassful equals 2 ounces, or i^ gill. 

1 common size tumbler holds % pint. 

A Small teacup is estimated to hold 4 fluid ounces, or one gill. 

1 pound of wheat is equal to about a pint. 

1 pound and 2 ounces of Indian meal is equal to 1 quart. 

1 pound of sugar is equal to about one pint. 

1 pint of pure water is about one pound. 



WEIGHTS OF EVERYDAY THINGS 

A barrel of flour weighs 196 pounds 

A barrel of salt weighs 280 

A barrel of beef weighs 200 

A barrel of pork weighs 200 

A barrel of fish weighs 200 

A keg of powder equals 25 

A stone of lead or iron equals 14 

A pig of lead or iron equals 21 % stone 

Anthracite coal, broken — cubic foot averages 54 pounds 

A ton, loose, occupies 40-43 cubic feet 

Bituminous coal, broken — cubic foot averages 49 pounds 

A ton, loose, occupies 40-48 cubic feet 

Cement (hydraulic) Rosendale, weight per bushel 70 pounds 

Cement (hydraulic) Louisville, weight per bushel 62 " 

Cement (hydraulic) Portland, weight per bushel 96 " 

Gypsum, ground, weight per bushel 70 " 

Lime, loose, weight per bushel 70 " 

Lime, well shaken, weight per bushel 80 " 

Sand at 98 pounds per cubic foot, per bushel 122% " 

18.29 bushels equal 1 ton 

1.181 tons equal 1 cubic yard 



AMOUNT OF BARBED WIRE REQUIRED FOR FENCES 



1 line 



2 lines 



3 lines 



1 square acre 

1 square mile 

1 side of square mile 

1 rod in length 

100 rods 

100 (eet 



50% lbs. 

1,280 lbs. 

320 lbs. 

1 lbs. 

100 lbs. 

61I5 lbs. 



lOlJ^ lbs. 

2,564 lbs. 

640 lbs. 

2 lbs. 

200 lbs. 

12}^ lbs. 



152 

3,840 

960 

3 

300 



lbs. 
lbs. 
lbs. 
lbs. 
lbs. 



18iV lbs. 



193 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



GAUGE PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE 

According to "Kent," under ordinary conditions at the sea level the air 
pressure is 14.7 pounds per square inch, and steam is formed at a tempera- 
ture of 212 degrees Fahrenheit; gauge pressure will give temperature as 
follows : 

Gauge Pressure: Degrees Gauge Pressure : Degrees 

pounds per sq. inch Temperature F. pounds per sq. inch Temperature F. 

0.304 213.0 8.3 235.4 

1.3 216.3 9.3 33T.8 

2.3 219.4 10.3 240.0 

3.3 222.4 11.3 240.3 

4.3 225.2 12.3 244.3 

5.3 227.9 13.3 246.3 

6.3 230.6 14.3 248.3 

7.3 233.0 15.3 250.2 

If your thermometers and gauges do not agree with this table, have 
them tested. 



ALTITUDE STERILIZATION TABLE. 

BASED OST TWEiNTY-IflNE-IJfCH BAROMETER, WITH TEMPEttATITEE AT SEVENTY 
DECHEES FAHRENHEIT AT SEA LEVEL 

If your factory is located above sea level to such an extent as to cause 
trouble in your process room, first determine just how high it is; then 
consult the following table, and it wiU undoubtedly help to solve some of 
your troubles. Add time in third column to the process time: 



Altitude 


Water Boils At 


Additional Time 


512 feet 


211 degrees 


2 minutes 


1,025 feet 


210 degrees 


4 minutes 


1,539 feet 


209 degrees 


6 minutes 


2,063 feet 


208 degrees 


8 minutes 


2,589 feet 


207 degrees 


10 minutes 


3,115 feet 


206 degrees 


12 minutes 


3,642 feet 


205 degrees 


14 minutes 


4,169 feet 


204 degrees 


16 minutes 


4,697 feet 


203 degrees 


18 minutes 


5,225 feet 


202 degrees 


20 minutes 


5,674 feet 


201 degrees 


22 minutes 


6,304 feet 


200 degrees 


24 minutes 



VALUE OF DIFFERENT STRAWS 
The following table, as compiled by the United States Department of 
Agriculture, shows the relative value of different straws in their use as 
litter. 



Kind of straw or litter 



Nitrogen 



Phosphoric 
acid 



Potash 



Value of 
each tos 



Wheat 

Eye 

Oat 

Barley 

Pea 

Soy-Bean.. 
Buckwheat 

Millet 

Rice 



4.4% 

3.6% 
5.0% 
7.0% 
5.0% 
7.1% 
3.6% 
5.2% 



$3.18 
3.54 
4.35 
3.87 
5.61 
4.31 
4.35 
4.88 
3.79 



194 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



COMPARATIVE TABLE OF BALLING, BEAUME AND 
SPECIFIC GRAVITY 

In order to assist in clearing up the canners' confusion as 
to the various methods of testing sugar syrups the following 
table would be a good thing for every canner to keep on his desk 
for future reference. This table is so constructed that all read- 
ings are assumed to have been taken at a temperature of 60 °F. 

Specific Degrees Degrees Percent Founds 

Gravity Beaume Brixor Sugar Sugar per 

Balling Gallon 

water. 

1.0000 0. 

1.0197 2.80 5 S 1/2 

1.0401 5.56 10 10 11^ 

1.0613 8.30 15 15 2 

1.0833 11.07 30 20 2% 

1.1060 13.80 35 25 2% 

1.1296 16.50 30 30 3 

1.1541 19.20 35 35 3% 

1.1794 21.91 40 40 4 

1.2056 24.56 45 45 41/, 

1.2328 27.19 SO 50 5% 

1.2899 32.36 60 60 61/2 

1.3509 37.40 70 70 7% 

1.4159 42.29 80 80 saturated 

1.4849 47.02 90 90 saturated 

1.6S78 51.36 100 100 saturated 

The last column, "pounds sugar per gallon of water," is only 

approximate, the figures given being the closest fraction of a 

pound which it is practicable to weigh in the average cannery. 

OFFICIAL STANDARD SIZES OF CANS 

Hole and Cap Cans Diameter. Height. 

Inches. Inches. 

No. 1 size 3-11/16 4 

No. 2 S-s/a 4-9/16 

No. 2-% 4 4-34, 

No. 3-4ys" 4-3/16 4-7/8 

No. 3-5" 4-l^ 5 

No. 3-51/3" 4-14 5-1/2 

No. 10 6-14 6-% 

Sanitaey Cans 

No. 1 size 2-11/16 4 

No. 2 3-7/16 4-9/16 

No. 2-1/2 4-1/16 4-3/4 

No. 3-47/8" 4-1/4 4-% 

No. 3-5" 4-14 5 

No. 3-51/2" 4-1/4 5-1/2 

No. 10 6-3/16 7 

OYSTER CANS 

3 ounce 3-11/16 inch diameter 2-% inch high 

4 " 2-11/16 " " 3-8/g " « 
6 " 3-3/8 " " 3-5/16 " « 
8 " 3-3^ " " 3-15/16 " " 

195 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



PAINTING 

One gallon of good paint (metallic brown, Venetian red, or red oxide, 
with pure linseed oil) will cover about 400 sq. ft. of surface, one coat. 
To keep tin roofs in perfect condition paint at intervals of three to five 
years, or longer as the roof ages and the paint skin thickens. 

ROOFING WEIGHTS 

Weights of Various Roofing Materials Per Square (100 sq. ft. on the 
roof). Sheathboards not included. 

Tiles (shingle) 10%-inch by 614-inch by %-inch — fii/^-inch to 

weather 1800 lb. 

Tiles (Spanish) 14l^-inch by 10%-inch— 7%-inch to weather. . . 8S0 lb. 

Slate, 3/16-inch good grade 650 to 700 lb. 

Five-ply gravel 600 to 650 lb. 

Four-ply slag 535 to 575 lb. 

Three-ply slag 350 to 450 lb. 

Shingles, spruce and pine 400 lb. 

Corrugated, galvanized iron. No. 20 gauge 225 lb. 

Copper, 16-oz., standing seam 125 lb. 

Tin, IC thickness, standing seam 65 lb. 

WEIGHT OF SHEATHING-BOARDS 

Yellow pine sheathing one inch thick, 400 lb. White pine, or spruce 
sheathing one inch thick, 350 lb. Hemlock sheathing one inch thicl^ 200 lb. 

COVERING CAPACITY OF SHINGLES 

Average size of shingles — 4 by 16 inches — ^is taken as a basis of calcula- 
tion. 

100 sq. ft. will require, laid 4 inches to the weather 900 

100 sq. ft. will require, laid 4% inches to the weather 800 

100 sq. ft. win require, laid 5 inches to the weather 720 

Three and one-half pounds of four-penny nails are required for laying 
1,000 shingles. 

5 to 10 per cent should be added to these figures for waste and shortage. 

WOOD AND LUMBER 

A cord of wood contains 128 cubic feet. To ascertain how many cords 
there are in a pile of wood, multiply the length by the height, and that by 
the width, and divide the product by 128. 

One-fifth more siding and flooring is needed than the number of square 
feet of surface to be covered, because of the lap in the siding and matching. 

To measure round timber, take the girth in inches at both large and 
small ends, add them, divide by 2, which gives the mean girth; then multiply 
the length in feet by the square of one-fourth of the mean girth and the 
product will be the contents in cubic feet. This rule is commonly adopted, 
and gives four-fifths of the true contents, one-fifth being allowed to the 
purchaser for waste in sawing. 

One thousand laths wil cover 70 yards of surface, and 11 pounds of 
lath nails will nail them on. Eight bushels of good lime, 16 bushels of 
sand and 1 bushel of hair will make enough good mortar to plaster 100 
square yards. 

BRICK WALLS 

Common bricks are 714 to 8 inches long by iy^ inches wide and 214 
inches thick. Front bricks are V4 inch longer and wider. 

196 



Mount Veenon, N.Y. 



It requires 20 common bricks to lay one cubic foot. In an Scinch wall 
IS common bricks make one foot of wall. 

One and one-eighth barrels of lime and %-yard of sand will lay 1,000 
common brick. 

TO CALCULATE THE DRIVING POWER OF BELTS 

Divide the speed in feet per minute by 1,100; the quotient will be the 
horse-power per inch of the belt's width that is allowed in good practice 
to be transmitted by single thickness leather belting having laced joints. 
Although this is the best practice, the amount is often exceeded by as 
much as 25 per cent with satisfactory results, though the life of the belt 
is shortened. 

Double thickness belts will transmit twice and triple thickness belts 
three times as mucli power as single thickness belts. 

Spliced belts will transmit a third more power than those that are 
laced. 

The adhesion of belts to pulleys and the consequent driving power vary 
so much under different conditions of use that some intelligent deviation 
is occasionally necessary from any simple rule. From the horse-power 
given by the above rule, therefore, some deduction should be made when 
the belt is vertical or inclined instead of horizontal; when the arc of contact 
on the pulley is much less than 180 degrees or a "half wrap"; when the 
speed of the belt is less than 900 feet per minute, and also when one or 
both of the pulleys are small in diameter. 

Five per cent should be deducted for every 10 degrees less than a 
"half wrap." 

Twenty-five per cent should be deducted for vertical belts when used 
without a tightening pulley. 

In the case of small pulleys deduct as follows: 
Deduct /■ single belts on puUeys from 13 inches to 3 inches diameter. 

to 6oV \ ^""^^^^ " " " " 2* " " ^ " " 

for I triple " " " « 36 " " IS " 

When circumstances permit, the best speed for belts is about S,000 
feet per minute. The adhesion is then so good as to require less stretching 
of the belt, with less consequent loss of power by friction. 

The smoother the surface of the pulleys and of the belt surface in 
contact with them the better the adhesion and the more driving power. It 
is therefore sometimes found of benefit in the case of low belt speeds or of 
puUeys of small diameter to cover the pulleys with leather or to make them 
of wood, polished, and to run the hair side of the belts in contact with the 
pulley faces. 



THE APPROXIMATE MELTING POINT OF SOME COMMERCIAL 
COPPER ALLOYS 

As very little information on the melting points of commercial brasses 
and bronzes can be found in either scientific or technical literature, tests 
of a few typical alloys were made by W. H. Gillet and A. B. Norton, of 
the U. S. Bureau of Mines. The results, summarized, are as follows: 



Alloy 


Approximate Composition 


Melting Point 


Copper 


Zinc 


Tin 


Lead 


Deg. C. 


Deg. F. 




88 

85 
82 
80 
85 
75 
67 

em 


2 

2 

5 

10 

'5 
20 
31 
37 


10 
9^ 

3 

10 

10 

2 


3 

5 

5 

10 

3 
2 


995 
980 
970 
980 
946 
980 
920 
895 
855 
870 


1 825 




1,795 


Red brass 


1,780 




1 795 




1,735 




1,795 


Half-yellow-Half-red . 


1,690 
1,645 






1,570 




1,600 















197 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



The melting point given is the "liquidus," or point where the alloy 
is completely molten. The temperatures are thought to be accurate within 
plus or minus 10 degrees C, or plus or minus 20 degrees F. 

HORSE POWER OF SHAFTS FOR GIVEN DIAMETER AND SPEED 
This table is practically safe to use in general practice for the trans- 
mission of power where shafts are properly supported. 



Diam. 








Revolutions 


per Minute 








of Shaft 
















300 






Inches. 


100 


125 


150 


175 


200 


225 


250 


360 


400 


lA 


2.4 


3 


3.6 


4.2 


4.8 


5.4 


6 


7.2 


8.4 


9.6 


lA 


4.3 


5.4 


6.5 


7.6 


8.6 


9.8 


10.8 


13 


16.2 


17.2 




6.5 


8 


9.7 


11.2 


13 


14.6 


16 


19.4 


22.4 


26 


lifi 


10 


12.5 


15 


17.5 


20 


22.6 


25 


30 


36 


40 


2A 


14 


17.8 


21 


24.5 


28 


31.5 


35.6 


42 


49 


56 


2JL 


20 


25 


30 


35 


40 


45 


50 


60 


70 


80 


2U 


26.5 


32.5 


40 


44.6 


53 


69 


65 


80 


89 


106 


2H 


34 


42.5 


51 


59.5 


68 


76.6 


85 


102 


119 


136 


S-h 


54 


67.5 


81 


94.6 


108 


122 


135 


162 


189 


216 


3 t 


80 


100 


120 


140 


160 


180 


200 


240 


280 


320 


4^ 


114 


142.6 


171 


199.5 


228 


266.5 


285 


342 


399 


456 


4H 


156 


195 


234 


273 


312 


351 


390 


468 


546 


624 


5 


208 


260 


312 


364 


416 


468 


620 


624 


728 


832 


6 


270 


337.5 


406 


472.5 


540 


607.5 


675 


810 


945 


1,080 


6 


340 


425 


510 


696 


680 


765 


860 


1,020 


1,190 


1,360 


6 


420 


625 


630 


735 


840 


945 


1,050 


1,260 


1,470 


1,680 


8 


640 


800 


960 


1,120 


1,280 


1,440 


1,600 


1,920 


2,240 


2,560 



Rule for calculating horse-power transmitted by line shafting: 
H. P. = Dia. shaft, cubed, X revolutions -^ 75 

HOESE-POWEK OP BELT PTJIXEYS 

100 revolutions per minute (single belt), half wrap. 



iii 


Width of Belt 


£13.9 


2 ins. 


2H ins. 


3 ins. 


3K ins. 


4 ins. 


6 ins. 


6 ins. 


2 


.038 


.048 


.057 


.066 


.076 


.095 


.114 


4 


.095 


.119 


.143 


.166 


.190 


.24 


.29 


6 


.171 


.22 


.26 


.30 


.34 


.43 


.51 


8 


.31 


.38 


.46 


.53 


.61 


.76 


.91 


10 


.43 


.54 


.65 


.76 


.86 


1.07 


1.29 


12 


.57 


.71 


.86 


1.00 


1.14 


1.43 


1.71 


14 


.67 


.84 


1.02 


1.18 


1.35 


1.69 


2.02 


16 


.76 


.96 


1.14 


1.33 


1.52 


1.90 


2.28 


18 


.85 


1.07 


1.28 


1.50 


1.71 


2.14 


2.57 


20 


.95 


1.09 


1.43 


1.67 


1.90 


2.38 


2.86 


22 


1.04 


1.31 


1.57 


1.83 


2.09 


2.62 


3.14 


24 


1.14 


1.43 


1.71 


2.00 


2.28 


2.86 


3.43 


26 


1.23 


1.66 


1.86 


2.17 


2.48 


3.10 


3.72 


28 


1.33 


1.66 


2.00 


2.34 


2.67 


3.44 


4.00 


30 


1.42 


1.79 


2.14 


2.50 


2.86 


3.68 


4.28 


32 


1.52 


1.90 


2.28 


2.76 


3.05 


3.82 


4.57 


34 


1.61 


2,02 


2.43 


2.84 


3.24 


4.05 


4.87 


36 


1.71 


2.14 


2.56 


3.00 


3.42 


4.29 


5.44 



CALCULATING SPEED OF PULLEYS 
Example. — A main shaft running 110 revolutions and a countershaft 
with 8-ineh tight and loose pulleys running 320 revolutions. 

To Find Size of Pulley on Main Shaft. — Multiply diameter of piilley on 
countershaft by its number of revolutions, and divide the product by num- 
ber of revolutions of main shaft. Tlie quotient will be its diameter; Sv 
220 = 1760, 1760 -i- 110 = 16 inches diameter. 

To Find Number of Revolutions of Countershaft. — Mvdtiply diameter 
of pulley on main shaft by its number of revolutions, and divide product by 
diameter of pulley on countershaft: 16 X HO = 11'60, 1760-1-8 = 220 revo- 
lutions. 

198 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



To Find Size of Pulley on Countershaft. — Multiply diameter of pulley 
on main shaft by its number of revolutions, and divide product by number 
of revolutions of countershaft: 16x110 = 1760, 1760-^220 = 8 inches 
diameter. 



STATUTORY WEIGHTS OP THE BUSHEL 



STATE OR 
TERRITORY 


s 


, 


tn 

1 


1 

m 

48 
47 

45 
48 
60 
48 
48 

48 
47 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
47 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 

48 

48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
46 
47 
48 

48 
48 
48 

48 
48 
48 
48 
48 


1 

■s 

42 

52 
40 
52 
48 

62 

42 
52 
60 
52 
60 
56 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
50 
48 
52 
52 
52 

60 

48 
.50 
42 
50 
42 
42 
48 
48 

42 
50 
42 

48 
52 
42 
62 
50 


g 

o 
o 

1 

56 
56 

56 
56 

56 
66 
56 

56 

56 
50 
66 
56 
66 
56 
66 
56 

56 
56 
56 

56 

56 
56 
66 

66 
56 


o 

a 
o 

d 
o 
O 

70 

70 
70 

70 
70 

70 
68 
70 
70 
70 
70 

70 

70 
70 

72 
70 
70 
70 

70 
68 
70 

70 

70 
70 
70 

70 


■§ 

O 

U 

48 
48 

48 

50 
60 
48 

48 
48 

48 
50 

.50 
60 
48 
60 
48 
60 
50 

48 
50 
50 
50 

50 

50 
48 

50 
48 

48 

50 
50 


i 

hi 

« 

20 

20 

20 
20 

20 

20 
20 
20 
20 

20 
20 

20 
20 
20 
20 

20 
20 
20 

20 

20 
20 
20 

20 


"3 
34 

38 
35 

32 

34 

38 
38 
30 
30 

34 
38 

38 
34 


o 

& 

60 
60 

60 

60 
60 

60 
60 
60 

60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 

60 
60 

60 

60 
60 
60 
60 
56 
60 

60 
60 
60 

60 
66 
60 
60 
60 


o 

1 

& 

65 

50 

54 

60 
65 

50 
55 
46 
60 
66 
55 

60 
64 
56 
66 
60 
56 

50 

54 

54 

46 
50 
46 

54 

46 
50 
55 

56 

54 


5 
o 

6 


J 


1 

66 

57 

50 

54 
55 

55 

55 

55 
60 
55 
50 

58 

55 
42 

55 

60 
60 
60 

50 

60 
50 
55 

60 
65 

42 


1 
60 

60 

50 
50 

60 
66 
60 

'' 
60 
60 

60 
50 


d 
d 

m 

60 

55 
60 

60 
60 

60 
60 

60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 

62 
60 

60 

60 
60 
60 

60 

60 
60 
60 

62 
60 

60 
60 


60 
60 

60 

60 

60 

60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 

60 
60 

60 
60 
60 
60 
60 

60 

60 
60 

60 
60 

60 


a 
< 

60 

48 

48 

45 

48 
48 

44 

48 
48 
60 

48 
45 

50 

48 

50 
50 

45 

48 

50 
46 

46 

45 

60 


J 

§• 

■s 
« 

24 

24 

25 

24 
24 

28 
24 
25 
24 
24 
24 

28 
26 
22 
28 
26 
24 

24 

25 
25 

24 
28 
25 

24 
28 

28 
28 
25 
25 


1 
ft 

■0 

Q 

33 
33 
33 

33 

28 
33 
33 
33 
33 

32 


a 

1 

o 

50 

48 

46 
46 
46 
46 
46 

50 

46 

46 
46 

46 

46 
46 


E 

56 

56 
55 

66 

56 
56 

56 
56 
56 

56 
56 
66 

56 
56 
66 
56 

55 

55 
55 
56 
56 
56 

56 

56 
66 
56 

56 
56 
56 
56 


ft 

a 

4) 

a 

44 

44 

44 
44 
44 
44 
44 

44 

44 

50 
44 
44 
44 
44 

44 

44 

44 
44 

44 

44 


■a 
1 
1 
% 

50 

50 

50 
60 
50 
60 

50 

50 
48 
50 
50 

50 

50 
50 

50 

50 
60 

50 

50 


■a 

i 

o 

a 

60 
45 

45 

46 
46 
45 
45 
46 

45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 

45 

45 
45 
42 

45 

42 
46 
46 

46 
46 

46 
45 


Tl 
S 

O 

s 

ii 
i4 

i4 
14 

14 
14 
14 
14 

ii 
14 

14 
14 
14 
14 
14 

14 

14 


T3 
§ 

50 
60 
50 

50 
48 
60 
48 
60 
50 

50 

50 

48 
48 

48 

4s 


"2 
s 

o 

3 


United States. . . . 

Alabama 

Alaska 


60 
60 

80 
60 
60 
60 
SO 
60 
50 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
BO 
SO 
30 
SO 
!0 
iO 
iO 
SO 
BO 

30 
30 

60 
60 
)0 
60 
BO 
BO 
BO 
60 

60 
60 
60 

60 
60 
60 
60 
60 


56 
56 

66 
56 
5* 
56 
56 

56 
56 
56 
56 
66 
56 
66 
56 
66 
56 
66 
56 
66 
56 
66 
56 
56 
56 
56 

56 
66 

56 
56 
56 
66 
56 
56 
56 
66 

56 
66 
56 

56 
56 
66 
66 
56 


.32 
32 

32 
32 
32 
32 
32 

32 
32 
32 
36 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 

32 
30 

32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 

32 
32 
32 

32 
30 
32 
32 
32 


50 

50 
50 
60 

45 

50 
50 

50 
50 

50 
50 
50 

50 


57 

57 
52 

56 
67 

57 
48 
57 
57 
57 
57 
62 

52 
54 
62 
57 
57 
57 
57 

.57 

57 

52 
55 
52 

50 
60 

52 
56 
57 

52 
67 

57 




Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Dist. Col 

Florida 


60 

60 
60 




60 


Hawaii 




Idaho 


60 




60 




60 


Iowa 


60 




60 


Kentucky 

Louisiana 


60 


Maryland 

Massachusetts, . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire. . 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina... 
North Dakota.... 
Ohio 


60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 

64 

60 
60 
60 
60 


Oklahoma 


60 
60 


Rhode Island. . . . 
South Carolina. . . 
South Dakota.... 
Tennessee 


60 
60 

60 
60 
60 


Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 


60 
60 


Washington 

West Virginia. . . . 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 


60 
60 
60 



^ Note. — ^Rye meal takes 48 lbs. to the bushel in the District of Columbia and 50 lbs. in 
Mnine, MassachusettSi New York, Rhode Island, and Wisconsin. Peeled dried peaches take 
38 lbs. to the bushel in Alabama, 40 lbs. in Maryland and 40 lbs. in Virginia. The metric system 
is used in the Philippines and Porto Rico.. Rice rough in Louisiana takes 45 lbs. to the bushel 

199 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Only a few States have fixed the legal weight of a bushel of tomatoes 
by statute; but the following are the legal weights in the States indicated, 
according to Bailey's Cyclopedia of Agriculture: 

Ohio, 56 lbs; Missouri, 45 lbs; Rhode Island, 56 lbs; Tennessee, 56 lbs; 
Texas, 55 lbs; Maryland, 60 lbs. 



STANDARDS OF SEED GERMINATION 
The United States Department of Agriculture shows the average 
germinating power of different seeds. From the tests a purchaser may 
know if his seed is up to standard. 



Per Cent of Germination of Seeds 



Germination 
Per Cent 



Germination Germination 

Per Cent Seed Per Cent Seed 

Asparagus 80-85 Cucumber 85-90 Pumpkin 85-90 

Beans 90-95 Mustard 90-95 Spinach 80-85 

Cabbage 90-95 Okra 80-85 Squaah 85-90 

Cauliflower 80-85 Onion 80-85 Tomato 85-90 



Corn, sweet. 



85-90 Peas 93-98 



AVERAGE PERIODS OF INCUBATION 



Chickens 20-22 days 

Geese 28-34 days 

Ducks 28 days 

Turkeys 27-29 days 

Canary Birds 14 



Guinea fowls 28 days 

Pheasants 25 days 

Ostriches 4ft-43 days 

Pigeons 18 days 



AVERAGE PERIODS OF GESTATION 

The period of gestation in animals varies considerably, but the follow- 
ing is an average period based on a long series of observations: 



Ass 12 months 

Mare 11 months 

Cow 9 months 

Sheep 5 months 

Goat 5 months 



Pig 3% months 

Bitch 9 weeks 

Cat 8 weeks 

Rabbit 30 days 

Guinea pig 65 days 



GALVANIZED STORAGE TANKS 

The construction of galvanized steel storage tanks. For tanlcs up to 
6 feet in diameter and 5 feet high, No. 18 gauge metal should be used, the 
bottom and seams being riveted, and the top edge reinforced with an angle 
iron. For tanks up to 10 feet in diameter, No. 14 gauge metal should be 
used. The following table gives the capacity of round tanks from 3 to 6 
feet in diameter and from 2 to 5 feet high: 



Diameter 


Height 


Capacity 


Diameter 


Height 


Capacity 


Feet 


Feet 


Barrels 


Feet 


Feet 


Barrels 


2 


2 


IH 


4 


4 


12 


2H 


2H 


3 


4 


5 


15 


3 


2 


3K 


5 


4 


19 


3 


3 


5 


5 


S 


24H 


3 


4 


7 


6 


4 


27 


4 


3 


9 


6 


6 


34 



200 



Mount Veenon, N.Y. 







TIN PLATE 






TIN 
PLATE 


Thiokneas, 
Stubs' 
Gauge 


No. of 

Sheets in 

Box 


Net Weight 

of Box, 
14x20 Sheets 




38 (34) 

30 

28 

27 

26 

25 


225 (150) 

112 

112 

112 

112 

112 


112 lbs. 


ic. ..;■.■.■.'.■;::::::::;::::::::::::::::;:::::: 


107 lbs. 


IX 


135 lbs. 


IXX 


156 lbs. 


IXXX 


176 lbs, 


IXXXX 


196 lbs. 









INTEREST AND STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS 








Interest 


Limitations 


State 


Interest 


Limitations 


State 


1 




S 

>-3 


a 


1 




§1 


1 

3 

1^ 


i, 


S 


Alabama 

Arkansas 

Arizona 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut... 

Delaware 

Dist. of Col. . . 

Florida 

Georgia 


t 

6 
6 
7 
8 
6 
6 
6 
8 
7 
7 
5 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
5 
6 
6 
6 
5 
7 
6 
6 


t 

10 
Any 
Any 
Any 

6 

6 
10 
10 

8 
12 

7 
10 

8 

8 
10 

6 

8 
Any 

6 
Any 

10 
10 

8 


Yra. 

20 

10 

5 

5 
20 

t 

12 
20 

7 

6 
20 


Yrs. 
*6 

S 

4 

4 

6 

t 

6 

3 

5 

6 

5 
10 


Yrs. 
3 
3 
3 
2 
6 
6 
3 
3 
2 
4 
4 
5 


Nebraska 

Nevada 

N. Hamp 

N. Jersey 

N.Mexico.... 
New York. . . . 
N. Carolina... 

N. Dakota 

Ohio 


% 

8 
7 
7 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
7 
6 
7 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 
6 
6 
8 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
8 


Any 

6 

6 
12 

6 

6 
12 

8 
12 
10 

6 
Any 

8 
12 

6 
10 
Any 

6 

6 
12 

6 
10 
12 


Yrs. 
10 

5 

6 
20 
20 

7 
20 
10 
10 

5 

1 
10 

5 
20 
10 
10 
10 
10 

8 

8 
20 

6 
10 
20 

5 


Yrs. 

8 

5 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 
*3 

6 
15 

5 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

4 

6 
tt6 

5 

6 
10 

6 

5 


Yrs. 
3 
4 
4 
6 
6 
4 
6 
3 
6 
6 


Idaho 

Illinois 


Oregon 

Pennsylvania . 
Rhode Island. 

S. Carolina 

S. Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 


3 

6 
6 


Indiana 


TiO 

20 

5 

15 

10 

20 

12 

20 

6 

10 

7 

10 


10 
10 

5 
15 

5 

"i 

6 
6 
6 
6 
10 


6 
5 
3 
*S 
3 
6 
3 
6 
6 
6 
3 
5 


6 
6 


Kansas 

Kentucl^ 

Louisiana 

Maine 


6 
6 
2 
4 


Maryland 


Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington. . . 
W. Virginia. . . 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 


6 
2 


Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 


3 
3 
6 
8 



*Under seal, 10%, tNo law. {Negotiable notes, 6%; non-negotiable, 17%. -Varies 
by counties. HReal estate, 20%. ttUnder seal, 12%. ttUnder seal, 14%. 

Days of grace on notes and drafts are given in the following states 
and territories: Alabama, Arkansas, South Dakota, Georgia, Indian Terri- 
tory, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, 
Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, 
Oklahoma, South Carolina, Texas, and Wyoming. 

PHYSICAL RATINGS 
The maximum rating for physical ability, in any case, is 98. Eatings 
for physical ability for all groups are based upon the following table of 
heights and weights, but in order to get a rating of 98 per cent an appli- 
cant must weigh not less than 160 pounds, and must be of corresponding 
stature (at least 5 feet 6 inches), and must be able to lift, shoulder and 
easily carry a sack and contents weighing 135 pounds. 



Height 


Weight 


Per 


Height 


Weight 


Per 


Height 


Weight 


Per 


Ft. In. 


Lbs. 


Cent 


Ft. In. 


Lbs. 


Cent 


Ft. In. 


Lbs. 


Cent 


5 


120-144 ' 


1 


5 6 


138-168 ■ 


) 


5 11 


159-198 


^ 


5 1 


122-147 


' 


S 7 


142-174 


' 


6 


165-204 




5 2 


124-151 


95 


5 8 


146-179 


> 98 


6 1 


170-208 


> 98 


5 3 


127-164 


5 9 


150-185 


1 


6 2 


176-215 


[ 


5 4 


131-158 


, 


5 10 


154-191 


1 


6 3 


181-224 


) 


5 5 


134-163 . 


1 















201 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



A MEASUREMENT TABLE FOR LUMBER 
Here is a simple and complete table for obtaining the number of feet 
in a bill of lumber. 

The top line gives the length of the piece of lumber in feet. The first 
column to the left gives the dimensions in inches. The remaining columns 
show the number of board feet in the piece. For example: A piece of 
lumber 2x4x10=7 feet; 3x4x13=8 feet; 2x10x18—30 feet; 2x14x18—43 feet; 
8x8x24=138 feet. 





10 


12 


14 


16 


18 


20 


22 


24 


26 


28 


30 


32 


2x i 


7 


8 


9 


11 


12 


13 


15 


16 


17 


19 


20 


21 


2x 6 


10 


12 


14 


16 


18 


20 


22 


24 


26 


28 


30 


32 


2x 8 


13 


16 


19 


21 


24 


27 


29 


32 


35 


27 


40 


43 


2x10 


17 


20 


23 


27 


30 


33 


37 


40 


43 


47 


50 


53 


2x12 


20 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


44 


48 


52 


56 


60 


64 


2x14 


23 


28 


33 


37 


42 


47 


51 


56 


61 


65 


70 


75 


3x 4 


10 


12 


14 


16 


18 


20 


22 


24 


26 


28 


30 


21 


3x 6 


16 


18 


21 


24 


27 


30 


33 


36 


39 


42 


45 


48 


3x 8 


20 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


44 


48 


52 


56 


60 


64 


3x10 


25 


30 


35 


40 


45 


60 


55 


60 


65 


70 


75 


80 


3x12 


30 


36 


42 


48 


54 


60 


69 


72 


78 


84 


90 


96 


3x14 


35 


42 


49 


56 


63 


70 


77 


84 


91 


98 


105 


112 


4x 4 


13 


16 


19 


21 


24 


27 


29 


32 


35 


37 


40 


43 


4x 6 


20 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


44 


48 


52 


56 


60 


64 


6x 6 


30 


36 


42 


48 


54 


60 


66 


72 


78 


84 


90 


96 


6x 8 


40 


48 


56 


64 


72 


80 


88 


96 


104 


112 


120 


128 


8x S 


53 


64 


75 


85 


96 


107 


117 


128 


139 


149 


160 


171 


8x10 


67 


80 


93 


107 


120 


133 


147 


160 


173 


187 


200 


213 


10x10 


83 


100 


117 


133 


150 


167 


183 


200 


217 


233 


260 


267 


10x12 


100 


120 


140 


160 


180 


200 


220 


240 


260 


280 


300 


320 


12x12 


120 


144 


168 


192 


216 


240 


264 


288 


312 


336 


360 


385 



A FEW SIGNS REGARDING CLOUDS AND WINDS 

After fine, clear weather, the first signs in the sky of a coming change 
are usually light streaks, curls, wisps, or mottled patches of white distant 
clouds, which increase and are followed by an overcasting of murky vapor 
that grows into cloudiness. Usually, the higher and more distant such 
clouds seem to be, the more gradual but general the coming change of 
wealther will prove. 

If high clouds, or cirrus, disappear, fine weather is indicated, but if 
they increase and begin to change to lower cirrus stratus or alto stratus, 
unsettled weather is indicated. 

When cloud streamers point upward, the clouds are falling or descend- 
ing and rain is indicated; when cloud streamers point downward, the 
clouds are ascending and dry weather is indicated. 

Lower clouds, moving at dilFerent heights and in opposite directions, 
indicate the approach of heavy rains within a short time, and in hot weather 
there will be thunder storms; general squalls are preceded, accompanied 
or followed by clouds. Clouds flying against the wind indicate the approach 
of rain. 

Cumulus clouds, increasing after sunrise until noon and then decreasing 
toward evening, are an indication of fair weather; if they continue to in- 
crease after sunset, look out for rain. 

Thunderstorms usually occur when the air is sultry and warm, with 
accompanying light, southerly winds. Ordinarily a thin veil of cirrus clouds 
gradually overspreads the sky in advance of the thunder clouds or cumulo- 
nimbus, the storms usually breaking with a squall. 

Although the sky may be entirely covered with thin, high clouds, there 
will be little rain or snow if the wind is light. 

If the wind sets in from the east to south, a storm is approaching from 
the west or northwest, and will usually pass near or to the northward of 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



the observer in from 24 to 36 hours (frequently sooner in winter), and the 
character of the clouds will usually indicate, at least 13 hours in advance, 
whether or not rain or snow may be expected. As the center of the storm 
passes the meridian of the observer, the wind wiU shift to west and probably 
northwest. 

If the wind sets in from the east to north, a storm is approaching 
from the south or southwest and will usually pass the locality of the 
observer in from 24 to 36 hours (frequently sooner in winter), the wind 
shifting to northwest as the storm center passes the meridian of the 
observer. 

During stormy conditions do not look for clearing weather until the 
clouds in the west begin to break and the wind shifts to westerly. 

Frost is likely to occur on cool, clear nights when the air temperature 
on the previous day, after the passing of a storm, or rain period, has not 
been about 60°, with diminishing winds from a west to north direction. 
Radiation, or loss of heat, from plants takes place very rapidly under these 
conditions, especially if the air is dry. Clouds act as a blanket, greatly 
reducing the radiation, or loss of heat, and thereby prevent frost forma- 
tion. The character of the vegetation as well as that of the soil has 
marked effect upon the formation of frost, notably in lowlands and moor- 
lands, and temperatures as high as 70° may be followed in such places by 
severe frosts on the following morning. 

Every one should, if possible, be provided with a barometer and a 
thermometer of good make, always remembering that a falling barometer 
indicates the approach of the unsettled weather and a rising barometer the 
approach or continuation of fair weather. The barometer at normal height 
and stationary indicates little or no change in weather conditions during 
the succeeding 24 hours. 

PANAMA FACTS 

The United States began the construction of the Panama Canal May 4, 
1904. 

The official opening was on August 1, 1914. 

Estimated cost of the Panama Canal is $375,000,000. 

A force of about 36,000 men were employed. 

It is estimated that 5,000,000 cubic yards of concrete was used. 

Excavations made by the French saved the United States about one 
year's work on the Panama Canal. 

The total excavation amounts to 312,504,000 cubic yards — nearly double 
the estimate of the International Board of Consulting Engineers in 1906. 

$10,000,000 were paid to the Republic of Panama for the Panama 
Canal Zone, the area of Which is 436 square miles. 

In going from New York to San Francisco, 7,873 miles are saved by 
passing through the Panama Canal. 

It is no further to Honk Kong from New York by the Panama Canal 
than by the Suez Canal. 

It's the same distance from Liverpool to the Japan Island of Yoko- 
hama by either the Suez or Panama Canal. 

The direction of the Canal is from Northwest to Southeast. 

The Pacific entrance is about 231/2 miles east of the Atlantic entrance. 

The length of the Canal from deep water in the Pacific to deep water in 
the Atlantic is 50 miles. 

In passing through the Panama Canal, ships are elevated 85 feet to the 
level of Gatun Lake. 

The depth of the channel varies from 45 to 85 feet. ' 

300 feet is the minimum width. 

There are six double locks in the Panama Canal, each lock being 1,000 
feet long and 110 feet wide. 

It requires about 30 minutes to fill and empty a lock. 

303 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Vessels may pass through the entire Canal in from 10 to 13 hours. 

No ship majr pass through a lock on its own power but will be towed 
by four electric locomotives operating on tracks along the lock walls, two 
on each side of the lock. 

Ex-President Taft's proclamation of November 14, 1912, gives the 
following rates of toll: 

1. On merchant vessels carrying passengers or cargo, $1.20 per net 
vessel ton — each 100 cubic feet of actual earning capacity. 

2. On vessels in ballast without passengers or cargo, 40 per cent less 
than rate of tolls for vessels with passengers or cargo. 

3. Upon naval vessels other than transports, colliers, hospital ships 
and supply ships, SO cents per displacement ton. 

4. Upon Army and Navy transports, colliers, hospital ships and supply 
ships, $1.20 per net ton, the vessels to be measured by the same rules as are 
employed in determining the net tonnage of merchant vessels. 



304 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



A FEW USEFUL DON'TS FOR THOSE WHO USE AMS 
DOUBLE SEAMERS 

Don't have your chuck too high, the seaming rollers will ruin 
the seaming chuck. 

Don't have your chuck too low, the countersink in cover wiU 
be too deep after seamed and can will stick to chuck. 

Don't put too much pressure on base-plate as it will force 
cover inside in can, making countersink too deep. 

Don't have too little pressure on base-plate ; the can will slip. 

Don't set the first operation roller too tight as it will circle 
the metal too close making it necessary to roU it back by the 
finishing roller. 

Don't set the first roller too loose as it will leave the seam too 
wide and not properly underhook. 

Don't use a two-pound seaming ring with a three-pound 
chuck; they must correspond. 

Don't put the first operation roller in the place where the 
second operation roller should be. 

Don't forget to oil your machine well, it is better a little too 
much than not enough. 

Don't let your machine run when not in use. 

Don't run machine backwards. 

Don't forget to regulate your oil cup so it will feed about 
three drops a minute. 

Don't forget to close oil cup when machine is not running, 
the oil will feed as long as there is oil in the cup and is only 
wasted. 

Don't use dirty oil or grease for lubricator, the least little 
dirt will spoil the bearings. 

Don't keep the lubricating oil and grease in an open can; 
dirt and dust will blow in. 

Don't use a poor grade of lubricating oil; a good grade is 
practically tasteless, and far cheaper in the end. 

Don't forget to take out seaming ring when finished with 
day's work ; clean well and oil. 

205 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Don't forget to clean your machine when finished. 

Don't use a hammer when adjusting any part of machine, 
there are special tools for this purpose. 

Don't fail to keep bolts and nuts tight. 

Don't forget to make a can test once in a while to be sure 
that the can is tight ; you may save a lot of money. 

Don't forget to think before trying to adjust a machine. 

Don't leave gear guard and chuck hood open while machine 
is running. 

Don't leave wrenches lying on any part of the machine. 

Don't try to seam cans that are bent out of shape; it is 
cheaper to first straighten them. 

Don't forget to write and ask us if there is something you 
don't understand about the machine. 



306 



THERE'S A Machine in the 

Ams Line That Will 
Exactly Meet Your Needs 

Additional machines will be 
found in Vol. I, S.O.S.,1914. 




AMS SANITARY CAN 



Introduction 



The machines illustrated and described in this section, embody 
the best types that our extensive experience has evolved, in the field 
of machinery for making sanitary cans, for all kinds of products. 

In placing these details into the hands of the packers of the 
world, we do so with the earnest request, that our methods be 
thoughtfully considered, and the many advantages, both sanitary 
and otherwise, be carefully compared with existing imperfect sys- 
tems. 

Our business relations with the largest canners in the trade en- 
able us to thoroughly test every one of these machines during the 
period of development, and we are therefore in position to deliver 
them perfectly finished. We are not experimentors. 

Only experienced and skilled workmen are employed in building 
them, and this enables us to fully guarantee our productions. Ams 
guarantee goes with each machine. 

We are prepared to furnish machinery and tools adapted for the 
economical production of tin or sheet metalware in general, such as 
petroleum, paint or varnish cans, tin pails and canisters, as well as 
spice and tobacco boxes, in fact, packages of every description. 

BUILDERS OF COMPLETE CAN-MAKING EQUIPMENTS 
Exporters and Foreign Agencies 

We desire especially to call the attention of exporters and for- 
eign agencies to our machines and the sanitary Ams can, and to in- 
terest them in extending our system and principles to every country 
where canning of any kind is engaged in. We will guarantee that 
Ams machinery and Ams methods will do it. 

We know the success our system maintains where it is in opera- 
tion, and see no reason why it cannot be duplicated everywhere 
with the assistance of those who will become interested in our prop- 
osition. 

The simplicity of our machines and system is such that a boy 
or girl can operate them in very short order. There is nothing com- 
plicated in the construction of our machines, and should any part 
get out of order, or even break, it can be adjusted by a local ma- 
chinist. Where this is not possible, we always have on hand dupli- 
cate parts, which can be shipped immediately. 

No effort will be spared to place Ams sanitary solderless seam- 
less cans and can making machinery in every section of the globe. 
Write to us for whatever information you wish on this subject, and 
we will cheerfully supply it. 

Agencies in all principal cities of the world. 

311 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Ams Method for 
Making and Sealing Tin Cans 

Without Heat, Solder or Acid 

The Ams system embodies an entirely new principle in canned 
food products, and successfully disposes of the present manner of 
drenching the interior and soiling the exterior of cans with objec- 
tionable solder and acids. 

Heat is not required to fasten the tops and bottoms, and the old 
fashion holes for filling are unnecessary. 

The cans are constructed on sound, sanitary principles elimin- 
ating all the objectionable features now prevailing in other methods. 

Our method consists in applying to the curled flanges of the 
covers by means of a "Lining Machine," an odorless, tasteless 
and pure sealing fluid, in such a manner as to make an absolutely 
airtight seam, without the use of solder or acid; making the cans 
cheaper, more attractive in appearance and more durable than any 
on the market used for processing food products. 

In offering this method to the canning trade we call attention to 
the following advantages : 

1. A neat, perfect seam. 

2. A big saving in solder and labor. 

3. Skilled workman unnecessary. A girl or boy properly in- 
structed may make and seam cans perfectly. 

4. Cans for future use may be made ahead for years, and will 
remain in good condition. 

5. Cans will not corrode when finished, no acid being used 
in the process. 

6. Tin of any weight may be used for such cans, from Taggers 
to IX. 

7. Any size can from 2 to 12 inches in diameter of the round 
or diagonally of the square may be made. 

8. There will be no leaks if the bodies are properly made. 

9. Any solid article as large as the interior of the can may be 
packed as readily as liquid. 

10. The entire interior of the can ready for filling is exposed — 
like a tumbler — which may be filled more quickly with either solids 
or fluids, than the old style cans. 

213 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



11. The contents may be packed more solid, and owing to the 
absence of the old style holes will not lacerate delicate fruits, of 
which detached pieces frequently cloud the syrup. Also the absence 
of heat in closing, prevents the objectionable black spots so fre- 
quently found in syrup goods. 

12. The solid contents of the can may be packed tighter, as it 
will hold more, and therefore requires less liquor to fill up, a de- 
sirable feature when goods are to be shipped a great distance. For 
the same reason a considerable item of tin may be saved. 

13. As the ends of the cans are double seamed, the edges will 
protect the labels and decorations from rubbing in the cases while 
in transit. 

14. As no solder or acid for covers are used, such cans are the 
most perfect sanitary vessels for food products, and will comply with 
all the food laws of the world. 

The bodies are made in the same way as for the old style cans, 
the covers are stamped in the same manner, special dies only being 
needed; while the quantity of tin required is about the same. 

Ams machines are adjustable for all standard sizes. 

Some of the purposes for which the new seam sanitary can is 
available. 

All kinds of fruit both in syrup or water. All kinds of vege- 
tables, all kinds of meat, smoked or otherwise. All kinds of fish 
and fish products, dried, in oil, vinegar or brine. Heavy syrups or 
molasses, honey, maple syrup, condensed milk, butter, etc. Also all 
purposes where processing is not essential and an hermetically tight 
can is required, such as drugs, salves, teas, coifees, spices, paints, 
dry or wet, pastes, etc. 

Patented in the United States and Colonies, and in all countries 
where sanitary canning is engaged in. 



213 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 




T^ V^^ 



PATENTS PENDINO 

Ams No. 98 A 
Turret Hand Feed Double Seamer 

The Can Stands Still 
Codeword: Seamenolp 



214 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 




PATESTS PENDING 

Ams No. 98 AT 

(Automatic Turret) 

Hand Feed Double Seamer 

The Can Stands Still 
Codeword: Seamerete 



ns 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Ams No. 98A Turret Hand Feed Double Seamer 

This machine will double-seam all sizes and styles of standard 
round and sanitary cans, or any other round containers, such as oil 
squirt cans, baking powder, coffee, lye cans, etc., made of tin, card- 
board, zinc or other like materials up to and including No. 3's. 

CAPACITY: — In hand-fed machines the capacity naturally de- 
pends upon the operator's ability. We know of cases where the 
operator, becoming expert, has handled as high as 40 ends per 
minute for a limited time; however, the average operator should 
easily handle 1,500 to 1,800 per hour. 

The principal features incorporated in this machine, and which 
cannot be claimed for those of other makes, are as follows : 

For each size to be handled there is furnished a separate cast 
steel SEAMING RING. The seaming rollers are adjusted on these 
seaming rings before they leave the factory, so that when changing 
from one size to another it is unnecessary to adjust the rollers, it 
being only necessary to unbolt one ring and bolt on another. 

Very liberal bearing surfaces given to the principal working 
parts which extend the life of the machine and reduce the repairs to 
a minimum. 

Perfect and complete oiling system. 

Seaming rollers reversible, that is, they are double-grooved. 
When one groove becomes too much worn for further use, the roller 
may be reversed and the second groove used. 

SPEED: — The machine should be run at the speed of about 750 
revolutions per minute. 

It requires less than a 2 horse-power to operate the machine. 



Specifications 

Net "Weight, 760 pounds (342 kgs.). 

Gross Weight, 950 pounds (428 kgs.). 

Length, 3 feet, 6 inches. 

Width, 2 feet, 6 inches. 

Height, 5, feet, 10 inches. 

For individual drive we recommend a 3 horse-power motor. 

Speed, 750 R.P.M. 

Shipping crate 4 feet 2 inches long, 3 feet 4 inches wide, 6 feet 8 inches high. 

Cubic Measure, 72 feet. 



216 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 




PATENTS PENDING 



Ams No. 98 AT 
Automatic Double Seamer 

Automatic Cover Feed, Disc Conveyor, Plunger, Can Straightener 
and Friction Clutch 

Codevrord: Seamabout 



21 r 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Ams No. 98 AT Double Seamer 
Auto Cover Feed 

This machine is designed for service, and is rigid in construction, 
easily assembled, complete lubricating system, convenience in opera- 
ting very simple and compact and takes up very little space. 

There is no adjustment or timing necessary, the machine sets 
itself regardless of any fixed position. It is especially adapted for 
sealing the ends of filled cans, as the can stands still during this 
operation. 

The seaming mechanism is entirely separate from the turret feed 
mechanism, both working independently. The always ready ad- 
justed seaming ring, which constitutes an exclusive feature of Ams' 
Double Seamers will give entire satisfaction. 

These machines are designed to meet the requirements of every 
canner as to cost, output, etc. 

Will take all standard sizes up to and including No. 3. Capacity 
50 per minute. 

The always ready adjusted seaming ring is a special and ex- 
clusive feature on all of Ams Double Seamers. 

Specifications 

Gross Weight, 1,352 pounds (607 kgs.). 

Xet Weight, 1,052 poiinds (473 kgs.). 

Length, 4 feet, 4 inches. 

Width, 2 feet, 8% inches. 

Height, 6 feet, 2" inches. 

Speed, 1,250 R.P.M. 

Horse-power required, 1. 



218 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 




PATENTS PENDING 



Ams No. 498 Double Seamer 

Four Spindles, Automatic for Round Cans 
Codeword: Seamepaht 



319 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Ams No. 498 Double Seamer 

The No. 498 Double Seamer is a four-spindle double seamer, and 
lias a capacity of more than 120 cans per minute. The cans are fed 
into the seamer by a chain conveyor, which carries the can under 
the automatic cover feed; a cover is released, as the can passes 
into the seaming mechanism where a clean, tight double seam com- 
pletes the operation. No can, no cover. The can stands still during 
the seaming operation. 

This seamer possesses speed and strength, and is very compact. 
The lubricating system is complete. 

The always-ready adjusted seaming ring which constitutes an 
exclusive feature of Ams Double Seamers, will give entire satisfac- 
tion to every canner. No failure has yet been recorded against this 
seaming ring. Double-grooved rollers on every ring means double 
service ; when one side is worn, reverse the roller. 

The No. 498 will take all sizes up to and including one gallon. 

This machine may be used in connection with the clincher, in 
which case no cover feed is used on this No. 498 machine. These 
machines are designed to meet the requirements of every canner, 
as to cost, output, etc. 

Specifications 

Net Weight, 2,530 pounds (1,138 kgs.). 

Gross Weight, 3,51-2 pounds (1,580 kgs.). 

Length, 5 feet, 4 inches. 

Width, 4 feet, 5 inches. 

Height, 6 feet, 10 inches. 

Horse-power required, 3. 

Speed, 875 R.P.M. 

Cubic Measure, 108 feet (3 cbm.). 



220 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 




Ams No. 97AT Clinching Machine 



Automatic Feed, Plunger, Can Straightener 
Codeword: Clinchcot 



231 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Ams No. 97AT Clinching Machine 
Automatic Feed, Plunger, Can Straightener 

The No. 97AT Clinching or Crimping Machine, as it is some- 
times called, is rigid in construction and has all the characteristics 
of the No. 98AT Double Seamer. It is especially adapted for 
crimping the filled can before it enters the exhaust box or the 
double seamer, as the case may be; in either case the speed is regu- 
lated according to the work to be done. This clinching machine, 
from actual operation has an output record of 70 perfect cans per 
minute. 

These machines are designed to meet the requirements of every 
canner as to cost, output, etc. Every one has Ams guarantee. 

Will take all standard sizes up to and including No. 3's. 

Specifications 

Gross Weight, 1,350 pounds (608 kgs.). 
Net Weight, 1,050 pounds (472 kgs.). 
Length, 4 feet, 4 inches. 
Width, 2 feet, 8% inches. 
Height, 6 feet, 2 inches. 
Speed about 1,500 R.P.M. 
Horse-power required, 1 
Cubic measure 108 ft. (3 cbm.). 



222 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 




PATENTS PENDING 



Ams No. 68 Double Seamer 

Round Cans Only. The Cans Revolve. Hand Feed 
Codeword: Seamecoln 



223 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Ams No. 68 Double Seamer 

This machine will double seam all sizes and styles of round sanitary 
cans, or any other round containers, such as oil squirt cans, baking powder, 
coffee, lye cans, etc., made of tin, cardboard, zinc or other like material, 
water pails, canisters, etc., etc. 

The standard machine will handle all sizes from 1% inches diameter up 
to 13 inches diameter, and from 1 inch to 9 inches high, althou^ the 
machine is so constructed that at slight expense it can be arranged to 
handle any height. 

CAPACITY: — In hand fed machines the capacity naturally depends 
upon the operator's ability and ingenuity in performing the work. We 
know of cases where the operator, becoming expert, has handled as high as 
40 and SO ends per minute. 

For each size to be handled there is furnished a separate cast steel 
SEAMING RING. The seaming rollers are adjusted on these seaming 
rings before they leave the factory, so that when changing from one size 
to another it is unnecessary to adjust the rollers, unbolt one ring and bolt 
on another. 

Very liberal bearing surfaces given to the principal working parts, 
which extends the life of the machine and reduces the repairs to a minimum. 

Complete oiling system. 

Seaming rollers reversible, that is, they are double grooved. When ont 
groove becomes too much worn for further use, the roller may be reversed 
and the second groove used. 

SPEED: — The machine should be run at a speed of about 750 revolu- 
tions per minute. 

Note: — 13-inch diameter tight and loose pulleys are furnished unless 
otherwise specified. 

Under certain conditions when a machine is used for cans no larger than 
3% inches in diameter, smaller diameter tight and loose puUeys are de- 
sirable, and if specified at the time of placing the order the machine can be 
fitted with either 10-inch diameter or 8-inch diameter tight and loose pul- 
leys, making it possible to use a smaller diameter driving pulley on the 
main shaft in the factory, which is sometimes necessary, where the space 
between the main shaft and the ceiling will not permit the use of a driving 
pulley large enough to run the machine at the proper speed with 12-inch 
tight and loose pulleys. 

It requires less than a -2 horse-power to operate the machine. 

Specifications 

Floor Space, 2 feet, 10 inches by 2 feet, 11 inches. 

Height, 6 feet, 4 inches. 

Net Weight, about 1,130 pounds (kg. 508). 

Gross Weight, about 1,500 pounds (kg. 675), cubic feet 96. 

Shipping Crate 

3 feet 8 inches long, 3 feet 9 inches wide, 6 feet 7 inches high. 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 




'"M'V'iff' 



PATENTS PENDING 



Ams No. 68 Double Seamer 

Round Cans. Automatic Feed 
Codeword: Seamefult 



225 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Ams No. 68 Double Seamer, Automatic Feed 

This machine will double seam all sizes and styles of standard round 
sanitary cans, or round containers, made of tin, cardboard, zinc, or any 
other like material, such as is used in baking powder boxes, lye cans, spice, 
paints, wet or dry. 

The standard machine will handle all sizes from 3 inches diameter up to 
S% inches diameter, and from 1% inches to 9 inches high, although the 
machine is so constructed that at slight expense it can be arranged to 
handle much larger work. 

The principal features incorporated in this machine, and which are not 
found in any other makes, are as follows: 

For each size to be handled there is furnished a separate cast steel 
SEAMING RING. The seaming rollers are adjusted on these seaming 
rings, so that when changing from one size to another it is only necessary 
to unbolt one ring and put on another. The feed table is likewise adjust- 
able for the several changes. 

Liberal bearing surfaces between all the principal moving parts. 

The seaming mechanism consists of only 7 parts besides the seaming 
ring. 

Complete oiling system. 

Seaming rollers reversible, i.e., double grooved. When one groove be- 
comes too much worn for further use, the roller can be reversed and the 
second groove used. 

Note: — 12-inch diameter tight and loose pulleys are furnished unless 
otherwise specified. 'Under some conditions when a machine is used for 
cans no larger than Si/j inches in diameter, smaller diameter tight and 
loose pulleys are desirable, and if specified at the time of placing the 
order, machine can be fitted with either 10-inch diameter or 8-inch diam- 
eter tight and loose pulleys, making it possible to use a smaller diameter 
driving pulley on the main shaft in the factory, which is sometimes neces- 
sary, where the space between the main shaft and the ceiling will not 
permit the use of a driving pulley large enough to run the machine at the 
proper speed with 12-inch tight and loose pulleys. 

Specifications 

Floor Space, 2 feet 10 inches by 5 feet 5 inches. 

Height, 6 feet 4 inches. 

Net Weight, about 1,900 pounds (kg. 855). 

Gross Weight, about 2,300 pounds (kg. 1,035). 

Driving Pulleys, tight and loose, S inches, 10 inches or 12 inches by 3 inches. 

Horse-power required, approximatelv 2. 

Speed, about 770 R.P.M. 

Capacity, over 1,800 per hour. 

Shipping Crate 

7 feet long, 3 feet 9 inches wide, 6 feet 7 inches high. 



226 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 




PATENTS PENDING 



Ams No. 58 Double Seamer, Automatic Feed 

The Cans Stand Still 
Codeword: Seamejump 



2S1 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Ams No. 58 Double Seamer, Automatic Feed 

For Round Cans, the Cans Stand Still 

The difference between the No. 58 and the No. 68 lies chiefly 
in the operation of the can, which in the No. 58 does not revolve. 
The automatic feed and the adjustable feed table are similar to 
those of the No. 68. 

This seamer will handle cans from 1% inches diameter by 1% 
inches high, to 6% inches diameter by 9 inches high. It has a 
capacity of over 26 gallon cans per minute. 

It has all the advantages contained in the No. 68 and many 
others, according to the work to be done. The principal features 
which we have incorporated in this machine, and which are missing 
in machines of other makes, are the long bearing surface parts of 
the seaming head mechanism running in ball and roller bearings, 
with a good lubricating system. Also the seaming ring feature, 
which enables an inexperienced person to change the machine from 
one size to another without the necessity of adjusting the seaming 
rollers. 

There is a separate seaming ring for each size of can. the 
seaming rollers are adjusted on these rings at the factory and 
there is no necessity for readjusting them. The rollers are also 
reversible, giving double service, if they become worn out when 
used one way, they can be reversed in a few moments. There are 
no lever movements. 

Changes can readily be made for all sizes within the range 
specified. 

Specifications 

Weight, about 2,200 pounds (kg. 990). 

Floor Space, 2 feet 10 Inches by 5 feet 5 inches. 

Height, 6 feet 4 inches. 

Driving Pulleys, tight and loose, 8 inches, 10 inches or 12 inches by 3 inches. 

Horse-power required, about 2. 

Capacity, over 1800. 

Speed, about 620 R.P.M. 

Shipping Crate 

Length, 6 feet 8 inches; width, 4 feet 2 inches; height, 6 feet 10 inches. 
Gross Weight, 2,750 pounds. 156 cubic feet. 1,237 kgs. 



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The Max Ams Machine Co. 




PATENTS PENDING 



Ams No. 58D Double Seamer, Disc Conveyor and Cover 

Feed 

Operation Same as No. 58 

Codeword: Seamekily 



230 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 




PATENTED 



Ams No. 32A Automatic Double Seamer 

Codeword (Square Can) : Soplona 
Codeword (Oval Can) : Soploni 



231 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



No. 32A Automatic Double Seamer 

For Sardine or Oval Cans 

This Automatic Double Seamer is the latest machine for sardine 
or oval cans. It has a capacity of 40 per minute. 

The feed table is ample to accommodate six or more cans at a 
time, and as they pass under the chuck, the can is engaged by the 
rollers, and a uniform, perfectly tight double seam is effected (as an 
equal amount of pressure is exercised on each can), after which the 
can is discharged from a chute into a suitable receptacle. 

Any boy or girl can operate this machine. 

No. 32A Double Seamer is the best machine made for this par- 
ticular class of work. 

Built under special arrangements with the patentee. 

Specifications 

Driving Pulley, tight and loose, 10 inches. 

Speed, 720 R.P.M. 

Floor Space over all, F. & B. and R. & L., 7 feet by 4 feet. 

Height over all, 6 feet 4 inches. 

Net Weight, about 2,750 pounds (1,250 kgs.). 

Shipping Crate 

6 feet 8 inches long, 4 feet wide, 6 feet 8 inches high. 
Cubic Measure, 177 feet (5 cbm.). 
Gross Weight, 3,200 pounds (1,440 kgs.). 



232 



Mount Vernon, N,Y. 




PATENTED 



Ams No. 72 Double Seamer 

Square or Irregular Shape Cans 
Codeword: Soppunto 



233 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Ams No. 72 Double Seamer 

The work of this seamer is automatic, and under all conditions 
the baseplate remains rigid in alignment with chuck, making it very- 
easy to center all irregular shapes. 

The body with cover attaclied is placed upon the baseplate the 
handle depressed, and instantly the can is engaged by the rollers, 
making a quick, clean and tight double seain. 

It is also possible to change quickly from the tallest to the 
smallest can in height. The can revolves. 

This machine is by no means confined to any particular class 
of work, as it will handle all average sizes and shapes, but may be 
easily altered in range when required, from iVa inches upward. 

On square or oblong work, when a good speed is desired, it is 
preferable, particularly for hermetical sealing, to use a rounded 
corner not under %-inch radius. For false or blind double seaming, 
such as is used for cocoa, candy, tobacco or similar packages, or 
such as are subsequently soldered, smaller corners may be used. 

Specifications 

Capacity, according to size and style. Speed, according to nature of work. 

Floor Space, 4 feet 4 inches by 1 foot 8 inches (133 x 52 cm.). 

Height, 5 feet 4 inches. 

Net Weight, 1,880 pounds (846 kgs.). 

For individual drive we recommend a 2 horse-power motor. 

Shipping Crate 

5 feet long, 2 feet 4 inches wide, 6 feet high. 

Cubic Measure, 70 feet (J cbm.). 

Gross Weight, including countershaft, about 3,200 pounds (998 kgs.). 



234 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 




Ams No. 82 Double Seamer 

Round, Square, Oval or Irregular Shapes 
Codeword: Sopradora 



235 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Ams No. 82 Double Seamer 

For Round, Square, Oval or Irregular Shapes 

The illustration shows the character of the work which this 
Double Seamer is capable of doing. 

The three size bread boxes shown were double seamed by the 
No. 82, which has a capacity of turning out from 100 to 500 per 
hour according to size. The work is not confined to this particular 
canister, but round, oval and irregular shape large vessels may be 
double seamed. 

Specifications 

Weight, Net 1,848 pounds. 

Driving Pulleys, T. & L., each 14 x 4 inches. 

Speed, 100 revolutions per minute, according to work. 

Floor Space, 5x3 feet (IVam. x Im.). 

Total Height, 6 feet 6 inches. 

Horse-power, about 5. 

Shipping Crate 

5 feet 6 inches long, 3 feet wide, 6 feet 9 inches high. 
Cubic Measure, 112 feet (3.17 cbm.). 
Gross Weight, 2,080 pounds (936 kgs.). 



236 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



't_ 'Ia '-L ^. -^ 




Ams No. 29B Gang Slitter 

Positively True 
Codeword: Gangatepe 



237 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Ams No. 29B Gang Slitter 

Positively True 

This Gang Slitter is rigid in construction on account of the entire 
frame with housing being of one casting. 

Cutter shaft made of the best hammered steel, 3 inches diameter, 
accurately ground the entire length through extra long bush bearings. 

The side movements of the shafts are taken up by ball thrust 
bearings and set screws in center of shaft. 

The automatic feed bar is controlled by friction drive, thus 
enabling the feed bar to be stopped at any point. 

The construction of the legs is such, that by an adjustable 
pivoted leg, a perfect alignment of cutter shafts is maintained 
throughout the life of the machine, and insures absolutely true 
slitting of sheet-metal or cardboard. 

Always place on firm foundation as any vibration will interfere 
with the grinding of the cutters. 

The grinding attachment is constructed and arranged so that 
the cutters may be ground without removing them or taking the 
shafts out of the machine. 

By using Ams grinder the cutters never change in diameter, as 
the grinding is done on the side, in consequence of which, the sides 
always keep the same relation to the feed roller. The compartment 
underneath the table is arranged for tools. 

Specifications 

Weight, complete with countershaft, 2,000 pounds. 

Diameter of cutters, 6 inches. 

Diameter of cutter shafts, 3 inches. 

Maximum width between bearings, 35 inches. 

Will handle sheets in width up to 32 inches. 

Length of table (front to centre of cutters), 33 inches. 

Maximum number of cutters, H. 

Will slit sheet metal with 12 sets of cutters, thickness up to No. 26 B. W. G. 

Will slit with 4 sets of cutters, thickness up to Xo. 2\ B. W. G. 

Diameter and face of driving pulley, 14- x 3 inches. 

Speed of driving puUej', about 280 R.P.M. 

Xumber of strokes of feed, per minute, I .'. 

Height from floor to feed table, 31. inches. 

Floorspace base (F to B-R to L), 4,5 x 66 inches. 

Cubic Measure, 84 feet (cbni. 2 A), 900 kgs. 

238 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 




PATESTED 

Ams No. 300 Automatic Side Seam Soldering Machine 

Capacity: No. 3's, 8,000 to 10,000 Gallons, 5,000 to 6,000 per day 

Codeword: Sopha 



239 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 




L 



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PATENTS PENDING 



Ams No. 88 Can Body Maker 

For Cocoa, Candy, Spice, Tobacco, Baking Powder and Similar Cans 

Codeword: Bodyatepe 



340 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 




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241 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Ams Automatic Can Body Makers 

With Notching and Soldering Attachments 

These machines are entirely new in design and have many 
original features. They are very compact and carefully designed, 
are easy running and work with great rapidity and accuracy. 
Vibration is entirely eliminated by properly timing and balancing 
the movements. 

All working parts are open and easily accessible. A damaged 
blank can instantly be removed at every station, by simply lifting 
the friction bars. The feed delivers the blank positively square to 
the forming horn. 

Notcher and Edger are very simple and work positive. Punches, 
Dies and Edging Plates have separate adjustments to take up the 
wear and can be quickly replaced when necessary. 

The Forming Horn is supported on both sides, insuring a proper 
grooved lock seam. The expansion of the Horn can be varied either 
way to suit the size of the covers. 

Adjustment of the Edger and Notcher is made simultaneously 
by turning a single crank. The forming parts (consisting of horn, 
wings, brackets, rods and cam) are furnished adjusted, and only 
require exchanging. This is done in very short time. 

Soldering attachment is very efficient. The liquid solder is ap- 
plied to the cans from underneath, by means of a roll in a positive 
manner. The can is then passed on to the wiper and over the cool- 
ing pipe. Adjustment from one size to the other is quickly made. 

These machines will handle round and irregular shaped can 

bodies and are particularly adapted for the production of Sanitary 

Can Bodies (lap and lock seam). Thej^ are made in two sizes. 

No. 88A Xo. 89 

Will take work in diameter 31/2 in. to iy^ in. 2l^ in. to 6% in. 

Will take up to (lengths) 6 in. 714 in. 

Diameter and width of flywheel 21 in. x 314 in. 94 in. x 314 in. 

Revolutions per minute 150 — 250 150 — 300 

Capacity per minute about 75 — 125 SO — 100 

Net Weight No. 88A 2.972 lbs. No. 89, 3,845 lbs. 

Cubic feet 178, 50 cbm., 3,106 kgs. 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 




Ams No. 93 Automatic Flanger 

Up to and including No. 3's, 120 per minute 

Codeword Flangawry 

243 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 




Ams No. 94 Automatic Flanger 

For gallons, 40 and upward per minute 
Codeword: Flangaxly 



344 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 




PATENTS PENDING 



Ams No. 74 Lining Machine 

With Automatic Feed for Round Covers 
Codeword: Sorbeamus 



345 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Ams No. 74 Lining Machine 

Automatic Feed for Round Covers 

The illustration on the other side shows a lining machine, used 
for the purpose of applying compound to the flange of the can covers. 

It also shows the can ends stacked in the magazine ready to be 
fed automatically under the compound feeding-nozzle from the bot- 
tom of the stack. 

The capacity of this No. 7nt Lining Machine is from 60 to 120 
per minute, according to the size of the covers. 

The machine is very compact, easily adjusted and changed from 
one size end to another and very simple in operation. It will line 
covers from 2 inches to 6V2 inches outside diameter when curled. 

Specifications 

Xet Weight, 575 pounds. 

Height, 4 feet 9 inches. 

Floor Space, 3 feet by -2 feet 6 inches. 

Driving Pulley, 10 inches. 

Speed, 3-20 R.P.M. for 60 large diameter ends per minute. 

Speed, 370 R.P.M. for 100 small diameter ends per minute. 

Cubic Measure, 75 feet (2 cbm.). 

Gross Weight, 725 pounds (335 itgs.). 



2J-6 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 




Anns No. 91 Double Lining Machine 

Automatic Feed for Round Covers 
Codeword: Linatop 



247 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Ams No. 91 Lining Machine 

Automatic Feed for Round Covers 

This self-contained lining machine will handle 240 ends and up- 
wards per minute, up to and including No. 3's. 

The tank has a capacity of 7% gallons for sealing fluid, which 
is applied to the curled flange of the cover under pressure obtained 
from an air-pump at the end of the driving shaft. 

This one machine will line ends sufficient to take care of any 
single line of sanitary can-making machinery, at whatever speed it 
may be run. 

This liner is solid and compact, very simple in operation, easily 
adjusted and changed from one size end to another. 

Specifications 

Xet 'Weight, 870 pounds (391 kg.). 

Gross "Weight, 1,000 pounds. 

Height, 6 feet. 

Floor Space, 3 feet by 4- feet. 

Driving Pulley, 10 inches. 

Speed, liO R.P.M. 

Cubic Measure, 90 feet (3 cbm.), 450 kgs. 



248 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 




Ams No. 83 Cover Curling Machine 

Codeword: Sorbemos 



349 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Ams No. 83 Cover Curling Machine 

The No. 83 Cover Curling Machine is used for curling the 
turn-up flanges of tin can ends. This operation, as shown in the 
illustration, is performed without the necessity for extra labor. It 
can be adjusted to any power-press, and as fast as the tops are 
stamped they automatically feed into the curler, and from there 
into a receptacle. The large can-making companies have found this 
device desirable principally because it helps in the double-seaming 
operation. Beside helping in the double-seaming operation, it allows 
the covers to be stacked on top of one another in such a manner that 
thej^ can be fed automatically into the lining machine to have the 
compound applied. The curling segment is removable, and there 
is a different one of these curved segments furnished for each size of 
can end to be handled. We build presses for stamping these covers. 

Specifications 

Net Weight, 210 pounds. 

Measurements over all: Length, 2 feet, width, 20 inches, height, 20 inches. 

Shipping Crate 

3 feet 2 inches long, 2 feet 2 inches high. 
Cubic Measure, 8 feet (3 cbm.). 
Gross Weight, 300 pounds (135 kgs.). 



250 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 




Ams No. 61 Flanger 

Oval, Square and Irregular Cans 
Codeword: Flangatos 



351 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Ams No. 61 Flanger 

Oval, Square and Irregular Cans 

This type of No. 61 Flanger is the hand feed and adjustable for 
all sizes from 2 inches up to and including one gallon. 

It flanges one end at a time and will take oval, oblong, square 
and irregular shapes, and is especially suitable for olive oil cans. 

It is compact and does not require much more room than an 
ordinary sewing machine. 

Built under special arrangement with the patentee. 

Specifications 

Gross Weight, 1,100 pounds. 

Xet Weight, 908 pounds. 

3 feet 8 inches long, 2 feet wide, 2 feet 11 inches high. 

Speed, 130 R. P. M. 

Capacity depends on skill. 

Requires one horse-power. 

Cubic Measure, 29 feet (1 cbm.), 336 kgs. 



252 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 




No. 116 Dating Machine 

For Marking Round, Square or Irregular Shapes 

Sanitary Can Covers and Studhole Caps 

Codeword : Sorvar 



253 



The Max Ams JMachine Co. 



No. 116 Dating Machine 

For Marking Round, Square or Irregular Shapes 
Sanitary Can Covers and Studhole Caps 

The Ams Dating Machine will register any desired combination 
of dates, weeks, years, serial numbers and other private marks so 
that a packer may identify his own product at any future time. 

It is provided with chutes from which the covers are fed into 
the stamping device whence after the impression has been received, 
they drop by gravity into a suitable receptacle or to a conveyor belt, 
to be taken where wanted. Any boy or girl can operate it. 

This machine is also furnished with an automatic cover feed for 
round cans only. Speed, 100 per minute. 

The illustration, which is about one-eighth size of the actual 
machine, shows its character and purpose. It may also be used for 
making and dating metal tags. 

Sample cover sent upon request. 

Specifications 

Height from center of shaft to bench, 10 inches. 

Bench Space, F. to B. and R. to L., 1 foot 7 inches by 1 foot 7 inches (48 

cm. X 48 cm.). 
Xet Weight, complete, 354 pounds. 
.\djustable chute, 2 inches up to 6% inch covers. 
Automatic feed can be detached and machine used as a bench press. 

Shipping Crate 

Cubic Measure, ISy, feet (.4 cbm.). 
4.50 pounds (-203 kgs.) 



2:,l 



Mount Vernon, N.Y. 



Ams No. 13 High Pressure Air Pump 

Codeword: Sorosis 




This cut represents a Double Cylinder High Pressure Air-Pump 
and Compressor. It was designed for use in connection with our 
lining machines and self-heating soldering irons. One of these pumps 
is equal in capacity to a group of lining machines and a number of 
self-heating soldering irons. Such a group may be arranged by the 
introduction of a compressed air tank. 

It is not confined to this class of work, however, and may be used 
in many other ways, such as silver-smithing, blow-pipes and small 
forgings, tempering, etc., in fact, where a direct pressure up to 
50 pounds per square inch is required. 

Its construction is simple and compact, and it runs almost noise- 
lessly and practically without vibration. 

We build them also, with four cylinders, where a large volume 
of air pressure is required. 

Floor space 23x23. Net weight, 200 lbs. 



255 



The Max Ams Machine Co. 



Dies 

Round, Square, Oblong and Irregular Shapes 




The above illustration shows a round combination die, with an 
ingenious stripper arrangement which prevents clinging of the sheet 
to the punch, thereby giving operator freedom of action, and in- 
creasing the stamping capacity. 

Estimates on round, square, oblong and irregular dies. 

We supply everything required in this line for sheet metal work. 



256 



INDEX 

PAGE 

Photos of Executives of Company 2 

Foreword 4 

The Canning Industry 7-21 

Photos of Mr. Connor and Mr. Carter 15 

Report of the German Canners' Laboratory 22-26 

Photos of Early Pioneers 23 

Photos of California Canning Industry 27 

Canning Industry in California^ by Mr. Dee .... 27-40 

Photos of Olive Canning .... 40-41 

California Olive Industry 41-46 

The Tuna Canning Industry 47-49 

Photo of Tuna 48-49 

Photo of Pineapple Canning 50-51 

The Hawaiian Pineapple Canning 50-52 

Types 54 

The Salmon Canning Industry 55-63 

Photos of Canneries 55-58 

Photos of Canneries 59 

Photos of Canneries 62-63 

Swells and Springers, by Dr. Bigelow ... . . 67-88 

Legal Matter for Canners 91-127 

Brooks Law in New York State in Effect 127 

New York Law Regarding Fruit Packages 127 

Official Weights for Canned Foods 128 

Stopping Goods in Transit 128 

Federal and State Laws Affecting Canners and Food 

Manufacturers 131-135 

State Officials . 138-140 

Food Regulation in Canada 140-142 

Japanese Crab Meat 142 

Patents in the Philippines 143 

Annual Loss by Insect Pest 143 

Ptomaine Poisoning 144 

Parcel Post Rates 146 

Trade Marks 150-163 

257 



Associations in the Canning and Packing Industries 

Program of Baltimore Convention 

Executive Officers National Canners' Association 

State Canners' Associations and Officers 

Reference Tables 

Signs Regarding Clouds and Winds 

Panama Canal Facts 

Useful Don'ts . . 

Introduction Ams Machinery . 

No. 98A Double Seamer .... 

No. 98AT Double Seamer, Hand Feed . 

No. 98AT Double Seamer, Automatic Feed 

No. i98 Double Seamer 

No. 97AT Clincher 

No. 68 Double Seamer, Hand Feed 

No. 68 Double Seamer, Automatic Feed . 

No. 58 Double Seamer, Automatic Feed 

No. 58 Double Seamer Right Angle Conveyor 

No. 58 Double Seamer Disc Conveyor and Cover 

No. 32A Automatic Double Seamer 

No. 72 Double Seamer . 

No. 82 Double Seamer . 

No. 29B Gang Slitter . 

No. 300 Side Seamer . . 

No. 88 Can Body ^Maker . 

No. 88A Automatic Can Body Maker 

No. 93 Flanger ... 

No. 94 Flanger ... 

No. 71 Lining Machine 

No. 91 Lining Machine 

No. 83 Cover Curler and Press 

No. 61 Flanger 

No. 116 Dating Machine . 
No. 13 Air Pump ... 
Dies 



166 
168-175 
176-181 
182-188 
191-202 
202 
203 
205 
211-213 
214 
215 
217 
219 
221 
223 
225 
227 
229 
230 
231 
233 
235 
237 
239 
240 
241 
243 
244 
245 
2t7 
249 
251 
253 
255 
256 



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Plant of The Max Ams Machine Co- 
Mount Vernon, New York, U- S. A.