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Full text of "A handbook on piping"

ALBERT R. MANN 
LIBRARY 



New York State Colleges . 

OF 

Agriculture and Home Economics 




Cornell University 



Cornell University Library 
TJ 415.S8 



A handbook on piping, 




3 1924 003 625 088 




The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924003625088 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



BY THE SAME AUTHOR 



ESSENTIALS OF DRAFTING 

A Text and Problem Book 
for Apprentice, Trade and 
Evening Technical Schools 

200 Pagea 450 lUustrationa Postpaid $1.50 



A HANDBOOK ON 
PIPING 



BY 

CARL L. SVENSEN, B.S. 

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OP ENGINEERING DRAWrNQ IN 

THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, JUNIOR MEMBER 

OP THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OP MECHANICAL 

ENGINEERS, FORMERLY INSTRUCTOR 

IN MECHANICAL ENGINKERINa 

IN TUFTS COLLEGE 




359 Illustrations 
8 Folding Plates 



NEW YORK 

D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY 

25 Park Place 
1918 



COPYRIGHT, I918, BY 
D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY 



THE-PLIMPTON-PEPSS 
NOKWOOD'HASSn-S'A 



PREFACE 

There are many things which every engineer is assumed to 
know about piping, but the sources of such information are not 
always so readily available as to justify this assumption. In 
designing some pieces of work requiring the use of piping, the 
designer has often been imder the necessity of searching through 
collections of catalogs, handbooks, and even fittings themselves, 
perhaps without finding the details desired. The inconvenience 
and loss of time resulting from the lack of a ready source of infor- 
mation regarding the use of pipe and its accessories would seem 
to justify the publication of a book devoted to it. 

This work is thus offered for the purpose of supplying in con- 
venient form information and data regarding piping, fittings, 
pipe joints, valves, piping drawings, and pipe lines and their 
accessories. It is hoped that the variety and extent of the tables, 
illustrations and formulae will be sufficient to make it of value 
to both engineers and students. The tables have been prepared 
with care, and are aU uniform in arrangement, to facilitate their 
use. In the case of tables of sizes the names of the different com- 
panies have been given, which it is believed will add to their 
value. The illustrations have all been especially drawn for the 
book. A Ust of books and references is given in Chapter XIX 
with a view to extending the usefulness of this work. 

Various authorities have been consulted, and no claim for 
orginality can be made for the substance of the information thus 
obtained, but it is hoped that the form of presentation will com- 
mend itself. 

The author wishes to express his appreciation of the complete 
and valuable responses with which his inquiries were met by the 



iv PREFACE 

companies and individuals mentioned in the text, and in par- 
ticiilar the services of Prof. Thomas E. French and Mr. W. J. 
Norris. 

Suggestions and criticisms will be welcomed by both pubUshers 
and author. 

CARL L. SVENSEN 

Columbus, Ohio. 
April 8, 1917 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Prsface iii 

CHAPTER I 

Pipe 1 

Historical — Wrought Iron and Steel — Briggs Standard — Out- 
side Diameter Pipe — Manufacture of Steel Pipe — Cast Iron — 
Copper — Brass — Lead — Riveted Pipe — Strength of Materials. 

CHAPTER II 

Dimensions and Strength op Pipe 11 

General Formula — Formulae for Cast Iron — Cast Iron Cylinder 
Tests — Cast Iron Hub and Spigot Pipe — Plain Cast Iron Pipe 

— Briggs Standard Dimensions — Bursting Pressures of Pipe — 

— Mill Tests — English Pipe — Riveted Pipe — Copper and Brass 
Pipe — Lead Pipe — Wooden Stave Pipe. 

CHAPTER m 

Pipe Threads 35 

American Pipe Threads — Standard Pipe Thread Gages — Pipe 
Threading — Pipe Tools — English Pipe Threads — Foreign Pipe 
Threads. 

CHAPTER IV 

Pipe Fittings 44 

Screw Fittings — Couplings — Elbows — Tees, Crosses, Bushings, 
Caps, Plugs — Nipples — Cast Iron Fittings — Screwed Reducing 
Fittings — Brass Fittings — Malleable Iron Fittings — Extra 
Heavy Cast Steel Screwed Fittings — Strength of Fittings — 
Flanged Fittings — Reducing Fittings — Cast Steel Fittings — 
Ammonia Fittings — British Standard Pipe Flanges and Fittings. 

CHAPTER V 

Pipe Joints 76 

Welded Joints — Screw Unions — Flange Unions — Bolt Circles 
and Drillings — Flange Facing — Flange Joints for Steel Pipe — 



Ti CONTENTS 

Pipe Flange Tables — Special Connections — Converse Joints — 
Matheson Joints — Flanges for Copper Pipe — Lead Pipe Joints 

— Joints for Riveted Pipe — Joints for Cast Iron Pipe. 

CHAPTER VI 

Standard Valves 98 

Valves — Materials — Globe and Gate Valves — Valve Seats — 
Gate Valves — By-Pass Valves — Valve Stem Arrangements — 
Strength of Gate Valves — Standard Pressures and Dimensions 

— Check Valves — Operation of Valves — Location. 

CHAPTER VII 

Special Valves 114 

Butterfly Valves — Blow-off Valves — Plug Valves — Boiler Stop 
Valves — Foster Automatic Valve — Emergency Stop Valves — 
Crane-Erwood Automatic Valve — Reducing Valves — Reducing 
Valve Sizes — Pump Governors — Back Pressure Valves — Auto- 
matic Exhaust Relief Valves — Safety Valves — ^CCnstallation of 
Pop Safety Valves — Extracts from Report of American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers' Boiler Code Committee. 

CHAPTER VIII 

Steam Pipma 137 

General Considerations — Header System — Direct System with 
Cross-over Header — Ring System — Duplicate System — Steam 
Velocity — Size of Pipe — Equalization of Pipes — Superheated 
Steam — Effect of High Temperature on Metals and Alloys — live 
Steam Header — Connections between Boiler and Header — Pipe 
Lines from Main Header — Auxiliary and Small Steam Lines for 
Engines, Pumps, etc. — Steam Loop — Injector Piping — Live 
Steam Feed Water Purifier — Method of Piping Purifier — Water 
Column Piping — The Placing of Thermometers in Pipes — Steam 



CHAPTER IX 

Drip and Blow-Ofp Piping 161 

Drainage — Separators — Drip Pockets — Steam Traps — Drips 
from Steam Cylinders — Drainage Fittings — Automatic Pump 
and Receiver — Blow-Off Piping. 

CHAPTER X 

Exhaust Piping and Condensers 172 

Exhaust Piping — Exhaust from Small Engines, Pumps, etc. — 
Exhaust Heads — Vacuum Exhaust Pipes — Classes of Condensers 
— Surface Condensers — Piping for Surface Condenser — Jet Con- 



CONTENTS Vii 

densers — Jet Condenser Kping — Barometric Condenser — Pip- 
ing for Barometric Condenser — Multi-jet Educator Condenser. 

CHAPTER XI 

Feed Water Hbatbeb 188 

Uses and Types of Heaters — Closed Feed Water Heaters — 
Closed Heater Piping — Open Feed Water Heaters — Open 
Heater Piping. 

CHAPTER XII 

Piping for Heating Systems 201 

Piping for Heating Systems — Steam Heating Piping Systems — 
Steam Radiator Pipe Connections — Sizes of Steam Heating Pipes 

— Hot Water Heating Systems — Expansion Tanks — Hot Water 
Radiator Pipe Connections — Sizes of Hot Water Pipes — Exhaust 
Steam Heating — The Webster Vacuum System of Steam Heating 

— Radiator Pipe Connections — Typical Arrangement Webster 
Systems — Atmospheric System of Steam Heating — Central Sta- 
tion Heating — Underground Steam Mains — Underdrainage — 
Installation in Wood Casings — Expansion and Contraction — 
Interior Piping for Central Station Heat. 

CHAPTER XIII 

Water and Hydraulic Piping 226 

Water Piping — Gravity Pipe Lines — Flow of Water in Pipes — 
Pump Suction Piping — Pump Discharge Piping — Boiler Feed 
Piping — Interior Water Piping — Hydraulic Pipe and Fittings — 
Hydraulic Valves. 

CHAPTER XIV 

Compressed Air, Gas and Oil Piping 237 

Compressed Air Piping — Compressed Air Transmission — The 
Air Lift Pumping System — Gas Fitting — Materials — Location 
of Piping — Sizes of Pipes — Testing — Gas Meters — Gas Piping 
Specifications — Pressure Test — Obstructions and Jointing — 
Slope of Piping — Protection of Piping — Outlets — Gas Engine 
Connection — Explanation of Piping Schedule — Use of Piping 
Schedule — Plan of Piping — Stems — Arms — General — Oil 
Piping — Oil Piping for Lubrication — Richardson Individual Oil- 
ing System — Phenix Individual Oiling System — Oil Pipe Fit- 
tings — Oil Piping Drawing — Sight Feed Lubricator Connec- 
tions — Oil Fuel Piping. 

CHAPTER XV 

Erection — Workmanship — Miscellaneous 269 

Handling Pipe — Putting Up Pipe — Pipe Dopes — Gaskets — 



viii CONTENTS 

Valves — Vibration and Support — Expansion — Pipe Bends — 
Bending Pipe — Nozzles — Pipe Saddles — Supporting Large Thin 
Pipe — Flexible Metal Hose — Aluminum Piping and Tubing — 
Brass and Copper Tubing — Boiler Tubes — Color System to Des- 
ignate Piping. 

CHAPTER XVI 

Piping Insulation 289 

Pipe Coverings — Tests on Pipe Coverings — Low Pressiu'e Steam, 
Hot and Cold Water Pipes — Cold Pipes — Forms of Pipe Cover- 
ings — Underground Piping — Out-of-Doors Piping. 

CHAPTER XVII 
Piping Drawings 306 

Classification of Piping Drawings — Erection Drawings — Con- 
ventional Representation — Dimensioning — Flanges — Coils — 
Sketching — Developed or Single Plane Drawings — Isometric 
Drawing — Oblique Drawings. 

CHAPTER XVIII 

Specifications 329 

Standard Piping Schedule — Standard Specifications (Stone & 
Webster) — Model Specifications (Walworth). 

CHAPTER XIX 

List of Book8 and References 347 

Index 353 

APPENDIX 

Plate 1 — Main Steam Lines — Plan. 
Plate 2 — Main Steam Lines — Elevations. 
Plate 3 — Auxiliary Exhaust Lines — Plan. 
Plate 4 — Auxiliary Exhaust Lines — Elevations. 
Plate 5 — Boiler Feed Lines — Plan. 
Plate 6 — Boiler Feed Lines — Elevation. 
Plate 7 — Boiler Blow-Off Lines. 
Plate 8 — Heater Suction and City Water Lines. 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

CHAPTER I 
PIPE 

Historical. — All branches of engineering involve the con- 
veying of fliiids — gas, air, water, etc. For this purpose pipes 
made of various materials are used. Wood was probably one 
of the first piping materials, and a piece of early wood piping is 
shown in Fig. 1. Pipes made of hollow hemlock logs were used 
with the first waterworks constructed in America, at Boston, 
Massachusetts, in 1652. 

In tropical countries bamboo tubes are used for conveying 
water short distances and it is likely that the practice dates from 




Fig. 1. A Piece of Wood Piping. 

ancient times. Tubes made of pottery have been found in pre- 
historic ruins and lead pipes were in use as early as the first cen- 
tury A.D. Wrought iron tubes were first made for gun barrels. 
The method employed was to bend an iron plate to form a skelp. 
A smith then welded the edges of the red hot metal piecemeal 
by hammering over a rod. Machinery for welding tubes was 
patented in 1812 by an Englishman named Osborn. For convey- 
ing gas for fighting purposes old gun barrels were screwed together 
to form the first continous pipes. In 1824 James Russell filed a 
"specification for an improvement in the manufacture of tubes 
for gas and other purposes," by which the weld could be formed 
either with or without a mandrel, and the edges butted against 



2 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

each other. The basis of the present process was invented by 
Cornelius Whitehouse in 1825. Between 1830 and 1834 the first 
butt-welding furnace in the United States was built by Morris, 
Tasker and Morris in Philadelphia. In 1849 Walworth & Nason 
built the Wanalancet Iron & Tube Works at Maiden, Mass., of 
which Robert Briggs was construction engineer. Other early 
pipe mills were those of Griffith Brothers, Allison & Company, 
and Girard Tube Company, Philadelphia, and Seyfert, McManus 
& Company, Reading, Pa. 

Materials ordinarily used for pipe are clay, cement, cast iron, 
wrought iron or steel, steel plate, brass, copper, lead, lead lined 
and tin Hned iron or steel. 

Wrought Iron and Steel. — Wrought iron or steel piping is 
most generally used for conveying steam, gas, air, and water. 
Wrought iron pipe because of its expense has been largely dis- 
placed by steel pipe. Through custom the term "Wrought 
Iron Pipe " is often taken to refer to the Briggs Standard sizes 
rather than to the material of which the pipe is made, and so it is 
necessary to specify exactly what is wanted. "Steel," "wrought 
steel," and "wrought pipe," are terms sometimes used and refer 
to welded pipe made of steel. If real wrought iron pipe made 
from puddled iron is required the terms "genuine wrought iron," 
"guaranteed wrought iron," or the manufacturer's brand or name 
should be used. There are differences of opinion as to the superi- 
ority of one over the other, especially in the matter of corrosion. 
Some people consider that the cinder which remains in the wrought 
iron breaks up the continuity of the metal and tends to impede 
corrosion. Many authorities hold that there is little or no dif- 
ference in the rust-resisting qualities of the two materials. Steel 
pipe has a higher tensile strength than wrought iron. In 1915 
approximately 90 per cent, of the wrought pipe was made of steel, 
a reversal of conditions of twenty years ago when wrought iron 
was mostly used. 

Briggs Standard. — Both wrought iron and steel pipe are made 
to the same standard of sizes. Standard pipe is known by its 
nominal inside diameter. This nominal diameter differs from 
the actual diameter by varying amounts as an inspection of 
Table 4 in Chapter II will show. It is necessary to guard against 
underweight pipe known as "merchant weight," of which the 
reputable companies have given up the manufacture. This 




PIPE 3 

varies from standard full weight pipe and is usually 5 to 10 per 
cent, thinner. It should be carefully avoided in work of any 
importance as the extra cost of maintenance will soon over- 
balance the small difference in first cost. Besides standard weight 
there is made extra strong and double extra strong pipe. The 
outside diameter remains the same, but the thickness is increased 
by decreasing the inside diameter. Fig. 2 shows sections of the 
three weights of pipe of the same nominal inside diameter. 
Above 125 pounds per square inch extra strong pipe should be 
used. Standard weight is sometimes used for pressures up to 200 

oo 

Fig. 2. Sections of i", Standard, Extra Heavy, and Double Extra Heavy 

Wrought Pipe. 

pounds per square inch, but this is not advisable. Double extra 
strong pipe is used for hydraulic work. 

Outside Diameter Pipe. — Above 12 inches in diameter pipe 
is known as O. D. or outside diameter pipe. It is then specified 
by its outside diameter. The thickness varies with the diameter 
and the use for which it is required. For large sizes it is always 
advisable to specify the outside diameter and the thickness of 
the metal. , Especially is this true if the pipe is to be threaded, 
as sufficient thickness must be allowed to maintain the strength 
of the pipe after cutting the threads. The thickness should not 
be less than ^ inches. 

When used for water wrought iron or steel pipe may be gal- 
vanized, or otherwise treated to prevent corrosion and pitting. 

Manufacture of Steel Pipe. — The manufactm'e of steel pipe 
by the National Tube Company is described in one of their books, 
from which the following is abstracted: v 

"Welded tubes and pipe are made either by the lap or butt- 
weld process. 

" The lap-weld process consists of two operations, bending and 
welding. The plate, rolled to the necessary width and gage for 



4 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

the size of pipe intended, is brought to a red heat in a suitable 
furnace, and then passed through a set of rolls which bevel the 
edges, so that when overlapped and welded the seam will be neat 
and smooth. It now passes immediately to the bending machine 
where it takes roughly the cylindrical shape of a pipe with the 
two edges overlapping. In this form it is again heated in another 
furnace, Fig. 3, and when brought to the welding temperatmre 
the bent skelp is pushed out of the furnace into the welding rolls, 




Lap-Weld Furnace — Bent Plate ready to Charge. 



Fig. 4. Each of these rolls has a semi-circular groove forming a 
circular pass, corresponding to the size of pipe being made. A 
cast iron ball, or mandrel, held in position between the welding 
rolls by a stout bar, serves to support the inside of the pipe as 
it is carried through. This 'ball' or mandrel is shaped like a 
projectile and the pipe shdes over it on being drawn through the 
rolls. Thus every portion of the lapped edge is subjected to a 
compression between the ball on the inside and the rolls on the 
outside, which reduces the lap to the same thickness as the rest 
of the pipe, and welds the overlapping portions solidly together. 
" The pipe then enters similarly shaped rolls caUed the sizing 
roUs, which correct any irregularities in shape and give the exact 



PIPE 5 

outside diameter required. Any variation in gage makes a pro- 
portional variation in the internal diameter. Finally the tube 
is passed through the straightening or cross rolls, consisting of 
two rolls set with their axes askew. The surfaces of these rolls 
are so curved that the tube is in contact with each for the whole 




Fig. 4. Welding Rolls for Lap-Weld, Mandrel in Position. 

length of the roU, and is passed forward and rapidly rotated 
when the rolls are revolved. The tube is made practically straight 
by the cross roUs, and is also given a clean finish witb a thin, 
firmly adhering scale. 

" After this last operation the tube is rolled up an inclined cool- 
ing table, so that the metal will cool off slowly and uniformly 
without internal strain. When cool enough the rough ends are 
removed by cold saws or in a cutting-o£f machine, after which the 



6 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



tube is ready for inspection and testing. In the case of threaded 
pipe the ends are threaded before testing. 

" In the case of some sizes of double-extra-strong pipe (3-inch 
to 8-inch) made by the lap-weld process, two pipes are first made 
to such sizes as will telescope one within the other, the respective 
welds being placed opposite each other; these are then returned 
to the furnace, brought to the proper welding heat, and given 
a pass through the welding rolls. While a pipe made in this 
way is, in respect to its resistance to internal pressure, as strong 
or stronger than when made from one piece of skelp, it is not neces- 
sarily welded at aU points between the two tubular surfaces; 




Fig. 5. Drawing Butt- Weld Pipe. 

however, each piece is first thoroughly welded at the seam before 
telescoping. 

" Skelp used in making butt-welded pipe comes from the rolling 
department of the steel mills with a specified length, width, and 
gage, according to the size pipe for which it is ordered. The 
edges are slightly beveled with the face of the skelp, so that the 
surface of the plate which is to become J;he inside of the pipe 
is not quite as wide as that which forms the outside; thus when 
the edges are brought together they meet squarely. 

" The skelp for all butt-welded pipe is heated imiformly to the 
welding temperature. The strips of steel when properly heated 
are seized by their ends with tongs and drawn from the fiu:- 
naces through bell-shaped dies or 'bells,' as they are called. 
Fig. 5. The inside of these bells is so curved that the plate is 



PIPE 7 

gradually formed in the shape of a tube, the edges being forced 
squarely together and welded. For some sizes the pipe is drawn 
through two bells consecutively at one heat, one beU being just 
behind the other, the second one being of a slightly smaller 
diameter than the first. 

" The pipe is then run through siziog and cross rolls similar to 
those used in the lap-weld process, to secure the correct outside 
diameter and finish. 

" The pull required to draw double-extra strong (hydraulic) 
pipe by this process is so great, on account of the thickness of 
the skelp, that it is found necessary to weld a strong bar on the 
end of the skelp, thereby more evenly distributing the strain. 
With this bar the skelp is drawn through several bells of decreas- 



^■^^.'^>^^v^^.'s^^^^^^.^^^^^.^■'iR 



/>»»/'>/'/','^/'^/'/>/) 



Fig. 6. 



Cast Iron Pipe - 
Flanged. 



Fig. 7. Cast Iron Pipe — Bell and 
Spigot. 



ing size, and is reheated between draws until the seam is thor- 
oughly welded. It is evident that the skelp is put to a severe 
test in this operation, and, unless the metal is sound and homo- 
geneous, the ends are Hkely to be pulled off." 

Cast Iron. — Cast iron is conmionly used for underground 
water pipes, gas mains, and sanitation piping, and it may be 
used for any low pressure work. Because of its uncertain nature 
it should not be used for high pressures. Cast iron does not cor- 
rode as readily as wrought iron or steel pipe. It is cheap and 
easily shaped. Cast iron pipe must be well supported because of 
its great weight. Supports should be placed from ten to twelve 
feet apart. Cast iron pipe is made with either flanged ends. 
Fig, 6, or bell and spigot ends. Fig. 7. For sanitation piping and 
imderground work the bell and spigot end pipe is used. There 
is a certain amount of flexibiUty with this form of joint which 
adapts it to variations in level. The joint is leaded and calked. 



8 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



Flanged pipe is bolted together with gaskets between the flanges. 
This is the usual form when the pipe is above ground. 

Copper. — Copper pipe is expensive, and is used only where 
its flexibility makes it superior to other materials, such as on 
shipboard or for expansion bends, for small oil piping, and for 
stills and chemical work. At high temperature it becomes 
brittle. Copper pipe is sometimes woimd with steel or copper 
wire under tension to increase its strength. The same result is 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 












o 
o 
o 
o 



o 

o 

i 




6 

o 

o 

o 
o 

l« 


o 
a 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

1 




VoVWoVo'Vo" 


%°o°o°o°oV 



Fig. 8. Straight Riveted Steel Pipe. 

secured by using steel hoops at frequent spaces. Copper pipe may 
be made by brazing plates together (in which cases the joint is a 
source of weakness) or they may be sohd drawn in iron pipe sizes. 
Brass. — Brass pipe is safe and strong but is too expensive for 
general use. It is used for hot water where iron would corrode 
rapidly, generally in small sizes. Up to four inches diameter 
seamless drawn brass tubes come in twelve foot lengths in iron 
pipe sizes. Such pipe is caUed iron pipe size to distinguish it 
from thin brass tubing and plumbers' brass pipe. 







Fig. 9. Spiral Riveted Steel Pipe. 

Lead. — Lead piping is used for water and waste pipes and 
for acid and various chemical solutions which would rapidly cor- 
rode iron pipe. It is made in sizes up to twelve inches diameter 
and of the thicknesses and qualities of lead as given in Table 
14 in Chapter II. 

Pipe is also made of tin, of lead lined with tin, and of steel 
lined with lead for special purposes or conditions. 

Riveted Pipe. — Large pipes may be made up of steel plates 
forming riveted steel pipe. They may be either straight riveted, 



PIPE 



9 



Fig. 8, or spiral riveted, Fig. 9. They may be joined by flanges 
of cast or pressed steel. These flanges are riveted to the ends 
of the pipe. The riveted ends are calked, and then the pipe is 
generally galvanized. Such pipe is largely used for low pressure 
work, as exhaust mains, drains, etc. The spiral riveted pipe 
has only one seam and consequently is stronger than the straight 
riveted pipe for the same diameter and thickness of plate. 

Strength of Materials. — Some average values for the proper- 
ties of various materials used for piping, valves, and fittings are 
given in the following tabulations. These values will .be found 
to vary somewhat with different manufacturers, but the ulti- 
mate strength should not be much more than five per cent, lower. 



Material 


Ultimate 
Tensile 
Strength 


Elastic 


Elongation 


Reduction 
in area 


Cast Iron 


23,000 
33,400 
37,000 

("18,000 
to 

[ 30,000 

33,000 
65,000 

75,000 

80,000 
40,000 
50,000 

1,650 


15,000 

25,000 
35,000 

36,000 
30,000 


15% 
in 2 inches 

25% 
in 2 inches 

32% 
in 2 inches 

18% 
in 2 inches 




Semi Steel 




Malleable Iron 

Brass 




Hard Metal Composi- 
tion 


10% 


Cast Steel 


35% 


Monel Metal 

Crucible Steel 

Wrought Iron 

Soft Steel 


40% 
50% 


Lead Pipe 









The following is the composition of two casting alloys of the 
U. S. Navy Bureau of Steam Engineering. 



Copper 



Tin 



Zinc 



Iron (Max.) 



Lead (Max.) 



Gun Bronze. 
Screw Pipe Pit- 
tings, Brass. 



87-89% 
77-80% 



9-11% 
4 % (Min.) 



1-3% 
13-19% 



.06% 
.1% 



.2% 
3.0% 



10 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

The gun bronze is suitable for all composition valves four 
inches in diameter and above; expansion joints, flanged pipe 
fittings, gear wheels, bolts and nuts, miscellaneous brass castings, 
all parts where strength is required of brass castings, or where 
subjected to salt water, and for all purposes where no other 
alloy is specified. Composition valves; safety and rehef, feed, 
check and stop, surface blow, drain, air and water cocks, main 
stop, throttle reducing, sea, safety sluice, and manifolds at pumps. 
This gun bronze has an ultimate tensile . strength (minimimi) 
of 30,000 pounds, yield point (minimum) of 15,000 pounds, and 
elongation in two inches (minimum) of 15 per cent. The brass 
listed is suitable for composition screwed fittings. This brass 
has an ultimate tensile strength (minimum) of about 40,000 
pounds, yield point (minimum) of about 20,000 pounds and 
elongation in two inches (minimum) of about 20 per cent. No 
physical tests are specified however. 



CHAPTER II 
DIMENSIONS AND STRENGTH OF PIPE 

All kinds of pipe are now manufactured in standard sizes and 
thicknesses, so that it is not often necessary to figure them. Vari- 
ous formulae are here given for use where it is desirable to check 
sizes, to have pipe made to specifications, or for any other reason. 
The properties of materials are given in the tabulation at the end 
of Chapter I. 

General Formula. — The general formula for cylinders subject 
to internal pressure is obtained as follows: 



In Fig. 10, let d 
t 
I 
V 
f 



inside diameter in inches, 
thickness of cylinder wall in inches, 
length of cyhnder wall in inches, 
internal fluid pressure in lbs. per sq. in. 
stress induced in material in lbs. per sq. in. 





General Formula for Pipe. 



Fig. 11. 



The pressure will be exerted at right angles to the surface. 
Considering a very small portion of the circumference, w, Fig. 11, 
the arc may be assumed equal to the chord, and the area about 
point C will be wl square inches. The pressure at C will then be 
pwl. 



12 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

Let a = angle COB 

Let C = pressure SLtC = pwl 

The vertical component of C wiU then be plw sin a 

Each point may be treated in the same manner, and the alge- 
braic sum of the upward pressures will equal the algebraic sum 
of the downward pressures. This will be a measure of the tend- 
ency to separate the cylinder at A and B and is equal to 

S plw sina = pld 

Resisting this pressure is the metal at A and B, the strength 
of which is 2ltf. 
Equating this to the pressure gives 

pld = 2ltf 

P-f (1) 

a 

or t = ?^ (2) 

2/ ^ ^ 

This formula may be used for wrought iron or steel, assuming 
a proper factor of safety. For cast iron it does not give practical 
thicknesses, and a constant is generally added. 

Formulae for Cast Iron. — Several formulae are . here given 
for cast iron pipe. The formula for pressiu-es above 100 poimds 
per square inch is 

* = -^+r (3) 

4000 2 ^ 

Another common formula is 

' = ^ (*> 

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers' formula for 
cast iron pipe is 

,.[^.,o.33a(.-A)],, „, 

in which/- 1800 

Farming's formula for cast iron water pipe is 

t = 0.00006 Qi + 230) d + 0.333 - 0.0033d. ... (6) 

in which h = head in feet 



DIMENSIONS AND STRENGTH OF PIPE 13 

Francis' formula for cast iron water pipe is 

t -= 0.000058 hd + 0.0152d + 0.312 (7) 

Cast Iron Cylinder Tests. — In the A. S. M. E. Trans. Vol. 19, 
page 597, Prof. C. H. Benjamin gives the results of some tests of 
cast iron cylinders made at Case School of Applied Science. 
The cylinders were 10 1/8 inches in diameter, 20 inches long, 3/4 
inches thick and had covers bolted on the ends. Water pressure 
was used. 



Cylinder 1 

Bursting pressure. . . 1350 

pd 
Unit stress/ = ^ = 9040 



2 


3 


4 


Average 


1400 


1350 


1200 


1350 


0200 


9735 


9080 


9500 



Cast Iron Hub and Spigot Pipe. — The dimensions of hub and 
spigot pipe given in Tables 1 and 2 are from the "Standard 



y-'-^ 




Fig. 12. Cast Iron Bell and Spigot Pipe. 



Specifications for Cast Iron Pipe" of the American Society for 
Testing Materials, which give complete information as to ma- 
terials, allowable variation in weight, methods of inspection, 
testing, etc. The hydrostatic tests for various classes of pipe 
are given as follows: 





20-Inoh Diameter 

and Larger 
Founds per Sq. In. 


Less than 20-Inoh 

Diameter 
Pounds per Sq. In. 


Class A Pipe 


160 


300 


Class B Pipe 


200 


300 


Class C Pipe 


250 


300 


Class D Pipe 


300 


300 



14 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 






§ 1 

■1 CQ ^ 






S 
§ 



I 
o 



•I 



^ 
^ 



fe: 



1 


•*> 


t 
^ 


ill 


i 


i-H 


o o o o o o o 

uS S O >0 00 o o 
iH I-H c3 N CO "3 l> 


9900 
12600 
16100 
19000 


1 


p CO 00 

U3 00 »0 
(M CO lO 




o 

8 


C<J CO t~; N !> p p 

d 00 i-H 05 d d >^ 


O p t-; CO 

uj d i-i CO 

i-» 1-1 1-) 


pj 


lO >o <o 
d do 


d 


{2 

d 


O O O »H »-* 1— ( iH 


00 CD CO 00 
l> OS C5 CO 

-K ^ CT ci 


1 


i 
I 
I 


1 
3 


III 


o 
00 


8 

1— ) 


.H iH S O CO ■* (O 


8888 

CD OS r^ iH 
00 o CO CO 

tH i-( i-( 




CO 00 tH 


00 


OS 


t^ 00 o eo IN o 00 
to CO lo 00 d d U5 
>H ■* I> O 1> o ■* 
•rt rt ^ N « ■* us 


»-; CO l>; t~; 

CO 00 i-< -! 
1-1 o •* •* 

t» OS tH CO 
rH rH 


III 


d d d 


d 


d 


t^ 00 00 p p cq CO 

d d d d 1-i .-5 .-< 


lO t-; S P 

1-4 T-H 1-5 ci 


o 




J 


ill 


i 




I-H .-H th oi e<i ■* lO 


SS8S 

iH 1-1 


1 


t- CO lO 

N eS ^ 


00 


■^ 

s 


lO O O O CO M N 

§S5S{2iS§S 

1— 1 T-H 1-H i-H <N CO ^ 


!> P CO CJ 

S lO CO o 
W5 t» OS Jh 

1-1 


Ji 


odd 


15 

d 


d 


d d d d d 1-H T-i 


00 IN >0 t- 
N ■* "3 p 

1-4 tH 1^ l-H 


s 




J 


O O lO 

■^ t^ tH 

(N CO m 


g 


i 


lO o o o o o o 

t- O O O K5 o S 
O CO lO 00 ■* lO !>. 
i-H T-* rH tH C^ CO ^ 


CO 00 OS 1-1 
1-1 


1 


o 00 OS 






p CO N p N N; !> 

OS 00 d d -^ T-4 T-H 

W O (N lO O OS 0> 
rH ^ rH cq N CO 


>o t^ O 1> 

IN CO d d 

i-H CO O I-H 
"5 CD 00 OS 


iu 


o (6 d 


d 


d 


iffl <o as CD t^ 00 OS 
d d d © d d d 




1 


33 il 




■* to 00 


o 


a 


Ttl 50 00 O ■* O «D 

1-1 1-1 .-H M ed CO CO 


^^S5S 



DIMENSIONS AND STRENGTH OF PIPE 



15 



TABLE 2 (Fig. 12) 
Cast Ikon Hub and Spigot Pipe 



Nominal 
Diam. 
Inches 


Classes 


Actual 
Outside 
Diam. 
Inches 


Diam. of Sockets 


Depth of Sockets 


A 


B 




Pipe 
Inches 


Special 

Castings 

Inches 


Pipe 
Inches 


Special 
Castings 
Inches 


C 


4 


A — B 


4.80 


5.60 


5.70 


3.50 


4.00 


1.5 


1.30 


.65 


4 


C — D 


5.00 


5.80 


5.70 


3.50 


4.00 


1.5 


1.30 


.65 


6 


A — B 


6.90 


7.70 


7.80 


3.50 


4.00 


1.5 


1.40 


.70 


6 


C — D 


7.10 


7.90 


7.80 


3.50 


4.00 


1.5 


1.40 


.70 


8 




9.05 


9.85 


10.00 


4.00 


4.00 


1.5 


1.50 


.75 


8 


C — D 


9.30 


10.10 


10.00 


4.00 


4.00 


1.5 


1.60 


.75 


10 


A — B 


11.10 


11.90 


12.10 


4.00 


4.00 


1.5 


1.50 


.75 


10 


C — D 


11.40 


12.20 


12.10 


4.00 


4.00 


1.5 


1.60 


.80 


12 


A — B 


13.20 


14.00 


14.20 


4.00 


4.00 


1.5 


1.60 


.80 


12 


C — D 


13.50 


14.30 


14.20 


4.00 


4.00 


1.5 


1.70 


.85 


14 


A — B 


15.30 


16.10 


16.10 


4.00 


4.00 


1.5 


1.70 


.85 


.14 


C — D 


15.65 


16.45 


16.45 


4.00 


4.00 


1.5 


1.80 


.90 


16 


A — B 


17.40 


18.40 


18.40 


4.00 


4.00 


1.76 


1.80 


.90 


16 


C — 


17.80 


18.80 


18.80 


4.00 


4.00 


1.75 


1.90 


1.00 


18 


A — B 


19.50 


20.50 


20.50 


4.00 


4.00 


1.75 


1.90 


.95 


18 


C — D 


19.92 


20.92 


20.92 


4.00 


4.00 


1.75 


2.10 


1.06 


20 


A — B 


21.60 


22.60 


22.60 


4.00 


4.00 


1.75 


2.00 


1.00 


20 


C — D 


22.06 


23.06 


23.06 


4.00 


4.00 


1.75 


2.30 


1.15 


24 


A — B 


25.80 


26.80 


26.80 


4.00 


4.00 


2.00 


2.10 


1.06 


24 


C — D 


26.32 


27.32 


27.32 


4.00 


4.00 


2.00 


2.50 


1.25 


30 


A 


31.74 


32.74 


32.74 


4.50 


4.50 


2.00 


2.50 


1.15 


30 


B 


32.00 


33.00 


33.00 


4.50 


4.50 


2.00 


2.30 


1.15 


30 


C 


32.40 


33.40 


33.40 


4.50 


4.50 


2.00 


2.60 


1.32 


30 


D 


32.74 


33.74 


33.74 


4.50 


4.50 


2.00 


3.00 


1.50 


36 


A 


37.96 


38.96 


38.96 


4.50 


4.50 


2.00 


2.50 


1.26 


36 


B 


38.30 


39.30 


39.30 


4.50 


4.50 


2.00 


2.80 


1.40 


36 


C 


38.70 


39.70 


39.70 


4.50 


4.50 


2.00 


3.10 


1.60 


36 


D 


39.16 


40.16 


40.16 


4.50 


4.50 


2.00 


3.40 


1.80 


42 


A 


44.20 


45.20 


45.20 


5.00 


5.00 


2.00 


2.80 


1.40 


42 


B 


44.50 


45.50 


45.50 


5.00 


5.00 


2.00 


3.00 


1.50 


42 


C 


45.10 


46.10 


46.10 


5.00 


6.00 


2.00 


3.40 


1.75 


42 


D 


45.58 


46.58 


46.58 


5.00 


5.00 


2.00 


3.80 


1.95 


48 


A 


50.50 


51.50 


51.50 


5.00 


5.00 


2.00 


3.00 


1.50 


48 


B 


50.80 


51.80 


51.80 


5.00 


6.00 


2.00 


3.30 


1.65 


48 


C 


51.40 


52.40 


52.40 


5.00 


5.00 


2.00 


3.80 


1.95 


48 


D 


51.98 


52.98 


52.98 


5.00 


6.00 


2.00 


4.20 


2.20 


54 


A 


56.66 


67.66 


57.66 


5.50 


5.50 


2.25 


3.20 


1.60 


54 


B 


57.10 


58.10 


58.10 


5.50 


6.60 


2.25 


3.60 


1.80 


54 


C 


57.80 


58.80 


58.80 


5.50 


5.50 


2.25 


4.00 


2.15 


54 


D 


58.40 


59.40 


59.40 


5.50 


5.50 


2.25 


4.40 


2.45 


60 


A 


62.80 


63.80 


63.80 


5.50 


6.60 


2.25 


3.40 


1.70 


60 


B 


63.40 


64.40 


64.40 


5.50 


5.60 


2.25 


3.70 


1.90 


60 


C 


64.20 


65.20 


65.20 


5.50 


5.50 


2.25 


4.20 


2.25 


60 


D , 


64.82 


65.82 


65.82 


5.50 


5.50 


2.25 


4.70 


2.60 



16 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



Plain Cast Iron Pipe. — For flanged cast iron pipe the weight 
of the flanges must be added to the weight of the plain pipe. 
The weight of two flanges is equal to the weight of one foot of 
pipe. Table 3 gives the approximate weight per foot of length 
for cast iron pipe of various thicknesses. 



TABLE 3 
Weight in Potjnds per Foot op Plain Cast Iron Pipe 



a ■ 


Thickness of Metal in Inches 




M 


Yi 


Yz 


Yi 


M 


Yz 


1 


Wi 


IM 




lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


Iba. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


2 


5.52 


8.74 


12.27 


16.11 


20.25 


24.70 


29.45 


34.52 


39.88 


W2 


6.75 


10.58 


14.73 


19.18 


23.95 


28.99 


34.36 


40.04 


46.02 


3 


7.93 


12.43 


17.18 


22.24 


27.61 


32.29 


39.27 


45.56 


52.16 


3K 


9.20 


14.27 


19.64 


25.31 


31.29 


37.58 


44.18 


51.08 


58.29 


4 


10.43 


16.11 


22.09 


28.38 


34.98 


41.88 


49.09 


56.60 


64.43 


m 


11.66 


17.95 


24.54 


31.45 


38.66 


46.18 


54.00 


62.13 


70.56 


5 


12.89 


19.79 


27.00 


34.52 


42.34 


60.47 


58.91 


67.65 


76.70 


W2 


14.11 


21.63 


29.45 


37.58 


46.02 


54.76 


63.81 


73.17 


82.84 


6 


15.34 


23.47 


31.91 


40.65 


49.70 


59.06 


68.72 


78.69 


88.97 


)'' 


17.79 


27.15 


36.82 


46.79 


57.06 


67.65 


78.54 


89.74 


101.24 


's 


20.25 


30.83 


41.72 


52.92 


64.43 


76.24 


88.36 


100.78 


113.52 


9 


22.70 


34.52 


46.63 


59.06 


71.79 


84.83 


98.18 


111.83 


125.79 


10 


25.16 


38.20 


61.54 


65.19 


79.15 


93.42 


107.99 


122.87 


138.06 


11 


27.61 


41.88 


56.45 


71.33 


86.52 


102.01 


117.81 


133.92 


150.33 


12 


30.07 


46.56 


61.36 


77.47 


93.88 


110.60 


127.63 


144.96 


162.60 


13 


32.52 


49.24 


66.27 


83.60 


101.24 


119.19 


137.45 


166.01 


174.87 


14 


34.98 


52.92 


71.18 


89.74 


108.61 


127.78 


147.26 


167.05 


187.15 


15 




56.60 


76.09 


95.87 


115.97 


136.37 


157.08 


178.10 


199.42 


16 




60.29 


80.99 


102.01 


123.33 


144.96 


166.90 


189.14 


211.69 


18 




67.65 


90.81 


114.28 


138.06 


162.14 


186.53 


211.23 


236.23 


20 






100.63 


126.55 


152.79 


179.32 


206.17 


233.32 


260.78 


22 






110.45 


138.83 


167.51 


196.50 


225.80 


255.41 


285.32 


24 


.... 




120.26 


151.10 


182.24 


213.68 


245.44 


277.50 


309.87 



Briggs Standard Dimensions. — Wrought iron and steel pipe 
as used for steam, gas, air, and water is known as the Briggs 
Standard, the dimensions of which have been estabhshed as noted 
in Chapter I. The sizes and information are given in Tables 4, 5, 
and 6 for standard weight, extra strong, and double extra strong 
pipe. 



DIMENSIONS AND STRENGTH OF PIPE 



17 












1 










-c/ 




















4S 


"1 


i-( 


CO 00 t« t« ^ ^-< 


O (X 


00 1-1 


■* M CO to 


CO 


g 


CI 


CO >o 


to 


lO 


lO 


OS OS 








CO 




rH O ea OS 


UJ -^ to 00 


i> 


^ 


OS >o 






M 






£o 


"3 


•* 


o o U3 CD q CO 


O o 


CO O 


q 00 !>: q 


to 


lO 


'^. 


CO CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


IN 09 




•'1 


g 


OS 


f> U5 ■* CO N CJ 


rj -ri 


,-; .-; 






















n 






























i?i 






























s 




























































1^ 


1 


o» 


to l- T-i in th t- 


M l; 


t- u> 


to 00 1-- to 

t- ^ ijl lO 


OS 


^ 


CO 


^^ -^ 


to 


1-4 


t~ 


in 00 




'Si^ 


03 


& 


05 •* tH CO ■* to 


|> ■5(4 


■* ■* 


IN 


t> 


IN >> 


1> 


00 


■>*l 


1-1 1-1 




SB, 


■3 


ll< 


■* s- ^ to- to t- 


CO 00 


lO N 


q q 00 t> 


q 


in 


■*. 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO CO 




^ 




■*' 


O t^ «3 •* CO « 


IN 1-i 


1-4 T-4 


1-4 




















t-i 


T-H 


1-1 




























l> 


•* iH ■<* CO ■* "3 


to lo 


88§ 




iH 




iH 




iH 






Sfe 




lO 


O O) O CO to 03 


CO w> 


00 12 o 8 


03 




CO 




OS 








q 


,H i-< CO >o 00 ■* 


O CO 


I> CO 


00 


t>^ 


1^ 


t^ lis 


to 


00 


q 


00 o 




•Ho'-' 


' 


iH 


ei CO 


■* t-: 


OS N KJ O 


^ 


00 


1—1 


IN 1-4 


o 


00 


ui 


Tji CO 




1=? 










1-1 iH (N 


CO 


U3 


CO 00 


00 


t- 


(3S 


r-4 iH 


H 


























T-4 1-4 


& 


■5" 




























pu 






























p 




■o-S 
































a B 




































in 00 N ■* •* 1-1 


1-1 00 


OS CO 


N OS cq o 

O 00 -^ 1-1 


m 


OS 




00 Q 


o 


N 


t> 


O to 






"SP^ 




?asssss 


CO 1> 


1-1 1-4 


00 


to 




00 S O 


CO 


■* 


o o 


tH 




1-2 


c^ 


t^ to 


00 to 


M 00 CO 00 


1—1 


J> 


O 


1-1 o 


q 


1^ 


c^. 


O 1> 


§ 


o 




l-H l-i N 


cj CO 


U3 t> 


OS O N -514 


OS 


CO 


lO 


■* « 


»o 


T-4 


to 


id o 


& 


II 

^■3 










T-4 iH 1-4 


1-1 


(N 


N 


CO CO 


CO 


-* 


■* 


■* lO 


fs 


s 






























o, 




























-*a 






























g 




^ 


■* J^ O O 00 IN 


t~ N 


CO lO 


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■* 


■* 


CO 


I^ iH 


s 


CO 


t^ 


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1 


9SSS2feS5 


1-1 lO 


OS I-- 


O OS CO 1-1 


i> 


■* 


OS 


o o 


^ 


Ui 


I> CD 


o 


Cfl 


i> to 


F- m 


rt l» lO CO 


OS 


iO 


CD 


q <N 


M 


lO 


t* lo 


p 




S„5 


' 


■ i-i i-i N 


ei CO 


"3 t> 


OS C5 N ■* 


00 


CO 


■* 


CO 1-4 


■* 


c> 


id 


CO ca 


1 




P4 










i-l iH 1-1 


iH 


(N 


IN 


CO CO 


CO 


'^ 


-* 


■* ■* 

































Pi 


i| 


§ 


00 i-c OS CO CO q 


m ■* 


CO to 


CO t~ t~ 00 


o 


1-1 


t^ 


gg 




»o 


lO 


o lo 




00 C» O -rH CO ■* 


■* U) 


O 1-1 


<N CO •* lO 


00 


o 


l-~ 




to 


t- 


CO t- 


2 


.S d 


q 


q q T^ -r-j Tin rt_ 


1-4 1-4 


IN N 


N N e^ N 


N 


CO 


« 


CO C<J 


CO 


CO 


ro 


CO CO 


S 


ja*-i 






























"3^ m 


lO 


sssssg 


O lO 


m p 
t> o 




>o 


lO 


in 


in o 


o 


o 


o 


o o 




o 


O l> 


8 S 8 S 


IN 


N 


fii 


IN io 


s 


•a 


>a 


ia ta 




* S*© 


■* 


lo q 00 q CO q 


OS CO 


00 lo 


CO 


to 


CO 


to t> 


t-- 


t~ 


i> 


t>: N; 




M.S£ 


' 


' 1-4 tH 1-4 


rH e« 


en CO 


•^ ■* »d lo 


CD 


1> 


00 


OS o 


c> 


o 


1-4 


N c4 




wS"* 


















T-l 


1-1 


1-1 


iH 


1-1 1-1 




III 




^ CO C^ -^ Oi o 


O 1-- 








CO 


iH 


iH N 


CO 












to 05 C^ IN ■* 00 


S o 








eq 


t~ 


■* C» 


m 












(N 


CO ■* q 00 q CO 


^ o 


lO O lO o 


o 


o 


o 


OS rt 


1-1 


o 


o 


o o 




1-3,1 




1-4 1-4 


1-4 IN 


e4 CO 


CO •*■ ■* >o 


CO 


l^ 


00 


00 <D 


6 


o 


1^ 


IN c4 




«q" 


















iH 


1-1 


1-4 


1-4 


1-1 1-1 




•3 
































i?;^:i;:s:^^^^e^ 


« to 


CO •* •* lo 


CD 


t* 


00 OS q 


2 


© 


1-1 


S 2 




i 


5 






















iH 


1—4 


tH 


tH ^ 



18 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



TABLE 5 
Extra Strong Wrought Pipe 



Nominal 
Size 


External 

Diameter 

Inches 


Internal 

Diameter 

Inches 


Thick- 
ness 
Inches 


Weight 

per Foot 

Flain Ends 

Founds 


Internal 

Area 
Sq. Inches 


Length of Pipe per 
Square Foot of 


External 

Surface 

Feet 


Internal 

Surface 

Feet 


H 


.405 


.215 


.096 


.314 


.036 


9.431 


17.766 


H 


.540 


.302 


.119 


.635 


.072 


7.073 


12.648 


Vs 


.675 


.423 


.126 


.738 


.141 


5.658 


9.030 


H 


.840 


.546 


.147 


1.087 


.234 


4.547 


6.995 


M 


1.060 


.742 


.154 


1.473 


.433 


3.637 


5.147 


1 


1.315 


.967 


.179 


2.171 


.719 


2.904 


3.991 


Hi 


1.660 


1.278 


.191 


2.996 


1.283 


2.301 


2.988 


IH 


1.900 


1.500 


.200 


3.631 


1.767 


2.010 


2.546 


2 


2.375 


1.939 


.218 


5.022 


2.953 


1.608 


1.969 


2J^ 


2.875 


2.323 


.276 


7.661 


4.238 


1.328 


1.644 


3 


3.500 


2.900 


.300 


10.252 


6.605 


1.091 


1.317 


3J^ 


4.000 


3.364 


.318 


12.505 


8.888 


.954 


1.135 


4 


4.600 


3.826 


.337 


14.983 


11.497 


.848 


.998 


4J^ 


5.000 


4.290 


.355 


17.611 


14.455 


.763 


.890 


5 


5.563 


4.813 


.375 


20.778 


18.194 


.686 


.793 


6 


6.625 


5.761 


.432 


28.673 


26.067 


.576 


.663 


7 


7.625 


6.626 


.500 


38.048 


34.472 


.500 


.576 


8 


8.625 


7.625 


.500 


43.388 


45.663 


.442 


.500 


9 


9.625 


8.625 


.500 


48.728 


58.426 


.396 


.442 


10 


10.750 


9.760 


.500 


64.736 


74.662 


.355 


.391 


11 


11.750 


10.750 


.500 


60.075 


90.763 


.325 


.355 


12 


12.760 


11.760 


.500 


65.415 


108.434 


.299 


.325 



As stated in Chapter I, pipe above 12 inches is called O. D. 
pipe because it is known by its actual outside diameter. The 
inside diameter changes with the variation in thickness. In- 
formation concerning 0. D. pipe is given in Table 7. 

Pipe is sold in random lengths which are 18 to 21 feet for stand- 
ard, and 12 to 22 feet for extra strong and for double extra strong 
pipe. These lengths have recently been doubled and pipe is 
now made in lengths from 35 to 42 feet. Ordinarily standard 
pipe is threaded and supplied with couplings, while extra and 
double extra pipe have plain ends. 

Bursting Pressures of Pipe. — From an investigation and com- 
parison of five formulae, Reid T. Stewart in a paper in A. S. M. E. 
Trans. Vol. 34 concludes that for all ordinary calculations per- 
taining to the bursting strength of commercial tubes, pipes, and 



DIMENSIONS AND STRENGTH OF PIPE 



19 



cylinders, Barlow's formula is to be preferred. This formula 
assumes that because of the elasticity of the material, the different 
circumferential fibres will have their diameters increased in such 

TABLE 6 
DoTJBiiE Extra, Stbonq Wrought Pipe 



Nominal 
Size 


External 

Diameter 

Inches 


Approxi- 
mate 
Internal 
Diameter 
Inches 


Thick- 
ness 
Inches 


Weight 

per Foot 

Plain Ends 

Poimds 


Internal 

Area 

Sq. Inches 


Length of Kpe per 
Square Foot of 


External 

Surface 

Feet 


Internal 

Surface 

Feet 


y^ 


.840 


.252 


.294 


1.714 


.050 


4.547 


15.157 


M 


1.050 


.434 


.308 


2.440 


.148 


3.637 


8.801 


1 


1.315 


.599 


.358 


3.659 


.282 


2.904 


6.376 


IM 


1.660 


.896 


.382 


5.214 


.630 


2.301 


4.263 


IJ^ 


1.900 


1.100 


.400 


6.408 


.950 


2.010 


3.472 


2 


2.375 


1.503 


.436 


9.029 


1.774 


1.608 


2.541 


2J^ 


2.875 


1.771 


.552 


13.695 


2.464 


1.328 


2.156 


3 


3.500 


2.300 


.600 


18.583 


4.155 


1.091 


1.660 


3J^ 


4.000 


2.728 


.636 


22.850 


5.845 


.954 


1.400 


4 


4.500 


3.152 


.674 


27.541 


7.803 


.848 


1.211 


4J^ 


5.000 


3.580 


.710 


32.530 


10.066 


.763 


1.066 


5 


5.563 


4.063 


.750 


38.552 


12.966 


.686 


.940 


6 


6.625 


4.897 


.864 


53.160 


18.835 


.576 


.780 


7 


7.625 


5.875 


.875 


63.079 


27.109 


.500 


.650 


8 


8.625 


6.875 


.875 


72.424 


37.122 


.442 


.555 



TABLE 7 
Weight op Outside Diameter Wrought Pipe 





Weight in Pounds per Foot 


Diameter 
of Pipe 
Inches 




•A Inch 
Thick 


A Inch 
Thick 


V> Inch 
Thick 


^S 


'A Inch 
Thick 


%^i 


V> Inch 
Thick 


•A Inch 
Thick 


1 Inch 
Thick 


14 


36.71 


45.68 


54.57 


63.37 


72.10 


80.73 


89.28 


106.13 


138.84 


15 


39.38 


49.02 


58.57 


68.04 


77.43 


86.73 


95.95 


114.14 


149,52 


16 


42.05 


52.36 


62.58 


72.72 


82.77 


92.74 


102.63 


122.15 


160.20 


17 


44.72 


55.69 


66.58 


77.39 


88.11 


98.75 


109.30 


130.16 


170.88 


18 


47.39 


59.03 


70.59 


82.06 


93.45 


104.76 


115.98 


138.17 


181.56 


20 


57.00 


65.71 


78.60 


91.41 


104.13 


116.77 


129.33 


154.19 


202.92 


21 


59.20 


69.04 


82.60 


96.08 


109.47 


122.78 


136.00 


162.20 




22 


62.60 


72.38 


86.61 


100.75 


114.81 


128.79 


142.68 


170.21 




24 


68.00 


85.00 


94.62 


110.10 


125.49 


140.80 


156.03 


186.23 




26 


74.00 


93.00 


102.63 


119.44 


136.17 


152.82 


169.38 


202.25 




28 


80.00 


100.00 


120.00 


128.79 


146.85 


164.83 


182.73 


218.27 




30 


85.00 


107.00 


128.00 


138.13 


157.53 


176.85 


196.08 


234.30 





20 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

a maimer as to keep the area of cross section constant; and 
that the length of the tube is mialtered by the internal fluid 
pressiu-e. As neither of these assumptions is theoretically cor- 
rect the result is approximate. Barlow's formula is 

j=2^;p^2f^;t = ^DJ;f = ^Dl, (8) 

D = outside diameter in inches. 

t = nominal or average thickness of wall in inches. 

p = internal fluid pressure in pounds per square inch. 

/ = fibre stress in poimds per square inch. 

n = safety factor based on ultimate strength. 

/ = for butt-welded steel pipe 

n 

^ 50000, , ,j J , , . 

/ = for lap-welded steel pipe 

n 

f = for seamless steel tubes 

n 

, 28000. ... 

/ = for wrought u:on pipe 

n 

The average values of / are based on a large number of tests 
on commercial tubes and pipes made at one of the milla of the 
National Tube Company, which gave the following values: 

Butt-wdded steel pipe 41686 

Butt-welded wrought iron pipe 29168 

Lap-welded steel pipe 52225 

Lap-welded wrought iron pipe 30792 

The average bursting pressures for a number of the tests re- 
ferred to above are shown graphically in Fig. 13. 

It is understood that recent improvements in the manufacture 
of butt-welded pipe i.e. 3 inches and smaller, have resulted in 
such strengthening of the weld that the bursting strength is 
approximately equal to that of lap-welded pipe. 

Mill Tests. — The various pipe mills have their own standard 
of test pressures which are applied to wrought pipe. National 
Tube Company test pressures are as follows: 



DIMENSIONS AND STRENGTH OF PIPE 



21 



Nominal Size 



Standabd Pipe 

Method of Manufacture Test Pressure 



J4 inch to 2 inches (inclusive) Butt-weld 700 pounds 

214 inches and 3 inches " " 800 

Up to 8 inches Lap-weld 1000 

9 and 10 inches " " 900 

11 and 12 inches " " 800 

13 and 14 inches " " 700 

15 inch " " 600 



ISOCO 
^ Hoto 

^ 13000 
^.000 










^mmm 


^^^ 


^^^ 






^^^ 














\ 




/ 


i 




























N 


1 


/ 


\ 






























\ 


/ 


\ 














STEEL BUTT liV£LDEO " 
STEEL. LAP r/CLOED • 

iy/iou6HTmaN Birmynoo) ° 

WmUSHT WON LAP WELDED m 


OJ looto 
m aooo 




N 




\ 




















\ 




















\ 




























fc 7000 










\ 








^ 




























N 










\ 














^sooe 

*i>fOOO 
%3000 
^2000 

loeo 



i 












N 









.N 


\ 


































"s 


V. 








_ 
















1 










s 


- 






- 








































































































i 


9 


y 


4 


i 


/ 


i ' 


? . 


» i 


'i J 


4 


t J 


r t 




' 6 


! S 


/O 



H/OMINAL OI/llr7ETEK OF fIPE - /A/CHES 

Kg. 13. Diagram Showing Bursting Strength of Wrought Iron and 
Steel Pipe. 



Extra Steong Pipe 



Nominal Size 



Method of Manufactiure Test Pressure 

700 pounds 
1500 
2600 



Jl inch to 1 inch (inclusive) Butt-weld 

IJi inches to 3 inches (inclusive) " " 

IJ^ and 2 inches Lap-weld 

2}^ to 4 inches (inclusive) " " 2000 

4J^ to 6 inches (inclusive) " " 1800 

7 inches to 9 inches (inclusive) " " 1500 

Winches " " 1200 

11 and 12 inches " " 1100 

13 inches to 15 inches (inclusive) " " 1000 



22 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

DouBiiB Extra. Stbonq Pipe 
Nominal Size Method of Manufacture Test Pressure 

H inch to 1 inch (inclusive) Butt-weld 700 pounds 

IM inches to 2J^ inches (inclusive) " " 2200 " 

l}4 inches to 3 inches (incliisive) Lap-weld 3000 " 

3J^ inches and 4 inches " " 2500 " 

4J^ inches to 8 inches (inclusive) " " 2000 " 

English Pipe. — English standard wrought pipe differs slightly 
from the Briggs Standard. The ruling dimension is the e3diemal 
diameter, but the sizes are designated by the nominal internal 
diameter. These nominal sizes were mainly estabUshed in the 
EngUsh Tube trade between 1820 and 1840. Tables 18 and 19, 
Chapter III, give the dimensions of EngUsh pipe. The British 
Board of Trade rule for lap welded wrought iron pipe when the 
thickness is greater than J inch is 

'-^ »' 

in which 

t = thickness in inches. 

p = pressure in poimds per square inch. 

d = diameter in inches. 

Riveted Pipe. — For spiral riveted steel pipe the following 
formula may be used. 

t=^4 (10) 

2/e 

in which e = efficiency of riveted joint in per cent. 

The dimensions and weight of Root spiral riveted pipe, made 
by Abendroth & Root, as given in Table 8, are for piping to be 
used for conveying water, oil, gas, exhaust steam, compressed 
air, etc. Spiral riveted pipe is two-thirds stronger and is more 
rigid than straight seam pipe of equal weight. This great rigidity 
is due to the absence of seams having a tendency to weaken the 
pipe, there being but one continuous heHcal seam from one end 
to the other, and this forms a stiffening rib. When spiral riveted 
pipe has been tested to destruction, fracture has always occurred 
toward the center of the strip rather than at the seam. 

For underground water work systems and exposed work where 
the temperature is less than 100 degrees F., asphalted pipe is 
advised. It is made in lengths up to 30 feet. For conveying 



DIMENSIONS AND STRENGTH OF PIPE 



23 



exhaust steam, paper pulp, and all hot liquids, especially such as 
are acid or alkaline, galvanized pipe is advised. It may be single 
or double galvanized and is made in lengths up to 20 feet. 

TABLE 8 
Abendroth and Root Black Spiral Rivbted Pipe 





Thiokneaa 
B. W. Gauge 


Am>roximate 

Bursting 

Presaure in 

Lbs. per Sq. 

Incli 


Weight in Lbs. per 100 Feet 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Plain End 
Pipe 


With A & R 
Flanges, Bolts 
and Gaskets 


With Root 
Bolted Joints 


3 


22 
20 

18 


1060 
1326 

1860 


115 
147 

205 


139 
171 

229 


153 
186 
243 


4 


20 
18 
16 


1000 
1390 

1845 


195 
273 
360 


227 
306 
392 


247 
326 
412 


6 


20 
18 
16 


795 
1100 
1480 


242 
340 

448 


282 
380 

488 


304 
402 
510 


6 


18 
16 
14 
12 


930 
1220 

1580 
2060 


385 
608 
653 

858 


433 
666 
701 
906 


475 
698 
743 
948 


7 


18 
16 
14 
12 


790 
1060 
1340 
1780 


446 
688 

755 
992 


510 

652 

819 

1056 


540 

682 

849 

1086 


8 


18 
16 
14 
12 


690 

946 

1180 

1540 


507 

669 

860 

1130 


587 

749 

940 

1210 


604 

766 

957 

1227 


9 


16 

14 
12 


820 
1040 
1380 


763 

967 
1271 


873 

1087 
1391 


863 

1077 
1381 


10 


16 
14 
12 


740 

946 

1024 


835 
1071 

1408 


963 
1199 
1536 


1025 
1261 

1598 


11 


16 
14 
12 


670 

860 

1120 


916 
1176 
1546 


1060 
1320 
1690 


1122 
1382 
1752 


12 


16 
14 
12 
10 


615 

790 

1025 

1265 


1003 
1287 
1692 
2080 


1163 
1447 

1862 
2240 


1215 
1499 
1904 
2292 



24 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



TABLE 8 {Continued) 





Thickness 
B. W. 
Gauge 


Approximate 

Bursting 

Freasure in 

Pounds per 

Square Inch 


Weight in Founds per 100 Feet 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Plain End 
Pipe 


With A and R 
Flanges, 
Bolts and 
Gaskets 


With Root 
Bolted 
Joints 


13 


16 
14 
12 
10 


670 
730 

950 
1165 


1106 
1420 

1866 
2294 


1274 

1688 
2034 
2462 


1346 

1660 
2106 
2534 


14 


16 
14 
12 
10 


530 
675 

890 
1090 


1199 
1639 

2022 
2486 


1399 
1739 

2222 
2686 


1465 
1806 
2288 
2752 


16 


14 
12 
10 


630 

825 
1015 


1649 
2167 
2664 


1889 

2407 
2904 


1973 
2491 

2988 


16 


14 
12 
10 


590 

770 
950 


1771 
2327 
2861 


2061 
2607 
3141 


2149 
2705 
3239 


18 


14 
12 
10 


525 
690 

850 


1974 
2693 
3188 


2334 
2963 

3548 


2394 
3013 

3608 


20 


14 
12 
10 


470 
620 
760 


2180 
2863 
3521 


2556 
3239 

3897 


2608 
3291 
3949 


22 


14 
12 
10 


430 
666 
695 


2390 
3140 
3860 


2830 
3680 
4300 


2830 
3680 
4300 


24 


14 
12 

10 


395 
516 
635 


2604 
3421 
4216 


3108 
3926 

4720 


3084 
3901 
4696 


26 


12 
10 


475 
680 


3558 
4380 


4718 
6640 


4090 
4912 


28 


12 
10 


440 
646 


3894 
4720 


5274 
6100 


4478 
6304 


30 


12 
10 


410 
610 


4115 
6063 


5531 
6479 


4755 
6703 



DIMENSIONS AND STRENGTH OF PIPE 



25 



The following information and Tables 9, 10, and 11 are based 
upon the American Spiral Pipe Works publications. In manu- 
factiuing Taylor's spiral riveted pipe, a strip of sheet metal is 
woimd into helical shape with one edge overlapping the other 
for riveting the seam. The sheet is drawn and formed in such a 
manner as to obtain metal to metal contact, in order that the 
pipe may be more nearly smooth inside. The riveting is done 
cold by compression or squeezing vmder enormous pressure, thus 
insuring complete filling of the rivet holes with sHght counter- 
sink. The pipe comes from the machines in a continuous piece, 
and is cut to any desired length. American Spiral pipe is made 
of various thicknesses, in sizes from 3 inches to dO inches diam- 
eter, and is furnished in any length desired up to 30 feet for 
asphalt coated pipe and 20 feet for galvanized pipe. 



TABLE 9 

Taylor's Spiral Riveted Pipe 

Standard Thickness 



Diam- 
eter in 
Inches 


Thick- 
ness 
U.S. 

Stand- 
ard 

Gauge 


Approximate 

Weight 

per Foot 

Asphalted 

Founds 


Approximate 

Biu*sting 

Pressure in 

Founds per 

Square Inch 


Diam- 
eter in 
Inches 


Thick- 
ness 

U.S. 

Stand- 
ard 

Gauge 


Approximate 

Weight 

per Foot 

Asphalted 

Pounds 


Approximate 

Bursting 
Pressure in 
Pounds per 
Square Inch 


3 


20 


1.9 


1500 


16 


14 


18.1 


585 


4 


18 


3.0 


1500 


18 


14 


19.9 


520 


6 


18 


3.7 


1200 


20 


14 


22.1 


470 


6 


16 


5.3 


1250 


22 


12 


33.7 


595 


7 


16 


6.2 


1070 


24 


12 


36.5 


540 


8 


16 


7.1 


935 


26 


12 


39.5 


505 


9 


16 


8.0 


835 


28 


10 


61.7 


605 


10 


16 


8.8 


750 


30 


10 


56.8 


660 


11 


16 


9.7 


680 


32 


10 


61.6 


525 


12 


16 


10.6 


625 


34 


10 


65.4 


490 


13 


16 


11.4 


575 


36 


10 


69.1 


470 


14 


14 


15.9 


670 


40 


10 


76.7 


420 


15 


14 


17.0 


625 











Above weights are for plain ends without connections. 
Working pressure should not be more than 25 per cent, of the 
ultimate strength or bursting pressure. 



26 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



TABLE 10 

Taylor's Spiral Riybted Pipe 

Extra Heavy Thickness 



Diam- 
eter in 
Inches 


Thick- 
ness 

U.S. 

Stand- 
ard 

Gauge 


Approximate 

Weight 

per Foot 

Asphalted 

Pounds 


Approximate 
Bursting 
Pressure in 
Pounds per 
Square Inch 


Diameter 

in 

Inches 


Thickness 

U.S. 
Standard 

Gauge 


Approximate 

Weight 

per Foot 

Asphalted 

Founds 


Approximate 

Bursting 

Pressure in 

Pounds per 

Square Inch 


3 


18 


2.3 


2000 


16 


12 


25.2 


820 


4 


16 


3.7 


1875 


18 


12 


27.6 


730 


5 


16 


4.5 


1500 


20 


12 


30.6 


660 


6 


14 


6.6 


1560 


22 


10 


42.2 


765 


7 


14 


7.7 


1340 


24 


10 


45.7 


705 


8 


14 


8.8 


1170 


26 


10 


49.5 


650 


9 


14 


9.9 


1045 


28 


8 


63.6 


735 


10 


14 


11.0 


935 


30 


8 


68.7 


685 


11 


14 


12.0 


850 


32 


8 


74.3 


645 


12 


14 


13.0 


780 


34 


8 


78.8 


600 


13 


14 


14.1 


720 


36 


8 


83.4 


570 


14 


12 


22.2 


940 


40 


8 


92.4 


515 


15 


12 


23.7 


875 











TABLE 11 

Taylor's Spiral Riveted Pipe 

Dovhle Extra Heavy Thickness 



Diam- 
eter in 
Inches 


Thick- 
ness 
U.S. 

Stand- 
ard 

Gauge 


Approximate 

Weight 

per Foot 

Asphalted 

Founds 


Approximate 

Bursting 

Pressure in 

Founds per 

Square Inch 


Diameter 

in 

Inches 


Thick- 
ness 
U.S. 
Stand- 
ard 
Gauge 


Approximate 

Weight 

per Foot 

Asphalted 

Pounds 


Approximate 
Bursting 
Pressure in 
Pounds per 
Square Inch 


6 


12 


9.2 


2170 


18 


10 


34.5 


940 


7 


12 


10.7 


1860 


20 


10 


38.3 


840 


8 


12 


12.3 


1640 


22 


8 


50.8 


940 


9 


12 


13.9 


1460 


24 


8 


55.2 


820 


10 


12 


15.3 


1310 


26 


8 


59.8 


795 


11 


12 


16.6 


1200 


28 


6 


76.6 


870 


12 


12 


18.2 


1080 


30 


6 


80.5 


810 


13 


12 


19.7 


1010 


32 


6 


87.1 


760 


14 


10 


27.6 


1210 


34 


6 


93.6 


715 


15 


10 


29.6 


1125 


36 


6 


97.8 


680 


16 


10 


31.5 


1050 


40 


6 


108.5 


610 



DIMENSIONS AND STRENGTH OF PIPE 



27 



Some of the advantages claimed for riveted pipe as compared 
with cast iron pipe in large sizes are given in a pamphlet by Edwin 
Burhorn, M.E. These are uniformity in thickness and materials, 
absence of blow holes, no shrinkage strains, lessened freight and 
haulage charges (straight riveted pipe can be shipped "knocked 
down" and nested, the sheets being properly curved, pimched, 
fitted, and marked ready for erection), cheapened erection and 
handhng costs as its weight is only about one third that of cor- 
responding cast iron pipe, lessened resistance to flow of contents, 
safety against damage due to hidden defects. The pamphlet 
also describes and illustrates straight riveted pipe which has been 
built and which is advocated for high pressure steam mains, 
exhaust steam systems, vacuum exhausts for engines and tur- 
bines, discharge pipe from hydrauUc dredges, water power dis- 
tribution, pnemnatic power and air supply, gas power and pipe 
lines, etc. 

The thickness of material and character of the joint on riveted 
pipe depend entirely upon the service for which the 'pipe is re- 
quired. The lap and butt joint may be single, double, or triple 
riveted, designed for the special conditions, and flanges may be 
either single or double riveted to the pipe. 

When pipe is straight riveted the computation becomes the 
same as for a steel tank or boiler shell. Information with regard 
to straight riveted pipe is given in Table 12. 

TABLE 12 
Straight Sbam Riveted Pipe 



Inaide 


Thiokness of Material 


Theoretical 


Approximate 
Weight per 


Diameter 
Inehea 


U. S. Standard 
Gauge 


Inches 


Safe Working 
Head, Feet 


Lineal Foot 
Pounds 


16 


16 


.062 


190 


13.00 


16 


14 


.078 


237 


16.00 


16 


12 


.109 


332 


22.25 


16 


11 


.125 


379 


24.50 


16 


10 


.140 


425 


28.50 


18 


16 


.062 


168 


14.75 


18 


14 


.078 


210 


18.50 


18 


12 


.109 


295 


25.25 


18 


11 


.125 


337 


29.00 


18 


10 


.140 


378 


32.50 


18 


8 


.171 


460 


40.00 


20 


16 


.062 


151 


16.00 


20, 


14 


.078 


189 


19.75 



28 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



TABLE 12 (jCmUinued) 
Stbaiqht Seam Rtvbted Pipe 



Inside 


Thickness of Material 


Theoretical 


AppTonmate 
Weight per 


Diameter 
Inches 


U. S. Standard 
Gauge 


Inches 


Safe Working 
Head, Feet 


Lineal Foot 
Pounds 


20 


12 


.109 


265 


27.50 


20 


11 


.125 


304 


31.50 


20 


10 


.140 


340 


35.00 


20 


8 


.171 


415 


45.50 


22 


16 


.062 


138 


17.75 


22 


14 


.078 


172 


22.00 


22 


12 


.109 


240 


30.50 


22 


11 


.125 


276 


34.50 


22 


10 


.140 


309 


39.00 


22 


8 


.171 


376 


50.00 


24 


14 


.078 


158 


23.75 


24 


12 


.109 


220 


32.00 


24 


11 


.125 


253 


37.50 


24 


10 


.140 


283 


42.00 


24 


8 


.171 


346 


50.00 


24 


6 


.200 


405 


59.00 


26 


14 


.078 


145 


25.50 


26 


12 


.109 


203 


35.50 


26 


11 


.125 


233 


39.50 


26 


10 


.140 


261 


44.25 


26 


8 


.171 


319 


54.00 


26 


6 


.200 


373 


64.00 


28 


14 


.078 


135 


27.25 


28 


12 


.109 


188 


38.00 


28 


11 


.125 


216 


42.25 


28 


10 


.140 


242 


47.50 


28 


8 


.171 


295 


58.00 


28 


6 


.200 


346 


69.00 


30 


12 


.109 


176 


39.50 


30 


11 


.125 


202 


45.00 


30 


10 


.140 


226 


50.50 


30 


8 


.171 


276 


61.75 


30 


6 


.200 


323 


73.00 


30 


M 


.250 


404 


90.00 


36 


11 


.125 


168 


54.00 


36 


10 


.140 


189 


60.50 


36 


'A. 


.187 


252 


81.00 


36 


Ji 


.250 


337 


109.00 


36 


Vi. 


.312 


420 


135.00 


40 


•/.« 


.187 


226 


90.00 


40 


M 


.250 


303 


120.00 


40 


Vi. 


.312 


378 


150.00 


40 


Va 


.375 


455 


180.00 



DIMENSIONS AND STRENGTH OF PIPE 



29 



The safe working heads given in the Table are theoretical and 
are based on ordinary working conditions, so judgment should 
be used in deciding the safe heads for a particular case. The 
values given in the Table are for double-riveted longitudinal 
seams and single-riveted circumferential seams. Proper allow- 
ances should be made for possible water hammer, settUng, expan- 
sion and contraction of the pipe, and causes which would tend to 
collapse the pipe. 

Copper and Brass Pipe. — Copper pipe may be figured by the 
British Board of Trade rule which for well made pipe with brazed 
joints is 

i-^ + A^ (U) 



6000 16 



t = 



11 
"^32 ■ 



.(12) 



and for solid drawn pipe of 8 inches diameter or less 
pd 
6000 

t = thickness in inches. 
p = pressure in potmds per square inch. 
d = diameter in inches. 

Table 13 gives dimensions and weights of brass and copper pipe. 



TABLE 13 
Seamless Drawn Brass amb Copper Pipe 
Standard Weight Extra Heavy 



Nominal 
Diam- 


Inside 

Diameter 

Indies 


Outside 

Diameter 

Iiiches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Lineal Foot 


Nominal 
Diam- 
eter 


Inside 

Diameter 

Inches 


Approximate Weight 
per Lineal Foot 


eter 


Brass 
Poimds 


Copper 
Founds 


Brass 
Founds 


Copper 
Founds 


V^ 


.281 


.405 


.25 


.26 


Yi 


.205 


.370 


.388 


u 


.375 


.540 


.43 


.45 


M 


.294 


.625 


.650 


Va 


.494 


.675 


.62 


.65 


H 


.421 


.830 


.870 


a 


.625 


.840 


.90 


.95 


Yi 


.542 


1.200 


1.33 


Ya, 


.822 


1.05 


1.25 


1.31 


Y^ 


.736 


1.660 


1.75 


1 


1.062 


1.315 


1.70 


1.79 


1 


.951 


2.360 


2.478 


IM 


1.368 


1.66 


2.50 


2.63 


iJi 


1.272 


3.300 


3.465 


VA. 


1.600 


1.90 


3.00 


3.15 


V/i 


1.494 


4.250 


4.462 


2 


2.062 


2.375 


4.00 


4.20 


2 


1.933 


5.460 


5.733 



30 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



TABLE 13 (Continued) 

Seamless Drawn Bbasb and Cofpeb Pipe 

Standard Weight Extra Heavy 









Approximate 
Weiglit per 
Lineal Foot 






Approximate Weight 


Nominal 


Inside 


Outside 


Nominal 


Inside 


per Lineal Foot 


Diam- 


Diameter 
Incliea 


Diameter 
Inclies 




Diam- 
eter 


Diameter 
Inches 




eter 
















Brass 


Copper 






Brass 


Copper 








Pounds 


Founds 






Founds 


Pounds 


2y2 


2.500 


2.875 


5.75 


6.04 


2Ji 


2.315 


8.300 


8.715 


3 


3.062 


3.50 


8.30 


8.72 


3 


2.892 


11.200 


11.760 


SVi 


3.500 


4.00 


10.90 


11.45 


3J^ 


3.358 


13.700 


14.385 


4 


4.000 


4.50 


12.70 


13.33 


4 


3.818 


16.500 


17.325 


4Ji 


4.500 


5.00 


13.90 


14.60 


5 


4.813 


22.800 


23.940 


5 


6.062 


6.563 


15.75 


16.54 


6 


5.750 


32.00 


33.60 


6 


6.125 


6.625 


18.31 


19.23 










7 


7.062 


7.625 


26.28 


27.60 










8 


7.982 


8.625 


29.88 


31.37 











Lead Pipe. — As mentioned in Chapter I, lead pipe was in use 
in very early times. It was made by the Romans by bending 
sheets of lead and soldering the seams. Lead pipe is now made 
by extrusion, using the hydrauhc press to produce continuous 
pieces of almost any length. For lead pipe the Chadwick-Boston 
Company give the following formulae and Tables 14 and 15: 



(13) 



.(14) 



' ~ 750' 



t = thickness in inches. 

d = diameter in inches. 

/ = fibre stress in pounds per square inch. 

p = internal fluid pressure in poimds per square inch. 

h = head in feet. 



DIMENSIONS AND STRENGTH OF PIPE 



31 



TABLE 14 
Sizes and Weights of Lead Pipe 



Calibre 




A = Outside Diameter, Inches 






Inches 




B = Weight per Foot, Pounds, Ounces 






V. 


A 


'A 




















B 


O-21A 




















V4 


A 


'A 


Vi. 


"/« 
















B 


0-5 


0-8 


0-11 
















V. 


A 


'Vm 


'V« 


Vi. 


Vi= 


'V« 


"/e4 


»v«. 


V* 


«/82 


"/« 


B 


0-6 


0-8 


0-10 


0-12 


0-14 


1-0 


1-4 


1-8 


1-12 


2-0 




A 


"/« 


'»v« 


"/« 


VlO 


»/« 


"/« 


"/:. 


"748 


Vs 


*»/« 


Vi 


B 


0-8 


0-10 


0-12 


0-14 


1-0 


1-4 


1-8 


1-12 


2-0 


2-8 


A 


1V48 


IVs 




















B 


3-0 


4r-0 




















A 


»A 


«A2 


"A. 


"/a. 


"764 


»v« 


"/» 


1 


1V« 


1V» 


V. 


B 


0-13 


0-14 


1-0 


1-4 


1-8 


1-12 


2-0 


2-4 


2-8 


2-12 


A 


1V« 


IVs 


iVm 


IVs 


l"/« 














B 


3-0 


3-4 


3-8 


4-0 


4-8 














A 


'A 


"/64 


"/« 


"/« 


"/50 


«Vm 


1V« 


IVi. 


IVm 


IVs 


'A 


B 


0-12 


0-14 


1-0 


1-2 


1-4 


1-8 


1-12 


2-0 


2-4 


2-8 


A 


I'Ao 


IVe 


l'V« 


l'V64 


l»/« 


l"/« 












B 


2-12 


3-0 


3-8 


4r-0 


4-8 


6-0 












A 


IV50 


IV16 


l'Ve4 


IV* 


1"A4 


IVm 


1"/S2 


IVs 


iVi. 


1"A2 


1 


B 


1-4 


1-8 


1-12 


2-0 


2-4 


2-8 


3-0 


3-8 


4H) 


5-0 


A 


PV« 


l"/3. 


1V« 


















B 


6-0 


7-0 


8-0 


















A 


IV.. 


IV20 


l"/« 


l"/« 


l"A2 


l"/64 


IVs 


!"/» 


IVio 


1V4 


1V4 


B 


1-12 


2-0 


2-4 


2-8 


3-0 


3-8 


4-0 


4-8 


5-0 


6-0 


A 


1"A6 


l"/« 


l'V« 


















B 


7-0 


8-0 


9-0 


















A 


iVi. 


IVio 


IV4 


l"/a2 


I'Vie 


l"/» 


l"/« 


l"/64 


2V2a 




IV2 


B 


2-0 


2-8 


3-0 


3-8 


4-0 


4-8 


5-0 


6-0 


7-0 




A 


2>U 


2Vl6 


2Vi. 


















B 


8-0 


10-0 


12-0 
















I'A 


A 


1«V32 


2V» 


2V» 


2V« 


2"/64 


2Vl2 


2V2 








B 


3-0 


4-0 


5-0 


6-0 


8-0 


10-0 


12-0 








2 


A 


2Vi« 


2V4 


2Vl6 


2V8 


2V12 


■2fiU 


2"/32 


2Vu 


2"A6 




B 


3-0 


4^0 


5-0 


6-0 


7-0 


8-0 


9-0 


10-0 


12-0 





:32 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

TABLE 14 {Cmtinued) 
Sizes and Weiohts of Lead Pipe 



Calibre 
Inches 


A = Outside Diameter* Inches 

B = Weight per Foot, Pounds, Ounces 


2V2 


A 
B 


2"/ie 
3-8 


2«/„ 
5-0 


2"/» 
7-0 


2"/u 
8-0 


3 
11-0 


37. 

14r-0 


37. 
18-0 






3 


A 
B 


3V. 

4r^) 


378. 

5-0 


3V»! 

6-0 


37. 
8-0 


3"/»2 

10-0 


372 

13-0 


3"/m 
16-0 


3"/i. 
17-0 


37. 
1&-0 


3V2 


A 
B 


3"/i. 

4r-8 


3"/k! 

6-0 


3Vs 
10-0 


4 
15-0 


47l2 

1&-0 










4 


A 
B 


4V« 
5-0 


4V. 
6-0 


4V4 

8-0 


4"/« 
10-0 


47. 
12-0 


472 
18-0 


4>724 

21-0 






41/, 


A 
B 


4"A. 
7-0 


4»/,2 

8-0 


4"/64 
14r-0 


5 
20-0 












5 


A 
B 


5"/m 
8-0 


5«/m 
9-0 


5V8 

15-0 


572 
22-0 












6 


A 
B 


evs 
10-0 


6V1. 
12-0 


6V« 
26-0 


674 

33-0 













TABLE 15 
Weight op Lead Pipe fob VAMOtrs Pressubes 



Calibre 


Pressure in Founds per Square Inch 


Inches 


15 


20 


25 


38 


so 


75 


100 


7. 

72 

7. 

74 

1 

17. 
17. 


lbs. oz. 

0-8 

0-12 

1-4 
1-8 

1-4 
1-8 

1-12 
2-0 

2-8 
3-8 


lbs. oz. 
0-10 
0-12 

0-14 
1-0 

1-12 

1-12 
2-0 

2-8 

3-0 
4W) 


lbs. oz. 
0-12 

1-4 

1-12 
2-0 

2-4 
2-8 

3-0 

4-0 

4-8 
5-0 


lbs. oz. 

1-0 

1-8 
1-12 

2-4 
2-8 

3-0 
3-8 

4^^) 

4r-8 

5-0 
6-0 


lbs. oz. 

1-4 

2-0 

2-12 
3-0 

4r-0 

5-0 

7-0 

10-0 


lbs. oz. 

1-4 
1-8 

2-8 

3-4 
3-8 

4-8 

6-0 

9-0 

12-0 


lbs. oz. 

1-8 
3-0 
4H) 
5-0 
7-0 
12-0 
15-0 



DIMENSIONS AND STRENGTH OF PIPE 



33 



Wooden Stave Pipe. — Continuous wooden stave pipe is used 
for conveying water long distances and especially where the 
expense of cast iron or steel pipe would be prohibitive. Sizes 
ordinarily range from two to ten feet in diameter. The staves 
are generally made of redwood or fir, and of thicknesses ranging 
from IVs inches net thickness for sizes up to 44 inches diameter, 
2 inches up to 60 inches, and 2 '/a inches up to 8 feet diameter. 

The bands for wooden stave pipe should be of soft steel with 
an ultimate tensile strength of about 60,000 pounds per square 
inch, and an elongation of at least 25 per cent, in 8 inches. The 
ends of the bands should have either rolled threads or be upset 




Wood Stave Pipe. 



so as to have the same strength as the unthreaded portion. The 
usual sizes of bands vary from Vs inches for pipe 2 feet outside 
diameter to V4 inches for pipe 4V2 feet outside diameter. The 
spacing may be figured from formula 15. 
In Fig. 14 let 

A = area of section of hoop in square inches. 
/ = imit stress of material of hoop in poimds per 

square inch. 
d = diameter of pipe in inches. 
I = spacing of hoops in inches. 
p = pressure in pounds per square inch. 



Then 



equating 



pdl = force tending to separate pipe, 
2Af = force resisting separation of pipe, 

■pdl = 2Af. 



34 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

Introducing a coefficient C to allow for the stress due to swelling 
of the wood including a factor of safety of four or five for the 
bands, this equation becomes 

'-'^ (>=' 

or 

-f (-) 

It is not considered desbable to have the band spacing exceed 
10 inches, and good practice often indicates even closer spacing, 
regardless of pressure requirements. 

Bulletin 155, of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, by S. 0. 
Jayne, gives considerable information on this subject, and has 
been referred to in the preparation of the foregoing article. 



CHAPTER III 



PIPE THREADS 

Screw threads form a part of many types of joints and fittings 
used for piping. The kinds used for such purposes will be de- 
scribed in this chapter. 

American Pipe Threads. — The thread used on piping in the 
United States is known as the Briggs Standard. This standard 



___^_J:a 




\.ioo' 



I7hv ^snsoOs I 
— ..-, fvliafroota. > 



Cbmfl/eM t/trtad. 



Fig. 15. Enlarged Section of 2i' Pipe Thread. 

is due to Robert Briggs, C. E., who prepared a paper on "Ameri- 
can Practice in Warming Buildings by Steam," for the Institu- 
tion of Civil Engineers of Great Britain. This paper was presented 
and read after his death. An enlarged longitudinal section of 
a nominal 2Vrinch pipe is shown in Fig. 15. The end of the 
pipe has a taper of 1 in 16 or ^/i inch per foot. Fig. 16. The 
thread has an angle of 60 degrees and is rounded at the top and 
bottom, so that the depth of the thread is .8 of the pitch. Fig. 17 
shows this form. The length » 



of perfect thread, which is the 
distance the pipe should enter, 
is given by the formula 



'^^ 



Kg. 16. Taper of Threaded Pipe End. 

L = (4.84-.8D)| (17) 

D = actual external diameter of pipe. 
N = nmnber of threads per inch. 

Preceding the perfect threads are two threads perfect at the 
bottom and imperfect at the top. Preceding these are four 
threads imperfect at both top and bottom. The nmnber of 



36 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



threads per inch is arbitrary, and comes from usage along with 
the nominal size of the pipe. They are finer in pitch than ordi- 
nary bolt threads because of the thinness of the metal and to 




Kg. 17. Form of Briggs' Pipe Thread. 

maintain a tight joint. Table 16 gives the dimensions for pipe 
threads. 

TABLE 16 
Standabd Pipe Threads 









Outside 








Siie 
Inohefi 


Threads 

per 
Inch 


Diameter 

of Tap 

DriU 

Inches 


Diameter 

of Threads 

at End 

of Pipe 

Inches 


Depth of 
Threads 
Inches 


Number of 
Perfect 
Threads 


Length of 
Perfect 
Threads 
Inches 


Vs 


27 


"/« 


.393 


.029 


5.13 


.19 


V4 


18 


"/m 


.522 


.044 


5.22 


.29 


'/> 


18 


'Ae 


.656 


.044 


5.4 


.30 


Vj 


14 


"A. 


.815 


.057 


5.46 


.39 


'A 


14 


»v» 


1.025 


.057 


5.6 


.40 


1 


ll'A 


IVa 


1.283 


.069 


5.87 


.51 


1V4 


ll'A 


l"/« 


1.626 


.069 


6.21 


.54 


I'A 


ii'A 


!"/«. 


1.866 


.069 


6.33 


.55 


2 


ll'A 


2Vl6 


2.339 


.069 


6.67 


.58 


2V. 


8 


2Vl6 


2.819 


.100 


7.12 


.89 


3 


8 


3Vi. 


3.441 


.100 


7.6 . 


.95 


3Vs 


8 


3"Ae 


3.938 


.100 


8.0 


1.00 


i 


8 


4Vl6 


4.434 


.100 


8.4 


1.05 


4'A 


8 


4V4 


4.931 


.100 


8.8 


1.10 


5 


8 


5Vl8 


5.490 


.100 


9.28 


1.16 


6 


8 


6Vl6 


6.546 


.100 


10.08 


1.26 


7 


8 


.... 


7.540 


.100 


10.88 


1.36 


8 


8 


.... 


8.534 


.100 


11.68 


1.46 


9 


8 




9.527 


.100 


12.56 


1.57 


10 


8 


.... 


10.645 


.100 


13.44 


1.68 



PIPE THREADS 



37 



Standard Pipe Thread Gages. — In order to avoid variation 
in the number of threads which pipe will screw into fittings 
tapped at different shops it is necessary to have a definite stand- 
ard for the proper depth of thread. The following is from the 
report of the committee on Standardization of Pipe Threads of 
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

"The gages shall consist of one plug and one ring gage of each 
size. 

" The plug gage shall be the Briggs standard pipe thread as 
adopted by the manufacturers of pipe fittings and valves, and 
recommended by The American Society of Mechanical Engi- 
neers in 1886. The plug is to have a flat or notch indicating the 
distance that the plug shall enter the ring by hand. 

" The ring gage is to be known as the American Briggs standard 
adopted by the Manufacturers' Standardization Committee in 
1913, and recommended by The American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, the Cqnimittee on International Standard for Pipe 
Threads, and the Pratt & Whitney Company, manufacturers of 
gages. The thickness of the ring is given in Table 17. It shall 
be flush with the small end of the plug. This will locate the flat 
notch on the plug flush with the large side of the ring. 



TABLE 17 (Fig. 18) 
•Standabd Pipe Thread Gages 



Pipe 


Ring Gage 


Pipe 


Ring Gage 


Size 


Thickness 


Size 


. Thickness 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Vs 


.180 


5 


.937 


V4 


.200 


6 


.958 


Vs 


.240 


7 


1.000 


'A 


.320 


8 


1.063 


'A 


.339 


9 


1.130 


1 


.400 


10 


1.210 


I'A 


.420 


12 


1.360 


I'A 


.420 


14 


1.562 


2 


.436 


15 


1.687 


2V» 


.682 


16 


1.812 


3 


.766 


18 


2.000 


3Va 


.821 


20 


2.125 


4 


.844 


22 


2.250 


4'A 


.875 


24 


2.375 



38 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



" The Table indicates the dimensions of the ring gage, A, shown 
in Fig. 18, which are the figures adopted by the Manufacturers' 
Standardization Committee. 
"In the use of the plug gage shown in Fig. 18, the notch on 

the plug is to gage, and one 
*^^ thread large or one thread 
small must be the inspection 
limits. 

" In the use of the ring 
gage, male threads are to 
gage when flush with small 
end of ring, and one thread 
large or one thread small 
must be inspection limits." 

Pipe Threading. — Pipe 
threads may be cut either by 
hand or in a machine. When 
cut by hand a pipe tap or die is used, shown in Fig. 19. For 
machine threading a lathe may be used, setting a properly 
shaped tool at right angles to the axis of the pipe, not per- 
pendicular to the taper. A Saunders' pipe threading machine is 
shown in Fig. 20. A good threaded joint requires clean, smoothly 




Fig. 18. Standard Plug and Ring Gage. 




f//oe ffeamaf 



Pijae 7ii/3 




f/pe D/e 

Fig. 19. Pipe Reamer, Hand Tap, Die and Die Stock. 

cut threads. To make sure of such threads the die must be made 
with proper consideration as to Up, chip space, clearance, lead, 
and sufficient number of chasers. Valuable information along 
the following lines is given in National Tube Company's Bulletin 
No. 6. 



PIPE THREADS 



39 



The lip is the incUnation of the cutting edge of the chaser to 
the surface of the pipe, as shown in Fig. 21. This Up angle should 




Fig. 20. Pipe Threading Machine. 

be from 15 degrees to 25 degrees, depending upon conditions, and 
may be obtained by milUng the cutting face of the chaser as 
shown by the full lines, or inclining the chaser as in the dotted 





Kg. 21. Thread Cutting. 



Fig. 22. Thread Cutting. 



40 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



lines. Chip space should be provided as shown in the figure, as 
otherwise the chips will clog and tear the threads. Fig. 22 shows 
the working of a properly made chaser. 

Clearance is the angle between the threads of the chasers and 
those of the pipe. Lead is the angle which is ground or machined 
on the front of each chaser to enable the die to start on the pipe 
and to distribute the work of cutting. The proper amoimt of 





Fig. 23. Kpe Vises. 

lead is about three threads. The number of chasers to obtain 
good results in threading at one cut is as follows: 

I'A" to 4" should have approximately 6 chasers 



4" 


" 7" " 


8 " 


7" 


" 10" " 


10 " 


10" 


" 12" " 


" 12 " 


12" 


" 14" " 


14 " 


14" 


" 18" " 


16 " 


18" 


" 20" " 


18 " 



In all cases the cutting tools should be kept well lubricated with 
good lard oil or crude cottonseed oil. 

Pipe Tools. — Examples of various forms of vises, cutting tools, 
wrenches, etc., for use in the threading and making up of pipe 
are illustrated and named in Figs. 23 and 24. 

English Pipe Threads. — "British Standard Pipe Threads," 
as given in the report of the Engineering Standards Committee, 



PIPE THREADS 



41 



are shown in Fig. 25. This is the Whitworth form of thread. The 
tops and bottoms are rounded so that the depth is about .64 of 




/foUer Coffer •^'c^fffr l^^rsnch . Tonffs Cf7a(n Wrenches 
Fig. 24. Pipe Cutters, Tongs, and Wrenches. 

the pitch, and the angle is 55 degrees. Ordinary pipe ends or 
"short screws" taper V4 inch to the foot or Vis inch per inch 
of length measured on the diameter, as in the Briggs system. 
Long screws are made straight. Table 18 gives information on 




Fig. 25. Form of Whitworth Pipe Thread. 

British pipe threads as approved by the above committee, for 
sizes up to 18 inches diameter. 



42 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



TABLE 18 
British Standard Pipe Thbeads 



Inside 

Diameter 

Inches 


Approxiinate 

Outside 

Diameter 

Inches 


Gage Diameter 
Top of 
Thread 
Inches 


Depth of 
Thread 
Inches 


Core 

Diameter 

Inches 


Number 

of Threads 

per Inch 


•A 


•v« 


.383 


.0230 


.337 


28 


V4 


"/» 


.518 


.0335 


.451 


19 


Vs 


"Ae 


.656 


.0335 


.589 


19 


'A 


. "/» 


.825 


.0455 


.734 


14 


'A 


"Ae 


.902 


.0455 


.811 


14 


'A 


IVi. 


1.041 


.0455 


.950 


14 


'A 


l'A2 


1.189 


.0455 


1.098 


14 


1 


l"/« 


1.309 


.0580 


1.193 


11 


IV. 


1"A. 


1.650 


.0580 


1.534 


11 


IV2 


l»/« 


1.882 


.0580 


1.766 


11 


I'A 


2V82 


2.116 


.0580 


2.000 


11 


2 


2V8 


2.347 


.0580 


2.231 


11 


2V4 


2V8 


2.587 


.0580 


2.471 


11 


2'A 


3 


2.960 


.0580 


2.844 


11 


2»A 


3V4 


3.210 


.0580 


3.094 


11 


3 


3V2 


3.460 


.0580 


3.344 


11 


■ 37, 


3V4 


3.700 


.0580 


3.584 


11 


3V. 


4 


3.950 


.0580 


3.834 


11 


3'A 


4>A 


4.200 


.0580 


4.084 


11 


4 


4V2 


4.450 


.0580 


4.334 


11 


4V. 


5 


4.950 


.0580 


4.834 


11 


5 


5>A 


5.450 


.0580 


5.334 


11 


6'A 


6 


5.950 


.0580 


5.834 


11 


6 


6IA 


6.450 


.0580 


6.334 


11 


7 


77. 


7.450 


.0640 


7.322 


10 


8 


872 


8.450 


.0640 


8.322 


10 


9 


972 


9.450 


.0640 


9.322 


10 


10 


1072 


10.450 


.0640 


10.322 


10 


11 


1172 


11.450 


.0800 


11.290 


8 


12 


1272 


12.450 


.0800 


12.290 


8 


13 


1374 


13.680 


.0800 


13.520 


8 


14 


1474 


14.680 


.0800 


14.520 


8 


15 


1574 


15.680 


.0800 


15.520 


8 


16 


1674 


16.680 


.0800 


16.520 


8 


17 


1774 


17.680 


.0800 


17.520 


8 


18 


1874 


18.680 


.0800 


18.520 


8 



PIPE THREADS 



43 



The Whitworth Standard Threads are given in Table 19 for 
sizes up to 4 inches in diameter. 



TABLE 19 
Whitwoeth Standard Pipe Threads 



Nomi- 
nal 

Size 


Actual 
Outside 

Diam- 
eter 

Inclies 


Diameter 

at 
Bottom 

of 
Thread 
Inches 


No. of 

Threads 

per 

Inch 


Diameter 

of 

Tap Drill 

Inches 


Nomi- 
nal 
Size 


Actual 
Outside 
Diam- 
eter 
Inches 


Diameter 

at 
Bottom 

of 
Thread 
Inches 


No. of 

Threads 

per 

Inch 


Diameter 

of 

Tap Drill 

Inches 


Vs 


.3825 


.3367 


28 


Vi» 


IVs 


2.245 


2.1285 






V4 


.518 


.4506 


19 


"/m 


2 


2.347 


2.2305 




IVs. 


'A 


.6563 


.5889 


19 


Vie 


2V8 


2.467 


2.3505 






'A 


.8257 


.7342 




"Ae 


2'A 


2.5875 


2.4710 




2"/32 


Vs 


.9022 


.8107 




"A. 


2V8 


2.794 


2.6775 






Vi 


1.041 


.9495 




=V32 


2V2 


3.0013 


2.8848 




2^V82 


Vs 


1.189 


1.0975 




IVie 


2V8 


3.124 


3.0075 






1 


1.309 


1.1925 




I'A 


2'A 


3.247 


3.1305 




3V82 


I'A 


1.492 


1.3755 






2V8 


3.367 


3.2505 






1V« 


1.650 


1.5335 




1"A2 


3 


3.485 


3.3685 




3V32 


I'A 


1.745 


1.6285 






S'A 


3.6985 


3.5820 




3>A 


IV. 


1.8825 


1.7660 




i"A« 


3V2 


3.912 


3.7955 




3V. 


I'A 


2.021 


1.9045 






3=A 


4.1255 


4.0090 




4 


I'A 


2.047 


1.9305 




1"A6 


4 


4.339 


4.2225 




4V4 



Foreign Pipe Threads. — The author is indebted to Mr. Wil- 
ham J. Baldwin for notes on foreign practice. In the practice of 
Germany and France (comparing the German and French sys- 
tems with the Briggs system), Germany uses straight threads 
nearly altogether. The pitch and form of thread is about the 
same as the English except that the thread as a whole is not 
tapered. France is more irregular in practice, the Navy follow- 
ing one method and private shops other methods. The French 
Navy, however, leans toward tapered threads. 

South American countries have no fixed standards, but import 
from the United States and England and use the method of the 
country from which they import. Canada uses the Briggs stand- 
ard. In Mexico a great deal of American pipe and fittings is used, 
but Mexico and the South and Central American countries use 
the methods of those from whom they buy, as a general rule. 



CHAPTER IV 

PIPE FITTINGS 

Screw Fittings. — Since there is a practical limit to the length 
of pieces of pipe as well as the necessity for connections and 
convenient changes in direction, pipe fittings have been devised. 
There are two general classes of fittings, namely: screwed fittings 
and flanged fittings. As a rule the screwed fittings are used with 









Y-Bronch^ 



ttfght y Left Coi/fi/ing, 

Fig. 26. Kpe Kttings. 



/ieturn Bene/ 



the smaller sizes of pipe and for low pressure work. The flanged 
flttings are used for higher pressm-es and for larger sizes of pipe. 
Fig. 26 shows a variety of screwed fittings for "making up" 
standard pipe. 

Couplings. — For joining two lengths of pipe, couplings are 
used. These may have right hand threads at both ends or may 
have right hand threads at one end and left hand threads at the 
other for convenience in connecting and disconnecting. Eight 
and left couplings generally have bars running lengthwise to 
distinguish them from couplings with right hand threads. Some- 
times reducing couplings are used where a change in size of pipe 
is desired. Couplings are made of cast iron, wrought iron, steel, 



PIPE FITTINGS 



45 



maJleable iron, and brass. A coupling is included on one end of 
each full length of standard pipe. Forms of couplings are shown 






n 



inwghf 
Ca/fi/Jng 



Cos/ /fan 



Rone/ /. 



Covp/ing 



Cov/a/i'ng 




Size 


^ « 1 


H 


lli 


3ti 


1 


l^i 


4 


14 


Z 


i% 



Off-Sef Coop/tng 



Fig. 27. Couplings. 



in Fig. 27 and Table 20 gives the dimensions of standard wrought 
iron couplings. 

TABLE 20 







Stakdabd Weought Iron Cottplinge 


1 




Size of 


Outside 


Length 
Inches 


Average 


Size of 


Outside 


Length 


Average 


Kpe 


Diameter 


Weight 


Kpe 


Diameter 


Weight 


Inches 


Inches 


Pounds 


Inches 


Inches 




Pounds 


Vs 


"A2 


"Ae 


.03 


3V3 


4Vi. 


3Vl6 


3.40 


'A 


V4 


IV32 


.07 


4 


4"/l6 


3Vl6 


3.50 


V» 


»v» 


IV32 


.11 


4>A 


5"A2 


3V8 


4.70 


'A 


1V32 


IV16 


.15 


5 


6V4 


4V8 


8.50 


V4 


l"/82 


IV16 


.25 


6 


7VS2 


4V8 


9.70 


1 


IVs 


I'Vis 


.42 


7 


8V82 


4V8 


11.10 


I'A 


1»V32 


2Vk 


.60 


8 


9'A 


4V8 


13.60 


I'A 


2'V64 


2Vi. 


.81 


9 


IOV16 


578 


17.40 


2 


2"A2 


2Vl6 


1.18 


10 


llVa 


evs 


31.10 


2'A 


3Vl6 


2V8 


1.70 


12 


13'A 


678 


44.20 


3 


3'Vl6 


3Vl6 


2.45 











46 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



Elbows. — For turning corners elbows or ells are used, Pig. 28. 
Reducing ells are used to change the size of pipe at a corner. 
Sometimes ells are provided with an opening at the side in which 
case they are called side outlet elbows. Elbows are also made 




90' er/iboty 



/fet/i/cing £/txyr 





30'Elbcm 






P/o/n C/bow 



flat Bea<t sr/Oavf Roi/na Beoct Elbmv Street Elixirr 

Fig. 28. Elbows. 



for angles other than 90 degrees and are then specified by the 
angle, as 45 degree eU, 30 degree ell, or 60 degree eU, etc. It will 
be noticed that the angle is the one made with the axis or run of 
the pipe. 

Tees, Crosses, Bushings, Caps, Plugs. — For a branch at right 
angles to the pipe tees are used. When the three openings are 



— ' 



r 



/ "Srer/feA 



J 




Fig. 29. Tees. 

the same, the fitting is specified by the size of the pipe, as a 1-inch 
tee, or 2-inch tee, etc. When the branch is of a different size 
the size of run is given first and then the outlet, as 2"x 1 V*" tee. 
When the three openings are different they are all specified, giv- 



PIPE FITTINGS 



47 



ing the sizes of the run first, as 2" x V-ji X 1" tee, as shown at 
C in Fig. 29. Side outlet tees are also made. For a branch at 
other angles a Y, Fig. 30, may be used. Note that the angle is 




Fig. 30. Y-Branches. 



the smaller of the two made with the run of the pipe. The use 
of a cross (+) is evident from the figure as well as the notation. 
Figs. 31 and 32 show other fittings. A bushing is used to bush 
or reduce the size of an opening so that a smaller pipe may be 




Sufih/n^s 



P/pe P/ugs. 



Fig. 31. Bushings and Plugs. 



used. For closing an opening a pipe plug is used. For closing 
the end of a pipe a cap is used. A pip^ nut is sometimes used as 
a locknut when a pipe is screwed into sheet metal. There are 
many special forms of fittings and the catalogs of standard manu- 
facturers should be consulted. y,^^ 
Tables 20 to 35 m this chap- /W\\, 
ter give dimensions of screwed 
fittings sufiiciently close for 
most purposes. 

Nipples. — Short pieces of 
pipe used to join fittings which 



K^^ 



Pfpgp^f 




Cap 



Fig. 32. 



Pipe Nut and Cap. 

are near together are called nipples, and may be purchased with 
threads cut ready for use. They are known as close nipples when 



48 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

the threads run the entire length {A, Fig. 33), short or shoulder 
nipples when there is a small amoimt of imthreaded pipe (B, 
Fig. 33). Long nipples and extra long nipples have various 
lengths. Extra long nipples range from sizes given up to twelve 






A B 

Pig. 33. Nipples. 

inches in length. Table 21 gives the ordinary sizes of wrought 
iron nipples when both ends have right hand threads. 



TABLE 21 
Wrought Iron Nipples 



Size 
of Pipe 


Length of Nipple in Inches 












Inches 


Close 


Short 


Long 




Vs 


'A 


IV2 


2 


2V2 


3 


^A 


y* 


'A 


I'A 


2 


2V2 


3 


3V» 


•A 


1 


1V2 


2 


2V2 


3 


3V2 


V. 


IVs 


I'A 


2 


2V2 


3 


3V2 


»A 


IVs 


2 


2V2 


3 


3V> 


4 


1 


I'A 


2 


2V2 


3 


3V2 


4 


IV* 


iVs 


2>A 


3 


3V2 


4 


47. 


1V2 


I'A 


2'A 


3 


3V2 


4 


4V2 


2 


2 


2V2 


3 


3V2 


4 


47! 


2V2 


2V. 


3 


3V2 


4 


4V2 


5 


3 


2V2 


3 


3V2 


4 


4V2 


5 


3V2 


2»A 


4 


4V2 


5 


5V2 


6 


4 


3 


4 


4V2 


5 


5V2 


6 


4>A 


3 


4 


4V2 


5 


6V2 


6 


5 


3V4 


4V2 


5 


5V2 


6 


672 


6 


3V4 


4>A 


5 


5V. 


6 


672 


7 


3V2 


5 










8 


3'A 


5 










9 


4 


5 










10 


4 


5 










12 


4 


5 











PIPE FITTINGS 



49 



The sizes when threaded one end right hand and the other 
end left hand are the same for sizes up to four inches diameter. 
A right and left nipple of malleable iron with a hexagon center 
is shown at C in Fig. 33. These are made in sizes ranging from 
V4 inch to 4 inches. Variations will be foimd as there are no 
standard dimensions. 

Cast Iron Fittings. — Pipe fittings for screwed pipe are made 
of various materials and in various designs to suit the require- 
ments of pressure and medium to be conveyed. For steam, 
water, etc., under pressure less than 125 pounds per square inch 




/?ec/t/cer 



Fig. 34. Screwed Fittings. 



standard weight fittings of cast iron are generally used. The 
question of strength involves much more than the pressure from 
within the pipe which induces a comparatively low stress in the 
material. The greater strains come from expansion, support, 
and "making up." For severe service or pressures from 125 to 
250 pounds per square inch extra heavy cast iron fittings may 
be used. The dimensions of cast iron screwed fittings are not 
standardized and a variation will be found in the products of 
different manufacturers. For this reason the dimensions for 
standard weight, extra heavy, and long sweep cast iron fittings, 
and malleable iron fittings, as made by a number of companies 
have been given in Tables 22 to 29 inclusive. These will be 
found to give sufficient information for most purposes. 



so A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

TABLE 22 (Fig. 34) 
Walworth Co. Standard Cast Iron Fittinqs 



Size 
of 


A 


A-A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


Kpe 
Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


'A 


'A 


IV2 


Vi. 






1 


•A 


'A 


V 


'A 


I'A 


Vi. 


lVi« 


2Vl6 


IVs 


Vi. 


'A. 


'A 


IVi. 


2'A 


"A. 


IVs 


2Vl6 


iVi. 


'A 


V. 


'A 


1V» 


2V8 


"Ae 


2Vl6 


2V4 


I'A 


v.. 


Vi. 


1 


I'A 


3 


»/.6 


2V2 


3V4 


2Vl6 


'A 


'A 


I'A 


I'Vie 


SVs 


iVi. 


3 


3'A 


2V2 


V16 


"A. 


I'A 


2 


4 


1V16 


37* 


4V4 


2V4 


'A 


"A« 


2 


2»A 


4V4 


I'A 


4 


5V2 


3V8 


"A. 


V. 


2V2 


2'A 


6»A 


1% 


5 


6'Vl6 


4V8 


"Ae 


1 


3 


SVi'e 


6V8 


IVs 


5% 


7V8 


4V4 


"A« 


1 


S'A 


3"/i. 


7V8 


2Vi« 


6V. 


8'A 


5V4 


1 


iVi. 


4 


4 


8 


2V4 


7V8 


9V4 


6 


IV16 


1V8 


4V2 


4Vi. 


8'A 


2V.6 


7V8 


IOV2 


6V« 


IV8 


1V4 


5 


4"A6 


9»A 


2Vl6 


87. 


IIV16 


7Vi« 


I'A 


IV4 


6 


5Vi. 


lO'A 


2'Vic 


9"A6 


13V8 


8V8 


I'A 


IV8 


7 


6V1. 


12V8 


3V8 


IIV* 


14V8 


9V4 


IV16 


IV2 


8 


6"A6 


13V8 


3Vl6 


121V16 


16"A6 


lO'A 


IVs 


I'A 


9 


7'A 


15 


SVs 


141A 


19 


12V8 


iVi. 


I'A 


10 


8'A 


16'A 


4Vie 


16 


20V8 


13V4 


IV8 


IV4 


12 


9Vl6 


19>A 


4'A 






ISVs 


IV4 


I'A 



TABLE 23 (Fig. 34) 
Walworth Co. Extra Heavy Cast Iron Fittings 



Size 
of 


A 


a-a 


B 


E 


F 


G 


Pipe 
Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


V2 


1V« 


2Vu 


74 


P7a 


Vic 


7.6 


'A 


1V8 


2V4 


7/8 


P7s2 


72 


78 


1 


1"A2 


3Vi. 


1 


27w 


7l6 


"A. 


I'A 


l"A« 


378 


17l6 


274 


"A. 


"A. 


IV2 


2Vi. 


478 


174 


37i. 


74 


78 


2 


2V. 


5 


172 


374 


7. 


1 


2V. 


3 


6 


174 


47i. 


1 


17. 


3 


3"A6 


77. 


274 


5V. 


174 


17. 


3V2 


4V3. 


87i. 


27i. 


6 


iVi. 


IVi. 


4 


4"/Ki 


8'7i. 


2'7i. 


6»Ae 


1V18 


17.. 


4V. 


4"A2 


9»A. 


27. 


778 


lVi« 


l"A. 


5 


57.2 


I07i6 


378 


7«A. 


l"A. 


1"/.. 


6 


5"A6 


117. 


37i« 


97i. 


174 


I'A 


8 


7Vi. 


1478 


3"A« 


ll7i. 


1V8 


l"A. 



PIPE FITTINGS 



51 




Fig. 35. Long Sweep Cast Iron Fittings. 

TABLE 24 (Fig. 35) 
Walworth Co. Long Sweep Cast Ibon Fittings 



Size 
of 


A 


B 


c 


D 


E 


Pipe 
Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


1 


2'A 


2V8 


IV2 






IV* 


2V8 


3V. 


I'A 






I'A 


3 


SVs 


2 






2 


3V8 


SVs 


2V8 






2V2 


4V4 


4V2 


3V* 


678 


574 


3 


5V2 


5'A 


3V2 


774 


S'A 


3V» 


5V« 


5»A 


4 


874 


6V4 


4 


eVs 


eVs 


4V8 


lOVs 


978 


4V2 


67* 


e'A 


4V8 


1078 


974 


5 


7 


7»A 


578 


1178 


972 


6 


7V2 


9 


674 


13 


llVs 


7 


sVs 


lOVs 


eVs 


1472 


12V4 


8 


9Vj 


ll'A 


778 


1874 


1672 


9 


lO'A 






217. 


1974 


10 


11V2 


llVs 


11V8 


2474 


2278 


12 


12'A 


.... 




31 


28V4 



TABLE 25 (Fig 36) 
National Tdbb Company Stanbahd Cast Ibon Fittings 



Size of 


A 


A-A 


B 


Size of 


A 


A-A 


B 


Pipe 








Pipe 








Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


74 


"A. 


178 


. • . 


372 


372 


7 


27i. 


Va 


"A« 


178 


Vs 


4 


3"A6 


7V8 


278 


72 


l7i« 


278 


»/a2 


472 


4Vl6 


87i. 


2"A. 


74 


174 


272 


"A. 


5 


472 


9 


274 


1 


172 


3 


178 


6 


57» 


loVi. 


378 


174 


178 


374 


174 


7 


5"/i. 


11V8 


37i. 


172 


l'7l8 


3V8 


IVs 


8 


672 


12«A. 


3"A. 


2 


27u 


478 


IVi. 


9 


77i. 


14V8 


474 


272 


2V» 


574 


l^A. 


10 


874 


1672 


4V8 


3 


37i6 


678 


27l6 


12 


97i. 


1978 


572 



62 



A. HANDBOOK ON PIPING 




Fig. 36. Screwed Fittings. 

.' * • TABLE 26 (Fia. 36) 

National Tube Company, Extra Heavy Cast Iron FrmNOS 



SUe of •' 


A 


A-A 


Size of 


A 


A-A 


Kpe 






Kpe 






Inches 


■ Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


v. 


• 'A 


1=A 


3V2 


3'A 


7V2 


Vs 


*1 


2 


4 


4V8 


8»A 


v« 


iVi. 


2»A 


4V. 


4»A8 


9V8 


'A 


IVs 


• 2V4 


5 


4V8 


9V4 


1 


. IV16 


3V8 


6 


5V8 


ll'A 


I'A 


IVs 


S'A 


7 


6V1. 


12V8 


IV2 


2V8 


4V4 


8 


6"A. 


13% 


2 


2V2 


5 


9 


7"A. 


15V8 


27. 


2"A8 


5Va 


10 


8'A 


17 


3 


S'A 


6'A 


12 


91V1. 


19V8 




Fig. 37. Long Sweep Cast Iron Fittings. 









TABLE 27 (Fig 


. 37) 








National Tube Company, Long Sweep Cast Iron Fittinos 


Size 
of 


A 


A-A 


B 


c 


Size 
of 


A 


A-A 


B 


c 


Kpe 
Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Kpe 

Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


1 


2Va 


5 


2 


17ie 


472 


77l6 


1478 


51716 


3"A. 


I'A 


2'A 


S'A 


278 


172 


5 


774 


1572 


67l6 


4Vi. 


I'A 


2«A6 


6V8 


274 


174 


6 


97l6 


1878 


7"A« 


47i. 


2 


3Vi. 


678 


274 


278 


7 


1074 


2072 


8i7i« 


578 


2V2 


4V8 


874 


378 


272 


8 


1172 


23 


9"A. 


6 


3 


5V»2 


I07i6 


4'7l6 


2'7.e 


10 


1472 


29 


12'7i. 


67l6 


3V2 


5»A6 


1178 


472 


374 


12 


16 


32 


14 


8 


4 


6V8 


1274 


57l6 


378 













PIPE FITTINGS 



53 








s 1 ^ 


1 



3i 



■Cop 



§ 



/fec/i/cer 



Pig. 34. Screwed Fittings. 



TABLE 28 (Fig. 34) 
Crane Company, Standabd Cast Iron Fittings 



Size of 


A 


B 


c 


D 


K 


H 


Pipe 














Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


V* 


"/16 


'A 










Vs 


"/i. 


"/16 










v> 


IVs 


Va 


IVs 


2V2 






'A 


iVi. 


1 


2'A 


3 






1 


iVi. 


IVs 


2V4 


31A 






1V4 


I'A 


iVi. 


S'A 


4V4 


2V8 




IV2 


I'Vi. 


1V16 


31V1. 


4'A 


2V4 




2 


2V4 


l'Vl6 


4V2 


5V4 


2Vl6 




2'A 


2"A6 


1"A6 


5Vl6 


6V4 


2"A6 




3 


3V8 


2Vl6 


6V8 


7V8 


2"A. 




3V2 


3Vi. 


2V8 


6V8 


8'A 


3Vs 




4 


S'A 


2V8 


7V8 


9V4 


3V8 


2Vl6 


4V. 


4Vi. 


2"/i. 


9V4 


11V8 


3V8 


2V.. 


6 


4Vl8 


3Vl6 


9V4 


llVs 


3V8 


2V8 


6 


5V8 


3Vl6 


10V4 


13Vl6 


4V8 


2V8 


7 


5"/i. 


3V8 


12V4 


15V4 


4"A. 


2V8 


8 


6V2 


4V4 


ISVs 


16"A« 


5V4 


3V8 


9 


7Vi. 


4"A6 


16V4 


20'Vi6 


5'Vl6 


3V8 


10 


7'A 


5Vl6 


16V4 


20»/i8 


6V16 


3V8 


12 


9V4 


6 


19V8 


24V8 


7V8 


4V4 



54 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



^ 



c- "* 



•-< -Jfi-A— 



1 k--.H— H 
> - 




Fig. 38. Screwed Fittings. 



TABLE 29 (Fig. 38) 
Cbanb Company, Extba Heavy Cast Iron Fittings 



Size of 


A 


B 


Size of 


A 


B 


Kpe 






Pipe 






Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


1 


2 


IVs 


4V2 


5V2 


3 


IV. 


2V. 


IV2 


5 


eVs 


3Vi. 


IV. 


2Vi. 


IVa 


6 


7V4 


3V4 


2 


3 


1"A6 


7 


8V8 


4 


2V. 


3V2 


2V. 


8 


QVs 


4V4 


3 


4V8 


2V!! 


10 


IPA 


4V8 


sv. 


4"/i. 


2Vl6 


12 


13V8 


5V2 


4 


5Vs 


2V4 









Screwed Reducing Fittings. — The centre to face and face to 
face dimensions for Walworth Standard Weight cast iron screwed 
reducing tees and crosses, Fig. 39, are determined as follows: 
For AA face to face, add to the outside 
. diameter E of outlet bead, twice the width 

rrrj I ^ i^ of the run-bead. For A centre to face, 
' ^ * i ^^ *° *^® width F of outlet bead, one half 
the diameter E of the run-bead. Thus for a 
2" X V4" tee the dimensions are 






■^■ 



-AA- 

Fig. 39. Reducing 

Tees and Crosses. 



A A = PA -I- "/16 + "As = 3V8 
A = V16 + PV16 = 278". 



See Table 22 for necessary dimensions. 
Brass Fittings. — Brass fittings are made in both standard and 
extra heavy weights. They are used for feed water pipes where 
bad water makes steel pipes undesirable. Brass fittings may be 
had in iron pipe sizes. The dimensions as made by the Lunken- 
heimer Company are given in Table 30 for pressures up to 175 
pounds, and in Table 31 for pressures up to 300 pounds. 



PIPE FITTINGS 



55 




Fig. 40. Brass Fittings. 









TABLE 30 ( 


FiQ. 40) 








LUNKENHBIMEK BrONZE FiTTINGS, MeDIUM PaTTEBN 


Size of 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


H 


K 


Pipe 




















Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Vs 


Vi. 


IVs 


'A 


'A 


IVi. 


'A 


1 


IV4 


I'A 


V4 


'A 


1V2 


1 


IV16 


l"/32 


"/.» 


PA. 


l'V.8 


2V8 


'A 


'A 


I'A 


iVi. 


IVs 


IV16 


"/i. 


1V16 


1"A6 


2V8 


'A 


1 


2 


I'A 


I'A 


l"/»2 


iVi. 


I'Vie 


2Vl6 


2"/!. 


'A 


IV16 


2V8 


iVi» 


2 


2'A 


iVi. 


2V8 


3 


3V8 


1 


iVi. 


27. 


IVs 


2Vl6 


2'A 


I'A 


2V8 


3V. 


4Vi. 


IV4 


i"A. 


3'A 


l'V.6 


2"A, 


3Vi. 


23A 


3Vl6 


4Vl6 


5V8 


I'A 


I'A 


3"A6 


2 


3 


3V4 


2V8 


3"/i« 


4'Vl6 


6V8 


2 


2Vl6 


4V2 


2Vi. 


3"A6 


4V. 


27. 


4V4 


5"Ae 


7V8 


2V. 


2V8 


5V4 


2»A 


.... 




S'Ae 


5V4 






3 


3Vi. 


6V18 


2"A. 















TABLE 31 (Fig. 40) 

LUNKENHEIMEE BrONZB FiTTINGS, EXTBA HeAVT PATTERN 



Size of 


A 


B 


c 


Size of 


A 


B 


C 


Pipe 








Pipe 








Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


v. 


"As 


1V8 


"Ae 


IV4 


1"A6 


3Vl6 




'A 


Vs 


l"A« 


IV16 


I'A 


2 


4 




V8 


1 


1"A6 


IV16 


2 


2V8 


4"A. 




V. 


IV8 


2V4 


1V8 


2V2 


2V4 


5Vl6 




'A 


IV16 


2V8 




3 


3Vi. 


6V16 




1 


IV2 


3 













Malleable Iron Fittings. — Malleable iron fittings are made 
plain and beaded and for various pressures. Plain fittings are 
for low pressure work only. Standard beaded fittings may be 
used up to 150 pounds; extra heavy beaded fittings up to 250 
pounds, and double extra heavy fittings for hydraulic work up 
to 800 pounds. The principle dimensions of malleable fittings as 
made by the National Tube Company are given in Tables 32 and 
33. Extra heavy malleable iron fittings for pressures up to 250 
pounds as made by Crane Company are dimensioned in Table 34. 



56 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 





I u U U— ^ "3 



Fig. 41. Standard Malleable Fittings. 

TABLE 32 (Fig. 41) 
National Tube Company Standard Flat Bead Malleable FiTTiNas 



(. Size of 


A 


A-A 


B 


Size of 


A 


A-A 


B 


Kpe 








Pipe 








Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Vs 


V82 


iVi. 


"/»2 


2V2 


2V8 


S'A 


l"Ae 


V4 


'A 


I'A 


Vs 


3 


3"/32 


6"Ae 


2Vl6 


Vs 


1V.2 


2Vi» 


"A. 


3V2 


3"/32 


7"A. 


2"/» 


'A 


IV32 


2Vi. 


»v» 


4 


4»A2 


8V16 


2V8 


'A 


l"/82 


2'Vl6 


"As 


4V2 


4»A6 


9V8 


3V8 


1 


IV16 


3V8 


IV16 


5 


5Vl6 


lOVs 


3V2 


1V4 


IVs 


3'A 


I'A 


6 


6V32 


12Vie 


4Vi. 


IV2 


2Via 


4V8 


1"A! 


7 


6"A6 


13V8 


4V8 


2 


2"A2 


4'V.. 


1V« 


8 


7=^732 


15Vl6 


5'A 



A, S. 



ia& 



*■ 


A. 


->4 


~" 




- 


>^ 


k 


- 


T 


s. 


- 


- 


J". 




Fig. 36. Screwed Fittings. 

TABLE 33 (Fiq. 36) 
National Titbe Company, Extra Heavy Flat Bead Malleable Fittings 



Size of 


A 


A-A 


B 


Size of 


A 


A-A 


B 


Kpe 








Pipe 








Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


'A 


"A6 


IV. 


• > • • 


3V2 


3V2 


7 


2Vl6 


'A 


"A. 


1V8 


Vs 


4 


3"A. 


7Va 


2V8 


V2 


IV18 


2V8 


"A2 


4V2 


4Vl6 


8V18 


2"A. 


'A 


I'A 


2V2 


"/i. 


5 


4V. 


9 


2V4 


1 


1V2 


3 


1V8 


6 


5Vi« 


IOV18 


3V. 


I'A 


IVs 


3V4 


IV4 


7 


5'Vi. 


llVs 


3Vi. 


IV. 


i"A« 


3V8 


1V8 


8 


6V2 


12"A. 


3"A« 


2 


2Vi. 


4V8 


IV16 


9 


7Vi. 


14V8 


4V4 


2V. 


2V. 


5V4 


l"/l« 


10 


8V* 


I6V2 


4V. 


3 


3Vi. 


6V8 


2Vl6 


12 


9V« 


19V8 


5V2 



PIPE FITTINGS 



57 




1 ^4 -•j*-/l-» 

Mg. 38. Screwed Fittings. 

TABLE 34 (Fia. 38) 
Crane Company, Extba Hbavt Malleable Fittings 



Size of 


A 


B 


c 


Site of 


A 


B 


c 


Pipe 








Pipe 








Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


•A 


lVl6 


'A 


. • t . 


2V» 


3V2 


2'A 


4'A 


'A 


I'A 


7/8 


.... 


3 


4V8 


2V2 


5V2 


'A 


I'A 


1 


.... 


3'A 


4V8 


2V8 


6'A 


'A 


I'A 


IVs 


.... 


4 


5V8 


2"A. 


7 


1 


2 


IVis 


2V2 


4'A 


5V8 


.... 


7'A 


I'A 


2'A 


1V2 


3 


5 


6V4 




S'A 


I'A 


2V2 


1"A6 


3V2 


6 


7'A 


.... 


9V2 


2 


3 


2 


4 











Extra Heavy Cast Steel Screwed Fittings. — Screwed fittings 
are made by Walworth Company of cast steel for superheated 
steam at 350 poimds working pressure and a total temperature 
of 800 degrees F. or for water working pressures of: 

5,000 pounds for 1 inch and smaller sizes. 
3,500 poimds for 1^/4 inch to 2 inch. 
2,500 pounds for 2V2 inch to 4V2 inch. 
2,000 pounds for 5 inch and 6 inch sizes. 

Such fittings have a larger radius than ordinary cast iron 
fittings. 

Strength of Fittings. — Some results of tests to determine the 
average bursting pressures of extra heavy flanged fittings are 
plotted in Pig. 42. These tests were made by Crane Company 
who burst several fittings of each size under hydraulic pressure. 
The average tensile strength of the metal test bars were: Ferro- 
steel 33,000 poimds per square inch, and cast iron 22,000 pounds 
per square inch. 

The bursting pressure of screwed fittings is from ten to twenty 
times the working pressure. The internal fluid pressure, how- 



58 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



ever, is not the determining factor, as fittings must withstand 
the strain of expansion, contraction, weight of piping, settling, 
and water hanmier, and there is also the possibility of non-uni- 
form thickness. 
For cast iron the 
bursting pressure is 
generally in excess 
of 1000 pounds, 
and for malleable 
iron in excess of 
2,000 pounds. 

Flanged Fittings. 
— Flanged fittings. 
Fig. 43, are to be 
preferred for im- 
portant or high 
pressure work. 
Regular fittings are 
now made with 
dimensions of the 
American Standard 
as devised by a 
committee of the 
A. S. M. E., and a 
Manufacturers' 
^^ committee. This 
standard fixes the 
dimensions for 
standard weight fittings (125 lbs.) from 1 inch to 100 inches and 
for extra heavy or high pressure fittings (250 lbs.) from 1 inch to 
48 inches. The following tables give the dimensions revised to 
March 7th and 20th, 1914. The dimensions in Table 35 are 
common to all fittings for 125 pounds working pressure, and 
those in Table 36 are common to all fittings for 250 pounds 
working pressure. Tables 37 and 38 give the thickness of 
metal, and Tables 39 and 40 the dimensions of pipe flanges. 

The following explanatory notes as well as the Tables and 

data here given are from the A. S. M. E. committee's report. 

"(a) Standard and Extra Heavy Reducing Elbows carry same 

dimensions centre to face as regular Elbows of larger straight size. 



S«eo 
















^^^" 






















\ 


















\ 


















\ 


















\ 


















\ 


















\ 


s> 














» 


\ 


% 














? 


\ 














\ 


V 


V 












^ 




-•^ 


^t 












s 


\ 




N ^ 












^ 


\ 




^ 












h 


\ 






V, 












\ 






s 


-^ 








g 


\ 








"^-^a 


•*-: 






$ 


\ \ 


^tr. 








"^ 






19 


\ 




e-fc 






^T 






^"" 


\ 




^^T 






\ 


s 




\ 


\ 

c 


'^f^ 


v?*^ 


s. 






N, 




^S. 


y 

















\-, 


^ 






































\ 




































\ 




, 














\ 


y 




SOO 



















lo /a It le la 

DI*in€T£ll OF FITTINS- INCHES. 



Fig. 42. Bursting Strength of Flanged Fittings, 



PIPE FITTINGS 



5d 



"(&) standard and Extra Heavy Tees, Crosses, and Laterals, 
reducing on run only, carry same dimensions face to face as 
larger straight size. 

"(c) If Flanged Fittings for lower working pressure than 125 
pounds are made, they shall conform in all dimensions except 
thickness of shell, to this standard and shall have the guaranteed 



*vi-^*/i-» 



^m 



W-/I* 



1 "" 





so £■// Pou6/e Branch Side Ouflel- 

£11 an 



Long Racfit/s 
Ell 



45° £1/ 



■^A^A* 



^-A'^A* 



m ffli Qi 



K--4»f»>1- 




Tse 



1.5TG 



Single Stveep Poi/Sle SiYeep Side OuHef 
Tee Tee Tee 



4-- 



Ctoss 




-\ 




Lafe/'a/ Reducer 

Fig. 43. A. S. M. E. Flanged Fittings. 



M 



Bccenf-ric 
Reducer 



working pressure cast on each fitting. Flanges for these fittings 
must be of standard dimensions. 

" (d) Where Long Radius Fittings are specified, it has reference 
only to Elbows which are made in two centre to face dimensions, 
and to be known as Elbows and Long Radius Elbows, the latter 
being used only when so specified. 

"(e) AH standard weight fittings must be guaranteed for 125 
pounds working pressure and Extra Heavy Fittings for 250 
pounds working pressure, and each fitting must have some mark 
cast on it indicating the maker and guaranteed working steam 
pressure. 

" (/) All extra heavy fittings and flanges to have a raised sur- 
face of Vi6 inch high inside of bolt holes for gaskets. Fig. 44. 



60 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

Standard weight fittings and flanges to be plain faced. Bolt 
holes to be Vs inch larger in diameter than bolts. Bolt holes to 
straddle centre line. 

"(g) Size of aU fittings scheduled indicates inside diameter of 
ports. 

" (h) The face to face dimension of reducers, either straight or 
eccentric, for all pressures, shall be the same face to face as given 
in table of dimensions. 

" (i) Square head bolts with hexagonal nuts are recommended. 
For bolts, V/a inch diameter and larger, studs with a nut on 
each end are satisfactory. Hexagonal nuts for pipe sizes 1 inch 

to 46 inch, on 125 poimds 

> l-^i-^^"^ ""' standard, and 1 inch to 16 

""' "*"-• — ^-^ inch on 250 poimds standard 



can be conveniently pulled 

Fig. 44. Raised Face on Flange. "P .^tl^ open wrenches of 

mimmum design of heads. 
Hexagonal nuts for pipe sizes 48 inch to 100 inch on 125 
poimds, and 18 inch to 48 inch on 250 pound standards can be 
conveniently pulled up with box or socket wrenches. 

"(j) Twin Elbows, whether straight or reducing, carry same 
dimensions centre to face and face to face as regular straight size 
eUs and tees. Side Outlet Elbows and Side Outlet Tees, whether 
straight or reducing sizes, C9,rry same dimensions centre to face 
and face to face as regular tees having same reductions. ' 

"(fc) Bull Head Tees or Tees increasing on outlet, will 'have 
same centre to face and face to face dimensions as a straight fit- 
ting of the size of the outlet. 

"(J) Tees and Crosses, 16 inches and down, reducing on the 
outlet, use the same dimensions as straight sizes of the larger port. 
Size 18 inch and up, reducing on the outlet, are made in two 
lengths, depending on the size of the outlet jis given in the table 
of dimensions. Laterals, 16 inches and down, reducing on the 
branch, use the same dimensions as straight sizes of the larger 
port. 

" (m) Sizes 18 inches and up, reducing on the branch, are made 
in two lengths, depending on the size of the branch, as given in 
the table of dimensions. The dimensions of reducing flanged 
fittings are always regulated by the reductions of the outlet or 
branch. Fittings reducing on the run only, the long body pattern 



PIPE FITTINGS 



61 



will always be used. Y's are special and are made to suit condi- 
tions. Double sweep tees are not made reducing on the run. 

"(n) Steel Flanges, Fittings, and Valves are recommended for 
Superheated Steam." 

TABLE 35 (Fia. 43) 
Amemcan Standard Flanged Fittings 
126 Pounds Working Pressure 



Size 


A-A 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


1 


7 


3V2 


5 


IV. 


7V2 


5»A 


IV. 




1V« 


7V2 


3V4 


5V2 


2 


8 


67. 


1V4 




1V2 


8 


4 


6 


2'A 


9 


7 


2 




2 


9 


41/2 


6V2 


2V2 


IOV2 


8 


272 




2V2 


10 


5 


7 


3 


12 


972 


272 




3 


11 


5Va 


7'A 


3 


13 


10 


3 


6 


3V2 


12 


6 


8V2 


3V2 


14V2 


1172 


3 


672 


4 


13 


6^/2 


9 


4 


15 


12 


3 


7 


4V2 


14 


7 


9V2 


4 


15V2 


1272 


3 


772 


S 


15 


7V2 


IOV4 


4V2 


17 


1372 


372 


8 


6 


16 


8 


IIV2 


5 


18 


1472 


372 


9 


7 


17 


8V2 


12'A 


5V2 


2OV2 


1672 


4 


10 


8 


18 


9 


14 


5V2 


22 


1772 


472 


11 


9 


20 


10 


15V4 


6 


24 


1972 


472 


1172 


10 


22 


11 


I6V2 


6V2 


25V2 


2072 


5 


12 


12 


24 


12 


19 


7V2 


30 


2472 


572 


14 


14 


28 


14 


2IV2 


7V2 


33 


27 


6 


16 


15 


29 


14V2 


22V4 


8 


34'A 


2872 


6 


17 


16 


30 


15 


24 


8 


36V2 


30 


672 


18 


18 


33 


I6V2 


26V2 


8V2 


39 


32 


7 


19 


20 


36 


18 


29 


9V2 


43 


35 


8 


20 


22 


40 


20 


3IV2 


10 


46 


3772 


872 


22 


24 


44 


22 


34 


11 


49V2 


4072 


9 


24 


26 


46 


23 


36V2 


13 


53 


44 


9 


26 


28 


48 


24 


39 


14 


56 


4672 


97. 


28 


30 


50 


25 


4IV2 


15 


59 


49 


10 


30 


32 


52 


26 


44 


16 








32 


34 


54 


27 


46V2 


17 








34 


36 


66 


28 


49 


18 


t • > 






36 


38 


58 


29 


51V2 


19 








38 


40 


60 


30 


54 


20 


... 






40 



62 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



TABLE 35 (Fig. 43) (Ccmiinued) 
American Standabd Flanged Fittings 







126 Pounds 


Working 


Pressure 












Sinn 


A-A 


A 


B 


c 


D 


E 


F 


G 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


42 


62 


31 


56V2 


21 














42 


44 


64 


32 


59 


22 














44 


46 


66 


33 


6l'A 


23 














46 


48 


68 


34 


64 


24 














48 


50 


70 


35 


66V2 


25 














50 


52 


74 


37 


69 


26 














52 


54 


78 


39 


7IV2 


27 














54 


56 


82 


41 


74 


28 














56 


58 


84 


42 


76V2 


29 














58 


60 


88 


44 


79 


30 














60 


62 


90 


45 


8IV2 


31 














62 


64 


94 


47 


84 


32 














64 


66 


96 


48 


86V2 


33 














66 


68 


100 


50 


89 


34 














68 


70 


102 


51 


9IV2 


35 














70 


72 


106 


53 


94 


36 














72 


74 


108 


54 


96V2 


37 














74 


76 


112 


56 


99 


38 














76 


78 


116 


58 


IOIV2 


39 














78 


80 


118 


59 


104 


40 














80 


82 


120 


60 


IO6V2 


41 














82 


84 


124 


62 


109 


42 














84 


86 


126 


63 


IIIV2 


43 














86 


88 


130 


65 


114 


44 














88 


90 


134 


67 


116V. 


45 














90 


92 


136 


68 


119 


46 














92 


94 


138 


69 


I2IV2 


47 














94 


96 


142 


71 


124 


48 














96 


98 


146 


73 


1267, 


49 














98 


100 


148 


74 


129 


50 














100 



PIPE FITTINGS 



63 



TABLE 36 (Fia. 43) 

Extra Heavy American Standard Flanged Fittings 

260 Pounds Working Pressure 



Size 


A-A 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches I 


[lohea 


Inches 


1 


8 


4 


5 


2 


8V2 


6V2 


2 




1V4 


S'A 


4V4 


5V2 


2V2 


9V2 


7V4 


2V4 




I'A 


9 


47^ 


6 


2V4 


11 


8V2 


2V2 




2 


10 


5 


6>A 


3 


IIV2 


9 


2V2 




2'A 


11 


572 


7 


3V2 


13 


IOV2 


2V2 




3 


12 


6 


7V4 


3V2 


14 


11 


3 


6 


3V. 


13 


6V2 


8V2 


4 


I5V2 


I2V2 


3 


6V2 


4 


14 


7 


9 


4V2 


I6V2 


13V2 


3 


7 


4V» 


15 


7'A 


9V2 


4V2 


18 


14V2 


37. 


7V. 


5 


16 


8 


IOV4 


5 


I8V2 


15 


3V2 


8 


6 


17 


8V2 


IIV2 


5V2 


2IV2 


17V2 


4 


9 


7 


18 


9 


I2V4 


6 


23V2 


19 


472 


10 


8 


20 


10 


14 


6 


25V2 


2OV2 


5 


11 


9 


21 


lO'A 


15V4 


6V2 


27V2 


22V2 


5 


IIV2 


10 


23 


ll'A 


I6V2 


7 


29V2 


24 


5V2 


12 


12 


26 


13 


19 


8 


33V2 


27V2 


6 


14 


14 


30 


15 


21'A 


8V2 


371/2 


31 


6V2 


16 


15 


31 


I51A 


22V4 


9 


39V2 


33 


6V2 


17 


16 


33 


16'A 


24 


9V2 


42 


34V2 


7V2 


18 


18 


36 


18 


26V2 


10 


45V2 


37V2 


S 


19 


20 


39 


lO'A 


29 


IOV2 


49 


4OV2 


8V2 


20 


22 


41 


20'A 


3IV2 


11 


53 


43V2 


9V2 


22 


24 


45 


22V2 


34 


12 


57V2 


47V2 1 





24 


26 


48 


24 


36V2 


13 








26 


28 


52 


26 


39 


14 








28 


30 


55 


27V2 


4IV2 


15 








30 


32 


58 


29 


44 


16 








32 


34 


61 


3OV2 


46V2 


17 








34 


36 


65 


32V2 


49 


18 








36 


38 


68 


34 


5IV2 


19 








38 


40 


71 


35V2 


54 


20 








40 


42 


74 


37 


56V2 


21 








42 


44 


78 


39 


59 


22 




. . . 




44 


46 


81 


4OV2 


6IV2 


23 


. . • 


. . . 




46 


48 


84 


42 


64 


24 






• • 


48 



64 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



TABLE 37 

American Standabd Cast Ibon Pipe, Wall Thickness 

126 Pounds Working Pressure 



Diameter 


Thickness 


Minimuni 


Stress per 

Square 

Inch 


Diameter 


Thickness 


Minimum 


Stress pep 

Square 

Inch 

Pounds 


of Pipe 


ofKpe 


Thickness 


OfKpe 


OfKpe 


Thickness 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Pounds 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


1 


.43 


Vi» 


143 


42 


1.82 


1"A. 


1448 


iv. 


.44 


V16 


178 


44 


1.87 


I'A 


1467 


1V2 


.45 


Vi. 


214 


46 


1.94 


1"A. 


1484 


2 


.46 


VX6 


286 


48 


2.00 


2 


1500 


2'A 


.48 


V16 


357 


50 


2.07 


2Vi. 


1515 


3 


.50 


V16 


428 


52 


2.14 


2V8 


1530 


3'A 


.52 


Vi. 


500 


54 


2.20 


2Vi. 


1543 


4 


.53 


V2 


500 


56 


2.27 


2V« 


1555 


4V2 


.55 


•A 


562 


58 


2.34 


2Vi. 


1567 


5 


.56 


•A 


625 


60 


2.41 


2Vi. 


1538 


6 


.60 


V16 


667 


62 


2.47 


2V. 


1550 


7 


.63 


Vs 


700 


64 


2.54 


2Vi. 


1561 


8 


.66 


Vs 


800 


66 


2.61 


2V8 


1572 


9 


.70 


"Ae 


818 


68 


2.68 


2"A. 


1582 


10 


.73 


'A 


833 


70 


2.74 


2'A 


1591 


12 


.80 


"As 


923 


72 


2.81 


2"A. 


1600 


14 


.86 


'A 


1000 


74 


2.88 


2'A 


1609 


15 


.90 


'A 


1072 


76 


2.94 


2«A6 


1617 


16 


.93 


1 


1000 


78 


3.01 


3 


1625 


18 


1.00 


IVie 


1059 


80 


3.08 


3Vi. 


1633 


20 


1.07 


IVs 


1111 


82 


3.15 


3V8 


1640 


22 


1.13 


IV16 


1158 


84 


3.21 


3Vi. 


1647 


24 


1.20 


IV4 


1200 


86 


3.28 


S'A 


1653 


26 


1.27 


IVi. 


1238 


88 


3.35 


3Vu 


1660 


28 


1.33 


I'A 


1273 


90 


3.41 


S'A 


1667 


30 


1.40 


I'A. 


1304 


92 


3.48 


3V. 


1643 


32 


1.47 


IV2 


1333 


94 


3.55 


3Vi. 


1649 


34 


1.54 


IV16 


1360 


96 


3.62 


3V. 


1655 


36 


1.60 


IVs 


1385 


98 


3.68 


3"A6 


1661 


38 


1.67 


1"A6 


1407 


100 


3.75 


3'A 


1667 


40 


1.73 


I'A 


1428 











PIPE FITTINGS 



65 



TABLE 38 
Extra Heavy Cast Iron Pipe, Wall Thickness 
260 Pounds Working Pressure 



Diameter 


ThioknesB 


Minimum 


Stress per 

Square 

Inch 

Pounds 


Diameter Thickness 


Minimum 


Stress per 

Square 

Inch 

Pounds 


of Pipe 


of Pipe 


Thickness 


of Pipe 


of Pipe 


Thickness 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


1 


.45 


'A 


250 










V/i 


.47 


V2 


312 


16 


1.27 


I'A 


1600 


I'A 


.49 


•A 


375 


18 


1.37 


I'A 


1636 


2 


.51 


V. 


600 


20 


1.48 


I'A 


1666 


2V2 


.53 


'A. 


555 


22 


1.59 


I'A. 


1760 


3 


.56 


Vie 


667 


24 


1.70 


IVs 


1846 


3V2 


.59 


Vi. 


778 


26 


1.81 


I'Vie 


1793 


4 


.61 


Vs 


800 


28 


1.91 


I'A 


1866 


4V2 


.64 


'A 


900 


30 


2.02 


2 


1875 


5 


.67 


"A. 


909 


32 


2.13 


278 


1882 


6 


.72 


'A 


1000 


34 


2.24 


2'A 


1889 


7 


.78 


"Ae 


1077 


36 


2.35 


2V8 


1894 


8 


.83 


"A. 


1230 


38 


2.46 


2Vl6 


1948 


9 


.89 


'A 


1285 


40 


2.56 


2»A6 


1953 


10 


.94 


«/i. 


1333 


42 


2.67 


2»A6 


1953 


12 


1.05 


1 


1500 


44 


2.78 


2"A6 


1955 


14 


1.16 


I'A 


1555 


46 


2.89 


2'A 


2000 


15 


1.21 


lVl6 


1579 


48 


3.00 


3 


2000 



TABLE 
American Standard Pipe Flanges ■ 



39 



126 Pounds Working Pressure 



Size 
Inches 


Diameter 


Thickness 


Bolt 


Number 


Size of 


Length 


Length of 


of Flanges 


of Flanges 


Circle 


of 


Bolts 


of Bolts 


Studs with 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Bolts 


Inches 


Inches 


Two Nuts 
Inches 


1 


4 


Vi. 


3 


4 


Via 


IV2 




I'A 


4'A 


V. 


3V8 


4 


V18 


IV2 




IV2 


5 


Vi. 


3V8 


4 


V2 


1% 




2 


6 


Vs 


4V4 


4 


V. 


2 




2V2 


7 


"As 


5V2 


4 


V. 


2V4 




3 


T'A 


'U 


6 


4 


v. 


2V2 




S'A 


8'A 


"Ae 


7 


4 


Vs 


2V2 




4 


9 


"A. 


7V2 


8 


v. 


2V4 




4V2 


9'A 


"A» 


7'U 


8 


v« 


3 




5 


10 


"/16 


8V> 


8 


V. 


3 




6 


11 


1 


9V. 


8 


y* 


3 




7 


12'A 


IV.. 


IOV4 


8 


V4 


3 




8 


13V. 


IV. 


IIV* 


8 


'/i 


3V4 




9 


15 


IV. 


13V4 


12 


'/i 


3V4 




10 


16 


lVl6 


14V4 


12 


Vs 


3V2 




12 


19 


1V« 


17 


12 


V. 


3V4 




14 


21 


IV. 


isv* 


12 


1 


4V4 




15 


22V* 


IV. 


20 


16 


1 


4V4 





66 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



TABLE 39 (Cmtinued) 
Ameeican Standakd Pipe Flanges — 125 Pounds Working Pressure 



Size 


Diameter 


Thickness 


Bolt 


Number 


Size of 


Length 


Length of 
Studs with 


of Flanges 


of Flanges 


Circle 


of 


Bolts 


of Bolts 




Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Bolts 


Inches 


Inches 


X wo X^ lltO 

Inches 


16 


23V2 


iVi. 


21V* 


16 


1 


4V* 




18 


25 


IVu 


22V* 


16 


iv. 


4'A 




20 


27V2 


i"A« 


25 


20 


IVs 


5 




22 


29V> 


I'Vi. 


27V* 


20 


IV* 


5V2 




24 


32 


IVs 


29V2 


20 


IV* 


5V2 




26 


34'A 


2 


31V* 


24 


IV* 


5V* 




28 


3672 


2V.S 


34 


28 


IV* 


6 




30 


38'A 


2V8 


36 


28 


1V8 


6V* 




32 


41V* 


2V* 


38V2 


28 


1V2 


6V2 




34 


43'/* 


2Vi. 


4OV2 


32 


1V2 


6V2 




36 


46 


2V. 


42V* 


32 


1V2 


7 




38 


48V4 


2V. 


45V* 


32 


1V8 


7 


9 


40 


50'A 


2V2 


47V* 


36 


1V8 


7 


9 


42 


53 


2V8 


49V2 


36 


1V8 


7V2 


9V. 


44 


55V* 


, 2V8 


51V* 


40 


IVs 


7V2 


9V2 


46 


57V* 


2"A6 


53V* 


40 


1V8 


7V2 


9V2 


48 


59V2 


2V* 


66 


44 


1V8 


8 


9V. 


50 


eiv* 


2V* 


58V* 


44 


IV* 


8 


10 


52 


64 


2V8 


6OV2 


44 


IV* 


8 


IOV2 


54 


66V* 


3 


62V* 


44 


IV* 


8V. 


IOV2 


56 


68V* 


3 


65 


48 


IV* 


8V2 


10V> 


58 


71 


3Vs 


67V* 


48 


IV* 


9 


11 


60 


73 


3V8 


69V* 


52 


IV* 


9 


11 


62 


75V* 


3V* 


71V* 


52 


1V8 


9 


11V2 


64 


78 


3V* 


74 


52 


IVa 


9 


llV. 


66 


80 


3V8 


76 


52 


1V8 


9V2 


11V2 


68 


82V* 


3V8 


78V* 


56 


1V8 


9V2 


11V2 


70 


84V2 


3V2 


8OV2 


56 


1V8 


10 


12 


72 


86V2 


3V2 


82V2 


60 


IV. 


10 


12 


74 


88V2 


3V8 


84V2 


60 


1V8 


10 


12 


76 


90V* 


3V8 


86V2 


60 


7V8 


10 


12 


78 


93 


3V* 


88V* 


60 


2 


10V2 


I2V2 


80 


95V* 


3V* 


91 


60 


2 


10V2 


12V. 


82 


97V2 


3V. 


93V* 


60 


2 


10V2 


13 


84 


99V* 


3V. 


95V2 


64 


2 


lOVi 


13 


86 


102 


4 


97V* 


64 


2 


11 


13 


88 


104V* 


4 


100 


68 


2 


11 


13 


90 


106V. 


4V. 


102V* 


68 


2V8 


llV. 


14 


92 


108V* 


4V8 


104V2 


68 


2V8 


iiV. 


14 


94 


111 


4V* 


106V* 


68 


2V8 


11V2 


14 


96 


113V* 


4V* 


IO8V2 


68 


2V* 


11V2 


14V2 


98 


115V2 


4V8 


uov* 


68 


2V* 


12 


14V2 


100 


117V* 


4V8 


113 


68 


2V* 


12 


14V2 



PIPE FITTINGS 



67 



TABLE 40 

Extra Hbavt Amebican Standard Pipe Flanges 

260 Pounds Working Pressure 



Size 
Inches 


Diameter 


Thickness 


Bolt 


Number 


Size of 


Length of 


Length of 

Rtiirin with 


of Flanges 


of Flanges 


CSrcle 


of 


Bolts 


Bolts 


OvUUB WlvU 

Two Nuts 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Bolts 


Inches 


Inches 


■L TT V XI IXUO 

Inches 


1 


4V= 


"A. 


3V4 


4 


V2 


2 




I'A 


5 


'A 


3V4 


4 


V2 


2V4 




IV. 


6 


"A. 


4'A 


4 


'A 


2V2 




2 


6V2 


'A. 


5 


4 


'A 


2V2 




2V2 


7% 


1 


S'A 


4 


'A 


3 




3 


8'A 


I'A 


eVs 


8 


'A 


3V. 




3Vi 


9 


I'/ie 


7V4 


8 


'A 


3V4 




4 


10 


I'A 


7V8 


8 


'A 


3V2 




4V. 


lOVi! 


lVi« 


8'A 


8 


'A 


3V2 




5 


11 


I'A 


9V4 


8 


'A 


3V4 




6 


12'A 


I'A. 


lOVs 


12 


'A 


3V4 




7 


14 


IV2 


ii'A 


12 


'A 


4 




8 


15 


IVs 


13 


12 


'A 


4V4 




9 


I6V4 


IV4 


14 


12 


1 


4V4 




10 


17V2 


I'A 


15V4 


16 


1 


5 




12 


2OV2 


2 


17V4 


16 


IV8 


5V2 




14 


23 


2V8 


20V4 


20 


I'A 


5V4 




15 


24'A 


2Vl6 


21'A 


20 


IV* 


6 




16 


25'A 


2V4 


22V2 


20 


IV4 


6 




18 


28 


2'U 


24V4 


24 


IV4 


6V4 




20 


3OV2 


2'A 


27 


24 


IV8 


6V4 




22 


33 


2V8 


29V4 


24 


1V2 


7 




24 


36 


2V4 


32 


24 


IV8 


7V. 


9V2 


26 


38V4 


21V16 


341/2 


28 


IVs 


8 


10 


28 


4OV4 


2iV» 


37 


28 


1V8 


8 


10 


30 


43 


3 


39V4 


28 


IV4 


8V2 


IOVj 


32 


45V4 


3V8 


4IV2 


28 


IVs 


9 


11 


34 


477. 


3V4 


43V2 


28 


IVs 


9 


11V2 


36 


SO 


SVs 


46 


32 


IVs 


9V2 


11V2 


38 


52Vi 


3Vi. 


48 


32 


IVs 


9V2 


11V2 


40 


54V2 


3Vl6 


5OV4 


36 


IV8 


10 


12 


42 


57 


3"/i. 


52V4 


36 


IV8 


10 


12 


44 


59V4 


3V4 


55 


36 


2 


IOV2 


I2V2 


46 


6IV2 


3V8 


57V4 


40 


2 


IOV2 


13 


48 


65 


4 


6OV4 


40 


2 


11 


13 



Reducing Fittings. — The sizes for reducing fittings are given 
in Tables 41, 42, 43, and 44. 



68 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



On all reducing tees and crosses from 1 inch to 16 inches, in- 
clusive, the centre to face dimension of the various outlets is the 
same on fittings of the same size run. Thus a 5 x 5 X 1 tee has 
the same centre to face dimension as a 5 X 5 x 5 tee, and is inter- 
changeable with any combination of 5 inch cross. For sizes 18 
inches and up interchangeabiUty exists in two classes, one for 
short body patterns and one for long body patterns. 




Fig. 45. Short Body Reducing CroBBes and Tees. 



TABLE 41 (Fia. 45) 
AuEBiCAN Standard REDtrcma Tees and Cbosses 
Short Body Paitem 
126 Pounds, Working Pressure 





Size of 










Size of 








Size 


Outlet 
and 


B-B 


B 


C 


Sine 


Outlet 
and 


B-B 


B 


C 


Inches 


Smaller 
Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Smaller 
Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


18 


12 


26 


13 


15V2 


60 


40 


66 


33 


41 


20 


14 


28 


14 


17 


62 


40 


66 


33 


42 


22 


15 


28 


14 


18 


64 


42 


68 


34 


44 


24 


16 


30 


15 


19 


66 


44 


70 


35 


45 


26 


18 


32 


16 


20 


68 


44 


70 


35 


46 


28 


18 


32 


16 


21 


70 


46 


64 


37 


47 


30 


20 


36 


18 


23 


72 


48 


80 


40 


48 


32 


20 


36 


18 


24 


74 


48 


80 


40 


49 


34 


22 


38 


19 


25 


76 


50 


84 


42 


50 


36 


24 


40 


20 


26 


78 


52 


86 


43 


52 


38 


24 


40 


20 


28 


80 


52 


86 


43 


53 


40 


26 


44 


22 


29 


82 


54 


88 


44 


54 


42 


28 


46 


23 


30 


84 


56 


94 


47 


56 


44 


28 


46 


23 


31 


86 


56 


94 


47 


57 


46 


30 


48 


24 


33 


88 


58 


96 


48 


58 


48 


32 


52 


26 


34 


90 


60 


100 


50 


61 


50 


32 


52 


26 


35 


92 


60 


100 


50 


62 


52 


34 


54 


27 


36 


94 


62 


104 


52 


63 


54 


36 


58 


29 


37 


96 


64 


106 


53 


64 


56 


36 


58 


29 


39 


98 


64' 


106 


53 


65 


58 


38 


62 


31 


40 


100 


66 


110 


55 


67 



PIPE FITTINGS 



6d 



TABLE 42 (Fia. 45) 

Extra Heavy Ambmcan Standard Rbdttcing Tees and Crosses 
Short Body Pattern 

260 Pounds. Working Pressure 





Size of 










Size of 








Size 


Outlet 
and 


B-B 


B 


c 


Size 


Outlet 
and 


B-B 


B 


C 


Inches 


Smaller 
Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Smaller 
Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


18 


12 


28 


14 


17 


34 


22 


44 


22 


28 


20 


14 


31 


15V2 


18V. 


36 


24 


47 


23V. 


29V. 


22 


15 


33 


16V» 


20 


38 


24 


47 


23V. 


30V. 


24 


16 


34 


17 


21V. 


40 


26 


50 


25 


31V. 


26 


18 


38 


19 


23 


42 


28 


53 


26V. 


33V. 


28 


18 


38 


19 


24 


44 


28 


53 


26V. 


34V. 


30 


20 


41 


20V. 


25V. 


46 


30 


55 


27V. 


35V. 


32 


20 


41 


20V. 


26V. 


48 


32 


58 


29 


37V. 



n 



t 



rr 



"i^mtUM 



vv-r 




Fig. 46. Short Body Beducing 
Laterals. 



Fig. 47. Long Body Reducing 
Laterals. 



TABLE 43 
American Standard REDtjciNa Laterals 
Short Body Pattern (Fig. 46) 
126 Pounds Working Pressure 



Size 


Size of Branch 
and Smaller 


C 


D 


E 


F 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


18 


9 


26 


25 


1 


27V. 


20 


10 


28 


27 


1 


29V. 


22 


10 


29 


28V. 


V. 


31V. 


24 


12 


32 


31V. 


V. 


34V. 


26 


12 


35 


35 





38 


28 


14 


37 


37 





40 


30 


15 


39 


39 





42 



70 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



Long Body Pattern (Fig. 47) 



Siie 


Size of Branch 
and Larger 


C 


D 


E 


F 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


18 


10 


39 


32 


7 


32 


20 


12 


43 


35 


8V. 


35 


22 


12 


46 


37V. 


8 


371/, 


24 


14 


49Vj 


40^/, 


9 


40V. 


26 


14 


53 


44 


9 


44 


28 


15 


56 


46'A 


9V» 


46'/, 


30 


16 


59 


49 


10 


49 



TABLE 44 

Extra Heavy Amkbican Standard RBDUciNa Laterals 

Short Body Patiem (Fia. 46) 

250 Pounds Working Pressure 



Size 


Size of Branch 
and Smaller 


C 


D 


E 


F 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


18 


9 


34 


31 


3 


32V. 


20 


10 


37 


34 


3 




22 


10 


40 


37 


3 




24 


12 


44 


41 


3 


43 



Long Body Pattern (Fig. 47) 



Size 


Size of Branch 
and Larger 


C 


D 


E 


F 


Inohes 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


18 


10 


45V. 








20 


12 


49 








22 


12 


53 








24 


14 


57V. 









Cast Steel Fittings. — Walworth Company list cast steel fit- 
tings for steam pressures up to 350 pounds working pressure, and 
total temperature of 800 degrees, or working water pressures of 

1,000 pounds for 2 inch to 4 inch sizes. 
800 pounds for 4V2 inch to 8 inch sizes. 
500 pounds for 9 inch to 24 inch sizes. 



PIPE FITTINGS 



71 



These fittings have the same dimensions as extra heavy cast iron 
fittings but are made from steel, having a tensile strength of 
60,000 pounds. 

Ammonia Fittings. — For ammonia piping malleable iron 
screwed fittings are made with a recess for soldering to insure 
tightness. Flange fittings are made tongued and grooved and 
provided with gaskiets. The flanges may be round, square, or 




Fig. 48. Flanged Ammonia Fittings. 

oval. Fig. 48 shows some flanged ammonia fittings, and Table 
45 gives the sizes of lead or rubber gaskets for tongued and grooved 
ammonia joints, as made by the Walworth Company. 



TABLE 45 
Ammonia Gaskets fob Tongued and Grooved Joints 



Size 
Inches 


Outside 


Inside 


Size 
Inches 


Outside 


Inside 


Inches 


Inch^ 


Diameter 
Inches 


Diameter 
Inches 


V4 


"/a 


»/« 


2 


3V32 


2Vi. 


V. 


1V.2 


"/m 


2V. 


3"/a 


2»/i. 


v« 


IVa 


Va 


3 


4V»a 


3Vl6 


v« 


1"/S2 


IVs 


3V. 


4"/»2 


4V.6 


1 


l"/3. 


IV. 


4 


5"/« 


4Vi. 


I'A 


2V« 


l"/l8 


5 


6" A. 


5V. 


IV. 


2»/» 


l»/l. 


6' 


7"/.. 


6"/i. 



72 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



British Standard Kpe Flanges and Fittings. — The dimensions 
for standard pipe flanges used in England are given in Tables 46 
and 47. 

TABLE 46 

British Stakdabd Pipe Flanges 

For Working Steam Pressures up to 55 Pounds per Square Inch, and for 
Water Pressure up to SOO Pounds per Square Inch 

This table does not apply to boiler feed pipes, or other water pipes subject 
to exceptional shocks. 





Diameter 
of Flange 


Diameter 
of Bolt 
Circle 


Number 

of 

Bolts 


Diameter 
of Bolts 


Thickness of Flanges 


Internal 

Diameter 

of Kpe 


Cast Iron 

and Steel 

or Iron 

Welded on 


Cast 

steel and 

Bronze 


Stamped 

or Forged 

Wrought 

Iron or 
















Steel 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 




Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


V2 


3V4 


278 


4 


7. 


7. 


78 


7i. 


'h 


4 


2V8 


4 


7. 


7. 


78 


7i. 


1 


4V2 


374 


4 


7. 


7. 


78 


7i« 


1V4 


47* 


37l6 


4 


V. 


78 


7. 


74 


IV. 


57* 


378 


4 


7. 


78 


7. 


74 


2 


6 


47. 


4 


78 


74 


7.8 


7i. 


2'A 


67. 


5 


4 


78 


74 


7i« 


7i. 


3 


77* 


574 


4 


78 


74 


7l6 


78 


3V. 


8 


67. 


4 


78 


74 


7l6 


78 


4 


87s 


7 


4 


78 


V8 


"As 


78 


4V. 


9 


77. 


8 


78 


78 


"Aa 


Vi. 


5 


10 


874 


8 


78 


78 


"A. 


7. 


6 


11 


974 


8 


78 


7. 


»A. 


7. 


7 


12 


1074 


8 


78 


1 


74 


7. 


8 


1374 


117. 


8 


78 


1 


74 


7. 


9 


147. 


1274 


8 


78 


1 


74 


78 


10 


16 


14 


8 


74 


1 


74 


78 


12 


18 


16 


12 


74 


178 


78 


78 


14 


2074 


187. 


12 


78 


174 


1 


74 


15 


2174 


197. 


12 


78 


174 


1 


74 


16 


223/4 


207. 


12 


78 


174 


1 


74 


18 


2574 


23 


12 


78 


178 


178 


78 


20 


2774 


2574 


16 


78 


17. 


174 


1 


24 


327. 


2974 


16 


1 


178 


178 


178 



Bolt-holes. — For '/2-inch and 78-inch bolts the diameters of the holes 
to be 'Arinch larger than the diameters of the bolts, and for larger sizes of 
bolts, 78 inch. Bolt-holes to be drilled off centre lines. 



PIPE FITl'INGS 



73 



TABLE 47 
Bbitish Standard Pipe Flanges 

For Working Pressures up to ISB Pounds, 2^5 Pounds, and SSB Pounds per 

Square Inch 



Internal 


Diam. 


Diam. 


Number 






TfaioknesB of Flanges 
















Diam. 


of 


of Bolt 


of 


Diameter ot 


Cast Iron, and 


steel (Cast or 


of Pipe 


Flange 


CSiole 


Bolts 


Bolts 


Steel or Iron 


Riveted 


on) 














Welded on 


and Bronze 




125 Lbs. 


125 Lbs. 


125 Lba. 




















225 Lba. 


225 Lbs. 


225 Lbs. 


125 Lbs. 




125 


225 


325 


125 


225 


325 




325 Lbs. 


325 Lbs. 


325 Lbs. 


225 Lbs. 


325 Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


'A 


3V. 


2»A 




'A 


'A 


V2 


V2 


V. 


V. 


v.. 


V. 


V- 


4 


2V8 




'A 


V. 


V2 


V2 


V. 


V. 


Vi. 


V. 


1 


4»/« 


3Vi. 




'A 


V. 


V2 


V. 


V. 


V. 


V2 


>V" 


I'A 


5V4 


3V. 




V. 


'A 


v> 


V. 


V. 


V2 


V. 


"A« 


I'A 


51/2 


4'A 




'A 


V> 


Vs 


V. 


V. 


V2 


v» 


V. 


2 


e'A 


5 




V» 


V. 


V. 


V. 


1 


V. 


"A. 


V. 


2V» 


7V. 


5»A 


8 


V. 


V. 


V. 


'A 


1 


V. 


"A. 


V. 


3 


8 


6>A 


8 


V. 


V. 


V. 


1 


IV. 


V. 


V. 


1 


3>A 


8>A 


7 


8 


V. 


V. 


V. 


1 


IV. 


V. 


V. 


1 


4 


9 


71A 


8 


V. 


V. 


V. 


IV. 


IV. 


V. 


V. 


IV. 


4V. 


10 


8V. 


8 


V. 


V. 


V. 


IV. 


IV. 


V. 


V. 


IV. 


5 


11 


9V. 


8 


V. 


'A 


1 


IV. 


1V2 


V. 


1 


IV. 


6 


12 


lOV. 


12 


V. 


'A 


1 


IV. 


1V2 


V. 


1 


IV. 


7 


13V. 


IIV2 


12 


V. 


V. 


1 


IV. 


IVs 


V. 


IV. 


IV. 


8 


14V2 


12V. 


12 


V. 


'A 


IVs 


IV. 


IV. 


1 


IV. 


1V« 


9 


16 


14 


12 


V. 


1 


IV. 


1V2 


IV. 


1 


IV. 


IV. 


10 


17 


15 


12 


V. 


1 


IV. 


1V2 


IV. 


1 


IV. 


IVs 


12 


19»A 


17V. 


16 


V. 


1 


IV. 


IV. 


2 


IV. 


IV. 


IV. 


14 


2IV4 


19V2 


16 


1 


I'A 


IV. 


IV. 


2V. 


IV. 


1V2 


IVs 


15 


22'A 


2OV2 


16. 


1 


IV. 


IV. 


IV. 


2V. 


IV. 


IV. 


IVs 


16 


24 


21V. 


20 


1 


I'A 


IV. 


IV. 


2V. 


IV. 


IV. 


2 


18 


261A 


24 


20 


1V» 


IV. 


1V2 


2 


2V. 


IV. 


IV. 


2Vs 


20 


29 


26V2 


24 


I'A 


IV. 


IV. 


2V. 


21/2 


1V2. 


IV. 


2V. 


22 


31 


28V2 


24 


IV. 


IV. 


IV. 


2V. 


2V. 


1V2 


2 


2Vs 


24 


331A 


30V. 


24 


IV. 


IV8 


IV. 


2V. 


2V< 


IV. 


2V. 


2V2 



Bolt-holes. — For V2-inch and V^nch bolts the diameters of the holes to be ^/le-inch 
larger than the diameters of the bolts, and for larger sizes of bolts, Vciiich, Bolt-holes to be 
drilled off center lines. 

The Engineering Standards Committee gives four classes 
according to pressure, as follows: low pressure for steam up to 
55 pounds, and water up to 200 pounds per square inch; inter- 
mediate pressure for steam over 55 pounds and not exceeding 
125 pounds; high pressure for steam pressure over 125 pounds, 
and not exceeding 225 pounds; extra high pressure for steam 
pressure over 225 pounds and not exceeding 325 pounds. 



74 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



General dimensions for British Standard Flanged Fittings are 
given in Tables 48 and 49 for short tees and bends of cast material 
and for long bends of wrought iron and steel. 




^ 



jy 



Fig. 49. British Standard Short Tees and Bends. 

TABLE 48 (Fia. 49) 
British STAin>ABD Short Bendb and Tees 
SSS Pounds Working Pressure 



Siie 


A 


R 


Size 


A 


E 


D 






D 






Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


V2 


3'A 


2'A 


7 


10 


vv« 


'A 


3'A 


2V4 


8 


11 


8'A 


1 


4 


2»A 


9 


12 


9 


I'A 


4'A 


3 


10 


13 


10 


I'A 


4V. 


3 


12 


15 


ii'A 


2 


5 


3V. 


14 


17 


13'A 


2'A 


5V2 


3'A 


15 


18 


14V4 


3 


6 


4 


16 


19 


15'A 


3V. 


6Vi. 


4V. 


18 


21 


17 


4 


7 


4'A 


20 


23 


18»A 


5 


8 


5V2 


21 


24 


19V. 


6 


9 


6'A 


24 


27 


22V4 




Fig. 50. British Standard Long Bends. 



PIPE FITTINGS 



75 



TABLE 49 (Fig. 50) 
British Standakd Long Bends of Wbought Iron and Steel 



Siie 


A 


B 


R 


Site 


A 


B 


B 


D 








D 








Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inqhea 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


•A 


4'A 


2V. 


2 


6 


25 


7 


18 


'A 


5 


2V. 


2V. 


7 


31V. 


7 


24V. 


1 


6 


3 


3 


8 


36 


8 


28 


I'A 


6»A 


3 


3V4 


9 


39V. 


8 


31V. 


IV. 


7'A 


3 


4V. 


10 


49 


9 


40 


2 


97. 


3V. 


6 


12 


58 


10 


48 


2'A 


llV. 


4 


7V. 


14 


74 


11 


63 


3 


13 


4 


9 


15 


79V. 


12 


67V. 


3V. 


15V. 


5 


lOV. 


16 


93 


13 


80 


4 


17 


5 


12 


18 


104 


14 


90 


5 


21 


6 


15 


20 


126 


16 


110 



CHAPTER V 
PIPE JOINTS 

There are a great many kinds of joints used for connecting 
pieces of pipe. Some forms are described in this chapter but 
there are many others which space does not permit showing. The 
ideal arrangement woidd be to have the pipe in one continuous 
piece, but this is not practicable, although the number of joints 




Fig. 51. Atwood Line Weld. 

can be greatly reduced by using welded joints. The question of 
joints should receive very careful attention and the type selected 
which will best meet the conditions involved. 

Welded Joints. — Any means of reducing the niunber of joints 
to be made in pipe lines is distinctly worth while as it makes 





^^ 





Fig. 52. Interlock Welded Necks. 

fewer chances for leakage, lessens repairs, and is generally com- 
mendable. The oxy-acetylene blow torch is used by the Pitts- 
burg Valve, Foundry, and Construction Company for doing 



PIPE JOINTS 



77 



welded work, as illustrated in the patented joints shown in Figs. 
51 and 52. The "Atwood line weld," Fig. 51, allows the fabricar 
tion of pipes into lengths as long as can be handled for shipment, 
with a consequent reduction by about fifty per cent of the number 





Figs. 53 and 54. Screwed Unions. 

of flange joints in the line. For connecting branch lines of wrought 
pipe in mains of the same material, "interlock welded necks" 
are made use of to eliminate cast fittings. This appears to good 
advantage in welded headers where the weight is reduced in addi- 
tion to doing away with a large number of joints. The method 
of making this connection is shown in Fig. 52. 

Screw Unions. — For joining two lengths of small screwed 
pipe, couplings are in general use, as described in Chapter IV, 




Figs. 55 and 56. Screwed Unions. 

Table 20. When the joint must be immade frequently, or for 
making the last joint in a line, unions may be used. Fig. 53 shows 
a union made of malleable iron with a brass seat forced into place 
so that contact is between iron and brass. Both ends are ground 



78 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



together, making a tight joint. Fig. 54 shows a union made of 
malleable iron, using a metallic gasket to make a tight joint. The 
Kewanee Union shown in Fig. 55 is made by the National Tube 
Company. Part A is made of brass, giving a brass to iron thread 
connection, and a brass to iron ball joint seat. Fig. 56 shows 
the Dart Union, having inserted brass seats. Unions are also 
made entirely of brass. Table 50 gives the dimensions of Crane 
Company Unions. 




Figs. S7. Screwed Unions. 



TABLE 50 (Fig. 57) 
Crane Malleable Iron Unions, Union Ells, Union Tees 















Standard 




Klbows 


Union, 


Union, 


Standard 


Crane and 


and Rail- 
road Unions 


Size 


and Tees 


Male 


Female 


Union 


Unions 
D 


with Male 




A 


B 


C 


D 


and Female 












Ends 














E 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inchea 


Inches 


Inches 


V. 


... 


. • . 


. . > 


I'A 






V4 


"Ae 


2'A« 


l»A. 


I'A 


2Vi. 


27* 


•A 


"Ae 


2'A 


2Vu 


I'A 


2'A 


2Vi. 


V. 


IVs 


3Vl6 


2Vl6 


I'A 


2Vi. 


2"A. 


V* 


I'A. 


3>A 


2«A 


2V8 


27. 


37i. 


1 


I'A. 


3"A. 


3 


2V. 


2'A 


3Vi. 


I'A 


I'A 


4Vi. 


3Vi. 


2V. 


2"/m 


3»A. 


IV. 


l"A. 


4»A 


3»A. 


2»A. 


37. 


4 


2 


2V« 


5'A 


4V. 


3'A 


3»A. 


4Vi. 


2V. 


2"A. 


6 


4'A 


3Vl6 


47i. 


4'A 


3 








3"A. 


4V. 




3V. 








4»A 






4 






... 


47. 







PIPE JOINTS 



78 



Flange Unions. — For many purposes, especially for the larger 
sizes, flange unions, Figs. 58 and 59, are to be preferred. These 
are made in a large variety of forms. The object of using them 
is to facilitate the erection and disassembling of the piping. The 
Kewanee Flange Union is shown in Fig. 59. 





Figs. 68 and 59. Flanged Unions. 



Bolt Circles and Drilling. — The diameters of bolt circles, 
sizes of bolts and bolt holes, number of bolts, etc., are given 
in Tables 39 and 40, Chapter IV, for the American Standard 
which is generally used in the United States. When cast 
steel flanges are used the bolt holes are spot faced. This is 
done by facing off around the bolt holes on the back side of 
the flange, where the nut or head of the bolt bears. This 
gives a truer and firmer bearing than can be had with a 
rough casting. 

Flange Facing. — There are a large number of methods of 
facing flanges and providing for the holding of gaskets to make 
tight joints. These may be Usted as 



80 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



Straight plain face 
Corrugated, plain face 
Scored, plain face 
Grooved, plain face 



Raised face for gasket 
Raised face for ground joint 
Tongue and groove 
Male and female 



Fig. 60 shows the plain straight-faced flange commonly employed 
for pressures up to 125 pounds on steam and water. Either a 
full face or ring gasket is used. The full face gasket is a Kttle 
easier to put in place and to centraUze with the bore of the pipe. 
Very good results can be obtained by a ring gasket of fair thick- 
ness, so that the gasket will have suJB&cient pressure exerted upon 
it by the bolts to make a tight joint, before the outside edges of 
the flange meet. 

A corrugated, plain face flange is made by cutting concentric 
cvu:ves with a round nosed tool. The corrugations have a tend- 



wmm/m 




ptiiifjiijjim r. 




^^ ^v,^\\x^ 




Pig. 60. Straight Faced Flange. 



Fig. 61. Raised Face Flange. 



ency to prevent the gaskets from blowing out. Their use is 
desirable when the flmd conveyed requires extra thick gaskets. 
A scored, plain face flange is one which has concentric rings scored 
upon the face by a diamond-pointed tool. When lead gaskets 
must be used, as on oil and acid lines, this form of flange is de- 
sirable. The lead gasket squeezes into the scores and helps to 
maintain a tight joint without bringing undue strain on the bolts. 
Same forms of grooved flanges are used in which contact is made 
by a copper or lead wire pressed into a groove cut into both 
flanges. This joint is effective, but the flanges must be strong 
to withstand the stresses set up when the bolts are tightened. 

A very satisfactory joint for high pressiu-e steam lines is made 
by raising the face of the flange between the inside of the bolt 



PIPE JOINTS 



81 



holes and the bore Vw inch above the rest of the flange, Fig. 61. 
The entire force exerted by the bolts is concentrated at the joint 
without danger of the edges of the flanges coming together, mak- 
ing an eflBcient joint. Such flange faces are advised by the 
A. S. M. E. Committee for all flanges and fittings for use with 
pressures above 125 pounds. 

It is essential that no organic matter should be in contact with 
superheated- steam as it will carbonize. For such use the raised 
faces of Fig. 61 may be ground, giving a metal to metal joint. 
Special gaskets may be had for superheated steam. 

The tongued and grooved flange shown in Fig. 62 provides a 
recess to hold the packing in place so that it cannot blow out. 





Fig. 62. Tongued and Grooved Flanges. Fig. 63. Male and Flanges. 



The male and female flanges shown in Fig. 63 are used con- 
siderably on high pressure hydraulic lines and to some extent 
on high pressure steam Unes. The gasket is held seciu-ely in place, 
but both Figs. 62 and 63 are difficult to take down as they must 
be separated a distance equal to the projection before the pipe 
can be moved. 

Flange Joints for Steel Kpe. — For making joints with wrought 
pipe various forms of flange joints are made, of which the follow- 
ing may be mentioned: 



Screwed 

Screwed and calked 
Screwed and welded 
Welded 



Rolled joint 
Riveted and shrunk 
Swivel 
Shrunk joint 



The screwed joint shown in Fig. 60 is a common method of attach- 
ing flanges. The flange is screwed on until the pipe projects 



82 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



through, then the flange and pipe are faced off together. It is 
advisable to have the gasket bear on the end of the pipe to insure 
tightness. The threading weakens the pipe so that for high 
pressures some of the following tjrpes are advisable. Flanges 



^'^'^'^W^WA.-t 



ik^v^^^^^v.■.w.^^^ 




Fig. 64. Walco-Weld Flange. 



Fig. 65. Flange with Calking Recess. 



are made of cast iron, semi steel, malleable iron, cast steel, and 
forged steel suitable for the method of joining to the pipe and the 
pressure to be met. 

The Walco-Weld flange. Fig. 64, made by the Walworth Com- 
pany, is made by half-threading on the flange and then welding 
the back by the oxy-acetylene method, thereby completely elimi- 
nating the possibility of an imperfect or incomplete weld, as 

sometimes occurs with 
the furnace-welded 
flange. Flanges with a 
calking recess. Fig. 65, 
are made by the Crane 
Company by cutting a 
recess in the hubs on 
the backs of the flanges. 
This recess is Vz inch 
in depth, 1/4 inch wide 
at top, and Vw inch 
wide at bottom. It 
can be apphed to extra 
heavy flanges in sizes from 2 to 24 inch. Flanges so fitted are 
V2 inch higher than the regular flanges. When the flanges are 
used on cold water, the recesses are filled with lead, and when 
used on steam the recesses are filled with soft copper, which is 





Fig. 66. 
Welded Flange. 



Fig. 67. 
Rolled Joint. 



PIPE JOINTS 



83 




calked in firmly to keep the flanges from leaking where they are 
made on pipe. 

Welded joints are made by welding a wrought steel flange to 
the pipe, making them into one piece, as shown in Fig. 66. Fig. 
67 shows a form of rolled 
joint. A groove is turned 
into the flange and the pipe 
rolled into it. The shrimk 
joint is shown in Fig. 68. 
The flange is first bored to a 
shrink fit, and then heated 
and placed over the end of the 
pipe which is peened into the 
recess in the flange. Afterwards a facing cut is taken across the 
end of the pipe and flange. The gasket should bear on the end 
of the pipe as the joint between pipe and flange may not be 
absolutely tight. Shrunk joints are also made with either single 
or double riveting. 

The Walmanco joint. Fig. 69, was developed in the Walworth 
shops in 1897. Some of the advantages of this form as stated by 
the makers are : first — the pipe is not weakened by cutting into 
the waU; second — the gasket bears on the face of the lap, and 



Fig. 68. Shrink Joint. 





Fig. 69. Walmanco Joint. 



Fig. 70. Cranelap Joint. 



absolutely prevents leakage through the bore of the flange; third 
— the advantage of the flange swiveling on the pipe is obvious to 
the fitter; fourth — the flange has maximum strength, and is 
not subject to torsional strains in attaching. 

The Cranelap joint made by Crane Company is shown in Fig. 
70. The face of the flange is bevelled to the Avidth of the lap, to 



84 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



compensate for the difference in the thickness of the pipe between 
the inside and outside portions of the lap, caused by drawing over 
the pipe, and the lap is made with a square comer so that the 
inside of the pipe runs straight to the face of the joint, as illus- 
trated in Fig. 70. The flanges in these joints are loose and swivel. 
This is a great convenience when it is necessary to change the 
position of bolt holes, which this makes possible. 

Pipe Flange Tables. — The principal dimensions for the vari- 
ous flange joints are given in Tables 51 to 56 inclusive. For 
American standard pipe flanges and British standard pipe flanges 
see Tables 39, 40, 46 and 47 of Chapter IV. 




Umg Hub F7ansres 
C^st/ron or ^rrosfve/ 



Long Mu6 F/anges 
Forced Sfeet 



Fig. 71. Cranelap Flanges. 



Short Hub F/anges 
Ma//eo6/e /ran, Cosf-'ffteet 
or Far^eef Sfse/ 



TABLE 51 (Fig. 71) 
Extra Heavy Cranelap Pipe Joints 
WO Pounds Working Pressure 



Size 


B 


Q 


G 


E 


T 





N 


A 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


4 


6Vi. 


5V4 


IV4 


1V8 


6V8 


3V4 


S'A 


IV4 


4V. 


6'Vl6 


6V4 


IV16 


I'A 


7V4 


3"A6 


3V4 


I'Vis 


5 


7V8 


7 


I'A 


IV4 


7V4 


4V8 


S'A 


I'A 


6 


8V2 


7«/.. 


l'A« 


IV4 


9 


4V4 


3V4 


2 


7 


9V* 


9V8 


I'A 


1V16 


10 


4Vl6 


3V8 


2Vi. 


8 


lO'A 


IOV16 


I'A 


I'A 


11 


4V8 


3V2 


3Vl6 


9 


U'A 


ll'/s 


IV4 


IV16 


I2V4 


4'Vu 


3V8 


2V4 


10 


13V8 


12V8 


I'A 


I'A 


I31A 


4'Vl6 


3V4 


2V8 


12 


15V8 


14V4 


2 


1V8 


15V4 


5Vi« 


4 


2Vi. 


14 


16V4 


16Vl6 


2V8 


I'A 


17 


5'A 


4V8 


2"A. 


15 


17V8 


17V4 


2Vi. 


i"A. 


18 


5V8 


4V2 


2'Vi« 


16 


19V4 


181A 


2V4 


IV8 


19 


6 


4V4 


2V8 


18 


21V2 


20V4 


2V8 


2 


21'A 


6V4 


5 


3V.. 


20 


23V4 


22V> 


2V2 


2V4 


23V« 


6V2 


5V2 


S'A 


22 


26 


24V4 


2V8 


2V4 


25V2 


6V8 


5V2 


3V.. 


24 


28V4 


27 


2V4 


2Vi. 


27V2 


7V4 


6V4 


3V8 



PIPE JOINTS 



85 




Casf /ron 
Sem/ S/se/ 




Ma//ea6/e /ran 
Forget/ Sfee/ 




CtfSf /ron^ Semf Sfes/t 
fbtyeefSfee/ 



Fig. 72. Walmanco Flanges. 



TABLE 52 (Fia. 72) 
Standard Weight Walmanco Flanges 



New Style 


Low Hub 


High Hub 




Diameter 


Thickness 


Thickness 


Thickness 


Thickness 


Thickness 


Pipe Size 


of Flange 


through Hub 


at Edge 


through 
Hub 


at Edge 


through 
Hub 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


4 


9 


IVa 


"/.. 


17.. 


"A. 


278 


4V2 


974 


178 


"A. 


174 






5 


10 


I'A 


"/.. 


17.8 


"A. 


278 


6 


11 


2 


1 


l7i. 


1 


278 


7 


1272 


27l6 


17i. 


172 


17.. 


278 


8 


1372 


178 


178 


178 


178 


3 


9 


15 


278 


178 


I'A 


178 


374 


10 


16 


2Vl6 


17.6 


17. 


17.. 


372 


12 


19 


274 


174 


27.. 


174 


4V4 


14 


21 


2V8 


17. 


27i. 


IV. 


474 


15 


227* 


2V, 


178 


27.. 


IVs 


474 


16 


2372 


27l6 


17.. 


27.. 


17.. 


474 


18 


25 


27.. 


17.. 


27. 


17.. 


472 


20 


2772 


2"/i« 


1"/.. 


274 


l"A. 


472 


22 


2972 


2"/i« 


l"/i. 


278 






24 


32 


278 


17. 


3 


178 


572 


26 


3472 


3 










28 


3672 


37.. 










30 


38V4 


378 











86 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



TABLE 53 (Fig. 72) 
Extra Heavy Walmanco Flanges 

















Forged 






New Style 




High Hub 




Steel 


Pipe Size 


Outside 
Dismetei 












High Hub 


laches 




Thick- 




Thickness 


Thickness 






Inches 


Diameter 
of Face 


ness of 
Flange 


Diameter 
of Hub 


through 
Hub 


of 

Flange 


Thickness 
of Flange 


4 


10 


6"A 


2 


578 


2"/i. 


174 


178 


4>A 


lov. 


77. 


2 


6V1G 


278 


l7i. 


174 


5 


11 


8 


2V8 


6"A« 


3 


17. 


174 


6 


12V2 


9V4 


2V4 


8V1. 


37i. 


I7i. 


174 


7 


14 


lO'A 


2'A 


9 


37l6 


172 


17l8 


8 


15 


11V4 


2>A 


10 


37i. 


17. 


178 


9 


I6V4 


12V2 


2V8 


IIV4 


3"A« 


174 


17.. 


10 


17>A 


13»A 


2V4 


12Vi. 


3"A. 


178 


172 


12 


20V2 


16 


3 


14Vl6 


47.. 


2 


17. 


14 


23 


17V4 


S'A 


15"A6 


4"A6 


278 


17* 


15 


241A 


I8V4 


3V4 


17 


478 


27.. 


l"A. 


16 


25'A 


19V4 


3'A 


18 


5 


274 


178 


18 


28 


21V4 


S'A 


20 


57l6 


278 


2 


20 


30V. 


23V4 


3V4 


227. 


57. 


272 


274 


. 22 


33 


25V4 


3V8 


247j 


5V8 


278 




24 


36 


27V4 


4 


2672 


6"A6 


274 





TABLE 54 (Fig. 68) 
Shbunk and Pbened Flanges — Extra Heavy 



Size 


Diameter 


Cast Flanges 


Forged Flanges 




of Flange 














Inches 


Inches 


A 


B 


c 


A 


B 


c 


4 


10 


174 


67.8 


374 


178 


574 


378 


472 


1072 


17i. 


6'7i. 


3«A. 


174 


674 


374 


5 


11 


178 


778 


478 


174 


7 


374 


6 


1272 


17l6 


872 


474 


174 


7"/i. 


374 


7 


14 


172 


974 


4Vi. 


17l6 


978 


378 


8 


15 


178 


1078 


478 


178 


I07i6 


372 


9 


1674 


174 


1178 


4"/l6 


17l6 


1178 


37. 


10 


1772 


178 


1378 


4"A. 


172 


1278 


374 


12 


2072 


2 


1578 


57i. 


178 


1474 


4 


14 


23 


27. 


1674 


572 


174 


167i. 


478 


15 


2472 


27ie 


177. 


578 


1"A6 


1774 


472 


16 


2572 


274 


1974 


6 


17. 


1872 


47. 


18 


28 


278 


2172 


674 


2 


2074 


5 


20 


3072 


272 


2374 


672 


274 


227. 


572 


22 


33 


278 


26 


678 


274 


2474 


57. 


24 


36 


274 


2874 


774 


27l6 


27 


674 




87 



^•jTy.t 



Fig. 73. Tongued and Grooved Flanges. 



S 



S 
^ 





& 


o 










n 


^^ ^^ ^*». ^^ f^ ^**. tua ^^>. n ^^ ^^ ^^ ^*», ^-"^ ^■-., o9 ^"^ ^^ ^■>., ^-v, ^~»«, lo 

.-(T-i.-11-i.-l'r-icqcqMlNN 




-< 




i 


I 


o 






n 




i 
1 


<! 




p 




M 




1 


»-3 




1 


w 






|4 


^00 ^00 OO » Cffl OO « 00 « «» 00 « " w w e <o tt « o w « w 




i^;>>->>>->>>>x<.<<;<<K-<<;<<K 








» 













1 


1 


^ « « « ^ 

1— I^HtHi— (i— 1»— (C^C^C*> 



88 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 





Fig. 74. Male and Female Flanges. 

TABLE 56 (Fig. 74) 
ExTKA Heavy Mai.e and Female Flanges 



Size 


D 


E 


F 


H 


J 


Cast Flanges 


Forged Flanges 


Inches 


A 


B 


C 


A 


B 


G 


1 


4V. 


V" 


Vi. 


2V« 


2V» 








Vi. 


2 


1 


IV. 


5 


Vi. 


V. 


2.A 


2«/l6 








V. 


21/! 


IVs 


IV. 


6 


Vi. 


V. 


3V. 


3Vi. 








V. 


2V8 


IV. 


2 


6V2 


Vi. 


V. 


3V. 


311/1. 


V. 


3Vi 


IV. 


V. 


3V« 


1"/. 


2V2 


7V2 


Vi. 


V. 


4V« 


4Vis 


1 


4 


iVi. 


.1 


41/iB 


iVi. 


3 


8V. 


Vi. 


V. 


5 


5i/i« 


IV. 


4./. 


IVi. 


1 


411/1. 


1VI6 


3V. 


9 


Vi. 


Vs 


51/! 


5Vi. 


iVi. 


51/. 


IV. 


IV. 


5Vi. 


IV. 


4 


10 


Vw 


V. 


6 


evi. 


iV. 


5V. 


1'/. 


IV. 


51./,. 


IV. 


4'A 


lOVs 


v.. 


V. 


61/! 


6Vi5 


IVi. 


6V1. 


liVi. 


iV. 


61/. 


V'/u 


5 


11 


Vi. 


v. 


7V4 


7./n 


IV. 


6'/. 


IV. 


IV. 


6IV1. 


IVa 


6 


12V! 


Vi. 


V. 


8Va 


8Vit 


IVi. 


7iVi« 


2 


IV. 


7Vi 


2 


7 


14 


V. 


v.. 


9V. 


9Vi. 


IV! 


9 


2I/1S 


iVi. 


91/a 


2Vi. 


8 


15 


V. 


v.. 


lOV. 


lOii/i! 


IV. 


lOVs 


2./i« 


1"/. 


lOV. 


2'/i. 


9 


16V4 


V. 


Vi. 


11V» 


llii/i. 


IV. 


llVi. 


21/. 


IVi. 


llVi. 


21/. 


10 


17V! 


V. 


v.. 


12./. 


12iVi. 


IV. 


12»/. 


2V. 


IV! 


12Vi. 


2»/. 


12 


20Vi 


V* 


v.. 


151/. 


155/16 


2 


14V» 


2Vi. 


IV. 


14V. 


2Vl. 


14 


23 


V. 


Vl6 


161/! 


16Vi. 


21/. 


15Vu 


211/1. 


1"/. 


I51V1. 


211/1. 


15 


24Vi 


V. 


v« 


171/s 


17Vi. 


2>/i. 


I61V1. 


2i'/i. 


liVi. 


17Vi. 


2iVi. 


16 


25V! 


V. 


Vi. 


18V! 


ISVi. 


21/. 


18 


27. 


IV. 


201/. 


31/is 


IS 


28 


V. 


v.. 


21 


211/1. 


2'/, 


20V» 


31/1. 


2 


20V. 


31/1. 


20 


30V> 


V. 


Vi. 


23 


231/1. 


21/! 


22V1S 


31/. 


21/, 


221/8 


3Vi 


22 


33 


V. 


Vi. 


251/! 


25Vi. 


2./, 


241/! 


3Vi. 


21/. 


24'/. 


3V. 


24 


36 


V. 


Vi. 


27Vi 


27Vi6 


28/. 


26V. 


3V. 


2V« 


26»/i. 


3'/s 



Special Connections. — Several forms of special connections for 
lap-welded steel pipe, as made by the American Spiral Pipe Works, 
are shown in Figs. 75 to 80. The flanges are all made of forged 
steel. Fig. 75 shows a riveted steel flange connection which is 
made in different standards for high and low pressure work. Fig. 
76 shows a welded steel flange with follower rings, a form of con- 
nection especially suited for high pressure work. A field riveted 
joint suitable for long Knes where faciUties are ample for rivet- 
ing up at destination, is shown in Fig. 77. It possesses many 
advantages over the ordinary field joint as the taper end may 
be inserted into the flared end without difficulty, thus enabling 
holes to be brought quickly inta alignment. 



PIPE JOINTS 



89 



A form of bell and spigot lead joint for low pressure water 
lines is shown in Fig. 78. It requires a less amount of lead than 




Fig. 75. Riveted Flanges. 



Fig. 76. Flanges with Follower Rings. 



ordinary cast pipe. The bolted socket joint shown in Fig. 79 is 
especially suited for long line work or for connections on submerged 



o 
o 
o 
o 

o 




Fig. 77. Field Riveted Joint. 



Fig. 78. Bell and Spigot Joint. 



pipe lines as it allows for a sKght deflection at each joint. The 
standard bolted joint connection shown in Fig. 80 forms an ex- 




Fig. 79. Bolted Socket Joint. 



Fig. 80. Bolted Joint. 



pansion joint and permits a deflection or slight angle to be made 
at each joint. 



90 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



Converse Joints. — The Converse lock joint pipe, Fig. 81, and 
the Matheson joint pipe, Fig. 82, are made by the National Tube 
Company in sizes ranging from 2 inches to 30 inches outside 
diameter, and about 18 feet long. The joints are made with 




Fig. 81. Converse Joint. 

lead. The Converse Lock Joint is made by means of a cast iron 
hub whose inner surface has an inwardly projecting ring at mid- 
length; on each side of this ring are two wedge-shaped pockets, 
diametrically opposite; near each mouth of the hub is a recess 
for lead. Close to each end of the pipe are two strong rivets, 
placed at such distance from the end that when the pipe is inserted 

I into the hub and 

I slightly rotated, 

the rivets engage 
the slopes of the 
wedge-shaped pock- 
ets and force the 
end of the pipe 
against the central 
ring of the hub. 
Lead is then pour- 
ed into the recess 
provided for it. 




Fig. 82. Matheson Joint. 



and securely calked. Table 57 gives standard sizes, thicknesses, 
etc., for Converse joint pipe. 

Matheson Joints. — Matheson joint pipe is a pipe with a joint 
of a bell and spigot type, very similar in appearance to a cast iron 



PIPE JOINTS 



91 



TABLE 57 (Fio. 81) 
CoNVBESE Lock Joint Pipe 









Huh 


— Cast Iron 




Weight per 




External 


Thick- 


Weight 

per Foot 

Plain Ends 








Weight 
of Lead 


Foot 
Complete, 


MiU 


Diameter 


ness 


Diameter 
D 


Length 
L 


Weight 


for Field 
End 


Including 
Hub Leaded 


Test 
















on Mill End 




2.00 


.095 


1.932 


3V4 


3V. 


4.25 


1.00 


2.207 


700 


3.00 


.109 


3.365 


5V8 


3V4 


8.50 


2.25 


3.931 


700 


4.00 


.128 


5.293 


6Vi 


4 


10.50 


3.00 


5.991 


600 


5.00 


.134 


6.963 


7V4 


4V4 


15.00 


3.75 


7.932 


600 


6.00 


.140 


8.762 


8V4 


4V. 


19.00 


4.50 


9.969 


600 


7.00 


.149 


10.902 


9'A 


4'A 


24.00 


5.50 


12.419 


600 


8.00 


.158 


13.233 


lO'A 


4V4 


28.25 


6.50 


15.008 


600 


9.00 


.167 


15.754 


11V4 


4V4 


34.60 


8.50 


17.958 


500 


10.00 


.175 


18.363 


12V4 


5 


39.00 


9.00 


20.801 


500 


11.00 


.185 


21.368 


13V4 


5 


41.50 


10.00 


23.963 


500 


12.00 


.194 


24.461 


15 


5V2 


55.00 


11.00 


27.795 


500 


13.00 


.202 


27.610 


leVs 


5V2 


59.00 


12.00 


31.179 


500 


14.00 


.210 


30.928 


17V8 


S'A 


67.00 


14.50 


35.013 


500 


15.00 


.222 


35.038 


18V« 


5V4 


78.00 


15.50 


39.731 


500 


16.00 


.234 


39.401 


19V4 


6V4 


102.00 


25.00 


45.847 


500 


17.00 


.240 


42.959 


20V8 


6V4 


110.00 


26.00 


49.850 


450 


18.00 


.245 


46.458 


22V8 


6V4 


140.00 


30.00 


55.123 


450 


19.00 


.259 


51.840 


23Vi6 


6V4 


150.00 


32.00 


61.081 


450 


20.00 


.272 


57.309 


24Vi6 


7V4 


180.00 


37.00 


68.337 


450 


22.00 


.301 


69.765 


26V8 


7V4 


215.00 


45.00 


82.868 


450 


24.00 


.330 


83.423 


29 


8V4 


275.00 


50.00 


99.789 


450 


26.00 


.362 


99.122 


31V8 


8V4 


360.00 


64.00 


120.555 


450 


28.00 


.396 


116.746 


33'Vi6 


9V4 


425.00 


77.00 


142.000 


450 


30.00 


.432 


136.421 


36Vi6 


10 


525.00 


82.00 


166.828 


450 



pipe joint. The joint is made by belling out or expanding one 
end of the pipe in such a manner as to permit the bell end to sUp 
over the plain or spigot end of the next length of pipe, leaving 
enough space between the two for the lead which is to make the 
joint. After the end of the pipe has been shaped a wrought band 
is shrunk on the outside of the bell to reinforce it at this point 
and to keep it in shape to withstand the calking of the lead. The 
spigot end of the pipe has a recess turned in it jwhich prevents the 
lead from blowing out or the pipe from pulling out. This pipe is 
extensively used for water service in the west. Table 58 gives 
standard sizes, thicknesses, etc., for Matheson pipe. 



92 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



TABLE 58 (Fig. 82) 
Matheson Joint Pipb 





Thick- 
ness 


Outside 
Diameter 
of Rein- 
forcing 
BingD 


Length 

of Joint 

L 


Weight 


per Foot 


Weight 
of Lead 
per Joint 




External 
Diameter 


Plain 
Ends 


Complete 


Mill 
Test 


2.00 


.095 


2.966 


2.16 


1.932 


1.952 


1.00 


700 


3.00 


.109 


4.034 


2.26 


3.365 


3.392 


1.75 


700 


4.00 


.128 


5.236 


2.32 


5.293 


5.339 


2.75 


600 


6.00 


.134 


6.268 


2.38 


6.963 


7.019 


3.50 


600 


6.00 


.140 


7.446 


2.50 


8.762 


8.872 


4.75 


600 


7.00 


.149 


8.484 


2.58 


10.902 


11.028 


5.50 


600 


8.00 


.158 


9.646 


2.73 


13.233 


13.405 


6.75 


600 


9.00 


..167 


10.684 


2.73 


15.754 


15.945 


8.25 


500 


10.00 


.175 


11.846 


2.82 


18.363 


18.610 


9.50 


500 


11.00 


.185 


12.886 


2.91 


21.368 


21.638 


11.00 


500 


12.00 


.194 


14.048 


3.00 


24.461 


24.880 


13.25 


500 


13.00 


.202 


15.084 


3.07 


27.610 


28.060 


15.25 


500 


14.00 


.210 


16.370 


3.15 


30.928 


31.536 


17.25 


500 


15.00 


.222 


17.394 


3.24 


35.038 


35.686 


19.25 


500 


16.00 


.234 


18.438 


3.32 


39.401 


40.089 


22.00 


500 


17.00 


.240 


19.470 


3.41 


42.959 


43.687 


23.75 


450 


18.00 


.245 


20.730 


3.50 


46.458 


47.384 


25.75 


450 


19.00 


.259 


21.778 


3.57 


51.840 


52.815 


29.00 


450 


20.00 


.272 


22.804 


3.64 


57.309 


58.332 


31.00 


450 


22.00 


.301 


24.882 


4.06 


69.756 


71.098 


40.25 


450 


24.00 


.330 


26.980 


4.26 


83.423 


84.882 


48.00 


450 


26.00 


.362 


29.064 


4.40 


99.122 


100.697 


55.25 


450 


28.00 


.396 


31.672 


4.58 


116.746 


119.021 


65.00 


450 


30.00 


.432 


33.764 


4.75 


136.421 


138.851 


75.00 


450 






FigB. 83, 84, and 85. Flanges for Copper Pipe. 



PIPE JOINTS 



93 



Flanges for Copper Pipe. — For copper pipe the flanges are 
made of composition and are attached by brazing or brazing and 
riveting. Figs. 83, 84, and 85 show three methods of attaching 
flanges to copper pipe, the first form is a plain flange brazed on, 
the second is brazed and riveted, and the third is peened and brazed. 




Fig. 86. Wiped Joint. 



Fig. 87. Blown Joint. 



Lead Pipe Joints. — Lead pipe may be joined by means of 
flanges bolted together or by wiped or blown joints as shown in 
Figs. 86 and 87. The flanges may be of lead integral with the 
pipe or separate cast iron flanges may be used as in Figs. 88 and 
89 respectively. The amoimt of lead required for making lead 
joints is given in the following tabulation. The thickness of the 
joint ranges from V4 inch on small sizes to V2 inch on larger sizes. 





Fig. 88. Lead Flanges. 



Fig. 89. Iron Flanges for Lead Pipe. 



Diameter 


Weight 


Diameter 


Weight 


Inches 


Pounds 


Inches 


Pounds 


2 


2V2 


12 


15 


3 


3'A 


14 


18 


4 


4V2 


16 


22 


b 


6V2 


18 


26 


8 


9 


20 


33 


10 


13 







94 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



Joints for Riveted Pipe. — Straight riveted pipe may be joined 
by riveting while in the course of erection, by flanges riveted on 
to the end of the pipe, or in some cases by a slip joint. Spiral 
riveted pipe may be joined by flanges riveted to the ends of the 




Fig. 90. Slip Joint. 

pipe, by a slip joint. Fig. 90, by means of a crimped end and 
sleeve. Fig. 91, or by bolting, Figs. 80 and 92. The makers have 
their own standard for dimensions of flanges and drilling so that 
the American Standard is not supphed unless called for. Table 
59 gives the spiral pipe manufacturers' standard dimensions for 
flanges. 

The Root bolted joint. Fig. 92, is recommended for both asphalted 
and galvanized pipe when used to convey water. The joints shown 
in Figs. 90 and 93 are from Uterature of the American Spiral Pipe 



(T' ~ - 



- -^ 



e^ 






^r^ 



Fig. 91. Crimped End and Sleeve. 



Works. The lugs shown in Figs. 90 and 91 are for the purpose 
of drawing up the pipe. Calking is necessary to obtain a tight 
joint. DifEerences in temperature cause a large amount of expan- 
sion and contraction on long lines of flanged pipe. Either bolted 
joints, Figs. 80 and 92 or an expansion joint, Fig. 93, may be 



PIPE JOINTS 



95 



used at intervals of about 400 feet to take care of these changes in 
length. The expansion joint consists of a cast body and brass 
sleeve, with a gland and packing as shown in the figure. 




Fig. 92. Bolted Joint. 



TABLE 59 

Flanges fob Rivbted Pipe 

Riveted Pipe Manufaduresrs' Standard 



Inside 


Outside 


Diameter 


Sizes of 


Number 


Diameter of 


Diameter 


Diameter 


of Bolt Circle 


Bolts 


of 


Bolt Holes 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Bolts 


Inchra 


3 


6 


4V4 


Vi. 


4 


V« 


4 


7 


6'Vi. 


Vie 


8 


V2 


5 


8 


6"/l6 


Vi. 


8 


Vj 


6 


, 9 


TVs 


V. 


8 


Vs 


7 


10 


9 


V2 


8 


Vs 


8 


11 


10 


'h 


8 


Vs 


9 


13 


li'A 


V2 


8 


Vs 


10 


14 


12V4 


Va 


8 


V. 


11 


15 


ISVs 


Va 


12 


V. 


12 


16 


14V4 


V2 


12 


Vs 


13 


17 


15V4 


V2 


12 


Vs 


14 


18 


16V4 


'h 


12 


Vs 


15 


19 


17Vi. 


V2 


12 


Vs 


16 


21V4 


19V4 


V2 


12 


Ve 


18 


23V4 


21V4 


Vs 


16 


V4 


20 


25V4 


23V8 


Vs 


16 


V. 


22 


28V4 


26 


Vs 


16 


V4 


24 


30 


27V4 


Vs 


16 


V4 



96 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



Joints for Cast Iron Pipe. — Two forms of joints for cast iron 
pipe are mentioned and illustrated in Chapter I. Dimensions for 
cast iron bell and spigot joints are given in Tables 1 and 2, Chapter 
II. For flanges the dimensions for the American Standard are 
given in Tables 39 and 40, Chapter IV. 





Eni[ I 



] 



''^f>ttt*it>*if>n 



Fig. 93. Expansion Joint. 

The form of joint shown in Fig. 94 is used on "universal" 
cast iron pipe made by the Central Foimdry Company. The 
contact smfaces are machined on a taper at sUghtly different 
angles and drawn together by bolts, giving an iron to iron joint. 
The different tapers permit a deflection of three degrees so that 
the joint allows for expansion and uneven ground settlement. 



Hub End 
Ss Taper 



Sp/gof End 
S° Taper 




Fig. 94. Universal Cast Iron Joint. 

Straight lengths may be laid on a curve of 150 feet radius. Two 
bolts per joint are sufficient for pressures up to 175 pounds. 
Table 60 gives the thicknesses and weights of "universal" pipe. 
Lengths lay a full six feet. 



PIPE JOINTS 



97 



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ON 


r^ tH i-( iH C^ 



CHAPTER VI 



STANDARD VALVES 

Valves. — Valves of many forms are used to control the convey- 
ing of fluids in pipes. It will be impossible to describe all of the 

valves made for the 
"' different piu-poses for 
which they are re- 
quired. The general 
classes and types, 
however, will be illus- 
trated and described. 
The figures have been 
chosen to illustrate 
these types, and it 
does not follow that 
the particular design 
or make shown is the 
best of its class, as it 
would be difficult to 
make such a selection 
from the many reli- 
able valves now 
manufactured. 

Valves are made 
with either screwed 
or flanged ends. It 
is not desirable to use 
screwed ends for sizes 
larger than six inches 
for steam pressure. 

Fig. 95. Sectional View of Globe Valve. For high pressures and 

superheated steam 
flanged end fittings should be used for all sizes. It is good prac- 
tice to call for flanged fittings and valves in all cases for sizes 
larger than 2V2 inches. 




STANDARD VALVES 



Materials. — Valves are made of various materials suited to 
the purpose in view. Brass or bronze valves are ordinarily made 
in sizes up to and including three inches. These valves are used 
for steam up to 1 V2 inches and the larger sizes on boiler feed lines. 
Valves with cast iron bodies are suitable for water or saturated 
steam. For steam under high pressure and superheat other 
materials are necessary, such as Ferrosteel and cast steel. 

Globe and Gate Valves. — There are two general classes of 
valves, globe valves and gate valves. The globe valve has a 
spherical body and a circular opening at right angles to the axis 
of the pipe. A section of a globe valve, together with the names 
of the principal parts, is shown in Fig. 95. 

Names of Parts op Globe Valve 



Stem nut 
Hand wheel 
Valve stem 
Valve nut 
Valve (swivel) 



6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 
10. 



Valve body 
Gland Nut 
Gland 
Bonnet 
Bonnet ring 

\ 



1: 




M 



Forms of Valve Seats. 



A valve may be used in place of an elbow and a globe valve, 
in which case it is called an angle valve, Fig. 107. A cross valve 
is shown in Fig. 107. There are several objections to the use 
of globe valves, among which are the resistance which they offer 
to the fluid, and the water pocket which is present when they 
are used for steam lines. They are desirable, however, when 
throttling is necessary. 

Valve Seats. — A variety of valve seats are shown in Figs. 96, 
97, and 98. In Fig. 96 A, B, and C are plain flat seats; D is a 
concave or spherical seat; E and F are rounded seats; G is a 
square seat, and H is a bevel seat. Any of these forms may be 
made as a part of the valve body or separate, and either screwed 
or forced into place. The forms of valve discs differ, as shown 



100 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



in the various figures. The valve seat shown in Fig. 97 is made 
up of two conical sinrfaces and a groove. The disc is made in 




Fig. 97. Spring Valve Seat. 





Kg. 98. Removable Disc Valve Seat. 



similar form. The grooves permit a certain amount of spring 
and insure tightness when the valve is closed. This form of seat 
is made by the Crosby Steam Gage and Valve Company. Fig. 98 

shows the use of a removable 
disc instead of a solid disc. 
The disc holder A is of brass 
or other suitable material and 
the disc B of softer material. 
When leakage takes place the 
disc can be removed and re- 
placed by a new one. Discs 
are made by Jenkins Brothers 
of various compounds suiting 
them to difEerent kinds of 
service. 

Gate Valves. — A gate valve 
is shown in section in Fig. 
99, and as will be observed 
has its openings parallel to 
the cross section of the pipe, 
so there is httle or no resist- 
ance to the flow, making it 
preferable for most purposes. 
The valve disc which closes 
the passage way may be a 
soUd tapered wedge, as in 
Fig. 99, may be in two parts, 
as in Fig. 100, or may have 
parallel faces, as in Fig. 101. 
The gate valve shown in Fig. 99 is made by Walworth Com- 
pany. It is of the solid wedge gate type, in which the disc 




Fig. 99. Gate Valve — Solid Tapered 
Wedge — Rising Stem. 



STANDARD VALVES 



101 



consists of a single piece faced with hard metal. This disc sUdes 
on ribs in the valve body. This valve may be packed while imder 
pressure by screwing the stem out until the beveled collar A on 
the stem engages with the beveled recess B of the bonnet, form- 
ing a tight joint. The valve shown in Fig. 100 is made by the 




CDO(ZDCDQ 




Fig. 100. Gate Valve — 
Two Part Wedge. 



Fig. 101. Gate Valve — Parallel 
Seat. 



Lvmkenheimer Company. The principle upon which the discs 
are seated makes them self-adjusting and they will accommodate 
themselves to scale or sediment which may lodge on one of the 
seats, so that at least one disc will close tightly. This is accom- 
pUshed by the ball and socket bearing between the discs, which 
permits sufficient play in any direction. The stuffing boxes can 
be packed when the valve is wide open and imder pressure, as a 
shoulder on the stem directly above the threads forms a seat 
beneath the stuffing box. 

The parallel seat double disc valve shown in Fig. 101 is con- 



102 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



structed so that the discs do not bear on the seats in opening or 
closing. The discs are hung on the stem and are seated by a 
wedge which bears on the centres of the discs. The lug on the 
bottom of the valve body brings the wedge into action just before 
the discs reach their lowest position. At the instant of starting 



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ffil_ 



an n/\ . 



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j£n 



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Fig. 102. Hopkinson-Ferranti Valve. 



Fig. 103. Gate Valve with 
By-pass. 



to open the valve the wedge is released. This valve is made by 
the National Tube Company. 

A form of gate valve based upon the principle of the Venturi 
meter is the Hopkinson-Ferranti valve shown in Fig. 102. This 
form of valve is widely used in England and has found appHca- 
tion in American practice. The velocities are increased in the 
central portion of the valve which is only one half the size of the 
pipe in which the valve is used. The contour of the deUvery side 
is such as to reduce the velocity and restore the pressm^e. The 
reduced size of the valve faces makes them less Uable to distor- 
tion. The small valve seats make a by-pass valve imnecessary 
as the steam can be throttled when opening. A throat piece is 
drawn up wheji the valve is opened, and this forms a continuous 



STANDARD VALVES 



103 



Venturi tube. These valves are adaptable for steam lines where 
velocities of less than 6000 feet per minute are used. 

By-pass Valves. — The effort required to open a large valve 
with the steam acting upon one side is considerable, and some 
means of equalizing the pressure on the two sides of the disc as 
well as to permit "warming 
up" is desirable. This is ac- 
compHshed by means of a 
small auxiliary valve in the 
passage joining the two ends 
of the valve, called a by-pass. 
Fig. 103 shows an extra heavy 
Walworth valve with a by- 



Valve Stem Arrangements. 
— There are two general ar- 
rangements of the valve stem 
known as inside screw and 
outside screw. The inside 
screw may be either rising 
stem or non-rising stem. Fig. 
104 shows a valve with an 
inside screw, non-rising stem; 
Fig. 101 an inside screw, rising 
stem; and Fig. 99 an outside 
screw, rising stem. When the 
screw is outside it is protected 
from stem corrosion, and can 
be kept oiled. The rising 
stem is desirable as its posi- 




Fig. 104. Gate Valve — Inside Screw — 
Non-rising Stem. 



tion clearly indicates whether the valve is open or closed. In 
some parts of the country laws require the use of the rising stem 
on boiler stop valves, and certain classes of work. The valve stem 
on small sizes is generally made of bronze and larger sizes of steel, 
nickel plated. The valve shown in Fig. 104 is made by Crane 
Company for steam working pressures up to 250 poimds. It 
has an inside screw, non-rising stem. The seats are made of hard 
brass and screwed to shoulders in the body of the valve. They 
are renewable. The gate is faced with hard brass. This valve 
may be packed while imder pressure by opening the valve wide 



104 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



and running the wedge tightly up to the top of the bonnet, which 
draws the collar of the stem down tightly to the flange of the 
bonnet, forming a steam or water tight joint at A. 

Strength of Gate Valves. — Some actual bursting pressures for 
gate valves as tested by Crane Company are given in Table 61. 

TABLE 61 
Sthength op Standard Iron Gate Valves 



Sizes, Inches 


Pressure in Pounds per Square Inch 


4 to 8 


1000 to 1500 


10 to 16 


900 


18 


450 without breaking 


20 to 30 


300 " " 



Strength of Medium Pressure Gate Valves 



Sizes, Inches 


Pressure in 


Pounds per Square Inch 


Cast Iron 


Ferro Steel 


4 to 8 


1200 to 1900 




1900 to 2600 


10 and 12 


850 




1400 to 1500 


14 






O.K. at 1000 


16 


. . > 




O.K. at 750 


18 


... 




O.K. at 700 



Strength op Extra Heavy Gate Valves 



Sizes, Inches 


Pressure in Pounds per Square Inch 








Cast Iron 


Ferro Steel 


4to8 


1600 to 1900 


2450 to 2600 


10 and 12 


1350 to 1550 


1760 to 1900 


14 to 16 


1100 


1200 to 1350 


18 




O.K. at 850 


20 to 24 




O.K. at 600 



Standard Pressures and Dimensions. — Valves are generally 
constructed for three pressures, standard, medium, and extra 
heavy. Standard pressure generally means 125 poimds, medium 
175 pounds, and extra heavy 250 poimds, when referring to steam. 
When used for water these values may be greatly increased, de- 
pending upon the conditions of service. Valves are made of cast 
steel suitable for steam pressures up to 350 poimds per square 
inch. The following tables give some of the dimensions for vari- 
ous kinds of valves as made by different companies. 



STANDARD VALVES 



105 




11 


JJ 




X 




Rjit 




4 

1 ilT 


hrT 


1 1 




,..!tH 




1 


- t 


•- e - 
_ — ' 


• 


_ 





Fig. 105. Jenkins Valves, Globe, Angle, and Cross. 



TABLE 62 (Fiq. 105) 
Jenkins Standakd Globe, Angi:b, and Cboss Valves. 

AND Flanged 
150 Pounds Working Pressure 



Brass — Screwed 



Size 


A 


B 


c 


D 


E 


F 


G 


H 


J 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Vs 


PA. 




"Ae 








278 


274 


17. 


V* 


2V8 


2Vl6 


lVi» 


IVs 


27. 


v» 


378 


3V8 


27i. 


»A 


2V8 


3 


I'A. 


27i» 


2V8 


"A2 


478 


4 


27l8 


V2 


2'A 


3Vi. 


IVs 


27l6 


3 


78 


478 


5 


27.6 


'A 


3Vi. 


3V8 


IV2 


2V8 


37» 


"U 


57* 


578 


2»A. 


'l 


3"A. 


4 


I'A 


2V. 


4 


Vi. 


57. 


6 


3 


iV* 


4V* 


4»A 


2Vl6 


21V16 


472 


"/« 


7 


774 


372 


I'A 


4'A 


4V8 


2V* 


3Vl6 


5 


7^ 


77* 


778 


478 


2 


5»A 


6 


2Vs 


3V* 


6 


7l6 


978 


974 


47. 


2V2 


eVs 


6'A 


374 


47« 


7 


78 


978 


974 


5 


3 


8V2 


77= 


47* 


4Vl6 


77.! 


"As 


1078 


1174 


6 



TABLE 63 (Fig. 105) 
Jenkinb Extra Heavt Globe, Angle, and Gross Valves. 
Screwed and Flanged 

SBO Pounds Working Pressure 



Brass — 



Size 


A 


B 


c 


D 


E 


F 


G 


H 


J 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


72 


2'7l6 


374 


172 


278 


374 


'7b 


474 


478 


278 


74 


372 


474 


174 


272 


374 


"/« 


6 


678 


378 


1 


478 


474 


27l6 


278 


472 


72 


678 


778 


372 


174 


478 


572 


27l6 


374 


5 


"A2 


772 


8 


478 


172 


578 


674 


2'7ia 


3'7l6 


6 


7l8 


878 


878 


478 


2 


674 


774 


378 


478 


672 


78 


974 


1078 


5 


272 


772 


874 


374 


474 


772 


"A. 


1178 


1274 


672 


3 


874 


972 


478 


578 


874 


74 


1278 


1378 


772 



106 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 





Fig. 106. Jenkins Gate Valves. 

TABLE 64 (Fia. 106) 

Jenkins Staubabd Gate Valves. Bhass — Screwed and Flanged 

1S5 Pounds Working Pressure 



Size 


A 


B 


E 


F 


G 


J 


K 


L 


M 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


v« 


I'A 


2V2 


2V4 


v» 


3V2 


IV* 








'A 


I'A 


2V8 


2V8 


"A. 


3V» 


iVi 








V2 


i"A. 


2'Vl6 


3 


'A 


3'Vi« 


2 








'A 


2Vl6 


3»A 


3V2 


"/b 


4"A6 


2Vi. 


2V4 


4V4 


5"A. 


1 


2"A6 


3«A« 


4 


Vie 


5Vie 


2»A6 


3Vi. 


5V. 


6Ve 


I'A 


3 


4'A 


4V2 


»A2 


6V4 


3 


SVs 


6V8 


■ 8Vi« 


I'A 


S'A 


4V8 


5 


'A 


ev* 


3V. 


3V8 


77* 


9Vi. 


2 


4 


S'A 


6 


Vie 


7V4 


4V8 


4V8 


8V* 


10V8 


21A 


4"A6 


61A 


7 


Vs 


9 


4V8 


4"/l6 


9"A6 


12"A« 


3 


5'A 


7'A 


7'A 


"A. 


lOVs 


5 


5V. 


IIV2 


15 



TABLE 65 (Fig. 106) 

Jenkins Medium Pkessueb Gate Valves. Bkass — Screwed 
AND Flanged 
175 Pounds Working Pressure 



Size 


A 


B 


E 


F 


G 


J 


K 


L 


M 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


V4 


2Vl6 


2iVi« 


2V4 


Vss 


3V8 


2Vl6 








V8 


2Vie 


2"A6 


3 


"A2 


3V8 


2Vl6 








V2 


2V2 


3V4 


3 


V8 


4V8 


2Vl6 








'U 


2V8 


3'Vl6 


3V2 


"/o 


5V4 


2»A6 


3Vi8 


5V4 


6V8 


1 


3V2 


4V4 


4 


Vie 


6 


3 


3V8 


6 


7V8 


vu 


3«A6 


4V4 


4V2 


"A2 


eVs 


3V2 


3V8 


7 


8V2 


1V« 


4V82 


5Vl6 


5 


V2 


7 


4V8 


4V8. 


7V8 


9V. 


2 


5Vl6 


6 


6 


Vi. 


8V4 


4V8 


4"A« 


8V8 


llVs 


27. 


5V4 


6"A. 


7 


V8 


10V4 


5 


5V4 


lOVs 


13V. 


3 


7 


8V8 


VU 


"A. 


11V2 


6 


6"A. 


I2V4 


15V4 



STANDARD VALVES 



107 



TABLE 66 (Fia. 106) 

Jenkins Extba Heavt Gate Valves. Brass — Screwed and Flanged 

$50 Pounds Working Pressure 



Size 


A 


B 


E 


F 


G 


J 


K 


L 


M 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


V2 


2"A. 


S'Vie 


3'A 


'V32 


4V4 


2V8 








'A 


3Vl6 


4Vl6 


3'A 


"As 


5»A 


3V8 


3V8 


5V8 


6V4 


1 


S'A 


5 


4V. 


'A 


e'A 


3'A 


3V8 


6Vi« ' 


7"A. 


IV. 


4'A 


5V. 


5 


"Az 


7'A 


4V8 


4V8 


7V« 


9 


I'A 


4'A 


6 


6 


Vl6 


8 


4V8 


4"A. 


8 


10 


2 


S'A 


7Vs 


6'A 


Va 


9V4 


5 


5»A 


9V8 


12V8 


2'A 


6=A 


S'A 


7V2 


"A« 


11 


6V2 


6"/l6 


lOVs 


iS'A 


3 


7V» 


9 


8V4 


»A 


12V8 


7V2 


7V8 


12Vi« 


15V8 




r r 



l^^n 




1 'JL 



•-E 



e/aie Ag-Aa 




/4^^ 



Ang^ l^a/i^e 



C/vss ya/ys 



Fig. 107. Crane Globe, Angle, and Cross Valves. 

TABLE 67 (Fig. 107) 

Crane Standard Weight Globe, Angle, and Cross Valves 

125 Pounds Working Pressure, Iron Body 



Size 


B 


C 


D 


B 


F 


G 


Size 


B 


C 


D 


E 


P 


G 


A 














A 














Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


2 


8 


4 


6 


Vi 


lO'A 


6V1 


7 


16 


8 


12>A 


lVi« 


20>A 


14 


2V. 


8«A 


41A 


7 


"A» 


ll'A 


6>A 


8 


17 


8V1 


13'A 


I'A 


23'A 


16 


3 


9V< 


4V. 


7Vi 


•A 


12'A 


7V. 


10 


20 


10 


16 


I'A. 


28 


18 


3V. 


lO'A 


5Vi 


8V. 


"A« 


13 


7'A 


12 


24 


12 


19 


I'A 


34 


20 


4 


m/i 


S>/< 


9 


«Ao 


15V* 


9 


14 


28 


14 


21 


I'A 


38V» 


24 


4V. 


12 


6 


9'A 


"A« 


15V4 


9 


15 


30 


15 


22V4 


I'A 


38'A 


24 


5 


13 


6V> 


10 


«A. 


17V< 


10 


16 


32 


16 


231A 


l'A« 


41Vi 


27 


6 


14 


7 


11 


1 


19 


12 

















108 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 




Fig. 108. Crane Globe, Cross, and Angle Valves. 

TABLE 68 (Fig. 108) 

Crane Medium Pkessukb Globe, ANGMi and Cross Valves 

175 Pounds Working Pressure — Iron Body 





















Size 




Size 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


H 


J 


of By 


L 


A 


















Pass 




Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


2 


9 


41/. 


6iA 


'A 


7V4 


3Vs 


11V« 


W. 






2'/, 


10 


5 


7V. 


1 


8 


4 


12Vs 


7V2 






3 


11 


5'A 


8»A 


IV. 


8>A 


41A 


4V. 


9 






SVi! 


12 


6 


9 


I'/i. 


9V2 


4V. 


15V« 


10 






4 


13 


6'A 


10 


11/4 


IOV2 


51A 


levs 


10 






41A 


ISVa 


6»A 


101/2 


iVi. 


llVi 


5V. 


ITVs 


12 






5 


Wh 


7Vi 


U 


IV. 


121A 


61A 


181A 


12 






6 


16 


8 


121A 


IVi. 


14 


7 


20V4 


14 






7 


17V! 


8'A 


14 


I'A 


17 


81A 


211A 


14 






8 


20 


10 


15 


1V» 


181/2 


91A 


241/, 


16 


IV. 


12 


10 


221A 


ii>A 


171A 


IV. 


221/, 


llVi 


281/2 


20 


1V2 


13V4 


12 


251/2 


12V« 


20 


2 


251A 


12V« 


31 


20 


2 


15»A 



TABLE 69 

Crane Extra Heavy Globe 

250 Pounds Working 



(Fia. 108) 

, Angle, and Cross Valves 
Pressure, Iron Body 



Size 

A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


H 


J 


Siz 
ofE 
Pas 


e Angle 
y Cross 
B K 


Globe 
L 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inch 


es Inches 


Inches 


2 


lOV. 


51A 


6V2 


v« 


91A 


4V. 


13V« 


71A 










21A 


111/2 


5V. 


7V2 


1 


lOV. 


5V. 


I41A 


9 












3 


121A 


eVi 


81A 


iv. 


IIV* 


5V. 


171/2 


10 












31A 


131/1 


6V. 


9 


lVi« 


121A 


ev. 


171A 


10 












4 


14 


7 


10 


IV. 


13 


61A 


191/2 


14 












*v. 


15 


7V2 


101/2 


lVi» 


14 


7 


I91A 


14 












S 


15V« 


7V> 


11 


IVs 


15 


71A 


21 1/2 


16 












g 


17V2 


8V. 


121A 


1VH 


I61A 


81A 


25 


18 












7 


I91A 


9V. 


14 


1V2 


ISV* 


91/! 


261/. 


20 












s 


21 


IQiA 


IS 


IV. 


20 


10 


291A 


24 


IV 


2 13V. 


13V. 


10 


241A 


I21A 


171A 


IV. 


231A 


llV. 


331A 


27 


IV 


2 142A 


14V. 


12 


28 


14 


2OV2 


2 






39 


30 


2 


17V. 


17V. 


14 


33 


I61A 


23 


2V. 






42 


36 


2 


19V. 


18V. 


12 


33 


I61A 


24V2 


2'As 






42 


36 


2 


19V. 


18'/. 



STANDARD VALVES 



109 




Fig. 109. Fig. 110. 

Walworth Gate Valves. 



TABLE 70 (Figs. 109 and 110) 

Walworth Standard Gate Valves — Iron Body 

1S5 Pounds Working Pressure 



Size 


A B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


J 


Inches Ii 


iches Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


2 I 


)V2 7 


lOVs 


1278 


6 


6 


7s 


1078 


2'A t 


Vh 71/2 


12V8 


15 


6 


7 


"Ae 


1178 


3 i 


)V8 8 


14 


1778 


8 


772 


74 


1378 


31/2 i 


)V4 8'A 


15V8 


1972 


8 


872 


"Ae 


1478 


4 "i 


"A 9 


17V2 


2178 


9 


9 


"Ae 


16 


41A ; 


'V4 9IA 


19 


2378 


9 


974 


"A. 


1678 


5 { 


! 10 


2OV4 


2678 


10 


10 


"Ae 


187. 


6 { 


» 10V2 


23Vs 


3078 


12 


11 


1 


2072 


7 


11 


27V2 


347s 


14 


1272 


17l8 


2278 


8 


ll'A 


29V8 


3872 


14 


1372 


178 


2472 


9 


12 




. . . 


14 


15 


17s 




10 


13 


35V8 


4678 


16 


16 


17l6 


2978 


12 


14 


4IV2 


5474 


16 


19 


174 


34 


14 


15 


51 


6574 


18 


21 


178 


3878 


15 


15 






20 


2274 


178 




16 


.. I6V4 


56V8 


7378 


20 


2372 


17l6 


4278 


18 


17V2 


64 


83 


20 


25 


17l6 


47 


20 


.. 1872 


69 


90 


24 


2772 


1"A6 


5078 


22 


19 






27 


2972 


1"A6 




24 


21 


81 


106 


30 


32 


178 


58 



110 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



TABLE 71 (Figs. 109, 110, and 111) 

Walworth Medium Prbsburb Gate Valves, with Bt-Pabs, Ibon 

Body 









175 Pounds Working Pressure 




























Size of 




Size 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


H 


By-Paas 


3 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Ins. 


2 


5V2 


7'A 


11>A 


14 


6V2 


6V2 


'A 






11 


2V. 


6 


8 


I2V2 


15V2 


6V2 


7V2 


1 








12 


3 


7V4 


9V. 


15 


I8V2 


7V2 


8V4 


IVs 








14 


3V2 


7V2 


10 


16V8 


2OV2 


7V2 


9 


lVi« 








15 


4 


7V4 


10V2 


19 


23V4 


9 


10 


1V4 








16 


4V. 


8'A 


11 


20 


25 


9 


IOV2 


1VI6 








17 


5 


8'A 


11V2 


22 


28 


10 


11 


I'A 








19 


6 


8V. 


12 


25V4 


32 


12 


I2V2 


I'As 


14 


IV4 


21 


7 




I2V2 


28 


36 


12 


14 


IV2 


15 


IV4 


23 


8 


. . . 


IS'A 


32 


41 


14 


15 


V/s 


16 


IV2 


26 


9 




14 


34 


44 


14 


I6V4 


1V4 


I6V2 


IV2 


28 


10 


. . . 


15 


39 


50 


16 


I7V2 


I'A 


17V2 


IV2 


30 


12 


. . . 


16 


43V2 


57 


18 


2OV2 


2 


I8V2 


2 


34 


14 


. . . 


18 


49V2 


65 


20 


23 


2V8 


20 


2 




15 




18'A 


52V2 


69 


20 


24V2 


2Vl6 


21 


2 




16 


... 


19'A 


57V2 


75 


22 


25V2 


2V4 


23 


3 





Table 72 gives the dimensions of Walworth extra heavy iron 
gate valves for both screwed and 
flanged ends. The dimensions for 
sizes from 6 inches to 12 inches are 
the same with or without a by-pass 
valve. The dimensions given in 
Table 72 hold for non-rising stem 
valves except the distances from 
centre of valve to top of wheel and 
diameter of handwheel above the 6 
inch size. The values for these two 
dimensions are given in Table 73. 

The dimension D is to the top of 
the valve when it is wide open. The 
arrangement of the valve stem and 
the kind of ends, whether screwed or 
Fig. 111. Walworth Gate flanged, is shown in the figures. 
Valve. 




STANDARD VALVES 



111 



TABLE 72 (Figs. 110 and 111) 

Walworth Extra Heavy Gate Valves with By-Pass Rising Stem, 
Outside Screw and Yoke, Iron Body — Screwed and Flanged 

Z50 Pounds Working Pressure 





















Size of 


Size i 


^ 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


H 


By- 
pass 


Inches Inc 


hes 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


2'A 8 


'A 


9>A 


13V2 


I6V4 


8 


7V2 


1 




. . ■ 


3 9 


V2 


ll'A 


15'A 


18V8 


10 


8'A 


1V8 






3'A 11 


'A 


ii'A 


17V8 


21 


10 


9 


I'A. 






4 12 


'A 


12 


18'A 


23V8 


11 


10 


IV* 






4V2 14 




13'A 


23V8 


29V4 


11 


IOV2 


1V» 






5 15 


'A 


15 


23V8 


29Vi 


12 


11 


I'A 






6 16 


V* 


is'A 


25V8 


32 


13 


I2V2 


iVi. 


14 


1V2 


7 




16V4 


29V4 


38 


15 


14 


I'A 


15 


1V2 


8 




16V2 


32V2 


41 


15 


15 


IV8 


16 


1V2 


9 




17 


36V2 


46 


16 


16'A 


I'A 


le'A 


I'A 


10 




18 


39V8 


50 


16 


17V2 


I'A 


17V2 


IV2 


12 




19'A 


451A 


58V2 


18 


20'A 


2 


20 


2 


14 




2IV2 


5OV2 


66 


22 


23 


2V8 


21 


2 


15 




22V2 


52V2 


69 


22 


24V2 


2Vi. 


2IV2 


2 


16 




24 


58 


75V2 


24 


25V2 


2'A 


27 


3 


18 




26 




82'A 


27 


28 


2V8 




3 


20 




28 




9IV2 


30 


3OV2 


2V2 




4 


24 




31 




109 


36 


36 


2'A 




4 



TABLE 73 (Fig. 109) 

Walworth Extra Heavy Gate Valves with By-Pass, Non-bising 
Stem, Iron Body — Screwed and Flanged 

S50 Pounds Working Pressure 



Size 


J 


■ E 


Size 


J 


E 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


2V2 


12'A 


8 


6 


22V4 


13 


3 


14V2 


10 


7 


25 


14 


3V2 


15V4 


10 


8 


28 


14 


4 


16V2 


11 


9 


29V4 


15 


4V2 


21 


11 


10 


33 


15 


5 


21 


12 


12 


37V2 


18 



Check Valves. — There are a large variety of special forms of 
valves, some of which will be mentioned. When necessary to 
permit flow in one direction and to prevent it in the opposite 



112 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



direction a check or non-return valve is used. These are made 
in many forms; Fig. 112 shows a swing check valve, Fig. 113 
shows a ball check valve, Fig. 114 a Hft check valve, and Fig. 





Figs. 112, 113, and 114. 



Swing Check Valve, Ball Check Valve, and Lift 
Check Valve. 



115 a large flanged check valve having a rehef gate, as made by 
Walworth Company. It is desirable that there should be pro- 
vision for regrinding. The swing check valve shown in Fig. 112 
is made with or without the stop plug 5. The pvu-pose of the stop 
plug is to allow for re-grinding in the following manner. Unscrew 
the cap 2 and the stop plug 5, place a small amount of abrasive 

moistened with soap 
or oil on the valve 
seat 6. By inserting a 
screw driver through 
the stop plug opening 
and engaging the slot 
in the clapper stud 4f 
the disc 3 can be ro- 
tated and re-groimd 
upon its seat. 

The iron body swing 
check valve shown in 
Fig. 115 is for water 
pressure up to 150 
pounds. The relief 
gate shown is used on sizes larger than 16 inch. These valves 
are made with screwed ends, flanged ends, and hub ends, and in 
sizes from 2V2 to 24 inches. 

Operation of Valves. — While the purpose of this book is not 
to deal with operation of valves and piping, there are a few 
points which are worth setting down. A steam valve should 




Fig. 115. Large Swing Check Valve with Gate. 



STANDARD VALVES 



113 



never be opened quickly as the rush of steam is Ukely to bring 
about a dangerous condition, especially if there is any water 
present. A leaky valve cannot be made tight except by re-grind- 
ing. Screwing down the valve excessively will only result in 
damage to the valve. In attaching screwed end valves the wrench 
should always be apphed 
to the end nearest the pipe, 
as valve bodies are not 
designed to transmit the 
forces required in "mak- 
ing up" lines. When the 
wrench is applied to the 
opposite end of the valve 
it produces distortion. A 
valve should always be 
closed tightly when being 
put into place. Cement 
or graphite should not be 
put into the valve threads, 
but on to the pipe so that 
it wiU not get into the 
valve and hold such grit 
and dirt as may come through the pipe. A new pipe line should 
always be thoroughly blown out after construction, and it is 
well if possible to examine the valves after this blowing out and 
before closing them. 

Location. — The location of valves should receive careful atten- 
tion, as many accidents have occurred through the placing of 
valves in inconvenient places. Sometimes the valve stem can 
be placed in a horizontal position and operated from the floor 
by means of a chaki or similar device. The operator should not 
be required to open and close valves when they are in such a 
position that he places his life in danger should there be an acci- 
dent of any kind. Where a gallery or platform is used near valves 
it should be placed to one side of the Une, as shown in Fig. 116 
rather than directly over the steam line with the valve stems 
extending through the platform. In the latter case the workman 
is directly over the line and in case of breakage is in great danger of 
being scalded by the escaping steam. 




Fig. 116. Location of Valves. 



CHAPTER VII 



SPECIAL VALVES 



The purpose of this chapter is to describe some rather special 
forms of valves which are used for various purposes, such as 
blow-oflE valves, boiler stop valves, reducing valves, pump gover- 
nors, back pressure valves, and relief valves. The large number 
of special forms and arrangements make it impossible to do more 
than suggest the types that are available and some of the uses. 
Manufacturers' catalogs should be consiilted for more complete 
and detailed descriptions of special valves that are regularly made. 
Butterfly Valves. — In Fig. 117 is shown a cross-sectional view 
of a butterfly valve, which consists of a disc which may be re- 
volved either in line with or 
across the opening, very much 
hke the damper in an ordinary 
stove pipe. These valves can 
be used only for regulating 
purposes where absolute tight- 
ness is not essential. 

Blow-off Valves. — Special 
valves are made for use in 
the blow-off pipes of boilers. 
Such valves require as clear 
a passage way as possible, 
and that it shall be without 
interfering parts. Several de- 
signs are shown in Figs. 118, 
119, and 120, where the con- 
struction of each is clearly 
shown. The objection to ordi- 
nary valves is that they afford an opportunity for scale or sedi- 
ment to obtain lodgment and prevent closing. The severe 
conditions of service require that blow-off valves be of heavy 
construction. Blow-off valves are made either straight, angle, 




Fig. 117. Butterfly Valve. 



SPECIAL VALVES 115 

or Y form. Fig. 118 is a Y blow-off valve, made by Walworth 
Company. Often two valves are used together in the blow-off 
pipe to make sure of a tight blow-off. Fig. 119 shows a Crane 
blow-off cock with a compensating spring 2 located between the 




Fig. 118. Y — Blow-off Valve. 

plug 1 and the cap S which automatically takes up wear and 
holds the plug securely in place at all times, preventing the accum- 
ulation of scale, sediment, etc., which would tend to impair the 
grovmd surfaces of the plug and body. The Simplex seatless 
blow-off valve as made by the Yarnell-Waring Company is illus- 
trated in Fig. 120. This valve has no seat but closes by moving 
the plunger 3 down past the port. In closing the valve the shoulder 
1 on the plunger 3 engages the loose follower gland 2 and so com- 
presses the packing 4 above and below the port, thus making 
the valve tight. There are many other worthy forms which space 
will not permit describing. 



116 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



Plug Valves. — The plug valve shown in Fig. 121 is made by 
the Homestead Valve Manufacturing Company for steam, com- 
pressed air, and hydraulic service. This valve is so constructed 
that when it is closed it is ^^^ 

at the same time forced IT Tl 

firmly to its seat. This v_ 
result is secured by means 
of the traveling cam A 
through which the stem 
passes. The cam is pre- 
vented from turning with 
the stem by means of the 
lugs B which move verti- 
cally in slots. Supposing 
the valve to be open, the 
cam will be in the lower 
part of the chamber in 
which it is placed, and the 





Fig. 119. Crane Cock. 



Fig. 120. Yarnell-Waring Valve. 



plug will be free to be easily moved. A quarter of a turn in the 
direction for closing it causes the cam to rise and take a bearing 
on the upper surface of the chamber, and the only effect of fur- 
ther efEort to turn the stem in that direction is to force the plug 
more firmly to the seat. A slight motion in the other direction 
immediately releases the cam and the plug turns easily, being 
arrested at the proper open position by contact of the fingers of 
the cam at the other end of its travel. The balancing ports S 
and D allow the pressure to predominate at the top of the plug, 



SPECIAL VALVES 



117 



holding it gently in its seat while the valve is open. This valve 
is made in sizes up to six inches, and for pressures up to 5000 
pounds. 

Boiler Stop Valves. — A boiler stop valve is a valve in the con- 
nection of the boiler to the steam main, and may be of the globe 
or angle type, hand operated. The larger sizes should be fitted 
with a by-pass. When a plant 
consists of two or more boilers 
some form of automatic non- 
return valve in addition to the 
stop valve should be provided. 
The purpose of the automatic 
valve is to prevent back flow 
from the main steam pipe when 
the pressure in one boiler is 
lower, due to the bursting of a 
tube or other causes. Such 
valves are made by many of the 
valve companies, and advantages 
are claimed for each design. 

Foster Automatic Valve. — The 
automatic non-return stop valve 
shown in Fig. 122 is made by the 
Foster Engineering Company. When installed between the 
boiler and header it will equalize the pressure between the units 
of a battery of boilers, remaining closed so long as the pres- 
sure is lower than that of the header. The valve will open and 
remain in that position when the boiler pressure is equal to the 
pressure in the header. It automatically prevents the back 
flow of steam into a disabled boiler and acts as a safety stop 
valve to prevent steam being tvirned into a cold boiler while 
men are working inside — the pressure in the header making it 
impossible to open the valve. The valve may be closed in the 
same manner as an ordinary stop valve by screwing down the 
stem. 

The operation of the valve is described as follows: Inlet A is 
connected to the boiler nozzle, and outlet side B to the header. 
When the pressiure at A is one pound or more greater than the 
pressure at B the valve C lifts and is held open by the flow of 
steam passing through the valve. If the pressure at A should 




Fig. 121. Homestead Cock. 



118 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



fall below that at B, due to the blowing out or weaning of a tube, 
a cock blowing off, or from other cause, the back flow of steam 
from B acting on the upper side of clapper C plus its weight, 
forces the valve automatically to its seat. The clapper is then 

held to its seat until there 
is an equalization of pres- 
sure on both sides of it. 

Emergency Stop Valves. 
— As a further protection 
against accidents, and to 
safeguard the lives of 
operators, emergency 
valves have been devised, 
combining the duties of 
the automatic non-return 
stop valve, automatic 
safety stop valve, auto- 
matic emergency stop 
valve, and hand stop 
valve. 

The Foster automatic 
non-return emergency stop 
valve is shown in Fig. 123 
and described as follows: 
in the event of a rupture 
in the main line or a 

. ,, , break in fittings causing 

Fie. 122. Foster Automatic Valve. , j , , 

^ a sudden escape of steam, 

it will close automatically and prevent further flow of steam 

from the boiler or boilers. Small emergency pipes may be run 

to different parts of the plant, and when desired, steam may 

be shut off by opening a small globe valve, which should be 

placed at convenient points, in the emergency lines, permitting 

the isolating of any boiler in a battery at will from a distant 

point if necessary. The valve may also be closed in the same 

manner as an ordinary stop valve. The operation of this valve 

as a non-return valve is the same as for Fig. 122. As an auto- 

matic and emergency stop valve. The pilot or governing valve 

Fig. 124 may be placed near the main valve, or located at any 

point desired. Fig. 125. 'A Vs-inch pipe connection is made from 




Dra/n 



SPECIAL VALVES 



119 



the boiler to the pilot valve at C, and from the pilot, at E to the 
chamber D of the main valve at F. The diaphragm chamber 



c 



^^ 



-y-2^ 




Pig. 123. Automatic Non-return Emergency Stop Valve. 

J of this pilot valve is also connected to the header or at any 
point on the main steam line beyond the outlet of the main valve. 



120 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



Whenever, from rupture or other causes, the pressure in the main 
lines falls abruptly, a corresponding effect is experienced upon 
the upper diaphragm JfS of the pilot valve, thus allowing the 
boiler pressure acting upon and under the lower diaphragm JjS' to 
open valve S6 (which is normally closed) and close valve 37. 

The full boiler pressure then is 
enabled to flow through the 
main port of the pilot valve 
into chamber D of the main 
valve, against piston 19, the 
area of which is greater than 
the main valve 2, instantly 
closing the latter to its seat, 
preventing the flow of steam 
in either direction. The main 
valve 2, then having been 
closed automatically, will re- 
main closed until the pressure 
in chamber Z) is reheved. This 
is accompUshed in the follow- 
ing manner: the hand wheel 
IjS of the pilot valve is turned 
to the right until valve 36 is 
forced to its seat, thus cutting 
off Kve steam chamber D of 
main valve, and at the same 
time forcing valve 37 off its seat, exhausting the steam in 
chamber D of main valve to the atmosphere, through the pipe 
connection at M. After sufficient steam pressure has been raised 
to hold down the upper diaphragm J^ of the pilot valve, which 
may be determined by the exhaust connection at M not blow- 
ing, the alarm K (which will otherwise give notice) is then 
closed by turning the hand wheel Ifi to the left, in which (its 
normal position) it is again ready for automatic action. 

The Pilot Valve, Fig. 124, is constructed so that variations or 
fluctuating conditions of the boiler pressure between maximum 
and minimum loads will not influence the pilot, which requires 
no adjustment to meet these conditions. The valve is automatic 
and will respond only to any drop in hne pressure for which it is 
designed and intended. A nimiber of Vs-inch branch pipes may 




Fig. 124. Foster Pilot Valve. 



SPECIAL VALVES 



121 



be run to and located at any desired point from the line leading 
to the diaphragm chamber J of the pilot valve — on each of these 
laterals a small globe valve is mounted. The mere cracking of 
one of these globe valves obtains the same result as a break in 
the main lines, in that the steam is in this way bled from the 




Fig. 125. Arrangement of Piping for Pilot Valve. 

diaphragm chamber J, fimctioning both the pilot and the main 
valve. By the use of these emergency valves a boiler may be 
cut out from a battery at will, from a distant point without the 
necessity of access to the boiler. 

Crane-Erwood Automatic Valve. — The automatic double act- 
ing non-return and emergency cut-out valve shown in Fig. 126 
is made by Crane Company. Some of the claims for this valve 
are as follows: The valve wiU close automatically if any part 
of the header or distributing lines fail; the valve will open when 
the boiler to which it is connected reaches the full pressure in 



122 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



the main; the valve will prevent back-flow of steam from the 
main in the event of a tube blowing out or other accident to the 
boiler; the valve may be used as an emergency valve by attach- 
ing a cord to the lever so that it can be closed by hand at a dis- 
tance, or may be operated electrically. The levers on the outside 
of the valve are in line with the discs, and indicate their position 
and operation. The separating link connecting the outside lever 
may be adjusted to suit the load carried. Shortening the link 



HEADER ■SIDE 




BOILER SIDE 



Fig. 126. Crane-Erwood Valve. 



decreases the volvmie of steam passing through the valve; length- 
ening the Unk increases the volmne. Such adjustments do not 
interfere with the operation of the valve. The valve may be 
adjusted to close at any desired velocity. The purpose of the 
by-pass is to provide for the valve to open automatically when 
the pressure in the header equals the pressure in the boiler 
after the valve has been closed due to a break or reduction in 
pressure beyond the outlet of the valve. 

Reducing Valves. — Reducing valves are valves made to re- 
duce and maintain automatically a constant pressure of steam 
or air with variable initial pressures. Such valves are employed 



SPECIAL VALVES 



123 



for reducing boiler pressure for use with all kinds of steam heat- 
ing systems, central station heating, paper machines, engines, 
kettles and cooking apparatus, and other conditions necessitat- 
ing a reduced pressure. 
A reducing valve used to 
supply a steam engine 
should be placed some 
distance from the engine 
in order to provide as 
large a reservoir as possi- 
ble for the engine to draw 
from. A receiver may be 
placed between the valve 
and steam cylinder to 
serve the same pvu-pose. 
It should have a capacity 
greater than the volume 
of the steam cyhnder. 
When a reducing valve is 
to be placed in a pipe Hne, 
the piping should be thor- 
oughly blown out. With 
new pipe sufficient time 
should be allowed for the 
oil or grease to be com- 
pletely burned out. 

The reducing valve 
shown in Fig. 127 is made 
by the Mason Regulator 
Company. This valve is 
controlled by the varia- 




Mason Reducing Valve. 



tion of the reduced pressure acting through the port A, on the 
diaphragm 1. This diaphragm is resisted by a spring 2, which is 
adjusted to the reduced pressure. The auxiliary valve 3 is held 
in contact with the diaphragm by the auxiUary valve spring 4) 
and moves up and down freely with the diaphragm. As soon as 
the valve 3 is open, steam passes through into the port B, and 
under piston 5. By raising piston 5, the main valve 6 opens against 
the initial pressure because the area of valve 6 is only one-half of 
that of piston 5; steam is thus admitted to the system. When 



124 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



the pressure in the system has reached the required point, which 
is determined by the spring 2, the diaphragm is forced upward 
by the low pressure which passes up through port A to chamber 
C under the diaphragm, allowing valve 3 to close, shutting off 
the steam from piston 5. The main valve 6 is now forced to 

its seat by the initial 
pressure shutting off 
steam from the system 
and pushing the piston 5 
down to the bottom of 
its stroke. The steam be- 
neath piston 5 exhausts 
freely around the piston, 
being fitted loosely for 
this purpose, and passes 
off into the system. In 
practice the main valve 
does not open or close 
entirely with each sUght 
variation of pressure, but 
assumes a position which 
furnishes just the steam 
required to maintain the required pressure. Piston 5 is fitted 
with dashpot 7 which prevents chattering or pounding. 

Where low pressures of from zero to 25 pounds per square 
inch are employed, as on low pressure heating systems, central 
station heating, and similar conditions where the initial pres- 
sure may be high, the form of valve shown in Fig. 128 is 
often used. The valve illustrated is the Mason lever style, 
and consists of a balanced valve 1, which is under the control 
of the diaphragm 2, by means of the stem 3 and an extension 
stem 4 which is connected to lever 5. This lever is pivoted 
at 6. The reduced pressure is determined by the amount of 
weights 7, and for very low pressures the weight 8 is used 
to coimterbalance the weight of the lever. In action, the 
reduced pressure from the low pressure system passes through 
a small pipe to connection 9, and then down around the stem 
3 into the diaphragm chamber where it exerts its pressure on 
the diaphragm. This pressure, balanced by weights 7, causes 
the valve 1 to assume the proper position to supply the 




Fig. 128. Lever Style Reducing Valve. 



SPECIAL VALVES 



125 



necessary volume of steam to maintain the required reduced 
pressure. 

The Auld Company's "Quitetite" reducing valve may be ex- 
plained by reference to Fig. 129, and the makers' description. 
High pressure steam enters valve by branch marked inlet and 




Fig. 129. Auld "Quitetite" Keducing Valve. 

acts between valve D and piston P which are of the same area 
and, therefore, in equilibrium on H.P. side. Reduced pressure is 
obtained by screwing up adjusting nuts 1 until pointer 4 on Spring 
Bolt 3 is opposite the figure representing the reduced pressure 
required. Acting through the lever the extension of spring 8 
opens up valvfe D and passes steam at reduced pressure to outlet 
side and when the pressure of this reduced steam tends to rise 
above that required it closes the valve by acting on back of the 
valve D and chamber Q. When the pressure tends to fall the 
tension of spring overcomes the force holding valve closed and 
opens valve, allowing it to admit more steam to the L.P. side, and 
in this way the reduced pressure is kept constant. 



126 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 




A flexible diaphragm / is fitted at lower end of valve body, 

which makes a frictionless steam- 
tight packing between the station- 
ary and movable lower parts of 
the valve. This diaphragm is pro- 
tected from the action of steam by 
water of condensation which col- 
lects in the lower parts of the valve 
and keeps the diaphragm cool. 

The operation of the Fisher re- 
ducing valve shown in Fig. 130 is 
as follows: the inner valve 1 is 
held open by the lever and weight 
2. The volimie of steam which 
passes through the valve builds up 
in the low pressure main and 
enters the diaphragm chamber 
through the controlling pipe line 3. 
When the desired low pressure is 
reached, a balance is formed with 
the lever and weight. This action 
regulates the opening in the valve, and maintains the presstu-e 
for which the valve is set. 

When a large volume of 
steam is required at low 
pressm-e, such as for heating 
systems, and it must be re- 
duced from a high pressure, 
reducing valves may be made 
with an increased size of 
outlet. Such valves are used 
on vacuum systems of steam 
heating, and for low pressure 
steam tm-bines when the sup- 
ply of exhaust steam is not 
sufficient and hve steam must 
be reduced from boiler pres- 
sure. The method of piping this type of valve is shown in Fig. 
131. The pipe A should be tapped into the low pressure 
main at a distance from the valve so as to get the average low 



Fig. 130. Fisher Reducing Valve. 






c:^ ffn 



3 .Sfaerrr? 




Increased Outlet Keducing 
Valve. 



SPECIAL VALVES 



127 



Size Op Rebucing Valve 
jgr «■ ar r 




Size Op Reouciho Valve. / 

Fig. 132. PouBds of Steam per Hour Delivered by Reducing Valves. 



T 



128 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



pressure. The outlet is often made double the size of the inlet, 
thus increasing the area four times. 

Reducing Valve Sizes. — The chart shown in Fig. 132 from 
the catalog of the Aidd Company may be used to determine the 
size of their valves when the reduced pressure is less than three- 
fifths of the lowest high pressure, with a 
regular demand for steam. To use the 
chart, find the high pressure and follow the 
horizontal fine representing it imtil it inter- 
sects with the curve giving the required 
weight of steam. Vertically above or below 
this intersection wiU be foimd the size of 
valve. 

Pump Governors. — A pump governor is 
a valve placed in the steam line and ar- 
ranged to maintain a constant discharge 
pressure regardless of the initial pressure. 
Such governors are used on aU kinds of 
pumps for fire, boiler feed, water works, 
hydraulic, elevator, and other services where 
pmnps work against pressure. The opera- 
tion of such a governor may be imderstood 
by reference to Fig. 133, which shows a 
Fisher pump governor. Steam from the 
boiler passes through the semi-balanced 
double seated valve 1 into the pump steam 
chest. The valve is held open by the 
spring shown inside the pressiu-e regulating 
cylinder 2. A pipe from the pump discharge 
is piped to the top of the pressiu-e regulating 
cyHnder at 3. The discharge pressure acts directly on the 
piston 4, and operates the steam valve by overcoming the ten- 
sion on the spring. In this manner the discharge controls the 
supply of steam to the pump. For ordinary service the parts 
are made of cast-iron with bronze trimmings. Superheated steam 
requires steel bodies and Monel metal or nickel steel trimnaings. 
The arrangement of the piping for a governor used for con- 
trolling the discharge pressure from a pump used for boiler feed, 
water works, and similar service where the pump is operating 
against pressure is shown in Fig. 134, 




Fig. 133. Fisher 
Pump Governor. 



SPECIAL VALVES 



129 



The method of attaching and operating the governor shown 
in Fig. 133', as described by the Fisher Governor Company, is as 
follows: 

" To Attach and Conned. Place the governor between the 
steam chest and throttle valve so that governor will stand per- 
pendicular; connect outlet side of governor with the steam pipe 
on steam chest, then connect the steam pipe to the branch or 
side inlet, placing throttle valve in most convenient place. Use 
short nipples and place governor as close to pump as possible. 




Jbcf/'on 11 



Fig. 134. Piping a Pump Governor. 

"For connecting the discharge to governor, tap the discharge 
main or pipe, if horizontal, on the side, and if for one governor, 
tap for Vs-inch pipe; run pipe up about a foot higher than gov- 
ernor, then over it and down and connect to globe valve on top 
of pipe work over governor. If for two governors on pmnp dis- 
charging into same main, tap for ^/j-inch pipe and run up and 
over until on a line between governors, then put on a "T" 
and run to right and left imtil over governor, then connect to 
globe valve. 

If you can tap discharge main or pipe, five or six feet from 
pump, do so as governor will be less affected by the pulsation of 
water from pump. However, if you must tap close to pump, this 
pulsation .can be avoided and pump run smoothly by partly clos- 



130 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

ing the upper globe valve. Do not connect close to air 
chamber. Run piece of Vs-inch pipe from drip at bottom of 
brass cylinder to floor or sewer. The drip pipe must never be 
connected with waste pipe from steam cylinder blow-off cocks 
or exhaust pipe, as the hot steam will burn out the cup leather 
piston packing. 

" To Operate. The upper wheel in yoke is simply for a lock 
nut. Turn it to the left, then tiurn lower wheel to the right, which 
raises and opens the steam valve, when partly open, open yoiu: 
throttle valve and start your steam pimip, now close the lower, 
or angle valve over governor and open the upper globe valve; 
this will give you the water pressiu-e of the discharge main on 
piston in water cylinder. Then regulate by screwing up or down 
on lower wheel in yoke, imtil your water pressure gauge shows 
the pressure you desire to carry; then lock in place by timiing 
upper wheel to the right imtil up tight against bottom end of the 
piston rod. 

"In starting and stopping your pimip, do it with the throttle 
and do not change the adjustment of your governor. Pack valve 
stem as light as you can and screw stuffing box-nut down Ughtly 
with thumb and finger, just enough to hold the steam and no 
more. Do not use wick packing. Once every month nm your 
engine by the throttle, shut off water pressure, open union in 
pipe work, take off clyinder cap, take out piston, wipe the cylinder, 
clean and wipe piston head, and lubricate them with vaseline. 
Always keep your governor clean." 

Back Pressure Valves. — The purpose of this form of valve is 
to maintain a uniform back pressure in the exhaust pipe from 
an engine when the steam is used for steam heating, drying, cook- 
ing or other purposes. 

The Fisher valve shown in Fig. 135 has an inner valve chamber 
with two accurately machined ports of different areas in which 
the semi-balanced, double piston type of valve works. This 
avoids the use of a heavy counterweight and eliminates the tend- 
ency to pulsate and hammer. The steam exerts a pressure on 
both valves, the smaller one tending to close and the larger to 
open, so that the difference between the two forces tends to 
keep the valve open. Since the valve stem is connected to the 
lever arm, the weight tending to keep the valve closed may be 
moved to a position where the valve will open at the required 



SPECIAL VALVES 



131 



«/ 



.c[Z]=^ 




pressure. The lever and weight control can be adjusted to hold 

the valve open when no back pressure is wanted. 

The Foster back pressure valve shown in Fig. 136 operates 

with a spring instead of a weight. 

The valve is made up of two pieces 

between which the valve seat is 

clamped. The valve has a piston 

and guide stem integral with it. A 

spring and compensating lever hold 

the valve to its seat. A push rod 

rests on the bottom of the dash-pot 

piston and engages with the end of 

the compensating lever which has its 

fulcrum at i. The spring bears against „. „ ., „ , 

,, 1 ,, 1 - X u a Fig- 135. Fisher Back Pres- 

the lever through a pivot washer ^, sure Valve 

and is adjusted by the screw 8. 

When the steam pressure lifts the valve, the latter pushes up the 
compensating lever. As the latter moves, the length of the arm 
on which the spring acts shortens, so that as the resistance of 
the spring increases a greater leverage is obtained with the 

result that the back pres- 
sure beneath the valve re- 
mains constant regardless 
of the opening of the valve. 
When for any reason the 
flow of steam lessens, the 
spring forces the valve 
slowly to its seat, the dash- 
pot 4 cushioning its move- 
ment. Hole C is drilled 
through bottom of the 
dash-pot to admit of the 
passage of steam or vapor 
from or into the dash-pot. 
A drain pipe is connected 
to the casing at D just 
above the seat to drain 
When no back pressure is required, the 




Fig. 136. Foster Back Pressure Valve. 



water of condensation 

valve may be thrown out of commission by turning screw 5 to 

the right to shoulder which carries the valve off its seat. 



132 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



Automatic Exhaust Relief Valves. — With condensing engines 
and steam turbines it is necessary to use a valve in the exhaust 
pipe, which wUl open and allow the steam to exhaust direct to 

the atmosphere in case 
pressure accumulates, 
due to loss of vacumn 
from any cause. Such 
valves are designed to 
remain closed tmder 
usual operating condi- 
tions, but automati- 
cally open to atmos- 
phere as soon as the 
vacuum is lost. The 
position of the valve 
is in a branch leading 




Fisher Exhaust Relief Valve. 



Fig. 137, 

to the atmosphere and taken from the main exhaust pipe be- 
tween the engine and condenser. 

The Fisher exhaust relief valve is shown in Fig. 137. The valve 
is kept closed by atmospheric pressiu-e. It may be kept open by 
the screw 1 and lever 2 when desired. The purpose of the internal 
dash-pot is to prevent hammering when the valve is in operation. 
A water seal is provided to insure tightness when the valve is used 
with a high vacuum. 

Safety Valves. — The pmpose of a safety valve is to relieve the 
boiler in case the steam pressure rises above the desired amoimt. 
There are two general forms, the older form being of the weight 
lever type, and 
the modern spring 
or "pop" type. 

The lever type 
is shown in Fig. 
138. The pressure 
at which the valve 
will open is regu- 
lated by moving 
the weight in or out on the lever. This form is open to several 
objections; the blowing-ofE pressiu-e is too easily changed, and 
the action of the valve is likely to be sluggish, both when open- 
ing and when closing. 




Fig. 138. Lever Safety Valve. 



SPECIAL VALVES 



133 



A pop safety valve is shown in Fig. 139. Such valves are more 
certain in their operation, and are almost universally used. The 
valve operates against a spring which can be set for the pressure 
at which the boiler is to "blow off." Boiler pressure acting on 
the under side of the valve raises it slightly, exposing a larger area 
which causes the valve to "pop" open. The range of operation 
can be mainta.ined very closely with this type of valve. The lever 
attachment is for the piu'pose of operating the valve by hand. 
The valve shown in the figure is made by Crane Company and is 
provided with a patented seH-adjustipg auxihary disc and spring 



NAMES OF PARTS 




1 

2 
3 

4 

e 

7 
8 
9 
10 
II 
12 



16 
18 
20 
21 



BODY 

BONNET 

CAP 

LEVER 

MAIN SPRING 

AUXILIARY SPRING 

MAIN DISC 

AUXILIARY-DISC 

ENCASING SLEEVE 

MAIN SPRING WASHERS 

AUXILIARY SPRING NUT 

ADJUSTING SCREW 

FULCRUM 

STEM KEY 

ADJUSTING SCREW COCI? NUT 

STEM 

SEAT BUSHING 

STEM PIN 



Fig. 139. Crane Pop Safety Valve. 

operating independently of the main spring and disc. The device 
automatically regulates the blow-back of the valve within cer- 
tain limits and combines the following quahties: high discharging 
capacity; small blow down of pressure; minimum waste of steam; 
absence of wiredrawing at the seat and prompt seating without 
hammering. The dotted lines in the figure indicate a type of 
valve in which the springs are enclosed in a casing or chamber. 
This type should be used when the outlets of the valves are piped 
to the atmosphere and is necessary where a number of valves are 
connected to one exhaust or discharge pipe. The spring chamber 
extends over a large portion of the top surface of the valve disc 
and tends to prevent chattering caused by back-pressure due to 
long or defiected discharge pipes. It also prevents any tendency of 
back-pressure from retarding the action of a valve about to pop. 



134 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

Installation of Pop Safety Valves. — The directions for the 
installation of iron body pop safety valves are quoted from Crane 
Company. 

"Pop safety valves should be installed on a saddle nozzle if 
possible. If piping is used between the boiler and the valve, it 
should be of a larger size than the nominal diameter of the valve. 
Care should be taken that no chips, scale, red lead or other sub- 
stances are left in the inlet of the valve or in the boiler connec- 
tions to it. Where new valves are found to be in a leaky condition, 
this defect, in most cases, can be traced back to one of the above 
mentioned causes. 

The first time pressure is raised in a boiler on which new pop 
valves have been installed, open the valve by puUing the lever 
when the pressure is within about 5 or 10 poimds of the set 
pressure stamped on the valve, and keep the valve open 
about one minute or lon^ enough to make sure that aU foreign 
matter has been blown out of the valve and connections. 

If piping is installed in the outlet of the valve, this should under 
no circvmistances be reduced in size, and if more than one fitting 
is used in the Une the entire installation beyond the first fitting 
should be increased in size. Be sure to support this piping, 
as many a perfect valve has been transformed into a leaky one 
by reason of improper support of the outlet pipe. 

"Do not install any pop valve ia a horizontal position." 

EXTBACTS PROM RePOBT OP AMERICAN SOCIETT OP MeCH,ANICAL ENGINEERS 

BoiLEK Code Committee. (Power Boilers) 

SAFETY VALVE REQUIREMENTS 

269. Each boiler shall have two or more safety valves, except a boiler for 
which one safety valve 3-in. size or smaller is required by these Rules. 

270. The safety valve capacity for each boiler shall be such that the safety 
valve or valves will discharge all the steam that can be generated by the 
boiler without allowing the pressure to rise more than 6 per cent, above the 
maximimi allowable working pressure, or more than 6 per cent, above 
the highest pressure to which any valve is set. 

277. The safety valve or valves shall be connected to the boiler independ- 
ent of any other steam connection, and attached as close as possible to the 
boiler, without any unnecessary intervening pipe or fitting. Every safety 
valve shall be connected so as to stand in an upright position, with spindle 
vertical, when possible. 

278. Each safety valve shall have fuU sized direct connection to the boil'er. 
No valve of any description shall be placed between the safety valve and 
the boiler, nor on the discharge pipe between the safety valve and the atmo- 



SPECIAL VALVES 



135 



sphere. When a discharge pipe is used, it shall be not less than the fuU size 
of the valve, and shall be fitted with an open drain to prevent water from 
lodging in the upper part of the safety valve or in the pipe. 

280. When a boiler is fitted with two or more safety valves on one con- 
nection, this coimection to the boiler shall have a cross-sectional area not less 
than the combined area of all the safety valves with which it connects. 

286. A safety valve over 3-in. size, used for pressures greater than 15 
pounds per square inch gage, shall have a flanged inlet connection. The 
dimensions of the flanges shall conform to the American Standard. 

SAFETY VALVES FOB HEATINa BOILERS 

354. No shut-off of any description shall be placed between the safety 
or water relief valves and boilers, nor on discharge pipes between them and 
the atmosphere. 

355. When a discharge pipe is used, its area shall be not less than the 
area of the valve or aggregate area of the valves with which it connects, and 
the discharge pipe shall be fitted with an open drain to prevent water from 
lodging in the upper part of the valve or in the pipe. When an elbow is 
placed on a safety or water relief valve discharge pipe, it shall be located 
close to the valve outlet or the pipe shall be securely anchored and supported. 
The safety or water relief valves shall be so located and piped that there will 
be no danger of scalding attendants. 

358. The minimum size of safety or water relief valve or valves for each 
boiler shall be governed by the grate area of the boiler, as shown by Table 74. 



Allowable Sizes of 



TABLE 74 

Safety Valves fob Heating Boilebs 



Water evaporated 














per Square Foot 
of Grate Surface 


75 


100 


160 


160 


200 


240 


per Hour Pounds 














Maximum Allow- 
able Working 


Zero 

to 

25 Lbs. 


Over 25 

to 
50 Lbs. 


Over 50 

to 
100 Lbs. 


Over 100 

to 
150 Lbs. 


3ver 150 

to 
200 Lbs. 


Over 200 


Pressure Pounds 
per Square Inch 


Lbs. 


Diam. 


Area of 














of 
Valve 


Valve 
Square 




Arei 


I of Grate 


, Square 1 


^eet 




Inches 


Inches 














1 


0.7854 


2.00 


2.50 


2.75 


3.25 


3.5 


3.75 


1V4 


1.2272 


3.25 


4.00 


4.25 


5.00 


5.5 


5.75 


I'A 


1.7671 


4.50 


5.50 


6.00 


7.25 


8.0 


8.50 


2 


3.1416 


8.00 


9.75 


10.75 


13.00 


14.0 


15.00 


2V. 


4.9087 


12.50 


15.00 


16.50 


20.00 


22.0 


23.00 


3 


7.0686 


17.75 


21.50 


24.00 


29.00 


31.5 


33.25 


3>A 


9.6211 


24.00 


29.50 


32.50 


39.50 


43.0 


45.25 


4 


12.5660 


31.50 


38.25 


42.50 


51.50 


56.0 


59.00 


4V2 


15.9040 


40.00 


48.50 


53.50 


65.00 


71.0 


74.25 



136 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

When the conditions exceed those on which Table 74 is based, 
the following formula for bevel and flat seated valves shall be 
used: 

^=E2<J2xii (18) 

p 

in which 

A = area of direct spring-loaded safety valve per square 

foot of grate surface, sq. in. 
W = weight of water evaporated per square foot of grate 

surface per second, lb. 
P = pressure (absolute) at which the safety valve is set 
to blow, lb. per sq. in. 



CHAPTER VIII 
STEAM PIPING 

General Considerations. — It is not the purpose of this chapter 
to deal with pipe hnes in an exhaustive way, as there are large 
books devoted to this one subject, but it is intended to tell some- 
thing of the general arrangement of pipe lines and some of the 
things to be considered. 

The layout of a piping system is a question of design and ranges 
from the piping of a single engine and boiler to the complex system 
of the large power plant. In piping as in all other branches of 
engineering work "safety first" should be one of the guiding 
principles. To this end the best of material and workmanship 
should be caUed for. These, together with intelligence in design 
will give both economy and safety in operation and maintenance. 
The items of general appHcation to any system may be listed as 
follows: 

A. Reduce the length to the smallest practicable distance. 

B. Have as few fittings and valves as safety and operating 
conditions will allow. 

C. Make allowances for expansion and contraction. 

D. Make allowances for drainage. 

E. Make allowances for supports. 

F. Eliminate vibration as much as possible. 

G. Make allowances for sectionalizing or shutting off any por- 
tion of the system. 

H. Consider the size of pipe from the viewpoints of safety, 
economy in first cost, economy in operation, radiation losses, loss 
in pressiu-e, and velocity of flow. 

Header System. — There are a number of systems for laying 
out high pressure steam piping. In every case it is desirable to 
maintain as uniform a velocity of flow as possible throughout the 
system. The simplest is the header system. When the engines 
and boilers are placed back to back as shown in Fig. 140, a small 
size of header may be used. As the engines and boilers are close 
together the pipe lines are short and direct. The header may be 



138 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



located either in the boiler room or in the engine room, but 
preferably in the boiler room. When the engines and boilers are 
placed end to end as shown in Fig. 141 a larger header is required, 
as aU the steam must pass through the header at a single section. 
The sections of the header farthest from the engines may be made 




Fig. 140. Header System of Piping. 

smaller as they carry only a part of the supply. A separate 
header may be provided for suppljdng steam to pumps and other 
auxiliary apparatus. 

Direct System with Cross-over Header. — A direct system of 
piping with cross-over header used in the Connors Creek Station 
of the Detroit Edison Company is shown in Fig. 142 from the 
September, 1915, Journal A. S. M. E., and described by C. F 
Hirshfield. The hve steam piping consists of a run from two 
boilers to the unit which they serve, all of these runs being cross- 
connected by a cross-over header. The steam leads from each 



STEAM PIPING 



139 



boiler are of 10-inch pipe and these join together in a Y-fitting, 
which has a 14-inch discharge. Under full load conditions with 
two boilers supplying one unit, the steam velocities will be about 



V///////^J///^/^/^^^^//J??^ }^7^7 f/'?. 



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Fig. 141. End to End System of Piping. 

10,500 feet per minute in the 10-inch pipe, and 12,000 feet per 
minute in the 14-inch pipe. With three boilers supplying two 
units, these velocities will rise to about 14,000 and 16,000 feet 
per minute, respectively. The cross-over main necessitated a 



TURBINE ROOM 



SOtCOO lt.W. [f 




Fig. 142. Connors Creek Station, High Pressure Piping. 

design which should permit steam from any two boilers to flow 
into that main, and steam from the main to flow into any turbine 
lead, with practically equal facihty. 



140 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

The steam leaving the 10 x 14 x 10 inch Y-branch previously 
mentioned, passes through a cast steel expanding nozzle which 
enlarges to a diameter of 28 inches. This in turn leads into a 
28-inch cast steel side-outlet T or side-outlet cross. The 28-inch 
lateral outlets of the latter fittings are the connection points of 
the cross-over main. The velocity of the steam passing into the 
cross-over, or from the cross-over main to the turbine lead, is 
thus reduced to about one quarter of its value in the 14-inch pipes, 
or roughly, a httle less than 4000 feet per minute imder the worst 
conditions. The steam turns through the necessary right angle 
at this low velocity and, therefore, with small loss. 

The steam for the auxiUary tiu-bines is taken from a 6-inch 
outlet on top of the 28-inch fittings above described. 

All superheated steam piping is full weight steel with welded 
flanges. The flanges are finished smooth and corrugated steel 
gaskets are used. All fittings are cast steel. 

The atmospheric exhaust from the main unit is made of riveted 
steel pipe and fittings. The auxiliary exhaust piping is lap welded 
steel with Van Stone joints and fitted with corrugated copper 
gaskets. All saturated steam piping is extra heavy steel fitted 
with steel flanges. The fittings are all cast steel and steel valves 
of American make are used. 

Ring System. — The ring system of piping provides a closed 
ring of piping from the boilers to the engines and back to the 
boilers. The purpose of this system is to allow operation of the 
engines from either direction, in order to insure continuous opera- 
tion. In case of accident parts of the Une may be cut out. The 
extra amount of large pipe, valves and fittings make this sytem 
heavy, and expensive to install, as well as wasteful in operation 
due to the large amoimt of radiating surface and extra valves and 
joints to keep tight. There are cases where such a system may 
be desirable, but it is not used so extensively as formerly due to 
the improvements in materials and workmanship which have 
lessened piping failm-es. 

The ring main system of piping is shown in Fig. 143, which is a 
span of the Baltimore high pressure pumping station. This is an 
instance where reliability outweighs all other considerations. It 
is described by J. B. Scott in Volume 35 A. S. M. E. Trans. "A 
12-inch steam header forms a closed ring around the plant, with 
long radius expansion bends at all changes in direction. A suffi- 



STEAM PIPING 



141 



cient number of gate valves are placed in the header to sectional- 
ize it, so that any portion may be cut out without disabling more 
than one boiler or one pvunp. Pipe is full weight, lap welded, soft 
open-hearth steel. To provide an independent header for the 



f^yoi?;4''-.<.'!U'^iM'i^.-:.'^;ti-7r\ff\<!':t<i'l::& 




142 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

station auxiliaries, a 6-iiich cross connection is made across the 
centre of the main header, which is capable of being fed from 
either side of the main header, in case of accident to the other. 
No fittings whatever are used in the main line, all branches being 
taken from interlocked welded necks. Boiler branches are pro- 
vided with non-return valves at the boiler nozzles and gates at 
the header end. Van Stone flanges are provided for connec- 
tions to the valves and receivers, which are located so as to avoid 
as far as possible the necessity for any additional joints in the 
Une. Wrought steel receiver type separators are installed at the 
low points on each side of the header." 

Duplicate System. — The double main or duphcate system 
provides for two separate sets of piping in any of the following 
combinations: 

A. Two small size mains which together provide for the capac- 
ity of the plant. When necessary on accoimt of accidents or re- 
pairs the plant can be operated with a single main by increasing 
the boiler pressure and steam velocities. 

B. One large main in regular use and a small idle main for 
use when necessary to have the large main out of commission. 

G. Two large mains, one in use and one idle. The duplicate 
system is expensive as it requires a large nimaber of fittings and 
valves. Its purpose is to insure against shut downs, and there 
may be conditions where its use is desirable. 

Steam Velocity. — The velocity of high pressure steam flow 
in piping is not at all uniform, but ordinarily the average velocity 
may be taken at from 5000 to 8000 feet per minute. This veloc- 
ity is often exceeded, especially in large plants. Some values for 
actual plants are as follows: steam pressures 160 to 210 pounds 
per square inch, average 175; superheat, 100 to 200 degrees F., 
average 134; velocity of steam in boiler steam pipe, 3750 to 8700 
feet per minute, average 6150; velocity of steam in header, 4200 
to 11,400 feet per minute, average 7000; velocity of steam in 
turbine steam pipe, 3225 to 7900 feet per minute, average 5100. 

For turbines smaller pipes may be used than for engines as the 
flow is constant due to the uniform demand for steam. In the 
steam plant large piping sometimes acts as a receiver to supply 
the large amounts of steam required for short periods. Higher 
velocities result in smaller pipes which are much cheaper to in- 
stall and maintain. The matter of friction and drop in pressure 



STEAM PIPING 143 

is not serious in view of high pressures and superheat commonly 
employed in large plants. In one large plant operating with 210 
pounds steam pressure the average steam velocity is 15,744 feet 
per minute, and even higher velocities are used. This tendency 
toward smaller pipes and higher velocities is advantageous in 
many ways; the first cost is less, the radiation losses are less, 
smaller repair expenses and provision for expansion is easier. 

For exhaust, velocities up to 30,000 feet per minute may be 
used in estimating sizes of pipe. 

Size of Pipe. — The size of pipe may be calculated from the 
volume of steam and the velocity of flow. 

p = absolute pressure, pounds per square inch. 
V = velocity of steam, feet per minute, 
s = specific volume of steam at given pressure, cubic feet 

per pound. 
a = internal area of pipe, square inches. 
w = weight of steam passing through pipe, pounds per 
minute. 

- = ^ (19) 

144s 

a = (20) 

F 

From these formulae the area of the pipe required can be ob- 
tained and reference to the pipe tables will give the diameter. 
When the drop in pressmre due to friction is to be considered, 
Babcock's formula may be used. 

L = length of pipe, in feet. 

p = drop in pressure, pounds per square inch. 

d = inside diameter of pipe in inches. 

D = mean density, pounds per cubic foot. 

w = weight of steam flowing, pounds per minute. 

■.-STt/ ""' , (21) 

p -. 0001321^ (l+^«) m 

In addition to the friction of the pipe there is the friction of 
valves and fittings to be considered. Where long radius pipe 



144 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

bends are used they may be considered as being equal to the 
same length of straight pipe. Gate valves produce very small 
losses when fully open. The friction of an ordinary 90 degree elbow, 
for a globe valve, or for a square end opening may be found from 
information given in Briggs' paper on "Wanning Buildings by 
Steam." Thus the length of pipe equivalent to a globe valve or 
square end opening is found from the formula given below. 

d = internal diameter, in inches. 

E = equivalent length of pipe in feet. 
^^_9^5d^ ^23) 

3.6 + d 
For a 90 degree elbow the equivalent length is two-thirds of 
the above or 

E = ^^^^ (24) 

3.6 + d 

The curves of Fig. 144 give the values of equation (24) for 
various sizes. 

The allowable drop in pressure varies with conditions and may 
be from one to ten pounds per square inch. For ordinary plants 
a drop of five pounds is allowable provided the boiler pressure is 
high enough to compensate for it so that an economical pressure 
is maintained at the engine. 

Equalization of Pipes. — From formula (21) 



w 



'(-?) 



the number of small pipes equivalent to a large one may be found. 
The variable factor in the formula is 



from which ' d + 3.6 



^ d + : 



4^ 



da" 



iV = -^±M (25) 

' di + 3.6 
di = diameter of smaller pipe in inches, 
da = diameter of larger pipe in inches. 
N = number of smaller pipes equivalent to one large one. 



STEAM PIPING 



145 



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Fig. 144. Length of Pipe in Feet Equivalent to a 90° Elbow. 



146 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

Values for this formula are given in Table 75. Tables 76 and 
77 are from the Watson-Stillman Company's catalog of hydraulic 
valves and fittings. In Table 75 the values above the heavy black 
line are for standard pipe of the nominal diameter given. Below 
the line the values are for actual internal diameters. The method 
of using is the same for all three tables. To find the nimiber of 
IVirinch pipes equivalent to one 6-inch pipe, follow the line 
marked IV2 across to the column headed 6 where the nmnber 
given is 39.2. Below the line the table shows that 46 pipes IV2 
inches actual inside diameter are equal to one pipe 6 inches actual 
inside diameter, as found by following the line marked 6 over 
to the column headed IV2. 

Superheated Steam. — When superheated steam is to be used, 
the selection of materials should be carefully made. Composi- 
tion or cast iron lose their strength when used with superheated 
steam and so are unsafe. Malleable iron or cast steel are the best 
materials to use, although cast iron or semi-steel may be used 
when the temperature is less than 500° F. Higher velocities 
are used with superheated than with saturated steam. In this 
way radiation losses are reduced. While there is a greater drop 
in pressure, the operation as a whole is generally economical 
as the heat of friction is given back to the steam. Piping for 
superheated steam should be well covered as the higher tempera- 
tiu-es and low specific heat of superheat make conditions for 
radiation losses very much greater than for saturated steam at 
like pressm-es. Expansion and contraction are much greater 
with superheated steam and ample proAdsion must be made to 
care for it. Specifications for superheated steam piping are given 
in Chapter XIX. 

Effect of High Temperature on Metals and Alloys. — The 
effects of superheated steam due to high temperature is to reduce 
the tensile strength of metals. An extensive series of tests made 
in Crane Company's laboratories by I. M. Bregowsky and L. W. 
Spring are reported in an article read before the International 
Association for Testing Materials, and published in full by Crane 
Company. A large number of tests were made upon the ma- 
terials used by the above company in manufacturing their pro- 
ducts and so have an important bearing upon high pressure and 
superheated steam power plant piping. A number of cm-ves from 
the report showing the average results of some of the tests are 



STEAM PIPING 



147 



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148 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 





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STEAM PIPING 



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STEAM PIPING 





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Alloys. 

given in Fig. 145. In each case curve A is ultimate tensile strength, 
curve B is elastic limit, curve C is per cent, reduction in area and 
curve D is per cent, elongation. Pounds per square inch are given 
at the left of the curve, and per cent, at the right. 

The materials are: No. 1, Crane "hard metal," a bronze made 
up of pure copper and tin, alloyed in proportions which give 
metal of high tensile strength and hardness. No. 2, aluminum 
bronze (5 per cent, aluminum), a bronze containing 95 per cent, 
copper and 5 per cent, aluminum. No. 3, acid metal. A phos- 
phorbronze of straight tin and copper. An alloy of high resistance 
to acids, which is used where ordinary metal would be Kkely to 
corrode. Not intended for high temperatxire purposes. No 4, 
ordinary steam metal. In general use for all pressures of satm-ated 
steam. No. 7, Crane cast iron. A factor which enters into the 
use of cast iron is the "growth" or "permanent" expansion, which 
takes place when the metal is alternately heated and cooled a 
number of times. Crane Company has found that the cast iron 
of valves used for superheated steam is weaker after a few years 
of use. Cast steel is considered the best material for use with 



152 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

superheated steam. No. 8, Ferrosteel (semi-steel). Essentially 
a strong cast iron, used for "extra heavy" valves, for standard 
valves of sizes over 7 inches and wherever specified for other 
valves. No. 11, Crane cast nickel. No. 13, U. S. Navy brass 
"S-c" for government screw pipe fittings. (Cu. 77-80, Sn. 4, 
Pb. 3, Zn. 13-19 per cent.). No. 18, rolled Monel metal. No. 19 
cold-rolled shafting. 

Live Steam Header. — A hve steam header of large size may 
be made up of riveted plates, of flanged fittings, or of welded 
steel. If made of steel plates riveted together there may be dif- 
ficulty in keeping all the joints tight, especially with high pressure 
steam. Flanged fittings or welded steel headers are more satis- 
factory. The number of joints involved when a large number of 
flanged fittings are used is often a source of trouble and may be 
avoided by using special fittings or welded headers. Figs. 51 and 
52, Chapter V. The size and arrangement of Uve steam headers 
depends upon the system of piping used and other factors having 
to do with the particular design. Further information is given in 
the articles describing the various systems of piping and the sizes 
of steam pipes. 

Connections Between Boiler and Header. — The pipe between 
the boiler and header should be arranged so that it will be self- 
draining, and with provision for expansion. A number of arrange- 
ments are shown in Fig. 146. With screwed pipe and fittings, 
expansion may be taken care of by allowing the pipe to turn on 
the threads. Bends may be used with either screwed or flanged 
piping to allow for expansion. Bends are desirable as they offer 
less resistance to the steam flow and decrease the number of 
joints to be made and kept tight. 

The location of the valves is very important, as it affects the 
proper draining of the pipe. The valve or valves should be placed 
at the highest point in the connection to allow condensation to 
drain from the valves in both directions and so keep the pipe dry. 
The arrangement when a single boiler is piped with one valve is 
shown at A, Fig. 146. When more than one boiler is to be used 
the valve may be placed near the header, as in Fig. 146 at B. 
Other single-valve arrangements are shown in Fig. 146 at C 
and D. 

Good practice dictates the use of two valves and in many 
places the law requires two valves on boiler connections. One of 



STEAM PIPING 



153 



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A 

Boi/er 



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Sa/'/er 



Header 




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Fig. 146. BoUer to Header Pipes 




t^/ye 



154 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

these may well be of the automatic stop form described in Chap- 
ter VI. With screwed fittings two valves may be arranged as 
in Fig. 146 at E, but some provision should be made for draining 
the pipe between them, as there is the possibility of condensation 
accumulating even though the valves are closed. Arrangements 
are shown with two valves in Fig. 146 at FG and H in which one 
of the valves is a non-retiu'n valve. Both valves are located at 
the highest point. Other arrangements of boiler connections with 
either one or two valves are shown in Fig. 146 at I, J, K and L. 
The necessity for avoiding dangerous water pockets should be 
kept in mind in all cases and where necessary to place a vaJve 
other than at the highest point, provision should be made for 
draining above the valve before it is opened. 

Pipe Lines from Main Header. — Pipe lines from the main 
header should be designed to allow for expansion and to supply 
dry steam to the engine or other machine. A separator may be 
used in the header before the branch is taken off, or if the branch 
is long the separator may be near the engine. If a receiver sepa- 
rator is employed a smaller pipe may be used between the main 
and the separator. Several arrangements of engine piping are 
shown in Fig. 147. Two valves are shown, one a stop valve near 
the main and the other a throttle valve near the engine. Ordi- 
narily the throttle valve is used, the stop valve being either 
full open or closed. A drip pipe should be placed just above 
the throttle to blow out the condensation which collects when 
the throttle valve is closed. By making the connection from the 
top of the main there is less danger of water getting into the 
engine cylinder in case it should come over from the boiler, 
whereas if the connection is taken from the side or bottom of 
the main, the engine is almost certain to be wrecked. 

Auxiliary and Small Steam Lines for Engines, Pumps, etc. — 
The same general principles apply to auxiliary steam headers 
and small steam lines. They should be arranged to provide for 
expansion and contraction and for ample draining. The expan- 
sion can generally be cared for by allowing the pipe to tvun on 
the threads, taking advantage of the necessary changes in direc- 
tion. For draining, the pipe should slope in the direction of 
the steam flow and should be provided with a steam trap, drip 
pipes, or other means of disposing of the condensation. If 
the branch is taken from the side or bottom of the steam line, 



STEAM PIPING 



155 



there should be provision for draining, Fig. 148, A, B, C. This 
can be avoided by taking steam from the top of the line, as in 
Fig. 148, D, which also protects the branch while it is in use. 
Two valves are shown in the illustrations, one a throttle valve 



-SAf> t&/>v 




Fig. 147. Header to Engine Pipes. 



near the engine or pump, and a stop valve near the steam line. 
When a throttling governor is used the arrangement may be as 
at E, Fig. 148. Both valves are not always necessary, but they 
are desirable. The throttle valve can be used to regulate the 
machine, and the stop valve to close off the branch entirely when 
necessary. The throttle valve should of course be of the globe or 
angle pattern. The arrangement of piping when the different 



156 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



forms of valves and regulating devices are used is taken up in 
connection with the description of the devices. 

Steam Loop. — The steam loop is an arrangement of piping for 
returning condensed steam to a boiler by gravity, as shown in 
Fig. 149. The water of condensation is carried up the riser along 
with steam, then into the horizontal pipe where the steam con- 
denses, and flows down the drop leg. When suflicient water has 
collected in the drop leg, the increase in pressure will open the 



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Fig. 148. Branch Pipes. 



check valve and the water will flow into the boiler. This opera- 
tion is repeated automatically as the drop leg fiUs. The head 
or pressure in the drop leg must at all times be greater than that 
in the riser in order to keep the loop in operation. The level of 
the water when the two pipes are balanced may be about one 
half way up the drop leg. The drop leg may be from 30 to 50 feet 
long, depending upon the loss in pressure between the boiler and 
drop leg and friction of piping and check valve. 

Injector Piping. — The general arrangement of piping for an 
injector is shown in Fig. 150 at A. The steam pipe should be 
taken from as high a point as possible and directly from the boiler. 
A globe valve should be placed at a convenient point in the steam 
pipe. The suction pipe should be as short and direct as possible, 
sometimes a size larger pipe than the injector connection is desir- 



STEAM PIPING 



157 



able. A foot valve may be necessary on a long lift. The globe 
valve is placed close to the injector. The discharge pipe should 
be the size of the injector outlet or larger, and should contain a 
check valve, placed at a considerable distance from the injector. 



Drop tey^ 



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Fig. 149. Steam Loop. 

When the water is not lifted the suction pipe should contain two 
valves, one close to the injector and one far away from it, Fig. 
150, at B. 

Live Steam Feed Water Purifier. — The Hoppes hve steam feed 
water purifier is shown in Fig. 151. It consists of a cylindrical 
steel shell, within which are located a number of trough-shaped 



SAfam Svppfy 



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n Fl CAeclr yir/i^e 
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Fig. 150. Injector Kping. 

pans. The pans are made of hard sheet steel with malleable 
iron ends. 

The water enters the purifier through pipe C and overflows the 
sides of the pans and follows the under surfaces in a thin film to 



158 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



the lowest point and in direct contact with the steam. The 
soHds in solution are precipitated and adhere to the bottoms of 




Fig. 151. Live Steam Purifier. 

the pans, while those in suspension are retained in the troughs of 
the pans. 

Method of Piping Purifier. — The method of piping a live 
steam purifier is indicated in Fig. 152. It is generally best to 




Fig. 152. Live Steam Purifier Piping. 



STEAM PIPING 



159 



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M= 



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^rom IVafvr Space 



supply live steam to the heater by an independent pipe A in order 

to be sure of sufficient pressure to allow the water to flow to the 

boilers by gravity. To cause such a flow, the bottom of the 

purifier should be placed two or 

more feet above the water level in 

the boiler. The feed pipe B from 

the purifier is connected to the feed 

line. The pipe C from the pump 

supphes the feed water to the purifier. 

This pipe can be used as a direct feed 

to the boilers by closing the proper 

valves. 
Steam for the pump is suppUed by 

the pipe D. When the purifier is in 

operation the valve E should be 

closed and the valve F opened to 

allow circulation. 
Water Column Piping. — A water 

column is a hollow casting, tapped 

for three gage cocks, two water gage 

connections, and for connections to 

the steam and water spaces "of the 

boiler as shown in Fig. 153. The 

object of the column is to show the 

height of water in the boiler. For this 

reasop the steam connection should be taken from well above the 

water level and the water connection well below it. These con- 
nections should be made with tees or crosses with plugs instead 

of elbows. By removing the plugs the connections may be thor- 
oughly cleaned. Extra heavy 
wrought pipe may be used, 
but brass pipe of iron pipe 
size is much better. For 
small water columns one inch 
pipe is used, but \\ inch is a 
more usual diameter for all 
sizes. Valves may be placed 
in the boiler connections as 




Fig. 153. Water Column 
Piping. 




Fig. 154. Thermometer Well. 



shown, but should be arranged to indicate plainly when they are 
closed. In some places such valves are prohibited. The steam 



160 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



gage may be piped as indicated, but no other connection should 
be made from the water colmnn piping. 

The Placing of Thermometers in Pipes. — There are many 
occasions where it is desirable to ascertain the temperature of 
the medium passing through a pipe. For this purpose thermome- 
ters may be used by inserting a thermometer well in the pipe line. 
The well should be partly filled with oil before inserting the ther- 
mometer. The arrangement 
\/j ^\/j is indicated in Fig. 154. For 

permanent locations thermo- 
meters are made with a well 
as part of the casing so that 
they can be screwed into place. 
The well should be made of 
close composition brass and 
be closed either with a bit of 



^ 



Fig. 155. Steam Gage Locations. 



waste or arranged for a screw cap so that water can be kept 
out when the well is not in use. 

Steam Gages. — The location of gages for steam or water 
should have careful attention to insure correct readings. With 
steam gages some arrangement should be made for maintaining 
water between the gage and the steam, Fig. 155. For this pur- 
pose a goose neck may be used, or the gage may be placed below 
the steam Kne. When placed as at Z) a correction should be made 
for the head of water. The dial hand may be set to make the 
proper allowance. The location of water pressure gages should 
receive the same attention in order to avoid erroneous readings. 



CHAPTER IX 
DRIP Airo BLOW-OFF PIPING 

Drainage. — Steam piping should be arranged so as to avoid 
the possibihty of condensed steam gathering in pockets and 
there becoming a source of danger. A slug of water picked up 
from such a pocket and carried along by a change in velocity of 
the steam can cause a great deal of damage by its impact with 
valves, fittings, etc. For this reason efficient drainage must be 
provided. The slope of horizontal pipes should be at least 1 
inch in 10 feet, and in the direction of steam flow. The steam 
main should be drained from the bottom. The supply pipes 
should slope from the header to separators, and the engine supply 
should be taken from the top of the separator. The water from 
steam main drips can be gathered in a receiver and automatically 
pumped back to the boilers. The essentials of a properly designed 
system are provision for drainage when the pipes are full of steam 
imder pressure but not flowing, and the care of all condensation 
when it is flowing. When a change in size of pipe is necessary, 
eccentric fittings may be used to keep the bottoms of the fines 
on the same level. The location of valves should receive careful 
attention. They should be placed so that the valve body will 
not form a water pocket. A gate valve with the spindle pointing 
downward is such a case. Valves should be placed at the high 
points in the line or ample drain pipe provided to care for the 
water which collects. When a valve is in a vertical pipe line 
there must be a drain pipe tapped in immediately above it. 

Separators. — Separators are made for the purpose of separat- 
ing water from steam, or oil from steam. In cases where prim- 
ing exists in the boilers or where the steam Unes are long, water 
collects in the piping and may be very destructive if carried into 
the engine cylinder. Further, the presence of moisture in the 
steam results in loss of economy in the operation of the engine. 
To remove the water, steam separators of various designs may 
be used. Baffle plates or changes in direction may be employed 
in the design of a separator. When steam is to be condensed 



162 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



and returned to the boilers, separators may be placed in the ex- 
haust pipe to remove the oil and water. The principle of operar 
tion is the same as for steam separators. A steam separator 

should be placed as near the engine 
as possible. The water from the 
separator may be blown out or 
may be taken care of automati- 
cally by a steam trap. 

The construction of the Pittsburg 
separator is shown in Fig. 156. 
The steam enters at 1 and is 
turned downward so that it strikes 
the ribbed annular surface 2 where 
the oil and water is caught and 
runs off to the collecting chamber 
3. The steam leaves by the open- 
ing 4 near the top. 
The construction of the Cochrane 
separator is shown in Fig. 157, where A is the exterior, B is 
cross section, and C a longitudinal section. The steam enters 
at 1 and impinges against a bafHe plate 2 having vertical ribs, 
where the oil or water adheres. This oil or water is directed 




Fig. 156. Pittsburg Separator. 







Fig. 157. Cochrane Separator. 

to the collecting well 3. The steam turns to the side of the 
baffle and leaves the separator at 4- The path of the steam is 
indicated at D, Fig. 157. 



DRIP AND BLOW-OFF PIPING 



163 



The Hoppes steam separator is shown in Fig. 158. 
at the top and plunges 
downward, the moisture in 
the steam impinges on the 
surface of the water in the, 
bottom and is caught and 
retained. From here it is 
drawn off through the drain 
pipe shown. Any entrained 
moisture creeping along the 
sides of the separator is in- 
tercepted by the troughs, 
which are partly filled with 
water and surroimd both in- 
let and outlet. 

Drip Pockets, — To drain 
long horizontal pipes pro- 
perly drip pockets. Fig. 159, 
should be provided every 75 
to 100 feet. In general the 
drip pocket opening should 
be the full size of the pipe, 
as the water is Ukely to be 
carried over small openings. 
From the drip pocket a 



Steam enters 




Fig. 158. Hoppes Separator. 



drain connection is made with a steam trap. 

Steam Traps. — A steam trap is an appa- 
ratus made to dispose of the condensed steam 
-, from a piping system. The drip pipes from 
the system are run to the trap which dis- 
charges the water without allowing the steam 
to escape. When this discharge is against 
atmospheric pressure, as into a hot well or 
sewer, the trap is called a discharge or non- 
HETUEN trap. When the hot water is dis- 
charged back into the boiler the trap is called 
a direct return trap. Direct return traps 
must be located above the boiler. There are 
Fig. 159. nmnerous forms of steam traps, only a few of 

Drip Pocket. which will be described. 




164 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



The Walworth trap shown in Fig. 160, is operated by a floatiQg 
bucket. The condensation flows in at 1 around the bucket 2 
until it overflows into the bucket and sinks it, uncovering the 

opening in the spindle at 3. 
This allows the water to be 
driven out at 4. 

The McDaniels trap 
shown in Rg. 161, is oper- 
ated by a float. The con- 
densation flows in at i 
untU it raises the spherical 
float 2 which opens the 
valve 3 and allows the 
water to be forced out at 4- 
When the water is drained 
The screw 5 may be used 




Fig. 160. Bucket Trap. 



the float falls and closes the valve 3. 
to open the valve 3. 

The Farnsworth trap shown at A, Fig. 162, operates by a tilt- 
ing tank. The tank is composed of a partition and two pipes 
making two unequal size chambers. The vertical pipe 1 receives 
condensation into the long chamber 2 until its weight overbalances 
the full short chamber 3 and opens the valve 4 and the condensar 
tion is passed from the bottom of the long chamber through the 
diagonal pipe 5 into the top of the short chamber, and from the 
bottom of the short chamber out through the valve, which re- 
mains full opened so long 
as condensation is coming 
through the vertical pipe, 
and when the Hnes or ap- 
paratus are finally drained 
and the long end nearly 
emptied, the full, short 
chamber over-balances it 
and closes the valve 
against the double seal of 
water. . _ 

Copper flexible hose is ^'8- 1'^" McDamels Trap, 

used to avoid packed tnmnion joints as shown at B. This 
allows the trap to be arranged to operate as a non-return trap 
or as a return trap. 




DRIP AND BLOW-OFF PIPING 



165 



The Cranetilt trap is made for a variety of uses, the direct 
return trap being shown in Fig. 163. Condensation enters 
the trap through the inlet check valve 1 and passes through the 
divided trunnion tee into the tank 2. When the tank fills, the 
weight of water causes it to drop to the bottom of the yoke S. 
This opens the steam valve 4 and closes the vent valve 5 allow- 
ing pressure to enter the steam valve and through the inner pipe 



Water Inlef 



B I 



\Fle*i'ble Copaei 
\ Hose 





Fig. 162. Famsworth Trap. 

into the space above the water, closing the inlet check valve. 
The pressure is now the same in the trap as in the boiler and as 
the trap is above the boiler, the water flows into the boiler by 
gravity. After sufficient water has left the tank, the counter- 
weight 6 brings it back into the filling position, this action closing 
the steam valve and opening the vent valve which allows the 
pressure in the tank to equal or fall below that in the return lines. 
The directions given for setting and connecting up a Cranetilt 
direct return trap are as follows: 

"Place the trap at least foiu- feet above the water level of the 
boiler. The trap does not necessarily have to be directly above 
the boiler as shown in Fig. 164. In some cases there is not room 



166 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

enough between the top of the boiler and ceiling of the boiler 
room, in which case the trap can be placed on the floor above, 
either over or adjoining the boiler house. There are three essen- 
tial points in connecting up a direct return trap. 1st, the pipe 
marked 'Discharge to Boiler' in Fig. 164, should have a strong 
pitch away from the trap along the horizontal line A. 2d, this 
discharge pipe must not be connected into any pump or injector 




Fig. 163. Cranetilt Trap. 

line feeding the boiler but connected independently of other feed 
lines. 3d, the pipe marked 'steam' must be connected to the 
boiler at a point where the initial boiler pressure will be secured. 
Do not connect this line to any steam line connected to an engine, 
pump or injector. Where the pressure in the receiver is not suf- 
ficient to elevate the condensation to the trap a Cranetilt lifting 
trap should be located below the receiver and connected to it. 
The lifting trap will elevate the condensation through the pipe 
marked 'discharge to trap' to the direct return trap. As the 
amount of water which the trap handles at each operation will 
vary only shghtly, the attachment of a revolution counter, record- 
ing each operation, will give a close average." 



DRIP AND BLOW-OFF PIPING 



167 



Drips from Steam Cylinders. — Steam cylinders should be 
provided with drain connections at both ends, and may have 




Fig. 164. Setting tor Direct Return Trap. 

automatic relief valves or hand operated valves. If hand oper- 
ated the valves should always be opened before starting the engine 
or pump. For small engines and pumps pet cocks screwed di- 
rectly into the cyKnder are frequently used. In most cases, how- 
ever, it is preferable to pipe 
the drips to a drain. The 
size of pipe should be suffici- 
ently large to care for con- 
densation and not be easily 
stopped up. The arrange- 
ment of drips for steam and 
exhaust pipes from cylinders 
is treated in connection with 
the piping of engines. 

Drainage Fittings. — 
Condensed steam should be 
drained by gravity whenever 
possible. When conditions 
are such that this cannot be 




*^ 



Fig. 165. Drainage Fittings. 



done, lifts as shown in Fig. 165 at A and B may be employed. 
The principle of operation is the same. The water of conden- 



168 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



sation gathers in a pocket until it closes the pipe and the steam 
pressure forces it up the riser in slugs. Condensation may be 
lifted by high vacuum by the same apparatus. The diameter of 
the riser should be about one half to one third that of the hori- 
zontal pipe. The arrangement at A, Kg. 165, is composed of a 
tee with the ends of the riser lower than the horizontal pipe. 
The fitting shown at B is called an entrainer or drainage fitting. 



'feam Met 

Wafer Met 




Co/c/ l^o/er 
Connec/ion 



Vschorffe" 



Fig. 166. Automatic Pump and Receiver. 



Automatic Pump and Receiver. — A combination of receiver 
and pump, Fig. 166 provides an effective arrangement for drain- 
ing radiators, steam jackets, steam coils and heaters. The water 
of condensation enters at the top of the receiver. A float in the 
receiver maintains a constant water level and regulates the pump. 
When used for boiler feed, cold water may be admitted directly 
to the receiver to make up for losses or in case of excessively high 
temperature. As with other apparatus the piping should be 



DRIP AND BLOW-OFF PIPING 



169 



arranged with a by-pass so that the receiver may be cut out 
when repairs are necessary. 

Blow-off Kping. — The size of the blow-o£f pipe from a boiler 
may be from one to V-li inches in diameter. The wrought-pipe 





Fig. 167. Blow-off Piping. 



Fig. 168. 
Asbestos Packed Cock. 



fittings and valves should be extra heavy as made for 250 pounds 
pressiu"e. When the pipe passes through the combustion cham- 
ber it should be protected from the hot gases by magnesia, asbestos, 
or fire brick, or it may be enclosed in a larger pipe of either tile or 
cast iron. Further protection may be had by arranging the pip- 
ing as shown in Fig. 
167, which allows a 
continuous circulation 
to be maintained. 
The valve A is closed 
before the blow-off 
valve is opened. 
Ample provision 
should be made for 
the movement of the 
pipe due to expansion. 
The blow-off pipe 
should be arranged so 
that the discharge is 
visible, otherwise fail- 
ure to close the valves may not be noticed until the boiler is dam- 
aged. Any leaks can be seen and attended to. It is well also to 
have the blow-offs from different boilers independent of each other. 







Fig. 169. Arrangement of Blow-off Valves. 



170 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 




_^*vLm 



ii„„nn.i. i>'"<""-'rfJ 



In general, two valves should be used in each blow-off pipe, 
one a valve and the other a cock. The asbestos-packed cock, 
shown in Fig. 168, is very commonly used. The valve should be 
placed nearest to the boiler. The cock should be opened before 

the valve and closed after the valve. 
In this way it will be possible to keep 
it tight for a longer time, as it will 
not be imder pressure when operated. 
Blow-off valves are often made up in 
pairs, Fig. 169. When cleaning the 
boiler the valve A is kept closed and 
the valve B opened and its bonnet 
removed, allowing the wash water 
and scale to fall upon the floor which 
is connected to a drain. The blow-off valve being closed the 
boiler cleaner is safe from any back blow from the pipe. 

Blow-off water and steam can sometimes be discharged into 
the open. When it must be cared for by a sewer it should first 
be allowed to cool in some form of simip or tank. Figs. 170, 171 
and 172, as the heat from the blow-off water will crack drain tUe, 
allowing it to be crushed and so become closed. Aside from 
this, the escape of steam through street openings from the sewers 
is objectionable. Blow-off tanks are made of cast-iron, steel or 
wrought-iron plate, and brick or concrete. A blow-off tank 
should have a vapor pipe carried up through the roof to carry off 



Fig. 170. 



Cast Iron Blow-off 
Tank. 




Fig. 171. Steel Blow-off Tanks. 

the steam and vapor, a msmhole for cleaning, and if there is a 
chance for the accumulation of pressure, a safety valve should be 
added. The outlet of the blow-off pipe should be above the water 
line, as otherwise condensation in the pipe will create a vacuum 



DRIP AND BLOW-OFF PIPING 



171 



and draw water from the tank or sump back into the pipe, often 
with injurious results. It is well to have a partition between the 
inlet and outlet parts of a sump or tank, or other arrangements 
to form a trap and so prevent steam from entering the tile drain. 




/n/ef > 



Fig. 172. Concrete Sump. 

A small cast-iron blow-off tank is shown in Fig. 170. Riveted 
steel-plate tanks may be of cylindrical form with bumped heads, 
Fig. 171. For a common blow-off from a number of boilers a 
concrete sump may be constructed, similar to Fig. 172. 



CHAPTER X 

EXHAUST PIPING AND COITOENSERS 

Exhaust Piping. — Exhaust piping to the atmosphere can be 
made of Hght-weight pipe, with hght fittings and valves. For 
small sizes wrought pipe or tubing may be used, while sizes 24 to 
30 ioches and larger may be made of riveted steel plates. Eiveted 
pipe, when less than V4 inch thick, should be galvanized to assist 
in keeping the joints tight; thicker plate can be calked. Large 
fittings may be made of steel plates riveted together, and with 




Fig. 173. Riveted Steel Plate Fittings. 

cast-iron flanges. Fig. 173. Where flat surfaces occur they should 
be braced to withstand pressm-e from the outside, as there may 
be a vacuum due to condensation. 

Exhaust lines should be designed carefully as to drainage. They 
should pitch in the same direction as the flow. An exhaust-steam 
separator may be used to separate the oil and water from the 
steam, if it is to be used for heating and other purposes. The 
drip from the oil separator or from a drip pocket may be dis- 
charged through a loop, as shown iu Figs. 174 and 175. The drop 
leg should be long enough so that a possible sHght vacuum in the 
exhaust pipe will not raise the water from it. This wiU require 



EXHAUST PIPING AND CONDENSERS 



173 



from three to six feet. Fig. 175 shows a loop applied to a tee 
at the bottom of a vertical exhaust pipe. 



l/anf 


1 ., 




S II 




Omin 







£jihtit/st 



Locp 



Cotfi 



Fig. 174. Method of Draining 
Separator in Exhaust Pipe. 



Fig. 175. Method of Drain- 
ing Vertical Exhaust Pipe. 



When exhaust steam is used for heating purposes, a single 
vertical pipe may be used for atmospheric exhaust and as a heat- 
ing riser for an overhead system. This arrangement is shown in 
Fig. 176, where a heating main con- ^^ — ^ 

nection is made well up the pipe. 
A smaller heating connection is 
shown near the base of the riser. 
The back-pressure valVe is placed 
just above the upper heating niain. 
A drip pipe is taken from the ex- 
haust head, and another from just 
above the back-pressure valve. 

Exhaust from Small Engines, 
Pumps, etc. — The arrangement of 
small exhaust pipes is indicated in 
Figs. 177 and 178. The piping as 
shown enters an exhaust main. The 
valve near the main serves to close 
the branch for repairs, or when 
working on the machine, and also to 
keep the branch from filling with 
condensation when not in use. The 
exhaust pipe should be drained from 
its lowest point, and should slope 
from the highest point to the main. 
If changes in direction occur, it may be necessary to provide 



\ / £xAaiaf fieaa 


' 


Or/p Plpa 




ffaof 


B a 1 




Back Pnss.yi/n^ 


r 


■■ 


1-M * 


" 


■■ Sfay /Anchor 


Midfi'V 
CermtclAm 




£ilgina Crimaf ^ 


- 


^ 1 










'W^W?-^^'^^^- 


Fig. 176. Combination Ex- 


haust Pipe anc 


I Heating Riser. 



174 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



more than one drip pipe. As in all steam lines, pockets where 
water may collect should be avoided. Either an angle stop 
valve or a gate valve should be used, as the passage of the 







Va/iv 


£>Aw//«i7/>7 @ 






■ '^^,^/r^ 




^^jSS-l ! I't40j 


r' • k 


^ Enfimst Main 


1 Cxhausf Main 








Drain 






gQ Sttom qyllatur 


□Q Steam Cylinder 


rC^ Sleom Cylinder 


Drvin 


Drain 


Drain. 



Fig. 177. Connections to Exhaust Main. 

exhaust steam should not be restricted. Care should be taken 
to provide for movement due to expansion, and also to allow for 
making up the pipe, lack of exact aUgnment, etc. 




Pump 



Pump 
Fig. 178. Connections to Exhaust Main. 



\ 



Exhaust Heads. — When steam is exhausted from an engine 
to the atmosphere, some form of exhaust head should be used 
to catch and return the oil and condensation. Such heads may 



EXHAUST PIPING AND CONDENSERS 



175 




Fig. 179. Swartwout Exhaiist Head. 



be made of galvanized iron or cast iron, and should be so designed 
as not to cause back pressure. The Swartwout cast-iron exhaust 
head is shown in Fig. 179. The steam passes through a long 
heUx, from which it emerges 
with a whirling motion. The 
particles of water which have 
been thrown into the outer sur- 
face of the tube are flimg for- 
ward. The extension of the 
tube forms an annular chamber 
in which the water collects, and 
from which it is removed 
through the drip. 

The Hoppes cast iron exhaust 
head is shown in Fig. 180. When 
the steam enters the head it ex- 
pands gradually into a large cham- 
ber several times the area of the pipe, while the particles of oil 
and water in the centre of the current are separated by imping- 
ing on the cone, and those on the outer edges strike against and 
adhere to the side of the separating chamber. A trough partly 
filled with water surrounds the outlet and prevents creeping. This 
trough is connected with the drain by the pipe shown. 

Vacuum Exhaust Kpes. — Vacuum exhaust pipes should be 
as short and direct as possible, but with ample provision for 

expansion. Various forms of ex- 

/^ bA fr*^ pansion joints for exhaust lines 

J_ f^ T ^ are used, three of which are 

shown in Figs. 181, 182 and 183. 
The first is of corrugated copper, 
the second is a steel plate or 
diaphragm, and the third is the 
Badger copper expansion joint. 
Because of the range in temper- 
atiu-e, a considerable movement 
should be allowed for. The in- 
crease in volume of steam at low pressures, makes it desirable 
to have such pipes of as large a diameter as possible. If long 
pipes must be used, the diameter should be increased. The 
material of which the pipes are made may be cast iron, wrought 




Pig. 180. Hoppes Exhaust Head. 



176 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



iron or steel, or riveted steel. It is of course essential that the 
pipe and its joints be tight, as a very small leak will seriously 
affect the vacuum. Gate valves should be used where valves 
are required in vacuimi lines in order to keep the full opening of 




Fig. 181. Corrugated Copper 
Expansion Joint. 




Steel Plate Expansion 
Joint. 



the pipe. Light-weight valves should be avoided if tightness 
is to be maintained. Automatic relief valves should be provided 
in the vacuum exhaust pipe from engines or tiu-bines to con- 
densers. In case of an accident to the condenser, the pressure 
will build up in the exhaust pipe and open the rehef valve, thus 
allowing the steam to exhaust to the atmosphere. 

Classes of Condensers. — Condensers are used to reduce the 
back pressm-e in steam cylinders and turbines by condensing the 
steam and producing a vacuum. The different classes of conden- 
sers are the surface condenser, jet condenser, and barometric or 

siphon condenser. These may 

be further subdivided, as the 

surface condenser may be either 

vertical or horizontal, and with 

the steam either inside or outside 

the tubes; the jet condenser is 

made in a variety of forms, and 

the barometric condenser may be 

either the nozzle or spray type. 

Surface Condensers. — Essentially a surface condenser, Fig. 

184 comprises a shell or casing containing tubes through which 

cooling water is circulated. The tubes range in size from Vs 

inch to one inch in diameter, and generally are made of brass or 





^ 


^ 


M 


w 


u 


u 


M^ 
2 



Fig. 183. Badger Copper Expan- 
sion Joint. 



EXHAUST PIPING AND CONDENSERS 



177 



composition. An air pump is connected to the condensing cham- 
ber to remove the condensed steam and air. Often the condenser 
is mounted above the air and circulating pumps. The exhaust 
steam from the engine, upon entering the condenser, comes into 
contact with the external surface of the tubes which are kept 
cool by the water circulated through them. This condenses the 
steam which falls to the bottom of the casing, and is removed by 
the air pump and may be used over again in the boilers. The air 
pump should always be placed on a lower level than the condenser 
so that the condensation can flow to it by gravity. The shell of 



Exhaust ftvm Engine 



Coofifig Water D/scharge 




Condensation Out/ef Cooling V/oter Met 

Fig. 184. Surface Condenser. 

the condenser may be either circular or rectangular in cross sec- 
tion and may be set with the tubes either vertical or horizontal. 
Kping for Surface Condenser. — Arrangements of piping for 
surface condensers are shown in Figs. 185, 186 and 187. The 
condenser should be placed near the engine or turbine in order to 
make short piping and so avoid joints with possible leaks tending 
to destroy the vacuum. As shown in Fig. 185, the condenser is 
mounted above the air and circulating pumps, which are placed 
in the basement below the engine. The valve in the pipe to the 
condenser is for the purpose of cutting out the condenser when 
exhausting to the atmosphere. The atmospheric reUef valve is 
placed in the atmospheric exhaust pipe and automatically opens 
should the condenser lose its vacuum due to faUiu-e of either of 



178 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



the pumps. The branch containing the relief valve may be one 
size smaller than the main exhaust pipe. 

A steam turbine is sometimes mounted directly on the con- 
denser with the air and circulating pimips separate. Any form of 
pump may be used for circulating the cold water. The arrange- 
ment of a steam turbine in connection with a surface condenser 
and dry vacuvun pump is shown in Fig. 186. The higher the 
vacuum is, the larger will be the volmne of steam and air to be 
handled, and larger pipes should be provided. In order to main- 



Eriflm 



o 



75 ^fm»9fi^iw 



/Ifmafphmrit /feZ/ef 
-XJ— 



I 



Snff/fte £x*taifst- 



CcftOsffse^ 



/9/r /^^»y» ^/seAar^o 



SS 






^ 



F7tor 



Condansinff 



t\«/*r 0/tc»afm 



% — '• — 

Fig. 185. Steam Engine and Surface Condenser. 

tain a high vacuiun without an excessively large condensing sur- 
face and air pump, it is usual to provide a separate pump for 
removing the air, called a dry vacuum pump, which is piped from 
the air space of the condenser. Such pumps generally run at a 
high speed, and have small clearance spaces, and so should not 
be expected to handle water without disastrous results. To this 
end the piping from the condenser should slope toward the pump 
and should not rise at any point or have any places for condensa- 
tion to collect. By this arrangement, such condensation as oc- 
curs will pass to the pump in a vaporous condition arid be safely 
handled. Where several condensers or pumps are used in con- 
nection with a vacuum main, the pipes from the condenser should 



EXHAUST PIPING AND CONDENSERS 



179 



enter at the top of the main, and those to the pumps should be 
taken from the bottom of the main. The air discharge from the 







n 






D 


□ 


□ 


n 


D 





□ 


□ 


n 


D 



Dry Urcuum R/mpV 



//inm 



Steam "^rbine 




Fig. 186. Steam Turbine and Surface Condenser. 

vacuum pump may be discharged through a pipe to the atmos- 
phere, or into the atmospheric exhaust pipe of the engine. 



Dischorffe 



Punop 
Cyfi'nder 



- H. R 
Cy/inefer 



Lotv 
Pressure 
Steam 
Cy//f9c/9f 



■M- 



Condisrisor 



lYotar Si/ppfy 



IAfmoapharfC 
-Mi 



r 






Fig. 187. Steam Pump and Siirfaoe Condenser. 



180 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



A compound pumping engine may be piped with a surface 
condenser as shown in Kg. 187. The water supply to the pump 
is taken through the condenser. Sometimes a surface condenser 
is placed in the discharge pipe. In either case a separate air 
pump is necessary to remove the condensate. 

Jet Condensers. — The form of jet condenser illustrated in 
Fig. 188 is made by the Blake and Knowles Pump Works. As 



/Ie//u3tab/e Cone 




Break Vacuum 



Iniecf/on / 



f-fc^^^ 



Kg. 188. Jet Condenser. 

shown, it consists of a condensing cone in which the exhaust 
steam and cooUng water mingle, and a piunp for removing the 
resulting air and water. The exhaust steam enters at the top 
and meets the injection water which enters through a cone or 
spray head. The cooUng water enters due to the partial vacuum 
produced by the pump. The vacuum breaking device is auto- 
matic in its operation. Its purpose is to prevent the water ris- 



EXHAUST PIPING AND CONDENSERS 



181 



ing above the proper level in the condenser. In case the pump 
should stop for any reason, the water will continue to rise until 



'^t/fomat/c ffaffef *^/*» 



7& ^^fftosfihara 



£Mhavsf front £ftg/n0 




Fig. 189. Steam Engine and Jet Condenser. 

it lifts the float. This float will then open a relief valve which 
admits air, and so destroys the vacuum. In this way the water 
is prevented from rising in the exhaust pipe, and possibly wreck- 
ing the engine. When the pmnp is again started, the float falls 
to its normal position, and the condenser is put into operation. 




Fig. 190. Steam Engine and Jet Condenser — Elevation. 

Jet Condenser Rping. — Arrangements of piping for jet con- 
densers are shown in Pigs. 189, 190, 191 and 192. A steam engine 



182 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



lo o ^ e OM 



ma a a o s,n 



mm 



fe 




Fig. 191. Steam Turbine, Jet Condenser Single Acting Air Pump. 




Fig. 192. Steam Turbine, Jet Condenser and Dry Vacuum Pump. 



EXHAUST PIPING AND CONDENSERS 



183 



and jet condenser are shown in Fig. 189. An automatic relief 
valve is provided in the atmospheric exhaust pipe, and a gate 
valve in the pipe to the condenser. The exhaust from the pump 
may be arranged to connect into the condenser, to a feed water 
heater, or to an atmospheric exhaust pipe. Several arrangements 
of Blake condensing apparatus are given in Figs. 190, 191 and 192. 
A steam engine piped to a jet condenser and double acting vacuum 




Fig. 193. Kg. 194. 

Barometric Condenser. 



Steam Engine and Barometric 
Condenser. 



pump is indicated in Fig. 190, a steam turbine, jet condenser, 
and single acting twin beam air pump in Fig. 191, and a steam 
turbine arranged with a jet condenser, air pimip, and rotative 
dry vacuum pmnp in Fig. 192. 

Barometric Condenser. — One form of barometric condenser is 
shown in Fig. 193. The exhaust steam enters through a conical 
nozzle, and passes down into a combining tube. The cooling 
water enters at the side and around the steam nozzle, then passes 
downward in a thin film or sheet. The steam meeting this water 
is condensed and is carried down the discharge or tail pipe with 
the water, thus creating a vacuum in the pipe above. The taper- 



184 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



ing form of the condenser is such that the water acquires a high 
velocity in passing the contraction and is enabled to carry the 
entrained air and vapors along with the condensed steam. This 
apparatus requires no pumps if the water supply pipe has less 
than 20 feet lift. If over 20 feet, a pump must be used to supply 
the cooling water. It is necessary, however, to have the con- 
denser at a height of about 34 feet above the hot well in which 




Fig. 195. Steam Turbine and Barometric Condenser. 

the lower end of the discharge pipe is immersed. As the atmos- 
phere will not support a column of water at such a height, the 
cooling water supphed wiU fall through the condenser and dis- 
charge pipe. 

Piping for Barometric Condenser. — When the source of cool- 
ing water is a tank, or is otherwise located not more than 20 feet 
below the condenser, the water may be siphoned by the condenser. 
If the water must be raised it may be pumped direct to the con- 
denser, or to a supply tank. Both methods are indicated in Kg. 
194, which shows the arrangement of piping, with the parts 
lettered as follows: A is the condenser; B is the exhaust pipe 
from the engine; C is the hot well; Z) is the injection water valve; 



EXHAUST PIPING AND CONDENSEES 185 

E is the starting valve; F is the water supply pipe; and Gr is the 
atmospheric relief valve. Either an open or closed reUef valve 
may be used, according as to whether the exhaust pipe is outside 
or inside of a building. An arrangement of twin spirojector con- 




Fig. 196. Eductor Condenser. 

densers is shown in Fig. 195, as recommended for imits larger 
than 500 K.W. by the Blake-Knowles Pump Works. It is ad- 
visable as being more economical and flexible. When running 
under Kght loads, or with low temperature coohng water, one 
condenser may be cut out. 

Multi-jet Educator Condenser. — This form of condenser is 
made by Schutte & Koerting Co., and is shown in Fig. 196. With 



186 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



this condenser no air pump is required. The cooling water enters 
through a number of converging jets which meet and form a 
single jet in the lower part of the condensing tube. Exhaust 
steam enters through the side connection and flows through the 




Fig. 197. Piping for Eductor Condenser. 

annular passages which guide it so that it impinges on the con- 
densing jet. This steam is condensed and the particles of water 
into which it is changed are united with the water jet with which 
it is discharged, together with the entrained air against atmos- 
pheric pressure. 

The method of piping is shown in Figs. 197 and 198, the first of 
these being the preferred one. Here a standpipe is used. By 
pumping the water up into the standpipe it is possible to get 
rid of the air contained in the water. If water is available with 



EXHAUST PIPING AND CONDENSERS 



187 



a head of 21 feet, or 9 pounds per square inch at the inlet flanges 
of the condenser, no pump is necessary. Instead of a standpipe 
the water may be dehvered direct to the condenser by a pump, 
as shown in Fig. 198. A water check valve in the exhaust pipe 

i 



gj\S\S\\S\SSSS ^\^VV^^^^^ 







Fig. 198. Steam Turbine and Eductor Condenser. 

prevents water from flowing back from the condenser to the 
engine, but allows the exhaust steam to pass to the condenser. 
A steam turbine in connection with a multi-jet condenser is 
illustrated in Fig. 198. In this case the water is supphed by a 
centrifugal pump. 



CHAPTER XI 
PEED WATER HEATERS 



Uses and Types of Heaters. — Exhaust steam from an engine 
or other apparatus may be used to heat water for boiler feeding 
laundries, paper and textile mills and other manufacturing pur- 
poses. The steam may mingle with the water which it heats as 
in an open heater or be separated from it as in a closed heater. 
Closed heaters employ iron, brass, or copper tubes to separate 
the water to be heated from the exhaust steam. Various arrange- 
ments of the tubes, coiled, bent, straight, etc., are used in the dif- 
ferent makes. The steam may 
pass through the tubes as in the 
steam tube heater, or surround the 
tubes, as in the water tube heater. 
The advantage of the closed type 
is that the steam does not come 
into contact with the feed water 
and so keeps oil from entering the 
boiler. However, if a scale form- 
ing water is used the open type is 
to be preferred as the scale can be 
formed in the heater and removed 
from time to time. The closed 
heater is under pressure and tight 
joints must be maintained as well 
as provision for expansion. All 
the exhaust steam may be passed 
through the heater or only a part, 
if all is not required to heat the 
water. Sometimes the exhaust 
steam is not sufficient, and pro- 
vision must be made to supply 
live steam. In the open heater the 
steam mingles with the water which it heats and an oil separator 
should be used, either separate or as a part of the heater. 




3. Com Ubttr 

S.Surface B/euOrr 

6. Drip Pipe 

7. Ml/el Bhtr-Off 



Pig. 199. Goubert Closed Heater. 



FEED WATER HEATERS 



189 



Closed Feed Water Heaters. — The Goubert closed feed water 
heater is shown in Fig. 199, where the various connections are 
indicated. Most of the oil in the steam is removed and passes off 
with the water of condensation through the drip pipe. The cold 
feed water enters at the bottom and meets the deflector, which 
spreads it out, allowing the mud or sediment to settle before the 




£jihoaif 
Out/et 



/nhf 
Outlet 
Cb/dlYater 
Feat/ Hit fer- 
S.Scun? 3hw-0ff 
Ti/dos 

Ot/ Sepora/or 
Setlliitg Cliamier 
fit^ Btetr-Off 
<■ IKtitf Pipe 




Feed Wafer 



iH resa rn 



CaU Water 



Fig. 200. Otis Closed Heater. 



Fig. 201. National Closed Heater. 



water passes upward through the tubes. The surface blow at 
the top permits the removal of scum. 

The Otis heater is shown in Fig. 200. As shown by the open- 
ings, the exhaust steam enters at the top, passes down one sec- 
tion of tubes to an oil and water separator, and then up the other 
section of tubes to the outlet from which it is exhausted or used 
for other purposes. The cold water enters near the bottom and 
passes out near the top when heated. 

The National heater shown in Fig. 201 consists of coils through 
which the water to be heated passes. The exhaust steam enters 
at the bottom of the shell and leaves at the top. In some forms 
both exhaust and hve steam coils are used to maintain the re- 
quired temperature. 



190 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



Closed Heater Piping. — The arrangement of piping for a 
closed feed water heater may be such as to allow all of the exhaust 
to pass through the heater, or only a part of it. This will depend 
upon the source of supply. If the main exhaust is used, and is 



7b Atmnphars 
Bock /Assure KgA^ 



7b Hee/ing Systam 




Kg. 202. Piping for Closed Heater. 

more than sufficient to heat the feed water, a branch may be 
used to supply the heater and the extra steam used for heating 
or other purposes. When the main exhaust is condensed and 
only the exhaust from the pumps and other auxiUaries is passed 
into the heater, the entire amoimt of steam can be passed through 
the heater. A method of piping for a closed heater is shown in 



FEED WATER HEATERS 



191 




Fig. 203. Piping for Combination Exhaust and Live Steam Heaters. 




•.-,■•. ;r •.-•.■•,•. ■■.•■ ••. ■•;■■■-■ • --■■■■■■■'.■■.■•.-;■,' 

Fig. 204. Piping for Heater and Storage Tank. 



192 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

Fig. 202. The by-pass is arranged so that the heater may be 
cut out when necessary, or to regulate the amount of steam pass- 
ing through the heater. The oil separator may be placed near the 
heater as shown, or if the steam is from the main ejdiaust it may 



Eitmaf OvH^ 




Fig. 205. The Cochrane Open Heater. 

be near the engine. As shown, the trap is arranged with a by- 
pass for use if necessary. 

The arrangements shown in Figs. 203 and 204 are from the 
National Pipe Bending Company's book of plans. In Fig. 203 
the piping is given for using a live steam heater in connection 
with an exhaust heater where more or hotter water is wanted. 



FEED WATER HEATERS 



193 



SURPLUS EXHAUST 

I WBiriEO or Oil 



EXHAUST INLET 



"siRFIED EXHAUST' 



OBIPFOOM SEPARATOR 
TO STEAM TRAP 



The piping in Fig. 204 is for a closed heater in connection with 
a live steam re-heater and wooden storage tank. 

Open Feed Water Heaters. — As stated before, the water is 
heated in an open heater by direct contact with the exhaust 
steam. Such heaters are usually designed to combine the func- 
tions of heater, purifier, 
receiver, and filter. The 
water enters at the top of 
a chamber and drips down 
over trays while being 
heated by the steam. The 
water then passes through 
filtering material contained 
in the lower part of the 
chamber to the pump suc- 
tion. The cold water sup- 
ply is regulated by a valve 
with a float control. One 
of the advantages of an 
open heater is that its efii- 
ciency as a heater is not 
affected by conditions as to 
cleanliness of surfaces. The 
details of several forms are 
shown in the following 
figures. 

The Cochrane heater is 
shown in Fig. 205. The 
steam enters through an 
oil separator forming a 
part of the heater, while the water enters at the top and over- 
flows from a trough over and through a series of perforated 
trays, inclined first one way and then the other, each tray catch- 
ing the drips from the one above. From the last tray the water 
falls into a settling chamber. This has a perforated false bottom 
for carrying a filter bed. The boiler feed pump receives its sup- 
ply from the space underneath the filter bed. The body of the 
heater is made of cast iron and the fittings of copper and brass. 

A partial section of the Cochrane steam-stack and cut-out 
heater is shown in Fig. 206. The steam enters through an oil 




Fig. 206. 



Cochrane Steam-stack and 
Cut-out Valve. 



194 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



separator, near the top of which is a flanged outlet for passing 
through the surplus exhaust steam to the heating system or atmos- 
phere. The opening to the heater is controlled by a special 
valve. When this valve is open it occupies such a position that 
the heater has the "preference" for the steam. That is, in its 
open position the valve diverts a portion of the steam from the 




Fig. 207. Webster Feed Water Fig. 208. 

Heater. 



Webster Feed Water 
Heater. 



top opening and directs it into the heater, at the same time allow- 
ing surplus steam to escape through the upper opening. The 
valve may be closed and so cut out the heater without the neces- 
sity for extra valves and fittings for a by-pass. A vent pipe 
provides a means for the escape of air and gases. 

The Webster feed water heater and pmifier is shown in Figs. 
207 and 208. Water is admitted through an automatically con- 
trolled valve and is discharged into a trough which forms a water 
seal. From this trough the water overflows to oppositely in- 
clined and perforated copper trays. In this manner it mingles 
with the steam and becomes thoroughly heated. It then flows 
downward through a filter bed and to the pvunp suction chamber. 
Fig. 207 is the Standard type built on the induction principle, 



FEED WATER HEATERS 



195 



with the oil separator attached to the heater shell. Fig. 208 is 
the preference type which is a cut-out heater using a gate valve 
in connection with an oil separator of sufficient size to purify all 
steam passing through the exhaust main to both the feed water 
heater and to a heating or drying system, or to low pressm-e tur- 
bines. 

A typical installation of a Webster feed water heater for power 
service is shown in Fig. 209 and for a gravity return heating 
system in Fig. 210. 

The Hoppes feed water heater and purifier is shown in Fig. 211. 
The steam enters through an oil separator, passes through the 



eXHAUSTTO 
*TMOSPHEBC>L 



uiPMncitv 



"«S.=A 





ENGtNC EXHAU0T 



Fig. 209. Piping of Heater for Power Service. 

heater and escapes by the outlet near the front end. Water is 
admitted through a balanced regulating valve and evenly dis- 
tributed to the top pans by inside feed pipes. The water overflows 
the edges of the pans and follows the under side to the lowest 
point and drops into the next pan below until it reaches the 
bottom of the chamber and passes to the main pump suction 
through a hooded opening. The troughs of the pans provide 
settling chambers and so eliminate the necessity for a filter. 
SoHds precipitated from solution are deposited and retained on 
the under side of the pans. 

The Hoppes induction chamber shown in Fig. 212 takes the 
place of by-pass piping, and is described as follows: 



]196 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



i 




Fig. 210. Piping of Heater for Gravity Return Steam Heating S3rBtem. 




Fig. 211. Hoppes Feed Water Heater. 



FEED WATER HEATERS 



197 



"This device may be used for any size of exhaust pipe in con- 
necting Hoppes heaters of any type to the exhaust line, effecting 
a saving proportional to the 
size of the exhaust pipe by 
doing away with large and 
expensive valves and fittings. 

"The steam enters the 
chamber at the bottom, and 
flowing upward, part of the 
current enters into the mouth 
of a downwardly curved pipe, 
supplying the heater with an 
ample amount of exhaust 
steam to heat the water to 
210 degrees, even though 
the heater is worked con- 
siderably beyond its rated 

capacity. The remainder of j,jg_ 3^2 Hoppes Induction Chamber, 
the steam passes out at the 
top, either to atmosphere or heating system as the case may be." 

A good way of connecting a Hoppes heater to an exhaust steam 
heating system is shown in Fig. 213. The piping is arranged so 





Fig. 213. Piping Arrangement for Hoppes Heater and Exhaust, Heating 

System. 



198 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



that the heater has preference, the surplus steam passing out at 
the side of the tee 1 to the heating system. A live steam connec- 
tion is provided at 2 through reducing valve 3. The reducing 
valve should be provided with a by-pass 4 so that it can be cut 
out if necessary. 

Open Heater Piping. — The arrangement of piping for open 
heaters involves much the same considerations as for closed 



— i 



7b HeaHngSyaiem 



^agulatihg yo/yB 




"BaeA PhessurB t^&Vtf 



1=^ 



By-Poaa- 




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Suff^ 



cw' 



Rafi/ma fhun 
y—Orlpa etc. 



Grip and 
e/ar-cff 



' ^ ■ H'i^ti ft-Tft^* 5#i';j(\;* »•■ ' ' 

Ex/jatiaf from f^/mp ^ 



Ma/tt Ejthaiaf 



Fig. 214. Piping for Open Heater. 



heaters. The heater should be placed two or three feet higher 
than the pump so that the hot water will flow into the pump suc- 
tion by gravity. A by-pass should be arranged so that the heater 
may be cut out for cleaning or inspection, or when all the steam 
is needed for heating. A piping arrangement is shown in Fig. 
214 for heater used with an exhaust heating system. 

The cold water supply is controlled by a float inside of the 
heater. As noted, the returns from drips, etc., or from the heating 



FEED WATER HEATERS 



199 



system are connected directly to the heater. Should the valves 
A and B both be closed at the same time, the starting of the 



O// Sepemrfor 




i^= o=- 



Fig. 215. By-pass Piping. 






Fig. 216. Cochrane Cut-out Valve 
in Place of By-pass. 

engine can produce a sufficient pressure to rupture the heater 
imless the valve A is arranged to open under such conditions or a 
reUef valve provided with direct connection to the heater. Some 




Fig 217. Thoroughfare Heater, 



Fig. 218. Preference Heater. 



200 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



heaters have the by-pass made as part of the main casting, thus 
effecting a considerable saving in valves and piping, as indicated 
in Figs. 215 and 216, where Fig. 215 shows a piping by-pass and 
Fig. 216 a by-pass contained in the cut-out valve. 

All of the steam may pass through the heater to the atmos- 
phere, as in Fig. 217. Part of the steam may pass through the 




/3 



— r 


H 



Main £xhoust 



'"^^mw^^^ 




"^^m^^^^m^- 



Figs. 219 and 220. Preference Connections for Heaters Used with 
Exhaust Heating Systems. 

heater and part to the atmosphere, as in Fig. 218, where only 
sufficient steam is admitted to the heater to heat the water. 
Other forms of "preference connections" may be used, as shown 
in Figs.. 219 and 220, where the tendency of the steam is to enter 
the heater, the excess passing on. A preference tee or a plain tee 
arranged as shown may be used for this purpose. 



CHAPTER XII 

PIPING FOR HEATING SYSTEMS 

Piping for Heating Systems. — The purpose of this chapter is 
to illustrate the general arrangement of piping and connections 
as used for heating systems. No attempt is made at complete- 
ness, but it is hoped that sufficient material is included to be of 
value to those who wish to learn something about the different 
systems of piping. 




Fig. 221. One-pipe Wet System. 

Steam Heating Piping Systems. — For supplying steam to 
radiating surfaces and removing the condensed steam, there are 
two general arrangements of piping "one-pipe" systems and 



202 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



"two-pipe" systems. A one-pipe wet system is shown in Fig. 
221. As the same pipes are used to supply steam and to return 
the condensation from the radiators, they must be large. The 
main steam pipe is sloped away from the boiler. A return main 
is run imder the supply main and is pitched toward the boiler, 
entering it below the water line. The risers are taken from the 
top of the steam main to supply the radiators, and these same 




Fig. 222. One-pipe Circuit System. 

risers are used by the condensation which drains into the return 
pipe. A single radiator on the first floor may be used without 
connecting to the return pipe. A one-pipe circuit system is 
shown in Fig. 222. In this system the main steam pipe makes a 
complete circuit of the basement, at the same time pitching 
away from the boUer, and on returning enters it below the water 
hne. The radiators are supphed with steam and are drained by 
the same riser which is made large enough for this pm-pose. The 
condensation, after reaching the circuit pipe, is forced along in 
the same direction as the steam and completing the circuit is 
returned to the boiler. The steam main should be of one size 
and large enough so that there will be plenty of room for both 



PIPING FOR HEATING SYSTEM 



203 



the steam and water of condensation. With tall buUdings, the 

use of the same pipe for supply and drain is objectionable, due 

to the interference. In such cases the one-pipe system shown 

in Fig. 223, may be used. The supply main in this case is run 

to the top of the bxiilding, 

and then the radiator 

branches are taken off from 

drop pipes. In this way the 

steam and condensation both 

flow downward except in the 

short connections between 

the drop and the radiator. 

The drop pipe connects into 

a drain pipe wliich returns 

the condensation to the 

boUer. A few radiators may 

be connected into the main 

riser. 

The arrangement of a two- 
pipe system is shown in Fig. 
224. As shown, steam is 
supphed at one end of the 
radiator and drained from 
the other, the steam and drain pipes being entirely separate. 
The radiators are supphed by risers from a steam main located 
near the basement ceiling. The drain pipes drop to a return 
main located near the floor of the basement or below the water 
line in the boiler. 

Steam Radiator Pipe Comiections. — Several methods of mak- 
ing radiator connections are shown in Fig. 225. There should 
always be provision for expansion and contraction. The connec- 
tion at A is for a radiator and main, unconcealed, while B shows 
a similar connection but using a 45 degree branch because of 
limited room above the main. At C and D are shown methods of 
connection between radiators and risers, one-pipe system. At 
E and F are shown methods of connection for the two-pipe 
system. 

The sizes of pipe for which radiators are tapped as used by the 
American Radiator Company are given in Table 78, which is for 
one and two-pipe direct steam radiators. If the connection be- 



J= 


t 




Pi 


M 






a- 


^ 


1 t 


\ 


ft_ 






~i 

Bolter 





Fig. 223. One-pipe Down Flow System. 



204 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



tween the radiator and the riser is short these same sizes may 
be used. 




Fig. 224. Two-pipe System. 

TABLE 78 
Pipe Sizes for Steam Radiatobs 



Square Feet 


One-pipe 
System 


Two-pip 


B System 


of Radiation 


Supply 


Return 


Up to 24 


1 






24 to 60 


I'A 






60 to 100 


IV2 




. . • 


Above 100 


2 






Up to 48 


. . . 


1 


V. 


48 to 96 




IV4 


1 


Above 96 




IV2 


I'A 



Sizes of Steam Heating Pipes. — Steam pipes for heating 
should always be of ample size and carefully drained. The steam 
main should never be less than 1 Vs inches in diameter, and should 



PIPING FOR HEATING SYSTEM 



205 



be larger if more than 30 feet in length. Risers should be at 
least one inch in diameter. All branches should be taken from 
the top of the main or at an angle, but never from the side so as 
to avoid getting water with the steam. To insure good drainage 




o 
O 



Pi 
i 



U5 
N 
CI 

tab 



the steam main should have a slope of at least one inch in ten 
feet and branches should have twice this slope. 

The sizes of steam mains and risers may be obtained from Fig. 
226, where average values are plotted, the sizes being propor- 
tioned to the radiating surface. The sizes of returns for the 



206 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



two-pipe system are not given as they should be determined 
from the conditions in connection with each installation. For 
small supply pipes they may be one size smaller. For large 
supply pipes the returns may be very much smaller, but dry 
returns should be larger than wet returns. A dry return is one 









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Fig. 226. Sizes of Steam Mains and Risers. 

in which the return pipe is above the water level, and a wet 
return is one which is below the water level of the boiler, and con- 
sequently is always full of water. The dry retm-n pipe exposes 
the surface of the water flowing along the bottom of the pipe, 
and is hkely to cause water hammer and noises due to the rapid 
condensation of the steam. 

Hot Water Heating Systems. — There are two systems of 
hot-water heating, the open tank system shown in Fig. 227, and 
the closed tank system. The arrangement of piping is the same 
for both systems, but the piping may be somewhat smaller for 
the closed system, and a safety valve miist be provided. This 
safety valve is usually set for ten pounds pressme. The system 
illustrated in Fig. 227 shows the supply mains rising from the 
heater and the return mains sloping toward the heater and enter- 



PIPING FOR HEATING SYSTEM 



207 



ing it at as low a point as possible. The risers to the radiators 
are taken from the top of the supply mains. The mains and 
risers may be reduced as the radiator branches are taken off. 

For large buildings a single supply pipe may be carried to the 
expansion tank, and from there the branch down-feed pipes nui 



etC^AMtnit TANK 




Fig. 227. Open Tank System. 



to the radiators. This system is shown in Fig. 228. Circulation 
is caused by the fact that water expands when it is heated, there- 
fore it becomes Ughter than cold water and rises through the 
system, allowing the cold water to flow downward to the heater. 
This method of operation is known as a gravity system. For 



208 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



large buildings it is necessary to use a pump to circulate the water 

and it is then called a 



ir 



Jk 



forced circulation system. 
Expansion Tanks. — 
The purpose of the ex- 
pansion tank is to care 
for the changes in vol- 
ume of the water as it is 
heated. It should be 
placed above the highest 
radiator in the system, 
and should be provided 
with a vent pipe, and an 
overflow pipe connected 
to a drain. The ordinaiy 
form of tank made of 
galvanized iron is shown 
in Fig. 229, together with 
the necessary piping con- 
nections. 
Hot Water Radiator Pipe Connections. — Several methods of 





1 1 


' 1 






a a 




F 




"1 r 


n 




q: 




m 


tHr- 




^1 


f'^H^r 


mmmi^mm'^ 


'<i>m>^s?imm^ 


■isfc.** 



Fig. 228. Down-feed Hot Water System. 



making radiator connections for hot water are 
shown in Kg. 230. The connection for hori- 
zontal mains is shown at D, and for vertical 
pipes or risers at A and C The supply pipe 
may be connected at the top of the radiator, 
as shown at B, which makes the valve handy. 
Two methods of connection for overhead sup- 
ply systems are shown at E and F. In the 
method shown at F the water passes through 
each radiator separately, entering all of them 
at practically the same temperature, while in 
the method shown at E it passes through each 
of the radiators in succession, necessitating 
larger radiators on the lower floors. The sizes 
of pipe for which hot water radiators are 
tapped as used by the American Radiator 
Company are as follows. The same sizes are 
used for both supply and return pipes. The size of pipe 
to the nominal diameter of standard wrought pipe. 




Fig. 229. Expansion 
Tank Connections 



refers 



PIPING FOR HEATING SYSTEM 



209 



Radiators containing 40 square feet and under 1 inch 

Above 40, but not exceeding 72 square feet V/t " 

Above 72 square feet IV2 " 

Vapor tappings, top and bottom opposite ends, supply '/< inches, return 
•/j inch. 

Unless otherwise ordered, all openings of Direct Radiators will have right- 
hand threads (except that of Wall Radiators where tapped 1 '/a inch, in which 
case tapping at one end is right-hand and left-hand on other end). 

All air-valve tappings of Direct Radiators are regularly made '/a inch. 




Fig. 230. Hot Water Radiator Connections. 

Sizes of Hot Water Pipes. — The factors involved in deter- 
mination of sizes of hot water piping are: the amount of radiating 
sm'face; the location of the radiating surface, both elevation 
above and distance from the heater; and the difference in tem- 
perature. 

The sizes of hot water mains may be obtained from Fig. 231, 
where average values are plotted, the sizes being approximately 
proportional to the radiating surface. In a similar manner average 
values are plotted in Fig. 232, for sizes of pipes to supply 
various amounts of radiating surface on the different floors of 
a building. 

Exhaust Steam Heating. — Steam that has been used in a 
steam engine or other power apparatus may be exhausted to a 



210 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



heating system. Any system of heating may be used in con- 
nection with exhaust steam by installing the proper apparatus. 



^^ 



I 

I 



3 ■* 



Fig. 231. Sizes of Hot Water Mains. 

Factories and large buildings having a power plant often make 
use of exhaust steam in this way. The piping for such a system 
should be large to keep the back pressure in the exhaust pipe 
as low as possible. A Kve steam connection should be made to 













y 


1000 


-^ 


* 








y 














y / 












_ _. 


/ y 










4th Sfory^ / 


y / 










3ra " V \ / > 


^^y^y 










3„a "v.\y / 


y / 










/5. vVV/ 


' / 












><A/ 


/ 










y 


yy 


/ 










/y 


y V 












yy. 


" y 












''yy 


y 










X^ 


"y y 


/ ^ 










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/ ^ 












/y^ 


y 










.i^ 


<y^^ 












*^ 


>-^ 












>-' 












^ 
















1 




e 


i 

£■/? 


> ^. 


f 



Fig. 232. Sizes of Hot Water Risers. 



PIPING FOR HEATING SYSTEM 



211 



the heating pipe, using a reducing valve to lower the pressure, 
and a reUef or back pressure valve should be placed in the exhaust 
pipe to prevent excessive back pressure. If the condensation is 
to be returned to the boiler, an oil separator should be placed in 
the exhaust pipe before the connection is 
made with the heating system. Steam 
traps, automatic pump and receiver, and 
other devices used in connection with ex- 
haust heating are described in other parts 
of this book, and may be located by refer- 
ence to the index. The piping for feed 
water heaters is shown in Chapter XI. 

The Webster Vacuum System of Steam 
Heating. — The Webster system is used 




Fig. 233. 



hereto illustrate a method of heating with ^"^'*^' ^^^'^^°'' '^^^■ 
a pressure lower than atmospheric. A vacuum system necessitates 
the removal of air from the system by means of a pump. This 
estabhshes a lower pressure in the returns, after which the pump 
removes the condensation and entrained air. The steam con- 
denses in the radiators and so induces a fmther supply of steam. 
This removal of air and condensation makes a positive circula- 
tion, and insures complete filling of the radiators with steam. 

If exhaust steam is used there will be 
very Uttle back pressure upon the 
engines. 

One of the essential features of the 
Webster system is the outlet valve 
used on radiators and coils. The 
form shown in Fig. 233 is the Webster 
sylphon trap. It is operated by a syl- 
phon bellows. The sum of the small 
movement of each of the folds gives 
the necessary lift to the valve. This 
trap will close quickly and positively 
when steam reaches the bellows, but 
at a slightly lower temperature the water and air will be with- 
drawn or discharged. Since the valve is wide open when cold, 
the radiator is sure to be drained. 

The circulation of steam may be controlled and modulation 
of temperature secured by throttUng the inlet valve on any radia- 




Fig. 234. 
Webster Modulation Valve. 



212 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



tor. The Webster modulation valve shown in Kg. 234 is made 
so that less than a full turn is required from shut to full opening, 
the area of the opening increases in proportionate progression, 
and a pointer and dial are used to indicate the degree of opening. 
Radiator Pipe Connections. — The size of radiator tappings 
as given by Warren Webster Company are shown in Table 79. 

TABLE 79 
Cast Iron Radiator Tappings 



Square Feet of 
Direct Radiating 


Normal Maxi- 


Pipe Size of Sup- 
ply Tapping, 
Customary Prac- 


Supply Tapping 




to exceed 'A 

Pound per Square 

Foot per Hour 


mum Pounds of 
Condensation 


tice followed by 
Engineers when 


when the Webster 
Modulation Valve 


Pipe Size of 
Return Tapping 


per Hour 


Ordinary Radia- 
tor Valves are 
Used 


is Used 




1-25 


7 


'A 


'A 


•A 


26-50 


13 


'A 


'A 


•A 


51-100 


25 


1 


'A 


V. 


101-175 


44 


I'A 


V*-i 


'A 


176 and over 


75 


I'A 


1 


'A 



Note. 'A" Webster Modulation Valve is used for radiators up to 150 
square feet; 1° above 150 square feet, with interchangeable "Modulation" 
sleeves to secure throttling control. 

Pipe Coil Tappings 



Square Feet of Direct 








Rfidiating Surface Con- 
densing Normally not 
to exceed ^Z* Pound 


Normal Maximum 
Founds of Conden- 
sation per Hour 


Pipe Size of Supply 
Tapping 


Pipe Size of Return 
Tapping 


per Square Foot per Hour 








42 


13 


'A 


'A 


84 


25 


1 


•A 


146 


44 


iVi 


'A 


250 


75 


I'A 


'A 


528 


158 


2 


'A 


924 


277 


2V2 


1 



The figures refer to vacuimi systems only. If the condensation is 
greater than that given for the radiating surface the pipes should 
be based upon the condensation rate. The run-outs from supply 
risers to radiators should be one size larger if more than four feet 
long. 



PIPING FOR HEATING SYSTEM 



213 



Typical Arrangement Webster Systems. — A typical arrange- 
ment of the Webster vacuum system is shown in Figs. 235 and 
236, taken from the Warren Webster Company's catalog and 
described by them as follows (the nimabered parts are all of 
Webster manufacture) : 

"The engine 4 is protected by a steam separator 2 dripped 
through a high pressure trap 3. The exhaust steam from the 
engine passes through an oil separator 8, dripped through grease 



JU 




^^3Q 







Fig. 235. Webster Vacuum System. 

trap S8, thence to the heating system. A pressure reducing 
valve B with by-pass is provided to make up any deficiency in 
the volume of exhaust steam or for heating when the main engine 
is shut down. 

"The supply main is dripped as it enters the building through 
a heavy-duty thermostatic trap 22, protected by a dirt strainer 
19. The steam supply risers in larger buildings may require to 
be dripped through traps of the proper size and type. 

" Steam is supphed to the various types of heating units through 
Webster modulation valves 21, although the system will work 
in harmony with automatic temperature control. We have shown 
ordinary radiator supply valves on some of the units. A par- 
ticular type of Webster modulation valve, with chain attach- 
ment, is shown for the overhead radiator C. 

"Each heating unit is drained through a Webster sylphon 



214 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



trap 20 into the return risers, the larger heatiag coils being pro- 
tected by dirt strainers 19. 

"Steam is also supplied to tempering and re-heating coils, 




Fig. 236. Webster Vacuum System. 

D-E which are also drained at the return ends of each group 
through traps SO, protected by dirt strainers 19. 

"All the returns join and lead to a vacuum pump, F protected 
by a suction strainer 10, the steam supply to the pump being au- 
tomatically controlled by the vacuum pump governor 9. Gauges 



PIPING FOR HEATING SYSTEM 



215 



on slate board 11-1^ are shown with connections taken from the 
heating main and the vacuum return line. 

"The vacuimi pump discharges through an air separating tank 
15, to a feed water heater 6, The illustration shows the prefer- 
ence type heater, the oil separator 8 being so constructed that a 
suflScient quantity of exhaust steam is directed toward the heater, 
the balance is available for the heating system, while any excess 




EXFLA^ATIOM 

A— "ADSCO" andiuted Vitr* 
8— " Diniper Bwulalat 

Ci- *• SafMy ViluB 

D— ■• Mercury 0>an 

K— -• Tlnlaa elbow 

r— Air Vmt Is Atmoiplkere 
0— Wittr 8nl, Ulnuaiun Hdikt M U 
H— Snpptr ittia 
J — Btlan UslB 

K— " ■• CansKtiou to BoilCT 

VHt~^m «t sr man rtuwUi 



Fig. 237. Atmospheric System. 



escapes through the atmospheric back pressure valve G. The 
heater may thus be cut out of service while the oil separator 
remains in use. 

"The ventilation scheme provides for such rooms connected 
thereto, a supply of purified, humidified and heated fresh air. 
The air is partially heated in passing over the tempering heater 
D, and is drawn by the fan through the air washer S6 and re- 
heated to the proper temperature, passing over the re-heater E 
into the main air supply duct. The supply of steam to the tem- 
pering heater and re-heater coils is automatically governed by 
temperature control system valve H." 



216 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



Atmospheric System of Steam Heating. — The "Atmospheric 
System" is a low pressm-e system developed by the American 
District Steam Company. It is a two-pipe gravity return system, 
operating with pressures of from five to eight oimces, and with 
very rapid circulation. Each radiator is a separate unit, and can 
be manipulated as desired without affecting the others. The 
regulating valves are made in V* inch size, and the radiator 
should be bushed to ^U "icb for both connections, with the inlet 
at the top of one end and the outlet at the bottom of the other 
end. The various principles involved, and the general arrange- 
ment of piping is shown iu Fig. 237. The main steam line in the 



C/oebofea 
t/a/fa 





Fig. 238. Operation of Graduated Valve. 

basement is laid out in a complete circuit to make certain of 
perfect circulation and equalization of pressiu-e at all points in 
the system. The return pipes are under no pressure, and are used 
to provide gravity return of the water of condensation and as an 
outlet for the air in the system. Extra heating surface is used in 
each radiator and the return piping is vented to the atmosphere 
to allow air to freely enter or leave the system. This vent pipe 
may be IV* inch on small installations, but a nmnber of pipes 
may be required on large systems. Only one valve is used on the 
radiators, the inlet valve. This inlet valve is so arranged that 
the radiator may be one-quarter, one-half, or any desired part 
fiUed with steam, as shown ia Fig. 238. The steam admitted dis- 
places the air, and being hghter, remains at the top of the radia- 
tor. Sizes of pipe to install for various amoimts of radiation, as 



PIPING FOR HEATING SYSTEM 



217 



recommended by the American District Steam Company are 
given in Table 80. 

TABLE 80 





Pipe Sizes 


FOR VARiotrs Amounts of Radiation 




Square Feet 


Pipe 


Betum 


Square Feet 


Kpe 


Return 


of Radiation 


Supply 


Pipe 


of Kadiation 


Supply 


Pipe 


30 feet 


'A inch 


'A inch 


1400 feet 


S'A inches 


I'A inches 


50 " 


1 


'A " 


2200 " 


4 


2 


100 " 


I'/i inches 


'A " 


3600 " 


5 


2 " 


200 " 


IV2 " 


1 


6000 " 


6 


2V2 " 


300 " 


2 


I'A inches 


8500 " 


7 


2'A " 


600 " 


2Vj " 


I'A " 


11000 " 


8 


2V2 " 


900 " 


3 


I'A " 









Central Station Heating. — There are many points in connec- 
tion with district steam heating which are of value in relation 
to piping in general. Aside from this, however, the increase in 
the use of this method of heating, and its importance as a means 
of effecting economy are sufficient reasons for the inclusion of 
the following articles which describe the systems of the American 
District Steam Company as representing modern practice in this 
kind of piping. The information and drawings were very kindly 
supphed by the above company through Mr. H. E. Long, Chief 
Draftsman. 

Central station heating consists of a central generating plant, 
from which steam is distributed through underground mains, care- 
fully insulated and protected, to the radiation in homes and pubUc 
or private buildings. Birdsall Holly invented the first system 
of this kind, and through him it was introduced in the city of 
Lockport, N. Y., in 1877. The source of supply of steam may 
be heating boilers, or the exhaust steam from electric or power 
plants may be utilized. Where exhaust steam is used it is neces- 
sary to have a hve steam connection with a reducing valve to 
supply additional steam, should the exhaust be insufficient. The 
reducing valve should be provided with a by-pass for emergency 
use. A back pressure valve in the atmospheric exhaust pipe is 
necessary in order to maintain the desired back pressure. An oil 
and water separator should be connected in the main exhaust 
pipe which leads to the underground system. An initial pressure 
of from two to five ounces has been found sufficient to give proper 
circulation in the most extensive systems. A typical arrangement 



218 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



of piping as described above is shown in Kg. 239. As indicated, 
any engine can exhaust into a condenser, to the atmosphere, or 
to the heating system. 




Fig. 239. Station Piping Connection for Exhaust Heating. 

Underground Steam Mains. — The imderground system of pip- 
ing is a particularly important part of district heating. Some of 
the essential features of undergroimd heating systems as installed 
by the American District Steam Company are: efficient insula- 
tion, perfect provision for expansion and contraction, provision 
for taking service connections from fixed points only, special 
attention to under-drainage, perfect grading and trapping of the 
mains, use of highest grade materials, and competent supervision 
of the work of installation. The methods of insulation found 
most efficient and durable by the above company are the wood 




Fig. 240. " Standard " Steam Pipe Casing. 

stave casing shown in Figs. 240 and 241, and the patented multi- 
ceU construction shown in Figs. 242 and 243. 

The wood casing is built up of staves of selected white pine, free 
from sap and thoroughly air and kiln dried. The staves have a 



PIPING FOR HEATING SYSTEM 



219 




Fig. 



241. "Standard" Steam Main 
Construction in Casing. 



tongue and groove their length, which is locked by spirally wound 

banding wire. A four-inch . . , 

mortise and tenon is cut on 

the ends, the mortise being 

one-half inch gi-eater than the 

tenon to allow the joints to 

be firmly driven together. 

The casing is then coated with 

asphaltum pitch and rolled in 

sawdust. A tin and asbestos 

Uning completes the casing. 

The lengths of sections vary 

up to eight feet. The stand- 
ard thickness of the casing is 

four inches. The tin Kning 

reflects the heat waves back 

to the pipe, and protects the 

casing. The standard practice 

of the American District Steam Company is to use a four-inch 

shell, tin and asbestos lined casing on low pressure steam lines 

and on hot water lines, and 
two-inch thickness, unlined, for 
return hnes. The casing is 
made from two to three inches 
larger, inside diameter, than 
the iron pipe which it covers, 
thus providing an annular air 
space which is made into 
"dead air space" by the use 
of cast iron collars which also 
assist in anchoring the line. 
Cast iron guides and rollers 
placed about six feet apart are 
used to centre the pipe. 

Fig. 241 shows a cross 
section of the standard steam 
main construction in wood 
stave casing for 




Fig. 242. Standard Steam Main Con- 
struction — Multi-cell. 



m 
mains six 

inches and larger. For mains five inches and smaller, one of 
the drains may be omitted. 



220 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



The multi-cell construction, shown in Figs. 242 and 243, is 
bmlt in place in the trench. A concrete base upon which rest 
supports for the pipe, is built on a layer of crushed stone. Hollow 
tile blocks on end rest upon this base, and form the side walls, 
the joints with the base and between tiles being made with 

cement. The tiles are then 
filled with shavings, and the 
tops closed with cement. 
The space above the piping 
insulation is also filled with 
shavings. Tile blocks with 
closed ends laid across the 
top close the conduit. All 
joints are carefully cemented. 
The closed tiles form a multi- 
cell insulation of dead air. 
The crushed stone at the 
sides provides for effective 
drainage to the drain tUe. 
It will be noted that the pip- 
ing is entirely separate from 
the conduit, which is thereby 
reheved from the effects of 




Multi-cell Construction for 
Large Mains. 



expansion of the piping. The cross section shown in Fig. 242 
is for mains from six inches to sixteen inches inclusive. For 
smaller size mains only one-drain tile is used. For mains eighteen 
inches and larger, the arch form of construction is used, in order 
to secure the strength necessary on account of the increased 
width of the conduit. Fig. 243. 

Underdrainage. — In addition to the insulation provided it is 
necessary to prevent any water from coming into contact with 
the steam pipe. The effect of water would be condensation of 
steam in the main, as well as ultimately affecting the durability 
of the insulation. This means that adequate underdrainage must 
be provided, regardless of the kind of insulation used. 

The methods of underdrainage, as installed by the American 
district Steam Company, are shown in Figs. 241, 242 and 243. 
When the trench is dug, a properly graded and drained field tile 
or uncemented sewer pipe is installed. This pipe is connected at 
as frequent intervals as necessary with the sewer, using check 



PIPING FOR HEATING SYSTEM 



221 



valves. The drain tile and bottom of the trench are then covered 
with a heavy layer of broken stone, gravel or clean cinders. This 
forms a porous drain bed upon which the casing rests. The luider- 




Fig. 244. Variator. 

drainage shown in the figures is typical for ordinary clay soil. It 
is frequently installed in a di£ferent manner, depending upon 
the amount of moisture which may be held in suspension, due to 
the varying soils encountered in the trench. In every case, com- 
petent supervision by experienced engineers should be obtained. 
Installation in Wood Casings. — After the piping is made up 
in place it is spirally wrapped with V32-inch asbestos paper. This 





Fig. 245. Double Expansion Joint, Showing 
Method of Anchoring. 



Fig. 246. 
Anchorage Fitting. 



paper is held in place by binding with pKable copper wire. The 
casings are then forced together and the joints cemented with 
hot pitch. A protection of three-ply tar paper is placed over the 



222 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 




PIPING FOR HEATING SYSTEM 



223 



line and reaching to a point below the centre of the casing. The 
trench is then ready for filling. 

Expansion and Contraction. — The two methods of caring for 
expansion and contraction, shown in Figs. 244 and 245, are de- 
vices made by the American District Steam Company. The 
"variator," Fig. 244, has two corrugated copper diaphragms. 
It is made with a fixed casing and two movable shps. The outer 




Fig. 248. Interior Piping and Meter Setting. Atmospheric System. 



edge of the diaphragm is held in the casing, which casing is securely 
anchored; the inner edge of the diaphragm is fastened to the end 
of the shp. The casing of the variator and of the anchorage fit- 
ting. Fig. 246, are provided with service openings, so that branches 
are taken from fixed points. These variators are placed about 100 
feet part, and have an anchorage fitting half way between them. 
Such an expansion device does not require packing or attention 
after being installed, and so avoids the expense due to the large 
number of manholes necessary to care for the slip joint expansion 
joints. When manholes can be used, the slip joint shown in Fig. 
245 may be used. As shown, it is provided with service open- 



224 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



ings. The methods of mstallation, arrangement of manholes, 
anchorages, and other details are shown in Fig. 247 for the use 
of variators and multi-cell insulation. With expansion joints 
more manholes would be necessary. 

Interior Kping for Central Station Heat. — If the building to 
be heated is piped for steam or hot water, necessary coimections 




Fig. 249. Interior Piping. One-pipe SyBtem. 

can be made for using the existing piping. Any system of steam 
or hot water heating may be used in a new installation, but the 
atmospheric system previously described is advised as being 
most economical. Fig. 248. The interior piping for a one-pipe 
sj^tem is shown in Fig. 249. When hot water piping is already 
installed it may be continued by using a heater in which the 
water is heated by steam from the street. 



PIPING FOR HEATING SYSTEM 



225 



The steam after being used is measured by a condensation 
meter, Kg. 250, which records the pounds of condensed steam. 
From the meter the condensation passes to the sewer. Unless 




Fig. 250. Condensation Meter. 

the district heated is very compact and close to the central sta- 
tion, it is generally better to allow the condensation to pass to 
the sewer than to attempt to return it to the plant. The cost of 
return Unes and their up-keep generally makes such an investment 
unprofitable. 



CHAPTER XIII 
WATER AND HYDRAULIC PIPING 

Water Piping. — The purpose of this chapter is not to treat 
extensively of the subject of water piping, but to give such infor- 
mation as it is believed wiU be of practical value to those who 
have piping to do around a building or plant. 

The sizes and kinds of piping, valves, and fittings which are 
used for water have been treated in the earlier chapters. The 
following articles will deal with some of the special kinds of water 
piping. 

Gravity Pipe Lines. — If a pipe is used to fill one reservoir 
from another at a higher level, the pressure in the pipe will de- 





Fig. 251. Hydraulic Grade. 

crease uniformly from the higher to the lower level, this differ- 
ence being due to friction. The pressures can be represented by 
the hne x-y, Fig. 251, where the pressiu-es at various points are 
proportional to the height of line x-^ above the pipe. If the pipe 
should rise above x-y at any point, the pressure will be negative, 
and a partial vacuum wiU be formed, as at point A of the dotted 
pipe line, resulting in decreased flow. This may be relieved by 
an air cock, or the outlet of the pipe may be restricted. The line 
a;-?/ is called the hydraulic grade. 

A pipe used to convey water from one container to another, 
arranged as in Fig. 252, is called a siphon. In order to start water 
flowing the air must be removed from the pipe, when the atmos- 
pheric pressure at x will cause the water to rise in the pipe to 
point z, from which it flows into container 2. The maximum 
theoretical vertical distance between x and z is 34 feet. The 
altitude of surface x and friction in the pipe will reduce this 



WATER AND HYDRAULIC PIPING 



227 



amount. Air from the water may collect at the point 2 and must 
be removed to keep the siphon in operation. 

Flow of Water in Pipes. — The flow of water in pipes is too 
large a subject to be treated with any degree of completeness in 
this book, and the reader is referred to works on hydrauHcs. A 
few approximations and some common pipe data wiU be given, 
however. 

The quantity of water delivered by a pipe wiU depend upon the 
head or pressure and the frictional resistances. At a given point 
the cubic feet of water passing will be equal to the area of the 
pipe times the velocity of the water. 



0, = Av. 



.(26) 



when 

Q = cubic feet per second. 
A = area of cross-section of pipe, square feet. 
V = velocity of flow, feet per second. 

If the head or pressure is given the velocity may be figured and 
then the quantity obtained by using the above formula. Table 
81 gives pressures equivalent to various heads of water. 



TABLE 81 

EQtnVALENT PrBSSTJBES AND HBADS OP WaTBR 



Feet 


Press. 


Feet 


Press. 


Feet 


Press. 


Feet 


Press. 


Head 


per Sq. In. 


Head 


per Sq. In. 


Head 


per Sq. In. 


Head 


per Sq. In. 


1 


.43 


50 


21.65 


170 


73.64 


290 


125162 


2 


.86 


60 


25.99 


180 


77.97 


300 


129.95 


3 


1.30 


70 


30.32 


190 


82.30 


310 


134.28 


4 


1.73 


80 


34.65 


200 


86.63 


320 


138.62 


5 


2.16 


90 


38.98 


210 


90.96 


330 


142.95 


10 


4.33 


100 


43.31 


220 


95.30 


340 


147.28 


15 


6.49 


110 


47.64 


230 


99.63 


350 


151.61 


20 


8.66 


120 


51.98 


240 


103.96 


360 


155.94 


25 


10.82 


130 


56.31 


250 


108.29 


370 


160.27 


30 


12.99 


140 


60.64 


260 


112.62 


380 


164.61 


35 


15.16 


150 


64.97 


270 


116.96 


390 


168.94 


40 


17.32 


160 


69.31 


280 


121.29 


400 


173.27 



The theoretical velocity can be found from the formula for fall- 
ing bodies, as given below: 



228 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

V = ^|2^ (27) 

in which v =• velocity of flow, feet per second. 

h = head of water, feet. 
g = 32.16. 

Values given by the above formulas are theoretical, and if the 
length of the pipe is at all great will be very much reduced. 

For clean straight pipe the quantity of water discharged and 
friction loss at different velocities of flow may be obtained from 
Fig. 253, which was plotted from Ellis and Rowland's tables by 
Mr. Walter R. Clark, Ph.B., Mechanical Engineer with Bridg- 
port Brass Company, using formulas (28) and (29). 

V = velocity in feet per second. 
G = gallons per minute. 
F = pounds friction loss per 100 feet. 
D = diameter of pipe in inches. 

G = MSvDf" (28) 

F = -^ (29) 

Formula (28) is taken for velocities greater than three feet per 
second. The method of using this chart may be understood from 
an example. A flow of 300 gallons per minute is required with 
a pressure loss of 25 pounds. The distance is 100 feet. Find the 
intersection of a vertical line from 300 gallons with a horizontal 
line through 25 pounds friction loss, which gives a 2V2 inch pipe 
and 19 feet per second velocity. The heavy lines show actual 
diameters, light lines show nominal diameters. 

All fittings, meters, changes in direction, changes in the con- 
dition of the pipe and other factors produce friction and tend to 
reduce the flow so that they should be taken into account when 
estimating sizes of pipes. The length of pipe equivalent to an 
elbow for various sizes of pipe and velocities of flow may be found 
in Fig. 254, which shows results obtained from experiments by 
Professor F. E. Giesecke (Domestic Engineering, Nov. 2, 1912). 

Pump Suction Piping. — The flow of water into the suction 
pipe is dependent upon atmospheric pressmre, from which it 
foUows that the piping should be direct and with as few valves 
and angles as possible so as to avoid friction. It is of course essen- 
tial that the piping should be tight. Whenever possible, new 



WATER AND HYDRAULIC PIPING 



229 



■i33j ooi i/3a sannotf- ssoi nouoiuj 




offei .— . 






n 



•=3 



I 

■a 



O 



& 



CO 

<N 



X33J - a¥3H JO SSffJ 



230 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



piping should be tested with water under a pressure of between 
25 and 50 pounds per square inch. 

The velocity of flow in suction piping under ordinary conditions 
may be from 150 to 200 feet per minute. For long pipes or high 
lifts a larger pipe should be provided to reduce the velocity of 
the water. This velocity depends upon the difference in pres- 
sures between that on the surface of the water and in the pump, 



30 










.0' 


^ 
ff 


'/ 




Gi 
1 

^,0 








i 


f 






*- r. 






^ 


J 


// 










i 9 






^ 


/j 


/ 














1 


t 


At i 


/ 




















^ 




/ 
















( 


^O" , 


// 


/ 












Is « 




•r 


s / 


y 














HI * 




j' 




















r 


1 


^ . 


f' 
















/ 




;/^ 



















OI/HnETEH OF /V/!f - INCHES 

Fig. 254. Length of Pipe Equivalent to an Elbow, Tee, etc. 



and cannot exceed that due to the vacuum less the head of water 
in the suction pipe. If this velocity is too low or the pipe too 
small, the pump cylinder will not fill on each stroke. 

The column of water in the suction pipe must be stopped and 
started at the end of each stroke. This action can be modified 
by providing a vacuum chamber into which the water may con- 
tinue to flow. In every case it should be so placed that the water 
may flow into it without changing its direction abruptly, Mg. 
255. The proper position for the vacuum chamber is at the 



WATER AND HYDEAULIC PIPING 



231 




highest point in the suction pipe and as near the pmnp as possi- 
ble, in order to obtain the full benefit of the regulating action. 

With long pipe or high lifts a foot-valve should be provided at 
the lower end to keep 
the pipe full of water. 
In the arrangement 
shown in Fig. 256 a 
long pipe is avoided 
by the use of a well, 
supplied by a pipe 
through which water 
flows by gravity. The 
pump takes its water from this well, 
used for supplying condensing water. 

The maximum theoretical height through which cold water 
can be raised by suction is 34 feet, at sea level. At higher levels 
this distance is less. Air leaks and friction reduce this so that 
the practical lift is about 26 feet. When water is heated it gives 
off vapor or steam at 212° F. under atmospheric pressure. 
At lower pressures this action takes place at lower temperatures. 
For this reason hot water cannot be raised as high as cold water 
by suction. The theoretical heights that hot water may be 
raised at different temperatures are shown in Fig. 257. It is al- 



«?»«*KK 



Fig. 255. Arrangement of Suction Piping. 

This method is frequently 



, 




Pumf. 


1 


S 


j^^=^l'/ •''•'""' Sixfhn Pip» > 


% 






r 




=^= 


\% 


% 




P^ 


-'/ 


C" 


Fig. 256. Pump WeU. 


n 


^^^ 


i 




K<=r»i 


'* 


'" 



ways better to arrange to have hot water flow into the pump, 
especially if it is above 120° F. 

Pump Discharge Piping. — Since the water deUvered has the 
force of the pump pressure it may be given any velocity, and 
friction is not so serious as in the suction pipe. For this reason 
the discharge pipe is generally made smaller. A velocity of 250 



232 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



to 300 feet per minute is a fair value for the discharge pipe, al- 
though velocities up to 400 feet per minute are allowable. 



- M 









— 


— 


















































^ 


^ 










































N 


\, 












-a 




























V 


\ 
















MSA 


Cf^f 


a^A 


wfei 


t/t 


so' 














\ 








J 


































\ 








































\ 




J 


» 




« 


9 




.9 


o 




tz 


a 




tso 




tso 




*/• 



reftpemMTvKE ' oeoKeBa x«mv. 



Kg. 257. Theoretical Heights that Hot Water may be Raised by Suction. 

Whenever valves are used, either in the suction or discharge 
piping, the gate form should be adopted as it offers very little 
resistance to flow, while globe valves offer very large resistance. 

Boiler Feed Piping. — Boilers of over 50 horsepower should 
have at least two methods of feed water supply in order to insure 
a supply at all times. When city mains are used for boiler feed 
a tank should be proArided with a large capacity where water can 
be stored, as it is unsafe to depend upon outside sources of 
supply. The city pipes should feed into this tank and the 
boilers should be supphed by a pump or injector. 

For hot feed water 




^ 






fH- 



Fig. 258. Boiler Feed Pipe. 



brass pipe is to be pre- 
ferred, although extra 
heavy steel pipe may be 
used. The feed pipe to a 
boiler should be provided 
with a stop valve and 
check valve, the stop valve 
being nearer the boiler. 
A rehef valve located be- 



tween these two valves is desirable when a pump is used, as it 
will prevent an undue rise in pressiu-e should the pump be 
started with the stop valve closed. This relief valve may be 



WATER AND HYDRAULIC PIPING 233 

much smaller than the discharge pipe. Fig. 258 indicates the 
arrangement of valves. 

Variations in pressure seriously affect the supply of water to 
the boilers. For this reason it is very desirable to have the boiler 
feed pipes independent of all other piping. Where a common 
pipe Hne is used to supply water for other purposes the opening 
of valves to draw off water changes the pressure in the pipe and 
the rate of feed to the boilers. The use of pump governors for 
maintaining a imiform pressure in the discharge line is described 
in Chapter VII. 

Interior Water Piping. — When the water supply for a building 
is obtained from city or water company mains, a "corporation 
cock" is tapped into the street main. Connection is made be- 
tween this cock and the service pipe leading into the building by 
lead pipe in order to provide flexibility, which is necessary to take 
care of any changes in alignment. The size of the cock will of 
course depend upon the amount of water to be supplied and may 
be from Vs to IV4 inches for dwellings, larger sizes being used 
for pubhc buildings and factories. The sizes of pipes used for 
delivering water to the different outlets in a building vary, but 
they may be the same as the fitting suppUed if not over 25 feet 
long. The figures given in Table 82 show the usual range of sizes. 

TABLE 82 
Sizes of Water Sttpplt Fittings 



Pitting 


Pipe Diameter 


Corporation cocks 

Compression bibbs or faucets for basins, sinks, etc. 
Ball cocks . . . . 


Vs' to 2» 
V«' to 2' 
V2' to 2' 


StoD cocks 


V/ to 2' 







The interior piping should be of the material best adapted to 
its use. Plain iron pipe should not be used for hot water as it 
corrodes very rapidly. Brass pipe is best, but galvanized iron is 
also suitable. For cold water either galvanized or lead pipe may 
be used. 

Hydraulic Pipe and Fittings. — The dimensions of standard 
steel pipe are given in Chapter II. For hydrauhc work extra 
strong pipe may be used for pressures up to 1000 pounds and 
double extra strong for pressmres up to 6000 pounds per square 



234 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



inch. Extra strong and double extra strong screwed fittings 
may be used for making joints. 





Fig. 259. Hydraulic Pipe and Coupling. 

The pipe and couplings shown in Kg. 259 are made by the 
Watson-StiUman Company for pressures of 1000 and 3000 pounds. 
The internal diameter may be the same as either extra strong or 
double extra strong pipe. The flanges are made integral with 





Fig. 260. Hydraulic Flange Union. 

the pipe and are held together by a very heavy steel spUt ring, 
the two parts of which are drawn together by two bolts. A cup 
packing is used to prevent leakage. The pipe is made in lengths 
to suit the plans of the installation. Fittings are also made with 

flanges arranged to use the same 
clamp couplings. A form of 
flange union for screwed pipe as 
adopted by the same company in 
connection with pumps, presses 
and accumulators is shown in Fig. 
260. It is recommended for pres- 
sures of 1000 to 3000 pounds in 
sizes from three to six inches. 
The two flanges are made of forged steel and have inside thread 
connections for the pipe. One part is recessed to receive a pro- 





Fig. 261. Hydraulic Flange 
Fittings. 



WATER AND HYDRAULIC PIPING 



235 



jection from the other, a leather washer being inserted between 
them. Fittings and companion flanges are made with similar 
joints as shown in Fig. 261. 

In hydrauhc systems where there is a possibility of shocks 
which may raise the pressure above the safe amoimt, or where 





Fig. 262. Hydraulic Safety Valve. 

the pressure from the pumps may become excessive due to closure 
of the discharge pipe, some form of safety valve should be used. 
These are made in both the spring-weighted form and the lever 
form. A Schutte hydrauhc safety valve is illustrated in Fig. 
262, which is made for pressures up to 6000 pounds. 




lA.a 




Fig. 263 . Hydi-aulic Check 
Valve. 



Fig. 264. Balanced Hydraulic 
Valve. 



Hydraulic Valves. — The general forms of valves for hydrauhc 
purposes are the same as those described in Chapter VI, but the 
construction is heavier. Several valves as made by Schutte & 
Koerting Company are shown in Figs. 263, 264 and 265. A hy- 
drauhc check valve as used for pressures up to 1500 pounds per 



236 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



square inch is shown in Fig. 263. The small spring is to assure 
seating. A valve for use at the same pressure is shown in Fig. 
264. This valve is balanced above and below the seat, so that 
the flow may be from either end, and requires but a small effort 




Fig. 265. 



Hydraiilio Stop Valve. 




Fig. 266. Unbalanced 
Hydraulic Valve 



for operation. A hydraulic stop valve for pressures up to 9000 
pounds per square inch is shown in Fig. 265. An imbalanced 
hydraulic stop and check valve for working pressiu-es up to 1500 
pounds per square inch is shown in Fig. 266. A fine pitch thread 
and large handwheel are necessary for ease of operation. Such 
valves are often used on high pressure oil lines for turbine 
bearings. 



CHAPTER XIV 

COMPRESSED AIR, GAS AITO OIL PIPING 

Compressed Air Piping. — Compressed air piping holds many 
features in common with steam piping. It should be arranged 
as direct as possible, and with provision for drainage and expan- 
sion. All pockets, loops or places where moisture might collect 
should be carefully drained. There is also the danger of freezing 
in cold weather unless drains are provided. For these reasons 
separators should be installed at the low points on the pipe Hne. 
Such separators can be similar to the usual steam separator, or 
can take the form of a receiver. In many cases it is well to have 
a receiver near the point where the air is used and especially when 




Fig. 267. Expansion Joint Used for Compressed Air line — Nicholson, 
Pa. Tunnel, D. L. & W. Cut-off. 

there is a widely changing demand for air. Often a receiver is 
desirable at both ends of the pipe line, more especially with long 
Knes. 

Friction and air leakage are constant sources of loss with air 
piping and should be carefully avoided by making the line as 
tight as possible, and using long turn fittings. Gate valves and 
shut-off cocks should be extra heavy. Careful attention to sup- 



238 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



ports will do much toward eliminating vibration and so help to 
maintain tight joints. 

The author is indebted to the Ingersoll-Rand Company, for 
Fig. 267 which illustrates a short section of a pipe used on the 
contract for the Nicholson Pennsylvania Tunnel for the D., L. 
and W. cut-off, and shows a simple but effective form of expan- 
sion joint. This piping has been used on several jobs and is still 
in perfect condition, due to the care exercised in laying it and a 
special graphite mixture used on aU joints. This pipe is laid so 


























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Fig. 268. Values for Coefficient C. 

as to drain toward the air receiver from which any moistiu-e can 
be blown off. 

Compressed Air Transmission. — In calculating pipe lines for 
compressed air, Unwin's formula for flow of fluids as stated below 
may be used. 

Q = Volume in cubic feet per minute at pressure P2. 

Pi = pressure at entrance in pounds per square inch. 

P2 = pressure at end of pipe in pounds per square inch. 

d = diameter of pipe in inches. 

h = length of pipe in feet. 

W\ = weight of air in pounds per cubic foot at pressure Pi. 

C = an experimental coefficient. 

■(Pi-.p^]v. ; (30) 



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COMPRESSED AIR, GAS AND OIL PIPING 



239 






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240 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



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COMPRESSED AIR, GAS AND OIL PIPING 241 





































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242 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



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COMPRESSED AIR, GAS AND OIL PIPING 



243 



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244 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



Values of Wi are given in Table 83 which is from Ingersoll-Rand 
Company's catalog. The coeflBcient C may be taken from the 
curve, Fig. 268, where a number of values have been plotted. 

For computations having to do with compressed air trans- 
mission, the information given in Tables 84 and 85 which are 
from the catalog of Ingersoll-Rand Company, may be used. 

TABLE 85 

MTJLTIPIilERS FOR DBTEKMININa THE VoLUME OF FrBE Am 

At Various AUiivdes which, when Compressed to Various Pressures, is 
Equivalent in Effect to a Given Volume qf Free Air at Sea Level 



Altitude 
in 


Barometric Pressure 


Gauge Pressure 


Inches 

of 
Mercury 


Foun(^ 

per Square 

Inch 


60 Lbs. 


80 Lbs. 


100 Lba. 


125 Lbs. 


150 Lbs. 


Feet 


Multiplied 





30.00 


14.75 


1.000 


1.000 


1.000 


1.000 


1.000 


1000 


28.88 


14.20 


1.032 


1.033 


1.034 


1.035 


1.036 


2000 


27.80 


13.67 


1.064 


1.066 


1.068 


1.071 


1.072 


3000 


26.76 


13.16 


1.097 


1.102 


1.105 


1.107 


1.109 


4000 


25.76 


12.67 


1.132 


1.139 


1.142 


1.147 


1.149 


5000 


24.79 


12.20 


1.168 


1.178 


1.182 


1.187 


1.190 


6000 


23.86 


11.73 


1.206 


1.218 


1.224 


1.231 


1.234 


7000 


22.97 


11.30 


1.245 


1.258 


1.267 


1.274 


1.278 


8000 


22.11 


10.87 


1.287 


1.300 


1.310 


1.319 


1.326 


9000 


21.29 


10.46 


1.329 


1.346 


1.356 


1.366 


1.374 


10000 


20.49 


10.07 


1.373 


1.394 


1.404 


1.416 


1.424 



The Air Lift Pumping System. — The use of compressed air 
as a means of raising water is illustrated in Fig. 269. This form 
of air lift pump was patented by Dr. E. S. Pohle in 1886. Several 
arrangements for the lower end of the air pipe are shown. The 
system is composed entirely of piping and the operation is as 
follows: air is piped to the lower end of the water pipe where it 
mixes with the water. As this mixture is lighter than the water 
it is forced up the pipe and out at the discharge. The lift of course 
is the distance from the water level to the discharge opening. 
The distance from the water level to the bottom of the pipe where 
the air is introduced is called the submergence. The amount of 
submergence to give most efficient results varies greatly and is 
often determined by trial for a given installation. 

Concerning the proportions of air lift wells. Practical Engineer, 
January 1st, 1916, gives Table 86, and says: "there are two classes 



COMPRESSED AIR, GAS AND OIL PIPING 



245 



of submergence, starting submergence, which is temporary, and 
running submergence, which is the important factor in any pump- 
ing proposition. It is usually expressed as a percentage of the 
total length of the water column from the point where the air is 
introduced to the point of discharge. 

Necessary percentage of submergence varies in accordance 
with the lift, low lifts requiring proportionately more submer- 



^c=t 




Fig. 269. Air Lift Pumping System. 

gence than high lifts. The range of these percentages is found 
within the following Kmitations: for a lift of 20 feet, 66 per cent.; 
for a lift of 500 feet, 41 per cent. 

Knowing the total Uft and running submergence, the approxi- 
mate amount of free air required can be calculated from the 
following formula: 

V=-= ^ (31) 



z.[li^>c 



i_ S4 
where 

V ■= volume of free air to raise one gallon of water. 

L = total Uft in feet. 

s = running submergence in feet. 

C = constant found in the following table. 



246 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

Lift in Feet (L) Constant 

10 to 60 inclusive •. 245 

61 to 200 " 233 

201 to 500 " 216 

501 to 650 " 185 

651 to 750 " 156 



TABLE 86 
Well Pipe Sizes 



WeU 
Casing 
Inches 


Side Inlet 


Center Air Pipe 


Water 
Kpe 


Air 
Pipe 


Capacity 

Gallons per 

Minute 


Air 
Pipe 


Capacity 

Gallons per 

Minute 


3V2 

4 

4V2 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 


I'A 

2 

272 
3 

372 

4 
5 
6 


''A 

1 

1 

17. 

172 
172 

2 
2 


25 
50 
75 
105 
145 
190 
300 
425 


I'A 
1V2 

2 

2 


115 
150 

240 
360 



Gas Fitting. — Piping for gas inside of biiildings is generally 
spoken of as gas fitting. It is not the purpose of this chapter to 
cover thoroughly the field of gas fitting, but to give only such 
information as might be of use to those who occasionally have 
some gas fitting to do. Gas piping should always be carefully 
done and thoroughly tested. 

The various pipes used in conveying gas from the source of 
supply to points where it is burned are distinguished by different 
names, depending upon their particular purpose. The cast-iron 
pipes used to convey the gas through the streets are called mains. 
From the mains, service pipes of cast-iron or wrought iron lead 
to the building. These shoxild be taken from the top of the 
mains. Inside of the building the distributing pipes carry the 
gas to the Ughts, heaters, etc. A riser is a vertical pipe through 
which the gas flows upward. A drop is one in which the gas flows 
downward. 

Materials. — Cast iron and standard steel or wrought iron 
pipe are used for gas piping. Fittings should be of malleable iron 
and galvanized. Cast-iron fittings are heavier than malleable 



COMPRESSED AIR, GAS AND OIL PIPING 



247 



iron and are more easily cracked or otherwise damaged. Gas 
fittings in addition to those shown in the chapter on Pipe Fittings 
are illustrated in Fig. 270. For turning on and off gas in service 
pipes gas cocks are used, as shown in Fig. 271. Fig. 272 is a 
meter cock, and Fig. 273 is a gas stove cock. 



tt^a 




Or^ 7&e i^vp £/t Long Drop Tern 

Fig. 270. Gas Fittings. 



Ovss Oirmr 7am 



Location of Piping. — The gas supply pipe from the street 
should incUne upward from the main in order that any condensa- 
tion will drain back into the main. The amount of slope is not 
material but should be sufficient to prevent the possibility of 
water pockets forming, due to the settUng of the pipe. In every 
case the pipe should be firmly supported, and should be tested 
for leaks before filUng in the trench. 

The piping in the building should be run to the fixtiu-es with as 
few fittings as possible, and should be pitched to provide drainage. 




I Figs. 271, 272, and 273. Stove Cock, Meter Cock, Service Cock. 

For this reason it is better to supply burners and fixtures by risers 
rather than by drops. 

Sizes of Pipes. — The size of pipes should be based upon the 
maximum quantity (cubic feet) which is likely to be used. For 
lights the meter rating of five cubic feet per hour may be used in 
estimating the sizes of pipes. For cook stoves the size of pipe wiU 
vary from '/4 inch up to 1 V2 inches or more, depending upon the 
size of the stove. Service pipes should never be less than Vi 



248 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

inch, regardless of length, and in cold climates where there is 
a possibility of frost forming it is better to use at least one inch 
pipe. Insulating material may be used to protect the piping from 
extreme cold. Alcohol may be poured into the pipe and allowed 
to melt the frost which forms due to moisture io the gas. The 
size of pipe for a given quantity of gas may be figured by Moles- 
worth's formula for maximum supply in cubic feet per hour. 

Y = 1000 pI'A (32) 

in which 

V = maximmn cubic feet per hour. 
d = diameter of pipe, inches. 
h = pressm-e, inches of water. 
G = specific gravity of gas (air = 1). 
L = length of pipe in yards. 

The value of G may be taken at from .40 to .65 based on a value 
of 1 for air. 

A series of articles "Instructions for Gas Company Fitters," 
by Mr. George Wehrle, pubUshed in The Gas Age, New York, 
permission of which has been given the author under the copy- 
right of the former, give complete particulars of the above subject. 
Mr. Wehrle uses formula (33) for the flow of gas in pipes. 

F^1350p(^--^-)T/- (33) 

L GL J 

in which 

Pi = initial pressure, iaches of water. 

Pi = final pressure, inches of water. 

other letters as in formula (32). 

Quoting further from Mr. Wehrle's articles on the subject of 
"Conductivity of Pipes," he says: 

"The conductivity of a pipe is its carrying capacity in volumes 
of gas, which is variable under certain conditions of pressure, 
length and gravity of gas. 

"All fitters know that the elimination of 'dead ends* in gas 
pipes is favorable to the carrjdng capacity of the pipe, but to 
just what extent, and the cause, should be understood. 

"In the accompanying table, Fig. 274, explanation is given of 
results to be obtained under different conditions representing 



COMPRESSED AIR, GAS AND OIL PIPING 



249 



different methods of installing pipes. The first illustration repre- 
sents a pipe supplied from one end, discharging from the other, 
as a service pipe. This condition is represented as unity in all 
quantities. The second illustration represents a pipe fed from 
both ends, discharging from a point midway between the ends. 
Here a comparison with the first illustration shows that such an 
installation, considering the specific gravity of the gas to be the 
same, will pass 2.8 times the amount of gas in a given time for the 
same length, diameter and pressure drop; will pass the same 
amount of gas for the same length and diameter with a pressure 



Modifltd 
Unwiffs formula 



y<lf/.7/ VeL 



e=ee34a 



per Hour 
d^O/am, in tnchos 
h'^ Pressure efrop in 

/nc/ies of yifofer 
i. "Lengfh /n feet 
S » Specif/c Gray/fy 

(Air = /L 
/f = ConducMfffy 

ant/ L =1000 



3 
6 
II 
26 
59 
93 

no 

1070 

3/ZO 

6570 

II 700 

18 700 

36000 

68100 

109000 

isaooo 

305000 
450000 
6ZS000 



'3 "iSae 






i 



t 

loeo' 



(& 



i 



t(^)J- 






4. 



2IHS3 



Fig. 274. Pipe Conductivity Chart. 



drop of Vs as much; will pass the same amoimt of gas with the 
same pressvu-e drop and diameter with a length eight times as 
great; or will pass the same amount of gas for the same length 
and pressure drop with a diameter .66 as great. 

"The third and fourth illustrations bear the same relative 
value to each other as the first and second, but have different 
values, as shown, when compared with the first. Comparisons 
of any one with another are easily made. Exactly the same values 
are obtained if the pipe is fed from the center, discharging from 
both ends. 

"Problems very often occur in house piping where a knowledge 
of the above information proves of great value. In meter header 
installations, illustration No. 4, or its counterpart (fed from 
the middle, discharging both ways) should in all cases be used. 



250 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



even at the expense of additional pipe over No. 3. In street 
main work, it is general practice to tie in all dead ends possible, 
most companies allowing a considerable expense to be used for 
that purpose." 

Testing. — Gas Pipe systems should be tested before turning 
on the gas in order to be certain that all the joints are gas tight. 

Gas fitters' proving pumps are 
made for this purpose. They 
may be used with a mercury 
column or a spring gage, the 
former being preferred. A 
proving pump is shown in 
Fig. 275. The pump is used 
to force air into the system, 
and a pressure should be 
maintained for one hour, with 
a pressure loss of not more 
than V* iiich of mercury 
(about Vs pound per square 
inch pressure). The rate of 
drop in pressure is an indica- 
tion of the extent of leakage. 
In order to locate the leaks 
an ether cup is attached to 
the pump through which ether 




Fig. 275. Gas Proving Pump. 



may be introduced into the piping, and by its odor indicate the 
points of leakage. 

Gas Meters. — Gas is ordinarily measm-ed in cubic feet. The 
usual form of meter for measuring gas is illustrated in Figs. 276 
and 277. This form is called a dry gas meter, and generally con- 
sists of two chambers which are separated from each other by 
partitions and flexible diaphragms. The operation may be under- 
stood by reference to the diagram. Fig. 277. The gas from the 
street enters through pipe 1 to the space A, and then through 
opening 2 to spaces B, B, where it exerts pressure against the 
diaphragm 3, 3 and so forces the gas from spaces C, C, out through 
4, 5 and 6 to the piping system. When the spaces B, B are filled 
the sUde valve 7 is moved so as to open port 4 to space A and to 
connect port 2 with the outlet pipe. Gas then flows into spaces 
C, C and moves the diaphragm, expelling the gas from spaces 



COMPRESSED AIR, GAS AND OIL PIPING 



251 



B, B. This operation is automatic and is communicated to the 
recording discs which record the amount of gas measured by the 
meter. A view of the recording dials is shown in Fig. 278. To 
read the meter begin with the dial at the left and read the smaller 
of the two numbers on each side of the hand on each of the three 
dials, and add two ciphers. The reading as illustrated is 66200. 
Such a reading, subtracted from the previous reading will give 
the amount of gas consumed in the interval. The small dial 






Fig. 276. Dry Gas Meter. 



Fig. 277. Dry Gas Meter Diagram. 



may be used to observe the rate of consumption as well as to indi- 
cate leaks in the system. Before connecting a gas meter it is 
advisable to be siu-e that the pipes are all clean and that no undue 
pressm-e can come upon the diaphragm. The connection to the 
meter should be one size larger than the pipes through which the 
gas is supplied. A meter should be placed level on a solid support 
and not in a damp place or where it will be subject to extreme 
temperatures. Sizes of gas meters are sometimes based upon a 
consumption of five cubic feet of gas per hour per burner, so 
that a 100-light meter would have a capacity of 500 cubic feet 
per hour. 

The report of the Committee on Meter Connections of the 
American Gas Institute gives much valuable information on this 



252 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



matter, and reports standard methods of many different com- 
panies. No standard is recommended, as the requirements are 
not the same in different cities. The following matter is ab- 
stracted from the above report. 

"The tendency is for gas companies to discontinue the use of 
lead outlet connections, especially above the 10-light size, and to 
discontinue the use of lead inlet coimections for all sizes, and to 
use all-iron connections and suitable swing joints, and, in addi- 
tion, a soUd or a split tie-in between the inlet and the outlet piping 




Fig. 278. Gas Meter Dial. 

in order to relieve the meter screws and column seams of aU avoid- 
able strain." 

Philadelphia practice as described in the report foUows, illus- 
trated by drawings from the United Gas Improvement CJompany. 
Fig. 279 shows the standard meter connections for all meters 
except those with flange connections. 

"The method of connecting 3- to 200-light meters, as shown by 
the following sketches (Fig. 279) calls for the use of all-iron inlet 
and outlet connections having two double swing joints on the 
inlet side, and one double swing joint on the outlet side. 

"The two-piece, cast iron tie-in between the inlet and outlet 
meter vmions is first adjusted, when setting three- and five-light 
meters, to the meter to be set; the two parts are bolted together 
and then attached to the inlet piping after which the outlet pip- 
ing connections are made up. 

"When a meter is changed on this type of connection, the 
two-piece tie-in is removed and refitted to the screws of the meter 
to be set, after which it is replaced in position on the piping 
connections. 



COMPRESSED AIR, GAS AND OIL PIPING 



253 



'«te^ 






fivtr crvsa^ 




's»nn £/lM. 



SiSiT SiM6L£ Civrserr 
•Sirs 









"»»— 1 ... 



CM 












k 




£■//- 






I-/"" 



7::^ 












^Xy ^/r/iw 



.S^r-t'/c^ 






S AS- 1.7: CoiKBerr HEADEfi 



//a^n /ftamr- 



-\ 



I 









/•CMfpta^/ /^P 
















f^SerEHj 













Fig. 279. Standard Meter Connections. 



254 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



"The connection shown for meters larger than the five-Ught 
size permits of all necessary adjustment of the piping to the vari- 
able widths between meter screws, and enables the fitter to face 




Fig. 280. Flanged Meter Connections. 

up the meter screws and meter unions fairly well and to level 
the meter without straining the connections, meter screws, or 
column seams. 

"All meters set in Philadelphia are supported by means of 
hanger shelves, two-piece adjustable shelves mounted on a back 
board placed on the wall below the meters, or are set on meter 
tables, or on the floor." 

TYPES OF HEADER CONSTRUCTIOII 



STRMG HEADER 




HEADER 



tP- 



MM 



.-" -^ ^ 



e-J TANDEM HEADER 




JJIfflEM 



BALANCED 

HEADER 

Fig. 281. Types of Header Construction. 

The drawings reproduced in Figs. 280 and 281 show the prac- 
tice of the United Gas Improvement Company at Philadelphia 
for flanged meter connections and tj^jes of header construction. 



COMPRESSED AIR, GAS AND OIL PIPING 255 

Gas Piping Specifications. — Many cities and gas companies 
have rules and regulations governing the installation of gas pip- 
ing. Good practice is represented by the following quotations 
from the specifications for fuel and illuminating gas of the United 
Gas Improvement Company, Philadelphia Gas Works, and the 
accompanying drawings, Figs. 279, 280, 281 and 282. This matter 
was supplied through the kindness of Mr. Walton Forstall, Assist- 
ant Engineer of distribution. 

6. Pressure Test. — The pipe should stand a pressiu-e of 3 
povmds per square inch, or 6 inches of mercury column, without 
showing any drop in the mercury column of the gauge, for a 
period of at least ten minutes. Leaky fittings or pipe should 
be removed; cold-caulked or cement-patched material wiU be 
rejected. 

8. Obstructions and Jointing. — The piping should be free 
from obstructions. Every piece of pipe should be stood on end 
and thoroughly hammered, and also blown through, before being 
connected. White lead or other jointing material should be used 
sparingly, to avoid clogging the pipe. Jointing material should 
always be put on the male thread on end of pipe, and not in the 
fitting. The use of gas fitters' cement on joints is prohibited. 
After being connected, all piping should be blown through from 
the last outlet on each floor to the lower end of the riser, to make 
sure it is clear. No piping should be coated or painted vmtil in- 
spected and passed by the company. The use of imions in con- 
cealed work is not permitted; long screws or right-and-left 
couphngs should be used. 

9. Slope of Piping. — The piping should slope toward the 
meter, or toward an outlet from which condensation can be 
removed if necessary; or it may be laid level. Piping with a 
perceptible sag, which might hold condensation, will be rejected. 
It is especially important that imdergroimd piping be laid in 
such a way that condensation may be readily removed. 

12-A. Protection of Piping. — When necessary to imbed a pipe 
in direct contact with neat cement or ordinary concrete, black 
iron pipe may be used. If cinders, salt, sea water, or other sub- 
stance which has a corrosive action on the piping, is to be used 
in the fabrication of the cement or concrete, or if the concrete 
or cement in which the pipe is laid is to be exposed to brine, acid 
pickhng-bath Hquor, or other hquids of corrosive nature, or if 



256 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

the pipe is to be in contact with composition flooring, or similar 
structural material, the piping shall be made up of pipe and 
fittings galvanized on the outside, and shall be painted with two 
coats of a pure red-leaded paint, a bituminous paint, or an equiv- 
alent protective coating. It is preferable that it also be wrapped 
or coated with an approved material for protection against 
corrosion. 

13. Outlets. — Ceiling outlets should project not more than 
2 inches, nor less than % inch, and should be firmly secured and 
perfectly plumb. Side-wall outlets should project not more than 
Vs inch, nor less than Vs inch, and should be at right angles to 
the wall and firmly secured. 

14. Gas Engine Connection. — (a) The gas piping should be 
of sizes in accordance with the following schedule: 



Size of Engine 


Size of Connection 


Ito 5H. P. 


1 inch 


6 " 10 " 


1V4 " 


11 " 20 " 


IVj " 


21 " 30 " 


2 


31 " 40 " 


2V2 " 



These sizes apply only where the length of piping from meter 
to engine is 50 feet or less, and where the piping supplies the gas 
engine alone. If other fuel or illuminating appliances are to be 
supplied from the same piping, the sizes given above should not 
be used. 

16. Explanation of Piping Schedule. — (a) This schedule is 
based on the standard formula for the flow of gas through pipes. 
The friction, and, therefore, the pressure necessary to overcome 
the friction, increases with the quantity of gas flowing through 
and as the aim of the table is to have the loss in pressure not to 
exceed one-tenth of an inch water pressure, per 30 feet of length 
of piping, the size of the pipe increases from an extremity towards 
the meter, as each section has an increasing nmnber of outlets 
to supply. The quantity of gas the piping may be called on to 
deUver is stated in terms of Vs inch outlets, instead of cubic feet, 
outlets being used as a unit instead of burners, because at the 
time of first inspection the number of burners may not be defi- 
nitely determined. The consumption of gas through an outlet 
is assumed to be 10 cubic feet per hour, this being rather less than 
would be used by two ordinary burners. 



COMPRESSED AIR, GAS AND OIL PIPING 



257 



TABLE 87. — 15. Piping Schbdumi 
Required Sizes of Piping for Various Lengths and Numbers of Outlets 



No. of 
V« Inches 


Size of Pipe in Inches 


•/• Vi 'A 


1 


I'A 


IV. 


2 


2'/. 


3 


4 








Length of Pipe in 


Feet 








1 
2 
3 
4 


20 30 50 

27 50 

12 50 

50 


70 

70 

70 

70 

70 

70 

70 

50 

. 44 

. 35 

. 30 

. 25 

. 21 

. 18 

. 16 

. 14 

. 12 


100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

90 

75 

60 

53 

45 

41 

36 

. 32 

. 29 

. 27 

. 24 

. 22 

. 20 

. 18 

. 17 

. 12 


150 

150 

150 

150 

150 

150 

150 

150 

150 

150 

150 

150 

150 

130 

115 

100 

90 

80 

73 

65 

58 

53 

49 

45 

42 

30 

. 22 

. 17 

. 13 


200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200] 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
190 
175 
120 
90 
70 
55 
. 45 
27 
20 


300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
270 
210 
165 
135 
80 
60 
33 
22 
15 


400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
330 
200 
150 
80 
50 
35 
. 28 
. 21 
. 14 


600 
600 
600 
600 


5 


33 


600 


6 


24 


600 


7 


18 


600 


8 


13 


600 


9 




600 


10 




600 


11 




600 


12 




600 


13 




600 


14 




600 


15 




600 


16 




600 


17 




600 


18 




600 


19 






600 


20 






600 


21 






600 


22 






600 


23 






600 


24 






600 


25 






600 


30 






600 


35 






600 


40 








600 


45 








600 


50 








600 


65 










600 


75 










600 


100 










360 


125 












230 


150 












160 


175 












120 


200 














90 


250 














59 


300 














. 39 


350 


29 


400 


22 


500 


14 



258 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

If any ouMet is larger than '/s inch, it must be counted as more than one, in 
accordance with the schedule below: 

Size of outlet in inches 'A 'A 1 I'A IV2 2 2V2 3 4 

ValueinVa inch, outlets... 2 4 7 11 16 28 44 64 112 

17. Use of Piping Schedule. — In using the schedule observe 
the following rules: 

(a) No piping between the meter and the first branch line 
should be smaller than V4 inch. 

(6) No piping should be smaller than Vs inch. 

(c) No independent line in the cellar or on the first floor, from 
the meter to a gas range should be smaller than 1 inch, but when 
the range is suppUed from the house pipiiig, a V4 inch outlet wUl 
suffice. Above the first floor, an independent line from the meter 
to a gas range on an upper floor should not be smaller than V* 
inch. No pipe laid imder ground should be smaller than V/t 
inches. No pipe extending outside of the main wall of a building 
should be smaller than V4 inch. 

(d) No ceiling outlet where the height of ceiUng is 20 feet or 
more should be smaller than V4 inch. 

(e) Piping for any type of room heater, except gas logs, over 
18 inches in length, and where line does not exceed 9 feet in 
length, should not be less than Ya inch. For similar installations 
with hne exceeding 9 feet, the size should not be less than V4 
inch, but a short riser through the floor may be V2 inch. In 
other cases, and where the house piping is to supply fuel appH- 
ances, other than ranges, appUcation should be made to the 
district shop to ascertain the proper size of piping. In any case 
the capped outlet should not be more than 2 inches nor less than 
Vs inch above the floor level. 

(f) In determining the sizes of piping, always start at the ex- 
tremities of the system and work toward the meter. 

(g) The lengths of piping to be used in each case are the lengths 
measured from one branch or point of junction to another, dis- 
regarding elbows or turns. Such lengths will be hereafter spoken 
of as "sections" and are ordinarily of one size of pipe. There 
are only two reasons for which a change in size of piping will be 
allowed in a section. First: where the length of a section is greater 
than the length allowed for the outlets being supphed, as for 
example, if a section supplying two outlets is 33 feet long, 27 



COMPRESSED AIR, GAS AND OIL PIPING 259 

feet of this could be Vs i°ch, and the remaining 6 feet of '/< ^oh. 
Second: where the required length for the outlets being supplied 
wiU cause a violation of clause (j) unless the size is changed. 

(h) If the exact number of outlets imder consideration cannot 
be foiuid in the schedule, take the next larger number. For 
example, if 27 outlets are required, the next larger number in the 
schedule, which is 30, should be taken. 

(i) For any given niunber of outlets, do not use a smaller size 
pipe than the smallest size in the schedule for that number of 
outlets. Thus, to supply 17 outlets, no smaller size pipe than 1 
inch may be used, no matter how short the section may be. 

(j) In any piping plan in any continuous run from an extrem- 
ity to the meter, there should not be used a longer length of any 
size pipe than shown for that size in the line opposite 1 outlet, 
as 50 feet for V4 inch, 70 feet for 1 inch, etc. Exceptions to this 
rule are: First: when larger piping than called for by the schedule 
is nm in following (k) of this paragraph. Second: when fitter 
voluntarily runs a larger pipe than is necessary, as for example, 
if three outlets are to be suppHed by 60 feet of piping, instead of 
50 feet of V^ inch and 10 feet of V2 inch being required, the entire 
60 feet may be of V4 inch piping. When two or more successive 
sections work out to the same size of piping, and their total length 
or sum exceeds the longest length shown for that size piping, 
the change in size to a larger pipe should be made as soon as the 
limiting length has been reached. For example, if 5 outlets are 
to be supplied through 30 feet of piping, and then these 5 and 1 
more, making 6 in all through 24 feet of piping, it would be foimd 
by the schedule that 5 outlets through 30 feet require V4 inch 
piping, and that 6 outlets through 24 feet require V4 inch piping, 
but as the sum of the two sections, 30 plus 24 equals 54 feet, is 
4 feet longer than the amount of V4 inch piping that may be 
used in any continuous run, the 24 foot section must be changed 
from V4 inch to 1 inch, 4 feet from the end nearest the meter. 

(k) Never supply gas from a smaller size pipe to a larger one. 
If 25 outlets are to be suppHed through 300 feet of piping and 
these 25 and 5 more, making 30 in all, through 100 feet of piping, 
it would be found by the schedule that 25 outlets through 300 
feet require 2V2 inch pipe, and 30 outlets through 100 feet require 
2-inch pipe, but as under this condition a 2-inch pipe would be 
supplying a 2 '/a inch, the 100 foot section should be made 2'/^ 



260 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



inches. This does not apply to the case of a small pipe inside of 
a building supplying one outside of a building, which has been 
made larger as per (c) of this paragraph, because it is exposed to 
out-door temperatures. 

18. Plan of Piping. — In preparing a plan, Fig. 282, the follow- 
ing instructions should be strictly adhered to: 

(o) Vertical piping should be drawn parallel to the short side 
of the sheet. 




mSER FROM METER 

Fig. 282. Gas Piping Drawing. 



(6) Piping through the length of the building should be shown 
parallel to the long side of the sheet. 

(c) Piping across the width of the building should be shown 
diagonally on the sheet. 

(d) State length and size of each section of piping. A section 
designates the length of piping existing between outlets, fittings 
and points of changes in piping sizes. 

(e) On horizontal piping, mark the length under the line, and 
the size over the line. 

(f) On vertical piping, including drops, mark the length to the 
right of the line, and the size to the left of the line. 



COMPRESSED AIR, GAS AND OIL PIPING 



261 



(g) Mark each outlet X, and in case of a plugged outlet, state 
its size. 

28. Stems. — (a) The sizes of pipe or tubing in the stems of 
pendants, or of wall brackets, should be not smaller than those 
in the following schedule: 



Length of Stem 


Number 

of 
Burners 


When made of 
Iron Pipe 


When made of 
Brass Tubing 


1 Gas-way 
through 




Cased 


Uncased 


Plain 


Chain 


Cock 


30" and under 

Over 30" and under 42" 
42" and over 


1-2 
1-2 
1-2 
3-6 
7-12 
13 and 
over 


v/ 

'A" 
V.' 


V." 

Vs" 

•A" 

v/ 

'A" 


'A." 

Vu" 

7/ 
»A" 


Vs" 
Vs" 
Vs" 
Va" 
Vs" 

7/ 


7s" 
7s" 

78" 


Any Length 


Vh" 


<( (f 


Vi«" 




7/ 



"Length of stem" is tmderstood to be a distance measured as 
follows: 

In pendants, a straight line from the stiff joint to the lowest 
point of the pendant. 

In brackets that carry more than one burner, a straight Une 
from the stiff joint to the point where the arms diverge. 

(6) A one-piece or harp pendant, if not over 33 inches long, 
may be made of Vs inch iron pipe, or Vs inch brass tubing. If 
longer than 33 inches, it should conform to the schedule. 

(c) In the case of wall brackets, that carry more than one 
burner, the sizes given in the schedule are correct, except that 
no pipe of smaller size than V4 inch should be used. 

29. Anns. — (a) Arms of pendants or of wall brackets, that 
is, those parts which carry gas for only one burner, should be 
made not smaller than the sizes in the following schedule: 



Length of Arm 


When made of Iron Pipe 


Brass Tubing 


Cased 


Uncased 


12 inch and under 


78' 
78" 

7/ 


7s' 
7/ 

78" 


Vs' 


Over 12 inch and under 18 inch 

Over 18 inch 


Vis' 
72' 







"Length of arm" is imderstood to be a distance measured as 
follows: 



262 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

In pendants, a straight line from the centre of the stem to the 
centre of the burner nozzle; 

In stemless wall brackets, as stiff, single-swing or double-swing 
brackets, carrying but one burner, a straight line from the stiff 
joint to the centre of the burner nozzle, measured when the bracket 
has its maximum reach; 

In stemmed wall brackets, a straight line from the point of 
divergence of the arm to the centre of the burner nozzle. 

(6) In the case of cast wall brackets, the area of the gas-way 
in stems and arms should be not less than the area of the pipe, or 
tubing, of equivalent lengths, of the sizes already specified. 

30. General. — (a) Special precautions should be taken in the 
construction to prevent the obstruction of the gas-way by foreign 
matter, such as solder, other jointing material, or metal chips. 
The ends of tubing should be reamed to remove burs. When 
duplex tubing is used, care should be exercised to prevent faulty 
alignment of gas-ways. 

(6) Gas fitters' cement should not be used on any part of the 
fixture where it may be affected by the heat from the burners. 
Where solder is used, it should be of such a mixture that it will 
not be affected by the heat from the burners. 

(c) Fixtures for out-door use, or in exposed situations, should 
be provided with suitable drips, or means for the convenient 
removal of condensation from any part of the fixture in which 
such condensation may accumulate. 

(d) Globe rings should fit snugly over the threads of the burner 
nozzles, and should be so constructed that the screwing on of the 
burner will be certain to bind the globe ring firmly between the 
burner and the shoulder of the burner nozzle. Globe rings 
should have ample openings for the admittance of the proper 
quantity of air to the burners. 

Oil Piping. — The following articles contain a few general ideas 
upon various kinds of oil piping. The problems to be met are 
about the same as those conamon to aU kinds of piping. For 
lubricating oU almost any material may be used. Small oil pipes 
may be of copper, as it is easily bent to conform to the shape of 
the machine to which it may be attached. Brass and steel pipe 
and tubes are generally used with screwed fittings, brazed joints, 
and special connections. For fuel oil, steel piping and galvanized 
fittings are advisable. Oil pipes should always be sufficiently 



COMPRESSED AIR, GAS AND OIL PIPING 



263 



large to prevent choking, especially returns from a lubricating 
system. 

Oil Piping for Lubrication. — Various methods of supplying oil 
to machinery are in use. In some cases it is advisable to use a 
simple oil or grease cup and allow such oil as is not used to go to 
waste. For steam engines the splash system may be employed. 
For oiling the valves and cylinders of steam driven machinery 
the oil may be suppUed by a sight-feed lubricator. In other cases 
a force feed or sight-feed system may be employed and the oil 
collected, filtered and used over again automatically. Such 




ci£nioa.«u< 

CLEM OLnfiCHARCC' 



Fig. 283. Richardson Individual Oiling System. 

systems involve pumps, piping, filters, etc., but cut down the 
amount of oil required. For an efficient lubricating system the 
following considerations should be given attention. The oil 
should be suppUed in a continuous stream at the exact points 
where it is needed. The oil should be sufficiently cool so that 
it can carry away heat. There should be a carefully designed 
system for collecting the oil which drains from the lubricating 
system. There should he an efficient ffiter for removing dirt, 
particles of metal, and water from the oil. 

Hichardson Individual Oiling System. — This is one of the 
systems of the Richardson-Phenix Company, and is illustrated 
in Fig. 283, which shows the appUcation to a simple engine. The 
oil, after being used, flows by gravity to a cast-iron drain well. 



264 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



One end of a double-ended plunger pump raises this dirty oil from 
the well and discharges it into the filter where the oil is purified. 
It is then pumped through a system of piping on the engine, or 
other machine, and delivered to the sight feed oilers located at 
each of the points to be lubricated. A constant oil pressure is 
maintained by means of a glass overflow stand. 

Phenix Individual Oiling System. — This method is similar to 
the Richardson system, but the apparatus is differently arranged, 
adapting it for small engines, air compressors, and ice machines. 




nnmacRnjOM 
'SCRUwroit 



Fig. 284. Phenix Individual Oiling Stysem. 

The principle of operation and the required parts are shown in 
Fig. 284. The dirty oil flows into a receiver-separator, where 
heavy foreign matter and entrained water are removed. It is 
then pumped up to the filter-reservoir where it is purified. From 
the final purification the oil flows by gravity to the various sight 
feed oilers. 

Oil Pipe Fittings. — In addition to the regular pipe and fittings 
there are several special forms of fittings used with oil piping, a 
mmiber of which are illustrated in Fig. 285. Feed valves are 
shown at ^, B and C, where A is a plain feed valve, straight form, 
B is a sight feed valve, angle form, and C is a cross sight feed valve 
with a lever for stopping the feed. Regulation is obtained by 
the nut 1 and the valve is closed by throwing the lever 2 down 
into the position shown by dotted lines. These may be in the 
form of straight, angle, cross, or corner fittings, and are made 



COMPRESSED AIR, GAS AND OIL PIPING 



265 



in sizes to fit Vs; Vij */» and Va inch pipe threads. A plain metal 
wiper cup is shown at D, Fig. 285; an adjustable wick wiper at 
E; a drip trough at F, and an oil cup wiper tip at G. 





^^ 




Fig. 285. Oa Pipe Fittings. 

Some fittings are so made that no threading is required, such 
as the "Union-Cinch" fittings shown in Kg. 286. Each fitting is 
a union, thus making it very easy to assemble or take down the 
piping. Referring to the figure .4 is a soft brass cinch ring which 
is shpped over the end of the pipe B. The end of the pipe is then 
inserted in the fitting imtil it comes against the shoulder C and 




Fig. 286. Union Cinch Fittings. 

the nut D screwed on, making a double joint at E-E, thus insur- 
ing tightness. 

Oil Piping Drawing. — A drawing showing the pipe layout for 
an oiling system is reproduced in Fig. 287. The engine frame is 
indicated by very fine lines, heavy full lines being used for the 



266 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 




COMPRESSED AIR, GAS AND OIL PIPING 



267 




JP]= 



ThnMe Vo/ye 



clean oil Unes, and dotted lines for the drain oU pipes. Each fit- 
ting and part is numbered and the quantity required is given in 
the material list opposite the reference number. The conventional 
symbols as shown in the chapter on piping 
drawings are used as the scale is small. 

Sight Feed Lubricator Connections. — 
The method of piping a double connection 
sight feed lubricator for steam cylinders 
is shown in Fig. 288. The operation of the 
lubricator depends upon having a greater 
pressure upon the oU than exists in the 
steam pipe. This is accompUshed by a 
condenser pipe tapped into the steam pipe 
above the lubricator. The pressure inside 
the lubricator will then exceed the pressure 
in the steam pipe by an amount equal to 
the head of water (condensed steam) in the 
condenser pipe, and so force the oil from 
the lubricator into the steam pipe. It is 
necessary that the condenser pipe should 
be about 18 inches long, in order to be sure 
of a sufficient difference in pressure. If 
connection is made to a horizontal pipe the 
condenser pipe should extend above the 
steam pipe and then descend to the lubri- 
cator. The size of the connection A will 
depend upon the size of the lubricator, the pipe B may be '/< 
inch steel pipe or brass tubing, iron pipe size. 

on Fuel Piping. — Piping for oil fuel is not essentially different 
than for other purposes. Extra heavy standard pipe with screwed 
joints may be used. Tight joints may be obtained with flanges 
screwed on and packed with maniUa paper, cardboard or prepared 
oilproof packing. Rubber or other material affected by the sul- 
phiu- in the oil must be avoided. On this account copper piping 
should not be used. Fittings for oil piping may be extra heavy 
galvanized iron, brass or composition. Valves in the suction line 
to oil pimips should be of the gate pattern, as they offer less resist- 
ance to flow, but globe valves may be used in the delivery pipes. 
The velocity of flow in oil pipes ranges from a maximum of 20 feet 
per minute in suction pipes to 100 feet per minute in delivery pipes. 



Fig. 288. Lubricator 
Connections. 



268 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

For the United States Navy service oil piping is specified as 
seamless-drawn steel, with steel flanges, pipes for heating coils, 
seamless-drawn steel, and suction oil piping, lap-welded steel or 
wrought iron. Service oil fittings are of cast steel or composition 
and suction oil fittings are cast steel or cast-iron screwed fittings. 
All joints and fittings in pressure piping must be oil tight under 
test, without the use of gaskets. On suction lines paper gaskets 
may be used. 



CHAPTER XV 
ERECTION— WORKMANSHIP— MISCELLANEOUS 

Handling Pipe. — In the handling of pipe it is advisable to 
keep wrenches and tools ofE from the threads and to protect 
them from injmy in other ways. Clean, sharp threads form the 
very best means of obtaining tight joints. 

The countersinking of tapped holes is of advantage in making 
certain that the pipe will enter squarely, and that the threads 
wiU not cross. Fittings and valves are manufactured with such 
counterbores as shown at A and B in Fig. 289. The end of the 
pipe may also be chamfered. 

Pipe may be cut off in a machine with a cutting-off tool, or by 
hand with a wheel pipe cutter, or with a hack saw. When cut 






Fig. 289. Counter-bored Fittings. 

by hand with a pipe cutter, the edge is almost always rough and 
turned in toward the centre, thus reducing the area of the pipe. 
In such cases a pipe reamer should be used to remove the turned 
in edge and restore the fuU diameter of the pipe. When a hack 
saw is used the pipe should be revolved away from instead of to- 
ward the worker in order to avoid stripping the teeth from the saw. 
Putting Up Pipe. — The inaccuracies of "making up" render 
it undesirable to run piping without some means of allowing for 
differences in length. With screw fittings this is best done by 
means of elbows as shown in the simple case of Fig. 290. In case 
A the dimensions must be very exact to obtain good joints at x and 
y. In cases B and C the elbows allow the flanges at x and y to 
meet squarely as the pipe can turn on the elbows and so be brought 
into line. A small amount of lack of alignment can often be taken 
care of by a union. The bolt holes of flanges can allow a small 
amount of latitude if they are made Vs hich larger than the bolts. 



270 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



This of course would not apply to recessed flanges of any kind. 
Unions, or right and left couplings should always be placed in 
such positions that piping can be disconnected without taking 
down a long Une of piping. Tees and plugs used instead of elbows 
make it easy to take off new branch lines should they be neces- 
sary. Valves are both a convenience and a nuisance. They 
should be used where necessary but not promiscuously, for they 
offer resistance to flow and must be kept in repair. Sometimes 
steam pipe is cut short in order to decrease the strain due to 
expansion. In such cases allow one half the change in length due 
to expansion and spring the pipe into place. This will be reheved 
when the pipe is heated and there will be only one haK as much 




Fig. 290. Putting Up Pipe. 

strain as there otherwise would be. When long pipe coils are 
used for heating there should be allowance for expansion — let 
the pipe sUde on supports and leave room at the end between 
the coil and the building wall. Provide unions for convenience 
in disconnecting, especially near valves. Piping shotild be ar- 
ranged so that repairs can be conveniently made; so that units 
can be readily cut out; and, so that various necessary combina- 
tions can be made in times of accident or repairs. 

Pipe Dopes. — There are a number of prepared pipe dopes 
which may be used for making tight pipe joints by smearing on 
flange faces or on pipe threads. For most purposes flake graphite 
and oil is one of the best dopes, as joints made with it can be 
taken apart. A mixture which is suitable for either steam or 
water pipes is composed of 10 pounds of finely ground yellow 
ochre; 4 pounds of ground litharge; 4 pounds of whiting; and, 
Vz pound of finely cut hemp; all of which is mixed with linseed 
oil until it is about the consistency of putty. White lead and 
red lead are also used. For permanent joints, red lead makes a 
tight joint which is satisfactory. A mixture for ammonia pipe 
joints is composed of litharge and glycerine mixed up in small 



ERECTION — WORKMANSHIP — MISCELLANEOUS 271 




quantities for each joint. As this substance sets very quickly, 
a joint made with it should not be changed. 

Gaskets. — A great many materials are in use for maintaining 
tight joints between pipe flanges. In addition to selecting the 
proper materials for the fluid to be transmitted or the temperature 
to be withstood, the proper design of the flanges is very important. 
Rough or uneven surfaces are difficult to make tight with any 
substance. Bolts should be miiformly spaced and not too far 
apart for the thickness of flange. Water hammer and vibration 
are other frequent causes of leaky 
joints. With good true surfaces 
which are parallel, thin packing 
material may be used. Under such 
conditions a good quality of paper 
soaked in oil is suitable. In some 
plants, used drawing paper is kept 
and made into gaskets. Sheet rub- 
ber, with either cloth or wire inser- 
tion may be used for water or for 
saturated steam, the wire insertion 
being better for high pressures. 
Such packings may be had in sheets 
with thicknesses of from V32 inch up to V4 inch. Rough or im- 
even flanges require a thick packing. These expose a greater area 
to pressure than thin ones, and are, therefore, undesirable. For 
high pressure steam or water, or superheated steam, gaskets may 
be made of asbestos, corrugated metal, or corrugated metal and 
asbestos. Corrugated steel makes a gasket suitable for super- 
heated steam. Fig. 291 shows a Goetze's corrugated copper 
gasket, with asbestos lining. Such gaskets are made in a large 
nmnber of forms, suiting them to different purposes. For am- 
monia, sheet lead is often used. Asbestos packing may be used 
for acids, ammonia, or oils. 

When rubber gaskets are used they can be prevented from 
sticking if the flanges are treated with plumbago, pulverized 
soapstone or chalk. The joint can then be broken and the gasket 
removed whole and used over again. 

A full face gasket is one which extends over the whole face of 
the flange. Fig. 292; a ring gasket is one which fits inside of the 
bolts, Fig. 293. It is well to have the hole through the gasket 



Fig. 291. Copper and Asbestos 
Gasket. 



273 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



slightly larger in diameter than the pipe as some kinds of gaskets 
spread when tightened or after use, and so decrease the size of the 
opening. Gaskets of rubber or asbestos may be cut by placing 
the sheet on the flange and striking aroimd the edges with a 
hammer. The bolt holes can be cut in the same manner with a 
ball peen hammer. When a gasket has been put in place the 
flanges should be drawn together by tightening up the bolts uni- 
formly — lightly at first, and then going over them again until 
they axe all tmder the same tension. Graphite and oil placed on 





Fig. 292. Full Face Gasket. 



Fig. 293. Ring Gasket. 



the bolt threads wiU make them easier to take down again when 
necessary. 

Valves. — The importance of valves should be fully realized 
when piping is being assembled, as they are the means of control 
for the system. For this reason they should be carefully examined 
and cleaned out, hghtweight valves should be avoided, and aJl 
valves should receive care in handling. It is important that 
steam lines be thoroughly blown out after erection in order to 
make siu"e that scale, iron filings, bits of metal and other objects 
are removed. The valve seats should then be examined before 
closing to see that nothing has been deposited on them. It some- 
times happens that valves are ruined by cutting too long a thread 
on the pipe and then screwing the pipe too far into the valve 
allowing it to come against the seat. Valve seats may be sprung 
out of place by holding the valve on the end farthest away from 
the pipe to which it is being connected. When a valve leaks the 
seat should be reground at once, lest it be damaged beyond repair. 



ERECTION — WOEKMANSHIP — MISCELLANEOUS 273 



Putting a wrench on the handwheel is a very poor way of attempt- 
ing to make a valve tight. 

Vibration and Support. — The question of vibration should be 
considered in connection with supports for piping. The use of 




Pig. 294. Pipe Supports. 

high velocities and small pipes makes it necessary to use care in 
the selection of supports or vibration with its consequent leak- 
ing joints will result. Other causes of vibration: too large steam 
pipes connected to an engine taking an intermittant supply from 
them, with the consequent surging of a large volume of steam; 
improper foundations for the machines to which the piping is 
connected. The distance between supports should generally be 
about 12 feet but this will 
vary with the kind of piping 
and mmiber of valves and 
fittings. Supports should be 
provided near changes in di- 
rection, branch lines and par- 
ticularly near valves. The 
weight of piping should not be 
carried through valve bodies 
if they are to be kept tight. 
Expansion and contraction due 
to changes in temperature re- 
quire provision for movement 
of the piping. Hangers by 
which the pipe is suspended 
allow it to move freely but 
also admit of vibration being 
set up, especially where there 
are a number of changes in the direction of the Kne. Some- 
times this vibration can be stopped by fastening one of the lengths 
of pipe. Various forms of brackets upon which the pipe can rest, 
free to move both lengthwise and sidewise are more satisfactoiy 



(T^ 





Fig. 295. Pipe Bracket. 



274 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



in preventing vibration. Rollers may be provided for the pipe 
to rest upon, either with hanging or bracket supports. Several 
forms of supports are shown in Figs. 294 and 295. 

Expansion. — The expansion and contraction of pipe under 
changes in temperature produce severe stresses imless amply 




QUAflT£R BCND 4S BEND SINGLE OFFSET QUARTER BEfi^ 

■■f\. 




C/fOSS OVEJf 





U BEND 



OOUBLC OFFSET U BEAIO 




EXPANSION U BEND 




siNCLE orrscT u bcno , 



Fig. 296. Pipe Bends. 



EKECTION — WORKMANSHIP — MISCELLANEOUS 275 

provided for. There are several ways of doing this. The general 
method when the line is not too long is by means of expansion 
bends, depending upon the elasticity of the pipe for the necessary 
movement. Several forms of bends are shown in Fig. 296 and the 
ordinary dimensions are given in Table 89. 

TABLE 88 (Fig. 295) 
Crane Pipe Brackets 



Size of Pipe 

will Support 

Inohea 


Safe 
f,o»<1 
Tona 


A 

Inches 


B 

Inches 


C 

Inches 


D 

Inches 


Inches 


F 
Inches 


G 

Inches 


5to8 


1 


25 


12 


34 


sVs 


6 


I'A 


8V2 


9 to 14 


2 


30 


14 


40 


6 


6 


IVs 


9 


15 to 18 


3 


34 


16 


45 


6'A 


6 


IV2 


9V« 


20 to 24 


4 


40 


19 


5IV2 


7 


6 


1V» 


llVs 


20 to 30 


Special 


44V8 


19 


64 


7 


6 


I'A 


12Vi 



TABLE 89 (Fig. 296) 
Lap-welded Steel Pipe Bends 









Length of 
Straieiht 
Pipe on 

each Bend 




Minimum 




A-B-C 


D 


F 


Kadius to which 


Size of 


Advisable 


Centre to End 


Centre of 


Bends can be 


Hpe 


Radius of 


or Face of 


Bends to Face 


made from 




Bends 


Flanges 


of Flanges 


Extra Strong 












Pipe Only 


Inches 


Inches 


Ft. — Ins. 


Inches 


Ft. — Ins. 


Inches 


2V2 


I2V2 


0-9Vi. 


4 


I-41A 


7 


3 


15 


O-IO'A 


4 


1-7 


8 


3V2 


17V2 


I-OV4 


5 


1-iO'A 


10 


4 


20 


1-iV* 


5 


2-1 


12 


4V! 


22V2 


l-3Vi8 


6 


2-4Vj 


14 


5 


25 


1-4V8 


6 


2-7 


15 


6 


30 


l-7Vi. 


7 


3-1 


20 


7 


35 


I-IOV2 


8 


3-7 


24 


8 


40 


2-lVi. 


9 


4-1 


28 


9 


45 


2-5V8 


11 


4r-8 


35 


10 


50 


2-8V4 


12 


5-2 


40 


12 


60 


3-2V8 


14 


6-2 


60 


14 


70 


3-9 


16 


7-2 


65 


15 


75 


3-llVu 


16 


7-7 


70 


16 


80 


4-3V8 


18 


8-2 


78 


18 


108 


5-2V4 


18 


10-6 


88 


20 


120 


5-7»A 


18 


11-6 


104 


22 


132 


6-0V8 


18 


12-6 


132 


24 


144 


6-5V8 


18 


13-6 


144 



276 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



When screwed fittings are used and the pressures are not too 
high, expansion may be taken care of by allowing the pipe to turn 
on the threads as shown in Fig. 297. A swivel joint, Fig, 298, 
may be used with flanged fittings to allow for expansion. The 
change in length is allowed for by a turning movement at the 
two swivels which are packed the same as any gland stuffing box. 
This turning movement is easier to keep tight than a sliding move- 




Fig. 297. Expansion Bends, with Screwed Fittings. 



ment. They are made by the Walworth Company of cast iron 
with brass bearings for steam pressures up to 250 pounds, and of 
cast steel with Monel metal bearings for 350 pounds pressure 
and 800 degrees F. total temperature. Another method, when 
bends or angles cannot be used, is to provide an expansion joint. 
One form is shown in Fig. 299. Tie bolts should always be pro- 
vided so that the joint cannot pull apart from any cause. The 
body is usually made of cast iron and the sleeve of brass. Some 
dimensions of expansion joints are given in Table 90. Diaphragm 
joints are sometimes used for low pressures. A joint using a 
copper shell and made for pressures up to 25 pounds is shown in 



ERECTION — WORKMANSHIP — MISCELLANEOUS 277 






auMJMf nil n n nlf 'n n ii n nj| SuhtlJomt 



Sde/idn of Sriiv/ JaJnf 




Fig. 298. Swivel Joint. 




Fig. 299. Expansion Joint. 




Fig. 300. Low Pressure Expansion Joint. 



278 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



Fig. 300. Other forms of expansion joints axe shown in the 
chapter on Exhaust Piping (Chapter X). 

TABLE 90 (Fig. 300) 
Extra Heavy Expansion Joints 







End to End 


End to End 






End to End 


End to End 


Size 
Inches 


Traverse 
Inches 


Screwed 
Inches 


Flanged 
Inches 


Size 
Inches 


Traverse 
Inches 


Screwed 
Inches 


Flanged 
Inches 


2 


2'A 


15V8 


is'A 


8 


7 


30'A 


31'A 


21A 


2V« 


15>Vl6 


16 


9 


7 


31»A 


31V8 


3 


2'A 


16V8 


17V8 


10 


7 


32'A 


33V8 


3V> 


3 


18 


18'Vl6 


12 


8 


36iVi« 


37"A« 


4 


3V4 


18'A 


19'A 


14 


10 




43 


5 


4 


21V8 


22V8 


15 


10 


. . . 


43V8 


6 


5 


24V8 


25'A 


16 


10 




45 


7 


6 


27V8 


28V2 


18 


10 




46V8 



Whatever method is used the pipe should be anchored or fas- 
tened at suitable places to make sure that the movement will 
occur where it has been designed to take place. The expansion 
usually provided for saturated steam is from two to three inches 
per 100 feet of length. The increase in length for 100 feet of 
steel pipe for various ranges in temperature may be found from 
Fig. 301. 

Pipe Bends. — For high pressure steam plants long radius 
bends made of steel pipe are generally used in place of elbows. 
These bends reduce friction and allow the pipe to expand and 
contract. 

As will be seen by reference to Fig. 296, bends are made pur- 
posely for expansion and other requirements. 

Extensive tests with various types of bends in several sizes and 
weights of pipe to determine their relative value have been made 
by Crane Company and are fully reported in The Valve World, 
October, 1915, from which the following is quoted: 

"These tests were made with Full Weight and Extra Strong 
Quarter Bends, 'U' Bends, Expansion 'U' Bends, and Built-up 
Bends placed in Unes representing the ordinary installation, being 
anchored at one end and carried on roller supports so that the 
strains due to expansion and contraction were properly directed 
to the bend. 



ERECTION — WORKMANSHIP — MISCELLANEOUS 279 

"The bends were then extended and compressed repeatedly 
until something failed. These tests were made with the Une cold 
and also under steam pressure. In this manner the safe allow- 
able movements of bends were determined. 

"Combining practical experience, tests, and the formula, it is 
found that a 180° or 'U' Bend has twice the expansive value of 





























7 


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O so /fie 4SO zoo zso 300 xo ^o 450 ^o S^ 6OO tso 
CMf/vse w TCMP&KATvifC' D£SA£es nif/^£jr/faT. 

Fig. 301. Curve Showing Expansion of Pipe for Variation in 
Temperature. 

a 90° or Quarter Bend of the same size and radius, and an Expan- 
sion 'U' Bend four times the expansive value of a Quarter Bend 
or twice that of a 'U' Bend. A Double Offset Expansion 'U' 
Bend has five times the expansive value of a Quarter Bend, two 
and one half times that of a 'U' Bend and one and one-fourth 
times that of an Expansion 'U' Bend. 

"A battery of Expansion 'U' Bends connected to large headers 
or manifolds is often used. This method occupies less space and 



280 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



allows of a greater movement than with a single pipe bend of 
ordinary construction. However, care must be exercised in the 
design of this type to provide sufficient area. 

"We present herewith the expansive value of Quarter Bends 
of various pipe sizes and radii, Table 91. 



TABLE 91 

Sate Expansion Values op 90° or Quakters Wbotjqht Steel Bends in 

Inches 











Mean Radius of Bend {in 


inches) 








Sizes 


12 


15 


20 


30 


40 


so 


60 


70 


80 


90 


100 


IW 


120 


1 


'A 


'A 


'A 


I'A 


aVs 


















2 


V» 


V. 


V» 


1 


1V4 


2V4 


3Vs 


5V8 












2Vi 




V. 


»A 


'A 


I'A 


2V4 


3V4 


4V2 


5V4 










3 




Vs 


Vs 


'A 


I'A 


IVs 


3Vs 


3Vs 


4V4 


6 








3V. 






V* 


'A 


1 


iVs 


2»A 


3Vs 


4Vs 


5V4 








4 






V. 


'A 


1 


1V2 


2 


2Vs 


3V4 


4V4 


5V4 






4>A 








V. 


'A 


IVs 


IVs 


2V2 


3Vs 


4V4 


5V4 






5 








V. 


V4 


IVs 


IVa 


2V4 


3 


3V4 


4V8 


5V. 




6 








'A 


Vs 


1 


IVs 


IVs 


2V« 


3Vs 


3V8 


4V4 


SVs 


8 










V. 


V4 


1 


IV. 


IVs 


2V2 


3 


SVs 


4V8 


10 












Vs 


Vs 


IVs 


IV2 


2 


2Vs 


2Vs 


3V» 


12 














V4 


1 


IVs 


IVs 


2 


2V2 


2V8 


14 












. . . 




Vs 


IVs 


IVs 


IV4 


2V8 


2V» 


15 








. . . 










1 


IVs 


IVs 


2 


2V. 


16 


















Vs 


1V4 


IVs 


IVs 


2V4 


18 
























IVs 


IV. 


20 
















... 










1V4 



"'U' Bends have twice the above expansive value. 

"Expansive 'U' Bends have four times the above expansive 
value. 

"Double Off-set Expansion 'U' Bends have five times the 
above expansive value. 

"An important factor to be considered either when laying out 
or ordering pipe bends is the weight of the pipe to use. After 
having obtained the required size, radii of bend, and the working 
pressure the bend is to be subjected to, the weight of the pipe is 
the next determination. Based on wide experience in bending 
pipe and elaborate tests, we recommend the thickness of pipe as 
follows (Table 92)." 



ERECTION — WORKMANSHIP — MISCELLANEOUS 281 



TABLE 92 
Thickness op Pipe pok Vakiotjs Bends 



Up to 125 Poimds Working Pressure 


125 to 250 Pounds Working Pressure 


Diam. of Pipe 


Thick, of Pipe 


Diam. of Pipe 


Thick, of Pipe 


Radius 4 to 5 Diameters 


Radius 4 to 5 and 6 Diameters 


7" and smaller 
8' and larger 


Extra strong 
Vj' thick 


7' and smaller 
8" and larger 


Ejrtra strong 
Vs' thick 


Radius over 5 Diameters 


Radius over 6 Diameters 


7' and smaller 

8" 
10' 
12" 

14'to 16' inclusive 
18" to 22' " 
24 "to 30" 


Full weight 

28.55 lbs. per ft. 
48.48 " " " 

49.56 " " " 
Via" thick 

Va " 
Vi. " 


7" and smaller 

8' 
10" 
12" 

14"to 16" inclusive 
18" to 22" 
24" to 30" 


Full weight 

28.55 lbs. per ft. 
40.48 " " " 

49.56 " " " 
Va" thick 

v.. " 



250 to 350 Pounds, Working Pressure 



Radius 4 Diameters and over 



7" and 
8" and 



smaller 
larger 



Extra strong 
7/ thick 



Bending Pipe. — In the factory pipe is heated and bent to the 
desired form on a bending floor. Small piping can be bent with- 
out crushing by screwing a cap on one end and filling with melted 




302. Pipe Bending 
Form. 




Fig. 303. Bending Small Pipe. 



rosin, allowing the rosin to cool and then bending, after which 
the rosin may be melted out. Sand is sometimes used for the 
same purpose. There are a number of devices made to assist in 
bending pipe, one form being shown in Fig. 302. Small pipe can 
often be bent by using two tees as shown in Fig. 303. 



282 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



A pipe bending machine for use where a large amount of pipe 
is to be bent is shown in Fig. 304. With this machine iron or 
brass pipe up to two inches diameter can be bent cold. The 




Fig. 304. Pipe Bending Machine. 

geared sector which moves the quadrant is operated by a pinion. 
This pinion is turned by a pilot wheel, 50 inches in diameter. 
Quadrants are regularly made as follows: 

Size of pipe, inches Vs »/< 1 I'A IVj 2 

Radius of bend, inches 4 5 6 9 12 14 





J- 



Fig. 305. Nozzles. 



Fig. 306. Nozzles. 



Nozzles. — Nozzles are used to make the connection between 
the pipe Une and the boiler or for connecting a steam drum to the 
boiler, Figs. 305 and 306. When made of cast iron or cast steel 



ERECTION — WORKMANSHIP — MISCELLANEOUS 283 




the dimensions of the upper flange, bolts, thickness of walls, etc., 
may be made the same as the AmCTican Standard. The height 
D varies from 5 to 16 inches depending upon the size of the outlet. 
Pressed steel nozzles are stronger and lighter than cast nozzles. 
As shown in Fig. 306 
the body is pressed 
out of Vs inch flange 
steel and the upper 
flange from V/i inch 
flange steel. The 
flange is connected to 
the body by expand- 
ing the metal of the 
body under hydrauUc 
pressmre into a groove 
turned in the flange. 
The joint is tight un- 
der a pressure of 1500 
pounds per square inch. 
Pipe Saddles. — 
Steam pipe saddles 





Fig. 307. Pipe Saddle. 



for making connections to wrought iron pipe are made as shown 
in Fig. 307. These are convenient for use in adding to existing 
pipe lines, and may be arranged so that they can be put in 
place upon pipes imder pressure. The boss is made of malleable 
iron and the straps of wrought iron. The combinations of pipe 
and branches are shown in Table 93. 

TABLE 93 (Fig. 307) 
Pipe Saddles 



Size of 


Tapped for 


Size of 


Tapped for 


Hpe. 


Pipe. 


Pipe. 


Pipe. 


Inches 


Incliea 


Incliea 


Inches 


IVj 


V2 and Vi 


6 


2V2 to 4 


2 


'A to I'A 


7 


lto4 


2V! 


V* to I'A 


8 


lto4 


3 


»A to 2 


9 


IV2 to 4 


3V2 


'A to 2 


10 


I'A to 4 


4 


»A to 2 


10 


4'A to 6 


4Vi , 


'A to 2 


12 


I'A to 4 


5 


'A to 2 


12 


4V2 to 6 


5 


2V2 and 3 


15 


3to6 


6 


'A to 2 


16 


3 to 6 



284 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 




Fig. 308. Supporting Large Lead Pipe. 



Supporting Large Thin Pipe. — Large lead pipe and fittings 
for acid and other work may be made up from sheets of lead by 
forming from developed patterns, and biu'ning the edges together. 
The supports for such piping should be arranged to carry the 

upper as well as the lower 
half of the pipe. Thinness 
of material makes this 
necessary. Kg. 308 shows 
such a support with the 
two halves of the iron 
ring bolted together and 
a strip of lead burned over the upper half, thus holding the 
shape of the pipe. 

Flexible Metal Hose. — For many purposes a flexible pipe con- 
nection is desirable, such as for blowing boiler tubes, operating 
steam or air drills, temporary steam, air, oil, or gas lines, for oil 
feed piping, connections to moving parts of machines and similar 
services. For such uses metal hose may be had which will give 
good results if handled with proper care. A section of hose made 
by the American Metal Hose Company is shown in Fig. 309. It 
is made from a continuous 
strip of high tensile strength 
phosphor bronze, which is 
wound spirally over itself and 
made pressm-e tight by means 
of a special prepared asbestos 
cord that is fed into place be- 
tween the metal surfaces dur- 
ing the winding operation. 
This hose is also made of steel 
which is somewhat stronger 
than bronze and is preferred 
for superheated steam and 
where subject to hard usage. 
Information concerning 

"American" bronze metal hose is given in Table 94. 
specified by the inside diameter. 

Aluminum Piping and Tubing. — Aluminum tubing is specified 
by outside diameter and thickness of wall. The tables and in- 
formation in this article are from the catalog of the Aluminum 




Fig. 309. Metal Hose. 



are 



ERECTION — WORKMANSHIP — MISCELLANEOUS 285 

TABLE 94 
Sizes and Dimensions of Mbtal Hose 



Bronze 


Approx. 


Weight 


Bronze 


Approi. 


Weight 




bending 
diameter 


per foot 
ia lbs. 




bending 
diameter 


per foot. 


Diam. 


Diam. 


in lbs. 


V.' 


4' 


.11 


17/ 


22" 


1.75 


Va 


5" 


.25 


2" 


26" 


2.65 


V/ 


7" 


.35 


2V2" 


32" 


3.15 


'A" 


12" 


.80 


3" 


38" 


4.50 


1" 


14" 


1.00 


4' 


44' 


5.70 


v/*' 


18' 


1.50 


6" 


56' 


9.00 



Steel hose is approximately 10 % lighter than bronze 

Company of America. Table 95 gives the outside diameter and 
several wall thicknesses for aluminum tubiag. The safe pressure 
may be figiu-ed by formula 2 Chapter II. The allowable unit 
stress when the temperature is less than 100 degrees Centigrade 
is given as follows: 

Pure aluminum (cast) 5000 lbs. per sq. inch 

Special casting alloy (cast) 5000 to 6000 lbs. per sq. inch 

No. 12 casting alloy (cast) 6000 to 8000 " " " " 

Pure aluminum tubing (made from sheet) 6000 to 8000 " " " " 

3S aluminum tubing (made from sheet) 8000 to 10000 " " " " 

When the temperature is more than 100 degrees Centigrade the 
above values should be halved and when more than 200 degrees 
Centigrade aluminum should not be used under pressure. 

Almninum tubing up to IV2 inches outside diameter can be 
made by extrusion in almost any desired length. Such continu- 
ous lengths have an especial advantage for condensing coils for 
chemical works as the entire coil can be made from a single piece 
without ]oints. 

Seamless drawn aluminum tubes are also made to the same 
dimensions as standard wrought pipe. The weight of alimiinum 
pipe when made to iron pipe sizes is given in Table 96. Such 
piping can be used with iron fittings, but aluminum fittings can 
be had in most pipe sizes and are preferable as being less Hable to 
induce galvanic action, than when the fitting is made of another 
metal. 

Brass and Copper Tubing. — The outside diameter is generally 
used in specifying brass or copper tubing. The thickness may be 



286 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



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a a ■* * ^1 3( m 


.9 .9 -9 ■- 

<<> 

a a « ® 



ERECTION — WORKMANSHIP — MISCELLANEOUS 287 



TABLE 96 
Weight op Aluminum Pipe for Iron Pipe Sizes 









Weights per 


Same as 


Outside 


Inside 


foot 


Iron, Size 


Diameter 


Diameter 




Aluminum lbs. 


Vs 


.405 


.270 


.083 


'A 


.540 


.364 


.145 


Vs 


.675 


.494 


.193 


V2 


.840 


.623 


.290 


'A 


1.050 


.824 


.387 


1 


1.315 


1.048 


.577 


I'A 


1.660 


1.380 


.777 


IV2 


1.900 


1.611 


.928 


2 


2.375 


2.067 


1.24 


2V» 


2.875 


2.468 


1.98 


3- 


3.500 


3.067 


2.59 


S'A 


4.000 


3.548 


3.11 


4 


4.500 


4.026 


3.69 



given in Stubs' gauge or B. and S. gauge, but more commonly the 
former is used. Almost any combination of diameter and thick- 
ness may be obtained. The Handbook of Seamless Tubing of the 
Bridgeport Brass Company gives very complete tables and 
information. 

Boiler Tubes. — The dimensions of standard lap-welded steel 
or charcoal iron boiler tubes are given in Table 97. The size of 
tube is specified by the outside diameter. 







TABLE 


97. — Standard Boiler Tubes 




Outside 


Thick- 


Thicltness 


Nominal 


Outside 


Thick- 


Thickness 


Nominal 


Diameter. 


ness. 


Nearest 


Weight 


Diameter. 


ness. 


Nearest 


Weight 


Inches 


Inches 


B.W.G. 


per Foot 


Inches 


Inches 


B.W.G. 


per Foot 


IV4 


.095 


13 


1.16 


4 


.134 


10 


5.53 


I'A 


.095 


13 


1.42 


4'A 


.134 


10 


6.25 


I'A 


.095 


13 


1.68 


5 


.148 


9 


7.67 


2 


.095 


13 


1.93 


6 


.165 


8 


10.28 


^2'A 


.095 


13 


2.18 


7 


.165 


8 


12.04 


2V2 


.109 


12 


2.78 


8 


.165 


8 


13.81 


2V4 


.109 


12 


3.07 


9 


.180 


7 


16.95 


3 


.109 


12 


3.36 


10 


.203 


6 


21.24 


37* 


.120 


11 


4.01 


11 


.220 


5 


25.33 


3'A 


.120 


11 


4.33 


12 


.229 


472 


28.79 


3'A 


.120 


11 


4.65 











288 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

Color System to Designate Piping. — For convenience in dis- 
tinguishing pipe systems various methods have been devised, for 
using different colors on the pipes. The A. S. M. E. standard 
markings are given in Vol. 33 of the Transactions, from which the 
following is abstracted: "In the main engine rooms of plants 
which are well hghted and where the functions of the exposed 
pipes are obvious, aU pipes shall be painted to conform to the 
color scheme of the room, and if it is desirable to distinguish pipe 
systems, colors shall be used only on flanges and on valve fitting 
flanges. 

In aU other parts of the plant, such as boiler house, basements, 
etc., all pipes (exclusive of valves, flanges and fittings) except 
the fire system, shall be painted black, or some other single, plain, 
durable, inexpensive color. 

All fire lines (suction and discharge) including pipe lines, valve 
flanges and fittings, shall be painted red throughout. 

The edges of all flanges, fittings or valve flanges on pipe lines, 
larger than 4 inches, inside diameter, and the entire fittings valves 
and flanges of lines 4 inches inside diameter and smaller, shall 
be painted the following distinguishing colors: 

Distinguishing Colors to be used on Valves, 
Flanges and Fittings 
Steam Division 

High pressure — white 

Exhaust steam — buff 
Water Division 

Fresh water, low pressure — blue 

Fresh water, high pressure, boiler feed lines — blue and white 

Salt water piping — green 
Oil Division 

Delivery and discharge — brass or bronze yellow 
Pneumatic Division — all pipe gray 
Gas Division 

City Lighting Service — aluminiun 

Gas Engine Service — black, with red flanges 
Fiuil Oil Division — all piping black 
Refrigerating System 

Flanges and fittings — white and green stripes, alternately 

Body of pipe — black 
Electric Lines and Feeders 

Flanges and fittings — black and red stripes, alternately 

Body of pipe — black 



CHAPTER XVI 
PIPING INSULATION 

Pipe Coverings. — The importance of providing suitable insula- 
tion or covering for steam pipes is well known. The loss due to 
radiation with bare pipes is about 3 B.t.u. per square foot of 
surface, per degree difference in temperatiu'e between steam and 
air, per hour. With a good covering about one inch thick from 
80 to 90 per cent, of this loss can be saved. Some points to be 
considered in the selection of a pipe covering are as follows: the 
material should not carbonize after being in contact with a hot 
surface; the material should be fireproof; the material should not 
lose its shape after being in use; the material should not contain 
sulphate of lime or any other substance which might corrode the 
pipe; the life of the material; the thickness of the material; the 
value of the coal saved by use of the material; the cost of the 
material; with superheated steam it is especially necessary that 
the material contain no organic substances — magnesia and 
similar materials are desirable; the material should not loosen 
or disintegrate under vibration. The losses with small pipes are 
greater than with large ones (relatively). The thickness of ma- 
terial should be between one and two inches. Flanges, valves, 
etc., should be covered as well as pipes. 

Tests on Pipe Coverings. — A valuable series of tests on 26 
coverings by L. B. McMillan is described in the Joxmial of the 
A. S. M. E., January, 1916. Very complete data is given, and 
the interested reader is advised to secure the complete paper. 
The following is abstracted. The tests were made on a 16-foot 
section of 5-inch pipe. Table 98 gives the B.t.u. losses for the 
bare pipe and for various kinds of coverings. 

Sectional moulded coverings can be obtained for flanges and 
valves and are especially advisable when the coverings may 
have to be removed. The material to be used and the exterior 
covering or casing will be influenced by the location of the 
piping. Low pressure steam, hot and cold pipes all require 
separate consideration. 



290 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



TABLE 98 
Data on Efficiencies for Single Thickness Covbrinqs 



Cov- 
ering 


Kind of 
Covering 


Tempera- 
ture Dif- 
ference 
(Kpe and 
Room) 


Actual 
Tempera- 
ture 
(Boom = 

80 deg. 

Fahr.) 


B.t.u. Loaa /Sq. ft./ 

Deg. Temperature 

Difference/Hr. 


B.t.u. 
Saving 
Due to 
Covering 
/Deg./ 
Sq. Ft./ 
Hr. 


Efficiency 
of Cover- 
ing — Per 
Cent. 


No. 


Bare 
Pipe 


Covered 
Pipe 


I 


J-M85% 
Magnesia ' 


50 
100 
200 
300 
400 
500 


130 
180 
280 
380 
480 
580 


1.950 
2.152 
2.665 
3.260 
4.035 
5.180 


0.436 
0.438 
0.446 
0.455 
0.469 
0.488 


1.515 

1.714 
2.219 
2.805 
3.566 
4.692 


77.7 

79.6 
83.3 
86.1 
88.4 
90.6 


II 


J-M 
Indented 


50 
100 
200 
300 
400 
500 


130 
180 
280 
380 
480 
580 


1.960 
2.152 
2.665 
3.260 
4.035 
5.180 


0.472 
0.483 
0.309 
0.549 
0.603 
0.666 


1.478 
1.669 
2.156 
2.711 
3.432 
4.514 


75.6 
77.6 
80.9 
83.2 
85.1 
87.1 


III 


J-M 

Vitribestos 


50 
100 
200 
300 
400 
500 


130 
180 
280 
380 
480 
580 


1.950 
2.162 
2.665 
3.260 
4.035 
5.180 


0.626 
0.654 
0.715 
0.781 
0.856 
0.967 


1.324 
1.498 
1.950 
2.481 
3.177 
4.213 


67.9 
69.6 
73.2 
76.0 

78.8 
81.4 


IV 


J-M 
Eureka 


60 
100 
200 
300 
350 


130 
180 
280 
380 
430 


1.950 
2.152 
2.665 
3.260 
3.627 


0.440 
0.451 
0.464 
0.478 
0.487 


1.510 
1.701 
2.201 
2.782 
3.140 


77.4 
79.0 
82.6 
85.4 
86.6 


V 


J-M 

Molded 


50 
100 
200 
300 
400 


180 
180 
280 
380 
480 


1.950 
2.152 
2.665 
3.260 
4.035 


0.517 
0,522 
0.539 
0.561 
0.596 


1.433 
1.630 
2.126 
2.699 
3.439 


73.4 
75.8 
79.8 
82.8 
85.2 


VI 


J-M 
Wool-Felt 


50 
100 
200 
300 
350 


130 
180 
280 
380 
430 


1.952 
2.152 
2.665 
3.260 
3.627 


0.386 
0.400 
0.421 
0.442 
0.453 


1.564 
1.752 
2.244 
2.818 
3.174 


80.2 
81.4 
84.2 
86.4 
87.6 



PIPING INSULATION 



291 



TABLE 98 (CmUinued) 



Cov- 
eiing 


Kind of 
Covering 


Tempera- 
ture Dif- 
ference 
(Pipe and 
Room) 


Actual 
Tempera- 
ture 
(Room = 

80 deg. 

Fahr.) 


B.t.u. Loss/Sq. Ft./ 

Deg. Temperature 

Difference/Hr. 


B.t.u. 
Saving 
Due to 
Covering 
/Deg./ 
Sq. Ft./ 
Hr. 


Efficiency 
of Cover- 
ing—Per 
Cent. 


No. 


Bare 
Pipe 


Covered 
Pipe 


VII 


SaU-Mo 
Expanded 


50 
100 
200 
300 
400 
500 


130 
180 
280 
380 
480 
580 


1.950 
2.162 
2.665 
3.260 
4.035 
5.180 


0.409 
0.427 
0.464 
0.603 
0.641 
0.581 


1.541 
1.725 
2.201 
2.757 
3.494 
4.599 


79.0 
80.2 
82.6 
84.6 
86.6 
88.8 


VIII 


Carey 
Carocel 


50 
100 
200 
300 
400 
500 


130 

180 
280 
380 
480 
680 


1.960 
2.152 
2.665 
3.260 
4.036 
5.180 


0.358 
0.378 
0.421 
0.466 
0.610 
0.662 


1.692 
1.774 
2.244 
2.794 
3.525 
4.618 


81.6 
82.4 
84.2 
85.7 
87.4 
89.2 


IX 


Carey- 
Serrated 


50 
100 
200 
300 
400 
500 


130 

180 
280 
380 
480 
580 


1.950 
2.152 
2.666 
3.260 
4.035 
5.180 


0.454 
0.468 
0.606 
0.546 
0.587 
0.634 


1.496 
1.684 
2.159 
2.714 
3.448 
4.546 


76.7 
78.2 
81.0 
83.3 
86.4 
87.8 


X 


Carey 
Duplex 


50 
100 
200 
300 
350 


130 
180 
280 
380 
430 


1.950 
2.162 
2.665 
3.260 
3.627 


0.423 
0.447 
0.498 
0.648 
0.574 


1.527 
1.705 
2.167 
2.712 
3.053 


78.3 
79.2 
81.3 
83.2 
84.2 


XI 


Carey 85 % 
Magnesia 


50 
100 
200 
300 
400 
500 


130 
180 
280 
380 
480 
680 


1,960 
2.152 
2.665 
3.260 
4.036 
5.180 


0.413 
0.418 
0.424 
0.436 
0.454 
0.472 


1.537 
1.734 
2.241 
2.824 
3.581 
4.708 


78.8 
80.5 
84.1 
86.6 
88.8 
90.9 


XII 


SaU-Mo 
Wool-Felt 


50 
100 
150 
200 
250 
300 


130 
180 
230 
280 
330 
380 


1.950 
2.152 
2.400 
2.665 
2.951 
3.260 


0.395 
0.401 
0.421 
0.433 
0.466 
0.469 


1.555 
1.751 
1.979 
2.232 
2.606 
2.801 


79.8 
81.4 
82.5 
83,8 
84.9 
86.9 



292 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 







TABLE 98 


(CorMnm 


-A) 






Cov- 
ering 


Kind of 
Covering 


Tempera- 
ture Dif- 
ference 
(Pipe and 
Room) 


Actual 
Tempera- 
ture 
(Room = 

80 deg. 

Fahr.) 


B.t.u. LoBs/Sq. Ft./ 

Deg. Temperature 

DiSerenoe/Hr. 


B.t.u. 

Saving 

Due to 
Covering 

/Deg./ 

Sq. Ft./ 

Hr. 


Efficiency 
of Cover- 
ing—Per 
Cent. 


No. 


Bare 
Pipe 


Covered 
Pipe 






50 


130 


1.950 


0.399 


1.551 


79.5 






100 


180 


2.152 


0.402 


1.750 


81.3 


XIII 


Nonpareil 


200 


280 


2.665 


0.412 


2.253 


84.6 




High 


300 


380 


3.260 


0.426 


2.834 


68.9 




Pressure 


400 


480 


4.035 


0.444 


3.691 


89.0 






500 


580 


5.180 


0.465 


4.715 


91.0 






50 


130 


1.950 


0.694 


1.256 


64.4 






100 


180 


2.152 


0.711 


1.441 


67.0 


XIV 


J-M 


200 


280 


2.665 


0.749 


1.916 


71.9 




Fire Felt 


300 


380 


3.260 


0.795 


2.465 


75.6 






400 


480 


4.035 


0.845 


3.190 


79.0 






500 


580 


5.180 


0.901 


4.279 


82.6 






50 


130 


1.950 


0.336 


1.614 


82.7 






100 


180 


2.152 


0.347 


1.805 


83.8 


XV 


J-M 


200 


280 


2.665 


0.369 


2.296 


86.2 




Sponge 


300 


380 


3.260 


0.391 


2.869 


88.0 




Felted 


400 


480 


4.035 


0.414 


3.621 


89.8 






500 


580 


5.180 


0.439 


4.741 


91.5 






50 


130 


1.950 


0.418 


1.532 


78.5 






100 


180 


2.152 


0.429 


1.723 


80.0 


XVi 


J-M 


200 


280 


2.665 


0.454 


2.211 


83.0 




Asbestocel 


300 


380 


3.260 


0.493 


2.767 


84.8 






400 


480 


4.035 


0.544 


3.491 


86.5 






500 


580 


5.180 


0.609 


4.571 


88.2 






50 


130 


1.950 


0.459 


1.491 


76.4 






100 


180 


2.152 


0.475 


1.677 


77.9 


XVII 


J-M 


200 


280 


2.665 


0.515 


2.150 


80.7 




Air Cell 


300 


380 


3.260 


0.571 


2.689 


82.7 






400 


480 


4.035 


0.643 


3.392 


84.1 






500 


580 


5.180 


0.733 


4.447 


85.8 



PIPING INSULATION 



293 



Table 99 gives data for various thicknesses of 85 per cent, 
magnesia. 

TABLE 99 

Data on Efficikncies foe Vabious Thicknesses op 85 Pbh Cent. 
Magnesia Covering 



ture 
Difference 


Thickness 


B.t.u./S(i. ft./Deg. Dif./Hr. 


Saving 




Bare Kpe 


Plastic 85 
Per Cent. 
Magnesia 


Sectional 85 
Per Cent. 
Magnesia 


Efficiency 


100 


0.5 


2.152 


0.735 


0.691 


1.461 


67.8 


100 


1.0 




0.492 


0.462 


1.690 


78.4 


100 


2.0 




0.319 


0.300 


1.852 


85.5 


100 


3.0 




0.248 


0.233 


1.919 


89.1 


100 


4.0 




0.209 


0.196 


1.956 


90.8 


100 


5.0 




1.185 


0.174 


1.978 


91.9 


300 


0.5 


3.260 


0.805 


0.757 


2.503 


76.8 


300 


1.0 




0.524 


0.493 


2.767 


84.9 


300 


2.0 




0.335 


0.315 


2.945 


90.4 


300 


3.0 




0.260 


0.244 


3.016 


92.5 


300 


4.0 




0.219 


0.206 


3.054 


93.7 


300 


5.0 




0.192 


0.181 


3.079 


94.4 


500 


0.5 


5.180 


0.895 


0.842 


4.338 


83.7 


500 


1.0 




0.557 


0.524 


4.656 


89.9 


500 


2.0 




0.360 


0.329 


4.851 


93.6 


500 


3.0 




0.273 


0.257 


4.923 


95.0 


500 


4.0 




0.229 


0.215 


4.965 


95.8 


500 


5.0 




0.199 


0.187 


4.993 


96.4 



The seventeen coverings listed in Table 83 are described as 
foUows: 

"l. J-M 85 Per Cent. Magnesia. A moulded sectional covering for use on 
high pressure steam pipes. Contains 85 per cent, by weight of magnesium 
carbonate and the remainder is principally asbestos fibre. Weight per foot 
is 2.92 lbs. and the thickness 1.08 in. 

II. J-M Indented. Made up of layers of asbestos felt which has in it 
indentations, about I'A in. in diameter and Vs in. deep, spaced very close to 
each other in staggered rows. Suitable for use on pipes containing high pres- 
sure steam. Weight per foot 3.46 lbs. and thickness 1.12 in. 

III. J-M Vitrebestos. An asbestos air cell covering made of alternate 
layers of smooth and corrugated vitrified asbestos sheets. Corrugations are 
about 'A in. deep and run lengthwise of the pipe. Recommended for use on 
high pressure and superheated steam pipes and for stack linings, etc. Weight 
per foot 4.05 lbs. and thickness 0.96 in. 



294 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

IV. J-M Eureka. For use on low pressure steam and hot water pipes. 
Made of 'A in. of asbestos felt on the inside of the section and the balance 
of alternate layers of asbestos and wool felt. Weight 4.60 lbs. per ft. and 1.04 
in. thick. 

V. J-M Molded Asbestos. A molded sectional covering for use on low and 
medium pressure steam pipes. Made of asbestos fiber and other fireproof 
material. Weight per ft. 5.53 lbs. and thickness is 1.25 in. 

VI. J-M Wool Felt. A sectional covering made of layers of wool felt with 
an interlining of two layers of asbestos paper. May be used on low pressure 
steam and hot water pipes. Weight per ft. 2.59 lbs. and thickness 1.10 in. 

VII. Sail-Mo Expanded. A covering for use in high and low pressure steam 
pipes. Made of eight layers of material, each consisting of a smooth and a 
corrugated piece of asbestos paper, the corrugations being so crushed down 
to form small longitudinal air spaces. Weight 3.47 lbs. per ft., and thickness 
1.07 in. 

VIII. Carey Carocel. Composed of plain and corrugated asbestos paper 
firmly bound together. Corrugations are approximately 'A in. deep and run 
lengthwise of the pipe. For use on medium and low pressure steam pipes. 
Weight 3.06 lbs. per ft. and thickness 0.99 in. 

IX. Carey Serrated. A covering for use on high pressure steam pipes. 
Composed of successive layers of heavy asbestos felt having closely spaced 
indentations in it. Weight 5.66 lbs. per ft., and thickness 1.00 in. 

X. Carey Duplex. For use on low pressure steam and hot water pipes. 
Made of alternate layers of plain wool felt and corrugated asbestos paper 
firmly bound together. Corrugations run lengthwise of the pipe and make 
air cells approximately ^A in. deep. Weight 1.79 lbs. per ft. and 0.96 in. thick. 

XI. Carey 85 Per Cent. Magnesia. A covering for high pressiure steam and 
similar in composition to No. 1. Weight per foot 2.75 lbs. and thickness is 
1.10 in. 

XII. SalUMo Wool Felt. Similar to No. VI except that it has no inter- 
lining of asbestos paper. For use on low pressure steam and hot water pipes. 
Weight per foot 3.73 lbs. and thickness is 1.01 in. 

XIII. Nonpareil High Pressure. A molded sectional covering consisting 
mainly of silica in the form of diatomaceous earth — the skeletons of micro- 
scopic organisms. For use on high pressure and superheated steam pipes. 
Weight 2.96 lbs. per ft., and is 1.16 in. thick. 

XIV. J-M Asbestos Fire Felt. Consists of asbestos fiber loosely felted 
together, forming a large number of small air spaces. For use on high pres- 
sure and superheated steam pipes. Weight per ft. is 3.75 lbs., and thickness 
0.99 in. 

XV. J-M Asbestos Sponge Felted. Covering is made from a thin felt 
asbestos fiber and finely ground sponge forming a very cellular fabric. Made 
up of 41 of these sheets per inch thickness and air spaces are formed between 
the sheets in addition to those in the felt itself. Specially recommended for 
high pressure and superheated steam pipes. Weight per foot 4.04 lbs. and 
thickness 1.16 in. 

XVI. J-M Asbestocel. For use on medium pressure steam and heating 
pipes. Consists of alternate sheets of corrugated and plain asbestos paper 



PIPING INSULATION 295 

forming air cells about '/s in. deep that run around the pipe. Weight per 
foot 1.94 lbs., and thickness 1.10 in. 

XVII. J~M Air Cell. Made of corrugated and plain sheets of asbestos 
paper arranged alternately so as to form air cells about '/< in. deep running 
lengthwise of the pipe. For use on medium pressure steam and heating 
pipes. Its weight per foot is 1.55 lbs., and thickness is 1.00 in." 

The results of exhaustive tests made on Nonpareil coverings 
are given in very complete form in a book published by the Arm- 
strong Cork and Insulation Company. This covering is com- 
posed of diatomaceous earth (kieselguhr) and asbestos fibre. These 
tests showed the conductivity of Nonpareil High Pressure Covering 
per square foot at the mean circumference per one inch thickness 
per degree difEerence in temperature to be 7.363 B.t.u. and the 
transmission through bare pipe 51.07 B.t.u. per square foot of 
pipe surface per degree difference in temperature for 24 hours. 
These transmissions were measured in still air and consequently 
are less than would obtain imder operating conditions. The 
following thicknesses of Nonpareil High Pressure covering are 
considered economical for the purposes Usted under average con- 
ditions. Standard thickness ranges from one inch for the small 
sizes to IV2 inches for the large sizes of pipe. For high pressure 
piping, inside of buildings. 



Cost of Steam per 
1000 Pounds 


Saturated Steam 


Superheated Steam 


Less than 10 cents 
10 cents to 15 cents 
15 cents to 20 cents 
20 cents and over 


Standard thickness 
Standard thickness 
IV2" thick 
2" thick 


IV2" thick 
2" thick 

Double layer IVj' 
Double layer IVa" 



For exhaust feed and hot well, high pressure drip piping, etc., 
imder all conditions hsted above — standard thickness. For high 
pressure steam outside of buildings imder all conditions Usted 
above — double layer of l^/z inch thickness. 

Low Pressure Steam, Hot and Cold Water Pipes. — All heat- 
ing piping, either steam or hot water, should be fully covered 
where radiation losses are to be avoided. Cold water pipes are 
frequently insulated in order to prevent "sweating" and dripping. 
For the above conditions, and where exhaust pipes are to be in- 
sulated, the low temperatures do not require thick coverings and 
wool felt or air cell coverings V2 "ich to one inch thickness may 
be used. 




296 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

Cold Pipes. — It is important to consider the question of in- 
sulation of pipe used to convey ammonia or brine for refrigera- 
tion purposes, if serious losses are to be prevented. The problem 
is not very different from insulation of hot pipes, but it is very 
essential that the material used is not easily injured by moisture. 
Hair, felt and paper in alternate layers has been used as a protec- 
tion for cold pipes. Hair felt soaked in boiling resin and applied 
to the pipes while hot is also used. Sectional coverings composed 

of granulated cork may 
be obtained ready for use 
on brine or ammonia 
pipes and fittings. 

Nonpareil cork covering 
is made by the Armstrong 
Cork and Insulation Com- 

. , ^ , Pany by compressing and 
310. Support for Pipe with Cork ,, , , . 

Insulation. *^^° ^^^^ P"^^ g^^™" 

lated cork in metal moulds. 

After this the covering is coated inside and out with a water- 
proof mineral rubber finish, ironed on hot. Tests by the above 
company gave an average transmission per square foot at mean 
circumference, per one inch thickness per degree difference in 
temperature per 24 hours of 8.6 B.t.u. for cork covering and 
of 43.2 B.t.u. for bare pipe. Four grades of this covering are 
made. Standard brine covering, from two to three inches thick 
for temperatm-es of to 25 degrees F. ; special thick brine cover- 
ing, from three to four inches thick for temperatures below zero 
degrees F.; ice water covering, about IV2 inches thick for tem- 
peratures of 25 to 45 degrees F.; and cold water covering for use 
on cold water piping to prevent sweating. The method of sup- 
porting the pipe is shown in Fig. 310 where a hanger is on the 
outside with a piece of sheet iron protecting the covering. 

Forms of Pipe Coverings. — The materials for pipe coverings 
may be had in a variety of forms. For covering pipe, sheets of 
material may be wrapped around the pipe and fastened with 
wire or heavy twine; the material may be in plastic form and 
appHed in the shape of a mortar; or any of the large variety of 
moulded or sectional coverings, Fig. 311, may be used. Sectional 
coverings are made in lengths of three feet, and are spht length- 
wise into halves. When apphed to the pipe they are wrapped with 



PIPING INSULATION 



297 



canvas and then held on with iron or brass bands spaced from 
one to two feet apart. Fittings and valves may be insulated with 
a plastic coating or with moulded covers made in sections to fit 
over them. 




Fig. 311. Sectional Pipe Covering. 

Hair felting comes in rolls six feet wide and in thicknesses of 
V4 to 1 V2 inches. Asbestos paper is made in varying thicknesses 
and in rolls 36 inches wide. 

Underground Piping. — Two methods of insulating under- 
ground piping are described in Chapter XIII. Careful under- 
drainage is essential to any system. 

Forms of wood casing for underground steam and hot water 
piping made by A. Wyckoff & Son Company are shown in Figs. 




Fig. 312. Wood Casing — Split Form. 

312 and 313. The form shown at X, Y and Z is made of thor- 
oughly seasoned gulf cypress staves, one inch thick, closely jointed 
together, wound with heavy galvanized steel wire, and then 



298 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



wrapped with two layers of heavy corrugated paper. Another 
casing of one inch cypress staves is put on the outside and wound 
with galvanized wire. For use with high pressure steam pipe the 




Kg. 313. Improved Wood Casing. 

casing is hned with tin and two layers of asbestos paper to prevent 
the wood from charring. The casing is made in lengths of from 
four to eight feet which are connected by tenon and socket joints 
X, Fig. 312. For use on pipes which are aheady in place the 
casing may be had split in the form shown at Y and Z, Fig. 312. 
The casing shown in Fig. 313 is an improved form in which A is 
a two inch inner shell, B is asphaltimi packing, C is a V* iich air 




'7?/T, GohroitlMS^ frvn, ■ 
.Zi'tlaturia* 

I Boff' - Spae«a 



,!. SrAAs \ amnpStnm \ 



Fig. 314. Double Plank Box 
Insulation. 




Fig. 315. Plank Box Insulation. 



space and D is a one inch outer shell. The casing is afterwards 
coated with Hydolene-B and rolled in sawdust. This form is 
made in lengths of from four to twelve feet, with tenon and socket 
joints. It cannot be split, but must be slipped over the pipes, 
while they are being connected up. 



PIPING INSULATION 



299 



Two forms of plank box insulation for underground piping 
are shown in Figs. 314 and 315, which have appeared in Power, 
and are described as being in successful use. Fig. 314 is by W. H. 
Wolfang, and shows double planking with shavings filled in be- 




Fig. 316. Split TUe Conduit. 

tween. The supports are rollers made from IV4 inch pipe and 
one inch rods. The side dimensions for four inch pipe are eight 
by twelve inches. Fig. 315 is by Henry G. Pope, and is com- 
posed of rough two inch plank. As noted, the top plank slopes 
to one side to shed water. Waterproofed building paper was 
tacked over each joint. Bricks were used for supporting the 
pipe. The method of anchoring is also shown in the figure. 

A method of constructing undergroimd mains up to 20 inch 
pipe using spHt tile is illustrated in Figs. 316 and 317, and de- 
scribed by the Armstrong Cork and Insulation Company. 



300 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



TABLE 100 
Sizes op Steam Lines and Pbotecting Tile 



Steam Line 


Protecting Tile 


Steam Line 


Protecting Tile 


Size Inches 


Size, Inches 


Size, Inches 


Size, Inches 


1 


8 


7 


15 


I'A 


8 


8 


15 


IV. 


8 


9 


18 


2 


10 


10 


18 


2V» 


10 


12 


20 


3 


10 


14 


21 


3'A 


12 


16 


24 


4 


12 


18 


27 


4V. 


12 


20 


27 


5 


12 


24 


30 


6 


15 


30 


36 



"For underground lines excellent results can be secured by using 
two inch thick, nonpareil, high pressure covering, protected with 
a good grade of hard-glazed, spUt tile, although for lines larger 



fiJbnpara/IHFCotVfinff 

e'lV.I.PIpB 

/flB Ga/r.Slsat Plon-IO''-on3 

Copper C/oef W/r» 



fS Sptit rile 





Fig. 317. SpHt TUe Conduit. 

than twenty inches it is often advisable to use regular tunnel con- 
struction. A four inch drain is laid in the bottom of the trench 
to carry off seepage water and concrete supporting piers are in- 
stalled on sixteen-foot centres. A bed of crushed stone or coarse 
gravel is then put down to grade, and upon this the lower half 
of the tile is laid. The expansion rollers are strapped to the steam 
pipe so that they will rest directly over the concrete supporting 
piers. To prevent abrasion of the tile, No. 18 gauge galvanized 



PIPING INSULATION 



301 




Fig. 318. Method of Anchoring. 



steel plates are inserted between the expansion rollers and the 
tile. After the pipe is in position, the covering is applied and 
held in place by copper-clad steel wire, canvas on the outside 
being usually dispensed with. The joints are pointed up with 

nonpareil high pressure cement, 
and the top of the tile is then 
cemented in place with Portland 
cement mortar." 

The sizes of protecting tile are 
given in Table 100. 

Where a number of pipes, 
electric wires, etc., are to be 
carried underground, some form 
of tvmnel is about the best ar- 
rangement. Such tunnels can be built up of brick or can be made 
of concrete. Electric wires may be run in tile set in the walls 
or roof of the tunnel. Pipe Unes can be carried on brackets or sup- 
ports at the sides, with provision for expansion and drainage and 
regular methods of insulation. The floor of the tunnel should 
be arranged with drain connections to take care of any water 
that may accumulate from leaks in the piping or other causes. 

Out-of-Doors Piping. — The 
methods of insulation shown 
in Figs. 312 and 313 are well 
adapted for use on steam pipes 
running out of doors and ex- 
posed to the weather. For 
such purposes the outer wooden 
casing is painted with black 
asphaltimi paint. 

Very often the regular method 
of insulation as used on in-door 
lines are employed, making the 
covering somewhat thicker and 
enclosing it in waterproof paper, 
or wooden or steel plate boxing may be constructed for a protec- 
tion from the weather. 

Some details of an interesting out-door pipe line forming part 
of the River Power Plant of the Victor Talking Machine Com- 
pany are shown in Figs. 318, 319, 320, 321 and 322. This plant. 




Fig. 319. Roller Support. 



302 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



fl B tB a 9- 



Aneltar 



-fl g B- 



-fJi»ewaO «>*0'-W0«'«=— 



/O'Mff SraamLirm^ 



ii i/INl i I 11 I J/l 



CLE\^ATIOH 

Fig. 320. Part Plan and Elevation of Outdoor Steam Line. 




lii .y liJ 



Fig. 321. Drawing of Supporting Structure for Outdcjor Steam Line. 



PIPING INSULATION 



303 



is the design of Mr. Albert C. Wood, consulting engineer, who 
has furnished the information concerning it. A part plan and 
elevation of the hue which is several hundred feet long is show 
in Fig. 320. One of the supporting structures is shown in Fig. 
321 with its foundation resting upon two concrete piles, which 
were necessary because the ground is made and is underlaid with 



S/ocJts 



Resin ■S/xsct 
Pope. 



Me f hod of Coyering Sends » ftttlnga 
Ou/s/c^ of Building. 




Je ~SS^ fl^agnBafa B/ocMa 



-S - 9S/i f^ognva/o 
f/osf/e 



Fig. 322. Method of Covering Bends and Fittings. 



river mud. The supports were made very heavy in order to pro- 
vide for the possibihty of lumber stacks falling against them and 
also that the high pressure steam line might be substantially sup- 
ported. These supports are placed about 20 feet apart. They 
carry a ten inch high pressure steam line, 160 pounds per square 
inch (150 degrees superheat) and an eleven inch sawdust line, as 
well as brackets for 500,000 C.N., 250 volt D.C. cables. The 
method of anchoring is shown in Fig. 320. The roller support, 
which allows freedom for movement due to expansion, is clearly 
indicated in Fig. 319. 



304 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



The insulation of the high pressure steam pipe consists of two 
layers, I'/a inches thick, 85 per cent, magnesia blocks, moulded 
to proper radius to suit the pipe with the joints broken both 
longitudinally and circumferentiaUy. The joints and interstices 

were filled with 85 per cent, 
magnesia plastic. Over this 
resin sized paper was appKed 
and wired every twelve inches 
with two turns of No. 16 cop- 
per wire. Then two layers of 
roofing material were apphed 
with all joints lapped at least 
two inches and wrapped with 
roofing compound. The first 
layer of roofing material was 
secured at the joints and at intervals of about 18 inches with 
three turns of No. 16 copper wire, while the second layer was 
secured at the joints and at regular intervals of about twelve 
inches with three turns of No. 14 copper wire. Fittings and 




Frost Boxing for Water 
Stand Pipe. 





Fig. 324. Square Boxing for Water 
Pipe. 



Fig. 325. Circular 
Boxing for Water Pipe. 



valves were covered as indicated in Fig. 322, blocks being used, 
together with 85 per cent, magnesia plastic. 

Air piping may be run on the surface of the ground or carried 
on trussed poles or towers. Proper care must be taken to pro- 
vide for drainage and necessary expansion. 



PIPING INSULATION 305 

The protection of water standpipes from freezing is an impor- 
tant matter. In Fig. 323 is shown a tightly constructed frost 
boxing described by Mr. W. C. Teague in the A. S. M. E. Journal, 
April, 1914. Arrangements should be made for keeping the 
water heated by a hot water heater or steam coil placed in the 
bottom of the tank. 

A simple form of protection is shown in Fig. 324, composed 
of two plank boxes with an air space between them. The joints 
should be made very tight and the outside painted with asphal- 
tum paint or be otherwise protected. A circular form of protec- 
tion is shown in Fig. 325. 



CHAPTER XVII 
PIPING DRAWINGS 

The underlying principles are the same for all classes of draw- 
ings, but for each branch there are certain conventions and gen- 
eral methods of representation. It is the purpose of this chapter 
to deal with some of these general customs and details rather 
than to present a collection of comphcated drawings. 

Classification of Piping Drawings. — There are several kinds of 
piping drawings depending upon the purpose and requirements of 
the work. Sometimes' a freehand sketch is sufficient, sometimes 
a line diagram, and sometimes a large scale drawing, consist- 
ing of several views of the entire system, together with working 
drawings of details is necessary. A drawing for construction 
purposes must give complete information as to sizes, position of 
valves, branches and outlets. A drawing to show the layout of 
existing pipe Unes need not be as complete and is often made to 
small scale, using single Unes to represent the pipes, with notes 
to tell sizes, location and purpose for which the pipe is used. A 
drawing to show proposed changes should give both existing and 
proposed piping, using different kinds of hnes to distinguish the 
changes. Dot and dash lines, dash lines, or red or other colored 
ink may be used for this purpose. A drawing for repairs may 
consist of simply the part to be repaired, or may show the loca- 
tion or connection between the repairs and apparatus or other 
parts of the system. Drawings for repairs should be checked 
very carefuUy and just what is to be replaced or repaired should 
be made clear. 

Erection Drawings. — Drawings for erection are sometimes 
made with very few dimensions but with all pieces numbered and 
accompanied by a list giving complete information concerning 
each piece. A piping Ust may be made up in a variety of ways. 
One method is to Ust each piece of pipe, fitting and valve in order 
from one end of the system, and then collect all the pipe of each 
size, all the ells, tees, unions, valves, etc. A form similar to Fig. 
326 is often useful. 



PIPING DRAWINGS 



307 



Detail drawings should be made in the same manner as for any 
other pm'pose. The detail drawing for a special fitting is shown 
in Fig. 327. All piping drawings should have a title giving the 
purpose of the piping, scale of drawing, and date, together with 
provision for changes and date of changes and any other neces- 
sary information. It is particularly important that piping draw- 
ings be kept up to date. The dimensions for standard flange 
fittings are given in Chapter IV, and throughout this book will 
be found tables giving dimensions for various piping fixtures and 



Size 


Pipe 
reef 


Number 


Number 
Fittings 


Thds. 


Mat'/ 


h^ake 


t 

s 


36S 






R 


w/. 






/^ 


/es 


■ 




/? 


W.I 






li 


— 


e Gtobe 




R 


Brass 


TZCo. 


'? 


— 




2/ £-//s 


/? 


C.I. 




1^ 


— . 




7 Tees 


/? 


CI. 




'4 






SCbup//nffs 


ffVL 


C.I. 

































Fig. 326. Form for Listing Fittings. 



fittings, etc. When possible it is always well to use the manu- 
facturers' catalogs, provided the makes to be used are known. 
A steam piping drawing is shown in Fig. 328, in which the dimen- 
sions are indicated without the figures, for the sake of clearness. 
Conventional Representation. — Fittings and valves may be 
drawn as in the various figures shown throughout this book. 
When drawn to a small scale conventional representations are 
often used. A variety of such conventions are shown in Figs. 
329 and 330. It is desirable to add an explanatory list to a draw- 
ing when these are used, xmless notes make clear the meaning of 
each one. They are very convenient for sketching and diagram- 
matic purposes. Several methods of showing pipe are given ia Fig. 
331. Except in special cases, or for small pieces, it is not neces- 
sary to use shading. When a single fine is used it should be 



308 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



Drill i Mo/ea. 
for^^ Bo/ts 



Orifl fo 7en>p/ats 
7-i"Ho/<9S for 





Conf /'iMB/0S for 
£'Bolfa. 



BASE CLBO\A/ 

FOR 

s INCH pipe:. 



Fig. 327. Detafl of Base Elbow. 



PIPING DRAWINGS 



m 



i 
I 



I 



N O I X V 



A 



^ 



3 1 :i 



:^i 



I— 



,u////////////////////////////////////^^^^^^ 

/^ j—tj .tiitt/ •»i"*er ^ 




310 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



enough heavier than the other hnes of the drawing to stand out 
clearly, usually about three times as heavy will be satisfactory. 



V 

Y 



Tea 
Croas 
Y- Srv/7e*t 



H(g)»- 



f7of7ffe l/mia—^i^t^— 



G/oSa l^<r/t^ /^ 

kb/ya 
l^a/ys 



Throttle t'a/ra 



£:/6ow 




l/(r/re 



C/reek Ublym 



Fig. 329. Conventional Representations for Fittings. 

Apparatus used in connection with piping as well as the machines 
to which it is connected are frequently represented by diagrams, 
more or less conventional. Several methods in use are shown in 



Jii3'3'3Cna33 





m^ 



t 



J "Si Reducing 
Coup///iff 



%L Cbt^//>^ 



3 Coupfing 



\nn Sjjm'on 



PijotFTangt 



* ■ ' ■ S^F/ange Union 




3'G/bbr Hrlf* 



J'Ctttc* Hi/tv\ 



y Pipe Nut 
3''3''3'siek0utkt 



Fig. 330. Conventional Representations for Fittings. 

Fig. 332, and these will serve to suggest such others as may be 
required. The over all dimensions together with notes and locar 



PIPING DRAWINGS 
Ik Pipe iv/th sfiode /I'na 

—^ Single Line - Pipe Visible 
■— — Sirtg/e Line - Pipe /nn'jibia 



311 




/V7 




N 



<i># 




Shoe/s Linoa Lines are efua/iyspoeec/i 
buf yary in t^oijfftf. 



Sf7oc/e Lines. Lines are of equal 
; — t"'^ lyeiffhf but yory in spaeing. 
^- ■ ■y'^-^arM/mefian fyr spacing. 



£Ei3 -^E 



J H 

Fig. 331. Methods of Eepresenting Pipe. 




^1 



/dHn 



■^^ g 



i 5 




Fig. 332. Conventional Representations for Apparatus. 



312 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



tion of pipe flanges or openings are necessary in many cases, and 
always desirable. 

1, 2. Plan of Direct Acting Steam Pump. 

3, 4, 5. Elevation of Direct Acting Steam Pump. 

6. End View of Direct Acting Steam Pump. 

7, 8, 9. Separator. 

10, 11. Receiver — or Receiver Separator. 

12. Vertical Steam Engine. 

13. Plan of Horizontal Steam Engine. 

14. 15. Steam Trap. 

16. Feed Water Heater. 

17. End View Horizontal Steam Engine. 

18. Plan of Water Tube Boiler. 

19. Elevation of Water Tube Boiler. 

20. Plan of Fire Tube Boiler. 

21. Centrifugal Pump. 

Dimensioning. — Most of the general rules for dimensioning 
drawings hold for piping plans, but there are a few points which 
may be mentioned. Always give figures to the centres of pipe, 
valves and fittings, and let the pipe fitters make the necessary 
allowances. If a pipe is to be left unthreaded, it is well to place a 
note on the drawing calling attention to the fact. If left-hand 
(L.H.) threads are wanted it should be noted. Wrought pipe 
sizes can generally be given in a note using the nominal sizes. 

The bosses into which pipe screws should be located from 
centre lines of the machines and from the base or foimdation. 
Flange connections should be located in the same way. Satis- 
factory sizes of cast-iron bosses to be provided for pipe to screw 
into are given in Table 101. This table also gives the distance 
which the pipe may be expected to enter in order to obtain a 
tight joint. 

TABLE 101 (Fig. 333) 
Cast-Iron Bosses 



Size 


B 


c 


Size 


B 


c 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


V. 


Vs 


.19 


2 


3V. 


.58 


v« 


1 


.29 


2V, 


4V. 


.89 , 


V. 


IV. 


.30 


3 


5 


.95 


V. 


IVs 


.39 


3V. 


5V. 


1.00 


'A 


I'A 


.40 


4 


6 


1.05 


1 


2V8 


.51 


4V. 


6'A 


1.10 


17* 


2V:i 


.54 


5 


7V. 


1.16 


IV. 


2V4 


.55 


6 


8V2 


1.26 



PIPING DRAWINGS 



313 



These values may be used where it is necessary to make an allow- 
ance for the thread. Crane Company gives the values shown in 
Table 102 for length of thread on pipe that is screwed into valves 
or fittings to make a tight joint. 





Fig. 333. Cast Iron Bosses. 



Fig. 334. Distance Pipe Enters 
Fitting. 



TABLE 102 (Fig. 334) 
Distance for Pipe to Enteb Fittings 



Site 


A 


Size 


A 


Size 


A 


Inches 


Inchea 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


V. 


v* 


I'A 


Vs 


6 


lVl6 


V4 


'A 


2 


"/ic 


6 


IV. 


V. 


'A 


2'A 


"/l« 


7 


I'A 


V. 


'A 


3 


1 


8 


IVie 


'A 


V. 


3'A 


1V.6 


9 


I'A 


1 


Vi. 


4 


IVl. 


10 


1V» 


IV* 


V. 


47^ 


IVs 


11 


IVs 



Flanged valves when drawn to large scale may have the over 
all dimensions given, the distance from centre to top of hand 
wheel or valve stem when open and when closed, diameter of hand 
wheel, etc., about as shown in Chapter VT. Separate flanges 
should be completely dimensioned as in Fig. 338, as should all 
special parts. It is necessary that the location of the piping 
should be definitely given, which means that the parts of the 
building containing the piping must be shown and must be accu- 
rately dimensioned. The location of apparatus and the pipe 
connections should be given by measurements from the centre 



314 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



lines of the machines, distances between centres of machines, 
heights of connections, etc. 

In all cases the principal object of dimensioning must be kept 
in mind, namely, to tell exactly what is wanted in size, location 




Babbittor 
WhrteMetal 



^lass 



Copper, Brass 
or Composition 




Wood 



Aluminum 



Rubber.Vulcanite 
or Insulation 



Water 



Puddle 




Rock 



Original Filling 
Earth 



7 


i 


i 


V/V. 



Coursed Uncoursed 
Rubble 




Ashlar 



W^ 

^ 



Sand 



Other Materiaisi 



Fig. 335. A. S. M. E. Cross Sections. 



and material, in such a way as to leave no room for misunder- 
standing. To this end clearness and exactness are essential. 
Several examples of dimensioning are shown in Figs. 327, 328 and 
343. 

When it is desired to indicate the different materials appearing 
in cross-section, the standard recommended by a committee of 
the A. S. M. E. may be used. This standard is shown in Fig. 



PIPING DRAWINGS 



315 



335. It is not advisable to depend upon such representations, 
and a note should always be added to tell the material. Their 
chief value is to make it easier to distinguish different pieces. 

Final drawings should be made after the engines, boilers and 
other machinery have been decided upon, as they can then be 




drawn completely and accurately. At least two views should be 
drawn, a plan and elevation. Often extra elevations and detail 
drawings are necessary. Every fitting and valve should be shown. 
A scale of Vs inches equals 1 foot is desirable for piping drawings 
when it can be used, as it is large enough to show the system to 
scale. 

Flanges. — The dimensions of the American Standard for 
flanges are given in Tables 39 and 40, but sometimes special 
flanges or drilling are required. The nimiber of bolts used for the 





Is k j§ Abifej for^'Bolts. 

Fig. 337. Tapered Filling-in Piece. 




S-/Mrfes fyrg'Bolta. 

Fig. 338. Flange. 



flanges or fittings and valves is generally divisible by four, and 
placed "two-up" or to "straddle" the centre Hne. If any other 
arrangement is required the location of bolt holes should be 
clearly shown, as in Fig. 336 at B and C. Regular spacing can 
be given in a note, as "16 holes equally spaced," etc. The draw- 
ing for a tapered filling-in piece is shown in Fig. 337, and for a 



316 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



special flange in Fig. 338. The bolt holes are sometimes blacked 
in to indicate that the bolts or studs are not required, in which 
case a note should be added indicating such a meaning. A tapped 
or threaded hole may be shown by the methods of Fig. 339. The 
nominal diameter may be used or the actual diameter obtained 
from Table 4. The taper of the thread is usually exaggerated 
when shown. A straight hole with ordinary thread representa- 
tions may be used. 




Plan yfmmrs of Thrgae/ma fVanges 



m 



m 





•Stctifins of Thnaiimt nangaa. 

Kg. 339. Threaded Holes. 

Coils. — Several drawings for pipe coUs are shown in Fig. 340. 
Such drawings should tell the thickness of the pipe and the ma- 
terials, the diameter of the coil taken either inside or outside of 
the pipe as indicated; the length of the pipe or coil; the number 
of turns; the pitch of the turns; the position and arrangement 
of the ends, and the method of connection, support, etc. It is 
not necessary to draw the complete coil if the ends are clearly 
drawn. Single line representations require expHcit notes to tell 
whether centre line or outside dimensions are meant and other- 
wise explain what is wanted. 

Sketching. — Sketching is an invaluable aid as a preliminary 
step in any kind of drawing, and a sketch is often the only draw- 
ing needed. One's ideas can be made clear and the number and 
kind of fittings and valves checked up in this way. Where only 
a small amount of work is to be done, a sketch may be made and 
fully dimensioned, from which a Ust of pieces can be made with 
lengths, sizes, etc. This will avoid mistakes in cutting, and the 
sketch shows just how the parts go together without depending 
upon memory. Such a sketch may be used to order with, but 



PIPING DRAWING 



317 





'Turns — ' 



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Fig. 340. Pipe Coils. 



318 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



in such cases it should be made upon tracing cloth or thin paper 
so that a blue print can be made as a record. An H or 2H pencil 
will give lines black enough to print if ink is not used. The figures, 
however, should be put on in ink in all cases. If only one or two 
copies are wanted carbon paper may be used. Dimensions and 
notes should be put on as carefidly as on a finished drawing. The 
general procedure is much the same as for all kinds of sketching. 
First sketch the arrangement using a single line diagram. When 
satisfactory the real sketch may be started by drawing in the 




CD 

Turbine Exhaust' 



Fig. 341. Pictorial View of Piping. 

centre lines, estimating locations of fittings, valves, etc., which 
should be spaced in roughly in proportion to their actual posi- 
tions. The piping, valves, etc., can then be sketched in, using 
any of the conventions shown in Figs. 329 and 330. Finally locate 
dimension lines, figiu-es and notes, together with the date and a 
title of some kind. Pictorial methods can be used to great advan- 
tage for sketching purposes, especially for preliminary layouts, 
as the directions and changes in levels can be clearly shown. 
Fig. 341. 

Developed or Single Plane Drawings. — It will often be found 
convenient to swing the various parts of a piping layout into a 
single plane in order to show the various lengths and fittings in 
one view. Different methods of showing the same piping are here 



PIPING DRAWING 



319 



illustrated. Fig. 341 is a pictorial view using single lines to show 
the position in space; Fig. 342 is a developed line sketch with the 
sizes, fittings, etc., written on, and Fig. 343 is a developed draw- 
ing with complete dimensions and notes. Such drawings are 
valuable when Usting or making up an order as well as for the 
pipe fitters to work from. A free-hand Une sketch, as a preliminary 
step in laying out a steam line, can often be made in this way. 



3t OA*- 



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Fig. 342. Developed Sketch. 



Isometric Drawing. — Two forms of pictorial drawing lend 
themselves readily to piping drawings, isometric and oblique. 
Both show the position of the pipe in space and are easily drawn 
and easily understood. They are especially valuable for sketch- 
ing and preliminary layout work. The principles here given will 
enable anyone to make use of this convenient form of representa- 
tion. Isometric drawing is based upon the three edges of a cube 
which come together at a corner. The lines representing these 
three edges are called isometric axes. One of these axes is vertical 
and the other two make angles of 30 degrees with the horizontal. 
See Fig. 344. These three lines represent three directions in space. 



320 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 




tnid fe 



PIPING DRAWINGS 



821 



lines parallel to the axes are called isometric lines. All other 
lines are non-isometric lines. All measurements are made along 
the axes or along isometric lines. Non-isometric lines cannot be 




Fig. 344. Isometric Axes. 

measm-ed or laid off directly, but must be transferred from an 
orthographic projection. The method of doing this is shown in 
Figs. 345, 346, and 347, where both orthographic and isometric 
drawings are shown for several cases. Angles are drawn in isomet- 
ric by transferring from the orthographic projection, as shown 
in Fig. 347, where B-C makes an angle with the other lines. It 
will be noticed that the effect of position in space would be lost 



■Orthcgrephfc 







I 

I 
U 



^ 




Figs. 345 and 346. Orthographic and Isometric Representations. 

without the isometric lines in Fig. 346. Circles show as ellipses 
when drawn in isometric, but are generally drawn by approxi- 
mate methods as shown on the three faces of the cube, Fig. 348, 



322 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



where two radii having centres at A and B are used. Circular 
arcs can be drawn by the same method. 

In Fig. 349 the method of boxing in and laying out dimensions 
is shown for a plain ell. The orthographic projections of the ell 



OrfhogrvphtG 





Fig. 347. Orthographic and Isometric Representations. 



are shown at A and the points are niunbered to correspond with 
the isometric views. The first step is to lay off the centre dis- 
tances 2~S and S-4 as shown at B. The centre for the arc is found 
by the intersection of perpendiculars from 2 and 4- The distances 
are indicated by dimension lines on Figs. A and B, and are the 
same length in both figures. 




Appmjrfmtffm 



Fig. 348. Isometric Circles. 



The next step is to lay out the diameters for the isometric 
circles, as shown at C. The centres for the arcs are shown at D 
and the completed eU at E. 



PIPING DRAWINGS 



323 



Cerrter 




^m 




Fig. 349. Steps in Making Isometric Drawing of a Plain Elbow. 



324 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 




Fig. 350. Isometric Drawing of Screwed Elbow. 




Fig. 351. Isometric Drawing of Flanged Tee. 



-iJ ^^^'^ 



PIPING DRAWINGS 



325 



The method of blocking in and drawing a screwed ell is indi- 
cated in Fig. 350. The construction for a flanged tee is indicated 
in Fig. 351, in which some of the dimensions are noted. The 




Fig. 352. Isometric Drawings of Pipe. 

manner of obtaining the isometric diameter for piping is shown 
in Fig. 352, in which the measure of the actual diameter is marked. 
Some examples of piping as represented by isometric drawing 
are shown in Fig. 353 and other parts of the book. 




Fig. 353. 

The method of laying out for a definite problem is shown in 
Figs. 354, 355 and 356. A sketch plan and elevation for an engine 
exhaust are shown in Fig. 354. The piping and engine room are 



326 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



TB 



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Gmeftnaer ^JHoriffa 



Plan 



£>^/fre />>wy» 



/thntaiphmrfcl 




-04—4 



■ — *■ CaMbffser 



£nff/ffe 



y/zmm. 



Fig. 354. Plan and Elevations of Piping. 




•4/ 

Fig. 355. Isometric Drawing. 



PIPING DRAWINGS 



327 



boxed in, and the centres of pipe lines, valves, and fittings are 
measured off parallel to isometric lines as indicated in Fig. 355. 




Fig. 356. Isometrio DrawingB. 

The dimensions and notes are left off for the sake of clearness in 
showing the construction, but a few distances are indicated to 
show the manner of lajdng off measurements. Fig. 356 is the 
same as Fig. 355 except that the boxing has been left off. 



^ Any conyanJant ano/m. 



.!_ 



Fig. 357. Oblique Axes. 



With a Uttle practice it is possible to make free hand isometric 
drawings that are a great help in clearing up ideas and deciding 
locations. 

Oblique Drawings. — Oblique drawings are made by the use 
of three axes located as shown in Fig. 357. Lines parallel to the 



328 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



plane of the front face of the cube show in their true length and 
angles in their true size. The drawing of circles is shown on the 




Fig. 358. Oblique Circles. 

faces of the cube, Fig. 358. It should be noted that the centre 
for arcs is found by the intersection of perpendiculars erected at 
the points of tangency of the arcs. Except for the change in 




Fig. 359. Oblique Drawing. 

angles this method is the same as for isometric. Fig. 359 shows 
an oblique drawing. 



CHAPTER XVIII 
SPECIFICATIONS 

Specifications. — The specification of materials and piping 
apparatus for various purposes involves a knowledge of the con- 
ditions under which they are to be used. In the preceding chapters 
of this book an attempt has been made to describe piping ma- 
terials, commercial sizes, and to indicate the uses for which they 
are adapted. 

The possible consequences due to the failure of piping, often 
involving loss of life, are such that the best material, workman- 
ship, and design should always be the end in view when prepar- 
ing piping specifications. 

Some fluids and the materials adapted for use with them are as 
follows: 

Far cold water — almost any material, but depending upon 
pressure and impurities. 

For impure cold water — brass or similar composition. 

For hot water — brass or similar composition, galvanized iron, 
cast iron. 

For salt water or brine — brass or other composition. 

For ammonia water — iron or steel. 

For weak sulphuric acid — lead, lead lined iron or steel. 

For strong sulphuric add — wrought iron, wrought steel, cast 
iron. 

F(yr hydrochloric add — lead, lead-hned pipe. 

For fuel oil — steel tubing, extra heavy wrought iron or steel; 
galvanized pipe. 

Specifications for piping can be very much simplified by the 
use of well made and accurate scale drawings showing the entire 
system with the sizes and makes of its various components. The 
specifications should cover whatever is not named on the draw- 
ings and should give the trade name, make or manufactiu-ers' 
names, sizes and materials for all parts of the system which in- 
cludes the following: kinds of pipe; method of support; provision 
for expansion; pipe bends; flanges; bolting and drilling; kinds 



330 



A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



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SPECIFICATIONS 



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A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 



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SPECIFICATIONS 



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334 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

of packing; fittings; steam valves; water valves; air valves; 
reducing valves; back pressure valves; blow-off valves; safety 
valves; non-retiu-n valves; relief valves; foot valves; separa- 
tors; steam traps; injectors; meters, etc. 

Standard Piping Schedule. — The standards for pipe and 
fittings of Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation are given 
in the accompanying tabulation. The different materials as 
used for power plant work and their variation to meet the needs 
of each particular service are made especially clear by this pres- 
entation. 

Standard Specifications (Stone & Webster). — ^ Local condi- 
tions are certain to vary any sample specifications that might be 
given, but the basis of the specification for high-class work should 
be very much the same. For this reason the author is pleased to 
be able to include the following standard piping specification 
which was kindly supplied by the Stone & Webster Engineering 
Corporation. It is used by them as a basis for detailed specifica- 
tions on each particular job. It represents good modem practice 
and should prove of much value as a guide in the selection of 
proper materials, and in calling attention to the important factors 
involved in a piping installation. 

STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR PIPE AND FITTINGS 
Stone & Webster Enginberino Corporation 
IN GENERAL 

This specification covers the furnishing and installation of a complete 
piping system in the power station of the 

MATERIAL 

AH pipe steel, forged steel, cast steel, wrought iron, cast iron, and com- 
position used in the various fittings, flanges, pipe, etc., shall have the follow- 
ing physical characteristics. 

Pipe Steel 

Tensile strength not less than 50,000 lbs. per sq. in. 
Elastic limit " " " 30,000 " " " " 

Elongation in 8 in., not less than 18 % 
Reduction of area, not less than 50 % 

Forged Steel 

Tensile strength not less than 70,000 lbs. per sq. in. 
Elastic limit " " " 40,000 " " " " 

Elongation in 8 in., not less than 20 % 
Reduction of area, not less than 40 % 



SPECIFICATIONS 335 

Cast Steel 

Tensile strength not less than 60,000 lbs. per sq. in. 

Elastic Umit " " " 30,000 " " " " 

Elongation in 2 in., not less than 20 % 

Reduction of area, not less than 30 % 

The percentage each of phosporous and sulphur shall not exceed five 

one hundredths (0.05). 
All castings shall be annealed and sample pieces shall satisfactorily stand 

bending cold around 1" radius and through 120°. Two test pieces 

from each melt shall be prepared to standard size for testing and shall 

be furnished free of charge. 

Wrought Iron 

Tensile strength not less than 50,000 lbs. per sq. in. 
Elastic Umit " " " 26,000 " " " " 

Elongation in 8 in., not less than 18 % 
Reduction of area, not less than 50 % 

Cast Iron 

All castings shall be of tough gray iron, free from all defects aSectrng 

either strength or tightness under pressure, true to pattern and of 

workman-hke finish. 
Sample pieces 1" square cast from the same heat of metal in sand molds, 

shall be capable of sustaining on a clear span of 4'-8'' a central load 

of 500 lbs. when tested in the rough bar. 
Turned test pieces shall show an ultimate tensile strength of not less 

than 24,000 lbs. per sq. in. One test piece from each melt for each of 

the above tests shall be prepared for testing and furnished free of 

charge to the Engineers. 

Composition 

All composition shall be a dense strong mixture especially selected for 

the particular service in which it is to be used and shall not sufier 

a serious loss of strength due to the temperature to which it is 

regularly subjected. 
All wrought iron and steam pipe shall be made by the Yoimgstown Sheet 

and Tube Company. 

HIGH PRESSURE STEAM PIPING 

All fittings 2V2" and above, for use with super-heated steam shall be of 
extra heavy flanged pattern, designed for 250 pounds per square inch work- 
ing pressure and made of cast steel of a quality as previously specified. The 
section of aU fittings shall increase gradually by a long taper at flanges. 

The thickness of metal shall be not less than that given for corresponding 
sizes in the following table: 



15' 14" 12' 10' 8' 6' 5' 4i' 4' 3J' 3' 2J' 

^hickiissB 

W~~ n" w lA' 1' V r r w w v v 



336 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

All high pressure steam fittings 272' and above, for use with saturated 
steam shall be of the extra heavy flanged pattern designed for 250 potmds 
per square inch working pressure and made of cast iron. 

The section of all fittings shall increase gradually by a long taper at flanges. 

AH high pressure steam fittiags below 2V2*, both for superheated and for 
saturated steam shall be extra heavy screw end pattern, made of cast iron 
and designed for a working steam pressure of 250 pounds per square inch. 

All pipe 2V2'' and above for high pressure steam piping, both for super- 
heated and saturated steam shall be what is commercially known as full 
weight selected lap welded pipe made from the best quality of steel, as pre- 
viously specified. 

All steel bends must be bent to the radius designated and must be free 
from wrinkles, buckles, creases, etc., and flanges shall be faced at right angles 
to the centre line of the pipe. 

All steel pipe and bends 6 " in diameter and above, for use with superheated 
steam, shall have extra heavy rolled or forged steel flanges of the Van Stone 
type. 

All steel pipe and bends 6' in diameter and above, for use with saturated 
steam, shall have extra heavy cast iron flanges of the Van Stone type. 

All steel pipe and bends from 2^/2 ' to 6" inclusive shall have flanges screwed 
on and refaced in lathe. These flanges shall be of rolled or forged steel for 
superheated steam piping, and of cast iron for saturated steam piping. 

All steel pipe and bends imder 2V2'' shall be extra strong and threaded for 
screw end fittings. 

At the dead ends of all pipes blank flanges of approved design shall be 
furnished and shall be of cast steel for superheated steam piping and of cast 
iron for saturated steam piping. 

All imions for high pressure steam piping under 2 '/a ' shall be extra heavy 
bronze for 250 pounds per square inch working steam pressure and shall be 
of the ground joint type. They shall be of the Tuxedo or Economic make. 

Main steam headers for use with superheated steam shall be made up by 
one of the following methods: 

(1) With extra heavy cast steel fittings and fuU weight steel pipe with 
extra heavy rolled or forged Van Stone flanges. 

(2) FuU weight steel pipe with nozzles of full weight steel pipe welded on 
and with extra heavy rolled or forged steel Van Stone flanges made on. 
Fillets where nozzles are welded on to be long radius. 

All flanges for high pressure steam work on pipe fittings and bends shaJl 
be faced off on the back or spot faced so as to provide a smooth even bearing 
for bolt heads and nuts. They shall be of dimensions and drilling as shown 
on attached sheet and shall be provided with a raised face inside bolt holes 
Vis" in thickness. 

HIGH PRESSURE WATER PIPING 

AU fittings 2^/2 " and above, for high pressure water piping, including feed 
water piping, shall be of extra heavy flanged pattern made of cast iron. 
The section of all fittings shall increase gradually by a long taper at 



SPECIFICATIONS 337 

All fittings below 2V8' shall be extra heavy cast iron, screw end pattern. 

All pipe 4" in diameter and above, both for hot and cold water shall be 
extra heavy flanged cast iron. 

Fillets at flanges shall be of long radius or tapered the same as specified 
above for high pressure water fittings. 

All fittings and pipe shall be designed for a working pressure of 250 poimds 
per square inch. 

All pipe for high pressure cold water from 2'^ 1 2' to S'/a' inclusive shall be 
of full weight steel and shall have extra heavy cast iron flanges screwed on 
and refaced in lathe. 

All pipe for high pressure cold water below "i^W shall be full weight lap 
welded steel and shall be threaded for screw end fittings. 

All pipe for high pressure hot water from l^ji" to SVs' inclusive shall be 
of iron pipe size brass pipe equal in every respect to that manufactured by 
the American Tube Company, and shall have extra heavy cast iron flanges 
screwed on and refaced in lathe. 

All pipe for high pressure hot water imder 21/2" shall be of iron pipe size 
brass pipe threaded for screw end fittings. 

All unions for high pressure water piping below 2^/2" shall be of the extra 
heavy bronze ground joint type and of Economic or Tuxedo make. 

All flanges on above pipe and fittings shall be spot faced on the back to 
provide a smooth even bearing for bolt heads and nuts, and shall have a 
raised face inside bolt holes '^fu" in thickness. They shall conform to dimen- 
sions and drilling z& shown on attached sheet. 

BLOW-OFF PIPING 

All fittings for blow-off piping 2^/2'' and above shall be extra heavy flanged 
pattern made of cast iron. 

The section of all fittings shall increase gradually by a long taper at 
flanges. 

All fittings below 2'/2' shall be extra heavy screw end cast iron. 

All pipe inside buildings 2V2'' and above shall be full weight lap welded 
steel with extra heavy cast iron flanges screwed on and refaced in lathe. 

All pipe below 2^/2' in diameter shall be extra strong steel, threaded for 
screw end fittings. 

All pipe 4' and above for blow-off outside of buildings shall be extra heavy 
flanged cast iron designed for a working pressure of 250 pounds per square 
inch. 

Where blow-off piping outside of building is sufficient distance from boilers, 
extra heavy bell and spigot cast iron water pipe can be used in place of flanged 
cast iron pipe. 

All blow-off piping outside of building shall be laid in wooden box and 
this box shall be filled with magnesia or asbestos or other suitable non-con- 
ducting material, thoroughly packed aroimd the pipe. 

Blow-off piping shall have free discharge above maximum water level 
wherever possible. 

Blow-off piping outside buildings, where the free end is sealed by water, 
shall have 3" vent pipe installed in every 60 foot of length. 



338 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

All flanges on both pipe and fittings shall be spot faced on the back to 
provide a smooth even bearing for bolt heads and nuts and shall have raised 
face inside bolt holes Vn" in thickness. 

All flanges shall be of dimensions and drilling as shown on attached sheet. 

LOW PRESSUEE EXHAUST PIPING 

All fittings for low pressure exhaust piping 4" in diameter and above shall 
be standard weight flanged pattern designed for 100 pounds per square inch 
working pressure, and made of cast iron. 

AU fittings below 4" in diameter shaU be standard weight cast iron, screw 
end pattern. 

AU pipe for low pressure exhaust from 4" to 12" inclusive, excepting verti- 
cal outboard exhaust pipe, shall be of standard weight steel of a quality as 
previously specified and shall have standard weight cast iron flanges made on. 

All pipe under 4" in diameter shall be standard weight steel pipe threaded 
for screw end fittings. 

All pipe from 14" to 22" inclusive, unless otherwise specified, shall be lap 
welded steel pipe ^/i" in thickness, with cast iron flanges riveted on. 

Unless otherwise specified the sizes of lap welded steel exhaust pipe, from 
14" to 22" inclusive, shaU be taken as the inside diameter of the pipe. 

All pipe 24" in diameter and above shall be standard weight flanged cast 
iron pipe designed for working pressure of 100 pounds per square inch. 

Flanges on all pipe and fittings shall be plain faced and shall conform to 
dimensions and drilling shown on attached sheet. 

Vertical outboard exhaust pipe beyond exhaust relief valve and back 
pressure valve shaU be flanged galvanized spiral riveted pipe. 

Exhaust heads shall be flanged galvanized of ample area, with inside parts 
of copper as made by the Wright Manufacturing Company. 

All unions below I^U" in diameter shall be of ground joint type and made 
of brass. 

All unions from 2V2 to SVz" inclusive, shall be flanged standard weight 
cast iron. 

LOW PRESSURE WATER PIPING 

AU fittings for low pressure water piping 4" in diameter and above shall 
be standard weight flanged pattern and made of cast iron. 

All fittings below 4" shall be standard weight cast iron screw end pattern. 

All pipe for low pressure water 4" in diameter and above, for use both with 
cold and hot water, shall be standard weight flanged cast iron designed for 
a working pressure of 100 pounds per square inch. 

All pipe for low pressure water below 4" shall be standard weight galvan- 
ized steel pipe and shaU be threaded for screw end fittings. 

Flanges on all pipe and fittings shall be plain faced and shall conform to 
dimensions and driUing shown on attached sheet. 

All unions below 2V2'' shall be standard weight brass with ground joints. 

All unions from 2V2 to S'/a" inclusive shall be standard weight flanged 
cast iron. 



SPECIFICATIONS 339 

DRIP PIPING 

(1) High Pkesstjbb 

AU fittings for high pressure drip piping below 272" shall be extra heavy- 
cast iron screw end pattern. 

All fittings 2V2" and above shall be extra heavy flanged cast iron. 

All pipe for high pressure drips under V-ji shall be extra strong lap welded 
steel threaded for screw end fittings. 

AU pipe 2V2" and above shall be full weight steel pipe with extra heavy 
cast iron flanges screwed on and refaced in lathe. 

All unions below 2'/2" shall be extra heavy brass ground joint pattern of 
Economic or Tuxedo make. 

Flanges on all pipe and fittings shall be spot faced on the back to provide 
smooth even bearing for bolt heads and nuts and shall conform to dimensions 
and drilling shown on attached sheet. 

(2) Low Pbessttbes 

All fittings for low pressure drips shall be standard weight cast iron, screw 
end pattern. 

All pipe shall be standard weight steel pipe threaded for screw end 
fittings. 

All unions below 2'/2" shall be standard weight brass unions with ground 
joints. 

All unions 2V2'' and above shall be standard weight flanged cast iron. 

In all cases where possible, water seals made with pipe and fittings shall 
be used in place of traps. 

DRY AIR PIPING 

All fittings for dry air piping 4" and above, shall be standard weight flanged 
cast iron, designed for 100 poimds per square inch working pressure. 

All fittings under 4" shall be standard weight cast iron screw end pattern. 

All pipe shall be standard weight steel pipe and shall be provided for screw 
end fittings on sizes imder 4". 

Pipe 4" in diameter and above shall have standard weight cast iron flanges 
made on. 

All flanges on both pipe and fittings shall be plain faced and shall conform 
to dimensions and drilling shown on attached sheet. 

All unions below 2V2'' shall be standard weight brass unions with ground 
joints and all unions 2Va'' and above shall be standard weight fianged cast 
iron. 

OIL PIPING 

All fittings for oil piping shall be cast iron pattern brass fittings with screw 
ends. 

All pipe shall be iron size brass pipe threaded for screw end fittings. 

All unions below 2^/2 " shall be standard weight brass groimd joint pattern 
of Economic or Tuxedo make. 

All unions 2'/2'' and above shall be standard weight flanged cast iron. 



340 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

AIR PIPING 

AH fittings for air piping shall be standard weight cast iron with screw ends. 
All pipe shall be standard weight lap welded steel pipe threaded for screw 
end fittings. 

AH unions below 2V2" shall be standard weight brass with ground joints. 
All unions V-ji" and above shall be standard weight flanged cast iron. 

STEP BEARING PIPING 

All fittings for step bearing piping to vertical turbines shall be of cast steel 
hydraulic pattern, designed for from 2000 to 3000 pounds per square inch 
working pressure with Economic ground joints made by the Edwards Steam 
Specialty Company. 

AU flanges and unions shall be of cast steel with Economic ground joints 
designed for same pressure as above fittings and made by the Edwards Steam 
Specialty Company. 

AU pipe shall be double extra strong lap welded steel threaded for flanges 
and imions specified above. 

JOINTS 

Joints for high pressure steam piping shall be made with Durabla gaskets 
•/is" in thickness, or of some other equally good packing as approved by 
Engineers. 

Joints for high pressure water piping shall be made with Durabla gaskets 
•/is' in thickness, or with corrugated copper gaskets coated on both sides 
with Dixon's graphite or Callahan's cement. 

Joints in low pressure steam and water piping shall be made with Rain- 
bow gaskets '/le" in thickness, or of some other equally good rubber packing. 

Where flanges are screwed on pipe they should be made on as tight as it 
is safe and the pipe shall be made entirely through the flange tmtil it is flush 
with the face of the flange. 

Joints made with screw end fittings shall have pipe threads thoroughly 
slushed with Dixon's graphite or Callahan's cement and made into the fit- 
tings as tight as it is safe to screw them. 

All gaskets on both high and low pressure piping shall extend out to the 
inside edge of the bolt holes of flanges, except on low pressure piping above 
14" in diameter, where they shall extend to the outside edge of flanges. 

All bolts for both high and low pressure joints shall be made of bolt steel 
and shall have clean cut U. S. threads with upset square heads and semi- 
finished hexagonal cold pressed nuts. 

SUPPORTS 

All piping and apparatus shall be supported in a thorough and substantial 
manner. 

Main steam headers, unless otherwise specified, shall be supported on a 
heavy cast iron adjustable pipe chair with concave rollers. 

All other piping shall be supported by adjustable wrought iron hangers or 
by brackets. 

All hangers and supports shall be installed so that they will not interfere 
in any way with the expansion and contraction of the piping. 



SPECIFICATIONS 341 

Exhaust risers to atmosphere shall be braced by means of stays fastened 
to walls or steel work in a thorough and substantial manner. 

Wherever necessary, clamps, braces and anchors shall be installed in 
order to remove all vibration which is injurious or excessive. These clamps 
and braces shall not be fastened to pipe in such a manner as to interfere with 
their proper expansion and contraction. 

ERECTING AND TESTING 

All piping shall be erected so as to bring all the joints true and fair in order 
that flanges can be carefully faced and properly bolted. 

Piping must not be subjected to unnecessary or excessive strain in making 
up. 

All steel castings must be tested at the shop before shipment and shall be 
tight under an hydraulic pressure of 500 pounds per square inch. 

All high pressure steam piping shall be tested after erection to 300 poimds 
per square inch hydraulic pressure. 

All extra heavy cast iron feed pipe shall be tested imder an hydraulic 
pressure of 500 lbs. per square inch before leaving the factory. The entire 
high pressure feed line shall be tested under an hydrauUo pressure of 300 
pounds per square inch after erection. 

All piping under vacuum shall be tested and made tight against air leaks. 

Pet-cocks shall be placed on any portion of the piping system where air 
is liable to collect. 

All piping put together with screw end fittings shall have sufficient unions 
to allow of ease for removal or repairs. 

After piping system has been erected it shall be blown clear of dirt and 
chips before connections are made to any apparatus. 

All high pressure steam piping shall be blown with live steam. 

Model Specifications (Walworth). — A valuable set of model 
piping specifications for three classes of power houses has been 
prepared by Mr. H. W. Evans, formerly manager of the power 
piping department of the Walworth Manufacturing Company, 
outUning standard practice. The following is condensed from 
the above. 

Specification of Materials for Steam Plants Operating with Sat- 
urated Steam — Pressures up to 125 Pounds per Square Inch 

STEAM LINES 

High pressure steam and drip pipe to be wrought steel, lap-welded. Sizes 
12' and smaller to be full card weight. Sizes 14" and larger '/s' thick or 
heavier. 

Pipe for Bends to be same weight as straight lengths unless of short 
radius, when heavy pipe must be used. Bends to be finished accurately to 
dimensions to avoid forcing into position, except expansion bends, which 
should be cut shorter than dimensions and drawn into place which will aUow 
the bend to expand into place and fit properly when the line heats. 



342 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

Flanges for Pipe and bends for sizes S'A' and smaller to be standard 
weight cast iron threaded tjrpe; 4" and larger to be Walmanco type. 

Fittings 2V2" and larger to be standard weight cast iron, flanged: 2* and 
smaller, standard cast iron, threaded. 

Valves 2" and larger, except stop and checks and other specialties, to be 
iron body, flanged, gate or angle valves, standard weight, outside screw and 
yoke; larger sizes fitted with by-pass. The seating faces of discs and the 
seat rings to be renewable bronze. Bonnet to be arranged for back seating 
when the valve is open for packing under pressure. Valves V-Ji" and smaller 
to be all bronze. 

Flanges, except Walmanco type, on pipe, valves, and fittings, to be faced 
straight across, rough finish. 

BOILER FEED LINES 

The feed water pipe from pumps to boilers to be full weight lap-welded 
wrought steel or iron. Use brass pipe if quality of water demands it. 

Fittings 2^/2" and larger, except checks and feed valves (globes) to be 
iron body, flanged, gate or angle valves, standard weight, outside screw and 
yoke, with bronze stems. Valves 2" and smaller to be all bronze. 

Flanges on pipe valves and fittings to be faced straight across, rough 
finish. 

Corrugated lead gaskets about '/n' thick, cut in rings to fit inside the bolt 
holes. 

EXHAUST LINES 

Pipe for exhaust lines except cast iron to be lap-welded wrought steel, 
sizes 12" and smaller standard weight; 14" to 20" outside diameter, '/<' 
thick. Sizes 22" and over not less than ^/i". 

For Bends, see specification for steam lines. 

Cast Iron Pipe may be used for the exhaust to the condenser or for 
other lines if cheaper than wrought; weight, etc., to conform to specification 
for flanged fittings. 

Flanges for Pipe and bends for sizes 12' and smaller to be standard 
weight, cast iron, threaded type; for pipe 14" and larger to be standard weight 
cast iron attached by Walmanco method. 

Fittings 3" and larger to be cast iron, flanged; 2Vs" and smaller, oast 
iron, threaded. Sizes 14" and smaller standard weight; 16" and larger may 
be low pressure. 

Valves for sizes 2^/2" and larger, except relief, back pressure, and other 
specialties to be iron body, flanged, gate or angle valves, preferably outside 
screw and yoke. Inside screw valves with brass stem; outside screw and 
yoke may have steel stem. Sizes 10" and smaller standard weight; 12" and 
larger may be low pressure, in which case they are to have standard weight 
flanges. The seating faces of discs and seat rings are to be renewable bronze; 
bonnet to be arranged for back seating when the valve is open for packing 
under pressure. Valves 2" and smaller to be all brass. 

Flanges on pipe valves and fittings to be faced straight across, rough 
finish. 



SPECIFICATIONS 343 

Garlock or Rainbow gaskets Vie' thick cut in rings to fit inside the bolt 
holes. 

WATER PIPING 

Suction or discharge pipe (except cast iron) to be lap-welded wrought steel 
or iron. Sizes 12' and smaller standard weight; 14' and larger not less than 
Vi' thick. Bends made as for steam piping. 

Cast Ibon pipe when used should conform to specifications for flanged 
fittings. 

Flanges for pipe and bends for sizes 12" and smaller to be standard weight 
cast iron, threaded tjrpe; for pipe 14" and larger to be standard weight cast 
iron attached by Walmanco method. 

Fittings for sizes 3' and larger to be cast iron, flanged; 2* and smaller 
cast iron, threaded. Sizes 14' and smaller standard weight; 16" and larger 
either standard or low pressure as demanded by the service. Elbows long 
radius. 

Stop Valves 2^/2' and larger to be standard weight, iron body brass 
mounted, flanged, gate or angle valves. Preferably outside screw and yoke 
with brass stems. Valves 2" and smaller to be all brass. 

Flanges on pipe valves and fittings except Walmanco type, to be faced 
straight across, rough finish. 

Cloth Inserted Rubber or Rainbow gaskets Vi«' thick, cut in rings to fit 
inside the bolt holes; for pipe in the ground use heavy canvas, full face, 
dipped in red lead. 

BLOW-OFF LINES 

Pipe and Bends to be full weight lap-welded steel. In all particulars same 
as for steam Unes. 

Flanges for pipe and bends to be standard weight, cast iron, threaded, 
screwed on and refaced. (Same as for steam Unes.) 

Fittings to be standard weight cast iron, flanged. Elbows, long radius; 
use extra heavy malleable screwed ells if within the fire walls. Header fit- 
tings to be laterals or single sweep tees. 

Cast Ibon Pipe may be desirable for a header buried in the ground, 
then use heavy weight flanged pipe. 

BLOW-OFF LINES from boilers to be double valved; use one heavy 
asbestos packed cook, and one Walworth angle pattern blow-off valve, 
flanged ends. 

Flanges on pipe, valves and fittings to be faced straight across, rough 
finish. 

Gablock OB Lead Gaskets Vie' thick, cut in rings to fit inside the bolt 

holes. 

Specification of Matemals fob Steam Plants Opbbating with Satu- 
rated Steam — Pbesstjbes up to 250 Pounds peb Squase Inch 
STEAM LINES 

High pressure steam and drip pipe to be wrought steel, lap-welded. For 
pressures up to 200 poimds per square inch, sizes 7' and smaller to be full 
card weight; 8°-28 pounds per foot; 9''-34 pounds per foot; 10'-40 pounds 



344 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

per foot; 12 "-50 pounds per foot. Sizes 14" and larger Vs' thick or heavier. 
For pressures ^00 pounds per square inch and over, 12" and smaller to be 
extra strong; 14" and larger '/a" thick. 

Pipe for Bends to be same weight as straight lengths unless of short 
radius, when heavy pipe must be used. Bends to be finished accurately to 
dimensions to avoid forcing into position, except expansion bends, which 
should be cut shorter than dimensions and drawn into place ^which will allow 
the bend to expand into place and fit properly when the line heats. 

Flanges for pipe and bends for sizes S'/a" and smaller to be extra heavy 
weight malleable iron or steel, threaded type, screwed on and refaced. For 
sizes 4" and larger malleable iron or steel flanges (low hub section) attached 
by Wahnanco method should be used. 

Fittings 2" and smaller to be extra heavy cast iron, threaded; sizes 2^/2" 
and larger to be extra heavy weight cast iron or semi-steel, flanged. 

Valves 2" and larger, except stop and checks and other specialties to be 
iron body, flanged, gate or angle valves, extra heavy weight, outside screw 
and yoke. (For pressures up to 175 pounds medium weight valves may be 
used.) Sizes 8" and larger to be fitted with one-piece by-pass valve. The 
seating faces of discs and the seat rings to be renewable hard bronze; bonnet 
to be arranged for back seating when the valve is opened for packing under 
pressure. Valves I'/z" and smaller to be all bronze. 

Flanges, except Wahnanco type, on pipe, valves and fittings to be faced 
with ^/le" raised projection inside the bolt holes; bearing surface for bolt 
head and nut to be finished, i.e. spot faced. 

BOILER FEED LINES 

The feed water pipe from pumps to boilers to be extra strong lap-welded 
wrought steel or iron. Use brass pipe if the quahty of water demands it. 
Flanges for the pipe and bends to be extra heavy weight malleable iron or 
steel (low hub section). Sizes 2^/2" and smaller, threaded type; 3" and 
larger, Wahnanco method. Fittings 2^/2" and larger to be extra heavy weight 
cast iron or semi-steel, flanged. Sizes 2" and smaller to be extra heavy cast 
or malleable iron, threaded. Elbows, long radius. 

Valves 2V2" and larger, except checks and feed valves (globes) to be 
iron body, flanged, gate or angle valves, extra heavy weight, outside screw 
and yoke, with bronze stem. (Medium weight valves may be used for pres- 
sures up to 175 pounds.) Valves 2" and smaller to be all bronze. Flanges 
on pipe, valves and fittings to be faced with '/le' raised projection inside the 
bolt holes; bearing surface for bolt head and nut to be finished, i.e. spot faced. 

Corrugated lead gaskets about ^/u" thick cut in rings to fit the raised faced. 

EXHAUST LINES 

See exhaust lines under specifications for plant operating with 125 pounds 
steam pressure. 

WATER PIPING 

See water piping under specifications for plant operating with 125 pounds 
steam pressure. 



SPECIFICATIONS 345 

BLOW-OFF LINES 

Pipe and bends to be extra strong lap-welded steel. In all particulars 
same as for steam lines. 

Flanges to be extra heavy malleable iron or steel (low hub section). Sizes 
S'A" and smaller, threaded tjrpe; 4" and larger Wahnanco method. Semi- 
steel flanges may be used for pressures up to 150 pounds. 

Fittings to be extra heavy weight cast iron, flanged. Elbows, long radius. 
Header fittings to be laterals or single sweep tees. Cast iron pipe, valves, 
facing, and gaskets same as for 125 pound plant. 

Specification of Materials fob Steam Plants Operating with Super- 
heated Steam — Prbsstjiies up to 250 Pounds per Square Inch 

STEAM LINES 

High pressure steam and drip pipe to be wrought steel, lap-welded. For 
pressures up to 175 pounds per square inch, sizes 7" and smaller to be full 
card weight; 8 "-28 pounds per foot; 9 "-34 pounds per foot; 10 "-40 pounds 
per foot; 12 "-50 pounds per foot. Sizes 14" and larger ^l%" thick or heavier. 
For pressure 175 pounds per square inch and over, 12" and smaller to be extra 
strong; 14" and larger ^/a" thick. 

Pipe for Bends to be same weight as straight lengths unless of short 
radius, when heavy pipe must be used. Bends to be finished accurately to 
dimensions to avoid forcing into position, except expansion bends, which 
should be cut shorter than dimensions and drawn into place which wUl allow 
the bend to expand into place and fit properly when the line heats. 

Flanges for pipe and bends for sizes S^/a" and smaller to be extra heavy 
weight steel, threaded type, screwed on and refaced. For pipe 4" and larger 
to be steel (low hub section) attached by the Walmanco method. 

Fittings 2" and larger to be extra heavy open hearth steel castings, hav- 
ing sweep outlets and large fiUets back of the flanges. Sizes I'/a" and smaller 
to be extra heavy malleable iron or cast steel, threaded. 

Valves V-li" and larger, except stop and checks and other specialties, to 
be extra heavy weight, flanged, gate or angle valves, outside screw and yoke; 
bonnet packed with Durabla gasket. Sizes 7" and larger to be fitted with 
one-piece by-pass valve. Body, Bonnet and Discs or Wedge to be open 
hearth steel castings — yoke may be cast iron. When temperature does 
not exceed 500° stem may be cold rolled steel; for higher temperatures use 
Monel metal stems. Valves IV4" and smaller to be all bronze, or of suitable 
composition to withstand high temperatures; fitted with renewable seat and 
disc. 

Flanges, except Walmanco tjrpe, on pipe valves and fittings, to be faced 
with Vie" raised projection inside the bolt holes; bearing surface for bolt 
head and nut to be finished, i.e. spot faced. 

BOILER FEED LINES 

The feed water pipe from pumps to boilers to be extra strong lap-welded 
wrought steel or iron. Use brass if the quaUty of water demands it. 

Flanges for pipe and bends to be extra heavy weight malleable iron or 
steel (low hub section). Sizes S'/a" and smaller to be threaded type; size 4" 



346 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

and larger to be attached by Walmanco method. Semi-steel flanges may 
be used for small sizes for pressures up to 150 pounds. 

Fittings 2V2'' and larger to be extra heavy weight cast iron or semi-steel 
flanged. Sizes 2" and smaller to be extra heavy, cast or malleable iron, 
threaded. Elbows, long radius. 

Valves 2V2'' and larger, except checks and feed valves (globes) to be iron 
body, flanged, gate or angle valves, extra heavy weight, outside screw and 
yoke, with bronze stem. (For pressures up to 175 pounds medixmi weight 
valves may be used.) Valves 2' and smaller to be all bronze. 

Flanges except Walmanco tj^pe on pipe, valves and fittings, to be faced 
with '/le' raised projection inside the bolt holes; bearing surface for bolt 
head and nut to be finished, i.e. spot faced. 

EXHAUST LINES 

See exhaust lines imder specifications for plant operating with 125 pounds 
steam pressure. 

WATER PIPING 

See water piping under specifications for plant operating with 125 pounds 
steam pressure. 

BLOW-OFF LINES 

See blow-off lines under specifications for plant operating with 250 pounds 
steam pressure (satiurated steam). 

Corrugated lead gaskets about Vie" thick, cut in rings to fit the raised face. 

Notes — (Common to all Piping) 

Drilling. — Templates to be the "American Standard of 1915," for flanges, 
fittings and valves. 

Supports. — Not more than 12 foot centres, designed to provide for move- 
ment in aU directions; use substantial anchors where necessary. 

Drainage. — Provide adequate drainage arrangements wherever necessary 
on all steam lines. 

Unions. — Provide suitable unions on small threaded lines wherever neces- 
sary to insure quick repairs and at all valve connections. 

Valves. — The seating faces of discs and the seat rings to be of renewable 
bronze (or suitable metal); bonnet to be arranged for back seating when the 
valve is open for packing under pressure. 



CHAPTER XIX 

LIST OF BOOKS Ain> REFERENCES 

The following sources of mfoimation are included as a means 
of increasing the value of the book, which is necessarily limited 
in its treatment of the various phases of piping and alhed sub- 
jects. It is not intended to be a complete list of books and articles, 
but is suggestive, and may be amplified by the reader. 

Adams, A. I. — Wood Stave Pipe. Am. Soc. C. E. Transactions, Vol. 41, 

p. 27. 
Allen, J. K. — Sizes of Flow and Return Steam Mains. 104 pp. ill. Pub. 

by Domestic Engineering, Chicago, 1907. 
Amekican District Steam Compant. — Bulletins Nos. 103 to 143 covering 

subject of district heating. North Tonawanda, N. Y. 
American Gas Institute. — Standard Specifications for Cast Iron Pipe 

and Special Fittings. 55 pp. (Adopted Oct. 1911 and Oct. 1913.) The 

Chemical Publishing Co., Easton Pa., 1914. 
The American Standard Pipe Flanges, Fittings and Their Bolting. — 

Report of Committee of Am. Soc. M. E. Revised to Mar. 7 and 20, 

1914. N. Y. 
Armstrong Cork and Insulation Company. — Nonpareil High Pressure 

Covering. 80 pp., 1916. Nonpareil Cork Covering for Cold Pipes. 60 

pp., 1916. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Batchbller, B. C. — The Rapieff Joint is described in the American Machin- 
ist, April 23, 1908. 
Bjorling, Phillip R. — Pipe and Tubes. 344 pp. ill. Whittaker and Co., 

London, 1902. 
Booth, Wm. H. — Steam Pipes. 187 pp. ill. A. Constable & Co., Ltd., 

London, 1905. 
Browning, William D. — Dimensions of Pipe, Fittings and Valves. 88 

pp. iU. 3rd ed., 1910. For sale by National Book Co., Collinwood, Ohio. 
Chandler, S. M. — Bursting Strength of Cast-iron Elbows and Tees. Tests 

at Case School of Applied Science. American Machinist, Mar., 1906. 
Collins, Hubert E. — Pipes and Piping. 140 pp. ill. 81.00. McGraw- 

HiU Book Co., N. Y. 1908. 
Condensed Catalogues op Mechanical Equipment. — Gives names and 

addresses of manufacturers of piping and equipment engineers, etc. 6th 

Vol., Oct., 1916. Am. Soc. M. E., N. Y. 
Crane Compant. — The Effect of High Temperatures on the Phjrsical Prop- 
erties of Some Metals and Alloys, by I. M. Bregowsky and L. W. Spring, 

Power Plant Piping Specifications. Chicago. 



348 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

Crane, R. T. — Early History of Gas Pipes. Engineering Record, July 8, 

1893. 
Dudley, Akthtjb W. — Experiments with Wood Pipe in New Hampshire 

Jom'nal of the New England Waterworks Association. Sept., 1916. 
DuBAND, W. L. — Flow of Steam in Pipes (A Chart). Mechanical World, 

May 26, 1916. 
Ellis, George A. — Tables Relating to the Flow of Water in Cast Iron 

Pipes. 53 pp. Press of Springfield Printing Co., Springfield, Mass. 1883. 
Engineering Standards Committee. — Leslie S. Robertson, M. Inst. C. E. 

Sec'y. Published for the Committee by C. Lockwood & Son, London. 
Report No. 10, 1904. British Standard Tables for Pipe Flanges. 
Report No. 21, 1905. British Standard Pipe Threads for Iron or Steel 

Pipes. 
Report No. 40, 1908. British Standard Specifications for Cast Iron 

Spigot and Socket Low Pressure Heating Pipes. 
Report No. 44, 1909. British Standard Specification for Cast Iron 

Pipes for Hydraulic Power. 
Report No. 58, 1912. British Standard Specification for Cast Iron 

Spigot and Socket Soil Pipes. 

Report No. 59, 1912. British Standard Specification for Cast Iron 

Spigot and Socket Waste and Ventilating Pipes, for other than Soil 

Purposes. 
Evans, W. H. — Model Piping Specifications. Walworth Mfg. Co., 1915, 

Boston, Mass. 
FoRSTALL, Walton. — The Installation of Cast Iron Street Mains. 121 pp. 

The Chemical Pubhshing Co., Easton, Pa. 1913. 
Foster, E. H. — Flow of Superheated Steam in Pipes. Am. Soc. M. E. 

Transactions, Vol. 29, p. 247. 
Friend, J. Newton. — The Corrosion of Iron and Steel. Longmans, Green 

Co., N. Y. 1911. 
Garrett, Jesse. — Making Cast Iron Pipe. Journal of N. E. Waterworks 

Association, Sept., 1896. 
Gerhard, W. P. — Gas Piping and Gas Lighting. 306 pp. $3.00. McGraw- 
Hill Pub. Co., N. Y. 1908. 
Gibson, A. H. — Water Hammer in Hydraulic Pipe Lines. 60 pp. iU. D. 

Van Nostrand Co., N. Y. 1909. 
Gthllaumb, M. — Table, Determination of Pressure Fall in Steam Piping. 

Journal Am. Soc. M. E., 1914, p. 0129. 
Harrison Safety Boiler Works. — Philadelphia, Pa. " The Exhaust 

Steam Heating Encyclopedia," Bulletins and Catalogs, Cochrane Heaters, 

Separators, Multiport Valves, etc. 
Hawley, W. C. — Wooden Stave Pipe. 18 pp. ill. Engineers' Society of 

Western Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, Pa. Mar. 21, 1905. 
Herschel, Clemens. — 115 Experiments on the Carrjfing Capacity of 

Large, Riveted, Metal Conduits. 122 to 130 pp. J. Wiley & Sons, 

N. Y. 1897. 
Hills, H. F. — Gas and Gas Fittings. 243 pp. iU. Whittaker & Co., N. Y. 

1902. 



LIST OF BOOKS AND REFERENCES 349 

Hole, Walter. — The Distribution of Gas. 837 pp. ill. $7.50. J. Allen & 

Co., London, 1912. 
HoLLis, I. N. — Cast Iron Fittings for Superheated Steam. Am. Soc. M. E. 

Transactions, Vol. 31, p. 989. 
HoTTB, H. M. — The Relative Corrosion of Steel and Wrought Iron Tubing. 

Am. Soc. for Testing Materials. Vol. 8. 
Hubbard, Chas. I. — Heating and Ventilation. 213 pp. American Tech- 
nical Society. Chicago, HI. 
HuTTON, William. — Hot Water Supply and Kitchen Boiler Connections, 

etc. 211 pp. ill. $1.50. David Williams Co., N. Y. 1913. 
Jatne, Stephen O. — Wood Pipe for Conveying Water for Irrigation. 40 

pp. U. S. Dept. of Agricultiu'e Bulletin No. 155. Government Printing 

Office, Washington, D. C. 1914. 
Kellog, M. W. — Pipe, Fittings, Valves, Joints, Gaskets for Superheated 

Steam. Am. Soc. M. E. Transactions, Vol. 29, p. 355. 
Kent, Wm. — The Mechanical Engineer's Pocket-Book. $5.00. John Wiley 

& Sons, N. Y. 
Lewis, W. K. — The Flow of Viscous Liquids Through Pipes. The Journal 

of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, July, 1916. 
LovEKEN, S. D. — Joints for High Pressure Superheated Steam or Hydraulic 

Work are described in the American Machinist, June 8, 1905. 
Machinery Data Sheet Book No. 12. — Pipe and Pipe Fittings. 44 pp. 

ill. $0.25. The Industrial Press, N. Y. 1910. 
Machinery Reference Series No. 72. — Pumps and Condensers, Steam 

and Water Piping. 48 pp. ill. $0.25. The Industrial Press, N. Y. 

1911. 
Mann, A. S. — Cast Iron Valves and Fittings for Superheated Steam. Am. 

Soc. M. E. Transactions, Vol. 31, p. 1003. 
Marks, Lionel S. — Mechanical Engineers' Handbook. 1836 pp. $5.00. 

McGraw-HiU Book Co., N. Y. 1916. 
McMillan, L. B. — The Heat Insulating Properties of Commercial Steam 

Pipe Coverings. Journal of Am. Soc. M. E., Jan. 1916. 
Meter Connections. — Report of Committee of American Gas Institute, 

N. Y. 1916. 
Miller, E. F. — The Effect of Superheated Steam on the Strength of Cast 

Iron, Gun Iron, and Steel. Am. Soc. M. E. Transactions, Vol. 31, p. 998. 
The Flow of Superheated Ammonia Gas in Pipes. Am. Soc. Refrig. 

Eng'rs Journal, Sept. 1916. 
Morris, William L. — Steam Power Plant Piping. 490 pp. ill. $5.00. 

McGraw-Hill Book Co., N. Y. 1909. 
" National" Bulletins Nos. 1 to 24. — National Tube Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
National Tube Company, Book op Standards. — 559 pp. $2.00. Na- 
tional Tube Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Peabody, Ernest H. — Oil Fuel. Paper No. 214, Trans. International 

Engineering Congress, 1915. The Neal Pub. Co., San Francisco, Cal. 
Piping. — Practical Engineer, Jan. 1, 1917. 
Piping for Steam Generating Plants from a Safety Point of View. — 

The Travelers' Standard, Vol. IV, No. 8. 



350 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

Preston, Abteub C. — Experiments on the Flow of Oil in Pipes. Journal 

of Engineering of the University of Colorado, Dec. 1915. 
Plumbino & Gas Fittings. — Prepared for students of the International 

Correspondence Schools. The Colliery Engineer Co., Scranton, Pa. 

1897. 
Sang, A. — The Corrosion of Iron and Steel. McGraw-Hill Book Co., N. Y. 

1910. 

Specifications for Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings. 31 pp. Hitzel- 

berger, Tietenberg & Co., N. Y. 1915. 
ScoBBT, Fred C. — The Flow of Water in Wood-Stave Pipe. 96 pp. U. S. 

Dept. of Agriculture Bulletin No. 376. Government Printing Office, 

1916. Washington, D. C. 
Snow, William, G. — Pipe Fitting Charts. 285 pp. ill. $1.50. David 

Williams Co., N. Y. 1912. 
Standard Pipe and Pipe Threads. — Report of Committee. Am. Soc. 

M. E. Transactions. Vol. 7, pp. 20, 414; Vol. 8, p. 29. 
Standard Specifications. — Am. Soc. for Testing Materials. Edgar War- 
burg, Sec'y Treas., Philadelphia, Pa. 
A 53-15. For Welded Steel and Wrought Pipe. 
A 44r-04. For Cast Iron Pipe and Special Fittings. 
Standardization op Special Threads for FixTtrRES and Fittings (Straight 

Threads). — Report of Committee of Am. Soc. M. E. Trans. Vol. 37, 

p. 1263. 
Stanley, W. E. — Loss of Head in Pipes, Bends, Valves and Other Fittings. 

The Purdue Engineering Review, May, 1916. 
Stewart, R. T. — Strength of Steel Tubes, Pipes and Cylinders under 

Internal Fluid Pressure. Am. Soc. M. E. Transactions, Vol. 34. 
Walker, W. H. — " The Relative Corrosion of Iron and Steel Water Pipes." 

N. E. Water Works Association, Boston, Dec. 1911. 
Wehrle, George. — Instructions for Gas Company Fitters. The Gas Age. 

An Extensive Series of Articles begirming Sept., 1916. 
Weston, E. B. — Tables Showing the Loss, of Head Due to Friction of Water 

in Pipes. 170 pp. D. Van Nostrand Co., N. Y. 1896. 
Among the technical magazines which contain much information on pip- 
ing the following may be mentioned. 

Compressed Air Magazine. 

Engineering News, N. Y. 

The Gas Age, N. Y. 

Journal of the A. S. M. E. 

Journal of the N. E. Waterworks Association. 

Power, N. Y. 

Practical Engineer, Chicago. 

The Valve Worid, Chicago. 



APPENDIX 

The drawings shown on Plates 1 to 8 inclusive are re-drawn for reproduc- 
tion from piping drawings prepared by Stone & Webster Engineering Cor- 
poration for a steam power plant (Cannon Street Station) which they are 
constructing for the New Bedford Gas & Edison Light Company, New Bed- 
ford, Massachusetts. A brief description of the plant is contained in The 
Walworth Log for December, 1916, which says that it is, perhaps, the last 
word in every detail as regards efficiency and low cost of operation, and con- 
tinues: "The coal ia brought to the company's wharf in barges, transferred 
by an electric unloading tower through the coal crusher into storage, only 
crushed coal being stored. It is transferred from storage by locomotive crane 
and dump cars into hoppers at the east end of the station; from here by skip 
chutes to bunker storage at end of firing aisle. 

"From bunker storage to automatic stokers the coal is transferred by a 
traveling coal weigher, same having two compartments, one for north and 
the other for south boilers. By the use of bunkers and traveling ash cars 
the ashes are removed and disposed of in a correspondingly modem way. 
By the use of force draft and Babcock & Wilcox boilers they are able to meet 
peak loads with a Uberal boiler overload. The steam leads and mains are 
figvffed to provide enough steam to meet any emergency which may arise." 
All of the high pressure piping, and most of the low pressure work in this 
station was furnished by the Walworth Manufacturing Company. 

On the original drawings all figures and lettering are made large and very 
distinct. The large reduction necessary for reproduction has of course caused 
a loss in the matter of clearness. A great deal of valuable information in 
connection with the preparation of piping drawings can be obtained by a 
careful study of these plates. The completeness of the notes, descriptions 
of valves and special fittings, old and new material, location of centre lines 
for present and future apparatus, together with the location of bmlding 
features should be noted. The grade lines specified on the elevations and 
the location of the north point on the different plans make comparisons easy. 

These drawings are considered typical for modem plants operating at 
about 200 pounds pressure. 

Plates 1 and 2 show the main steam pipe lines in plan and elevation. 
Expansion is cared for by bends and loops. Connections from the boilers to 
the 12 inch header are made by 6 inch bends. The location of connections 
for indicating pressure gauge and recording temperature and pressure gauges 
is indicated on Plate 1. 

Plates 3 and 4 give the plan and elevation of the auxiliary exhaust lines. 

Plates 5 and 6 show the boiler feed lines in plan and elevation. Note the 
enlarged detail for the connections at the Bailey Meter. 



352 A HANDBOOK ON PIPING 

Plate 7 gives the plan and elevation for the boiler blow-off lines. Note the 
location of the valves. 

Plate 8 shows the plan and elevation for the heater suction and city water 
Unes. 

For the use of these valuable drawings the author is indebted to the Stone 
& Webster Engineering Corporation, who were kind enough to supply them 
for this purpose. 



INDEX 



Abendroth & Root, spiral riveted 

pipe, 22 
Air, equivalent volumes of free, 244; 

piping, 237, 339, 340; weight of, 

239 
Air lift pumping system, 244; well 

pipe sizes, 246 
Aluminum Co. of America, 284 
Aluminum piping, 284; sizes and 

weights, 287 
American District Steam Co., 216, 

219, 220, 223 
American Gas Institute, 251 
American Metal Hose Co., 284 
American pipe threads, 35 
American Radiator Co., 203, 208 
Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs., 13, 18, 37, 

134, 138, 140, 289, 305, 314 
Am. Soc. Test Materials, 13 
American Spiral Pipe Works, 25 
American standard flanged fittings, 

58-70 
Ammonia fittings, 71 
Apparatus, conventional representa- 
tion, 311 
Armstrong Cork & Insulation Co., 

295, 299 
Asphalted riveted pipe, 22 
Atwood line weld, 76 
Auld Co., 125, 128 
Automatic valves, Crane-Erwood, 

121; Fisher exhaust reUef, 132; 

Foster, 117 

Babcock's formula, 143 
Back pressure valves, 130 
Baldwin, Wm. J., 43 
Bamboo tubes, 1 
Barlow's formula, 20 



Barometric condenser, 183; piping 

for, 184 
BeU and spigot joint, 89 
Bending pipe, 281; machine, 282 
Benjamin, C. H., 13 
Bends, pipe, 275-281; dimensions 

of, 275 
Blake & Enowles Pump Works, 180, 

185 
Blow-off piping, 169, 337, 343; tanks, 

170, 171. 
Blow-off valves, 114; arrangement 

of, 169 
Boiler feed piping, 232; specifica- 
tions, 342, 344, 345 
Boiler stop valves, 117 
Boiler tubes, 287 
Bolt circles and drilling, 79 
Bolted socket joint, 89 
Books and references, 347 
Brackets, 273; dimensions of, 275 
Brass, pipe, 29; fittings, 54; uses 

of, 8 
Brass tubing, 285 
Bregowsky, I. M., 146 
Bridgeport Brass Co., 228 
Briggs, Robert, 35 
Briggs standard, 2 
British pipe threads, 42 
British standard flanges and fittings, 

72 
Bronze, gun, 10 
Bull head tees, 60 
Burhom, Edwin, 27 
Bursting pressures of, cylinders, 13; 

flanged fittiags, 57; wrought pipe, 

18,21 
Bushings, 47 
Butterfly valves, 114 



354 



INDEX 



Butt weld pipe, 6 
By-pass valves, 103 

Caps, 47 

Casing, wood, 297 

Casting alloys, U. S. Navy, Bureau 
of Steam Engineering, 9 

Cast iron, bosses, 312; cylinder 
tests, 13 

Cast iron pipe. Am. std., 64, 65; 
dimensions of hub and spigot, 7, 
13, 15; fittings, 49; flange ends, 7; 
formulae for, 12; joints, 96; plain, 
16; uses of, 7; weights of hub and 
spigot, 14; weight of plain, 16 

Cast steel fittings, 71 

Cast steel screwed fittings, 57 

Central station heating, 217; con- 
densation meter, 225; interior 
piping, 224 

Chadwick-Boston Co., 30 

Chasers, number of, 40 

Check valves, 111; hydraulic, 235 

Clark, Walter R., 228 

Clearance, 40 

Closed heater piping, 190 

Cochrane steam-stack and cut-out 
valve, 193 

Coils, 316; drawings of, 317 

Cold pipes, coverings for, 296 

Color system, 288 

Compressed air piping, 237 

Compressed air transmission tables, 
238, 240-243 

Condensers, 176 

Conductivity chart for gas pipes, 249 

Conduit, split tile, 299 

Connections, boiler to header, 152; 
exhaust main, 174; gas engine, 
256; gas meter, 252-264; hot 
water radiator, 208; lubricator, 267; 
special, 88; steam radiator, 203 

Converse joints, 90 

Copper pipe, 8, 29; flanges for, 93; 
method of manufacture, 8; uses 
of, 8 

Copper tubing, 285 

Corrosion of pipe, 2 



Couplings, 44, 45 

Coverings, pipe, 289; forms of, 296; 

tests on, 289; thicknesses of, 295 
Crane Co., 53, 54, 57, 78, 82, 103, 

104, 121, 146 
Crimped end, 94 

Crosby Steam Gage & Valve Co., 100 
Crosses, 46 
Cylinder tests, 13 

' Detail drawing, 308 

Dimensioning drawings, 312 

Dimensions of, Am. std. flanged 
fittings, 61-70; boiler tubes, 287; 
brass fittings, 55; British pipe 
threads, 42; British std. flanged 
fittings, 72-75; cast iron bosses, 
312; cast iron screwed fittings, 
50-54; Converse lock joint pipe, 
91; expansion joints, 278 

Dimensions of flanges, standard 
weight Walmanco, 85; extra heavy 
Walmanco, 86; extra heavy Crane- 
lap, 84; extra heavy shnmk and 
peened, 86; extra heavy tongued 
and grooved, 87; extra heavy male 
and female, 88 

Dimensions of globe and gate valves, 
104^111; hub and spigot pipe, 15; 
lead pipe, 32; malleable iron fit- 
tings, 56, 57; Matheson joint pipe, 
92; pipe, 11; pipe bends, 275, 281; 
pipe brackets, 275; pipe saddles, 
283; riveted pipe flanges, 95; 
screwed unions, 78; spiral riveted 
pipe, 22-26; straight riveted pipe, 
27; Universal C. I. pipe, 97; 
Whitworth pipe threads, 43 

Dopes, pipe, 270 

Double extra strong wrought pipe, 3 

Drainage, 161 

Drainage fittings, 167 

Draining exhaust pipe, 173 

Drawings, conventional representa- 
tion, 307; dimensioning, 312; erec- 
tion, 306; flanged, 315; gas piping, 
260; isometric, 319-327; oblique, 
328; oil piping, 266; pictorial, 319- 



INDEX 



355 



328; piping, 306; single plane, 
318, 320; sketching, 316; steam 
piping, 309; steam power plant, 
351 

Drilling for bolt circles, 79 

Drip and blow-off piping, 161 

Drip piping, 339 

Drip pockets, 163 

Drips from steam cylinders, 167 

Eductor condenser, 185; piping for, 

186 
EflSciency of pipe coverings, 290 
Elbows, 46, 59 

Emergency stop valves, 118, 121 
Engineering Standards Committee, 73 
Engines, steam lines for, 154; exhaust 

from, 173 
English pipe, 22; formula for, 22 
Equalization of pipes, formula for, 

144; tables, standard wrought pipe, 

147; extra strong, 148; double 

extra, 149 
Equivalent lengths of pipe, 90° elbow, 

145; elbow, tee, etc., 230 
Erecting, specifications, 341 
Erection drawings, 306; pipe, 269 
Evans, H. W., 341 
Exhaust heads, 174 
Exhaust piping, 172; method of 

draining, 173; specifications, 333, 

342 
Exhaust reUef valves, 132 
Expansion, 274 
Expansion bends, 275, 276; radii 

for, 280; thickness of pipe, 281; 

values, 280 
Expansion chart, 279 
Expansion joints, 96, 277; exhaust 

pipe, 176 
Extra heavy Am. std. C I. pipe, 65; 

flanged fittings, 63 
Extra strong wrought pipe, 3; dimen- 
sions of, 18; weight of, 18 

Famsworth Mfg. Co., 64 
Feed piping, 232 
Feed water heaters, 188 



Feed water purifier, live steam, 157 

Field riveted joint, 89 

Filling-in piece, 315 

Fisher Governor Co., 129, 131, 132 

Fisher reducing yalve, 126 

Fittings, flanged, Am. std. C. I., 
58-70; ammonia, 71; British std., 
72-75; conventional representa- 
tions, 310; distance pipe enters, 313; 
drainage, 167; form for listing, 307; 
gas, 247; hydraulic, 233; oil pipe, 
264; riveted steel plate, 172; 
screwed, 44-57; sizes of water 
supply, 233 

Flanged fittings, strength of, 57 

Flanged unions, 79 

Flanges, Am. std., 65-67; British 
std., 72, 73; dimensions of, 85 
drilling, 315; for copper pipe, 93 
facing, 80; male and female, 81 
raised face, 80; riveted, 89; 
straight face, 80; tongued and 
grooved, 81; with follower rings, 89 

Flow of water in pipes, 227; chart, 
229 

Foreign pipe threads, 43 

Formula, Barlow's, 20 

Formula for, air lift pumping system, 
245; cast iron pipe, 12; compressed 
air transmission, 238; copper pipe, 
29; English pipe, 22; flow of 
water, 227, 228; gas pipes, 248; 
lead pipe, 30; safety valves, 136; 
spiral riveted pipe, 22; steam 
pipes, 143, 144; strength of pipe, 
11; wooden stave pipe, 34 

Forstall, Walton, 255 

Foster Engineering Co., 117, 131 

Fuel piping, oil, 267; U. S. Navy, 268 

Gages, pipe thread, 37; steam, 160 

Gas engine connections, 256 

Gas fitting, 246 

Gaskets, 271; ammonia, 71 

Gas meters, 250; connecting, 252; 

sizes of, 251 
Gas pipe, sizes of, 247, 257; testing, 

250 



356 



INDEX 



Gas piping, arms, 261; drawings, 260; 
location of, 247; obstructions and 
joining, 255; outlets, 256; pressure 
tests, 255; schedule, 257; slope 
of, 255; specifications, 255; stems, 
261 

Gate valves, 99-103; standard pres- 
sures and dimensions, 104^111; 
strength of, 104 

Giesecke, P. E., 228 

Globe valves, 99; standard pressures 
and dimensions, 104r-lll 

Governors, pump, 128 

Gravity pipe lines, 226 

Gun bronze, 10 

Handling pipe, 269 

Header, hve steam, 152 

Heads and pressures of water, 227 

Heaters, feed water, 188; piping for, 

199 
Heating systems, piping for, 201 
High temperature, effect of, 146, 

150 
Hirshfield, C. P., 138 
Homestead Valve Mfg. Co., 116 
Hoppes Mfg. Co., 157, 163, 175, 

197 
Hose, metal, 284 
Hot water heating, 206; down feed 

system, 208; forced circulation 

system, 208; mains and risers, 210; 

open tank system, 207; pipe sizes, 

209 
Hot water suction pipe, 232 
Hub and spigot pipe, 13; weights of, 

14; dimensions of, 15 
HydrauUc pipe and fittings, 233 
Hydraulic stop valves, 236 



Jayne, S. O., 34 

Jenkins Bros.,' 100 

Jet condensers, 180; piping for, 
181 

Joints, expansion, 277; flanged for 
steel pipe, 81; pipe, 76; specifi- 
cations, 340; welded, 76 

Kewanee flanged irnion, 79 

Lap weld furnace, 4 

Lap welding roUs, 5 

Lap weld process, 3 

Laterals, 59 

Lead pipe, formula for, 30; history, 1; 

joints, 93; manufacture of, 30; 

uses of, 8 
Lip angle, 39 
Live steam header, 152 
Location of valves, 113 
Long bends, British std., 75 
Long, H. E., 217 
Long radius fittings, 59 
Lubricator connections, 267 
Lunkenheimer Co., 54, 101 

Main header, pipe lines from, 154 

Malleable iron fittings, 55 

Mason Regulator _Co., 123 

Materials for valves, 99; specifica- 
tions, 334; strength of, 9; sym- 
bols for, 314 

Matheson joints, 90 

McMiUan, L. B., 289 

Metal hose, 284 

Meter cock, 247 

Meters, gas, 250; steam condensa- 
tion, 225 

MiU tests of wrought pipe, 20 



Ingersoll-Rand Co., 238, 244 

Injector piping, 156 

Insulation, 289; for water stand pipe, 

304 
Interlock welded necks, 76 
Interior water piping, 233 
Int'l Ass'n for Test. Mat'Is, 146 
Isometric drawing, 319-327 



National Kpe Bending Co., 192 
National Tube Co., 20, 38, 51, 56, 78, 

102 
New Bedford Gas and Edison Light 

Co., 351 
Nipples, 47, 48 
Nozzles, 282 
Nut, pipe, 47 



INDEX 



357 



ObKque drawing, 328 

Oil fuel piping, 267; U. S. Navy, 268 

Oil piping, 339; drawing, 266; fittings, 
264; for lubrication, 263; Phenix 
system, 264; Richardsonsyatem,263 

Open heater piping, 198 

Operation of valves, 112 

Outlets, gas, 256 

Out-of-doors piping, 301 

Outside diameter wrought pipe, 3; 
weight of, 19 

Philadelphia Gas Works, 255 

Pictorial drawing, 319, 328 

Pilot valve, 120 

Pipe coverings, forms of, 287, 296 

Pipe joints, 76-83 

Pipe nut, 47 

Pipe saddles, dimensions of, 283 

Pipe sizes. See Dimensions. 

Pipe threading, 38; machine, 39 

Pipe threads, 35; foreign, 43; sym- 
bols, plan and section, 316; table 
of standard, 36; Whitworth, 41 

Pipe tools, 38-41 

Piping drawings, 306 

Piping for various hquids, 329 

Piping schedule, service, pipe, fittings, 
valves, gaskets, flanges, 330 

Pittsburgh Valve, Foundry and Con- 
struction Co., 76 

Plain cast iron pipe, 16 

Plan of gas piping, 260 

Plugs, 47 

Plug valves, 116 

Pohle, E. S., 244 

Pope, Henry G., 299 

Pop safety valves, 132; installation 
of, 134 

Pottery tubes, 1 

Power plant piping, 330 

Power plant piping drawings, 351 

Preference heater, 199 

Pressures, bursting, 18 

Pump, and receiver, 168; and surface 
condenser, 179; discharge piping, 
231; governors, 128; suction pip- 
ing, 228; weU, 231 



Pumping system, air Uft, 244; well 
pipe sizes, 246 

Pumps, exhaust from, 173; gas prov- 
ing, 260; steam fines for, 154 

Purifier, feed water, 157; method of 
piping, 158 

Radiator connections, hot water, 208; 

steam, 203 
Radiators, pipe sizes, 204, 209, 212 
Reducing elbows, 58 
Reducing fittings, 54; Am. std., 67-69 
Reducing valves, 122; sizes of, 127 
Reference books, 347 
Relief valves, 132, 232 
Representation, conventional, 307; 

fittings, 310; apparatus, 311 
Return trap, 163; setting for, 167 
Richardson-Phenix Co., 263 
Riveted pipe, joints, 94; spiral, 22; 

straight, 27 
Roller support, 301 
Russell, James, 1 

Saddles, 283 

Safety valves, 132; hydraulic, 235; 

requirements, 134 
Schedule, standard piping, 330; gas 

piping, 257 
Schutte & Koerting Co., 185, 235 
Scott, J. B., 140 
Screwed fittings, 44; cast iron, 50- 

54; malleable, 56, 57; reducing, 54; 

X cast steel, 57 
Screwed unions, 77, 78 
Sections, conventional, 314 
Separators, 161 
Service cock, 247 

Short bends and tees, British std., 74 
Side outlet elbows, 60 
Side outlet tees, 60 
Sizes of, gas engine pipes, 256; gas 

pipes, 247, 257 
Sizes of pipes. See Dimensions. 
Sizes of, safety valves, 135; steam 

pipes, 143; tile conduit, 300; 

water supply fittings, 233 
Sketching, 316 
SUp joint, 94 




©^ E = 



PLATE 




MAIN STEAM LINES -PLAN 
PIPING CONNECTIONS -CANNON STSTATIOI 

NEA^ BEDFORD SAS 4 EDISON LIGHT CO. 
STONE 4.WEB3TER ENSINEERINS CORP 




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PIPING CON 

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JRD 6AS & EDISON USHTCO. 
(EBSTER ENSINEEHIN6 CORB 
BOSTON 



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NOTE 

For ekyafiera and sec f ions 
Size and dri/ ling of f/angi. 
unless othertvfse noted. 
>* /, 2. 3. 4. 5, 6. 7, a. 9. tO,i 
present' poyvsr atatJon. 
Pi'pB B and under to be • 
end f/fti'ngs. 

f^pe ai'-si'inci to beSth 

scretv mnd fittings. 

Pipe 4^-/e'i/Ki.fobeSHiK 
Pipel^-az'uKl. to befSfe 
excepf as noted 
yai^es S"andwjt^rfifbei 
{^/y^sSs-Ss'fndi/si'yv to 
mounted, mt/i.se/Ktv ends 
klf/yes 4- endup A> be Sta 
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Fit to r£7ini;i. Ffftin 



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NEW BEDFORD 
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NOTE 

For ekwtiona and secf/o/a see D^. f^-^593l(f^af&4J 
Size and dr/fh'ng of f/eviges to be American Standarel 
unfess afhenv/ae noted. 

/i /. 3, 3, 4, S. 6. Z e, 9, /O. II, 12. 13. A M-^ux/IUanos fn 
present^ po^/er station. 

Pipe S'and under to tie E-SS/eel lYifh Sl^ ivt.C/.sereMr 
end fittings. 

Pipeai-Ji'ifKltobeSt'dwtS^lmthStyivt CI. 
screiv mnd fittings. 

Pipe 4-'-t2''incl. tobeSM. ivt.Steel nithSfd wtCJ. ftangetf fittings. • 
Pipe 14"- 22'ifKl to be f Steel trithSid.wt CI. flangea fittings 
except as noted 

yalyesS"and^ndertobeStd.i¥t.ghbeCbn^. kislde screixrends. 
Values Si'-Si inciitsive to be Std wt g/obe CI. body, Ixvnxe 
mot/nfed, tfitb sereiv ends 0-Sand Y. 

iib/yes 4-andi/p to be Std-^t. gate,CJ- betfy, bronxe /nOentw^, 
ivilh flanged ends, OS end Y- 
P SO- PSS P^pe in present Station. 
r 11 to FS7incJ. Fittings In present Sta f ton- 



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AUXILIARY EXHAUST LINES -PLAN 
PIPING CONNECTIONS-CANNON ST. STATION 

NEW BEDFORD SAS 4 EDISON LISHTCa- 
STONE 4 WEBSTER ENelNEERIN6 CORB 



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A/OT£S 

Size ami drilling of flanges to be American Standard 

unless ofheri^iae noted. 

A- l-S-3-4-5-6-7-e-9-lQr/H4 auxlllariea in present 

station. 

U-l9-S0-4hS4-S5-S6-S7 valves In present station, 

F-30-31-32-33 f/ttings In present atatien. 

P~20-2Z-23-BS-S6-a7-29-30 pipe In present station. 

Piping In present stof /on to be usedaa faraspossib^ 

All flanges adjacent to present f/ttlnga & yatves to bt 

drilled from templates mode In field. 

For plan see Drowmg R-45930 [P/ats3j 

Pipe 2 "a under to bo £.S. steel t^f»i Std, vr't. C. /. 

serene end fittings. 

Pipe 2i-3i' inch to be Std.wt. stemt vfith Std.wt.Ci. 

screw end fittings 

Pipe 4-"-/2"inel. Std. wt sfeel with St. wt C. I. 

flanged f/lf/'ngs 

Pipe l4-'22''incf to be ^' steel »rm Std. wt. C.f. 

flanged fittings except as noted 

Vaiyes 3 "and under to be Std. tvt. globe conyMsttfon 

Inside screvir ends. 

Vatuvs Ss-Ss'lncl. to tie Std. tvt. giobe CI body 

bronze mounted tvlth screw ends O-S- £t Y. 

Valines ^" A up to be 5td. tvt. gate C./. bedy £»rwrx 

mounted in^ltb f/anged ends O. 3- Qe Y- 



AUXILIARY EXHAUST LINES-ELEVATION 
PIPING CONNECTIONS-CANNON ST. STATION 

NEW BEDFORD 6AS & EDISON LISHTCft- 

STONE & WEBSTER ENGINEERINS CORR 

BOSTON 




PL/fN AT Gfl 3S.S 
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All flatga to iie <^/lfed j^mtriem 3fatri 

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A-S-IO /luxifiarias In pmenf f^r^ari 

BoilBra S II, i3&fS to bm reme*af frdi. 

f^Bwmr Stcif/en. 

for £/eya//ana ond Sect/oraSee Dni% 

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BOILER FEED LINES -PLAN 
PIPING CONNECTIONS-CANNON ST. STATION 

NEW BEDFORD SAS & EDISON LI6HTC0. 

STONE iWEBSTER ENSJNEERINS CORR 

BOSTON 




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DETAIL AT BAILEY METER 



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tiena te te ffuah wifft /raJcfe of pipe- Orif/ee gasHet fo be wmUceeteti tif/ffi 
gnrphi/e, phcetf centra/ tv/^ pipe and m/h ear i?efwixn fToef'afofs — ^ 

Thickness of orifice p/a^ nef faften iith aecot/nfin i&ne^Sianing pipe 
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D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY 

25 PARK PLACE 
NEW YORK 



SHORT-TITLE CATALOG 



OF 



Publications antr 3mp0rtati0n0 

OP 

SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING 
BOOKS 




This list includes 
the technical publications of the following English publishers: 

SCOTT, GREENWOOD & CO. JAMES MUNRO & CO., Ltd. 

CONSTABLE&COMPANY,Ltd. TECHNICAL PUBLISHING CO 

ELECTRICIAN PRINTING & PUBLISHING CO. 

for vrhom D. Van Nostrand Company are American agents. 



4 D. VAN NpSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 

Barnard, J. H. The Naval Militiaman's Guide i6mo, leather i oo 

Barnard, Major J. G. Rotary Motion. (Science Series No. 90.) i6m(i, 050 

Bafnes, J. B. Elements of Military Sketching i6mo, *o 60 

Barms, G. H. Engine Tests 8vo, *4 °o 

Barwise, S. The Purification of Sewage i2n>o, 3 5° 

Baterden, J. R. Timber. (Westminster Series.) S'vo, *2 00 

Bates, E. L., and Charlesworth, F. Practical Mathematics and 

Geometry izmo, 

Part I. Preliminary and Elementary Course *i 50 

Part II. Advanced Course *i 50 

Practical Mathematics i2mo, *l 5° 

Practical Geometry and Graphics i2mo, 2 00 

Batey, J. The Science of Works Management .i2mo, *i 50 

Steam Boilers^ and Combustion ,. . . i2mo, *i 50 

Bayonet Training Manual i6mo, o 30 

Beadle, C. Chapters on Papermaking. Five Volumes i2mo, each, *2 00 

Beaum'ont, R. Color in Woven Design 8vo, *6 00 

Finishing of Textile Fabrics 8vo, *4 00 

Standard Cloths 8vo, *5 00 

Beaumont, W. W. The Steam-Engine Indicator 8vo, • 2 50 

Eechhold, H. Colloids in Biology and Medicine. Trans, by J. G. 
Bifllowa (In Press.) 

Beckwith, A. Pottery Svo, paper, o 60 

Bedell, F., and Pierce, C. A. Direct and Alternating Current Manual. 

• Svo, 4 00 

Beech, F. Dyeing of Cotton Fabrics Svo, 4 00 

Dyeing of Woolen Fabrics Svo, *3 50 

Begtrup, J. The Slide Valve Svo, *2 00 

Beggs, G. E. Stresses in Railway Girders and Bridges (In Press.) 

Bender, C. E. Continuous Bridges. (Science Series No. 26.) i6mo, 050 

Proportions of Pins used in Bridges. (Science Series No. 4.) 

i6mo, o so 

Bengough, G. D. Brass. (Metallurgy Series.) (In Press.) 

Bennett, H. G. The Manufacture of Leather Svo, *5 00 

Bernthsen, A. A Text - book of Organic Chemistry. Trans, by G. 

M'Gowan izmo, *3 00 

Bersch, J. Manufacture of Mineral and Lake Pigments. Trans, by A. C. 

Wright Svo, 

Bertin, L. E. Marine Boilers. Trans, by L. S. Robertson Svo, 

Beveridge, J. Papermaker's Pocket Book i2mo, 

Binnie, Sir A. Rainfall Reservoirs and Water Supply Svo, 

Binns, C. F. Manual of Practical Potting Svo, 

The Potter's Craft i2mo, 

Birchmore, W. H. Interpretation of Gas Analysis i2mo, 

Blaine, R. G. The Calculus and Its Applications i2mo, 

Blake, W. H. Brewers' Vade Mecum Svo, 

Blasdale, W. C. Quantitative Chemical Analysis. (Van Nostrand's 

Textbooks.) i2mo, 

Bligh, W. G. The Practical Design of Irrigation Works Svo, 



*s 


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D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 5 
> 

Bloch, L. Science of Illuinination. Trans, by W. C. Clinton 8vo, *2 50 

Blok, A. Illumination and Artificial Lighting i2nio, i 25 

Bliicher, H. Modem Industrial Chemistry. Trans, by J. P. Millington. 

8vo, *7 50 

Blyth, A. W. Foods: Their Composition and Analysis 8vo, 7 50 

Poisons: Their Effects and Detection Sto, 7 50 

Bockmann, F. Celluloid i2mo, '2 $0 

Bodmer, G. R. Hydraulic Motors and Turbines i2mo, 5 00 

Boileau, J. T. Traverse Tables 8vo, 5 00 

Bonney, 6. E. The Electro-platers' Handbook i:2mo, i 50 

Booth, N. Guide to the Ring-spinning Frame izmo, *i 23 

Booth, W. H. Water Softening and Treatment 8vo, *2 50 

— — Superheaters and Superheating and Their Control . ) 8vo, *i 50 

Bottcher, A. Cranes: Their Construction, Mechanical Equipment and 

Working. Trans, by A. Tolhausen 4to, *io 00 

Bottlet, M. Modern Bleaching Agents. Trans, by C. Salter .... i2mo, *2 50 

Bottone, S. R. Magnetos for Automobilists x2mo, *i 00 

Boulton, S. B. Preservation of Timber. (Science Series No. 82.). i6mo, 050 

Bourcart, E. Insecticides, Fungicides and Weedkillers 8vo, "4 50 

Bourgougnon, A. Physical Problems. (Science Series No. 113.) . i6mo, 050 
Bourry, E. Treatise on Ceramic Industries. Trans, by A. B. Searle. 

8vo, *5 00 

Bowie, A. J., Jr. A Practical Treatise on Hydraulic Mining 8vo, S 00 

Bowles, O. Tables of Common Rocks. (Science Series No. i2S.).i6mo, o 50 

Bowser, E. A. Elementary Treatise on Analytic Geometry i2mo, i 75 

Elementary Treatise on the Differential and Integral Calculus . izmo, 2 25 

— — Elementary Treatise on Analytic Mechanics i2mo, 3 00 

Elementary Treatise on Hydro-mechanics i2mo, 2 50 

A Treatise on Roofs and Bridges i2mo, *2 25 

Boycott, G. W. M. Compressed Air Work and Diving 8vo, *4 . 00 

Bragg, E. M. Marine Engine Design i2mo, *2 00 

Design of Marine Engines and Auxiliaries 8vo, *3 00 

Brainard, F. R. The Sextant. (Science Series No. loi.) i6mo, 

Brassey's Naval Annual for 1915. War Edition 8vo, 400 

Briggs, R., and Wolff, A. R. Steam-Heatmg. (Science Series No. 

68.) i6mo, o 50 

Bright, C. The Life Story of Sir Charles Tilson Bright 8vo,' *4 50 

Brisiee, T. J. Introduction to the Study of Fuel. (Outlines of Indus- 
trial Chemistry.) 8vo, *3 00 

Broadfoot, S. K. Motors: Secondary Batteries. (Installation Manuals 

Series.) "mo, *o 75 

Broughton, H. H. Electric Cranes and Hoists *9 00 

Brown, G. Healthy Foundations. (Science Series No. 80.) i6mo, o 50 

Brown, H. Irrigation 8vo, *5 00 

Brown, H. Rubber ' -Svo, *2 00 

W. A. Portland Cement Industry 8vo, 3 00 

Brown, Wm. N. Dipping, Burnishing, Lacquering and Bronzing 

Brass Ware : "mo. *i ^5 

. Handbook on Japanning izmOi *i 5° 



6 D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 

Brown, Wm. N. The Art of Enamelling on Metal .' i2mo, *i oo 

• House Decorating and Painting i2mo, *i 5" 

— — History of Decorative Art i2mo, *i 2S 

■ "Workshop Wrinkles 8vo, *i oo 

Browne, C. L. Fitting and Erecting of Engines 8vo, *i 50 

Browne, R. E. Water Meters. (Science Series No. 81.) i6mo, o 50 

Bruce, E. M. Pure Food Tests i2mo, *i 25 

Detection of Common Food Adulterants i2mo, i 25 

Brunner, R. Manufacture of Lubricants, Shoe Polishes and Leather 

Dressings. Trans, by C. Salter 8vo, *3 00 

Buel, R. H. Safety Valves. (Science Series No. 21.) i6mo, o 50 

Bunkley, J. W. Military and Naval Recognition Book i6mo, i 00 

Burley, G. W. Lathes, Their Construction and Operation i2mo, i 25 

Burnside, W. Bridge Foundations i2mo, *i 50 

Burstall, F. W. Energy Diagram for Gas. With Text 8vo, i 50 

Diagram. Sold separately *i 00 

Burt, W. A. Key to the Solar Compass i6mo, leather, * 2 50 

Buskett, E. W. Fire Assaying i2mo, *i 25 

Butler, H. J. Motor Bodies and Chassis 8vo, *2 50 

Byers, H. G., and Knight, H. G. Notes on Qualitative Analysis 8vo, *i 50 

Cain, W. Brief Course in the'Calculus i2mo, "i 75 

Elastic Arches. (Science Series No. 48.) i6mo, o 50 

— — ^^Maximum Stresses. (Science Series No. 38.) i6mo, o 50 

— — Practical Designing Retaining of Walls. (Science Series No. 3.) 

i6mo, o 50 
— — Theory of Steel-concrete Arches and of Vaulted Structures. 

(Science Series No. 42.) i6mo, o 30 

— — Theory of Voussoir Arches. (Science Series No. 12.) i6mo, o 50 

Symbolic Algebra. (Science Series No. 73.) i6mo, o 50 

Carpenter, F. D. Geographical Surveying. (Science Series No. 37.).i6mo, 

Carpenter, R. C, and Diederichs, H. Internal Combustion Engines. . 8vo, *5 00 

Carter, H. A. Ramie (Rhea), China Grass i2mo, *2 00 

Carter, H. R. Modern Flax, Hemp, and Jute Spinning 8vo, *3 00 

Bleaching, Dyeing and Finishing of Fabrics Svo, *i 00 

Gary, E. R. Solution of Railroad Problems with the Slide Rule . . i6mo, *i 00 

easier, M. D. Simplified Reinforced Concrete Mathematics i2mo, *i 00 

Cathcart, W. L. Machine Design. Part I. Fastenings Svo, '3 00 

Cathcart, W. L., and Chaffee, J. I. Elements of Graphic Statics . . .8vo, "3 00 

Short Course in Graphics i2mo, i 50 

Caven, R. M., and Lander, G. D. Systematic Inorganic Chemistry. i2mo, *2 00 

Chalkley, A. P. Diesel Engines ' Svo, *4 00 

Chambers' Mathematical Tables Svo, i 75 

Chambers, G. F. Astronomy i6mo, 'i 50 

Chappel, E. Five Figure Mathematical Tables Svo, *2 00 

Charnock, Mechanical Technology Svo, *3 00 

Charpentier,*P. Timber Svo, *6 00 

Chatley, H. Principles and Designs of Aeroplanes. (Science Series 

No. 126) i6mo, o so 

How to Use Water Power i2mo, *i 00 

Gyrostatic Balancing . . .' Svo, *i 00 



D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 7 

Child, C. D. Electric Arc .". . .8vo, *2 00 

Christian, M. Disinfection and Disinfectants. Trans, by Chas. 

Salter i2mo, 2 00 

Christie, W. W. Boiler-waters, Scale, Corrosion, Foaming .'8vo, '3 00 

— — Chimney Design and Theory 8vo, *3 00 

Furnace Draft. (Science Series No. 123.) i6mo, o 50 

Water: Its Purification and Use in the Industries '. . . .8vo, *2 00 

Church's Laboratory Guide. Rewritten by Edward Kinch 8vo, *i 50 

Clapham, J. H. Woolen and Worsted Industries 8vo, 200 

Clapperton, G. Practical Papermalfing 8vo, 2 50 

Clark, A. G. Motor Car Engineering. 

Vol. I. Construction "3 00 

Vol. II. Design 8vo, *3 00 

Clark, C. H. Marine Gas Engines i2mo, *i 50 

Clark, J. M. New System of Laying Out Railway Turnouts i2mo, r 00 

Clarke, J. W., and Scott, W. Plumbing Practice. 

Vol. I. Lead Working and Plumbers' Materials 8vo, *4 00 

Vol. II. Sanitary Plumbing and Fittings (In Press.) 

Vol. III. Practicar Lead Working on Soofs (In Press.) 

Clarkson, E. B. Elementary Electrical Engineering (In Press.) 

Clausen-Thue, W. ABC Universal Commercial Telegraphic Code. 

Sixth Edition (In Press.) 

Clerk, D., and Idell, F. E. Theory of the Gas Engine. (Science Series 

No. 62.) i6mo, o 50 

Clevenger, S. R. Treatise on the Method of Government Surveying. 

i6mo, morocco, 2 50 

Clouth, F. Rubber, Gutta-Percha, and Balata 8vo, *s on 

Cochran, J. Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Specifications Svo, *2 50 

Inspection of Concrete Construction 8vo, *4 00 

Treatise on Cement Specifications Svo, *i 00 

Cocking, W. C. Calculations for Steel-Frame Structures i2mo, *2 25 

CoflSn, J. H. C. Navigation and Nautical Astronomy i2mo, *3 50 

Colburn, Z., and Thurston, R. H. Steam Boiler Explosions. (Science 

Series No. 2.) i6mo, o 50 

Cole, R. S. Treatise on Photographic Optics i2mo, i 50 

Coles-Finch, W. Water, Its Origin and Use Svo, *s 00 

Collins, J. E. Useful Alloys and Memoranda for Goldsmiths, Jewelers. 

i6mo, o 50 

Collis, A. G. High and Low Tension Switch-Gear Design 8vo, *3 50 

Switchgear. (Installation Manuals Series.) i2mo, *o 50 

Comstock, D. F., and Troland, L. T. The Nature of Electricity and 

Matter Svo, *2 00 

Coombs, H. A. Gear Teeth. (Science Series No. 120.) i6mo, o 50 

Cooper, W. R. Primary Batteries Svo, "4 00 

Copperthwaite, W. C. Tunnel Shields 4to, *9 00 

Corfield, W. H. Dwelling Houses. (Science Series No. 50.) i6mo, o 50 

Water and Water-Supply. (Science Series No. 17.) i6mo, o 50 

Cornwall, H. B. Manual of Blow-pipe Analysis Svo, •2 50 

Cowee, G. A. Practical Safety Methods and Devices Svo, "3 oo 



8 D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 

Cowell, W. B. Pure Air, Ozone, and Water izmo, *2 oo 

Craig, J. W., and Woodward, W. P. Questions and Answers About 

Electrical Apparatus i2mo, leather, i 50 

Craig, T. Motion of a Solid in a Fuel. (Science Series No. 49.) . i6mo, o 50 

Wave and Vortex Motion. (Science Series No. 43.) i6mo, o 50 

Cramp, W. Continuous Current Machine Design 8vo, *2 50 

Crehore, A. C. Mystery of Matter and Energy 8vo, i 00 

Creedy, F. Single Phase Commutator Motors 8vo, *2 00 

Crocker, F. B. Electric Lighting. Two Volrunes. 8vo. 

Vol. I. The Generating Plant 300 

Vol. n. Distributing Systems and Lamps 

Crocker, F. B., and Arendt, M. Electric Motors 8vo, *2 50 

Crocker, F. B., and Wheeler, S. S. The Management of Electrical Ma- 
chinery i2mo, *i 00 

Cross, C. F., Bevan, E. J., and Sindall, R. W. Wood Pulp and Its Applica- 
tions. (Westminster Series.) 8vo, 

Crosskey, L. R. Elementary Perspective 8vo, 

Crosskey, L. R., and Thaw, J. Advanced Perspective 8vo, 

Culley, J. L. Theory of Arches. (Science Series No. 87.) i6mo, 

Cushing, H. C, Jr., and Harrison, N. Central Station Management . . . 

Dadourian, H. M. Analytical Mechanics i2mo, 

Dana, R. T. Handbook of Construction plant i2mo, leather, 

Danby, A. Natural Rock Asphalts and Bitumens 8vo, 

Davenport, C. The Book. (Westminster Series.) 8vo, 

Davey, N. The Gas Turbine 8vo, 

Davies, F. H. Electric Power and Traction 8vo, 

Fotindations and Machinery Fixing. (Installation Manual Series.) 

i6mo, 
Deerr, N. Sugar Cane 8vo, 

Deite, C. Manual of Soapmaking. Trans, by S. T. King 4to, 

DelaCoux, H. The IndustrialUses of Water. Trans, by A. Morris. 8vo, 

Del Mar, W. A. Electric Power Conductors 8vo, 

Denny, G. A. Deep-level Mines of the Rand 4to, ' 

Diamond Drilling for Gold *5 00 

De Roos, J. D. C. Linkages. (Science Series No. 47.) i6mo, o 50 

Derr, W. L. Block Signal Operation Oblong i2mo, *i 50 

Maintenance-of-Way Engineering (In Preparation.) 

Desaint, A. Three Hundred Shades and How to Mix Them 8vo, 

De Varona, A. Sewer Gases. (Science Series No. 55.) i6mo, 

Devey, R. G. Mill and Factory Wiring. (Installation Manuals Series.) 

i2mo, 
Dibdin, W. J. Purification of Sewage and Water 8vo, 

Dichmann, Carl. Basic Open-Hearth Steel Process i2mo, 

Dieterich, K. Analysis of Resins, Balsams, and Gum Resins 8vo, 

Dilworth, E. C. Steel Railway Bridges 4to. ' 

Dinger, Lieut. H. C. Care and Operation of Naval Machinery . . . i2mo, 
Dixon, D. B. Machinist's and Steam Engineer's Practical Calculator. 

i6mo, morocco, i 25 
Dodge, G. F. Diagrams for Designing Reinforced Concrete Structures, 

folio, *4 00 



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25 


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50 
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D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 9 

Dommett, W. E. Motor Car Mechanism i2mo, *i so 

Dorr, B. F. The Surveyor's Guide and Pocket Table-book. 

i6mo, morocco, 2 00 
Draper, C. H. Elementary Text-book of Light, Heat and Sound . . i2mo, i 00 

Heat and the Principles of Thermo-dynamics lamo, *2 00 

Dron, R. W. Mining Formulas i2mo, i 00 

Dubbel, H. High Power Gas Engines 8vo, *5 00 

Dumesny, P., and Noyer, J. Wood Products, Distillates, and Extracts. 

8vo, *4 so 
Duncan, W. G., and Penman, D. The Electrical Equipment of Collieries. 

8vo, 
Dunkley, W. G. Design of Machine Elements 8vo, 

Dunstan, A. E., and Thole, F. B. T. Textbook of Practical Chemistry. 

i2mo, 
Durham, H. W. Saws 8vo, 

Duthie, A. L. Decorative Glass Processes. (Westminster Series.) . 8vo, 

Dwight, H. B. Transmission Line Formulas .' 8vo, 

Dyson, S. S. Practical Testing of Raw Materials 8vo, 

Dyson, S. S., and Clarkson, S. 8. Chemical Works 8vo, 

Eccles, W. H. Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony izmo, 

Eck, J. Light, Radiation and Illumination. Trans, by Paul Hogner, 

8vo, 

Eddy, H. T. Maximum Stresses under Concentrated Loads 8vo, 

Eddy, L. C. Laboratory Manual of Alternating Currents i2mo, 

Edelman, P. Inventions and Patents i2mo, 

Edgcumbe, K. Industrial Electrical Measuring Instruments 8vQy 

{In Press.) 
Edler, R. Switches and Switchgear. Trans, by Ph. Laubach. . .8vo, 

Eissler, M. The Metallurgy of Gold 8vo, 

The Metallurgy of Silver 8vo, 

The Metallurgy of Argentiferous Lead 8vo, 

A Handbook on Modern Explosives 8vo, 

Ekin, T. C. Water Pipe and Sewage Discharge Diagrams folio, 

Electric Light Carbons, Manufacture of 8vo, 

Eliot, C. W., and Storer, F. H. Compendious Manual of Qualitative 

Chemical Analysis r2mo, *i 25 

Ellis, C. Hydrogenation of Oils 8vo, {In Press.) 

Ellis, G. Modem Technical Drawing 8vo, *z 00 

Ennis, Wm. D. Linseed Oil and Other Seed Oils 8vo, 

Applied Thermodynamics 8vo, 

■ Flying Machines To-day i2mo, 

Vapors for Heat Engines i2mo, 

Ermen, W. F. A. Materials Used in Sizing 8vo, 

Erwin, M. The Universe and the Atom izmo, 

Evans, C. A. Macadamized Roads {In Press.) 

Ewing, A. J, Magnetic Induction in Iron 8vo, 

Fairie, J. Notes on Lead Ores izmo, *o 50. 

Notes on Pottery Clays izmo, *i 50 



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lO D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 

Fairley, W., and Andre, Geo. J. Ventilation of Coal Mines. (Science 

Series No. s8.) i6mo, o 50 

Fairweather, W. C. Foreign and Colonial Patent Laws 8vo, *3 00 

Falk, M. S. Cement Moitars and Concretes 8vo, *2 50 

Fanning, J. T. Hydraulic and Water-supply Engineering 8vo, *S 00 

Fay, I. W. The Coal-tar Colors 8vo, *4 00 

Fembach, R. L. Glue and Gelatine 8vo, *3 00 

Firth, J. B. Practical Physical Chemistry i2mo, *i 00 

Fischer, E. The Preparation of Organic Compounds. Trans, by R. V. 

Stanford I2m04 *i 25 

Fish, J. C. L. Lettering of Working Drawings Oblong 8vo, i 00 

Mathematics of the Paper Location of a Railroad, .paper, i2mo, *o 25 

Fisher, H. K. C, and Darby, W. C. Submarine Cable Testing 8vo, *3 50 

Fleischmann, W. The Book of the Dairy. Trans, by C. M. Aikman. 

8vo, 4 00 
Fleming, J. A. The Alternate-current Transformer. Two Volumes. 8vo. 

Vol. L The Induction of Electric Currents *5 00 

Vol. n. The Utilization of Induced Currents 5 50 

Propagation of Electric Currents 8vo, *$ 00 

A Handbook for the Electrical Laboratory and Testing Room. Two 

Volumes 8vo, each, *5 00 

Fleury, P. Preparation and Uses of White Zinc Paints 8vo, *2 50 

Flynn, P. J. Flow of Water. (Science Series No. 84.) i2mo, o 50 

Hydraulic Tables. (Science Series No. 66.) i6mo, o 50 

Forgie, J. Shield Tunneling 8vo. (In Press.) 

Foster, IT. A. Electrical Engineers' Pocket-book. {Seventh Edition.) 

i2mo, leather, 5 00 

Engineering Valuation of Public Utilities and Factories 8vo, *3 00 

Handbook of Electrical Cost Data 8vo (In Press.) 

Fowle,'F. F. Overhead Transmission Line Crossings i2mo, 'i 50 

The Solution of Alternating Current Problems 8vo (In Press.) 

Foz, W. G. Transition Curves. (Science Series No. no.) i6mo, o 50 

Fox, W., and Thomas, C. W. Practical Course in Mechanical Draw- 
ing i2mo, I 25 

Foye, J. C. Chemical Problems. (Science Series No. 69.) i6mo, o 50 

Handbook of Mineralogy. (Science Series No. 86.) i6mo, o 50 

Francis, J. B. Lowell Hydraulic Experiments 4to, 15 00 

Franzen, H. Exercises in Gas Analysis izmo, *i 00 

Freudemacher, P. W. Electrical Mining Installations. (Installation 

Manuals Series.) i2mo, *i 00 

Frith, J. Alternating Current Design 8vo, *2 00 

Fritsch, J. Manufacture of Chemical Manures. Trans, by D. Grant. 

8vo, *4 00 

Frye, A. I. Civil Engineers' Pocket-book i2mo, leather, •$ 00 

Fuller, G. W. Investigations into the Purification of the Ohio River. 

4to, '10 00 

Furnell, J. Paints, Colors, Oils, and Varnishes 8vo. *i 00 

Gairdner, J. W. I. Earthwork 8vo {In Press.) 

Gant, L. W. Elements of Electric Traction 8vo, *2 50 



D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG ii 

Garcia, A. J. R. V. Spanish-English Railway Terms 8vo, *4 50 

Gardner, H. A. Paint Researches, and Their Practical Applications, 

8vo, *5 00 
Garforth, W. E. Rules for Recovering Coal Mines after Explosions and 

Fires i2mo, leather, i 50 

Garrard, C. C. Electric Switch and Controlling Gear 8vo, *6 00 

Gaudard, J. Foundations. (Science Series No. 34.) i6nio, 050 

Gear, H. B., and Williams, P. F. Electric Central Station Distribution 

Systems 8vo, *3 50 

Geerligs, H. C. P. Cane Sugar and Its Manufacture 8vo, *s 00 

Geikie, J. Structural and Field Geology 8vo, *4 00 

Mountains. Their Growth, Origin and Decay 8vo, *4 00 

The Antiquity of Man in Europe 8vo, *3 60 

Georgi, F., and Schubert, A. Sheet Metal Working. Trans, by C. 

Salter 8vo, 3 00 

Gerhard, W. P. Sanitation, Watersupply and Sewage Disposal of Country 

Houses i2mo, *2 00 

Gas Lighting (Science Series No. in.) i6mo, o 50 

Household Wastes. (Science Series No. 97.) i6mo, o 50 

House Drainage. (Science Series No. 63.) i6mo, o 50 

• Sanitary Drainage of Buildings. (Science Series No. 93.) i6mo, o 50 

Gerhardi, C. W. H. Electricity Meters 8vo, *4 00 

Geschwind, L. Manufacture of Alum and Sulphates. Trans, by C. 

Salter Svo, *5 00 

Gibbings, A. H. Oil Fuel Equipment for Locomotives 8vo, *2 50 

Gibbs, W. E. Lighting by Acetylene i2mo, *i 50 

Gibson, A. H. Hydraulics and Its Application Svo, "^5 00 

Water Hammer in Hydraulic Pipe Lines i2mo, *2 00 

Gibson, A. H., and Ritchie, E. G. Circular Arc Bow Girder 4to, *3 50 

Gilbreth, F. B. Motion Study i2mo, *2 00 

Bricklaying System Svo, "^3 00 

Field System lamo, leather, *3 00 

Primer of Scientific Management i2mo, *i 00 

Gillette, H. P. Handbook of Cost Data i2mo, leather, *5 00 

■ Rock Excavation Methods and Cost i2mo, *5 00 

and Dana, R. T. Cost Keeping and Management Engineering . Svo, ''3 50 

and Hill, C. S. Concrete Construction, Methods and Cost. .. .Svo, *5 00 

Gillmore, Gen. Q. A. Roads, Streets, and Pavements i2mo, i 25 

Godfrey, E. Tables for Structural Engineers i6mo, leather, *2 50 

Golding, H. A. The Theta-Phi Diagram i2mo, *i 25 

Goldschmidt, R. Alternating Current Commutator Motor 8vo, *3 00 

Goodchild, W. Precious Stones. (Westminster Series.) Svo, »2 00 

Goodeve, T. M. Textbook on the Steam-engine 12 mo, 2 00 

Gore, G. Electrolytic Separation of Metals Svo, =^3 50 

Gould, E. S. Arithmetic of the Steam-engine i2mo, i 00 

Calculus. (Science Series No. 112.) i6mo, o 50 

High Masonry Dams. (Science Series No. 22.) i6mo, 050 

Gould, E. S. Practical Hydrostatics and Hydrostatic Formulas. (Science 

Series No. 117.) i6mo, o 50 



*3 


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12 D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 

Gratacap, L. P. A Popular Guide to Minerals 8vo, 

Gray, J. Electrical Influence Machines i2mo, 

Marine Boiler Design i2nio, 

Greenhill, G. Dynamics of Mechanical Flight 8vo, 

Gregorius, R. Mineral Waxes. Trans, by C. Salter i2mo, 

Grierson, R. Some Modern Methods of Ventilation 8vo, 

Griffiths, A. B. A Treatise on Manures i2mo, 

Dental Metallurgy 8vo, 

Gross, E. Hops 8vo, 

Grossman, J. Ammonia and Its Compounds i2mo, 

Groth, L. A. Welding and Cutting Metals by Gases or Electricity. 

(Westminster Series) 8vo, 

Grover, F. Modern Gas and Oil Engines 8vo 

Gruner, A. Power-loom Weaving 8vo, *3 oo 

Grunsky, C. E. Topographic Stadia Surveying i6mo, 2 00 

Guldner, Hugo. Internal Combustion Engines. Trans, by H. Diederichs. 

4to, *i5 00 

Gunther, C. 0. Integration Svo, 

Gurden, R. L. Traverse Tables folio, half morocco, 

Guy, A. E. Experiments on the Flexure of Beams Svo, 

f 

Haenig, A. Emery and Emery Industry Svo, 

Hainbach, R. Pottery Decoration. Trans, by C. Salter i2mo. 

Hale, W. J. Calculations of General Chemistry i2mo. 

Hall, C. H. Chemistry of Paints and Paint Vehicles i2mo. 

Hall, G. L. Elementary Theory of Alternate Current Working. . . .Svo, 

Hall, R. H. Governors and Governing Mechanism i2mo, 

Hall, W. S. Elements of the Differential and Integral Calculus Svo, 

Descriptive Geometry Svo volume and a 4to atlas, 

Haller, G. F., and Cunningham, E. T. The Tesla Coil i2mo, 

Halsey, F. A. Slide Valve Gears i2mo, 

The Use of the Slide Rule. (Science Series Ho. 114.) i6mo, 

Worm and Spiral Gearing. (Science Series No. 116.) i6mo, 

Hancock, H. Textbook of Mechanics and Hydrostatics Svo, 

Hancock, W. C. Refractory Materials. (Metallurgy Series.) (In Press.) 

Hardy, E. Elementary Principles of Graphic Statics i2mo, *i 50 

Baring, H. Engineering Law. 

Vol. I. Law of Contract Svo, 

Harper, J. H. Hydraulic Tables on the Flow of Water i6mo, 

Harris, S. M. Practical Topographical Surveying (/n Press.') 

Harrison, W. B. The Mechanics' Tool-book i2mo, 

Hart, J. W. External Plumbing Work Svo, 

Hints to Plumbers on Joint Wiping Svo, 

Principles of Hot Water Supply Svo, 

Sanitary Plumbing and Drainage Svo, 

Haskins, C. H. The Galvanometer and Its Uses i6mo, 

Hatt, J. A. H. The Colorist square i2mo, 

Hausbrand, E. Drying by Means of Air and Steam. Trans, by A. C. 

Wright i2mo, *2 00 

Evaporating, Condensing and Cooling Apparatus. Trans, by A. C. 

Wright Svo, *s 00 



*I 


25 


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50 


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50 


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00 


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50 


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D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 13 

Hausmann, E. Telegraph Engineering 8vo, *3 00 

Hausner, A. Manufacture of Preserved Foods and Sweetmeats. Trans. 

by A. Morris and H. Robson 8vo, *3 00 

"Hawkesworth, J. Graphical Handbook for Reinforced Concrete Design. 

4to, *2 50 

Hay, A. Continuous Current Engineering 8vo, *2 50 

Hayes, H. V. Public Utilities, Their Cost New and Depreciation. . .8vo, *2 00 

Public Utilities, Their Fair Present Value and Return 8vo, *z 00 

Heath, F. H. Chemistry of Photography 8vo. (In Press.) 

Heather, H. J. S. Electrical Engineering 8vo, 

Heaviside, O. Electromagnetic Theory. Vols. I and II ... . 8vo, each, 

Vol. m Svo, 

Heck, R. C. H. The Steam Engine and Turbine Svo, 

Steam-Engine and Other Steam Motors. Two Volumes. 

Vol. I. Thermodynamics and the Mechanics Svo, 

Vol. II. Form, Construction, and Working Svo, 

Notes on Elementary Kinematics Svo, boards, 

Graphics of Machine Forces Svo, boards, 

Heermann, P. Dyers' Materials. Trans, by A. C. Wright lamo, *2 50 

Heidenreich, E. L. Engineers' Pocketbook of Reinforced Concrete, 

i6mo, leather, *3 00 
Hellot, Macquer and D'Apligny. Art of Dyeing Wool, Silk and Cotton. Svo, 

Henrici, 0. Skeleton Structures Svo, 

Hering, C, and Getman, F. H. Standard Tables of Electro-Chemical 

Equivalents i2mo, 

Hering, D. W. Essentials of Physics for College Students Svo, 

Hering-Shaw, A. Domestic Sanitation and Plumbing. Two .Vols.. .Svo, 

Hering-Shaw, A. Elementary Science Svo, 

Herington, C. F. Powdered Coal as Fuel Svo, 

Herrmann, G. The Graphical Statics of Mechanism. Trans, by A. P. 

Smith i2mo, 

Herzfeld, J. Testing of Yarns and Textile Fabrics Svo, 

Hildebrandt, A. Airships, Past and Present 8vo, 

Hildenbrand, B. W. Cable-Making. (Science Series No. 32.). .. .i6mo, 

Hilditch, T. P. A Concise History of Chemistry i2mo. 

Hill, C. S. Concrete Inspection i6mo. 

Hill, J. W. The Purification of Public Water Supplies. New Edition. 

(In Press.) 

Interpretation of Water Analysis (In Press.) 

Hill, M. J. M. The Theory of Proportion Svo, 

Hiroi, I. Plate Girder Construction. (Science Series No. 95.) . . . i6mo, 

Statically-Indeterminate Stresses i2mo, 

Hirshfeia, C. F. Engineering Thermodynamics. (Science Series No. 45.) 

lemo. 

Hoar, A. The Submarine Torpedo Boat i2mo, 

Hobart, H. M. Heavy Electrical Engineering 8vo, 

Design of Static Transformers i2mo, 

Electricity ■ Svo, 

Electric Trains 8vq, 

■ Electric Propulsion of Ships Svo, 



*2 


00 


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SO 


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50 


*1 


73 


*s 


00 


*2 


00 


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00 


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*3 


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50 


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50 


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00 


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*2 00 


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6 


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50 


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00 


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00 


3 


00 


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25 


*0 


50 


*0 


70 


*2 


00 


*5 


00 


*2 


00 



14 D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 

Holiait, J. F. Haid Soldering, Soft Soldering and Brazing i2mo, 

Hobbs, W. R. P. The Arithmetic of Electrical Measurements. .. .i2mo, 

Hoif, J. N. Paint and Varnish Facts and Formulas i2mo, 

Hole, W. The Distribution of Gas .8vo, 

Holley, A. L. Railway Practice folio, 

Hopkins, N. M. Model Engines and Small Boats i2mo, 

Hopkinson, J., Shoolbred, J. N., and Day, R. E. Dynamic Electricity. 

(Science Series No. 71.) i6mo, 

Horner, J. Practical Ironfounding 8vo, 

Gear Cutting, in Theory and Practice 8vo, 

Horniman, Roy. How to Make the Railways Pay For the War. . . .8vo, 

Houghton, C. E. The Elements of Mechanics of Materials i2mo, 

Houstoun, R. A. Studies in Light Production i2mo, 

Hovenden, F. Practical Mathematics for Young Engineers i2mo, 

Howe, G. Mathematics for the Practical Man i2mo, 

Howorth, J. Repairing and Riveting Glass, China and Earthenware. 

8vo, paper, 

Hoyt, W. E. Chemistry by Experimentation Svo, 

Hubbard, E. The Utilization of Wood-waste Svo, 

Hiibner, J. Bleaching and Dyeing of Vegetable and Fibrous Materials. 

(Outlines of Industrial Chemistry.) Svo, 

Hudson, 0. F. Iron and Steel. (Outlines of Industrial Chemistry.) .8vo, 
Humphrey, J. C. W. Metallography of Strain. (Metallurgy Series.) 

(In Press.) 
Humphreys, A. C. The Business Features of Engineering Practice .. Svo. *i 25 

Hunter, A. Bridge Work Svo. (In Press.) 

Hurst, G. H. Handbook of the Theory of Color Svo, *2 50 

Dictionary of Chemicals and Raw Products Svo, *4 50 

Lubricating Oils, Fats and Greases Svo, *4 00 

Soaps Svo, *5 00 

Hurst, G. H., and Simmons, W. H. Textile Soaps and Oils Svo, 3 00 

Hurst, H. E., and Lattey, R. T. Text-book of Physics Svo, *3 00 

Also published in three parts. 

Part I. Dynamics and Heat *i 25 

Part II. Sound and Light *i 25 

Part III. Magnetism and Electricity *i 50 

Hutchinson, R. W., Jr. Long Distance Electric Power Transmission. 

i2mo, *3 00 
Hutchinson, R. W., Jr., and Thomas, W. A. Electricity in Mining. i2mo, 

(In Press.) 
Hutchinson, W. B. Patents and How to Make Money Out of Them. 

i2mo, I 00 

Button, W. S. The Works' Manager's Handbook Svo, 6 00 

Hyde, E. W. Skew Arches. (Science Series No. 15.) i6mo, o 50 

Hyde, F. S. Solvents, Oils, Gums, Waxes ,,,,,,,.., Svo, *2 00 

Induction Coils. (Science Series No. 53.) i6mo, o 50 

Ingham, A. E. Gearing. A practical treatise Svo, *2 50 

Ingle, H. Manual of Agricultural Chemistry Svo, '3 00 



I 


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00 


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GO 


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GO 


'I 


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*3 


50 


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GO 



D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 15 

Inness, C. H. Problems in Machine Design i2nio, *2 00 

Air Compressors and Blowing Engines i2mo, *2 00 

Centrifugal Pumps i2mo, *2 00 

The Fan i2mo, *2 00 

Jacob, A., and Gould, E. S. On the Designing and Construction- of 

Storage Reservoirs. (Science Series No. 6) i6mo, o 50 

Jannettaz, E. Guide to the Determination of Rocks. Trans, by G. W. 
Plympton i2mo, 

Jehl, F. Manufacture of Carbons 8vo, 

Jennings, A. S. Commercial Paints and Painting. (Westminster Series.) 

8vo, 

Jennison, F. H. The Manufacture of Lake Pigments 8vo, 

Jepson, G. Cams and the Principles of their Construction 8vo, 

Mechanical Drawing 8vo {In Preparation.) 

Jervis-Smith, F. J. Dynamometers 8vo, 

Jockin, W. Arithmetic of the Gold and Silversmith i2mG, 

Johnson, J. H. Arc Lamps and Accessory Apparatus. (Installation 

Manuals Series.) i2mo, *o 75 

Johnson, T.M. Ship Wiring and Fitting. (Installation Manuals Series.) 

i2mo, *o 75 

Johnson, W. McA. The Metallurgy of Nickel (In Preparation.) 

Johnston, J. F. W., and Cameron, C. Elements of Agricultural Chemistry 

and Geology i2mo, 

Joly, J. Radioactivity and Geology izmo, 

Jones, H. C. Electrical Nature of Matter and Radioactivity i2mo, 

Nature of Solution 8vo, 

New Era in Chemistry i2mo, 

Jones, J. H, Tinplate Industry 8vo, 

Jones, M. W. Testing Raw Materials Used in Paint i2mo, 

Jordan, L. C. Practical Railway Spiral i2mo, leather, 

Joynson, F. H Designing and Construction of Machine Geariifg . . 8vo, 
J-"ptner, H. F. V. Siderology: The Science of Iron 8vo, 

Eapp, G. Alternate Current Machinery. (Science Series No. 96.). i6mo, o 50 

liapper, F. Overhead Transmission Lines 4to, "4 00 

Eeim, A. W. Prevention of Dampness in Buildings 8vo, *2 00 

Keller, S.S. Mathematics for Engineering Students. i2mo, half leather. 

and Knox, W. E. Analytical Geometry and Calculus *2 00 

Kelsey, W. R. Continuous-current Dynamos and Motors 8vo, "2 50 

Kemble, W. T., and Underbill, C. R. The Periodic Law and the Hydrogen 

Spectrum 8vo, paper, *o 50 

Kemp, J. F. Handbook of Rocks 8vo, *i 50 

Kennedy, A. B. W., and Thurston, R. H. Kinematics of Machinery. 

(Science Series No. 54.) i6mo, o 50 

Kennedy, A. B. W., Unwin, W. C, and Idell, F. E. Compressed Air. 

(Science Series No, 106.) i6mo, 50 



2 


60 


'3 


00 


"2 
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00 

50 


"2 


00 


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00 


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GO 


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SO 


2 


00 


*s 


00 



l6 D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 

Kennedy, R. Electrical Installations. Five Volumes 4to, 1500 

Single Volumes each, 3 50 

Flying Machines; Practice and Design i2mo, *2 00 

Prinfciples of Aeroplane Construction 8vo, 'i 50 

Kennelly, A. E. Electro-dynamic Machinery 8vo, i 50 

Kent, W. . Strength of Materials. (Science Series No. 41.) i6mo, o 50 

Kershaw, J. B. C. Fuel, Water and Gas Analysis 8vo, *2 50 

Electrometallurgy. (Westminster Series.) 8vo, *2 00 

The Electric Furnace in Iron and Steel Production i2mo, "i 50 

— ^Electro-Thermal Methods of Iron and Steel Production. .. .8vo, *3 00 

Kindelan, J. Trackman's Helper i2mo, 2 00 

Kinzbrunner, C. Alternate Current Windings 8vo, *i 50 

Continuous Current Armatures 8vo, *i 50 

Testing of Alternating Current Machines 8vo, "2 00 

Eirkaldy, A.. W., and Evans, A. D. History and Economics of 

Transport 8vo, *3 00 

Kirkaldy, W. G. David Kirkaldy's System of Mechanical Testing. .4to, 10 00 

Kirkbride, J. Engraving for Illustration 8vo, *i 50 

Kirkham, J. E. Structural Engineering 8vo, *5 00 

Kirkwood, J. P. Filtration of River Waters 4to, 7 50 

Kirschke, A. Gas and Oil Engines i2mo, *i 25 

Klein, J. F. Design of a High-speed Steam-engine 8vo, *5 00 

Physical Significance of Entropy 8vo, "1 50 

Klingenberg, G. Large Electric Power Stations 4to, *5 00 

Knight, R.-Adm. A. M. Modern Seamanship Svo, *6 50 

Knott, C. G., and Mackay, J. S. Practical Mathematics Svo, 2 00 

Knox, G. D. Spirit of the Soil iims, *i 25 

Knox, J. Physico-Chemical Calculations i2mo, *i 25 

• Fixation of Atmospheric Nitrogen. (Chemical Monographs.) .i2mo, *i 00 

Kbester, F. Steam-Electric Power Plants 4to, *5 00 

Hydroelectric Developments and Engineering '. 4to, *5 00 

KoUer, T. The Utilization of Waste Products Svo, *3 00 

r Cosmetics Svo, *2 50 

Koppe, S. W. blycerine lamo, *2 50 

Kozmin, P. A. Flour Milling. Trans, by M. Falkner Svo, 7 50 

Kremann, E. Application of the Physico-Chemical Theory to Tech- 
nical Processes and Manufacturing Methods. Trans, by H. 

E, Potts Svo, "3 00 

Kretchmar, K. Yarn and Warp Sizing 8vo, *4 00 

Laffargue, A. Attack in Trench Warfare i6mo, o 50 

Lallier, E. V. Elementary Manual of the Steam Engine i2mo, *2 00 

Lambert, T. Lead and Its Compounds Svo, *3 50 

Bone Products and Manures Svo, *3 00 

Lamborn, L. L. Cottonseed Products Svo, *3 00 

Modern Soaps, Candles, and Glycerin .' Svo, *7 50 

Lamprecht, R. Recovery Work After Pit Fires. Trans, by C. Salter . Svo, *4 00 

Lancaster, M. Electric Cooking, Heating and Cleaning 8vo, *i 00 

Lanchester, F. W. Aerial Flight. Two Volumes. Svo. 

Vol. I. Aerodynamics *6 00 

Vol. II. Aerodonetics *6 00 



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Lanchester, F. W. The Flying Machine 8vo, "3 00 

Lange, K. R. By-Products of Coal-Gas Manufacture lamo, 2 00 

Larner, E. T. Principles of Alternating Currents i2mo. *i 25 

La Rue, B. F. Swing Bridges. (Science Series No. 107.) i6mo, o 50 

Lassar-Cohn. Dr. Modern Scientific Chemistry. Trans, by M. M. 

Pattison Muir i2mo, "2 00 

Latimer, L. H., Field, C. J., and Howell, J. W. Incandescent Electric 

Lighting. (Science Series Wo. 57.) i6mo, 

Latta, M. N. Handbook of American Gas-Engineering Practice . . . 8vo, 

■ American Producer Gas Practice 4to, 

Laws, B. C. Stability and Equilibrium of Floating Bodies 8vo, 

Lawson, W. E. British Railways. A Financial and Commercial 

Survey 8vo, 

Leask, A. R. Breakdowns at Sea i2mo, 

— — Refrigerating Machinery i2mo, 

Lecky, S. T. S. "Wrinkles" in Practical Navigation 8vo, 

Le Doux, M. Ice-Making Machines. (Science Series No. 46.) . . i6mo, 

Leeds, C. C. Mechanical Drawing for Trade Schools oblong 4to, 

■ Mechanical Drawing for High and Vocational Schools 4to, 

Lefevre, L. Architectural Pottery. Trans, by H. K. Bird and W. M. 

Binns 4to, 

Lehner, S. Ink Manufacture. Trans, by A. Morris and H. Robson . 8vo, 

Lemstrom, S. Electricity in Agriculture and Horticulture 8vo, 

Letts, E. A. Fundamental Problems in Chemistry 8vo, 

Le Van, W. B. Steam-Engine Indicator. (Science Series No. 78.)i6mo, 
Lewes, V. B. Liquid and Gaseous Fuels. (Westminster Series.) . .Svo, 

Carbonization of Coal Svo, 

Lewis, L. P. Railway Signal Engineering Svo, 

Lewis Automatic Machine Rifle ; Operation of : i6mo, 

Licks, H. E. Recreations in Mathematics i2mo, 

Lieber, B. F. Lieber's Five Letter Standard Telegraphic Code . . . Svo, 

Code. German Edition Svo, 

■ — Spanish Edition Svo, 

Frfench Edition Svo, 

Terminal Index Svo, 

Lieber's Appendix folio, 

^-^^- Handy Tables 4to, 

Bankers and Stockbrokers' Code and Merchants and Shippers' 

Blank Tables Svo, 

100,000,000 Combination Code Svo, 

Engineering Code Svo, 

Livermore, V. P., and Williams, J. How to Become a Competent Motor- 
man i2mo, 

Livingstone, R. Design and Construction of Commutators Svo, 

■ Mechanical Design and Construction of Generators 8vo, 

Lloyd, S. L. Fertilizer Materials (In Press.) 

Lobben, P. Machinists' and Draftsmen's Handbook Svo, 

Lockwood, T. D. Electricitys Magnetism, and Electro-telegraph. . . .Svo, 
Electrical Measurement and the Galvanometer i2mo, 






50 


*4 SO 


*6 


00 


*3 


50 


2 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


10 


00 





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50 


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75 



i8 D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 

Lodge, O. J. Elementary Mechanics i2mo, i 50 

Signalling Across Space without Wires 8vo, *2 00 

Loewenstein, L. C, and Crissey, C. P. Centrifugal Pumps *4 50 

Lomax, J. W. Cotton Spinning i2mo, i 50 

Lord, R. T. Decorative and Fancy Fabrics 8vo, '3 50 

Loring, A. E. A Handbook of the Electromagnetic Telegraph i6mo o 50 

Handbook. (Science Series No. 39.) i6m, o 500 

Lovell, D. H. Practical Switchwork i2mo, *i 00 

Low, D. A. Applied Mechanics (Elementary) i6mo, o 80 

Lubschez, B. J. Perspective izmo, *i 50 

Lucke, C. E. Gas Engine Design 3vo, "3 00 

Power Plants: Design, Efficiency, and Power Costs. 2 vols. 

(In Preparation.) 

Luckiesh, M. Color and Its Application 8vo, *3 00 

Light and Shade and Their Applications ,...8vo, "2 50 

Lunge, G. Coal-tar and Ammonia. Three Volumes 8vo, *2o 00 

Technical Gas Analysis 8vo, *4 00 

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Vol. I. Supplement 8vo, 5 00 

Vol. n. Salt Cake, Hydrochloric Acid and Leblanc Soda. In two 

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Technical Chemists' Handbook i2mo, leather, "3 50 

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Vol. n. In tw.o parts 8vo, '18 00 

Vol. III. In two parts 8vo, *i8 00 

The set (3 vols.) complete *5o 00 

Luquer, L. M. Minerals in Rock Sections 8vo, '1 So 

Macewen, H. A. Food Inspection 8vo, *2 50 

Mackenzie, N. F. Notes on Irrigation Works 8vo, *2 50 

Mackie, J. How to Make a Woolen Mill Pay 8vo, *2 00 

Maguire, Wm. R. Domestic Sanitary Drainage and Plumbing . . . .8vo, 4 00 

Malcolm, C. W. Textbook on Graphic Statics 8vo, *3 00 

Malcolm, H. W. Submarine Telegraph Cable (In Press.) 

Mallet, A. Compound Engines. Trans, by R. R. Buel. (Science Series 

No. 10.) i6mo, 

Mansfield, A. N. Electro-magnets. (Science Series No. 64.) . . . i6mo, o 50 

Marks, E. C. R. Construction of Cranes and Lifting Machinery . i2mo, *i 50 

Construction and Working of Pumps i2mo, *i 50 

Manufacture of Iron and Steel Tubes i2mo, *2 00 

Mechanical Engineering Materials i2mo, *i 00 

Marks, G. C. Hydraulic Power Engineering 8vo, 3 50 

Inventions, Patents and Designs i2mo, *i 00 

Marlow, T. G. Drying Machinery and Practice 8vo, *s 00 



*2 


00 


*2 


00 


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D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 19 

Marsh, C. F. Concise Treatise on Reinforced Concrete 8vo, "2 30 

■ Reinforced Concrete Compression Member Diagram. Mounted on 

Cloth Boards *r . 50 

Marsh, C. F., and Dunn, W. Manual of Reinforced Concrete and Con- 
crete Block Construction i6mo, morocco, '2 50 

Marshall, W. J., and Sankey, H. R. Gas Engines. (Westminster Series.) 

8vo, 

Martin, G. Triumphs and Wonders of Modern Chemistry 8vo, 

Modern Chemistry and Its Wonders 8vo, 

Martin, N. Properties and Design of Reinforced Concrete i2mo, 

Martin, W. D. Hints to Engineers i2mo, 

Massie, W. W., and Underbill, C. R. Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony. 

i2mo, 
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Maurice, W. Electric Blasting Apparatus and Explosives 8vo, 

Shot Firer's Guide 8vo, 

Maxwell, J. C. Matter and Motion. (Science Series No. 36.). 

i6mo, o so 
Maxwell, W. H., and Brown, J. T. Encyclopedia of Municipal and Sani- 
tary Engineering 4to, '10 00 

Mayer, A. M. Lecture Notes on Physics 8vo, 

Mayer, C, and Slippy, J. C. Telephone Line Construction 8vo, 

McCullough, E. Practical Surveying i2mo, 

Engineering Work in Cities and Towns Svo, 

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McCullough, R. SI Mechanical Theory of Heat Svo, 

McGibbon, W. C. Indicator Diagrams for Marine Engineers Svo, 

Marine Engineers' Drawing Book oblong 4to, 

McGibbon, W. C. Marine Engineers Pocketbook i2mo, 

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Svo. 

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i6mo, o 50 

McMechen, F. L. Tests for Ores, Minerals and Metals i2mo, 'i 00 

McPherson, J. A. Water-works Distribution Svo, 2 50 

Meade, A. Modern Gas Works Practice Svo, *? 50 

Meade, Alwyne. Modern Gas Works- Practice Svo, 7 50 

Meade R. K. Design and Equipment of Small Chemical Laboratories, 

Svo, 

Melick, C. W. Dairy Laboratory Guide i2mo, *i 25 

Mensch, L. J. Reinforced Concrete Pocket Book i6mo, leather, *4 00 

Merck, E. Chemical Reagents; Their Purity and Tests. Trans, by 

H. E. Schenck Svo, i 00 

Merivale, J. H. Notes and Formulae for Mining Students i2mo, i 50 



2 


00 


*3 


00 


*2 


00 


*3 


00 


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50 


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00 


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20 D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 

Merritt, Wm. H. Field Testing for Gold and Silver i6nio, leather, 

Mertens. Tactics and Technique of River Crossings. Translated by 

W. Kruger 8vo, 

Mierzinski, S. Waterproofing of Fabrics. Trans, by A. Morris and H. 

Robson 8vo, 

Miessner, B. F. Radio Dynamics i2mo, 

Miller, G. A. Determinants. (Science Series No 105.) i6mo, 

Miller, W. J. Introduction to Historical Geology i2mo, 

Milroy, M. E. W. Home Lace-making i2mo, 

Mills, C. N. Elementary Mechanics for Engineers 8vo, 

Mitchell, C. A. Mineral and Aerated Waters 8vo, 

Mitchell, C. A., and Prideaux, R. M. Fibres Used in Textile and Allied 

Industries 8vo, *3 00 

Mitchell, C. F., and G. A. Building Construction and Drawing. i2mo. 

Elementary Course *i 50 

Advanced Course "2 50 

Monckton, C. C. F. Radiotelegraphy. (Westminster Series.) 8vo, "2 00 

Monteverde, R. D. Vest Pocket Glossary of English-Spanish, Spanish- 
English Technical Terms 64mo, leather, *i 00 

Montgomery, J. H. Electric Wiring Specifications i6mo, *i 00 

Moore, E. C. S. New Tables for the Complete Solution of Ganguillet and 

Kutter's Formula 8vo, *s 00 

Morecroft, J. H., and Hehre, F. W. Short Course in Electriqal Testing. 

8vo, 

Morgan, A. P. Wireless Telegraph Apparatus for Amateurs i2mo, 

Moses, A. J. The Characters of Crystals 8vo, 

and Parsons, C. L. Elements of Mineralogy 8vo, 

Moss, S.A. Elements of Gas Engine Design. (Science Series No.i2i.)i6mo, 

The Lay-out of Corliss Valve Gears. (Science Series No. iig.)i6mo, 

Mulford, A. C. Boundaries and Landmarks i2mo, 

MuUin, J. P. Modem Moulding and Pattern-making i2mo, 

Munby, A. E. Chemistry and Physics of Building Materials. (West- 
minster Series.) 8vo, 

Murphy, J. G. Practical Mining i6mo, 

Murray, J, A. Soils and Manures, (Westminster Series.) 8vo, 



Nasmith, J. The Student's Cotton Spinning 8vo, 

Recent Cotton Mill Construction i2mo, 

Neave, G. B., and Heilbron, I. M. Identification of Organic Compounds. 
^ i2mo, 

Neilson, R. M. Aeroplane Patents 8vo, 

Nerz, F. Searchlights. Trans, by C. Rodgers 8vo, 

Neuberger, H., and Noalhat, H. Technology of Petroleum. Trans, by 

J. G. Mcintosh 8vo, ' 

Newall, J. W. Drawing, Sizing and Cutting Bevel-gears 8vo, 

Newell, F. H., and Drayer, C. E. Engineering as a Career. . i2mo, cloth, 

paper, 

Newbeging, T. Handbook for Gas Engineers and Managers 8vo, 

Wicol, G. Ship Construction and Calculations 8vo, 

Nipher, F. E. Theory of Magnetic Meastirements i2mo, 1 00 



*I 


50 


"1 


50 


*2 


00 


*3 


00 





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50 


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75 


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D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 21 

Wisbet, H. Grammar of Textile Design 8vo, ''3 00 

Nolan, H. The Telescope. (Science Series No. 51.) i6mo, o 50 

North, H. B. Laboratory Experiments in General Chemistry. .. ,.i2mo, *i 00 

Nugent, E. Treatise on Optics i2mo, i 50 

O'Connor, H. The Gas Engineer's Pocketbook i2mo, leather, 3 50 

Ohm, G. S., and Lockwood, T. D. Galvanic Circuit. Translated by 

William Francis. (Science Series No. 102.) i6mo, o 50 

Olsen, J. C. Text-book of Quantitative Chemical Analysis 8vo, 3 50 

Olsson, A. Motor Control, in Txwret Turning and Gun Elevating. (U. S. 

Navy Electrical Series, No. i.) i2mo, paper, *o 50 

Ormsby, M. T. M. Surveying izino, i 50 

Oudin, M. A. Standard Polyphase Apparatus and Systems 8vo, *3 00 

Owen, D. Recent Physical Research 8vo, *i 50 

Pakes, W. C. C, and Nankivell, A. T. The Science of Hygiene . .8vo, *i 7S 

' Palaz, A. Industrial Photometry. Trans, by G. W. Patterson, Jr. . 8vo, *4 00 

Pamely, C. Colliery Manager's Handbook 8vo, *io 00 

Parker, P. A. M. The Control of Water 8vo, *5 00 

Parr, G. D. A. Electrical Engineering Measuring Instruments 8vo, *3 50 

Parry, E. J. Chemistry of Essential Oils and Artificial Perfumes, 

(In Press.) 
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Vol. I. Chemical and Microscopical Analysis of Foods and Drugs. *7 so 

Vol. II. Sale of Food and Drugs Act *3 00 

and Coste, J. H. Chemistry of Pigments 8vo, *4 50 

Parry, L. Notes on Alloys Svo, *3 00 

Metalliferous Wastes Svo, *2 00 

Analysis of Ashes and Alloys Svo, *2 00 

Parry, L. A. Risk and Dangers of Various Occupations Svo, *3 00 

Parshall, H. F., and Hobart, H. M. Armature Windings 4to, *7 50 

Electric Railway Engineering 4to, =^io 00 

Parsons, J. L. Land Drainage , Svo, *i 50 

Parsons, S. J. Malleable Cast Iron Svo, *2 50 

Partington, J. R. Higher Mathematics for Chemical Students. .i2mo, *2 00 
Textbook of Thermodynamics Svo, *4 00 

Passmore, A. C. Technical Terms Used in Architecture Svo, *3 50 

Patchell, W. H. Electric Power in Mines Svo, *4 00 

Paterson, G. W. L. Wiring Calculations i2mo, *2 00 

Electric Mine Signalling Installations lamo, *i 50 

Patterson, D. The Color Printing of Carpet Yarns Svo, *3 50 

Color Matching on Textiles Svo, *3 00 

Textile Color Mixing Svo, *3 00 

Paulding, C. P. Condensation of Steam in Covered and Bare Pipes. .Svo, *2 00 

Transmission of Heat through Cold-storage Insulation i2mo, *i 00 

Payne, D. W. Iron Founders' Handbook Svo, *4 00 

Peckham, S. F. Solid Bitumens Svo, *5 00 

Peddie, R. A. Engineering and Metallurgical Books i2mo, "i 50 

Peirce, B. System of Analytic Mechanics 4to, 10 00 

Linnear Associative Algebra 4to, 3 00 

Pendred, V. The Railway Locomotive. (Westminster Series.) Svo, *2 00 



22 D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 

Perkin, F. M. Practical Methods of Inorganic Chemistry izmo, 

Perrin, J. Atoms 8vo, 

and Jaggers, E. M. Elementary Chemistry i2mo, 

Perrine, F. A. C. Conductors for Electrical Distribution 8vo, 

Petit, G. White Lead and Zinc White Paints 8vo, 

Petit, R. How to Build an Aeroplane. Trans, by T. O'B. Hubbard, and 

J. H. Ledeboer 8vo, 

Pettit, Lieut. J. S. Graphic Processes. (Science Series No. 76.) . . . i6mo, 
Philbrick, P. H. Beams and Girders. (Science Series No. 88.) . , . i6mo, 

Phillips, J. Gold Assaying 8vo, 

Datigerous Goods 8vo, 

Phin, J. Seven Follies of Science i2mo, 

Pickworth, C. N. The Indicator Handbook. Two Volumes. . i2mo, each, 

Logarithms for Beginners i2mo. boards, 

The Slide Rule izmo, 

Plattner's Manual of Blow-pipe Analysis. Eighth Edition, revised. Trans. 

by H. B. Cornwall 8vo, 

Plympton, 6. W. The Aneroid Barometer. (Science Series No. 35.) i6mo, 

How to become an Engineer. (Science Series Ho. 100.) i6mo, 

Van Nostrand's Table Book. (Science Series No. 104.) i6mo, 

Pochet, M. L. Steam Injectors. Translated from the French. (Science 

Series No. 29.) : i6mo, 

Pocket Logarithms to Four Places. (Science Series No. 65.) i6mo, 

leather, 

Polleyn, F. Dressings and Finishings for Textile Fabrics 8vo, 

Pope, F. G. Organic Chemistry i2mo, 

Pope, F. L. Modern Practice of the Electric Telegraph 8vo, 

Popplewell, W. C. Prevention of Smoke 8vo, 

— — Strength of Materials 8vo, 

Porritt, B. D. The Chemistry of Rubber. (Chemical Monographs, 

No. 3.) .lamo, 

Porter, J. R. Helicopter Flying Machine , i2mo, 

Potts, H. E. Chemistry of the Rubber Industry. (Outlines of Indus- 
trial Chemistry) 8vo, 

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Pratt, K. Boiler Draught i2mo, 

High Speed Steam Engines 8vo, 

Pray, T., Jr. Twenty Years with the Indicator 8vo, 

Steam Tables and Engine Constant 8vo, 

Prelini, C. Earth and Rock Excavation 8vo, 

Graphical Determination of Earth Slopes 8vo, 

< Tunneling. New Edition 8vo, 

Dredging. A Practical Treatise 8vo, 

Prescott, A. B. Organic Analysis 8vo, 

Prescott, A. B., and Johnson, 0. C. Qualitative Chemical Analysis. . 8vo, 
Prescott, A. B., and Sullivan, E. C. First Book m Qualitative Chemistry. 

i2mo, 

Prideauz, E. B. R. Problems in Physical Chemistry 8vo, 

Primrose, G. S. C. Zinc. (Metallurgy Series.) (In Press.) 

Prince, G. T. Flow of Water i2mo, 



*I 


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50 


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D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 23 

PuUen, W. W. F. Application of Graphic Methods to the Design of 

Structures i2mo, *2 50 

Injectors: Theory, Construction and Worliing i2mo, 

^Indicator Diagrams 8vo, 

Engine Testing 8vo, 

Putsch, A. Gas and Coal-dust Firing 8vo, 

Pynchon, T. li. Introduction to Chemical Physics 8vo, 

Rafter G. W Mechanics of Ventilation. (Science Series No. 33.) , i6mo, 

Potable Water. (Science Series No. 103.) i6mo, 

Treatment of Septic Sewage. (Science Series No. 118.) . . .i6mo, 

Rafter, G. W., and Baker, M. N. Sewage Disposal in the United States. 

4to, 

Raikes, H. P. Sewage Disposal Works 8vo, 

Randau, P. Enamels and Enamelling 8vo, 

Rankine, W. J. M. Applied Mechanics 8vo, 

■ Civil Engineering 8vo, 

■ Machinery and Millwork 8vo, 

■ The Steam-engine and Other Prime Movers 8vo, 

Rankine, W. J. M., and Bamber, E. F. A Mechanical Text-book 8vo, 

Sansome, W. R. Freshman Mathematics i2mo, 

Raphael, F. C. Localization of Faults in Electric Light and Power Mains. 

8vo, 

Rasch, E. Electric Arc Phenomena. Trans, by K. Tornberg 8vo, 

Rathbone, R. L. B. Simple Jewellery 8vo, 

Rateau, A. Flow of Steam through Nozzles and Orifices. Trans, by H. 

B. Brydon 8vo 

Rausenberger, F. The Theory of the Recoil of Guns 8vo, 

Rautenstrauch, W. Notes on the Elements of Machine Design. 8vo, boards, 
Rautenstrauch, W., and Williams, J. T. Machine Drafting and Empirical 

Design. 

Part I. Machine Drafting 8vo, *i 25 

Part n. Empirical Design (In Preparation.) 

Raymond, E. B. Alternating Current Engineering i2mo, *2 50 

Rayner, H. Silk Throwing and Waste Silk Spinning '8vo, *2 50 

Recipes for the Color, Paint, Varnish, Oil, Soap and Drysaltery Trades . 8vo, *3 50 

Recipes for Flint Glass Making r2mo, *4 50 

Redfern, J. B., and Savin, J. Bells, Telephones (Installation Manuals 

Series.) i6mo, *o 50 

Redgrove, H. S. Experimental Mensuration lamo, *i 25 

Redwood, B. Petroleum. (Science Series No. 92.) i6mo, o so 

Reed, S. Turbines Applied to Marine Propulsion *5 00 

Reed's Engineers' Handbook 8vo, *6 50 

Key to the Nineteenth Edition of Reed's Engineers' Handbook . . 8vo, *3 00 

Useful Hints to Sea-going Engineers izmo, 2 50 

Reid, E. E. Introduction to Research in Organic Chemistry. (In Press.) 

Reid, H. A. Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Construction 8vo, 1=5 00 

Reinhardt, C. W. Lettering for Draftsmen, Engineers, and Students. 

oblong 4to, boards, i 00 



*I 


50 


*2 


50 


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50 


*3 


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00 





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24 D- VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 

Keinhardt, C. W. The Technic of Mechanical Drafting, 

oblong, 4to, boards, *i oo 
Reiser, F. Hardening and Tempering of Steel. Trans, by A. Morris and 

H. Robson '. i2mo, *2 50 

Reiser, H. Faults in the Manufacture of Woolen Goods. Trans, by A. 

Morris and H. Robson 8vo, 

Spinning and Weaving Calculations 8vo, 

Renwick, W. G. Marble and Marble Working 8vo, 

Reuleaux, F. The Constructor. Trans, by H. H. Suplee 4to, 

Reuterdahl, A. Theory and Design of Reinforced Concrete Arches. 8vo, 

Rey, Jean. The Range of Electric Searchlight Projectors 8vo, 

Reynolds, 0., and Idell, F. E. Triple Expansion Engines. (Science 

Series No. 99.) i6mo, 

Rhead, G. F. Simple Structural Woodwork i2mo, 

Rhodes, H. J. Art of Lithography 8vo, 

Rice, J. M., and Johnson, W. W. A New Method of Obtaining the Differ- 
ential of Functions i2mo, 

Richards, W. A. Forging of Iron and Steel i2mo, 

Richards, W. A., and North, H. B. Manual of Cement Testing i2mo, 

Richardson, J. The Modern Steam Engine 8vo, 

Richardson, S. S. Magnetism and Electricity i2mo, 

Rideal, S. Glue and Glue Testing 8vo, 

Rimmer, E. J. Boiler Explosions, Collapses and Mishaps 8vo, 

Rings, F. Concrete in Theory and Practice i2mo, 

Reinforced Concrete Bridges 4to, 

Ripper, W. Course of Instruction in Machine Drawing folio, 

Roberts, F. C. Figure of the Earth. (Science Series No. 79.) i6mo, 

Roberts, J., Jr. Laboratory Work in Electrical Engineering 8vo, 

Robertson, L. S. Water-tube Boilers 8vo, 

Robinson, J. B. Architectural Composition 8vo, 

Robinson, S. W. Practical Treatise on the Teeth of Wheels. (Science 

Series No. 24.) i6mo, 

^— Railroad Economics. (Science Series No. 59.) i6mo, 

. Wrought Iron Bridge Members. (Science Series No. 60.) i6mo, 

Robson, J. H. Machine Drawing and Sketching 8vo, 

Roebling, J. A. Long and Short Span Railway Bridges folio, 

Rogers, A. A Laboratory; Guide of Industrial Chemistry Svo, 

I Elements ■ of • Industrial Chemistry i2mo, 

Manual of Industrial Chemistry Svo, 

Rogers, F. Magnetism of Iron Vessels. (Science Series No. 30.) . i6mo, 
Rohland, P. Colloidal and Crystalloidal State of Matter. Trans, by 

W. J. Britland and H. E. Potts i2mo, 

Rollinson, C. Alphabets Oblong, i2mo. 

Rose, J. The Pattern-makers' Assistant Svo, 

^— Key to Engines and Engine-running i2mo, 

Rose, T. K. The Precious Metals. (Westminster Series.) '. .Svo, 

Rosenhaln, W. Glass Manufacture. (Westminster Series.) 8vo, 

Physical Metallurgy, An Introduction to. (Metallurgy Series.) 

Svo, 
Roth, W. A. Physical Chemistry 8vo, *a 00 



*2 


50 


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00 


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00 


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D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 25 

Rowan, F. J. Practical Physics of the Modem Steam-boiler 8vo, *3 00 

and Idell, F. E. Boiler Incrustation and Corrosion. (Science 

Series Wo. 27.) i6mo, 

Roxburgh, W. General Foundry Practice. (Westminster Series.). 8vo, 
Riihmer, E. Wireless Telephony. Trans, by J. Erskine-Murray . .8vo, 

Russell, A. Theory of Electric Cables and Networks 8vo, 

Rutley, F. Elements of Mineralogy i2mo, 

Sanford, P. G. Nitro-explosives 8vo, 

Satinders, C. H. Handbook of Practical Mechanics i6mo, 

leather, 

Sayers, H. M. Brakes for Tram Cars 8vo, 

Scheele, C. W. Chemical Essays 8vo, 

Scheithauer, W. Shale Oils and Tars 8vo, 

Scherer, R. C^asein. Trans, by C. Salter Svo, 

Schidrowitz, P. Rubber, Its Production and Industrial Uses Svo, 

Schindler, K. Iron and Steel Construction Works i2mo, 

Schmall, C. N. First Course in Analytic Geometry, Plane and Solid. 

i2mo, half leather, 

Schmeer, L. Flow of Water Svo, 

Schumann, F. A Manual of Heating and Ventilation. .. .ramo, leather, 

Schwarz, E. H. L. Causal Geology Svo, 

Schweizer, V. Distillation of Resins Svo, 

Scott, W. W. Qualitative Analysis. A Laboratory Manual Svo, 

Standard Methods of Chemical Analysis Svo, 

Scribner, J. M. Engineers' and Mechanics' Companion. .i6mo, leather, 
Scuddeir, H. Electrical Conductivity and Ionization Constants of 

Organic Compounds Svo, 

Searle, A. B. Modern Brickmaking Svo, 

Cement, Concrete and Bricks Svo, 

Searle, G. M. "Sumners' Method." Condensed and Improved. 

(Science Series No. 124.) i6mo, 

Seaton, A. E. Manual of Marine Engineering Svo 

Seaton, A. E., and Eounthwaite, H. M. Pocket-book of Marine Engi- 
neering i6mo, leather, 3 50 

Seeligmann, T., Torrilhon, G. L., and Falconnet, H. India Rubber and 

Gutta Percha. Trans, by J. G. Mcintosh Svo, *5 00 

Seidell, A. Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Substances Svo, 4 50 

Seligman, R. Aluminum. (Metallurgy Series.) {In Press.) 

Sellew, W. H. Steel Rails 4to, *io 00 

Railway Maintenance Engineering i2mo, *2 50 

Senter, G. Outlines of Physical Chemistry i2mo, *i 75 

• Text-book of Inorganic Chemistry i2mo, *i 75 

Sever, G. F. Electric Engineering Experiments Svo, boards, *i 00 

Sever, G. F., and Townsend, F. Laboratory and Factory Tests in Elec- 
trical Engineering Svo, *2 50 

Sewall, C. H. Wireless Telegraphy Svo, *2 00 

Lessons in Telegraphy i2mo, *i 00 






50 


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00 


*3 


SO 


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00 


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26 D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 

Sewell, T. The Construction of Dynamos 8vo, 

Sexton, A. H. Fuel and Refractory Materials lamo, 

Chemistry of the Materials of Engineering i2mo, 

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Sexton, A. H., and Primrose, J. S. G. The Metallurgy of Iron and Steel. 

8vo, 

Seymour, A. Modern Printing Inks 8vo, 

Shaw, Henry S. H. Mechanical Integrators. (Science Series No. 83.) 

i6mo, 

Shaw, S. History of the Staffordshire Potteries 8vo, 

Chemistry of Compounds Used in Porcelain Manufacture. .. .8vo, 

Shaw, T. R. Driving of Machine Tools i2mo, 

Shaw, W. N. Forecasting Weather 8vo, 

Sheldon, S., and Hausmann, 'E. Direct Current Machines lamo, 

Alternating Current Machines i2mo, 

Sheldon, S., and Hausmann, E. Electric Traction and Transmission 

Engineering ; . i2mo, 

Physical Laboratory Experiments, for Engineering Students. .8vo, 

Shields, J. E. Notes on Engineering Construction i-2mo, 

Shreve, S. H. Strength of Bridges and Roofs 8vo, 

Shunk, W. F. The Field Engineer i2mo, morocco, 

Simmons, W. H., and Appleton, H. A. Handbook of Soap Manufacture, 

8vo, 

Simmons, W. H., and Mitchell, C. A. Edible Fats and Oils .8vo, 

Simpson, 6. The Naval Constructor i2mo, morocco, 

Simpson, W. Foundations 8vo. (In Press.) 

Sinclair, A. Development of the Locomotive Engine. . . 8vo, half leather, 
Sindall, R. W. Manufacture of Paper. (Westminster Series.) . . . .8vo, 

Sindall, R. W., and Bacon, W. N. The Testing of Wood Pulp 8vo, 

Sloane, T. O'C. Elementary Electrical Calculations i2mo, 

Smallwood, J. C. Mechanical Laboratory Methods. (Van Nostrand's 
Textbooks.) i2mo, leather. 

Smith, C. A. M. Handbook of Testing, MATERIALS 8vo, 

Smith, C. A. M., and Warren, A. G. New Steam Tables 8vo, 

Smith, C. F. Practical Alternating Currents and Testing 8vo, 

Practical Testing of Dynamos and Motors 8vo, 

Smith, F. A. Railway Curves i2mo, 

Standard Turnou ts on American Railroads i2mo, 

Maintenance of Way Standards i2mD, 

Smith, F. E. Handbook of General Instruction for Mechanics . . . izmo. 

Smith, H. G. Minerals and the Microscope i2mo. 

Smith, J. C. Manufacture of Paint 8vo, 

Smith, R. H. Principles of Machine Work rzmo, 

Advanced Machine Work i2mo. 

Smith, W. Chemistry of Hat Manufacturing i2mo, 

Snell, A. T. Electric' Motive Power 8vo, 

Snow, W. G. Pocketbook of Steam Heating and Ventilation. (In Press.) 
Snow, W. G., and Nolan, T. Ventilation of Buildings. (Science Series 

No. 5.) i6mo, 

Soddy, F. Radioactivity 8vo, 



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*I 


50 


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*1 


25 


*3 50 


*3 


00 


*3 


00 


*4 


00 





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*3 


00 



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00 


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00 


*5 


00 


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*7 


50 


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D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 27 

Solomon, M. Electric Lamps. (Westminster Series.") 8vo, 

Somerscales, A. N. Mechanics for Marine Engineers i2mo, 

Mechanical and Marine Engineering Science 8vo, 

Sothern, J. W. The Marine Steam Turbine 8vo, 

'Verbal Notes and Sketches for Marine Engineers 8vo, 

Sothern, J. W., and Sothern, H. M. Elementary Mathematics for 

Marine Engineers lamo, 

Simple Problems in Marine Engineering Design i2mo, 

Southcombe, J. E. Chemistry of the Oil Industries. (Outlines of In- 
dustrial Chemistry.) 8vo, *3 00 

Soxhlet, D. H. Dyeing and Staining Marble. Trans, by A. Morris ^d 

H. Robson 8vo, *2 50 

Spangenburg, L. Fatigue of Metals. Translated by S. H. Shreve. 

(Science Series No. 23.) '. i6mo, 50 

Specht, G. J., Hardy, A. S., McMaster, J. B., and Walling. Topographical 

Surveying. (Science Series No. 72.) : i6mo, 

Spencer, A. S. 'Design of Steel-Framed Sheds Svo, 

Speyers, C. L. Text-book of Physical Chemistry Svo, 

Spiegel, L. Chemical Constitution and Physiological Action. ( Trans. 

by C. Luedeking and A. C. Boylston.) izmo, 

Sprague, E. H. Hydraulics izmo, 

Elements of Graphic Statics Svo, 

Stability of Masonry izmo, 

• Elementary Mathematics for Engineers izmo, 

Stahl, A. W. Transmission of Power. (Science Series No. 28.) . i6mo, 

Stahl, A. W., and Woods, A. T. Elementary Mechanism i2mo, 

Staley, C, and Pierson, G. S. The Separate System of Sewerage. . .8vo, 

Standage, H. C. Leatherworkers' Manual Svo, 

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Stanley, H. Practical Applied Physics (In Press.) 

Stansbie, J. H. Iron and Steel. (Westminster Series.) Svo, *2 00 

Steadman, F. M. Unit Photography izmo, *2 00 

Stecher, G. E. Cork. Its Origin and Industrial Uses izmo, i 00 

Steininan, D. B. Suspension Bridges and Cantilevers. (Science Series 

No. 127.) o so 






.■50 


''a 50 


*i 


50 


*i 


25 


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50 


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00 


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50 


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Stevens, E. J. Field Telephones and Telegraphs 100 

Stevens, H. P. Paper Mill Chemist i6mo, 

Stevens, J. S. Theory of Measurements izmo, 

Stevenson, J. L. Blast-Furnace Calculations i2mo, leather, 

Stewart, G. Modern Steam Traps i2mo. 

Stiles, A. Tables for Field Engineers i2mo, 

Stodola, A. Steam Turbines. Trans, by L. C. Loewenstein Svo, 

Stone, H. The Timbers of Commerce Svo, 

Stopes, M. Ancient Plants Svo, 

The Study of Plant Life Svo, 

Sudborough, J. J., and James, T. C. Practical Organic Chemistry. . i2mo, 

Suffling, E. R. Treatise on the Art of Glass Painting Svo, 

Sullivan, T. V., and Underwood, N. Testing and Valuation of Builds 
ing and Engineering Materials (/« Press.} 



*2 

*l 


SO 

25 


*2 


00 


*I 


2S 


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*5 


00 

00 


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50 


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28 D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 

Sur, F. J. S. Oil Prospecting and Extracting 8vo, *i 00 

Svenson, C. L. Handbook on Piping 8vo, 3 00 

Swan, K. Patents, Designs and Trade Marks. (Westminster Series.)- 

8vo, *2 00 
Swinburne, J., Wordingham, C. H., and Martin, T. C. Electric Currents. 

(Science Series No. 109.) i6mo, o 50 

Swoope, C. W. Lessons in Practical Electricity izmo, *2 00 

Tailfer, L. Bleaching Linen and Cotton Yarn and Fabrics 8vo, 6 00 

Tate, J. S. Surcharged and Different Forms of Retaining-walls. (Science 

Series No. 7.) i6mo, 

Taylor, F. N. Small Water Supplies i2mo, 

Masonry in Civil Engineering 8vo, 

Taylor, T. U. Surveyor's Handbook i2mo, leather, 

Backbone of Perspective i2mo, 

Taylor, W. P. Practical Cement Testing 8vo, 

Templeton, W. Practical Mechanic's Workshop Companion. 

i2mo, morocco, 2 00 
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Nostrand's Textbooks.) i2mo, *2 50 

Terry, H. L. India Rubber and its Manufacture. (Westminster Series.) 

8vo, "2 00 
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Vol. I. Elements of Structural Design 

Vol. 11. Design of Simple Structures *4 

Vol. in. Design of Advanced Structures (In Preparation.) 

Foundations and Masonry (In Preparation.) 

Thiess, J. B., and Joy, G. A. Toll Telephone Practice 8vo, 

Thom, C, and Jones, W. H. Telegraphic Connections oblong, i2mo, 

Thomas, C. W. Paper-makers' Handbook (In Press.) 

Thompson, A. B. Oil Fields' of Russia 4to, 

Oil Field Development 7 

Thompson, S. P. Dynamo Electric Machines. (Science Series No. 75.) 

i6mo, 

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Thomson, G. Modem Sanitary Engineering i2mo, 

Thomson, G. S. Milk and Cream Testing i2mo, 

Modern Sanitary Engineering, House Drainage, etc 8vo, 

Thomley, T. Cotton Combing Machines 8vo, *3 00 

Cotton Waste 8vo, *3 00 

Cotton Spinning. 8vo. 

First Year *i 50 

Second Year '3 00 

Third Year *2 50 

Thurso, J. W. Modem Turbine Practice 8vo, *4 00 

Tidy, C. Meymott. Treatment of Sewage. (Science Series No. 94.) i6mo, o 50 
Tillmans, J. Water Purification and Sewage Disposal. Trans, by 

Hugh S. Taylor 8vo, *z 00 

Tinney, W. H. Gold-mining Machinery 8vo, *3 00 

Titherley, A. W. Laboratory Course of Organic Chemistry 8vo, *2 00 



*2 


00 


*4 


00 


'3 


50 


I 


50 


*7 SO 
7 SO 





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*3 


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D. VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 29 

Tizard, H. T. Indicators. {In Press.) 

Toch, M. Chemistry and Technology of Paints 8vo, *4 00 

Materials for Permanent Painting i2mo, *2 00 

Tod, J., and McGibbon, W. C. Marine Engineers' Board of Trade 

Examinations 8vo, 

Todd, J., and Whall,, W. B. Practical Seamanship 8vo, 

Tonge, J. Coal. (Westminster Series.) 8vo, 

Townsend, F. Alternating Current Engmeering 8vo, boards, 

Townsend, J. S. Ionization of Gases by Collision 8vo, 

Transactions of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 8vo. 
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Traverse Tables. (Science Series No. 115.) i6mo, 

morocco, 

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Trinks, "W., and Housum, C. Shaft Governors. (Science Series No. 122.) 

i6mo, 
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Tucker, J. H. A Manual of Sugar Analysis 8vo, 

Timner, P. A. Treatise on Roll-turning. Trans, by J. B. Pearse. 

8vo, text and folio atlas, 
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Steam-engine. (Science Series No. 8.) i6mo. 

Turner, H. Worsted Spinners' Handbook i2mo, 

Turrill, S. M. Elementary Course in Perspective i2mo, 

Twyford, H. B. Purchasing , 8vo, 

Tyrrell, H. G. Design and Construction of Mill Buildings 8vo, 

Concrete Bridges and Culverts i6mo, leather, 

Artistic Bridge Design 8vo, *3 00 

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ings i2mo, *2 00 

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Printing Inks 8vo, 

Urquhart, J. W. Electro-plating izmo, 

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Vacher, F. Food Inspector's Handbook izmo, 

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Van Wagenen, T. F. Manual of Hydraulic Mining i6mo, 

Vega, Baron Von. Logarithmic Tables 8vo, cloth, 

half morroco, 
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Volk, C. Haulage and Winding Appliances 8vo, 

Von Georgievics, G. Chemical Technology of Textile Fibres. Trans. 

by C. Salter 8vo, 

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Vose, G. L. Graphic Method for Solving Certain Questions in Arithmetic 

and Algebra (Science Series No. 16.) i6m6, o 50 



*2 


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8 


00 


*2 


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75 


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30 D- VAN NOSTRAND CO.'S SHORT TITLE CATALOG 

Vosmaer, A. Ozone 8vo, *2 50 

Wabner, R. Ventilation in Mines. Trans, by C. Salter 8vo, *4 50 

Wade, E. J. Secondary Batteries 8vo, '4 o^ 

Wadmore, T. M. Elementary Chemical Theory i2mo, *i 50 

Wadsworth, C. Primary Battery Ignition »i2mo, *o 50 

Wagner, E. Preserving Fruits, Vegetables, and Meat ' i2mo, *2 So 

Wagner, J. B. A Treatise on the Natural and Artificial Processes of 

Wood Seasoning 8vo, 3 00 ' 

Waldram, P. J. Principles of Structiiral Mechanics i2mo, *3 00 

Walker, F. Aerial Navigation 8vo, 2 00 

Dynamo Building. (Science Series No. 98.) i6mo, o 50 

Walker, J. Organic Chemistry for Students of Medicine 8vo, *2 50 

Walker, S. F. Steam Boilers, Engines and Turbines 8vo, 3 00 

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Wansbrough, W. D. The A B C of the Differential Calculus i2mo, *i 50 

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Waring, Jr., G. E. Sanitary Conditions. (Science Series No. 31.) .i6mo, 050 

Sewerage and Land Drainage *6 00 

Modern Methods of Sewage Disposal i2mo, 2 00 

How to Drain a House i2mo, i 25 

Warnes, A. R. Coal Tar Distillation 8vo, *3 00 

Warren, F. D. Handbook on Reinforced Concrete i2mo, *2 50 

Watkins, A. Photography. (Westminster Series.) 8vo, =^2 00 

Watson, E. P. Small Engines and Boilers i2mo, i 25 

Watt, A. Electro-plating and Electro-refining of Metals 8vo, ^4 50 

Electro-metallurgy i2mo, i 00 

The Art of Soap Making 8vo, 3 00 

Leather Manufacture 8vo, *4 00 

Paper-Making 8vo, 3 00 

Webb, H. L. Guide to the Testing of Insulated Wires and Cables. i2mo, i 00 

Webber, W. H. Y. Town Gas. (Westminster Series.) 8vo, *2 00 

Wegmann, Edward. Conveyance and Distribution of Water for 

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Weisbach, J. A Manual of Theoretical Mechanics 8vo, *6 00 

sheep, *7 50 

Weisbach, J., and Herrmann, G. Mechanics of Air Machinery 8vo, *3 75 

Wells, M. B. Steel Bridge Designing 8vo, *2 50 

Weston, E. B. Loss of Head Due to Friction of Water in Pipes. .i2mo, *i 50 

Wheatley, 0. Ornamental Cement Work 8vo, *2 00 

Whipple, S. An Elementary and Practical Treatise on Bridge Building. 

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White, C. H. Methods tf Metallurgical Analysis. (Van Nostrand's 

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White, G. F. Qualitative Chemical Analysis i2mo, *i 25 

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Widmer, E. J. Military Balloons 8vo, 3 00 

Wilcox, R. M. Cantilever Bridges. (Science Series No. 25.) . . . .i6mo, 50 

Wilda, H. Steam Turbines. Trans, by C. Salter lamo, i 50 

Cranes and Hoists. Trans by C. Salter i2mo, i 50 

Wilkinson, H. D. Submarine Cable Laying and Repairing 8vo, *6 00 

Williamson, J. Surveying .8vo, =^3 00 

Williamson, R. S. On the Use of the Barometer 4to, 15 00 

Practical Tables in Meteorology and Hypsometery 4to, 2 50 

Wilson, F. J., and Heilbron, I. M. Chemical Theory and Calculations. 

i2mo, *i 00 

Wilson, J. F. Essentials of Electrical Engineering 8vo, 2 50 

Wimperis, H. E. Internal Combustion Engine 8vo, "''s 00 

Application of Power to Road Transport izmo, *i 50 

Primer of Internal Combustion Engine izmo, *i 00 

Winchell, N. H., and A. N. Elements of Optical Mineralogy Bvo, *3 50 

Winslow, A. Stadia Surveying. (Science Series No. 77.) i6mo, o 50 

Wisser, Lieut. J. P. Explosive Materials. (Science Series No. 70.) 

i6mo, o 50 

Wisser, Lieut. J. P. Modern Gun Cotton. (Science Series No. 89.) .i6mo, 050 

Wolff, C. E. Modern Locomotive Practice 8vo, "^4 20 

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Wood, J. K. Chemistry of Dyeing. (Chemical Monographs No. 2.) 

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——Simple Method for Testing Painters' Materials 8vo, *2 50 

Wright, F. W. Design of a Condensing Plant i2mo, *i 50 

Wright, H. E. Handy Book for Brewers 8vo, *5 00 

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Yoder, J. H., and Wharen, G. B. Locomotive Valves and Valve Gears, 

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Youngsoru Slide Valve and Valve Gears < Svo, 3 00 

Zahner, R. Transmission of Power. (Science Series No. 40.)..i6mo, 

Zeidler, J., and Lustgarten, J. Electric Arc Lamps 8vo, *2 00 

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® @ © ('2) 

ELEMTION 



, PLATE 7 




Verhca/t Outlet 



Notes 

Size and drilhng of flanges fo be American 

Standard unless o/heny/se noted. 

P-^ = f /ping in present Potver Station 

\/lS-Vf3-Vdlyes in present Poiver Station 

Piping in building S^'and ot'er to be full weight sfeel 

tvith extra heafy cast /ran flanges screimvd on. 

i/ne/ergroand outside of building to be extra 
heawy flanged cast iron laid In v^ooden boix. 

BOILER BLOW-OFF LINES 
PIPING CONNECTIONS CANNON ST. STATION 

NEW BEDFORD 6A5 « EDISON LISHTCO, 

STONE i WEBSTER ENSINEERIfIS CORP 

BOSTON