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Agriculture and Home Economics 


Cornell University 

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"D Y universal consent the physical faculties of man have 
J—' been divided into five senses, — seeing, hearing, touching, 
tasting, and smelling. It is of matter pertaining to the last- 
mentioned faculty that this book mainly treats. Of the five 
senses, that of smelling is the least valued, and, as a consequence, 
is the least tutored ; but from this, our own act, we must not 
conclude that it is of insignificant importance to our welfare 
and happiness. 

By neglecting to tutor the sense of smelling, we are con- 
stantly led to breathe impure air, and thus poison the body 
by neglecting the warning given at the gate of the lungs. 
Persons who use perfumes are more sensitive to the presence 
of a vitiated atmosphere than those who consider the faculty 
of smelling as an almost useless gift. 

In the early ages of the world perfumes were constantly 
used, and they had the high sanction of Scriptural authority. 

The patrons of perfumery have always been considered 
the most civilised and refined people in the world. If refine- 


ment consists in knowing how to enjoy the faculties which we 
possess, then must we learn not only how to appreciate the 
harmony of colour and form, in order to please the sight ; the 
melody of sweet sounds, to delight the ear ; the comfort of 
appropriate fabrics, to cover the body, and to please the touch ; 
but the smelling faculty must be shown how to gratify itself 
with the odoriferous products of the garden and the forest. 

Pathologically considered, the use of perfumes is in the 
highest degree prophylactic ; the refreshing fefeling imparted 
by the citrine odours to an invalid is well known. The occa- 
sional sacrifice of incense in the fever chamber will prevent 
infection. The odours of plants are all antiseptic. 

The commercial value of flowers is of no mean importance 
to the wealth of nations. But, vast as is the consumption of 
perfumes by the people under the rule of the British Empire, 
little has been done in England, either at home or in her 
tropical colonies, towards the establishment of flower-farms, 
or the production of the raw odorous substances in demand by 
the manufacturing perfumers of Britain ; consequently, nearly 
the whole are the produce of foreign countries. 

The climate of some of the British colonies especially fits 
them for the production of odours from flowers that require 
elevated temperature to bring them to perfection. ,. 

But for the lamented death of Mr. Charles Piesse," Colonial 
Secretary for Western Australia, flower-farms would doubtless 
have been established in that colony long ere the publication 
of this work. Though thus personally frustrated in adapting 
a new and useful description of labour to British enterprise, I 
am no less sanguine of the final results in other hands. 

Horticulturists being generally unacquainted with the 

' Brother of the Author. 


methods of economising the scents from the flowers they 
cultivate, entirely lose what would otherwise" be a profitable 
source of income. For many ages the Cornish miners, while 
working the tin streams, threw the copper ore over the cliffs 
into the sea. How much wealth was "thus cast away by 
ignorance, we know not ; but there is a perfect parallel be'tween 
the old miners and the modern gardeners. 

For more than a century prior to the Victorian era, per- 
fumes, were out of favour in England ; the people were of the 
idea.of Socrates, who objected to the use of perfumery alto- 
gether. In these modern days, however, civilisation, has re- 
vived, and there is restored with it one of its concomitants. 
It is mentioned in ' Chambers's Cyclopaedia,' published in 
1740, that perfumes were disiised here (in England), but were 
a la mode in Italy and Spain. 

In 1822, the first book devoted to this subject appeared in 
our language ; it was the work of Charles Lilly, edited by 
Colvin Mackenzie. Mr. Lilly is described as ' that celebrated 
perfumer at the corner of Beaufort Buildings, in the Strand,' 
and who was spoken of in the Spectator, Tatler, and Guardian. 
Now, judging this v/ork to represent the knowledge of the art 
of perfumery in this country at that period, it must be ad- 
mitted that it was very imperfect : a century of neglect had 
done its work, and the art had been lost. 

Five- and-twehty years elapsed, and the whole commerce 
of England began to show considerable vitality. The founding 
of the Australian colonies, the discovery of gold in California 
and in Australia, the introduction of railways, the application 
of steam to shipping, and other causes, has produced a great 
increase in our commerce. Amongst other things the export 
of perfumery has increased. 


In Italy, Sardinia, Sicily, and Southern France, some half- 
dozen flowers — jasmine, rose, acacia, orange, bergamot, tube- 
reuse, and violet — are extensively grown for perfumery, and are 
now easily imported for manufacture into England. Tropical 
produce, together with musk, ambei^ris, castor, and other raw 
materials for the perfumer's laboratory, comes to the British 
market before it reaches Continental cities. There is, there- 
fore, no natural reason why the perfumery trade should not 
take the highest position in this country : even if it does 
not exceed that of Germany and France, it might at least 
equal it. 

The excise duty on spirits of wine, however, prevents 
England from fairly competing in her own colonies with her 
German and French neighbours in this particular trade. . The 
spirit used by the perfumery factors of England pays twelve 
shillings per gallon duty ; this three hundred per cent, on the 
value of the raw material checks the art of perfumery. Till 
recently there was an excise duty on paper, which did not 
exist on the Continent ; all sorts of ornamental card boxes for 
packing were employed there, giving elegance and neatness to 
the goods, which in England it was vain to attempt with 
excised paper. In like manner there was an excise duty on 
soap. Refined scented soap was only known as a luxury, and 
of course this was a check to the perfumery trade. When 
this excise was removed, perfumers immediately sent large 
quantities of scented soap into the market, and it has now 
come into ordinary use. 

Recently France has reduced the import duty on soap 
from 174/. to 6/. the 100 kilogrammes. Portugal has been 
equally wise : English perfumers are already in these markets. 
A great impetus was given to the perfumery trade by the 


removal of the excise duty on glass. France used to ship all 
her perfumery in stoppered bottles, but England had to be 
content with a cork. It was well known that scented spirit 
could not be preserved very well in a corked bottle ; and 
essences sent from England to Calcutta, in the old corked 
bottles, suffered ten per cent, ullage. Prior to the removal of 
the excise on glass, 2-oz. stoppered bottles were costing 
6j. 3^. per dozen ; but now they are to be had for 2s. 6d., to 
the great benefit of the perfumery trade. 

Transparent soap was the invention of an Englishman; 
yet he is still prevented from reaping the benefit of his valu- 
able invention by the excise duty on the spirit which is 
necessary for its manufacture. The consequence is that German 
and American transparent soap is imported into England to 
the detriment of our trade. I do not view these excise 
duties on trade products as affecting the individual manu- 
facturer, because it is admitted that the individual must suffer 
for the multitude ; but in consequence of these excise duties 
the source of revenue (commerce) is withered in the germ. It 
is true that under ' certain regulations ' perfumers can ' ex- 
port ' scented spirit free from duty ; but the expenses incurred 
in doing so are so great that they all but equal the benefit 

So long as ' bonded ' warehouses are used, all the manu- 
facturing perfumers renting them should be housed together 
in one block or building in order to facilitate the work of the 
ganger, locker, clearing agent, and other functionaries ; also 
to enable the various laboratories to be supplied with steam 
heat ; for without such aid, during four months of our year, but 
little and very unsatisfactory work within the docks now so 
used can be done. The cold there congeals the otto of roses, 


and renders turbid many essences. Again, the workmen em- 
ployed in 'capping' bottles are also much delayed by the 
cold, and suffer in health. 

Female labour, so useful in this business, is prohibited by 
present regulations within ' bonded ' warehouses. The work- 
men are also injured in the matter of their wages, as at present 
the regulations are — ' no man is allowed to work after 4 o'clock ;' 
the dock gates then close. Thus, for about eight months in the 
year, every man has to idle his time for at least three hours 
daily. These things, fairly considered, are a hard 'set-off' 
against the English manufacturing perfumers compared with 
the facilities given by the French Government to the same 

I am pained to say that, for want of a generous unity 
among the English perfumery merchants, there has been 
hitherto no concerted action, by deputation or otherwise, 
in making their especial grievances known to the Board of 
Trade. The Times truly observed : ' There certainly never was 
a tinie when it was more imperative that trade and handicrafts 
should be free from all restraint.' 

Still the English perfumery trade is rapidly advancing, 
and finding favour from Brazil to New York, from Australia 
to India and Russia. I think I am justified in saying that 
this favour is not ill bestowed, for England now produces 
the finest perfumery in the world. 

If this work has contributed in any measure to raise the 
manufacture of perfumery in England to its present mer- 
cantile importance, my labours have not been in vain ; and I 
am happy in thus adding to the industrial resources of my 

The exportation of perfumery has exactly doubled in 


value since the date of the first edition of this work ; and this, 
too, in spite of the almost prohibitory tariff levied by our 
Indiaiji Government, and the cessation of trade with the two 

To my German translator, to my two y\merican reprinters, 
and to my French and Italian translators, I commend the 
present edition. 


2 New Bond Street, London, W. 
October 1879. 














X. PERFUMED SOAP ... . . . 



XIII. COLD CREAM ... . . , 










Lavender Still at Mitcham, Surrey Frontispiece 

The Golden Rose . . . . . . . 12 

Seven-branched Candlestick . .... 10 

Ancient Sweet Coffer and Modern Vinaigrette . . . 19 

The Gamut of Odours . . ..... 48, 49 

Pipette, to draviT off small Portions of Otto from Water . . -73 

Tap Funnel for separating Ottos from Water, and Spirit from Oil . . 74 

French Stills . .... . -75 

Syphon Still . ... 76 

Portable Still and Worm Tub ... . . 78 

Florentine Recipients . . . . . 80 

Section of Bain-Marie ... . . . . 81 

Chassis en Verre .... . . 82 

ChSssis en Fer -83 

Screw-press . . ... .84 

Smelling, from the Dresden Gallery . . . . 85 

Almond . ..... 88 

Anise ... . 91 

Anise (starry), or Badiani 92 

Styrax Benzoin ... . . 98 

Bergamot . . ... . . loi 

Camphor Tree . . 103 

Branch of Camphor Tree . • ■ ... 104 

Acacia Famesiana (flower heads natural size) . . 107 

Citronella Grass ... . . ... 115 

Clove ... . . 116 

Dill ..... . 117 

Scent-jfielding Geranium . 1 24 



Ecuelle . . • • 


Musk Seed and Section . 


Nutmeg with Mace upon it 


Orris Root 

Patchouly . 

Wliite Mint 

Black Mint 


Flowers and Fruit of Cananga Odorata ... ■ -13° 

Champaca (Michelia Champaca), or False Hang ■ ■ '31 

Jasmin Grandiflora • -34 

Gathering Jasmine Blossoms . ... ... 13 

Mitcham Lavender Field, near the Crystal Palace, Surrey . . 140 
Lemon Grass and Section 




Pimento ... . • .187 

SantalWood . -201 

Spikenard ... . , -204 

Storax . -205 

Dipterix Odorata ■ .210 

Tonquin Bean (natural size) . . . . 211 

Tonquin Bean in Pod • . . 212 

Tubereuse .... ... 214 

Vanilla Plant . . ... ... 21$ 

Bundle of Vanilla as imported . . • 216 

Vitivert . . ... . . 224 

Sperm or Ambergris Whale . . . • 237 

Cuttle-fish Beak . • 238 

Castor-pods ... . .240 

Castor Beaver . . . . 241 

Civet Cat . ... . 243 

Viverra Civetta ■ . 245 

Viverra Zibetha . . 245 

Head of Musk Deer . 248 

Musk-pod (actual size) . 250 

Musk Deer .... .... .258 

Musk-pods of Bengal (upper and lower surfaces) . . 259 


Cabardien, or Russian Musk-pods 

Musk-pods of China (opposite sides) 

Chinese Drawings of the Method of obtaining Musk 

Chinese Chop-paper 

Fountain Finger Ring .... . . 

The Pomander .... . . 

Drying House . ..... 

High Priest and Altar 

The Censer ......... 

Silver Incense-case found in Whittlesea Mere, Cambridgeshire 

Perfume Lamp ... 

Fumigating Vase ........ 

Evaporators .... 

Frame and Slab Soap Gauge 

Barring Gauge : Squaring Gauge ... 

Grinding Machine ... . . . 

Rolling Machine 

Peloteuse . . ... 

Soap Press . . ..... 

Soap Scoop 

Moulds . .... 

Chipping Machine . . 

Brunot's Pounding Machine 

Beyer Brothers' Rolling Machine ..... 

Rolling Machine (modeleuse) ...... 

Pulveriser . . .... 

Mixer, for Oil and Spirit 

Extraction Press ...... 

Soaping the Plane .... 

Oil Runner in Emulsine Process 


. 260 

. . 260 

261, 262 






328, 329 

• 335 
• • 336 
339. 340 





By Nature's swift and secret working hand 
The garden glows, and fills the liberal air 
With lavish odours. 

There let me draw 
Ethereal soul, there drink reviving gales, 
Profusely breathing from the spicy groves 
And vales of fragrance. — Thomson. 

THE hand of the Creator has lavished upon flowers all 
the resources of its infinite skill. Set upon stems per- 
fect in grace and delicacy, painted in the brightest, most 
diversified, and most harmonious colours, and impregnated 
with the most exquisite fragrance, flowers occupy an im- 
portant place in the system of nature. 

Among the numerous gratifications derived from their 
cultivation, that of rearing them for the sake of their perfumes 
stands pre-eminent. It is proved, from the oldest records, 
that perfumes have been in use from the earliest periods. 
The origin of this, like that of many other art.s, is lost in the 
«^ B 


depth of its antiquity ; though it had its rise, no doubt, in 
religious observances. Among the nations of antiquity, an 
offering of perfumes was regarded as a token of the most 
profound respect and homage. Incense, or Frankincense 
which exudes by incision and dries as a, from Arbor 
thurifera, was formerly burned in the temples of all religions, 
in honour of the divinities that were there adored. The 
granite tablet attached to the breast of the Great Sphinx of 
Egypt (the top of which may still be seen above the sand) 
formed the end of a sanctuary, and on it King Thothmes IV. 
is represented offering on one side incense, on the other a liba- 
tion of oil or ointment. Many of the primitive Christians were 
put to death because they would not offer incense to idols. 

The origin of perfumery Pliny traces to the East ; and his opinion is 
fully borne out by the inspired writers, whose frequent allusions to per- 
fumes and aromatics prove the very early and extensive employment of 
the luxury by nations in whose land flourish the aloe, cinnamon, sandal 
wood, camphor, nutmeg, and cloves ; the incense tree which it was the 
sacred privilege of the Sabasi to gather, the balsam trees, the sorrowful 
nyctenthes which pours forth its rich odours in the twilight, the Nilica in 
whose blossoms the bees are said to hum themselves to sleep, and the 
sweet Elcaya ;— these, and a forest of others, are the property of the East, 
and for ages were disregarded by the rest of the world. Among the 
Chinese, whose sensualism is so refined, says M. Claye, perfumes are 
largely employed in their worship, their pleasures, and their domestic 
pursuits. Odorous woods and resins are burnt before their altars and 
mixed with their viands. The disciples of Zoroaster used to offer their 
prayers before altars on which the sacred fire was kindled, and five times 
a day the priests laid on it wood and perfumes. In Greek mythology the 
invention and use of perfumes is attributed to the Immortals ; and, ac- 
cording to the fables, men derived their knowledge of them from the 
mdiscretiori of jEone, one of the nymphs of Venus. Homer speaks of 
perfumes in connection with the divinities. Whenever the Olympian 
gods honoured a mortal with their visits, they left behind them an am- 
brosial odour, an unequivocal token of their divine nature. The practice 
of anointing the bodies of the dead was not confined to the Jews ; all the 
nations of antiquity appear to have practised the same ceremonial. Thus 
we read in Homer,' that 

' Iliad, xxiii. 185, sq. 


' Venus, night and day, 
Daughter of Jove, . . . 

AH the corpse o'erlaid with roseate oil, 

The Greeks, moreover, were much addicted to perfumes, and the art of 
the perfumer was remarkably advanced among them. They carried their 
affectation to such a length as to keep their clothes in scented chests, as 
we learn from Homer in reference to Ulysses, And, according to 
Athenaeus, they made use of scent-bags for sweetening the air as they 
sat at table. Like the Romans, they were accustomed to crown themselves 
with roses at their feasts, and the most esteemed wines of the Athenians 
were perfumed with violets, roses, and other aromatics. The wine of 
Byblos in Phoenicia was especially remarkable in this respect. Solon 
attempted by one of his laws to restrain the excessive indulgence. Among 
the Lacedsemonians, the luxury was always discountenanced, and perfumers 
were expelled the city as wasters of oil, upon the same principle that they 
dismissed all who dyed wool because they destroyed its whiteness. In 
Athens the case was different : in spite of Solon's prohibition a taste for 
perfumery grew apace, and its indulgence was brought to a higher pitch 
of refinement than it has ever enjoyed before or since. Though the East 
supplied the Athenians with the most valued gums and ointments, they 
added largely to the stock of fragrant plants already in use. ApoUonius, 
of Herophila, wrote a treatise on perfume : — ' The iris,' he says, ' is best at 
Elis, and at Cyzicus ; perfume from roses is most excellent at Phasalis, 
Naples, and Capua ; that made from crocuses is in highest perfection at 
Soli, in Cilicia, and at Rhodes ; the essence of spikenard is best at Tanius ; 
the extract of vine-leaves at Cyprus, and at Adramyttium ; the best per- 
fume from marjoram, and from apples comes from Cos ; Egypt bears the 
palm for its essence of Cyprinus, and the next best is the Cyprian and 
Phoenician, and after them comes the Sidonian ; the perfume called Pa- 
nathenaicum is made at Athens ; and those called Metopian and Mende- 
sian are prepared with the greatest skill in Egypt.' Still the superior 
excellence of each perfume is owing to the purveyors, and the materials, 
and the artists, and not to the place itself. 

The boxes in which the unguents were carried were generally made of 
alabaster, highly ornamented, and must have formed an expensive item 
in the jeweller's bill. Vases of onyx were also in use. But if we may 
believe a passage in the ' Settler ' of Alexis,' even this extravagance has 

been exceeded. 

' For he t' anoint himself 

Dipped not his finger into alabaster, 

> A Greek comic poet, flourished about B.C. 350. 
B 2 


The vulgar practice of a former age ; 

But he let fly four doves, with unguents drenched, 

Not of one sort, but every bird a perfume bore 

Peculiar, and differing from the rest ; 

And they hov'ring around us, from their heavy wings 

Showered their sweets upon our robes and furniture. 

And I — be not too envious, gentlemen,- — 

I was myself bedewed with violet odours ! ' 

The room in which an entertainment was given was always perfumed 
either by burning incense or sprinkling the furniture with scented waters 
— an unnecessary measure, when we consider the lavish manner in which 
the guests were anointed. Each portion of the body had its appropriate 
oil or essence. Mint was recommended for the arms ; palm-oil for the 
jaws and breasts ; the eyebrows and hair were anointed with an unguent 
extracted from marjoram ; the knees and neck with the essence of ground 
ivy. This last was beneficial at drinking parties, as also was the per- 
fume obtained from roses ; the quince yielded an essence suitable to the 
lethargic and dyspeptic ; the perfume extracted from vine-leaves kept the 
mind clear, and that from white violets was good for digestion. 

In Greece, the perfumers' shops were open to all comers. They were 
used as gossiping places, where affairs of State were discussed, fashions 
decreed, and tales of scandal told. So that it was common at Athens to 
say, Come to the perfumer's, as at Paris, Come to the cafd 

The fashion of anointing the head at banquets is said to have arisen 
from an idea that the heating effects of wine would be better borne when 
the head was wet, just as a patient who labours under a burning fever is 
relieved by the application of a lotion. Aristotle proved that his habits 
of observation had led him to a different and truer conclusion, when he 
attributed the frequent occurrence of grey hair to the drying nature of 
the spices employed in the unguents. Nor did he stand alone in con- 
demnmg their excessive use. It was not without a meaning that Sophocles 
represented Venus, the goddess of pleasure, perfumed, and looking in a 
mirror; and Mmei-va, goddess of intellect and virtue, as using oil and 
gymnastic exercises. Chrysippus sought in the derivation of the word 
an objection to the luxury; but the attempt was so far-fetched as fairly to 
expose hirn to the satire of an ancient wit, that ' if there were no physicians, 
there would be nothing in the world so stupid as grammarians ' 

Socrates disapproved of all perfumes. ' There is the same smell,' he 
said, in a slave and a gentleman, when both are perfumed ;' a remark 
that made httle impression upon his pupil ^schines, who turned per- 
fumer, fell into debt, and attempted to borrow money upon the strength 
of his business. Alexander the Great was more attentive to the rebut 


of his tutor, Leonidas, for his wasteful expenditure of incense in his sacri- 
fices. ' It would be time for hini,' his tutor told him, ' so to worship 
when he had conquered the countries that produced the frankincense.' 
The king remembered the lesson ; and when he had taken possession of 
Arabia, he despatched a cargo of frankincense and myrrh to his old 

From Greece perfumes quickly made their way to Rome; and, although 
their sale was at first strictly prohibited, their employment became more 
and more extravagant, until even the eagles and standards were thought 
unfit to face the barbarian hosts of Northern Europe unless they had been 
duly anointed before battle ; and should the engagement have proved 
successful, the ceremony was repeated. Such was the demand for this 
luxury, that the chief street of Capua was occupied solely by perfumers. 
The incense burnt by Nero upon the funeral pyre of his wife Poppaa 
exceeded the annual production of spices in Arabia. At tl rather earlier 
period, Plautius Plancus, when proscribed by the triumvirs, was betrayed 
by his perfumes. His place of concealment got wind, and discovered 
him to his pursuers.^ 

After the Romans had conquered Egypt, India, and 
Arabia, they obtained from these countries enormous quantities 
of perfumes, in addition to those produced in Gaul and Italy. 
The commonest of their perfumes was the sweet-smelling 
rush. The most highly prized were the roses of Psestum, 
spikenard, onegalium, telinum, medebathrum, balm of Gilead, 
cinnamon, &c. They lavished these perfumes with a senseless 
prodigality in their baths, their bed-rooms, and their beds. 
Like the Greeks, they had perfumes for the different parts of 
the body ; they mixed them with their wines, as Gallus 

sings : — 

Tunc me vina juvent nardo confusa rosisque, 
Sertaque et unguentis, sordior facta coma ; 

and they applied them to the heads of their guests. 

Describing the spectacles and Amphitheatre at Rome, 
Gibbon ^ observes : — ' The air of the Amphitheatre was con- 
tinually refreshed by the playing of fountains, and profusely 
impregnated by the grateful scent of aromatics.' 

' Fraser's Magazine. ^ Vol. ii. chap. xii. p. 104. 


Pliny speaks of numerous cosmetics in use among the 
Romans. They dyed their hair black with St. John's Wort, 
the myrtle, the cypress, boiled leek-parings, and walnut-shells. 

Coma turn mutatur, ut annos 
Dissimulet, viridi cortice tincta nucis.' 

A mixture of oil, ashes, and earthworms prevented the hair 
from turning white ; myrtle-berries were an antidote to bald- 
ness ; and the growth of hair was, even at that early period, 
promoted by the use of bear's-grease. To make the hair 
flaxen they used vinegar lees or quince juice mixed with that 
of privet. It would seem from a passage in Propertius that 
some affected persons dyed the hair blue. 

An si caeruleo quasdam sua tempora fuco 
Tinxerit, idcirco caerula forma bona est ? * 

It was also the custom among the Roman women to darken 
their eyebrows. 

Neque illi 
Jam manet humida creta.' 

Carmine was used for colouring the cheeks ; mandrake for 
effacing scars on the face ; and, in addition to these simple 
substances, the Roman perfumers had also compounded a 
variety of mixtures which are recorded by Pliny or mentioned 
in Ovid's ' Cosmetics,' and some of which have transmitted to 
posterity the names of their inventors. Martial has preserved 
the names of Niceros, Cosmus, Folia, &c. 

In the Romish Church incense is used in many ceremonies, 
and particularly at the solemn funerals of the hierarchy, and 
other personages of exalted rank. 

Pliny makes a note of the tree from which frankincense is 
procured ; and certain passages in his works indicate that 
dried flowers were used in his time by way of perfume, and 
' Tibullus, i. 8. - II. 17. i-ior. Epod. 


that they were, as now, mixed with spices, a compound which 
the modern perfumer calls pot-pourri, used for scenting apart- 
ments, and generally placed in some ornarriental vase. 

It was not uncommon among the Egyptian ladies to carry 
about the person a little pouch of odoriferous gums, as is the 
case to the present day among the Chinese, and to wear beads 
made of scented wood. The ' bdellium ' mentioned by Moses 
in Genesis is a perfuming gum, resembling frankincense, if 
not identical with it. 

Several passages in Exodus and also in other parts of the 
Scriptures ' prove the use of perfumes at a very early period 
among the Hebrews. In the thirtieth chapter of Exodus the 
Lord said unto Moses : — 

I. And thou shalt make an altar to burn incense upon ; of shittim 
wood shalt thou make it. . . . 7. And Aaron shall burn thereon sweet 
incense every morning; when he dresseth the lamps he shall burn in- 
cense upon it. . . . 34. Take unto thee sweet spices, stacte, and onycha, 
and galbanum ; these sweet spices with pure frankincense : of each shall 
there be a like weight. ... 35. And thou shalt make it a perfume, a 
confection after the art of the apothecary,* tempered' together, pure and 
holy. . . . 36. Andthoushaltbeatsomeof it very small, and put of it before 
the testimony in the tabernacle of the congregation, where I will meet 
with thee ; it shall be unto you most holy. ... 37. And as for the per- 
fume which thou shalt make, ye shall not make to yourselves according to 
the composition thereof ; it shall be unto thee holy for the Lord. ... 38. 
Whosoever shall make like unto thee to smell thereto, shall even be cut 
off from his people. 

It was for this religious custom, of employing incense in the ancient 

' Gen. xxxvii. ; Exodus xxx.; Ps. cxxxiii. ; Exodus xl. ; Numb, xvi.; 2 Chron. 
xxvi. ; Is. xxxix.; 2 Chron. ix.; Cant, iv.; St. Markxiv.; Ps. xlv. ; Prov. vii. ; 
Est. ii. ; Cant, i.; St. John xix.; 2 Kings ix. 

* In Drs. D'Oyly and Mant's Bible this word 'apothecary' is italicised, 

' ' Tempered.' The same writers render this word salted— thaX is, mixed 
with nitre— which is probably the correct interpretation, because such a mixture 
of resinous substances would not bum kindly without being previously ' tempered ' 
with saltpetre. 


temples, that the royal prophet drew that beautiful simile of his, when he 
petitioned that his prayers might ascend before the Lord like incense. 
It wa« while all the multitude was praying without, at the hour of incense, 
that there appeared to Zachary an angel of the Lord, standing on the 
right side of the altar of incense (Luke i. lo). That the nations attached 
a meaning, not only of personal reverence, but also of religious homage, 
to an offering of incense, is demonstrable from the instance of the Magi, 
who, having fallen down to adore the new-born Jesus, and recognised his 
Divinity, presented Him with gold, myrrh, and frankincense. It does 
not appear, however, that the Jews made rriuch use of perfumes in their 
toilet, deterred either by the severe injunctions of the law of Moses against 
the personal use of preparations reserved for the holy place, or by their 
nomadic life, which did not allow of their practising an art fitted only for 
an advanced civilisation. They were accustomed to anoint themselves 
with perfumes before meals ; but it is pretty certain that they made little 
progress in the art of perfumery, and contented themselves with aromatjcs 
in their natural state, or, at the most, dissolved in suitable vehicles. Th6 
primitive Christians imitated the example of the Jews, and adopted the 
use of incense at the celebration of the Liturgy. St. Ephraem, a father 
of the Syriac Church, directed in his will that no aromatic perfumes should 
be bestowed upon him at his funeral, but that the spices should rather be 
given to the sanctuary. The use of incense in all the Oriental churches 
is perpetual, and almost daily; nor do any of them ever celebrate their 
Liturgy without it, unless compelled by necessity. The Coptic, as well 
as other_ Eastern Christians, observe the same ceremonial as the Latin 
Church in incensing their altar, the sacred vessels, and ecclesiastical per- 

The Rev. T. J. Buckton, describing the precious ointment 
of the Scriptures, says : — 

The sacred oil, with which the tabernacle, the ark of the covenant, 
the golden candlestick, the table, the altar of incense, the altar of burnt- 
offermgs, the laver, and all the sacred utensils, and indeed the priests 
themselves, were anointed, was composed of a hin of the oil of olives, 
of the richest myrrh, of cassia, of cinnamon, and of sweet calamus. The 
proportions of the mixture were 500 parts of the myrrh and cassia, and 
250 each of the cinnamon and calamus. This ointment could not be 
applied to any other purpose (Exod. xxx. 20-33). The Septuagint names 
<.«^ of the ingredients, the myrrh, ^y.{,pvr^, «X«r^r, which corresponds 
with the myrrh, i^vpov^apvrl^^, of Matthew (xxvi. 7), described as ,roX«- 

' Dr. Rock's Hierurgia. 


T-eX^s by Mark (xiv. 3), and as TroXufi/ior by John (xii. 3), "The ointment 
probably prepared for Lazarus, which his sister Mary poured on the head 
and. body of our Lord, consisted therefore of one only of the four ingre- 
dients of the sacred oil in use in the first Temple. Judas reprehended 
this anointing, as practised at banquets, as an extravagant luxury. So 
Martial (III. xii. 4) says: — 

' Qui non coenat et ungitur, FabuUe, 
Hie vere mihi mortuus videtur.' 

This view was corrected by our Lord, who says it was done prepara- 
tory to his entombment (Mark xiv. 8). Thus Jahn, in explaining the 
above passages in the Gospels, says : — ' It was their custom to expend upon 
the dead aromatic substances, especially myrrh and aloes, which were 
brought from Arabia. This ceremony is expressed by the Greek verb 
fVTa(pid^eiv [to embalm or entomb], and was performed by the neighbours 
and relations.' 

In the other case (Luke vii. 37) the myrrh was only applied to the 
feet of our Lord after washing, and previous to partaking of a meal, — a 
common practice of antiquity, and once performed by our Lord himself 
to his disciples; when, however, no mention is made of anointing, it 
being probably too costly for general use. At Sparta, the selling of per- 
fumed ointments was wholly prohibited ; and in Athens, men were not 
allowed to engage in it. Different ointments were used for different parts 
of the body. — Eschenburg, iii. s. 170. 

Gibbon ' says : — 

In a magnificent temple, raised on Palatine Mount, the sacrifices of 
the god Elagabalus (the sun) were celebrated, with every circumstance of 
cost and solemnity. .The rarest aromatics were profusely consumed on 
his altar. 

Horace, in an ode celebrating the return of Augustus from 
Spain, bids his slaves go and seek for perfumes, and desires 
the tuneful Netera to make haste and collect into a knot her 
scented hair. These passages sufficiently indicate the elegant 
direction which the taste of the Romans took in the days of 
this poet, who himself was a voluptuary in flowers and 

Perfumes were used in the Church service, not only under 

' Decline and Fall, vol. i. cHap. vi. p. 234. 


the form of incense, but also mixed in the oil and wax for the 
lamps and lights commanded to be burned in the house of the 
Lord. The brilliancy and fragrance which were often shed 
around a martyr's sepulchre, at the celebration of his festival, 
by multitudes of lamps and tapers, fed with aromatics, of 
which camphor was an important ingredient, have been noticed 
by St. Paulinus : — 

With crowded lamps are these bright altars crowned, 
And waxen tapers, shedding perfume round 
From fragrant wicks, beam calm a scented ray. 
To gladden night, and joy e'en radiant day.' 


The above illustration represents the seven-branched 
candlestick used in the Temple of Jerusalem. In it were 
burned fragrant tapers shedding perfume and light around 
during the holy service. The sketch is taken from the 
sculpture on the arch of Titus, showing the spoils of the 
Temple brought by the soldiers at the sacking of the Holy 

Constantine the Great provided fragrant oils, to be burned 

' Dr. Rock's Hierurgia. 


at the altars of the greater churches in Rome ; and St. 
Paulinus, of Nola, a writer of the end of the fourth and 
beginning of the fifth century, tells us how, in his times, wax 
tapers were made for church use, so as to shed fragrance as 
they burned : — 

Lumina ceratis adolentur odora papyris. 

Gold, frankincense, and myrrh, in silken bags, are still 
presented on Twelfth-day at the Chapel Royal in St. James's 
Palace. Formerly, the offering was made by the sovereign 
in person. The ' Daily Post ' newspaper, on Thursday, 
January 7, 1742, informed its readers that 

Yesterday, being Twelfth-day, his Majesty, the Duke, and Princesses 
went in state to the Chapel Royal, assisted at divine service, and during 
the offertory his Majesty advanced to the altar ; and, according to the 
ancient custom of the kings of England, oiFer'd three purses fill'd with 
gold, frankincense, and myrrh, in commemoration of the presents made 
by the Eastern Magi as on that day at the Manifestation. 

At present the offering is made by two persons connected 
with the Lord Chamberlain's office. These gentlemen ap- 
proach the altar during the reading of the offertory sen- 
tences ; and, taking the purses said to contain the gold, 
frankincense, and myrrh, place them on the alms dish, which 
is held forth for their reception by one of the officiating 

After Edward the Confessor restored, or rather rebuilt, 
Westminster Abbey, he was so desirous of rendering the 
Abbey almost unique in its attractions, that he endowed it 
with relics — in those days beyond all price. Among these 
things are to be noted here 'part of the frankincense 
offered to Jesus by the Eastern Magi.' ' 

In accordance with an ancient custom, the Pope of Rome 

' MSS. of the Time of Henry III. ; Luard's Life of Edward the Confessor. 


every year blesses what is called the Golden Rose. This 
flower, which is made of the purest gold, and ornamented 
with precious stones, is rubbed with balm, ambergris, musk, 
and incense. His Holiness recites verses explaining the 
mystic meaning of the benediction, after which he takes it in 

his left hand, and then blesses the 
people. Mass is then celebrated 
in the Sistine Chapel. The gold 
roses are ordinarily sent to female 
sovereigns, sometimes to princes, 
and sometimes, though rarely, to 
towns and corporations ; the one 
of 1 862 was sent to the Empress 
of the French, and that of the 
year before to the Queen of Spain. 
Our Henry VHI. in the sixteenth 
year of his reign received the 
golden rose from Clement, as a 
token of friendship. The form of 
the golden rose has undergone 
considerable modifications. It is 
said originally to have consisted 
of a single rose ; of late years it 
has consisted of several branches, 
with a rose on each, the plant being 
placed in a golden vase, as in the 
accompanying woodcut from an 
engraving in the works of F. A. Rocce. 

So also before the fifteenth century it was not the usage 
to bless the rose, but only to anoint it with balsam and 
perfume it with musk ; the latter, it is said, as well as the 
thorns on the stem and the red tinge on the petals, having 
been introduced in allusion to the passion of Our Lord. 

A beautiful example of the golden rose is preserved in the 



sacristy of St. Mark's, at Venice, to which it was presented 
by Pope Gregory in 1833, in memory of his having taken his 
monastic vows in that city. The pedestal is supported by 
four lions, and decorated with the papal arms and arabesque 

The rose, a symbol of silence, gave rise to the phrase sub 
rosA, ' under the rose,' said to have arisen from the circumstance 
of the pope's presenting consecrated roses which are placed 
over the confessionals at Rome to denote secrecy. 

A perfume in common use, even to this day, was the 
invention of one of the earliest of the Roman nobles, named 
Frangipani, and still bears his name : it is a powder, or sachet, 
composed of every known spice, in equal proportions, to 
which is added ground iris or orris root, in weight equal to 
the whole, with one per cent, of musk and civet. A liquid of 
the same name, invented by his grandson Mercutio Frangi- 
pani, is also in common use, prepared by digesting the 
Frangipani powder in rectified spirits, which dissolves out 
the fragrant principles. This has the merit of being the most 
lasting perfume made. 

' Notes and Queries ' recently published an article on 
' The Origin of Frangipani,' which has sufficient interest for 
us to transfer the matter to these pages. 

This is the name of a composition sold as a perfume, and which of 
late, through the enterprise of its vendors, has been pressed on the 
attention of the public through the advertising columns of our newspapers, 
periodicals, &c. The origin of the term seems worthy of a note, espe- 
cially as many, I doubt not, have, like myself, supposed it to be without 
more signification than the names of other perfumes ; but such is not the 

There is in Rome a family bearing the patronymic of Frangipanni, 
as famous in Italy as the Plantagenets and the Tudors in England. The 
origin of the name of this family is traced to a certain office which an 
ancestor filled in the Church— that of supplying the holy bread, the wafer, 
in one of the ceremonials. Frangipanni literally means ' broken bread,' 
and is derived from frangi, to break, and panus, bread. Hence we 


have the Frangipani puddings, which good housewives know are made 
with the broken bread. One member of this ancient family, Mutio 
Frangipani, served in France, in the papal army, during the reign of 
Charles IX. The grandson of this nobleman was the Marquis Frangi- 
pani, Mar^chal des Armdes of Louis XIII. ; and he it was who invented 
a method of perfuming gloves, which, when so perfumed, bore the 
name of ' Frangipani gloves.' ' Mfeage, in his ' Origini della Lingua 
Italiana,' published at Geneva in 1685, thus notices the Marquis and his 
invention : — 

' Da uno di que' Signori Frangipani (I'abbiam veduto qui in Parigi) 
furono chiamati certi guanti porfumati, Guanti di Frangipani.' 

From the following passage in Le Laboureur's ' Mdmoires de Castel- 
nau,' ^ it appears that the brother of the Marquis Frangipani had a share 
in the invention : — 

' Ce dernier Marquis Frangipani, et son fr^re mort auparavant luy, 
inventferent la composition du parfum et des odeurs qui retiennent encore 
le nom de Frangipane.' 

What the composition of the perfume was that gained for the Marquis 
so much reputation, I have not been able to discover. Manage, who, it 
will be observed, was a contemporary, and had met the Marquis in Paris, 
alludes merely to perfumed gloves, and I am inclined to think that this 
was the only form in which the invention at first appeared. Le Laboureur 
speaks of his inventing ' la composition du parfum et des odeurs,' which, 
perhaps, may be understood to refer to some essence, powder, or pom- 
made. This much, however, is certain, that various compositions, as 
pommade, essence, axid powder, distinguished by the name o{ Frangipani 
or Frangipane, were sold by perfumers down to the latter part of the last 
century, when they gradually fell into disuse. M. Charles Piesse, a 
perfumer of Nice, was certainly at that period the most celebrated maker 
of Essence de Frangipane in Europe. During the last few years, how- 
ever, the name has again found its way into the list of perfumes, and 
Frangipani is now sold more than it probably ever was before. The 
formula for the various compounds, as ' Pommade k la Frangipane,' 
' Esprit de Frangipane,' &c., are so utterly discrepant, and have such 
slender pretensions to represent the original, that it is needless to quote 
them, and I shall only refer the reader who wishes for them to the works 
named below.' 

' Vide Bayle, Dictionnaire Historique et Critique ; Moreri, Grand Dictioimaire 
ed. 1740, toine iv. p. 183. 

' Ed. Bruxelles, 1731, tome ii. p. 651. 

' Celnart, Nouveau Manuel complet du Parfumeur, Paris, 1854 i8mo • 
Piesse, Art of Perfumery, London, 1856, 8vo. 


The subject ai perfumed gloves, which, I may remark, have long since 
disappeared from use, introduces us to some curious particulars regarding 
the trades of glover and perfumer. Savary, in his ' Dictionnaire Uni- 
versel de Commerce' (Geneve et Paris, 1750), tells us that the glovers of 
Paris constitute a considerable community, having statutes and laws 
dating so far back as 11 90. These statutes, after receiving various con- 
firmations from the kings of France, were renewed, confirmed, and added 
to by Louis XIV., under Letters Patent, in March 1656. The glovers 
are therein styled ' Marchands Maitres Gantiers-Parfumeurs.' In their 
capacity of glovers, they had the right of making and selling gloves and 
mittens of all sorts of materials, as well as the skins used in making 
gloves ; while as perfumers they enjoyed the privilege of perfuming 
gloves, and of selling all manner of perfumes. Perfumed skins were im- 
ported from Spain and Italy, and were used for making gloves, purses, 
pouches, &c. ; they were very expensive and 'fort k la mode,' but 
their powerful odour led to their disuse as gloves ; nevertheless, ' Peau 
d'Espagne' is in considerable demand for perfuming letter paper. There 
were issued to the public, from the Laboratory of Flowers, in New Bond 
Street, last year, 1,808 pieces of four inches square. With regard to gloves, 
Savary remarks : — 

' II s'en tiroit autrefois quantity de parfum^s d'Espagne et de Rome ; 
mais leur forte odeur de muse, d'ambre, et de civette, qu'on ne pouvoit 
soutenir sans incommodit^, a fait que la mode et I'usage s'en sont presque 
perdus ; les plus estim^s de ces Gans ^toient les Gans de Franchipane et 
ceux de Neroli.' ' 

Many receipts are extant for the perfuming of gloves, and, though 
some of them are curious, they are too lengthy for me to quote more 
than the titles. Here, in the ' Secreti de la Signora Isabella Cortese ne' 
quali si contengono Cose Mineral!, Medicinali, Artificiose ed Alchimiche, 
e molte de I'Arte Profumatoria, appartenenti aogni gran Signoria' (Venet. 
1574, i2mo), we find directions for ' Concia di guanti perfettissima, con 
musco ed ambracan,' and again ' Concia di granti senza musco perfetta.' 
I have also before me, from an old French work published at Lyons in 
1657,'' the precise directions for' Civette trfes exquisepour parfumer gands 
et en oindre les mains.' In these compositions musk, ambergris, and 
civet were the chief perfumes ; and as they were applied inside the 
gloves, combined with some sort of oil or grease, their use at the present 
day would be thought intolerable. The gloves of Frangipani were also 
prepared with grease, as I think we may gather from the following lines 
of Cerisantes : ' — 

' Tome ii. p. 619. ' Les Secrets du Seigneur Alexis Piemontois. 

' They fonn part of an ode addressed ' Ad Vincentem Victurum,' which 


' Amice, nil me sicut antek juvat 
Pulvere vel Cyprio 
Comam nitentem pectere ; 

Vel quas Britannus texuit subtiliter 
Mille modis varias 
Jactare ventis taenias ; 

Vel quam perunxit Frangipanes ipsemet 
Pelle, manum gracilem, 
Corhm puellis promere.' 

The word Franchipanne, or Frangipane, is applied in French cookery 
to a sort of pastry composed of almonds, cream, sugar, &c. In the West 
Indies it is used to designate the fruits oi Plumiera alba L., and P. rubra 
L., because, according to Merat and De Lens,' ' on retrouve dans ces 
fruits murs le gout de nos franchipanes.' If these fruits are eatable, it is 
remarkable that neither Sloane nor Lunan mentions the fact. Frangi- 
panier is, however, the French name of the Plumiera. — D. H. 

One Mercutio Frangipani, who lived in 1493, was a famous botanist 
and traveller, famous as being one of the Columbus expedition when they 
visited the West India Islands. The sailors, as they approached Antigua, 
discovered a delicious fragrance in the air. This, Mercutio told them, 
must be derived from sweet-smelling flowers. On landing they found 
vast quantities of the Plumiera Alba, in full bloom, rendering the air 
redolent with rich odour ; and from this plant, which the present inhabit- 
ants of Antigua call the Frangipani flower, is distilled that exquisite 
fragrance which is iiow so popular in fashionable circles. 

The trade for the East in perfume-drugs caused many a vessel to 
spread its sails to the Red Sea, and many a camel to plod over that 
tract which gave to Greece and Syria their importance as markets, and 
vitality to the rocky city of Petra. Southern Italy was not long ere it 
occupied itself in ministering to the luxury of the wealthy, by manufactur- 
ing scented unguents and perfumes. So numerous were the Unguen- 
TARli, or perfumers, that they are said to have filled the great street of 
ancient Capua. — Hofmann. 

It was a dicttim of the celebrated Beau Brummell that no 
man of fashion sTiould use perfumes, but send his hnen to be- 
washed and dried on Hampstead Heath. Few subscribed to 

may be found at the end of the Latin letters of Balzac [Balzacii Carminum Libti 
ires: ejtdsdem Epistola Selects, ed. ^g. Menagio, Paris, 1650, 410). 
' Diet, de la Matiire Mldicale, tome v. p. 405 . 


this arbitrary mandate ; and it certainly opposed all precedent 
both in ancient and modern times. The use of aromatics in 
the East may be dated from the remotest antiquity ; and, 
even at the present day, to sprinkle guests with rose-water 
and perfume them with aloes wood at the close of every visit, 
is deemed a token of hospitality and friendship. In that 
excellent book which portrays, the domestic life of the early 
Orientals, ' The Arabian Nights,' there will be found several 
passages indicating the use of perfumes ; thus in the story of 
' The Barber's Second Brother,' who, finding himself enticed 
into the palace of the grand vizier's lady to be made a sport 
and fool of for her amusement, had his eyebrows painted like a 
■woman, his beard shaved off, and was then perfumed with 
wood of aloes and rose-water. Arabia is the country of 
perfumes ; and in more ancient times it was the practice to 
keep them in shells, which were thrown up large and beautiful 
on the shores of the Red Sea. Horace alludes to the same 
practice as prevalent at Rome when he flourished : — 

Funde capacibus 
Unguenta de conchis. 

Again he sings : — 

Fill up the polished bowls with oblivious music ; pour out the perfumed 
ointment from the capacious shells. 

Perfumes were also thought to keep well in vessels made of 
alabaster. Pliny explains the shape of these vessels by 
comparing them to the pearls called elenchi, which are known 
to have been shaped like pears. In hot climates fragrant oils 
dispersed unpleasant odours which heat is apt to generate, 
and thus became essential to the enjoyment of social life. 
The poets of Greece and Rome were loud in the praise of 
perfumes. Thus Anacreon (Ode XV.) exclaims : — 

Let my hair with unguents flow, 
With rosy garlands crown my brow. 


The magic power of Medea consisted in her skill as a 
perfumer, and as an inventress of warm vapour-baths. Mr. 
Beloe says of her that she first of all discovered a flower 
which could make the colour of the hair black or white : such, 
therefore, as wished to have black hair instead of white, by 
her means obtained their wish. That the professors of the 
medical art might not discover her secrets, she used fomen- 
tations in her baths in secret. These made men more active, 
and improved their health ; and as her apparatus consisted of 
a caldron, wood and fire, it was believed that her patients 
were in reality boiled. Pelias, an old and infirm man, using 
this operation, died in the process. 

But these practices were not confined to Oriental nations ; 
for Herodotus (Melpomene, c. Ixxv.) says : — ' The Scythian 
women bruise under a stone some wood of the cypress, cedar, 
and frankincense ; upon this they pour a quantity of water 
till it becomes of a certain consistency, with which they anoint 
the body and the face. This at the time imparts an agreeable 
odour, and when removed on the following day gives the 
skin a soft and beautiful appearance.' In the athletic exer- 
cises of the Olympic games, wrestlers and pancratists always 
anointed their limbs to make them more supple. In Greece 
the perfumes of Athens were most esteemed, as we learn from 
a curious passage preserved in Athenseus, from a fragment of 
the writings of Antiphanes, and the whole may amuse my 
readers. It runs thus, showing from what countries different 
degrees of excellence were obtained in his time: — 'A cook" 
from Ellis ; a cauldron from Argos ; wine of Phlius ; tapestry 
of Corinth ; fish from Sicyon ; cheese from Sicily ; the 
perfumes of Athens ; and the eels of Bceotia.' 

Sir John Bowring says that some porcelain jars were found 
in the adjacent ruins to the Pyramids, which contained 
cosmetics and perfumes three to four thousand years old ; 
these jars bore Chinese inscriptions, the same which he has 



since traced among the Chinese poets of about the earlier 

In the ' Lives of the Queens of England ' we read : — 
' Perfumes were never richer, more elaborate, more costly, or 
more delicate than in the reign of Elizabeth.' Her Majesty's 
nasal organs were particularly fine ; and nothing offended 
her more than an unpleasant smell. Perfumes and cosmetics 
of all kinds were in general use. The cosmetics and other 
smaller accessories to a lady's toilet were kept in boxes 
strongly impregnated with some favourite odour, and were 



called ' sweet coffers.' This term perpetually occurs in the 
old writers; they were reckoned a necessary part of the 
furniture of all state bed-chambers, and a fair criterion, by 
their form and richness, of the taste and liberality of the 
owner. The bottles of perfume connected with the common 
labours of the toilet were called ' casting bottles.' The po- 
mander, which originally was meant only as a preventive of 
infection, as a camphor-bag is now, but became an article of 
fashionable luxury amongst people of rank, was a little ball 


of perfumed paste worn in the pocket, or hung round the 
neck. They soon became mediums for the most exquisite 
devices in jewellery, and were frequently offered as compli- 
mentary tokens, like the snuff-boxes of the present day. 
Many pomanders were presented to Queen Elizabeth as new- 
year's gifts, and among the list is the somewhat puzzling 
item of — 

A farye girdle of pomander. 

Perfumed gloves were also fashionable. 

Elizabeth had a cloak of Spanish perfumed leather, the 
value of which may be estimated by stating that pieces of 
' Peau d'Espagne' are now sold by the Bond Street perfumers 
of London at the rate of one shilling the square inch ; even 
her shoes were perfumed. The city of course soon imitated 
the fashion of the court, as is apparent from frequent allusion 
by the dramatic writers of the time. 

The extensive and free use made of essences and scents 
at this period gave rise to numerous satirical observations by 
the authors of the day. The following verse appears in 
Anstey's ' New Bath Guide,' — Bath then becoming the focus 
of everything refined and fashionable, — 

Bring, oh bring the essence pot ! 
Amber, musk, and bergamot, 
Eau de Chipre, eau de Luce, 
Sanspareil and citron juice. 

As an indication of the 'spirit of the times' of the latter 
part of the seventeenth century, we may here mention that an 
Act was introduced into the English Pariiament, in 1770 :— 

That all women, of whatever age, rank, profession, or degree, whether 
virgins, maids, or widows, that shall, from and after such Act, impose 
upon, seduce, and betray into matrimony, any of his Majesty's subjects, 
by the scents, paints, cosmetic washes, artificicd teeth, false hair, Spanish 
wool (wool impregnated with carmine, and used to this day as a rouge), 
iron stays, hoops, high-heeled shoes, bolstered hips, shall incur "the 


penalty of the law now in force against witchcraft and like misdemeanours, 
and that the marriage, upon conviction, shall stand null and void. 

In Nichols's ' Progress of Queen Elizabeth,' he mentions 
that at Hawkstead, among the rooms on the ground floor, was 
one called the ' still-room,' an apartment where ladies of the 
court much amused themselves in distilling fragrant waters. 

In the ' Northumberland Household Book,' a work so 
often quoted by historians, there appears the following list of 
plants : — Roses, Borage, Fumitory, Brakes, Columbynes, Oak- 
leaf, Harts-tongue, Draggon, Parcelly, Balme, Walnut-leaves, 
Ox-tongue, Primrose, Sage, Sorrel, Betony, Cowslip, Elder- 
flowers, Marygold, Tansy, and others, all for the use of the 

All great men's houses possessed such an apartment, and 
ladies took lessons in the art of preparing perfumes and 

Shakspeare makes Cleopatra study (though it would seem 
for dangerous purposes) the properties of plants, and Cymbe- 
line order the gathering of innocent flowers, to cover as guilty 
an object. 

Advocating the proper use of the olfactory faculty as we 
do, it gives pleasure to quote a passage bearing upon the 
subject from Sir W. Temple's ' Essay on Health and Long 

Fumigation, or the use of scents, is not, that I know of, at all practised 
in our modern physic, nor the power and virtues of them considered 
among us, yet they may have as much to do good, for aught I know, as 
to do harm, and contribute to health, as well as disease, which is too 
much felt by experience in all that are infectious, and by the operations of 
some poisons that are received by the smell. How reviving as well as 
pleasing some scents of herbs and flowers are, is obvious to all ; how, 
great virtues they may have ift diseases, especially of the head, is known 
to few, but may easily be conjectured by any thinking man. 

I remember, he continues, that walking in a long gallery of the Indian 
House of Amsterdam, where vast quantities of mace, cloves, and nutmegs 
were kept in great open chests all along one side of the room, I found 


something so reviving by the perfumed air, that I took notice of it to the 
company with me, which was a great deal, and they all were sensible of 
the same effect, which is enough to show the power of smells and their 
operations both upon the health and humour. 

Thanks to Stow, we are acquainted with the exact period 
at which perfumes were introduced into England. 

Milloners or haberdashers, he says, had not then any gloves imbroy- 
dered or trimmed with gold or silke ; neither could they make any costly 
wash or perfume, until about the fifteenth yeere of the queen (Elizabeth), 
the Right Honourable Edward de Vere, Earl of Oxford, came from Italy, 
and brought with him gloves, sweete bagges, a perfumed leather jerkin, 
and other pleasant things ; and that yeere the queene had a pair of 
perfumed gloves, trimmed only with four tuffes, or roses of coloured silk : 
the queene took such pleasure in those gloves, that she was pictured with 
those gloves upon her handes, and for many yeeres after it was called the 
Earl of Oxford's perfume. 

The old comedies of Elizabeth's time are full of allusions 
to oils and essences, quintessences, pomatums, perfumes, and 
paint, white and red. Strutt quotes a MS. receipt of this 
date to make the face of a beautiful colour. A person de- 
sirous of improving his complexion was to be placed in a bath, 
that he might perspire freely, and afterwards to wash his face 
with wine, and ' so should he be both faire and ruddy.' The 
Earl of Shrewsbury, who had charge of the unfortunate Queen 
of Scots, made an application for an increased allowance, on 
the ground of her expensive habit of bathing in wine. 
Generally, elder beauties bathed in wine ; the young ones 
were contented with milk. Milk baths were in the height of 
fashion in Charles the Second's reign. But the attempt thus 
to cheat Time of his wrinkles was vain ; the would-be fair 
ones were driven in despair to conceal what they found it 
impossible to remove, and patches became the rage. 

Philip Augustus of France granted a charter to the 
master-perfumers in 1190. Perfumes first became fashionable 
in England in the reign of Elizabeth. In 1800 there were 


about forty manufacturing perfumers in London, in Paris 
eighty. No such trade as a perfumer was known in Scotland 
in 1763. A stamp-tax was laid on various articles of perfu- 
mery in England, and the vendor was obliged to take out a 
licence in 1786. — Haydn's 'Dictionary of Dates,' 1868. 

The first work on the subject, strictly on the manufacture 
of perfumery, was written by Charles Lillie, under the title of 
the 'British Perfumer,' 1822. The author was noticed in the 
' Spectator,' ' Tatler,' and ' Guardian,' periodicals of the day. 
After Lillie's death the house he occupied at the corner of 
Beaufort Buildings, in the Strand, was held by Ackerman, the 
celebrated print-seller, and by a curious coincidence is now 
the repertory of my friend Rimmel. 

The ancients indulged in perfumes much more luxuriously 
than we do. Mr. Sidney Whiting, in his imaginative and 
scholarly production, ' Heliond^ ; or, Adventures in the Sun,' 
fancifully describes the inhabitants of that orb as sustaining 
life solely upon sweet scents. 

Curious as are the records of the indulgence of former 
ages in cosmetics and aromatics, it has certainly been reserved 
for our own time to perfect the science of perfumery. Within 
the laboratory of the perfumer, chemistry now holds a recog- 
nised place, and acres of some of the fairest spots in Europe 
and Asia are devoted to the cultivation of flowers whose 
fragrance is no longer wasted on the desert air, but preserved 
for the enjoyment of all throughout the year, and at a time 
and place when and where their beauty and fragrance is 

To the above sketch of the history of perfumery in Eng- 
land must be added a similar sketch of its history in France. 
In early times, as we have already stated, Rome received 
large quantities of perfumes from the Gauls, and most of the 
Roman artists (or perfumers'*) belonged to the Gallic nation. 

These traditions were perpetuated. Clotilda heightened her 


charms with balsams and ointments ; the fairy Melusina and 
the enchanter Merlin had all kinds of wonderful preparations 
for preserving their beauty ; the magician and the alchemist 
devised precious philtres for keeping lovers faithful, and in- 
fallible recipes for procuring to themselves eternal youth. 

Gregory of Tours speaks of the art by which Clotilda, 
Brunehilda, and Galasuinta heightened the splendour of their 
attractions. He informs us that the Franks and the Gauls 
were acquainted with several artificial wines, which he calls 
vina odoramentis immixta. Forest, author of the romance of 
' Perseus,' also observes, in describing a feast, that every guest, 
male and female, had a wreath of roses on the head. Mathieu 
de Coucy relates that at a banquet given by Philip the Good, 
Duke of Burgundy, there was a figure of a child from which 
gushed rose-water.' 

In the first age of the French monarchy, it was customary 
to place in open coffins scent-boxes and perfumes, which gave 
out their fragrance under the influence of heat. Such scent- 
boxes have been found in the tombs of one of the churches of 

Perfumes figured among the presents which Harun-al- 
Raschid sent to Charlemagne ; and the Arabs, when they 
invaded Spain, introduced there unguents and cosmetics till 
then unknown. The Crusades endowed Europe with new 
perfumes ; and by the discovery of America cacao, vanilla, 
balsam of Peru, balsam of Tolu, &c., became known to us. 

During the Renaissance the most celebrated perfumers in 
France were the Italian artists, invited by Francis I. and 
Catherine de' Medici. This period may be compared with the 
age of Martial in respect to the excessive use of pastes and 
pomades, perfumed gloves, and all the refinements of art. It 
is recorded by historians that Diana of Poitiers, by the use of 
cosmetics, preserved her beauty to an age at which her rivals 

' ' Une statue d'enfant qui pissait de I'eau de roses.' 


had ceased to charm. It is even alleged that she possessed 
the secrets of Paracelsus. By the side of the Lady of Anet 
shone Margaret, Pearl of pearls, and the heroines celebrated 
by Brant6me, who availed themselves of all the resources of 
the art of cosmetics. At this period appeared the works of 
Saigini, Guet, Dettazy, Isabella Cortese, and Marinello ' on 
cosmetics, all treating the subject in a remarkable way. 

Under the sovereigns of the house of Valois the use of 
perfumes was carried to excess ; and the pastes, pomades, 
and musk of Poppaea, recovered for Henry III. and his 
favourites, led to a kind of reaction in the following reign 
against perfumes and cosmetics. But the habits of Rene the 
Florentine, the gloves of the Queen of Navarre and those of 
the fair Gabrielle contributed to this revulsion of feeling ; just 
as the powder sellers at a later day alarmed the court of 
Louis XIV. 

After being neglected under Henry IV., who spent his 
days in camps and cared little for odours and ointments, 
perfumes again cam.e into favour at the court of Louis XIII., 
under the influence of the beautiful Anne of Austria. 

Almond paste and the creams of cacao and vanilla, im- 
ported from Spain, were used to whiten the hands and the 
shoulders of the fair ladies of the court and of the Hotel de 
Rambouillet. It was at this time that the most affected and 
far-fetched names, mostly borrowed from the vocabulary of De 
Tendre, began to be applied to cosmetics. These were again 
proscribed by Louis XIV., who detested them ; and once 
more they revived, and finally, under the Regency. The 
beauty of Ninon de Lenclos, which was so long preserved, 
shows what advance the art of the perfumer had then made. 

With the Regency perfumes reappeared at court. At this 
time the Mar^chale powder was invented, and the important 

' Gli ornamenti delle donne. Venezia, 1 574- 


works of Jean Liebault on perfumery were published.' 
Powders, paint, and pomades were used. Ninon de Lenclos 
kept her beauty to her sixtieth year ; and Cagliostro at a 
later day sold to the Dubarry a wonderful recipe, which 
secured to her youth and beauty to the borders of old age. 
Marshal Richelieu in his last years used to have sweet odours 
diffused in his rooms by means of bellows. M. Claye assures 
us that one of the cosmetics most efficient in maintaining the 
beauty of Madame de Pompadour is now in the possession of 
the firm of Violet. The receipt was transmitted to this firm 
by the heirs of Manon Foissy, chambermaid to the mar- 

Under Queen Marie Antoinette the taste for perfumes was 
refined. Instead of sharp strong odours, the scent of the 
violet and the rose was relished. This preference has lasted 
to our days. 

As we have mentioned perfumed gloves, which, by the 
way, have long fallen into disuse, we will communicate some 
curious details respecting the trade in gloves and perfumes. 

Before the Revolution, says Louis Claye, perfumery was 
placed under the control of the corporations. In 1190 Philip 
Augustus granted to the perfumers some statutes, which were 
confirmed by King John, December 20, 1357, and by royal 
letter of Henry III., July 27, 1582; and by these laws the 
trade was regulated down to 1636. Under Colbert, who gave 
a powerful stimulus to French commerce, the perfumers (or 
parfumeurs-gantiers, as they were then called,) obtained 
patents registered in the Parliament, which prove the impor- 
tant position they had acquired. Their fraternity was esta- 
blished at St. Anne's Chapel, in the Church of the Innocents. 
By patents granted July 20, 1426 by Henry VI., king of 
England, who during the troubles of the reign of Charles VII. 

• Quatre livres-de Secrets de viidecine et de la philosophie chimique Rouen, 


Styled himself king of France, the arms of the perfumers, as 
registered in the Armorial General of France, are — Argent, 
three gloves gules, chief azure, charged with antique scent-box 

The influence of the Revolution made itself felt in the 
business of perfumery. There were guillotine dresses, Sanson 
pomades, &c. Various preparations, which have become his- 
torical, have comedown to the present day from the Directory 
and the Empire. It was at this period that a transformation 
took place in the trade of the perfumer by the adoption of a 
scientific basis for his art. It was under the Directory also 
that five ladies revived the perfumed baths of the Greeks and 
Romans. Madame Tallien, on leaving a bath of strawberries 
and raspberries, had herself gently rubbed with sponges soaked 
in milk and perfumes. 

The Emperor Napoleon I. was very susceptible to the 
action of perfumes. He used every morning to apply eau de 
Cologne to his head and shoulders. The Empress Josephine 
had the taste of a Creole for flowers and perfumes. She had 
brought from Martinique cosmetics which she always conti- 
nued to use. The consumption of perfumes was at this epoch 
at its greatest height. 

The taste for perfumes and cosmetics is at the present day 
carried to a very high pitch. Immense factories have been 
established and storehouses built; and London and Paris 
supply perfumes to all parts of the world. Its annual pro- 
ducts exceed in value 50,000,000 francs (2,000,000/. sterling). 

M. Claye justly points out that we must distinguish three 
classes of perfumery— the fine ; the ordinary, made by honest 
manufacturers of reputation ; and the anonymous, consisting 
of articles ill-made, spurious, and pirated. In Paris there are 
numerous perfumery houses for the production of the purest 
articles only, and their business is conducted with the large 
' Claye, Les Talismans de la beautJ, p. 22. 


knowledge, unwearied attention, conscientiousness, and sense 
of honour indispensable in such case. For these productions, 
according as they are more or less skilfully prepared, may 
confirm health, preserve beauty, or gradually ruin the consti- 
tution. We may, without fear of contradiction, enumerate 
the firms of Chardin and Massignon, Chardin of the rue du 
Bac, Demarson, Gell^, Lubin, Pinaud, Fiver, and Violet among 
the best representatives of the perfumery business in Paris, 
Atkinson, Hendie, Low and Son, Cleaver, Pears, and Piesse 
and Lubin of London, with respect to fine quality, purity, 
and hygienic efficacy of their wares. 

The manufacturer can guarantee only what he himself 
makes. He selects the raw materials, and under his eyes all 
perfumes and all cosmetics are prepared. It is the only 
safeguard against deception as to the nature of the substances 
employed. The first condition to be fulfilled in the case of 
ordinary perfumery is to produce quickly and cheaply. It is 
difficult to wait for such modifications as are effected in certain 
articles only by great care and long patience. Many sub- 
stances are purchased ready made, and have only to be per- 
fumed and adapted. Adulteration and the pirating of the 
name or the form frequently begin in the ordinary perfumeries ; 
but these practices are almost certain to be allowed in the 
common and anonymous houses. The only means of safe- 
guarding the interests of the perfumer, and of protecting the 
public health against such scandalous and perfidious tricks, is 
the adoption of trade-marks by the manufacturer, and the 
appointment of trustworthy agents whose respectability will 
guarantee to the consumer the genuineness of the goods 

The perfuming-pan, which was kindled in the palaces of 
Babylonia, Susa, and Venice, still smokes in the seraglios of 
Teheran and on the shores of the Bosphorus. The life of 
sultana and odalisque is spent on cushions scented with amber, 


the mouthpiece of the narghile on their lip, between the hour 
of the bath and the arrival of the master. In the mysteries 
of the toilet, the Mussulman women still follow the religious 
injunctions and formulae of the commentators on the Koran. 
The monopoly of depilatory pastes and cosmetics, used after 
the bath which every Friday purifies the faithful, is held by 
the dervishes ; but the East has now lost the monopoly of 
other perfumes and cosmetics. The orange-trees of Grasse, 
the irises of Florence, the lilies of Limagne, fill the place of 
Eastern flowers ; and although Arabia still supplies us with 
the myrtle and its resins, India with santalwood and benzoin, 
and Tonquin with its musk, these perfumes reach our hands 
as raw material. Paris transforms them, gives them the stamp 
of fashion, and distributes them over the world. All the 
European capitals are supplied from French perfumeries. 
England, indeed, is a successful rival, as she gathers a 
harvest of good alcohols. Her vessels, like those of France, 
trade in America, in the East, in India, and in China. The 
great houses enjoy a reputation in America, in Russia, 
Turkey, Germany, Persia, China, and Japan. The Australian 
colonists are most lavish in the use of perfumes — all of 
English manufacture. 



Unbidden earth shall wreathing flowers bring, 

And fragrant herbs the promises of spring, 

As her first offering to the ruling king.— Dryden's Virgil. 

AS an art in England, perfumery had attained little or 
no distinction until thirty-five years past. This arose 
from those who followed it as a trade maintaining a mys- 
terious secrecy about their processes. No manufacture that 
is carried on under a veil of mystery can ever become great 
or important to the community. I am rather of the Grecians' 
mind, who once a-year wrote in the temple of .^sculapius all 
the cures they had performed, and by what means they had 
effected them ! 

On the subject of trade mystery I will only observe, that I am con- 
vinced that it would be far more to the interest of manufacturers if they 
were more willing to profit by the experience of others, and less fearful 
and jealous of the supposed secrets of their craft. It is a great mistake 
to think that a successful manufacturer is one who has carefully preserved 
the secrets of his trade, or that peculiar modes of effecting simple things, 
processes unknown in other factories, and mysteries beyond the compre- 
hension of the vulgar, are in any way essential to skill as a manufacturer, 
or to success as a trader.^ 

In the dark ages it was always a secret, a mystery, or a crafc, in the 
hands of a guild, a profession, or a fraternity of some sort or other. In 
those days wisdom preyed upon ignorance, and nobody cared to know 
anything except as a means of overreaching his neighbour. Science, 
being thus divorced from reason, and robbed of its innocence, so to 

' Professor Solly. 

TRADE mystery: 


speak, was very naturally treated as a species of witchcraft, and a man 
who stole a march on the average intellect of the day was not unfre- 
quently burnt for a dealer in the black art. It is well known that many 
who so suffered had to thank themselves for the delusion which proved 
fatal to them, as they had purposely mystified their knowledge of nature. 
There are secrets in these days, many of which are as highly prized and 
as jealously guarded as the secrets of mediaeval art. Yet an atmosphere of 
secrecy is not generally conducive to public improvement, or even to 
private advantage. The first manufacturers of the age have no secrets. 
They are ready to show their works to any respectable stranger ; and, 
even if they have gained upon their neighbours in some device for the 
economy of labour or material, they won't keep it to themselves. They 
trust to an improving spirit, and to an energy always in advance, rather 
than to the exclusive possession of this or that little ' dodge.' Small 
people don't understand this. They are always looking out for the trick 
which is to open the door of fortune, and show the royal road to inex- 
haustible wealth.^ 

If the horticulturists of England were instructed how to 
collect the odours of flowers, a new branch of manufacture 
would spring up in some of our warm colonies, to vie with 
our neighbours' skill in it across the Channel. 

Time was, when in the still-room ' distilled waters ' and 
' cordials ' were drawn and dispensed as specifics for 
maladies to guests and dependents ; but now this practice is 
out of use, because they can be purchased cheaper than they 
can be made at home ; nevertheless the still-room maid pre- 
serves her name, though rarely required to perform her ancient 

■ The Times, October 31, 1855. 

''■ To expect the revival of this part of domestic economy would be absurd, yet 
we must say that a domestic laboratory attached to the conservatory would prove 
highly instructive and amusing. To those even who have no conservatory, we 
would yet advise to set a room apart in their mansions, with the title of ' labora- 
tory,' or the ancient one of ' still-room.' Here experiments may be made, scents 
distilled, and an acquaintance courted with ' common things,' without interfering 
with other people of the establishment, or ' making a mess about the house.' The 
amount of instruction that can be derived from a private laboratory is far more 
than at first sight can be conceived ; and the entertainment, changeable as a 
kaleidoscope, is intellectually considered immeasurably superior either to crochet 


Of our five senses, that of SMELLING has been treated 
with comparative indifference. However, as knowledge 
progresses, the various faculties with which the Creator has 
thought proper in His wisdom to endow man will become 
developed, and the faculty of Smelling will meet with his 
share of tuition as well as Sight, Hearing, Touch, and Taste. 

St. Paul tells the Corinthians, ' that there should be no 
schism in the body, but that the members should have the 
same care one for another. And whether one member 
suffer, all the members suffer with it ; or one member be 
honoured, all the members rejoice in it ; nay, much more 
those members which seem to be more feeble are necessary. 
If the whole body were an eye, where were the hearing 1 
if the whole were hearing, where were the smelling ? ' These 
arguments appear so conclusive in favour of a just and 
proper estimation of the value of smelling, that it would 
seem impossible to neglect it without bodily suffering as a 

Practically, the author has always found it so : among 
the lower orders, bad smells are little- heeded ; in fact, 'noses 
have they, but they smell not ; ' and the result is, a con- 
tinuance to live in an atmosphere laden with poisonous 
odours, whereas any one with the least power of smelling 
retained shuns such odours, as they would any other thing 
that is vile or pernicious. In the public schools ' common 
things ' are now being taught ; to complete the idea, youth 
must be instructed that, when the nose is offended, the body 
will indirectly suffer. If they are not taught to know by 
name every odour that they smell, they can at least be made 
familiar with the deadly effects of sulphuretted hydrogen, 

or Berlin work. The delicate manipulations of chemical experiments are well, 
even better, suited to their physical powers than to the sterner sex ; and to the 
ladies, therefore, we commend the charge of becoming the chefs of the modern 


and othei- of the putrescent gases, and so avoid them in future 

The influence of this sense over the frame is very re- 
markable : one odour will instantly produce loathing, nausea, 
and vomiting ; another has a part in producing an exhila- 
rating effect upon the mind, sdch as the fragrance of the 
country air on a spring morning, or the sweet sea-breeze 
laden with the brominic odours from stranded weeds. The 
first smell of the sea to a landsman wonderfully affects the 
nervous system. 

The fragrance of the fields in hay-making time, a walk 
in a garden at evening's close, both produce an exhilarating 
effect upon the mind. 

Odours are capable of a very wide diffusion ; so much so, 
that one can scarcely credit that at all times odour necessarily 
implies materiality. It seems that, in numerous instances, 
odour acts as an imponderable agent, rather than physical 
matter. It is clear that certain matters produce certain 
odours, but it is not equally definite that the matters in ques- 
tion are themselves the odours. My view of the case induces 
me to conclude that we can best understand the true theory 
of odours by viewing them as imponderable agents, affecting 
the nervous system by special vibrations, as colours affect the 
eye, and sounds the ear. 

We may presume that such vibrations are caused by the 
chemical action set up by the contact of essences and per- 
fumes with the oxygen of the air. We are able, indeed, to 
reduce them to an odourless state by excluding oxygen and 
volatilising them. The essences thus deprived of odour 
recover it instantaneously on contact with the air. In all 
chemical combinations vibrations occur which give rise to 
luminous or electrical phaenomena. In certain cases other 
vibrations are produced which affect the olfactory nerve- 



system. For such odour there would be a different velocity 
of vibration. 

The analogy which exists between colour and sound has 
long been admitted. The ancients felt their connection when 
they identified the musical gamut as the chromatic scale. 
Bacon, and numerous writers since his time, has written 
upon this subject, and some have attempted to show that the 
harmony of colours agrees with the melody of the scale. 

G. B. Allen, Mus. Bac, has written several papers in the 
' Musical World,' On the Analogy existing between Musical 
Scales and Colours ; wherein he shows that all composers of 
merit have perception of this analogy, and which is apparent 
in all their works. 

Field, in his ' Chromatics,' arranges the scale thus : — 

Blue Purple Red Orange Yellow Green Olive 
Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Si 

and proves the analogy by the following : — As the three 
primary colours, blue, red, yellow, in combination, or contrast, 
produce the most perfect harmony, so do the sounds. Do, Mi, 
Sol. The metrochrome and the monochord also prove their 
exact agreement. By this first instrument we discover that 
in pure white light there are eight degrees of blue, five of 
red, and three of yellow. And by the latter that eight parts 
of a string will give Do, five Mi, and three Sol. This agree- 
ment is curious, and proves the existence of some universal 
law of harmony. 

For measuring the intensities of light and of sound we 
have a method founded on their respective velocities. Struck, 
like many other observers, with the strict analogy subsisting 
between the forces which affect our several senses, and par- 
ticularly between those which affect the organs of smelling, 
and of hearing, but failing to find any accepted criterion for 
measuring the intensity of an odour as that of a sound is 


measured, I undertook a series of experiments for the purpose 
of discovering one. 

For some time I had observed that when alcoholic solu- 
tions of various essences mixed together were allowed to 
evaporate in the open air, they underwent a sort of natural 
analysis ; that is to say, the most volatile were the first to 
evaporate, the less volatile disappearing later. From the 
constant reproduction of the same phaenomenon, when the 
essences were the same, I could not fail to see that a species 
of force, definite and inherent, passed away from each of 
these odorous bodies or remained in them for a longer or 
shorter time. This force I name the velocity of the odour, 
or, in other words, the force of volatility. Now I find a 
relation between this force of volatility and the manner in 
which an odorous substance affects the sense of smell. I do 
not pretend to say that a body possessing a large force of 
volatility will affect the organs of smell in a different way 
from another body with a lower force of volatility. I know 
that there are volatile bodies, ex. gr., mercury and water, 
which have no smell ; a phaenomenon owing chiefly to the 
circumstance that their vapours are not' soluble in the secre- 
tions which lubricate the nasal membranes. But I do main- 
tain that substances which are exhaled naturally, or are 
extracted from plants or animals, and are recognised as 
odorous bodies, affect the olfactory nerves in direct propor- 
tion to their force of volatility, or the velocity, of the odour, 
because it acts upon the odour of any body so far as this 
body is soluble in the pituitary secretion. 

The force of volatility, or the velocity of the odour, 
cannot, consistently with the context, be defined and explained 
as it is in the above paragraph ; and, particularly, we cannot 
say that the odours produced are in a direct ratio with the 
solubility of the vapours in the liquid arising from the pitui- 
tary secretion. For the vapour of water is certainly soluble 


in this secretion^ and is inodorous. It would be mofe correct 
to say that the force of volatility of essences, or the rapidity 
with which they evaporate, would always be in proportion to 
the velocity of the vibrations produced, or the rapidity with 
which the odorous waves might be propagated. If this 
velocity were not high enough, there would be no perceptible 
odour ; just as with sounds, which remain inaudible unless 
they correspond to at least sixty vibrations per second. The 
liquid which lubricates the olfactory membrane, necessary for 
the perception of odours, would have as its function to 
increase the sensitiveness of the nerves, and thus render them 
more susceptible of odours. 

Thus bodies possessing a very low degree of volatility are 
those known as strong odours ; those, on the contrary, 
which have a high degree of volatility, are feeble and delicate 
odours. In this respect we note an analogy between odours 
and sounds. The loudest sounds are produced by sonorous 
waves which are the most slowly propagated ; and the most 
powerful odours are produced by the most slowly propagated 
odorous waves. 

In speaking even compendiously of the physiological 
action of odours, it is needful to remind the reader of the 
distinction existing between substances which irritate 
the nerves of the sense of touch and those which convey 
the impression of odours to the olfactory nerves. For cer- 
tain solid substances, when pulverised, such as glass dust, 
soap powder, snuff, and some of the gases, ex. gr., chlorine, 
ammonia, &c., stimulate the pituitary membrane. The effects 
produced by these substances are those of a hoAy touched, not 
of a body smelt. 

In other words, we must not confound the local mecha- 
nical action more or less irritating of certain bodies on the 
pituitary membrane with that of odours properly so called on 
the nerves of smell. 


After a long series of experiments, the details of which 
would be out of place here, I have succeeded in drawing up a 
table of the degrees of volatility of odours, which' indicates 
pretty nearly their relative strength. It will be of service to 
perfumers, guiding them, when mixing perfumes, in their 
selection in each case of such as are of different or equal 
degrees of volatility. 

Volatility and Strength of Odours. 

Water . i.cwoo 

Essence of elder 0.2850 

Citron 0.2480 

Portugal 0.2270 

English lavender 0.0620 

French lavender 0.0610 

Bergamot 0.0550 

Parsley 0.0370 

Petit grain neroli 0.0330 

English thyme 0.0220 

Lemongrass 0.0170 

Spanish geranium 0.0106 

French geranium 0.0074 

Calamus . . ^ 0.0069 

English lemon thyme 0.0062 

Essence of Turkey roses 0.005 " 

English bay 0.0039 

Essence of French roses 0.0038 

Clove 0.0035 

Cedar 0.0020 

Patchouly o.ooio 

With respect to the chemical constitution of essences, I 
have recently establi.shed an important fact ; namely, that in 
many cases the essence obtained from flowers by distillation 
is not identical with the perfume exhaled by the living 

The vapour of water acts chemically on an essence. It 
increases the primitive quantity of hydrogen, and diminishes 
the normal proportion of oxygen by producing carbonic acid. 


For the most part, freshly distilled essences slightly re- 
produce the perfume of the flowers from which they are 
extracted, and later on recall it more perfectly, owing to the 
oxidising influence of the air. 

Certain essences, neroli for example, do not smell like the 
flower which yields them. But in the process known as 
enfleurage — that is to say, when we efiect the absorption of 
the fresh odour of orange flowers by a fatty body, and then 
by means of alcohol withdraw the odorous principle from 
such body, separating it afterwards from the alcohol by 
distillation — we obtain a neroli, the odour of which is 
precisely the same as that of the flower. In this process 
there is no intervention of watery vapour to destroy the 

It is certain that the neroli thus obtained reproduces the 
actual smell of orange flowers ; while that obtained by dis- 
tillation has an entirely different smell, recalling the smell of 
freshwater fish. 

It has been demonstrated by the very interesting re- 
searches of several chemists, and particularly by those of 
MM. Blanchet and Sell, Deville and others, that essences 
enter into definite combinations with water, their physical 
properties and especially their odour being at the same time 
modified. But it happens likewise that essences are chemi- 
cally modified by water. Neroli thus differs altogether in 
properties and in composition, not only from the essence of 
orange flowers extracted by enfleurage or by sulphuret of 
carbon, but also from the same essence isolated from water 
distilled from orange flowers by means of ether. We are 
obliged, therefore, to recognise a great difference between 
neroli and the essence of orange flowers properly so called; 
and it is probable, indeed, that the solid crystallisable oil 
extracted from neroli by Plisson, and to which he gave the 
name of auratte, is really a hydrate. It is manifest that 


essences when exposed to contact with the air are oxidised, 
and take the form of resins. 

I have resorted to the process of enfleurage for the purpose 
of obtaining several very rare essences, and others which had 
not previously been isolated, such as those of tuberose, 
jasmine, acacia, and violet. In a chemical point of view 
these esserices possess a very high interest ; and I am study- 
ing them at the present time. 

.1 believe that any two bodies which have the same odour 
are the same. In fact, two bodies differing in composition 
have not the same odour ; and if it be so, I am in hope soon 
to extract essence of violet from iris root, which has exactly 
the same odour. . 

Nevertheless, this principle of identity of odour and of 
physical properties in bodies agreeing in chemical composi- 
tion is far from being absolute. We could cite numerous 
examples of the contrary among the substances which are 
called by chemists isomeric ; but we shall confine ourselves to 
mentioning athyl-formic ether and methyl- acetic ether, 
which contain the same elements and in the same proportions, 
and which nevertheless possess quite different odours. The 
great group of hydro-carbonated essences likewise presents 
many examples of these singular facts. 

Dr. Gladstone and the Rev. F. P. Dale have been engaged 
in researches on the optical properties of various essences ; 
and as their results may be useful, I feel bound to give them a 
place in these pages. In the table printed on p. 40 are given 
the physical properties of raw essences, their specific gravity 
at a temperature of I5°.S, indices of refraction for the rays 
A D and H (or G, when the yellow tint of the liquid renders 
H indistinguishable), and their rotatory force in the plane of 
polarisation. The last-named property is given for a tube 
o™. 25 in length. Whenever it was necessary for any reason 
to employ a shorter tube, the requisite reduction has been 



made. Thus essence of fennel leaf was actually observed in 
a tube of O". 125, in which it gives 103° right-hand rotation^ 
but it has been inserted as giving 206°. A solution of the 
same length, composed of equal weights of cane sugar and 
water, gives a rotation of 105°. Temperature also was 
observed in all the later experiments of this kind ; but the 
results are not inserted here, because another column must 
have been added ; a difference of a few degrees appears 
to make a scarcely appreciable change in the rotatory force of 
the essences which were the subjects of the investigation. 

Optical Properties of Essences. 

Indices of Refraction 




Crude Essences 



at i5°-5 






Anise .... 


I -5433 



— I 

Victoria sassafras 






+ 7 







- 6 

Bergamot . 





1.4779 G. 

+ 23 

Florence bergamot 





1. 4760 G. 

-1- 40 

Birch bark . 



I -485 1 

1. 492 1 


+ 38 






1-4778 , 







+ 43'5 

Hamburg calamus 





1-5 144 

-f 42 ? 

Caraway . 



1. 460 1 



+ 63 

Hamburg caraway ist 







— 2nd dist. 





Cascarilla . 






+ 26 






1.6243 G. 








+ 3 




1.467 1 

I -473 1 



Balm-mint . 






- 4 ■ 

Penang balm-mint 






- I 

Clove .... 






— 4 

Coriander , 






-1- 21 ? 














Elder .... 
Eucalyptus amygdali- 






+ 14-5 

nus .... 





1. 5021 


Oily eucalyptus . 



1. 466 1 



+ 4 



Indices of Refraction 

Crude Essences 


at 15°. s 







Indian Geranium 





1.4868 G. 

- 4 

Lavender . 






- 20 













- 3 ? 

Penang andropogon . 






Melaleuca ericifolia . 





1. 4901 

+ 26 

— linarifolia 






+ 11 

Mint . 





1.501 5 G. 


— . 






- 13 


891 1 





+ 21 













1.4835 G. 

+ IS 

— . 




I -474 1 

1.483 IF. 

+ 28 







+ 44 

Penang nutmeg 






+ 9 



20 . 




+. 32 ? 

Florence orange 

-peel . 






+ 216 







- 9 

Patchouly . 

955 + 





Penang patchouly 






— 120 

French patchouly 





1.5202 F. 

. — 







- 72 

Florence peppermint . 






- 44 

Petit grain . 






+ 26 

Rose . 






- 7 

Rosemary . 






+ 17 

Rosewood . 






- 16 



24 . 




- 50 






1.4909 G. 

Turpentine . 


13 • 




- 79 




I -479 1 



- 7 




1.5 163 



+ 3 

Absinthe . 



1.463 1 



This table shows that in the specific gravity of these 
crude essences there is hardly any perceptible variation, this 
property being in most cases O G. The index of refraction 
for the greater number of them falls for A between 1.46 and 
1.5, the length of the spectrum, which is the difference between 
the indices of refraction of H and A, or ti^-y^^, being 
generally about 0.028. But the essences of parsley, sassafras,; 
myrrh, winter-green, clove, anise, and cassia, appear to have 



more refracting and dispersive power, and at the same time to 
have a higher specific gravity. The essence of cajeput has 
less influence on rays of light than any other. 

The column of circular polarisation, on the other hand, re- 
veals the greatest differences among these essences in degree 
and direction of rotation. But I doubt whether this character- 
istic can be much relied on for distinguishing essences ; for it is 
found that the rotation of different samples of the same essence 
varies considerably, and this not only in the crude state, but 
even when the operation is conducted on pure hydrocarburets. 

Name of Essences 




of Re- 

Essence of bitter almonds . 

+ 12 




„ pure aspic .... 

+ 12 

= + 3.30 

„ bergamot . . . . 

+ 12 


= +18.45 


„ camomile .... 

+ 12 


= + 48.80 


„ Chinese cinnamon 

+ 12 




„ Ceylon cinnamon 

+ 12 




„ caraway .... 

+ 12 


+ 87.33 


„ cedra 

+ 12 


+ 88.88 


„ lemon 

+ 12 


+ 87.05 


copaiva . . . . 

+ 12 



„ fennel 

+ 12 


+ 8.13 


juniper . . . . 

+ 12 


- 14-79 

I -495 

„ clove 

+ 12 




„ lavender . . . . 

+ 12 




„ English peppermint . 


- 34-29 


„ French peppermint 



„ penny- royal. 

+ 25.07 

„ nutmegs .... 
„ neroli 



+ 34-28 
+ 10.25 


„ orange (Paris flowers) . 




„ (flowers of the South) 





3J »•'... 




„ petit grain . . . . 

+ 20.47 

„ Portugal . . . . 


+ 105.20 

„ rosemary .... 

„ sandalwood citrine 

„ sassafras .... 

+ 12 



+ 14.67 

+ 2.45 


,, sage 




„ turpentine .... 






Nevertheless, it may be possible to avail ourselves of 
some of these physical characters for detecting the fraudulent 
mixture of essences. Thus, by addition of the essence of 
turpentine, specific gravity would in almost all cases be 
diminished, and the spectrum shortened. On the other hand, 
the essence of pure bergaqiot has a feeble refraction, certainly 
more feeble than the mixtures frequently sold under its 
name. The index of refraction of D has been purposely 
included in the above table, because this ray can always be 
obtained from daylight, or more conveniently from the flame 
spirit of wine combined with a salt. Any instrument-maker 
might easily devise a simple apparatus for thus testing 
samples of essences. 

These crude essences have been submitted to fractional 
distillation in order to separate their constituent principles. 
The hydrocarburets thus rectified had, moreover, been purified 
by repeated distillation with sodium. This alkaline metal 
generally combines with oxydated essences to form a resinous 
non -volatile substance ; but it is impossible to assert that a 
new hydrocarburet is ever yielded. Some of these com- 
pounds containing oxygen — for example, those of different 
species of melaleuca — may be distilled with sodium without 
undergoing any change. 

The figures contained in the preceding table differ widely 
from those obtained by M. Buignet.' These differences 
depend on the degrees of purity of the essences. Those used 
in the experiments of the learned professor of the school of 
pharmacy, having been prepared by himself, his results are 
entitled to our confidence. We may remark, however, that 
in the preceding table the operations were conducted at vari- 
able temperatures ; while the results given in the following 
table were obtained for all the operations at -I- 13°. 

• Journal de Pharmacie el de Chimie, 3rd series, 1861. Vol. xi., pp. 261, 
64, and 331. 



M. Buignet extended his experiments to the fixed oils. 
As these are frequently employed in perfumery, and as theif 
physical and optical properties are but little known, we give 
below the results of M. Buignet's experiments, adding to 
them the statement of densities. 

Names of Oils 

of sweet almonds 
bitter almonds 

colza . 
beech-nut . 
cod-liver (golden) 
„ (white) . 

skate . 

flax . . . 
black mustard 
rape seed 
walnut . 
olives . 

fish . 
castor-oil plant 


0.918+ 15 




Index of Re- 
A+ 22° 
for the Green 


I -475 

1. 48 1 


1. 48 1 

• I.48I 


1. 48 1 


, Force 

A +15° 

for the Red 


(a)r=o . 



O .. 

— 0.20 



+ 3.63 

From this table it appears that for the fixed oils, castor oil 
excepted, the rotatory force is nil. Of this fact we can avail 
ourselves for the recognition of certain frauds ; for example, 
the adulteration of copaiva with castor oil. On the other 
hand, almost the whole series of essences possess a rotatory 
force, with which it is very interesting to compare their 

All the essences of the aurantiacea are right-handed, and 
in the highest degree, and essences derived from the different 
parts of one and the same plant are quite different. The 
essences of labiated plants, with the exception of rosemary, 


cause the plane of polarisation to deviate towards the left ; 
and essences from plants of the genera mentJia and lavatidula 
do not act in the same direction as those of peppermint and 

The essences of caraway and fennel, derived from 
the fruits of two umbellifercB, are both right-handed ; and 
the essences of turpentine and juniper, both coniferce, act 
in the same direction. But, strange to say, the essence of 
common turpentine from Pinus Tceda acts in a reverse direc- 

Scents, like sounds, appear to influence the olfactory nerve 
in certain definite degrees. There is, as it were, an octave of 
odours like an octave in music ; certain odours coincide, like 
the keys of an instrument. Such as almond, -heliotrope, 
yariilla, and clematis blend together, each .producing different 
degrees of a nearly similar impression. Again, we have 
citron, lemon, orange peel, and verbei\a, forming a highei 
octave of smells, which blend in a similar manner. The 
analogy, is completed by what we are pleased to call ^emi- 
odours, such as. rose and rose-geranium for the half note; 
petty grain, neroli, a black key, followed by fleur d' orange. 
Then we have patchouly, santalwood and vitivert, and rnany 
others running into each other. ' Chambers's Journal,' review- 
ing the first edition of this work, says, in reference to this 
remark of ours, thatr— . - 

We know that music depends upon a fixed mathematical law, not 
invented by man, but existing in nature. Nature is not a prodigal in her 
pperations— she is no waster of power : the better .she is understood, the 
more simple she appears ; and there is nothing, therefore, contrary to 
sound reason in the idea, that the whole of the pleasures of the sense of 
smell will be found to depend upon cogilate laws. 

From the odours already known, we may produce, by 
uniting them in proper proportion, . the smell of almost 
any flower, except jasmine. Reviewing an early edition 


of this book in 'Household Words,' July 3, 1857, Dickens 
says : — 

is jasmine, then, the mystical Meru — the centre, the Delphi, the 
Omphalos of the floral world ? Is it the point of departure — the one un- 
approachable and indivisible unit of fragrance ? Is jasmine the Isis of 
flowers, with veiled face and covered feet, to be loved of all, yet dis- 
covered by none ? Beautiful jasmine ! If it be so, the rose ought to be 
dethroned, and the Inimitable enthroned queen in her stead. Revolutions 
and abdications are exciting sports ; suppose we create a civil war among 
the gardens, and crown the jasmine empress and queen of all ? 

The odours of some flowers resemble others so nearly, 
that we are almost induced to believe them to be the same 
thing, or at least, if not evolved from the plant as such, 
to become so by the action of the air-oxidation. It is 
known that some actually are identical in composition, 
although piroduced from totally different plants., such as 
camphor, turpentine, rosemary. Hence we may presume 
that chemistry will sooner or later produce one from the 
other, for with many it is merely an atom of water or an 
atom of oxygen that causes the difference. It would be 
a grand thing to produce otto of roses from oil of rose- 
mary, or from the rose geranium oil ; and theory indicates 
its possibility. 

The essential oil of almonds in a bottle that contains 
a good deal of air-oxygen, and but a very little of 
the oil, spontaneously passes into an inodorous body, ben- 
zoic acid ; which is seen in crystals to form over the dry 
parts of the flask. This is a natural illustration of this 

To the • unlearned ' nose all odours are alike ; but when 
tutored, either for pleasure or profit, no member of the body 
is more sensitive. Wine merchants, tea brokers, drug dealers, 
tobacco importers, and many others have to go through a 
regular nasal educational course. A hop merchant buries 


his nose into a pocket, takes a sniff, and then sets his price 
upon the bitter flower. 

The odours have to be remembered, and it is noteworthy 
here to remark with what persistence odours do fix themselves 
upon the memory ; and were it not for this remembrance of 
an odour, the merchants in the trades above indicated would 
so6n be at fault. An experienced perfumer will have two 
hundred odours in his laboratory, and can distinguish every 
one by name. Could a musician, with an instrument of two 
hundred notes, distinguish and name any note struck, without 
his seeing the instrument .' 

In the following gamut I have endeavoured to place the 
name of the odour in its position corresponding to its effect 
upon our olfactory sense. 

I have purposely chosen those odours which are more 
especially used in perfumery ; but I wish it to be understood 
that all odours, from whatever source derived, may be simi- 
larly classified. I know of no odour in a chemical laboratory 
— and they are pretty numerous — to which I could not assign 
its corresponding key. 

There are odours to which neither sharps nor flats are 
known, and there are otTiers which would almost form a 
gamut in themselves by their variety of differences. The 
most numerous class of odours in nature are of the lemon 

If a perfumer desires to make a bouquet from primitive 
odours, he must take such odours as chord together ; the 
perfume will then be harmonious. In passing the eye down 
the gamut it will be seen what is a harmony and what is a dis- 
cord of smells. As an artist would blend his colours, so must 
a perfumer blend his scents. 

In making several perfumes for choice they must be so 
mixed as to form a contrast when side by side. 







■ w 















F Civet. 

E Verbena. 

D Citronella. 

C Pineapple. 

B Peppermint. 

A Lavender. 

G Magnolia. 

F Ambergris. 

E Cedrat. 

D Bergamot. 

C Jasmine. 

B Mint. 

A Tonquin Bean. 

G Syringa. 

F Jonquille. 

E Portugal. 

D Almond. 

C Camphor. 

B Southernwood. 

A Vernal Grass (new Hay). 

G Orange Flower. 

F Tuberose. 

E ^cacia. 

D Violet. 











C Rose. 

B Cinnamon. 

A Tolu. 

G Sweet Pea. 

F Musk. 

E Orris. 

D Heliotrope. 

C Geranium. 

B Stocks and Pinks. 

A Balsam of Peru. 

G Pergalaria. 

F Castor. 

E Calamus. 

D Clematis. 

C Santal. 

B Clove. 

A Storax. 

G Plumeria Alba (Frangipanni Plant) 

F Benzoin. 

E Wallflower. 

D Vanilla. 

C Patchouly. 



The complementary of vanilla is citronella. The following 
recipes will give an idea how to make a bouquet according 
to the laws of harmony : — 


G Pergalaria. 

G Sweet Pea. 

D Violet. 

F Tuberose. 

G Orange Flower. 

B Southernwood. 

Bouquet of chord G. 


C Santal. 

C Geranium. 

E Acacia. 

G Orange Flower. 

C Camphor. 

Bouquet of chord C. 


F Musk. 

C Rose. 

F Tuberose. 

A Tonquin Bean. 

C Camphor. 

F Jonquil. 

Bouquet of chord F. 


In making a bouquet, every primitive odour must be 
brought to some standard of strength, or ' power of odour.' 
Thus, the standard of spirit of roses is, three ounces of otto 
rose to one gallon of spirit. But the standard of geranium is 
eight ounces of otto geranium to one gallon of spirit — the 
ottos differing in ' power of odour ' as three is to eight. Elec- 
tricians make a clear difference between ' intensity ' and 
' quantity ; ' verbena may be cited as indicating the former, 


vanilla as the latter. Camphor is three times more intense 
than rose. 

There is a property in sound and in light, says Sir 
David Brewster, too remarkable to be passed without notice. 
' Two loud sounds may be made to produce silence, and two 
strong lights may be made to produce darkness.' 

A similar analogy exists in the most powerful odours. 

Concentrated ammonia and concentrated acetic acid neutralise 

each other, and produce an inodorous body. It will be said, 

here is chemical combination,— admitted ; but the odours, 

now lost, can be readily reproduced in their natural potency. 

Several of our poets have been singularly happy in their 

allusions to the analogy which exists between music and 

odour. Thus Keats says : — 

Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard 
Are sweeter. 

Again Shelley sang thus : — - 

The hyacinth, purple, and white, and blue, 
Which flung from its bells a sweet peal anew 
Of music so delicate, soft, and intense. 
It was felt like an odour within the sense ! 

Who does not remember the line in Shakspeare : — 

It fell upon mine ear 

Like the sweet south, stealing and giving odour. 

See also Calder Campbell's lines, 'A fragrant orchestra,' p. 147. 

Professor Newman has remarked that there is a point at which all 
sciences osculate. This becomes more apparent daily. The chemist 
must be a mathematician ; so must the thorough musician. Optics have 
lately come to the aid of chemistry ; and the most recent discovery, the 
metal thaUium, revealed itself to our knowledge by a line of intense gieen 
light upon the spectrum. Thus, again, chemistry aids astronomy ; the 
spectrum analysis, dealing with the solar and stellar light, enables us at 
least to conjecture what elements exist in other spheres of the universe. 
What shall we say of Piesse's theory, which finds close analogy between 
scents and musical notes ? 

E 2 


'There is a "continuity" pervading the universe; everything gives 
proof of it.' These were the words of Judge Grove when he was President 
of the British Association. This is clearly but another expression of my 
argument — that there is a union between the senses of taste and smell 
on one hand, and between sound and smell on the other, vifhich in- 
dicates their 'continuity.' 

Where there are disagreeable odours, and it is at the same 
time impossible to get rid of them by an air current, the best 
neutraliser is another odour. For this purpose, and with what 
beneficial result brown paper is burned now and then in our 
homes, is well known. 

In this way the cadaverous odours of our old cathedrals 
and abbeys, formerly used as burial-places, were overcome 
with the vapour of incense ; not merely masked, as some 
persons assert, but neutralised by combination. 

Pestiferous emanations are all of an alkaline, if not am- 
moniacal character, and readily combine with the products of 
slow combustion, all of which are acid, or have an acid char- 
acter in their chemical reactions. Those subtle emanations 
which engender disease, whether derived from the malarious 
swamp, or as effete matter from the lungs of a disordered 
person, are at once destroyed by the odorous vapours result- 
ing from slow combustion. 

To us it appears that the phenomenon of disinfection by 
gases, vapours, or products of combustion, is a far more com- 
plex process, and that it is difficult to make a satisfactory 
generalisation on the subject. In some cases all that is done 
is the dispersion of a bad odour by a wholesome one, or by 
one less bad ; but then there is no disinfection properly so 
called. It is simply the temporary displacement of one odour 
by another. In other cases, real chemical combinations take 
place between different odorous bodies, and new inodorous 
compounds are produced ; as, for example, the saturation of 
ammonia by acetic acid, or that of the sulphydrate of am- 


monia by sulphate of iron. Or again there may be a con- 
densation of odorous bodies by porous bodies, as in the case 
of charcoal. But in some cases the odorous substances are 
completely destroyed. This appears to be effected by 
chlorine, nitrous vapours, &c. Lastly, there are some an- 
tiseptic agents which act by exhausting or diminishing the 
source of infection. 

Benzoin is the principal ingredient in all the vended 
combustions for sweet fumigation. This yields by heat the 
highly volatile benzoic acid : in default of having matter with 
which it can combine, it will, when diffused in a house, cling 
to the walls and penetrate every nook and cranny. 

From what we have just said it follows that the odorous 
body in this case is not benzoic acid itself, but some peculiar 
essential or fatty matter which accompanies the combustion 
of benzoin. 

Fever may have its own in one chamber ; but it will rarely 
penetrate another room, even in the same house, if there be 
an occasional sacrifice of incense. 

The smell of burning flesh is most revolting,— no wonder 
the Romans burnt incense at the funeral pile. 

Perhaps it was the bad smell of a burning heretic that 
induced us to quench the martyrs' fire ; for England had no 
incense in those days. 

Here, again, the phenomenon of disinfection is complex. 
The burning of incense or of other analogous bodies, for the 
purpose of disinfection, acts in one of the following ways :— 
1st, by producing aromatic vapours which mask the ill 
odours ; 2nd, by setting up a current of air and thereby a 
slight ventilation ; 3rd, by producing various acids which 
may neutralise the infectious bodies, gaseous, alkaline, or at 
least basic ; or 4th, by forming aromatic products which 
prevent the fresh formation of infectious products. 

Recent researches, especially those of Professor Mante- 


gazza, communicated to the Institute of Lombardy, would 
seem to show that the ancients, after all, were by no means 
tollowing merely imaginative or superstitious speculations 
in the practice they adopted of attempting, by the free use 
of odoriferous substances, to guard themselves against the 
attack of infectious diseases. This subject was deemed of 
sufficient importance to be referred to in the opening remarks 
of the presiding chairman of the public health section of the 
recent British Medical Association, and as one deserving of 
careful study. Whether we shall, however, ever recur to the 
practice of Acron, of Agrigentum, and other followers of 
Empedocles, the physicist who not only used aromatic and 
balsamic herbs as preventives of pestilence, oftentimes plant- 
ing them in abundance, for that purpose, round their cities, or 
adopt a similar course to that followed in a plague that once 
devastated Italy, when, acting on the advice of the faculty of 
the day, strangers crowding into Rome retreated to Lauretum, 
now San Laurenzo, that by a cooler atmosphere and by the 
odour of laurel they might escape the chance of infection, we 
cannot pretend to say. But it would really seem that we 
may, with increased confidence, rely upon our camphor bags, 
our lavender bundles, and the like, for Mantegazza says that 
in the oxidation of the essences of odoriferous plants a large 
quantity of ozone is evolved, at least as much as is generated 
by electricity or phosphorus, the ozone being developed by 
the direct action of the sun's rays, and in some cases whilst 
this commences in solar light it continues in the dark. The 
plants which give most ozone readily are cherry-laurel, clove, 
and lavender; among herbs, the narcissus, hyacinth, and 
mignionette; and amongst perfumes, eau Hongroise, oil of 
bergamot, and certain aromatic tinctures. The cultivation 
of herbs and odorous flowers, ' in marshy districts and in 
places infected with animal emanations,' is the advice which 
Mantegazza gives. 


Although tastes do differ, yet is worthy perhaps of being 
recorded — namely, that the scents which are most liked by 
youth are of lower bass note, while that of age prefer the 
upper treble. 

There are notably many persons who are Anosmic ; that 
is, wanting the power of smelling : to such all odours are alike. 
' Noses have they, but they smell not ;' they resemble persons 
who are deaf because they cannot hear, or others blind be- 
cause they cannot see. Anosmia is far more prevalent from 
the habit of not using the nose as a faculty than from its 
original purpose. On the other hand, there are persons who are 
Hyper-Osmic, that is, very sensitive to smelling. Of such are 
the Kingdom of Fragrance and the Earthly Sanitary inspec- 
tors of nuisances. 


All those materials, which are distinguished in ordinary con- 
versation as earths, give out. a peculiar and characteristic odour 
immediately they are wetted with water. Every pedestrian 
on the high-road in the country, during the summer months, 
b'eing ' caught in a shower,' must have remarked the delightful 
fragrance that fills the air a few minutes after the rain has 
fallen, and then passes away. When chalk, or rather whiting, 
is mixed with water, an odour is evolved which is very per- 
sistent, but by no means fragrant to every nose ; again, oxides 
of iron, manganese, and many other bodies in the category of 
earthy substances, give out odour when wetted. At present 
we can do no more than simply record the fact, without 
entering into speculation as to the cause of these phenomena, 
without indeed it be of a negative kind, in stating that these 
odours are certainly not due to any matter in the water prior 
to its touching the earth, for the same result has been noticed 
when the purest distilled water has been used for the purpose 
of the experiment ; neither can the observation be confined 


solely to earth and water, for when hydrochloric acid is poured 
on to oxide of zinc, there is a pleasant odour given out, as 
a by-product of the combination which then takes place 
between the acid and zinc, or more probably by the 
formation of a new hydrocarbon between the H of the HCl 
and the minute portion of C or of As found in commercial 

The disengagement of these odours from the earths is 
owing to the presence of organic matters, or of odorous gases 
absorbed by porous earths and displaced by water. With 
respect to the odour disengaged when zinc is treated with 
hydrochloric acid, the explanation may be various, according 
to circumstances. 


Gmelin has with great accuracy expounded all that was 
known in his day about the composition of essences. Since 
that time these bodies have been studied by a great number 
of chemists, among whom we may name MM. Bonastre, Piria, 
Cahours, DeviUe, Berthelot, Chaulard, &c. 

The study of the colouring matter of essences has led me 
to the discovery of a body which I have named azulene. The 
facts ascertained respecting it are the following. 

It is generally known that the essences or essential oils 
of vegetable bodies are characterised by particular colours, 
— yellow, blue, green, brown, or white, i.e. colourless. 

In my investigations respecting the substances to which 
these colours are owing, I have, I believe, discovered their 
nature, and I will here set forth the particulars established. 
The most interesting among them is the blue substance 
which colours the essence of camomile, for it reappears in 
other volatile oils, and imparts to them a green colour under 
the disguise of a yellow resin, which occurs also in the green 


volatile oils. "When the blue essence of camomile is sub- 
mitted to fractional distillation, it is easy to separate the 
colourless hydrocarbon of anthemidine ' from the blue colour, 
because the latter requires a much higher temperature for its 
vaporisation than the former. 

By the fractional distillation of the essence of wormwood, 
or of absinthe, I obtain first an almost colourless hydro- 
carbon ; at the third fractionnement, an oil of a fine green 
colour, which, at the fifth, separates into a blue oil and a 
residuum of a yellow colour. By submitting to fractional 
distillation some essence of patchouly distilled from the leaves 
of the Indian plant, Pogostemon Patchouly, I likewise obtain 
first a colourless hydrocarbon ; afterwards, but not till the 
eleventh fractionnement, a fine blue oil and a yellow brown 
residuum. The necessity for so many fractional repetitions 
for the separation of the blue oil arises from the fact that 
the boiling points of the patchouly hydrocarbon, of the blue 
oil and of the resin, are all very high, and very nearly the 

The essence of bergamot, extracted from the rind of the 
fruit of Citrus Bergamo, and the essence o{ Andropogon SchcE- 
nanthus (Ceylon lemon grass) when treated in the same way, 
yield small quantities of this blue substance. 

On several occasions, when rectifying the blue liquid 
extracted from these various essences, I have succeeded in 
freeing it from all foreign substances and in bringing it to a 
state of perfect purity. It then boils at a temperature of 302° 
centigr. ; and its specific gravity is 0.910. When raised to 
boiling point it gives out a dense vapour of a blue colourj 
which presents som.e special characteristics to the eye. This 
substance I have named azidene (from azure). The analysis 
of azulene gives the following formula : — 

' The principle of the essence of camomile (Anthemis noHlis). 














Or CH'^ + HO. 

The yellow colouring matter which gives its tinge to 
various essences appears to be an oxidised part of them. 
In almost all cases, essences, though colourless immediately 
after their extraction, become yellow by lapse of time ; that is 
to say, by oxidation. This change, however, is not universal ; 
for essence of nutmeg remains colourless for a long time, 
even when air is introduced by suction. The oxidised por- 
tion of oils coloured yellow, when separated from the pure oil 
in which it is dissolved, is a real resin. As most essences 
get oxidised during distillation, it happens that their colour 
varies from pale yellow to deep red. Most essences when 
fresh — that is to say, newly distilled — are of a pale green 
colour, which indicates the presence of azulene ; but as 
oxidation proceeds, the yellow resin produced covers the 
azulene. Hence we have — 

A. Colourless essences containing neither azulene nor 

B. Yellow essences containing only resin. 

C. Blue essences containing only azulene. 

D. Brown, green, and yellow-green essences containing 
both azulene and resin in various proportions, as indicated by 
optical examination. 

It is remarkable how small a quantity of azulene is suf- 
ficient to colour an essence in which no yellow resin is present. 
The oil of camomile, the blue colour of which is familiar to 
us, contains only i per cent, of azulene. But the essence ol 
patchouly, which contains 6 per cent, and that of wormwood, 
which contains 3 per cent., do not look blue at all, in con- 
sequence of the large quantity of yellow resin present in 


them. In the fractional distillation of wormwood, at the third 
fractionnement, yellow resin and azulene are present in the 
necessary proportions for forming a green solution. This 
probably occurs also in the case of other oils known for their 
green colour, such as oil of cajeput, but these I have not yet 

The chemical examination of azulene and of the part 
which it plays in combination with odorous bodies will soon 
furnish me, I hope, with new facts, which I propose laying 
before the public. 

G. E. Sachsse says : ' — 

It is well known that most ethereal oils are colourless ; however, there 
are a great number coloured, some of which are blue, some green, and 
some yellow. Up to the present time the question has not been decided 
whether it is the necessary property of ethereal oils to have a colour, or 
whether their colour is not due to the presence of some colouring matter 
which can be removed. It is most probable that their colour arises from 
the presence of a foreign substance, as the coloured ethereal oils can at 
first, by careful distillation, be obtained colourless, whilst later the 
coloured portion passes over. Subsequent appearances lead to the solu- 
tion of the question, and are certain evidence that ethereal oils, when 
they are coloured, owe their colour to peculiar substances which, by 
certain conditions, may be communicated from one oil to another. When 
a mixture of oils of wormwood, lemons, and cloves is subjected to distil- 
lation, the previously green-coloured oil of wormwood passes over, at the 
commencement, colourless ; while, towards the end of the distillatioii, 
after the receiver has been frequently charged, the oil of cloves distils 
over in very dense drops of a dark green colour. It therefore appears 
that the green colouring macter of the oil of wormwood has been trans- 
ferred to the oil of cloves. 

' Zeitschrift fiir Pharmacie. 



Were not summer's distillations left 

A liquid prisoner, pent in walls of glass, 

Beauty's effect of beauty were bereft, 

Nor it, nor no remembrance what it was ; 

But flowers distilled, though they with winter meet, 

Lease but their show, their substance still lives sweet. 


FLOWERS yield perfumes in all climates, but those 
growing in the warmer latitudes are most prolific in 
their odour, while those from the colder are the sweetest. 
Hooker, in his travels in Iceland, speaks of the delightful fra- 
grance of the flowers in the valley of Skardsheidi : we know 
that winter-green violets and primroses are found here, and 
the wild thyme in great abundance. Mr. Louis Piesse, in 
company with Captain Sturt, exploring the wild regions of 
South Australia, writes : — ' The rains have clothed the earth 
with a green as beautiful as a Shropshire meadow in May, 
and with flowers, too, as sweet as an English violet ; the pure 
white anemone resembles it in scent. The yellow wattle, 
when in flower, is splendid, and emits a most fragrant odour.' 
A writer in Upper Canada says : — 

By the way, I send you herewith a withe or two of our ' Indian grass,' 
whose delicious scent you will not fail to remark. . . . You have nothing 
of the kind in England to compare with it, and I wonder your perfumers 
do not use it. It's very plentiful here. 

Every country and clime offers up its ripened odours from the earth 
to the Most High. The mighty and majestic Alps are redolent with 


.choicest aromatics ; the frigid zone is sumptuous with ralrest perfumes j 
Jtliat wrinkled and garrulous old grey-beard, Ocean, lavishes up ambergris 
.on his sands ; the hottest region, the torrid zone, regales the senses with 
their concentrated volatile spirits, constituting the delicious aroma ai 
their divers products, unknown to chyrriical analyses. — Forster Ker. 

Though many of the finest perfumes come from the East 
Indies, Ceylon, Mexico, and Peru, the South of Europe is the 
only real garden of utility to the perfumer. Grasse,' Cannes,^ 
and Nice are the principal seats of the art ; from their 
geographical position, the grower, within comparatively short 
distances, has at command that change of climate best fitted 
to bring to perfection the plants required for his trade. On 
the seacoast, his cassie grows without fear of frost, one night 
of which would destroy all the plants for a season ; while, 
nearer the mountains of the Estrelle (at the foot of the Alps), 
his violets are found sweeter than if grown in the warmer 
situations, where the' orange tree and the tuberose bloom to 
perfection. England can claim superiority in the growth of 

' Grasse is situated twelve miles nortli of Cannes, rising considerably from the 
■sea up the Estrelle Mountains. It contains a population of about 12,000. Here 
is situated the great perfumery works of MM. Pilar, freres. 

2 Cannes, or Cagnes, is a small seaport on the Mediterranean, at the S.E. 
extremity of France. Here Napoleon I. landed from Elba on the 1st of March, 
181 5. It is situated twenty-one miles from Nice, nine miles from Grasse, 120 
miles from the port of Marseilles, and fourteen miles from the Var, which till the 
cession of .Savoy by Victor Emmanuel separated France from Sardinia.- This river 
IS crossed by a loiig wooden bridge, which is not uhfr'equently washed away by 
the overwhelming torrents, which bring with them enormous masses of stone and 
other matter, ultimately received by the sea. On each side of this bridge were 
(i860) the French and Sardinian Custom-houses. Cannes is sometimes termed 
.an ' Enghsh colony,' from its having become the winter abode of several dis- 
tinguished persons, among them the Right Hon. Lord Brougham, whose residence 
is -the Chateau Eleanora Louisa,. so named after his lordship's late daughter, to 
whose memory it is dedicated, and on the subject of whose loss the most feeling 
•verses by Lord Carlisle, Marquis Wellesley, and her father, are inserted in the 
interior walls. She died at the age of seventeen, and the deep and everlasting 
devotion to her memory is a touching trait in the character of the acute lawyer and 
brilhant statesman. Here are situated the perfumery works of M. L. Herman. 
The present population of Cannes is about 8,000, 


lavender and peppermint ; the essential oils extracted from 
these plants grown at Mitcham, in Surrey, and at Hitchin, in 
Hertfordshire, realise eight times the price in the market of 
those produced in France or elsewhere, and are fully worth 
the difference for delicacy of odour. At Cannes are produced 
all the products of rose, tuberose, cassie, jasmine, and orange- 
neroli. At Nimes the cultivators direct their chief attention 
to thyme, rosemary, aspic, and lavender. At Nice the factors 
have a spicialiti for violet and r^s^da. Sicily yields lemon 
and orange, Italy orris and bergamot. 

The essence of mint prepared at the works of M. Chardin- 
Hadaucourt, near Paris, from plants cultivated over a large 
surface in the plain of Gennevilliers, combines in itself the 
qualities of delicacy and strength, characteristic of the 
Mitcham essence, and of that of the south of France. Paris 
holds also an indisputable superiority in the manufacture of 
■the essences of angelica, tarragon, hyssop, wormwood, &c. 

The odours of plants reside in different parts of them, 
sometimes in the root, as in the iris and vitivert ; the stem or 
wood, in cedar and santal ; the leaves, in mint, patchouly, 
and thyme ; the flower, in the roses and violets ; the seeds, 
in the Tonquin bean and caraway ; the bark, in cinna- 
mon, &c. 

Some plants yield more than one odour, which are quite 
distinct and characteristic. The orange-tree, for instance, 
gives three — from the leaves one caWed petit grain ; from the 
flowers we procure neroii; and from the rind of the fruit, 
essential oil of orange, named ' Portugal! On this account, 
perhaps, this tree is the most valuable of all to the operative 
perfumer. The best neroii is yielded not by the sweet orange- 
tree, but by the Seville. The essence extracted from its fruit is 
the essence of Bigarade, and not that of Portugal, which is 
derived from the sweet orange. 


The fragrance or odour of plants is owing, in nearly all 
cases, to a perfectly volatile oil, either contained in small 
vessels, or sacs, within them, or generated from time to time, 
during their life, as when in blossom. Some few exude, by 
incision, odoriferous gums, as benzoin, olibanum, myrrh, &c. ; 
others give, by the same act, what are called balsams, which 
appear to be mixtures of an odorous oil and an inodorous 
gum. Some of these balsams are procured in the country 
to which the plant is indigenous by boiling it in water for a 
time, straining, and then boiling again, or evaporating it down 
till it assumes the consistency of treacle. In this latter way 
is balsam of Peru procured from the Myroxylon peruiferum, 
and the balsam of Tolu from the Myroxylon toluiferum. 
Though these odours are agreeable, they are not much 
applied in perfumery for handkerchief use, but by some they 
are mixed with soap, and in England they^are valued more 
for their medicinal properties than for their fragrance. 

The odours of flowers are more generally secreted during 
the sunshine, or at least, in the day time ; but there are some 
which yield no odour in the day, but are very fragrant in the 
evening, such as the Cestrum nocturnum, the Lychinis vesper- 
tina, some of the Catasetum and the Cymbidium. 

There are a few flowers which receive their specific name, 
tristis, SAD, on account of their being odoriferous only at 
night ; such are Hesperis tristis, and Nyctanthes Arbor tristis. 

In an article in the 'Journal de Pharmacie,' 'by M. Recluz, 
' on the effects of the sun's rays upon the flowers of the 
Cacalia septentrionalis,' he says : — ' When the sun shines upon 
the flowers of this plant, they are odoriferous, but when the 
sun's rays are intercepted by artificial means — that is, by 
interposing the hand — their odour quickly disappears, but 
their fragrance returns as rapidly when the shade is removed.' 

Marren states, as quoted by Dr. Balfour, that the flowers 
' Page 216, 1827. 


of the Habenaria bifolia, growing near Liege, which are quite 
scentless during the day, give out a pleasant penetrating 
aroma in the evening, usually about 1 1 P.M. He found that 
the perfume manifested itself at twilight, exhibiting the 
greatest energy at the time when the darkness of night pre- 
vailed, and decreased with the dawn. Two racines of flowers 
of this orchid were placed in two cylindrical glasses filled 
with water, in which the plants were totally submerged ; one 
glass was placed in the sunshine, the other in the shade. As 
evening came on, a delicious aroma became evident, and was 
emitted during the night, but disappeared at sunrise. These 
experiments induced Marren to come to the conclusion that 
the odour of flowers depends on some physiological cause, and 
not on the evaporation of particles, nor the accumulation of 
them in parts of the plants where they have their origin. He 
found that aromatic orchids, such as \}ae Marillaria aromatica, 
lost their perfume half an hour after the application of pollen 
had been artificially made, and that the unfertilised flowers 
retained their odour the longest time. 

M. Trinchinetti, who has also experimentalised on the 
odours of plants, divides odoriferous flowers into two classes : — 

I. Those in which the intermission of odour is connected 
with the opening and closing of the flower ; and in this class 
there are two subdivisions. 

A. Flowers which are closed and scentless during the day, 
and are open and odoriferous at hight, such as Mirahilis 

jalapa, M. dichotomy, M. longiflora. Datura ceratocaiila, 
Nyctanthes Arbor tristis, Cereus grutidiflcrus, C. nycticalus, 
C. serpentinus, Mesembryanthemum noctifiot'um, and some 
species of Silene. 

B. Flowers which are closed and scentless during the 
night, and are open and odoriferous during the day, such as 
Convulvulus arvensis, Cuturbita P-epo, Nyjnphma alba, and 
Nymphc^a ccerttlea. 


2. Flowers which are always open, but which are 
odoriferous at one time and scentless at another. Under 
this class there are two sections : — 

A. Flowers always open, and only odoriferous during the 
day, such as Cestrum dinrnum, Caronilla glauca, and Cacalia 

B. Flowers always open, but only fragrant at night, such 
as Pelargonium triste, Cestrum nocturnum, Hesperis tristis, 
and Gladiolus tristis. 

The exudation of odours by nocturnal flowers sometimes 
takes place in a peculiarly intermittent manner. Thus, in the 
night-blooming Cereus {Cereus grandiflorus), the flowers are 
fragrant only at intervals, giving out puffs of odour every half 
hour, from eight in the evening till midnight. Balfour,' or 
the authority of Marren, states that on one occasion the 
flowers began to expand at six o'clock in the evening, when 
the first fragrance was perceptible in the hot-house. A quarter 
of an hour afterwards, the first puff" of odour took place, after 
a rapid motion of the calyx ; at twenty-three minutes past 
six there was another powerful emanation of fragrance ; by 
thirty-five minutes past six the flowers were completely 
open ; at a quarter to seven the odour of the calyx was the 
strongest, but modified by the petals ; after this time the 
emanation of odour took place at the same periods as before. 

Observations have been made by Cohler and Schiibler ^ in 
regard to odoriferous flowers as occurring in species belonging 
to certain orders in relation to their colours. They have 
formed a table of the coloured flowers, which they examined 
according to their odoriferous qualities, and the colours which 
they bear. 

As will be 'seen by the annexed table, white flowers are 
the most fragrant and pleasing to the smell, while the orange 
and brown coloured flowers are of little use to the perfumer. 
' Balfour's Class-Book of Botany. ^ Quoted by Balfour. 









White . 
Yellow . 

Green (?) 
Orange . 
Brown . 

1 193 















The Monocotyledons examined were found to contain 14 
per cent, of odoriferous species, while the Dicotyledons only 
contain 10 per cent. In the case of the natural orders 
examined, the colours were associated with the odours as 
follows : — 

Natural family 

Prevailing colour 

Odoriferous flowers 
per cent. 

Water Lily family . 

White and Yellow . 


Rose .... 

Red, Yellow, and White. 



White and Red . 


Borage . 

Blue and White 


Convolvulus . 

Red and White 


Ranunculus . 

Yellow . 

4.1 1 

Poppy .... 

Red and Yellow . 


Campanula . 

Blue . 


In laying out a garden which we may desire to please us 
by its fragrance as well as its beauty, we cannot do better 
than be guided by the above facts in the selection of flowers 
to cultivate in it, nor can those who admire the paradisiacal 
perfume of a garden at evening's close neglect the growth of 
nocturnal flowers without losing many pleasures derived from 
the particles which they throw into the ' breath of life,' so 
subtile and ethereal withal as to be beyond the material grasp 
of the chemical philosopher. ^ 

The extensive flower farms in the neighbourhood of Nice, 


in Savoy ; Montpellier, Nimes, Grasse, and Cannes, in 
France ; at Adrianople (Turkey in Europe) ; at Broussa and 
Uslak (Turkey in Asia) ; at Gazepore (India), and at Mitcham 
and Hitchin, in England, in a measure indicate the commercial 
importance of that branch of chemistry called Perfumery. 

British India and Europe consume annually, at the very 
lowest estimate, 150,000 gallons (!) of perfumed spirits, under 
various titles, such as Hungary Water, Essence of Lavender, 
Esprit de Rose, &c. The art of Perfumery does not, however, 
confine itself to the production of scents for the handkerchief 
and bath, but extends to imparting odour to inodorous bodies, 
such as soap, oil, starch, and grease, which are consumed at 
the toilette of fashion. Some idea of the commercial import- 
ance of this art may be formed, when we state that one of 
the large perfumers of Cannes, M. Herman, employs annually 
140,000 lbs. of orange flowers, 12,000 lbs. of cassie flowers, 
140,000 lbs. of rose leaves, 32,000 lbs. of jasmine blossoms, 
20,000 lbs. of violets, 8,000 lbs. of tubereuse, 16,000 lbs. of 
cassie, besides rosemary, mint, lemon, citron, thyme, and 
other odorous plants in larger proportion. In fact, the 
quantity of odoriferous substances used in this way is far 
beyond the conception of those even used to abstract 


Thirty thousand Jasmine plants will occupy an area of 
land equivalent to 1,500 metres (rather more than one-third 
of an acre), and will produce during the entire season, 1,000 
kilogrammes' of flowers. 

Five thousand Rose-tree plants will occupy 1,800 metres of 
land (nearly half an acre), and will produce 10 kilogrammes 
of rose-flowers during the season. 

One hundred Orange-trees, at the age of 10 years, will 

' The kilogramme is very nearly 2 lbs. 3 oz. 
F 2 


occupy 4,000 metres of land (one acre), and will produce, 
during the season, 1,000 kilogrammes of orange-flowers. 

Eight hundred Geranium plants will occupy 2,000 metres 
of land, the produce of which, during the season, will be 1,000 
kilogrammes of geranium-leaves. 

Violets. — S,000 metres of land (i^ acre), planted with 
violets, will produce 1,000 kilogrammes of violet-flowers during 
the season. 

Tubereuse. — 70,000 tubereuse-roots will produce 1,000 kilo- 
grammes of flowers during the season, and will require 10,000 
metres of land (2\ acre) for their culture. 

The annual produce of violet-flowers at Nice and at 
Cannes amounts to 25,000 kilogrammes (Grasse does not 
produce violets), the annual manufacture of which into oils 
and pomades is 12,000 kilogrammes ; if, however, the produce 
furnished by the different manufactures were genuine, they 
would not be able to produce more than 6,000 kilogrammes 
of the essence in its pure state from the quantity of flowers 
just mentioned. 

Nice produces 200,000 kilogrammes of orange-flowers 

The produce of orange-flowers at Cannes and the adjacent 
villages is 435,000 kilogrammes ; these are of a much superior 
quality and in every way better adapted for manufacture 
than those of Nice, which are, indeed, fit for distillation only. 

One thousand kilogrammes of orange-flowers produce 
800 grammes of pure neroli ; 600 kilogrammes of orange- 
flower leaves produce i kilogramme of pure petit grain. 

Cannes produces annually from 16,000 to 18,000 kilo- 
grammes of cassie-flowers. It may be remarked that the 
cassie-flower is a product which belongs exclusively to the 
soil of Cannes, as the tree which produces it will not grow 
to perfection either at Nice or at Grasse. The last-named 
locality is also deficient in the production of orange-trees : 


these are obtained only from Cannes for the manufacture of 
pomades, and from Nice for distillation. 

The flowers employed in the manufacture of perfumery, 
such as the rose, the jasmine, and the tubereuse, are not so 
generally cultivated at Grasse as at Cannes. 

The annual produce of Grasse and Cannes, and of the 
adjacent villages, is 40,000 kilogrammes of roses, 50,000 kilo- 
grammes of jasmine, and 10,000 kilogrammes of tubereuses. 

Algeria has for some years furnished considerable quan- 
tities, probably 6,000 kilogrammes, of essence of geranium. 
This crop is cultivated over a surface of 400 hectares 
(about 1,000 acres) in the plain of Metidja,. especially at 
Chesagas and Bouffarick. The climate is such as to admit 
of three harvests a year instead of one as in France. But 
the Algerian essence is of inferior value to that of France, 
the latter being much more delicate, and its odour recalling 
that of the rose. 

Orange-flower Water. — According to the quantity of 
orange-flowers stated to be produced at Grasse, Cannes, 
and at Nice, not more than 465,000 litres or kilogrammes of 
orange-flower water can be either manufactured or distilled in 
a pure state with the quantity of orange-flowers supplied to the 
distillers by the manufacturers of pomades ; whereas the 
adulteration of this article is so great, that upwards of 
1,000,000 kilogramme^ of spurious orange-water is exported. 
It is, therefore, highly important that the distillation of these 
flowers should be subject to a strict surveillance, 

This abuse may be remedied either by the institution of 
a commission for that purpose at Cannes, or by the appoint- 
ment of an inspector, whose office should be to examine the 
distilled waters at the moment they leave the distiller's, and 
who should be empowered to punish severely in cases in 
which leaf-water, or any other fraudulent mixture, may be 
sold by him under the name of orange-flower water. 


For my own part, it would give me great pleasure if the 
French Government, whose solicitude for all matters concern- 
ing the public good is so great, would devote its attention to 
this important subject.' 

Grasse and Cannes manufacture annually : — 


1 50,000 of pomades and scented oils. 
250 of pure otto of neroli. 
450 „ otto of petit grain. 
4,000 „ otto of lavender. 
1,000 „ Roman essences. 
1,000 „ otto of thyme. 

The ottos of neroli and of petit grain produced at Cannes 
are far superior in quality to those produced at Grasse. The 
reason for this difference is obvious ; for as Grasse does not 
produce the flowers which are most generally used in the 
manufacture of perfumery, and can obtain them from Cannes 
only, a long time must necessarily elapse between the time of 
gathering them, and that of their manufacture, added to 
which also their conveyance during the heat of summer is at 
all times detrimental. 

' Note by the editors of the French edition. — We are glad to see 
that a respectable English merchant shares on this subject the opinion of his 
French brethren, who are jealous of their dignity, and practise their profession 
with equal intelligence and refinement. We linow, indeed, that worthy French 
perfumers and distillers have long ago called for such measures as are spoken 
of by Dr. Piesse ; it is in fact only smugglers and unscrupulous manufacturers 
who clamour for English freedom of trade. 

In our view, nothing ought to be sold under the name of orange-flower water 
but distilled water made from the flowers ; and its quality ought tabe indicated 
by a label bearing the usual denominations, — simple, double, triple, and qua- 
druple. Water made from the leaves should bear the name of Orange-leaf water ; 
the artificial water— 2.1?. the water prepared from neroli — ought to be rejected and 
its manufacture prohibited. The mixing of the waters from the flowers and from 
the leaves ought as strictly to be prohibited, for the most experienced judge may be 
deceived, and the various chemical tests proposed for the detection of these mixtures 
are inadequate. For medicinal purposes, the flower-water must be exclusively used, 
as the leaf-waler possesses therapeutical properties of an altogether different 


It would be advantageous to the manufacturer, and also 
to the consumer, if the flowers were consumed in the locality 
in which they are produced, in order that they may be 
obtained in as fresh a state as possible. It is for this oty'ect 
that Cannes has witnessed the erection of a large perfumery 
establishment in the midst of the gardens of M. Louis 
Herman, which is certainly without an equal in the country, 
and which, owing to the excellent condition of his pro- 
ductions, has not failed to gain for him much popularity for 
the excellence and superiority of his produce. Thisestablish- 
ment manufactures annually from 38,000 to 40,000 kilo- 
grammes of pomades and scented oils. 

To the chemical philosopher, the study of Perfumery 
opens a book as yet unread ; for the practical perfumer, on 
his laboratory shelves, exhibits many rare essential oils, such 
as essential oil of the flower of the Acacia farnesiana, 
essential oil of violets, tubereuse, jasmine, and others, the 
compositions of which have yet to be determined. 

To the physicist the study of Perfumery will show him 
that some hypothesis must yet be founded, on which he can 
hope to build up the laws by which different odours act upon 
the human intellect, in unison with its other faculties. 

The exquisite pleasure derived from smelling fragrant 
flowers would almost instinctively induce man to attempt to 
separate the odoriferous principle from them, so as to have 
the perfume when the season denies the flowers. Thus we 
find the alchemists of old torturing the plants in every way 
their invention could devise for this end ; and it is on their 
experiments that the whole art of Perfumery has been reared. 



Should we chance to stray 
Down by the hamlet's hawthorn-scented way . . . 

The sight is pleased, 
The scent regal'd ; each odoriferous leaf, 
Each opening blossom, freely breathes abroad 
Its gratitude, and thanks HIM with its sweets. 

WITHOUT recapitulating those facts which may be 
found diffused through nearly all the old authors 
on medical botany, chemistry, pharmacy, and works of this 
character, from the time of Paracelsus to Celnart, we may state 
at once the mode of operation adopted by the practical per- 
fumer of the present day for preparing the various extracts 
of essences, waters, oils, pomades, &c., used in his calling. 

The processes are divided into four distinct operations, 
viz. : — 

I. Expression ; 2. Distillation ; 3. Maceration ; 
4. Absorption. 

I. Expression is only adopted where the plant is very 
prolific in its volatile or essential oil — i. e. its odour ; such, for 
instance, as is found in the pellicle or outer peel of the orange, 
lemon, and citron, and a few others. In these cases the parts 
of the plant containing the odoriferous principle are put, some- 
times in a cloth bag, and at others, by themselves, into a press, 
and by mere mechanical force it is squeezed out. The press is 
an iron vessel of immense strength, varying in size from six 



inches in diameter, and twelve deep, and upwards, to contain 
one hundred weight or more ; it has a small aperture at the 
bottom to allow the expressed material to run for collection ; 
in the interior is placed a perforated false bottom, and on 
this the substance to be squeezed is placed, covered with 
an iron plate fitting the interior ; this is connected with a 
powerful screw, which, being turned, forces the substance so 
closely together, that the little vessels containing the essential 
oils are burst, and it thus escapes. The common tincture- 
press is indeed a model of such 
an instrument. Another form of 
press is illustrated at p. 84. The 
oils which are thus collected are 
contaminated with watery extract, 
which exudes at the same time, and 
from which it has to be separated ; 
this it does by itself to a certain 
extent, by standing in a quiet 
place, and it is then poured off, 
and filtered when requisite. 

In large establishments the 
hydraulic press is most frequently 

2. Distillation. — The plant, 
or that part of it which contains 

the odoriferous principle, is placed in an iron copper, or glass 
pan, varying in size from that capable of holding from one 
to twenty gallons, and covered with water ; to the pan a 
dome-shaped lid is fitted, terminating with a pipe, which 
is twisted corkscrew fashion, and fixed in a bucket, with 
the end peeping out like a tap in a barrel. The water 
in the still— for such is the name of the apparatus— is 
made to boil ; and, having no other exit, the steam must pass 
through the coiled pipe ; which, being surrounded with cold 



water in the bucket, condenses the vapour before it can arrive 
at the tap. With the steam, the volatile oil — i. e. perfume — 
rises, and is liquefied at the same time. The liquids which thus 
run over, on standing for a time, separate into two portions, 
and are finally divided with a funnel having a stop-cock in 
the narrow part. By this process, the majority of the volatile 
ottos are procured. In some few instances alcohol — i. e. 
rectified spirit of wine — is placed upon the odorous materials 
in lieu of water, which, on being distilled, comes away with 
the perfuming substance dissolved in it. But this process is 
now nearly obsolete, as it is found 
more beneficial to draw the oil or 
essence first with water, and afterwards 
to dissolve it in the spirit. The low 
temperature at which the spirit boils, 
compared with water, causes a great 
loss of otto, the heat not being suffi- 
cient to disengage it from the plant, 
especially where seeds, such as cloves 
or caraway, are employed. The illus- 
TAP FUNNEL FOR sEPA- tration of the gigantic still (of which 

RATING OTTO FROM 4.u„_ 4. J i.\- c\ l. 

WATER AND SPIRIT there are two under the same roof) at 

FROM OIL. Mitcham, facing the front page of this 

work, exhibits a practical working 

apparatus capable of receiving a ton of herbs to distil at 

one time. 

The stills employed by M. Louis Herman, of Cannes, Var, 
France, are much smaller than the Mitcham still ; but instead 
of one there are thirteen, side by side under ooe roof, as shown 
in the annexed sketch. The water used to keep the worms 
cool is supplied by natural springs, which flow to any part of 
the manufactory, in inexhaustible quantities, from the neigh- 
bouring Estrelle mountains. In this respect M. Pilar, of 
Grasse, is equally fortunate, the cost of such water being 



merely a small sum paid to the town every year. The French 
houses work their stills by the direct action of the fire to the 
still, which is liable to give an empyreumatic or .burnt smell 
to the distillate ; but in all the well-regulated perfumatories 
of Bond Street, London, the stills are worked by the steam, 
under ten or fifteen pounds' pressure, from a boiler. This 
method by steam is now generally adopted in France. 

The illustration on p. "jQ exhibits the best form and con- 
struction of still hitherto invented, the novel parts of which 


were patented by the firm of Drew, Heywood, and Barron, 
whose ottos and essential oils are alike known for purity and 

The whole apparatus stands upon a massive foot. By 
examining the sectional drawing it will be seen that the pan 
is double, a hollow space existing between the inner and outer 
pan, technically termed the ' steam jacket' 

Steam is supplied from a boiler by the pipe S. The still 
is separable into two main parts — namely, the head and the 




pan ; when in use they are firmly bolted together with screws, 
as shown in the drawing. Within the head of the still is fixed 
the ' rouser,' which is a double cross-bar, curved to fit the pan, 
to which is attached a chain, to drag over the bottom of the 
pan. The whole is set in motion by an assistant turning the 
handle outside in connection by the axle with the cog wheels 
in the interior of the still. 

Supposing the still to be charged, say with two hundred- 
weight of cloves, water is supplied till the pan is nearly full ; 
the head of the still is then bolted on. Steam being applied 
in the jacket, the water and cloves in the pan are soon brought 
to a boiling heat, and then, being well roused together, the 
otto of cloves is disengaged, and carried forward by the steam 
generated up the pipe marked S & O, and is quickly con- 
densed in the refrigerator, running out at R, and falling into 
the cistern C. 

Here the otto and the water spontaneously divide, the 
otto of cloves falling, and the water rising in the cistern. As 
soon as the water reaches the overflow-tap, it runs into the 
syphon funnel, thence into the still. Ingeniously simple as 
this syphon contrivance is, the whole merit of this form of 
still turns on the application of the syphon, by means of which 
the same water, which left the still in the form of steam, 
returns again and again into the pan. The pipes C, W 
convey cold water from an outer tank to the refrigerator,, 
while H, w carry off the hot water produced by the condensa- 
tions taking place in the worm pipe. 

In cases where the otto disengaged from the material 
yielding it is lighter than water, it is obvious that the lower 
tap of the cistern must be made to supply the syphon, in 
place of the upper one. 

It is almost needless to say that the syphon must, in the 
first instance, be filled with water, in order to prevent the 
escape by that orifice of any fragrant vapour from the still ; 



the pressure of vapour within is not then sufficient to overcome 
the weight of the short column of water in the syphon. 

The illustration shows a very useful form of portable still, 
fit for persons entering upon the business of distilling flowers 
or herbs in the Colonies. They are made by Messrs. Benham 
& Froud, of sizes from one to twenty gallons, at an average 
cost of about 30J. per gallon. 



A, Still head. 

p. Pan indicated by the dots, into which the material to be distilled and water 
are placed. 

1', Flue pipe. 

B, Bucket containing the still worm or condenser, as shown by the dotted 
screw lines within. This is connected with pipe. 

J, Where the junction is made before the steam is got up. 

c w, Cold water trough. 

H w, Exit for hot water produced by the condensation of steam in the worm. 

R, Recipient for the condensed otto and water. 

M. Chardin-Hadancourt, having observed that certain 
essences are more easily obtained by means of a current of 
vapour than by boiling, has adopted two forms of still, ac- 


cording to the bodies whose essences are to be extracted : — 
1st, a still of spherical form, into which a jet of vapour is forced 
at a pressure of 4 to 5 kilogrammes ; 2nd, a still with a double 
bottom, supporting a pressure of 6 kilogrammes. 

He has advantageously substituted for the worm a refri- 
gerator composed of two sheets of tinned copper, 20 milli- 
metres apart, which is placed in a tank of iron plate 20 centi- 
metres thick, filled with cold water. To replace the water 
condensed in the still he has made use of the principle of 
impelling liquids by vapour under pressure by means of two 
opposing cones. 

Distillation, considered with regard to the preparation 
either of essences or of distilled waters, merits the closest 
attention of distillers. As a general rule it ought to be 
effected by steam ; but there are cases in which actual contact 
with water is indispensable (bitter almonds, cherry-bay). In 
other cases it might be conducted by an open fire or by steam ; 
but the former method may be preferable (lime-tree, cinna- 

The selection of waters is of some importance. Those 
which are perfectly neutral must be chosen, and those which 
are rich in salts must be avoided. M. Schladenhaufen, 
however, has shown that in operating on cherry-bay common 
water has, contrary to all expectation, yielded a product 
stronger and richer in hydrocyanic acid than distilled water. 

Distilled waters and essences must be kept from contact 
with air and light in vessels of glass or tinned copper, for 
these products are liable to be acidified, and then they attack 

As receiver of essences, that most commonly used is a 
vessel of peculiar shape, named the Florentine recipient. There 
are various forms of this vessel ; but all are based upon the 
same principle, and are designed to effect a separation of two 
liquids of different densities during the process of distillation. 



The form given in the accompanying illustration is that most 
frequently adopted. When the essence is lighter than water, 
it escapes by the upper tube ; when heavier, by the lower. 
The surplus water passes away by the opposite tube. 

We have to add that, in certain cases (cinnamon, clove, 
sassafras), sea salt is added to the water for the purpose of 
raising its boiling-point. 

And further, that when the products of distillation are 
capable of being solidified at a low temperature, the worm 


must not be allowed to cool, but be kept warm. This pre- 
caution is observed for essence of anise. It so happens, how- 
ever, that the finest odours — the rechercM, as the Parisians 
say — cannot be procured by this method ; then recourse is 
had to the next process, i.e. maceration. 

3. Maceration. — This operation is conducted thus : — For 
what is called pomade, a certain quantity of purified beef or 
deer suet, mixed with purified lard, is put into a clean metal 
or porcelain pan ; this being melted by a steam heat or bath. 



the kind of flowers required for the odour wanted are carefully- 
picked and put to the liquid fat, and allowed to remain from 


twelve to forty-eight hours ; the fat has a particular affinity 
or attraction for the otto of flowers, and thus, as it were, draws 
it out of them, and becomes itself, by their aid, highly per- 
fumed ; the fat is strained from the 
spent flowers, and fresh are added 
ten or fifteen times over, till the 
pomade is of the required strength ; 
these various strengths of pomatums 
are noted by the French makers as 
Nos. 6, 12, 1 8, and 24, the higher 
numerals indicating the amount of 
fragrance in them. For perfumed 
oils, the same operation is followed ; 
but, in lieu of suet, fine olive oil ; 
and the same results are obtained. 
'Huile Antique' of such and such a flower. 



These oils are called 
The maceration 



pans are here illustrated (p. 8i) as used by M. March, of 

The orange, rose, and cassie compounds are principally 
prepared by this process. 

The violet and reseda pomades and oils are prepared first 
by the maceration process, and then finished by enjleurage. 

When neither of the three foregoing processes gives 
satisfactory results, the method of procedure adopted is by, 

4. Absorption or Enjleurage. — Of all the processes for 
procuring the perfumes of flowers, this is the most important 


to the perfumer, and is the least understood in England ; as 
this operation yields not only the most exquisite essence 
indirectly, but also nearly all those fine pomades known here 
as ' French pomatunis,' so much admired for the strength of 
fragrance, together with ' French oils,' equally perfumed. The 
odours of some flowers are so delicate and volatile, that the 
heat required in the previously named processes would greatly 
modify, if not entirely spoil, them ; this process is, therefore, 
conducted cold, thus : — Square frames, called chassis, about 



three inches deep, with a glass bottom, say two feet wide and 
three feet long, are procured ; over the glass a layer of fat is 

A represents a pile of glass sashes. 

B- represents a sash with lard and flowers upon it. 

c represents a wire sash for the enfleurage of oil upon a cotton fabric. 

spread, about a quarter of an inch thick, with a kind of plaster 
knife or spatula ; on this the flower buds are sprinkled, com- 




1 I I I I I rnTiT 


pletely over it, and there left from twelve to seventy-two 



Some houses, such as that of Messrs, Pilar and Sons, 
Pascal Brothers, L. Herman, and a few others, have 3,000 such 
frames at work during the season ; as they are filled, they are 
piled one over the other, the flowers are changed so long as 
the plants continue to bloom, which now and then exceeds 
two or three months. 

For oils of the same plants, coarse cotton cloths are 
saturated with the finest olive oil, and laid upon a frame 


containing wire gauze in lieu of glass ; on these the flowers 
are laid, and suffered to remain till fresh flowers are procured. 

This operation is repeated several time.s, after which the 
cloths are subjected to a great pressure, to remove the now 
perfumed oil. 

In all the processes of enfleurage or maceration, greasy 
substances are to this day employed, such as olive oil andj 



the fats consisting of a mixture of lard and suet, both highly 

MM. Chardin and Manignon assert that they can use the 
solid paraffin of commerce as a vehicle in place of fats or oils 
for the maceration and enfleurage process, and claim su- 
periority, inasmuch that paraffin never becomes rancid ; this 
last remark is certainly true, but the author doubts the posi- 
tion advanced, because it is known that paraffin is a non- 
absorbent of odour. Their best test, however, is to send their 
products into the market. 

As we cannot give any general rule for working, without 
misleading the reader, we prefer explaining the process 
required for each when we come to speak of the individual 
flower or plant. 




Me seem'd I smelt a garden of sweet flow'rs. 
That dainty odours from them threw around 
For damsels fit to deck their lovers' bow'rs. — Spenser. 

THE perfumes for the handkerchief, as found in the shops 
of Paris and London, are either simple or compound : 
the former are called extracts, extraits, esprits, or essences ; 
and the latter, boiiquets or nosegays, which are mixtures of 
the extracts so compounded in quantity that no one flower or 
odour can be discovered as predominating over another ; and 
when made of the delicate-scented flowers carefully blended, 
they produce an exquisite sensation on the olfactory nerve, 
and are therefore much prized by all who can afford to 
purchase them. 

We shall first explain the mode for obtaining the simple 
extracts of flowers. This will be followed by the process for 
preparing ambergris,- musk, and civet substances, which, 
though of animal origin, are of the utmost importance as 
forming a large part in the most approved bouquets ; and 
we shall conclude this department of the art with recipes for 
all the fashionable bouquets and nosegays, the value of which, 
we doubt not, will be estimated according to the labour be- 
stowed upon their analysis. 

In order to render the work more easy of consultation, 
we have adopted the alphabetical arrangement in preference 
to a more scientific classification. 

Among the collection of ottos of the East India 


Company, at the Exhibition of 1851, were several hitherto 
unknown in this country, and possessing much interest. 

It is to be regietted that no person, having any practical 
knowledge of perfumery, was placed on the jury of Class IV. or 
XXIX. Had such been the case, the desires of the exhibitors 
would probably have been realised, and European perfumers 
benefited by the introduction of new odours from the East. 
Some of the otto.s sent by a native perfumer of Benares were 
deemed worthy of honourable mention — such as Chumeylee, 
Beyba, Begla, Moteya, and many others from the Moluccas, 
but without any information respecting them. 

We are not going to speak of, perhaps, more than a tithe 
of the plants that have a perfume — only those will be 
mentioned that are used by the operative perfumer, and such 
as are imitated by him in consequence of there being a 
demand for the article, which circumstances prevent him from 
obtaining in its genuine state. The first that comes under 
our notice is 

Allspice. — The odoriferous principle of allspice, com- 
monly called pimento, is obtained by distilling the dried 
fruit, before it is quite ripe, of the Eugenia pimenta and 
Myrtus pimenta with water. It is thus procured as an 
essential oil ; it is but little used in perfumery, and when so, 
only in combination with other spice oils for scenting soap ; 
it is, however, very agreeable, and much resembles the smell 
of cloves, and deserves more attentjon than it has hitherto 
received. Mixed in the proportion of three ounces of oil of 
allspice with one gallon of rectified spirit of wine, it forms 
what may be termed extract of allspice, which extract will 
be found very useful in the manufacture of low-priced 
bouquets. (See PlmentQ.) 


Mark well the flow'ring almond in the wood ; 
If od'rous blooms the bearing branches load. 


The glebe will answer to the sylvan reign, 

Great heats will follow, and large crops of grain. — Virgh. 

This perfume has been much esteemed for many ages. 
It may be procured by distilling the leaves of any of the laurel 
tribe, and the kernels of stone fruit ; for trade purposes, it 
is obtained from the bitter almond, and exists in the skin or 
pellicle that covers the seed after it is shelled. In the 
ordinary way, the almonds are put into the press for the 
purpose of obtaining the mild or fat oil from the nut; the 

cake which is left after this process is then mixed with salt 
and water, and allowed to remain together for about twenty- 
four hours prior to distillation. The reason for moistening 
the cake is well understood by the practical chemist ; and 
although we are not treating the subject of perfumery in a 
chemical sense, but only in a practical way, it may not be 
inappropriate here to observe, that the essential oil of almonds 
does not exist ready formed to any extent in the nut, but that 
it is produced by a species of fermentation, from the amyg- 
dalin and emulsine contained ifi the almonds, together with 
the water that is added. Analogous substances exist in 
laurel leaves, and hence the same course is to be pursued when 
they are distilled. Some manufacturers put the moistened 


cake into a bag of coarse cloth, or spread it upon a sieve, 
and then force the steam through it ; in either case, the 
essential oil of the almond rises with the watery vapour, and 
is condensed in the still-worm. Fourteen pounds of the cake 
yield about one ounce of essential oil. In this concentrated 
form, the odour of almonds is far from agreeable ; but when 
diluted with spirit, in the proportion of about one and a half 
ounce of the oil to a gallon of spirit or alcohol, it is very 

The essential oil of almonds enters into combination 
with soap, cold cream, and many other materials prepared by 
the perfumer ; for which see their respective titles. 

In experiments with this substance it must be carefully 
remembered that it is exceedingly poisonous, and, therefore, 
great caution is necessary in its admixture with substances 
used as cosmetics, otherwise dangerous results may ensue. 

The essence of bitter almonds, being heavier than water, 
falls to the bottom of the receiver ; and thus obtained, i. e. 
in the raw state in which it is used in perfumery, it contains 
variable proportions of hydrocyanic (prussic) acid, and is a 
virulent poison. When purified it is still poisonous, though 
much less so. Its purification is effected first by washing 
in distilled water, and afterwards by distillation in contact 
with potash and perchloride of iron. The pure essence may 
be represented by the symbols C'^H^O^ By contact with 
the air, it is transformed into benzoic acid, according to the 
following equation : — 

C'*H«0' + O' = C'^H^O'HO 

Essence of Benzoic 

bitter almonds acid. 

The essence of bitter almonds, when treated with an 
alcoholic solution of potash, is converted into benzoate of 
potash; while the same solution changes the essence of 


miribane or nitrobenzine into a resin insoluble in alcohol or 
in ether. This process is available as a test for the mixture 
of these two essences. 

Artificial Otto of Almonds, otherwise Miribane. — Mr. 
Mansfield, of Weybridge, took out a patent for the manu- 
facture of otto of almonds from benzole. (Benzole is 
obtained from tar oil.) His apparatus, according to the 
Report of the juries of the 1851 Exhibition, consists of a 
large glass tube in the form of a coil, which at the upper end 
divides into two tubes, each of which is provided with a 
funnel. A stream of nitric acid flows slowly into one of the 
funnels, and benzole into the other. The two substances 
meet at the point of union of the tubes, and a combination 
ensues with the evolution of heat. As the newly formed 
compound flows down through the coil, it becomes cool, and 
is collected at the lower extremity ; it then requires to be 
washed with water, and lastly with a dilute solution of 
carbonate of soda, to render it fit for use. Nitrobenzole, which 
is the chemical name for this artificial otto of almonds, 
has a different odour to the true otto of almonds, but it 
can nevertheless be used for perfuming soap. The late 
Mr. Mansfield wrote to me under date January 3rd, 1855 : 
'In 185 1, Messrs. Gosnell, of Three King Court, began to 
make this perfume under my licence ; latterly I withdrew the 
licence from them by their consent, and since then it is not 
made that I am aware of.' Notwithstanding this remark of 
Mr. Mansfield, there is plenty of Miribane in the London 
market, and it is quite common in Paris.' 

Anise. — The odorous principle is procured by distilling 
the seeds of the plant Pimpinella anisum ; the product is the 
oil of aniseed of commerce. As it congeals at a temperature 

• Nitrobenzine has been made for commercial purposes by M. Laroque, at 
Paris, and mure recently by M. CoUas. It is now used in the preparation of 
aniline, and the beautiful colours made from it. 



of about 50° Fahr., it is frequently adulterated with a little 
spermaceti, to give a certain solidity to it, whereby other 
cheaper essential oils can be added to it with less chance of 
detection. As the oil of aniseed is quite soluble in spirit, 
and the spermaceti insoluble, the fraud is easily detected. 
This perfume is exceedingly strong, and is, therefore, well 

adapted for mixing with soap and for scenting pomatums, 
but does not do nicely in compounds for handkerchief use 
The Portuguese are very fond of anise. 

Several kinds of anise are known in the trade — those of 
Tours, of Alby, or the South of France, Russian, German, 
Maltese, and Spanish (Alicante). The last is the most 



esteemed. The adulteration of oil of aniseed with soap has 
been noticed. This fraud may be detected by means of 
distilled water, which dissolves the soap but not the essence. 

Starry Anise, or Badiani. — This is the name given to 
the fruit of an evergreen shrub found in Florida. Two species 
are known, the Illicium floribundum and the Illicium parvi- 
Jloriini. But the one chiefly used is the Chinese Illicium 


anisatiinu The fruit is formed by the union of from 6 to 12 
capsules arranged like a star. The fruit is hard, thick, woody, 
brownish, and contains an oval seed, reddish, glossy, and 
brittle, within which is a white oily almond. 

By distillation of this fruit with water an essence is 
obtained of the same composition and possessing all the 
properties of the essence of green anise ; i. e. it is composed 
of two essences, the one being a hydrocarbonate and liquid, the 


other a solid and oxygenised. These are separated by 
alcohol. The essence of badiani is more agreeable than that 
of anise. 

The wood of the Illiciuin anisatum has the same odour 
as the fruit. It was at one time thought that it furnished the 
anise -wood of commerce ; but this comes from America, and 
is probably produced by the Ocotea pechurini. 

Balm, otto of Balm, called also oil of Melissa, is obtained 
by distilling the leaves of the Melissa officinalis with water; it 
comes from the still tap with the condensed steam or water, 
from which it is separated in the usual way. 

The sweet lemon -like odour of its leaves must render this 
a general favourite.- The scent is most powerful in early 
summer, just before the blossom appears, when after a 
sprinkling of rain it perfumes the whole border. You con- 
stantly meet with it growing wild in the south of France, but 
in England we cultivate it. It is a perennial, and blossoms 
in June. 

The otto of melissa or balm enters into the composition 
of the celebrated Carmelite Spirit It is said that during the 
cloister life of Charles V. in the monastery of St. Yuste, that 
he daily used it at the bath and upon his handkerchiefs, to 
refresh that once vigorous intellect in its decline. The follow- 
ing is the formula for 

Eau des Cannes. 

Take fresh balm leaves two pounds ; of fresh lemon peel a quarter of 
a pound ; of nutmeg, coriander seed, cloves, cinnamon, and angelica root, 
each two ounces, all broken fine : place all these into a still with half a 
gallon of orange-flower water and one gallon of alcohol 60 over proof ; 
distil slowly until one gallon comes over, which is the Eau des Carmes. 

Balsam. — Under this title' there are three substances 

> The definition of Balsam now adopted in France is the following :— Every 
resinous substance incapable of saponification, rough to the touch, insoluble in 


used in perfumery ; these are : balsam of Peru, balsam of tolu, 
and balsam of storax. The first-named is procured from the 
Myroxyloii peruiferiun ; it exudes from the tree when 
wounded, and is also obtained by boiling down the bark and 
branches in water. The latter is the most common method 
of procuring it. It has a strong odour, like benzoin and 
vanilla mixed. (See Peru.) 

Tolu. — Balsam of tolu flows from the Toluifera balsamum. 
It resembles common resin (rosin) ; with the least warmth, 
however, it runs to a liquid, like brown treacle. The smell 
of it is particularly agreeable, and, being soluble in alcohol, 
makes a good basis for a bouquet, giving in this respect 
a permanence of odour to a perfume which the simple 
solution of an oil would not possess. For this purpose 
all these balsams are very useful, though not so much 
used as they might be. The proportions are : — Balsam of 
tolu, \ lb. ; spirit, to o. p., i gallon. (See Storax and TOLU.) 

Ulex has found that balsam of tolu is frequently adulterated with 
common resin. To detect this adulteration he pours sulphuric acid on 
the balsam, and heats the mixture, when the balsam dissolves to a cherry- 
red fluid, without evolving sulphurous acid, but with the escape of benzoic 
or cinnamic acid, if no common resin is present. On the contrary, the 
balsam foams, blackens, and much sulphurous acid is set free, if it is 
adulterated with common resin. — Arch, der Pharmacie. 

In commerce we distinguish the dry and the soft balsam 
of tolu. When distilled with water they both yield a liquid 
compound of three volatile bodies : i . Toluene, a liquid 
essence which boils at 120°, formed of C^'H'^; 2. Benzoic 
Acid; 3. Cinnameine, which boils at 340° ; it contains benzoic 
and cinnamic acids. 

The presence of colophany, turpentine, or other resins in 
tolu is shown by the resinous odour given out on burning it. 

water, soluble in alcohol, ether and the oils, and containing benzoic or cinnamic 
acid, or both together. 



Peru. — We notice also the dry balsam of Peru, no longer 
an article of commerce, the brown balsam of Peru, the balsam 
of San-Salvador or black balsam of Peru, and the liquid balsam 
of Peru of commerce. , All these are composed of a resin, a 
liquid oil {cinnameine) and cinnamic acid. The liquid balsam 
of Peru is adulterated with castor oil. The adulteration is 
discovered by the resinous odour disengaged when the balsam 
is placed over burning charcoal. Ulex recommends that 
the balsam should be heated in an oil-bath at 190°, until the 
balsam gives out a few drops of a very acid oleaginous 
liquid, which causes a deposit of crystals of cinnamic acid. 
In case the balsam is pure, the liquid solidifies entirely ; if it 
be not pure, the crystals will float in essence of copaiva. 
Alcohol is detected by agitation with water which dissolves 
the alcohol ; and the presence of thick oils by alcohol which 
will dissolve the balsam, but not the oils. 

Storax. — Balsam of storax, commonly called gum styrax, 
is obtained in the same manner, and possessing similar pro- 
perties, with a slight variation of odour, is applicable in the 
same manner as the above. 

They are all imported from South America, Chili, and 
Mexico, where the trees that produce them are indigenous. 

Mecca. — The genuine balsam of Mecca (Gtmi of Amyris 
opobalsamuiri) is both scarce and expensive. The kings of 
Judah cultivated this shrub, but only to a very small extent. 
It will be interesting to learn, that a bottle of this extra- 
ordinary balsam is kept at the botanical garden at Paris, as 
an object of the rarest and highest value. What is generally 
sold by the name of balsam of Mecca is merely the oil, 
obtained by boiling, from the seeds, stones, and the branches 
of the tree. It is too rare to be purchased at any price, as 
it is generally supposed to be. Josephus informs us that the 
Queen of Sheba brought it first to Judea, where balsam, 
myrrh, and incense, in the days of old, were to be seen used 


by "the populace in abundance, almost daily. This is one 
of the many things which we ' mourn for ' in the ' days gone 
by.' The reason of its excessive scarcity is supposed to be 
owing to the destruction of Jerusalem : the Jews, actuated 
by despair and hatred, destroyed all the balsam plants. 
There are none now to be found in Palestine. Only one 
plantation is now known to furnish it, and that is in Arabia 
Petrea. The whole plantation only yields about three 
pounds annually, and it is monopolised by the Grand 
Seigneur. This, of course, we can scarcely refrain from 
noticing withoiit an expression of regret. 

Bay. — Oil of sweet Bay, also termed essential oil of 
laurel-berries, is a very fragrant substance, procured by 
distillation from the berries of the bay laurel {Laurus nobilis). 
Though very pleasant, it is not much used. 

Another essence of bay familiar in commerce is extracted 
from various ocotea of the family of the Lauraceae. It is fluid, 
colourless, and has a pleasant smell. Its density is of 0.864 
at 13°. Its formula is C^°H"'- It forms with water a hydrate 
= C2°H"=6HO (Stenhouse). 

Basil. — Under the name of HoLY BASIL I have made a 
perfume which appears, by its extensive sale, to ■ give much 
satisfaction. As many of the scents which I have concocted 
have proved great successes, I can here afford to say that others 
have been dead failures ! Dr. George Birdwood writes : — 

The most sacred plant in the whole indigenous materia medica of 
India is the Tulsi or Holy Basil (Ocymum sanctum), sacred to Krishna, 
and called after the nymph Tulasi, beloved of Krishna, and turned by 
him into this graceful and most fragrant plant. She is indeed the Hindu 
Daphne. The plant is also sacred to Vishnu, whose followers wear neck- 
laces and carry rosaries (used for counting the number of recitations of 
their deity's name), made of its stalks and roots. For its double sanctity' 
it is reared in every Hindu house, where it is daily watered and wor- 
shipped by all the members of the household. No doubt also it was on, 
account of its virtues in disinfecting and vivifying malarious air that il^ 



first became inseparable from Hindu houses in India as the protecting 
spirit or Lar of the family. In the Deccan villages, the fair Brahminee 
mother may be seen early every morning, after having first ground the 
corn for the day's bread, and performed her simple toilet, walking with 
glad steps and waving hands round and round the pot of Holy Basil, 
planted on the four-horned altar built up before each house, invoking the 
blessings of heaven on her husband and his children — praying, that is, for 
less carbonic acid and ever more and more oxygen. The scene always 
carries one back in mind to the hfe of ancient Greece, which so often is 
found still to live in India. 

The following is the composition of the perfume :— 
Holy Basil. 

Extract of Tonquin Bean ^ 

„ Vanilla 
Essence of Geranium 

„ Montserrat Lime 

„ Tolu , 

„ Orange Flower 

„ Cassie 

„ Jasmine 

,, Tuberose . 


Bknzoin, also called Benjamin. — This is a very useful 
substance to perfumers. It exudes from the Styrax Benzoin 
by wounding the tree, and, drying, becomes a hard gum 
resin. It is principally imported from Borneo, Java, Sumatra, 
and Siam. The best kind comes from the latter place, and 
used to be called Amygdaloides, because of its being inter- 
spersed with several white spots, which resemble broken 
almonds. When heated, these white specks rise as a smoke, 
which is easily condensed upon paper. The material thus 
separated from the benzoin is called flowers of benzoin in 
commerce, and by chemists is termed benzoic acid. It has 
nearly all the odour of the resin from which it is derived ; 
but which is due to a minute portion of a peculiar otto that 
rises in vapour with the acid. This otto of benzoin has not 




yet been isolated. When benzoic acid is prepared by the 
humid process, as is done in the chemical laboratory, it has 
no odour. It may be, however, that the benzoic acid under- 
goes decomposition when prepared from the gum resin by 
sublimation, and thus produces the fragrant body which is 
wanting in that made in the wet way. This is probable, for 
gum benzoin has but little odour or less than that the acid 
sublimated from it. 

Mr. W. Bastick recommends the following process for 
making flowers of benzoin : — Coarsely powdered gum benzoin 


is to be strewed on the flat bottom of a round iron pot 
which has a diameter of nine inches, and a height of about 
two inches. On the surface of the pot is spread a piece of 
filtering paper, which is fastened to its rim by starch paste. 
A cylinder of very thick paper is attached by means of a 
string to the top of the iron pot. Heat is then applied by 
placing the pot on a plate covered with sand, over the mouth 
of a furnace. It must remain exposed to a gentle fire from 
four to six hours. About an ounce and a half of benzoic 
acid is obtained from twelve ounces of gum benzoin by the 
first sublimation. As the gum is not exhausted by the first 
operation, it may be bruised when cold and again submitted 


to the action of heat, when a fresh portion of benzoic acid 
will sublime from it. This acid thus obtained is not perfectly- 
pure and white ; and Dr. Mohr states that it is a question, in 
a medicinal and perfumery point of view, whether it is so 
valuable when perfectly pure as when it contains a small 
portion of a fragrant volatile oil, which rises with it from the 
gum in the process of sublimation. 

The London Pharmacopoeia directs that it shall be pre- 
pared by sublimation, and does not prescribe that it shall be 
free from this oil, to which it principally owes its agreeable 

By the second sublimation the whole of the benzoic acid 
is not volatilised. What remains in the resin may be sepa- 
rated by boiling it with caustic lime, and precipitating the 
acid from the resulting benzoate of lime with hydrochloric 
acid. Benzoic acid can be obtained also in the wet way, and 
the resin yields a greater product in this process than in the 
former ; yet it has a less perfumery value, because it is free 
from the volatile oil which, as above stated, gives it its 
peculiar odour. The wet method devised by Scheele is as 
follows : — Make one ounce of freshly-burnt lime into a milk 
with from four to six ounces of hot water. To the milk of 
lime, four ounces of powdered benzoin and thirty ounces of 
water are to be added, and the mixture boiled for half an 
hour, and stirred during this operation, and afterwards 
strained through Hnen. The residue must be a second time 
boiled with twenty ounces of water and strained, and a third 
time with ten ounces : the fluid products must be mixed and 
evaporated to one-fourth of their volume, and sufficient 
hydrochloric acid added to render them slightly acid. 
When quite cold, the crystals are to be separated from the 
fluid by means of a strainer, upon v/hich they are to be 
washed with cold water, and pressed, and then dissolved in 
hot distilled water, from which the crystals separate on 


cooling. When hydrochloric acid is added to a cold concen- 
trated solution of the salts of benzoic acid, it is precipitated as 
a white powder. If the solution of the salts of this acid is too 
dilute and warm, none or only a portion of the benzoic acid 
will be separated. However, the weaker the solution is, and 
the more slowly it is cooled, the larger will be the crystals of 
this acid. In the preparation of this acid in the wet way, 
lime is to be preferred to every other base, because it forms 
insoluble combinations with the resinous constituents of the 
benzoin, and because it prevents the gum resin from con- 
glomerating into an adhesive mass, and also because an 
excess of this base is but slightly soluble. 

The best benzoin is obtained in Siam by incisions made in the trunk 
of the tree, after it has attained the age of five or six years. The resin is 
white and transparent at first. About three pounds are given by each 
tree for about six years. It forms an article of export from Siam. From 
Singapore, the exports in 1852 were to the extent of 1,282 piculs, and 168 
piculs in 1853. Java imported last year benjamin of the value of 176,182 
florins. The different varieties bear a price proportioned to their good- 
ness ; the finest quality used to range from 10/. to 20/. per picul of 133 
lbs. Benzoin is the frankincense of the far East, and has long been used 
for incense in the Roman Catholic, the Hindu, Mahometan, and Bud- 
dhistic temples, and probably in the Israelitish worship. Wealthy Chinese 
fumigate their houses with its grateful odour. — f. L. Simonds, Esq. 
I(read before the Society of Arts). 

The extract, or tincture, of benzoin forms a good basis 
for a bouquet. Like balsam of tolu, it gives permanence 
and body to a perfume made with an essential oil in spirit. 

The principal consumption of benzoin is in the manu- 
facture of pastilles (see PASTILLES), and for the preparation 
of fictitious vanilla pomade. (See POMATUMS.) 

BergAMOT. — This most useful perfume is procured from 
the Citrus Bergmnia, by expression from the peel of the fruit. 
One hundred fruit will yield about three ounces of the 
otto. It has a soft sweet odour, too well known to need 
description here. When new and good, it has a greenish 


yellow tint, but loses its greenness by age, especially if kept 
in imperfectly corked bottles. It then becomes cloudy from 
the deposit of resinous matter, produced by the contact of the 
air, and acquires a turpentine smell. 

This perfume is so much in demand that its annual produc- 
tion in Italy has never satisfied the market. The Messina 


dealers and their allies carefully adulterate the true Bergamot 
otto with lemon otto, thus spoiling an article worth from 30j. 
to 40J. per pound, in order to sell it at ioj. The name of 
this variety of Citron wort is derived from the city of Bergamo 
in Lombardy, from whence, so far as we can ascertain, the 
■otto was first sold. The otto of bergamot of the finest 
quality is obtained by means of the Ecuelle ; but about four 
fifths of it in the market is a distilled product, or one ex- 
pressed from the rasped rind of the fruit. About 40,000 pounds 
of otto are annually imported into England. 


It is best preserved in well-stoppered bottles, kept in a 
cool cellar, and in the dark ; light, especially the direct sun- 
shine, quickly deteriorates its odour. This observation may 
be applied, indeed, to all perfumes, except rose, which is not 
so spoiled, and clove, which improves by keeping. 

When bergamot is mixed with other essential oils, it 
greatly adds to their richness, and gives a sweetness to spice 
oils attainable by no other means, and such compounds are 
much used in the most highly-scented soaps. Mixed with 
rectified spirit in the proportions of about eight ounces of 
bergamot to a gallon, it forms what is called 'extract of 
bergamot,' and in this state is used for the handkerchief 
Though well covered with extract of orris and other matters, 
it is the leading ingredient in Bayley and Blew's Ess. 
Bouquets. (See BOUQUETS.) 


SileiiHs. Papaiapaex ! what a sweet smell it has ! 

Ulysses. You see it, then ? 

Silenus. By Jove, no ! but I smell it. 

Ejtripides, Shelley's transl. 

It is very probable that the delightful fragrance exhaled by 
the fresh cool green leaves, and the deep cerulean blue of the 
flowers themselves, first drew our forefathers' attention to the 
plant. The mere delightful fresh perfume of the leaves has 
something reviving and exhilarating about it. The plants 
of this family perhaps owe some part of their popularity to 
their provincial n^im^ forget-me-not ; hence any perfume of this 
title should contain otto of borage. 

Briar (Sweet-).— (See Eglantine.) 

Camphor. — This beautiful and fragrant substance is pro- 
duced by several plants, particularly Dryobalanops Camphora, 
the Camphor tree of Sumatra and Japan. The kind, how- 
ever, mostly found in commerce is derived from the Laurus 
Camphora, or camphor laurel of the island of Formosa, 

Missing Page 


although resembling each other in look and smell, are not 
of the same composition. The former is represented by 
C2»H'^0^ the latter by C^'H'^Ol With respect to the so- 
called artificial camphors which are obtained by the action of 
chlorine or hydrochloric acid upon certain liquid carbonated 
hydrogens, such as the essences of lemon or turpentine, are 
not at all analogous in properties or in composition with the 
true camphors, but merely resemble them somewhat in 
appearance. The true camphor has been found in other 
plants of the families of the lanracecz, the amom^es, synantherce, 
and certain labiatcB of warm countries ; but no supply for 
commerce is to be obtained from any of these. 

Caraway. — This odoriferous principle is drawn by 
distillation from the seeds of the Carum Carui. It has a very 
pleasant smell, quite familiar enough without description. 
It is well adapted to perfume soap, for which it is much used 
in England, though rarely if ever on the Continent ; when 
dissolved in spirit it may be used in combination with oil of 
lavender and bergamot for the manufacture of cheap essences, 
in a similar way to cloves. (See CLOVES.) If caraway seeds 
are ground, they are well adapted for mixing to form sachet 
powder. (See Sachets.) 

The seeds of other umbelliferce, such as those of cumin, 
fennel, dill, yield on distillation essences similar to that of 
caraway. This consists of two essences, carvene= C'H^ and 
carvol=C'^'^W*0'^. The essences of other seeds of the same 
family are of analogous composition. 

Cascarilla.— ^The bark is used in the formation of 
Frangipanni incense, and also enters into the composition 
known as Eau a Br^ler, for perfuming apartments, to which 
we refer. 

The bark alone of this plant is used by the manu- 
facturing perfumer. The Cascarilta gratissima is, however, so 
fragrant that, according to Burnett, its leaves are gathered by 


the Koras of the Cape of Good Hope as a perfume. It 
behoves perfumers, therefore, who are on the look-out for 
novelties, to obtain these leaves and ascertain the result of 
their distillation. 

Messrs. Herring & Co., some years ago, drew the oil of 
cascarilla, but it was only offered to the trade as a curiosity. 

The cascarilla (meaning, ' little bark,' in Spanish) of 
commerce is derived, according to Sir W. Hooker, from 
the Croton fragrans, a native plant of South America. 

Cassia. — The essential oil of cassia is procured by dis- 
tilling the outer bark of the Laiirus Cassia. One cwt. of 
bark yields rather more than three quarters of a pound of 
oil ; it has a pale yellow colour ; in smell it much resembles 
cinnamon, although very inferior to it. It is principally used 
for perfuming soap, especially what is called ' military soap,' 
as it is more aromatic or spicy than flowery in odour ; it 
therefore finds no place for handkerchief use. 

The Laurus Cassia, of the family of the Lauracece, yields 
the cinnamon of China, or common cinnamon. The essence 
extracted from it bears the name of essence of cassia. It is of 
a reddish yellow colour, and has not a pleasant smell. 

The cinnamon of Ceylon, Laurus Ciiinamomum, or C. zey- 
landicum, yields an essence less abundant than the preceding, 
but more highly valued. It is of a bright yellow colour, has 
a pleasant smell, and a sweetish aromatic taste. It is sold 
at from 15 to 20 fr. per 30 grammes, while the first-named is 
worth only 40 fr. per 1,000 grammes. 

Cassie {Acacia farnesiatia). 

The short narcissus and fair daffodil, 

Pansies to please the sight, and cassie sweet to smell. 

Dryden'S Virgil. 

The young cassie plants are raised from seed, which is 
sown in beds. The best plants are left, the doubtful ones 



removed. In the third year they have generally a height of 
two or three feet, and are then planted out in fields, each 
tree requiring about twelve feet square. Before planting the 
cassie, the ground should be well dressed with manure, and 
dug to the depth of four or six feet, and in such situations as 
are well exposed to the sun. This plant thrives better at 
Cannes than in any other part of Europe. The blossoms of 


the cassie are successive, some being ready for plucking, 
while the others are scarcely formed. This is immensely 
useful to the farmer, one lot of blossoms being gathered and 
passed through the laboratory before it is time to gather the 
others. After the third year the tree produces flowers, 
growing at the same time till they attain maturity, when they 
reach a height of ten or twelve feet, with branches six feet 


long, and a stem as thick as a man's wrist. Each full- 
grown tree will produce about two pounds' weight of flowers, 
value from three to fourpence per pound, say 30/. to 40/. per 

The illustration of cassie here given more impressively 
shows what we mean by ' successive ' flowering. Flowers, 
however fragrant, are not of much practical use in the per- 
fumer's laboratory unless they grow ' successive,' because if 
the flowers' come all together there is not suflScient time for 
the grease to be inflowered. It is found that better results 
are obtained by repeating a small quantity of flowers over 
grease, rather than inflowering a large quantity of blossoms 
at one time. 

This is one of those fine odours which enter into the 
composition of the best handkerchief bouquets. When 
smelled at alone, it has an intense violet odour, and is rather 
sickly sweet. 

It is procured by maceration of the flower heads. Purified 
fat is melted in the bain-Marie, into which the flower heads 
are thrown, and left to digest for several hours ; the spent 
flowers are then removed, and fresh are added, eight or ten 
times, until sufficient richness of perfume is obtained. As 
many flowers are used as the fluid grease will cover, when 
they are put into it. The value of cassie buds is from five 
francs to eight francs the kilogramme, and it requires two 
kilogrammes of flowers to perfume one kilogramme of grease. 

After being strained, and the pomade has been kept at a 
heat sufficient only to retain its liquidity, all impurities will 
subside by Standing for a few days. Finally cooled, it is the 
cassie pomade of commerce. The Huile de Cassie, or fat-oil 
of cassie, is prepared in a similar manner, substituting olive 
oil or almond oil in place of suet. Both these preparations 
are obviously only a solution of the true essential oil of cassie 
flowers in the neutral fatty body. Europe may shortly be 

CASSIE. " 109 

expected to import a similar scented pomade from South 
Australia, derived from the wattle, a plant that belongs to the 
same genus as the A . farnesiana, and which grows most luxu- 
riantly in Australia. Mutton fat being cheap, and the wattle 
plentiful, a profitable trade may be anticipated in curing the 
flowers, &c. 

To prepare the extract of cassie, take six pounds of No. 24 
(best quality) cassie pomade, and place upon it one gallon of 
the best rectified spirit, as sent out by Bowerbank, of Bishops- 
gate. After it has digested for three weeks or a month, at a 
summer heat, it is fit to draw from the pomatum, and, if good, 
has a beautiful olivaceous green colour and rich flowery smell 
of the cassie blossom. All extracts made by this process 
give a more natural smell of the flowers to the result, than 
by merely dissolving the essential oil (procured by distilla- 
tion) in the spirit ; moreover, where the odour of the flower 
exists in only very minute quantities, as in the present instance, 
and with violet, jasmine, &c., it is the only practical mode of 

In this and all other similar cases, the pomatum must be 
cut up into very small pieces, after the domestic manner of 
' chopping suet,' prior to its being infused in the alcohol. The 
action of the mixture is simply a change of place in the odori- 
ferous matter, which leaves the fat body by the superior 
attraction, or affinity, as the chemists say, of the spirits of 
wine, in which it freely dissolves. 

The major part of the extract can be poured or drawn off 
the pomatum without trouble ; but it still retains a portion in 
the interstices, which requires time to drain away, and this 
must be assisted by placing the pomatum in a large funnel, 
supported by a bottle, in order to collect the remainder. 
Finally, all the pomatum, which is now called washed pomatum, 
is to be put into a tin or copper can, which can must be set 
in hot water, for the purpose of melting its contents ; when 


the pomatum thus becomes liquefied, any extract that is still 
in it rises to the surface, and may be skimmed off; or, when, 
the pomatum becomes cold, it can be poured from it. Any 
alcohol still remaining in it may be recovered by placing the 
pomatum in a still and distilling it. There may be a sUght 
loss of perfume, but the alcohol is recovered. 

The washed pomatum is preserved for use in the manu- 
facture of dressing for the hair, for which purpose it is exceed- 
ingly well adapted, on account of the purity of the grease 
from which it was originally prepared, but more particularly 
on account of a certain portion of odour which it still retains ; 
and were it not used up in this way, it would be advisable to 
put it for a second infusion in spirit, and thus a weaker 
extract could be made serviceable for lower priced articles. 
The pomatum thus drained can still be used in the manufac- 
ture of coloured soaps. 

I cannot leave cassie without recommending it more espe- 
cially to the notice of perfumers and druggists, as an article 
well adapted for the purpose of the manufacture of essences 
for the handkerchief and pomades for the hair. When diluted 
with other odours, it imparts to the whole such a true flowery 
fragrance, that it is the admiration of all who smell it, and 
has not a little contributed to the great sale which certain 
proprietary articles have attained. 

We caution the inexperienced not to confound cassie with 
cassia, which has a totally different odour. (See ACACIA 

Cedar. — This wood has been famous since the days of 
Solomon, who employed it in the construction of the Temple. 
The wood now and then finds a place in a perfumer's ware- 
house ; when ground, it does well to form a body of sachet 
powder. Slips of cedar wood are sold as matches for lighting 
lamps, because, while burning, an agreeable odour is evolved ; 
some people use it also, in this condition, distributed among 


clothes in drawers to 'prevent moth.' On distillation it 
yields an essential oil that is exceedingly fragrant, and which 
is used extensively for scenting what is called cold cream 

Lebanon Cedar Wood. 

For the Handkerchief. 

Otto of cedar i oz. 

Rectified spirit 4 pints 

Esprit rose trip \ pint 

Since the publication of the first edition of this work, otto 
of cedar wood, which was very scarce, has been sent exten- 
sively into the market. Messrs. Piesse & Lubin have pro- 
duced an average of 28 ounces from 112 lbs. of shavings, 
being the refuse of the pencil-makers. The pencil cedar is 
the ' Virginian ' or American cedar, Junipenis virginiana. 
The true Lebanon cedar, Cedrus Libani, and from which the 
handkerchief perfume is named, yields a very indifferent otto 
and odour to the American plant. The ' Cedars of Lebanon ' 
are so familiar, however, that perfumers could not afford to 
change the title of the scent they make, for the red wood of 
the West, though the latter is superior to the former in 

Cedria, an oil or resin extracted from a cedar was, accord- 
ing to Vitruvius (a celebrated architect in the age of Augustus), 
used to smear over the leaves of the papyrus to prevent the 
attack of insects ; and Pliny states that the Egyptians applied 
it with other drugs in the preparation of their mummies. 

The tincture of cedar smells agreeably of the wood, from 
which it can- readily be made by steeping the cedar wood in 
proof spirit. Its crimson colour, however, prohibits it from 
being used for the handkerchief. It forms an excellent 
tincture for the teeth, and is the basis of the celebrated French 
dentifrice ' eaii Botot.' 


Cedrat. — This perfume is procured from the rind of the 
citron fruit (Citrus medicd), both by distillation and expres- 
sion ; it has a very beautiful lemony odour, and is much 
admired. It is principally used in the manufacture of essences 
for the handkerchief, being too expensive for perfuming 
grease or soap. What is called extract of cedrat is made by 
dissolving two ounces of the above essential oil of citron in 
oije pint Qf spirits, to which some perfumers add half an ounce 
ofbergamot. . . - . 

Cinnamon. — Several species of the plant Laurus Cinna- 
momum yield the cinnamon and cassia of commerce. Its 
name is said to be derived from China Amomuni, the bark 
being one of the most valued spices of the East. Perfumers 
use both the bark and the oil, which is obtained by distillation 
from it. The ground- bark enters into the composition of 
some pastilles, tooth powders, and sachets. The essential oil 
of cinnamon is principally brought to this country from 
Ceylon ; it is exceedingly powerful, and must be used 
sparingly. In such compounds where cloves answer, so will 

Cinnamon is gathered when the tree is at least five years old. It is 
worked for thirty years, and yields two harvests annually. The branches 
are cut, the epidermis detached with a knife,. a longitudinal fissure made 
in the bark, and the bark separated from the wood. Small rolls of the 
cinnamon are inserted within the larger ones, and they are dried in the 
sun. The aromatic and pleasant odour of cinnamon is well known, as is 
also its sweet piquant taste. The smell and flavour of Chinese cinnamon 
is not so agreeable. — {Guibourt and Moguin-Tandon.) 

The Cassia lignea, which is the. bark of the Laurus Malaba- 
thrum, is often employed as an aromatic and a spice. So are 
the leaves and flowers not full blown of various cinnamon trees. 
The seeds yield a greasy matter which is used in the prepara- 
tion of scented tapers, burnt by the wealthy in the places 
where they are produced. 


Mr. James Paton says : — 

'The earliest glimpse we have of the spice trade gives us a most 
characteristic and vivid impress of the traffic of the early world. As the 
sons of Jacob had just completed the execution of their plot against their 
envied brother Joseph, on the horizon appeared "a company of 
Ishmaelites from Gilead, bearing spicery, balm, and myrrh, going to 
carry it down to Egypt." Thus 1,700 years before the Christian era we 
find the Arabs possessed of the spice trade, which their country, as a 
principal entrepot, continued to hold down to the sixteenth century, when 
the whole system was overthrown by the discovery of the Cape passage. 
At this period Egypt was the capital of civilisation, learning, and luxury ; 
and myrrh, cassia, and other odoriferous substances, we are informed 
by Herodotus, were used for embalming the dead and in religious cere- 

The southern portion of Arabia, called Sabasa or Sheba, was pecu- 
liarly well situated for commanding the great trade in spices (hence the 
name Arabia Felix or Araby the Blest), lying in the direct route from the 
east to the west, commanding the great caravan route by the valley of 
the Euphrates to the shores of the Mediterranean, and just opposite the 
Regio Cinnamomifera, or Aromata, the north-east promontory of Africa, 
from which, and not from India, the main supply of the spices then used 
was drawn. The Sabeans had the necessary skill and enterprise for 
conducting this trade, and cunning did not fail them. They overclouded 
the mysteries of the prized commodities with fables, such as that cinnamon 
was gathered from the nests of the phoenix, which bird procured it in 
some miraculous way ; that it was found in the land of the birth of 
Bacchus, in marshes guarded by winged serpents ; that terrible bats flew 
at the eyes of those engaged in gathering cassia, and other such tales, 
all of which we presume served to keep up both the interest in and 
price of these spices, and to deter the much believing inhabitants of the 
early world from prosecuting such dangerous enterprises on their own 

The wealth and glory of Arabia Felix, acquired through this spice 
trade, was the wonder of ancient times, and the writers revel in descrip- 
tions of the grandeur of its cities, and the magnificence of its merchants' 
houses. Milton alludes in one of his magnificent images to these per- 
fumes — 

' North-west winds blow 
Sabean odours from the spicy shores 
Of Araby the Blest.' 

114 the art of perfumery. 


Sharp-tasted citron, Median climes produce ; 

Large is the plant, and like a laurel grows ; 

And, did it not a different scent disclose, 

A laurel were. Virgil, Georgics II. i8o. 

On distilling the flowers of the Citrus medica, a very 
flagrant oil is procured, which is a species of neroli, and is 
principally consumed by the manufacturers of Hungary water. 
(See Lime.) 

Citron ELLA. — Under this name there is an oil in the 
market, chiefly from Ceylon. It is procured by distilling the 
leaves of the Andropogon Nardus, which grows wild, and is 
very abundant in Ceylon. In the neighbourhoods of Galle 
and of Colombo, in that island, large tracts of land are under 
cultivation of this plant, for the express purpose of procuring 
the odoriferous principle. 

The average export of citronella from the port of Colombo 
is about 40,000 lbs. annually. 

Citronella being cheap (the export price at Colombo is 
4^-. id. per pound !), it is extensively used for perfuming soap; 
what is now so generally sold as 'honey' soap is fine yellow 
soap slightly perfumed with this oil. Some few use it for 
scenting grease, but it is not much admired in that way. 

This essence must not be confounded with those produced 
by other plants very different, although bearing the same 
name. There are, indeed, numerous plants, the odour of 
which more or less resembles that of citron. Among these 
may be mentioned the male southernwood {artemisia abrola- 
num, synanihercB) ; the melissa {melissa officinalis, labiates); 
the sweet verbena (verbena tryphylld) ; the lipia citriodora, 
and aloysia citriodora. (See VERBENA.) 

It is stated by Wallich, according to Fleming, that the citron- 
smelling andropogon of Martinique is known in India as lemon 
grass, or as dogs'-grass citron. In Martinique a plant supposed 



to be poisonous is confounded, under the name of citronella 
or andropogon, with the schcenanthus. It does, in fact, much 
resemble the schcenanthus, but is 
larger, and diffuses a very pleasant 
smell of rose-geranium charac- 
ter. Growing specimens of these 
as well as numerous other plants, 
mentioned in this work, may be 
found in the Economic House at 

Citronella grass {Andropogon 
Nardus) is cultivated both by Mr. 
Fisher and by Mr. Winter, its otto 
being obtained by means of dis- 
tillation. The importance of the 
trade in this one article in Ceylon 
alone may be estimated at 8,000/. 
annually. At Gaylang, Singapore, 
there are about 1,000 acres under 
citronella, lemon grass, and patch- 
ouly. Geranium grass otto is 
obtained from the Andropogon 
Schcenanthus. This grass, some- 
times called ginger grass, is a wild 
plant of Central and Northern 
India ; its otto is produced by dis- 
tillation, but it has not much repu- 
tation out of India. 

Cloves. — Every part of the 
clove plant (Caryophyllus aroma- 
ticus) abounds with aromatic oil ; 
but it is most fragrant and plentiful in the unexpanded 
flower-buds, which are the cloves of commerce. Cloves have 
been brought into the European market for more than 



2,000 years. The plant is a native of the Moluccas and other 
islands in the Chinese seas. .' The average annual crop, of 
cloves,' says Burnett, ' is from each tree 2 or 2\ lbs. ; but a 
fine tree has been known to yield 125 lbs. of this spice in a 
single season, and as 5,000 cloves only weigh one pound, 
there must have been at least 625,000 flowers upon this single 

The otto of cloves may be obtained by expression from 
the fresh flower-buds ; but the usual method of procuring it is 

by distillation, which is carrieid on 
to a very great extent in this coun- 
try. Few essential oils have a more 
extensive use in perfumery than that 
of cloves ; it combines well with 
grease, soap, and spirit, and, as will 
be seen in the recipes for the various 
bouquets given hereafter, it forms a 
leading feature in some of the most 
CLOVE. popular handkerchief essences — 

Rondeletia, the Guards' Bouquet, &c. — and will be found where 
least expected. For essence of cloves, dissolve oil of qloves 
in the proportion of four ounces of oil to one gallon of 

The distilled water of the clove deposits pearly crystals of 
a substance named eugenine, the composition of which is the 
same as that of eugenic acid. 

Cucumber. — Considerable difference of opinion exists 
among the public as to the odour of cucumber. Some greatly 
admire it, and think it has many virtues; others there are who 
think well of it on the side-board, but would expunge it from 
the toilet-table. Our business is not, however, to give opinion, 
but to state the mode of procuring the odour of the plant 
We have been unable to procure any otto of cucumber, and 
the ' water ' distilled from it has but a very faint resemblance 



to the fruit : if, however, spirits of wine be repeatedly dis- 
tilled over freshly-cut cucumbers, we finally obtain, at about 
the third distillation, a spirit or essence having all the true 
odour we are in search of Its principal use is in making 
cucumber cold cream, &c., which see. 

Dill. — Perfumers are now and then asked for 'dill-water;' 
it is, however, more a druggist's article than a perfumer's, as 

it is more used for its medicinal qualities than for its odour, 
which, by the way, is rather pleasant than otherwise. Some 
ladies use a mixture of half dill-water and half rose-water, as 
a simple cosmetic, ' to clear the complexion.' 

The oil of dill is procured by submitting the crushed fruit 
of dill (Anethum graveolens) with water to distillation. The 
oil floats on the surface of the distillate, from which it is 


separated by the recipient in the usual manner ; after the sepa- 
ration of the oil, the ' water ' is fit for sale. Oil of dill may- 
be used with advantage, if in small proportions, and mixed 
with other oils, for perfuming soap. 

Eglantine, or Sweet-Briar, notwithstanding what the 
poet Robert Noyes says, 

In fragrance yields, 
Surpassing citron groves or spicy fields, 

does not find a place in the perfumer's ' scent-room,' except 
in name. This, like many other sweet-scented plants, does 
not repay the labour of collecting its odour. The fragrant 
part of this plant is destroyed more or less under every 
treatment that it is put to, and hence it is discarded. As, 
however, the article is in demand by the public, a species of 
fraud is practised upon them, by imitating it thus : — 

Imitation Eglantine, or Essence of Sweet-Briar. 

Spirituous extract of French rose pomatum . . i pint 

„ „ fleur d'orange . 

Esprit de rose .... 

Otto of neroli . \ drachm 

„ lemon grass (verbena oil) 

Elder {Sambucus nigra). — The only preparation of this 
plant, for its odorous quality, used by the perfumer, is elder- 
flower water. To prepare it, take nine pounds of elder 
flowers, free from stalk , and introduce it to the still with four 
gallons of water ; the first three gallons that come over is all 
that need be preserved for use ; one ounce of rectified spirit 
should be added to each gallon of ' water ' distilled, and when 
bottled it is ready for use. 

Krembs recommends the following process for making 
a concentrated elder-flower water, from which he states the 



ordinary water can be extemporaneously prepared, of ex- 
cellent quality, and of uniform strength : — 

12 lbs. of the flowers are to be distilled with water until that which 
passes into the receiver has lost nearly all perfume. This will generally 
happen when from 15 lbs. to 18 lbs. have passed over. To the distillate, 
12 lbs. of alcohol are to be added, and the mixture distilled until about ; 
lbs. are collected. This liquor contains all the odour of the flowers. To 
make the ordinary water, 2 ounces of the concentrated water are to be 
added to 10 ounces of distilled water. — Buchner's Report. 

Other preparations of elder flowers are made, such as 
milk of elder, extract of elder, &c., which will be found in 
their proper place under Cosmetics. Two or three new 
materials made from this flower will also be given hereafter, 
which are likely to meet with a very large sale on account of 
the reputed cooling qualities of the ingredients : of these we 
would call attention more particularly to cold cream of elder 
flowers, and to elder oil for the hair. 

The preparations of the elder flowers, if made according 
to the Pharmacopoeias, are perfectly useless, as the forms 
therein given show an utter want of knowledg^e of the pro- 
perties of the materials employed. 

In Nichols's ' Progress of Queen Elizabeth ' he mentions 
that at Hawkstead, among the rooms on the ground-floor, 
was one called the still-room, an apartment where ladies of 
the Court much amused themselves in distilling fragrant 
waters. In the Northumberland 'Household Book,' a work 
so often quoted by historical writers, there appears the fol- 
lowing list of plants, viz. ' Roses, Borage, Fumitory, Purcelly, 
Balme, Walnut leaves. Sage, Elder floweis, &c., for the use of 
the still-room.' The still-room maid to this day preserves 
her name, though not all her old avocation. The cymes of 
the elder, after being plucked and placed in a heap, very 
quickly heat ; the corollas then fall off and are separated, by 
sifting, from the stalks. During the season many tons of 


these are sold by Covent Garden herbalists. Of corollas 
9 lbs. are distilled with 4 gallons of water ; the first 3 
gallons that come over only are preserved for used under the 
title of Elder-flower water. 

Eucalyptus. — This tree-shrub belonging to the genera 
of Myrtace^ is indigenous to Australia ; one of its near 
allies, the Meleuca, yields by distillation of its leaves the 
Cuiam ponti, or, as is known with us, Cajeput oil, of no 
sweet savour, but yet valuable in pharmacy. Mr. Bosisto, of 
Richmond in Victoria, made a very valuable ' exhibit ' of 
products from the Eucalyptus at the Paris Exhibition, 1867. 
In his circular, after speaking of the value of the oils from 
Eucalyptus in a medicinal point of view in lieu of Cajeput, 
and also of its solvent powers over copal, &c., goes on to 
observe that — 

Both in England and Australia these oils have been found useful in 
the manufacture of perfumery, especially in aromatising soaps. They 
make good basic odours ; and it is important to remark that their aroma 
can be materially altered, on account of ihe readiness with which they 
yield up their own identity on the addition of essential oils in consonance 
with them — 

a dictum with which we cannot agree so long as perfumery 
remains a science of sweet odours! Eucalyptus has an 
odour between good turpentine and cajeput, neither of 
which are ' sweet to smell : ' it would therefore be worse than 
flattery to induce, even by kind expression towards his 
labours, him or others to believe that the oil of Eucalyptus 
will ever be used in perfumery, except in name ; or, when so 
employed, but as a sanitary agent. 

Fennel {Fmiimlum vulgare). — Dried fennel herb, when 
ground, enters into the composition of some sachet powders. 
The oil of fennel, in conjunction with other aromatic oils, 
may be used for perfuming soap. It is procurable by distil-" 


Flag (Sweet) {Acorus calamus). — The roots, or rhizome, 
of the sweet flag, yield by distillation a pleasant-smelling 
otto ; I cwt. of the rhizome will thus yield one pound of oil. 
It can be used according to the pleasure of the manufacturer 
in scenting grease, soap, or for extraits, but requires other 
sweet oils with it to hide its origin. 

The true sweet flag is a very odorous root, yellowish out- 
side, whitish within, showing black specks on its lower part, 
the traces of radicles, and transverse lines on the upper part, 
whence the leaves shoot. It must not be confounded with 
the bulbs of gladiolus, which are inodorous and belong to the 

The true acorus is often sold as the Calamus aromaticus 
of the ancients, which was very different and probably be- 
longed to the family of the Gentianacese. 

FRANGIPANNI {Plumeria Albd). —This plant, which is said 
to yield the ' eternal perfume,' so popular at the present day, 
is a native of the West India Islands. In Antigua and at 
St. Domingo it grows in great abundance. Having, through 
my friend H. Bridger, Esq., of the former place, obtained a 
few of the plants, I forwarded them to the Royal Gardens, 
Kew. The following remarks thereon by Sir W. Hooker are 
worthy of record : — 

Royal Gardens, Kew, August 14. 

My dear Sir, 

I thank you much for the Frangipanni plants. One, and one only, 
shows life ; but I have every reason to think it will recover, and then, and 
not till then, we shall see exactly what species of Plumeria it is. 

I do not find in your work that the odour of the flowers is preserved 
and used in this country. A French author (Descoursilz, in his ' Flore 
des Antilles ') says, ' Les parfumeurs recherchent cette odeur fugace, qu'ils 
savent fixer dans leurs pommades et leurs huiles cosmdtiques.' This is 


said of Plumeria alba ; but all the species, and there are several, have the 
same agreeable odour vifheii living. Our Floras of the West Indies do 
not speak of such a use being made of the flowers. You have the power 
of imitating it from other vegetables. 

On looking further into this subject, I find it stated by Sir James 
Smith that the French name of all the species is Frangipanni, and that 
they are so called from the resemblance of their fragrance, to a well- 
known perfume of France, ' Frangipanni ; ' its inventor, an Italian, was 
of the Frangipanni family , so conspicuous in the Roman disturbances. 

I suspect, then, that no perfume is derived from these flowers : the 
real Fran^panni being derived from other flowers, as described in your 

work, 2iid edition. 

Very truly yours, 

W. J. Hooker. 

P.S. The juice of all the Plumerias is milky and very poisonous. One 
species was in flower with us last week. 

To S. PlESSE, Ph.D., F.C.S. 

Frankincense, or Olibanum (see Olibanum.) Al- 
though there has been much research, the trees which produce 
this resinous gum are but imperfectly known. The best 
discourse upon this subject is to be found in the 'Trans- 
actions of the Linnaean Society,' vol. xxvii., p. iii, by Dr. 
Birdwood. It is stated that the gum is obtainable from several 
species of Boswellia, growing in the hot and arid regions of 
Eastern Africa and of the Southern coast of Arabia, the 
Soumali country, and near Aden. 

As exemplifying the great esteem in which frankincense was held by 
the ancients, the memorable gifts presented by the Magi to the infant 
Saviour will occur to every mind. Herodotus relates that the Arabians 
paid to Darius, king of Persia, an annual tribute of i,ooo talents of 
frankincense. Constantine made offerings to the church of Rome costly 
vessels containing A romaia in incensum, which is understood as olibanum." 

Geranium (Pelargonium Capitaiwn, rose-leaf geranium). 
— The leaves of this plant yield by distillation a very 
agreeable rose-smelling otto, so much resembling real otto of 

' - Pharmncograp/, ia. 


rose that it is used very extensively for the adulteration of 
that valuable scent, and is grown very largely for that 
express purpose. It is principally cultivated in the south of 
France, and in Turkey (by the rose-growers). In the depart- 
ment of Seine-et-Oise, at Monfort-Lamaury, in France, 
hundreds of acres of it may be seen growing. The geranium 
is propagated by cuttings made in September, which are 
planted out in the spring. If the land has been well manured, 
and if the season be very dry, the plants are well irrigated. 
They grow to a height of three to four feet, yielding an 
abundance of foliage, which is easily garnered by the sickle. 
One hundred-weight of leaves will yield about two ounces of 
essential oil. Used to adulterate otto of rose, it is in its turn 
itself adulterated with ginger-grass otto (Attdropogon), and 
thus formerly was very diificult to procure genuine ; on 
account of the increased cultivation of the plant, it is now, 
however, easily procured pure. Some samples are greenish- 
coloured, others nearly white, but we prefer those of a 
brownish tint. 

When dissolved in rectified spirit, in the proportion of 
about eight ounces to the gallon, it forms the Extract of Rose- 
leaf Geranium of the shops.— A word or two is necessary 
about the oil of geranium, as much confusion is created respect- 
ing it, in consequence of there being an otto under the name 
of geranium, but which in reality is derived from one of the 
Andropogons, cultivated in the Moluccas. This said andro- 
pogon (geranium !) oil can be used to adulterate the true 
geranium, and hence we suppose its nomenclature in the 
drug markets. The genuine rose-leaf geranium otto fetches 
about 3J. per ounce, while the andropogon oil is not worth 
more than that sum per pound. And we may observe here 
that the perfuming essential oils are best purchased through 
the wholesale perfumers, as from the nature of their trade 
they have a better knowledge and means of obtaining the 


real article than the drug broker. On account of the 
pleasing odour of the true oil of rose-leaf geranium, it is a 
valuable article for perfuming many materials, and appears to 
give the public great satisfaction. Recently some fine 
samples of otto of geranium have been brought to England, 
being the produce of Spain, very nearly as good as the otto 
imported from Grasse. It was sold at y. 6d. per ounce. 

Several varieties of the Natural Order Geraniaceas bear 


.scent-yielding leaves ; but although these plants were intro- 
duced into Europe from the Cape of Good Hope so far back 
as 1690, it was not until 1847 that the Pelargonium capitatiim 
began to be systematically grown for the purpose of extract- 
ing its scent-yielding principle, known in commerce as the 
Otto of Rose-leaf Geranium. This was first done by M. 
Demarson, of Paris ; and since that time its cultivation has 
vastly increased in France, particularly at Montfort-Lamaury, 
in the Department of Seine-et-Oise, and it has even more 


rapidly spread in Algeria, Mr. Monk, an Englishman, and M. 
Chiris pushing its production extensively. The same kind of 
culture is also carried on in Spain, by Senor Robillard, of 
Valentia. The propagation of the Pelargonium by means of 
slips is too well known to need description. One ton weight 
of leaves will yield by distillation an average of two pounds 
weight of otto, the lowest wholesale price of which is, say, 61. 
Senor Robillard has about fifty acres of Rose Geranium under 
tillage, more or less, according to the demand. He strikes 
the cuttings from September to October, and puts them out 
in April ; the plants have to be replaced every three or four 
years at longest, the land being well manured annually. 
About 3,cx)0 plants are required per acre. 

Hediosmia. — A scent supposed to be derived from the 
Hedyosnium, an indigenous shrub of Jamaica. 

Heliotrope. — Either by maceration or enfleurage with 
clarified fat, we may obtain this fine odour from the flowers 
of the Heliotropium peruvianum or H. grandiflorum. Ex- 
quisite as the odour of this plant is, at present it is not applied 
to use by the manufacturing perfumer. This we think rather 
a singular fact, especially as the perfume is powerful and the 
flowers abundant. We should like to hear of some experi- 
ments being tried with this plant for producing its odour in 
this country, and for that purpose now suggest the mode of 
operation which would most likely lead to successful results. 
For a small trial in the first instance, which can be managed 
by any person having the run of a garden, we will say, procure 
an ordinary glue-pot now in common use, which melts the 
material by the boiling of water ; it is in fact a water bath, in 
chemical parlance — one capable of holding a pound or more 
of melted fat. At the season when the flowers are in bloom, 
obtain a pound of fine lard ; melt the lard and strain it through 
a close hair-sieve ; allow the liquefied fat, as it falls from the 
sieve, to drop into cold spring water ; this operation granulates 


and washes the blood and membrane from it. In order to 
start with a perfectly inodorous grease, the melting and granu- 
lation process may be repeated three or four times, using a 
pinch of salt and a pinch of alum in each water ; it is then to 
be washed five or six times in plain water ; finally, remelt 
the fat ; and cast it into a pan to free it from adhering water. 

Now put the clarified lard into the macerating pot, and 
place it in such a position near the fire of the greenhouse, or 
elsewhere, that will keep it warm enough to be liquid ; into 
the fat throw as many flowers as you can, and there let them 
remain for twenty-four hours ; at this time strain the fat from 
the spent flowers and add fresh ones ; repeat this operation 
for a week : we expect at the last straining the fat will have 
become very highly perfumed, and when cold may be justly 
•termed Pommade d la Hdiotrope. 

The cold pomade being chopped up, like suet for a pudding, 
is now to be put into a wide-mouthed bottle, and covered 
with spirits as highly rectified as can be obtained, and left to 
digest for a week or more ; the spirit then strained off will be 
highly perfumed ; in reality it will be extract of heliotrope, a 
delightful perfume for the handkerchief. The rationale of 
the operation is simple enough ; the fat body has a strong 
affinity or attraction for the odorous body, or essential oil of 
the flowers, and it therefore absorbs it by contact, and becomes 
itself perfumed. In the second operation the spirit has a 
much greater attraction for the fragrant principle than the 
fatty matter ; the former, therefore, becomes perfumed at the 
expense of the latter. The same experiment may be repeated 
with almond oil .substituted for the fat, or the process of 
enfleurage may be adopted. 

The experiment here hinted at may be varied with any 
flowers that there are to spare ; indeed, by having the mace- 
rating bath larger than was mentioned above, an excellent 
millefleur pomade and essence might be produced from every 


conservatory in the kingdom, and thus we may receive 
another enjoyment from the cultivation of flowers beyond 
their beauty cf form and colour. 

We hope that those of our readers who feel inclined to try 
experiments of this nature will not be deterred by saying, 
' They are not worth the trouble.' It must be remembered 
that very fine essences realise in the London perfumery 
warehouses \6s. per pint of 20 ounces, and that ^n& flower- 
scented pomades fetch the same sum per pound. If the 
experiments are successful, they should be published, as then 
we may hope to establish a new and important manufacture 
in this country, or our warm colonies. But we are digressing. 

The perfume of heliotrope is perfectly extracted by means 
of sulphuret of carbon by Millon's process as modified by Piver. 

The odour of heliotrope resembles a mixture of almonds 
and vanilla, and is well imitated thus : — 

Extract of Heliotrope. 
Spirituous extract of vanilla J pint 

„ „ French rose pomatum 

„ „ orange-flower pomatum . 

„ „ ambergris 
Essential oil of almonds 

2 oz. 

I „ 
5 drops. 

A preparation made in this manner under the name of 
Extrait de Hdiottope is that which is sold in the shops of 
Paris and London, and is really a very nice perfume, passing 
well with the public for a genuine extract of heliotrope. 

Piver, a Paris perfumer, has obtained from one hectare of 
land a quantity of flowers, from which he extracted by Millon's 
process 6 kilogrammes of perfume of heliotrope, worth j.ooofr. 
Of this perfume, 4 grammes is sufficient to scent in an 
exquisite manner a kilogramme of pomatum. It is not 
injured by exposure to the air, and has enough stability, even 
when not dissolved by alcohol, to bear, without loss of weight 
or of intensity, being kept in open vessels. 


Honeysuckle, or Woodbine — 

Copious of flower the woodbine, pale and wan, 
But well compensating her sickly looks 
With never-cloying odours. 

What the poet Cowper here says is quite true ; nevertheless, 
it is a flower that is not used in practical perfumery, though 
there is no reason for abandoning it. The experiments 
suggested for obtaining the odour of Heliotrope and Mille- 
fleur (thousand flowers) are also applicable to this, as also to 
Hawthorn. A good 

Imilation of Honeysuckle 
is made thus : — 

Spirituous extract o 

if rose pomatum 

. I pint 

»7 ?» 


1 „ 

JT )T 

tubereuse . 

• 1 „ 

Extract of vanilla 


4 W 


\ „ 

Otto neroli 

lo drops 

„ almonds . 

• 5 » 

The prime cost of a perfume made in this manner would 
probably be too high to meet the demand of a retail druggist ; 
in such cases it may be diluted with rectified spirit to the 
extent ' to make it pay,' and will yet be a nice perfume. The 
formula generally given herein for odours is in anticipation 
that when bottled they will retail for at least eighteen-pence 
the fluid ounce ; which is the average price put on the finest 
perfumery by the manufacturers. The honeysuckle belongs 
to the family of the Caprifoliacese (lonicera caprifoliuvi). 

Hops. — The flowers of the hop plant, Humulvs lupultis, 
yield a fragrant otto by distillation. On distilling a pocket, 
about 120 lbs., of new hops of best Kent quality, I procured 
just eight ounces of fragrant otto, limpid, and of a bay green 
colour. A similar quantity of three year old Bavarian hops 
yielded eleven ounces of otto. The workmen were warned in 
case of its supposed narcotic action, but no such effects in the 


least degree were noticed. I have not yet employed it in 
perfumery ; but I cannot tell how soon it may be, since people 
have taken a liking to, and repeatedly asked for, a perfume so 
unflowery as Russian leather ! 

HOVENIA. — A perfume under this name is sold to a 
limited extent ; but if it did not smell better than the plant 
Hovenia dulcis or H. incequalis, a native of Japan, it would 
not sell at all. The article in the market is made thus : — 

Imitation Essence of Hovenia. 

Rectified spirit i quart 

Rose-water \ pint 

Otto lemons . . ^ oz 

„ rose I drachm 

» cloves \ » 

„ neroli 10 drops. 

First dissolve the ottos in the spirit, then add the rose- 
water. After filtration it is ready for sale. When compounds 
of this kind do not become bright by passing through blotting- 
paper, the addition of a little carbonate of magnesia prior to 
filtering effectually clears them. The water in the above 
recipe is only added in order that the article produced may 
be retailed at a moderate price, and would, of course, be better 
without that ' universal friend.' 

The stalks of the hovenia, when they become fleshy, are 
eaten by the Japanese. According to Ksmpfer they taste 
like the pear. 

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis). — This plant yields by dis- 
tillation an essential oil, which is sometimes used in ordi- 
nary perfumeries, but more particularly by the distillers 
who deal in liqueurs. When recently prepared it is colourless, 
but in contact with the air becomes yellow as it changes to a 
resin. It boils at about 160° (cent.) ; but the boiling point is 
sometimes as high as 180°, which indicates that it consists of 
at least two essences. 



Ilang-Ilang (Cananga odorata). — This plant grows abun- 
dantly in the Philippine Islands, and is especially cultivated 


in Manilla by M. Julien, of Westembayan, to whom I am in- 
debted for the illustrations from which the annexed woodcuts 
were prepared. The true Ilang-Ilang (Flower of Flowers) 



yields, by distillation of its blossoms, a minute quantity of an 


otto resembling the odour of the flower from which it is de 
rived. The value of this otto, when pure, is from i8j. to 22s 


per oz. in the European perfume market. Unfortunately^ 
however, there grows in the same country the Champaca tree, 
which yields an otto, by distillation of its leaves, somewhat 
resembling in fragrance that of the Ilang-Ilang, but of little 
more commercial value than the otto of Pimento, which 
realises 2s. per oz. With this the true Ilang-Ilang is fre- 
quently adulterated. 

The otto of Ilang-Ilang has not been introduced into 
Europe more than about sixteen years ; but the price that it 
fetches, when pure, shows that it occupies a prominent place 
amongst perfumes. 

The odour of Hang has but little force : hence it requires 
an unusual quantity of its otto to make a fair average hand- 
kerchief scent, as will be seen by the following recipe for 

Ilang-Ilang Extract. 

Alcohol (60 over proof) i gallon 

Hang otto 6 oz. 

The cost of this perfume makes it far above the average of 
others, and is very fleeting in fragrance. A blended perfume 
containing otto of Hang, giving more satisfaction to the public 
than the above recipe, may be made thus : — 

Ilang-Ilang (blended). 

Alcohol (60 over proof) i pint 

Otto ilang i oz. 

Otto pimento ^ oz. 

Orris tincture 2 pints 

Esprit rose, triple i pint 

„ !> poni I ,, 

„ tubereuse i » 

„ cassie ......... i „ 

„ jasmine i „ 

I gallon. 
It will be seen that this mixture contains otto of pimento,; 


the reason of its use is because, although Ilang-IIang has a 
flower scent, it also has ' that within ' which imparts a spice 
odour, as may also be observed in the common clove pink and 
stock of English gardens. 

The Cananga odorata is often spelled Ylang, also Ihlang : 
the fact is the plant is unknown to European botanists ; few, 
indeed, grasp the Malay tongue. 


Luxuriant above all, 
The jasmine throwing wide her elegant sweets, 

This flower is one of the most prized by the perfumer. Its 
odour is delicate and sweet, and so peculiar that it is without 
comparison, and as such cannot be imitated. When the 
flowers of the Jasfninuni odoratissimum are distilled, repeat- 
edly using the water of distillation over fresh flowers, a kind 
of sweet-smelling essence is obtained which ultimately offers 
a perfume of jasmine. It is, however, exceedingly rare, on 
account of the enormous cost of production. Thepe wag a fine 
sample of six ounces exhibited in the Tunisian department 
of the Exhibition, 1862, the price of which was 9/. the fluid 
ounce ! The plant is the Yasmyn of the Arabs, from which 
our name is derived. 

The cultivation of the jasniine is very extensive at Canneg 
(du D^partement du Var) jn the south of Frf^nce. The manu- 
facturing perfumers there do not grow all the jasniine they 
consume, but are supplied every morning in the season, with 
small lots of flowers, from various cottagers, who have little 
plots of the plants. The cost pf these flowers ig from t^Q 
to three francs the kilograpime, equal to about is. 6d. to 
2s. 6d. the pound ; in this w^y the principal houses receive 
daily from one to two hundredweight of blossoms ! The 
cultivated jasmine differs from that jasmine we have in 
England, inasmuch as the blossoms are four times the size of 
the British or wild jasmine ; the plant also grows more like a 



small bush, and, not being a creeper, requires no supports ; it 
is, in fact, the Jasmin grandiflora of the botanists. Its 
growth and cultivation resemble very much that of English 


Alphonse Karr has thus described a sale of some jessamines 
at Nice : — 

The other day I saw two cultivators in a garden ; one was buying of 
the other four thousand Spanish jessamine roots. I was not present at 
the struggle, but it must have been hot and passionate. When I arrived; 
the sale of the jessamines was concluded. The ordinary price of the 


Spanish jessamine is from three to five francs the hundred roots. These 
jessamines were splendidly loaded with large white flowers and pinkish 
violet buds. The buyer took a pickaxe and uprooted them. I thought 
he was mad. For jessamines torn up in full flowering, in the month of 
August, would in France be considered entirely lost, and fit only to be 
tied up in bundles for firewood. But this man, instead, carried his jessa- 
mines home, planted them in the ground, threw a few buckets of water 
over them, and left them to themselves. Three days afterwards I 
went to see them ; they were in splendid condition, and had not ceased 

The jasmine is cultivated upon stems of the wild jasmine 
(that which is seen in our English gardens) grafted at the 
end of two years with the Spanish jasmine. 

This produces a blossom the size of a shilling, of intense 
fragrance. Jasmine requires a moist soil, or so situated that 
it can be irrigated. The distance of planting out the jasmine 
is the same as for the rose ; it must be very liberally pruned 
every year. The flowers of the jasmine are produced from 
July to the end of October, but those of August and Septem- 
ber are the most fragrant. About fifty days, or fifty successive 
inflowerings of fresh blossoms, produces the finest jasmine fat. 
It requires about eight thousand plants to stock an acre ; 
and they are not in full bearing till the second year after 
grafting ; but when mature, every thousand plants yield about 
sixty pounds' weight of flowers annually. They are planted 
in rows, horizontal poles being thrust between them for 
support, the branches being woven in and out, somewhat as 
the raspberry canes are arranged by the Chiswick gardeners. 
Every August — the jasmine season— the fields are alive with 
women, old and young, and children, each having a little 
basket at her side suspended by a strap across her shoulders, 
both hands actively engaged in picking the flowers, and filling 
the baskets. As each basket is filled it is conveyed to the 
shaded laboratory and there weighed. An acre of land will 
yield about five hundred pounds' weight of jasmine blossoms. 



In the perfumer's laboratory, the method of obtaining the 
odour is by absorption, or, as the French term it, enfleurage ; 
that is, by spreading a mixture of pure lard and beef suet on 
a glass tray (chassis en verre), and sprinkling the fresh-gathered 
flowers all over it, leaving them to stand a day or so, and 
repeating the operation with fresh flowers during the whole 
time the jasmine plant is in blossom, which is for more than 
six weeks ; the grease absorbs the odour. Finally, the 
pomade is scraped off the glass, melted at as low a tempera- 


ture as possible, and strained. It requires at least three 
kilogrammes of flowers to perfurqe one kilogramme of grease. 

Oils strongly impregnated with the fragrance are also 
prepared much in the same way. Cotton cloths (inolleton de 
coton), previously steeped in olive oil, are covered with jasmine 
flowers, which is repeated sever£tl times ; finally, the cotton 
cloths are squeezed under a press. The jasmine oil thus 
produced is the Hidle antique an jasmin of the French bousesi. 
(See Enfleurage.) 

The extract of jasmine is prepared by pouring rectified 
spirit on the jasmine pomade or oil, and allowing them to 


remain together for a fortnight, at a summer heat. The best 
quahty extract requires two pounds of pomatum to every 
quart of spirit. The same can be done with the oil of jasmine. 
If the pomade is used, it must be cut up fine previously to 
being put into the spirit; if the oil is used, it must be shaken 
well together every two or more hours, otherwise, on account 
of its specific gravity, the oil separates, and but little surface 
is exposed to the spirit. After the extract is strained off, the 
' washed ' pomatum or oil is still useful, if remelted, in the 
composition of pomatum for the hair, and gives more satisfac- 
tion to a customer than any of the ' creams and balms,' &c., 
&c., made up and scented with essential oils ; the one smells 
of the flower, the other Barbi?rous. 

The extract of jasmine enters into the composition of a 
great many of the most approved handkerchief perfumes sold 
by the English and French perfumers. The extract of 
jasmine made in England is much finer than the French, on 
account of the inodorous quality of the British spirit. Extract 
of jasmine is sold for the handkerchief often pure, but is one 
of those scents which, though very gratifying at first, becomes 
what people call ' sickly ' after exposure to the oxidising 
influence of the air, but, if judiciously mixed with other, per- 
fumes of an opposite character, is sure to please the most 
fastidious customer. 

In Turkey the jasmine is cultivated for a different pur- 
pose. By reserving only a single axis to each stalk, they 
obtain the beautiful straight stems which are used in the 
manufacture of pipe-tubes. 

Essence of jasmine, when cooled down to 0°, deposits a 
white stearopten, crystalline, inodorous, fusible at 125°, hardly 
soluble in water, easily soluble in spirit and ether. 

Jonquil. — The scent of the jonquil is very pleasing ; for 
perfumery purposes it is, however, but little cultivated in 
comparison with jasmine and tubereuse. It is prepared 


exactly as jasmine. The Parisian perfumers sell a mixture 
which they call 'extract of jonquil.' The plant, however, 
only plays the part of a godfather to the offspring, giving it 
its name. The so-called jonquil is made thus : — 

Imitation Extract of Jonquil. 
Spirituous extract of jasmine pomade . . .1 pint 
„ tubereuse . . . . i „ 
„ fleur d'orange . . ■ \ „ 
Extract of vanilla 2 fluid oz. 

True Extract of Jonquil. 

Jonquil pomade 8 lbs. 

Spirit (60 over proof) i gallon. 

Let it stand one month. 

The jonquil is produced by the Narcissus Jonquilla, of the 
family of the Amaryllidacese. 

KOOSHT, or COSTUS. Balfour says that the root of the 
Aucklandia Costus has an aromatic odour, and is used in 
Northern -India as incense ; in Bengal this same is called 
Puchak. I have made some experiments with a sample of 
Koosht which was sent to me by Mr. Collins, the curator of 
the Museum of the Pharmaceutical Society : it appears to be 
scarcely as odorous as orris root. The tincture has an agree- 
able smell and would be useful, but no quantity has yet been 
seen in our markets. 

Since the above experiments, I have imported two hundred- 
weight of costus, and which I find far superior to the original 
sample ; being newer, it is more fragrant. Five lbs. of it to one 
gallon of spirit makes an excellent tincture, and will cer- 
tainly come into use as a base for several perfumes. 

Laurel. — By distillation from the leaves of the Prunus 
Laurocerasus, or cherry laurel, an oil and perfumed water are 
procurable, of a very pleasant and fragrant character. Com- 
mercially, however, it is disregarded, as, from the similarity 
of odour to the oil distilled from the bitter almond, it is 


rarely, if ever, used by the perfumer, the latter being more 

In each bright drop there is a spell, 
'Tis from the soil we love so well, 
From English gardens won. 

The climate of England appears to be better adapted 
for the perfect development of this fine old favourite perfume 
than any other on the globe. ' The ancients,' says Burnett, 
• employed the flowers and the leaves to aromatise their 
baths, and to give a sweet scent to water in which they 
washed ; hence the generic name of the plant, Lavandula' 

Lavender is grown to an enormous extent at Mitcham, in 
Surrey, and at Hitchin, in Herts, by Mr. Perks, which are the 
places of its production in a commercial point of view. Very 
large quantities are also grown in France. What is called 
the Alpine lavender of France is remarkably good ; but the 
fine odour of the British produce realises in the market four 
times the price of that of Continental growth. Burnett says 
that the oil of Lavandula Spica is more pleasant than that 
derived from the other species ; but this statement must not 
mislead the purchaser to buy the French spike lavender, as it 
is not worth a tenth of that derived from the Lavandula vera. 
Half a hundredweight of good lavender flowers yields, by 
distillation, from fourteen to sixteen ounces of essential oil. 

Lavandula vera is a native of Persia, the Canaries, 
Barbary, and the south of Europe, from the last of which it 
is said to have been first brought to England, where, finding 
a congenial soil, and being carefully cultivated, it yields an 
essential oil, or otto, very far superior to that produced from, 
it in its original places of growth. The peculiar qualities of 
most plants are susceptible of change, and in many instances 
of improvement, by cultivation ; but none, perhaps, more so 
than this. It is not even in all parts of this country that it 



can be grown with success, and for many years it was sup- 

posed that it would only come to perfection in the neighbour- 


hood of Mitcham, in Surrey ; but it has, within the last half 
century, been found that a soil and climate equally suited to 
its growth exists near Hitchin, in Hertfordshire. There the 
finest otto is now produced from its flowers, by Mr. S. Perks, 
from whom we have received the following account of his 
mode of its cultivation and treatment : — 

The ground for a plantation of lavender should not be surrounded by 
high hedges, or in the immediate neighbourhood of any trees, which tend 
to retain too much moisture upon the plants, and thus cause the spring 
frost to cut off the flowers, but should be as much exposed to the sun as 
possible. • 

In October, a large number of slips from the old plants are placed in 
previously prepared beds, where they are allowed to remain for twelve 
months, during which time they are carefully clipped. When a year old, 
they are planted out (in fine weather) in rows four feet apart, with a space 
of three feet from plant to plant, but are not allowed to flower, the clip- 
ping being still continued, in order to strengthen them, which object is 
further promoted by a regular supply of short manure to the roots. If 
this cannot be procured in sufficient quantity, its place may be supplied 
by superphosphate of lime, which greatly improves the appearance of the 
plant, and causes it also to produce finer flowers. 

The usual mode of procuring the otto is to put the flowers and stalks 
into a still with sufficient water, and thus draw off the oil ; but I have 
found by experiment that very little is produced from the stalks, and that 
little of inferior quality. My present practice is therefore to employ only 
the flowers, which are stripped from the stalks previously to the distillation ; 
and though this is necessarily a more expensive way of proceeding, the 
superior quality of the product enhances its value in an equal degree, 
whilst the loss in quantity is very small. The aroma of the otto produced 
by this process is so far superior to that of any other, as to be at once 
perceptible to every one accustomed to the use of an inferior kind, and 
even to those who may be said to have an entirely uneducated sense of 
smelling. It is, in fact, a pure otto, and when suitably combined with 
other appropriate materials, produces ' Lavender Water ' of the most 
exquisite fragrance that has hitherto been made. 

Since the publication of the last edition of this work, I 
have had twelve years' possession of the stillery and lavender 
land adjoining in the Mitcham Road, the very centre of the 
Surrey flower farms. I have thus added to former knowledge 


some practical experience in the field, and in the still-house, 
not only with lavender, but with most of the other plants 
cultivated at Mitcham, such as white peppermint, black 
peppermint, pennyroyal, camomile, Provence and Damask 
roses, rosemary, &c. The remarks I have to make in reference 
to these plants will be found under their several headings. 

The number of lavender plants upon an acre of ground 
would be about 3,547 ; that is, if planted one yard apart and 
four feet between the rows. An acre would yield about six to 
seven quarts of otto, but it depepds upon the age of the 
plants ; the latter, when about four years old, produce most. 

Every fourth year the old lavender plants are taken up, 
and the crop upon the land is changed ^to that of potatoes, or 
some other, and it is here the practical farmer has to decide. 
In the cases of some lands at Mitcham, lavender can be grown 
for even six years, by judiciously removing worn plants, and 
inserting young ones. Severe frost will often kill rows of plants, 
and their place must be renewed. At the end of August or 
early in September the lavender is fit to garner : it is cut with 
a sickle, and is then laid upon a mat (these mats are the 
common Indian bas matting), which will hold an average of 
half a hundredweight each, and are then delivered at the still- 
house. At my Mitcham stillery I have two stifls ; one will hold 
twenty mats, or say half a ton of lavender, and half a ton of 
water for its distillation ; the lesser still works about three 
quarters of this quantity. Each still is worked over three 
times during every twenty-four hours — the work is continuous 
night and day. Thus for charging the still and firing one 
hour is allowed ; the distillation will then continue for six 
hours, when another hour of heavy work is used in discharg- 
ing the still of the spent plant and getting ready for a new 
charge. Twenty mats of lavender thus distilled will yield (an 
average of seven years) sixteen pounds of otto. This otto at 
Mitcham is always divided into Firsts (ists) and Seconds 


(2nds). The firsts or best will be 15 lbs., the seconds i lb. 
The last otto that runs is undoubtedly inferior to the first by 
one half the market value of the firsts. 

All the inferior descriptions of oil of lavender are used for 
perfuming soaps and greases ; but the best, that obtained 
from the Mitcham and Hitchin lavender, is entirely used in 
the manufacture of what is called lavender water, but which, 
more properly, should be called essence or extract of lavender, 
to be in keeping with the nomenclature of other essences pre- 
pared with spirit. 

The number of formulae published for making a liquid 
perfume of lavender is almost endless ; but the whole of them 
may be resolved into essence of lavender, simple ; essence of 
lavender, compound ; and lavender water. 

There are two methods of making essence of lavender : — 
I. By distilling a mixture of essential oil of lavender and 
rectified spirit ; and the other— 2. by merely mixing the oil 
and the spirit together. 

The first process yields the finest quality ; it is that 
which is adopted by the firm of Smyth & Nephew, whose 
reputation for this article is such that it gives a good character 
in foreign markets, especially India, to all products of lavender 
of English manufacture. Lavender essence, that which is 
made by the still, is quite white ; while that by mixture only 
always has a yellowish tint, which, by age, becomes darker 

and resinous. 

Smyth's Lavender. 

To produce a very fine distillate, take 

Otto of English lavender 4 oz. 

Rectified spirit (60 over proof) S pi"ts 

Rose-water ' P'"' 

Mix and distil five pints for sale. Such essence of lavender 
is expensive, but at \os. a pint of 14 oz. (!) there is a margin 


for profit. If not being convenient to the general dealer to 
sell distilled lavender essence, the following form, by mixture, 
will produce a first-rate article, and nearly as white as the 
above : — 

Essence of Lavender. 

Otto of lavender . 6 oz. 

Rectified spirit . . i gallon 

The perfumer's retail price for such quality is loj. per 
imperial pint of 20 oz. 

Many perfumers and druggists, in making lavender water 
or essence, use a small portion of bergamot, with an idea of 
improving its quality — a very erroneous opinion ; moreover, 
such lavender quickly discolours. 

Lavender Water. 

English oil of lavender 4 oz. 

Spirit 3 quarts 

Rose-water . i pint 

Filter, and it is ready for sale. 

Common Lavender Water. 
Same form as the above, substituting French lavender for the British. 

Recipes for Rondeletia, Lavender Bouquet, and other 
lavender compounds, will be given when we come to speak 
of compound perfumes, which will be reserved until we have 
finished explaining the method of making the simple essences. 

The Lavandula vera, D. C, is called female lavendfer ; and 
the Lavandula Spica, male lavender. 

Lemon. — This fine perfume is abstracted from the Cittus 
Limonum, by causing the fruit to revolve in a metal cup ' lined 
with spikes, this process producing the first quality ; by ex- 
pression, and also by distillation from the rind of the fruit. 
That which is procured by expression has a much finer odour 
and a more intense lemony smell than the distilled product, 
' See Illustration of the Ecuelle under Lime. 

LEMON. 145 

As a distinction the first quality and the expressed lemon is 
called Citron Zeste, and the distilled quality is known as 
Ess. Lemon. The importation of from 85,000 lbs. to 90,000 
lbs. weight of otto of lemon annually into England proves 
that Britannia has a great liking for this scent, which is ex- 
tracted by rasping the fruit and afterwards expressing the 
pulp so produced of the Citrus Limonum. The otto of lemons 
in the market is principally from Messina, where there are 
hundreds of acres of ' lemon groves ; ' indeed, the extraction 
of the ottos of lemon, orange, and bergamot constitutes the 
chief industry of Sicily, particularly in the vicinity of Palermo. 
In the spiked cup or drum 100 or more lemons are operated 
on at one time. No doubt, sooner or later, steam will be 
employed to rotate these drums, and thus we may expect the 
supply of these scents to be kept equal to the demand. 
Nevertheless, as the land of Italy is already occupied, there 
is ample room in European markets for similar ottos, should 
they be produced in Australia. Otto of lemons, hke all the 
ottos of the Citrus family, is prone to rapid oxidation when 
in contact with air and exposure to light ; a high temperature 
is also detrimental, and as such is the case, the otto should be 
preserved in a cool cellar. Most of the samples from the gas- 
heated shelves of the druggists' shops are as much like essence 
of turpentine, to the smell, as that of lemons ; rancid oil of 
lemons may, in a great measure, be purified by agitation with 
warm water and final decantation. The following remarks, 
made by Mr. Cobb, of Yarmouth, are useful : — 

Being constantly anncyed by the deposit and alteration in my essence 
of lemons, I have tried various methods of remedying the inconvenience. 

I first tried redistilling it, but besides the loss consequent on distilling 
small quantities, the flavour is thereby impaired. As the oil became 
brighter when heated, 1 anticipated that all its precipitable matter would 
be thrown down at a low temperature, and I applied a freezing mixture, 
keeping the oil at zero for some hours. No such change, however, took 



The plan which I ultimately decided upon as the best which I had 
arrived at, was to shake up the oil with a little hot water, and to leave the 
water in the bottle ; a mucilaginous preparation forms on the top of the 
water, and acquires a certain tenacity, so that the oil may be poured off 
to nearly the last, without disturbing the deposit. Perhaps cold water 
would answer equally well, were it carefully agitated with the oil and 
allowed some time to settle. A consideration of its origin and constitu- 
tion, indeed, strengthens this opinion ; for although lemon otto is 
obtained both by distillation and expression, that which is usually found 
in commerce is prepared by removing the ' fiavedo ' of lemons with a 
rasp, and afterwards expressing it in a hair sack, allowing the filtrate to 
stand, that it may deposit some of its impurities, decanting and filtering. 
Thus obtained, it still contains a certain amount of mucilaginous matter, 
which undergoes spontaneous decomposition, and thus (acting, in short, as 
a ferment) accelerates a similar change in the oil itself. If this view of 
its decomposition be a correct one, we evidently, in removing this matter 
by means of the water, get rid of a great source of alteration, and attain 
the same result as we should by distillation, without its waste or deteri- 
oration in flavour. 

I am, however, aware that some consider the deposit to be modified 
resin. Some curious experiments of Saussure have shown that volatile oils 
absorb oxygen immediately they have been drawn from the plant, and 
are partially converted into a resin, which remains dissolved in the re- 
mainder of the essence. 

He remarked that this property of absorbing oxygen gradually in- 
creases until a maximum is attained, and again diminishes after a cer- 
tain lapse of time. In the oil of lavender this maximum remained only 
seven days, during each of which it absorbed seven times its volume of 
oxygen. In the oil of lemons the maximum was not attained until at the 
end of a month ; it then lasted twenty-six days, during each of which it 
absorbed twice its volume of oxygen. It is the resin formed by the 
absorption of oxygen, and remaining dissolved in the essence, which 
destroys its original odour. In conclusion, I would recommend that this 
oil, as well as all other essential oils, be kept in a cool, dark place, 
where no very great changes of temperature occur. 

When new and good, lemon otto may be freely used in 
combination with rosemary, cloves, and caraway, for perfuming 
powders for the nursery. From its rapid oxidation it should 
not be used for perfuming grease, as it assists rather than 
otherwise all fats to turn rancid ; hence pomatums so .per- 



fumed will not keep well. In the manufacture of other 
compound perfumes, it should be dissolved in spirit, in the 
proportion of six to eight ounces of oil to one gallon of spirit. 
There is a large consumption of otto of lemons in the manu- 
facture of eau de Cologne ; that 
P"arina uses it is easily discovered by 
aidding a few drops of Liq. Ammonise 
fort, to half an ounce of his eau de 
Cologne, the smell of the lemon is 
thereby brought out in a remarkable 

Perhaps it is not out of place here 
to remark that in attempts to dis- 
cover the composition of certain per- 
fumes we are greatly assisted by the 
use of strong Liq. Ammoniae. Cer- 
tain of the essential oils combining 
with the ammonia allow those which 
do not do so, if present in the com- 
pound, to be smelt. 

Lemon Grass.— According to 
Thwaites, the otto in the market 
under this name is derived from the 
Andropogon citratus, a species of 
grass which grows abundantly in 
India. It is cultivated to a large 
extent in Ceylon and in the Mo- 
luccas purposely for the otto, which 
from the plant is easily procured by 
distillation. Lemon grass otto, or, 
as it is sometimes called, oil of ver- 
bena, on account of its similarity of 
odour to that favourite plant, is im- 
ported into this country in old English porter and stout bottles. 



It is very powerful, and well adapted for perfuming soaps 
and greases ; but its principal consumption is in the manufac- 
ture of artificial essence of verbena. From its comparatively- 
low price, great strength, and fine perfume (when diluted), the 
lemon grass otto may be much more used than at present with 
considerable advantage ttp the retail shopkeeper. 

The annual production of lemon grass otto in Ceylon is 
nearly i,SOO lbs., and it is valued there at \s. 4d. per ounce. 
Specimens of the plant which produces it are to be seen at 
the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

The schcenanthus of the laboratory is the flowering rush 
or St^o4j/os apofiaTitos of Dioscorides. It grows in Africa, and 
especially in the Arabian deserts. Lemery states that it is 
so abundant in the district of Mount Lebanon that the people 
use it for the litter of camels, whence its designation, — Foenum 
or Stramen camelorum. Royle says that it greatly resembles 
a plant which comes from India, from which a volatile oil is 
extracted named ^rajj oil of Namur. 

Lemon-Scented Gum Tree, Eucalyptus Citriodora. — 
The leaves of this species of EiLcalyptus, on being bruised, 
yield a delightful citron-like odour, compared by some to the 
smell of balm, and by others to that of citronella ; and when 
the leaves are dried and placed among clothes or papers, they 
impart an agreeable scent to them. Considering that it might 
prove useful in an economical point of view. Dr. Bennett, 
author of ' Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australia,' procured 
a quantity of the leaves, which were distilled bj-^ Mr. Norie, a 
practical chemist in Sydney, and it was found that three 
pounds twelve ounces of leaves yielded by distillation six 
drachms and a half of a pure, colourless otto ; a specimen of 
which Dr. Bennett has placed in the Museum at Kew. 


Lilac. — The fragrance of the flowers of this ornamental 
shrub is well known. The essence of lilac is obtained either 

LILY. 149 

by the process of maceration, or enfleurage with grease, and 
afterwards treating the pomatum thus formed with rectified 
spirit, in the same manner as previously described for cassie ; 
the odour so much resembles tubereuse, as to be frequently 
used to adulterate the latter, the demand for tubereuse being 
at all times greater than the supply. An agreeable 

Imitation of Essence of White Lilac 

may be compounded thus : — 

Spirituous extract from tubereuse pomade . . i pint 

„ „ of orange flower pomade . ■ \ pint 

Otto of almonds 3 drops 

Extract of civet J oz. 

The civet is only used to give permanence to the perfume 
of the handkerchief. 

Lily. — ^The manufacturing perfumer rejects the advice of 
the inspired writer, to ' consider the lilies of the field.' Rich 
as they are in odour, they are not cultivated for their perfume. 
If lilies are thrown into oil of sweet almonds, or olive oil, they 
impart to it their sweet smell ; but to obtain anything like 
fragrance, the infusion must be repeated a dozen times with 
the same oil, using fresh flowers for each infusion, after 
standing a day or so. The oil being shaken with an equal 
quantity of spirit for a week, gives up its odour to the alcohol, 
and thus extract of lilies may be made. But how it is made 
is thus : — 

Imitation Lily of the Valley. 

Extract of tubereuse i pint 

„ jasmine . i oz. 

„ fleur d'orange .... . 2 oz. 

„ vanilla 3 oz. 

„ cassie \ pint 

„ rose ipint 

Otto of almonds 3 d^ops 


Keep this mixture together for a month, and then bottle it for 
sale. It is a perfume that is very much admired. 

Lime. — Among one of the Leeward Caribbees is Mont- 
serrat, a little island on which Citrus Limetta grows most 
prolifically, and ih almost an indigenous manner. Under the 
care of Mr. Joseph Sturge, the Montserrat Company, of which 
Mr. Sturge is director, annually produce no less than i,ooo lbs. 
of the true otto of citron, all by means of the Ecuelle process, 
and it is so pure that it is worth twice its present price in the 
market ; but the products of Sicily, which are by no means 
good, compete with it to its disadvantage. Mr. Sturge states 
that ' his citron orchards consist of about 500 acres, and that 
each acre contains about 200 trees. It takes seven years from 
the seed for them to come into full bearing; they flower more 
or less whenever Ihey get heavy rain, and the fruit ripens in 
about four months after the flowers appear.' He therefore 
gets fruit all the year round, but the chief harvest is from 
September to January. 

L Ecuelle. — This valuable instrument, which is used for 
extracting the odorous principles from the fruit of the orange 


and citron famil)', may be modified in size and form ; it is 
sometimes shaped as a drum, the fruit being put inside ; the 
drum is made to rotate by mechanical gearing. (See Lemon.) 


Lime-Tree Blossom. — Is there a Wickhamite that does 
not remember the delightful scent of the flowers of the fine 
old lime trees around Winchester Cathedral ? 

There I stood beneath the flowering limes, 
Whose golden blossoms waved above my head 
A fragrant orchestra ! 

There is a fine avenue of lime trees on the approach to 

Chiswick House, near to my own residence, Hughenden 

House ; here I have often had opportunities of studying the 

fragrance of their blossoms. I make a perfume which is a good 

imitation of 

Lime- Tree Blossom. 

Spirit, 60 over-proof ....... 2 pints 

Otto lignaloe i oz. 

Rose triple, jasmin, and orris, of each ... \ pint 

LiNALOE, also improperly called LiGNALOE. — The 
Victorian era has been marked not only by the penny post 
and shilling telegraph, by the discovery of gold in Australia 
and diamonds at the Cape, but also by the introduction 
of a veritably new perfume — linaloe. The otto of this plant 
was first shown to me about 1865, but under the name linaloe. 
I was then unable to find its origin, and the importers, Messrs. 
Sargant and Son, were unwilling to give any information 
respecting it. This at first caused doubts as to its being a 
genuine production. 

My Hyper-Osmia, however, confirmed me that I had a 
new otto under my nose ; and thus convinced, by smell alone, 
I have secured it a place in the laboratory. 

Not being able to find linaloe in any English botanical 
works, I had almost given up the solution of Messrs. Sargants' 
secret, when I came across the word lignaloe, by hearing it 
read one morning at church from the lessons of the day. Num- 
bers xxiv. 6. Here, said I, is the revelation of the long sought 


for linaloe ; it must be lignaloe. Now I had no difficulty in 
learning all about this plant from the usual sources, and I at 
once set to work to ' introduce ' it to the perfumery world, as 
I then firmly believed it to be the 'lignaloe of the scriptures.' 
One or two friends well versed in botany informed me that 
the A quilaria Agallocha, the true lignaloe of the Bible, was 
a tree of south-eastern Asia, and did not exist in the American 
continent. Now I had learned from Messrs. Sargant that the 
article veritably came from Mexico ! It was clear, then, that 
if the botanists were correct, I could not be dealing with the 
true lignaloe. Samples of the wood were procured from 
Vera Cruz, and, being submitted to the authorities at Kew 
Gardens, were quickly pronounced to be the Bois de Citron du 
Mexique, so named by Guibourt, but which in Mexico is known 
under the name of 'linaloe.' By the distillation of a hundred 
pounds of the broken-up wood I procured several ounces of 
otto of precisely the same smell and character as that which 
was imported.' The otto of linaloe is perfectly white in 
colour ; it appears to be very unalterable by the action of air 
(oxygen) ; and it is here it differs so much from any of the 
citron group of odours, but to which it nevertheless belongs 
by fragrance, having a scent which in the gamut would be 


It so much resembles the sweet odour of the lime-tree flowers 
that, when properly diluted with spirit and with the addition 
of a little rose, it makes an excellent imitation perfume of 
lime blossoms (for which see p. 151). When otto of linaloe is 
combined with soap, it loses odour rapidly, showing some 
action by alkalies. It scents oil and grease very nicely. The 
ground wood makes a good sachet. The following is the 

' A good account of the linaloe has been published in the Pharmaceutical 
yourital, by Mr. James Collins. 


recipe of the now well-known handkerchief perfume as intro- 
duced by the house of Piesse and Lubin : — 
Essence of Lignaloe. 
Tinctures of orris and vanilla, of each .... i pint 

Esprit jasmin, and tuberevise 
Rose triple 
Spirit 60 over-proof . 
Otto lignaloe 

2 pints 

2 pints 
4 pints 

3 oz. 

Mace. — This substance is procured from the nutmeg-tree 
{Myristica moschata et tomentosd) : thus, the nutmegs are 
enclosed in four different covers ; the first is a thick husk, 
something like that of our walnuts, but larger ; under this lies 
a thin reddish coat, which is the mace of commerce; the mace 
wraps up the shell and opens like a network, as the fruit, or 
rather seed, grows ; the shell is hard and thin and destitute of 
odour ; under this is a greenish film, of no use in trade, but 
which is, in truth, the shirt of the seed or nutmeg. The odour 
of mace only resembles that of nutmeg in being spicy ; it 
cannot, however, be mistaken for the smell of nutmeg. The 
otto of mace, like that of nutmeg, is readily procured by dis- 
tillation. The nutmeg tree, like that of orange, gives distinct 
fragrances in different parts of it. Thus we have otto of mace 
and otto of nutmeg produced by the same plant within a 
quarter of an inch of each other. What wonderful valves and 
taps to keep them from mixing ! Ground mace is used in 
the manufactnre of some of those scented powders called 
sachets. The strong-smelling essential oil is useful for scent- 
ing soap. 

Magnolia. — The perfume of this flower is superb ; prac- 
tically, however, it is of little use to the manufacturer ; the 
large size of the blossoms and their comparative scarcity pre- 
vent their being used ; but a very excellent imitation of their 
odour is made as under, and is that which is found in the 
perfumers' shops of London and Paris : — 


Tmitation Essence of Magnolia. 

Spirituous extract of orange-flower pomatum . . i pint 

„ rose pomatum . . 2 pints 

„ tubereuse pomatum . ^ pint 

„ violet pomatum .... J pint 

Otto of citron zeste ... . . .3 drs. 

„ almonds 10 drops 

Marjoram. — The otto procured by distilling Origanum 
majorana, commonly called oil of origan by the French, is 
exceedingly powerful, and in this respect resembles all the 
ottos from the different species of thyme, of which the mar- 
joram is one. One hundredweight of the dry herb yields 
about ten ounces of the otto. Origan oil is extensively used 
for perfuming soap, but more in France than in England. It 
is the chief ingredient used by Gelle Freres, of Paris, for 
scenting their ' Tablet Monstre Soap,' so common in the 
London shops. 

Meadow-sweet, known also as Meadow-Queen. — A 
sweet-smelling otto can be produced by distilling the Spircea 
ulmaria, but it is not used by perfumers ; it is, however, 
interesting as being one of those organic substances which can 
be made in the chemical laboratory. 

Mecca Balm. (See Balsam.) 

Melissa. (See Balm.) 

Mignonette, otherwise R£s£da. — But for the exquisite 
odour of this little flower, it would scarcely be known otherwise 
than as a weed. Sweet as it is in its natural state, and prolific 
in odour, we are not able to maintain its characteristic smell 
as an essence. Like many others, during separation from the 
plant, the fragrance is more or less modified ; though not 
perfect, it still reminds the sense of the odour of the flowers. 
To give it that sweetness which it appears to want, a certain 
quantity of violet is added to bring it up to the market odour. 

As this plant is so very prolific in odour, we think some- 


thing might be done with it in England, especially as it flour- 
ishes as well in this country as in France. We desire to see 
Flower Farms and organised Perfumatories esta;blished in the 
British Isles, for the extraction of essences and the manufacture 
of pomade and oils, of such flowers as are indigenous, or that 
thrive in the open fields of our country. Besides opening up 
a new field of enterprise and good investment for capital, it 
would give healthy employment to many women and children. 
Open air employment for the young is of no little considera- 
tion to maintain the stamina of the future generation ; for it 
cannot be denied that our factory system and confined cities 
are prejudicial to the physical condition of the human family. 

To return from our digression. The essence of mignonette, 
or, as it is more often sold under the name of, Extrait de 
Reseda, is prepared by infusing the reseda pomade in rectified 
spirit, in the proportion of one pound of pomade to one pint 
of spirit, allowing them to digest together for a fortnight, when 
the essence is filtered off the pomade. One ounce of extract 
of tolu is added to every pint. This is done to give perma- 
nence to the odour upon the handkerchief, and does not in 
any way alter its smell. M. March, of Nice, is the principal 
maker of Reseda pomade ; to use his own words, he has a 
speciality for its fabrication. It is made by the enfleurage 
process. By Millon's process an extract of mignonette is 
obtained, which has the full odour of the flowers. 

MiRIBANE. — The French name for artificial essence of 
almond. (See Almond.) 

Mint. — All the Menthidce yield fragrant ottos by dis- 
tillation. The otto of the spear-mint {M. viridis) is exceed- 
ingly powerful, and very valuable for perfuming soap, in 
conjunction with other perfumes. Perfumers use the ottos of 
the mint in the manufacture of mouth washes and dental 
liquids. The leading ingredient in the celebrated ' eau 
Botot ' is oil of peppermint in alcohol. Mint ottos have more 



power than any other aromatic to overcome the smell of 
tobacco. Mouth washes, it must be remembered, are as 
much used for rinsing the mouth after smoking as for a den- 
tifrice. (See Peppermint.) 

Musk-Seed. — This odorous substance, known in the per- 
fumery trade as Grains d' Ambrette, is produced by the plant 
Hibiscus Abelmoschus. Kabb-el-Misk is the Arabic name, of 
which, says Burnett, Abelmoschus is a vile corruption. The 


plant is cultivated in Martinique, whence this seed is ex- 
ported. Very little is known in England of Chinese toilet 
practices ; but we are told, on good authority, that from one 
of these species, the Hibiscus Rosa sinensis, 'the Chinese 
make a black dye for their hair and eye-brows, and a black- 
ing for their shoes ! ' Musk seed, when ground, certainly 
reminds our smelling sense of the odour of musk, but it is 
poor stuff at b|est ; however, for making cheap sachet powder, 
it may be used for variety's sake. When hair powder was in 



fashion, perfumers used to scent the starch of which the 
powder was made, by mixing the ground ambrette with the 
fecula ; after lying together for a few hours, the starch was 
then sifted away, and packed for sale. Musk seed is a native 
of India, but the plant which produces it has been acclima- 
tised in Egypt and the Antilles. The most valued comes 
from Martinique. 

The laurel and the myrtle sweets agree. 

And both in nosegays shall be bound for thee. — Horace. 

A very fragrant otto may be procured by distilling the 
leaves of the common myrtle ; one hundredweight will yield 
about five ounces of the volatile oil. The demand for 
essence of myrtle being very limited, the odour as found in 
the perfumers' shops is very rarely a genuine article, but is 
imitated thus : — 

Imitation Essence of Myrtle. 

Extract of vanilla 


fleur d'orange 
jasmine . 

• ipint 
. I pint 

• h pint 
. \ pint 
. 2 oz. 

it is then fit 

Mix, and allow to stand for a fortnight: 
for bottling, and is a perfume that gives a great deal of 

Myrtle-flower water is sold in France under the name of 
eau d'ange, and may be prepared like rose, elder, or other 
flower waters. 

The plant most commonly used is the Myrtus communis, 
of the family of myrtaceae. 

MVRRH. — This odorous gum or resin has been known 
from time immemorial, as is evident from its frequent 
mention in the Bible. Its fragrance is due to a peculiar otto 
OF essential oils. One hundred pounds yield by distillation 


about «ight ounces of the otto, which has all the character- 
istics of myrrh in a high degree. Considering such a sub- 
stance to possess interest, I have placed, a sample of the otto 
of myrrh in the Museum at Kew. 

Major Harris describes the myrrh tree (Balsamodeiidron 
Myrrha) as growing abundantly on the Abyssinian coast of 
the Red Sea to the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, over all the 
barren hill-sides of the low zone inhabited by the Danakil or 
Adaril tribes. It is called Kurbeta, and there exist two 
varieties ; one (producing the better description of the gum) 
being a dwarf shrub with deeply serrated crisp leaves of a 
dull green ; while the other, which yields a substance more 
like balm than myrrh, attains a height of ten feet, and has 
bright shining slightly dentated leaves. The myrrh called 
Hofali flows freely from any wound, in the form of a milky 
juice, possessing a perceptible acridity, which either evapo- 
rates or becomes chemically changed during the formation 
of the gum. The seasons for collecting it are in January, 
when the buds appear after the first rain, and in March, when 
the seeds are ripe. 

Every passer-by transfers such portions of it as he may 
find to the hollow boss of his shield, and exchanges it for a 
handful of tobacco with the next slave-dealer whom he meets 
on the caravan route. The merchants also of the sea-coast, 
before returning from Abyssinia, send into the forests that 
gird the western bank of the river Hawash, and bring away 
considerable quantities af the Hofali, which is sold at a high 

The natives administer it to their horses, in cases of 
fatigue and exhaustion.' 

Gum myrrh is used extensively by perfumers, in the 
manufacture of dentifrices, in pastils, and fumigating spirits. 

Myrrh is prescribed in the Mosaic law = as one of the 

' Trans. Linn. Soc. ' Ex. xxx. 2'X 


exquisite substances of which the holy oil was to be com- 
pounded. The Greeks named it Myrrha or Smyrna, 
fancying that it was produced by the tears of the mother of 
Adonis, after the gods in compassion had changed her into a 
tree, to rescue her from the wrath of her father Cinyras. 

Brandes states that good myrrh contains 2.60 per cent, of 
a volatile oil, 22.24 of soft resin, and 5.56 of dry resin. It 
also contains 55 per cent, of gum. It is therefore a gum resin. 
Narcissus. — This plant is cultivated to a small extent 
at Nice, and its odour is procured by enfleurage and macera- 
tion. The smell of it to many is exceedingly grateful, but in 
close apartments the exhalations of the plant are said to be 
noxious ; indeed, its narcotic odour was known to the 
ancients, and hence its name is said lo be derived from vapKr], 
stupor. The following is a good form, imitating the odour 
of narcissus when the true extract cannot be obtained : — 

Extract of Narcissus. 

Extract of tubereuse .... • • 3 pints 

„ jonquil . . ... .2 pints 

„ storax . . . . , \ pint 

„ tolu . \ pint 

Neroli, or Orange-flower. — The Orange is culti- 
vated from seed or pips ; at the third year they are grafted, 
either with the sweet Portugal or bitter Bigaradier ; at the 
fifth year they should be planted into their final resting-place. 

Before planting the orange, a tree which attains great 
age, the soil upon which it is to live must be well prepared, 
otherwise the after life of the tree will not be of that thriving 
condition which we could desire. The soil should be 
trenched at least four feet deep and well manured, and the 
care bestowed upon the infant plant will be seen fifty years, 
nay, even a century afterwards. A tree requires fifteen years 
to reach maturity, but will produce both flowers and fruit in 


four-or five years. When in full vigour, each tree yields an 
average of twenty-five pounds' weight of blossoms annually. 
Many plantations of orange-trees at Nice are more than one 
hundred years old. At Fontainebleau there are now to be 
seen orange-trees planted by an ancestor of mine two 
hundred years ago. There is a public market for orange- 
blossoms during the season at Nice ; the bitter orange- 
flowers fetch 3/. per kilogramme, the sweet about 2f. 

The market season for orange-flowers at Nice lasts for 
more than a month, as an average, and during that time 
there are sold about fifteen to eighteen tons of flowers 
daily ! 1 ! and a ton of flowers will yield more than a kilo- 
gramme of otto, say forty ounces, worth 20/. sterling ; and 
the residuary water, highly saturated with odour, is worth 
another 10/. note. 

Two distinct odours are procurable from the orange- 
blossom, varying according to the methods adopted for pro- 
curing them. This difference of perfume from the same 

NERO LI. i6i 

flower is a great advantage to the perfumery factor, and it is 
a curious fact worthy of inquiry by the chemical philosopher. 
This duality of fragrance is not peculiar to the orange-flower, 
but applies to many others, especially rose — probably to all 

When orange-flowers are treated by the maceration 
process — that is, by infusion in a fatty body— we procure 
orange-flower pomatum, its strength and quality being regu- 
lated by the number of infusions of the flower made in the 
same grease. It requires eight kilogrammes of blossoms to 
enflower one kilogramme of grease, divided over thirty-two 
infusions — that is, a quarter kilogramme of flowers to every 
kilogramme of fat for each maceration. 

By digesting this orange-flower pomatum in rectified 
spirits, in the proportions of from six pounds to eight pounds 
of pomade to a gallon of spirit for about a month at a 
summer heat, we obtain the extrait de fleur d'orange, or 
extract of orange-flowers, a handkerchief perfume surpassed 
by none. In this state its odour resembles the original so 
much, that with closed eyes the best judge could not dis- 
tinguish the scent of the extract from that of the flower. 
The peculiar flowery odour of this extract renders it valuable 
to the perfumers, not only to sell in a pure state, but, 
slightly modified with other extraits, passes for ' sweet pea,' 
* magnolia,' &c., which it slightly resembles in fragrance. 

Now, when orange-flowers are distilled with water, we 
procure the otto of the blossom, which is known commer- 
cially as oil of neroh. The neroli procured from the flowers 
of the Citrus Aurantium is considered to be the finest 
quality, and is called 'neroli petale,' or neroli douce, i.e. 
sweet neroli. The next quality, ' neroli bigarade,' or bitter 
neroli, is derived from the blossoms of the Citrus Bigaradia, 
or Seville orange. Another quality, which is considered 
inferior to the preceding, is the ' neroli petit grain,' obtained 



by distilling the leaves and the young unripe fruit of the 
different species of the citrus. If a leaf of the orange-tree be 
held up between the observer and the sun, he will perceive 
small globular specks in the leaf, which are in truth the 
sacs of otto; from this fact the term petit grain — piccolo— is 

The ' petale ' and ' bigarade ' neroli are used to an enormous 
extent in the manufacture of Hungary water and eau de 
Cologne, and other handkerchief perfumes. The ' petit grain ' 
is mainly consumed for scenting soap. There are several 
varieties of petit grain otto ; thus petit grain douce is pro- 
cured by distillation from the leaf of the eating or sweet 
orange tree. Petit grain limon is in like manner derived from 
the leaf of the common lemon tree. 

Petit grain bigarade is won from the leaf of the Seville 
or bitter orange ; other varieties occur as numerous, as are the 
Auran and Citrus. Dr. J. E. De Vrij, while at Bandong in 
Java, made a very good neroli from the flowers of the 
shaddoc tree, Citrus deaimana. To form the 

Esprit Neroli. 

Neroli petale ... 4 oz. 

Rectified spirit i gallon 

Although very agreeable, and extensively used in the 
manufacture of bouquets, it has no relation to the flowery 
odour of the extrait de fleur d'orange, as derived from the 
same flowers by maceration ; in fact, it has as different an 
odour as though obtained from another plant, yet in theory 
both these extraits are but alcoholic solutions of the otto of 
the same flower. 

The water used for distillation in procuring the neroli, 
when well freed from the oil, is imported into this countiy 
under the name of eau de fleur d'orange, and may be used 
like elder-flower atid rose-water, for the skin, and as an eye 

NEROLI. 163 

lotion. It is remarkable for its fine fragrance, and it is 
astonishing that it is not more used, being moderate in price. 
There are three sorts of orange-flower waters found in 
commerce. The first is distilled from the flowers ; the 
second is made with distilled water and neroH ; and the 
third is distilled from the leaves, the stems, and the young 
unripe fruit of the orange-tree. The first may be easily 
distinguished by the addition of a few drops of sulphuric acid 
to some of the water in a tube ; a fine rose colour is almost 
immediately produced. The second also gives the same 
colour when it is freshly prepared ; but after a certain time — 
two or three months at the farthest — this colour is no longer 
produced, and the aroma disappears completely. The third 
is not discoloured by the addition of the sulphuric acid ; it 
has scarcely any odour, and that rather an odour of the 
lemon plant than of orange- flowers. Hitherto England 
has been dependent on Italy and the South of France for the 
various odours derived from the orange ; but from the ex- 
tensive cultivation of this plant at THE ORANGERY, near 
Sydney, by Richard Hill, Esq., J. P., we may soon expect in 
the markets of Britain the products of this plant from our 
antipodean colony. 

As there are full a dozen or more well-known varieties of 
the orange, there may be procured a corresponding quantity 
of varieties of otto from them. 

The origin of the term ' Neroli,' applied to the otto of 
orange-blossom, is not very definite. It may have been 
named after the celebrated Roman Emperor Nero, who was 
so fond of scents that he caused the roofs of his dining halls to 
represent the firmament, and to shower down, night and day, 
all sorts of perfumes and sweet waters ; or it may be that 
' Neroli ' was first procured by the Sabines, who, to distin- 
guish it from other perfumes of the period, named it neroli, 
from ' nero,' which signifies ' strong.' The Sabines, it should 


be remembered, inhabited a province of Italy, Sabina, where 
the orange-tree is very abundant. (See ORANGE ZESTE.) 

During the past century, the odour of orange-flowers was 
so much in vogue, that the cultivation of Louis XIV.'s 
orange-trees was a source of considerable expense, for the 
great king would have one of these favourite shrubs in each 
of his apartments. 

Nutmeg. — Few fragrant substances are of more com- 
mercial importance than the nutmeg {Myristica moschatd). 
' Its history,' says Burnett, ' affords an instance of the extrav- 
agance to which the spirit of monopoly will urge and has 
carried not only private individuals but even States.' 

The principal nutmeg-gardens of the world are the Banda 
Islands, colonised by the Dutch about two hundred and fifty 
years ago. Soon after the subjugation of the original inha- 
bitants, they endeavoured to secure to themselves the entire 
trade in this odorous substance. For this purpose they en- 
couraged the cultivation of the nutmeg-tree in only a few of 
the islands ; and being over-anxious, for the sake of the 
monopoly, to have them there exclusively under their own 
command, they destroyed the trees in the neighbouring isles. 

It will be remembered that they pursued the same policy 
with respect to the clove-plant. More than once they have, 
however, suffered dearly for their insatiable avarice : for the 
dreadful hurricanes and earthquakes, which swept harmlessly 
over the other islands, nearly annihilated the nutmeg-trees of 
Banda in 1778. While the Dutch held the Spice Islands the 
quantity of nutmegs and mace exported from their nutmeg- 
grounds, circumscribed as they were, was truly enormous. The 
quantity sold in Europe has been estimated at 250,000 pounds, 
and in the East Indies at 125,000 pounds ; of mace, the average 
has been 90,000 pounds sold in Europe, and 10,000 in India. 

When the Spice Islands were taken by the British, in 
1796, the importation by the East India Company into 



England alone, in two years following the capture, were, of 
nutmegs 129,723 pounds, and of mace 286,000 pounds. It 
is thus evident that Britannia does not ' turn up her nose ' at 
the odour of nutmeg and mace. 

When the crops of spice have been superabundant, and 
the price, in consequence, likely to be reduced, the same 
ignorant spirit before mentioned has actuated the Dutch to 
destroy immense quantities of the fruit rather than suffer the 
market price to be lowered. When Sir William Temple was 
at Amsterdam a merchant who had returned from Banda 
assured him that ' at one time he saw three piles of nutmegs 


burnt, each of which was more than a church of ordinary 
dimensions could hold.' Mr. Wilcocks, the translator of 
• Stavarinus's Travels,' relates that he beheld such a con- 
flagration of cloves, nutmegs, and cinnamon upon the island 
of Newland, near Middleburgh, in Zealand, as perfumed 
the air with their peculiar fragrance for many miles round. 
Balfour says that 'in 18 14, when the Moluccas were in the 
possession of the English, the number of nutmeg-trees planted 
out was estimated at 570,500, of which 480,000 were in bearing. 
The produce of nutmegs in the Moluccas has been reckoned 
at from 600,000 to 700,000 pounds per annum— of which 

1 66 


half goes to Europe — and about one-fourth that quantity of 
mace. The annual consumption of nutmegs in Britain is 
said to be 140,000 pounds. The nutmeg-tree, like many 
others, yields two distinct odorous substances ; that is, otto of 
mace (see Mace), and otto of nutmeg. The otto of nutmeg, 
of which we have here to speak, is a beautiful white and 
transparent fluid, having an intense fragrance of the nut, 
from which it is easily procured by distillation. It enters 

into the composition of numerous perfumery preparations, of 
which the Frangipanni series are examples. As it is more 
powerful than cloves it must be used sparingly ; but, when 
used with judgment, combines happily with lavender, santal, 
bergamot, and others. 

By expression the nutmeg will also yield an unctuous 
fat-oil of an agreeable odour ; this combined with an alkali 
produces a pleasant soap. Forty years ago such soap was 
commonly sold by perfumers under the name of Bandana or 
Banda soap, but which is now quite out of date. 


The pleasant odour of the nutmeg is familiar to all. The 
ground nuts are used advantageously in the combinations 
of scented powders used for scent-bags. (See Sachet 

According to Cloez the otto of nutmeg can be obtained 
by distillation in contact with water, or sulphuret of carbon 
and distillation. The crude oil is a complex product, whose 
boiling-point is about 168°, and this temperature is maintained 
for some time before its rises to 210°. The rectified essence 
is liquid and colourless, and does not solidify at — 1 8°. It 
boils at 165° ; turns the plane of polarisation of luminous rays 
to the left; has a rotatory force equal to —13.5°; and may 
be represented by C^°H'^ (four volumes). 

The concrete oil of nutmeg, obtained by expression (butter 
of nutmeg), is prepared in the countries which produce it ; that 
is to say, the Moluccas, Banda, and Cayenne. It is offered in 
the shape of oblong cakes, wrapped in palm-leaves, solid, 
oily, friable, of a pale yellow colour, or yellow marbled with 
red, and having a strong smell of nutmeg. Sometimes it 
happens that the essence has been withdrawn by distilla- 
tion, or that some fatty inodorous bodies have been mixed 
with it. 

Olibanum is a gum resin, used to a limited extent in 
this country in the manufacture of incense and pastilles. It 
is chiefly interesting as being one of those odoriferous bodies 
of which frequent mention is made in the Holy Volume. 

' It is believed,' says Burnett, ' to have been one of the 
ingredients in the sweet incense of the Jews ; and it is still 
burnt as incense in the Greek and Romish churches, where 
the diffusion of such odours round the altar forms a part of the 
prescribed religious service.' Mr. P. L. Simmonds says : — 

The gum olibanum of commerce is the frankincense of the ancients 
and the luban of the Arabs. In India it is obtained from several species 
of Boswellia, serrata, thurifera, and glabra. No botanical description 


appears to have been published of the African tree, although Captain 
Kempthorne, Major Harris, and other travellers furnished some general 
account of it. The tree invariably grovifs from the bare and smooth sides 
of the white marble rocks, or from isolated blocks of the same, scattered 
over the plain, without any soil whatever. On making a deep incision 
into the trunk the resin exudes profusely, of the colour and consistence 
of milk, but hardening into a mass by exposure to the air. The young 
trees produce the best and most valuable gum, the older merely yielding 
a clear glutinous fluid resembling copal, and exhaling a strong resinous 

Olibanum was formerly in high repute as a sovereign remedy against 
inflammation of the eyes, and as an efficacious remedy in consumption. 
It was also commonly drank as a stimulant in wine. But for all these 
purposes it has long gone out of use, and is chiefly imported here for re- 
shipment to the Continent, being bought up by the Greek merchants for 
the use of the Church. 

The trees that produce the luban or frankincense are of two kinds, 
viz. the luban meyeti and the luban bedowi. Of these the meyeti, which 
grows out of the naked rock, is the more valuable ; and when dean- 
picked and of good quality it is sold by the merchants on the coast for 
i\ dollar per frasila of 20 lbs. The luban bedowi of the best quality is sold 
for I dollar per frasila. Of both kinds the palest colour is preferred. The 
trees vary greatly in height, but are never above twenty feet, with a stem 
of nine inches in diameter. Their form is very graceful, and when 
springing from a mass of marble on the brink of a precipice their 
appearance is especially picturesque. 

Although the Wursungili range and other mountainous tracts afford 
an inexhaustible supply of frankincense, it is a mistake to suppose that 
elevated districts produce the best gum. 

Lieutenant Cruttenden, in his journey among the Edoor tribes, states 
that the gum of the large-leaf kind of frankincense tree is not much 

Olibanum is partially soluble in alcohol, and, lilce most of 
the balsams, probably owes its perfume to a peculiar odorife- 
rous body, associated with the benzoic acid it contains. 

For making the tincture or extract of olibanum take one 
pound of the gum to one gallon of the spirit. 

Two species of olibanum or frankincense are recognised, 
one of Indian and the other of African origin. The o-um 
contains, according to Braconnot, a small quantity of volatile 


oil, a resin soluble in spirit, a gum soluble in water, and a 
resin insoluble in either water or alcohol. 

Sweet issue of a more sweet-smelling sire. — BARD OF Avon. 

The plant which produces the gum resin of this name is 
the Opopanax Chironium of the botanists, found plentifully 
growing wild in Sicily. The resin itself has been described 
in drug-books from the time of Dioscorides ; but the mode of 
collecting it, the quantity produced, &c., I have been unable 
to discover. Pelletier made an analysis of it, showing it to 
contain about 3 per cent, of otto of a very remarkably strong 
and aromatic odour, much abused by some as being nauseous, 
and praised by others for its fragrance. It is the same with 
patchouly and musk : they have their friends and enemies, 
but the latter carmot prevent their use. When opopanax was 
first introduced as a perfume it was very generally abused by 
those who had not smelled it, but said it was nasty because 
they read it was so described in a Bloomsbury journal. No 
perfume ever made, eau de Cologne excepted, has ever had 
a larger sale. 

Orange Zeste, or Portugal. — Under the title Neroli 
we have already spoken of the odoriferous principle of the 
orange-blossom. We have now to speak of what is known in 
the market as essence of orange, or, as it is more frequently 
termed, essence of Portugal, derived from the rind of the 
fruit of the sweet orange. 

The otto of the orange fruit or peel is procured mostly in 
December and January, by rubbing the oranges in a metal 
cup covered with spikes, known as an Ecuelle. This causes 
otto of very pure quality to flow from the otto-glands. 
The fruit, after the otto is obtained, is cut up and mixed with 
bran, and given to cows for food. Cows fed thus yield very 
fine milk. A second quality of essence of orange-peel, or 


Portugal, is obtained by rasping the peel or flavedo and 
then submitting it to pressure. A third and commonest 
kind is procured by distilling any of the refuse of former 

The abundance of otto in the peel is shown by pinching 
a piece near the flame of a candle ; the otto that spurts out 
ignites with a brilliant illumination. 

It has many uses in perfumery, and from its refreshing 
fragrance finds numerous admirers. 

It is the leading ingredient in what is sold as ' Lisbon 
water ' and ' eau de Portugal.' The following is a very useful 
form for preparing 

Lisbon Water. 

Rectified spirit (not less than 60 over-proof) . . i gallon 

Otto of orange-peel 4 oz. 

„ citron zeste 2 oz. 

„ rose J oz. 

This is a form for 

Eau de Portugal. 

Rectified spirit (60 over-proof) i gallon 

Essential oil of orange-peel 8 oz. 

„ of citron zeste 2 oz. 

„ of bergamot .... . i oz. 

„ of otto of rose j oz. 

Grape-spirit for this article produces the finest quality. 

It should be noted that these perfumes are never to be 
put into wet bottles, for if in any way damp from water a 
minute portion of the ottos is separated, which gives an 
opalescent appearance to the mixture. Indeed, all bottles 
should be spirit-rinsed ^^nor: to being filled with any perfume, 
but especially with those containing essences of orange or 
lemon peel. 

No tree is so profitable to the flower-farmer as the orange, 
and emigrants to any of our warm colonies should make a 


note of this, and fix on their memory that the leaves of 
orange yield an otto worth 3^. an ounce ; that the flowers 
yield an otto worth loj. an ounce ; that the blossom also 
yields, by inflowering, a fat worth 8j. per pound ; that the 
rind of the fruit yields an otto worth I2j. to \6s. per pound ; 
and that the fruit, if it cannot be sold by the score in the 
market, is a relished food for cattle. 

Of all the scent-yielding plants none has a value at all 
equal to that of the orange. It is a mine of perfume in itself. 
The blossoms yield, according to their mode of treatment, 
two distinct odours, one having the true scent of the flower, 
the other a scent called Neroli. Orange-peel, too, furnishes 
a delightful perfume, with which all of us are famiUar ; and 
lastly the leaves give a scent inferior only to the true neroli. 
Here thtn we have from one plant no fewer than four perfumes. 
Orange stocks are raised from seeds or pips, and in the third 
year they are grafted either with the sweet Portugal or 
bitter Bigaradier. In the fifth year they should be planted 
where they are to stand ; the soil in which they are to be 
placed should be trenched at least 4 feet deep and well ma- 
nured, inasmuch as fifty years, nay, even a century after- 
wards, the results of good early treatment will be apparent. 
Orange-trees require fifteen years to reach maturity, but they 
will produce both flowers and fruit in four or five years. 
When in full vigour each tree yields on an average 25 lbs. 
weight of blossoms annually. 

The otto of the orange fruit is procured from the peel by 
what is called the ecuelle process. The ecuelle is a tinned 
copper bowl, furnished with concentric rows of short spikes or 
teeth, and a hollow handle, with a gutter from it to the edge 
of the bowl, through which liquid from the hollow handle can 
be poured. In order to obtain the otto the fruit is rolled by 
hand over and over the spikes, thus breaking the peel in such 
a manner that the otto spurts out into the ecuelle, and finds 



its way into the Rollow handle, which, when /ull, is emptied 
into another vessel. An inferior quality of otto is - procured 
by rasping and slicing the peel, and then pressing out the 
juice ; and this, and the better process just described, are 
those by which the fruits of all citronworts are divested of 


their scent-yielding properties— operations which are put into 
practice to a great extent at Messina, in Sicily. (See Neroli.) 
Orris, properly Iris.— The dried rhizome of Iris floren- 
tina has a very pleasant odour, which, for the want of a bet- 
ter comparison, is said to resemble the smell of violets ; it is. 

ORRIS. 173 

however, exceedingly derogatory to the charming aroma of 
that modest flower when such invidious comparisons are 
made. Nevertheless, the perfume of iris root is good, and 
well worthy of the place it has obtained as a perfuming 

For commercial purposes this plant is extensively culti- 
vated at Pontassieve, in Toscana. M. Michele Grazzini, 
who is one of the largest growers there, kindly supplies the 
following information as to its cultivation : — 

' The harvest of the root takes place every three years ; the 
plants are dug up early in the spring-time, before they move 
for the next year's growth ; the flags are cut back, as shown 
in the illustration ; each root is then decapitated at a point 
indicated by the arrow at A ; the head is then replanted, 
and grows with great vigour, making in the course of the 
three years numerous offshoots and fresh roots. It flourishes 
best in a soil that is somewhat marshy and stony — in fact, a 
poor soil — and requires no manure ; it is of a larger growth 
than the common blue flag of the English gardens, the flowers 
far less numerous, ahd of a very pale blue ; moreover, it does 
not come into blossom till five or six weeks later than its 
naturalised English ally. 

' The roots are spread out to dry and ripen in the open air ; 
each root is then trimmed with a knife into the shape as found 
in the market ; it is also at the same time sorted into the 
various qualities, some being bleached with fumes of burning 
sulphur. This operation is, however, detrimental to it for 
perfumery purposes. The bleached orris root, however, finds 
a sale, as there is a considerable manufacture of turned beads 
from it ; every peasant possesses a few hanks of orris beads, 
and there are also some exported to neighbouring countries : 
the chips and turnings from the orris bead manufacture at M. 
Grazzini's establishment amount to more than one ton in 
weight per annum ; they are very suitable to make tincture 


of orris, for which purpose Messrs Piesse and Lubin have 
employed them, at the same time economising about 30J. per 
cwt. over the crushed orris ordinarily used. 

' When distilled, orris root yields an otto smelling as the 
dried root ; but I cannot say much in its favour.' 

The powder of orris root is very extensively used in the 
manufacture of sachet powders, tooth powder, &c. It fathers 
that celebrated ' Oriental herb ' known as ' odonto.' For 
tincture of orris, or, as the perfumers call it, 

Extract of Orris. 

Take orris root, crushed 7 lbs. 

Rectified spirits i gallon 

After standing together for about a month the extract is fit 
to take off. It requires considerable time to drain away ; 
and, to prevent loss, the remainder of the orris should be 
distilled with water to recover the spirit. This extract enters 
into the composition of many of the most celebrated bouquets, 
such as 'Jockey Club' and others, but is never sold alone, 
because its odour, although grateful, is not sufficiently good 
to stand public opinion upon its own merits ; but in combi- 
nation its value is very great. Possessing comparatively little 
aroma itself, it has the power of strengthening the odour of 
other fragrant bodies ; like the flint and steel, which, though 
comparatively incombustible, readily fire inflammable bodies. 

Palm {Elceis guineensis). — The odour of palm oil — the fat- 
oil of commerce — is due to a fragrant principle which it 
contain.s. By infusion in alcohol the odoriferous body is 
dissolved, and resembles, to a certain extent, the tincture of 
orris, or of extract of violet, but is very indifferent, and is not 
likely to be brought into use, though several attempts have 
been made to render it of service when the cultivation of the 
violets has failed from bad seasons. 

Patchouly {Pogostemon Patchouli, Lmdley ,• Plectranthus 



crassifolius, Burnett). — This is one of the most unique of 
scent-yielding plants. It is a labiate, stated by some authors 
to be a native of Silhet, a district of Bengal, some 120 miles 
from Decca ; it is now, however, known to grow in Java and 
Ceylon, and also on the Malay coast, and, one must say, in 
China, because its odour is very clearly defined in the black- 
stick ink, commonly called Indian ink, which comes from 
that country. About the year 1850 patchouly began to be 
imported into England. Europe now obtains otto of patchouly 
from the fresh herb. Much is distilled by Mr. Scott, of 
Penang. It would pay growers to cultivate it in any of our 


warm colonies. Were the otto of it cheaper, the consumption 
could be increased tenfold. Growing plants of it can be seen 
in the Economic House, at Kew Gardens. 

Having flowered in the conservatories of M. Vignat-Parelle, 
at' Orleans, the plant was recognised by M. Pelletier as be- 
longing to the family Pogostemon. It somewhat resembles 
our garden sage in its growth and form, but the leaves are 
not so fleshy. 

The odour of patchouly is due to an otto contained in the 
leaves and stems, and is readily procured by distillation. 


One hundredweight of good herb will yield about twenty- 
eight ounces of otto, which is of a dark brown colour, and of 
a density about the same as that of the otto of santal wood, 
which it resembles in its physical character. Its odour is the 
most powerful of any derived from the botanic kingdom ; 
hence, if mixed in the proportion of measure for measure, it 
completely covers the smell of all other bodies. 

Extract of Patchouly. 

Rectified spirit i gallon 

Otto of patchouly ly oz. 

„ rose \oz. 

The essence of patchouly thus made is that which is found 
in the perfumers' shops of Paris and London. Although few 
perfumes have such a fashionable run, yet, when smelled at in 
its pure state, it is far from agreeable, having a kind of mossy 
or musty odour, analogous to Lycopodium ; or, as some say, 
it smells of ' old coats.' 

The characteristic smell of Chinese or Indian ink is due 
to some admixture of this herb and camphor. 

The origin of the use of patchouly as a perfume in 
Europe is curious. A few years ago real Indian shawls bore 
an extravagant price, and purchasers could always distinguish 
them by their odour ; in fact, they were perfumed with 
patchouly. The French manufacturers had for some time 
successfully imitated the Indian fabric, but could not impart 
the odour. 

At length they discovered the secret, and began to import 
the plant to perfume articles of their make, and thus palm 
off home-spun shawls as real Indian ! From this origin the 
perfumers have brought it into use. Patchouly herb is ex- 
tensively used for scenting drawers in which linen is kept ; 
for this purpose it is best to powder the leaves and put. them 
into muslin sacks, covered with silk, after the manner of the 


old-fashioned lavender-bag. In this state it is very efficacious 
in preventing the clothes from being attacked by moths. 
Several combinations of patchouly will be given in the recipes 
for ' bouquets and nosegays.' 

Pea (Sweet). — A very fine odour may be extracted from 
the flowers of the chick-vetch by enfleurcige with any fatty 
body, and then digesting the pomade produced in spirit. It 
is, however, rarely manufactured, because it is possible to pre- 
pare the following very close 

Imitation of the Essence of Sweet Pea. 

Extract of tubereuse ^ pint 

„ fleur d'orange i pint 

„ rose from pomatum ^ pint 

„ vanilla . I oz. 

In giving the recipe for ' sweet pea ' as above we form it 
with the impression that its odour resembles the orange- 
blossom, which similarity is approached nearer by the addi- 
tion of the rose and tubereuse. 

The vanilla is tised merely to give permanence to the 
scent on the handkerchief ; and this latter body is chosen in 
preference to extracts of musk or ambergris, which would 
answer the same purpose of giving permanence to the more 
volatile ingredients, because the vanilla strikes the same key 
of the olfactory nerve as the orange-blossom, and thus no new 
idea of a different scent is brought about as the perfume dies 
off from the handkerchief. When perfumes are not mixed 
upon this principle, then we hear that such and such a perfume 
becomes 'sickly ' or 'faint ' after it has been on the handker- 
chief a short time. 

Peppermint. — The finest peppermint is that cultivated 
at Mitcham, Surrey ; the sight of the numerous acres of this 
plant at that place is alone sufficient to show the public taste 
for this odour ; strictly speaking, however, peppermint is con- 



sumed more through the mouth than the nose. Large as 
is our own consumption, England exports a considerable 
amount of the otto of peppermint, which is readily obtained 
from it by distillation. 

There are several plants which yield fragrant oils when 
distilled with steam. Among this class peppermint holds a 
high place, on account of its exhilarating as well as its 
aromatic qualities. Without vouching for the correctness of 
any of the statements there, I insert the following paragraph 
cut from the ' Scientific American.' It appears to be written in 
our cousins' usual ' tall ' style. If the figures were all reduced 
to one-tenth of their stated value, I think they would represent 
nearer the truth. 

About 3,000 acres of it are under cultivation in North America, viz. 
1,000 in New York and Ohio, and 2,000 in St. Joseph's County, Michi- 
gan, which appears to be its head-quarters. It is raised exclusively for its 
oil, about 7 lbs. of which is the average yield for an acre of plant, the 
price being loj. per pound. The roots of the peppermint are planted 
thickly in rows, between which spaces are left for the cultivator to pass. 
The plant is generally cut about the latter part of August, and placed in 
small cocks, like those of hay, which are allowed to stand in the fields 
some days before being taken in for distillation. Great care is exercised 
to prevent weeds growing among the plants, so as to ensure a pure article of 
otto. The fields are ploughed up and changed every five years ; the first 
year's crop being generally the most abundant and the purest. 

The apparatus for distilling peppermint consists of a boiler for raising 
steam, a still made of wood for receiving the charge of peppermint, a 
cooler for condensing the oil, and a receiver into which it flows. The 
wbiole apparatus is exceedingly simple. The plants are packed into the 
wooden still and trampled down with the feet ; when a full charge is thus 
ready the lid of the still is put on and steam admitted at the bottom by a 
pipe from the boiler. When the peppermint is heated to about 212° 
Fahr. its otto passes over with the steam into a worm, which is placed 
in a cooler; and as it condenses into oil and water it then passes 
out of the worm into a connected receiver, where the otto, as it floats on 
the surface, is lifted out with dippers, placed in tin cans, and is ready for 

The refuse mint taken from the still is placed in piles, dried, and then 
becomes tolerable fodder for sheep. About 12,000 lbs. of peppermint oil 


are shipped to England per annum, and the profits are about 18 per cent, 
upon the capital invested and the labour required to carry on the entire 

The peppermints find at Mitcham all the conditions they 
require to arrive at perfection — a temperate climate, a sandy- 
soil, an abundance of moisture. The Croydon drainage 
works have, however, reduced the last item, and the mints 
have suffered accordingly. There are two varieties of pepper- 
mint grown at Mitcham, which are there technically termed 
' white ' and ' black.' The white is the Mentha piperita of the 
botanist ; but the black I am unable to define, as it does not 
agree with any that I can find described. Several good and 
well-known authorities whom I have invited to see the plant 
growing at various stages have as yet been unable to help 
me in this matter ; however, the botanical difference only 
appears to be that the flowers and the leaves of the black 
mint are much darker in colour than the white. Commercially 
there is as much as ten shillings per pound difference in the 
market value of the ottos produced from them, the black 
being inferior. 

It would be a very natural question to ask. Why not 
grow all white, since it is more valuable than the black .'' 
The answer is, that the black variety is far more hardy 
than the white ; hence it will better bear spring frost, longer 
drought, and climatic influence generally than its ally. Again, 
the black mint will yield by one-fifth to one-sixth more otto 
per acre than the white, all conditions being equal. All things, 
therefore, being considered, it would not be sound farming to 
cultivate one kind only. The mats of mint do not average in 
weight more than one-half that of lavender. (For the tech- 
nical term ' mat ' see the article LAVENDER.) Hence twenty 
mats of peppermint which will fill Piesse and Lubin's large still, 
will not weigh, at an average, more than half that of the same 
number of mats of lavender. The word ' average ' I use very 


frequently advisedly, because it is next to impossible to fix 
exactly the quantity of mint or lavender that is put into the 
still or into a single mat, from the fact that of necessity it 
must vary according to the degree of dryness when the plant is 
cut — a degree which very sensibly differs every season as well 
as during the two months' period of the harvest of one year. 


Dr. Geiseler, who has conducted some investigations on 
the respective merits of distilled oil of peppermint by steam 
heat and by the heat of the naked fire, has arrived at the fol- 
lowing conclusions : — 


Dried peppermint herb affords by distillation over the naked fire a 
greater quantity of oil than by distillation by the aid of steam. 


The oil obtained by steam distillation is specifically lighter, and of a 
brighter colour, than that distilled over a naked fire. 

By the rectification of the latter by means of steam heat, an oil is 
obtained which is equal to that obtained by steam distillation, and has a 
specific gravity of .910, while the oil remaining behind by steam rectifi- 
cation in the retort shows a specific gravity of .930. 


Fresh peppermint herb gives by steam distillation and by distillation 
over a naked fire an equal quantity of otto. 

Dried peppermint herb contains two different ottos, possessing diffe- 
rent boiling points and different specific gravities. The otto of higher 
specific gravity must be formed from that of the lower specific gravity 
during the drying and keeping of the herb, as the freshly-dried herb 
affords only one otto, of specific gravity .910. 


Peppermint is too familiar in the lozenge shape ever to 
become a favourite as a perfume ; nevertheless perfumers use 
a fair portion of it in scenting soap and in the making of 
mouth washes : for these, however, it is employed by French 
perfumers more than by English. The fact is, fine pepper- 
mint is a scarcer article with them than us ; so by a law of 
human nature — ever seeking for that which is the most dif- 
ficult to obtain — the Continental people esteem it more than 
we do. 

One of the most esteemed articles of perfumery manu- 
facture in which peppermint takes the initiative is the re- 
nowned Eau Botot. 

Peku, Balsam of. — The odour of this substance re- 
sembles very nearly that of vanilla, but it is not so generally 
pleasing ; in appearance it resembles ordinary treacle or 
molasses. On account of its dark colour it cannot be very 
much employed in spirit perfumery ; but added to soap it 
imparts its fragrance and at the same time causes the soap to 
wash with a soft, creamy lather. Balsam of Peru having also 
the repute of a mild medicinal action upon the skin, soap con- 
taining it is said to be ' healing ; ' hence it is useful in winter 
for chapped skin : the proportions are, Balsam of Peru 2lbs., 
curd soap 561bs., melted together. 

Dr. C. Dorat, of La Union, State of Salvador, Central 
America, has furnished some interesting particulars of its pro- 
duction, which we append. 

The tree is handsome, rather widely branching below, diminishing at 
top, and about fifty feet high. The flowers, which are very odoriferous, 
appear in the latter part of September and the beginning of October, at 
the extremities of the branches, generally in pairs, numerous on each 
stem, white and unequal ; calyx of a pale bluish green, and very glutinous, 
from exuding balsam. Leaves of a dark shining green. The fruit is 
almond-shaped, winged, and containing a white kernel, with much 

A very superior balsam is sometimes collected from the flowers, but is 
very scarce, and never found in commerce. The tree produces after five 


years' growth, and attains a great age. It prefers a dry and poor soil, 
but is never found above an altitude of 1,000 feet: The aroma is perceived 
at a distance of more than 100 yards. The tree having attained the 
proper age, five or six years, the coseche, or collecting, begins with the 
dry season early in November. The bark, for some distance up, is well 
beaten on four sides with the back of an axe, or other blunt instrument, 
until it has separated from the woody part, but without injury or breaking. 
This requires great care. In performing this operation, four intermediate 
strips of bark are left untouched, so as not to destroy the vitality of the 

Several notches or cuts are now made in the portions of beaten bark 
with a sharp machite, and fire is apphed to the openings. The exuding 
balsam kindles, and is allowed to burn for a certain time, and then 

The tree in this state is left for fifteen days, and carefully watched ; 
after which time the balsam, which begins to run copiously, is received 
on cotton rags stuffed into the cuts. When saturated, they are pressed 
and thrown into the earthenware pots, with boiling water, on which the 
balsam soon floats like oil. It is occasionally skimmed off and thrown 
into clean jars, while fresh rags are added. The extraction from the 
tree is only made during four days of each week — that is, four coseches 
per month for each tree — and the average produce is from three to 
five pounds per week. As soon as the supply begins to fail, fresh cuts 
are made in the bark, fire again applied, and after fifteen days' rest 
the extraction is resumed. In this manner the collecting continues until 
the first rains appear in April or May, when all trabajo or work ceases. 

When thus prepared, the balsam is of a very dark brown colour, 
dirty, and of the consistency of treacle. It is cleared and cleaned on the 
spot, by settling and reboiling, when the impure parts rise to the surface 
and are skimmed off. This impure part is sold for manufacturing an 
inferior tincture, used medicinally among the Indians. 

The balsam in this state is purchased on the coast, at an average of 
from three to four reals per pound. It sometimes undergoes a second 
clearing, when it fetches a higher price as ' refinado.' When first cleaned 
it is of an amber colour, which darkens on cooling ; finally, after a few 
weeks, it becomes dark brown. 

A good tree, with careful usage, will produce well for thirty years, 
after which it is allowed to remain five or six years at rest, or, as the 
Indians say, to renew its strength. After this period it will again yield 
for several years. 

According to a manuscript copy of a papal bull, at present 
among the old records in Tzalco, Balsamo Negro was in such 


high estimation, that in 1562 Pio IV., and in 1571 Pio V., 
issued orders authorising the clergy to use this precious balsam 
in the consecration of the ' Sagrada Crisma,' and pronounced 
it sacrilege to destroy or injure the trees producing it. 
Copies of these bulls are, I am informed, still in existence 
among the archives of Guatemala. (See BALSAMS.) 

The balsam imported into England as Balsam of Peru, is produced 
within the department of Sonsonate, in the republic of Salvador, and 
along the coast of which department the trees from which it is extracted 
extend for leagues. 

In the district of Cuisnagua there are 3,574 trees, which yield alto- 
gether only 600 lbs. of the gum annually. With proper care in the 
extraction each tree would yield from two to three pounds, making the 
total quantity capable of being produced, in the before-mentioned 
district, about 10,000 lbs. When the season has been more rainy than 
usual the product is much lower ; but in order to meet this difficulty, the 
Indians heat the body of the tree by fire, — by this means causing the 
gum to exude more freely ; this operation invariably causes the decay of 
the tree. 

Should this mode of extracting the gum by heat not be put a stop to, 
the tree will soon disappear from the coast. This fact has been brought 
to the notice of the Government, and inquiries into the matter have been 
made in consequence. 

The Indians employed in collecting the gum say that such trees as 
are well shaded yield a greater quantity, but that those which have been 
planted by hand yield the most. This has been proved by experience, 
particularly in Calcutta, where a considerable quantity is yearly collected 
from trees which have been so planted. During the months of December 
and January, the gum oozes away spontaneously. This class of gum is 
called ' Calcauzate.' It is orange-coloured, weighs less than the other 
emits a strong odour, and is volatile and pungent. 

The export of balsam from Salvador in 1855 was 22,804 lbs., valued 
at 19,827 dollars. On the coast of Chiquimulilla, in Guatemala, there are 
many trees of the description that yield the balsam ; but hitherto it has 
not attracted the attention of the people of the country to collect it and 
bring it to market. That part of the coast in the state of Salvador, ex- 
tending from Acajutla to Libertad, is emphatically termed the ' Balsam 
Coast;' because there only is collected the article known in commerce as 
the Balsam of Peru. 

The particular district is intermediate to the two ports, and does not 
reach either of them within three or four leagues. Lying to the seaward 


of a low lateral ridge of mountains, the whole tract, excepting a few parts 
on the borders of the ocean, is so much broken up by spurs and branches 
thrown off from the main eminence, and so thickly covered by forest, as 
to be nearly impassable to a traveller on horseback. From this cause it 
is so rarely visited that very few residents, either of Sonsonate or Salvador, 
have ever entered it. Within this space are situated some five or six 
villages, inhabited solely by Indians, who hold no intercourse with other 
towns than what is necessary for carrying on their peculiar traffic. 
Their chief wealth is the balsam, of which they take to market from 
18,000 to 23,000 lbs. weight annually. It is sold in small portions at a 
time, in the before-mentioned towns, to persons who purchase for export- 
ation. The trees yielding this commodity are very numerous on this 
privileged spot, and apparently limited to it : for in other parts of the 
coast, seemingly identical in soil and climate, rarely an individual of the 
species is met with. The balsam is extracted by making an incision in 
the tree, whence it gradually exudes, and is absorbed by pieces of cotton 
rags inserted for the purpose. These, when thoroughly saturated, are 
replaced by others, which, as they are removed, are thrown into boiling 
water. The heat detaches it from the cotton, and the valuable balsam, 
being of less gravity than the water, floats at the top, is skimmed off, and 
put in calabashes for sale. This balsam was long erroneously supposed 
to be a production of South America ; for in the early periods of the 
Spanish dominion, and by the' commercial regulations then existing 
relative to the fruits of this coast, it was usually sent by the merchants 
here to Callao, and, being thence transmitted to Spain, it there received 
the name of the Balsam of Peru, being deemed indigenous to that region. 
The real place of its origin was known only to a few mercantile men. — 
'The Technologist.' 

Petit Grain. — This will be found described under 

Pine-apple. — Both Dr. Hofmann and Dr. Lyon Play- 
.fair have fallen into some error in their inferences with regard 
to the application of this odour in perfumery. After various 
practical experiments conducted in a large perfumatory, we 
have come to the conclusion that it cannot be so applied, 
simply because, when the essence of pine-apple is smelled at, 
the vapour, when exceedingly dilute, produces an involun- 
tary action of the larynx, producing cough. Even in the 
infinitesimal portions it still produces disagreeable irritation 


of the air-pipes, which if prolonged, such as is expected if 
used upon a handkerchief, is followed by intense headache. 
It is obvious, therefore, that the legitimate use of the essence 
of pine-apple (butyric ether) cannot be adopted with benefit to 
the manufacturing perfumer, although invaluable to the con- 
fectioner as a flavouring material. What we have here said 
refers to the artificial essence of pine-apple, or butyrate of 
ethyloxide, which, if very much diluted with alcohol, 
resembles the smell of pine-apple, and hence its name ; but 
how far the same observations are applicable to the true 
essential oil from the fruit or epidermis of the pine-apple, 
remains to be seen when we procure it. As the West Indian 
pine-apples are now coming freely into the market, the day 
is probably not distant when demonstrative experiments can 
be tried ; but hitherto, it must be remembered, our experi- 
ments have only been performed with a body resembling in 
smell the true essential oil of the fruit. The physical action 
of all ethers upon the human body is quite sufficient to 
prevent their application in perfumery, however useful in 
confectionery, which it is understood has to deal with another 
of the senses — -not of smell, but of taste. The commercial 
' essence of pine-apple,' or ' pine-apple oil,' and 'jagonelle 
pear-oil,' are admitted only to be labelled such, but really 
are certain organic acid ethers. For the present, then, the 
perfumer must only look on these bodies as so many lines in 
the ' Poetry of Science,' which, for the present, are without 
practical application in his art. (For the manufacture of 
artificial fruit-essence, see Appendix.) 

Pimento. — Both leaves and berries of this plant yield by 
distillation a fine otto ; that, however, from the berries should 
be chosen by the perfumer. Several plants yield analogous 
ottos by the leaf and flower, or the leaf and the bark, such as 
petty grain from the orange leaf, and neroli from the flower, 
otto cinnamon from the cinnamon (inner bark), cassia (outer 



bark), and cinnamon leaf oil from the leaves. The odour ot 
pimento resembles a mixture of cloves and nutmegs, and in 
a gamut of odours would be placed on the scale one octave 
between them. 

One hundredweight of cloves will yield eighteen pounds 
of otto, but a hundredweight of pimento will yield only six 
pounds of otto ; hence without some real advantage in odour 

which it has not, pimento cannot commercially take the place 
of cloves. When the clove crop fails, as it did in 1 872, then 
the pimento could be fully appreciated. 

In France the name pimento is applied to several 
different substances : — i. The pimento of Jamaica, pimento 
of the English, amone, allspice, Jamaica pepper, Myrtus 
pimenta of Linnaeus ; 2. Pimento Tabago, coarser than the 
former, attributed to the Myrtus acris ; 3. Crowned pimento. 


or Thevet pepper, Myrtus pimentoides (Nees d'es) or Myraia 
pimentoides (D.C.) ; 4. Royal pimento, myrick gale; 5. The 
pimento of the gardens. Capsicum annuum, of the family of 
the Solanacese, and the pimento of cayenne, Capsicum frute- 
scens, of the same family. The first two only are referred to 
in this work. (See ALLSPICE.) 

Much of the Ylang-Ihlang essence which is shipped from 
Malay appears to contain an undue proportion of otto of 

Pink {Dianthus Caryophyllus). — The clove pink emits a 
most fragrant odour, " especially at night," says Darwin. 
The lavish pink that scents the garden round 

is not, however, at present applied in perfumery, except in 


Imitation Essence of Clove Pink. 

Esprit rose . . ^ pint 

„ fleur d'orange . . . \ pint 

„ fleur de cassie .... ■ ■ \ pint 

„ vanilla .... . . . 2 oz. 

Oil of cloves . . lo drops 

It is remarkable how very much this mixture resembles 
the odour of the flower, and the public never doubt it being 
the ' real thing.' 

Rhodium. — When rose-wood, the lignum of the Convol- 
vulus scoparitis, is distilled, a sweet-smelling oil is procured 
resembling in some slight degree the fragrance of the rose, and 
hence its name. At one time — that is, prior to the cultivation 
of the rose-leaf geranium — the distillates from rose-wood and 
from the root of the Genista canariensis (Canary rose-wood), 
were principally drawn for the adulteration of real otto of 
roses ; but, as the geranium oil answers so much better, the 
oil of rhodium has fallen into disuse, hence its comparative 
scarcity in the market at the present day, though our grand- 
fathers knew it well. One cwt. of wood yields about three 
ounces of oil. 

ROSE. 189 

Ground rose-wood is valuable as a basis in the manu- 
facture of sachet powers for perfuming the wardrobe. 

The French have given the name jacaranda to rose-wood, 
under the idea that the plant called jacaranda by the Bra- 
zilians yields it, which is not the case : ' the same word 
has perhaps been the origin of palisander — palixander, badly 
written ' — Burnett. 

The essence of rose-wood, or of Rhodes, is liquid, oily, 
yellowish, has the scent of rose, a bitter flavour, and is 
lighter than water. Guibourt clearly distinguishes rose-wood 
from the sweet jacaranda of Brazil. Many other woods of the 
Leguminosae and the Lauraceae are still designated rose-wood. 


Go, crop the gay rose's vermeil bloom 
And waft its spoils, a sweet perfume, 
In incense to the skies. — Ogilvie. 

When Nero honoured the house of a Roman noble with his imperial 
presence at dinner, there was something more than flowers ; the host 
was put to an enormous expense by having (according to royal custom) 
all his fountains flinging up rose-water. While the jets were pouring out 
the fragrant liquid, while rose-leaves were on the ground, in the cushions 
on which the guests lay, hanging in garlands on their brows, and in 
wreaths around their necks, the coiileur de rose pervaded the dinner itself, 
and a rose pudding challenged the appetites of the guests. To encourage 
digestion there was rose-wine, which Heliogabalus was not only simple 
enough to drink, but extravagant enough to bathe in. He went even 
farther, by having the public swimming-baths filled with wine of roses and 
absinthe. After breathing, wearing, eating, drinking, lying on, walking 
over, and sleeping upon roses, it is not wonderful that the unhappy 
ancient grew sick. His medical man touched his liver, and immediately 
gave him a rose draught. Whatever he ailed, the rose was made in some 
fashion or another to enter into the remedy for his recovery. If the 
patient died, as he naturally would, then of him, more than of any other, 
it might be truly said that ' he died of a rose in aromatic pain.' Dr. 
Capellini relates the story of a lady who fancied she could not bear the 
smell of a rose, and who fainted at the sight of one of those flowers, 
which turned out after all to be artificial.' 

' Memoire sur I'Influence des Odenrs. 


It is a fact that some persons have a great dislike to the 
smell of the rose. The famous Gr^tay was an example of 

This queen of the garden loses not her diadem in the 
perfuming world. The oil of roses, or, as it is commonly- 
called, the otto, or attar, of roses, is procured (contrary to so 
many opposite statements) simply by distilling the roses with 

The otto, or attar, of rose of commerce is derived from 
the Rosa centifolia provincialis. Very extensive rose farms 
exist at Adrianople (Turkey in Europe) ; at Broussa and at 
Uslak (Turkey in Asia) ; also at Ghazepore, in India. 

The cultivators in Turkey are principally the Christian 
inhabitants of the low countries of the Balkans, between 
Selimno and Carloya, as far as Philippopolis, in Bulgaria, 
about 200 miles from Constantinople. Had not the first 
Russian aggression been ' nipped in the bud,' by the advance 
of the emblem of the rose, shamrock, thistle, and fleur-de- 
lis, it is nearly certain that the scene of the war would have 
been laid not in the Crimea, but in the Rose Farms of the 
Balkan : nevertheless, who is there would have doubted 
the prowess of the descendants of the Houses of York and 
Lancaster ? 

The following is a summary of the production of otto in 
Roumelia previous to the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-78 : — 

K^zanlik 27,776 oz. 

Guenpsa ... 12,064 » 

Karaja-Bogh . , 6,144 „ 

Tchirpan 2,592 „ 

Koyoun-Tdpd . . . j^ggg „ 

Pazardzik . 1^760 ^^ 

Yeni-Zaaghra . j 728 

Zaaghra . . . . ,'568 " 

SS,52o „ 



This estimate is based on the average production of the 
last ten years ; but in 1 866 it reached 96,000 ounces, and in 
1872 it fell to 27,000 ounces. . As to the commercial value of 
the otto, it may fairly be estimated, when pure, at from 25^. to 
30J. per ounce. In round numbers we may therefore say that 
the rose farms of Roumelia are worth 70,000/. to 80,000/. per 
annum. That rose and other flower farms can be established 
in Fiji, Queensland, and at Swan River, I have but little doubt, 
and to landowners there I commend the figures recorded. 

My friend, Mr. Amerling, a Turkish drug merchant, 
residing at Constantinople, sends me the following particulars 
in reply to my request for information of a practical character 
relating to the production of otto of rose : — 

The roses are grown at K^zanlik in Roumelia, and the annual produce 
is about 500,000 meticaux; 10 or 12 okes' of roses will render i metical. 
The process of distilling is the same as that of spirits, par alembic. The 
produce of this year will be less than the previous ones, viz. only 
200,000 to 250,000 meticaux. 

The cultivation of the roses for extracting otto is the same as for the 
ordinary roses. I beg to add on the subject of distilling, that you must 
put in a boiler as many okes of roses as of water, boil the same, and then 
extract oil par alembic. Then you remove from the boiler the roses, and 
boil again the first extract of the alembic, and it is then the second 
produce of the alembic that gives the oil of roses. 

To 10 okes of roses you may put 40 or 50 okes of water in the boiler 
or alembic, and boil them well. You may add at the opening of the 
alembic a bottle which may contain about 7 okes. When full you remove 
it, and you put another one in its place ; and when this also is full, you 
put in the same way a third one. In this way you obtain about 21 okes 
of oil in three bottles, of first, second, and third water ; then you empty 
the boiler, and clean it well. Afterwards you pour into it the contents of 
the first bottle drawn, and boil it. The alembic then will give the oil of 
roses floating on the water, which you separate. Then you go on with 
the same process with the second and third bottles. The first bottle pro- 
duces better oil than the second, and the second better than the third. In 
the cultivation there is no particular feature, excepting that in the winter you 
cover the roots with earth, which you break on the approach of summer. 

' One Turkish oke is about 2| to 2| lbs. English. 


The important thing is to collect the roses at day-break, otherwise 
the roses will not yield so much. 

Mr. Blunt, the British Vice-Consul at Adrianople, in his 
report to the Foreign Office, gives an account of the rose-fields 
of the vilayet of Adrianople, extending over 12,000 or 14,000 
acres, and supplying by far the most important source of 
wealth in the district. The season for picking the roses is 
from the latter part of April to the early part of June ; and 
at sunrise the plains look like a vast garden full of life and 
fragrance, with hundreds of Bulgarian boys and girls gather- 
ing the flowers into baskets and sacks, the air impregnated 
with the delicious scent, and the scene enlivened by songs, 
dancing, and music. If the weather is cool in spring, and there 
are copious falls of dew and occasional showers, the /:rops 
prosper, and an abundant yield of oil is secured. The season 
in 1866 was so favourable that eight okes of petals (less than 
23 lb.), and in some cases, seven okes, yielded a miscal of oil. 
If the weather is very hot and dry it takes double that quantity 
of petals. The culture of the rose does not entail much trouble 
or expense. Land is cheap and moderately taxed. In a 
favourable season a donum (40 paces square) well cultivated 
will produce 1,000 okes of petals, or 100 miscals of oil, 
valued at 1,500 piastres ; the expenses would be about 540 
piastres — management of the land, 55; tithe, 150; picking, 
75 ; extraction, 260— leaving a net profit of 960 piastres, 
or about 8/. i \s. An average crop generally gives about 
5/. per donum clear of all expenses. The oil is extracted 
from the petals by the ordinary process of distillation. The 
attar is bought up for foreign markets, to which it passes 
through Constantinople and Smyrna. 

The otto from different districts slightly varies in odour ; 
many places furnish an otto which solidifies more readily than 
others, and, therefore, this is not a sure guide of purity, though 
many consider it as such. That which was exhibited in the 


Crystal Palace of 1851, 'from Ghazepore,' in India, obtained 
the prize. 

The otto of rose which is procured by distillation from 
the Provence rose of the south of France and of Nice has a 
very characteristic fragrance, imparted to it I believe by the 
bees, which carry the pollen of the orange blossoms so 
numerous in this district into the rose bu(^s. The French 
otto is richer in stereopten than the Turkish ] an ounce and a 
half will crystallise in a gallon of spirit at the same temper- 
ature that would require three ounces of the best Turkish 
otto to do the same. 

Attar of roses made in Cashmere is considered superior to any other ; 
a circumstance not surprising, as, according to Hugel, the flower is here 
produced of surpassing fragrance as well as beauty. A large quantity of 
rose-water twice distilled is allowed to run off into an open vessel, placed 
overnight in a cool running stream, and in the morning the oil is found 
floating on the surface in minute specks, which are taken off very care- 
fully by means of a blade of sword-lily. When cool it is of a dark green 
colour, and as hard as resin, not becoming liquid at a temperature about 
that of boiling water. Between 500 and 600 pounds' weight of leaves are 
required to produce one ounce of the attar.' 

At Rome, the odour of the rose was in such request, that 

Lucullus expended fabulous sums, in order to be able to have 
it at all seasons. But in our day pure otto of roses, from 
its cloying sweetness, has not many admirers ; when diluted, 
however, there is nothing equal to it in odour, especially- if 
mixed in soap, to form rose soap, or in pure spirit, to form 
the esprit de rose. The soap not allowing the perfume to 
evaporate very fast, we cannot be surfeited with the smell df 
the otto. 

The finest preparation of rose as an odour is made at 
Grasse and Cannes, in France. 

Nothing can be simpler or more primitive than the farming operations. 
Roses, for example : the field is first scantily manured — especially with 

' Indian Encyclopaedia. 


the refuse matter left after the distillation of various plants — it is then 
ploughed with oxen at the yoke ; young plants of roses, procured from 
layers in the usual way, by tongueing and laying at a joint, or the off- 
shoots from the mother plant are taken away and planted in rows, two 
feet from each other, each row being about five feet asunder. Each root 
before planting should be cut down to within two or three buds, and 
Nature does the rest. The cabbage Provence rose is the kind cultivated. 
In the second year a considerable quantity of flowers appears, but itis not 
until the fourth year that they are fully developed. A plantation of roses 
well tended will last from six to eight years ; but for this the land must 
be well drained. It requires about seven thousand rose plants to cover 
an acre, and this acre will produce in an average season five thousand 
pounds' weight of roses of the value of one penny to three-halfpence per 
pound, yielding say 30/. an acre.' 

The above quotation refers to the French cultivation of 
roses, the Turkish system differing somewhat, as will be seen 
in the further text. Here the flowers are not treated for the 
otto, but are subjected to the process of maceration in fat, or 
in oil, as described under JASMINE, HELIOTROPE, ViOLET. 
It requires 10 kilogrammes of roses to enfleurage i kilo 
gramme of grease. ' The value of the roses varies from 
50f. to \f. 2Sc. the kilogramme ; that is, about 6d. to is. the 
pound. After the maceration process has been worked for 
a few days, the pomade is then subject to the injieurage 

The rose pomade thus made, if digested in alcohol, say 
8 lbs. of No. 24 pomade to i gallon of spirit, yields an esprit 
de rose of the first order, very different in smell to that 
which is made by the addition of otto to spirit. It is 
difficult to account for this difference, but it is sufficiently 
characteristic to form a distinct odour. See the articles on 
Orange Flower and Neroli which have similar qualities, 
previously described. The esprit de rose made from the 
French rose pomade is never sold retail by the perfumer ; 
he reserves this to form part of his recherche bouquets. 

' From my Lectures delivered before the Royal Horticultural Societv. 


Some wholesale druggists have, however, been selling it 
for some time to country practitioners, for them to form 
extemporaneous rose-water, which it does to great per- 

Roses are cultivated to a large extent in England 
near Mitcham, in Surrey, for perfumers' use, to make rose- 
water. In the season when successive crops can be got, 
which is about the end of June, or the early part of Jul)', 
they are gathered as soon as the dew is off, and sent to 
London in sacks. When they arrive, they are immediately 
spread out upon a cool floor ; otherwise, if left in a heap, 
they heat to such an extent, in two or three hours, as to be 
quite spoiled. There is no organic matter which so rapidly 
absorbs oxygen, and becomes heated spontaneously, as a mass 
of freshly-gathered roses. 

To preserve these roses, the London perfumers im- 
mediately pickle them ; for this purpose, the leaves are sepa- 
rated from the stalks, and to every bushel of flowers, equal 
to about 6 lbs. weight, i lb. of common salt is thoroughly 
rubbed in. The salt absorbs the water existing in the petals, 
and rapidly becomes brine, reducing the whole to a pasty 
mass, which is finally stowed away in casks. In this way 
tney will keep almost any length of time, without the 
fragrance being seriously injured. A good Rose-water can 
be prepared by distilling 12 lbs. of pickled roses, and 2\ 
gallons of water. ' Draw ' ofi" 2 gallons ; the product will be 
the double- distilled rose-water of the shops. The rose- 
water that is imported from the south of France is, however, 
very superior in odour to any that can be produced here. As 
it is a residuary product of the distillation of roses for pro- 
curing the otto, it has a richness of aroma which appears to 
be inimitable with English-grown roses. 

Most commonly a weight of distilled water equal to that 
of the roses employed is drawn off'. 


So ancient is the custom of using fragrant waters, that 
one of the oldest authors repeatedly mentions it. In the 
' Arabian Nights ' (written prior to the Christian era), in the 
story of Aboulhassan, it will be remembered that 

When the prince of Persia visited the queen, and that he had partaken 
of refreshments, the slaves brought him golden basins filled with odo- 
riferous water to wash in, and that after the declaration of love by the 
queen and the prince they both fainted, but were brought to themselves 
again by throwing odoriferous water upon their faces, and by giving 
them things to smell. 

Let one attend him with a silver bason, 
Full of rose-water. — Taming of the Shrew. 

There are six modifications of essence of rose for the 
handkerchief, which are the ne plus ultra of the perfumer's 
art. They are — esprit de rose triple, essence of white roses, 
essence of tea rose, essence of moss rose, twin rose, and 
Chinese rose, The following are the recipes for their form- 
ation : — 

Esprit de Rose Triple. 

Rectified alcohol i gallon 

Otto of rose .... . . . 3 oz. 

Those who admire the rose's fragrance will find the fol- 
lowing formula yield a most recherM quality : — 

Piess^s Twin Rose, 

Rose pomade (No. 24) . . , . . g u,s 

Spirit (60 over proof) . i ggjion 

French otto of rose , , , . li oz 

Let the spirit stand on the pomade for a month, then strain it 
off and add the otto, Mix at a summer heat ; in the course 
of a quarter of an hour the whole of the otto is dissolved 
and is then ready for bottling and sale. In the winter season 



beautiful crystals of the otto — if it is good — appear dis- 
seminated through the esprit. (It requires twice the 
quantity of Turkish otto to crystallise at the same tem- 

Essence of Moss Rose. 

Spirituous extract from French rose pomatum . . i quart 

Esprit de rose triple i pint 

Extract fleur d'orange . .^ . . . i pint 

„ of ambergris \ pint 

„ musk . , 4 02, 

Allow the ingredients to remain together for a fortnight ; 
then filter, if requisite, and it is ready for sale. 

Essence of White Rose. 

Esprit de rose from pomatum 
„ „ triple . 
„ violette , 

Extract of jasmine 
„ patchouly . 

I quart 
I quart 
I quart 
I pint 
i pint 

Essence of Tea Rose. 

Esprit de rose pomade 

„ „ triple . 
Extract of rose-leaf geranium 

„ santal wood 

„ neroli . 

,, orris , 

I pmt 
I pint 
I pint 

Chinese Yellow Rose, 

Esprit rose triple , 2 pints 

„ tuberguse . , 2 pints 

„ tonquin , \ pint 

„ vervaine i pint 

Flowers adapted for the preparation of essence of roses 
are produced by several species of rose tree. The kinds most 


used in France are the Rosa centifolia and damascena. 
Essence of rose is a mixture of two essences, one of which is 
solid up to 95° and boils at 300° : this is a hydrocarbonate ; 
the other is liquid and oxygenated. It is the latter which 
possesses the odour of the rose. The presence of essence of 
geranium in that of rose is established by means of sulphuric 
acid, which has no effect on the otto of geranium. Nitrous 
vapours turn the essence of rose yellow and the essence of 
geranium green. Iodine does not colour the former, but it 
turns the latter brown. 

There's rosemary ; that's for remembrance.— Shakespeare. 

By distilling the Rosmarinus officinalis a thin limpid otto is 
procured, having the characteristic odour of the plant, which is 
more aromatic than sweet. One hundred weight of the fresh 
herb yields about 24 ounces of oil. 

Rosemary is cultivated to a small extent at Mitcham in Si^rrey, its 
general treatment being the same as lavender (see Lavender), differ- 
ing only from that plant in that it requires more years to arrive at a 
stage of growth sufficient to allow the sickle to be used, for the otto exists 
most in the leaf and but little in the flower. Otto of English-grown rose- 
mary bears a market value of about ten times that of German, French, 
or Spanish, in which latter country vast tracts of it are found growing 
wild. Bertolin states that the odour of rosemary off the Spanish coast, 
during the harvest season, is perceptible long before the land comes in 
sight ; a somewhat similar story, it will be remembered, is told by the 
botanist Frangipanni, with regard to the Plumeria alba of Antigua.* 

Otto of rosemary is very extensively used in perfumery, 
especially in combination with other ottos for scenting soap. 
Eau de Cologne cannot be made without it, and in the once 
famous ' Hungary water ' it is the leading ingredient. The 
following is the composition of 

' See Appendix : Mercutio Frangipanni, versified by William Brough. 

RUE. 199 

Hungary Water. 

Grape spirit (60 over proof) I gallon 

Otto of Hungarian rosemary ■ 2,oz. 

„ lemon peel i oz. 

„ balm (melissa) . . . . . . 1 oz. 

„ mint J drachm 

Esprit de rose . . i pint 

Extract of fleur d'orange i pint 

It is put up for sale in a similar way to eau de Cologne, 
and is said to take its name from one of the queens of 
Hungary, who is reported to have derived great benefit from 
a bath containing it, at the age of seventy-five years. There 
is no doubt that clergymen and orators, while speaking for 
any time, would derive great benefit from perfuming their 
handkerchiefs with Hungary water, as the rosemary it 
contains excites the mind to vigorous action, sufficient of the 
stimulant being inhaled by occasionally wiping the face with the 
handkerchief wetted with these ' waters.' Shakespeare giving 
us the key, we can understand how it is that such perfumes 
containing rosemary are universally said to be so refreshing ! 

Rue. — What our Lord says (Matthew xxiii. 23, and Luke 
xi. 42) — ' Ye pay tithes of mint and rue, and all manner of 
herbs, but have omitted the weightier matters of the law '— is 
indicative that the fragrance of rue had caused it to be grown 
to an extent sufficient to call for a tithe of it for the church 
use at a very early period. The odour of rue is exceedingly 
penetrating and diffusive ; on this account it has from time 
immemorial been esteemed highly prophylactic. The sprigs 
of rue placed on the bar of the Central Criminal Court will 
be observed by every visitor to Newgate. The origin of its 
use there is traced to the time when the prison cell was 
indeed a never-cleansed den of carnivorous animals. The 

• The Hungarian rosemary yields quite a different smelling otto to that grown 
in England. 


gaol fever and the gaol distemper were then a natural result 
of being immured in Newgate ; and to prevent infection 
from 'the prisoners at the bar' to the 'worthy judge,' the 
practice of distributing rue throughout the court took its rise ; 
and its use is maintained even to the present day. Happily, 
however, through better discipline, the hygienic properties of 
rue are not required ; but its presence there is an illustration 
historically worthy of record by some future Macaulay or 
Knight. Rue yields up its odoriferous principle or otto by 
distillation : its principal use is in the manufacture of 
aromatic, toilet, hygienic, and cosmetic vinegars. 

Russia Leather. — The persistent and agreeable per- 
fume of Russia leather is familiar to many persons. Its 
manufacture is a State secret and monopoly of the Govern- 
ment ; no solution of the mystery has yet got beyond the 
statement that it owes its odour to the otto of birch bark ; but 
this cannot be so in the main, since all that can be done with that 
substance will not yield the true fragrance of Russia leather. 

Failing to produce the odour artificially, so to speak, 
from birch or any other bark, it struck me to endeavour to 
extract it from the natural body as found in commerce. To 
my great gratification I succeeded in obtaining perfect results ; 
moral — before art, try nature ! The perfume of Russia 
leather suitable for the mouchoir may be prepared thus : Take 
Russia leather cuttings, which may be had from most book- 
binders, say about half a pound, place them in a wide- 
mouthed stoppered bottle together with one gallon of alcohol 
60 over proof ; digest for fourteen days, then strain away the 
spirit, it will have a dark colour and would stain a white 
kerchief To remove the colour filter it through animal 
charcoal ; this will remove also some of its odour, but enough 
remains ; add to the filtrate one pint of esprit de rose triple, 
and it will be ready for sale. 

Sage. — A powerful-scenting otto can be procured by dis- 



tillation from any of the Salvia. It is rarely used, but is 
nevertheless very valuable in combination for scenting; soap. 
Dried sage leaves, ground, will compound well for sachets. 
Santal — {Santalum album). 

The santal tree perfumes, when riven, 
The axe that laid it low. — Cameron. 

This is an old favourite with the lovers of scent ; it is the 
wood that possesses the odoiir. The finest santal wood grows 


in the island of Timor, and the Santal Wood Islands, where 
it is extensively cultivated for the Chinese market. In the 
religious ceremonies of the Brahmins, Hindoos, and Chinese, 
santal wood is burned, by way of incense,, to an extent almost 
beyond belief. The Santala grew plentifully in China, but 
the continued offerings to the numerous images of Boodh 
have almost exterminated the plant from the Celestial 
Empire; and such is the demand, that Western Australia 


and Timor supply the Chinese markets. England alone 
would consume tenfold the quantity it does were its price 
within the range of other perfuming substances. The otto 
which exists in the santal wood is readily procured by dis- 
tillation ; one hundredweight of good wood will yield about 
30 ounces of otto. 

Dr. Elliott, who is a resident near Perth, Western Aus- 
tralia, informs me that ' any quantity ' of santal wood chips 
fit for distilling could there be had, for the timber of the 
santal tree is hewn and exported largely for building pur- 
poses in the adjacent countries. 

The white ant, which is so common in India and China, 
eating into every organic matter that it comes across, appears 
to have no relish for santal wood ; hence it is frequently 
made into caskets, jewel boxes, deed cases, &c. This 
quality, together w^th its fragrance, renders it a valuable 
article to the cabinet makers of the East. 

The otto of santal is remarkably dense, and is above all 

others oleaginous in its appearance, and, when good, is of a 

dark straw colour. When dissolved in spirit, it enters into 

the composition of a great many of the old-fashioned 

bouquets, such as ' Marechale ' and others, the formula of 

which will be given hereafter. Perfumers thus make what is 


Extrait de Bois de Santal. 

Rectified spirits 7 pints 

Esprit de rose i pint 

Essential oil, i.e. otto, of santal 3 oz. 

All those Extracts, made by dissolving the otto in alcohol, 
are nearly white, or at least only slightly tinted by the 
colour of the oil used. When a perfumer has to impart a 
delicate odeur to a lady's mouckoir, which in some instances 
costs ' no end of money,' and which it is an object, at any 
price, to retain unsullied, it behoves his reputation to sell an 


article that will not stain a delicate white fabric. Now, when 
a perfume is made in a direct manner from any wood or herb, 
as tinctures are made — that is, by infusing the wood in 
alcohol — there is obtained, besides the odoriferous substance, 
a solution of colouring and extractive matter, which is ex- 
ceedingly detrimental to its fragrance, besides Seriously 
staining any cambric handkerchief that it may be used upon ; 
and for this reason this latter method should never be adopted, 
except for use upon silk handkerchiefs. 

The odour of santal assimilates well with rose ; and 
hence, prior to the cultivation of rose-leaf geranium, it was 
used to adulterate otto of roses ; but is now seldom employed 
for that purpose. 

By a ' phonetic ' error, santal is often printed ' sandal,' and 
' sandel.' 

The otto of santal is often adulterated with castor oil, 
which, being soluble in spirit, is difficult to detect. 

Sassafras. — Sassafras is indigenous in North America. 
It is imported on the continent in the form of stems or of 
boughs as thick as a man's arm. The bark has the colour of 
rust, and is more aromatic than the wood. From the wood 
and the bark are derived by distillation an otto, heavier than 
water, colourless when fresh, but turning yellow after a time. 

Some of the perfumers of Germany use a tincture of the 
wood of the Laurus Sassafras in the manufacture of hair- 
washes and other nostrums ; but as, in our opinion, it has 
rather a ' physicky ' smell than flowery, we cannot recommend 
the German recipes. The Eau athMenne, notwithstanding, 
has some reputation as a hair-water, but is little else than a 
weak tincture of sassafras. 

Spike. — French oil of lavender, which is procured from 
the Lavandula Spica, is generally called oil of spike. (See 

Spikenard (Nardostachys Jatamansi).— This odoriferous 



plant belongs to the Valerian order ; and, although its fra- 
grance is generally considered unpleasant to European nostrils, 
it is so much admired by Eastern natives that some of the 
most esteemed Asiatic perfumes are composed of valerian 
and spikenard. The fragrance of spikenard is frequently men- 
tioned in the Holy Volume. ' While the king sitteth at his 
table, my spikenard sendeth forth the smell thereof.' — Song 


of Solom. i. 1 2. ' There came a woman having an alabaster box 
of ointment of spikenard very precious.' — Mark xiv. 3. It is 
nevertheless almost unknown to English and French perfumers. 
The Celtic nard, Valeriana celtica, grows on the mountains 
of Switzerland and the Tyrol. In commerce it is in round 
or flat packets, mixed with moss and gritty earth. Its 
flavour is bitter, and its smell resembles that of valerian. 



Another species of Indian nard, the nard of the Ganges of 
Dioscorides, is attributed to the Nardostachys grandiflora 
(D. C), Fedia grandiflora (Wall.). Lastly, the false nard of 
Dauphiny is the bulb of the Victoriale longue of Clestius, 
Allium anguinum of Mathiole de Bauhin. 

StoraX. — Priests and perfumers are very much indebted 

to that family of plants termed by botanists Styracecz : from 
on€ and another of this family vast quantities of odoriferous 
gums and balsams are procured, which are used for altar 
incense and for perfuming private dwellings. In commerce 
there are several kinds of storax : the hard red quality is 
termed Jews' incense ; the Calamita storax is so named from 
the Latin calami (rushes or quills), in reference to its form in 


the market. The true storax, however, to which we now refer, 
is a fragrant balsam which exudes from the wounded Liquid- 
ambar orientale, a shrubby tree common in Asia Minor. 

Extraction of the Liquid Storax. — In June and July,, the outer 
bark is stripped off on one ^de of the tree, and (according to Lieutenant 
Campbell) made into bundles and reserved for the purpose of fumigation. 
The inner bark is then scraped off with a semicircular or sickle-shaped 
knife, and thrown into pits until a sufficient quantity has been collected. 
Mr. Maltass states that it is then packed into strong horsehair bags, and 
subjected to pressure in a wooden lever press. Upon removal from the 
press, hot water is thrown over the bags, and they are pressed a second 
time, after which the greater portion of the resin will have been extracted. 

Lieutenant Campbell's account is a little different : he says the mner 
bark is boiled in water over a brisk fire, upon which the resinous part 
comes to the surface, and is skimmed off. The boiled bark is next put 
into hair sacks and prefesed, boiling water being added to assist in the 
extraction of the resin, or, as it is termed, yagh {i.e. oil). 

Dr. McCraith says that the storax collectors, who are chiefly a tribe 
of wandering Turcomans called Yuruks, are armed with a triangular 
iron scraper, with which they scrape off, together with the juice of the 
tree, a certain quantity of bark, which they collect in leathern pouches 
suspended to their belts. When a sufficient quantity has been obtained, 
it is boiled in a large copper, and the separated liquid resin is run into 
barrels. The residual bark is placed in hair-cloth and pressed in a rude 
press, the extracted resin being added to the general mass. 

The product obtained by the processes here described, is the grey, 
opaque, semi-fluid resin, well known as liquid storax. 

The bark from which the liquid storax has been extracted, is emptied 
out of the bags and exposed in the sun to dry, after which it is shipped to 
the Greek and Turkish islands, and to many towns in Turkey, where it is 
much esteemed for the purpose of fumigation, although, since the dis- 
appearance of the plague, its employment has greatly diminished. 

Lieutenant Campbell states that the quantity of liquid storax annually 
extracted, amounts to about 20,000 okas (500 cwt.) from the districts of 
Giova and UUk; and 13,000 okes (325 cwt.) from those of Marmorizza 
and Isgengak. 

It is exported in casks to Constantinople, Smyrna, Syria, and Alexan- 
dria. Some is alsp packed with a certain proportion of water in goat- 
skins, and sent, either by boats or overland, to Smyrna, where it is 
transferred to casks and shipped mostly to Trieste.' 

' D. Hanbuiy. 

S TO RAX. 207 

The odour of storax is the uniting link between— as the 
late lamented Professor Johnston distinguished them — 'the 
smells we dislike ' and the ' odours we enjoy ; ' it connects the 
fragrance of the jonquille with the stench of coal-tar naphtha ; 
the smell of this latter substance has become familiar, since 
it is used to dissolve gutta percha, and is commonly known 
as ' solution.' Now the smell of this naphtha certainly ranks 
with those ' we dislike ; ' yet storax, when in bulk, resembles 
it, ' to a smell ; ' but, when divided into such an attenuated 
form as we conceive odours to be given out by living plants, 
then storax resembles the exquisite fragrance of the jonquille 
and tubereuse ! So the whirlwind and hurricane become the 
gentle zephyr that makes the ' aspens quiver.' So the fire^ 
proof block of iron becomes, when divided, more combustible 
than gunpowder. So the silken fibre becomes a rope to stay 
the course of a ship. So the lightning flash becomes the 
electricity which makes one's ' hair stand on end.' Quantity 
is equivalent to an allotropic condition of matter ; quantity 
produces opposite physical effects upon the faculties. About 
an ounce of storax dissolved in one pint of rectified spirit 
produces the TINCTURE OF Storax of the perfumer's labor- 
atory. Its principal use is to give permanence of odour to 
analogous fragrances that are prepared by maceration : thus 
extract of tubereuse or jonquille, procured by infusing the 
tubereuse pomade in spirit, requires for every pint about one 
ounce of tincture of storax to be added as a ' fixing ' to the 
handkerchief It is also useful, in combination with other 
scents, to imitate certain odours of plants : thus it is found in 
lily of the valley, &c. 

Storax and Tolu are used in perfumery in the same 
way as benzoin, namely, by solution in spirit as a tincture. 
An ounce of tincture of storax, tolu, or benzoin, being added 
to a pound of any very volatile perfume, gives a degree of 
permanence to it, and makes it last longer on the handkerchief 


than it otherwise would : thus, when any perfume is made by 
the solution of an otto in spirit, it is usual to add to it a small 
portion of a substance which is less volatile, such as extract of 
musk, extract of vanilla, ambergris, storax, tolu, orris, vitivert, 
or benzoin ; the manufacturer using his judgment and discre- 
tion as to which of these materials is to be employed, choos- 
ing, of course, that which is most compatible and in harmony 
with the odour he is making. This can be ascertained by refer- 
ence to the Gamut. Every octave is in harmony. 

The power which these bodies have of ' fixing ' a volatile 
substance, renders them valuable to the perfumer, indepen- 
dent of their aroma, which is due in many to benzoic and 
cinnamic acids, slightly modified by an otto peculiar to each 
substance, and which is taken up by the alcohol, together 
with a portion of resin. When the perfume is put upon a 
handkerchief, the most volatile bodies disappear first : thus, 
after the alcohol has evaporated, the odour of the ottos 
appears stronger ; if it contains any resinous body, the ottos 
are held in solution, as it were, by the resin, and thus retained 
on the fabric. Supposing a perfume to be made of ottos only, 
without any ' fixing ' substance, then, as the perfume ' dies 
away,' the olfactory nerve, if tutored, will detect its composi- 
tion, for it spontaneously analyses itself, no two ottos having 
the same volatility : thus, make a mixture of rose, jasmine, 
and patchouly ; the jasmine predominates first, then the rose, 
and, lastly, the patchouly, which will be found hours after the 
others have disappeared. 

SUMBUL, SUNBAL, or Sambola. — Under these names there 
has recently been introduced in commerce a root, about the 
size of beetroot, presenting at the top distinct shoots, and at 
the bottom several large radicles. It is most frequently cut 
into small pieces, is covered with a grey epidermis, and shows 
on the narrowing part rough bristles caused by the destruc- 
tion of scales originating in the radical shoots. This root. 


which is white inside, rapidly falls a prey to insects. On its sur- 
face appears an adipose, resinous substance which has exuded 
from it. It gives a very strong musk -like odour, mixed with 
odour of angelica. It is supposed to be a product of one of the 
umbelliferce akin to angelica. It reaches us from Asia by way of 
Russia. It is less employed in perfumery in France than in 
Russia, where it is in great vogue on account of its cheapness. 

Syringa. — The flowers of the Philadelphus coronarius, or 
common garden syringa, have an intense odour resembling 
the orange blossom : so much so, that the plant is often 
termed Mock Orange. A great deal of the pomatum sold as 
pomade surfin, k la fleur d'orange, by the manufacturers of 
France, is nothing more than fine suet perfumed with syringa 
blossoms by the maceration process. Fine syringa pomade 
could be made in England's Colonies at a quarter the cost of 
what is paid for the so-called orange pomatum. 

Thyme. — All the different species of thyme, bul more 
particularly the lemon thyme, the Thymus Serpyllum, as well 
as the marjorams, origanum, &c., yield by distillation fragrant 
ottos, that are extensively used by manufacturing perfumers 
for scenting soaps ; though well adapted for this purpose, 
they do not answer at all in any other combinations. Both 
in grease and in spirit all these ottos impart a herby smell 
(very naturally) rather than a flowery one, and, as a conse- 
quence, they are not considered rechercy. 

When any of these herbs are dried and ground, they use- 
fully enter into the composition of sachet powders. 

ToLU. (See Balsams.) 

TONQUIN, or Tonka. — The seeds of the Dipterix odorata 
are the tonquin or coumarouma beans of commerce. When 
fresh they are exceedingly fragrant, having an intense odour 
of newly made hay. Considerable interest attaches to the 
plant represented in the accompanying illustration — the Ton- 
quin or tonga bean (Dipterix odorata) — inasmuch as it is 



one of only eight species included in the genus, all of which 
are large forest trees of Brazil, Guiana, and the Mosquito 
coast. The genus is also remarkable for being one of the 
few belonging to the natural Order Leguminosece, that have 
drupaceous or single-seeded, indehiscent pods. The tonquin 
tree acquires in the forests of British Guiana an average 
height of about 6o ft. It has alternate leaves composed of 
from five to seven alternate leaflets. The flowers are borne 
in racemose panicles, and the fruit, as will be seen, is of a 
somewhat oval form, consisting of a thick fleshy substance 
which becomes when mature of a hard, woody character, and 



encloses a long, almond-shaped, shining black seed. This 
seed has a powerful odour, resembling that of newly mown 
hay. At one time, when snuff-taking was much more general 
than at present, a tonquin bean was generally kept in the 
snuff-box for the sake of the agreeable fragrance which it im- 
parted to the snuff. Now, however, the uses of tonquin 
beans are mostly confined to the preparation of perfumes 
either for fluid extracts for handkerchiefs or for sachet 
powders. They are often, moreover, to be seen in hosiers' 
shops, where they are sold for placing in drawers with linen. 
For these purposes they are imported into this country to 


the extent of a few hundredweights per annum. The Creoles 
fully appreciate the fragrance of these seeds, and make use of 
them not only for their perfume, but also for putting in chests 
or drawers for the purpose, they say, of driving away insects. 
A closely-allied species of Diptet ix, namely, D. eboensis, a 
native of the Mosquito country, bears a fruit and seed almost 
identical in appearance with those oiD. odorata. It has, how- 
ever, no perfume, but contains a quantity of thick oil or fat, 


which is extracted by the natives, and used as a hair oil. It 
was at one time said that this oil formed the basis of a much 
advertised hair restorer, known as ' Balm of Columbia,' but of 
this I am unable to give any opinion. With regard to culti- 
vation, the species of Dipterix are said to grow best in a 
loamy soil. They are easily raised from ripened cuttings 
planted in sand, with a good moist heat, and covered with a 
hand glass.' 

. ' J. R. in The Garden. 
p 2 


The Anthoxanthum odoratum, or sweet-smelling vernal 
grass, to which new hay owes its odour, probably yields 
identically the same fragrant principle ; and it is remarkable 
that both tonquin beans and vernal grass, while actually 
growing, are nearly scentless, but become rapidly aromatic 
when severed from the parent stock. 

Chemically considered, tonquin beans are very interesting, 
containing, when fresh, a fragrant volatile otto (to which 
their odour is principally due), a fat oil, and a neutral 
principle — Coumarin. In perfumery they are valuable, as, 
when ground, they form with other bodies an excellent and 
permanent sachet, and, by infusion in spirit, the tincture 
or extract of tonquin enters into a thousand of the com- 
pound essences ; but on account of its great strength it 
must be used with caution, otherwise people say the perfume 
is ' snuffy ' owing to the predominance of the odour and its 
w,ell-known use in the boxes of those who indulge in the 
titillating dust. 

Extract of Tongtttn Bean. 

Tonquin beans i lb. 

Rectified spirit ... . . . i gallon 

Digest for a month at a summer heat. Even after this 
maceration they are still useful when dried and ground in 
those compounds known as POT-POURRI, Olla Podrida, 
&c. The extract of tonquin, like extract of orris, and extract 
of vanilla, is never sold pure, but is only used in the manufac- 
ture of compound perfumes. It is the leading ingredient in 
Bouquet du Champ — the Field Bouquet— the great resemblance 
of which to the odour of the hay-field renders it a favourite 
to the lovers of the pastoral. 

Coumarin, CH^O*, exists in several plants, amongst 
which may be named the sweet vernal grass, Anthoxanthum 
odoratum, the melilot, the sweet woodroffe, &c. Some authors 


have confounded it with benzoic acid ; but, contrary to what 
has been asserted, the tonka bean does not contain this 
acid. Coumarin is white, it melts at 68°, and boils at 270°. 
It has a pleasant odour, is more easily soluble in warm water 
than in cold, and crystallises in straight rectangular prisms. 

Among the plants with the odour of tonka beans, in 
which coumarin has been shown to be present, we may also 
mention Orchis fusca. Lallemant, a druggist at Algiers, sent 
to the French and Spanish exhibition in 1864, under the 
name of Orchis anthropophora, some leaves possessing a strong 
tonka bean odour. These might certainly be utilised in 
perfumery. But, as the plant is scentless with us, perhaps it 
has been confounded with Orchis fusca. 

Some of the plants, such as vernal grass and woodroffe, have 
no odour when freshly gathered, but the scent is developed 
as the plants dry ; this ordinary observers must have noticed 
in the hay-field, for good hay always contains vernal grass. 

TUBEREUSE {Polianthes tuberosd). — One of the most ex- 
quisite odours with which we are acquainted is obtained by 
enfleurage from the tubereuse flower. It is, as it were, a nose- 
gay in itself, and reminds one of that delightful perfume 
observed in a well-stocked flower-garden at evening close; 
consequently it is much in demand by the perfumers for 
compounding sweet essences. It requires three kilogrammes 
of flowers to perfume one kilogramme of grease, and the value 
of the flowers is about five francs the kilo. 

The tubereuse needs more care than any other flower of the farm. 
It is the most difficult to rear, but the best worth rearing. The tubereuse 
requires a moist soil, or to be so planted that it can be freely irrigated. 
It is a bulbous plant, and propagates as they do ; it throws out a stem 
like a hyacinth, covered with fleshy flowers. The bulbs are planted from 
nine to twelve inches apart in rows twenty-four inches apart ; and a 
good plantation in a suitable soil will last from seven to eight years. 
And oh, what a fragrance breathes from it ! what a bouquet, snatching 
perfumes from every flower with a superb eclecticism ! 



The tuberose, with her silv'ry light, 

That in the garden of Malay 
Is called the mistress of the night, 
So like a bride, scented and bright. 

She comes out when the sun's away. — MoORE. 

This last line of the poet's refers to the marked exhalation of odour 
after sundown ; very many flowers have not only a special time of open- 
ing their blossoms, but a particular time when- 
they breathe fragrance, as observed : the 
jasmine is more fragrant in August than it 
is in July and September.^ 

The enfleurage laboratory is al- 
ways kept dark, an artificial induce- 
ment (may I say ?) for the blossoms 
to ' work hard.' 

Extract of Tuber euse. 

Eight pounds of No. 24 tubereuse 
pomatum, cut up very fine, is to be 
placed into one gallon of the best rec- 
tified spirit. After standing for three 
weeks or a month at summer heat, 
and with frequent agitation, it is fit to 
draw off, and, being strained through 
cotton wool, is ready either for sale 
or use in the manufacture of bouquets. 
This essence of tubereuse, like that 
of jasmine, is exceedingly volatile, 
and, if sold in its pure state, quickly ' flies off' the handker- 
chief; it is therefore necessary to add some fixing ingredient, 
and for this purpose it is best to use one ounce of tincture of 
storax, or half an ounce of extract of vanilla, to every pint 
of tubereuse. 

Vanilla. — The pod or bean of the Vanilla planifolia and 

' From my Lectures before the Horticultural Society oil Flower Farming. 




aromatica, Swartes, Epidendrum Vanilla, L., yields a perfume 
of rare excellence. When good, and if kept for some time, it 
becomes covered with an efflorescence of needle crystals, pos- 
sessing properties similar to benzoic acid, but differing from it 
in composition : these crystals may be sublimed by heat of 
sand bath. Few objects are more beautiful to look upon than 
this, when viewed by a microscope with the aid of polarised 
light. The finest vanilla is grown in Mexico : the pods or 
beans are about eight and a half inches long. 

An inferior quality, the produce of Central America, is 
often lotted at the drug sales in London. Of this kind, the 


beans are not more than four inches long, and are more 
pulpy than the true Mexican variety. 

In the French markets an inferior kind is frequently on 
sale, called vanillon. It comes from South America. The 
pods are larger and the odour, quite different, somewhat 
resembling heliotrope. 

The cultivation of vanilla, introduced some years ago in 
the island of La Reunion, has been very successful, and the 
price has been reduced. In quality, however, the article is 
not equal to the Mexican vanilla. 

Of all orchids this climbing epiphytal one is the most 
valuable from a commercial point of view, on account of its 


scent-yielding fruit. There are several species of vanilla 
which yield beans or pods more or less fragrant ; and of these 
some five kinds are common in our English markets, the 
value of which varies from \os. to Soj. per lb. The genus 
Vanilla is indigenous to Peru, Brazil, and Mexico, and some 
of the species have been successfully cultivated in the West 
Indian Islands, Ceylon, and the Mauritius. From the last- 
named wonderfully fine specimens were sent to our Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1862, for which the jurors awarded a 
gold medal. There is no reason why the culture of vanilla 
should not be extended into some of our warmer colonies. 


such as Western Australia and Queensland. Its propagation 
is by no means difficult. V. planifolia climbs up the tallest 
trees, and its main stock becomes as woody and hard as that of 
the vine : the root sends up many offsets, which may be 
separated, and in that way the plant may be increased. 
Cuttings of the last growths, 2ft. or 3ft. in length, may also 
be made and rooted successfully. The vanilla will produce 
saleable pods the third or fourth year after propagation, and 
they may then be gathered annually, in September, in in- 
creasing quantities for thirty or even forty years. Therefore 
he who plants a vanilla forest leaves his son a valuable 
heritage. Two good specimens of the plant may be seen in 
the Orchid House at Kew, and it is also grown plentifully at 

When the pods are gathered, which should be done before 
they are quite ripe, it is most important that they be properly 


cured, otherwise they rapidly become mouldy and lose their 
scent. Parcels in this condition may often be found at the 
Mincing Lane drug auctions. The curing of the pods is best 
effected by drying them in a moderate heat, pressing them 
with the thumb and finger from end to end, and then 
brushing them over with an oil that does not itself become 
rancid, such as that of cocoa or cashew nut. It is at the 
apex of the pod that the mouldy parasite first appears ; the 
pods then quickly become soft and flabby or dry and chippy. 
On the other hand, when vanilla pods are in good condition 
they become covered with an efflorescence of needle-like 
crystals of vanillic acid. The interior of the bean is then 
soft, unctuous, and balsamic. 

In order to obtain the perfume or essence, ■§■ lb. of such 
pods are cut up small, and put into one gallon of pure alcohol, 
of a strength known as 60° over proof, giving the whole a 
shake up daily. The ingredients must remain together for, 
say, four weeks, at which time all that is worth extracting will 
be found in the spirit, which may then be strained off quite 
clear and bright. It is then suitable as a flavouring agent, or 
when blended with other scents it makes delicious perfumery. 
Those sold under the titles of Clematis, Heliotrope, Wall- 
flower, &c., mostly contain about one-half in bulk of vanilla 
extract. About two centuries ago vanilla may be said to 
have been unknown in this country ; it is, however, stated 
that Morgan, an apothecary, showed to Queen Elizabeth a 
sample, but he knew nothing more about it than that ' it was 
brought from abroad by some Spanish merchants.' At the 
present time the total annual average crop of all the varieties 
of vanilla from the several countries which produce it may be 
estimated at 80,000 lbs., representing a value of not less than 

Johnston states that, 'physiologically, the fragrance of 
vanilla acts upon the system as an aronutic stimulant, ex- 


hilarating the mental functions, and increasing generally the 
energy of the animal system.' From five to six hundred- 
weights of vanilla are annually imported, on an average, into 
this country ; from some unknown cause, however, this im- 
portation is very irregular, and, as a consequence, the price 
varies considerably, from \os. to 8oj. per lb. Our West 
Indian colonists should look to this. They are deploring the 
loss of commerce, and we are asking for things which they can 
produce, and yet no effort is being made by them to supply 
European wants. I press this vanilla question on them, 
because Europe would consume a hundred times as much 
vanilla as it does were the price reduced by an increased 

Extract of Vanilla. 

Vanilla pods | lb. 

Rectified spirit .... i gallon 

Slit the pods from end to end, so as to lay open the 
interior, then cut them up in lengths of about a quarter of an 
inch, macerate with occasional agitation for about a month ; the 
tincture thus formed will only require straining through cotton 
to be ready for any use that is required. In this state it is rarely 
sold for a perfume, but is consumed in the manufacture of com- 
pound odours, bouquets, or nosegays, as they are called. 

Extract of vanilla is also used largely in the manufacture 
of hair-washes, which are readily made by mixing the extract 
of vanilla with either rose, orange, elder, or rosemary water, 
and afterwards filtering. 

We need scarcely mention that vanilla is greatly used by 
cooks and confectioners for flavouring. 

There are three kinds of vanilla known in commerce, two 
of which belong to varieties of the same plant, and the third 
to a different species. The first. Vanilla leg. or legitimate, of 
the Spaniards, is most esteemed. It is often covered with 


thin white crystals, and is then said to hefnosted. It is attri- 
buted to the Vanilla sativa of Schiede. The second is the 
Vanilla simarona or bastard ( V. sylvestris pi Schiede) : it is 
shorter and not frosted. The third, called vanillon by the 
French, V. pompona or rosa by the Spaniards, is short and 
thick. It is attributed to the V. pompona of Schiede. 

Bucholaand Vogel p^re were in error in taking the crystals 
of vanilla for benzoic acid. M. Gobley believes that it is a 
peculiar principle which he names vanilline ; and this, according 
to A. Vee, melts at 78°, and in boiling water without being 
dissolved. It differs from coumarin, which melts at 68°. 

Verbena, or Vervaine. — The scented species of this 
plant, the lemon verbena, Aloysia citriodora (Hooker), is only 
cultivated, so far as I am aware, by Senor Robillard, of 
Valencia. He offers the otto for sale to the trade at 20s. the 
pound weight — a fact which indicates that the plant grows 
better in Spain than in England, where it will only live out 
of doors on walls. It gives one of the finest perfumes with 
which we are acquainted ; it is well known as yielding a 
delightful fragrance by merely drawing the hand over the 
plant ; some of the little vessels or sacs containing the otto 
must be crushed in this act, as there is little or no odour by 
merely smelling at the plant. 

The otto, which can be extracted from the leaves by dis- 
tillation with water, on account of its high price is scarcely, if 
ever, used by the manufacturing perfumer ; but it is most suc- 
cessfully imitated by mixing the otto of lemon grass, Andro- 
pogon Citrata, with rectified spirit, the odour of which re- 
sembles the former to a nicety. The following is a good 
form for making the 

Extract of Verbena. 

Rectified spirit i pint 

Otto of lemon-grass ... • • • 3 drachms 

„ lemon-peel . . 2 oz. 

„ orange-peel . . . . . . ^ oz. 


After standing together for a \&\f hours and then filtering, it 
is fit for sale. 

Another mixture of this kind, presumed by the public to 
be made from the same plant but of a finer quality, is com- 
posed thus ; it is sold under the title of 

Extrail dc Verveine. 

Rectified spirit 

Otto of orange-peel 
„ lemon-peel 
„ citron-zeste 
„ lemon-grass 

Extract de fleur d'orange 
„ „ tubereuse 

Esprit de rose 

I pint 

1 oz. 

2 oz. 

I drachm 
2^ drachms 
7 oz. 
7 oz. 

ng, and is one of the 

This mixture is exceedingly refreshi: 
most elegant perfumes that is made, and, being white, it does 
not stain the handkerchief It is best when sold fresh made, 
as by age the citrine oils oxidise, and the perfume acquires an 
ethereal odour, and then customers say 'it is sour.' The 
vervaine thus prepared enters into the composition of a great 
many of the favourite bouquets that are sold under the title 
Court Bouquet, and others which are mixtures of violet, rose, 
and jasmine, with verbena or vervaine in different proportions. 
In these preparations, as also in eau de Portugal, and in fact 
where any of the citrine ottos are used, a much finer product is 
obtained by using grape-spirit or rectified brandy in prefer- 
ence to the English corn-spirit as a solvent for them. Nor do 
they deteriorate so quickly in French spirit as in English ; 
whether this be due to the oil of wine (oenanthic ether) which 
the former contains or not we cannot say, but think it must 
be so. 


The forward violet thus did I chide : 
' Sweet thief, whence didst thou steal thy sweet that smells, 
If not from my love's breath ?— Bard of Avon. 

VIOLET. 221 

The perfume exhaled by the Viola odorata is so universally 
admired, that to speak in its favour would be more than 
superfluous. The demand for the ' essence of violets ' is far 
greater than the manufacturing perfumers are at present able 
to supply, and, as a consequence, it is difficult to procure the 
genuine article through the ordinary sources of trade. 

Real violet is, however, sold by many of the retail per- 
fumers of the West End of London, but at a price that pro- 
hibits its use except by the affluent or extravagant votaries of 
fashion. The violet farms from whence the flowers are pro- 
cured to make this perfume are very extensive at Nice, 
Savoy (now France) ; also in the neighbourhood of Florence. 
With us the violet grows anywhere, and almost anyhow ; but 
the terrible sun of Nice, during July and August, is but ill 
borne by the violet. Consequently, on the farms they are 
planted under the green shade of the orange and lemon trees, 
or close to walls and houses. The method of propagation is 
division of the roots. After the young plants are set out and 
well rooted, they must have a good dressing of liquid manure, 
which should be repeated every year, about two months 
before they throw blossoms. If the plants are on a very dry 
soil they must be irrigated every fortnight during the summer. 
They are planted so as to grow in tufts or clusters about a 
foot apart all round ; and this space enables the growers to 
gather the flowers without treading on them. The old plants 
should be removed every fifth or sixth year, and young roots 
substituted. A surface of land, equalling an acre of planting, 
yields one hundred and eighty to two hundred pounds weight 
of flowers, valued as an average at two francs the pound. 
Violets may always be looked upon as an extra crop, growing 
as they do under the orange and lemon trees. The kind 
grown is the double Parma. About twenty-five tons weight 
of violet blossoms are produced annually at Nice. My friend 
Mr. Steadman grows sixteen acres of violets at Mitcham Road 


and Thornton Heath, Surrey ; the whole of the flowers pro- 
duced there are sold for button-hole bouquets. The true 
smelling principle or otto of violets has recently been isolated 
by M. March of Nice, a sample of which is to be seen at the 
Laboratory of Flowers, 2 New Bond Street. A very con- 
centrated solution in alcohol impresses the olfactory nerve 
with the idea of the presence of hydrocyanic acid, which is 
probably a true impression. Burnett says that the plant Viola 
tricolor (heart's-ease), when bruised, smells like peach kernels, 
and doubtless, therefore, contains prussic acid. 

It has been remarked, also, that persons who have died 
from the effects of prussic acid, ' smell like violets.' 

The flowers of the heart's-ease are scentless ; but the plant 
evidently contains a principle which, in other species of the 
viola, is eliminated as the ' sweet that smells,' so beautifully 
alluded to by Shakespeare. 

For commercial purposes, the odour of the violet is pro- 
cured in combination with spirit, oil, or suet, precisely accord- 
ing to the methods previously described for obtaining the 
aroma of some other flowers before mentioned, such as those 
of cassie, jasmine, orange-flower, namely, by maceration, or 
by enfleurage ; the former method being principally adopted 
first, followed by enfleurage, and, when ' essence ' is required, 
digesting the pomade in rectified alcohol. 

Good essence of violets, thus made, is of a beautiful green 
colour, and, though of a rich deep tint, has no power to stain 
a white fabric, and its odour is perfectly natural. 

Essence of Violets, 
as prepared for retail sale, is thus made, according to the 
quality and strength of the pomade:— Take from six to eight 
pounds of the violet pomade, chop it up fine, and place it in 
one gallon of perfectly clean (free from fusel oil) rectified spirit ; 
allow it to digest for three weeks or a month, then strain oflF 


the essence, and to every pint thereof add three ounces of 
tincture of orris root, and three ounces of esprit de cassie ; it 
is then fit for sale. 

On account of the inodorous quality of the English spirit, 
the essence of violet made in Britain is very superior to the 
continental violet, which always smells of brandy. 

We have often seen displayed for sale in druggists' shops 
plain tincture of orris root, done up in nice bottles, with labels 
upon them inferring the contents to be ' Extract of Violet.' 
Customers thus once 'taken in' are not likely to be so a second 

A good Imitation Essence of Violets is best prepared 
thus : — 

Spirituous extract of cassie pomade . . .1 pint 

Esprit de rose, from pomade . ■ ■ i pint 

Tincture of orris ^ pint 

Spirituous extract of tubereuse pomade . . . \ pint 
Otto of almonds 3 drops 

After filtration it is fit for bottling. In this mixture it is 
the extract of cassie which has the leading smell, but, modified 
by the rose and tubereuse, it becomes very much like the violet. 
Moreover, it has a green colour, like the extract of violet; and 
as the eye influences the judgment by the sense of taste, so it 
does with the sense of smell. Extract of violet enters largely 
into the composition of several of the most popular bouquets, 
such as extract of spring flowers and many others. 

Violet flowers are worth about 4/. 50^. the kilo, or 2s. per 
pound, and it requires 4 kilos of flowers to enflower one kilo 
of fat to make the violet pomade. (See Wood Violet.) 

VlTiVERT, or Kus-Kus, is the rhizome of an Indian grass 
(Andropogon muricatus, Retz). In the neighbourhood of Cal- 
cutta, and in that city, this material has an extensive use by 
being manufactured into awnings, blinds, and sunshades, called 
Tatties. During the hot seasons an attendant sprinkles water 


over them ; this operation cools the apartment by the evapo- 
ration of the water, and, at the same time, perfumes the 
atmosphere, in a very agreeable manner, with the odoriferous 
principle of the vitivert. It has a smell between the aromatic 
or spicy odour and that of flowers — if such a distinction can 
be admitted. We classify it with orris root — not that it has 
any odour resembling it, but because it has a like effect in use 
in perfumery, and because it is prepared as a tincture for 
obtaining its odour. 

About four pounds of the dried vitivert, as it is imported, 
being cut small and set to steep in a gallon of rectified spirits 
for a fortnight, produces the 

Essence of Vitivert of the shops. In this state it is rarely 

used as a perfume, although it is occasionally asked for by 
those who, perhaps, have learnt to admire its odour by their 
previous residence in the 'Eastern clime.' The extract, essence, 
or tincture of vitivert enters into the composition of several of 
the much-admired and old bouquets manufactured in the early 
days of perfumery in England, such as ' Mousseline des Indes,' 
for which preparation, M. Delcroix, in the zenith of his fame, 
created quite a furor in the fashionable world. M. Delcroix 
was a very famous perfumer in his day ; he carried on a large 
business at 147 New Bond Street, in the time of George IV. 

Essence of vitivert is also made by dissolving 2 oz. of 
otto of vitivert in i gallon of spirit ; this preparation is stronger 
than the tincture, as above. 

Markhale and Bouquet du Roi — perfumes which have also 


' had their day ' — owe much of their peculiarity to the vitivert 
contained in them. 

Bundles of vitivert are sold for perfuming linen and pre- 
venting moth, and, when ground, it is used to manufacture 
certain sachet powders. 

Otto of vitivert is procurable by distillation ; a hundred- 
weight of vitivert yields about 14 oz. of otto, which in appear- 
ance very much resembles otto of santal. . I have placed a 
sample of it in the museum at Kew. 

In India several other andropogons little known are used 
for the same purposes as the schcenanthus and vitivert, these 
being frequently mistaken for each other. They are the 
Andropogon Nardus, (L.) Engl, ginger grass, A. iwarancusa 
(Rosch), A. paranciira (Blanc), and A. citratus (D.C.). To the 
species iwarancusa must be assigned an Indian root frequently 
used instead of vitivert. It is distinguished by its whiteness 
and freedom from twists. It has been ascertained by Dr. 
Stenhouse that the essences extracted from the Andropogon 
muricatus, Nardus, and iwarancusa are identical. 

VOLKAMERIA. — An exquisite perfume is sold under this 
name, presumed, of course, to be derived from the Volkameria 
inermis (Lindley). Whether it has a smell resembling the 
flower of that plant we are unable to say. The volkameria 
blooms in French gardens ; that chiefly cultivated is the V. 
fragrans. Its flowers are clustered in globular tufts and 
exhale a delicious odour. It is a native of Java, while the V. 
Kcempferi (Willd.) comes from China and Japan. The flowers 
of the latter are arranged in panicles and furnished with 


Imitation Essence of Volkameria. 

Esprit de violette i pint 

„ tubereuse i pint 

„ jasmine \ pint 

„ rose J pint 

Tincture of musk . . 2 oz. 



Wallflower (Chieranthus). 

Where the wallflower scents the dewy air. — Burns. 

Exquisite as is the odour of this flower, it is not used in per- 
fumery, though no doubt it might be, and very successfully 
too, were the plant cultivated for that purpose. To this flower 
we would direct particular attention, as one well adapted for 
experiments to obtain its odoriferous principle in this country, 
our climate being good for its production. The mode of 
obtaining its odour has been indicated when we spoke of 
Heliotrope and Jasmine. And if it answers on the small 
scale, there is little doubt of success in the large way, and 
there is no fear but that the scent of the old English wallflower 
will meet with a demand. Instigated by this suggestion, made 
in the first edition of this work. Miss Procter, of Friskney, 
Lincoln, has produced some very good samples of natural 

An imitation essence of wallflower can be compounded 
thus : — 

Extrait de fleur I'orange i pint 

„ vanilk . \ pint 

Esprit de rose i pint 

Extract of orris . \ pint 

„ cassie \ pint 

Essential oil of almonds 5 drops 

Allow this mixture to be made up for two or three weeks 
prior to putting it for sale. 

Winter Green {Gaultheria procumbens). — A perfuiping 
otto can be procured by distilling the leaves of this plant : 
it is principally consumed in the perfuming of soaps. 

The essence of winter green combines also with the bases 
to form the salts ndimed gaultkerates. Salicylous or spiroylous 
acid, or essence of meadow-sweet, or ulmaria {Spirea ulmaria), 
is obtained artificially by distilling a mixture of salicine. 



bichromate of potash, and sulphuric acid. Its formula is 
Ci5H«0^ = C'5H=0«H. (Piria Dumas.) 

Upon the strength of the name of this odorous plant a 
very nice handkerchief perfume is made, called 

Iceland Winter Green. 

Esprit de rose 

I pint 

Essence of lavender 

J pint 

Extract of neroly 


vanilla .... 


„ vitivert 


„ cassia ... . . 


Otto of Gaultheria ... . . 

5 minims 


As cheap perfumes are often required to fill little fancy 
bottles, such as are sold at the bazaars, toy-shops, arcades, 
wheels of fortune, and other places, the following recipes 
for their manufacture will be found of service : — 


Spirit of wine i pint 

Essence of bergamot i ounce 


Spirit of wine i pint 

Otto of santal i ounce 


Spirit of wine i pint 

Otto of Friench lavender \ ounce 

„ bergamot \ ounce 

,, cloves . . . .1 drachm 

Q 2 



Spirit of wine .... . . . i pint 

Otto of lemon grass .... j ounce 

Essence of lemons . . . . Jounce 


Spirit of wine . i pint 

Otto of petit grain ^ ounce 

„ orange-peel i ounce 

Nearly all these mixtures will require to be filtered 
through blotting paper, with the addition of a little magnesia, 
to make them bright. What these scents are to be named, we 
must leave to abler nomenclaturists. 

The processes described for procuring the odours of 
plants are those now in use by the perfumer ; future ages will 
doubtless witness many improvements, although the methods 
now adopted appear almost perfect. The most marked 
invention, as a means of winning the odours, of recent date, 
is that of M. Piver, which is very ingenious, and, although 
faulty, will probably lead up to something useful and practical. 
M. Fiver's may be termed the Pneumatic Process, since it 
consists of forcing a current of air into a vessel filled with 
fresh flowers, and then passed into a second vessel con- 
taining grease, which is kept fluid and in which revolve disc 
plates ; the air thus charged with odour from the flowers 
passes over the grease, and there yields up its scent. The 
apparatus is so contrived that the same air repeatedly passes 
through the same vessel. 

We may add that in the modification introduced by 
M. A. Piver in the process of enjleurage, the fatty bodies are 
divided into very fine particles by a vermicular pump so as to 
present the largest possible surface to the air ; and that they 


are also confined within a perfectly closed cupboard in which 
the air circulates. 

By this process a new product has also been obtained, for, 
when the air, having passed over the flowers, is received into a 
condensing vessel, an intensely odorous water is procured, 
having in a remarkable degree the fragrance of the flowers 

M. Millon, a French chemist, some few years past, patented 
a process for extracting odours of flowers by means of ether 
and sulphide of carbon. He places the flowers in a percolator 
and passes the solvent fluid over them ; the liquid which 
comes away contains the odorous body, together with a con- 
siderable portion of wax ; on distilling the liquid, the odorous 
body mixed with the wax remains, being less volatile than 
either the sulphide of carbon or ether. These products are 
interesting in a chemical sense, but are of little avail at 
present to the practical perfumer ; nevertheless perfumes 
extracted by Millon's method are sometimes employed in 

M. A. Piver, having noticed that in the perfume thus 
prepared there is always present the smell of sulphuret of 
carbon, suggested its removal by washes in alkalised water. 

There are three very distinct stages in the operation. 
I . The dissolving of the perfume. 2. Its distillation, at a low 
temperature. 3. The evaporation of all vestiges of the solvent. 

The solvents employed are ether, chloroform, sulphuret 
of carbon, and the light essences of petroleum, well rectified. 
The solution is effected in a special apparatus, but always 
perfectly closed. The arrangement of the superimposed 
cylinders allows the displacement of the saturated solvent by 
new liquids. But as the tension of the vapours of the 
solvents, invariably too volatile, might obstruct the flow of the 
liquid, the suction pump of the displacement apparatus of M. 
Berjot of Caen might be advantageously adopted. 


The distillation should be effected at a temperature 
slightly higher than the boiling point of the solvent ; that is 
to say, at 35" to 40° for ether, 45° for the sulphuret of carbon, 
and 62° to 68° for chloroform. The vapours must be very 
much cooled, and the liquids collected in a cooled receiver with 
a small ape'rture for the escape of air. 

To get completely rid of every trace of the solvent is a 
difficult matter ; and when sulphuret of carbon or the ethers 
of petroleum are used, the agreeableness of the perfume is 
injured by their bad odour. It is therefore indispensable 
to remove the last traces of the solvent. For this purpose 
the residuum of distillation is heated in a waterbath within 
a closed evaporator, furnished with an agitator ; and it is 
also necessary to drive a current of air through the mass, as 
M. Piver has proposed. Isolated in this manner, the aroma 
or perfume of the flowers is yielded in the utmost purity 
and with all their sweetness. According to M. Piver, one 
hectare of land planted with heliotrope has yielded a quantity 
of flowers sufficient, when treated by Millon's method, to 
produce six kilogrammes of perfume, value 3,000 francs. 
Four grammes of this perfume suffice for scenting one kilo- 
gramme of pomade. For industrial purposes, only the 
sulphuret of carbon and the ethers of petroleum are available 
for the extraction of perfumes. 

We have now described all the important odoriferous 
bodies which are used by the manufacturing perfumer, as 
derived from the botanic kingdom ; it may be understood, 
that where an odoriferous material is unnoticed, it has no 
qualities peculiar enough to be remarked on, and that the 
methods adopted for preparing its essence, extract, water, or 
oil, are analogous to those that have been already noticed — 
that is, by the processes of 


Maceration, absorption, or enfleurage for flowers, 

By tincturation for roots, and 

By distillation for seeds, 
modified under certain circumstances. 

There are, however, four other important derivative odours 
— ambergris, civet, castor, and musk — which, being from the 
animal kingdom, are treated separately from plant odours, 
in order, it is considered, to render the whole matter easier 
for reference to manufacturers who may refer to them. 
Ammonia and acetic acid, holding an indefinite position in 
the order we have laid down, may also come in here without 
much criticism, being considered as primitive odours. 

On terminating our remarks relating to the simple pre- 
parations of the odours of plants, and before we speak of 
perfumes of an animal origin, or of those compound odours 
sold as bouquets, nosegays, &c., it may probably be interest- 
ing to give a few facts a;nd statistics showing the consumption, 
in England, of the several substances previously named. 

The Commercial Elements of Perfumery. 

QuantUies of Essential Oils or Ottos, paying \s. per pound Duty, entered 
for Home Consumption in the year 1852. 


Otto of bergamot 28,574 

„ caraway 3)6o2 

„ cassia 6,163 

„ cloves • ■ • 595 

„ lavender 12,776 

„ lemon 67,348 

„ peppermint ... ... 16,059 

„ roses 1,268 

„ spearmint 163 

„ thyme 11,418 

„ lemon grass . . . . ] 

„ citronella I . . . 47.38o 

And other ottos not otherwise described j 

Total essential oils, or ottos, imported in one year . 195,346 


at the duty of \s. per pound, yield a revenue annually of 
%y66l. i6s. 

It would appear by the above return that our consumption 
of otto of cloves was exceedingly small, whereas it is probably 
ten times that amount. The fact is, several of the English 
wholesale druggists are very large distillers of this otto, leaving 
little or no room for the sale and importation of foreign 
distilled otto of cloves. Again, otto of caraway ; the English 
production of that article is quite equal to the foreign ; also, 
otto of lavender, which is drawn in this country probably to 
the extent of 6,oco lbs. annually. 

There were also passed through the Custom House for 
home consumption, in 1852 — 

Pomatums, procured by enfleurage, maceration, &c., 
commonly called ' French pomatums,' average value 
6j. per pound, and paying a duty of i.r. per pound, 

valued by the importers at .£i)3o6 

Perfumery not otherwise described ; value . . . 1,920 
Number of bottles of eau de Cologne, paying a duty of | 

ij. each^ |i9.-777 

Revenue from eau de Cologne manufactured out of England, 
say 20,000 flacons at %d. = 8,000/. annually. 

The total revenue derived from various sources, even upon 
this low scale of duties, from the substances with which 
' Britannia perfumes her pocket handkerchief,' cannot be 
estimated at less than 40,000/. per annum. This, of course, 
includes the duty upon the spirits used in the home manu- 
facture of perfumery. Previously to 1832, the duty on musk 
in England was 5j. an ounce; in 1842, the duty of 6</. an 
ounce produced 53/., showing that 2,120 ounces had been 
entered for consumption. In 1846 it was declared free of 
duty. The import now, 1856, is over 3,000 ounces. 

Levying an excise duty upon odorous substances is not 

' The duty on eau de Cologne is now, according to the last tariff, id. per 
flacon of 4 oz., or 20s. per gallon. 



peculiar to England, for it was practised during the Roman 
Empire. Gibbon says : ' There is still extant a long but 
imperfect catalogue of Eastern commodities, which, about the 
time of Alexander Severus, were subject to the payment of 
duties — cinnamon, myrrh, and a whole tribe of aromatics.' 

In order ' to lay before my readers the commercial 
statistics of imports and exports of the various matters 
relating to perfumery up to the latest date, I make the follow- 
ing extracts from the Blue Book. 

' A Statement of Trade and Navigation for the year i860, 
laid before both Houses of Parliament by command of Her 

Statement of the Imports of Perfumery and Odorous Substances into 
Great Britain, i860. . 



Balsam of Tolu 

„ Storax, Peru, and others .. 

„ Camphor, about an eighth 

part used by perfumers, 
the rest by druggists 
Civet (1857). 
Enflowered oils and ottos, from France 
Ottos from Sardinian territories . 

„ Two Sicilies, nearly all ber- 

gamot and lemon . 
„ Turkey, nearly all otto of 


China and neighbouring Is- 
lands, nearly all cassia, 
nutmeg, anise, cloves, and 
other spice, patchonly, 
verbena, &c. . 
„ United States : peppermint, 

winter green, &c., and 
Eastern produce 
„ East Indies, Ceylon, &c. : 

citronel'la, lemon grass, 
spice, geranium 
Not enumerated from other places 

Weight Imported 


356 OZ. 

1,975 lbs. 

202 lbs. 



1,668 cwt. 
1,476 oz. 
58,193 lbs. 
6,227 lbs. 




128,809 lbs. 


1,567 lbs. 



96,244 lbs. 


37,306 lbs. 


30,648 lbs. 
15,853 lbs. 





Weight Imported 


Elder flower water .... 

4,073 lbs. 


Lavender flowers 

8,491 lbs. 


Leaves of roses 

5,707 lbs. 


Musk ....... 

6,017 oz. 


Myrrh : about a quarter of this quantity 

used by perfumers .... 

280 cwt. 


OUbanum, principally used as incense 

in Catholic chapels, &c. . 

3,057 cwt. 


Orange flower water : about a quarter 

of this is used by confectioners, the 


remainder by perfumers . 

30,131 lbs. 


' <i3 

Orris root 

437 cwt. 



Enflowered pomatum .... 

19,325 lbs. 



Rose water 

43,441 lbs. 


Vanilla ; about half this is used in 


perfumery, the remainder in confec- 


6,132 lbs. 


18,455 lbs. 


Naples shaving soap .... 

784 lbs. 


Crfeme d'Amande 

28,904 lbs. 


Hungary water and eau de Cologne 

shipped from Holland 

7,845 bott. 


„ „ Belgium 

2,090 bott. 


„ „ France 

3,580 bott. 


„ „ other ports . 
Total value of perfumery imported 

430 bott. 



The average importation of musk, per 

annum, for the past five years, is . 
The export „ „ 

9,388 oz. 
1,578 oz. 


Leaving for home consumption every year 7,810 oz. .£8,545 

Average importation per 
annum, for the past- 
five years 

About half the vanilla imported is exported to our colonies 
and America, the other half being consumed at home. 

But very little of the other articles named are exported. 

Otto of rose 

1,117 oz. 


Vanilla . 

3,525 lbs. 


Ambergris . 

225 oz. 


Civet . 

355 oz. 


Orris root 

420 cwt. 


Invoice Value of English Manufactured Perfumery 
Exported in 1 860 : — 

Mostly undervalued in order to evade the tariff of several 

To Russia ^2,534 

Hamburg 3)522 

Holland 1,188 

Belgium .... .... 1,539 

France .... .... 2,018 

Egypt 2,050 

China Ij6s6 

Hong-Kong 2,753 

Porto-Rico .... ... 

United States ... .... 6,018 

Brazil ......... 2,316 

British Possessions in South Africa . . . 4,272 

Mauritius ij552 

British East Indies 20,861 

Australia 10,415 

Canada 2,655 

West Indies and British Guiana .... 7,294 

Other Countries 131831 


These returns are known to be very imperfect, and would 
be more correctly represented as a total of 186,000/. ! 

All these figures, I regret to say, are now twenty years 
old ; but the difficulty of obtaining information from the 
authorities as to exports and imports of perfumery is the 
only apology that I can offer for this deficiency. The per- 
fumery trade has been no exception to other trades, which 
have increased something like three or four to one during 
this period. 




IN the previous articles we have only spoken of the odours 
of plants ; we now enter upon those materials of an 
animal origin used in perfumery. The first under our notice 
is — 

Ambergris. — This substance is found in the sea, floating 
near the islands of Sumatra, Molucca, and Madagascar ; also 
on the coasts of America, Brazil, China, Japan, and the 
Coromandel. The western coast of Ireland is often found to 
yield large pieces of this substance. The shores of the 
counties of Sligo, Mayo, Kerry, and the Isle of Arran are 
the principal places where it has been found. In the ' Philo- 
sophical Transactions ' there is an account of a lump found 
on the beach of the first-mentioned county, in the year 169 1, 
which weighed 52 oz., and was bought on the spot for 20/., 
but which afterwards was sold in London for more than 1 00/. 
(' Philos. Trans.,' No. 227, p. 509). We are quite within limit 
in stating that many volumes concerning the origin of amber- 
gris have been written, but the question respecting it is still 
at issue. It is found in the stomachs of the most voracious 
fishes, these animals swallowing, at particular times, every- 
thing they happen to meet with. It has been particularly 
found in the intestines of the spermaceti whale, and most 



commonly in sickly fish, whence it is supposed to be the cause 
or effect of disease. 

•Some authors, and among them Robert Boyle, consider 
it to be of vegetable production, and analogous to amber ; 
hence its name zxrCa^r-gris (grey) grey amber. It is not, 
however, within the province of this work to discuss the 
various theories about its production, which could probably 
be satisfactorily explained if our modern appliances were 
brought to bear upon the subject. The field is open to any 
scientific enthusiast, — all recent authors who mention it. 


merely quoting the facts known more than a century ago, 
nay more, for in the sixth voyage of Sindbad the Sailor, he 
says : — 

Instead of taking my way to the Persian Gulf, I travelled once more 
through several provinces of Persia and the Indies, and arrived at a sea- 
port, where I embarked on board a ship, the captain of which was 
resolved on a long voyage. 

Shortly afterwards they were wrecked, and then, describing 
the place, Sindbad says : — 

Here is also a fountain of pitch and bitumen, that runs into the sea, 


which the fishes swallow, and then vomit it up again, turned into 

Captain Buckland considers ambergris to be nothing more 
or less than the faeces of the whale, and from numerous 
observations of ambergris I think I can inductively substan- 
tiate this fact. 

It is known that the ambergris whale feeds upon the 
cuttle fish. The snout of this creature is armed with a sharp- 
pointed curved black horn, exceedingly hard, tough, and 

indestructible. It is here represented, and resembles a bird's 
beak. It will be observed, however, that the lower mandible 
is the largest, being the reverse to that of a parrot. 

On breaking up good specimens of ambergris I invariably 
find perfect specimens of this beak, which appear to have 
escaped or to be incapable of digestion, and are thus excreted 
together with biliary matter. 

It is said by Dr. Ure that the Chinese try the genuine- 
ness of ambergris by scraping it fine upon boiling tea : it 
should dissolve, and diffuse itself generally. Dr. Thuddicum 
is at work on ambergris ; we may expect therefore shortly to 
be in possession of all the chemical qualities of this curious 

A modern compiler, speaking of ambergris, says : ' it 

' No doubt the writer was wrecked somewhere on the coast of the province of 
Pegu, near Rangoon, where there are natural petroleum springs to this day ; and it 
is something to say of science that in our time teautiful white wax-like, or true 
paraffin, candles are made from this Rangoontar, but which, in Sindbad's time, 
' was swallowed by fishes and turned into ambergrs 1 ' 


smells like dried cow-dung.' Never having smelled this 
substance, we cannot say whether the simile be correct ; but 
we certainly consider that its perfume is most incredibly 
overrated ; nor can we forget that Romberg found that ' a 
vessel in which he had made a long digestion of the human 
faeces had acquired a very strong and perfect smell of amber- 
gris, insomuch that any one would have thought that a great 
quantity of essence of ambergris had been made in it. The 
perfume (odour ?) was so strong that the vessel was obliged 
to be moved out of the laboratory.' (Mem. Acad. Paris, 171 1.) 

Nevertheless, as ambergris is extensively used as a per- 
fume, in deference to those who admire its odour, we presume 
that it has to many an agreeable smell. 

Like bodies of this kind undergoing a slow decomposition) 
and possessing little volatility, it, when mixed with other 
very fleeting scents, gives permanence to them on the hand- 
kerchief, and for this quality the perfumer esteems it much. 

Essence of Ambergris. 

Spirit I gallon 

Ambergris 3 oz. 

Let it stand for a month. 

It is only kept for mixing ; when retailed, it has to be 

sweetened up to the public nose ; it is then called, after the 

Parisian name, 

Extrait d'Ambre. 

Esprit de rose triple • i pint 

Extract of ambergris i pint 

Essence of musk J pint 

Extract of vanilla 2 oz. 

This perfume has such a lasting odour, that a handker- 
chief being well perfumed with it, will still retain an odour 
even after it has been washed. 

The fact is, that both musk and ambergris contain a 



substance which clings pertinaciously to woven fabrics, and, 
not being soluble in weak alkaline leys, is still found upon 
the material after passing through the lavoratory ordeal. 

Powdered ambergris is used in the manufacture of casso- 
lettes — little ivory or bone boxes perforated — which are 
made to contain a paste of strong-smelling substances, to 
carry in the pocket or reticule ; also in the making of pcau 
d'Espagne, or Spanish skin, used for perfuming writing-paper 
and envelopes, and which will be described hereafter. 

After the numerous hypotheses which have been formed 
as to the origin of ambergris, it is now admitted to be a kind 
of intestinal calculus ejected by the whale, Physeter macro- 
cephalus, a cetacean mammifer, M. Guibourt has shown that 
the amber takes a pleasant odour on oxidation in contact 
with the air. By its nature it ranks at once with biliary 

Castor. — This is a secretion of the 
Castor Fiber, or Beaver, very similar in 
many of its characters to civet, though 
in odour quite dissimilar. So long as 
perfumers can obtain musk or civet, 
they are not likely to employ castor; 
but, nevertheless, it has qualities that 
recommend it in some instances, espe- 
cially on the scoi-e of economy. 

Castor is imported from Canada 
and the territories of the Hudson's Bay 
Company. It is contained in small 
pear-shaped membranous sacs, gene- 
rally hard and brittle in this country, 
but is said to be soft and pasty when 
taken from the animal. The sketch illustrates the castor 
pods a quarter natural size. 

In a dry state castor has but little odour, in this respect 




resembling ambergris's, but when infused in spirit its scent is 
developed in a remarkable degree. 

Two ounces of castor in one gallon of spirit will make a 
standard extract ; but, like musk and civet, if more than a 
quarter of a pint of this extract be mixed with a gallon of 
any other scent, its characteristic odour becomes evident 
above the others. Perfumes containing it last well on the 
handkerchief, but there are very few persons who consider it 

The largest beavers measure in length, from the snout to 


the end of the tail, about i metre to i m. 30 c , and in 
size about the chest 30 to 40 centim. They are distinguished 
by the form of the head, which is as broad as it is long. In 
each jaw are ten teeth — two incisors in front and four molars 
on each side. The lower incisors are longer than the 
upper. They are yellow outside and white within : their 
upper extremity is sharp and bevelled, the molars are flat at 
top. The breasts are four in number ; two near the throat, 
and two near the chest. The skin is covered with hair of two 
kinds — one short, grey, fine and very thick ; the other brown 
and strong. Each paw has five fingers ; those of the fore 



paws are free, those of the hind are palmate. The tail is 
covered with scales. 

The bags of castoreum are found on the female beavers. 
It is not true that the animal cuts or bites them off when 
pursued by hunters. For the bags are sheathed, not 
pendant, and are out of the animal's reach. 

In Canada, as in Siberia, the beavers live in solitary pairs, 
in burrows excavated in the banks of rivers ; but in winter 
they assemble in large bands and construct with fallen trees, 
branches, stones, and earth, dikes across rivers, and very sub- 
stantial dwelling-places. They are hunted in winter because 
their fur is then most sought after. 

In commerce two kinds of castoreum are known, differing 
not only in respect to the form and size of the bags, but also 
as to their chemical constitution and the nature of the 

Civet. — This substance is secreted by the Viverra Civetta, 
or civet cat. It is formed in a large double glandular 
receptacle between the anus and the pudendum of the 
creature. Like many other substances of Oriental origin, it 
was first brought to this country by the Dutch. 

The Dutch used to keep numbers of civets alive at 
Amsterdam, for the purpose of collecting the perfume when 
secreted. When a sufficient time had been allowed for the 
process, the animal was put into a long wooden cage, so 
narrow that it could not turn itself round. The cage being 
opened by a door behind, a small spatula, or spoon, was 
introduced through the orifice of the pouch, which was care- 
fully scraped, and its contents put into a vessel. This 
operation was performed twice or thrice a week. About a 
drachm at a time is thus obtained, and the animal was said 
to produce more civet when irritated. The quantity depended 
chiefly on the quality of the nourishment it took, and the 
appetite with which it ate. In confinement its favourite food 



was boiled meat, eggs, birds, and small animals, and par- 
ticularly fish. 

A good deal of the civet now brought to European markets 
is from Calicut, capital of the province of Malabar, and from 
Bassora on the Euphrates, and from Abyssinia, where the 
animal is reared with much tenderness. A living specimen 
may be seen at the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park. 

Civet must have been used in England in Shakespeare's 
time, for he mentions it, as also musk, in several plays. 

Give me an ounce of civet. — Lear, iv. 6. 

He rubs himself with civet. — Much Ado, iii. 2. 

Hands are perfumed with civet. — As You Like It, iii. 3. 


In its pure state, civet has, to nearly all persons, a most 

disgusting odour. Massinger makes one of his characters 

say — 

Lady, I would descend to kiss thy hand, 

But that 'tis gloved,' and civet makes me sick. 

But when diluted to an infinitesimal portion, its perfume is 
agreeable. It is difficult to ascertain the reason why the 

> Such observations as the following occur not unfrequently in Nichols's 
Royal Progresses : ' Three Italians came unto the queen, and presented her each 
with a pair of sweet gloves. ' 

Edward de Vere, Earl of Oxford, the first person who brought embroidered 


same substance, modified only by the quantity of matter 
presented to the nose, should produce an opposite effect on 
the olfactory nerve ; but such is the case with nearly all 
odorous bodies, especially with ottos which, if smelled at, are 
far from nice, and in some cases positively nasty — such as 
otto of neroli, otto of thyme, otto of patchouly ; but if diluted 
with a thousand times its volume of oil, spirit, &c., then their 
fragrance is delightful. 

Otto of rose to many has a sickly odour ; but when eli- 
minated in the homoeopathic quantities which rise from a 
single rose-bloom, who is it that will not admit that 'the rose 
is sweet' ? The odour of civet is best imparted, not by 
actual contact, but by being placed in the neighbourhood of 
absorbent materials. Thus, when spread upon leather, and 
placed in a writing-desk, it perfumes the paper and envelopes 
delightfully, so much so that they retain the odour after 
passing through the post. ' Valentines ' are thus scented. 

For the purpose of making clear the difference between 
the real civet cat, Viverra Civetta (L.), or scented civet, and 
the zibeth, Viverra Zibetha (L.), we give figures of both 
animals on the next page. 

gloves into England, presented a pair to the queen, who took such pleasure in 
the gift, that she was pictured with them in her hand. [A pair of Queen 
Elizabeth's gloves, which are to be seen to this day, are exhibited in a case in the 
Bodleian Library, Oxford. — S. P.] The ' embroidered ' and ' sweet ' gloves here 
referred to had been recently introduced into this country from Spain and Venice, 
which excelled all other seats of the trade in the delicacy of their productions, and 
likewise imparted to them the additional charm of a fragrant scent. But the 
perfumed glove has ever had an evil reputation, from the circumstance that it was 
not unfrequently used as an agent in the conveyance of poison. The Queen 
of Navarre, having received a pair from the court of France, and accepted 
them as a pledge of safe conduct, met her death by their means — a fate which 
is also supposed to have befallen the beautiful Gabrielle d'Estrees. The modem 
French manufacturers, taking a hint from the former practice of Continental 
craftsmen, were in the habit very recently of attempting to impart a fragrance to 
some of their gloves ; but failing in the abstruse chemical knowledge which dis- 
tinguished the Italians, they used a preparation of myrtle leaves, that quickly 
evaporated on exposure to the air. — Chamber^ s Journal. 

CIVET. 245 

The first inhabits the hottest countries of Africa, from 
Guinea and Senegal to Abyssinia ; the second is found in 
the two peninsulas of India, the Moluccas and the Philippines. 
This is distinguished by its shorter and tufted hair, the 
absence of a mane, its round tail with short thick whitish 


hair and half-rings ot black hair. It produces the civet 

La Peyrpuse has described, under the name of a musk 
animal, a third species of civet cat, Viverra base, which like- 
wise produces a perfume. 


Extract of Civet is prepared by rubbing in a mortar 
one ounce of civet with an ounce of orris-root powder, or any 

' Chaillu : ' Recherches pour servir a I'histoire anatomique des glandes odorantes 
des mammifcres. ' — Annaks des sciences naturellcs, Sept. 1873. 


Other similar material that will assist to break up or divide 
the civet, and then placing the whole into a gallon of 
rectified spirits ; after macerating for a month, it is fit to 
strain ofT. It is principally used as a ' fixing ' ingredient, in 
mixing essences of delicate odour. The French perfumers 
use the extract of civet more than the English manufacturers, 
who seem to prefer extract of musk. From a quarter of a 
pint to half a pint is the utmost that ought to be mixed with 
a gallon of any other perfume. 

Musk-Rat, or Ondatra.— This creature, a native of 
Canada, is a quadruped of the family of the field-mice. In 
the males are found two pear-shaped glands, whose excretory 
duct terminates just below the prepuce. The female like- 
wise has two glands ; but they are smaller, and their duct 
opens near the urethra. The follicles of these glands secrete 
a liquid white as milk, and smelling strongly of musk. This 
odour is communicated to the hair and the tail. 

The musk-rat of the Antilles, or the pilori, is a true rat. 
The musk-rat of Russia, or desman, is an insectivorous 
mammifer, whose snout is furnished with a flexible proboscis. 
It has under its tail follicles which secrete a musk-scented 
substance, which imparts its odour to the flesh of the pike 
which feed on the desmans. The ducts of the musk-rat are 
not used in perfumery ; the above facts are here given for the 
reader's information. 


So sweetly, all musk. — Merry Wives, ii. 2. 

This extraordinary substance, like civet, is an animal 
secretion ; it is contained in excretory follicles about the 
navel of the male animal. In the perfumery trade these 
little bags are called ' pods,' and as imported it is called ' pod 
musk.' When the musk is separated from the skin or sac in 
which it is contained, it is then called ' grain musk.' 

The musk-deer {Moschus moschatus) is an inhabitant ot 

MUSK. 247 

the great mountain range which belts the north of India, and 
branches out into Siberia, Thibet, and China. It is also 
found in the Altai range, near Lake Baikal, and in some 
other mountain ranges, but always on the borders of the line 
of perpetual snow. It is from the male animal only that the 
musk is obtained. 

It formerly was held in high repute as a medicine, and is 
still so among Eastern nations. It will be remembered that 
the newspaper paragraphs told us that the last dose which 
the Emperor Nicholas of Russia swallowed before his death 
(1855) was a potion of musk. The musk from Boutan, 
Tonquin, and Thibet, is most esteemed ; that from Bengal is 
inferior, and from Russia is of still lower quality. The 
strength and the quantity produced by a single animal varies 
with the season of the year and the age of the animal. A 
single musk-pod usually contains from two to three drachms 
of grain musk. Musk is imported into England from China, 
in caddies of from 20 to 30 ounces each. When adulterated 
with the animal's blood, which is often the case, it forms into 
lumps or clots ; it is sometimes also mixed with a dark, 
friable earth. Those pods in, which little pieces of lead are 
discovered, as a general rule, yield the finest quality of musk ; 
upon the idea, we presume, that the best musk is the most 
worthy of adulteration. Musk is remarkable for the diffusive- 
ness and subtlety of its scent ; everything in its vicinity soon 
becomes affected by it, and long retains its odour, although 
not in actual contact with it. For this reason the late Hon. 
East India Company ordered that no musk be brought in the 
same ship with tea. 

The Musk-Deer. 
This little, persecuted animal would probably have been left undis- 
turbed to pass a life of peace and quietness in its native forests, but for 
the celebrated perfume with which nature has provided it. Its skin being 
worthless from its small size, the flesh alone would hold out no induce- 
ment for the villagers to hunt it while larger game was more easily pro- 


curable, and its comparative insignificance would alike liave protected it 
from the pursuit of tlie European sportsman. As the musk, however, 
renders it to the Puharries the most valuable of all, no animal is so 
universally sought after in every place it is known to inhabit. Musk is 
in demand in nearly every part of the civilised world ; yet little, I believe, 
is known of the nature and habits of the animal that produces it. 

The musk-deer is rather more than three feet long, and stands nearly 
two high at the shoulder; but they vary considerably in size, those found 
in thick shady woods being invariably larger than those on rocky open 
ground. The head is small, the ears long and erect. The male has a 
tusk depending from each upper jaw, which, in a full-grown animal, is 
about three inches long, the thickness of a goose-quill, sharp pointed, 
and curving slightly backwards. The general colour is a dark speckled 


brownish-grey, deepening to nearly black on the hind-quarters, where it 
is edged do^*n the inside of the thighs with reddish yellow. The throat, 
belly, and legs are of a lighter grey. Legs long and slender ; toes long 
and pointed; the hind heels are long, and rest on the ground as well as 
the toes. The fur is composed of thick spiral hairs, not unlike miniature 
porcupine-quills ; they are very brittle, breaking with a slight pull, and 
so thickly set that numbers may be pulled out without altering the out- 
ward appearance of the fur. It is white from the roots to nearly the tips, 
where it gradually becomes dark. The fur is much longer and thicker 
on the hind parts than the fore, and gives the animal the appearance of 
being much larger in the hind-quarters than the shoulder. The tail, which 
is not seen unless the fur is parted, is an inch long, and about the thick- 
ness of a thumb ; in females and young animals it is covered with hair, 

MUSK. 249 

but in adult males is quite naked, except a slight tuft at the end ; and 
often covered, as well as all the parts near it, with a yellowish waxy sub- 

The musk, which is much better known than the deer itself, is only 
found in adult males ; the females have none, neither has any portion of 
their bodies the slightest odour of musk. The dung of the males smells 
nearly as strong as musk ; but, singularly enough, neither in the contents 
of the stomach, nor bladder, nor in any other part of the body, is there 
any perceptible scent of musk. The pod, which is placed near the navel, 
and between the flesh and skin, is composed of several layers of thin skin, 
in which the musk is confined, and has much the appearance of the craw 
or stomach of a partridge, or other small galhnaceous bird, when full of 
food. There is an orifice outwards through the skin, into which, by 9. 
slight pressure, the little finger will pass, but it has no connection what- 


a, vertical section of musk-pod ; b, orifice of the pod ; d, gland carried by 
filiform prolongation into the urethra. 

ever with the body. It is probable that musk is at times discharged 
through this orifice, as the pod is often found not half full, and sometimes 
nearly void.' 

The accompanying figures will show the arrangement of the musk-pod 
upon the animal, and separate. 

The musk itself is in grains, from the size of a small bullet to small 
shot, of irregular shape, but generally round or oblong, together with 
more or less in coarse powder. When fresh it is of a dark reddish-brown 

' [From this orifice the dealers extract the grain musk, and then insert in its 
place the pieces of lead, brass, copper, skin, dried blood, clay, and other 
adulterations generally found in the pods when opened in England, and from the 
size of these orifices it can be pretty fairly judged how the pods have been 
tampered with. — S. P.] 


colour ; but, when taken out of the pod and kept for any length of time, 
becomes nearly black. In autumn and winter the grains are firm, hard, 
and nearly dry ; but in summer they become damp and soft, probably 
from the green food the animals then eat. It is formed with the animal, 
as the pod of a young one, taken out of the womb, is plainly distinguish- 
able, and indeed is much larger in proportion than in grown-up animals. 
For two years the contents of the pod remain a soft milky substance, 
with a disagreeable smell. When it first becomes musk, there is not 
much more than the eighth of an ounce; as the animal grows it in- 
creases in quantity, and in some individuals as much as two ounces is 
found. An ounce may be considered as the average from a full-grown 
animal ; but, as many of the deer are killed young, the pods in the market 
do not perhaps contain, on an average, more than half an ounce. Though 


not so strong, the musk of young animals has a much pleasanter smell 
than that of old ones ; but difference of food, climate, or situation, as far 
as my experience goes, does not at all affect the quality. 

From the first high ridge above the plains to the limits of forests on 
the snowy range, and for perhaps the whole length of the chain of the 
Himalayas, the musk-deer may be found upon every hill of an elevation 
above 8,000 feet which is clothed with forest. On the lower ranges it is 
comparatively a rare animal, being confined to near the summits of the 
highest hills, as we approach the colder forests near the snow ; but it is 
nowhere particularly numerous; and its retired and solitary habits make 
it appear still more rare than it really is. Exclusively a forest animal, it in- 
habits all kinds of forest indiscriminately, from the oaks of the lower hills 
to the stunted bushes near the limits of vegetation. If we may judge from 

MUSK. 251 

their numbers, the preference seems to be given to the birch forests, where 
the underwood consists chiefly of the white rhododendron and juniper. 

In many respects they are not unlike hares in habits and economy. 
Each individual selects some particular spot for its favourite retreat, about 
which it remains still and at rest throughout the day, leaving it in the 
evening to search for food, or to wander about, returning soon after day- 
light. They will occasionally rest for the day in any place where they 
may happen to be in the morning ; but in general they return to near the 
same spot almost every day, making forms in different quarters of their 
retreat a little distance from each other, and visiting them in turn. Some- 
times they will lie under the same tree or bush for weeks together. They 
make forms in the same manner as hares, levelling with their feet a spot 
large enough for the purpose if the ground is too sloping. They seldom, 
if ever, lie in the sun, even in the coldest weather, and their forms are 
always made where there is something to shelter them from its rays. 
Towards evening they begin to move, and during the night appear to 
wander about a good deal, from top to bottom of the hill, or from 
one side to another. In the day they are seldom seen moving about. 
Their nocturnal rambles are apparently as much for recreation as in 
search of food, as they often visit regularly some steep ledge of rock or 
precipice, where there is little or no vegetation. The Puharries believe 
that they come to such places to play and dance with each other, and 
often set their snares along the edge of such a ledge or precipice, in pre- 
ference to the forest. 

If not walking leisurely and slowly along, the musk-deer always goes 
in bounds, all fours leaving and alighting on the ground together. When 
at full speed these bounds are sometimes astonishing for so small an 
animal. On a gentle slope I have seen them clear a space of more than 
sixty feet at a single bound, for several successive leaps, and spring over 
bushes of considerable height at the same time. They are very sure- 
footed, and, although a forest animal, in travelling over rocky and pre- 
cipitous ground have perhaps no equal. When even the burrell is 
obliged to move slowly and carefully, the musk-deer bounds quickly and 
fearlessly ; and, although I have often driven them on to rocks which I 
thought it impossible they could cross, they have invariably found a way 
in some direction, and I have never known an instance of one missing its 
footing, or falling, unless wounded. 

They eat but little compared with other ruminating animals ; at least 
one would imagine so from the small quantity found in their stomachs, 
the contents of which are always in such a pulpy state that it is impossible 
to tell what food they prefer. I have often shot them whilst feeding, and 
found in the mouth or throat various kinds of shrubs or grasses, and 
often the long white moss that hangs so luxuriantly from the trees in the 


higher forests. Roots also seem to form a portion of their food, as they 
scratch holes in the ground, like rhany of the hill pheasants. The Puhar- 
ries believe that the males kill and eat snakes, and feed upon the leaves of 
the ' kedar patta,' a small and very fragrant-smelling laurel, and that the musk 
is produced by this food. They may probably eat the leaf of this laurel 
amongst other shrubs ; but from the few occasions upon which I have 
seen this laurel stripped of any portion of its leaves, it does not appear to 
afford a very favourite repast. Their killing snakes is doubtless quite 

The young are born either in June or July, and almost eveiy female 
brings forth yearly, and often twins. These are always deposited in sepa- 
rate places some distance from each other, the dam keeping herself apart 
from boih, and only visiting to give them suck. Should a young one be 
caught, its bleating will sometimes bring the old one to the spot ; but I 
never knew an instance of one being seen abroad with its dam, or of two 
young ones being seen together. Their solitary habits are innate ; for 
if a fawn is taken young and suckled by a sheep or goat, it will not for 
some time associate with its foster-dam, but, as soon as satisfied with 
sucking, seeks some spot for concealment. It is amusing to see them suck ; 
all the while they keep leaping up and crossing their fore-legs rapidly over 
each other. They are rather difficult to rear, as many, soon after they 
are caught, go blind and die. 

In most of the hill-states the musk-deer is considered as royal pro- 
perty. In some, the Rajahs keep men purposely to hunt it ; and in 
Gurwhal a fine is imposed upon any Puharrie who is known to have sold 
a musk-pod to a stranger — the Rajah receiving them in lieu of rent. 

In some districts they are hunted down with dogs, but snaring is by 
far the most common method practised for their capture. A few are 
occasionally shot by the village shikaries when in pursuit of other animals ; 
but the matchlock is seldom taken out purposely to hunt musk-deer, for 
a hill shikarie does not carry the match lighted, and, the deer being gener- 
ally come upon face to face, almost every one would get away before he 
could strike a light and apply it to the match. In snaring, a fence about 
three feet high, composed of bushes and branches of trees, is made in the 
forest, generally alorfg some ridges, and often upwards of a mile in length. 
Openings for the deer to pass through are left every ten or fifteen yards, 
and in each a strong hempen snare is placed, tied to a long stick, the 
thick end of which is firmly fixed in the ground, and the smaller, to which 
the snare is fastened, bent forwards to the opening, so that the deer, when 
passing through, treads upon some small sticks which hold it down, the 
catch is set free, the stick springs back and tightens the snare round the 
animal's leg. Besides the musk-deer, numbers of the forest pheasants, 
moonals, corklass, and argus are caught in these snares ; they are visited 



every third or fourth day, and it is seldom that the owners return without 
something or other. The polecats often find out the snares, and, after 
once tasting the feast, if not destioyed, soon become a terrible annoyance, 
tracing the fence almost daily from end to end, and seizing on everything 
caught; they are often caught themselves, but immediately bite the snare 
in two and escape. Musk-deer are frequeritly lost to the snarers in this 
manner ; for when one is eaten by the polecats, the pod is torn to pieces, 
and the contents scattered on the ground. No animal swallows the musk, 
and when a deer has been killed and eaten by a leopard or other animal, 
if the ground be carefully examined, much of the musk may be picked up. 
Insects and maggots also leave it untouched.' I once found what I 
thought was a newly killed musk-deer ; but on examination I discovered 
it was merely the skin and skeleton of one, which from its dry and 
withered state must have been dead some months ; the flesh had been 
completely eaten away by maggots, but the musk-pod was entire. 

The musk-pods which reach the market through the hands of the 
native hunters are generally enclosed in a portion of the skin of the 
animal, with the hair or fur left on it. When they have killed a musk- 
deer, they cut round the pod, and skin the whole of the belly. The pod 
comes off attached to the skin, which is then laid with its fleshy side on 
a flat stone previously heated in the fire, and thus dried without singeing 
the hair. The skin shrinks up from the heat into a small compass, and 
is then tied or stitched round the pod, and hung up in a dry place until 
quite hard. This is the general method of preparing them ; but some put 
the pod into hot oil instead of laying it on a hot stone ; but either method 
must deteriorate the quality of the musk, as it gets either completely 
baked or fried. It is best both in appearance and smell if the pod is at 
once cut from the skin, and allowed to dry of itself 

The musk received from the Puharries is gieatly adulterated, and 
pods are often made altogether counterfeit; and, as they are generally sold 
without being cut open, it is scarcely possible to detect the imposture at 
the time. I have often seen pods offered for sale which were merely a 
piece of musk-deer skin filled with some substance, and tied up to re- 
semble a musk-pod, with a little musk rubbed over to make it smell. 
These are easy to detect, from there being no navel on the skin, it being 

' [Having to do with musk for more than twenty-five years, I never but once 
saw a living thing in it ; however, in May 1861, I purchased six caddies of rhusk ; 
they were examined and appeared to be all right ; in the following August, on 
opening one of these caddies, I was surprised to find every pod of musk perforated 
with maggot holes, and, on opening the pods, white maggots, all alive and fat, 
were found in endless numbers enjoying their banquet— a food which had cost me 
50J. an ounce. As the creature was new to me, I called \tthe Musk Grub. — S.P.] 


cut from any part of the body. But the musk is sometimes taken out of 
real pods, and its place supplied by some other substance, and these are 
difficult to detect even if cut open, as whatever is put in is made to re- 
semble musk in appearance, and a little genuine added makes it smell 
nearly as strong. Some have only a portion of the musk taken out, and 
its place thus supplied ; and others have all the musk left in, but some- 
thing added to increase the weight. Even in the hills where it is pro- 
duced, so little do the generality of the people know of musk, that 1 have 
often seen the Puharries about Gangoutrie sell to pilgrims, to men from 
the lower hills, and even to their own neighbours, sraall portions of what 
they called musk, but what was merely some substance resembling it, 
with a little genuine musk scattered over it. Of this stuff they would 
sell about a quarter of a tolah for a rupee, or about los. an ounce. 

The substances commonly used for adulteration or to fill the counter- 
feit pods, are blood, boiled or baked on the fire, then dried, beaten to 
powder, kneaded into a paste, and made into grains and coarse powder to 
resemble genuine musk ; a piece of the liver or spleen prepared in the 
same manner ; dried gall, and a particular part of the bark of the apricot- 
tree, pounded and kneaded as above. The dried paste from which 
common oil has been extracted, called ' peena,' is also used, and lumps 
of this are often, without further preparation, thrust into a pod through 
the orifice in the skin, to increase the weight. Sometimes no care is 
taken to give the material employed in filling a counterfeit pod even the 
appearance of musk. A gentleman once showed me a pod he had bought 
from a Puharrie at Missourie ; on my telling him it was counterfeit, he 
cut it open, and found it filled with hookah tobacco.' 

My friend Mr. F. Peake, of the firm Peake, Allen, and 
Co., of Umballa, and Albion Place, London, whose long 
residence in the north of India has given him, for a Eu- 
ropean, unusual opportunities of ascertaining facts relating to 
the musk-deer, has sent me a skin which I have had mounted 
by Mr. Ward. This specimen is to be seen at 2 New Bond 
Street ; and in honour thereof my firm adopted the trade- 
mark of the musk-deer. 

Mr. Peake writes : — 

The specimen probably will serve to clear up many points relative 

1 Col. Fred, ^ax^sham's (C.^.) Journal of Sporting Adventures and Travel in 
Chinese Tartary and Thibet. 



to the quality and appearance of musk, and to explain the difference, and 
■cause of there being so many varieties and qualities in the market. 

The deer is about the size of a greyhound, and, from the length of its 
tusks, it is no doubt five or six years of age, or perhaps more. Its brown 
stubby coat more resembles small porcupine-quills than hair, and every 
part of the animal has a strong odour of musk. The head, legs, feet, and 
general outline, are those of the common deer ; but in its habits it more 
resembles the hare, selecting a solitary place or form separate from its 
species. It is sometimes found in the lower ranges of the mountains, at 
an elevation of 7,000 to 8,000 feet. It is an inhabitant of the forest, but 
partial to woody ravines, and is common only on the spurs or projecting 
points jutting from the eternal snowy ranges, at an altitude of from 10,000 
to 14,000 feet. 

The natives take the musk-deer by snaring, but this specimen was, it 
is believed, shot by the rifle. On being approached, they bound off with 

great rapidity, and when at about eighty to one hundred yards, turn round 
for a few seconds to gaze on their distui-ber with their faces towards him ; 
at this instant the unerring aim is taken, but the prize is not always 
secured, as sometimes it falls down precipices where it cannot be reached. 
Days and days are frequently lost without falling in with any, and, on an 
average, upwards of thirty miles are traversed daily. 

The toil of getting up and down these immense mountains is very 
great, and the pursuit is attended with many hardships and privations. 
The time expended and distance traversed render the occupation very 
expensive, from the necessity of being accompanied by various grades of 
servants, some to hunt up and look out for game, others to carry provi- 
sions, cooking utensils, &c. ; consequently, genuine musk must always 
maintain a high rate. 

It will be seen that there is a thin membrane under the outer skin 
of the abdomen, of a small bladder-like appearance, containing a thickish 
igoft substance, which is the musk. The musk in each membranous pod 


usually weighs from two drachms to an ounce ; from an old deer, from one 
ounce and a half to two ounces ; and its odour increases in proportion to 
the age of the animal. The male only furnishes the musk ; at the age of 
twelve months and under it does not yield any, and it is only at three years 
that the pod contains sufficient to be worth the trouble of extracting. 
The practised eye can generally judge if it be a young one — if so, it is 
allowed to escape. At two years the pod contains a yellowish milky sub- 
stance, and when first changed to musk, it yields not more than two 
drachms, frequently less. 

A few extracts from our Himalayan correspondent's 
letter may more clearly illustrate its character : — 

One or two small parcels I have sent to London have had a preference 
in the market even to the best Assam. About sending it in pods with 
the hair on ? I will do so if you like ; but I would not recommend it, as 
my musk is genuine just as it is taken from the animal. The thin 
bladder-like skin dries in the sun in a few hours — that in the hairy pods, 
on the contrary, gets quite roasted in the process of preserving and pre- 

The native plan is to make a stone nearly red hot, and the pod is first 
applied to it inwardly and outwardly till the skin is nearly dry, when it 
is stitched up, and the navel side is then held to the stone, pressing it 
and closing it with considerable force till the pod is quite dry. If this were 
not done, putrefaction would ensue, which, though only of the skin, would 
not improve the musk. 

I sent both kinds home, to ascertain which was best, and that in the 
pods without the hairy skin was declared to be far superior. All came 
from the same place, and from animals killed the same season. 

In a letter of a former year he states : — 

I send you an account of the season's produce, viz. 1 20 pods, which 
weigh Eibout 1 10 to 120 ounces or more, as they are large. The small 
ones being nearly all skin, I thought it advisable to let the natives have 
them to dress ;in their way and to sell to natives. 

The musk'pod familiar to us all is this membranous bladder, cut from 
the deer with a portion of the outer skin ; it is pressed and stitched up, 
and dried on a hot stone. By this continued heat much of its odour is 
driven off, and it is consequently deprived of its qualities as a remedial 
agent, and for the use of the perfumer greatly deteriorated. A large 
quantity of musk collected by natives, which is invariably falsified, finds 

MUSK. 257 

its way to this and other countries., They cut the young pods, containing 
no musk at all, as before mentioned, and fill them with the liver and 
blood of the animal, mixed with this yellow fluid and a small portion of 
genuine musk, fill, and sew them up in the skin, and dry on the hot stove ; 
or those which yield half a drachm to a drachm they mix and dry in like 

At one of the Government sales in India of presents given by native 
princes, there were many pods of musk, to appearance very fine, which 
proved to be nearly worthless ; they had evidently been ' made up,' and 
from long keeping the little real musk they contained had considerably 

It would be a difficult matter for a native to resist the temptation of 
not making some addition even to the finest pods, or of extracting a portion 
and filling it up with the mixture of blood and liver. 

The interior of the Himalayas where the supply is obtained is towards 
Ladak, Thibet, and Chinese Tartary ; and, as these mountains extend 
over so many thousand miles, it is probable that the musUs known as 
China, Nepaul, and other musks, and perhaps some Russian, are from 
the same districts. The Tartar tribes wander from place to place, bar- 
tering with the natives of these several countries who have access to these 
regions. Hence the musk would be from the same species, the difference 
in appearance being caused by its varying age and mode of preparing and 

The genuineness of musk depends on the honesty of the natives and 
others who procure and dispose of it to the various markets. 

The musk in the membranous bladder yields nearly double the 
quantity of grain musk to an equal weight of musk with the skin and 

It is a fashion of the present day for people to say that 
' they do not Hke musk ; ' but, nevertheless, from great 
experience in one of the largest manufacturing perfumatories 
in Europe, I am of opinion that the public taste for musk is 
as great as any perfumer desires. Those substances contain- 
ing it always take the preference in ready sale — so long as 
the vendor takes care to assure his customer ' that there is no 
musk in it.' 

The Empress Josephine was very fond of perfume, and, 
above all, of musk. Her dressing-room was filled with it, in 
spite of Napoleon's frequent remonstrances. 



Forty years have elapsed since her death, and the present owner of 
Malmaison has had the walls of that dressing-room repeatedly washed 
and painted ; but neither scrubbing, aquafortis, nor paint has been able 
to remove the smell of the good Empress's musk, which continues as 
strong as if the bottle' which contained it had been but yesterday re- 

Such is the story which makes its periodical appearance, 
with others, when printers want matter to ' make up ' a cohimn 
of a magazine of Fiction ! This story will remind readers of 
another but rather more truthful — that of an extravagant 
Turk, who built a harem and had the cement of its walls 
mixed with musk which is fragrant to this day. [I do not 
know when the building was erected.] There is yet one 
more tale of this oft repeated fable, which is to be read in 
modern Cyclopedias and allied works, which runs somewhat 
thus : ' A grain of musk will perfume an apartment for a 
whole year without sensibly losing weight ! ' The longevity 
of the smell of musk undoubtedly under certain conditions 
of seclusion from the outward air is great ; but it is not of 
that mythical character with which the late Sir G. C. Lewis 
endowed the old lady whom he never could make out, who lived 
longer than the lease of a plot of building land, namely, 
ninety-nine years. A grain of musk will not perfume an 
ordinary sized ' apartment,' say even a small one of ten feet 
square, for one week i Musk rapidly loses weight and odour 
when exposed to ordinary currents of air ; the odorous 
particles are dissipated, and there is left, if the experiment be 
tried upon glass or card, an odourless brown patch as one 
would notice from a speck of animal blood or excreta, the 
fragrance of the musk is gone ; the fable verifies its lasting 
odorous qualities, but, like a flatterer, it tells of qualities which 
will not bear the test of experiment. 

The perfumer uses musk principally in the scenting of 
soap, sachet-powder, and in mixing for liquid perfumery. 
The just reputation of Paris's original Windsor soap is due, in 



the main, to its delightful odour. The soap is, doubtless, of 
the finest quality, but its perfume stamps it among the Mte — 
its fragrance it owes to musk. 

The alkaline reaction of soap is favourable to the 
development of the odoriferous principle of musk. If, 
however, a strong solution of potass be poured on to grain 
musk, ammonia is developed instead of the true musk smell. 

The musk-pods of commerce vary in form according to 
their origin. We give some of the most usual forms. 

A, hairs of the pods, natural size.- 

There are three kinds of musk common in the London 
market. The Cabardien, or Russian Musk, which is rarely, if 
ever, adulterated ; from its poor fragrance, however, it does 
not fetch more than 8j. an ounce in the i^od. The Assam 
Musk is next in quality ; it is very strong, but has a rank 
smell ; the pods are very large and irregular in shape ; 
fetches about 24$-. per ounce in the pod. The Tonqumox 
Chinese Musk yields the kind mostly prized in England, and 



is more adulterated than the former : market price, from 26s. 
to 32J. per ounce in the pod. 

Extract of Musk. 

Grain musk . . . . . 2 oz. 
Rectified spirit i gallon 

After standing for one month, at a summer temperature, it is 
fit to draw off. Such an extract is that which is used for 



mixing in other perfumes. That extract of musk which 

is prepared for retail sale is made thus: and sold under the 

title of 

Extrait de Muse. 

Extract of musk i pint 

„ ambergris J „ 

„ rose triple 1 „ 

Mix and filter ; it is then fit for bottling-. 



This preparation is sweeter than pure extract of musk 
made according to our first formula, and is also more profit- 
r^ble to the vendor. It will be seen hereafter that the original 
extract of musk is principally used for a fixing ingredient in 
other perfumes, to give permanence to a volatile odour ; 
customers requiring, in a general way, that which is incom- 
patible — namely, that a perfume shall be strong to smell, i.e. 

very volatile ; and that it shall remain upon the handkerchief 
for a long period, ergo not volatile! Small portions of extract 
of musk, mixed with esprit de rose, violet, tubereuse, and others, 
do, in a measure, attain this object ; that is, after the violet, 
&c., has evaporated, the handkerchief still retains an odour, 
which, although not that of the original smell, yet gives satis- 
faction, because it is pleasant to the nasal organ. 



In the caddies of Chinese musk which are imported into 
this country, there are occasionally found the musk merchants' 
circulars, or, as they are called, ' chop-papers,' and also, though 
rarely, a quaint print representing the capture of the animal. 
Rudely executed as these prints are, they nevertheless teach 
us something relating to the methods of obtaining this nasal 

luxury ; the above engravings are ' highly finished ' copies of 
an original pair which came together in the same caddy : they 
show the huntsmen on horseback, the dogs, the bowmen, the 
arrow-stricken animal, the return of the hunting party, and 
the ' game ' suspended pn the poles to its last home, — in fact, 
the whole story is thus told better than words can express. 

I am indebted to Mr. Smith, of the firm of Smith and Elder, 
of Cornhill, for the following translation of the accornpanying 
' chop-paper,' which was found on opening an original caddy 



of musk, of superior quality : by this it would appear that the 
finest musk in Chinese estimation is from Thibet and from the 
province of Ta-tseen-loo ; it also mentions the principal towns 
where it is sent for sale. 

Translation of Chop-paper. 

Our firm itself selects the best kind of superior Sze-chuen musk at 
Ta-tseen-loo, in that province, and in Thibet, from whence we send it, 
without any admixture, to Soo-chow, Nanking, Hwae-chow, Yang-chow, 

and Kwang-tung, for sale. Our wares are genuine, our prices true, and 
neither old nor young are deceived in them. We beg honourable mer- 
chants, who may favour us with their custom, to remember our firm seal, 
certain shameless scoundrels havmg falsely assumed our designation, and 
fraudulently issued notices in order to deceive merchants. Fearing that it 
may be difficult to distinguish in this confusion, we now, in Kwang-tung, 
notify the selected designation of our firm, as a rule for guidance. 
The Kwang-shun-se-ke, firm of Sze-chuen. 

In commerce musk is supplied in two ways— in bladders or 


in bags ; that is to say, contained in the glandular apparatus 
which produces it, and separate from the bladder, or in grains. 
The first is most valued. The chief varieties are the Tonquin, 
Chinese or Thibetan musk, and the Kabardin or musk of 
Siberia. These divisions might be multiplied. The Thibetan 
and Tonquin musk, as well as that from the western provinces 
of China, reaches Europe by way of Canton, and is brought 
by English and Dutch ships. It is packed in cases of small 
size, protected on the outside by plates of lead soldered to- 
gether. Each case contains about twenty-five bags, each of 
which is wrapped in very fine paper, bearing figures and 
inscriptions indicating the contents. 

The China musk, the most valued, bears on the wrapper, 
in red or blue letters and in English, the inscription, — Musk 
collected^at Nankin by Tungt-chin Chung Chang Ke. Beneath 
is the figure of a Chinese divinity, with a musk-deer at his 
feet, and a streamer on which the good quality of the article 
is set forth. On the lid are the words Ling Tchan Musk, and 
below is a coarse drawing representing the chase of the musk- 
deer, from the belly of which hangs a bag of musk. 

The musk of Assam, south of Thibet, reaches Europe by 
way of Calcutta. It is sent in bags enclosed in a chest of 
wood or tin-plate, which holds about two hundred pods. The 
form of this musk is more variable than that of the Nankin 

The Kabardin or Siberian musk comes from the Altai 
mountains and other parts of northern Asia. It is sent by 
way of the Baltic ; the pods are smaller, the hair of the under 
surface is silvery grey, the colour of the musk is darker, it is 
of a clear chocolate tint, drier and less scented, and its odour 
is not so agreeable. 

Musk must have been greatly valued at the epoch of the 
Crusades, for it figures among the precious objects sent by 
Sultan Saladin to the Greek emperor of Constantinople : it 

MUSK. 26s 

was an ingredient in a large number of pharmaceutical pre- 
parations ; and it was employed at the toilet and in embalming. 

Nothing is known as to the physiological action of the 
musk-bag and of the substance contained in it. All that is 
known is that the secretion is most abundant at the period of 
rutting, and this circumstance naturally suggests that it may 
play a certain part in the reproductive process of the animals. 

It has been ascertained by Brandt that the male musk- 
bearers have, about the middle of the external surface of the 
thigh, a subcutaneous gland composed of aveolar cells which 
secrete a greenish, syrupy, colourless matter, the use of which 
is not known. 

The odour of musk is more or less modified by its associ- 
ation with various odorous or inodorous substances. Thus, 
camphor and valerian affect it, and bitter almonds destroy it. 
When perfumers have to disinfect a mortar that has been used 
for rubbing musk with other substances, they pound bitter 
almonds in it. 



AMMONIA.— Under the various titles of 'Smelling Salts," 
'Preston Salts,' ' Inexhaustible Salts,' ' Eau de Luce,' 
' Sal Volatile,' ammonia, mixed with other odoriferous bodies, 
has been very extensively consumed as material for gratifying 
the olfactory nerve. 

The perfumer uses Liq. Amm. fortis^that is, strong liquid 
ammonia — and the sesqui-carbonate of ammonia, for preparing 
the various 'salts' that he sells. These materials he does not 
attempt to make ; in fact, it is quite out of his province so to 
do, but he procures them ready for his hand through some 
manufacturing chemist. The best preparation for smelling- 
bottles is what is termed Inexhaustible Salts, which is prepared 
thus : — 

Liquid ammonia I pint 

Otto of rosemary . . . i drachm 

„ English lavender .... i » 

„ bergamot . . . . \ „ 

„ cloves \ „ 

Mix the whole together with agitation in a very strong and well- 
stoppered bottle. 

This mixture is used by filling the smelling-bottles with 
any porous absorbent material, such as asbestos, or, what is 
better, sponge cuttings that have been well beaten, washed, 
and dried. These cuttings can be procured at a nominal 
price from any of the sponge-dealers, being the trimming or 


roots of the Turkey sponge, which are cut ofif before the 
merchants send it into the retail market. After the bottles 
are filled with the sponge, it is thoroughly saturated with the 
scented ammonia, but no more is poured in than the sponge 
will retain when the bottles are inverted ; as, if by any chance 
the ammonia runs out and is spilt over certain coloured fabrics, 
it causes a stain. When such an accident happens, the person 
who sold it is invariably blamed. 

When the sponge is saturated properly, it will retain the 
ammoniacal odour longer than any other material; hence, we 
presume, bottles filled in this way are called ' inexhaustible,' 
which name, however, they do not sustain more than two or 
three months with any credit ; the warm hand soon dissipates 
the ammonia under any circumstances, and they require to be 

For transparent coloured bottles, instead of sponge, the 
perfumers use what they call insoluble crystal salts (sulphate 
of potass). The bottles being filled with crystals, are covered 
either with the liquid ammonia, scented as above, or with 
alcoholic ammonia (alcohol saturated with ammoniacal gas). 
The necks of the bottles are filled with a piece of white cotton ; 
otherwise, when inverted, from the non-absorbent quality of 
the crystals, the ammonia runs out, and causes complaints to 
be made. The crystals are prettier in coloured bottles than 
the sponge ; but in plain bottles the sponge appears quite as 
handsome, and, as before observed, it holds the ammonia 
better than any other material. Perfumers sell also what is 
called White Smelling Salts, and Preston Salts. The White 
Smelling Salt is the sesqui-carbonate of ammonia in powder, 
with which is mixed any perfuming otto that is thought fit, 
— lavender otto giving, as a general rule, the most satisfac- 

The contents of a bottle so filled soon lose their pungency, 
and a nearly inodorous residue remains. Mr. AUchin's plan 



is first of all to convert the sesqul-carbonate into the mono- 
carbonate of ammonia, which is accomplished in the following 
way: — Forty ounces of sesqui-carbonate of ammonia are 
broken into fragments about the size of filberts, and placed 
in a jar having a well-fitting lid. Into this is afterwards 
poured twenty ounces of liquor ammonia, sp. gr. 880°. This 
mixture is frequently stirred for a week, and the jar is then 
set aside in a cool place for three or four more weeks. If the 
mixture is not stirred for the first week it sets as hard as a 
stone ; but after stirring, it becomes solid and dry, but can be 
easily removed from the jar. It is now reduced to a roughish 
powder, something like salt of tartar, and in that state it is 
ready for filling the bottles, and improves by keeping. When 
placed in the bottles, some volatile essence or strong ammonia 
perfumed with essential oils is added. The volatile essence 
Mr. Allchin uses and recommends is the first given in Dr. 
Redwood's edition of ' Gray's Supplement to the Pharmaco- 
poeia,' and is as follows : — 

English oil of lavender and essence of musk, of 


4 drachms 

Oil of bergamot . . . . . 

2 „ 

„ cloves .... . . 

1 drachm 

Otto of roses .... . . 

10 drops 

Oil of cinnamon .... . . 

5 » 

Strongest hquor ammonia 

I pint 

In the above way, a salt is made which retains its pun-- 
gency as long as any remains in the bottle. One that had 
been filled five years was exhibited to a meeting of the 
Pharmaceiltical Society, and, although nearly all the contents 
had evaporated, what remained still possessed a pungent, 
agreeable odour. 

It was noticed that the salt had become of a brownish 
colour, which was attributed to the action of the oil of cloves 


contained in the perfume, and it was stated that it would 
remain colourless if it were omitted. 

We may remark that the proto-carbonate of ammonia 
does not exist in a free and pure state. It may be allowed 
that the sesqui-carbonate results from the combination of a 
bi-carbonate with a neutral carbonate, and by adding am- 
monia to this mixture, a basic carbonate is obtained. This, 
however, is of little consequence as regards the applications 
of these salts by the perfumer. 

Preston Salt, which is the cheapest of all the ammo- 
niacal compounds, is composed of some easily decomposable 
salt of ammonia and lime, such as equal parts of ammonia 
chloride, or of sesqui-carbonate of ammonia, and of fresh- 
slaked lime. When the bottles are filled with this compound, 
rammed in very hard, a drop or two of some cheap otto is 
poured on the top prior to corking. For this purpose otto of 
French lavender, or otto of bergamot, answers very well. We 
need scarcely mention that the corks are dipped into melted 
sealing-wax, or brushed over with liquid wax — that is, red or 
black wax dissolved in alcohol — to which a small portion of 
ether is added. The only other compound of ammonia that 
is sold in the perfumery trade is eau de Luce, though properly 
it belongs to the druggist. When correctly made — which is 
very rarely the case — it retains the remarkable odour of oil 
of amber, which renders it characteristic. 

■ [ I oz. 

Eau de Luce. 

Tincture of benzoin ; or, . 

„ balsam of Peru .... 

Otto of lavender 10 drops 

Oil of amber S » 

Liquor ammonia 2 oz. 

If requisite, strain through cotton wool ; but it must not be filtered, as 
it should have the appearance of a milk-white emulsion. 


There are several formulae for the preparation of eau de 
Luce. The following is the most usual in France : — 

Rectified oil of amber 2 grammes 

White soap ... ... i gramme 

Balsam of Peru i „ 

Spirit of wine at 86° . .... 96 grammes 

Macerate for eight days, then filter. To prepare eau de Luce add one 
part of the above tincture to sixteen parts of fluid ammonia. 

Soap is not an ingredient in all the formulse of eau de 
Luce ; but it imparts more stability to the milky mixture. 


Though we advocate the proper use of the olfactory sense, 
yet we repudiate snuff; nevertheless, we cannot allow this 
work to go to press without pointing out the analogy between 
the use of scent and the use of snuff. By a singular perversity 
of human nature, the snuff-takers declare, almost to the 
majority of one, that they dislike scent : we have, however, 
only to show that snuff is scent in a high degree, and then 
leave the reader to decide the question. 

Two-thirds of the snuff that is taken owes its fragrance to 
ammonia, the tobacco-leaf merely serving as a medium to 
bring the ammonia to the nose. The moist tobacco-leaf 
certainly imparts a peculiar odour to the snuff that is made 
from it, but still it is to the ammonia that it owes its peculiar 
pungency. Li this respect, then, we can only compare the 
snuff-box to the ladies' smelling-bottle ; they are both 
mediums for conveying ammonia, either plain or modified 
by certain other odorous bodies for the purpose of disguising 
its real smell, to the olfactory nerve. 

The reader will now see our reason for placing snuff in 
the same section of odoriferous bodies as ' smelling salt.' 

SNUFF. 271 

Like every other substance that is capable of being 
modified by man, there are snuffs in infinite variety. 

The plain snuffs are of two kinds ; that is, Scotch and 
Rappee. Irish is but a slight modification of Scotch. The 
Irish and Scotch snuffs are made from the stalks of the 
tobacco-leaf, which, in truth, otherwise would be a waste 
product of cigar manufacture. When the tobacco-leaf is being 
made into cigars, the stalks and fibres are cut out of the leaf, 
otherwise it would not roll up properly ; when these fibres 
have accumulated sufficiently, the snuff-making process is 
begun. If the snuff is to become any of the high-dried 
qualities, then the material has to be sent to an oven, and 
there dried to that extent required for particular denomina- 
tions. Lundyfoot is remarkable as being dried almost to the 
extent of burning, hence this favourite ' blackguard ' always 
has a burnt wood smell ; after this process it is sent to the 
snuff-mills, to be ground to titillating dust. 

The Irish and common Scotch is made entirely from the 
stalk of the tobacco-leaf. The best Scotch contains a portion 
of the leaf mixed with the stalk. The moist snuffs are 
prepared in another way, thus : — After suflScient stalks have 
accumulated in the manufactory, they are cut up into pieces 
of about the Jg-th to ^th of an inch in length, and placed in a 
large trough, in lots of from one hundredweight to double 
that quantity. As the material is put in, it is thoroughly 
moistened with water in which is dissolved, for some varieties,' 
carbonate of ammonia, and for others, muriate of ammonia : 
in this state it is left to ferment or ripen from about one to 
two months, according to the weather ; in a fortnight or more 
after this treatment, the material begins to ' heat,' and it is 
now that the future aroma, or flavour, as the makers term it, 
is decided ; for if it becomes too hot, the ammonia is dissi- 
pated, and if not hot enough, then the ammoniacal fragrance 
is not sufficiently developed. It must be observed that 


tobacco in any form, when moist, and allowed to heat,/^o- 
duces ammonia from the elements of its own composition ; in 
this respect it is only like other vegetables containing nitro- 
genous compounds ; the final odour of the snuff depends on 
the peculiarities of the various tobaccos employed, such as 
American, Cuban, &c. After the fermentation is complete, 
the material is sent to the mill to be ground. 

' Rappee,' which means little leaf, is considered a finer 
quality of snuff than the former, and is prepared by a similar 
process ; it consists, however, of leaf tobacco, and contains 
little or no stalk. The ammoniacal smell is much stronger 
in rappee snuff than in others. 

There are, however, several other kinds of snuff, which for 
their popularity will induce us to claim all who use them — 
and they are a legion — as patrons of the ' Art of Perfumery.' 
These are ' Prince's Mixture,' which is a rappee scented with 
otto of rose ; and ' Queen's Scotch,' which is perfumed with 

The snuff-makers were the first to teach the perfumers to 
what an extent the fragrance of the Tonquin Bean was 
admired ; even now, if a perfumer makes a mixture containing 
Tonquin Bean extract in excess, he is charged with making 
his perfumery smell like snuff. 

One of the most delightfully scented snuffs, called ' Wall- 
flower,' is made by Messrs. G. and S. Goodes, of Spitalfields, 
who seem determined, in spite of public opinion, to bring 
snuff into fashion as it was in the reign of Good Queen Anne. 

Dr. Revil says : — 

The French snuffs, prepared in a different manner from the English, 
are highly thought of by foreigners, and are frequently preferred to the 
noted snuffs of Spain. We hold, in opposition to Dr. Piesse's opinion, 
that the action of snuff is not owing merely to the ammonia disengaged 
from it. 

The odour of snuffs is to be distinguished from their 

SNUFF. 273 

strength or perfume. The flavour reveals itself in the odour, 
the strength in the after effects of the snuff. The latter is 
due to the nicotine. A tobacco is high perfumed when it 
contains salts of ammonia, and little strength when nicotine 
is present in small quantity. It is just the reverse in the case 
of Virginia, which contains only a small quantity of ammonia 
and has little flavour ; but it is very strong because it contains 
a good deal of nicotine. The latter escapes the sense of 
smell, and only shows itself by absorption by the mucous 
membrane of the nose. 

It is probable that the perfume is independent of the 
nicotine and the ammonia. By this term is denoted the 
sweet odour characteristic of the tobaccos of Virginia. It is 
chiefly developed during the fermentation of the mass,. 

At the present time the soaking necessary to set up fer- 
mentation is effected with salt water. Formerly, various 
liquids, under the name of sauces, were employed, either to 
promote fermentation or to aromatise. These sauces varied 
with the various works : sometimes molasses dissolved in 
water was used ; or a solution of liquorice juice ; water in 
which raisins or prunes had been boiled ; rose-water and 
violet-water. Particular scents used to be given to tobaccos, 
which were then called by specific names, for example, scafer- 
lati, Levantine, Canaster, Saint Vincenfs twist, or American 
grasshopper, roll of Montauban, Brazilian bouquet. Sec. The 
Macoaba was imitated with a decoction of iris of Florence, 
while the true Macoaba is a tobacco prepared at Martinique, 
with a solution of raw sugar, which' imparts to it the odour of 
violet. These sauces are still used in the manufacture of 
Havana and Malaisie. It is stated by Prade' that infusion of 
melilot was employed for aromatising tobacco, and decoctions 
of India wood and cinnamon for colouring it. Moreover, the 
nature of the perfumes differed in the .different manufactories ; 

' Histoire du Tabac, p. 16, Paris, 1 69 1. 


they were orange-flower, jasmine, rose, tubereuse, amber, musk, 
civet, or essences agreeable to the sense of smell. But now 
snuff is manufactured to a great extent without aromatics, 
and the takers perfume it to their own taste, most frequently 
with the Tonka bean. 

From these various ways of perfuming snuff arose as 
many different kinds, which were named snuff of inille fleurs, 
of Spain, of cedrat, of bergamot, of neroli, oi pongibon musque, 
a la pointe d'Espagne, with odour of Rome, with odour of 
Malta ambered, Genoese. Hence originated many frauds ; 
e.g. under the name of Malta snuff a mixture was sold of 
which the ingredients were rose- wood and liquorice powders. 

Attempts were also made to increase the strength of 
snuffs by mixing certain powders with them. Thus there 
were snuffs compounded with eye-bright, hetony, pyrethrum, 
cyclamen, angelica, ginger, pepper, clove, cubeb, cumin, 
mustard, hellebore, euphorbia, &c. But all these have now 
fallen into disuse. 

There were alsp tobaccos compounded and aromatised 
with anise, fennel, aloes wood, iris, sage, and rosemary mixed 
with them. At the present time hardly anything is used 
but cascarilla bark. 

Real amateurs say that the aroma of cigars is as diversified 
as the bouquet of wines. The selection of tobaccos and the 
mode of fermentation may doubtless have much to do with 
the various scents of cigars ; but nothing is positively known 
on the subject. The taste of cigars has been compared to 
that of cacao, burnt coffee, bitter almonds, the hazel nut, 
wormwood, &c. The Cuban manufacturers at the present 
time perfume them with various aromatic plants, by enclosing 
them in cases of sweet-smelling wood, such as the juniper- 
tree of the Bermudas or of Virginia {Jiiniperus bermudiania 
or J. virginiand). But the probability is that the particular 
soil, the climate and the mode of cultivation may each have 


an influence on the formation of the essential oils which help 
to impart the aroma to cigars. The same may be said with 
respect to more or less advanced stages of fermentation ; as 
a general rule, a too energetic fermentation is injurious to the 
qualities of tobacco. Some makers assert that certain 
liquids promote the development of the aroma ; such, for 
instance, as beer or coffee with water. 

All that is necessary for scenting cigars is to enclose them 
in cases or in jars with the scent which is to be imparted. 
As they are very porous and permeable, they are easily im- 
pregnated with it, and will retain it a long time. Patchouly 
leaves very quickly impart in this way the qualities of age. 


The pungency of the odour of vinegar naturally brought 
it into the earliest use in the art of perfumery. 

The acetic acid evolved by distilling acetate of copper 
(verdigris) is the true ' aromatic ' vinegar of the old alchemists. 

The modern aromatic vinegar is the concentrated acetic 
acid aromatised with various ottos, camphor, &c., thus : — 

Aromatic Vinegar. 

Concentrated acetic acid 8 oz. 

Otto of English lavender .... .2 drachms 

„ „ rosemary . . . i drachm 

„ cloves \ „ 

„ camphor i oz. 

First dissolve the bruised camphor in the acetic acid, then add the 
perfumes ; after remaining together for a few days, with occasional agita- 
tion, it is to be strained, and is then ready for use. 

Several forms for the preparation of this substance have 
been published, almost all of which, however, appear to 
complicate and mystify a process that is all simplicity. 

T 2 


The most popular article of this kind is — 

Henry's Vinegar. 

Dried leaves of rosemary, rue, wormwood, sage, 

mint, and lavender flowers, pach . . . . J oz. 

Bruised nutmeg, cloves, angelica root, and camphor, 

each 1 „ 

Alcohol (rectified) . . . . . ■ 4 „ 

Concentrated acetic acid 16,, 

Macerate the materials for a day in the spirit ; then add the acid, and 
digest for a week.longer, at a temperature of about 14 C. or 15 C. Finally, 
press out the now aromatised acidj and .filter it. 

As this mixture must not go into the ordinary metallic 
tincture-press, for the obvious reason of the chemical action 
that would ensue, it is best to drain as much of the liquor 
away as we can, by means of a common funnel, and then to 
save the residue from the interstices of the herbs, by tying 
them up in a linen cloth, and subjecting them to pressure, by 
means of an ordinary lemon-squeezer or similar apparatus. 

Vinaigre a la Rose. 

Concentrated acetic acid i oz. 

Otto of roses .J drachm 

Well shaken together. 

It is obvious that vinegars differently perfumed may be 
made in a similar manner to the above by using other ottos 
in place of the otto of roses. All these concentrated vinegars 
are used in the same way as perfumed ammonia — that is, by 
pouring three or four drachms into an ornamental ' smeUing ' 
bottle, previously filled with crystals of sulphate of potash, 
which forms the ' sel de vinaigre ' of the shops ; or upon 
sponge into little silver boxes, called vinaigrettes from their 
French origin. The use of these vinegars had their origin in 
the presumption of keeping those who carried them from the 


effects of infectious disease, doubtless springing out of the 
story of the ' four thieves' vinegar,' which is thus rendered in 
Lewis's ' Dispensatory ' : — 

It is said that during the plague at Marseilles ' four persons, by the 
use of this preservative, attended unhurt multitudes of those that were 
affected ; that, under the colour of these services, they robbed both the 
sick and the dead ; and that, being afterwards apprehended, one of them 
saved himself from the gallows by disclosing the composition of the pro- 
phylactic,^ which was as follows : — 

Vinaigre des Quatre Voleurs, or Four Thieved Vinegar. . 

Take fresh tops of common wormwood, Roman worm- 
wood, rosemary, sage, mint, and rue, of each . j oz. 

Lavender flowers . i „ 

Garlic, calamus aromaticus, cinnamon, cloves, and 

nutmeg, each i drachm 

Camphor ^ oz. 

Alcohol, or brandy .... . . I „ 

Strong vinegar 4 pints 

Digest all the materials, except the camphor and spirit, in a closely 
covered vessel, for a fortnight, at a summer heat ; then express and filter 
the vinaigre produced, and add the camphor previously dissolved in the 
brandy or spirit. 

A very similar and quite as effective a preparation may 
be made by dissolving the odorous principle of the plants 
indicated, in a mixture of alcohol and acetic acid. Such 
preparations, however, are more within the province of the 
druggist than the perfumer. There are, however, several 
preparations of vinegar which are sold to some extent for 
mixing with the water for lavatory purposes and the bath, 
their vendors endeavouring to place them in competition with 
eau de Cologne, but with little avail. Among them may be 
enumerated — 

' To any one who travels its undrained streets, some of which are but open 
sewers, the wonder is that there is not always a plague there. 
^ A very likely story ! 


Hygienic or Preventive Vinegar. 
Brandy . . .1 pint 
Otto of cloves . . . . I drachm 
„ lavender . . i „ 

„ marjoram 
Gum benzoin . 

Macerate these together for a few hours, 

. I oz. 

then add — 

Brown vinegar 

. 2 pints 

And strain or filter, if requisite to be 


Toilet Vinegar {a la Violette). 
Extract of cassie ... 

• ipint 

„ orris . 
Esprit de rose triple 
White wine vinegar . . . . 


• \ „ 
. 2 pints 

Toilet Vinegar (d, la Rose). 
Dried rose-leaves 

4 oz. 

Esprit de rose triple . . . . . | pint 

White wine vinegar . ... .2 pints 

Macerate in a close vessel for a fortnight, then filter and bottle. 

Vinaigre de Colog7ie. 
To eau de Cologne .... i pint 

Add strong acetic acid . . . . ^ oz. 

Piesse and Lubitis Cosmetic Vinegar. 

Spirit I quart 

Gum benzoin 2 oz_ 

Concentrated aromatic vinegar . . , i 

Balsam of Peru . . . . ,1. 

Otto of neroli . . .1 drachm 

„ of nutmeg. . . . . . i ^^ 

This is one of the best that is made. 

Without unnecessarily repeating similar formulae, it will 
be obvious to the reader that vinegar of any flower may be 
prepared in a similar way to those above noticed ; thus, for 
vinaigre a la jasmin, or for vinaigre a la fleur d'orange, we 


have only to substitute the esprit de jasmin, or the esprit de 
fleur d'orange, in place of the eau de Cologne, to produce 
orange-flower or jasmine vinegars ; however, these latter 
articles are not in demand, and our only reason for explaining 
how such preparations may be made, is in order to suggest 
the methods of procedure to any one desirous of making 
them leading articles in their trade. 

We perhaps may observe, en passant, that where economy 
in the production of any of the toilet vinegars is a matter of 
consideration, they have only to be diluted with rose-water 
down to the profitable strength required. 

Any of the perfumed vinegars that are required to produce 
opalescence when mixed with water must contain some gum- 
resin, like the hygienic vinegar, as above. Either myrrh, 
benzoin, storax, or tolu answer equally well. 

Acetic acid obtained by the distillation of wood is often 
substituted by the perfumer for that obtained from verdi- 
gris. It is, indeed, preferred when perfectly rectified, i.e. freed 
from empyreumatic substances. The former invariably con- 
tains pyro acetic spirit, or acetone, the tarry smell of which 
becomes obvious when the. acid is saturated with an alkaline 

Lastly, by distillation of vinegar of wine, a very concen- 
trated acetic acid, and highly valued, is obtained. It may be 
recognised by its exceedingly pleasant odour of acetic ether, 
which becomes very perceptible wheii it is saturated with 
an alkaline carbonate. 




See, from bright regions, borne on odorous gales, 
The swallow, herald of the summer, sails. 
Breathe, gentle air ! From flower-cups impart 
Thy balmy influence to my anguish'd heart ; 
Thou whose soft voice calls forth the tender blooms, 
Whose pencil paints them, and whose breath perfumes : 
O may each bud that decks the brow of Spring 
Shed all its incense on thy wafting wing ! 

IN the previous articles we have endeavoured to explain 
the mode of preparing the primitive perfumes— the 
original odours of plants. It will have been observed that, 
while the majority can be obtained under the form of otto, 
or essential oil, there are others which hitherto have not been 
isolated, but exist only in solution in alcohol, or in a fatty 
body. Of the latter are included all that are most prized, 
with the exception of otto of rose — that diamond among the 
odoriferous gems. Practically, we have no essential oils or 
ottos of Jasmine, Vanilla, Acacia, Tubereuse, Cassie, Syringa, 
Violets, and others. What we know of these odours is derived 
from esprits obtained from oils or fats in which the several 
flowers have been repeatedly infused, and afterwards infusing 
such fats or oils in alcohol. Undoubtedly, these odours are 
the most generally pleasing, while those made from the 
essential oils {i.e. ottos) dissolved in spirit are of a secondary 
character. The simple odours, when isolated, are called 
Essential Oils, or Ottos ; when dissolved or existing in 


solution in alcohol, by the English they are termed Essences, 
and by the French ExTRAiTS, or ESPRITS ; a few exceptions 
prove this rule. Essential oil of orange peel, and of lemon 
peel, are frequently termed in the trade ' Essence ' of orange 
and ' Essence ' of lemons, instead of essential oil or otto of 
lemons, &c. The sooner the correct nomenclature is used in 
perfumery, as well as in the allied arts, the better, and the 
fewer blunders will be made in the dispensatory. It appears 
to the writer that, if the nomenclature of these substances 
were revised, it would be serviceable ; and -he would suggest 
that, as a significant, brief, and comprehensive- term, Otto be 
used as a prefix to denote that such and such a body is the 
odoriferous principle of the plant. We should then have otto 
of lavender instead of essential oil of lavender, &c., &c. In 
this work it will be seen that the writer has generally used 
the word Otto in place of ' essential oil,' in accordance with 
his views. Where there exists a solution of an essential oil 
in a fat oil, the necessity of some such significant distinction 
is rendered obvious, for commercially such articles are still 
called • oils ' — oil of jasmine, oil of roses. &c. It cannot be 
expected that the public will use the words ' fat ' oil and 
' essential ' oil, to distinguish these differences of composition. 

There are several good reasons why the odoriferous 
principle of plants should not be denominated oils. In the 
first place, it is a bad principle to give any class of substances 
the same signification as those belonging to another. Surely, 
there are enough distinguishing qualities in their composition, 
their physical character, and chemical reaction, to warrant 
the application of a significant name to that large class of 
substances known as the aroma of plants ! 

When the chemical nomenclature was last revised, the 
organic bodies were little dealt with. We know that we owe 
this universal ' oil ' to the old alchemist, much in the 
same way as ' spirit ' has been used ; but a little consideration 


quickly indicates the folly of its continued use. We can no 
longer call otto of rosemary, or otto of nutmegs, essential oil 
of rosemary, or nutmegs, with anymore propriety than we can 
term sulphuric acid ' oil ' of vitriol. All the chemical works 
speak of the odoriferous bodies as • essential ' or ' volatile ' 
oils, and of the greasy bodies as ' fat ' or ' unctuous ' oils. Oils, 
properly so called, unite with salifiable bases and form soap ; 
whereas the essential or volatile oils — i. e. what we would 
please to call the ottos — do no such thing. On the contrary, 
they unite with acids in the majority of instances. 

The word ' oil ' must hereafter be confined to those bodies 
to which its literal meaning refers — ^fat, unctuous, inodorous 
(when pure), greasy substances — and can no longer be applied 
to those odoriferous materials which possess qualities diame- 
trically opposite to oil. We have grappled with ' spirit ' and 
fixed its meaning in a chemical sense ; we have no longer 
' spirit ' of salt, or ' spirit ' of hartshorn. Let us no longer 
have almond oil ' essential,' almond oil ' unctuous,' and the 

It remains only for us to complete the branch of per- 
fumery which relates to odours for the handkerchief, by 
giving the formula for preparing the most favourite ' bouquets ' 
and ' nosegays.' These, as before stated, are but mixtures of 
the simple ottos in spirit, which, properly blended, produce 
an agreeable and characteristic odour — an effect upon the 
smelling nerve similar to that which music or the mixture of 
harmonious sounds produces upon the nerve of hearing, that 
of pleasure. 


Extract of tubereuse i pint 

„ geranium. . . • i „ 

„ acacia i- „ 

„ fleur d'orange ] „ 

„ civet .... . J- , 




Extract of acacia i pint 

„ jasmine . 

„ rose triple 

„ fleur d'orange 

„ tubereuse 

civet 1 „ 

Otto of almonds .... . . 10 drops 

of each 

Esprit de rose . 
„ jasmin 
„ violette 
„ cassie 

Extract of musk 

„ ambergris 


\r from pomade of each . i pint 

I of each . . ■ \ „ 
Mix and filter. 


Extrait de jasmin . 

„ rose 

„ violette . 

„ tubereuse 

Extract of orris 
Otto of geranium 

from pomade of each . i pint 


Extrait de fleur d'orange 
„ cassie 

„ jasmin . 
„ rose 

Extract of orris 

„ ambergris 
Otto of neroli . 
„ lavender 
„ rose 

from pomade of each . i pint 

of each 

\ drachm 



BOUQUET DE CAROLINE ; also called 

Extrait de rose 

„ violette . 

„ tubereuse 

Extract of orris 

„ ambergris 

Otto of bergamot :|^ oz, 

Citron zeste \ „ 

from pomade of each . i pint 
■I of each . . ■ \ „ 

Extrait de rose 

„ violette . 

„ jasmin . 

Esprit de rose triple 
Extract of musk 

„ ambergris 

Otto citron zeste 

„ bergamot 

„ neroli . 

of each 

of each 
of each 

I pmt 

I » 
I oz. 

I drachm 


This perfume is presumed to be derived from the Cyperus esculentus 
by some, and by others to be so named after the Island of Cyprus. 
During the national career of Egypt, Persia, Greece, and Rome, the 
Island of Cyprus was the resort of the Uite, learned, and refined. It was 
at the time of the Crusades, when Richard I. of England assumed the 
title of King of Cyprus, that the famed eau de Chypre was introduced 
into Europe. 

Extract of musk i pint 

„ ambergris . i 

„ vanilla . 

„ Tonquin bean 

„ orris . . ) 
Esprit de rose triple 2 pints 

The mixture thus formed is one of the most lasting odours 
that can be made. 

of each 

Extract- of musk 

vanilla . 


Tonquin bean 






rose triple 





of each . . . i pint 

of each . . . i „ 


Extrait de fleur d'orange (from pomade) . . i pint 

Esprit de rose triple i „ 

Extract of vitivert . .\ 

„ vanilla . . r u 

" . y of each . . . i „ 

„ orris • • 

„ Tonquin . . ' 

Esprit de neroli Id 

Extract of ambergris .... ■ i „ 

Otto of santal i ounce 

„ cloves ........ ^ drachm 

Notwithstanding the complex mixture here given, it is 
the vitivert that gives this bouquet its peculiar character. Few 
perfumes have excited a greater fiirore while in fashion. 


The reputation of this perfume has given rise to numerous 
imitations of the original article, more particularly on the 
Continent. In many of the shops in Germany and in France 
will be seen bottles labelled in close imitation of those .'ient 
out by Bayley and Co., Cockspur Street, London, who are, in 
truth, the original makers. 

Esprit de rose triple i pint 

Extract of ambergris ..... 2 oz. 

„ orris • 8 „ 

Otto of lemons j „ 

„ bergamot i „ 



The name ' ess ' bouquet, which appears to puzzle some 
folk, is but a mere contraction of ' essence ' of bouquet. 


First Quality. 

Spirit (from grape) 60 over proof . 

. 6ga 

Otto of neroli,///(z/« 

. 30Z 

„ „ bigarade . 

I >, 

„ rosemary .... 

• 2 „ 

„ orange zeste 

• 5 ,, 

„ citron zeste . 

5 „ 

,, bergamot .... 

2 „ 

Mix with agitation ; then allow it to stand for a few days perfectly 
quiet, before bottling. 

Second Quality. 

Spirit (from corn) . 
Otto of Petit-grain . 

„ titxo\\, pStale 

„ rosemary . 

„ orange peel . 

„ lemon . 

„ bergamot . 

6 gallons 
2 oz. 
4 .. 

of each 

Although eau de Cologne was originally introduced to 
the public as a sort of ' cure-all,' a regular ' elixir of life,' 
it now takes its place, not as a pharmaceutical product, but 
among perfumery. Of its remedial qualities we can say 
nothing, such matter being irrelevant to the purpose of this 
book. Considered, however, as a perfume, in the public 
taste it ranks very high ; and although it is exceedingly 
volatile and evanescent, yet it has that excellent quality 
which is called ' refreshing.' Whether this be due to the 
rosemary or to the spirit, we cannot say, but think something 
may be attributed to both. One important thing relating to 


eau de Cologne must not, however, pass unnoticed ; and that 
is, the quality of the spirit used in its manufacture. The 
utter impossibility of making brandy with English spirit in 
any way to resemble the real Cognac, is well known. It is 
equally impossible to make eau de Cologne with English 
spirit, to resemble the original article. To speak of the 
' purity ' of French spirit, or of the ' impurity ' of English 
spirit, is equally absurd. The fact is, that spirit derived from 
grapes and spirit obtained from corn have each so distinct 
and characteristic an aroma, that the one cannot be mistaken 
for the other. The odour of grape spirit is said to be due to 
the cenanthic ether which it contains. The English spirit, 
on the other hand, owes its odour to fusel oil. So powerful is 
the cenanthic ether in the French spirit, that, notwithstanding 
the addition to it of such intensely odoriferous substances 
as the ottos of neroli, rosemary, and others, it still gives a 
characteristic perfume to the products made containing it, and 
hence the difficulty of preparing eau de Cologne with any 
spirit destitute of this substance. 

Although very fine eau de Cologne is often made by 
merely mixing the ingredients as indicated in the recipe as 
above, yet it is better, first, to mix all the citrine ottos with 
spirit, and then to distil the mixture, afterwards adding to the 
distillate the rosemaiy and nerolis, such process being the 
one adopted by the most popular house at Cologne. 

A great many forms for the manufacture of eau de 
Cologne have been published, the authors of some of the 
recipes evidently having no knowledge, in a practical sense, 
of what they were putting, by theory, on paper. Other 
venturers, to show their lore, have searched out all the 
aromatics of Lindley's ' Botany,' and would persuade us to 
use absinthe, hyssop, anise, juniper, marjoram, caraway, 
fennel, cumin, cardamom, cinnamon, nutmeg, serpolet. 


angelica, cloves, lavender, camphor, balm, peppermint, 
galanga, lemon thyme, &c. &c. &c. 

All these, however, are but hum ! Where it is a 

mere matter of profit, and the formula that we have given 
is too expensive to produce the article required, it is better to 
dilute the said Cologne with a weak spirit, or with rose- 
water, and then filter it through paper with a little magnesia, 
rather than otherwise alter its form ; because, although weak, 
the true aroma of the original article is retained. 

The recipe of the second quality of eau de Cologne is 
given, to show that a very good article can be produced 
with English spirit. 


Extract of white rose (see White Rose) 
„ vanilla 

I pint 
I oz. 

Good hay — sweet hay hath no fellow, 

says Shakspeare. True, the fragrance of hay is one of the 
most grateful to our senses, and it is natural that there 
should be a demand for a perfume of this odour. 

The odour of hay is due to the vernal grass it contains. 
When vernal grass is well grown, cut, and dried, it evolves an 
odorous principle similar to that yielded by the Coumarin or 
Tonquin bean ; hence the employment of the latter in the 
following mixture, which gives general satisfaction : — 

Extract of Tonquin bean 
orange flowers 
rose flowers . 
„ triple ^ . 

2 pints 




Esprit de rose, triple 

„ neroli 

„ acacia 

„ fleur d'orange 

„ musk 

„ orris 

„ Tonquin . 

Otto of citron zeste . 

of each 

I pint 

2 drachms 


from pomade, of each . i pint 

Esprit de rose . 

„ tubereuse 
„ violette 
Extract of benzoin 
Otto of bergamot 
„ citron zeste 
„ orange zeste 

of each 

2 „ 


Esprit de rose 2 pints 

„ neroli . .") 

.L off 

Extract of vanilla . . !- of each 

„ orris 

„ musk 
Otto of cloves k drachm 



Esprit de rose, from pomade 
„ triple 

„ jasmine . 

„ violette . 
Extract of cassie 

„ musk 

„ ambergris 

from pomade, of each 

of each 

2 pints 



English Formula. 

Extract of orris root 2 pints 

Esprit de rose, triple i ^^ 

„ de pdmmade i „ 

Extrait de cassie . . ) j j r i_ 1 

„ tuberedse , J de pommade, of each . J „ 

„ ambergris . . . ; . • i » 
Otto of bergamot ^ oz. 

French Formula. 

Esprit de rose, de pommade . . ; . . i pint 

„ tuBereuse . : . . . . i „ 
, casSie ... • i u 

„ jasmin . ; ■••?,, 

Extract of civet . . . 3 oz. 

Independently of the nrtaterials emplloyed being different 
to the original English recifie, it must be remembered that all 
the French plerfiimes are made with bi^andy, i.e. grape spirit ; 
whereas the English perfunies are made with corn spirit, 
which alone modifies their odour. Though good for some 
mixtures, yet fdr others the grape spirit is very objectionable, 
on account of the predorriinance of its own aroma. 

We have spoken of the difference in the odour between 
the English and French spirit; the marked distinction of 
British and Parisian pierfumes made according to the same 
recipes is entirely due to the different spirits employed. 
Owing to the strong ' bouquet ' of the French spirit in com- 
parison with ours, the Continental perfumers claim a su- 
periority in the quality of their perfumes, but this aroma in 
truth is objectionable in many instances. Now, although we 
candidly admit that some odours are better when prepared 
with grape spirit than with that from corn, yet there are 
others which are undoubtedly the best when prepared with 
spirit derived from the latter source. Musk, ambergris, civet. 


violet, tubereuse, and jasmine, if we require to retain their 
true aroma when in solution in alcohol, must be made with 
the British spirit. 

All the citrine odours, verveine, vulnary waters, eau de 
Cologne, eau de Portugal, eau d'Arquebuzade, and lavender, 
can alone be brought to perfection by using the French 
spirit in their manufacture. If extract of jasmine, or extract 
of violet, &c., be made with the French or brandy spirit, the 
true characteristic odour of the flower is lost to the olfactory 
nerve — so completely does the oenanthic ether of the grape 
spirit hide the flowery aroma of the otto of violet in solution 
with it. This solves the paradox that English extract of 
violet and its compounds, ' Excelsior,' &c., is at all times in 
demand on the Continent, although the very flowers with 
which we make it are grown there. 

On the contrary, if an English perfumer attempts to make 
eau de Portugal, &c., to bear any comparison, as a fine odour, 
to that made by Lubin of Bond Street, London, without 
using grape spirit, his attempt will prove a failure. True, he 
makes eau de Portugal even with English corn spirit ; but 
judges of the article — and they alone can stamp its merit — 
discover instantly the same difference as the connoisseur 
finds out between ' Patent British ' and foreign brandy. 

Perhaps it may not be out of place here to observe that 
what is sold in this country as British brandy is in truth 
grape spirit ; that is, foreign brandy, very largely mixed with 
English spirit! By this scheme, a real semblance to the 
foreign brandy flavour is maintained ; the diff'erence in duty 
upon English and foreign spirit enables the makers of the 
' capsuled ' article to undersell those who vend the unsophis- 
ticated Cognac. 

Some chemists, not being very deep in the ' tricks of 
trade,' have thought that some flavouring, or that oenanthic 
ether, was used to impart to British spirit the Cognac aroma. 



An article is even in the market called ' Essence of Cognac,' 
but which is nothing more than very badly made butyric ether. 
On the Continent a great deal of spirit is procured by the 
fermentation of the molasses from beet-root ; this, of course, 
finds its way into the market, and is often mixed with the 
grape spirit ; so, also, in England we have spirit from 
potatoes which is mixed with the corn spirit. These adultera- 
tions, if we may so terni them, modify the relative odours of 
the prirriitive alcohols. 


Extract of rose, triple 
„ vitivert . 

„ patchouly 

„ cedar 

„ santal 

„ verveine . 

of each 

i pint 


Esprit d6 neroli {pe'tale) : . . . 

„ cassie 

„ tubereuse 

„ jasmin . 

„ geranium 

„ hiusk 

;, ambergris 

of each 

I pmt 

from pomade, of each J 

3 oz. 


' The kisses of a thousand flowers, 

Stolen from them while they sleep.' — R. Brough. 

Extract of jonquil 

„ orris 

,; TOnquin 

;, rose triple 

„ acacia 

„ civet 

„ ambergris 
Otto of citronella 

„ verbena 

of each 

of each 

I or 


I quart 

I pint 

I drachm 

+ .. 



from pomacje, of each \ 


Esprit de rose triple i pint 

„ rosedepommadev 
„ tubereuse 

„ jasmin . 

„ fleur d'orange . 

„ cassie 
„ violette 
Extract of cedar 
„ vanilla , 

„ ambergris . - of each . . . 2 oz, 

„ musk 

Otto of almonds . ,1 

„ neroli . . .\ pfeach . . 10 drops 

„ cloves . 

„ bergamot . . , , . . , i oz. 

These ingredients are to remain together for at least a 
fortnight, then filtered prior to sale. 


Essence of lavender {Mitckam) 
Eau des millefleurs . 



Spirits from grape ... . . . i pint 

French otto of lavender . , . , , . i oz. 
Extract of ambergris . . . . , . 2 „ 

The original 'lavender aux millefleurs' is that of Delcroix ; 
its peculiar odour is due to the French otto of lavender, which, 
although some folks like it, is very inferior to the English otto 
of lavender ; hence the formula first given is f^f superior to 
that by the inventor, and has almost superseded the original 

There are several other compounds or bouquets, of which 
lavender is the leading ingredient, and from which they take 



their name, such as lavender and ambergris, lavender and 
musk, lavender and mar^chale, &c., all of which are composed 
of fine spirituous essences of lavender, with about 15 per cent, 
of any of the other ingredients. 

Esprit de rose triple 
Extrait de fleur d'orange 

„ vitivert 

„ vanilla 

„ orris 

„ Tonquin 

Esprit de neroli 
Extract of musk 

„ ambergris 

Otto of cloves . 
,, santal . 

of each 

of each 

of each 
of each 

I pint 

• i ,. 

. J drachm 


Bouquet de mar^chale 
Extrait de cassie 

„ jasmin . 

„ tubereuse 

„ rose 

Otto of santal . 

I pmt 

v from pomade, of each . ^ 

2 drachms 


Extrait de tubereuse 

„ rose de pommade 

„ „ triple 

Extract of musk 

„ ambergris 

Otto of cloves . 
„ bergamot . 

of each 

I pmt 

i^ drachm 
i oz. 

A century ago Montpellier was the principal seat of the 
manufacture of perfumery, and the name of the above scent 
is handed down from a recipe of still earlier date. We find 


Evelyn reminding his kinsman, when about to make the 
grand tour, that — ■ 

Montpellier was wont to be the place of rare opportunities for the 
learning the many excellent receipts to make perfumes/sweet powders, 
pomades, antidotes, and divers such curiosities, which I know (he adds) you 
will not omit ; for though they are indeed but trifles in comparison with 
more solid things, yet if pver you should affect to live a retired life hereafter, 
you will take more pleasure in these recreations than you can now 

Doubtless the philosophical master of Sayes Court had 
himself made trial of the recreation. 


Extrait de jasmin . . \ _ 

tubereuse . , ^^ ^^^^ _ _ ^ pi^^ 
„ cassie ... 

„ fleur d'orange . 1 

Otto of almonds iq drpps 

„ nutmegs . 10 ,, 

Extract of civet ...... \ pint 


of each . . \ pi(it 

Extract of rose (de pommade)- 

„ jasmine . 

,, fleiir d'orange 

„ cassie , 

„ vanilla . i „ 

Ottp of almonds .... . . \ drachm 


' In leap-year they have power to choose ; 
Ye men no charter to refuse.' — OLD SONG. 

Exttait de tubereuse 

„ jasmin . 

„ rose triple 

„ santal 

„ vitivert . 

„ patchouly 

,, verbena 

pf eac^i 

. \ pint 

■ ^ of each 

■ i 

• h ,.< 


■ i „ 




Nations wherein tlie Odours 

are produced. 

Turkey . 

Esprit de rose triple 


Africa . 

Extract of jasmine 

4 „ 



i „ 

France . 

„ tubereuse 

i » 

South America 

„ vanilla . 

k „ 

Timor . 

„ santal . 

\ „ 


,, violet . 

I „ 

Hindoostan . 

„ patchouly 

i „ 

Ceylon . 

Otto of citronella . 

I drachm 


„ lemons 



Extract of musk . 



Extract of orris 
„ vitivert 

„ santal 

,, rose 

4 pint 


Extract of jasmine 

Otto of bergamot 
,, cloves 

[ from pomade, of 

I each . . I pint 

of each 

of each 

I drachm 
I oz. 



from pomade, of 

I pmt 

Esprit de rose 
Extrait de violette . 

„ tubereuse 

„ fleur d'orange . . . . i. 
Otto of bergamot 1 02 



The perfume bearing the above name is undoubtedly one 
of the most gratifying to the smelling nerve that has ever 
been made. Its inventors, Messrs. Hannay and Dietrichsen, 
have probably taken the name of this odour from the Ronde- 
letia, the Chyn-len of the Chinese ; or from the R. odorata of 
the West Indies, which has a sweet odour. The plant itself 
was so named after Rondeletius, a botanical writer of the 
sixteenth century. We have before observed that there is a 
similarity of effect upon the olfactory nerve produced by 
certain odours, although derived from totally different sources: 
that, for instance, otto of almonds may be mixed with extract 
of violet in such proportion that, although the odour is in- 
creased, yet the character peculiar to the violet is not destroyed. 
Again : there are certain odours which, on being mixed in 
due proportion, produce a new aroma, perfectly distinct and 
peculiar to itself. This effect is exemplified by comparison 
with the influence of certain colours, when mixed, upon the 
nerve of vision : such, for instance, as when yellow and blue 
are mixed, the result we call green ; or when blue and red are 
united, the compound colour is known as puce or violet. 

Now when the odour of lavender and odour of cloves are 
mixed, they produce a new fragrance, i.e. Rondeletia ! It is 
such combinations that constitute in reality ' a new perfume,' 
which, though often advertised, is very rarely attained. Jas- 
mine and patchouly produce a novel aroma, and many others 
in like manner ; proportion and relative strength, when so 
mixed, must of course be studied, and the. substances used 
accordingly. If the same quantity of any given otto be dis- 
solved in a like proportion of spirit, and the solution be mixed 
in equal proportions, the strongest odour is instantly indicated 
by covering or hiding the presence of the other. In this way 
we discover that patchouly, vitivert, lavender, and verbena are 


the most potent of the vegetable odours, and that violet, 
tubereuse, and jasmine are the most delicate. 

Many persons will at first consider that we are asking too 
much, when W^ express a desire to have the ^arr^e deference 
paid to the olfactory nerve as tp ^he other nerves that influence 
our physical pleasures and pains. By tutoring the qlfactory 
nerve, it is capable of perceiving matter of the most subtle 
nature in the atmosphere : not only that vyhich is pleasant, but 
also such as are vin|iealthful. If an unpleasant odour is a 
warning to seek a purer atmospherp, surely it is worth while 
to cultivate ^hat ppwer which enables us to act up to that 
warning fqr the gpneral benefit to health. 

If we do not do so, some future Macau^ay will say of us 
as David said of the idols, ' Noses have they, but they smell 
not' Shakspeare tells us 

A good nose i^ requisite. — Winter's Tale, iv. 3. 

Again, he observes. 

Their very noses had been counsellors.— //(?«ry Vm. i. 

To return, however, to Rondeletia, it will be seen by the 
annexed formula, that, besides the main ingredients to which 
it oii'es its peculiar character — that is, c^oves and lavender — 
it contains musk, vanilla, &c. These substances are used, in 
these as in nearly all other bouquets, for the sole purpose of 
fixing the more volatile odours ^o the handkerchief 

Essence of Ront^ehtia. 

Spirit (60 over proof) 

Otto of lavender 

„ cloves 

„ roses . 

„ bergamot 

Extract of musk 

„ vanilla 

„ ambergris 

of each 

1 gallon 

2 oz. 

I » 

3 drachms 
I oz. 




The mixture must be made at least a month before it is 
fit for sale. Very excellent Rondeletia may also be made 
by adding | drachm otto of cloves to a pint of lavender mille- 


Extract of rose (from pomade 
Esprit de rose triple 
Extract of jasmine 

„ violet 

„ verbena 

„ cassie 
Otto of lemons 

„ bergamot 
Extract of musk 

„ ambergris 

from poma^p, f|f 

of each 

of eacl^ . 

of each 

I pmt 

k » 
I1, oz. 


Extract of tubereuse 
„ jasmine . 
„ cassie . 

„ rose 

„ vanilla . 

„ musk 

„ ambergris 

Otto of bergamot . 
„ cloves 

from pomade, of 

each . . I pint 



5 oz. 
2 „ 

4 )i 

I drachm 


Extract of rose 
„ violet 
„ rose triple 

„ cassie . 

Otto of bergamot . 

Extract of ambergris 

.\ from pomade, of 
. I each 

1 pmt 
i\ oz. 

2 drachms 
I oz. 

The just reputation of this perfume places it in the first 
rank of the very best mixtures that have ever been made by 
any manufacturing perfumer. Its odour is truly flowery, but 


peculiar to itself. Being unlike any other aroma, it cannot 
well be imitated, chiefly because there is nothing that we are 
acquainted with that at all resembles the odour of the esprit 
de rose, as derived from macerating rose pomade in spirit, to 
which, and to the extract of violet, nicely counterpoised, so 
that neither odour predominates, the peculiar character of 
' Spring Flowers ' is due ; the little ambergris that is present 
gives permanence to the odour upon the handkerchief, although, 
from the very nature of the ingredients, it may be said to be 
a fleeting odour. 'Spring Flowers' is an Englishman's in- 
vention, but there is scarcely a perfumer in Furope that does 
not attempt an imitation, 


Pod musk . . . . , . . . I oz. 

Vanilla beans , 8 „ 

Tonquin beang " 4 „ 

Infuse these for one month in 

Spirit, 60 over proof, ..,.., 10 pints 

then add 

Tincture of orris A pints 

Millefleur essence from mixed pomatums , . 8 „ 

Citron zeste 2 oz. 

Bergamot ........ 2 „ 

Otto of rose . . , . , , . . il oz. 

Otto of opoponax . .... i oz. 

The addition of the latter gives a peculiar character to the 


Nearly all the tulip tribe, although beautiful "to the eye, 
are inodorous. The variety called the Due van Thol, how- 
ever, yields an exquisite perfume, but is not used by the 
manufacturer for the purpose of extracting its odour. He, 



however, borrows its poetical name, and makes an excellent 
imitation thus :— 

Extract of tubereuse 
„ violet 

„ jasmin 
„ rose 

„ orris 

Otto of almonds 

from pomade, of 

I pint 

2 drops 


Under the head Violet, we have already explained the 
method of preparing the extract or essence of that modest 
flower. The Parisian perfumers sell a mixture of violet, 
which is very beautiful, under the title of the Violette des 
Bois, or the Wood Violet, which is made thus : — 

Extract of violet 

„ orris 

„ cassie . 

„ rose (from pomade) 

Otto of almonds 

I pint 
3 dz. 
3 „ 
3 „ 
3 drops 

This mixture, in a general way, gives more satisfaction to 
the customer than the pure violet. 

Alcohol I pint 

\ oz. 

8 drops 
I pint 

utto 01 neron . 
„ rose . 
„ lavender 

■ of each 

„ bergamot T 


„ doves . 

Extract of orris 


„ jasmme ; . . 

r of each 

„ cassie . 

„ musk 

„ ambergris 

of each 

2j oz. 



Extract of santal I pint 

„ neroli i „ 

" >™: • •[ of each . . \ „ 
„ rose triple . . I 

„ vanilla , . -in 

Flowers of benzoin :f oz. 

Extract of cassie . 
„ violet 

„ tubereuse 

„ jasmine . 

Esprit de rose triple 

Extract of musk 

„ ambergris 

Otto of bergamot . 


)■ of each . . i pint 

. 3 
of each . . J 

I oz. 

We have now completed the branch of the art of 
perfumery which relates to handkerchief perfumes, or wet 
perfumery. Although we have rather too much encroached 
upon the space of this work, in giving the composition of so 
many bouquets, yet there are many left unnoticed which are 
popular. Those that are given are noted more particularly 
for the peculiar character of their odour, and are selected 
from more than a thousand recipes that have been practically 

Those readers who require to know anything about the 
simple extracts of flowers are referred to them under their 
respective alphabetical titles. 




As a means of carrying scent about the person, the 
FOUNTAIN FINGER-RING has recently become famous. 

The delight of all who have seen this little conceit is 
most gratifying to its inventor. It is at once useful and 
ornamental. By the least pressure, the wearer of the ring 
can cause a jet of perfume to arise froni it at any time 
desired — thus every one can carry with him td a Ball, concert, 
or sick chamber, enough scent, sd refreShirig ! for the time 

The practical application of this inventiori causes a good 
deal of merriment and laughter. A gehtleman who abhors 


perfume, unless it be snuff, 'squeezing' a lady's hand, will 
receive a shower of the eternal frangipanni or kiss-me-quick, 
much to the delight of all present at being thus sweetly 
'found out.' 

The rings can be filled with perfume with the greatest 
ease — thus : Press the ball at the back of the ring nearly 
flat, pour scent into a cup and dip the ring into it ; the 
elasticity of the ball will then draw the perfume into the 
interior till full. 



Earth smiles in all her rich attire, 
Here fragrant plants their odours shed. 

Haydn's Creation. 

THE previous articles have exclusively treated of Wet 
Perfumes ; the present matter relates to Dry Perfumes — 
sachet powders, tablets, pastilles, fumigation by the aid of 
heat, of volatile odorous resins, &c., &c. The perfumes 
used by the ancients were, undoubtedly, nothing more than 
the odoriferous gums which naturally exude from various 
trees and shrubs indigenous to the Eastern hemisphere : that 
they were very extensively used and much valued, we have 
only to read the Scriptures for proofs : — ' Who is this that 
cometh . . . perfumed with myrrh and frankincense, with all 
the powders of the merchant .-' ' (Song of Solomon, iii. 6.) 
Abstaining from the use of perfume in Eastern countries is 
considered as a sign of humiliation. — 'And it shall come 
to pass that instead of sweet smell there shall be stink.' 
(Isaiah, iii; 2o, 24.) ' And they came and brought tablets.' 
(Exod. XXXV. 22.) The word tablets in this passage means 
perfume boxes, curiously inlaid, made of metal wood and 
ivory. Some of these boxes may have been made in the 
shape of buildings, which would explain the word palaces in 
Psalm xlv. 8 : — ' All thy garments smell of myrrh, and aloes, 
and cassia, out of the ivory palaces, whereby they have made 
thee glad.' From what is said in Matt. ii. 11, it would appear 
that perfumes were considered among the most valuable. 



gifts that man could bestow : — ' And when they [the wise 
men] had opened their treasures, they presented unto him 
[Christ] gifts ; gold, and frankincense, and myrrh.' As far 
as we are able to learn, all the perfumes used by the Egypt- 
ians and Persians during the early period of the world vvere dry 
perfumes, consisting of spikenard (Nardostachys Jatamansi), 
myrrh, olibanum, and other gum resins, nearly all of which 
are still in use by the manufacturers of odours. Among the 
curiosities shown at Alnwick Castle is a vase that was taken 
from an Egyptian catacomb. It is full of a mixture of gum 
resins, &c., which evolve a pleasant odour to the present day, 
although probably 3,000 years old. We have no doubt that 
the original use of this vase and its contents was for perfum- 
ing apartments, in the same way that pot-pourri is now 

A very interesting relic of the use of dry perfumes, about 
the period of the fifteenth century, is 


The above illustration is drawn from an antique silver 
pomander in the South Kensington Museum. The ring serves 
the purpose, as it was commonly worn as a pendant to a lady's 
girdle. When the cap under the ring is unscrewed, the 



pomander falls into six cores, each core being attached at its 
base with a hinge to the central column ; a slide opens at the 
angle of the core for the insertion of fragrant powders, 
camphor, vinegar on sponge, &c. Some of the cores being 
perforated has given rise to the common vinaigrette. 
Chambers in his ' Book of Days ' says : — 

The orange appears to have been used as a pomander soon after its 
introduction into England. Cavendish describes Cardinal Wolsey enter- 
ing a crowded chamber ' holding in his hand a very fair orange, whereof 
the meat or substance within was taken out, and filled up again with the 
part of a sponge, wherein was vinegar and other confections against the 
pestilent airs ; the which he most commonly smelt unto, passing among 
the press, or else he was pestered with many suiters.' 

Sir Thomas Gresham, in his celebrated portrait by Sir Antonio More, 
holds in his left hand a small object resembling an orange, but which is a 
pomander. This sometimes consists of a dried Seville orange, stuffed 
with cloves and other spices ; and being esteemed a fashionable preserva- 
tive against infection, it frequently occurs in old portraits, either suspended 
to the girdle or held in the hand. In the eighteenth century, the signifi- 
cation of this object has become so far forgotten, that, instead of poman- 
ders, bnnd fide oranges were introduced into portraits, a practice which 
Goldsmith has happily satirised in his ' Vicar of Wakefield,' where seven 
of the Flamboroughs are drawn with seven oranges, &c. 

The pouncet-box mentioned by Shakspeare I imagine to 
be nothing more than a variety of dry scent-box. 

Hotspur. And twixt his finger and his thumb he held 
A pouncet-box, which ever and anon he gave 
His nose and took 't away again. 

He made me mad 
To see him shine so briskly and smell so sweet. 

King Henry IV., act i. scene 3. 


The French and English perfumers concoct a great 
variety of these substances, which, being put into silk bags 


or ornamental envelopes, find a ready sale, being both good 
to smell and economical as a means of imparting an agree- 
able odour to linen and clothes as they lie in drawers. The 
following formula shows their composition. Every material 
is either to be ground in a mill, or powdered in a mortar, and 
afterwards sifted. 

Acacia Sachet. 

Cassie flower heads i lb. 

Orris powder i „ 

This is a very nice sachet, and smells something like tea. 

The materials employed in the manufacture of sachet 
powders are those only which retain an odour or are fragrant 
in their dried state, which include nearly all that are termed 
herbs in domestic economy, such as lemon, thyme, mint. Sec, 
and some few leaves of plants, such as those of the orange 
tree, citron tree, &c. Very few blossoms, however, except 
lavender, rose, and cassie, have any fragrance when dried. 
The jasmine, tubereuse, violet, and mignonette, retain none of 
their primitive smell when thus treated, indicating clearly 
that the odours of these plants are generated only during 
their life and are not stored up in tljeir petals, as is the case 
with the others named. 

The engraving on the following page shows the warm 
air cupboards, where herbs are dried for this purpose. 

From the rafters of the roof of the. drying-house are sus- 
pended, in bunches, all the herbs that the grower cultivates. 
To accelerate the desiccation of rose leaves, and other petals, 
the drying-house is fitted up with large cupboards, which 
are slightly warmed with a convolving flue from a fire below. 

The flower buds are placed upon trays made of canvas, 
stretched upotl a frame, each being not less than twelve feet 
long by four feet wide. When charged, they are placed on 
shelves in the warm cupboards till dry. 



Sachet au Chypre. 

Ground rose- wood 

„ cedar- wood 

„ santal-wood 

Otto of rose- wood 

Mix and sift ; it is then fit for sale. 

I lb. 

I „ 

I ., 

3 drachms 



angipanni Sachet. 

Orris-root powder 

. 3 lbs. 

Vitivert powder 

. Jib. 

Santal-wood powdei 

• i ,, 

Otto of neroli . 


„ rose . 

. r of each 

. I drachm 

„ santal . 

Musk pods, ground 

. I oz. 

„ civet 



The name of this sachet has been handed down to us as 
being derived from a Roman of the noble family of Frangi- 
panni. Mutio Frangipanni was an alchemist, evidently of 
some repute, as we have another article called rosolis, or ros- 
solis, sun-dew, an aromatic spirituous liquor, used as a 
stomachic, of which he is said to have been the inventor, 
composed of wine in which is steeped coriander, fennel, anise, 
and musk. 

Heliotrope Sachet. 

Powdered orris 2 lbs. 

Rose leaves, ground i lb. 

Tonquin beans, ground . . . . | „ 

Vanilla beans 4 „ 

Grain musk . . j oz. 

Otto of almonds 5 drops 

* When well mixed by sifting in a coarse sieve, it is fit for sale. 

It is one of the best sachets made, and is so perfectly att 
naturel in its odour to the flower from which it derives its 
name, that no person unacquainted • with its composition 
would, for an instant, believe it to be any other than the 
' real thing.' 

Lavender Sachet. 

Lavender flowers, ground ... . i lb. 
Gum benzoin, in powder . . • i u 
Otto of lavender i oz. 

A hundred years ago Shenstone, the Shropshire poet, wrote 
of dried lavender : — 

And lavender, whose spikes of azure bloom 

Shall be ere while in arid bundles bound. 

To lurk amidst her labours of the loom. 

And crown her kerchiefs clean with mickle rare perfume. 

And more than two hundred years ago, Izaak Walton, in 
commendation of the ' honest ale-house ' where he proposed 
to entertain his friend, said : — ' We shall find a cleanly room, 



lavender in the window, and twenty ballads stuck about the 
wall.' And again : — ' Let's go to that house, for the linen looks 
white, and smells of lavender, and I long to be in a pair of 
sheets that smell so.' 

Marichale Sachet. 

Powder of santal-wood ^ lb. 

„ orris root i „ 

Rose leaves, ground \ „ 

Cloves, ground . . . . . . • i « 

Cassia bark \ „ 

Grain musk i drachm 

Mousseline Sachet. 

Vitivert, in powder . 

Orris .... 
Black-currant leaves (casse) 
Benzoin, in powder . 
Otto of thyme . 
„ roses . 

of each 

Millefleur Sachet. 

Lavender flowers, ground 


Rose leaves 

Benzoin . 

Tonquin . 



Musk and civet each 

Cloves, ground 


AUspice . 

I lb. 


of each 

of each 

of each 

4 3) 

5 drops 

\ drachm 

I lb. 

2 drachms 

Portugal Sachet. 

Dried orange peel i lb. 

„ lemon peel j „ 

„ orris root | „ 

Otto of orange peel i oz. 

„ neroli l drachm 

„ lemon grass i » 


Patchouly Sachet. 

Patrhouly herb, ground i lb. 

Otto of patchouly \ drachm 

Patchouly herb is often sold in its natural state, as imported, 
tied up in bundles of half a pound each. 


This is a mixture of dried flowers and spices not ground. 

Dried lavender i lb. 

Whole rose leaves i „ 

Crushed orris (coarse) ■ i » 

Broken cloves . . . .\ 

„ cinnamon . . . I of each . . 2 oz. 

„ allspice . . .] 

Table salt i lb. 

We need scarcely observe that the salt is only used to 
increase the bulk and weight of the product, in order to sell 
it cheap. 


This is a similar preparation to pot-pourri. No regular 
form can be given for it, as it is generally made, or ' knocked 
up,' with the refuse and spent materials derived from other 
processes in the manufacture of perfumery ; such as the spent 
vanilla after the manufacture of tincture or extract of vanilla, 
or of the grain musk from the extract of musk, orris from the 
tincture, Tonquin beans after tincturation, &c., &c., mixed 
up with rose-leaves, lavender, or any odoriferous herbs. 

Rose Sachet. 

Rose heels or leaves I lb. 

Santal-wood, ground \ „ 

Otto of roses i oz. 



Santal- Wood Sachet. 

This is a good and economical sachet, and simply con- 
sists of the ground wood. Santal-wood is to be purchased 
from some of the wholesale drysalters ; the drug-grinders 
are the people to reduce it to powder ; any attempt to do 
so at home will be found unavailing, on account of its. tough- 

Sachet {without a name). 

Dried thyme . . . .\ 

" lemon-thyme. . ^^ ^^^^ ^ 

„ mmt 
„ marjoram 
„ lavender 
„ rose heels 
Ground cloves 
Calamus powder 
Musk, in grain 


i „ 

1 „ 

2 OZ. 

I lb. 

I drachm 

Vervein Sachet. 

Lemon-peel, drfed and ground 
Lemon-thyme .... 
Otto of lemon-grass 

„ „ peel . 

„ bergamot 

I lb. 

I drachm 

T OZ. 

Vitivert Sachet. 
The fibrous roots of the AnatJierum muricatum, being 
ground, constitute the sachet bearing the name as above, 
derived from the Tamool name, vittie vayer, and called by 
the Parisian vetiver. Its odour resembles mj'rrh. Vitivert 
is more often sold tied up in bunches, as imported from India, 
than ground, and is used for the prevention of moth rather 
than as a perfume. 

Violet Sachet. 

Black-currant leaves , jl, 

Cassie flower heads ... r 


Rose heels or leaves . . . . . t lb. 

Orris root powder ... . .2 lbs. 

Otto of almonds i drachm 

Grain musk i « 

Gum benzoin, in powder ^ lb. 

Well mix the ingredients by sifting; keep them together for a week in 
a glass or porcelain jar before offering for sale. 

There are many other sachets manufactured besides those 
already given ; but, for actual trade purposes, there is no ad- 
vantage in keeping a greater variety than those named. 
There are, however, many other substances used in a similar 
way ; the most popular is the 


Peau d'Espagne, or Spanish skin, is highly perfumed 
leather, prepared thus :^Good sound pieces of wash-leather 
are to be steeped in a mixture of ottos, in which are dissolved 
some odoriferous gum resins :^otto of neroli, otto of rose, 
santal, of each half an ounce ; otto of lavender, verbena, 
bergamot, of each a quarter of an ounce ; otto of cloves and 
cinnamon, of each two drachms ; with any others thought fit. 
In half a pint of spirit, dissolve about four ounces of gum 
benzoin, and add it to the mixed ottos : now place the skin 
to steep in the mixture for a day or so, then remove it, and 
squeeze out the superfluous scent ; finally, let the skin dry 
by exposure to the air. A paste is now to be made by 
rubbing in a mortar one drachm of civet with one drachm of 
grain-musk, and enough solution of gum acacia or gum 
tragacantha to give it a spreading consistence ; a little of any 
of the ottos that may be left from the steep, stirred in with the 
civet, &c., greatly assists in making the whole of an equal body ; 
the skin, being cut up into pieces of about four inches square, 
is then to be spread over, plaster fashion, with the last-named 


compost : two pieces being put together, having the civet 
plaster inside them, are then to be placed between sheets of 
paper, weighted or pressed, and left to dry thus for a week ; 
finally, each double skin, now called peau d'Espagne, is to be 
enveloped in some pretty silk or satin, and finished off to the 
taste of the vendor. 

Card or leather thus prepared evolve a pleasant odour 
for years, and hence are frequently called ' the inexhaustible 
sachet.' Being flat, they are much used for perfuming writing- 

The lasting odour of Russia leather is familiar to all and 
pleasing to many ; its perfume is due to the aromatic sanders 
wood, with which it is tanned, and to the empyreumatic oil 
of the bark of the birch-tree, with which it is curried. The 
odour of Russia leather is, however, not rechercM enough to 
be considered as a perfume ; but, nevertheless, leather can 
be impregnated, by steeping in the various ottos, with any 
sweet scent, and which it retains to a remarkable degree, 
especially with otto of santal or lemon grass ( Verbena). In 
this manner the odour of the peau d'Espagne can be greatly 
varied, and gives much satisfaction, on account of the per- 
manence of its perfume. Another way of making a good flat 
sachet, is to make a mixture of civet and musk, thinned down 
by rubbing in a mortar with liquid gum, spreading this com- 
pound on card-board ; when dry, the card may be plaited 
over with coloured ribbons. 


If a piece of peau d'Espagne be placed in contact with 
paper, the Jatter absorbs sufficient odour to be considered as 
' perfumed.' It is obvious that paper for writing upon must 
not be touched with any of the odorous tinctures or ottos, on 
account of any such matters interfering with the fluidity of 


the ink and action of the pen in writing upon it ; therefore, 
by the process of infection, as it were, alone can writing-paper 
be perfumed to advantage. 

Besides the sachets mentioned, there are many other 
substances applied as dry perfumery, such as scented wad- 
ding, used for quilting into all sorts of articles adapted for use 
in a lady's boudoir. Pin-cushions, jewel-cases, and the like, 
are lined with it. Cotton, so perfumed, is simply steeped in 
some strong essence, of musk, &c. 


We have seen that leather can be impregnated with 
odoriferous substances, in the manufacture of peau d'Espagne ; 
just so is card-board treated prior to being made up into 
book-marks. In finishing them for sale, taste alone dictates 
their design ; some are ornamented with beads, others with 


Curiosity is excited to know how these gems are capable 
of yielding fragrance like a natural flower, and from what 
country they come. 

As they are moved about in the petite boite which contains 
them, we see the beauty of the kaleidoscope, and smell the 
■most delightful odour. The truth is, that under the silver 
paper upon which the gems rest there is card punched to the 
size of the box ; on each card is brushed a mixture of musk, 
civet, and otto of rose, rubbed together with a little mucilage 
of tragacanth. 


Cassolettes and printaniers are little ivory boxes, of 
various designs, perforated in order to allow the escape of the 


odours contained therein. The paste used for filling these 
' ivory palaces whereby we are made glad,' ' is composed of 
equal parts of grain musk, ambergris, seeds of the vanilla 
pod, otto of roses, and orris powder, with enough gum acacia, 
or gum tragacantha, to work the whole together into a paste. 
These things are now principally used for perfuming the 
pocket or reticule, much in the same way that ornamental 
silver and gold vinaigrettes are used. 


Venetian Shells, which are found in such abundance on 
the shores of the Adriatic Sea, the Greek and Maldive 
Islands, are cleansed with weak muriatic acid ; they then 
assume their pearly lustre. A mixture of ottos is made, say 
half a pound of bergamot, a quarter of a- pound of santal- 
wood, and two ounces each lavender and rosewood ; in this 
mixture is rubbed one drachm of civet, and two drachms of 

The shells are then steeped into the scent, which ascends 
into their convolving tube. When dry, these shells will serve 
for perfuming jewel-cases and work-boxes. 


There is no doubt whatever that the origin of the use of 
pastils, or pastilles, as they are more often called, from the 
French, has been derived from the use of incense at the altars 
of the temples during the religious services : — ' According to 
the custom of the priest's office, his lot [Zacharias'] was to 
burn incense when he went into the temple of the Lord' 
(Luke i. 9). 'And thou shalt make an altar to burn incense 
upon. . . . And Aaron shall burn thereon sweet incense 

' Psalm xlv. 8. 



every morning, when he dresseth the lamps, and at even when 
he lightetb the lamps, he shall burn incense upon it' 
(Exod. XXX. I, ^). 

The Censer. 
' On the walls of every temple in Egypt, from Meroe to 
Memphis, the censer is depicted smoking before the pre- 


siding deity of the place ; on the walls of the tombs glow in 
bright colours the preparation of spices and perfumes.' In 
the British Museum there is a vase (No. 2,595) the body of 
which is intended to contain a lamp, the sides being per- 
forated to admit the heat from the flame to act upon the pro- 
jecting tubes, which are intended to contain ottos of flowers 
placed in the small vases at the end of the tubes ; the heat 


volatilises the ottos, and quickly perfumes an apartment. 
This vase or censer is from an Egyptian catacomb. 

The censer, as used in the ' holy places,' is made either of 
brass, silver, or gold, and often set with precious stones; its 
form is represented in the engraving below, the upper part 
being perforated to allow the escape of the perfume.' In the 
outer vessel is placed an inner one of copper, which can be 
taken out and filled with ignited charcoal. When in use, the 


ignited carbon is placed in the censer, and is then covered with 
the incense ; the heat rapidly volatilises it in visible fumes. 
The effect is assisted by the incense-bearer swinging the censer, 
attached to three long chains, in the air. The manner of swing- 
ing the censers varies slightly in the churches in Rome, in 
France, and in England, some holding' it above the head. 

' The word "Perfume" is derived from the Latin per-fumus, by smoke, 
because the first perfumes used were of the smoke kind. 

TN CENSE. 319 

At La Madeleine, the method is always to give the censer a 
full swing at the greatest length of the chains with the right 
hand, and to catch it up short with the left hand. 

The engraving below represents an ancient incense case 
and burner, the original of which is in silver, eleven inches 
long. It is in the possession of William Wells, Esq., of 
Holme Wood House, Whittlesea, Cambridgeshire. It was 
found during the draining of Whittlesea Mere. Its form and 
construction are well suited for the object in view ; when not in 
use, it is an elegant article of vertu for the boudoir, and, when 
required, contains within the boat the incense and matches for 


igniting it. It is probable that this article may have belonged 
to Ramsey Abbey, a supposition derived from the ram's heads 
at the fore and stern of the vessel. 

It would appear, from the following extracts, that incense 
has been frequently used in the Church of England since the 
Reformation : — 

1603. Two pounds of frankincense were burnt in the church of Augus- 
tine, Farringdon within, London. — Malcolm's Londinium Redivivum, 
ii. 88. 

1626. 'Paid for frankincense, 2^.' — Churchwarden^ Accounts of Great 
Wig'ston, Leicestershire. 

1631. 'The country parson takes order .... secondly, that the 


church be swept and kept clean without dust or cobwebs, and at great 
festivals strewed and stuck with boughs, and perfumed with incense.' — 
George Herbert's Priest to the Temple, chap. xiii. 

Temp. James I. ' A triquertral censer, wherein the clerk putteth 
frankincense at the reading of the first lesson. The navicuia, like the 
keel of a boat, with a half cover and foot, out of which the frankincense is 
poured.' — Furniture of Bp. Andrewes's Chapel, Canterbury's Doom, p. 122. 

Temp. Charles I. ' In Peter House there was on the altar a pot, 
which they usually called the incense pot. ... A little boat, out of which 
the frankincense is poured, which Dr. Cosins has made use of in Peter 
House where he burned mc^xm..' —Canterbury's Dootn, pp. 74, 123. 

Ibid. ' Upon some altars there was a pot called the incense pot.' — Neal's 
Puritans, ii. 224. 

1683. In the accounts of St. Nichola';, Durham : — ' For frankincense 
at the Bishop's coming, 2s. 6d.' — Surtees's Durham, iv. 52, fol. 1840. 

1684. See Evelyn's Diary, March 30, 1684. 

1760. ' Inthe coronation procession of George III. appeared the King's 
groom of the vestry, in a scarlet dress, holding a perfuming pan, burning 
perfumes, as at previous coronations.' — Thomson's Coronation of George 

Several samples of ' incense prepared for altar service,' as 
sent out by Mr. Martin of Liverpool, appear to be nothing 
more than gum olibanum of indifferent quality, and not at all 
like the composition as especially commanded by God, the 
form of which is given in full in Exodus, xxx., 34 sqq., which, 
being religiously adhered to, should consist of stacte, onycha, 
galbanam, and frank-incense in equal proportions. 

The pastils of the moderns are really but a very slight 
modification of the incense of the ancients. For many years 
they were called Osselets of Cyprus. When Richard I., at 
the time of the Crusades, proclaimed himself King of Cyprus, 
perfumes of various kinds were brought from that Island 
which has again fallen to the throne of England. In the old 
books on pharmacy a certain mixture of the then known gum 
resins was called Suffitus, which being thrown upon hot ashes 
produced a vapour which was considered to be salutary in 
many diseases. 

' R. Hills in Notes and Queries. 


It is under the same impression that pastils and fumi- 
gating ribbon are now used, or at least to cover the mal odmr 
of the sick chamber. 

There is not much variety in the formula of the pastils 
that are now in use ; we have first the 

Indian or Yellow Pastils. 

Santal-wood, in powder i lb. 

Gum benzoin ij „ 

» Tolu i „ 

Otto of santal . . . . ] 

„ cassia . . . . I of each . . 3 drachms 
„ cloves . . . .1 

Nitrate of potass ij oz. 

Mucilage of tragacantha, g. s. to make the whole into a stiff paste. 

The bezoin, santal-wood, and Tolu are to be powdered, 
and mixed by sifting them, adding the ottos. The nitre, 
being dissolved in the mucilage, is then added. After well 
beating in a mortar, the pastils are formed in shape with a 
pastil mould, and gradually dried. 

The Chinese josticks are of a similar composition, but 
contain no Tolu. Josticks are burned as incense in the 
temples of Booddh in the Celestial Empire, and to such an 
extent as to greatly enhance the value of santal-wood. 

Incense Powders. 

Santal-wood powder i lb. 

Cascarilla bark powder . .] ^fg^^jj , 

Benzoin „ . .[ ■ J » 

Vitivert „ 2 oz. 

Nitrate of potass (saltpetre) 2 „ 

Grain musk ' . \ drachm 

Sift the whole well together several times through a fine sieve. 

Seraglio Pastils. 

The clous fumants, seraglio pastils, aromatic pastils. Sec, 
are prepared in various ways. They invariably contain 




aromatic powders, resins or balsams, carbon and nitre, th( 
whole compacted by a thick mucilage of gum tragacanth 
The following are among the most usual formulae : — 

Sweet-smelling Trochisci, Clous Fumants, Fumigating Pastils. 


. 60 grammes 

Balsam of Tolu ... 

. 8 


• 4 

Santal-wood citrin . . . . 


Poplar charcoal 

. 190 

Nitre .... . . 

. 8 

Mucilage of gum tragacanth . 

• 9-5 

This paste is made up into small cones, which are dried at a 
low temperature, and are lit at the top. 

Perfumer^ Pastils. 

Well-burned charcoal 

. I lb. 

Benzoin . 



4 JJ 


of each 

Vanilla pods . 

• i „ 


Otto of santal . 
„ neroli . 

of each 

. 2 drachms 


. i| oz. 

Mucilage tragacantha 


. q. s. 

Piesse's Pastils. 

Willow charcoal 

. ilb. 

Benzoic acid . 

. 6 oz. 

Otto of thyme 


,, caraway 

„ rose . 
„ lavender 

\ of each 

. i drachm 

„ clove? , 

,, santal . 

Grain musk 


Pure civet 

- i „ 

Prior to mixing, dissolve } oz. nitre in half a pint of distilled or ordin- 
ary rose water ; with this solution thoroughly wet the charcoal, and then 
allow it to dry in a warm place. 


When the thus nitrated charcoal is quite dry, pour over it the mixed 
ottos, and stir in the flowers of benzoin. When well mixed by sifting (the 
sieve is a better tool for mixing powders than the pestle and mortar), it 
is finally beaten up in a mortar with enough mucilage to bind the whole 
together, and the less that is used the better. 

A great variety of formulae have been published for the 
manufacture of pastils ; nine-tenths of them contain some 
woods or bark, or aromatic seeds. Now, when such sub- 
stances are burned, the chemist knows that if the Hgneous 
fibre contained in them undergoes combustion — the slow 
combustion — materials are produced which have far from a 
pleasant odour ; in fact, the smell of burning wood predomi- 
nates over the volatilised aromatic ingredients ; it is for this 
reason alone that charcoal is used in lieu of other substances. 
The use of charcoal in a pastil is merely for burning, pro- 
ducing, during its combustion, the heat required to quickly 
volatilise the perfuming material with which it is surrounded. 
The product of the combustion of charcoal is inodorous, and 
therefore does not in any way interfere with the fragrance of 
the pastil. Such is, however, not the case with any in- 
gredients that may be used that are not in themselves 
perfectly volatile by the aid of a small increment of heat. If 
combustion takes place, which is always the case with all the 
aromatic woods that are introduced into pastils, we have, besides 
the volatilised otto which the wood contains, all the com- 
pounds naturally produced by the slow burning of ligneous 
matter, spoiling the true odour of the other ingredients vola- 

There are, it is true, certain kinds of fumigation adopted 
occasionally where these products are the materials sought 
by such fumigation, as when brown paper is allowed to 
smoulder — i.e. undergo slow combustion — in a room for the 
purpose of covering bad smells. By the quick combustion of 
tobacco — that is, combustion with flame — there is no odour 
developed ; but by slow combustion, according to the method 


adopted by those wlio indulge in 'the weed,' the familiar 
aroma of ' the cloud ' is generated, and did not exist ready 
formed in the tobacco. Now a well-made pastil should not 
develop any odour of its own, but simply volatilise that 
fragrant matter, whatever it be, used in its manufacture. We 
think that the fourth formula given above carries out that 

It does not follow that the formulae that are here given 
produce at all times the odour that is most approved ; it is 
evident that in pastils, as with other perfumes, a great deal 
depends upon taste. Many persons very much object to the 
aroma of benzoin, while they greatly admire the fumes of 


Shortly after the discovery of the peculiar property of 
spongy platinum remaining incandescent in the vapour of 


alcohol, the late Mr. I. Deck, of Cambridge, made a very 
ingenious application of it for the purpose of perfuming apart- 
ments. An ordinary spirit lamp is filled with Hungary water, 
or other scented spirit, and 'trimmed' with a wick in the usual 
manner. Over the centre of the wick, and standing about the 
eighth of an inch above it, a small ball of spongy platinum is 


placed, maintained in its position by being fixed to a thin 
glass rod, which is inserted into the wick. 

Thus arranged, the lamp is to be lighted and allowed to 
burn until the platinum becomes red-hot; the flame may then 
be blown out ; nevertheless the platinum remains incandescent 
for an indefinite period. The proximity of a red-hot ball to 
a material of the volatile quality of scented spirit, diffused 
over a surface of a cotton wick, as a matter of course causes 
its rapid evaporation, and, as a consequence, the diffusion of 

Instead of the lamp being charged with Hungary water, 
we may use eau de Portugal, verveine, or any other spirituous 
essence. Several perfumers make a particular mixture for 
this purpose, which is called 

Eau a Bruler. 
Hungary water, or eau de Cologne . . . i pint 

Tincture of benzoin 
„ vanilla . 

Otto of thyme . 

„ mint . 

„ nutmeg 

2 oz, 
I „ 

of each . \ drachm 

Another form, called 

Eaii pour BrAler. 

Rectified spirit i pint 

Benzoic acid . . . . , . • . J oz. 

Otto of thyme. . . ■ I of each . . i drachm 

„ caraway . , .J 

„ bergamot 2 oz. 

Persons who are in the habit of using the perfume lamps 
will, however, frequently observe that, whatever difference 
there may be in the composition of the fluid introduced into 
the lamp, there is a degree of similarity in the odour of the 
vapour when the platinum is in action. This arises from the 
fact that, so long as there is the vapour of alcohol mixed with 


oxygen air, passing over red-hot platinum, certain definite 
products always result — namely, acetic acid, aldehyde, and 
acetal, which are formed more or less, — and impart a peculiar 
and rather agreeable fragrance to the vapour, but which over- 
powers any other odour that is present. 


There are two modes of preparing this article : — 

1. Take sheets of light cartridge paper, and dip them into 
a solution of alum — say, alum, one ounce ; water, one pint. 
After they are thoroughly moistened, let them be well dried ; 
upon one side of this paper spread a mixture of equal parts 
of gum benzoin, olibanum, and either balsams of Tolu or Peru, 
or the benzoin may be used alone. To spread the gum, &c., 
it is necessary that they be melted in an earthenware vessel 
and poured thinly over the paper, finally smoothing the 
surface with a hot spatula. When required for use, slips of 
this paper are held over a candle or lamp, in order to evapo- 
rate the odorous matter, but not to ignite it. The alum in 
the paper prevents it, to a certain extent, from burning. 

2. Sheets of good light paper are to be steeped in a solu- 
tion of saltpetre, in the proportions of two ounces of the salt 
to one pint of water, to be afterwards thoroughly dried. 

Any of the odoriferous gums, as myrrh, olibanum, benzoin, 
&c., are to be dissolved to saturation in rectified spirit, and 
with a brush spread upon both sides of the paper ; or the paper 
may be dipped into the solution spread out in a broad flat 
dish, and then, being hung up, rapidly dries. 

Slips of this paper are to be rolled up as spills, to be ig- 
nited, and then to be blown out. 

The nitre in the paper causes a continuance of slow com- 
bustion, diffusing during that time the agreeable perfume of 
the odoriferous gums. If two of these sheets of paper be 



pressed together before the surface is dry, they will join and 
become as one. When cut into slips, they form what are 
called Odoriferous Lighters, or Perfumed Spills. 

For sweet fumigation. 


Make two tinctures in separate bottles, thus : — 

jVo. I Bottle. 

Orris tincture i pint 

Gum benzoin i lb. 

Gum myrrh :t °^- 

No. 2 Bottle. 

Alcohol i pint 

Pod musk i oz. 

Otto rose .....•• i drachm 

Let both stand one month. Now take 150 yards of undressed cotton 
tape, and steep it in a solution of one ounce of saltpetre in a pint of hot 
rose water ; then dry it ; finally, filter the two tinctures, and mix them ; 
then steep the ribbon into it ; when dry, coil it up, and place it in the vase 
as depicted above. Draw out an inch of the ribbon, light it, blow out the 



flame, and, as it smoulders, a fragrant vapour will rise into the air. When 
the ribbon has smouldered down to the bottom of the vase-cup it will no 
longer burn, consequently it spontaneously ' goes out,' which is both ad- 
vantageous and economical under some circumstances. 

I was led to this contrivance from a knowledge of the con- 
struction of the Davy Safety Lamp, which prevents fire from 
passing a small aperture, in consequence of the cooling effect 
of the surrounding body. 

For a certain time new apparatus, called evaporators, of 


several kinds have been in use, which, by means of a rapid 
current of air, diffuse in the atmosphere, in the form of vapour, 
alcoholic liquids charged with perfume. We shall here give 
an account of the two kinds of these instruments most 
commonly used. 

The first is adapted for any bottle containing the liquid 
to be vaporised. It is composed of two glass tubes united 
by a movable hinge. One of the tubes terminates in a cone 
with a very small aperture. 



In using this apparatus the tubes are placed at right angles 
to each other ; the tube with the conic end is plunged into 
the bottle so that its lower extremity shall be not far from the 
bottom of the bottle. Then breathe strongly into the hori- 
zontal tube, and, the current of air drawing up the liquid in 
the bottle by the vertical tube, this gets mixed with the 
vapourised alcohol, the vehicle of the perfumes contained in 
the bottle. 


The second apparatus consists of a bottle holding the 
liquid, and, at the same time, the pulverising arrangement. 
In this case the object is attained not by a draught, but by 
means of pressure on the liquid, which rises in the plunger 
and mixes with a certain quantity of air at the time that 
pre.'isure is applied to the indiarubber ball forming the top of 
the apparatus. 

This system is to be preferred to the former as more 
convenient, and as giving a finer division to the vapour. 




THE word Soap, or Sope, from the Greek sapon, first 
occurs in the works of Pliny and Galen. Pliny informs 
us that soap was first discovered by the Gauls, that it was 
composed of tallow and ashes, and that the German soap was 
reckoned the best. According to Sismondi, the French 
historian, a soap-maker was included in the retinue of Charle- 
magne. At one time most of the soap used in Europe was 
made at the little seaport town of Savona, near Genoa, whence 
the French name of soap, savon. 

At Pompeii (overwhelmed by an eruption of Vesuvius A.D. 
79), a soap-boiler's shop with soap in it was discovered during 
some excavations made there not many years ago.' 

From these statements it is evident that the manufacture 
of soap is of very ancient origin ; indeed, Jeremiah figuratively 
mentions it : — ' For though thou wash thee with natron, and 
take thee much sope, yet thine iniquity is marked before me ' 
( Jer. ii. 22). As does also Malachi : — ' He is like a refiner's fire, 
and like fullers' sope' (Mai. iii. 2). 

Mr. Wilson says that the earliest record of the soap trade 
in England is to be found in a pamphlet in the British Museum, 
printed in 1641, entitled, 'A Short Account of the Soap Busi- 
ness.' It speaks more particularly about the duty, which was 
then levied for the first time, and concerning certain patents 

' Starke's Letteis from Italy. 

SOAPS. 331 

which were granted to persons, chiefly Popish recusants, for 
some pretended new invention of white soap, ' which in truth 
was not so.' Sufficient is said here to prove that at that time 
soap-making was no inconsiderable art. 

Prior to the removal of the excise duty upon soap, in 1853, 
it was a commercial impossibility for a perfumer to manu- 
facture soap, because the law did not allow less than one ton 
of soap to be made at a time — Moritz Becket Bertram, of 
Hackney, London, being the only exception, to whom a special 
licence was granted in 1839 for an improved method of manu- 
facture called the cold process of soap-making. This law, 
which, with certain modifications, had been in force since the 
reign of Charles I., confined the actual manufacture of that 
article to the hands of a few capitalists. Such law, however, 
was but of little importance to the perfumer, as a soap-boiling 
plant and apparatus is not very compatible with a laboratory 
of flowers ; yet, in some exceptional instances, these excise 
regulations interfered with him ; such, for instance, as that in 
making soft soap of lard and potash, known, when perfumed, 
as Cremt d' Amande ; or, unscented, as a Saponaceous Cream, 
which has, in consequence of that law, been entirely thrown 
into the hands of our Continental neighbours. 

It would be out of place here to enter into the details of 
soap-making, because perfumers do not manufacture that 
substance, but are merely ' remelters,' to use a trade term. 
The dyer purchases his dye-stuffs from the drysalters already 
fabricated, and these are merely modified under his hands to 
the various purposes he requires : so with the perfumer ; he 
purchases the various soaps in their raw state from the soap- 
makers, these he mixes by remelting, then scents and colours 
according to the article to be produced. 

The primary soaps are divided into hard and soft soaps : 
the hard soaps contain soda as the base ; those which are soft 
are prepared with potash. These are again divisible into 


varieties, according to the fatty matter employed in their 
manufacture, also according to the proportion of alkali. The 
most important of these to the perfumer is what is termed 
curd soap, as it forms the basis of all the highly-scented 

Curd Soap is a nearly neutral soap, of pure soda and fine 

Oil Soap, as made in England, is an uncoloured combi- 
nation of olive oil and soda, hard, close grain, and contains 
but little water in combination. 

Castile Soap, as imported from Spain, is a similar com- 
bination, but is coloured by protosulphate of iron. The 
solution of the salt being added to the soap after it is manu- 
factured, from the presence of alkali, decomposition of the 
salt takes place, and protoxide of iron is diffused through the 
soap of its well-known black colour, giving the familiar 
marbled appearance to it. When the soap is cut up into bars, 
and exposed to the air, the protoxide passes by absorption of 
oxygen into peroxide ; hence, a section of a bar of Castile 
soap shows the outer edge red-marbled while the interior is 
black-marbled. Some Castile soap is not artificially coloured 
but a similar appearance is produced by the use of a barilla 
or soda containing sulphuret of the alkaline base, and at other 
times from the presence of an iron salt. 

Marine Soap is a cocoa-nut-oil soap, of soda, containing 
a great excess of alkali, and much water in combination. 

Yellow Soap is a soda soap, of tallow, resin, and 
lard, &c., &c. 

Palm Soap is a soda soap of palm oil, retaining the pecu- 
liar odour and colour of the oil unchanged. The odoriferous 
principle of palm oil, resembling that from orris-root, can be 
dissolved out of it by tincturation with alcohol ; like ottos 
generally, it remains intact in the presence of an alkali ; hence, 
soap made of palm oil retains the odour of the oil. 


Fig Soft Soap is a combination of oils, principally olive 
oil of the commonest kind, with potash. 

Naples Soft Soap is a fish oil (mixed with Lucca oil) 
and potash, coloured brown for the London shavers, retaining, 
when pure, its unsophisticated ' fishy ' odour. 

The public require a soap that will not shrink and change 
shape after they purchase it. It must make a profuse lather 
during the act of washing. It must not leave the skin rough 
after using it. It must be either quite inodorous, or have a 
pleasant aroma. None of the above soaps possess all these 
qualities in union, and, therefore, to produce such an article is 
the object of the perfumer in his remelting process. 

The above soaps constitute the real body or base of all 
the fancy scented soaps as made by the perfumers, which 
are mixed and remelted according to the following formula : — 


The remelting process is exceedingly simple. The bar 
soap is first cut up into thin slabs, by pressing them against a 
wire fixed upon the working bench. This cutting wire (piano 
wire is the kind) is made taut upon the bench by being 
attached to two screws. These screws regulate the height of 
the wire from the bench, and hence the thickness of the slabs 
from the bars. The soap is cut up into thin slabs, because 
it would be next to impossible to melt a bar whole, on 
account of soap being one of the worst conductors of heat. 

The melting-pan is an iron vessel of various sizes, capable 
of holding from 28 lbs. to 3 cwt., heated by a steam jacket, or 
by a .water bath. The soap is put into the pan by degrees, or 
what is, in the vernacular, called ' rounds,'— that is, the thin 
slabs are placed perpendicularly all round the side of the pan ; 
a few ounces of water are at the same time introduced, the 
steam of which assists the melting. The pan being covered 



up, in about half an hour the soap will have 'run down.' 
Another round is then introduced, and so continued every 
half-hour until the whole 'melting 'is finished. The more 
water a soap contains, the easier is it melted ; hence a round 
of marine soap, or of new yellow soap, will run down in half 
the time that it requires for old soap. 

When different soaps are being remelted to form one kind 
when finished, the various sorts are to be put into the pan in 
alternate rounds, but each round must consist only of one 
kind, to ensure uniformity of condition. As the soap melts, 
in order to mix it, and to break up lumps, &c., it is from 


time to time ' crutched.' The ' crutch ' is an instrument or 
tool for stirring up the soap ; its name is indicative of its 
form, a long handle with a short cross — an inverted J_ curved 
to fit the curve of the pan. When the soap is all melted, it is 
then coloured, if so required, and then the perfume is added, 
the whole being thoroughly incorporated with the crutch. 

The soap is then turned into the ' frame.' The frame is a 
box made in sections, in order that it can be taken to pieces, 
so that the soap can be cut up when cold ; the sections or 
' lifts ' are frequently made of the width of the intended bar of 

Two or three days after the soap has been in the frame, 


: it is cool enough to cut into slabs of the size of the lifts or 
sections of the frame ; these slabs are set up edgeways to 
cool for a day or two more ; it is then barred by means of a 
wire. The lifts of the frame regulate the width of the bars ; 
the gauge regulates their breadth. "The density of the soap 


being pretty well known, the gauges are made so that the 
soap-cutter can. cut up the bars either into fours, sixes, or 
eights ; that is, either into squares of four, six, or eight to the 
pound weight. Latterly, various mechanical arrangements 
have been introduced for soap-cutting, which, in very large 
establishments, such as those at Marseilles, in France, are 


great economisers of labour ;. but in England the ' wire ' is 
still used. 

The following is a translation from the French edition of 
this book : — 

The grinding machine No. 3 (see fig.) carries three cy- 



linders of granite, the contact of which is regulated at 
pleasure. On the right of the plate is a box the upper end of 
which is raised above the fly-wheel. Into this box the cake 
of soap, previously cut in the large frame, is introduced. 
When the machine is in motion, the lower part of the cake 


presses upon a circular knife, and is cut into small pieces, 
which are received in a box below. The soap thus cut up is 
placed in the hopper over the first two cylinders (on the left 
in the figure) ; and these draw it in and crush it. It is next 
drawn between the second and third, which, revolving at 



different rates, complete the crushing process. Along the 
whole breadth of the third cylinder a knife presses and 
detaches the soap in thin sheets which fall into a box below. 
By this time the soap is sufficiently ground to be introduced 
into the rolling-machine. 


The machine No. i (see fig.) being of larger dimensions, 
has no knife for preliminary division of the paste. This is 
effected by a special machine, and the soap is afterwards put 
into the hopper surmounting the first two cylinders. The 
work is done by this machine, as by the former, except that 




this is worked by steam or other engine, and the former, No 
3, either by hand or by steam. 

I • s 

. The peloteuse. No. i, represented in the figure, is worked 
exclusively by steam. This machine is composed of a rect- 



i angular box, the lid of which is made to open for the intro- 
iduction of the paste. In the box a piston works, exactly 
: fitted to the interior. To the exterior part of the piston is 
.attached a shaft, which receives from the machinery an alter- 
nating movement. When the paste is to be introduced into 


the chest, the piston is withdrawn, leaving the chest empty to 
make room for as much soap as possible. The lid is then 
closed, and the piston advancing drives back the paste and 
compresses it with great force. It passes out to the right (of 
the figure) by an aperture of suitable form and size, which 



can be altered at pleasure for the purpose of giving the pats 
very nearly the shape that is desired. The pats pass out on 
to a fine endless cloth (right of the figure). When they are of 
convenient size they are cut by machinery into equal lengths, 
variable at pleasure, so as to make each cake of any weight 
desired. When the piston is at the extremity of its course the 
lid is again opened, the piston drawn back, and the box re- 
filled. Some kinds oi peloteuses are worked by hand. 

To give the soap the various shapes in which it is sold, the 
press (see fig.) is used. For this purpose the moulds are in 


two pieces, arid on these are engraved the various marks of 
the manufacturers. The upper part of the mould is fixed to 
the percussion screw, while the lower part is fastened in a 
counterpart varying in form according as fixed, or varying 
weights are wanted. The press is set in motion by a fly- 
wheel at the top. Automatic stops prevent the motion of the 
fly-wheel in either direction when the press is not in action, 
to give time for the removal of the finished cake and the 
insertion of another. For certain kinds of soap two presses 


are used ; one for roughly giving the shape, the other for 
perfecting it. 

For making tablet shapes, the soap is first cut into squares 
and is then put into a mould, and finally under a press — a 
modification of an ordinary die or coin press. Balls are cut 
by hand, with the aid of a little tool called a ' scoop/ made of 
brass or ivory, being, in fact, a ring-shaped knife. Balls are 


also made in the press with a mould of appropriate form. 
The grotesque form and fruit shape are also obtained by 
the press and appropriate moulds. The fruit-shaped spaps. 

after leaving the mould, are dipped into melted wax, and 
are then coloured according to artificial fruit-makers' rules. 

The ' variegated ' coloured soaps are produced by adding 
the various colours, such as smalt and vermilion, previously 
mixed with water, to the soap in a melted state ; these 
colours are but slightly crutched in, hence the streaky 
appearance or party colour of the soap ; this kind is also 
termed ' marbled ' soap. 


Toilet soaps are prepared either by a warm or cold 
process. In this manufacture fats and suets of the highest 
quality only ought to be used. 

The manipulation of toilet soap has of late years made 
considerable progress, owing to the adoption by some leading 
perfumers of drying the soap paste before perfuming it, 
instead of placing the soaps in the stove afterwards; 

The chief difficulty in the way of accomplishing this 
object lay in the operation of making up the paste into balls 
{pelotagc). Formerly the moist soap-paste was compressed 
{pelotee) by hand. To effect the proper blending, the paste 
must also have contained a large quantity of water. Con- 
sequently, before it could be offered for sale, it was necessary 
to leave it in the drying stove for a period varying from six 
weeks to three months, according to the time of year. 

By the substitution of pelotage by machinery for that by 
hand, it is rendered possible to operate on the pastes when 
dried, or when containing not more than a very small 
quantity of water, from lo to 12 per cent., and thus to secure 
an economy of time and of perfume. 

The mechanical operations which the soap-pa.stes suc- 
cessively undergo for their conversion into toilet soaps are the 
following : — 

1. Reduction to thin chips. 

2. Mixture of the perfumes and the colours. 

3. Pounding. 

4. Making into balls. 

5. Stamping. 

We intend to describe each of the machines employed in 
these operations. 

I. Reduction to chips. — We suppose the slabs of soap to be 
previously cut up into bars from 4 .to 5 centimetres in thick- 
ness and placed within reach of the plane. This instrument 
is composed of a rotating disk, conical or cylindrical in form, 


furnished with several blades. It is supported on a column 
and works either by hand, by means of a crank attached to 
one of the arms of the fly-wheel, or by steam 
by means of a pulley attached to the shaft. 
A slip-board is fixed to the shaft and re- 
ceives the bar of soap, which descends by 
its own weight and presses against the 
plane till it is reduced to chips. When one 
bar is nearly finished, another is supplied in 
its place. The operation may be accele- 
rated by pressing with one hand the soap 
against the plane. The shavings fall into 

, , J J ii ,_i 1- 1 CHIPPING-MACHINE. 

a box placed underneath the disk. 

2. Mixture of perfumes and of colours. — Before perfuming 
toilet soap with essences of oils and colouring it with various 
colouring matters, it is dried in a stove till it contains not 
more than 10 or 12 per cent, of water. The operation of 
mixing the perfumes with colours is carried on in cases, or 
better still in the Chevalier fat-mincer. 

3. Pounding. — This process, which was formerly effected 
with pestle and mortar, is now effected by machinery. The 
machines are wrought to a very high degree of perfection, 
and a mixture of the soap with the colouring matter and 
the perfume, so thorough that every particle of the mix- 
ture contains all three substances in the same proportion, 
and that the paste finally obtained is very soft and very 

The most perfect specimen of pounding-machines now in 
use is figured on the next page. It is constructed by MM. 
Beyer Brothers, of Paris. 

It consists of two granite cylinders placed horizontally, 
and two others, also of granite, superimposed obliquely on the 
second. It is provided with a self-clearing mechanisni, so as 
to allow of being worked without fear of accident. By a 



special arrangement a double speed is obtained in the de- 
scending movement. 

The third portion of the mechanism is placed in the 
upper part, forming the cap of the cylinder. In the figure the 
cap is open, and the aperture may be seen by which the 
soap passes to its exit into the trough. In this aperture is 
placed a hollow cone of bronze, the object of which is the 

brunot's pounding-machine. 

division of the soap paste and making it homogeneous before 
it leaves the machine. 

For making the soap into rolls, the piston is made to 
descend, and the paste is put into the cylinder in small 
portions, which are pounded by a mechanical stamper. 
When the cylinder is full of well-compressed soap, the top, 
which is fixed to it by four strong bolts, is put down. The 
machine is set in motion, the piston rises, and the soap passes 


out by the aperture which has previously been made of the 
form desired. Long rolls are thus obtained which are after- 
wards cut into lengths suitable for the moulds. 

To certain machines are attached automatic cutters 
worked by means of gear which receive their motion from the 

By means of a cavity in the top of the machine, and a 
double casing about the cylinder, the soap is warmed, 
which tends to bring the paste to a homogeneous condition. 

M. Piver conceived the idea of making use of the hy- 
draulic press for the rolling process. He previously dries his 
soap by means of a stove constructed of cast-iron and brick. 
Pulleys set in motion the principal shaft, which transmits the 
motion by a pinion to a series of wheels and to cylinders in a 
horizontal and inclined position. The closure is effected by 
a new system moved by fly-wheels, which act upon endless 
screws and permit the closure of each cylinder on both sides 
at once, or separately on one side. 

The paste is introduced into the lower part of the wooden 
hopper, and is first pounded by the horizontal cylinders, 
which send it up to the inclined cylinders, and the fourth 
cylinder casts the paste into the upper part of the hopper, 
which was at the outset loaded in the lower part. The paste 
accumulated above the hopper afterwards falls into the upper 
part, and passes once more between the cylinders, till the 
pounding is completed. At the close of the operation, by 
means of a screw, a blade is made to press on the third 
cylinder, and throws the paste into a box placed below. In 
this way the reloading is automatic, and the constant presence 
of a workman is not required to watch the process and reload 
the machine. 

4. Rolling. — This is effected in various ways. The 
machine most usually employed, that of Beyer Brothers (see 
fig.), is composed of three different instruments, namely, in the 



upper part the stamper for heaping and mixing up the soap- 
paste in the cylinder and extracting the air. It is set in 
motion by a strap, and is intended to take the place of the 
pounding by hand, which used formerly to be done in marble 


The second important instrument is the piston, wholly of 
metal, serving as bottom of the cast-iron cylinder into which 
the soap-paste is put. This piston is moved by a screw and 
a set of wheels. It rises and falls at pleasure by means of 
force transmitted through three pulleys, and is over endless 



cloths stretched horizontally over rollers whfch keep them all 
in motion on the level of a warm current of air. 

After the pounding, in order to restore to the soap the 
malleability which it has lost by drying, it is removed to a 
chopping board heated in the water bath in the condition of 
paste slightly warmed. The soap is placed in the rolling 
machine {modekuse or peloteusi). This is a hollow cylinder. 


with a double casing warmed in the water bath, and closed by 
a special obtiirateur. A piston adjusted in the interior of the 
cylinder, and moved from below upwards by a hydraulic press, 
accumulates the soap against the obtiirateur, drives out the 
air, and discharges the soap by a screw-plate in long rolls, 
which are afterwards divided to fit the moulds. 



Within very recent times some perfumers and machinists 
have endeavoured to substitute for these rolling machines, 
which have the drawback of serving only for a certain quantity 
of soap (lOO kilpgrammps at most at the same time) a con- 
tinuous machine. For this purpose all the machinists employ 


a conical screw Of the apparatus a complete idea is given 
in the figure. 

The soap is put into a hopper placed in the upper part of 
the machine. It fall§ thencp into a conical screw which draws 
it on, pressii)g it towE^rd{5 the scre)v-plate by which it passes 



out. At present the results obtained do not establish the 
superiority of this machine over the preceding as a compressor, 
but it is cheaper, and can be worked more readily. 

5. Stamping. — When" the rolls have been divided into 
small pieces, they are taken to the press, which is identical in 
all cases, and which we have already described. 

M. Chardin-Hadancourt has recently patented a very re- 
markable method of stamping and wrapping; which has not 
yet been published. By means of a mould and a special press 
he wraps the soap in cloth or in leather, v^hich saves it from 


deterioration. He thus dispenses with the tedidiis and costly 
process of folding in paper. 

All the machines here depicted were seen in motion at 
the Paris Exhibition, 1878. They are, in fact, but modifica- 
tions of chocolate machines. 

The pulveriser, for fine powders, consists of a mortar 
within which two pestles, with a circular and alternating 
movement, exchange places, striking alternately on all parts 
of the mortar and reducing to powder the substances placed 

3 so 


in it. The mortar is usually surrounded with a leather 
bag, to prevent the powders being dispersed. 

The mixer (see fig.) is composed of cylinders whose axes 


are not in the same plane as the axis of rotation of the 
machine. By this arrangement the extremities of each 
cylinder are alternately high and low. When the cylinders 


are properly filled with the extracts to be mixed, the machine 
is set in motion. 

The extraction press (see fig.) is used for extracting the 
juices of various fruits — cucumber, melon, &c. — in a convenient 


This soap, by some persons supposed to be made of sweet 
almond oil, and by others to be a mystic combination of 
sweet and bitter almonds, is in reality constituted thus : — 

Finest curd soap i cwt. 

„ oil soap . . . . . . .14 lbs. 

„ marine '4 ;j 

Otto of almonds 1 i lb. 

,. cloves 5 „ 

„ caraway ^ „ 

By the time that half the curd soap is melted, the marine 
soap is to be added ; when this is well crutched, then add 
the oil soap, and finish with the remaining curd. When the 
whole is well melted, and just before turning it into the frame, 
crutch in the mixed perfume. 

Some of the soap houses use Mirabane, or artificial 
essence of almonds, for perfuming soap, it being far cheaper 
than the true otto of almonds ; much of the cheap soap now 
sold is scented with Mirabane. 


Curd soap 28 lbs. 

Otto of rosemary ij lb. 

Camphor ij „ 

Reduce the camphor to powder by rubbing it in a mortar 
with the addition of an ounce or more of almond oil, then sift 
it. When the soap is melted and ready to turn out, add the 
camphor and rosemary, using the crutch for mixing. 




Best yellow soap 
Fig soft soap . 
Otto of citronella 
Saffron . 

I cwt. 
14 lbs. 

1* ., 
I oz. 


Curd soap 

Marine soap . 

Oil soap . 

Otto of caraw ay 
„ thyme 
„ rosemary 
„ cassia . 
„ cloves . 

of each 

of each 

I cwt. 
21 lbs. 

1* » 


Curd soap 

Marine soap . 

Yellow soap 

Oil soap .... 

Blown colouring (caramel) 

Otto of caraWay 

„ cloves ; 

„ thyme . 

„ cassia . 

,, petit grain . 

„ French lavender . 

. of each 

\ cwt. 


Curd soap 
Marine soap . 
Sifted silver sand 
Otto of thyme . 
,, cassia . 


Flrench lavender 

of each 

7 lbs. 

7 „ 
28 „ 



Curd soap loj lbs. 

Marine soap 3^ „ 

Fuller's earth (baked) 14 « 

Otto of French lavender 2 oz. 

„ origanum . i „ 

The above forms are indicative of the method adopted for 
perfuming soaps while hot or melted. 

All the very highly scented soaps are, however, perfumed 
cold, in order to avoid the loss of scent, twenty per cent, of 
perfume being evaporated by the hot process. 

The variously named soaps, from the sublime ' Sultana ' 
to the ridiculous ' Turtle's Marrow,' we cannot of course be 
expected to notice ; the reader may, however, rest assured 
that he has lost nothing by their omission. 

The receipts given produce only the finest quality of the 
article named. Where cheap soaps are required, not much 
acumen is necessary to discern that by omitting the expensive 
perfumes, or lessening the quantity, the object desired is 
attained. Still lower qualities of scented soap are made by 
using greater proportions of yellow soap, and employing a 
very common curd, omitting the oil soap altogether. 


In the previous remarks, the methods explained of scent- 
ing soap involved the necessity of melting it. The high 
temperature of the soap under these circumstances involves 
the obvious loss of a great deal of perfume by evaporation. 
With very highly scented soaps, and with perfume of an ex- 
pensive character, the loss of ottos is too great to be borne in 
a commercial sense ; hence the adoption of the plan of 

A A 




This method is exceedingly convenient and economical for 
scenting small batches, involving merely mechanical labour, 
the tools required being simply an ordinary carpenter's plane 
and a good marble mortar and lignum vitae pestle. 

The woodwork of the plane must be fastened at each 
end, so that when placed over the mortar it remains firm and 
is not easily moved by the parallel pressure of the soap against 
its projecting blade. 

To commence operations, we take first 7 lbs., 14 lbs., or 
21 lbs. of the bars of the soap that it is intended to perfume. 


The plane is now laid upside down across the top of the 

Things being thus arranged, the whole of the soap is to 
be pushed across the plane until it is all reduced into fine 
shavings. Like the French ' Charbonnier,' who does not saw 
the wood, but woods the saw, so it will be perceived that in 
this process we do not plane the soap, but that we soap the 
plane, the shavings of which fall lightly into the mortar as 
quickly as produced. 

Soap, as generally recei\'ed from the maker, is in proper 
condition for thus working ; but if it has been in stock any 


time it becotnes too hard, and must have from one to three 
ounces of distilled water sprinkled in the shavings for every 
pound of soap employed, and must lie for at least twenty-four 
hours to be absorbed before the perfume is added. 

When it is determined what size the cakes of soap are to. 
be, what they are to sell for, and what it is intended they 
should cost, then the maker can measure out his perfume. 

In general, soaps scented in this way retail from 4s., lOs., 
to 20s. per pound. When finished, they in truth are thd only 
soaps fit for state apartments. The soap, being in a ptoper 
condition with regard to moisture, &c., is now to have the 
perfume well stirred into it. THe pestle is then set to Work 
for the process of incorporation. After a couple of hours of 
' warm exercise,' the soap is generally expected to be free 
from streaks, and to be of one uniforfn consistence. 

For perfuming soap in large portioiis by the cold process, 
instead of using the t)estle and nlortar as an incorpol-ator, it 
is more conveniet|t and ecoftomical to employ a mill similar 
in construction to a cake chocolate-mill, or a flake cocoa-mill ; 
any mechanical apparatus that answers for mixing paste and 
crushing lumps will serve pretty well for blending soap 

Before being put into the mill, the soap is to be reduced 
to shavings, and have the scent and colour stirred in ; after 
milling it, the flakes or ribands of soap are to be finally 
bound together by the pestle and mortar into one solid mass ; 
it is then weighed out in quantities for the tablets required, 
and moulded by the hand into egg-shaped masses ; each piece 
being left in this condition, separately laid in rows on a sheet 
of white paper, dries sufficiently in a day or so to be fit for 
the press, which is the same as that previously mentioned. 
It is usual, before placing the cakes of soap in the press, to 

' See the description of M. Brunot's Pounding Machine, which is the most 
generally adopted, 


dust them over with a httle starch-powder, or else to very 
slightly oil the mould ; either of these plans prevents the soap 
from adhering to the letters or embossed work of the mould 
— a condition essential for turning out a clean, well-struck 

The body of all the fine soaps mentioned below should 
consist of the finest and whitest curd soap, or of a soap 
previously melted and coloured to the required shade, thus : — 

Rose-coloured Soap is curd soap stained with rose 
and aniline, thoroughly incorporated when the soap is melted, 
and not very hot. 

Green Soap is a mixture of palm-oil soap and curd 
soap, to which is added a little yellow derived from saffron 
water and strained. 

Blue Soap, curd soap coloured with smalt. 

Brown Soap, curd soap with caramel, ?>. burnt sugar. 

Mauve Soap is coloured with aniline. 

The intensity of colour varies, of course, with the quantity 
of colouring. 

Some kinds of soap become coloured or tinted to a 
sufficient extent by the mere addition of the ottos used for 
scenting, such as ' spermaceti soap,' ' lemon soap,' &c., the 
latter of which becomes of a beautiful pale lemon colour by 
the mere mixing of the perfume with the curd soap. (See 
Colours, Section XIX.) 


{J'o retail at los. per powtd.) 

Curd soap (previously coloured pink) 

Otto of rose 

Spirituous extract of musk 
Otto of santal ... . . 

„ geranium .... 

4^ lbs. 

1 oz. 

2 „ 

Mix the perfumes, stir them in the soap shavings, and beat together. 



Pale brown-coloured curd soap .... 5 lbs. 

Grain musk :^ oz. 

Otto of bergamot i „ 

Rub the musk with the bergamot, then add it to the soap, and beat 
jp . Should be made six months before sold . 


Curd soap 7 lbs. 

Otto of neroli 3^ 02^- 


Curd soap 7 lbs. 

Otto of santal ... . . . . 7 oz. 

„ bergamot . . • ■ • 2 „ 


Curd soap 14 lbs. 

Otto of bergamot 2^ „ 

lemon ... . . . . ^ „ 


Curd soap 6 lbs. 

Otto of citron zeste J » 

„ verbena (lemon grass) . • . J oz. 

„ bergamot 4 » 

„ lemon . . . ' 2 „ 

One of the best of fancy soaps that is made. 



Curd soap (previously coloured pink) . . 7 lbs. 

Civet J oz. 

Otto of neroli \ „ 

„ santal i } „ 

), rose . . i „ 

„ vitivert ^ „ 

Rub the civet with the various ottos, mix, and beat in the usual 


Curd soap 4|^ lbs. 

Otto of patchouli i oz. 

„ santal . 

■ I of each . ■ i „ 


The preparation sold under this title is a potash soft soap 
of lard. It has a beautiful pearly appearance, and has met 
with extensive demand as a shaving soap. Being also used 
in the manufacture of Emulsines, it is an article of no 
inconsiderable consumption by the perfumer. It is made 
thus : — 

Clarified lard 7 lbs. 

Potash ley (containing 26 per cent, of caustic 

potash) 3a ,, 

Rectified spirit 3 oz. 

Otto of almonds 2 drachms 

Manipulation. — Melt the lard in a porcelain vessel by a 
salt-water bath, or by a steam heat under 1 5 lbs. pressure ; 
then run in the ley very slowly, jigitating the whole time. 
When about half the ley is in, the mixture begins to curdle ; 
it will, however, become so firm that it cannot be stirred. The 


crdme is then finished, but is not pearly ; it will, however, 
assume that appearance by long trituration in a mortar, 
gradually adding the alcohol, in which has been dissolved 
the perfiime. 


These preparations are sold sometimes as a dentifrice and 
at others for shaving ; they are made by reducing the soap into 
shavings by a plane, then thoroughly drying them in a warm 
situation, afterwards grinding in a mill, then perfuming with 
any otto desired. 


Best yeUow soap . . .j equal parts melted together. 
Fig soft soap . . . .J 

Perfume with anise and citronella. 


Colour the grease very strongly with alkanet root, then 
proceed as for the manufacture of saponaceous cream. The 
cream coloured in this way has a blue tint : when it is 
required of a purple colour, we have merely to stain the white 
saponaceous cream with aniline to the shade desired. Per- 
fume with otto of English peppermint. 


This article is very much used, and as a consequence is 
in demand : it can be perfumed either with otto of thyme, 
lavender, peppermint, or rose. Being very rank, it requires a 
great deal of perfume to cover its fishy odour, being made, as 
r believe, from fish oils and potash ; but M. Faiszt states that 


it is made by saponifying mutton fat witii lime, and then 
separating the fatty acids from the soap thus formed, by 
means of a mineral acid. These fatty acids are afterwards 
combined with ordinary caustic potash to produce the Naples 


Solution caustic potash (' London Pharmacopoeia ') 6 lbs. 
Olive oil I lb. 

Perfume to taste. 

Before commencing to make the soap, reduce the potash 
ley to one-half its bulk by continued boiling. Now proceed 
as for the manufacture of saponaceous cream. After standing 
a few days, pour off the waste liquor. 


{For softening hard water.) 

Spirits of wine i gallon 

Orange-flower water . .... 4 pints 
Marine soap 7 lbs. 

Colour with a few drops of aniline. Shave up the soap and put it 
into the water ; make it hot, and the soap will dissolve ; then add the 

A table spoonful of this elixir put into the bottom of a 
basin will completely 'soften ' the water that is put into it 
for washing. 


Soaps, particularly curd soap, dissolve in warm glycerine ; 
when cold the soap sets like a jelly, or, 'firm as a rock,' accord- 
ing to the proportions of soap used. It is semi-transparent, 
and can be perfumed at cost or pleasure thus : — 


For every hundred pounds of soap made add 

Otto of petit grain , 

„ geranium . . |- of each 
„ lime . 
,, nutmeg 


Reduce the soap to shavings, and dry them as much as 
possible ; then dissolve in alcohol, using as little spirit as will 
effect the solution ; then colour and perfume as desired, and 
cast the product in appropriate moulds ; finally dry in a warm 

Until the Legislature allows spirit to be used, for manu- 
facturing purposes, free of duty, we cannot compete with our 
neighbours in this article : the methylated spirit has such an 
abominable odour that it cannot be used for making scented 
soaps for the toilet. 


This soap is now in great vogue ; it is made by the cold 
process under the usual conditions. A third of the weight of 
the soap is then added to a quart of alcohol, and it is heated 
in the water-bath. In about ten or fifteen minutes, the soap 
is completely dissolved in the alcohol and the glycerine ; it 
is strained into bladders, then cut into small pieces and taken 
to the drying stove, where it remains till the alcohol is 
completely evaporated, which takes about twenty to twenty- 
five days. When dry it is stamped in the common press. 


In 1850 I began making a series of medicated soaps, such 
as Sulphur Soap, Iodine Soap, Bromine Soap, Creo- 


SOTE Soap, Mercurial Soap, Croton Oil Soap, and 
many others. These soaps are prepared by adding the 
medicant to curd soap, and then making in a tablet form for 
use. For sulphur soap, the curd soap may be melted, and 
flowers of sulphur added while the soap is in a soft condition. 
For antimony soap and mercurial soap, the low oxides of the 
metals employed may also be mixed in the curd soap in a 
melted state. Iodine, bromine, creosote soap, and others, 
containing very volatile substances, are best prepared cold by 
shaving up the curd soap in a mortar, and mixing the medicant 
with it by long beating. 

In certain cutaneous diseases the author has reason to 
believe that they will prove of infinite service as auxiliaries 
to the general treatment. It is obvious that the absorbent 
vessels of the skin are very active during the lavatory process ; 
such soap must not, therefore, be used except by the special 
advice of a medical man. Probably these soaps will be found 
useful for internal application. The precedent of the use of 
Castile soap (containing oxide of iron) renders it likely that 
such soaps will find a place in the pharmacopceias. The dis- 
covery of the solubility, under certain conditions, of the 
active alkaloids, quinine, morphia, &c., in oil, by Mr. W. 
Bastick, greatly favours the supposition of analogous com- 
pounds in soap. 

Some forty or fifty years ago, there were several kinds 
of soap imported, but which now-a days are quite unknown, 
such as Joppa soap, Smyrna soap, Jerusalem soap, Genoa 
soap, Alicant soap, &c., nearly all of which, however, were 
made of oil as a base. 

The sale of medicated soaps, which in England can be 
made by perfumers, where the trade of druggist is free, would 
not be allowed in France. Such preparations come within 
the domain of pharmacy ; and any soap or other cosmetic, 
offered as possessing therapeutic properties, is a medicine 


and not a cosmetic. It must therefore in France be subject 
to the legal regulations for the sale of medicines.' 


This soap is made from the tar of the wood of the 
Jumperits communis, by dissolving it in a fixed vegetable 
oil, such as almond or olive oil, or in fine tallow, and forming 
a soap by means of a weak soda ley after the customary 
manner. This yields a moderately firm and clear soap, which 
may be readily used by application to parts affected with 
eruptions, at night, mixed with a little water, and carefully 
washed off the following morning. This soap has lately been 
much used for eruptive disorders, particularly on the Continent, 
and with varying degrees of success. It is thought that the 
efficient element in its composition is a rather less impure 
hydrocarburet than that known in Paris under the name 
huile de cade. On account of its ready miscibility with 
water, it possesses great advantage over the common tar 


This is an important article of commerce in Turkey and 
Russia, where it is used as soap. It has been analysed by M. 
Landerer, the result being — silex, 61 ; alumina, 23 ; water, 
12 ; and sesquioxide of iron, 1.25. This mineral is of a 
greyish colour, and has Schistose fracture. It can be cut 
into shavings, and adheres a little to the tongue ; softens 
in water, dissolving gradually in it ; and afterwards becomes 
white and greasy to the touch. It becomes grey again after 

' QvXoom<Ci Manuel legal des Pharmaciens, Paris, 1852, maybe consulted on 
this subject. 



There are several plants the juices of which are employed 
for- washing ; but at present theyhave no practical application 
to the toilet, though doubtless they will have so soon as we 
can obtain a regular supply. 

The soapwort (Saponaria officinalis), the Egyptian soap- 
wort ( Gypsophilla struthium, L., or strution of Dioscorides and 
Kalvagi of the Arabs), and the bark oi punama or of quillaye 
{Sapindus saponaria) are extremely rich in a proximate 
principle named saponine, which has the property of softening 
water. These plants or parts of them form what are called 
the vegetable soaps. They are used not only in the toilet, 
but for cleansing stuffs, especially silks. 

Saponine, discovered by M. Bussy in the Egyptian soap- 
wort, is white and non-crystal) isable. Its taste, sweet at 
first, soon turns acid and astringent ; it provokes sneezing ; 
it dissolves in water in any proportion, and its solution makes 
a lather like soap and water. 




FROM soaps proper we now pass to those compounds, 
used as substitutes for soap, which are classed together 
under one general title as above, for the reason that all 
cosmetics herein embraced have the property of forming 
emulsions (milks) with water. 

Chemically considered, they are an exceedingly interesting 
class of compounds, and are well worthy of study. Being 
prone to decomposition, as might be expected from their 
composition, they should be made only in small portions, or, 
at least, only in quantities to meet a ready sale. 

While in stock they should be kept as cool as possible, 
and free from a damp atmosphere. 


Fine almond oil , . 7 lbs. 

Simple syrup ' 4 oz. 

White soft soap, or saponaceous cream, i.e. Crfime 

d'Amande i „ 

Otto of almonds i „ 

„ bergamot i „ 

„ cloves ^ „ 

Rub the syrup with the soft soap until the mixture is homogeneous ; 
then rub in the oil by degrees, the perfume having been previously 
mixed with the oil. 

' Simple syrup consists of 3 lbs. of loaf sugar, boiled for a minute in i imperial 
pint of distilled water. 



In the manufacture of amandine (and olivine) the difficulty- 
is to get in the quantity of oil indicated, without which it 
does not assume that transparent jelly appearance which 
good amandine should have. To attain this end, the oil is put 
into a ' runner ' — that is, a tin or glass vessel — at the bottom 
of which is a small faucet and spigot, or tap. The oil, being 
put into this vessel, is allowed to run slowly into the mortar 
in which the amandine is being made, just as fast as the 
maker finds that he can incorporate it with the paste of 
soap and syrup ; and so long as this takes place, the result 
will always have a jelly texture to the hand. If, however, the 


oil be put into the mortar quicker than the workman can 
blend it with the paste, then the paste becomes ' oiled,' and 
may be considered as ' done for ; ' unless, indeed, the whole 
process be gone through again, starting off with fresh syrup 
and soap, using up the greasy mass as if it were pure oil. 
This liability to ' go off ' increases as the amandine nears the 
finish ; hence extra caution and plenty of ' elbow grease ' 
must be used during the addition of the last two pounds of 
oil. If the oil be not perfectly fresh, or if the temperature of 
the atmosphere be above the average of summer heat, it will 
be almost impossible to get the whole of the oil given in the 
formula into combination. When the mass becomes bright 



and of a crystalline lustre, it will be well to stop the further 
addition of oil to it. 

This and similar compounds should be potted as quickly 
as made, and the lids of the pots banded either with strips of 
tin-foil or paper, to exclude air. When the amandine is filled 
into the jars, the top or face of it is marked or ornamented 
with a tool made to the size of half the diameter of the 
interior of the jar, in a similar way to a saw ; a piece of lead 
or tortoise-shell, being serrated with an angular file, or piece 
of an old saw, will do very well ; place the marker on the 
amandine, and turn the jar gently round. 


Gum acacia, m powder 


Yolk of eggs . 

White soft soap 

Olive oil . 

Green oil 

Otto of bergamot 

„ lemon . 

„ clove . 

„ thyme and cassia 

in number 

. each 

2 oz. 


3 „ 

2 lbs. 
I oz. 
I „ 
I » 
k „ 
^ drachm 

Rub the gum and honey together until incorporated, then add the 
soap and egg. Having mixed the green oil and perfumes with the olive 
oil, the mixture is to be placed in the runner, and the process followed 
exactly as indicated for amandine. 


Bitter almonds, blanched and ground 

Yolk of eggs . 
Almond oil 
Otto of bergamot 
„ cloves . 

in number 



Rub the eggs and honey together first, then gradually add the oil, and 
finally the ground almonds and the perfume. 


Bitter almonds, blanched and ground . . • i^ lb. 

Rose-water . . ij pint 

Alcohol (60 over proof) 16 oz. 

Otto of bergamot . . . . ■ 5 « 

Place the ground almonds and one pint of the rose-water into a stew- 
pan : with a slow and steady heat, cook the almonds until their granular 
texture assumes a pasty form, constantly stirring the mixture during the 
whole time ; otherwise the almonds quickly burn to the bottom of the pan 
and impart to the whole an empyreumatic odour. 

The largequantity of otto of almonds which is volatilised duringthe pro- 
cess, renders it essential that the operator should avoid the vapour as much 
as possible. 

When the almonds are nearly cooked, the remaining water is to be 
added ; finally, the paste is put into a mortar, and well rubbed with the 
pestle ; then the perfume and spirit are added. Before potting this paste, 
as well as honey paste, it should be passed through a medium fine sieve, 
to ensure uniformity of texture, especially as almonds do not grind kindly. 

A more satisfactory result is to be obtained by the 
following process : — 

Put into a mill some bitter almonds, previously peeled. When" well 
crushed, soak with rose-water, or any aromatic water ; then boil so as to 
evaporate part of the water, and to bring off a slight smell of bitter almonds. 
When the paste is dried it should be pretty firm. It is then to be diluted 
with the requisite quantity of alcohol, at the same time straining it through 
a hair sieve. The perfume is afterwards added. 

Other pastes, such as P&te de Pistache, Pdte de Cocos, PAte 
de Guimauve, are prepared in so similar a manner to the 
above, that it is unnecessary to say more about them here, 
than that they must not be confounded with preparations 
bearing a similar name made by confectioners. 




Ground almonds 

. 1 lb. 

Wheat flour . 

• I „ 

Orris-root powder 

■ \„ 

Otto of lemon . 


. \ oz. 

„ almonds 

. \ drachm 


Pistachio nuts (decorticated as almonds are 

blanched) i lb. 

Orris powder i „ 

Otto of neroli i drachm 

„ lemons i oz. 

Other meals, such as perfumed oatmeal, perfumed bran, 
&c., are occasionally in demand, and are prepared as the 

All the preceding preparations are used at the washhand- 
stand as substitutes for soap, and to ' render the skin pliant, 
soft, and fair ! ' 


Saponaceous cream t oz. 

Simple syrup i^ » 

Almond oil i lb. 

Best jasmine oil i « 


Saponaceous cream i oz. 

Syrup of violets 'i » 

Best violet oil iJ I''- 

Emulsin of other odours can be prepared with tubereuse, 
rose, or cassie (acacia) oils— oils that have been perfumed by 
the enfleurage or maceration process. 

B B 


For the methods of mixing the ingredients, see ' Aman- 

On account of the high price of the French oils, these 
preparations are expensive, but they are undoubtedly the 
most exquisite of cosmetics. 


White soft soap 4 oz. 

Pure glycerine . 6 „ 

Almond oil .....' ■ 3 lbs. in summer 

( . . 4 „ in winter 
Otto of thyme 2 drachms 

Mix the soap and glycerine in a mortar, then gradually add the oil in 
the same way as for amandine. 




IN the perfumery trade, few articles meet with a more ready- 
sale than that class of cosmetics denominated milks. It 
has long been known that nearly all the seeds of plants 
which are called nuts, when decorticated and freed from 
their pellicle, on being reduced to a pulpy mass, and rubbed 
with about four times their weight of water, produce a fluid 
which has every analogy to cow's milk. The milky appear- 
ance of these emulsions is due to the minute mechanical 
division of the oil derived from the nuts being diffused 
through the water. All these emulsions possess great 
chemical interest on account of their rapid decomposition, 
and the products emanating from their fermentation, especially 
that made with sweet almonds and pistachios (^Pistachia vera). 

In the manufacture of various milks for sale, careful 
manipulation is of the utmost importance, otherwise these 
emulsions ' will not keep ; ' hence more loss than profit. 

' Transformation takes place in the elements of vegetable 
caseine (existing in seeds) from the very moment that sweet 
almonds are converted into almond-milk.' (LlEBIG.) This 
accounts for the difficulty many persons find in making milk 
of almonds that does not spontaneously divide a day or so 
after its manufacture. 

Pure water is ' the cosmetic ' par excellence ; but water, 
though all-sufficient during perfect health, is most insufficient 
for the inhabitants of towns, because their health is rarely 


perfect, assailed as it is by business cares, heated rooms, ill- 
ventilated public buildings and places of amusement, and by 
a sulphurous atmosphere, charged with the products of com- 
bustion of gas and coal. It is therefore necessary that Art 
should come to the aid of Nature, from whom we are too apt 
to demand more than she can give. In the open air, no less 
than within doors, in walking, at balls or parties, at places 
of public resort, in watching, and various kinds of occupation, 
the skin of the face becomes charged with impurities which 
plain water will not remove. To restore the skin to its fresh- 
ness, to correct the evils of town life, and to impart to the 
skin the bloom of health, no cosmetic can approach Emulsion 
of Roses. It cleanses, softens, and brightens the skin, yet is 
as harmless as an April shower on the verdure of spring. In 
the manufacture of Emulsion or Milk of Roses careful 
manipulation is of the utmost importance. 


Valentia almonds (blanched) | lb. 

Rose-water ........ i quart 

Alcohol (60 over proof) \ pint 

Otto of rose i drachm 

White wax, spermaceti, oil soap . . each \ oz. 

Manipulation. — Shave up the soap, and place it in a vessel 
that can be heated by steam or water bath ; add to it two 
or three ounces of rose-water. When the soap it perfectly 
melted, add the wax and spermaceti, without dividing them 
more than is necessary to obtain the correct weight : this 
ensures their melting slowly, and allows time for their partial 
saponification by the fluid soap ; occasional stirring is neces- 
sary. While this is going on, blanch the almonds, carefully 
excluding every particle that is in the least way damaged. 
Now proceed to beat up the almonds in a scrupulously clean 
mortar, allowing the rose-water to trickle into the mass by 



degrees ; the runner, as used for the oil in the manufacture 
of olivine and amandine, is very convenient for this purpose. 
When the emulsion of almonds is thus finished, it is to be 
strained, without pressure, through clean washed muslin (new 
muslin often contains starch, flour, gum, or dextrine). 

The previously-formed saponaceous mixture is now to be 
placed in the mortar, and the ready formed emulsion in the 
runner ; the soapy compound and the emulsion are then care- 
fully blended together. As the last of the emulsion runs into 
the mortar, the spirit, in which the otto of roses has been 
dissolved, is to take its place, and to be gradually trickled into 
the other ingredients. A too sudden addition of the spirit 
frequently coagulates the milk, and causes it to be curdled. 
As it is, the temperature of the mixture rises, and every 
means must be taken to keep it down ; the constant agitation 
and cold mortar effecting that object pretty well. Finally, 
the now formed milk of roses is to be strained. 

The almond residue may be washed with a few ounces of 
fresh rose-water, in order to prevent any loss in bulk to the whole 
given quantity. The newly formed milk should be placed 
into a bottle having a tap in it about a quarter of an inch 
from the bottom. After standing perfectly quiet for twenty- 
four hours it is fit to bottle. All the above precautions being 
taken, the milk of roses will keep any time without precipitate 
or creamy supernatation. These directions apply to all other 
forms of milk now given. 


Bitter almonds (blanched; 

. 10 oz. 

Distilled (or rose) water . . . ; 

. I quart 

Alcohol (60 over proof) .... 

. \ pint > 

Otto of almonds 

. \ drachm 

„ bergamot 

. 2 drachms 

Wax, spermaceti, almond oil, curd soap . 

each \ oz. 

The imperial measure only is recognised among perfumers. 



Sweet almonds 4 oz. 

Elder-flower water i pint 

Alcohol (60 over proof) 8 oz. 

Oilof elder-flowers, prepared by maceration . • i » 

Wax, sperm, soap each ^ „ 


Sweet almonds 4 oz. 

Rose-water i pint 

Expressed juice of dandelion root . . . . i oz. 

Esprit de tubereuse 8 „ 

Green oil, wax, curd soap . . . each J „ 

Let the juice of the dandelion be perfectly fresh pressed ; as it is in 
itself an emulsion, it may be put into the mortar after the almonds are 
broken up, and stirred with the water and spirit in the usual manner. 


Sweet almonds 4 oz. 

Expressed juice of cucumbers . . . .1 pint 

Spirit (60 over proof) 8 oz. 

Essence of cucumbers a pint 

Green oil, wax, curd soap . . . each \ oz 

Raise the juice of the cucumbers to the boiling point for half a minute, 
cool it as quickly as possible ; then strain through fine muslin : proceed to 
manipulate in the usual manner. 


Pistachio nuts 3 oz. 

Orange-flower water 3i pints 

Esprit neroli 4 » 

Palm soap, green oil, wax, spermaceti . each i oz. 


Rose-water i quart 

Tincture Tolu ^ oz. 


Add the water very slowly to the tincture ; by so doing an opalescent 
milky fluid is produced, which will retain its consistency for many years. 
By reversing this operation, pouring the tincture into the water, a cloudy 
precipitate of the resinous matter ensues, which does not again become 
readily suspended in the water. 

In France this Lait Virginal is most commonly made with 
tincture of benzoin. 


Elder-flower water i quart 

Tincture benzoin I oz. 

Manipulate as for Lait Virginal. 

Similar compounds may, of course, be made with orange- 
flower and other waters. 


Orange-flower water i gallon 

Glycerine 8 oz. 

Borax i „ 

Dr. Startin states that this is an excellent cosmetic. 

Pure glycerine is now extensively used as a remedy for 
chapped lips, and a very useful material it is ; however, being 
' sticky,' it is very unpleasant to many people, who give pre- 
ference to the glycerine jelly. 

Pure glycerine is also used as a sort of bandoline, and 
for making the hair glossy. Scented with otto of geranium 
or rose, and tinted with aniline, it is now sold under the name 
of mauve oil. 



GALEN, the celebrated physician of Pergamus, in Asia, 
but who distinguished himself at Athens, Alexandria, 
and Rome, about 1,700 years ago, was the inventor of that 
peculiar unguent, a mixture of grease and water, which is 
now distinguished as cold cream in perfumery, and as Ceratum 
Galeni in pharmacy. 

The modern formula for cold cream is, however, quite a 
different thing to that given in the works of Galen, in point 
of odour and quality, although substantially the same — grease 
and water. In perfumery there are several kinds of cold 
cream, distinguished by their odour, such as that of camphor, 
almond, violet, roses, &c. Cold cream, as made by English 
perfumers, bears a high reputation, not only at home, but 
throughout Europe ; the quantity exported, and which can 
only be reckoned by jars in hundreds of dozens, and the 
repeated announcements that may be seen in the shops on 
the Continent, in Germany, France, and Italy, of ' Cold Creme 
Anglaise,' is good proof of the estimation in which it is 


Almond oil I lb. 

Rose-water i ^^ 

White wax . . . . 1 r 1 

„ . ■ \ of each . . i oz. 

Spermaceti . . . .J 

Otto of roses i drachm 

Manipulation. — Into a well-glazed thick porcelain vessel, 


which should be deep in preference to shallow, and capable 
of holding twice the quantity of cream that is to be made, 
place the wax and sperm. Now put the jar into a boiling 
bath of water ; when these materials are melted, add the 
oil, and again subject the whole to heat until the flocks 
of wax and sperm are liquefied. Now remove the jar and 
contents, and set it under a runner containing the rose-water : 
the runner may be a tin can, with a small tap at the bottom, 
the same as used for the manufacture of milk of roses. A 
stirrer must be provided, made of lancewood, flat, and per- 
forated with holes the size of a sixpence, resembling in form 
a large palette-knife. As soon as the rose-water is set run- 
ning, the cream must be kept agitated until the whole of the 
water has passed into it. Now and then the flow of water must 
be stopped, and the cream which sets at the sides of the jar 
scraped down, and incorporated with that which remains 
fluid. In winter-time it is necessary to slightly warm the 
rose-water, otherwise the cream sets before it is beaten 
enough. When the whole of the water has been incorporated, 
the cream will be cool enough to pour into the jars for sale ; 
at that time the otto of rose is to be added. The reason for 
the perfume being put in at the last moment is obvious — 
the heat and subsequent agitation would cause unnecessary 
loss by evaporation. Cold cream made in this way sets 
quite firmly in the jars into which it is poured, and retains a 
'face' resembling pure wax, although one half is water 
retained in the interstices of the cream. When the pots are 
well glazed, it will keep good for one or two years. If 
desired for exportation to the East or West Indies, it should 
always be sent out in stoppered bottles. 


is prepared precisely as the above ; but in the place of otto 
of roses otto of almonds is used. 



Huile violette i lb. 

Violet-water i „ 

Wax and spermaceti each i oz. 

Otto of almonds ....... 5 drops 

This is an elegant preparation, and generally admired. 


are prepared in a similar manner to the above violet. They 
are all very exquisite preparations ; but, as they cost more than 
rose cold cream, perfumers are not much inclined to introduce 
them in lieu of the latter. 


Almond oil i lb. 

Rose-water 1 „ 

Wax and spermaceti i oz. 

Camphor 2 „ 

Otto of rosemary i drachm 

Melt the camphor, wax, and sperm, in the oil ; then manipulate as for 
cold cream of roses. 

Glycerine Cold Cream. — As rose cold cream has the 
disadvantage of being difficult to keep, it is better to sub- 
stitute glycerine for the water. A cold cream which will 
keep and bear any climate is thus obtained. 


Almond oil 1 lb. 

Green oil i oz. 

Juice of cucumbers i lb. 

Wax and sperm each i oz. 

Essence of cucumber 2 , 


If in youth we were more careful, it is certain that, as we 
progress onward in the journey of life, the exception would 
be to see a person with the skin dull at an age when it ought 
to have the most youthful freshness. The trouble of pre- 
servation is far more simple, agreeable, and effectual than 
that of restoration, to which it is necessary to have recourse 
in order to repair the wrongs of a careless negligence. 
Freckles are considered by the majority as inimical to beauty ; 
we, however, are of the minority, and rather admire them. 
They are the result of intermingling of race, of the dark 
blood of the South with the fair Saxon. It is positive that 
they indicate exuberant health — and what is more beautiful 
than the hue of health .? As the summer advances, freckles 
appear. If the skin is exposed to the sun, it is darkened like 
a cherry or a peach that is ripening. The effect of the sun 
upon a delicate skin is very rapid, and it becomes sun-burnt, 
which in many instances produces inconvenience, attended 
with slight pain. Of the various cosmetics invented for pre- 
venting and remedying this evil, cucumber cream bears a 
just reputation. 

The cucumber juice is readily obtained by subjecting the 
fruit to pressure in the ordinary tincture press. It must be 
raised to a temperature high enough to coagulate the small 
portion of albumen which it contains, and then strained 
through fine linen. As the heat is detrimental to the odour, 
on account of the great volatility of the otto of cucumber, 
the following method may be adopted with advantage : — 

Slice the fruit very fine with a cucumber-cutter, and place them in the 
oil ; after remaining together for twenty-four hours, i-epeat the operation, 
using fresh fruit in the strained oil. No warmth is necessary, or, at most, 
not more than a summer heat. Then proceed to make the cold cream in 
the usual manner, using the almond oil thus odorised, the rose-water, 
and other ingredients in the regular way, perfuming with essence of cu- 

Another and commoner preparation of cucumber is found 


dmong the Parisians, which is lard simply scented with the 
juice from the fruit, thus : — The lard is liquefied by heat in a 
vessel subject to a water bath; the cucumber juice is then 
stirred well into it ; the vessel containing the ingredients is 
now placed in a quiet situation to cool. The lard will rise to 
the surface, and when cold must be removed from the fluid 
juice ; the same manipulation being repeated as often as re- 
quired, according to the strength of odour of the fruit desired 
in the grease. 


Benzoinated lard 6 lbs. 

Spermaceti ... .... 2 „ 

Spirit of cucumber i „ 

Melt the spermaceti with the lard ; then keep it constantly in motion 
while it cools. Now beat the grease in a mortar, gradually adding the 
essence of cucumbers ; continue to beat the whole until the spirit is 
evaporated, and the pomade is beautifully white. 

Apply it by rubbing a little all over the skin at bedtime, 
and also by placing a piece about the size of a filbert on the 
sponge or towel with the soap used in washing. A small 
piece may also be rubbed over the skin with advantage be- 
fore going into the sunshine, as when health and enjoyment 
are sought on the sea-shore. 

Melons and other similar fruit will scent grease treated in 
the same way. 


Among the thousand and one quack nostrums, pomade 
divine, Hke James's powder, has obtained a reputation far 
above the most sanguine expectations of its concocters. This 
article strictly belongs to the druggist, being sold as a re- 
medial agent; nevertheless, what is sold is almost always 
vended by the perfumer. It is prepared thus : — - 




Almond oil 
Gum benzoin 
Vanilla beans 


4 )» 
\\ oz. 

Digest the whole in a vessel heated by a water bath at a temperature 
not exceeding go° C. After five or six hours it is fit to strain, and may 
be poured into the bottles for sale. 

(Must be stamped, if its medicinal qualities are stated.) 


Purified suet . 
White wax 
Otto of almonds 
„ cloves . 

f lb. 

1 drachm 


Purified suet .... . 

White wax 

Camphor ....•>' 
Otto of French lavender or rosemary 


4 )» 

Both the above articles afe sold, either white or coloured 
with alkanet root. When thoroughly melted, the material 
is cast in a mould ; outiCe gallipots with smooth bottoms 
answer very well for casting in. Some vendors use only 
large pill-boxes. 


Almond oil \Vo. 

Purified lard » 

Wax, spermaceti, and camphor . ; . each i oz. 

Beat up the ingredients as they cool, before pouring out. 



White wax and spermaceti .... each i oz. 

Almond oil ^ lb. 

Glycerine . . . . . . . . 2 oz. 

Otto of roses \ drachm 

We cannot here discuss the remedial action of any of the 
above preparations ; in giving the formulje, it is enough for 
us that they are in demand by the public. 


Almond oil ^ lb. 

Spermaceti and wax each 2 oz. 

Alkanet root 2 „ 

Otto of roses i „ 

Place the wax, sperm oil, and alkanet root into a vessel heated by- 
steam or water bath. After the materials are melted, they must digest on 
the alkanet, to extract its colour, for at least four or five hours. Finally, 
strain through fine muslin ; then add the perfume just before it cools. 


Almond oil j. lb. 

Wax and spermaceti each i oz. 

Otto of almonds x drachm. 

„ geranium j. ,^ 

After lip-salve has been poured into the pots and become 
cold, a red-hot iron must be held over it for a minute or so, in 
order that the heat radiated from the iron may melt the 
surface of the salve and give it an even face. 


This is made in the same way as the fine rose lip-salve ; 
with this difference— that the scent consists of one drachm 
each of otto of bay and otto of almonds. 



is made simply of equal parts of lard and suet, coloured with 
alkanet root, and perfumed with an ounce of bergamot to 
every pound of salve. 


This substance is said to be a pure hydro-carbon, obtained 
by filtration through animal charcoal from raw petroleum or 
naphtha, which has been flowing for ages from natural springs 
of it near Rangoon in Burmah, at Baku in Persia, and in 
Ontario. It is probable that the so-called Vaseline is a 
waste product of the Ozokerit or mineral wax used in the 
manufacture of candles. Vaseline has many medical qualities, 
and is particularly beneficial in cases of eczema and skin 
eruptions generally. When nicely perfumed with otto of 
roses, neroli, or geranium, it will be found to be a useful 
appendage to the toilet. 




Through jasmine bowers and violet-scented vales 
On silken pinions flew the wanton gales, 
Stealing their odours from the plants they left, 
Then whispered to the woods their spicy theft. 

ACCORDING to ancient writers, the words unguent, 
pomatum, ointment are synonymous titles for medicated 
and perfumed greases. Among Biblical interpreters, the 
significant word is mostly rendered ' ointment ; ' thus we have 
in Prov. xxvii. 9, ' Ointment and perfume rejoice the heart ; ' 
in Eccles. ix. 8, ' Let thy head lack no ointment' ' The sons 
of the priests made the ointments of the spices' (i Chron. ix. 
30) ; ' Hezekiah was glad, and showed them his treasures, his 
spices, and the precious ointment ' (Isa. xxxix. 2). 

Oiling and greasing the hair is a custom pretty nearly 
universal among the people of all civilised nations. There 
are oil-glands on the scalp ; ' but their power of secretion is 
very slight, except in a few rare instances ; in these cases 
the hair is said to be naturally ' moist ' and soft. The 
general rule is, that the hair grows harsh and ' dry ' for the 
lack of natural oily secretion ; hence the instinctive application 
of an artificial oil — a practice hallowed by its ancient custom, 
and sanctioned as ' necessary,' from the Court beauty of St. 
James's, to the belle of equatorial Africa. M. Du Chaillu, 

' Gazenave, Traitl des maladies du cuir chcvelu, Paris, 1850. 


speaking of the use of njavi oil by the natives of Goumbi, 
says : — 

They mix the njavi oil with a kind of odoriferous powder csWeAyombo, 
and this mixture is then applied in great quantities upon their wool {i.e. 
hair). They think it gives out a pleasant fragrance, but I differ from them. 

Now, oiling the" hair, besides making it glossy and soft, has 
the infinite benefit of rendering it 'uninhabitable ;' a consider- 
ation too often neglected in schools, and similar institutions. 

The name of pomatum is derived horn fomum, an apple, 
because it was originally made by macerating over-ripe apples 
in grease. 

If an apple be stuck all over with spice, such as cloves, 
then exposed to the air for a few days, and afterwards 
macerated in purified melted lard, or any other fatty matter, 
the grease will become perfumed. Repeating the operation 
with the same grease several times produces real ' pomatum.' 

According to a recipe published more than a century ago, 
the form given is : — 

Kid's grease, an orange sliced, pippins, a glase of rose-water, and 
half a glass of white wine, boiled and strained, and at last sprinkled with 
oil of swept almonds. 

The author. Dr. Quincy, observes, that ' the apple is of no 
significance at all in the recipe ; ' and, like many authors of 
the present day, concludes that the reader is as well ac- 
quainted with the subject as the writer, and therefore con- 
siders that the weights or bulk of the materials in his recipe 
are likewise of no significance. 

Perfumers, acting by experience or Dr. Quincy's advice, 
pay no regard to the apples in the preparation of pomatum, 
but make it by perfuming lard or suet, or a mixture of wax, 
spermaceti, and oil, or some of them or all blended, to pro- 
duce a particular result, according to the name that it bears. 

The most important thing to consider in the manufacture 

C C 


of pomatum, &c., is to start off with a perfectly inodorous 
grease, whatever that grease may be. 
Inodorous lard is obtained thus : — 

Take, say, 281bs. oi perfectly fresk lard, place it in a well-glazed vessel, 
that can be submitted to the heat of a boiling salt-water bath, or by steam 
under a slight pressure ; when the lard is melted, add to it one ounce of 
powdered alum and two ounces of table salt ; maintain the heat for some 
time, in fact, till a scum rises, consisting in a great measure of coagulated 
proteine compounds, membrane, &c., which must be skimmed off ; when 
the liquid grease appears of a uniform nature, it is allowed to grow cold. 

The lard is now to be washed. This is done in small portions at a 
time, and is a work of much labour, which, however, is amply repaid by 
the result. About a pound of the grease is now placed on a slate slab, a 
little on the incline, a supply of good water being set to trickle over it ; 
the surface of the grease is then constantly renewed by an operative 
working a muUer over it, precisely as a colour-maker grinds paints in oil. 
In this way the water removes any traces of alum or salt, also the last 
traces of nitrogenous matter. Finally, the grease, when the whole is 
washed in this way, is remelted, the heat being maintained enough to 
drive off any adhering water. When cold it is finished. 

Although purifying grease in this way is troublesome, and 
takes a good deal of time, yet, unless done so, it is totally unfit 
for perfuming with flowers, because a bad grease will cost 
more in perfume to cover its mal odeur than the expense of 
thus deodorising it. Moreover, if lard be used that ' smells of 
the pig,' it is next to impossible to impart to it any delicate 
odour ; and if strongly perfumed by the addition of ottos, the 
unpurified grease will not keep, but quickly become rancid. 
Under any circumstances, therefore, grease that is not perfectly 
inodorous is a very expensive material to use in the manu- 
facture of pomades. 

In the south and flower-growing countries, where the fine 
pomades are made by Enfleurage, or by MACERATION, the 
purification of grease for the purpose of these manufactures 
is of sufficient importance to become a separate trade. 

The purification of beef and mutton suet is in a great 
measure the same as that for lard : the greater solidity of 


suets requires a mechanical arrangement, for washing them, of 
a more powerful nature than can be applied by hand labour. 
Mr. Ewen, of Garlick Hill, who is an extensive lard and fat- 
purifier in London, employs a stone roller rotating upon a 
circular slab ; motion is given to the roller by an axle which 
passes through the centre of the slab, or rather stone bed, 
upon which the suet is placed ; being higher in the centre 
than at the sides, the stream of water flows away after it has 
once passed over the suet ; in other respects the treatment is 
the same as for lard. These greases used by perfumers have 
a general title of ' body,' tantamount to the French nomen- 
clature of corps ; thus we have pomades of hard corps (suet), 
pomades of soft corps (lard). When drawing extraits from ■ 
the enfleuraged- grease, such as extrait de violette, jasmin, the 
pomades of hard corps are to be preferred ; but when scented 
pomade is to be used in fabrication of unguents for the hair, 
pomades of soft corps are the most useful. 

The following process of purifying grease prior to en- 
fleurage has been expressly written for this work by M. 
Auguste Bermond, of Nice ; — 


Choisissez les graisses toujours les plus fraiches, en otant toutes les 
fibres et petites peaux qui peuvent les corrompre. 

Pour cinquante kilogs. de graisse. — Vous la coupez par morceaux, en- 
suite vous la pilez dans un mortier en pierre ou marbre. De suite qu'elle 
est bien dcras^e, il faut la laver, et la faire ddgorger dans de I'eau fraiche. 
II faut r^pdter le lavage au moins six fois, jusqu'k ce que toute I'eau soit 
claire comme quand vous la mettez. Cette operation terminSe, faites 
fondre la graisse, en y ajoutant cent grammes d'alun de glace pulvdrisfee, 
et une poign^e de sel marin ; faites bouillir, et ^cumez quelques secondes. 
Aprfes, passez la graisse fondue &, travers un linge pas trop serrd, sans 
trop presser les cretons, soit le marc, que vous r^servez pour vos pom- 
mades communes. Vous laissez reposer la graisse dans un grand recipient 
environ deux heures ; ensiiite, vous retirez votre graisse au clair sans y 
laisser d'eau. 

c c 2 


Vous remettez aprfes la graisse fondue k feu nu, avec trois ou quatre- 
litres d'eau de rose, et cent cinquante grammes de benjoin bien en poudre ; 
vous faites bouillir petit k petit, en retirant sans cesse lYcume que fait la 
graisse ; quand aprfes une heure environ vous vous apercevez qu'il ne sort 
plus d'dcume, vous retirez tout le feu, vous laissez reposer le melange quatre 
ou cinq heures ; ensuite vous tirez au clair dans des jarres ou cuvettes 
en fer-blanc, et I'opdration est termin^e. Laissez toujours quelques livres 
de corps au fond, dans la crainte qu'il ne passe pas d'eau ; cette mati^re 
vous servira k d'autres emplois. Pour dpurer la graisse de bceuf, vous 
faites la m6me chose. 

Pour dviter que votre corps avec les chaleurs ne tourne pas au gras, 
vous mettrez cent kilogs. de graisse de pore, vingt-cinq kilogs. de graisse 
de boeuf en €x.i, ou moiti^ par moitid. 

Which may be briefly rendered : — 

Take one hundredweight of perfectly fresh grease, either of lard or 
beef suet ; cut the grease into small pieces, and well pound it in a mortar ; 
when it is well crushed, wash it with water repeatedly, so long, in fact, 
until the water is as clear after withdrawing the grease as before it was 
put in. The grease has now to be melted over a slow fire, adding thereto 
about three ounces of crystallised alum in powder, and a handful of sea 
salt (common salt) ; now let the grease boil, but allow it to bubble for a 
few seconds only ; then strain the grease through fine linen, into a deep 
pan, and allow it to stand, to clear itself from all impurities, for about 
two hours. The clear grease is then again to be put into the pan, over a 
bright fire, adding thereto about three or four quarts of rose-water, and 
about five ounces of powdered gum benzoin : it is allowed to boil gently, 
and all scum that rises is to be removed, until it ceases to be produced ; 
finally the grease is put into deep pans, and when cold taken carefully off 
the sedimentary water ; it is then fit for use, and may be kept for an in- 
definite period, without changing or turning rancid. 

It will be observed that the principal feature in this pro- 
cess is the use of the benzoin. 

Dr. Redwood has recently directed the attention of 
chemists ' to the fact that certain ointments, particularly zinc 
ointment, will not become rancid, if a little gum benzoin, or 
benzoic acid, is added to it when made. That such is the case, 
there is little doubt ; for it has been remarked that the pre- 
pared fat used by the flower farmers in the process of en- 

' Pharmaceutical Journal, vol. xiv. No. 5. 


fleurage will remain sweet for some years, provided that it be 
digested for a time over gum benzoin, in the process of its 
purification — a practice that has been generally worked for 
this century at Grasse, Cannes, and Nice. It therefore 
becomes only a question of experiment, to determine whether 
benzoin be a true antiseptic to all fatty bodies. 

Fatty bodies, under the influence of nitrogenised sub- 
stances (albumen, blood, &c.), are oxidised, and acidified, and 
undergo a kind of fermentation, which is called rancio. This 
change must be resisted as far as possible. Repeated wash- 
ings in water and fusion at a mild temperature are in most 
cases sufficient. These fatty bodies may be perfectly pre- 
served and their spontaneous acidification prevented by the 
addition of a small quantity of resin or of a balsam. Benzoin 
lard is prepared with benzoin, as we have just said ; if balsam 
of Tolu is added to it, it takes the name of Tolu lard — for 
this purpose to be exhausted with warm water ; that is to say, 
the residuum after preparation of the syrup of Tolu. 

The method of perfuming grease by the direct process 
with flowers having already been described, under the re- 
spective names of the flowers that impart the odour thereto, 
it remains now only to describe those compounds that are 
made from them, together with such incidental matter con- 
nected with this branch of perfumery as has not been pre- 
viously mentioned. 

Although the unguents properly so called are not em- 
ployed in perfumery, it is important to show the distinction 
which must be drawn between these preparations and 

Unguents, whatever be their degree of consistence, are 
mixtures in variable proportions of fatty bodies, wax, oils, and 
resins, with a variety of substances. The essential difference 
between pomades and unguents is that the former never 
contain resins. Pomades are divisible into several classes 


— those prepared by solution (camphorated pomade, and 
most sweet-smelling pomades employed in perfumery), and 
pomades by simple mixture, such as oxide of zinc pomade. 
Philocome is nothing but wax and oil. 


Undoubtedly this is the finest fat oil which a perfumer 
could use ; it is nearly free from colour, is tasteless and in- 
odorous ; it remains for a lengthened period free from rancidity ; 
indeed, some authors say, it ' never ' becomes rancid — a 
sample which I have placed in a position in which all other 
oils would be spoilt in a year is still perfectly sweet though 
nearly six years old. At one period the oil of ben consti- 
tuted a valuable branch of commerce with the East, but ex- 
cessive imposts and extensive adulterations threw it out of 
the market. 

In the hope of restoring so valuable an article to its 
merited position, I am induced thus to speak of a commodity, 
though but little of it can at the present time be commercially 
obtained. The oil is yielded by expression from the seeds 
of the Moringa pterygosperma or oil of behen tree, Guertn., 
Hyperanthera moringa, Willd., now naturalised in the West 
Indies. The seeds are said to yield twenty-five per cent, of 
oil, which at a price say of five guineas a hundred-weight— the 
present market value of sweet almond oil — would surely offer 
sufl[icient mercantile inducement for its production ; but there 
is every reason to believe that it would realise never less than 
\ol. per cwt. in the open market. For making cold cream 
and all kinds of unguents, it would prove invaluable and with- 
out a competitor. Supposing that it would 'not pay' its 
producers to ship it in its natural state, they could enflower 
it with the flowers of the plumeria, acacia, jasmin-grandiflora, 
and pancratium, and numerous other flowers which abound 


and bloom unregarded ; it would then yield six to eight 
shillings a pound ! 

The seeds of the apterous ben, Moringa aptera, Guertn., 
likewise produce a highly prized oil. They are known as the 
white nuts of ben ; and the grey nuts of ben, which are less 
valued, are attributed to the Moringa disperma. 


that is, the true solid wax-like inodorous substance pro- 
curable by low distillation of boghead mineral, Irish bog 
peat, &c., &c., is an article that will find several uses in 
perfumery in place of bees' wax. I have said it is wax- 
like ; but in truth on account of its crystalline character it 
more resembles spermaceti, and has also the semi-transpa- 
rency of that body. 

Young's Patent Paraffin Company have generously 
supplied me with some fine samples of the sperm-like paraffin, 
which they say can be supplied in quantity at \s. i,d. per lb. 
This, being 40 per cent, cheaper than wax, will of a certainty 
find its own market. From a variety of experiments I con- 
clude that paraffin is a valuable adjunct to perfumery, in the 
manufacture of pomades, &c., which have to be exported to 
hot climates. . 

Paraffin takes its name from the Latin parum affinis, in- 
tended to express its want of chemical affinity with other 
bodies. It was formerly extracted almost exclusively from 
coal-tar, and from the products of the distillation of coal ; 
but it is now made, or rather extracted, from a schist coal by 
Young's process to an enormous extent. 

Paraffin crystallises in beautiful pearly scales, fusible at 
43°. It is volatilised without decomposition, and burns with 
a white flame. It is soluble in ether, and hardly soluble in 
alcohol. These pomades are not liable to become rancid. 



is made with a purified body-grease, by maceration with 
the little round yellow flower-heads of the Acacia Farnesiana} 
Black-currant leaves, which the French term cassis, have 
an odour very much resembling cassie (acacia), and are used 
extensively for adulterating the true acacia pomades and oils. 
The near similarity of name, their analogous odour (although 
the plants have no botanical connection), together with the 
word cassia, a familiar perfume in England, have produced 
generally confused ideas in this country as to the true origin 
of the odour now under discussion. Cassie, cassis, cas.sia, it 
will be understood now, are three distinct substances ; and in 
order to render the matter more perspicuous in future, the 
materials will always be denominated ACACiA, if prepared from 
the Acacia Farnesiana ; Casse, when from black-currant :, and 
Cassia, if derived from the bark of the Cinnamomum Cassia. 


Benzoic acid is perfectly soluble in hot grease. Half an 
ounce of benzoic acid, being dissolved in half a pint of hot 
olive or almond oil, deposits, on cooling, beautiful acicular 
crystals, similar to the crystals that effloresce from Vanilla 
beans ; a portion of the acid, however, remains dissolved in 
the oil at the ordinary temperature, and imparts to it the 
peculiar aroma of benzoin. Upon this idea is based the 
principle of perfuming grease with gum benzoin by the direct 
process — that is, by macerating powdered gum benzoin in 
melted suet or lard for a few hours at a temperature of 
about 80° C. to 90° C. Nearly all the gum resins give up 

' I have placed a few of these plants in the Botanic Gardens, Regent's Paris, 
and some seeds have been planted at Kew. 


their odoriferous principle to fatty bodies wlien treated in the 
same way ; this fact becoming generally known, will probably 
give rise to the preparation of some new remedial ointments, 
such as Unguentuvt myrrhce, Unguentum assafcetida, and the 

Myrrh, assafcetida, and many other resins and gum-resins, 
were formerly ingredients in various preparations. 


are prepared by macerating the ground Tonquin beans in 
either melted fat or warm oil, from twelve to twenty-eight 
hours, in the proportion of 

Tonquin beans ^ lb. 

Fat or oil 4 „ 

Strain through fine muslin ; when cold, the grease will have a fine 
odour of the beans. 

Messrs. Max Brothers, of Paris, prepare the true Cou- 
MARINE principle from Tonquin beans, which may be advan- 
tageously used for scenting oil, fat, and spirit. This firm also 
prepare Vanilline from Vanilla, and an article they term 
Heliotropine, extracted from the common Vanillon : all are in 
white crystals. 


Vanilla pods j lb. 

Fat or oil 4 „ 

Macerate at a temperature of 25" C, for three or four days ; finally 

These pomatums and oils, together with the French pomades 
and huiles already described, constitute the foundation of 
the preparations of all the best hair greases sold by per- 


fumers. Inferior scented pomatums and oils are prepared by- 
perfuming lard, suet, wax, oil, &c., with various ottos. The 
results however, in many instances more expensive than the 
foregoing, are actually inferior in their odour or bouquet ; for 
grease, however slightly perfumed by maceration or enfleurage 
with flowers, is far more agreeable to the olfactory nerve than 
when scented by ottos. 

The following named greases have obtained great popu- 
larity, mainly because their perfume is lasting and flowery. 


The most popular and ' original ' bears' grease is made 
thus : — 

of each . . ^ lb. 

Huile de rose . 

„ fleur d'orange . 

„ acacia 

„ tubereuse and jasmin j 

Almond oil lO lbs. 

Lard 12 

Acacia pomade 2 

Otto of bergamot j oz. 

„ cloves -5 

IMelt the solid greases and oils together by a water bath, then add the 

Bears' grease thus prepared is just hard enough to 'set' in 
the pots at a summer heat. In very warm weather, or if 
required for exportation to the East or West Indies, it is 
necessary to use in part French pomatums instead of oils, or 
more lard and less almond oil, 


The fat of the alpaca, together with other useful products 
from this animal, was first sent as an exhibit from Australia to 


the London Exhibition of 1862. Bears' grease has had its 
dayv^poor Bruin is dead, Alpaca now reigns in his place ; but 
even alpaca was mortal ; enough grease could not be got 
'genuine' from the Silky Goat. However, the washed pomatum 
which at all times is a large by-product in the laboratory of a 
wholesale manufacturing perfumer offers itself as a superior 
substitute for the original. ' Heads of Families ' are now 
supplied with alpaca pomatum, made thus : — 

Washed pomatum 21 lbs. 

Olive oil 7 J) 

Otto of nutmeg 2 oz. 

As with other mixed grease, the proportion of oil must vary for 
climate and season. 


Purified lard I lb. 

Benzoin suet i „ 

French rose pomatum i „ 

Almond oil, coloured with alkanet . . . • 2 „ 

Otto of rose i oz, 


French rose pomatum 1 2 oz. 

„ violet pomatum 12,, 

Almond oil .... . . . 2 lbs. 

Otto of bergamot i oz. 


This is a very favourite unguent or pomade among the 
people of the West Indian Islands and is made thus : — 

Almond oil 2j lbs. 

Spermaceti or paraffin wax 8 oz. 

Otto of Montserrat lime . • 1 of each . • l n ■ 
„ Portugal zeste . . ] 



First quality. 

Huile de rose i lb. 

^, tubereuse I ,, 

„ fleur d'orange \ „ 

Spermaceti \ ,, 

Second quality. 

Almond . 2| lbs. 

Spermaceti . . . . . . . . \ „ 

Otto of lemon 3 oz. 

Melt the spermaceti in a vessel heated by a water bath, then add tha 
oils ; continue the heat until all flocks disappear ; let the jars into which 
it is poured be warm ; cool as slowly as possible, to ensure good crystals. 
If cooled rapidly, the mass congeals without the appearance of crystals. 

This preparation has a very nice appearance, and so far 
sells well ; but its continued use for anointing the hair renders 
the head scurfy ; indeed the crystals of sperm may be combed 
out of the hair in flakes after it has been used a week or 


Tubereuse pomatum I lb. 

Castor oil ^ „ 

Almond oil ^ „ 

Otto of bergamot i oz. 


French rose pomatum ^ lb. 

„ jasmine pomatum i „ 

Almond oil a ,. 

Otto of neroli i drachm 




Purified lard . 

Almond oil 

Palm oil . 

Otto of cloves . 
„ bergamot 
,, lemon . 


I ,, 
I oz. 

\ drachm 


Purified lard . 

„ suet . 
Otto of lemon . 

„ bergamot 

4 lbs. 
I oz. 

„ cloves 3 drachms 

Melt the greases ; then beat them up with a whisk, or flat wooden 
spatula, for half an hour or mbre ; as the grease cools, minute vesicles of 
air are enclosed by the pomatum, which not only increase the bulk of 
the mixtures, but impart a peculiar mechanical aggregation, rendering 
the pomatum light and spongy. In this state it is obvious that it fills out 
more pots than otherwise, and hence is more profitable. 


Purified lard . . .... i lb. 

Washed acacia pomatum . . . . . 6 oz. 

„ rose pomatum 4 „ 

Manipulate as for marrow pomatum. 

In all the cheap preparations for the hair, the manufactur- 
ing perfumers use the washed French pomatums and the 
washed French oils for making their greases. Washed poma- 
tums and washed oils are those greases that originally have 
been the best pomatums and huiles prepared by enfleurage 
and by maceration with the flowers ; which pomades and 
huiles have been subjected to digestion in alcohol for the 


manufacture of essences for the handkerchief. After the spirit 
has been on the pomatums, &c., it is poured off ; the residue 
is then called washed pomatum, and still retains an odour 
strong enough for the manufacture of most hair greases. 

For pomatums of other odours it is only necessary to sub- 
stitute rose, jasmine, tubereuse, and others, in place of the 
acacia pomatum in the above formulae. 


Rose, jasmine, fleur d'orange, violet, tubereuse, &c., are all 
made, in winter with two-thirds best French pomatum, one- 
third best French oils ; in summer, equal parts. 


French rose pomade . . . . i lb. 

Vanilla oil x 

Huile de jasmin . 4 oz. 

„ tubereuse . 2 

„ fleur d'orange .... 2 „ 

Otto of almonds 6 drops 

cloves -x 

* J 77 

Same as the above, substituting rose oil for the pomade. 


The name of this preparation, which is a compound of two 
Greek words (0tXosand «o/Aiy), signifying 'a friend to the hair,' 
was first introduced by the Parisian perfumers ; and a very 
good name it is, for philocome is undoubtedly one of the best 
unguents for the hair that is made. 




First quality. 

White wax ... . . lo oz. 

French rose oil . . . i lb. 

„ acacia oil | „ 

„ jasmine oil | „ 

„ fleur d'orange oil i „ 

„ tubereuse oil i „ 

Melt the wax in the oils by a water bath at the lowest possible tem- 
perature. Stir the mixture as it cools ; do not pour out the philocome 
until it is nearly cool enough to set ; let the jars, bottles, or pots, into 
which it is filled for sale, be slightly warmed, or at least of the same tem- 
perature as the philocome, otherwise the bottles chill the material as it is 
poured in, and make it appear of an uneven texture. 

Second qualit 


White wax 

. 5 oz. 

Almond oil 

. 2 lbs. 

Otto of bergamot 

. I oz. 

„ lemon . 

• • ■ i „ 

„ lavender 

2 dra 

„ cloves . 

• I , 

Take i oz. of wax to i lb. of oil, and scent as above. 

Eor the Moustache. 

White wax .... 

. I lb. 

Oil soap 

. . . \ „ 

Gum arabic .... 

. . . A„ 

Rose-water .... 

. I pmt 

Otto of bergamot . 

. I oz. 

„ thyme. 

. J drachm 


Melt the gum and the soap in the water by a gentle heat, then add 
the wax, constantly stirring the ingredients together ; when of a uniform 
consistency, put in the perfume. 

If required to be tinted, use burnt umber ground in oil (sold in tubes 
by the artists' colourmen), for shades of brown ; or for black, stain with 
ivory black in oil, the same as for the brown shade. 


Benzoinated suet . . . . . . . I lb. 

White wax or paraffin . . . . . i „ 

Jasmine pomatum \ „ 

Tubereuse pomatum . .... J „ 

Otto of rose . . i drachm 


Suet . I lb. 

Wax or paraffin . j „ 

Otto of bergamot ... . . . i oz. 

„ cassia i drachm 

„ thyme ^ „ 


are also in demand. They are made in the same way as the 
above, but coloured with lamp-black or umber ground in al- 
mond oil. Such colours are best purchased ready ground at 
an artists' colourman's. 


such as is sold under the name of Water Cosmetic, is pre- 
pared with a nicely scented soap, strongly coloured with lamp- 
black or with umber. The soap is melted, and the colour added 
while the soap is soft ; when cold, it is cut up into oblong 

It is used as a temporary dye for the moustache, applied 
with a small brush and water. 




BY way of personal adornment, few practices are of more 
ancient origin than that of painting the face, dyeing the 
hair, and blackening the eyebrows and eyelashes. 

It is a practice universal among the women of the higher 
and middle classes in Egypt, and very common among those 
of the lower orders, to blacken the edge of the eyelids, both 
above and below the eye, with a black powder, which they 
term kohol. The kohol is applied with a small probe of wood, 
ivory, or silver, tapering towards the end, but blunt. This is 
moistened sometimes with rose-water, then dipped in the 
powder, and drawn along the edges of the eyelids. It is 
thought to give a very soft expression to the eye, the size of 
which, in appearance, it enlarges ; to which circumstance, pro- 
bably, Jeremiah refers when lie writes, ' Though thou rentest 
thy face (or thine eyes) with painting, in vain shalt thou make 
thyself fair.' ' Ezekiel (ch. xxiii, 40) reproveth Aholah, — 
' for whom thou didst wash thyself, paintedst thy eyes, and 
deckedst thyself 

A singular custom is observable both among Moorish and 
Arab females — that of ornamenting the face between the eyes 
with clusters of bluish spots or other small devices, which, 
being stained, become permanent. The chin is also spotted 
in a similar manner, and a narrow blue line extends from the 

' Jer. iv. 40. See also Lane's Modem Egyptians, vol. i. p. 41, et seq. 

D D 


point of it, and is continued down the throat. The eyelashes, 
eyebrows, and also the tips and extremities of the eyelids, are 
coloured black. The soles, and sometimes other parts of the 
feet, as high as the ankles, the palms of the hands, and the 
nails, are dyed with a yellowish red with the leaves of a plant 
called henna ^, or alkanna of Cyprus and Egypt {Lawsonia 
inermis), the leaf of which somewhat resembles the myrtle, 
and is dried for the purposes above mentioned. The ground 
leaves of the henna are made into a paste with lime-water, 
then applied to the skin, hair, or nails, and left on several 
hours ; the colour thus imparted will last several weeks. The 
back of the hand is also often coloured and ornamented in 
this way with different devices. On holidays they paint their 
cheeks of a red brick colour, a narrow red line being also 
drawn down the temples. 

The Persians, young and old alike, dye their hair and 
beard every week. We have had an opportunity of examin- 
ing two powders which they use for this purpose. These had 
been sent by Ferukh Khan to Professor Trousseau. One of 
them, consisting of henna, stains the hair a golden yellow 
colour; the other stains it blue. This is certainly an indigo- 
bearing plant the name of which is unknown to us. They 
first apply the henna, in the form of a paste made with water ; 
with this they cover the head, and after half-an-hour they 
apply the blue powder in the same manner, and obtain thus a 
fine colour of crow's-wing black. 

Similar customs are still prevalent in Persia. Lady Shell, 
speaking of the Shah's mother, says : — 

The palms of her hands and tips of her fingers were dyed red with a 
herb called henna, and the edges of the inner part of the eyelids were 
coloured with antimony. All the Kajars have naturally large arched 
eyebrows ; but, not satisfied with this, the women enlarge them by 

' This plant is referred to in the Song of Solomon, under the name of 
'Camphire,' but as Henna it is sold by Piesse and Lubin, of Bond Street. 


doubling their real size with great streaks of antimony : her cjieeks were 
well rouged, as is the invariable custom among Persian women of all 
classes .' 

In Greece, for ' colouring the lashes and sockets of the eye, they throw 
incense or gum labdanum on some coals of fire ; the smoke which ascends 
is intercepted with a plate, in order to collect the soot. This I saw applied. 
A girl sitting, cross-legged as usual, on a sofa, closing one of her eyes, took 
the two lashes between the fore-finger and thumb of her left hand, pulled 
them forward, and then thrusting in, at the external corner, a sort of 
bodkin or probe, which had been immersed in the soot, and withdrawing 
it, the particles previously adhering to the probe remained within the eye- 
lashes.' ^ 

Dr. Shaw states that, among other curiosities that were 
taken out of the tombs at Sahara relating to Egyptian women, 
he saw a joint of the common reed, which contained one of 
these bodkins, and an ounce or more of this powder. 

In England, a similar practice is adopted by many persons 
whose hair is grey ; but instead of using the black material in 
the form of a powder, it is employed as a crayon, the colour 
being mixed with a greasy body, such as the brown and black 
stick pomatums described in the previous article. 

The question has been frequently discussed, ' Is hair subject 
to sudden changes in colour.?' and was answered in the nega- 
tive by Dr. Davy, in a paper read before the British Associa- 
tion at Manchester, 1861. 

The popular notion is decidedly in favour of the affirmative, 
and many naturalists and physiologists have come to the same 
conclusion. They adduce instances of the change of the hair 
to white or grey, in the case of persons under strong emotions 
of grief or terror. Haller, in his Elementa Physiologice, refers 
to eight authorities for examples of such changes ; but all 
that he seems to admit for himself is that under the influence 
of impaired health such a change may take place slowly. 
Marie Antoinette was cited by favourers of the popular notion, 
as a striking and well authenticated instance ; but when fairly 

' Glimpses of Life in Persia. '' Chandler's Travels in Greece. 


■considered, the case came under the condition admitted by 

During the confinement of Marie Antoinette, the Queen of 
France, by the Jacobins of Paris, she was deprived of the use 
of the cosmetics with which she was wont to give the raven 
hue to her naturally silver locks ; and history, in describing 
her execution, represents her hair as changing from a jet black 
to grey colour through the mental anguish she experienced. 

Had it been possible for mental emotion, whether of 
terror or of grief, to render her hair suddenly grey, surely in 
the Queen's case the change should have been witnessed at an 
earlier period than that of the arrest of the Royal Family in 
their attempt to leave France. If such a sudden change could 
be presumed, might we not expect to witness it in soldiers 
engaged in an active campaign amidst all the dangers and 
horrors of war .' Dr. Davy had himself examined thousands 
of soldiers, men prematurely worn out in various climates, 
and concerned in many a hard-fought battle — many of them 
grievously wounded — but he never met with an instance of 
the kind. 

The transactions of the Royal Society, extending over 200 
years, do not contain an instance of such change in the colour of 
the hair — a circumstance opposed to the conclusion that it ever 
took place, for had it ever been undoubtedly witnessed, it is not 
likely that it would have remained undescribed. The author is 
not aware that, irrespective of recorded evidence, anything in 
support of the popular notion can be adduced on physiological 
grounds. Human hair cannot be injected. Using colouring 
fluids, such as a solution of nitrate of silver and a solution of 
iodine, the author has not observed any change of colour, ex- 
cept in the portions actually immersed. Whether it owes its 
colour to a fixed oil, to a peculiar arrangement of its constitu- 
tional molecules, or to both, it resists decay in a remarkable 
manner ; it resists the action of acids and alkalies, except the 


strongest, which dissolve it. It resists maceration and even 
boiling water, except continued for a long time, and under 
pressure, when it suffers disintegration and decomposition. 
Exposure to the sun will bleach hair, but this will not account 
for any very sudden change of colour. Supporters of the 
popular opinion refer to changes in the plumage of birds, such 
as the ptarmigan, and in the hair of certain quadrupeds, such 
as the mountain hare and ermine, which become white towards 
winter, and of a darker hue when the winter is past. 

Mr. Erasmus Wilson, who advocates the popular doctrine, 
refers to the case of a lemming in support of his views; but 
Mr. Blyth, a naturalist, says that he examined a lemming 
killed during its autumnal change, and satisfied himself that 
' the white hairs were all new and not the brown changed in 
colour.' There are reasons why it might be expected that the 
summer coat and plumage should be darker than those of 
winter. The author concludes that whether we consider one 
side of the question or the other — the human evidence so 
questionable, the physiological so much more reliable — the 
idea of fallacy is unavoidable, as to the hair being subject to 
sudden change of colour from mental impression. 

The attempts made to explain such a change by physio- 
logists are allowed to be complete failures ; and more amus- 
ing attempts had been made to explain the phenomenon on 
other grounds than those of fallacy. Dr. Davy, when on 
foreign service, knew an assistant surgeon of a regiment who 
had become insane, and whom he visited a fortnight or three 
weeks subsequently. The patient's hair, before brown, had 
become grey ; but when he called attention to the fact, the 
regimental surgeon simply said, 'Your surprise will cease, 

when you know that has, since he has been afflicted with 

his malady, discontinued dyeing his hair.' 

The assassin Orsini, who was executed in Paris for at- 
tempting the life of Napoleon III. and ruthlessly murdering 


twelve innocent persons, presented the same apparently strange 
anomaly from the same cause. When Orsini was arrested, his 
luxuriant locks were as black as night, but when guillotined, 
they were of an iron grey colour, simply because he either 
neglected his toilet, or else was deprived of the usual hair-dye 
he previously employed to give them their black colour. His 
friends, and the papers generally, attribute the change to 
another cause, of course, and we have no doubt that history 
will represent the effect as being produced by the mental 
activity and agony he experienced during his incarceration. 

As a rule, all hair-dyes should be avoided ; in almost 
every case the process is prejudicial to the unities which tend 
to form that harmonious whole, which we call personal beauty. 
The chief characteristics of beauty, independent of form, are 
the complexion, the eyes and the hair ; and therefore the first 
question to be asked, before attempting to change the colour 
of so important an auxiliary to beauty as the hair, should 
naturally be — ' Will the change suit the complexion and the 
eyes } ' The Teutonic beauty of Anglo-Saxons and Anglo- 
Normans has come down tO' the people of Great Britain along 
with the practical common sense of the one, and the lofty 
bearing of the other. The mass of female loveliness which 
graces the land is therefore essentially 'fair' — white and clear, 
in contradistinction to brown and dark. A clear rosy com- 
plexion, blue eyes, and hair more or less auburn, are all the 
most prevalent. Now, to change either the colour of 
the complexion or of the hair is to destroy the unities of 
such a style of beauty, because the eye cannot be changed en 
suite ; and it produces the same incongruous effect as an ill- 
dressed woman often presents by a display of ill-assorted 
colours in her attire. 'Fair' persons are seldom, if ever, 
improved in appearance by the process of hair-dyeing. Such 
persons who do not exhibit these marked features of Teutonic 
extraction, in whose veins commingles the blood of a more 


southern race — whose dark or brown complexion, gazelle-like 
eyes, and raven hair, tend to form that style of beauty we 
designate 'brunette' — should age trip up youth, or their locks 
become prematurely grey or silver white, may call in the aid 
of art to restore the hair to its original tint without infringing 
the principles of the harmony of colour. If the hair be too 
glowing, too bright an auburn to assimilate well with the eyes, 
or with the blush of the cheek, then its redness can be artifi- 
cially lowered by the application of an article sold under the 
name of walnut-water, but which in reality consists of a solu- 
tion of plumbate of potash, and is made by dissolving freshly 
precipitated oxide of lead in liquor potassa to saturation. 


The word Kohol is derived from the Hebrew, and signifies 
to paint. The oriental females were, and are still, in the 
habit of painting the eyebrows with various pigments ; the one 
generally employed is sulphide of antimony finely levigated. 
This custom has at length to a small extent been adopted in 
England, but the kohol employed here does not contain anti- 
mony, but consists of a solution of Chinese (Indian) ink in rose- 
water. To prepare the kohol, a stick of the Chinese ink, of 
about half an ounce weight, is to be reduced to a fine powder 
in a mortar — a task of no little difficulty; half a pint of hot 
rose-water is then to be rubbed gradually into the powder 
till the whole is uniformly fluid, which it will not be unless 
it is repeatedly triturated for two days. Kohol thus made 
is applied to the eye-lashes and brows with a fine camel's 
hair pencil. 


In Constantinople there are some persons, particularly 
Armenians, who devote themselves to the preparation of 


cosmetics, and obtain large sums of money from those 
desirous of learning this art. Amongst these cosmetics is a 
black dye for the hair, which, according to M. Landerer of 
Athens, is prepared in the following manner : — 

Finely pulverised galls are kneaded with a little oil to a 
paste, which is roasted in an iron pan until the oil vapours 
cease to evolve, upon which the residue is triturated with 
water into a paste, and heated again to dryness. At the 
same time a metallic mixture, which is brought from Egypt 
to the commercial marts of the East, and which is termed in 
Turkish Rastikopetra, or Rastik- Yuzi, is employed for this 
purpose. This metal, which looks like dross, is by some 
Armenians intentionally fused, and consists of iron and 
copper. It obtains its name from its use in dyeing or stain- 
ing the hair, and particularly the eyebrows — for rastik means 
eyebrows, and yuzi stone. The fine powder of this metal is 
as intimately mixed as possible with the moistened gall mass 
into a paste, which is preserved in a damp place, by which it 
acquires the blackening property. In some cases this mass is 
mixed with the powder of odorous substances which are used 
ill the seraglio as perfumes, and called karsi — that is, pleasant 
odour ; and of these the principal ingredient is ambergris. To 
blacken the hair, a little of this dye is triturated in the hand 
or between the fingers, with which the hair or beard is well 
rubbed. After a few days the hair becomes very beautifully 
black, and it is a real pleasure to see such fine black beards as 
are met with in the East among the Turks who use this black 
dye. Another and important advantage in the use of this 
dye consists herein, that the hair remains soft, pliant, and for 
a long time black, when it has been once dyed with this 
substance. That the colouring properties of this dye are to 
be chiefly ascribed to the pyrogallic acid, which can be found 
by treating the mass with water, may be with certainty 



Powdered litharge 2 lbs. 

Quicklime • . . . J lb. 

Calcined magnesia \ „ 

Slake the lime, using as little water as possible, to make it disinte- 
grate, then mix the whole by a sieve. 

Another way. 

Slaked lime .3 lbs. 

White lime, in powder 2 „ 

Litharge i lb. 

Mix by sifting, bottle, and well cork. 

Directions to be sold with the above : — 

Mix the powder with enough water to form a thick creamy fluid ; with 
the aid of a small brush, completely cover the hair to be dyed with this 
mixture ; to die a light brown, allow it to remain on the hair four hours ; 
dark brown, eight hours ; black, twelve hours. As the dye does not act 
unless it is moist, it is necessary to keep it so by wearing an oiled silk, 
india-rubber, or other waterproof cap. 

After the hair is dyed, the refuse must be thoroughly washed from the 
head with plain water ; when dry, the hair must be oiled. 


Nitrate of silver I oz- 

Rose-water i pint 

Before using this dye, it is necessary to free the hair from 
grease by washing it with soda or pearl-ash and water. The 
hair must be quite dry prior to applying the dye, which is 
best laid on with an old tooth-brush. This dye does not 
' strike ' for several hours. It need scarcely be observed that 
its effects are more rapidly produced by exposing the hair to 
sunshine and air, and by washing the hair previously with 
sulphur soap. 




Nitrate of silver i oz. blue bottles 

Rose-water. 8 „ „ 

The Mordant. — Sulphuret of potassium . . i oz. white bottles 
Water 6 „ „ 


Nitrate of silver i oz. blue bottles 

Water 6 „ „ 

The Mordant. — Sulphuret of potassium . . i oz. white bottles 
Water 6 „ „ 

The mordant is to be applied to the hair first : when this" 
is dry, then the silver solution. 

Great care must be taken that the sulphuret is fresh made, 
or, at least, well preserved in closed bottles, otherwise, instead 
of the mordant making the hair black, it will impart a yellow 
hue. When the mordant is good it has a very disagreeable 
odour; and although this is the quickest and best dye, its 
unpleasant smell has given rise to the 


Blue Bottles. — Dissolve the nitrate of silver in the water as in the 
above ; then add liquid ammonia by degrees until the mixture becomes 
cloudy from the precipitate of the oxide of silver; continue to add 
ammonia in small portions until the fluid again becomes feright from the 
oxide of silver being re-dissolved. 

White Bottles. — Pour half a pint of boiling rose-water upon three 
ounces of powdered gall nuts ; when cold, strain and bottle. This forms 
the mordant, and is used in the same way as the first-named dye, like the 
sulphuret mordant. It is not so good a dye as the previous one. 


Under the name of ' Baffine,' a very excellent brown hair- 
dye has been introduced by Mr. Condy, of Battersea. It 


consists of saturated solution of permanganate of potass. 
This salt, like nitrate of silver, undergoes decomposition when 
in contact with organic substances. Hair and skin are stained 
by it of a good chestnut hue. For the purpose of dyeing the 
hair it is therefore necessary to take the usual precaution not 
to wet the partings of the hair with the manganese fluid. 


Blue Bottles. — Saturated solution of sulphate of copper ; to this add 
ammonia enough to precipitate the oxide of copper and redissolve it (as 
with the silver in the above), producing the azure Hquid. 

White Bottles. — Mordant. — Saturated solution of prussiate of potass. 

Artificial hair, for the manufacture of perukes, is dyed in 
the same manner as wool. 

There are in the market several other hair-dyes, but all 
of them are but modifications of the above, possessing no 
marked advantage. 


Under the above names a weak hair-dye is made which 
consists of an alkaline solution of lead, or rather plumbate 
of potash : it is slow in its action, but it does not blacken 
the skin — no inconsiderable advantage. It may be thus 
prepared :— 

Dissolve in one ounce of liquor potassse as much freshly precipitated 
oxide of lead as it will take up, and dilute the resulting clear solution with 
three ounces of distilled water. Care must be taken not to wet the skin 
unnecessarily with it. 

Almost all the liquids employed in France for dyeing the 
hair have for their basis the salts of silver, copper, or lead. 
The mordants used for fixing the colour, or rather for pro- 
ducing it, are sometimes solutions of potassium or sodium 
sulphides, and sometimes solutions of tannin, gallic acid, or 


pyrogallic acid. But some traders go farther still. As the 
salts of silver blacken the sl<in, they sell, to remove the. spots, 
a saturated solution of Potassium Cyanide, 


The subject of depilation or removal of the hair is fre- 
quently treated by ancient authors. 

QUICK DEPILATORY OR RUSMA (for removing Hair). 

The word depilatory is derived from the Latin /27«j, the 
hair. As the ladies of this country consider the growth of 
hair- upon the upper lip, upon the arms, and on the back of 
the neck to be detrimental to beauty, those who are troubled 
with such physical indications of good health and vital 
stamina have long had recourse to rusma or depilatory for 
removing it. 

This or analogous preparations were introduced into this 
country from the East, rusma having been in use in the harems 
of Asia for many ages. 

Best lime slacked 3 lbs. 

Orpiment, in powder ^ lb. 

Mix the material by means of a drum sieve ; preserve the same for 
sale in well corked or stoppered bottles. 

Directimts to be sold with the above : — 

Mix the depilatory powder with enough water to render it of a creamy 
consistence ; lay it upon the hair for about five minutes, or until its caustic 
action upon the skin renders it necessary to be removed ; a similar pro- 
cess to shaving is then to be gone through, but instead of using a razor, 
operate with an ivory or bone paper-knife ; then wash the part with 
plenty of water, and apply a little cold cream. 

Dr. Redwood says that the best and safest depilatory 
consists of a strong solution of barium sulphide made into a 


J)aste with thick starch : it must be applied immediately it is 
made, as it rapidly spoils. 

The precise time to leave depilatory upon the part to be 
depilated cannot be given, because there is a physical differ- 
ence in the nature of hair. ' Raven tresses ' require more 
time than ' flaxen locks ; ' the sensitiveness of the skin has 
also to be considered. A small feather is a very good test 
for its action. 

A few readers will, perhaps, be disappointed in finding 
that I have only given one formula for depilatory. The 
receipts might easily have been increased in number, but not 
in quality. The use of arsenical compounds is objectionable, 
but it undoubtedly increases the depilating action of the 
compounds. A few compilers of ' Receipt Books,' and others, 
add to the lime ' charcoal powder,' ' carbonate of potass,' 
' starch,' &c. ; but what action have these materials, chemically, 
upon hair } The simplest depilatory is moistened quicklime, 
but it is less energetic than the mixture recommended above ; 
it answers very well for tanners and fellmongers, with whom 
time is no object. 

boudet's depilatory. 

Powdered quicklime . . • 10 grammes 

Sulphydrate of soda 3 ;> 

Starch 10 » 

This powder is first diluted in a little water and then 
applied. It acts in a few minutes (20 to 30). 

bcettger's depilatorv. 

Pass a current of hydrosulphuric acid into very thick whitewash till it 
is saturated. Take of this sulphydrate of lime well drained, 20 grammes ; 
glycerole of starch and starch,each logrammes ; essence of citron or other 
essence, 10 drops. Apply the paste, and wash after 20 to 30 mmutes. 



Burnett says that the juice of the leaves of the Hernandia 
Sonora is found to be an advantageous and effectual depila- 
tory, as it destroys the hair wherever it is employed, without 
pain to the skin. 

Knowing from experience how much many of my country- 
women would value such an article, it is my intention at an 
early period to test the value of this assertion, and if it be 
possessed of the properties asserted, Hernandia depilatory 
shall shortly be at their command. 

The Hernandia Sonora, family of the lauraceae, grows in 
the Antilles. It takes its name from the noise the wind 
makes in passing over its stiff calices, with their tough and 
close sections. 


Poudre d'or was first worn by the Empress Eugenie, at 
the Festival of Boeuf Gras, i860. Since then this pretty con- 
ceit, as the wave of fashion always does, has extended from 
its centre to the circle of all who pretend to move within its 

The best quality consists of crushed gold leaf, the common 
kind, or 'speckles,' is nothing more than a coarse bronze 


This consists of very thin glass powdered, sometimes 
called Frost ; it is a necessary requisite for ladies going to a 
fancy ball, dressed as Snow or Frost. 



A LADY'S toilet-table is incomplete without a box of 
some absorbent powder ; indeed, from our earliest 
infancy, powder is used for drying the skin with the greatest 
benefit : no wonder that its use is continued in advanced years, 
if, by slight modifications in its composition, it can be em- 
ployed not only as an absorbent, but as a means of ' personal 
adornment.' We are quite within limits in stating that many 
tons weight of such powders are used in this country annually. 
They are principally composed of various starches, prepared 
from wheat, potatoes, and various nuts, mixed more or less 
with powdered talc, magnesia, steatite (soap-stone), French 
chalk, oxide of bismuth, and oxide of zinc, &c. These 
powders are best applied to the face with a hare's foot, which 
is prepared and fitted with handles for that purpose. When, 
however, the powder is applied to the skin generally, as for 
the purpose of drying it after washing, what is termed a ' puff,' 
of swan's down, is now mostly employed. An authority has 
informed me that there are about 5,000 swans' skins imported 
into England annually — ^passing through the Custom-house ; 
however, there is good reason to suppose that vast numbers 
also find their way here, ' dispensing with the tediousness of 
customs regulations altogether ; ' now presuming this number 
to be 2,000, we should have an actual importation of 7,000 
swans' skins. Each skin will make on an average 60 pufife, 


equal to a total produce of 420,000 per annum. The name 
pufif applied to these articles is derived from the ' pufif box,' 
a ' household appendage ' of every home in the reign of the 
Georges, at which time everybody wore powder. The puff 
box of that period was constructed like a flower dredger ; but 
the sides of it were collapsible leather ; in the interior was a 
spring and the powder. It was used like a pair of bellows. 
Thus our grandfathers powder-puffed themselves before they 
entered society ! The best swans' skins for puffs come from 
Holland, and are very thick in the down. There are some 
imported from Canada, and North America, but, like our 
English swans, they are thinner in the down than the Dutch 
swan. The most popular powder is what is termed 


Wheat starch . 12 lbs. 

Orris-root powder . .... 2 „ 

Otto of lemon ^ oz. 

„ bergamot • i „ 

„ cloves 2 drachms 


Starch of pistachio nuts 7 lbs. 

French chalk, in fine powder 7 ,, 

Otto of rose and lavender . . each i drachm 

Well sifted together through a fine sieve. 

Starch can be procured from an infinite variety of sources ; 
and according to the material it is procured from, so is the 
size of the grain. Wheat starch comparatively has a very 
coarse grain : hence the ordinary powder is too coarse for the 
complexion, but nut starch (Brazil, Barcelona, almond, pista- 
chio, or any other) yields a fine grain, smooth and soft, very 
suitable for complexion powders. 



Rice starch 7 lbs. 

Rose pink J drachm 

Otto of rose 2 drachms 

„ santal 2 „ 

Is pure wheat starch. 


Starch i lb. 

Oxide of bismuth 4 oz. 


French chalk i lb. 

Oxide of bismuth i oz. 

Oxide of zinc i „ 


is levigated talc passed through a silk sieve. 

This is a very good face powder, particularly as it 
does not discolour from emanation of the skin or impure 

As to painting the face, it appears to be practised, more 
or less, by both male and female, from the earliest period to 
the present time. 'And when Jehu was come to Jezreel, 
Jezebel heard of it ; and she painted her face, and tired her 
head, and looked out at a window' (2 Kings ix. 30). Gibbon,' 
describing the Roman Emperor Elagabalus, says, that at his 
first entry into the eternal city, his eyebrows were tinged 
with black, and his cheeks painted with an artificial red and 

' GSbhon's, Decline and Fall of the Soman Empire, vol. i., ch. vi. p. 233. 

E E 


white. Almost the first present that the Empress made to 
Catherine, newly arrived at court, and scarcely fifteen years 
old, was a rouge-pot.' The late Duke of Brunswick whom it 
will be remembered willed a large sum of money and treasure to 
the Town Council of Geneva, never appeared in public until 
' got up ' with a fair quantity of rouge, and which was more 
particularly noticed, as his Grace invariably painted round his 
eyes so much that he appeared just to have escaped after a pugi- 
listic encounter. His Grace was rather eccentric, to be sure, as it 
has been said that he went to France in a balloon, for fear of 
the mal de mer. 

LIQUID BLANC DE PERLE (for theatrical use). 

The use of a white paint by actresses and dancers is 
absolutely necessary ; great exertion produces a florid com- 
plexion, which is incompatible with certain scenic effects, and 
requires a cosmetic to subdue it. The late Madame Vestris, 
during her stage career, had probably consumed more than half 
a hundredweight of oxide of bismuth, prepared thus : — 

Rose or orange-flower water i pint 

Oxide of bismuth 4 oz. 

Mixed by long trituration. 


is also extensively used as a toilet powder, and is sold 
under various names ; it is not so unctuous as the ordinary 


These preparations are in demand, not only for theatrical 
use, but by private individuals. Various shades of colour are 

' MSmoires de V ImpSratrice Catherine II. par M. A. Herzen. 


made to suit the complexions of the blonde and brunette. 
One of the best kinds is what is termed 

Bloom, of Roses. 

Strong liquid ammonia J oz. 

Finest carmine a „ 

Rose-water i pint 

Esprit de rose, triple . . . . . ^ oz. 

This preparation, almost a necessary appendage to the 
toilet of every lady in France and Germany, is used to impart 
to the lips that cherry-like hue so much admired. It is also 
used to give the pale and wan cheek a roseate bloom. In 
many respects it is superior to rouge, which is now almost as 
prevalent in this country as in the days of George the Third, 
when spots and rouge were fit subjects for Swift's sarcasm. 

Place the carmine in a pint bottle, and pour on it the ammonia ; allow 
them to remain together, with occasional agitation, for two days ; then 
add the rose-water and esprit, and well mix. Place the bottle in a quiet 
situation for a week ; any precipitate of impurities from the carmine will 
subside ; the supernatant ' Bloom of Roses ' is then to be bottled for sale. 
If the carmine was perfectly pure, there would be no precipitate ; nearly 
all the carmine purchased from the makers is more or less sophisticated, 
its enormous price being a premium for its adulteration. 

Carmine cannot be manufactured profitably on a small 
scale for commercial purposes ; four or five manufacturers 
supply the whole of Europe. M. Titard, Rue Grenier St. 
Lazare, Paris, produces, without doubt, the finest article ; 
singularly enough, however, the principal operative in the 
establishment is an old Englishman. 

The preparation of the finest carmine is still a mystery, because, on 
the one hand, its consumption being very limited, few persons are 
engaged in its manufacture, and, upon the other, the raw material being 
costly, extensive experiments on it cannot be conveniently made. — Dr. 

A manufacturer of carmine, who was aware of the superiority of the 
French colour, went to Lyons for the purpose of improving his process, 

E E 2 


and bargained with the most celebrated manufacturer in that city for the 
acquisition of his secret, for which he was to pay one thousand pounds. 
He was shown all the process, and saw a beautiful colour produced ; but 
he found not the least difference in the French mode of fabrication and 
that which had been constantly adopted by himself He appealed to his 
instructor, and insisted that he must have concealed something. The 
man assured him that he had not, and invited him to see the process a 
second time. He minutely examined the water and the materials, which 
were in every respect similar to his own, and then, very much surprised, 
said, ' I have lost my labour and my money, for the air of England does 
not permit us to niake good carmine. ' ' Stay,' said the Frenchman ; 
' don't deceive yourself. What kind of weather is it now V 'A bright, 
sunny day,' replied the Enghshman. ' And such are the days,' said the 
Frenchman, ' on which I make my colour. Were I to attempt to manu- 
facture it on a dark or cloudy day, my results would be the same as yours. 
Let me advise you, my friend, always to make carmine on bright, sunny 
days.' ' I will,' rejoined the Englishman ; 'but I fear I shall make very 
httle in London ! '—Sir H. Daw.' 

In the EncyclopMie Roret will be found no less than a dozen 
recipes for preparing carmine; the number of formulae will 
convince the most superficial reader that the true form is yet 

Analysis has taught us its exact composition ; but a certain 
dexterity of manipulation and proper temperature are indis- 
pensable to complete success. 

Most of the recipes given by Dr. Ure, and others, are from 
this source ; but, as they possess no practical value, we refrain 
from reprinting them. 

Mr. B. Wood patented the following method of making 
carmine, which may be very useful to some of our readers who 
have to pay a much higher price for this material than it 
would cost themselves to make it. Take 9 ounces of the 

' [The writer of this little volume was first inspired in his chemical studies by 
reading the works of Sir H. Davy. When quite a boy he travelled on foot, with 
knapsack on back, from London to Penzance in Cornwall to see Davy's birthplace. 
Again he went to Geneva to see his tomb near to that of John Calvin, in the 
Cemetry of Plane Palais. The Davy Centenary Festival took place at Penzance 
on the 13th and 14th February, 1879.] 


carbonate of soda and dissolve it in 27 quarts of rain watei-, to 
which are added 8 ounces of citric acid. When brought to the 
boiling point, i^ lb. of the best cochineal, ground fine, are 
added, and then boiled for i^ hour. The liquor is then 
strained or filtered and set by to cool. The clear liquor is 
then boiled again, with 9^ ounces of alum, for about ten 
minutes, and is again drawn off and allowed to cool and 
settle for two or three days. The supernatant liquor is then 
drawn off, and the sediment which is fallen to the bottom is 
filtered and washed with clean, cold soft water, and is finally 
dried by evaporating all the moisture. The result is fine 
carmine, which can be made into the finest red ink by dissol- 
ving it in a caustic solution of ammonia, adding a little dis- 
solved gum arabic. 

By the old plan of making carmine, no citric ^cid was 
used ; the cochineal was simply boiled in soft rain water for 
two hours, containing a minute quantity of carbonate of soda, 
then allowed to settle, and treated by remainder of the process 
as described above. An improvement in the brilliancy of the 
colour is obtained by adding about one-ninth part of the 
crystals of a salt of tin to the alum, using for this purpose a 
ninth part less of alum than the amount given above. 


are prepared of different shades by mixing fine carmine with 
talc powder, in different proportions ; say one drachm of car- 
mine to two ounces of talc, or one of carmine to three of talc, 
and so on. These rouges are sold in powder, and also in cake 
on china puts ; for the latter the rouge is mixed with a minute 
portion of solution of gum tragacanth. M. Titard prepares a 
great variety of rouges. In some instances the colouring 
matter of the cochineal is spread upon thick paper and dried 
very gradually : it then assumes a beautiful green tint. This 


curious optical effect is also observed in 'pink saucers.' What 
is known as Chinese book-rouge is evidently made in the same 
way, and has been imported into this country for many years. 
When the bronze-green cards are moistened with a piece 
of damp cotton-wool, and applied to the lips or cheeks, the 
colour assumes a beautiful rosy hue. Common sorts of rouge, 
called ' theatre rouge,' are made from the Brazil-wood lake ; 
another kind is derived from the safflower {Carthamus 
tinctorius) ; from this plant also are made 


The safflower is washed in water until the yellow colouring 
matter is removed ; the carthamine, or colour principle, is 
then dissolved out by a weak solution of carbonate of soda ; 
the colouring is then precipitated into the saucers by the 
addition of sulphuric acid to the solution. 

Cotton-wool and crape, being coloured in the same way, 
are used for the same purpose, the former being sold as 
Spanish wool, the latter as Cr^pon rouge. 

A more beautiful and redder carthamine is obtainable by 
precipitation of the alkaline solution of the colouring matter 
with citric acid, instead of sulphuric acid. The rouge of the 
theatres is almost alwa)^ made with carthamine. 


Under the euphonious name of Schnoiida an article for 
colouring the cheeks has been recently introduced into per- 
fumery. I prefer to call it Sympathetic Blush, on account of 
its peculiar qualities. 

In a chemical sense it possesses very great interest, 
and illustrates in one way how science is applied to the arts. 

The colouring principle of this Blush is known to chemical 


philosophers under the name of Alloxan, and was discovered 
by Liebig. 

Alloxan is white, and is soluble in water ; being mixed 
up with a greasy body after the manner of cold cream, a 
white cream results. 

On exposure to the air by rubbing it upon the cheek, lips, 
or other ' situation,' the Alloxan gradually turns to deep rose- 
colour from the oxydising influence of the atmosphere. Used 
judiciously, it creates the most perfect delusion perpetrated by 
the toilet of fashion. 

Alloxan was discovered by Liebig and Woehler. It 
crystallises in rhomboidal octahedrons. 


The arts of the toilet are carried to such desires that, 
unless the veins could at times be indicated by a faint blue 
vermicular line, there would still be a want for the perfumers 
to supply. 

Blue wherewith to imitate the veins is made with exceed- 
ingly fine levigated French chalk, sifted through a silk sieve, 
tinted to the proper shade with Prussian blue, then made into 
a paste with very thin gum-water ; when dry it is put up 
into pots into the same way as rouge. 

After the complexion has been duly whitened with blanc, 
the veins are indicated with a little of the colouring applied 
with a pencil made of kid-leather, the inside of the skin being 
made the outside of the pencil. 

Artistically used, the effect is pleasing and natural, 


With moderate attention the finger-nails become greatly 
ornamental ; but without it they are worse than a disfigure- 


ment ; in fact, the state of the finger-nails may be said to 
indicate either refinement or its absence. The nails should 
be cut at least once a fortnight, and a sharp penknife pro- 
duces a smoother edge than scissors do. Some persons cannot 
cut the nails of the right hand, but this little difficulty is got 
over with a very little practice, and the left hand adapts itself 
readily where its services can be beneficially employed. 
Clean nails are so essential, that in England we never admit 
that a hand is clean, however well washed, unless the nails 
are clean also. Agnails are prevented by releasing the quick 
from its attachment to the nail about once a week. Some 
persons push the quick down with the towel every time they 
wash their hands ; but small ivory ' nail-cleaners,' sold by 
perfumers, are greatly preferred. ' Biting the nails ' is an 
offence against good manners, and richly deserves the punish- 
ment that it eventually brings with it, in the disfigurement it 
perpetuates. A pretty hand is greatly improved by careful 
attention to the nails, and even a hand which would otherwise 
be somewhat of a disfigurement to the person, is rendered 
pleasing to the eye, if proper attention be given to the nails. 
The best nail powder consists of pure oxide of tin perfumed 
with otto of lavender and tinted with carmine ; it is sold in 
little wooden boxes of about one ounce each. It is applied 
either by rubbing it on the nail with the finger, or with a 
nail polisher covered with leather. As oxide of tin is 
employed for polishing tortoiseshell, we can easily understand 
how useful it is for horn and nails. 

It is stannic acid or binoxide of tin that is used. 




THE teeth should be fairly used, not made to perform the 
duties of crackers for nuts, nor to rival scissors in cut- 
ting thread ; for, rest assured, the teeth so unwittingly injured 
will always be the first to part company from their fellows. 
Cleanliness is absolutely essential for the preservation of the 
teeth, and they should be well brushed at least morning and 
evening, that any feculence which may be attached to them, 
either during sleep from the stomach, or by day from meals, 
may not be allowed permanently to adhere, causing, firstly, 
discoloration, then tartar, and subsequently undermining 
the health of one or more, as from their position they may be 
more or less liable to corrosion. In order that the teeth 
should look natural — that is, retain their natural colour — a 
dentifrice free from the smallest particle of acid should be 
used in the morning, and the mouth rinsed with tepid 
water, for extremes of heat and cold are most highly preju- 
dicial both to their colour and durability. The persons who 
habituate themselves to hot soup, tea, or other drinks, will be 
sure to suffer in their teeth. Brushes for the teeth should be 
of medium substance of bristle, and those made oh what is 
called the penetrating principle are best. Children at an 
early age should be instructed in the use of the tooth-brush, 
and taught the value and importance of the teeth, in order to 


inculcate habits of cleanliness and a due appreciation of the 
ornaments of the mouth. A brush properly selected, not too 
hard, may be used by children of five years of age every 
morning ; and by being part and parcel of the general ablution, 
and thus directing habitual attention to the teeth, a useful 
and cleanly habit will be engendered which will probably 
ensure for them proper care through life. 

The same kind of brush does not suit every one. Persons 
whose gums are congested and sensitive should choose soft 
brushes ; and in case of ulceration, the sponge brush will like- 
wise be the best ; for those whose gums have lost their colour 
should prefer a rather rough brush to stimulate vital action. 
Moreover it will always be prudent and advisible to consult 
a dentist as to the kind of brush best in any particular case. 


regarded as a means merely of cleansing the teeth, are 
most commonly placed among cosmetics ; but this should 
not be, as they assist greatly in preserving a healthy and 
regular condition of the dental machinery, and so aid in per- 
fecting as much as possible the act of mastication. In this 
manner they may be considered as most useful, although, 
it is true, subordinate medicinal agents. By a careful and 
prudent use of them, some of the most frequent causes of 
early loss of the teeth may be prevented ; these are, the de- 
position of tartar, the swelling of the gums, and an undue 
acidity of the saliva. The effect resulting from accumulation 
of the tartar is well known to most persons, and it has been 
distinctly shown that swelling of the substance of the gums 
will hasten the expulsion of the teeth from their sockets ; and 
the action of the saliva, if unduly acid, is known to be injuri* 
ous, if not destructive. Now, the daily employment of a 
tooth-powder sufficiently hard, so as to exert a tolerable 


degree of friction upon the teeth, without at the same time 
injuring the enamel of the teeth, will, in most cases, almost 
always prevent the tartar accumulating in such a degree 
as to cause subsequent injury to the teeth ; and a flaccid, 
spongy, relaxed condition of the gums may be prevented or 
overcome by adding to such a tooth-powder some tonic and 
astringent ingredient. A tooth-powder containing charcoal 
and cinchona bark will accomplish these results in most cases, 
and therefore dentists generally recommend such. Still, 
there are objections as to the use of charcoal ; it is too hard 
and resisting, its colour is objectionable, and it is perfectly 
insoluble by the saliva ; it is apt to become lodged between 
the teeth, and there to collect decomposing animal and 
vegetable matter around such particles as may be fixed in 
this position. Cinchona bark, too, is often stringy, and has 
a bitter, disagreeable taste. M. Mialhe highly recommends 
the following formula : — 

Mialhe's Tooth-Powder. 

Sugar of milk, one thousand parts ; lake, ten parts ; pure tannin, 
fifteen parts ; oil of mint, oil of aniseed, and oil of orange-flowers, so much 
as to impart an agreeable flavour to the composition.' 

His directions for the preparations of this tooth-powder 
are, to rub well the lake with the tannin, and gradually add 
the sugar of milk, previously powdered and sifted ; and 
lastly, the essential oils are to be carefully mixed with the 
powdered substances. Experience has convinced him of the 
efficacy of this tooth-powder, the habitual employment of 
which will suffice to preserve the gums and teeth in a healthy 
state. This formula of Mialhe has been recommended 
especially when the teeth have been blackened by the chaly- 
beates. It would, however, be useful in other cases. 

For those who are troubled with excessive relaxation 

' Chimie appliqtcie h la physiologic et a la thirapeutique, p. 637. Paris, 1856. 


and sponginess of the gums, he recommends the following 
astringent preparation : — 

Mialh^s DeiUifrice. 

Alcohol, one thousand parts ; genuine kino, one hundred parts ; rha- 
tany root, one hundred parts ; tincture of balsam of tola, two parts ; tinc- 
ture of gum benzoin, two parts ; essential oil of canella, two parts ; 
essential oil of mint, two parts ; essential oil of aniseed, one part. 

The kino and the rhatany root are to be macerated in the alcohol for 
Seven or eight days ; and after filtration, the other articles are to be 
added. ' 

A teaspoonful of this preparation mixed in half a goblet 
of water should be used to rinse the mouth after the use of 
the tooth-powder. The word dentifrice is derived from dens, 
frico — a tooth, I rub. 

Camphorated Chalk. 

Precipitated chalk i lb. 

Powdered orris-root | ,, 

„ camphor i „ 

Reduce the camphor to powder by rubbing in a mortar with a little 
spirit, then sift the whole well together. 

On account of the volatility of camphor, the powder 
should always be sold in bottles, or at least in boxes lined 
with tinfoil. 

Quinine Tooth-Powder. 

Precipitated chalk i lb. 

Starch powder i ^^ 

0"is >. U, 

Sulphate of quinine . . . . . i drachm 

After sifting, it is ready for sale. 

' Chimis appliqtiie h la physiologic et ala thirapeutique, p. 638. Paris, 1856. 


Prepared Charcoal. 

Fresh made charcoal, in fine powder . . .7 lbs. 

Prepared chalk i lb. 

Orris-root i „ 

Catechu | „ 

Cassia bark \ „ 

Myrrh ... \ „ 

Charcoal of white wood is generally preferred, and par 
ticularly that of poplar or willow. 

Peruvian Bark Powder. 

Peruvian bark, in powder \Vo. 

Bole ammoniac i „ 

Orris powder i „ 

Cassia bark ^ „ 

Powdered myrrh ^ „ 

Precipitated chalk \ „ 

Otto of cloves \oz. 

Hommopathic Chalk. 

Precipitated chalk i lb. 

Powdered orris' i oz. 

„ starch i „ 

Cuttle-fish Powder. 

Powdered cuttle-fish ^ lb. 

Precipitated chalk i « 

Powdered orris k n 

Otto of lemons i oz. 

„ neroli \ drachm 

Borax and Myrrh Tooth-Powder. 

Precipitated chalk i lb. 

Borax powder \ » 

Myrrh „ i « 

Orris „ in 



Farina Piesse's Powder. 

Burnt Horn 2 lbs. 

Orris-root 2 „ 

Carmine i drachm 

Very fine powdered sugar | lb. 

Otto of neroli . . ^ drachm 

„ lemons j oz. 

„ bergamot \ „ 

„ orange-peel i „ 

„ rosemary i drachm 

Rose Tooth-Powder. 

Precipitated chalk .... 

. I lb. 


• • k ,, 

Rose pink 

. 2 drachms 

Otto of rose 

. I drachm 

„ santal 

• • \ „ 

All these powders are to be well sifted together ; they are 
then ready for sale. 

Opiate Tooth-paste. 

Honey | lb. 

Chalk ^ „ 

0"^"^ J „ 

Carmme 2 drachms 

Otto of cloves . . . .\ 

„ nutmeg . . . I of each . . J drachm 

„ rose . . . .1 
Simple syrup enough to form a paste 

All powders employed unmixed for cleaning the teeth, 
and those which form ingredients in opiates, ought to be 
ground with the utmost carefulness. 

We may remark that all English dentifrices are neutral or 
alkaline ; and they are certainly to be preferred to the French 
powders, which usually owe their acidity to allum or cream of 
tartar. Such powders not only affect and destroy the enamel, 


but they have the serious disadvantage of lodging in the 
cavities of the gums and frequently give rise to slight ulcer- 


Violet Mouth-wash. 

Tincture of orris J pint 

Esprit de rose \ „ 

Spirit \ „ 

Otto of almonds 5 drops 

This is a very nice preparation, and gives great satisfac- 

Eau Botot. 

Tincture of cedar wood i pint 

,, myrrh \ „ 

„ rhatany a „ 

Otto of peppermint 15 drops 

„ roses 10 1) 

Botanic Styptic. 

Rectified spirit i quart 

Rhatany-root . . . ■\ 

Gum myrrh . . . . ^ of each . . 2 oz. 

Whole cloves . . . . j 

Macerate for fourteen days, and strain. 

All these tinctures should be made with grape spirit, or at 
least wish pale unsweetened brandy. 

Tincture of Myrrh and Borax. 

Spirits of wine i quart 


Honey . . . ■ 

Gum myrrh I « 

Red Sanders wood i » 

Rub the honey and borax well together in a mortar, then gradually 

' [ of each . . i oz. 


add the spirit — which should not be stronger than -920, i.e. proof spirit, 
— the myrrh, and sanders wood, and macerate for fourteen days. 

It exalts the flavour and expense, but it yet improves the 
quality of the result to employ halt Cologne or Hungary 
water, in place of all spirits of wine. 

Tincture of Myrrh with Eau de Cologne. 

Eau de Cologne ... . . . i quart 

Gum myrrh 5 oz. 

Macerate for fourteen days, and filter. 

Catnphorated Eau de Cologne. 

Eau de Cologne i quart 

Camphor .... . . 5 oz. 

Turkish Pastil Lozenges. 

For the use of smokers, or to prevent the taste of medicine. 
These lozenges are made thus : — 

Fine sugar 
Citric acid 
Otto of roses . 
Grain musk 
Otto of vitivert 

4 lbs. 

4 drachms 

5 drops 
4 grains 
^ drachm 

Gum tragacanth dissolved in water, enough to form the whole into a 
paste, tinted with liquid lake. 

Aromatic Cashoo (Bologna) for Smokers. 

Extract of liquorice by infusion . . . 100 grammes 

Water 100 „ 

Dissolve in water bath, and add 30 grammes of powdered cashoo, and 
30 grammes of powered gum. Evaporate tSU it has the consistence of an 
extract and incorporate 2 grammes of each of the following substances, finely 
powered— mastic, cascarella, charcoal, orris. Well mix, take off the fire and 
add, 2 grammes of essence of English mint, 5 drops of tincture of musk, and 


5 drops of tincture of amber. Pour upon an oiled marble surface, and 
spread out with a roller into plates. 

When the mass is cooled, rub with unsized paper, in order completely 
to remove the oil from both surfaces ; then moisten slightly with water, 
and place over each a leaf of silver. When dried, cut into very narrow 
strips, then into small squares or lozenges. 

F F 




AS a general rule, society does not use enough pomades 
and hair oils ; hence the number of rough-looking heads 
of hair that are to be seen when men are assembled together 
with their 'hats off,' as in a court of justice and similar places 
of public resort. In boarding-schools, in vain are soap and 
water employed to destroy an odious parasite, whoi5e name 
need not be mentioned ; but which is never seen or heard of 
where the toilet is liberally supplied with good pomade or oil. 
On the other hand, there are persons whose hair is so naturally 
moist and greasy that no kind of unguent is required. Such 
hair is very liable to come off, to be thin, lank, and pliable ; 
whereas good hair should always have a certain amount of 
' woolliness ' in it, to give that appearance of life and vigour so 
becoming in curly locks, and the excess of which is a negro 
head. Thin and naturally greasy hair requires a wash to 
keep it in nice order : and if the hair is falling off, either 
from sickness or natural decay, the wash should be astringent 
and stimulant. 

Rosemary Water, 

Rosemary, free from stalk lo lbs. 

Water 12 gallons 

Draw off by distillation ten gallons for use in perfumery 



Rosemary Hair-wash. 

Rosemary water i gallon 

Rectified spirit ^ pint 

Pearl-ash .... . . . i oz. 

Tinted with brown colouring. 

Bay Rum. 

This is a very good hair-wash. It was first introduced in 
New York by those go-a-head scissors, that ' abbreviate ' the 
' crown of glory.' 

Tincture of bay leaves 
Otto of bay 

Bicarbonate of ammonia 
Biborate of soda (borax) . 

Mix and filter. 

5 oz. 

I drachm 

I oz. 

I » 

I quart 

Athenian Water. 

Rose-water . i gallon 

Alcohol . . I pint 

Sassafras wood . . . . . . . ^ lb. 

Pearl-ash ... . . . . i oz. 

Boil the wood in the rose-water in a glass vessel ; then, when cold, 
add the pearl-ash and spirit. 

Instead of the pearl-ash I should prefer the Panama wood, 
which would make a better head of hair. 


Rectified spirit 

Extrait de fleur d'orange 

„ jasmin . 

„ acacia . 

„ rose 

„ tubereuse 

Extract of vanilla . 

Vegetable or Botanic Extract. 
\ of each 

of each 

3 quarts 


This is a very beautifully scented hair-wash, 
a price commensurate with its cost. 

It retails at 


Astringent Extract of Roses and Rosemary. 

Rosemary water ....... 2 quarts 

Esprit de rose \ pint 

Rectified spirit 'i „ 

Extract of vanilla . . . . . i quart 

Magnesia, to clear it 2 oz. 

Filter through paper. 

Glycerine and Caiitharides Lotion. {For the Hair, if falling o^.) 

Mr. Startin has published the following-, which is stated to 
be of great service. 

Rosemary water . . . . . i gallon 

Spirits of sal volatile . . . . i oz. 

Tincture of cantharides . • 2 „ 

Glycerine 4 „ 

To be used with a sponge or soft hair-brush twice a day. 

Lotion for the Hair, as recommended by Dr. Locock. 

Liquor of ammonia 
Oil of sweet almonds 
Spirits of rosemary . 
Otto of mace . 


each . . 2 drachms 

. I oz. 

J drachm 
. 2^ oz. 

First, mix the almond oil with the ammonia ; then, having added the 
otto of mace (essential oil of mace) to the rosemary, shake these up with 
the oil and ammonia ; finally, add the rose-water by degrees. 

It is used as a lotion, and applied once a day at the toilet 
hour. This compound is a stimulant, and was made at the 
suggestion of her Majesty's physician for promoting the growth 
of the hair and preventing its falling off. 

Saponaceous Wash, or Egg Jtilep. 
Rectified spirit 

Rose-water .... 
Extract of rondeletia 
Transparent soap . 
Hay saffron 

. I pmt 

I gallon 

. ^ pint 

• . . . Joz. 

. i drachm 


Shave up the soap very fine ; boil it and the saffron in a quart of the 
rose-water ; when dissolved, add the remainder of the water, then the 
spirit, finally the rondeletia, which is used by way of perfume. After 
standing for two or three days, it is fit for bottling. 

By transmitted light, it is transparent ; but by reflected 
light the liquid has a pearly and singularly wavy appearance 
when shaken. 

In preparations or washes for the hair, castor-oil is now 
frequently employed. It produces an unequalled brilliancy ; 
but it is necessary to select for the purpose a freshly made oil, 
otherwise its odour is disagreeable, and difficult to disguise, 
especially on the head where it is easily heated. Castor- 
oil, it should be remembered, is soluble in spirit : the article 
known as 

Is made thus — 

Any scented spirit ... . . i pint 

Castor-oil . . . . 2 oz. 


Various preparations are used to assist in dressing the 
hair in any particular form. Some persons use for that 
purpose a hard pomatum containing wax, made up into 
rolls, called thence Baton fixateur. The little ' feathers ' of 
hair, with which some ladies are troubled, are by the aid of 
these batons made to lie down smooth. 

The liquid bandolines are principally of a gummy nature, 
being made either with Iceland moss, or linseed and water 
variously perfumed, also by boiling quinceseed with water. 
Perfumers, however, chiefly make bandoline from gum traga- 
canth, which exudes from a shrub of that name which grows 
plentifully in Greece and Turkey. 


Rose Bandolines. 

Gum tragacanth . . . . 6 oz. 

Rose-water . . ... . i gallon 

Otto of roses . . ^ oz. 

Steep the gum in the water for a day or so. As it swells and forms a 
thick gelatinous mass, it must from time to time be well agitated. After 
about forty-eight hours' maceration, it is then to be squeezed through a 
coarse linen cloth, and again left to stand for a few days, then passed 
through the cloth a second time, to insure uniformity of consistency ; 
when this is the case, the otto of roses is to be thoroughly incorporated. 

The cheap bandoline is made without the otto ; for 
coloured bandoline, it is to be tinted with ammoniacal 
solution of carmine, i.e. Bloom of Roses ; or with roseline for 
rose tint, and aniline for violet tint. 

Almond Bandoline 

is made precisely as the above, scenting with a quarter of an 
ounce of otto of almonds in place of the roses. 

crSme de mauve, or hair gloss. 

This preparation serves the double purpose of a dressing 
for the hair and as a fixateur. It is especially made for 
giving gloss and brilliancy to the hair, when an engagement 
requires that the tresses and curls should appear particularly 
elegant, as at a ball, soiree, or the opera, and is made 
thus : — 

Pure glycerine 4 lbs. 

Spirit of jasmine i pint 

Aniline 5 drops 

In concluding this section, we now terminate our remarks 
on the manufacture of odorous substances, and their applica- 
tion to the toilet of fashion and beauty. 

To be 'in good odour' denotes moral purity. To employ 


. ^ 

a special odour, in its material sense, according to circum- 
stances — age, joy, sorrow — is the suggestion of the late Dr. 
Andrew Wynter of Chiswick. ' Why,' says he, ' should we 
not know our fair friends by the delicate odours with which 
they are surrounded, as we know them afar off by the charm 
of voice ? There is an appropriate odour, to our minds, to 
each particular character. The spirituelle should affect 
jasmine ; the brilliant and witty, magnolia ; the robust, the 
more musky odours ; and young girls just blooming into 
womanhood, the rose. The citron-like perfumes are more 
fitted for the melancholy temperature, and there is a sad minor 
note in heliotrope that the young widow should affect.' 

The great Creator, in addition to utility, has added beauty 
and variety in all His works. Flowers might have been of 
one colour and the same odour, or they might have been 
colourless or inodorous. 

Yet what exquisite beauty and diversity of perfume is 
there in plants and flowers ! The love of this beauty and 
perfume is universal. Man is adapted to appreciate^ 
which the beneficent Creator has spread before him in such 
rich variety ; the gratification arising from this enjoyment, as 
it is among the most innocent and purest, so it is the most 
pleasing^ and permanent that he enjoys. 

The great Teacher, when speaking of the lilies, says that 
' Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these ; ' 
and when setting forth his own excellences and glory, says, ' I 
am the Rose of Sharon.' 

Nor the sweet smell 
Of different flowers in odour and in hue 
Can make me any longer story tell. 





THE various toilet requisites manufactured by the per- 
fumer must not only smell nicely, produce a pleasing 
sensation to touch, but they must also gratify the eye, — in 
fact, they must be ' pretty ; ' this effect is gained by the 
addition of colour. 

The colour employed must be in harmony and appro- 
priate to the article to which it is applied. Thus, Rose mouth- 
wash should be tinted of a beautiful blush colour ; Savon de 
Tridace, or lettuce soap, is to be coloured green ; and so on. 
The proper occasion to employ colour does, however, in a 
measure rest with the taste of the chef of the laboratory ; and 
so long as the colour of the article is in unison with the idea 
of its nature, there is no objection to its free employment, 
provided the colouring matter is of a harmless character when 
applied to the skin. 

In this respect modern perfumers have considerable 
advantage over their predecessors : chemistry has supplied 
them with colours not only rich in tint, but of a harmless 
nature ; nay, more, for we can now colour certain substances 
of tints, which, but so short time ago as when the first edition 
of this work was published, it was impossible to accomplish. 
Up to the time of Mr. Perkins's patent for the application of 
aniline, and its derivatives, to dyeing, there were but very 
few organic substances applicable for colouring perfumery. 


Mineral colours of course there are plenty ; but the majority 
of them are of a poisonous nature, and cannot therefore be 
employed in the laboratory of a perfumery factor. Under 
the name of the colour, the several substances that can be so 
tinted will be mentioned. 

Green. — Alcohol may be coloured green by infusing in it 
the dried leaves of almost any plant or herb — the leaves of 
spinach, sage, grass, hay, and numerous others, being either 
sun-dried or. artificially dried, with a current of warm air, and 
then put into the spirit, will colour it of various beautiful 
shades of green. The pomades of violet and acacia also 
colour spirit green by maceration, but the more beautiful the 
tint as a rule the older is the pomade or the tincture ; fresh 
spirit of acacia or violet is of a brown-green tint, but if it has 
been prepared for some time, being more or less exposed to 
the air, then it passes to a spring-grass green colour, and the 
perfume is deteriorated. 

Green coloured perfumery is much admired ; hence a 
little acacia is often used in a bouquet on account of its tint. 

Oils and pomades may be coloured GREEN thus : dried 
spinach or other leaves are put into rectified spirits of wine, 
the spirit rapidly dissolves out the green colouring matter of 
the plants, called chlorophyle ; the spirit being then pressed 
away from the spent leaves, is to be put on to more leaves, 
and again pressed out when the colouring is dissolved : this 
operation repeated several times with the same spirit it will 
become of a rich deep green colour, on account of its holding 
the chlorophyle in solution. When the quantities operated 
upon are large, and it is essential to save the spirit, the tincture 
may be placed into a retort or still, and then distilled at a low 
temperature. Steam distillation is best. The green residuary 
extract that remains after the spirit is evaporated being now 
triturated with oil or fat, will colour the grease of a pretty 


Watery fluids, milks, &c., may be tinted of a beautiful 
GREEN with a green solution of dye recently introduced by 
Messrs. Judson, of Cannon Street. 

Soap may be coloured green by making in the melting- 
pan a judicious mixture of soap, containing from seven pounds 
to fourteen pounds of new palm oil to every hundredweight 
of soap. This produces a good yellow body soap. To this 
we add one, two, or three ounces of blue smalt, or of ultra- 
marine blue, mixed with half a pint of water. The blue 
colour and the yellow soap produce, when crutched together, 
a vegetable green tint. Green soaps are sometimes produced 
with salts of copper, chromate of potass, and chromate of 
lead. These materials being all pernicious, manufacturers 
using them ought to be publicly fined. 

Powders may be coloured GREEN by employing the dried 
powders of fresh herbs, such as parsley, spinach, bay leaves, 
&c., mixed with starch. 

Azure, Prussian blue, and Indigo blue may be used with- 
out danger. 

Yellow. — Saffron, palm oil, and turmeric, are the prin- 
cipal yellow stains used by perfumers. 

Alcohol may be coloured YELLOW, or rather of a beautiful 
uranium-glass tint, by the maceration of jonquil pomade ; the 
pollen of the flowers in the first place imparts its tint to the 
grease, which, in turn, is given up to the spirit. Alcohol may 
be dyed yellow by infusing in it the turmeric root {Curcuma 
longa of India), the well-known condiment, mixed in curry 
powder, &c. 

Watery lotions and emulsions may be Conveniently coloured 
YELLOW with saffron, which consists of the stigmata of the 
yellow crocus blossom. Saffron-Walden, a town in Essex, 
received its prefix on account of the saffron gardens which at 
one time were extensively cultivated there. 

Pomades are best coloured YELLOW by jonquil pomade. 


rose pomade, or palin oil ; the latter is the most economical; 
but the two former are far more agreeable to the sm&ll. Rose 
pomade has a tint of a deeper yellow than the jonquil, but is 
not equal in colouring power to palm oil. The rose pomade 
receives its tint from the pollen of the roses, with which it is 
made in the same way as jonquil, i.e. maceration. 

It is difficult to stain oils of almost any colour except red 
and purple ; we know of nothing that will colour oil yellow 

Palm ' oil ' being in fact not an oil at all in this country, 
but always more solid than butter, and opaque, will not serve 
for colouring oil yellow. 

Red, Rose, Violet, and Mauve.— All these tints may 
be conveniently considered together, because the mode of 
obtaining them is from one and the same source — namely, 

Alcohol vectwes from the variety of aniline colours all the 
shades a perfumer can desire ; the smallest distinction in the 
shade of a colour is sufficient to require a special name to 
indicate it. The two most famous tints which approach the 
rose and red in the aniline series are known as Magenta and 
Solferino, so named from the towns in Italy, where the battles 
were fought between the French, Piedmontese, and Austrians. 

Oils, fats, wax, and spermaceti, may be easily coloured 
RED with the roots of the Anchusa tinctoria, commonly called 
alkanet root, and for this purpose the plant is cultivated to a 
considerable extent in the south of France about Montpellier, 
and also in Turkey in Asia. 

In order to colour oil, one, two, or three pounds of alkanet 
root are broken up and put into a vessel, which can be placed 
into hot or boiling water. The root is then covered with 
either olive or almond oil, and kept hot for several days ; after 
which time the oil is strained away from the root, and pre- 
served in a bottle under the name of ' red colouring.' If the 


colour desired be not deep or intense enough, then the same 
oil must' be put on to fresh root two or three times, or until, 
in fact, it is suitable to the desired wants. 

A portion of 'red colouring' thus made, is at all times 
convenient as a source or material to tint pomatums and oils 
of shades varying from rosy to crimson. 

About I S,ooo pounds of alkanet root are imported annually 
into this country. 

Oils and other greasy bodies may be coloured also of 
.VARIOUS TINTS by agitating them with the alcoholic solution 
of all the aniline series, solferino, mauve, &c. After the oils, 
&c., have taken up the colour, the spirit must be dissipated 
with heat or subsidence ; we are thus, for the first time, able to 
stain fatty bodies of various shades from violet to a blush rose. 

A still more simple and economical method is to dissolve 
the aniline in a certain quantity of glycerine, and then to 
make use of the solution for colouring fatty bodies, oils and 

Glycerine may also be coloured of the most lovely tints by 
these colouring matters, — Simpson's Magenta, and Perkins's 
Mauve, proving the most useful. 

Watery fluids take the tints of mauve, magenta, solferino, 
to any shade. 

Milks and emulsions take these colours well, if not kept 
too long ; but if made some time, the colouring gradually 
subsides in combination with the amygdaline of the almond 
.or pistachio-nut from which the emulsion is made. 

Reddish-Brown. — Alcohol is best coloured of a red-brown 
tint with rhatany root. Rhatany is the Krameria triandra 
of botanists, and is principally imported from Peru ; there is, 
however, another variety of nearly similar properties that 
comes from the Antilles or Caribbee Islands, — this is the 
Krameria ixina ; both are bushy shrubs, and are cultivated 
for the sake of the root, yielding as it does a beautiful colour 


to spirit, and on account of its flavour, extensively employed 
for making fictitious port wine ; this root is also employed in 
tooth powders, which see. 

Another very good RED-BROWN tint is obtained in alcohol, 
by making a tincture of red santal wood or red sanders in the 
vemacular. Red sanders is the wood of the Pterocarpus san- 
talinus, a tree natural to the Coromandel Mountains, largely 
imported for the use of dyers, together with another variety, 
Pterocarpus flavus, yellow sanders, which yields a yellow tint 
to spirit. Cedar wood yields a good red tint to spirit, and is 
employed to some extent in liquid dentifrices by the French 

Soaps are coloured of a red brown and dark brown, with 
powdered burnt sienna and umber ; but neither of these are 
so well to employ, for many reasons, as the following : — 

Brown.^ — Burnt sugar or molasses, boiled in an iron vessel 
to the burning point, being dissolved in lime water, is the 
' brown colouring ' of perfuimers, and ' caramel ' of con- 
fectioners. This colour is suitable for tinting soap and hair 
washes of any desired shade ; but as it is not soluble in either 
grease or spirit, it does not impart colour to them. 

Black. — There is no true soluble black for either -duater 
or spirit ; but Indian or Chinese ink remains suspended in 
these liquids longer than any other substance. 

Grease and Soap can only be coloured Black, economi- 
cally, with lamp-black, first rubbed with oil, then added to 
the soap or grease in quantity sufficient to produce the desired 
shade. Instead of lamp-black, the charcoal of cork is often 



The best sponges imported are received from Smyrna, 
and from the shores of the islands in the Grecian Archi- 
pelago. When imported, they are full of sand, and in this 
state it is the best way to purchase them ; then afcerwards to 
beat out the sand with a stick, and well rinse them in cold 
spring water. Nothing is better adapted for cleansing the 
skin than a good sponge ; hence surgeons prefer it to any 
other material. In the regular way of using a sponge with soap 
for washing, they rapidly become greasy, and are then fre- 
quently thrown aside, before half worn out. The peculiar 
cellular fibrous tissue of sponge enables it to decompose the 
soap, retaining the grease and oil, which render it slimy; when 
such is the case, a ley of soda should be prepared, of the 
strength of half a pound of soda to half a gallon of water, and 
the sponge placed to soak in it for twenty-four hours ; it 
should then be washed, and well rinsed in SPRING WATER, 
and afterwards in water containing a little muriatic acid (a wine- 
glassful of the acid to half a gallon of water is strong 
enough). Finally, again rinse the sponge in plenty of spring 
water. The best sponge being worth from 40J. to 8oj. per 
pound, renders it fully worth while to keep them clean. If 
trouble be taken to well rinse a sponge every time after using, 
the cleaning process will rarely be necessary. 

M. Lamiral distinguishes three kinds of sponges for which there is 
a demand— the fine and soft sponge, called abiand; the fine and hard 
sort, called achmar ; and lastly, the common sort, called ccibar by the 
Arabs. These sponges are found in the Levant within the 36th and 
33rd degrees of latitude, that is, between Alexandretta and Saida. 
It is now universally acknowledged that sponges belong to the animal 
kingdom, and are an aggregate of cellules built up by gelatinous polypi 
similar to those which construct madreporie, porites, and other polypifers. 
When the sponge is first gathered at the bottom of the sea, it is covered 



with a black but transparent gelatinous substance, resembling vegetable 
granulations, among which microscopic white and oviform bodies may be 
distinguished. These are the lavae destined to perpetuate the species. 
When arrived at maturity, they are washed out by the sea-water which 
incessantly flows through the sponge ; they then swim along, by the aid 
of the vibrating cilia or hairs with which they are provided, until they 
reach a suitable rock, to which they attach themselves, and there com- 
mence a new life. This emigration of the lavse from the parent sponge 
occurs about the end of June and beginning of July. The fine qualities 
of sponges are chiefly found at a depth of 1 5 fathoms or thereabout ; the 
common sponge Ues at depths varying between 20 and 30 fathoms. 

The quantity of sponge imported into Great Britain in 


Used at home 


732,890 lbs. 


Computed Value 

■ ^285,919 

• 48,025 



Quantities of Ottos, otherwise Essential Oils, yielded by vatious Plants. 


of otto 

Orange-peel 10 yield about 

I oz. 

Dry marjoram herb 

20 „ 

3 „ 

Fresh „ „ 

100 „ 

3 „ 

White peppermint . 

100 ,. 

12 „ 

Black „ 

100 „ 

16 „ 

Dry origanum 


2 to 3 „ 

„ thyme . 

20 „ 

1 to Ij „ 

„ calmus 


3 to 4 „ 



9 to 12 „ 

Caraway . 


16 „ 

Cloves . 

1 „ 

2j „ 



3 „ 

Cassia . 


3 „ 

Cedar wood 


4 „ 


2 „ 

3 „ 


2 „ 

3 to 4 „ 

Fresh balm herb 


I to \\ „ 

Cake of bitter almond 

14 „ 

I „ 

■Sweet flag roo 


.112 „ 

16 „ 




of otto 

Geranium leaves . . . . i 

1 2 yield about 

2 OZ. 

Mitcham lavender . 

100 „ 

32 „ 

Lavender flowers . 

• 112 „ 

30 to 32 „ 


; leaves . 

• H2 „ 

5 » 

Patchouli herb 

• "2 „ 

28 „ 

Provence rose blossom 

. I 


ij to 2 drachms 

Rhodium wood 

• "2 „ 

3 to 4 oz. 

Santal wood . 

• 112 „ 

30 „ 

Vitivert or kus-kus-root 

■ 112 „ 

IS ,, 

Violets . 

. I 


i drachm 


New Kent . 

. 100 „ 

4 drachms 


Bavarian, 3 years old 

. 100 „ 

8 „ 


Sussex, late picking 

. 100 „ 

2* „ 

Boiling and Congealing Temperatures of various Ottos, dr'c. 



id oil will not boil 

+ 660° 

Otto of patchouli boils . 

• • -<5i5° 


vitivert „ . 

. . +548° 


santal wood boils 

• + 550° 


cedar wood „ 

■ + 507° 

English lavender boils . 

+ 475° 


lemon-grass „ 

. +440° 


rose (pure Turkish) boils . 

• +432° 


geranium (Spanish) „ . 

• +430° 


„ (Indian) „ . 

. + 420° 


gauUheria „ 
almonds „ . 

. +400° 
• +356° 

bergamot (pure !) „ 
caraway „ . 

■ + 370° 
• +348° 

lemon peel 

orange „ ) '' 

+ 345° 


French lavender (spike) . 

. + 180° 

white wax melts 

. +150° 

camphor sublimes 
spermaceti melts 

■ + 145° 
. +112" 

paraffin A . . . 

. + 102° 

„ B . . . . 

. + 90° 

otto rose (Italian) congeals 
„ (Turkish) „ 


. +"62° 
. + 58° 

geranium, neroly, cloves, depo; 

.it crystals 

. + 2° 

santal, cedar, lemon-grass, con; 

jeal to a jelly 

■ - 5° 

bergamot congeals . 

- 12° 

cinnamon still flu 

id . 


■ - 13° 




THERE is considerable difficulty in obtaining a correct 
statement of the duties levied on perfumery at foreign 
ports, because, in nearly every instance, perfumery is not re- 
cognised in its distinctive character, but is subdivided into the 
various materials of which it is composed, and even into the 
various articles into which it is put up for sale. Thus scent 
pays one duty, and the bottles in which it is packed another. 
Here pomatum, coming in a plain jar, has one tariff ; but if 
in an ornamented, or gilt edged jar, the tariff is different. 
There, the duty is according to weight ; here, according to its 
stated value. 

Each and every Government suffers a loss of revenue, 
checks that intercourse which commerce engenders, stifles the 
desire inherent in all species, to procure and possess the pro- 
ducts of foreign countries, by imperfectly taxing the com- 
modities desired by the people. For instance, Russia levies 
a duty of one rouble the pound on essences, if in bulk, that is, 
if in such quantities that no retail purchaser found 
for it ; but if the same be in small bottles, such as is customary 
to tlie trade, then the duty levied is three roubles ! Dealers 
evade this latter impost by intporting the essences in bulk, in 
tin cans, in one parcel, and the bottles in which it is to be 

G G 

4 so 


eventually sold in another parcel. Thus the government 
realise only the lesser duty, and exporters and importers are 
put to considerable trouble and inconvenience, tending to stay 
the progress of trade, much to the detriment of that govern- 
ment, whose object should be to increase trade. 

America, North or Federal States. 

Balm of Gilead 
Balsam of Tolu 
„ all kinds 
Bay water or rum . 
Beans, Tonquin 
Camphor, refined . 

„ crude 

Cologne water 
Essence, all . 
Flower water, orange 
Hungary water 
Lavender flowers . 

„ water 
Lotions, all cosmetique 
Manna . 
Milk of roses 
Musk . 

Odours or perfumes 
Oils, essential, volatile. 
Paste, perfumed 
Rose leaves 
„ water 
Rouge . 
Sponge . 
Storax balsam 
Vanilla beans 

or expressed 


30 per cent. 

n n 

n >i 

25 cents per gal 

10 per cent. 


10 per cent. 

20 „ 

50 per cent. 








30 per cent. 






All spirits S'f- P^i" gallon. 

Soap \d. per lb. 

General perfumery 6 per cent, art' i/. 

And in addition to the above, an extra duty of 1 1\ per cent, all round ad v. 

Argentine Republic. 

The import duty of the Argentine Republic on perfumery of all kinds 
is 40 per cent. 

Australia, South. 

Perfumed spirit, per proof gallon by Sykes's 

hydrometer los. 

Scented and fancy soaps, and general 

perfumery . .... 10 per cent. rt^w. 

Australia, West. 

Perfumed spirit 14^. per gallon. 

Scented soap and general perfumery . . 10 per cent, ad v. 

A ustria. 

Perfumery of all denominations, scented soap, &c., are 
taxed with an import duty of 

5 florins per 112 lbs. when imported in vessels of not larger size 
than I pint English. 

When imported in casks or boxes, a tare of 23 per cent, on the total 
weight is allowed. 

For the value of an Austrian florin, and other foreign coin, see Table 
at p. 461. 

Austrian Consulate, 

29 St. Swithin's Lane. 



Soap IS. o\d. per loo lbs. 

and 3 per cent ad v. 


Perfumed spirit pays 102 francs the hectolitre. Scented soaps 6 
francs the 100 kilogrammes. 


In sticks, such as fixature, in paper, in pots, or in glass, 600 reis per 
lb. gross weight. 

Tare allowed for pots, or bottles, or glass or earthenware, 50 per cent. 
In tinfoil 5 per cent. 

30 per cent, ad valorem. 

If in bottles, either of glass or earthenware, to pay an extra 50 per cent, 
on the above duty. 

Other perfumery, not classified, 400 reis per lb. 

Same extra duty if in pots and flasks, either glass or earthenware. 

Tooth powder 600 reis per lb. gross weight. 

Rouge „ „ with extra duty for pots, &c. 


240 reis per lb. gross weight. 

An allowance of 20 per cent, tare if in pots or tins. 
In cardboard boxes, paper covers, &c., no tare "allowed. Pay on gross 

Canada, 1871. 


Perfumed spirit in bulk . 
Ditto in flasks of not more than 4 oz. 
Fancy soaps and general perfumery 
Common soap .... 

$\ per gallon, 
^i JO cents per gallon. 
25 per cent, ad v. 
25 per cent. adv. 
2 cents per lb. 



Perfumed soap 
Ordinary „ 
Perfumed spirit 

„ oils 
Otlier goods . 

Cape Town. 

\os. per ICO lbs. 

7j. dd. per gallon. 

(>d. per lb. 

10 per cent ad v. 


Spirits proof to I o° over 3rs. per gallon. 

„ io° to 20° „ 3rs. 50 cents „ 

And so on 50 cents for every additional 10° over. 

General perfumery 5 per cent. ««? i/. 


According to Chilian tariff, perfumery assorted {Per- 
fumeria surtida) pays an import duty of 

25 per cent, ad valorem. 

Chilian Consulate, 

43 Moorgate Street. 

Columbia and Nicaragua. 
Perfumery pays ad valorem duty of 50 per cent. 

Costa Rica. 

The import duty into Costa-Rica on soap &c., is as follows :— 

Common soap in bars and other shapes 2^ cents per lb. gross, includ- 
ing the packing and 50 per cent additional. 

Fine common soap 5 cents per lb. gross, including the packing and 50 
per cent, additional. 

Musk 25 cents per oz. gross, including packing and 50 per cent addi- 

General perfumery 15 cents per lb. gross, including packing and 50 
per cent, additional. 1 j j • 

The scented spirit is not specified by itself, but may be mcluded m 
' general perfumery.' 




The Danish import duty on perfumery is charged under 
the following heads : — 

Balsam of Tolu and Peru 



Benzoin and myrrh .... 


Bergamot, cinnamon, and other ottos 
Pomatum in plain pots . 

„ gilt and coloured 
Soaps, fine scented .... 
„ common 


Starch or violet powder . 
Spirituous essences .... 
Distilled waters .... 

Danish lb. 



rsd. skg. 

* s. d. 



I 2j 













I 4 



I 2 



I 13 6 



3 76 





4 8 







II 3 







Bottles containing fluids are allowed as emballage or tare, the con- 
tents only being chargeable with duty. 

The Danish lb. is equal to 17I oz. English. The rsd. =2J. i^d. The 
skg. = \d. 

Danish Consulate-General, 
6 Warnford Court, E.C. 


As in several other countries, perfumery entering France 
in foreign ships has to pay a slight extra duty to that entering 
by a French vessel ; thus — 



Spirituous essences pay . 

Scented vinegars, &c., without alcohol 

Scented soaps ' . . . . 

Powders, unscented 

Scented powder from the Island of 


Scented powders .... 


Liquids and pastes of all kinds 


French Foreign 

Ships Ships 

i5of. i6of. per loo kilos 

loof. io7f. 50c. „ 

6f. 6f. 

25f. 27f. 

9f. gf. 90c. „ 

i84f. i94f. „ 

I23f. i3if. 60c. „ • 

25f. 27f. soc. 

Perfumed spirit 

General perfumery .... 

German Empire. 
loj-. per cwt. (112 lbs.) upon all kinds. 
Consulate General, 

Bloomfield St. London Wall, E.G. 

IS. 67. per gallon. 
2 per cent, ad v. 

Gold Coast. 

Perfumed spirit 
General perfumery 

IS. 6d. per gallon. 
10 per cent. adv. 

Hawaii, Owyhee, Sandwich Islands. 

The duties levied on perfumery by the last Hawaiian tariff 
are as follows : — 

$Z per gallon on articles containing alcohol or spirit of the strength 
of 30 per cent, and upwards. 

Si.y> per gallon on articles containing above 18 per cent., and under 
30 per cent, alcoholic strength. 

Articles containing spirit below 18 per cent, strength, and all other 
articles, 10 per cent, ad valorem. 

The dollar {$) is equivalent to 4^-. 2d. English. 

Hawaiian Consulate, 

4 Royal Exchange Buildings, E. G. 

' Prior to the Gobden Treaty, sweet soap paid an import duty of l64f. per 
ICO kilogrammes. 



Hayti [St. Domingo). 

The following is extracted from the latest printed 
tariff : — 

Trunks or boxes of perfumery, 2 feet long, by i foot 

wide ;?2 50 

Cases larger than the above charged with a proportionate duty. 

Scented soap, per 100 lbs 1^1 25 cents. 

Tooth powder, per dozen boxes 40 „ 

Pomadesj in ordinary small pots . . -25 cents per dozen 

„ in large pots or tin cases . . 20 „ lb. 

„ in glass jars 50 „ dozen 

Cologne, in flasks .12 

„ in large square bottles . . . .25 

„ in half-bottles 40 

Lavender, „ .... -48 

Eau de Senteur 20 cents each 

„ in small bottles . . . . 50 „ per dozen 

India — Bombay, Madras, Calcutta. 

Perfumed spirit of more than 10 ounces in bulk, 4 rupees per gallon. 
If in smaller bottles, of less than 10 ounces, 5 per cent, ad valorem. 


The import duty on perfumeries , into Tuscany and Pied- 
inont is — 

60 lires nuova . per 100 kils. 

Each lire is equal to 8^/. English. 

Italian Consulate-General, 
31 Old Jewry. 


All spirituous compounds 
Soap .... 
General perfumery . 

loj. per gallon. 
5 J. dd. per 100 lbs. 
12J per cent. adv. 



Perfumed spirit per proof gallon by Sykes's 

hydrometer . .... 96 cents per litre. 

General perfumery . . . . 7 per cent, ad v. 

Mexico and Sahiador. 
Perfumery, pomatum, &c., &c., of all classes : — 

For every 100 lbs. gross weight li'iS 

Fine toilet soaps of all classes per quintal ^ . . . . $ii, 


The duty on the importation of perfumery into the 
Netherlands is — 

6 per cent, ad valorem. 

Netherlands Consulate-General, 
Mansfield Buildings, E.C. 

New South Wales. 

Perfumed spirit per proof gallon by Sykes's 
hydrometer lo-^- 

New Zealand, 1878. 

Perfumed spirit per proof gallon by Sykes's 

hydrometer i2j. 

Scented soap and general perfumery . . 10 per Cent, ad v. 
Common soap 3^. 6«? per cwt. 


Soap, of all qualities, in bulk 25 reis per kilo. 

„ in cakes .150 „ 

Eau de Cologne, gross weight, excepting porcelain 

and glass 3°° » 

' Quintal = 981bs. English. 


Waters, not alcoholic 50 reis per kilo. 

Pomades, aromatic 500 „ 

Powders for the teeth ....... 250 

Aromatic vinegars, including in the weight the tare, 

except those of porcelain and glass . . . 300 „ 

Spirits, aromatic 250 „ 

Essences and essential oils of all qualities . . . 500 „ 

Pastiles and sticks for burning, odoriferous . . 500 „ 

Sticks and roots, odoriferous, for perfumery . . ^50 „ 

Musk , . 15,000 „ 

All articles not included_30 per cent, ad valorem. 

20 reis = I penny. 


Scented spirit, spec. grav. -825, temperature 

60° Sykes's hydrometer i oj. per gallon. 

General perfumery . . . . 5 per cent. n^iTz/. 


According to the Russian tariff of June 9, 1857, the duty 
on perfumery and cosmetics, as enumerated, is — 

10 roubles the poud weight (Russian) on Eau de Cologne, Eau de la 
Reine de Hongrie et Eau de Mdlissa ; en flagons at vases ordinaires, the 
duty is 30 roubles the poud. 

Perfumery imported in ornamental bottles, with either gold, silver, or 
metal caps, or other ornaments, have to pay the same duty as in ordinary 

The rouble is = to 3^. \\d. 

9 Russian pouds = to 10 English pounds. 


There is but one general article in the Spanish tariff 
referring to perfumery, and it is to the following effect :— 


Art. 869. Perfumery in scented oils or waters,' creams, or fancy soaps, 
with or without scent, opiates, lozenges, powders, pomades, and other 
similar articles, including, as chargeable with duty, the weight of boxes, 
papers, and inside packages (pots, bottles, &c.). 

Import duty per pound, Spanish : — .^ 

3 reals 20 cents in Spanish ships 
3 „ 80 „ in any other flag. 

The real is equivalent to i\d. 

Spanish Consulate-General, 
I Cushion Court, E.C. 


Spirituous essences, pomades, cosmetiques, rouge, 

scented oils, tooth powders, toilet powder, fuipigat- 

ing ribbon, &c 3of. the 100 kilos. 

Musk, either in grain or in pod, ambergi-is, rose-water, 

and others "jL „ 

Otto of rose 3of. „ 

If the Swiss tariff of other articles possesses the same 
anomaly as it does in perfumery articles, it is evident its 
authors know very little of the ways and means of raising a 


Perfumed spirit 1 2 j. per gallon. 

General perfumery 5J. per cubic foot. 


Spirits of all kinds ns.-ptx g.allon. 

Soap per 100 lbs. 

' The term ' water,' in perfumery, has a technical sense, and means literally 
'spirit;' hence we have Eau de Cologne, Hungary water, &c., which contain 
none of the aqua pura ! 



The printed tariff of Venezuela, dated 1859, states that 
perfumes of all classes were charged — 

$i\ per arroba = 56 lbs. English, 

which included the bottles and boxes in which they are 

The duties have, however, since that date been increased, 
but to what extent I am unable to say. 

, Victoria, 1877. 

Perfumed spirit 20J. per gallon. 

General perfumery 10 per cent, ad v. 

Yellow soap, unscented ^d. per lb. 

It will be seen by the foregoing statement that the tariffs 
on perfumery in nearly all countries are in a confused state, 
and do not realise what should be the desire of the several 
Governments — that of raising an equitable revenue. The 
United States of America is perhaps one of the worst exam- 
ples ; how can they make perfumery, when they tax the raw 
material with which perfumery is manufactured with a heavy 
duty, from which France, Germany, and England are free .' 
Again, the duty levied on manufactured perfumery entering 
the States, has considerably decreased the trade. What ? 
decrease your general trade returns ; build a tariff wall around 
your country, and so imitate the Chinese .? 

In order to assist readers studying the preceding tariffs, I 
append a foreign money table, and comparative French 
and English tables of weights and measures, for the use 
of those who purchase the products of the south of France. 




The Gold Coins are marked thus (*) ; those in Italics are of Copper 
or other inferior metal. 

The utility of giving this table in a Book on Perfumery 
has been more than once questioned ; but the fact is, that 
quotations made by vendors and buyers are constantly made 
by dealers residing in other than English ports in the money 
or currency of the country hailed from. 



Austrian Italy 


E. Indies 





France and Belgmm 

j> " 

Germany, S.W. 

Great Bntam . 


•Imperial ducat .... 

Florin or \ rixdaler of 60 kreutzers . 

Copfstuck of 20 kreutzers 

Ten-kreutzer piece . . . . 

Lira Austriaca of 100 centesimi 
*Moeda of 10,000 reis 

Milreis 1000 reis .... 

RixdoUar of 72 ^;'0/«j 

Tael of 10 mace or 100 canderin or 

1000 ccLsh 

•Christian d'or 

Rigsbank dollar of 96 skill. 
*Mohur of Bengal , 
*Mohur of Bombay 
•Rupee of Bombay .... 
•Rupee of Madras of 1 5 silver rupees 
•Star pagoda of Madras . 

Madras or Co.'s rupee of 16 annas 
or 192 pice 

Sicca rupee : i6-isths of Co's rupee 

Piast. or grouch of 40 /«?-«;• . 
•Napoleon of 20 francs . 

Franc of 100 centimes 
•Imperial ducat . . . . 
•Ten-florin piece . . . . 

Florin of 60 kreutzers 
•Sovereign of 20 shillings 

Shilling of 12 pence . . . . 



£ s. d. 

I 7 lof 

9 4f 

2 oj 



15 8 


I 2 5* 




16 7j 
2 2I 

I 13 6^ 

I 10 ii 

I 9 2I 

I 9 2j 


I io| 

I iij 

5 4 


IS io| 



16 IIj 

I 8 








£ J. d. 

Greece . 

*Twenty-drachmai piece . 

14 2 

» ... 

Drachmi of 100 lepti 


Hamburg and Lu- 

Mark of 16 schillings or 192 pfen- 

beck . 


I 2I 

Hanover . 


2 loj 

Holland and Java . 

Florin or guilder of 20 stivers or 


100 cents 

I 8 



19 I 


Pezza of 30 tari .... 



Ducat of 10 carlini .... 

3 3f 


Carlini of 10 grani .... 



Species dollar of 1 20 j,C'z//. 

4 4| 


•Doubloon of 8 escudos . 

3 4 61 


Piastre of 8 reals .... 

4 2I 


*Crown of 5000 reis .... 

' 3 "i 


Milreis of 1000 reis .... 

4 8| 


Cruzado of 480 reis . 

2 3i 


•Frederick d'or 

16 5a 


Thaler or dollar of 30 silver gro- 

2 lof 


Five-silver groschen piece 



Silver groschen .... 




13 85 



9 4j 


Scudo of 10 paoli .... 

4 2i 


•Imperial of 10 lubles 
Ruble of 100 copecs .... 

I 12 9 


•Oncia of 30 tari .... 

10 io| 


Scudo of 12 tarins or 120 grani 

3 III 


•Pistole ...... 

16 2 


•Doubloon of 100 reals . 

I 6 


Hard dollar or piastre of 20 reals 

4 Ir 


Real vellon 



Plate dol. of 8 plate reals 

3 1^ 


Real of plate 


Sweden . 


9 3i 


Rixdaler of 48 skillings . 

Turkey . 

•Hundred piastre piece . 



Piastre of 40 /araj- . 


Tuscany . 

Lira Tosc. of 100 centesimi 




2 I o| 

United States . 

•Eagle of 10 dollars .... 


Dollar of 100 cents .... 

4 i\ 



French Weights and Measures compared with English. 


Imperial Gallons 


Troy Grains 


Lbs. Avoird. 


























1. 10048 




11.02426 • 



1 6 











r. 76077 











English Weights and Measures compared with the French. 
















































3. 1 748 1 













The standard of Lineal Measure in France is the i?fe/^^. 39.37100 
English Inches make a Mfetre. 

I Metre in length is if Yards, i Square Mfetre is very nearly 2 Square 

I Hectare is 2| Acres, i Hectare is 10,000 Metres, or 19,600 Yards. 

The standard of Square or Superficial Measure is the Are. 119.6046 
Square Yards make an Are. 

The standard of Cubic or Solid Measure is the Sllre. 35.317 Solid 
Feet make a St^re. 


H H 


The Raspberry Jam Tree, or stinking Acacia (of Central 
AND Western Australia), and the Gum Wattle, or fra- 
grant Acacia (of South Australia). 

By Louis Piesse, Calcutta. 

IN my journey into Central Australia (starting from Adelaide), I 
noticed a species of Acacia growing in the dry, stony beds of some of 
the creeks (lat. 31° south, and long. 141'' east), the blossom of which 
yielded such a putrescent odour, that it has received the pame of the 
' stinking Acacia.' 

The leaves yielded no sensible smell when fresh ; but having cut down 
a few small branches and placed them in thg shade, I noticed that in 
forty-eight hours they gave out a strong, unpleasant odour, sonietl^ing like 
rotten cabbage. 1 had some branches in my tent in which the temper- 
ature varied from 100° to 110° Fahr. ; and, as at the same time the air 
was intensely dry, it would appear that the odour is not easily elipii^ 

A singular contrast was, however, exhibited in the wood, which, in^ 
stead of partaking of the unpleasant smell of the blossoms or the leaves, 
was agreeably fragrant. 

On my return to the settlements, I found that this species of Acacia, 
though unknown in South Australia, Melbourne, or New South Wales, 
was known in Western Australia as the ' Raspberry Jam Acacia,' from 
some supposed resemblance in the fragrance of the wood to the odour of 
that well-known preserve. The wood has obtained the colonial name of 
' Raspberry Jam Wood ;' and the specimens frqm Swan River wtre very 
superior in fragrance to those from Central Australia. It is- of a dark 
colour, very similar in appearance to rosewood, very heavy, and sunk in 
water like a stone ; and so hard when dry as to turn the edge of a saw or 

H H 2 


The odour is probably due to the presence of a small portion of oil, as ■ 
is the case with santal-wood, only not so rdcherch^, and it remains yet to 
be seen if it can be turned to profitable account by the perfumer. Let us . 
suppose that essential oil of ' Raspberry Jam Wood,' or some other ex- ■ 
tract, could be obtained, it would not be a particularly pleasant perfume ; 
but that does not militate against it ; for the same may be said of musk, 
ambergris, and many others when pure. 

The contrast between the odour of the blossom of the ' Raspberry Jam 
Acacia ' and the blossom of the well-known Gum Wattle {Acacia decurrens) 
is very remarkable. The former is sickly and about as fragrant as an 
old cabbage stump ; the latter is most agreeable and delicious — yes, it is 
most sweet ! Many of the valleys to the south of Adelaide, every year 
as the season of blossoming returns, are redolent with the exquisite fra- 
grance. This fragrance is, however, entirely in the blossoms, for the 
wood and leaves are scentless. 

The Wattle, or fragrant Acacia, has been destroyed in nearly all the 
settled districts for the sake of the bark. That it might be profitably 
cultivated is beyond a doubt : — ist. It yields gall-berries of great utility 
in many branches of commerce. 2nd. A most valuable perfume. 3rd. 
A gum similar to Guirt Arabic. 4th. The bark is much valued by the 
tanner. 5th. It might be cultivated on land which also could be used for 
pasturage. 6th. The seed might be turned to some account. The seed 
is in pods similar to peas. Cockatoos are very fond of them. I noticed 
flocks of the beautiful rose-breasted cockatoo? feeding off the seeds of 
the ' Raspberry Jam Acacia' in Central Australia ; and the white cockatoos 
in South Australia used to come in great numbers as regularly as the 
season, and gorge themselves with the seeds of the Gum Wattle. I used 
to vary my dinner— which, from there being nq fresh meat to be had, 
was chiefly of salt pork— with a roast of these fellows ; but I cannot say 
much in their favour, even with the recommendation of an Australian 

The gum of the fragrant Acacia is used as an article of food by the 
aborigines. I have used it myself, and advised its use by others when 
hard pressed, and found it extremely nutritious. It requires some little 
cooking and bolting to get it down, for otherwisp you may get as hungry 
while eating it as if eating walnuts. The native^ would eat two or three 
pounds at a sitting. 

The gum is the most valuable product, considered as an article of 
commerce. Some that I sent to England as a speculation realised 60/. 
per ton, and a portion 63/. per ton. The bark realised 15/. per ton. My 
agent, however, advised me that those prices could not be maintained. 
As the gum is four times the value of the bark, and is yielded annually, 
while the bark can only be obtained once (for the tree dies), it reminds one of 


the fable of killing the goose. A party of men and boys out 'barking' 
would destroy a belt of Wattles a mile in length in a week ; and they 
make no distinction as to whether they are growing on Crown or pur- 
chased land, so long as the owner is not located on it. 

The gum is used by manufacturers to give an apparent thickness and 
superior quality to their goods ; also by confectioners and many others. 
A wholesale stay-maker told me that it cost him 150/. per annum for 
Gum Arabic (which, after all, is chiefly obtained from Africa) metely to 
thicken and finish ladies' stays. The Australian savage eats the gum 
fresh and pure. Young England consumes it as a varnish or polish on 
his gingerbread and buns. 

On a Means of detecting the Presence of Castor Oil 
IN THE Volatile Oils. 

According to Mr. H. N. Draper, castor oil may be used to adulterate 
volatile oils, and if so used its presence could not be indicated by those 
means applicable to the detection of other fixed oils, on account of its 
solubility in alcohol. He has, therefore, devised a test for this oil, based 
on the production of osnanthyhc acid. This body is a product of the 
oxidation of castor oil, and is formed when the warm oil is treated with 
an excess of nitric acid. A violent action ensues, duriiig which much 
nitrous acid is disengaged ; and there is found floating in the aCid liquid, 
when the residue is mixed with water, a soft unctuous mass. If the acid 
liquid be neutralised with carbonate of soda, so as to entirely remove the 
odour of nitrous acid, the smell of the oenanthylic acid can be most clearly 
recognised. The mode of applying this test to the detection of castor oil 
in the volatile oils is as follows : — Twenty drops of the suspected oil are 
placed in a capsule, and heated on a sand-bath, until the odour of the oil 
is no longer perceived. To the residue — if there be any — add five or six 
drops of nitric acid, and as soon as the action has subsided, dilute with 
solution of carbonate of soda. If castor oil be present, the odour will be 
at once perceived, and, once smelled, is not likely to be mistaken for any 
other. The author states that 5 per cent, of castor oil in a volatile oil 
can be thus detected. 

[Santal and cedar otto are commonly adulterated with castor oil. 
— S. P.] 

Detection of Fusel Oil in Spirit of Wine. 

Chloride of calcium, in small pieces, is put into a beaker, and just enough 
of the suspected spirit is poured over to moisten the whole ; the beaker. 


is then covered with a glass plate and allowed to stand. In a short time, 
if fusel oil be present, the smell will be distinctly perceptible, and will 
become stronger and stronger on standing for some hours. In this way 
the least trace of fusel oil can be recognised ; but when the quantity 
present is very small, the mixture must be left together longer before the 
experimenter smells it, and then the nose must be applied frequently at 
short intervals. 

The impossibility of recognising small quantities of fusel oil in spirit 
depends upon the insensibility of tlie olfactory nerves produced by the 
vapour of alcohol. If we wish to smell fusel oil alone, we must prevent 
alcohol vapour from rising ; this is best done by mixing the alcohol with 
chloride of calcium, which fixes it. Fusel oil also combines with chloride of 
calcium ; but the combination is not odourless, while the alcohol is held 
so fast that it does not disturb the smell of the fusel oil. 

[It will be observed, in both the above cases, and in others quoted 
in this Appendix, that, after all, the nose, the olfactory nerve, is the true 
analyser. — S. P.] 

Test for ascertaining the Presence of Alcohol in 
Essential Oils— Ottos. 

J. J. Bernoulli recommends for this purpose acetate of potash. When 
to an ethereal oil, contaminated with alcohol, dry acetate of potash is 
added, this salt dissolves in the alcohol, and forms a Solution from which 
the volatile oil separates. If the oil be free from alcohol, this salt remains 
dry therein. 

Wittstein, who speaks highly of this test, has suggested the following 
method of applying it as the best:— In a dry test-tube, about half an inch 
in diameter, and five or six inches long, put not more than eight grains of 
powdered dry acetate of potash ; then fill the tube two thirds full with the 
essential oil to be examined. The contents of the tube must be well 
stirred with a glass rod, taking care not to allow the salt to rise above 
the oil ; afterwards set aside for a short time. If the salt be found at the 
bottom of the tube dry, it is evident that the oil contains no spirit. 
Oftentimes, instead of the dry salt, beneath the oil is found a clear syrupy 
fluid, which is a solution of the salt in the spirit with which the oil was 
mixed. When the oil contains only a little spirit, a small portion of the 
solid salt will be found under the syrupy solution. Many essential oils 
frequently contain a trace of water, which does not materially interfere 
with this test, because, although the acetate of potash becomes moist 
hereby, it still retains its pulverulent form. 

Another process more simple and quite as trustworthy is the fol'ow- 


ing :. — Into a graduated gauge pour a fixed quantity of the essence to be 
tested ; then pour in at least double the quantity of distilled water, and 
shake several times. Leave it to settle, and you will see whether the 
quantity of water at first poured into the gauge has diminished. The 
amount of the deficiency indicates the quantity of alcohol which was 
mixed with it. 

A still more certain result may be obtained by distillation in a water- 
bath. All the essential oils, which have a higher boiling point than spirit, 
remain in the retort, whilst the spirit passes into the receiver with only a 
trace of the oil, where the alcohol may be recognised by the smell and 
taste. Should, however, a doubt exist, add to the distillate a little acetate 
of potash and strong sulphuric acid, and heat the mixture in a test-tube to 
the boiling point, when the characteristic odour of acetic ether will be 
manifest, if any alcohol be present. 

The hydrocarbon essential oils, such as those yielded by all fruits of 
the family of the aurantiacese or hesperidaceae, retain entirely the 
potassium and the sodium and lead. When mixed with spirit which con- 
tains oxygen, the metals are quickly tarnished and oxidised. 

Detection of Spike Oil and Turpentine in Otto of 

By. Dr. J. Gastell. 

There are two kinds of lavender oil known in commerce : one, which 
is very dear, and is obtained from the flowers of the Lavandula vera ; the 
other is much cheaper, and is prepared from the flowers of the Lavandula 
Spica. The latter is generally termed oil of spike. In the south of 
France, whether the oil be distilled from the flowers of the Lavandula 
vera or Lavandula Spica, it is named oil of lavender. 

By the distillation of the whole plant, or only the stalk and the leaves, 
a small quantity of oil is obtained, which is rich in camphor, and is 
called oil of spike. Pure oil of lavender should have a specific gravity 
of from .876 to .880, and be completely soluble in five parts of alcohol of a 
specific gravity of .894. A greater specific gravity shows that it is mixed 
with oil of spike ; and a less solubility, that it contains oil of turpentine. 

Detection of Poppy and other Drying Oils in 
Almond and Olive Oils. 

It is known that the olein of the drying oils may be distinguished from 
the olein of those oils which remain greasy in the air, by the first not 


being convertible into elaidic acid ; consequently it does not become solid. 
Professor Wimmer has recently proposed a convenient method for the 
formation of elaidin, which is applicable for the purpose of detecting the 
adulteration of almond and olive oils with drying oils. He produces 
nitrous acid by treating iron filings in a glass bottle with nitric acid. The 
vapour of nitrous acid is conducted through a glass tube into water upon 
which the oil to be tested is placed. If the oil of almonds, or olives, con- 
tain only a small quantity of poppy oil, when thus treated, it is entirely 
converted into crystallised elaidin, whilst the poppy oil swims on the top 
in drops. 

On the Colouring Principle of Volatile Oils. 

By Septimus Piesse, F.C.S. 

(Read before the Chemical Society.) 

It is generally known that essential oils or ottos of plants have peculiar 
and characteristic colours : they are either ' yellow,' ' blue,' ' green,' 
' brown,' or ' white,' i.e. colourless. 

Having made some progress towards the discovery of the nature of 
the matters which impart these several colours, I now record the facts 
ascertained. The principal interest rests with the blue substance, which 
gives colour to the otto of ' camomile,' because this same body is pre- 
sent in other volatile oils, and imparts to them a green colour, being at the 
time under disguise by a yellow resin, which is also present in volatile oils 
of a green tint. 

When blue otto of camomile is subjected to fractional distillation, the 
white hydrocarbon anthemidine is easily separated from the blue colouring, 
because .the latter requires a much higher temperature to vaporise it than 
the former. 

By the fractional distillation of otto of wormwood — absinthe — I obtain 
first a nearly colourless hydrocarbon ; then, at the third fractioning, an oil 
having a brilliant green colour, which, at the fifth fractioning, divides into 
a blue oil, and a residuary yellow resin. When otto of 'patchouly' 
is obtained by distillation with water, the Indian herb pogostemon 
'patchouly' is subjected to fractional distillation. I obtain in like 
manner first a colourless hydrocarbon ; then, but not till the eleventh frac- 
tioning, a beautiful blue oil, and a brown yellow residue. The great number 
of fractionings required to separate the blue oil in this case is caused by 
the closer boiling points between the ' patchouly ' hydrocarbon, the blue 
oil, and the resin, all of which are exceedingly high. 

The otto of bergamot, from the rind of the fruit citrus bergamia, as 



also otto of Ceylon lemon 'grass, andropogon schenanthus, yield, by the 
same treatment, small portions of this blue colouring. 

By repeated rectification of the blue fluid, from whatever source 
derived, I at length render it free from extraneous matter, and in a state 
of purity ; it then has a fixed boiling point of 576° F., its specific gravity 
0.910. When boiled it produces a dense vapour of a blue colour, having 
special optical characters. I have named this substance Azulene, from 
azure, blue. 

The analysis of azulene shows its formula to be : — 

Calculated Found 

C,s 82.05 81.21 

H,3 . .... II. 12 10.9s 

O 6.83 7.84 

100.00 100.00 

Or, C,„H,j X HO. 

The yellow colouring matter which imparts its tint to the several ottos 
appears to be an oxidised portion of the otto so stained. In nearly all 
instances ottos which are colourless when first obtained from their source 
become yellow by age, i.e. oxidation. This, however, is not universal, as 
the otto of nutmeg remains colourless for a lengthened period, even when 
air is drawn through it by an aspirator. The oxidised portion of the 
yellow coloured oils when separated from the pure otto in which it is 
dissolved are true resins ; the majority of ottos oxidise during the act of 
distillation ; hence, from this cause they vary in colour from pale yellow 
to red brown. When new — that is, freshly distilled — several essential oils 
are of a pale green tint, indicating the presence of azulene; but, as oxidation 
proceeds, the yellow resin generated conceals the azulene. We have — 

A. Ottos which are colourless, containing neither azulene nor resin. 

B. Ottos which are yellow, containing resin only. 

C. Ottos which are blue, containing azulene only. 

D. Ottos which are brown, green, and yellow-green, containing 
azulene and resin together in proportions varying as optically indicated. 

It is remarkable how little azulene gives colour to an oil that contains 
no yellow resin ; the otto of camomile is familiarised to us by its blue 
colour, but it does not contain i per cent, of azulene. Patchouly ottoi 
which yields 6 per cent., and wormwood otto, which gives 3 per cent, of 
azulene, do not appear at all blue, owing to the presence of an excessive 
quantity of yellow resin. At the third fractioning of wormwood the yellow 
resin and the azulene are in due proportion to form a green solution ; and 
such is probably the case with other ottos known for their green colour 
such as cajeput, but which I have not yet examined. 


Practical Remarks on Spirit of Wine. 

By Thomas Arnall. 

The strength of spirit of wine is, by law, regulated by proof spirit (sp. gr. 
920) as a standard ; and accordingly as it is either stronger or weaker 
than the above, it is called so much per cent, above or below proof. The 
Xexxa per cent. \% used in this instance in a rather peculiar sense. Thus, 
spirit of wine at 56 per cent, overproof, signifies that 100 gallons of it are 
equal to 156 gallons of proof spirit; while a spirit at 20 per cent, under 
proof, signifies that 100 gallons are equal to 80 gallons at proof. The 
rectified spirit of the Pharmacopoeia is 56 per cent, overproof, and may 
be reduced to proof by strictly adhering to the directions there given — 
viz. to mix five measures with three of water. The result, however, will 
not be eight measures of proof spirit; in consequence of the contraction 
which ensues, there will be a deficiency of about giv. in each gallon. 
This must be borne in mind in preparing tinctures. 

During a long series of experiments on the preparation of ethers, it 
appeared a desideratum to find a ready method of ascertaining how much 
spirit of any density would be equal to one chemical equivalent of 
absolute alcohol. By a modification of a rule employed by the Excise, 
this question may be easily solved. The Excise rule is as follows ; — 

To reduce from any given strength to any required strength :- — Add the 
overproof percentage to 100, subtract the underproof percentage from 
100; multiply the result by the quantity of spirit, and divide the product 
by the number obtained by adding the required percentage overproof, or 
subtracting the required percentage underproof, to or from 100, as the 
case may be. The result will give the measure of the spirit at the 
strength required. 

Thus, suppose you wished to reduce 10 gallons of spirit, at 54 over- 
proof, down to proof, add 54 to 100= 154; multiply by the quantity, 10 
gallons (154 X 10) = 1540. The required strength being proof, of course 
there is nothing either to add to or take from 100; therefore, 1540 
divided by 100= 15.4 gallons at proof; showing that 10 gallons must be 
made to measure 15 gallons, 3 pints, 4 fl. oz., by the addition of water. 

To ascertain what quantity of spirit of any given strength will contain 
one equivalent of absolute alcohol :— Add the overproof percentage of the 
given spirit to 100, as before ; and with the number thus obtained divide 
4062.184. The result gives in gallons the quantity equal to four equiva- 
lents (46 X 4). 

Example.— Uow mu-h spirit at 54 per cent, overproof is equal to i 
equivalent of absolute alcohol ? 




54 + loo = 1 54, and 4062.183 ^ 26.2,77^ galls., or 26 galls. 3 pts., 

which, divided by 4, gives 6 gallons, 4 pints, 1 5 oz. 
Suppose the spirit to be 60 overproof, 

then 4062.183^^^.^33 „^^^ I one-fourth of which is equal to 6 
100 + 60 " ( gallons, 2 pints, 1 5j oz. 

This rule is founded on the following data : — As a gallon of water 
weighs 10 lbs., it is obvious that the specific gravity of any liquid will give 
the weight of one gallon. The specific gravity of absolute alcohol is 
.7938 1 1 ; hence, the weight of i gallon will be 7.938 1 1 lbs., and its strength 
is estimated at 75.25 overproof. 

4 equivalents of alcohol = 46 x 4 = 1 84, 

23.17936 gallons X 7.9381 1 lbs. per gallon, also= 184.0003094. 

Hence it appears that 23.17936 gallons of absolute alcohol are equal 
to 4 equivalents. By adding the overproof percentage (75.25) to 100, 
and multiplying by the quantity (23.17936 gallons), we get the constant 
number 4062.183. 

The rule might have been calculated so as to show at once the equiva- 
lent, without dividing by 4; but it would have required several more 
places of decimals : it will give the required quantity to a fraction of a 
fluid drachm. 

[These remarks are very useful, and are the kind of observations so 
well suited to practical men. To which I add that in speaking of alcohol 
or spirit, it appears necessary to explain the word ' proof,' as applied in 
England to a particular strength, a standard of quantity of absolute 
alcohol in a mixture of spirit and water. ' Proof is a term used by the 
Excise for the purpose of levying the duty payable upon wine and other 
liquids which contain alcohol. The following is the specific gravity of 
various mixtures of alcohol and water : — 

Specific Gravity. 

0.9200 = proof spirit. 
0.9075 = 10 overproof. 
0,8933 = 20.4 „ 
0.8646=40 „ 

0.8298 = 60 „ 
0.8156 = 67 „ 

0.8298 = 60 overproof is the strength used in perfumery.— G. W. S. P.] 


Perfumes as Preventives of Mouldiness. 

An interesting paper on this subject has been published by Dr. Mac- 
culloch. We presume our readers are aware that mouldiness is occa- 
sioned by the growth of minute vegetables. Ink, paste, leather, and 
seeds are the substances that most frequently suffer from it. The effect 
of cloves in preserving ink is well known ; any of the essential oils 
answer equally well. Leather may be kept free from mould by the same 
substances. Thus Russian leather, which is perfumed with the tar of 
birch, never becomes mouldy ; indeed, it prevents mould from occurring in 
other bodies. A few drops of any essential oil are sufficient also to keep 
books entirely free from it. For harness, oil of turpentine is recom- 
mended. Bookbinders, in general, employ alum for preserving their 
paste ; but mould frequently forms on it. Shoemakers' resin is sometimes 
also used for the same purpose; but it is less effectual than oil of 
turpentine. The best preventives, however, are the essential oils, even in 
small quantity, as those of peppermint, anise, or cassia, by which paste 
may be kept almost any length of time ; indeed, it has, in this way, been 
preserved for years. The paste recommended by Dr. MaccuUoch is 
made in the usual way, with flour, some brown sugar, and a little 
corrosive subhmate ; the sugar keeping it flexible when dry, and the sub- 
limate preventing it from fermenting, and from being attacked by insects. 
After it is made, a few drops of any of the essential oils are added. Paste 
made in this way dries when exposed to the air, and may be used merely 
by wetting it. If required to be kept always ready for use, it ought to be 
put into covered pots. Seeds may also be preserved by the essential oils; 
and this is of great consequence, when they are to be sent to a distance. 
Of course moisture must be excluded as much as possible, as the oils or 
ottos prevent only the bad effects of mould. 

Introduction of Hydrogen into Essential Oils. 
Change of one Otto into another. 

Zinin {Bulletin de St.-P^tersbourg, T. iii. p. 529), and Kolbe {Annal. der 
Chem. und Pharm. Bd. cxviii. S. 122), have experimented on the direct 
addition of hydrogen to organic compounds. The latter digested a hot 
saturated solution of benzoic acid and a little hydrochloric acid with, 
sodium amalgam, and in this way obtained bitter almond oil, another oil 
which becomes a crystalline solid on cooling, and a volatile acid. When 
the action takes place in an alkaline solution, the changes are different. 


No bitter almond oil is obtained nor the crystalline oil ; but more of the 
new acid is formed, which Kolbe intends to investigate further. 

Zinin's former researches on benzile showed that it might be 
converted into benzoin by the direct addition of hydrogen. He now 
shows that, by continuing the action longer, new bodies may be formed 
containing more hydrogen than benzoin. The author made a boiling 
solution of one part benzoin and three or four parts alcohol of 75 per 
cent, and to this he added one part of strong alcohol, saturated with 
hydrochloric acid gas, and then half a part of finely-granulated zinc was 
slowly introduced into the mixture. As soon as the violent reaction 
ceased, another half a part of the alcoholic solucion of hydrochloric acid 
gas was added, and the mixture boiled down to a half. It was then 
poured off from the undissolved zinc and mixed with water, whereupon an 
oily body separated, which soon cooled into a crystalUne mass, which was 
purified by re-crystallisation from alcohol. It was then obtained in 
rhombic tables, which fused at 55°. This new body is more hydrogenated 
than benzoin; but the elementary analysis, the author says, presents 
unusual difficulties. By the action of nitric acid and of bromine on this 
new body, other crystallisable bodies are formed. 

Bitter almond oil, dissolved in the alcoholic solution of hydrochloric 
acid and boiled with zinc, forms a thick oily body which sticks to the 
sides of the flask, and on cooling becomes solid and resinous. It is freely 
soluble in ether, and from the solution part crystallises out ; the re- 
mainder separates as an oily mass, in which, after a time, other crystals 

Artificial Preparation of Odours resembling the 
Fragrance of Certain Fruits. 

Fusel Oil. 

By W. Bastick. 

This organic compound was first discovered by Scheele, as one of the 
distillation products of the wort obtained from the fermentation of 
potatoes. It has been subsequently examined by Pelletier, Dumas, 
Cahours, and others. It is generally now termed the hydrate of the 
oxide of amyl, from amyl being supposed to be its base or radical, as 
cyanogen is regarded to be the radical of another series of compounds. 

It passes over towards the termination of the distillation process in a 
white turbid fluid, which consists of a watery and alcoholic solution of 
the fusel oil. The crude oil, consisting of about one half of its weight of 
alcohol and water, may be purified by being shakeft'with water and re- 


distilled, with the previous addition of chloride of calcium. When the 
temperature of the contents of the retort reaches 296° Fahr., pure fusel 
oil distils over. 

Fusel oil is a colourless oily fluid, which possesses at first not an 
unagreeable odour, but at last is very disgusting, producing oppression 
at the chest and exciting cough. It has a sharp, hot taste, and burns 
with a white-blue flame. It boils at 296° Fahr., and at a temperature of 
— 4° Fahr. it becomes solid, and forms crystals. Its specific gravity at 
59° Fahr. is 0.8124, and its formula CjuHj^O.^. On paper it produces a 
greasy stain, which disappears by heat, and when exposed to the action 
of the air it acquires an acid reaction. Fusel oil is slightly soluble in 
water, to which it imparts its odour ; and soluble in all proportions in 
alcohol, ether, volatile, and fixed oils, and acetic acid. It dissolves 
phosphorus, sulphur, and iodine without any noticeable change, and also 
mixes with caustic soda and potash. It rapidly absorbs hydrochloric 
acid, with the disengagement of heat. When mixed with concentrated 
sulphuric acid, the mixture becomes of a violet-red colour, and bisulphate 
of amyloxide is formed. Nitric acid and chlorine decompose it. By its 
distillation with anhydrous phosphoric acid, a fluid, oily combination of 
hydrogen and carbon results. By oxidation with bichromate of potash 
and sulphuric acid, fusel oil yields valerianic acid, which is used in 
medicine, and apple-oil, employed as a flavouring ingredient in con- 

Valerianic acid is obtained by distillation from valerian root. It is a 
strong-smelling liquid, which forms with certain simple ethers compound 
ethers with variable odours. It is identical with the acid obtained by 
oxidation of the essence of potato {amylic acid), with the essence of the 
fruit of the Snow-ball ( Viburnum Opuliis), g,nd wiih the essence of seal fat 
ox phocenie. (O. Reveil.) 

Artificial Essence of Pine-Apple. 

By W. Bastick. 

The above essence is, butyric ether more or less diluted with alcohol ; to 
obtain which pure, on a large scale and economically, the following 
process is recommended : — 

Dissolve 6 lbs. of sugar and half an ounce of tartaric acid in 26 lbs. of 
boiling water. Let the solution stand for several days ; then add 8 ounces 
of putrid cheese broken up, 3 lbs. of skimmed and curdled sour milk, and 
3 lbs. of levigated chalk. The mixture should be kept and stirred daily 



in a warm place, at the temperature of about 92° Fahr., as long as gas is 
evolved, which is generally the case for five or six weeks. 

The liquor thus obtained is mixed with an equal volume of cold water, 
and 8 lbs. of crystallised carbonate of soda, previously dissolved in water, 
added. It is then filtered from the precipitated carbonate of lime ; and 
the filtrate is to be evaporated down to 10 lbs., then 5^^ lbs. of sulphuric 
acid, previously diluted with an equal weight of water, are to be carefully 
addqd. The butyric acid, which separates on the surface of the liquid as 
a dark-coloured oil, is to be removed, and the rest of the liquid distilled ; 
the distillate is now neutralised with carbonate of soda, and the butyric 
acid separated, as before, with sulphuric acid. 

The whole of the crude acid is to be rectified with the addition of an 
ounce of sulphuric acid to every pound. The distillate is then saturated 
with fused chloride of calcium, and re-distilled. The product will be 
about 28 ounces of pure butyric acid. To prepare the butyric acid, or 
essence of pine-apple, from this acid, proceed as follows : — Mix, by 
weight, three parts of butyric acid with six parts of alcohol and two parts 
of sulphuric acid in a retort, and submit the whole, with a sufficient heat, 
to a gentle distillation, until the fluid which passes over cegises to emit a 
fruity odour. By treating the distillate with chloride of calcium, and by 
its re-distillation, the pure ether may be obtained. 

The boiling point of butyric ether is 238° Fahr. ; its specific gravity, 
0.904 ; and its formula, C^ Hj^ O^, or Q H, O -h C^ H, Oj, 

Bensch's process, above described, for the production of butyric acid, 
affords a remarkable exemplification of the extraordinary trfinsformations 
that organic - bodies undergo in contact with ferment, or by catalytic 
action. When cane sugar is treated with tartaric acid, especially under 
the influence of heat, it is converted into grape sugar. This grape sugar, 
in the presence of decomposing nitrogenous substances, such as cheese, 
is transformed in the first instance into lactic acid, which combines with 
the lime of the chalk. The acid of the lactate of lime, thus produced, is 
by the further influence of the ferment changed into butyric acid. Hence, 
butyrate of lime is the final result of the catalytic action in the process 
we here have recommended. 

The process for preparation of butyric acid given above is due to 
MM. Pelouze and Gelis. The commercial essence of pine-apple is 
prepared by dissolving one litre of butyric ether in eight or ten litres of 
alcohol at 18° or 55° centesimal. 

Butyric acid is also obtainable by saponifying butter by means of a 
solution of potash, of a density of 1.12. The soap formed is to be 
dissolved in spirit, and distilled with an excess of sulphuric acid. The 
product is a mixture of butyric, capric, and caproic acids, in which the 
first predominates. It may be purified as above indicated. 


Preparation of Artificial Essence of Quince. 
By Dr. R. Wagner. 

It has been believed, until the most recent period, that the peel of quinces 
contains cenanthylate of ethyloxide. New researches, however, have led 
to the supposition that the odorous principle of quinces is derived from the 
ether of pelargonic acid. A volatile oil, indeed, is found in quince peel, 
but in very small quantity, and is consequently, very difficult to extract. 
In my last research on the action of nitric acid on oil of rue, I found that 
besides the fatty acids, which Gerhardt had already discovered, pelargonic 
acid is formed. This process may be advantageously employed for the 
preparation of crude pelargonate of ethyloxide, which, on account of its 
extremely agreeable odour, may be applied as a fruit essence equally with 
those prepared by Dobereiner, Hofmann, and Fehling. For the prepa- 
ration of the liquid, which can be named the essence of quince, oil of rue 
is treated with double its quantity of very diluted nitric acid, and the 
mixture heated until it begins to boil. After some time two layers are to 
be observed in the liquid : the upper one is brownish, and the lower one 
consists of the products of the oxidation of oil of rue and the excess of 
nitric acid. The lower layer is freed from the greater part of its nitric acid 
by evaporation in a chloride of zinc bath. The white flocks frequently 
found in the acid liquid, which are probably fatty acids, are separated by 
filtration. The filtrate is mixed with spirits, and long digested in a gentle 
heat, by which a fluid is formed which has the agreeable odour of quince 
in the highest degree, and may be purified by distillation. — Journal 
fur praktische Chemie. 

Preparation of Rum-Ether and Essence of Strawberries. 

Take of black oxide of manganese, of sulphuric acid, each twelve 
pounds ; of alcohol, tw enty-six pounds ; of strong acetic acid, ten pounds. 
Mix and distil twelve pints. The ether, as above prepared, is an article 
of commerce in Austria, being the body to which rum owes its peculiar 
odour. — Austrian Journal of Pharmacy. 

We have stated that the butyrate of pure ethyloxide possesses a delicate 
odour of pine-apple. By the addition of wine and potato spirits this odour 
may be modified, and converted into that of strawberry or raspberry. In 
a less pure state, and mixed with the ethers with accompany it when pre- 
pared from butter, i.e. the capric and caproic ethers, it may be employed 
for scenting the rum. Most rums of bad quality are prepared in this 


Synthesis of Otto of Rue. 

The researches of Drs. Geisecke, Fittig, and Strecker bearing upon 
the constitution of the essential oil of rue {Ruta graveolens) as consisting 
of a mixture of ketons— viz. nonyl-methyl-keton, or caprinyl-methyluret— 
the authors describe, at great length, the experiments made by them for 
producing, synthetically, the oil alluded to by treating the fractional dis- 
tillation products from a mixture of chemically pure caprinate and acetate 
of lime, so as to obtain caprinyl-methyluret which agreed, in all properties, 
with that found in natural oil of rue. 

Artificial Odour of Pears. 

By M. Fehling. 

This is an alcoholic solution of acetate of amyloxide, and acetate of 
ethyloxide. For its preparation, one pound of glacial acetic acid is added 
to an equal weight of fusel oil (which has been prepared by being washed 
with soda and water, and then distilled at a temperature between 2 54° and 
284° Fahr.), and mixed with half a pound of sulphuric acid. The mixture 
is digested for some hours at a temperature of 254°, which means acetate 
of amyloxide separates, particularly on the addition of some water. The 
crude acetate of amyloxide obtained by separation, and by the distillation 
of the liquid to which the water has been added, is finally purified by 
being washed with soda and water. Fifteen parts of acetate of amyl- 
oxide are disolved with half a part of acetic ether in 100 or 120 parts of 
alcohol ; this is the essence of pear, which, when employed to flavour 
sugar or syrup, to which a little citric or tartaric acid has been added, 
affords the flavour of bergamot pears, and a fruity, refreshing taste. 

Apple Essence. 

By this name is designated an alcoholic solution of valerianate of oxide 
of amyl, or of potato essence. It is sometimes prepared simply by sub- 
mitting to distillation crude potato oil in the presence of sulphuric acid 
and bichromate of potash. But at the same time is obtained a mixture of 
a Httle apple essence and a good deal of amyhc alcohol. It is therefore 
better first to prepare the valerianic acid by the following method : — 

Mix gradually one part of potato [fusel] oil with three parts of sul- 
phuric acid and two parts of water ; separately heat two parts and a half 
of bichromate of potash and four parts and a half of water ; then mix the 
whole so as to keep up the boiling in the retort ; the liquid distilled is 

I I 


saturated with carbonate of soda, and the valerianate of soda is precipi- 
tated in crystals. 

Take now one part by weight of potato [fusel] oil, mix it carefully with 
an equal weight of sulphuric acid, add one part and a half of perfectly dry 
valerianate of soda, and keep it at a gentle heat in the bain-marie. By 
adding water, the ether is separated. Purify it as in preceding cases. 
This valero-amylic ether mixed with five or six times its volume of alcohol 
constitutes the apple essence, the flavour of which is very pleasant. 

Essence of Cognac and of Wine. 

This name is applied to a mixture pf various ethers of the ethy lie series, 
the odour of which, however, is due chiefly to the pelargonic ether. There 
are two methods of preparing the essences. The first gives pelargonic 
ether almost pure ; the second gives mixtures of very uncertain composi- 
tion, and which appear to be of inferior quality. By the first method 
pelargonic acid is obtained by treating essence of rue with nitric acid, as 
we stated when speaking of essence of quince. To etherify pelargonic 
acid it is dissolved in concentrated spirit, and a current of dry hydro- 
chloric acid is passed into the mixture. As the pelargonic ether is formed 
it rises to the surface. 

By the second method fatty bodies are treated with nitric acid ; fixed 
fatty acids are thus obtained, such as adipic, pimelic, lauric, succinic, &c., 
and some volatile acids which pass over on distillation, the principal being 
the butyric, valerianic, capric, and caproic, caprylic, oenanthylic, and pelar- 
gonic acids. It is this mixture which is etherised. 

Sometimes spirit is scented with the product obtained by etherifying 
cocinic acid extracted from cocoa oil. To obtain this acid we purify the 
cocoa oil with potash, decompose the soap with hydrochloric acid, dissolve 
the acid obtained in spirit, and pass into it a current of dry hydrochloric 
acid. The liquid obtained is yellowish. Cleanse it in water and in 
alkaline water, and the product is pure cocinic ether. Mix with ten times 
its volume of alcohol. 

How rich the essences of the shops are in pure essences may be esti- 
mated by distillation. The alcohol boils at between 80° and 85°, and the 
essences are left as a residuum. 

Perfumery generally rejects artificial essences ; it nevertheless some- 
times makes use of essence of mirbane, and it may possibly succeed by- 
and-by in utilising other essences of agreeable odour, by taking the trouble 
to combine them or considerably dilute them. As sold in the shops they 
possess an odour which is very far from being pleasant ; and besides, they 
have an injurious effect on the animal economy when inhaled in any 
large quantity. If they are employed it must be sparingly. 



Fruit Essences. 

Fruit essences or artificial essences are alcoholic solutions of different 
ethers, of which the following are the formulae : — 



. 10 grammes 


• 10 

Butyrate of ethyl . 

• 5° ., 

„ amyl . 

. too 


■ 30 

Alcohol at 100 


1 litre 

Nitric ether . 

.10 grammes 

Acetate of amyl 

• 50 

Formiate of ethyl . 

• 10 „ 

Butyrate of ethyl . 

■ 50 „ 

Salicylate of ethyl . 

■ 10 

Acetate of amyl 

■ 30 „ 

Butyrate of amyl . 

■ 20 „ 


• 20 „ 

Alcohol at 100 


I litre 

Nitric ether . 

. 10 grammes 


• 10 „ 

Acetate of amyl . 

• 50 

Formiate of ethyl . 

iO „ 

Benzoate of ethyl . 

. 10 

Cold saturated alcoholic solution c 

)f tar- 

taric acid 

• 50 !. 


■ 40 

Alcohol at lou 


I litre 

Chloroform . 

. 10 grammes 

Nitric ether . 

• 10 



Acetate of ethyl , 

• 10 „ 

Valerianate of amyl 

• 100 „ 


■ 40 

Alcohol at 100 

1 litre 




Nitric ether 50 grammes 

Acetate of amyl 100 „ 

Glycerine 100 „ 

Alcohol at 100 I litre 


Chloroform . 
Butyrate of ethyl . 
Valerianate of ethyl 
Salicylate of ethyl . 
Butyrate of amyl . 

10 grammes 

I litre 
Fr. Chardin and Massignon. 

On the Application of Organic Chemistry to Perfumery. 

By Dr. A. W. Hofmann. 

Cahours' excellent researches concerning the essential oil of Gaul- 
theria procumbens (a North American plant of the natural order of the 
Ericinae of Jussieu), which admits of so many applications in perfumery,' 
have opened a new field in this branch of industry. The introduction of 
this oil among compound ethers must necessarily direct the attention of 
perfumers * towards this important branch of compounds, the number of 
which is daily increasing by the labours of those who apply themselves to 
organic chemistry. The striking similarity of the smell of these ethers to 
that oi fruit had not escaped the observation of chemistry j -however, it 
was reserved to practical men to discover by which choice and combina- 
tions it might be possible to imitate the scent of peculiar fruits to such a 
nicety, that makes it probable that the scent of the fruit is owing to a 
natural combination identical to that produced by art ; so much so, as to 
enable the chemist to produce from fruits the said combinations, provided 
he could have at his disposal a sufficient quantity to operate upon. The 
manufacture of artificial aromatic oils for the purpose of perfumery ' is, of ' 
course, a recent branch of industry ; nevertheless, it has already fallen into 
the hands of several distillers, who produce a sufficient quantity to supply 
the trade — a fact which has not escaped the observation of the Jury at 
the London Exhibition. In visiting the stalls of the English and French 

' Qy. Confectionery? » Qy. Confectioners? ' Qy. Confectionery? 



confectioners at the Crystal Palace, we found a great variety of these 
chemical perfumes, the applications of which were at the same time prac- 
tically illustrated by confectionery flavoured by them. However, as most 
of the samples of the oils sent to the Exhibition were but small, I was pre- 
vented, in many cases, from making an accurate analysis of them. The 
largest samples were those of a compound labelled ' pear oil,' which, by 
analysis, I discovered to be an alcoholic solution of pure acetate of amyl- 
oxide. Not having sufficient quantity to purify it for combustion, I 
dissolved it with potash, by which free fusel oil was separated, and deter- 
mined the acetic acid in the form of a silver salt. 

0.3080 gram, of silver salt=o.i997 gram, of silver. 
The percentage of silver in acetate of silver is, according to 

Theory Experiment 

64,68 64.5 s 

The acetate of amyloxide, which, according to the usual way of prcr 
paring it, represents one part sulphuric acid, one part fusel oil, and two 
parts acetate of potash, had a striking smell of fruit, but it acquired the 
pleasant flavour of the jargonelle pear only after having been diluted with 
six times its volume of spirit of wine. 

Upon further inquiry, I learned that considerable quantities of this 
oil are manufactured by some distillers — from fifteen to twenty pounds 
weekly — and sold to confectioners, who employ it chiefly in flavouring 
pear-drops, which are nothing else but barley-sugar flavoured with this oil. 

I found, besides the pear oil, also an apple oil, which, according to my 
analysis, is nothing but valerianate of amyloxide. Every one must recol- 
lect the insupportable smell of rotten apples which fills the laboratory 
whilst making valerianic acid. By operating upon this raw distillate pro- 
duced with diluted potash, valerianic acid is removed and an ether 
remains behind, which, diluted in five or six times its volume of spirit of 
wine, is possessed of the most pleasant flavour of apples. 

The essential oil ' most abundant in the Exhibition was the pine-apple 
oil, which, as you well know, is nothing else but the butyrate of ethyloxide. 
Even in this combination, like in the former, the pleasant flavour or scent 
is only attained by diluting the ether with alcohol. The butyric ether, 
which is employed in Germany to flavour bad rum, is employed in England 
to flavour an acidulated drink called pine-apple ale. For this purpose 
they generally do not employ pure butyric acid, but a product obtained 
by saponification of butter, and subsequent distillation of the soap with 

' The writer means ether ! 


concentrated sulphuric acid and alcohol ; which product contains, besides 
the butyric ether, other ethers, but nevertheless can be used for flavouring 
spirits. The sample I analysed was purer, and appeared to have been 
made with pure butyric ether. 

Decomposed with potash and changed into silver salt, it gave 

0.4404 gram, of silver salt = 0.2437 gram, of silver. 

The percentage of silver in the butyrate of silver is, according to 

Theory Experiment 

55-38 55.33 

Both English and French exhibitors have also sent samples of cognac 
oil and grape oil, which are employed to flavour the common sorts of 
brandy. As these samples were very small, I was prevented from 
making an accurate analysis. However, I am certain that the grape oil 
is a combination of amyl, diluted with much alcohol ; since, when acted 
upon with concentrated sulphuric acid, and the oil freed from alcohol by 
washing it with water, it gave amylsulphuric acid, which was identified 
by the analysis of the salt of barytes. 

1.2690 gram, of amylsulphate of barytes gave 0.5825 gram, of sulphate 
of barytes. This corresponds to 45.82 per cent, of sulphate of barytes. 

Amylsulphate of barytes, crystallised with two equivalents of water, 
contains, according to the analysis of Cahours and Kekule, 45.95 per 
cent, of sulphate of barytes. It is curious to find here a body, which, on 
account of its noxious smell, is removed with great care from spirituous 
liquors, to be applied under a difl"erent form for the purpose of imparting 
to them a pleasant flavour. 

I must needs here also mention the artificisd oil of bitter almonds. 
When Mitscherlich, in the year 1834, discovered the nitrobenzol, he 
would not have dreamed that this product would be manufactured for the 
purpose of perfumery, and, after twenty years, appear in fine labelled 
samples at the London Exhibition.' It is true that, even at the time of 
the discovery of nitrobenzol, he pointed out the striking similarity of its 
smell to that of the oil of bitter almonds. However, at that time, the 
only known sources for obtaining this body were the compressed gases 
and the distillation of benzoic acid : consequently the enormity of its price 
banished any idea of employing benzol as a substitute for oil of bitter 
almonds. However, in the year 1845, I succeeded, by means of the 
anilin-reaction in ascertaining the existence of benzol in common coal- 
tar oil ; and in the year 1849, C. B. Mansfield proved, by careful experi- 
ments, that benzol can be won without difficulty in great quantity from 

' Of 1851. 


coal-tar oil. In his essay, which contains many interesting details about 
the practical use of benzol, he speaks lilcewise of the possibility of soon 
obtaining the sweet-scented nitrobenzol in great quantity. The Exhibi- 
tion ' has proved that this observation has not been left unnoticed by the 
perfumers. Among French perfumeries we have found, under the name 
of artificial oil of bitter almonds, and under the still more poetical name 
of ' essence de mirbane,' seveTal samples of essential oils, which are no 
more nor less than nitrobenzol. I was not able to obtain accurate 
details about the extent of this branch of manufacture, which seems to 
be of some importance. In London, this article is manufactured with 
success. The apparatus employed is that of Mansfield, which is very 
simple : it consists of a large glass worm, the upper extremity of which 
divides in two branches of tubes, which are provided with funnels. 
Through one of these funnels passes a stream of concentrated nitric 
acid ; the other is destined as a receiver of benzol, which, for this purpose, 
requires not to be quite pure ; at the angle from where the two tubes 
branch out, the two bodies meet together, and instantly the chemical 
combination takes place, which cools sufficiently by passing through the 
glass worm. The product is afterwards washed with water, and some 
diluted solution of carbonate of soda ; it. is then ready for use. Notwith- 
standing the great physical similarity between nitrobenzol and oil of 
bitter almonds, there is yet a slight difference in smell which can be de- 
tected by an experienced nose. However, nitrobenzol is very useful in 
scenting soap, and might be employed with great advantage by con- 
fectioners and cooks, particularly on account of its safety, being entirely 
free "from prussic acid. 

There were, besides the above, several other artificial oils ; they all, 
however, were more or less complicated, and in so small quantities that 
it was impossible to ascertain their exact nature, and it was doubtful 
whether they had the same origin as the former. 

The application of organic chemistry to perfumery is quite new ; it is 
probable that the study of all the ethers or etherial combinations already 
known, and of those which the ingenuity of the chemist is daily discover- 
ing, will enlarge the sphere of their practical applications. The capryl- 
ethers, lately discovered by Bouis, are remarkable for their aromatic 
smells (the acetate of capryl-oxide is possessed of the most intense and 
pleasant smell), and they promise a large harvest to the manufacturers of 

[If the word '■flavour ' had been used by the various writers, who have 
written upon this subject, in the place of the word ' perfume,' and the 

' Of 1851. 


word ' ether' m. place of 'oil' and 'essential oil,' the dissemination of an 
erroneous idea would have been prevented : the word perfume, applied to 
pear oil, pine-apple oil, &c., implies, and the general tenor of the remarks 
of the writers leads the reader to infer, that these substances are used by 
perfumers, who not only do not, but cannot, use them in their trade, be- 
cause these artificial essences, or ethers, when poured upon a handker- 
chief and held to the nose, act, as is well known, like chloroform, 
producing also most serious irritation of the air-pipes. 

But for flavouring nectar, lozenges, sweetmeats, &c., these ethers, or 
oils, as the writers term them, are extensively used, and quite in accord- 
ance with assertions of Hofmann, Playfair, Fehling, and Bastick. How- 
ever, the glorious achievements of modem chemistry have not lost 
anything by this misapplication of a trade term. — SEPTIMUS PlESSE.] 

Gaultheria, or Winter Green. 

Mr. Bastick remarks that the chemical history of this oil is one of 
great importance and interest, affording, as it does, one of the examples 
where the progress of modern chemistry has succeeded in producing arti- 
ficially a complex organic body, previously only known as the result of 
vital force. 

This volatile oil is obtained from the winter-green, an American shrub 
of the heath family, by distillation. When this plant is distilled, at first 
an oil passes over which consists of C^^^ ; but when the temperature 
reaches 464° Fahr., a pure oil distils into the receiver. Therefore, the 
essential oil of this plant, like many others, consists of two portions — one 
a h) dro-carbon, and the other an oxygenated compound ; this latter is the 
chief constituent of the oil, and that which is of so much chemical interest 
from the fact that it has been artificially prepared. 

It is termed, when thus prepared, the spiroylate of the oxide of methyl, 
and is obtained when two parts of methylene, one and a half parts of 
spiroylic acid, and one part of sulphuric acid are distilled together. It is 
a colourless liquid, of an agreeable aromatic odour and taste ; it dissolves 
slightly in water, but in all proportions in ether and alcohol ; it boils be- 
tween 411° and 435° Fahr., and has a specific gravity of 1-173. This 
compound expels carbonic acid from its combinations, and forms a series 
of salts, which contain one atom of base and one atom of spiroylate of the 
oxide of methyl. It behaves, therefore, as a conjugate acid. Its formula 
isC^HjOs + C.HjO. 

The spiroylic acid may be separated from the natural oil by treating 
the latter with a concentrated solution of caustic potash at a temperature 
of 1 13° Fahr., when wood spirit is formed and evaporates, and the solution 


contains the spiroylate of potash, from which, when decomposed with 
sulphuric acid, the spiroylic acid separates and subsides in tbe fluid. 

Spiroylic acid is also formed by the oxidation of spiroyligenic acid, 
4nd when saligenin, salicin, courmacin. or indigo is heated with caustic 

Artificial Preparation of Oil of Cinnamon. 

'Some years since Strecker ' showed that styrone, which is obtained 
when styracine is treated with potash, is the alcohol of cinnamic acid. 
Wolff has converted this alcohol, by oxidising agents, into cinnamic acid. 
The author has now proved that under the same conditions by which 
ordinary alcohol affords aldehyde, styrone affords the aldehyde of cinna- 
mic acid ; that is, oil of cinnamon. It is only necessary to moisten platinum 
black with styrone, and let it remain in the air some days, when by means 
of the bisulphate of potash the aldehyde double compound may be ob- 
tained in crystals, which should be washed in ether. By the addition of 
diluted sulphuric acid, the aldehyde of cinnamic acid is afterwards pro- 
cured pure. These crystals also dissolve in nitric acid, and then form, 
after a few moments, crystals of the nitrate of the hydruret of cinnamyle. 
The conversion of styrone into the hydruret of cinnamyle by the action 
of the platinum black is shown by the following equation : CigHnjOj + 2O = 
-Comptes Rendus. 

Flower Farms. — Premiums for Odours of, Plants. 

'The following premiurns have been placed at the disposal of the 
Council of the Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and 
Commerce, for the term of seven years, by Dr. Septimus Piesse, F.C.S. : 
— I. A premium of 5/., for one pound of otto of bergamot, of the value of 
i6j. or more in the London market, being the produce of plants (Citrus 
Bergamia) grown in Australia, New Zealand, Natal, any of the British 
West India Islands, or any other British Colony or Dependency. 2. A 
premium of 5/., for i oz. of otto of roses, of the value of il. or more in the 
London market, being the produce of any variety of roses grown together 
in one plantation in the above mentioned Colonies. 3. A premium of 
10/., for a canister of enflowered butter or fat, so scented with any kind 
or sort of flower, either by infusion or enfleurage, or by means of these 
processes jointly, of the weight of 3 lbs. or more, and of the value of 
6s. per lb. in London ; the said butter or fat to be enflowered or infused 
with flowers grown for the purpose in the British Colonies.'— /'iz// Mall 


Use OF Fragrant Flowers. 

Professor Tyndall states that the absorption of radiant heat by small 
quantities of perfumes, when diffused through common air, increases its 
power of arresting heat to an extraordinary degree ; thus the absorptive 
power of air charged with the perfume of patchouly is 30 times greater 
than that of pure air ; lavender increases the power to 60 times ; and 
aniseed 372 times the natural amount : hence the perfume arising from a 
bed of flowers increases the temperature of the air around them by 
rendering it more absorptive of radiant solar heat. 

Mercutio Frangipanni. 

Morning breaks in golden splendour, 
And the Heavens seem to smile 

Lovingly upon the beauties 
Of Antigua's purple isle. 

From that island gentle breezes 
Waft a fragrance o'er the deep — 

The kisses of a thousand flowers 
Stolen from them while asleep. 

On the vessel's deck, the sailors 
Gaze upon the fruitful slopes ; 

And in fancy shape the future 

To their selfish dreams and hopes. 

.' See yon island,' cries the first one, 
' It shall bring us wealth untold ; 
We will spoil it of its treasures ; 
We will rob it of its gold. 

'We will toil and slave no longer 
No more need there'll be to roam 
For we'll lead the life of princes 
When we reach our Spanish home. ' 

' Home ! ' exclaims another, laughing— 
' Every place is home to me ; 
I will make a nest of comfort 
In this island of the sea. 


' Day by day the tawny natives 
Shall to me their treasures bring ; 
Ingots heavy — precious jewels, 
Fitting tribute to their king.' 

Young Mercutio Frangipanni 

Joins not in these worldly dreams ; 
And as they speak, a shade of sadness 

O'er his thoughtful forehead gleams. 

' What is gold ? ' he cries with passion ; 

' Can it buy you joy or health ; 
Will ye never cease to barter 

Peace and happiness for wealth ? 

' Look again — this lovely island 
Teems with riehes nobler yet 
Than the glittering yellow metal 
You would sell your souls to get. 

' If I am to seize its treasures, 

I will leave the Indian's gold 
For those better gifts of nature 

Which those Western climes unfold. 

' See those birds of brilliant plumage, 
See those incense-bearing trees ; 
What is all the gold of Ophir 
To the precious wealth of these ? 

' Behold again, those lovely flowers 
JewelUng the golden shores ; 
While a perfume rare and charming 
From their chalice outpours. 

' Oh ! could I but catch that fragrance, 
I would ask no other fame. 
Than that those sweet-scented flowers 
Should be coupled with my name.' 

John Cdrgill Brough. 



A BSORBENT powders, 415 

Absorption. See Enfleurage 
Acacia. See Cassie 

— fragrant, 468 

— pomade, 392 

— sachet, 307 

— stinlting, 467 
Acetic acid, 275, 279 
Acetone, 279 

Act of parliament, singular, 20 

Alabaster boxes, 3, 17 

Alcohol, test for, in essential oils, 470 

Algeria, 69 

Alhambra perfume, 282 

Alloxan, 423 

Allspice, 87, 186 

Almond balls, 381 

— bandoline, 438 

— cold cream, 377 

— meal, 369 

— paste, 368 

— soap, 351 
Almonds, milk of, 373 

— artificial otto, 90 

— oil of, 46, 87 

Altar and high priest, 317 • 
Amandine, 365 

Ambergris, origin of, 236, 240 
' — essence, 239 

— extract, 239 

— powdered, 240 
Ambrette, grains d', 156 
Ambrosial cream, 359 
Ammonia, 266 

Analogy of colour, sound, and smell, 45 
Animal perfumes, 236 
Anise, 90 

— starry, 92 


Aniseed, oil of, 90 
Anointing, 4, 8, 9, 18 
Anosmia, 55 
Apple essence, 481, 483 
Apricot, essence of, 484 
Arabia and the spice trade, 113 
' Arabian Nights ' quoted, 1 7 
Aromatic cashoo, 432 
— vinegar, 275 
Assam musk, 259, 264 
Astringent extract of roses and rose- 
mary, 436 
Athenian water, 435 
Azulene, 56, 57 

■Q ADTANI, essence of, 92 

Bain-marie, 81 
Balm, otto of, 93 
Balls, almond, 381 

— camphor, 381 

— soap, 341 
Balsam, 63 

— adulteration with resin, 94 

— definition of, 93 note 

— description, 182 

— method of preparation, 183 

— papal bulls respecting, 184 

— production of, in Salvador, 184 

— tests for adulteration, 95 

— of flowers, 395 

— Mecca, 95 

— Neroli, 396 

— Peru, 95 

— Storax, 95 

— Tolu, 94 

Banda islands, cultivation of nutmegs 
in, 164 




Bandolines, 437 

— almond, 438 

— rose, 438 
Basil, holy, 96, 97 

Batons, white, brown, and black, 400 

— fixateur, 437 
Bay rum, 435 

— sweet, 96 
Bears' grease, 394 
Beaver, castor, 241 

Ben or behen, oil of, 390 
Benjamin. [Benzoin] 
Benzoic acid, 89, 97 
Benzoin, 53, 97 

— antiseptic, 388 

— flowers of, 98 
■ — pomade, 392 

— Siamese, 100 
— - tincture of, 100 
Benzole, 90 
Berganiot, 100 

— essence of, 57 

— extract, 102 
Black cosmetic, 400 
Blanc, French, 417 

— de perle, 418 
Bloom of roses, 419 
Blue for veins, 423 
Blush, sympathetic, 422 
Boiling temperature of ottos, 448 
Book-marks, perfumed, 315 
Borage, 102 

Borax and myrrh powder, 429 
Botot, eau de, 182 
Bouquets, 86, 280 

— d' Amour, 283 

— d'Andorre, 283 

— Bosphorus, 283 

— Buckingham Palace, 283 

— de Caroline or des Delices, 286 

— dii Champ, 212 

— Ess, 285 

— Esterhazy, 285 

— de Flora, 289 

— Guards', 289 

— Hunt, 289 

— International, 296 

— Isle of Wight, 296 

— Italian nosegay, 289 

— Jockey Club, 290 

— Leap Year, 295 

— Marechal, 294 


Bouquets, Montpellier, 294 

— Mousseline, 294 

— Opoponax, 300 

— Reine d'Angleterre, 296 

— du Roi, 224, 296 

— Spring flowers, 299 

— West End, 302 
— ■ Yacht Club, 302 

— of chord, G, C, F, 50 
Breath lozenges, 432 
Briar, sweet, n8 

— essence of, 118 
Brown cosmetic, 400 
Bruges, ribbon of, 317 

(^ABARDIEN musk, 259, 264 

Cajeput oil, 120 
Calcined talc, 418 
Camphor, 102 

— balls, 381 

— cold cream or ice, 378 

— paste, 381 

— refined, 104 

— soap; 351 

Camphorated chalk, 428 
Candles, fragrant, 10 
Cannes, seat of the art, 61 note 

— culture of jasmine at, 133 

— manufactures, 70, 71 

— produce of flowers, 68, 69 

— rose-farming, 193 
Cantharides lotion, 436 
Caprice de la mode, 795 
Caraway, 105 
Carmine, 419 

— Wood's process, 420 
Cascarilla, 105 
Cassia, 106 

Cassie, culture of, 106 

— extract, 109 

— oil of, 108 

— pomade, 108 
Cassolettes, 315 
Castile soap, 332 
Castor, 240 

— extract, 241 

Castor oil, pomatum, 396 

— detection of, 469 
Cedar, no 

— Lebanon cedar wood, in 

— otto of, III 




Cedrat, 112 

Cedria, III 

Censer, 317 

Chalk, camphorated, 428 

Chapel Royal, offering of frankincense, 

Charcoal in pastils, 323 

— tooth-powder, 429 
Chassis en verre, 82 

Chemical constitution of essences, 37 
Chemistry, organic, applied to per- 

funfery, 484 
Cherry lip-salve, 382 
Chop-papers, 262 
Chord of odours, 50 
Chypre, eau de, 284 

— sachet eau, 308 
Cigars, perfuming, 274 
Cinnamon, 106 i!2 

— artificial oil of, 489 
Circassian cream, 395 
Citron, 114, 150 

— soap, 357 

— zeste, 145 
Citronella, 114 

— grass, 115 
Civet, 242 

— cat, 244 

— extract of, 245 

— sweet gloves, 243 note 

— zibeth, 244 
Clous fumants, 322 
Clove pink, 188 

— essence, 1 88 
Cloves, 115 

— otto of, 116 
Cold cream, 376 

— almond, 377 

— camphor, 378 

— cucumber, 378 

— glycerine, 378 

— rose, 376 

— violet, 378 
Cologne, eau de, 286 
-^ camphorated, 432 

— vina'gre de, 278 

Colour and sound, analogy between, 34 
Colouring matters of essences, 56 

— principle of volatile oils, 472 
Colours and odours, relation of, '65, 66 
Colours, 440 

— black,. 445 


Colours, brown, 445 

— brown-red, 444' 

— green, 441 

— mauve, 443 

— red, 443 

— rose, 443 

— violet, 443 

— yellow, 442 

Combinations of essences with water, 38 
Commercial elements, 231 
Composition of perfumes, means of dis- 
covery; 147 
Congealing temperatures of ottos, 448 
Cosmetics, black and brown, 400 
Costus. [Koosht] 
Coumarin, 212 
Court nosegay, 284 
Cream of almonds, 358 

— ambrosial, 359 

— Circassian, 39S 

— marrow, 397 

— saponaceous, 331 
Creme d'Amande, 331 

— de mauve, 438 
Crystallised lemon ice, 395 
~ oil, 396 

Cucumber, 116 

— cold cream, 378 
• — milk of, 374 

— otto, 116 

— pomade, 380 ' 
Curd soap. 332 
Cuttle fish, 238 

— tooth-powder, 429 
Cyprus, perfumes from, 320 

■QANDELION, milk of, 374 
Dentifrice, Mialhe's, 428 
Depilatory, 401, 412 

— Boettger's, 413 

— Bondet's, 413' 

— Hernandia, 414 

— sulphuret of barium, 412 
Detection of castor oil, 469 

— alcohol in otto, 470 

— fusel oil, 469 

— poppy, 471 

— spike oil, 471 

— turpentine, 471 
Dill, 117 

— oil of, 117 




Dill water, 117 
Discord of smells, 47 
Disinfection, 52, 53, 54 
Distillation, 73 
Divine pomade, 380 
Dry perfumes, 304 
Drying house, 307 
Duality of odours, 1 60 
Dyes for the hair, 401 

PARTHS, odours of the, 55 
Eau athenienne, 203 

— de botot, 182, 431 

— a briller, 325 

— pour briiler, 325 

— des Cannes, 93 

— de Chypre, 284 

• — de Cologne, 286 
camphorated, 432 

— de luce, 269, 270 

— des millefleurs, 293 

— de mousseline, 294 
Ecuelle, I', 144, 150, 171 
Egg julep, 436 
Eglantine, 118 

Elder, 118 

— extract, 375 

— milk, 374 

— water, 119 
Elixir, soft water, 360 
Emulsines, 365 

— au jasmin, 369 

— a la violette, 369 
Emulsions, 371 
Enfieurage, 38, 82, 136 

■ — modification of process, 228 
Erin, flowers of, 288 
Espagne, peau d', 313 
Ess bouquet, 285 
Essence, definition, 281 
Essence of almond, 46 

— badiani, 92 

— bay, 96 

— bergamot, 57, loo 

— cassia, io6 

— cedar, in 

— cedrat, 112 

— cloves, 116 

— cucumber, 117 

— eglantine, 118 

— geranium, 122 


Essence of heliotrope, I2S 

— honeysuckle, 128 

— hops, 128 

— hovenia, 129 

— hyssop, 129 

— Ilang-ilang, 130 

— jasmine, 133 

— jonquil, 137 

— lavender, 139 

— lemon, 144 

— lemon grass, 147 

— lilac, 148 

— lily of the valley, I49 

— linaloe, 151 

— magnolia, 154 

— mignonette, 154 

— myrtle, 157 

— narcissus, 159 

— neroli, 161 

— nutmeg, 167 

— orange-flower, 163 

— peel, Portugal, 169 

— orris, 174 

— patchouly, 1 76 

— pea, sweet, 177 

— peppermint, 178 

— pine-apple, 185 

— pink (clove), 188 

— rose pomade, 194 

moss, 197 

triple, 196 

twin, 196 

white, 197 

— — tea, 197 
yellow, 197 

— santal, 202 

— Tonquin bean, 212 

— tubereuse, 214 

— vanilla, 217 

— verbena, 219 

— verveine, 220 

— violet, 222 
wood, 301 

— vitivert, 224 

Essences, chemical constitution of, 37 

— apple, 483 

— colouring matters of, 56 

— combinations with water, 38 

— fruit, 483 

— optical properties, 39, 40, 41 

— oxidation of, 58, 86 

— physical characters, 42 sqq. 




Essences, apricot, 484 

— pear, 484 

— pine-apple, 483 

— raspberry, 483 

— strawberry, 483 
Essential oil. [Essence, otto] 
Esterhazy bouquet, 285 
Eucalyptus, 120 

— citriodora, 148 
Euchrysma, 437 

Eugenie's nosegay. Empress, 285 

Eugenine, 116 

Evaporators, 328 

Evelyn at Montpellier, 295 

Exhibition of 1851, 87 

Exports, English, 235 

Expression, process of, 72 

Extract, definition, 281. [Essence, 

Eyelids, blackening the, 401 

pACE painting, 417 
-^ powder, 417 
Farina, Piesse's, powders, 430 
Farms, rose, iigo 
Fennel, 120 
Flag, sweet, 121 
Fleur d'ltalie, 289 
Flora, bouquet de, 289 
Florentine recipient, 79 
Flower-farming, statistics, 67 

— premiums for odours, 488 
Flowers, i, 60, 439 

— Erin, 288 

— extract of, 288 

— May, 295 

— odoriferous, classified, 64 

— • spring, 299 

— use of fragrant, 488 
' Forget-me-not, ' 102 
Fountain ring, 303 

Frangipanni, origin of the name, 13 

sqq., 492 
-;- (plant), 121 

— sachet, 308 

— soap, 358 

— Mercutio, 16, 490 
Frankincense at the Chapel Royal, 11 

— at Westminster Abbey, 1 1 

— sources of, 122. [Olibanum] 
French weights and measures, 463 


Fruit essences, 483 
Fuller's earth soap, 353 
Fumigating paper, 326 

— ribbon of Bruges, 327 
Fumigation, antiseptic, 53 
Fusel oil, detection of, 469 

— Bastick on, 477 

QAMUT of odours, 48 

Garland, volunteers', 301 
Gaultheria, 226, 489 
Gems, scenting, 315 
Geranium, 122 
— ■ first commercial cultivation, 124 

— introduction into Europe, 124 

— oil of, 123 

Glovers, Paris corporation of, 15, 26 
Gloves, perfiamed, 14, 15, 26, 243 note 
Glycerine, balsam, 382 

— cold cream, 378 

— jelly, 37° 

— lotion, 375, 436 

— soap, 360 

transparent, 361 

Golden hair powder, 414 
Golden Rose, the, 12 
Grains d'Ambrette, 156 
Grasse, seat of the art, 61, 69, 193 
Grease, inodorous, 386, 

— purifying, 387 
Grinding machine, soap, 336 
Guards' bouquet, 289 

Gum Wattle, 468 

TLJAIR, oiling the, universal custom, 
384, 401 

— Persian customs, 402 

— Greek, 403 

— change in colour, 403 

— case of Marie Antoinette, 403 

— Haller's opinion, 403 

— Davy's, 404 

— Wilson's, 405 

— Blyth's, 40s 

— case of Orsini, 405 

— dyes among the Romans, 6 

to be avoided, 406 

French brown, 41 1 

inodorous, 410 

_ — Kohol, 407 

K K 




Hair dyes, litharge, 409 

manganese brown, 410 

with mordant, 410 

silver, 409 

Turkish, 407 

— gloss, 438 

— powder, golden, 414 

plain, 417 

snow, 414 

— washes, 434 

astringent, 43S 

Athenian, 435 

Bay rum, 435 

euchrysma, 437 

'~ glycerine and cantharides, 436 

Locock's, 436 

rosemary, 435 

-— saponaceous, 436 

— vegetable, 435 
Hay, new-mown, 288 
Hediosmia, 125 
Heliotrope, 125 

— process for utilising, suggested, 125 

— extract of, 127 

— pomade, 398 

— sachet, 309 
Henna, 402 

Hitchin, cultivation of lavender at, 14I 
Holy Basil, 96, 97 
Homoeopathic tooth-powder, 429 
Honey and almond paste, 367 
Honey soap, 352 
Honeysuckle, 128 

— essence, 128 
Hongroise pomade, 399 
Hops, otto of, 128 
Hovenia, 129 
Hungary water, 199 

Hydrogen, introduction of, into essen- 
tial oils, 476 
Hyssop, 129 

TCE, camphor, 378 
Ilang-Ilang, 130 

— blended, 132 

— false, 132 

Imports, English, 231, 233 
Incense, 2,6,7, 8, 52, t^'Hs sqq. 

— case, found at Whittlesea, 319 

— powders, 321 

— use in Church of England, 379 


Indian pastils, 321 
Inodorous grease, 386 
— hair-dye, 410 
International bouquet, 296 
Iris, 172 
Isle of Wight bouquet, 296 

JAPANESE perfume, 29Z 
J Jasmine, 46, 133 

— cultivation at CanneSj 133 
at Nice, 134 

— method of cultivation, 135 

— Alphonse Karr at sale of, 134 

— inimitable, 45 

— extract of, 136 
Jelly, glycerine, 370 
Jockey Club bouquet, 290 
Jonquil, 137 

Josticks, Chinese, 321 
Juniper tar soap, 363 

■[/■ARR, Alphonse, at sale of jasmine 

Kew Garden nosegay, 292 
Kisses, stolen, 292 
Kohol, 401, 407 
Koosht, 138 
Kus-kus, 223. [Vitivert] 

T AIT, virginal, 374 

Lamp, perfume, 324 
Laurel, 138 
Lavender, 139 

— cultivation at Hitchin, 141 
at Mitcham, 142 

— essence of, 143 

— and millefleurs, 293 

— sachet, 309 

— spike oil in, 471 
Leap-year bouquet, 295 
Lemon, 144 

— methods of preventing deterioration 


— otto of, 145 
Lemon grass otto, 147 

— ice, crystallised, 395 
Lemon-scented gum tree, 148 
Lignaloe. [Linaloe] 

Xillac, 148 




Lilac imitation essence, 149 
Lily, 149 

— imitation lily :of the valley, 149 
Lime, 15° 

Lime-tree blossom, 151 
Linaloe, 151 

— otto of, 152 
Lip-salve, 383 

— cherry, 382 

— rose, 382 

— white, 382 
Lisbon water, 1 70 
Litharge hair dye, 409 
Locock's hair lotion, 436 
Lotion, cantharides, 436 

— glycerine, 375, 436 

— Locock's hair, 436 
Lozenges, breath, 432 
Lustral fluid, 399 


Maceration, 80 
Magnolia, 153 

— imitation essence, 154 
Manganese brown hair dye, 410 
Mantegazza cited, 54 
Marechal, bouquet du, 294 
Marechale powder, 25, 224 

— sachet, 310 

Marie Antoinette, change of colour in 

her hair, 403 
Marine soap, 332 
Marjoram, 154 
Marren's experiments, 64 
Marrow cream, 397 

— pomatum, 357 
Mauve, crtme de, 438 
Mauve oil, 375 

May flowers, 295 
Meadow sweet, 154 
Meal, almond, 369 

— pistachio nut, 369 
Mecca, balsam of, 95 
Medea, 18 

Medicated soaps, 36 1 
Melissa, otto of, 93 
Mercutio, Frangipanni, 16, 490 
Mialhe's tooth powder, 428 
Mignonette, 154 

— essence of, 155 
Milk of almonds, 373 


Milk of cucumber, 374 

— dandelion, 374 

— elder, 374 

— pistachio nuts, 374 

— roses, 372 
Milk bath, 22 
Milks, 371 

Millefleurs et lavender, 293 

— eau des, 293 

— Delcroix's, 293 

— sachet, 31Q 
Millon's process, 229 
Mint, 155. [Peppermint] 
Miribane, 90 

Mitcham, 62, 74, 142, 179, 195 
Mock orange, 209 
Mode, caprice de la, 295 
Money-table, foreign, 461 
Montpellier, bouquet de, 294 

— Evelyn at, 295 

Mouldiness, perfumes preventive of, 476 
Mousseline des Indes, 224 

— eau des, 293 
■ — sachet, 310 
Mouth washes, 431 
— 'eau botot, 43 1 

— camphorated eau de Cologne, 432 

— myrrh and borax, 431 

— myrrh with eau de Cologne, 432 

— styptic, 431 

— violet, 431 
Muse extrait de, 260 
Musk, 246 

— adulteration, 247, 253 

— as a medicine, 247 

— Assam, 259, 264 

— : Cabardien, 259, 264 

— chop-papers, 262 

— deer, 246 

— Empress Josephine's, 257 

— extract, 260 

— fictions about, 257, 258 

— formation of, 250 

— grub, 253 note 

— pod, 249, 250, 253, 256, 259 
■ — seed, 156 

— soap, 357 

— Tonquin, 259, 264 

— uses in perfumery, 258 
Musk-rat, 246 

Myrrh, 157 

— and borax, mouth wash, 431 




Myrrh and eau de Cologne, 432 
Myrrh- tree, 158 
Myrtle, 157 

— imitation essence, 157 

— flower-water, 157 

'M'AIL powder, 423 

Naples soap, 359 
Narcissus, 159 
Neroli, 38, 159 

— origin of the term, 163 

— cultivation at Nice, 160 

— various qualities, i6l 

— balsam of, 396 

— esprit, 162 

— oil of, 161 
New-mown hay, 288 
Nice, 66, 67, 68, 160, 221 
Nitrobenzine, 90 note 
Nitrobenzole, 90 

Njavi oil, 385 
Nocturnal flowers, 64, 65 
Nomenclature in perfumery, 28 1 
Nosegay, the court, 284 

— Empress Eugenie's, 285 

— Italian, 289 

— Kew Garden, 292 

— tulip, 300 
Nutmeg, 164 

— cultivation by the Dutch, 164 

— destruction of, 165 

— oil of, 167 

— otto of, 166, 167 

QCTAVE of odours, 45 

Odoriferous species of plants, 64 
Odours, analogies with music, 51 

— artificial, 479 

— classification of, 47 
~ by day, 63 

^ difl^ision, 33 

— duality of, 160 

— of earths, 55 

— gamut of," 48, 49 

— neutralisation of, 52 

— by night, 64 

— octave of, 45 

— of plants, 62 

— protect against infection, 54 

— relation to colours, 65 

— resemblances of, 46 


Odours, strength and volatility, 37 

— velocity, 35, 36 
Oil, origin of term, 281 

— of ben, 390 

— njavi, 385 
Oils, essential, 280 

— introduction of hydrogen into, 476 

— fined, optical and physical proper- 
ties of, 44 

— volatile, colouring principle of, 56, 
. 59. 472 

Oil-runner, 366 

Oil-soap, 332 

Ointment, the precious, 8, 384 

Olfactory nerve, sensitiveness of the, 46 

tutoring the, 298 

Olibanum, 122, 167, 168 
Olivine, 367 
OUa podrida, 212 

— sachet, 311 
Opiate tooth-paste, 430 
Opoponax, 169 

— bouquet, 300 

Optical properties of essences, 39, 40, 

Orange, mock, 209 

— as pomander, 306 
Orange-flower pomatum, 161 
Orange-soap, 357 

Orange- water, 69, 70 note, 162, 163. 
[Neroli] ■^ 

Orange-tree, three odours, 62 

— high value of, 171 

— cultivation, 171 

-- method of extracting otto, 171 
Orange Zeste, 169 

— Lisbon water, 1 70 

— eau de Portugal, 170 
Orangery, near Sydney, 163 
Orris, 172 

— method of cultivation, 173 

— extract of, 174 
Osselets of Cyprus, 320 
Otto, definition, 281 
Otto of allspice, 87 

— almond, 89 
(.artificial), 90 

— anise, 90 

— balm, 93 

— bay, 96 

— benzoin, 100 

I — bergamot, loi 


50 r 


Otto of borage, 102 

— caraway, 105 

— cascarilla, 105 

— cassia, 106 

— cassie, 109 

— cedar. III 

— cinnamon, 1 1 2 

— citron, 114, 150 

— citronella, 114 

— cloves, 115 

— cucumber, 116 

— eucalyptus, 120 

— gaultheria, 226 

— geranium, 122 

— heliotrope, 126 

— hops, 128 

— Ilang-Ilang, 130 

— kus-kus, 224 

— lavender, 139 

— lemon, 145 

— lemon-grass, 147 

— lemon-scented gum-tree, 14S 

— linaloe, 151 

— mace, 153 

— marjoram, 1 54 

■ — meadowsweet, 154 

— melissa, 93 

— mint, 155 

— myrrh, 157 

— myrtle, 157 

— neroli, 161 
— -nutmeg, 166 

— olibanum, 168 

— opoponax, 169 

— orange peel, 169 

— orris, 1 74 

— patchouly, 175 

— peppermint, 177 

— pimento, 186 

— Portugal, 169 

— Rhodium, 188 

— rose, 190 

— rosemary, 198 

— rosewood, 188 

— rue, 200 

— sage, 200 

— santal, 202 

— sassafras, 203 

— thyme, 209 

— tonquin, 212 

— verbena, 219 

— vitivert, 224 


Otto of wintergreen, 226 
Otto, the odorous principle, 281 

— changed, 476 

— not an oil, 281 

— pipette, 73 

Ottos, quantity imported, 231 

— boiling and congealing temperatures 
of, 448 

— yielded by plants, 447 
Oxidation of essences, 58, 86 
Ozone, 54 

pALM, 174 

- - soap, 332 
Paper, perfumed letter, 314 

— fumigating, 326 
ParafSn, 85, 391 

■ — origin of name, 391 
Paste, almond, 368 

— honey and almond, 367 

— pistachio, 368 

Pastil lozenges, Turkish, 432 
Pastils, modern, 320 

— fumigating, 322 
■ — perfumers', 322 

— Piesse's, 322 

— seraglio, 321 

— yellow, 321 

— use of charcoal in, 323 
Patchouly, 57, 174 

— • origin of its use, 176 

— extract, 176 

— otto, 175 

— sachet, 311 

— soap, 358 
Pea, sweet, 177 

Pears, artificial odour of, 481 

— essence, 484 
Peau d'Espagne, 313 
Peloteuse, 338 
Pencil water, 411 
Peppermint, 177 

— cultivation of, in N. America, 178 . 

— at Mitcham, 179 

— white and black, 179 

— distillation of, 180 
Percolating process, 229 
Perfume, Alhambra, 282 

— a Japanese, 292 

— lamp, 324 
Perfumers' pastils, 322 





Perfumes, antiquity of, I, 2 

Pomade, benzoin, 392 

— among the Chinese, 2 

— castor oil, 396 

the Greeks, 2, 3, 4 

— Circassian, 395 

the Romans, 5, 6, 9 

— cosmetics, 400 

■ the Egyptians, 7, 

— crystallised, 395 

the Hebrews, 7, 8, 9, 304 

— cucumber, 380 

— in churches, 10, 11 

— divine, 380 

— mentioned in Arabian Nights, 1 7 

— of flowers, 395 

— use of in England, 19 sqq. 

— hard stick, 400 

— tax on and license for, 23 

— heliotrope, 398 

-r first work on, 23 

— hongroise, 399 

— in France, 23 

— jasmine, 398 

— excessive use of, 24, 25 

— lustral, 399 

— introduced into Spain by Arabs, 24 

— marrow, 397 

— three classes of, 27 

— millefleurs, 398 

— adulteration of, 28 

— neroli, 396 

— in the harem, 28 

— orange, 398 

— a trade mystery, 30 

— philocome, 399 

— in all climates, 60 

— rose, 398 

— principal seats of the art, 61 

— tonquin, 393 

— commercial importance, 67 

— tuberose, 398 

— simple or compound, 86 

— vanilla, 393 

— dry, 304 

— violet, 397 

— prevent mouldiness, 476 

Pomander, 19, 24, 305 

— statistics, 231 

— orange used as, 306 

Perfumed bookmarks, 315 

Pomatums, English imports, 23 

— letter paper, 314 

Pompeii, soap found at, 330 

— soap, 330 

Poppy oil, detection of, 471 

— spills, 327 

Portugal. [Orange zestej 

Peru, balsam of, 95 

— eau de, 170 

Peruvian dentifrice, 429 

— sachet, 310 

Petit grain. [Neroli] 

Posy, Piesse's, 299 

Physical characters of essences, 42 sqq. 

Pot-pourri, 7, 212 

Piesse's pastils, 322 

— sachet, 311 

— posy, 299 

Pouncet-box, 306 

■ — twin rose, 196 

Pounding machines, 343 

Pimento. [Allspice] 

Powders, absorbent, 415 

Pine-apple, 185 

— blanc, 417 

■ artificial essence, 478, 483 

— face, 417 

Pink, imitation essence, 188 

— golden hair, 414 

— saucers, 422 

— incense, 321 

— wool, 422 

— nail, 423 

Pipette, otto, 73 

— perle, 417 

Pistachio nut meal, 369 

— pistachio and toilet, 41 

— milk, 374 

— puffs, 415 

— toilet powder, 416 

— rose, 417 

Pneumatic process, 228 

— for sachets, 306 

Pomade (pomatum), origin of tei-m. 385 

— snow, 414 

— acacia, 392 

— soap, 359 

— alpaca, 394 

— tooth, 326, 425, 426 

— baton, 400 

— violet, 416 

— bears' grease, 394 

Press, oil and tincture, 72, 84 




Preston salts, 269 
Priest at the altar, 317 
Printaniers, 315 
' Proof explained, 475 
Puff, 41S 
Puff-box, 416 
Purifying grease, 387 
Pyro-acetic spirit, 279 

QUEEN Elizabeth's perfumes, 19, 30, 
243 note 
Quince, artificial essence of, 480 
Quinine dentifrice, 428 

■D ASPBERRY essence, 483 
Raspberry jam tree, 467 
Reine d'Angleterre, bouquet de, 296 
Reseda, 154 
Rhodium, 188 
Ribbon of Bruges, 327 
Ring, fountain, 303 
Roi, bouquet du, 296 
Rolling machine, soap, 337, 355 sqq 
Rondeletia, 297 

— essence of, 298 

Rose cultivation at Mitcharo, 195 

— farms of Roumelia, 191 
Adrianople, 192 

— the, fondness of Romans for, 189 

— attar of, 190, 191 

— Cashmere, 193 

— French, 193, 194 

— bandoline, 438 

— bloom of, 419 

— cold cream, 376 

— esprit, 196 

— essence of, Chinese, 197 
moss, 197 

• tea, 197 

■ white, 197 

— face-powder, 417 

— lip- salve, 382 

— milk, 372 

— pickled, 195 

— Piesse's twin, 196 

— pomade, 398 

— sachet, 311 

— soap, 356 

— vinegar, 278 

— wine, 189 


Rose, the Golden, 12 
Rosemary, 198 

— in Hungary water, 199 

— hair wash, 435 

— water, 434 
Rosewater, 195 

— antiquity of, 196 
Rosewood. [Rhodium] 
Rouges, 415, 418, 421 
Rue, 199 

— ancient use of, in Newgate, 199 

— otto, synthesis of, 48 1 
Rum-ether, 480 
Rusma, 412 

Russia leather, 200 

— mode of preparing perfume, 200 

— source of odour, 314 
Rypophagon soap, 359 

C ARYANS, the, 113 
Sachet powders, 306 

— acacia, 307 

— au Chypre, 308 

— Frangipanni, 30S 

— heliotrope, 309 

— lavender, 309 

— marechale, 310 

— millefleurs, 310 

— mousseline, 310 

— ' no name,' 312 

— olla-podrida, 311 

— patchouly, 311 

— Portugal, 310 

— pot-pourri, 311 

— rose, 311 

— santal-wood, 312 

— vervein, 312 

— vitivert, 312 
Sage, 200 
Salts, crystal, 267 

— inexhaustible, 266 

— Preston, 269 

— smelling, 267 

— Allchin's plan, 268 
Sambola, 208 

Sand soap, 352 
Santal wood, 201 

— religious use of, 201 

— otto, 202 

— sachet, 312 

— soap, 357 





Saponaceous cream, 331 

Soap, musk, 357 

■ — of almonds, 358 

— Naples, 359 

— wash, 436 

- oil, 332 

Saponine, 364 

— orange, 357 

Sassafras, 203 

— palm, 332 

Savona, soap-making at, 330 

— patchouly, 358 

Scent-casket. [Pomander] 

— rose, 356 

Scented shells, 316 

— rypophagon, 3^9 

Scenting gems, 315 

— sand, 352 

— soap, hot, 353 

— santal, 357 

cold, 354 

— spermaceti, 357 

Scents, economical, 227 

— soft, 331 

— Socrates on, 4 

— stone, of Mylos, 363 

— Solon's prohibition of, 3 

— transparent soft, 360 

Scripture, perfumes mentioned in, 7 

hard, 361 

Shells, scented, 316 

glycerine, 361 

Schnouda, 422 

— Windsor, white, 352 

Secretion of odours, 63 

brown, 352 

Sensitiveness of the olfactory nerve. 

— yellow, 332 


— manufacture, 331 

Shenstone, cited, 309 

— remelting, 333 

Silver hair-dye, 409 

— melting-pan, 333 

Siphon still, 75 

— frame and gauges, 334 

Smelling, sense of, 32 

— grinding machine, 335, 

Snow powders, 414 

— rolling machine, 337 

Snuff, 270 

— peloteuse, 338 

— preparation of, 27 1 

— press, 340 

— rappee, 272 

— scoop, 341 

— wallflower, 272 

— mou ds, 341 

— methods of perfuming, 273 

— pelotage by machinery, 342 

Soap, perfumed, 330 

— conversion of soap-pastes into toilet 

— antiquity of, 330 

soaps, 342 

— origin of the name, 330 

— scenting, hot, 353 

— found at Pompeii, 330 

cold, 354 

— trade, in England, 330 

— balls, 341 

— removal of duty on, 331 

— plants, 364 

— almond, 351 

— powders, 359 

— camphor, 351 

Soapstone, 363 

— castile, 332 

Soapwort, 364 

— citron, 357 

Socrates on scents, 4 

— coloured, 356 

Soft soap, fig, 333 

— curd, 332 

Naples, 333 

- fig soft, 333 

transparent, 360 

— Frangipanni, 358 

Soft water ehxir, 360 

— fuller's earth, 353 

Solon's prohibition of scents, 3 

— glycerine, 360 

Spermaceti soap, 357 

— hard, 331 

Spice trade, ancient, 1 13 

— honey, 352 

— Dutch, 164 

— juniper t^r, 363 

— British, 164 

— marbled, 341 

Spike, 203 

— marine, 332 

— oil, detection of, 471 

— medicated, 361 

Spikenard, 203 




Spills, perfumed, 327 
Spirit, Amall on, 474 

— French, 290 

— grape and corn, 287, 290 

— the right to use, 291 
Sponge, 446 
Spring-flowers, 299 
Statistics of flower-farming, 67 

— of perfumery, 231 
Still, French, 74 

— portable, 78 
■ — siphon, 75 
Still-room, 21, 31, 119 
Stolen kisses, 292 

Storax, 205. See Balsam of Storax 

— extraction of liquid, 206 

— its place among odours, 207 

— its power of fixing a volatile sub- 
stance, 208 

Stow cited, 22 

Strawberries, essence of, 480, 483 

Styptic, botanic, 431 

Shave, 299 

' Sub rosa,' origin of the phrase, 13 

Suffitus, 320 

Sumbul, 208 

Swans'-down puff, 415 

Sweet-briar, 118 

Sweet pea, 177 

Sympathetic blush, 422 

Syringa, 209 

'J'ALC, calcined, 418 

Tap funnel, 74 
Tariffs, 449 

— American (North), 450 

— Antiguan, 45 1 

— Argentine Republic, 451 

— Australian, South and West, 451 

— Austrian, 45 1 

— Barbadoes, 452 

— Belgian, 452 

— Brazilian, 452 

— Canadian, 452 

— Cape Town, 453 

— Ceylon, 453 

— Chilian, 453 

— Columbian and Nicaraguan, 453 

— Costa Rica, 453 

— Danish, 454 

— French, 454 


Tariffs, Gambian, 455 

— German, 45S 

— Gold Coast, 45S 

— Hawaiian, 455 

— Haytian, 456 

— Indian, 456 

— Italian, 456 

— Jamaican, 456 

— Mauritius, 457 

— Mexican, 457 

— Netherlands, 457 

— New South Wales, 457 

— New Zealand, 457 

— Portuguese, 457 

— Queensland, 458 

— Russian, 458 

— Spanish, 458 

— Swiss, 459 

— Tasmanian, 459 

— Trinidad, 459 

— Venezuelan, 460 

— Victorian, 460 

Temple, Sir W., cited, 21, 165 
Thyme, 209 
Toilet soaps, 342 

— vinegar, 278 
Tolu, balsam of, 94 
Tonka. [Tonquin] 
Tonquin, 209 

— extract, 212 

— musk, 259, 264 
Tooth-paste, opiate, 430 
Tooth-powders, 326, 425, 426 

— borax and myrrh, 429 

— camphorated chalk, 428 

— charcoal, 429 

— cuttlefish, 429 

— farina, Piesse's, 430 

— homoeopathic, 429 

— Mialhe's, 428 

— Peruvian, 429 

— quinine, 428 

— rose, 430 
Trade secrets, 30 
Transparent soap, 360 
Triple esprit de rose, 1 96 
Trochisci, sweet-smelling, 322 
Tubereuse, 213 

— cultivation of, 213 

— extract of, 214 
Tulip nosegay, 300 
Turkish hair-dyes, 407 




Turkish pastil lozenges, 432 
Turpentine, detection of, 471 
Twin rose, Piesse's, 196 

WANILLA, 177, 214 

— commercial varieties, 21S 

— curing, 217 

— essence of, 217 

— extract, 218 

— pro, agation, 216 

— various qualities, 215 
Vanilline, 219 
Vanillon, 215 
Vaseline, 383 

Veins, blue for, 423 
Velocity of odours, 35, 36 
Verbena, 219 

— extract of, 219 

— extrait de verveine, 220 

— oil of, 147 
Vervein. [Verbena] 
Vervein sachet, 312 
Vinaigre de Cologne, 278 

— i la rose, 276 
Vinegar, aromatic, 275 

— cosmetic, 278 

— four thieves', 277 

— Henry's, 276 

— hygienic, 278 

— toilet ^ la rose, 278 

k la violette, 278 

Violet, 220 

— farms at Nice, 221 

— propagation of, 221 

— cold cream, 378 

— essence, 222 
imitation, 223 

— mouth- wash, 431 

— pomatum, 397 

— sachet, 312 

— wood, 301 


Vitivert 223 

— essence of, 224 

— otto, 225 

— sachet, 312 

— substitutes, 225 
Volatility of odours, 35, 3 
Volkameria, 225 
Volunteer's garland, 01 


— essence of, 226 
Walnut water, 411 
Walton, Izaak, cited, 309 
Water, Athenian, 435 

— dill, 117 

— elder, 119 

— Hungary, 199 

— lavender, 144 

— Lisbon, 170 

— myrtle-flower, 157 

— orange, 69 

— pencil, 411 

— rose, 19s 

— rosemary, 434 

— walnut, 411 

Water cosmetic, 371, 400 
Weights and measures, French, 463 
West-end bouquet, 302 
Westminster Abbey, frankincense at, 

Whittlesea, incense case found at, 319 
Windsor soap, 352 

— musk, 258 
Winter green, 226, 489 

— Iceland, 227 
Wood violet, 301 
Woodbine, 128 

YACHT club bouquet, 302 
Yellow soap, 332 





POUD:^?! en 1816. 


GRASSE (Alpes-Maritimes)FBANCE. 





Pommades Extra -Satur^es aux Fleurs. 
Essence de Lavande des Alpes cultivde. 
„ „ G-eranium Rosa sur Roses. 
„ „ Beurre d'Iris. 
Pommades et huiles, No. 24, Extra. 



New York. LEIPZIG. Prague. 



of Sandal Wood. 

Orris Root, concrete. 
Sumbul Root. 
Oedar "Wood. 
Jimiper Berries. 
Mirbane, Wliite. 

Oil of Oinnamoji, Ceylon. 

Aniseed, Russian. 





Fennel, Sweet. 


Penny Royal. 

Almonds, Bitter. 


Mace, Expressed. 
Thymol, Cryst. 
Sweet Almond Oil. 

Impobtebs of 



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