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the memory of 

my mother. 

Deported and died in Irbid 

(Arabian Desert.) 


A glance at the early history of this tramping-ground of 
our Aryan forefathers gives the impression that the region was 
both better known and better appreciated by them than by its 
modern inhabitants. Fully 3,000 years ago, Asia Minor, as 
a hunKin habitation, was already very old, and there flourished 
in certain portions of it a civilization as advanced, in many 
of its phases, as the later Roman culture ever was. 

Along with the recognition of the economic value of various 
ores, mining has assumed such importance as to have become 
the means of sustenance of numerous settlements sc|attered 
from the Aegean coastland to the Persian Gulf. Within that 
territory, empire after empire had risen to power, and passed 
into oblivion. Colonies of the vanished kingdoms of Sumner 
and Akad, preceding the Babylonian Empire itself, has flour- 
ished in the fifth millenium B. C. With the westward march 
of progress, the Hittite power come into being; and finally, the 
ten centuries immediately preceding the birth of Christ wit- 
nessed an unparallalled growth of civilization on the eastern 
shore of the Aegean Sea. During this period Greek paganism 
evolved a highly-advanced organized life. In each of these 
successive stages of culture, the art of working ores was profit- 
alby carried on; the metals being respectively valued according 
to their relative abundance and usefulness, or commercial im- 

This active mining operations started 2000 years B. C, were 
carried on pregressively up to the end of the eleventh century 
A. D., when barbarians of Turkestan invaded the country. Sub- 
sequent to this period centuries of corruption and misrule barred 
the development of the industry. 

To prospect on Turkish soil was usually a hazardous under- 
taking because of the lack of orderly government. The geolo- 
gist Was hindered in his field work; general knowledge of the 
geology of Turkey was, therefore, fragamentary. No attempts 
have been made to establish an active geological survey. 

Through the pressure exerted by the embassies, foreigners 

have travelled through the provinces under the safeguard of a 
military escort. It is due to them that we know something 
regarding the geological and mining features of the region. The 
country itself has been impoverished to such an extent as to 
be utterly unable to finance any commercial undertaking what- 
ever. Corrupt officialdom, unfavorable mining laws and the 
absence of roads, all have been contributed to prevent mining 
from becoming a prosperous industry. Except at mines situ- 
ated near the Coast, the necessary machinery for working 
could not be installed, owing to the transport difficulties. The 
introduction of electrical machinery has been prbhibited, ex- 
cept under very special circumstances, while the admission of 
explosives has always been a matter of the greatest difficulty 
and expense. Under these conditions it is not to be wondered 
at that capitalists have been shy of investing in mining under- 

The momentous political change that has recently taken place 
in Turkey, through the victory of Allied Nations, invites our 
attention to the mineral resources of the country. Through the 
annihilation of Turkish terror, a barrier against the civilization 
and progress, and through the freedom of Armenian element 
in Turkey, granting them an independent government under 
the mandate of an advanced nation like America, there cannot 
be any doubt that a liberal and well dministrted mining law 
will be established; a strong department of mines with a com- 
petent staff of mining engineers, will be formed; capital for 
developing mineral property will flow into the country to the 
great advantage of the national finances; the railways, an im- 
portant factor in the expnsion of mining enterprise will soon 

Flourishing industries therefore, are perforce subordinate to 
the existence of order and peace. Fortunately, there is reason 
to believe that the nation who will kindly lead us will intend to 
carry out a broad-minded policy to favor the expansion of min- 
ing and its allied industries in our own country. With the adop- 
tion of such a course many inttJoresting features of technical 
practice in these territories will doubtless be revealed within 
the next decade or so. Most mining engineers are familiar 
with the admirable results obtained in Mexico, within a com- 
paratively short period of time, nor is the result of push and 
energy in our own country less strikng. 

Comparisons are instructive, at times, and it was futile to 
belittle the importance of granting due recognition to modern 
industrial tendencies as exhibited in the practice of the more 
advanced nations. A study of these features and the causes 
conductive thereto, may advantageously shape the policy to be 
adopted by those upon whom the responsibility of developing 
the country's* natural resources has been thrust. 

Hagop a. Karajian. 
New York, Jan. 1920. 

Contents 9-13 

Bibliography 15-25 

Origin of mining and metallurgy. — Period of active 
mining. — Structure and geology in mining. — Mining by 
foreign capital. — Summary of most important mines 27-29 

General orography of Asia. — Mountain chains. — Low- 
lying plains. — Causes of gigantic wrinkles. — Three great 
arcs. — Three great approximiations 31-36 

Northern peripheral regions. — Southern chains. Kara — 
bagh region. — Ararat system 36-38 

Armenia : — Northern border ranges. — Southern border 
ranges. — Central highlands. Anatolia: — Northern border 
ranges. — Central depression. — Ionian sea board. — Eastern 
border ranges 38-42 


Armenia: — As integral member of Asiatic tableland. — 
Idiosyncrasies. — Higher plain levels. — Eruptive actions. — 
Depressions. — Rocks. — Prominent surface features 

Anatolia: — General phases of the surface. — Plateau 
formations. — Central plain. — Deposits of the central plain. 42-49 

Armenia : — Folds and faults. — Northern folds. — Central 
folds. — Southern folds. Anatolia: — Northern folds. — 
Southern folds. — Folds of western Anatolia. — Eastern 
folds 49-59 


Armenia : — General summary. — Pre-Devonic rocks. — 
Devonic series and fauna. — Carboniferous rocks and 
fauna: — Permo-Triassic. — Jurassic. — • Dogger (Bajocian 
tuff). — ^Malm (CaUovian, Kimmeridjian, Tithonian) and 
fauna. — Lower Cretaceous (Neocominian or Hauterivian, 
Aptian) and fauna. — Upper Cretaceous (Albian, Cenoman- 
ian; Turonian, Senonian) and fauna. — Oligocene and 
fauna. — Lower Miocene (Tortonian, Helvetian) and 
fauna. — Upper Miocene (Sarmatian) and fauna. — Plio- 
cene and fauna. — Pleistocene and fauna. — Glacial action. 
Anatolia : — General summary. — Silurian and fauna. — 
Devonian and fauna. — Carboniferous and fauna. — Perm- 
ian and fauna. — Triassic and fauna. — Jurassic and 
fauna. — Cretaceous and fauna. — Eocene and fauna. — 
Oligocene and fauna. — Miocene and fauna. — Pliocene 
and fauna. — Pleistocene and fauna. — Glacial action 59-82 

Armenia: — Features of Pre-Devonic period. — Features 
of Devonian. — Features of Carbonic age. — Permo-Trias- 
sic conditions. — Jurassic features. — Cretaceous condi- 
tions. — Features of Eocene. — Features of Oligocene. — 
Features of Miocene. — Features of Pliocene. — Features 
of Pleistocene. Anatolia: — Pre-Devonic condiflons. — 
Transition conditions. — Devonic Features. — Conditions of 
Carbonic age. — Features of Jurassic. — Features of Cre- 
taceous. — Features of Lower Tertiary. — Features of 
Middle Tertiary. — Features of Upper Tertiary 82-91 

Armenia : — Ultra basic. — Basic. — Medium acidic.^ 
Acidi. Anatolia : — Trachytes. — Dolerites. — Pyroxenes. — 
Porphyries.— Serpentines.— Diorites. — Eurites and quartz 
porphyries.— Basalts.— Volcanic tuffs. 91-98 

Anatolian coal fields and their occurrence. — Coal fields 


of Armenia. — Cilician and Tauric Mountain coals. — Coal 
fields of Caucasian Armenia. — Future prospects 99-109 

General remarks on oil possibilities of Anatolia and 
Armenia. — Oil in Dardanelles district. — Oil in Smyrna. — 
Oil in Armenia. — Oil resources of Caucasian Armenia. — 
Chatma fields. — Balakhany, Romany, Zabrat, etc., fields. — ', 
Binagadi fields. — Puta oil fields. — Khordalan oil fields. — 
Digga-Sarai, etc., fields. — Origin of oils 109-119 

Mining of salt in Turkey. — Origin of salt deposits. — 1 
Rock salt deposits in Anatolia and Armenia. — Salts of 
marine or lacustrine origin. — Salt lakes of Anatolia. — 
Salt lakes of Armenia. — Analysis of waters of Lake Van 
and Urmi 1 19-126 

Borate deposits of Sultan Tchair. — Origin and occur- 
rences of borate. — Borate of Lake Urmi. — ^Annual pro- 
duction 126-128 

Discovery of emery. — Emery deposits of western Ana- 
tolia. — Origin and occurrences of Emery. — Emery deposits 
of Caucasian Armenia. — ^Annual production 129-130 

Sepiolite of Eski-Shehr. — Origin and occurrences. — 
Methods of mining 130-132 

Brimstone deposits of Dardanelles. — Sulphur at Bech- 
anach and Daralagoz. — Deposits produced from sulphur 
springs. — Deposits from fumerols of volcanoes 132 

Alum deposits of Shabin-Karahissar. — Methods of ex- 
traction. — ^Origin and occurrences. — Chemical analysis of 
Alum. — Alunite of Caucasian Armenia I33-I35 


Onyx. — Lithographic stones. — Argillaceous Calcite-Mar- 
ble.— Chalk 135-136 

Occurrences and origin of gypsum in Armenia and Ana- 
tolia. — Gypsum associated with carbonates and sulphates. 136 

The beds of sodium nitrates. — Occurrences and origin. — 
Association 136 

Occurrences and origin of clays. — Fuller's earth. — 
Kaoline 136 

Agates of Anatolia.— Agates of Pontus 137 

Siliceous marl at Kessatib. — Siliceous marl of Erzerum. 137 


Geology and history of Anatolian gold fields. — Pontic 
gold fields. — Tauric gold fields. — Gold in Armenia. — ^An- 
nual production 138-149 

Silver associated with lead. — Silver resources of 
Pontus. — Silver in Caucasian Armenia. — Silver deposits 
in Armenia. — Argentiferous-lead mine of Keban- 
Maden. — Argentiferous - lead deposits of Boulgar- 
Maden. — Silver occurrences in western Anatolia. — Argen- 
tiferous-lead of Balia-Maden. — Annual production 149-161 

Occurrence of copper. — Copper deposits of Pontus. — 
Copper deposits of Caucasian Armenia. — Kedabeg mine. — 
Allahverdi mine. — Elvach mine. — Copper mines of Ar- 
menia. — Argana-Maden copper deposits. — ^Annual pro- 
duction 161-168 


Iron deposits of Trebizond. — Iron in Caucasian Ar- 
menia. — Iron ores in Bulghar-dagh. — Iron in Zeitun. — 
Iron in Smyrna 168-171 

Discovery of Chrome. — Occurrences and origin of 
chrome. — Chrome deposits of Anatolia. — Annual pro- 
duction 171-174 

Deposits of Transcaucia. — Occurrence and its origin. — 
Manganese ore deposits of Anatolia and Armenia 174-178 

Deposits of Konia Mercury mine. — Occurrences and 
origin. — History of discovery. — Karabournou cinnabar 
deposits. — Extraction of mercury. — Annual production. . 178-182 

Anatolian antimony deposits. — Occurrences and ori- 
gin. — Deposits of Broussa. — Deposits of Smyrna. — De- 
posits of Sivas. — Annual production 182-183 

Lead mines of Anatolia. — Lead mines of Armenia. — 
Lead from Balia Silver Mine. — Lead from Boulgar- 
Maden. — Lead from Kebban-Maden. — Annual pro- 
duction 183-185 

Calamine deposits of Karasu and Adana. — Zinc at 
Bazar. — Zinc at Kirasliyaila. — Zinc in Smyrna. — Zinc ex- 
tracted from Balia silver mine. — Annual production 185 

Cassiterite of Kurbaba. — Tin ores found in Caucasian 
Armenia. — Tin found near Aleppo 186 


Realgar in Armenia. — Realgar in Taurus. — ^Arsenopy- 
rite in Anatolia. — Arsenic associated with antimony oc- 
curs in Elkhur. — Annual production i86 

Deposits of Caucasian Armenia. — Occurrences and origin. 187 

I. Geographical. — II. Mineral and Geological 189 


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und die Mineralquellen d. Kauk. Gebiets (Russ.) St. 
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103. Monachi,F. P. Passengna Minerara April 11, 1908. 

103. Morgan, J. de Mission Scientifique au Caucase. Paris 

105. Murrey. On the deposits of the Black Sea. The Scott. 

Geog. Mag. T. 16, 1900, p. 673-702. 

106. Muschketow, J. Mat. rec. sur le tremblement de terre 

d'Akhalkalaki du 19 dec. 1899 (Russ.) Mem. com. 
Geol. n. s. I. St. Petersburg, 1903. 

107. Naumann, Vom Goldnen Horn su den Quellen des Eu- 

prat (Leipzig) 1893. 

108. " Die Grundlinen Anatoliens (Georg. zeitschrift d. 

Hettner, 11 725. 

109. Neumayer M. und V. Uhlig, Uber die von H. Abich im 

Kaukasus gesam melten Jurafossilien-Denkschr. 
Wiener Akad. LIX, 1-122, Wien, 1892. 
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etc. Journ. Linn. Soc. XXVII, 430-453, London 1900. 

111. Nicou, P Le Cuivre en Transcaucasie, Ann. des Mines, 

ser 10, 10, VI, 1-54 .Paris 1904. 

112. Ohrn, A. Die erzlagerstatte von Katar und Kavast Russ. 

Mat. Geol. Cauc. Ser. in, IX. 1-214. Tiflis 1910. 

113. " Die eisenerze von Tschatach (Russ.), Ibid. Ser. 

Ill, VII, 182-193, Tiflis, 1909. 

114. Opperheim, P. Die Priabonaschechten und ihre Fauna 

Palaontographica, XLVII, 305-307 Miinchen, 1900. 
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115. Oswald, F. A treatise on the Geology of Armenia, Lon- 

116. " A geological map of Armenia etc., with explana- 

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[17. " Zur tektomischen entwick lungsgeschichat d'Armen. 


Hochlandes. Peterm. Mitt. Heft 1-3. Gotha, 1910. 

118. Pelekan, A. Petrogr. Unter suchungen von eruptinges 

tienen aus d. Kaukasuslan dern. Beitr. Pal. Osterr. 
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119. Percy E. Highland of Asiatic Turkey, London, 1901. 

120. Phillips, J. A. Henry Louis A treatise on Ore deposits. 

London, 1896. 

121. Philipson A. Geologische geographische Reis Kizzen aus 

dem Orient (sitzungslier. Niederrheim Ges. f. 
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122. Pollington, V. journey from Erzerum to Aleppo, 1838 

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123. Pompeckj, J. F. Palaont. und stratigr. Notizen aus Ana- 

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Berlin 1897. 

124. Redlick, K. G. Der jura der Umgebung von Alt-Achtala. 

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125. Rath, G. V. Ueuber Pandermit (Ges. f. Naturk. za 

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126. Ralli, G. La bassin houiller d'Heraclee (Ann. Sov. geoL 

de Belgique, Liege XXIII. p. 151-267. pi. iii-XIX> 

127. " The lead mines of Balia. Eng. & Ming. Jour., Feb. 

18, 1904. 

128. Segalj, J. Der weifse Marmor von Chatschbulag (Russ.) 

Kawkas, 1895, Ne. 14. 

129. Seward, A. C. Jurassic plants from Caucasia and Turkes- 

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130. Sevens, C. Manganese ore industry of Transcaucasua 

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131. Schlehan Verhuch einer geognost. Beschr, der Gegend 

zwischen Amasry und Tyrla-Asy on der Nord-Kiiste 

132. Sharpless, F. F. Konia Mercury Mines, Eng. & Mng. 

Joum. Sept. 26, 1908. 

133. Sieger, R. Die Schwankungen d. hocharmen. Seen Seit 

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137. " u. A. Sorokin, Geologic d. Tertiabeckens von 

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138. Smyth, W. W. Geol. Features of the country round the 

mines of the Taurus, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. I. 
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of the Gulf of Smyrna and promontory of Kara- 
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Journ. Geol. Soc. t. XIV p. 212) 1864. 
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— Rev. S. Afr. 19 Avril, 1908 p. 332. 

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Geologie Armenichen, 1914. 

144. Suess, S. Dass Antiltz der Erde 11, 632, 776, 11 1628, 

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156. " Geol. Forsch un Bezirk von Nachitschewan 

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172. Yorke, V. A journey in the Valley of the Upper Eu- 

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177. Engineering & Scientific Press — years from 1890 to 191 5. 


The lack of Aryan roots for the names of metals com- 
monly known among the Aryan settlers of Asia-Minor, as well 
as the later colonizers of Europe,' indicates that these races were 
generally ignorant of the use of metals until they came in con- 
tact with Semetic peoples. Practically all mining terms in current 
use among the earliest Greeks resemhle very strongly their 
distinctly Sem!itic equivalents, which can be traced all the way 
in a broad belt beginning in the Lower Mesopotamia and ex- 
tending westwardly to the Syrian Shores of the Mediterranean. 
The Greek work "Metallon" for instance, used indiscriminately 
to designate mine or ore, probably came from the earlier Semitic 
equivalent, "metal." Or again the Greek words "Chrysos" 
(gold) and Chalkos" (copper) seem to be descended from the 
Semitic forms "Chrouts" and Chalak." It is a natural in- 
ference that primitive mining methods were evolved by the 
dwellers in the mineralized areas of Asia Minor, from whom 
later Greeks, Roman and even North European miners obtained 
their first notions of the reduction of metallic ores, by virtue of a 
general westward migration of mining and metallurgy. 

Anatolia and Armenia have been the seat of active mining 
operations from about 2000 years B. C. to the end of the 
eleventh century. Subsequent to this period, centuries corrup- 
tion and misrule barred the development of industry. With few 
exceptions, all the remains today, consists of innumerable old 
workings scattered throughout the coimtry. 

An interesting relation between orographic and geological 
features and the occurences of mineral deposits is observable. 
The westernmost projection of the Asiatic continent may be 
likened to a bowl, the rim of which is partly formed by the 
coastal mountain chains, the rest being completed by the ele- 
vated ranges of eastern Armenia. The interior of the bowl 
is made up of the plateaus which, so far, are not known to be 
extensively mineralized. At all events, the bulk of the known 
metallic ore depoists lie in the folds of the marginal uplifts, 
and the non-metallic minerals lie in the beds of pjateau forma- 



The mining operations carried on so far are all by foreign 
companies, the capital being supplied from England, France 
and Germany. Concessions are granted by the government for 
99 years, the companies being required to pay 5% royalty, 1% 
export duty, and a yearly tax of from 40 to 50c per hectare. 
This was a general rule, although some concessions formerly 
granted for mining chrome ore and emery for a period of 60 
years with a royalty of 10 per cent. Salt was a government 

The most important ore deposits which are capable of de^ 
velopment under expert management and sufficient outlay are 
summarized as follows : 

t. Magnetic iron beds at Ayas-mand, north of Smyrna; 
limonite iron beds of Bulgar-dagh, Cilician Tanrus; and a rich 
hematite in Zeitun district, at the foot of the eastern slope of 
Anti-Taurus (Beiroot-dagh). 

2. Chrome ores are widely distributed in Daghardi-Kutahia, in 
N. W. Anatolia; Makri, on the S. W. coast of Asia Minor; 
in the neighborhood of Alexandretta, on S. E. Asia Minor, and 
at Argana-Maden, north of Diarbekir. In peace times the chrome 
ores of Asia Minor have met the competition of richer ores. 

3. Copper ores are widely distributed on Black Sea Coast, espe- 
cially in the state of Trebizond; Taurus mountains, especially in 
Palu and Argana at Arghana-Maden, 65 Km. N. W. the principal 
bed's extension is equivalent to 1.7 to 2 million tons containing 
lo-i I percent copper. In the west part of the Caucasus (the re- 
gion Batum-Kars) Khvarzkhana, near Artvin, south of Batum, 
had a copper mining and smelting works, ready before the war 
but never operated, belonging to the Siemens family and capable 
of yielding 2000 tons of copper a year. In the same region an 
American Company possesses a mining and smelting works at 
Dzanzul, which produced 3030 tons of copper in 191 2 and 4000 
tons in 1914, i. e., one third of the whole Caucasus ouput, and 
one tenth of that of Rttssia. 

4. Occurences of lead and zinc ores are comparatively im- 
portant and promising, especially Balia Karaidin 40 Km. N. W. 
of Bali Kesri, N. W. Asia Minor, the property of a Franco- 
Belgian Company. Output in 1913, 13076 tons of crude lead 


and 5000 tons of zinc. Amount of ore shown by explorations 
300,000 to 350,000 tons; farther explorations may show more. 
Bulghar-Maden, in the Taurus in S. E. Asia Minor, Turkish 
state property, has some mining so far little developed in the 
very argentiferous cementation zone. The bed stretches for some 
20 Km. in length, and lies only 16 Km. as crow flies from the 
Baghdad railway. 

5. Rock salt is widely distributed but the Calcium borate of 
Soultan-Chair, 65 Km. south of Panderma, on the Sea of Mar- 
mora, is very important as a raw material for metal working, 
and valuable for glass, enamel, and tanning purposes. The pan- 
dermite beds, frequently interrupted, embedded in gypsum and 
attaining a thickness of 4.5 m. consists of small and large lenti- 
cular masses of the milk white mineral. The value of the de- 
posits, which in the most part is the possession of an English 
Company, is effected by the irregularity of the gypsum and pan- 
dermite deposits. Out of the hitherto developed area of 0.859 
Km., 281,095 tons pandermite with 45% Borate contant, have 
been won in the last 27 years. Some 100,000 tons are still 

6. Coal occurs at Heraclea (Eregli) or Zonguldak, on the 
south coast of Bleak Sea, in some 22 beds Worth working with 
40 m. of coal, which has however a great deal of ash and cokes 
badly. It is worked by a French Company. Amasra, 50 Km. 
E. Sogut-Oezu and Ooesgeu where the coal is better and cokes 
better (South of the harbor of Idde) are also on the line of the 
coal formations, which extend altogether to lyoKm. in length. 
The best lignite is formed at Soma, N. E. of Smyrna, is 15 m. 
thick, and develops 5200 thermal units; poorer stuff, of local 
importance only, is .to be found at Sivas, in E. Anatolia. 


General Structure of Asia. 

From the Mediterranean to the Pacific the Asiatic Continent 
is traversed by a zone of elevated country, which flanked on the 
north and south by great chains of mountains, breaks off on the 
west to the Aegean Sea and to the lowlands of China on the 
east. Extensive areas of land with considerably lesser altitude 
are outspread on either side of this gigantic system; in the north 
the plains of Russia and Siberia, in the south the peninsulas of 
Arabia and India. The mountain chains which confine the zone 
of elevated country have been reared during different geological 
periods; yet they are subject to common laws. They are dis- 
posed in extensive acrs, of greater or lesser curvature, which are 
festooned across the continent on either side of the plateau region 
with a general direction from east to west. The plateau region 
is in general syclinal or in other words, of slightly hollow sur- 
face, and in comparison with the flanking ranges are flat. 

Our Globe sails through the wan expanse of ether, diffusing 
the heat with which it is charged. Cooling crust shrinks and 
gathers inwards toward the centre; but the material of which 
it consists is inelastic and is thrown into gigantic wrinkles or 
folds. Radial contraction induces tengential stresses at the sur- 
face, collossal forces which bind over and invert the folds and 
even thrust the strata one beneath another, causing them to be 
disposed like the tiles upon a roof. This lateral tension finds 
most relief where the crust is weakest and it is at such points, 
or along such zones, that the process of mountain making has 
been developed on the largest scale. It is the tendency of such 
folded ranges to form arcs of large curvature, which are drawn 
inwards where the lateral pressure meets with most resistance, 
and expand outwards, where it is withstood in a lesser degree. 

In Asia the operation of this process of mountain making has 
been accompanied by, or has proceeded, the elevation in masses 


of large portions of the earth's crust. The intensely folded re- 
gions, or in other words, the great chain of mountains, are found 
along the inner and the outer margins of the elevated mass. 
Between these zones the stratified rocks have no doubt been sub- 
jected to the folding process; yet they have escaped the im- 
mense contortions that have taken place on either side. 

Throughout the Continent the lateral force which has been 
most operative in mountain making has proceeded from the 
north. The fact may perhaps be explained by supposing that 
this force is the result of the active pressure extended by the 
hard, unyielding material of which the steppes of Siberia and 
the basin of the Arctic Ocean are composed. The great arcs 
which are described, by the mountain ranges are in general con- 
vex to the south. Thus in Western Asia the chains on the inner 
and outer margins of the elevated are disposed on two roughly 
parallel series of arcs bulging towards the south. Of these series 
the inner arcs have less curvature than the outer, to which they 
are roughly parallel. 

The inner series may be traced with greatest singleness of 
feature on the west of Hinda-Kush that natural centre of the 
rrtountain systems of Asia, which at once supplies the most con- 
ventient standpoint for a general survey of the structure of the 
eontient, and is placed at the junction of the two great divisions, 
western and eastern, into which geographers have partitioned 
this vast area. The Hindu-Kush inclines over into the Poro- 
pamisus; and the southern portion of the latter range is con- 
tinued, on the north of Persia, by the mountains of Khorasan. 
A sharp bend in the belt, just east of the Caspian, turns south- 
wards into the Elburz range, and the beautiful curve of the 
chain along the margin of the shore may be admired from the 
waters of that inland sea. The line of Elburz range, and the 
beautiful curve of the chain along the margin of the shore may 
be admired from the waters of that inland sea. The line of 
Elburz range is protracted across the depression of the Araxes 
Valley into the peaks of Karabagh; while the Karabagh sys- 
tem unites with the bold and lofty ridges which in full face of 
their gigantic neighbor, the Caucasus overtower the right bank 
of the Kur. These ridges again connect with the chain between 
Kutais and Akhaltsykh, a chain which joins the mountains on 




the southern shore of the Black Sea. The Pontic range forms 
a bow of wide span and gentle curvature, ending in the hump 
of Anatolia, where it meets the arc of the Bithynian border hills. 

The parrallel series on the outer margin of the elevated area 
commences with the outer arc of the Hindu Kush system, the 
severly bend and S shaped Salt Range. Thence it proceeds into 
the mountains which flank Persia upon the east and belong to 
the outer Iranian arc. The bold sweep of this arc into the chain 
of Zagros may be recognized by a glance at the map. The 
greater protraction of the north western arm of the bow, is a 
feature which may be traced in the configuration of the most of 
the great Asiatic chains. The clean and uniform outline of the 
curve, broken only by a slight indent at the straits of Ormuz, 
which may be answered by the bend in the inner system which is 
already noticed on the east of Caspian Sea. The outer Iranian 
arc effects a junction with the Tauris Ranges along two parallel 
but fairly distinct orographical lines. Of these the inner line 
crosses over from the Zagros to the Ararat system, known as the 
Aghri or Shatin-dagh. It is in the Shantin-dagh that the bend 
to the west-southwest is effected, which may be followed through 
a series of volcanoes into the Anti-Taurus and the Mediterran- 
ean range. The outer line is formed by the Kurdish mountains. 
This principle chain of Taurus extends to the coast of Syria and 
emerges from the sea in the island of Cyprus and in manv a 
headland and island of this Anatolian coast. 

These double series of arcs, from Hindu-Kush to Mediterran- 
ean, meet or almost meet at three distinctly traceable and widely 
separated points. Such approximations occur in Hindu-Kush, 
in Armenia, and in the mountainous districts which border the 
Ionian sea board. We can scarcely doubt that they are due to 
the incidence of a strong opposing force, moving from the south 
and causing the arcs to be constricted, the range to be piled up 
one behind another and mountain development to assume its' 
grandest forms. It is probable that the resisting pressure has 
been furnished in the first two cases by the Indian and Arabian 
peninsulas. Another feature, less obvious but not less note- 
worthy, is furnished by the fact that in Armenia and Asia Minor 
the arcs have been fractured in the process of bending over at 
or near the points where the approximations between the two 


series have taken place. The closer the constriction the sharper, 
of course becomes the curve and the greater the tendency to 
split. In Anatolia the union of the series has resulted in com- 
plete fracture; the folded area sinks beneath the waters of the 
Aegean to be represented by the islands which stud the Archipe- 
lago, and, further west, by the mountains of the Dalmation coast. 
On the east of Hindu-Kush we are as yet in want of sufficient 
material for so convincing an analysis as the researchers of geolo- 
gists have rendered possible on the west. 

In eastern Asia a vast area of elevated land is bounded both 
along the inner and the outer margins by mountain system of 
wide extension and great heights. Such are the systems of Altai 
and Tean-Shan upon the north, and the mighty bow of the 
Himalayas on the south. Probably the Kuenlan range carrif* 
over the inner series of Western Asia, extending eastwards from 
Pamirs and senang as buttress to the immensely elevated plateau 
of Tibet. If this view be correct, then the Tian Shan and Altai 
systems may perhapte be regarded as minor earth-waves, follow- 
ing close upon the heels of, the Kuenlan and supporting the 
highlands of the Tarim basin and the desert of Gobi, the Han- 
Hai or Dry Sea of the Chineese. The echelon of mountain ranges, 
which extends from Hindu-Kush towards Behring Sea, forms 
constant curvature of the arcs towards the south, until, in the 
Altai group. The eastern arms of the- bows are protracted even 
further towards the north, to contrast the low-lying plains along 
the western ends of the echelon with the lofty high-lands of 
Mongolia on the east. The necks of the valleys issue upon the 
depression of Siberia and the low country through which the 
Oxus and Jaxartis flow. 

In Western Asia the elevated area with it's flanking ranges 
is horded on the north by the northern Paropamisus and further 
west by the Caucasus chain. The Paropamisus may perhaps be 
regarded as the most southerly of the many branches which be- 
long to the system of Tian-Shan. Geologists connect Paropami- 
sus with the Caucasus and trace the links of the broken chain 
to the mountains of Krasnododsk on the Caspian, whence a sub- 
marine ridge carries the line into the mountains of Caucasus, to 
be protracted far to the west, through the Crimea and emerge 
from the waters of the Black Sea in the Balkans, Carpathians 


and Alps. In this manner we see described on the north of the 
Asiatic highlands, with their series of inner arcs, a further arc 
of immense span and wide curvature, which is represented on 
the east by the northern Paropamisus and by the Caucasus on 
the west. Both these ranges may best be viewed as independent 
of the inner series but Paropamisus is closely adpressed to the 
inner arc of Persia, and Caucasus is joined at a ingle point to 
the series namely by the Meschic linking chain. Lines of eleva- 
tion similar to that which is traced from Paropamisus may be 
discovered, although with less orographical distinction, proceed- 
ing westwards and Struggling over towards Europe from the 
more northerly branches of Tian-Shan; they are almost lost in 
the great depression of the Turanian lowlands, but they follow 
arcs of increasing width of span. 


Although Armenia is closely linked with her neighbors and is 
not separated by any natural frontier from Persia on the east 
or from Anatolia on the southwest, yet it is divided by some 
of the most effective of natural barriers and natural distinctions 
within itself. 

The northern peripheral region is an effective barrier between 
Armenia and the coast of the Black Sea throughout their pro- 
longation upon the confines of the tableland and has drawn the 
natural frontier inward in the neighborhood of Ispir. Across 
the valley of the Chorokh is the northern border heights of the 
plain at Erzerum. 

The southern region is an analogous zone composed by the 
main chain of Taurus separating the highlands from the low- 
lying plains of Mesopotamia and butteressing them upon that 
side. This chain appears to have succeeded in accomplishing 
the curve into the Iranian direction without undergoing fracture 
to any material extent. The spine of range may be followed 
along the southern shore of Lake Goljik to Palu Mountain east 
of the town of Palu. Thence it is taken along the plain of 
Chabakchar and left bank of Murad River to the confines of 
Mush. Conspicuous with sharp peaks it stretches past the de- 
pressions of Mush into the landscape of Lake Van. Through 



the Karkar Mountain and further east through the Bashet Moun- 
tain west of Bashkala, it makes steps southwards to the threshold 
of Basin of the Great Zab; and the elevation may be traced on 
the further side of river in the peaks of Jelu Mountain, said to 
attain a height of between 13,000 and 14,000 feet. 

The Karabagh region is another important barrier combining 
in minature many of the characteristics of the Armenian high- 
lands. An inner plateau region flanked by peripheral ranges. 
This chain extends the area of highlands for some distince 
towards the east when after commencing to incline in an east- 
south-easterly direction it effects a junction with the Shah Moun- 
tain. The last named ridge takes frontier along the eastern 

shore of Gokcha to the confines of the Karabagh; and the ele- 
vations may be traced through this spine of northern Karabagh 
Mountain across the Kur to the range which faces the Caspian 

Ararat or the Aghri Dagh system constitutes the principal in- 
termediate line of elevation between the northern and the south- 
ern zones of peripheral mountains. This range carries the natural 
frontier between the two divisions from the Kush Mountain 
(11,262 ft.) in fhe west to Little Ararat (12,840 ft.) in the 
east. The space between these two ranges is a distance of 100 
miles and throughout that space the chain is made up of such 
lofty peaks as the Ashakh Mountain (10,723 ft.) Perh Mountain 
(10,647 ft-)> Salaka Mountain (10,644 ft.) and Khama Moun- 
tain (11,018 ft.). The passes reach from 7,000-8,500 feet; 


while the level of the plain of the Araxes does not exceed 3,000 
ft. nor that of the plain of Alashkert 5,500 ft. In appearnce 
the barrier as a whole resembles the mountains of peripheral re- 
gion; there are the same deep valleys, jagged outlines, precipi- 
tuous slopes. From the western shore of Lake Baluk, an up- 
land sheet of water lying at a level of 7389 ft. we may trace 
extension of one branch of the system along the water-parting 
between Murad and Araxes. Thence the elevation may be fol- 
lowed into the southern peripheral region, forming a splinter from 
the chain of Zagros which has struggled upwards through the 
plateau country to its very heart. The more northerly and prin- 
cipal branch consists almost exclusively of recent volcanic moun- 
tains, stretching from Perli Mountain, west of Great Arart. In 
this neighborhood the line is taken up by the fabric of Ararat, 
raising the barrier by slow stages to nearly 17,000 ft., and having 
an axis from northwest to southeast. The sequence comes to 
an end in the little Ararat, whose slopes descend on three sides 
to fairly level plains. 


A. Armenia. 

A. The northern border range forms a wall which hangs 
together completely in the north of a high plateau consisting of 
morphologically separated elements which is regarded as uplift 
or sunken portion of a hard resistant formation, which in con- 
sequence of tangential pressure in the earth's crust was broken 
instead of being thrown into folds. From the west towards the 
east the following order is observed. 

(i) The Pontic region, which forms a border on the Black 
Sea, bounded on the south by rivers of Kelkid and Chorokh 
and coming to sharp ridges in the Mta-Skaro, south-westward 
from Datum. 

(2) The Imeritian and Thrialitic rgeion, which between the 
Armenian highland and the resistant Maschic horsts are inter- 
polated. These regions are cut through by the picturesque Bor- 
jom Valley of Kur. 

(3) The Somkatian regian southwestward from Tiflis. 

(4) Closely linked Gokcha-Karabagh regions. This region 


repeats on a smaller scale the structure of the Armenian high- 
land; namely, that of a central, relatively low volcanic plateau, 
which is bordered on either side by uplifted formations of older 
folded rocks ; namely the Gokcha and the eastern Karabagh and 
Talish regions, being on their sides separated by the Ahar depres- 
sion, which runs in equatorial direction, just as the Gokcha and 
east Karabagh regions are separated by the Terter depression. 

B. Southern border range show similar structural relations 
to the Armenian highlands. Here the high Tauric region of old 
slate borders on the relatively low-lying region of the lake Van 
and of the plain of Mush. The Tauric region consists probably 
of several smaller blocks. It acts, however, as a whole and its 
rivers all have consequent courses; towards the west it con- 
tinues in the Ousounyaila, toward the east in the high Jelu Moun- 
tain. The southern spurs of these mountain chains can indeed 
be taken as the western extension of the Persian Zagros Moun- 

C. The Central highland possesses a significant average height. 
It is, however, as its geological structure shows, in comparison 
to its still higher neighboring mountains in the north and south, 
a region of relative lowness. It may be devided into the following 
three zones : 

( 1 ) A central volcanic zone with outspread lava fields which 
3:re broken into small dislocated blocks filled often with lakes. 
Of these today Gokcha, Van and Urmi are the largest. 

(2) The Kilkid Chorokh zone lies on the inside of the Pontic 
region and consists of Antituric (S. W. — N. E. stretching) folds. 
Here vulcanism plays only a subordinate part. 

(3) Daralagoz zone, including the west Karabagh which in 
similar manner lies on the inner side of the northeastern border 
chain of mountains. This zone is a region of Iranian (N. W. — 
S. E.) folding and shows a very complete succession of shales 
but only sporadic vulcanism. From the eastern border chain it 
is separated by the volcanic Akhmongan-Gotcha-Central Kara- 
bagh zone. 

A central spine of folded rocks extends through Armenia from 
east to west. Its continuity is broken by diagonal depressions. 
In this way the line of the Antituric Mazur-Merjan Mountain is 
broken by the Erzingan depression. It is continued again in the 


Keshish, Melpert, Miriam and Terjan Mountains to form the 
southern border (Palandoken and Khan Mountains) of the 
•plains' frpm the Erzerum to Paisn, and to bend easily in the 
Shatin Mountain, and after a new interruption in the deep de- 
pression of the Middle Araxes, to rise through the Zynlerly and 
Daralagoz to the high chain of west Karabagh which turns to 
the direction of Iran. 

B. Anatolia. 

A. Northern border range. — Anatolia is skirted on the north 
by broken series of mountains radiating from the northern Ar- 
menian tiplands. The Pontic range here forms a bow of wide 
span and gentle curvature ending in the hump of Anatolia 
where it meets the arc of the Bithynian border hills. These up- 
lands merge imperceptibly in the Central Plateau which are 
themselves furrowed in every direction by river valleys. All 
these show similar structural relations to the Pontic chain, and 
are crossed at various ponits by passes generally at low elevations 
and of moderately easy access from the Black Sea to Central 
Plateau leading from east to west. 

1. Trebizond over the Kolat-dagh to Erzeum. 

2. Samson to Amassia. 

3. Sinope to Amassia. 

4. Ineboli to Kastamouni and Angora. 

B. Central depression or Lycaonian Plateau.— A plateau for- 
mation prevails throughout the interior of the peninsula forming 
an extensive tableland at a mean elevation of from 2500 — ^4000 
feet above sea level and stretching northeast and southwest for 
a distance of over 200 miles with an average breadth of about 
140 miles.- Plateau rises from west to east and attains its great- 

,est altitude above 7000 feet near Erzerum. Above this table- 
land rises several ranges, while over its surface are scattered a 
number of salt lakes, morasses and water-courses without any 
visible out-flow seawards. Its western face is broken by broad 
valleys, and only in case of Olympus (7600 ft.) rises much 
higher than 2500 feet. Plateau is buttressed on the north by 
Pontic chains which varies in height and rises abruptly from the 
sea. On the south it is similarly buttressed by the Taurus range 
which in places has an altitude from 7000 — 12000 ft. 


C. The southern border ranges. — All the more elevated lands 
and main ranges are massed along the Mediterranean seaboard, 
showing similar structural- 'relations to the southern Armenian 
highlands. These highlands consists both of Anti-Taurus and 
Cilician Taurus chains extending along the Mediterranean coast 
by the local names of Isaurian, Pisidian, andLycian Taurus, all 
belonging to the same orographic system. The range is inter- 
rupted only by a slight intervening faults, This system is also 
crossed by passes at various point as follows : 

1. Syria, on the east, is Separated from Cilicia by the gorge 
of Jibum and broken down to the lowlands of Mesopotamia in a 
series of rock terraces seamed by deep ravines. 

2. Anti-Taurus is separated frm Cilician Taurus by Zamantia- 
Su, a tributary of Sihun. 

3. Anatolia is separated from North Syria and Euphrates 
Valley by a deep gorge named Gulek-Bogaz or Cilician gates. 
This is 3300 feet above the sea-level, and runs about 30 miles 
north of Tauru's over the Taurus. 

4. A pass 100 miles west of the above leads from Karaman 
southwards to Gok-Su valley. 

5. A pass further west about 150 miles. 

6. A pass connecting Isbarta southwards with Adalia. 

This range approaches the sea except where the Pamphylian 
and Cilician plains intervene. It is a volcanic region on its in- 
terior, the line of volcanoes stretch from Karadagh to Argeaus 
and all lie extinct now. 

D. Ionian Seaboard. In this region the double series of arcs 
extending from Hindu-Kush have met. Through the process of 
bending over the arcs are strongly fractured. The folded area 
has sunken beneath the water of the Aegeous to be represented 
by the islands which stud Archipelago and further west by the 
mountains of Dalmation Coast. This region is also strongly 

E. Eastern ranges and connecting links. — No hard and fast 
line could be drawn to separate Armenia from Anatolia on the 
east, but the western extension of the Tauric system forms a 
semi-circular arc, hanging as a wall against the Lycaonian Plateau 
on whose centre rests the Mighty Argeaus. This wall sweeps 
over the banks of Kizil-Irmak, and merges into the Pontic chain 


by transverse and parallel ridges. The Karabel-Dagh, which runs 
from the great bend of Euphrates at Egin to the head streams of 
Kizil Irmak, connects the mountain chains of inner arc (Pontic), 
to the outer arc (Anti-Taurus and Taurus). This connecting 
link separates Armenia from Anatolia, as well it separates Cilicia 
from Upper Armenia. 


A. Armenia. 

The country of Armenia takes its place as an integral member 
of the system of tablelands, buttressed by mountain ranges which 
extend from the Hindu-Kush to the Mediterranean Sea. Most 
of the characteristics which are found in either of Persia on the 
east or of Anatolia on the west, are prevalent in Armenia to a 
greater or lesser degree. The stratified rocks extend across the 
whole system. The salt deposits which are spread so widely 
over Persia, are not among the least remarkable of the surface 
features of Armenia. Considerable depressions of the surface 
of the highlands are phenomena common to all three countries 
and the same may be said of the volcanoes which are dominant 
in Armenian landscapes but are not wholly absent from the con- 
tiguous territories on either side. 

The idiosyncrasies which distinguish Armenia as a whole from 
the other members of the series is, in the first place, the greater 
elevation investing her territory with the attributes of a roof 
to the adjacent countries, from which the waters gather to be pre- 
cipitated in different directions and to find their way not only 
to the Black Sea and Caspian but also by almost endless stages 
to the Persian Gulf. The prominent part which has been played 
by recent volcanic action is another imjjressive phenomenon. Both 
these manifestations are explemified in a striking manner by the 
surface features of the rectangular area of the more northerly 

The higher plain levels of this region are situated at an alti- 
tude of some 7,000 ft. above the sea. The uplands which give 
rise to the Kur in the district of Goleh must come very near to 
this level. The parting of the waters of the Kur and Araxes 
near the village of Shishtapa, in an open landscape which may be 


compared to rolling downs, lies at about 7,000 ft. while of smaller 
sheets of water Lake Topo-ravan, with 6,876 ft., and the Apa- 
Gol with 6,706 ft., slightly better this already considerable figure. 
Where the plateau falls away to the abysmal canon of the Araxes 
its edge is nearly 6,500 ft. high. 

The Town of Ardaban stands at a level of 5,840 ft. and Kars 
of 5,700 ft. Alexandropol, the principal City, occupies the hol- 
low of a vast basin-like plain; yet it is over 5,000 ft, above the 
sea. These elevations are much greater than the average even in 
Persia though in the frontier province of Azerbaijan and along 
the edge of the southern peripheral mountains. 

The process of gradual uplift of the region by earth move- 
ments has been attended by eruptive action, flooding the country 
with volcanic matter, levelling inequalities of the ground and add- 
ing to the height. It has been estimated that the volcanic de- 
posits laid bare in the ravines of the streams which descend from 
the radial Dochus-Punar attain a depth of hundreds of yards. 
A similar phenomenon is made manifest in the canon of the 
Araxes, a cleft which in the neighborhood of the village of 
Armutli, west of Kagisman, has a depth of about 2,000 ft. and 
a width on top of at least a mile. There the sedimentary deposits 
are overlaid with tuffs and lavas in a belt over 300 yards deep. 

The Armenian highlands have been the scene in olden times 
of great volcanic activity. The position of the remarkably numer- 
ous volcanoes of Armenia is by no means fortituous, that on the 
contrary they have invariably arisen along the lines of fracture, 
and that the volcanoes which occur at points of intersection are 
proportionately larger. The most interesting principal operative 
in this country is the series of volcanoes along meridinal lines. 
Such groups pursue a course at right angles to the strike of the 
rock with the area of the peripheral mountains. In this con- 
nection the plateau region occupies the apex of the bend over 
the inner arc. Lines of fractures have been thrown out at right 
angles to the folding and eruptive agency was fastened upon 
these weakened zones of earth's crust. The points of emission 
of volcanic matter are in some cases true volcanic, in others 
mere pistules or fissures of varying extent. 

The tendency to a strong pronounced plateau country is in 
Armenia, especially in the southwestern territories, indepedent 


of volcanic action. It is a plateau, as a whole that may be re- 
garded as an area of reltive depression between its northern and 
southern border ranges. The depression, caused by subsidence of 
blocks of land along the lines of fracture, became filled by lakes 
during different Geological Series. The lavas and tuffs of the nu- 
merous contemporary volcanoes became interbedded with the lake 
deposits, and assisted in levelling the pre-existing inequalities 
of the ground. In this way plains were formed varying in size 
from the great Mid-Araxes in depression at the foot of the Ararat 
to the plains of Alashkert, Pasin, Erzerum, Khinis, Mush, etc., 
down to little fertile plains such as Bashkent, Gandemir, etc. 

Sharp peaks precipitous slopes, narrow valleys, and swift 
streams and rivers compose the landscape. The basinlike ap- 
pearance, the long parapets on the northern and southern edges, 
in one case culminating in volcanic peaks of Palandoken and 
Eyerli, in the other distinguished by eminence of Bingol. The 
waters of the plateau converge together in the shape of two 
fans, as they are precipitated from the highest levels towards the 
east, burying themselves ever deeper into th volcanic soil. 

The surface of the country is composed of limestones with 
intrusive serpentines and lacustrine deposits capped by sheets of 
the ubiquitous lava. The stratified rocks are prominent, emerg- 
ing from the volcanic layers or only capped by a thin sheet of 
lava. Dominant among them are the limestones of various geo- 
logical periods, when the greater part of the country must have 
been covered by a lake of fresh or brackish water. Intrusive 
in earlier limestones are found a variety of old igneous rocks, 
such as diabase, gabbro, and serpentine. The serpentines com- 
bine with the limestones to form rounded hills or downs with 
soft outlines. Sometimes a cap of lava has preserved a particular 
piece of limetone and the result has been a summit with a point 
like that of a needle overtopping adjacent and undulating forms. 
Where the old ingenous rocks occur in a zone a sombre land- 
scape is forthcoming as, for instance, above the northern shore 
of Lake Van, between Akhlat and Adeljivas; or when the highly 
marmorized older limestones have the upper hand, there ensues 
sterility and glaring light. These later rocks have a fairly wide 
extension and compose prominent lines of mountains ; for ex- 
ample, they have bestowed upon the plain of Khinis its north- 


em boundary. 

A rather later series of limestones are placed on the very- 
threshold of the Armenian tableland; and they are distributed in 
a wide zone over the northern districts of Armenia, extending 
all the way from the Merjan-Musur Mountain in the west to 
those represented by many a summit of the deeply eroded Chor- 
okh region. The block of heights on the north of the Western 
Euphrates is composed to a greate extent of such limestones ; 
and both in the neighborhood of Kop Pass, and northwards 
from the pass of Koshab Punar. 

Later still in date, and of almost constant prominence in the 
landscape both of the plateau region and of peripheral moun- 
tains are the limestones more usually associated with softer fea- 
tures, especially when they are interbedded with shales. The 
incidence of their im,pressive features at Palandoken line of 
height, on the south of Erzerum and Pasin, and where they 
whiten the waters of Lake Van in the neighborhood of Adel- 
jivas. This pretty town, which lies at the foot of a lofty cliff 
is composed exclusively of white chalk. Along the road from 
Akhlat deposits are prominent over the area of Central Table- 
land, and numerous corals are observed imbedded in rocks. 
Limestone emerges on the farther side of the plain of Khinis 
to compose the Zernek Mountain, continuing the outline of 
Khamur. The almost limitless expanse throi^glh which the 
Murad winds between Tatakh and Melazkert reveals most clearly 
its essential character as a country of rolling chalk downs be- 
neath the covering of a cloak of lava. The southern limit of 
that expanse would seem to the eye to be volcanic, niisled by 
the precedent of the immense extension of the train of Ararat. 
But where the barrier is at length reached it is found to consist 
of limestones forming a pedestal for the fabric of Sipan. 

A less prominent surface features are the lake deposits crumb- 
ling in the hand with masses of fresh water shells. There can 
be no doubt that an epoch contemporaneous with the outpour- 
ing of lavas a lake or lakes extended from Erzinjan, Erzerum, 
and Pasin across the region now occupied by the central table- 
land, and through Khinis to the plains of the Murad and Sipan. 
The interior of Asia Minor and the tableland of Persia were 
covered with lakes at the same date ; but that these were salt in 


the case of Persia is proved. Saline deserts which disfigure 
immense tracts of the soil of Iran prove this. In Armenia 
they have been productive of the greatest fertility, their whole- 
some sediments having mingled with volcanic matter and be- 
come constituent of rich brown loams. It seems likely that the 
purple sandstone and conglomerates along the northern shore 
of Lake Van are the representatives of similar conditions within 
the basin. It may be justifiable to suppose that the waters be- 
came gradually more shallow, until they remained only on the 
surface of the numerous greater and smaller depressions, which 
still bear their imprint to a degree which must be convincing 
even to an unpracticed eye. A chain of separate lakes was 
formed spread broadcast over the land, and washing the pro- 
monotories of the heights. Such lakes appear to have existed 
at Alexandropal and in the plain of Erivan over Pasin, the plains 
of Erzerum, and that of Erzinjan, in the districts of Khinis, 
Alashkert, Bulanik and probably Mush. They were drained 
away as a result of the increasing elevation of the land as a 
whole ; and, probably, in some cases the process was accelerated 
by uplift, causing erosion of the adjacent barriers to be accel- 
erated. The lakes which exist at the present day are almost ex- 
clusively due to lava filling in the mouths of valleys and forming 
dams on an immense scale. 

A feature which has occupied a considerable amount of at- 
tention is the fluctuation in level of the lakes. The flluctua- 
tions may be of temporary and more or less permanent origin. 
All evidences point to the fact that such changes are of a tempo- 
rary nature and that a period of increase is followed by one 
of decline. Such a change may be due to 

1. Ordinary climatic conditions such as the rainfall, fall 
of snow and subsequent variation in volume of rivers, and in 
activity of springs. 

2. The economic state of the country and the extent of 
irrigated land within the water shed. 

3. Opening or closing of subterranean issues. 

4. Movements of earth crust. 

The most probable explanation is that they are due to cli- 
matic conditions which, it is well known, are variously opera- 
tive over cycles of years. 


The most obvious explanation of the gradual but perman- 
ent rise in the norm of lake level, furnished by the cause ; which 
may be constantly operative, namely, the increase of sediment 
deposited over the bottoms. 

B. Anatolia. 

The Anatolian rectangle may generally be described as a 
plane inclined towards the Black Sea. All the more elevated 
land and main ranges are massed in the southern section of 
the peninsula, along the Mediterranean seaboard. The north- 
ern slopes of these uplands merge imperceptibly in the Central 
Plateau, which are thmselves furrowed in every direction by 
river valleys gradually broadening out and draining to the Black 
Sea. But in the extreme north, where the coast line advances in a 
vast convex curve into the sea, independent and almost isolated 
masses rise between the Kizil-Irmak and Sakaria basins, skirt- 
ing on its northern edge an extensive central plain, whose deeper 
parts are still flooded by the remains of an inland sea. The 
ranges which follow at some distance the line of the southern 
shore, and which are broken into irregular chains and mountain 
masses, are mainly disposed in the form of a crescent with 
its convex side facing the Mediterranean, and thus correspond- 
ing to the northern curve turned towards the Black Sea. 

Anatolia must be regarded as a western extension of Ar- 
menian highlands, from which it can nowhere be separated 
by any hard-and-fast line. Th,e plateau formajtion prevails 
throughout the interior of the peninsula forming an extensive 
tableland at a mean elevation of from 2,500 to 4,000 feet 
above sea level, and stretching north-east and southwest for 
a distance of over 200 miles with an average breadth of about 
140 miles. Above this tableland rise several loosely connected 
mountain ranges, while over its surface are scattered a number 
of salt-lakes, morasses and water courses without any visible 
out-flow seawards, beside several streams which find their way 
mainly northwards to the Aegean. The plateau is skirted south 
and north by two broken mountain ranges, which radiate from 
the Armenian uplands, Taurus and Anti-Taurus. Both these 
mountain ranges are crossed at various points by passes gener- 
ally at low elevations and of moderately easy access. Of this 


the most ■ important is the Geulek-Boghaz, or Cilician Gates, 
a deep goi'ge 3,300 feet above sea level, running about 30 miles 
north of Taurus over the Taurus, and conceding Anatolia with 
North Syria and the Euphrates Valley. About 100 miles west 
of these points the Taurus is crossed by a second pass leading 
from Karaman southwards to the Gok-Su Valley, and by a 
third 150 miles. Still farther west connecting Isbarta south- 
wards with Adalia. The chief openings giving access from 
the Black Sea through the Anti-Taurus to the Central Plateau 
are those leading from Ineboli to Kastamuni and Angora, from 
Sinope to Amasia, from Samson to the same place, and from 
Trebizond over the Kolat-dagh to Erzerum. 

The Anatolian peninsula forms in reality as well as in name 
a minature of the whole continent. Both consist mainly of ex- 
tensive Central Plateau, with an inland and seaward drainage, 
and both are skirted by lofty ranges behind which most of the 
streams have their source, which find their way to the coast. 
But in Asia Minor the Alluvial plains developed by those rivers 
cannot be compared in relative extent with those of the greater 
Asia. The escapements of the plateau approach everywhere so 
near to the sea that no space is left for great lowland plains 
such as those of Siberia and China. There are a few low- 
lying and somewhat marshy tracts about the lower course of 
the Yeshil-Irmak, Kizil-Irmak, and Sakaria on the Black Sea, 
along the banks of the Meander below Smyrna, and about 
Adalia and Mersina on the south coast. But with these and a 
few other unimportant exceptions the whole peninsula may be 
broadly divided into two main natural divisions — the central 
plateau and the encircling ranges. This disposition of the sur- 
face has largely determned the limits of the 8 states into which 
Anatolia is divided for administrative purposes. Angora and 
Sivas comprise the greater part of the tableland, Adana, Aidin, 
Kastamuni and Trebizond coincide with so many distinct sec- 
tions of the coast ranges, while Brussa and Konia alone include 
portions both of the plateau and of the seaboard. 

The Anatolian plateau rises from west to east, and attains 
its greatest altitude, above 7,000 feet near Erzerum. On the 
south the plateau is similarly buttressed by the Taurus range, 
which in places has an altitude from 7,000 to 10,000 feet. 


Except where the Pamphylian ^nd Cilician plains intervene, 
the range approaches the sea. Farther east it is separated from 
Syria by the gorge of Jihun, and breaks down to the lowlands 
of Mesopotamia, in a series of rock terraces seamed by deep 
ravines; The western face of the plateau is broken by broad 
Valleys, and only in the case of Olympus (7,600 feet) rises 
much higher than 2,500. 

The most striking features are the great central plain with its 
salt lakes; the abence of navigable rivers; Mount Argeous 
(13,100 feet) and its volcanic district to the south; the Subter- 
ranean flow of streams beneath the Taurus and a number of 
hot medicinal springs. 

The great plain of Western Anatolia is composed of lacus- 
trine deposits. Mount Taurus consists chiefly of limestone, 
the Pontic range of scheists and metamorphic rocks. Igeneous 
rocks occur in many districts, and some of the minor ranges 
are of granite. 

The Central plateau consists of nearly horizontal strata while 
around the coast flat lying deposits are found extending up into 
the mountain regions. The deposits of the Central plateau con- 
sists of freshwater marls and limestones. Along the south- 
eastern margin, in front of the Taurus, stands a line of volcan- 
oes stretching from Karadagh to Aegeaus all lying extinct now. 


A. Armenia. 

The central and least interrupted fold of the Armenian plateau 
may be regarded as the link between the Alburs of Northern 
Persia and the Anti-Taurus of Asia Minor. The Alburs folds 
after bending around to the northwest are broken off near Haran 
and only rise up again northwest of the great volcano Kara- 
bagh. The folds are cut through by the transverse valley of 
the Araxes below Ordubad and are continuous with the same 
northwest direction through the Karabagh region. The west- 
ern Karabagh range is the highest of the folds reaching 12,- 
832 feet in granitic Karabagh Mountain. It gradually bends 
around to W. N<. W. through Dammry Mountains (11,093 ft.) 
and Salvasty Mountain (10,422 ft.) into the Daralagoz district. 


finally breaking off in the Zynlerly Mountain towards broad 
Araxes plain north of Ararat. Here the fold has undergone 
fracture and depression and has been concealed, not only by 
the lavas of Ararat and Alagoz, but also by the loess and 
alluvial deposits of the Araxes. A fragment, however comes 
to light in the Oligocene rather than in the Kegeljin Mountain 
near Kulp'i. Then it forms Shatin Mountain the "spine of 
Armenia," with a dioritic axis and it bends round to a W. by S. 
direction dividing Pasin from Alashkert and Tekman. After 
passing through Palandoken (10,694 ft.) where it forms the 
southern boundary of the Erzerum plain, the line of height 
appears to die out in the Karakaya Mountain, and its place 
is taken on the south by the Zerdeji and Mirian mountains; 
thence the line crosses the Frat, to attain greater heights in the 
Melpurt and Keshish Mountains. Here it is interupted by 
the Erzinjan depression but it soon rises higher in Muzur Moun- 
tain. It is again traversed by the Frat above Egin for the third 
time and is con tinued to the southwest into the Anti-Taurus. 

The Central Karabagh line forms part of the same Alburs-r 
Anti-Taurus series. It is indicated first of all by the Ardebel 
depression, traversed by the S. E. N. W. course of the Kara-Su, 
and flanked on the west by the great volcano Salavan. Th? 
line is continued to the N. W. through the Cretaceous Kara- 
bagh. Surmounted by the tracytic Gaishtasar and Saigrama 
Mountains. Crossing the Araxes, its S. E. N. W. axis can be 
traced through the relative depression of central Karabagh 
plateau — a depression which has been more than filled up by 
the lavas and tuffs of numerous volcanoes arranged in series- 
along its axis. The most important of these peaks are the 
Kehal Mountain, Ishakly, Kizil Bogas, Mukhortolian, Galingaya 
and Syrer-syrchally, all of which rise to heights 10,000 — 12,000 
feet. The central Karabagh depression is then continued through 
Lake Gokcha into the Dachichak heights, and this line finally 
disappears beneath the northern lava-flows of Alagoz. 

Starting once more from the Caspian, we find a series of S. 
E. — N. W. folds adjacent to the Alburs folds and rising up 
to form the Talish ranges. They are on the same line of strike 
as the folds which have been broken off, on the east coast of 
the Caspian, between Ashref and Asterbad. 




Colored Geological Map of Armenia. 


It is evident that this interruption in their continuity is due 
to the depression of the area now occupied by the South Caspian. 
The Talish ranges disappear beneath the transverse valley of 
the Araxes and rise up again to form the east Karabagh ranges, 
among which Shasha lies centrally situated. They are con- 
tinuous with the same N. W. direction as the Gokcha ranges, 
or so called Little Caucasus, occupying the space between Lake 
Gokcha and the Valley of Lower Kur. The richest ores of 
Russian Transcaucasian are found in these rugged Eastern 
Border ranges of Armenia. At the 4Sth meridian the folds 
begin to bend round to the west and consists of three main 
lines. Pambak, Bezobdal and Lialvar, which disappear com- 
pletely beneath the volcanic plateau of Russian Armenia, with 
the exception of small outlier of Cretceous rocks near Medo- 
tappa Lake. 

The Aglagan-Bezobdal fold already shows indication of bend- 
ing around to W. by S. Although now completely hidden by 
vast accumulations of lava and tuff the continuation of these 
folds may perhaps be indicated by the W. S. W. direction of a 
part of the Kars-Chai Valley below Kars, and by the same di- 
rection of the volcano. Watershed, between the Lakes of Chaldir 
and Khozapian. 

On the west side of the volcanic plateau this series of fold re- 
appears to view, forming a N. E. — S. W. zone through Olti 
depression. They are still more closely indicated further to the 
southwest by the Cretaceous heights lying between the longi- 
tudinal valleys of the Chorokh — and further west by the syn- 
clinal area of the Varzahan plain and the Kelkid Valley. The 
chief line of these folds is marked by the heights of Akhbaba, 
Khoshabpunar, Jejen, Kop, Otluk, Sipikar and Chardaklu — a 
line which clearly defines the northern edge of the Frat basin, 
and which together with the opposite Muzar Mountain line of 
heights passes over into the Anti-Tauric system. 

A still more northerly series of folds, the Thrialetic Imare- 
tian Mountains, or Northern Border-ranges of Armenia is separ- 
ated from the Lialvar line of folds by a hard, resisting block, 
a mass of gneiss, ancient schists and Palaeozic rocks. Among 
these folds four main lines may be divided: 

I. Bielyiklinch to Yaglaga Mountain. 


2. Manglis to Tiflis. 

3. Arjevan through Digorn to Lilo. This fold bends around 
to the W. S. W. of the Arjevan Mountain, through Karajakaya 
Sansislo (9351 ft.) and Oshara Mountain (8551 ft.) to cross 
the Kur Valley just above Akhaltsykh, it then disappears be- 
neath the volcanic plateau of Karga Punar, Dokhus Punar and 
the Arzian Mountain. At the base of deep canyons of the Pos- 
khov River the Cretaceous rocks of this fold are disclosed. 

West of the Azian Mountain it is seen to reappear, bounding 
the longitudinal valley of the Imerkhevi River and it is con- 
tinued to the S. W. between Artvin and Ardanush, into the 
Dedime Mountain (10,558 ft.) Thence it forms the inner line 
of the Chorokh and passes through the Vavuk Mountain to 
bound the Kelkid River on the right. 

4. The line marked by Thrialetic-Imeritian Range through the 
Tortizi Mountain, across the Kur below Borjom, thence it is 
surmounted by the peaks of Salgalotto (8,288 ft.), Kageba, 
Nepiskaro, Gatewaria and Taginami. At this point it came 
over to the S. W. and after crossing the Chorokh just below 
the Ajaris confluence this lines proceeds along the coast behind 
Khora and Arkhava. It appear likely that the Karchkal Moun- 
tain (11,248 ft.) and parts of the Pontic Range have acted as 
a "horst" around which the folds have been curved and bent. 

On the other hand the extension of this fold from Mitskhet 
eastward appears to lie through Mamkodi. A remnant of this 
fold may be seen in the Cretaceous outlier with S. E. strike which 
liesS. of Segnak, but this is an exception. It is concealed be- 
neath Sarmartian deposits up to the 48th meridian, where it is 
indicated by the Eocene foothills of the Caucasus and it finally 
vanished beneath the Caspian. 

Between the Anti-Tauruc and Tauric series of folds the Ar- 
menian plateau is only traversed by minor folds, chiefly affect- 
ing Lower Miocene limestone, e. g., Shurian Mountain, the Satah 
Mountain between Lakes Van and Urmi. All these folds show 
a general agreement wiith the Anti-Tauric series but their con- 
tinuity is frequently broken by further scarps and concealed 
either by the ejectamenta of volcanoes or by recent richer lakes 

The Tauric folds form a S. W. — N. E. series in zone between 


Malatia and Samasat and extend to the N. E. embracing the Palu. 
Here, however, they appear to meet a "horst." A southerly Hne 
of folding bends round this horst towards Sert. A still more 
southerly member of the Tauric series lies between Samsat and 
Urfa with a W S. W. EN. E. strike it disappears beneath the 
basalt of the Karaja Mountain and rises again in Mardin hills, 
running nearly due to east. This line of folding crosses the 
Tigris above Jesireh and gradually bends round to the E. S. E. 
through Jadi Mountain and bends to Shernak Mountain, to pass 
into the Zagros Mountain, with a constant S. E. direction. 

In Armenia the chief eras of mountain folding seem to have 
occurred in the Lower Permian, Antitithonian and Post-Oligo- 
cene priods, and in all of these the resultant pressure came from 
the south, i. e., from the Arabian tableland. Th northern limit 
to all this mountain folding in Armenia was formed by the great 
granitic "horst" of the Meschic Mountains. The Caucasus in 
this time was represented by an eliptical island, lying to the 
north of this resisting mass, and was only sligtly affected by 
the force from the south. But in the Post-Miocene era of moun- 
tain making to which the Caucasus owes its present great de- 
velopment, the force produced from the N. E. and by this time 
the sediments of Armenia has lost their plasticity and could not 
undergo any further folding. This hard, unyielding area now be- 
came fractured mountain blocks, most of which show parallelism 
to the Caucasus and are as much an expression of longitudinal 
stresses in the earth crust as the folds of the Caucasus itself. 

The lines of fracture in Armenia which are due to the Post- 
Miocene mountain making can be divided into three classes. 

1. Fracture parallel to the Caucasus, N. W. S. E. They have 
given rise to the depression of the Lower Kur from Gori to 
the Caspian and Kokcha-Karabagh-Savalan zone. The Kars- 
Ararat- Nakhichevan zone, the Alashkert zone, the Erzerum- 
Aladagh-Sahend zone, the Khinis-Melaskert zone, the Gum-gum- 
Liz zone, the Erzingan-Lake \^an zone and the Diarbekr zone. 

2. Two fractures, almost meridianal (N. by W. to S. by E.) 
lying on either side of the Meschic "horst" and in all probabil- 
ity directly due to its resistance. The western line runs from 
Elburz, through the Arzian and Sohanli series of volcanoes to 
Kuseh Mountain, and thence to Sipan; the eastern line extends 


from Kashet through Alagoz to Ararat and along the Turko- 
Persian frontier to RoWianduz. 

3. A fracture crossing the Armenian Mountain folds at their 
concave bend, running from Karadagh through the high vol- 
canoes of Armenia have arisen along this line, especially where 
it intersects other lines of fracture. This line may be traced 
southwrds into the great rift of the Jordan Valley, the Red Sea 
and through East Africa as far as the rift Lakes Tanganyka and 
Nyassa. Perhaps another line may also be traced radiating from 
the Karaja Mountain through the volcanic Bingol Mountain and 
Palandoken to Erzerum and Devehboyum. 

B. Anatolia. 

Naumann distinguishes three great folded arcs and a part of 
a fourth in determining the trend lines of the structure of 
Anatolia. — 

1. The East Pontic Arc: it borders, in the northeast, the shore 
of the Black Sea, extending from the east towards Sinope. 
Abich justifies the separation of East Pontic Arc by the south- 
west trend of the ranges, on the left side of the Chorokh. 

2. The West Pontic Arc: this is joined by the first, the 
southwestern parts of which (Phrygian zone) approach the in- 
ner side of the third arc. Naumann mentions a fold at Angora 
overthrown to the east-southeast, and towards Polatly, further 
westwards, there is horizontal tableland. For the stretch of the 
country, more than 100 Km. long, which extends from Heraclea 
to beyond Amasra, and is distinguished by tiie presence of 
coal measures, the whole district exhibits the character of a 
faulted-down than of a folded country. The convincing testi- 
mony to the existence of a West Pontic Arc is afforded by the 
steeply turned stratified series in the valley of the Sakaria, ex- 
tending from Balabon upwards, past the Lefke and Vizirkhan. 

3. Tauric Arc: this surrounds the Lyaonian plain, Cyprus 
forms part of it; towards the west it joins in syntaxis parts of 
a fourth arc. According to Naumann, an inner zone of the 
Tauric folds, coming from the northeast, runs within the bend 
of the Halys with a southwest direction towards the northeast 
of the Lyaonian depression, and breaks off against the border. 
Near Kaisarieh, east' of this region, rises the mighty Argeaus, 


and here begins the zone of volcanoes which border the inner 
side of the Tauric Arc in a regular semi-circle. The problem 
of the tructure of this range is not yet solved. Generally speak- 
ing, the rocks, in accordaiice with the outer form of the chains, 
strike to the northeast, parallel with the Vulcan range on the 
one side and the Amanus on the other ; the Mediterranean beds 
of Tertiary age are deposited against a range" folded in this 

4. Eagian Arc: the part of the fourth, which with the third 
arc forms re-entrant angles. The structure of the west coast 
of Anatolia is as follows : 

a. From Crete an arc runs to the northeast through Kasos to 
Rhodes, where it meets a shorter segments coming from a north- 
west direction. 

b. The volcanic arc extends from Santorin into Nisyros. 

c. In the whole of the southwestern part of the continent a 
northwest strike prevails as far as the coast of Caria and on- 
wards to Samos : this is the western wing of the Tauric arc, 
which encloses the Lyaonian plain. 

d. Between Smyrna and Chios a north to north-northeast 
strike appears and is maintained through the Spalmatori islands 
and Mitilini to the plain of Troy. 

e. The western limit of the Tauric Arc can only be followed 
with tolerable certainty as far as Samos. It is not sure that 
the ranges directed to the north and northeast should be in- 
cluded with it. 

A syntaxis exists in the proximity of the west coast of Anatolia. 

A northeast to east-north strike prevails on the European 
mainland (Tekir-Dagh, Kuru-Dagh) and as far as Samothrace, 
and perhaps also in the Carboniferous land of Balia-Maden. In 
the south this direction is reprsented by the volcanic line to 
Nisyros, and further by the line passing through Crete and 
Kasos to Rhodes, and the lofty mountains of souther Lycia. 
These regions are included among the eastern ends of the ranges 
of the Dinaric Arc. 

A north and south to a north-northeast strike is met on with 
the southern border of the plain of Troy, in Mitilini, Chios, 
the Spalmatori islands, the peninsula of Karaburun, and as far 


as Smyrna. These areas probably answer in part to the Dinaric 
Arc and in part to the region of Syntaxis. 

A northwest strike makes its appearance in the valley of the 
Sakaria in the neighborhood of the Olympus of Brdussa, then 
in the southwest of Anatolia as far as Samos, thence to the 
coast of Caria and to a restricted part of RJiodes. These' tracts 
are the western ends of the Tauric Arcs. 

The tectonic feature of Anatolia is, unfortunately, not very 
w'ell known, and also we do not know very much about the 
extension and the location occupied by the Tertiary folded 
zone. It is a fact that the masses are, during Tertiary, removed 
by vertical comipartment, and have been -dislocated after the 
Eagean depression forming a real folding. Folding predomin- 
ates in the northeastern part of the peninsula, along the Pontic 
series, in the chains of Kos, Cilician Taurus, etc. 

Anatolia, as a whole, represents one part of the recently 
folded crust forming a natural link between the European Din- 
aridfs — Balkans and the Asiatic folds of Iran. It is buttressed 
by the primitive of Arabia on the south, as Himalayas by 
the India. But, in some intervals of Tertiary folded mass, some 
vast regions are escaped this movements. Some of them are 
only subjected to vertical displacement in the fashion of Euro- 
pean Hercynian Horsts. Upon this large space is established a 
tabular regime which could, very likely, be compared with the 
Pre-Balkanic plateau or with the Caucasus. 

The Eocene is often laid horizontal or is only depressed having 
been inclined along the fault lines. Occasionally the Cretaceous 
also look tabular. The necessary informations are lacking to con- 
firm whether they are primary or secondary movements. They 
are broken only before the Cretaceous or Eocene. In compari- 
son with European chains they generally look like the primary 
foldings become insensible in the Tertiary. 

Between the two folded chains, one bordering the Black Sea 
coast, and the other Mediterranean and Cilicia, we notice a 
tabular compartment, vertically moved, and interpolated same 
way as Tibet according to Naumann. 

On the north, along the Black Sea coast, in Pontus and east 
Paphalgonia, there is a primary zone folded in Tertiary. This 
extending east-west constitutes' the Pontic chain. This chain is 


notably represented by the Cretaceous limestones and flysch, 
with a great serpentine manifestation. The line which connects 
this to European chain is very imaginary. According to Suess 
it is the incurred succession of the Eagean fold. Further up 
to the west of the course of Halys the grounds look very much 
transformed, while the recently folded regions look composed 
of horizontal plateau where primary important masses are pre- 

Naumann shows that the region situated on the south of 
Bithynia and Paphlagonia, between Adabazar and Kastamuni, 
represent the Eocene and probably Cretaceous in a horizontal 
strata laid upon the Jarassic. This is strongly folded after- 
wards. Along the line leading from Scutari to Angora near 
leni-Chair, in the gorge of Sakaria, between the Biljik and 
Lefke. Naumann also shows, in wide extension, the horizontal 
Eocene recovering the redressed beds, so that all this compart- 
ment is at least laid horizontal since the Cretaceous during a 
period when the orogenic efforts attained to their maximum. 

The retrogression (Schaarung) of Anatolia, which is sup- 
posed toward Sinope, to bind the northeast branches of the 
west to northwest is certain. The same degree of uncertainty 
exists in the region of western Anatolia where strongly miner- 

But in all cases the Tertiary dislocations are abounding in 
this group. The eruptive manifestations are very frequent there, 
especially along the depressed zone as the basin of evaporation 
without any outlet from Lycaonia and Cappadocea. The pace 
of the metallic minerals contributes to accentuation in the most 
part of Anatolia, the one which is called Character of Mediter- 

Coniling to the south, the second zone along the Cilicia, 
Mediterranean and the Gulf of Alexandretta, is also notably 
folded like the Pontic chain on the north. The most northern 
branches of this chain resembles the one which manifests itself 
in the island of Kos and Rhodes, being persued from the south- 
east to the last axis of folding, passing through the Cyprus and 
Alma-Dagh. But it there interpolates the tabular zone in a 
condition which so far has not been defined. There are still 
other points where analogous phenomena is observable in dif- 


ferent geological periods. Bukowski has shown in Caria, near 
Davas, Lower Miocene laid horizontal upon the folded Oligo- 
cene, while little further the Pliocene same way, has taken 
part in the posthiimes movements which is continued up to 

Same way, the tabular system predominates in the regions com^ 
prised between Anti-Taurus and Armenian Taurus, effecting 
here the Cretaceous. Continuing these points, the folds soon 
stop, juxtaposing the tabular systejm dn folded zones, with 
probable drifts notably along the Anti-Taurus. 


In general, Armenia geologically consists of Archaic rocks 
upon w'hich are superimposed Palaeozoic and towards the south 
later sedimentary rocks, the last having been pierced by vol- 
canic outbursts that extend southwest to Lake Van. Dominant 
among stratified rocks are limestones of various geological pe- 
riods from Cretaceous and probably earlier to Plieocene. 

The central plateau is especially covered or surrounded by 
such a thick or high m;ass of recent sediments and lavas that 
Mesozoic and earlier rocks seldom come to the surface. The 
Jurassic is recorded only from the eastern border range and 
from the region surrounding the Lake Van. Lacustrine de- 
posits are also prominent geological features in Pliocene time 
contemporaneous with the outpouring of lavas in Central Ar- 
mania. Strongly folded metamorphic rocks as marbles, mica 
and crystalline schists, schistose gneiss, slates and marl, etc., 
occur abundantly in Armania, especially in the Tauric range 
among the oldest rocks. 

PRE-DEVONIC. Strongly folded schistose gneiss and other 
crystalUnt schists are the oldest rocks of Armenia. They have, 
as far as present observations indicate, a SW-NE strike. They 
form obstructive masses which offered strong opposition to 
later folding. The Armenian Taurus is the most important of 
these masses. It consists of layers of mica, quartzite and gneiss 
with which often serpentine (South coast of Lake Van), horn- 
bende schist and finally granite (Vanik and Keser Valley) or 
diorite (Mikus and Shirvan) are associated. This slaty mass 


extends from Rovandus westward to the Ousounyalia (north 
of Albistan) where they are overlain by the Devonian. The 
same conditions appear in the most eastern part of Taurus. The 
great amount of interbedding of the slate and folded marble is 
typically seen at Tadvan on Lake Van in a stretch of only lOO ft. 

Because of the rapid weathering of the mica schist to brown 
sand the summits of the Taurus Mountains consist of marble; 
while the mica schist, which lies above this, comes to light on 
the slopes, closed with a thick covering of sand. 

The greatest height in this zone of metamorphism is reached 
by the Jelu Mountain. It is made up of slate, dolomitic lime- 
stone and porphyrites. 

A region of the same tectonic importance, though not so well 
exposed, is the Meschic Mountains (Zirula dome) in the ex- 
treme norh consising of granite, gneiss and crystalline schist. 
The granite or granulite here is often penetarted by melaphyrs, 
diabases and porphyries. Granite gneisses, mica schists, and 
chlorite-schist occur in the upper Chram Valley, and in the 
Somkatian Mountains, as well as at other points in the northern 
border ranges. 

Small occurrences of schists and gneisses occur here and 
there in the eastern border ranges, for example, clay and slate 
and sugar-grained marble (covered by Tourainian chlorite 
schists, mica schists and quartzites with white marbles, serpen- 
tines and schistose gneiss in the Pambak ranges and in the 
Darachichek Mountains ) . The chlorite and hornblende schists in 
Arpatal (Daralagoz), and in the upper Ochchital (West Kara-, 
bagh) Valley appear again on the south side of the axis in 
Karabagh. On the bottom of some of the deep valleys of the 
north and east Karabagh old gneiss and feldspar porphyries 
under Jurassic rocks come to the surface. 

Schistose rocks are reported from the Pontic region of the 
northern border ranges but their exact age has not yet been 
determined. Clay slates with SW-NE strike have been described 
from the lower Chorokh Valley at Artvin and from the neigh- 
boring Ardanush valley. They are overlain by the Lower Cre- 
tacic. A zone of rocks appear on the inner border of the 
Pontic Range (for example, of the Kharchkar Mountain,) and in 
the basin of Olti (Kanli and Akdagh Mountains at Id.) 


Occasionally the metamorphic series is seen in the| inner 
region of the Armenian highland as at Arabkir (mica schists, 
sometimes graphitic). It extended through Dersim and appears 
above the graphitic mica schists) as far as the region north of 
Khinis, in the Shatin Mountain and in the Kisilja Mountain 
east of Lake Van. 

DEVONIAN. Middle and Upper Devonic beds are reported 
from the Araxes Basin (south of Ararat) and from the Valley 
of its tributary, Arpa (Daralagoz), where they overlie red mica 
schist, sandstones and conglomerates. They extend southward 
into the Urmi Basin and eastward into the Karabagh, but are 
tipt known in the region between Ararat on the one side and 
their appearance in the Antitaurus on the other side. In the 
Araxes Basin they strike mostly NW-SE; sometimes (Davalu, 
Degma, Danga, Gyneshik) SW-NE; this can probably be at- 
tributed to posthumus influences because of the strike of the un- 
derlying slates. The Armenian-Devonian accords with that of 
Antitaurus and Persia and may be, owing to this similarity, 
divided according to the following general scheme : 
Upper Devonian — • 

Zona of Spirifer verneu'li. Red, ithick bed of limestone 
with marly interlayers and clay slates. Fossils : Spirifer 
archiaci, Spirifer tenticulimi, Rhynchonella cuhoides, Acer- 
vularia pentagona. 
Lower Devonian — 

(3). Coral limestone, with very many Cyathophyllmn quadri- 

(2). Brachiopod limestone, with Spirifer inflatus, Spirifer 
mediotextus, Rhynchonella letiensis, Chonetes. 

( I ) . Calceola tuff, marly limestone with calceola sandstone, 
Cyathopyllum vermiculare , C. praecursor, caesopitoswm, Cysti- 
phyllum vesiculosum, Favosites goldfussi, Heliolites porosus, 
Stromatopora concentrica, Atrypa reticularis, Merista plebeja. 

CARBONIFEROUS. The limestones of the Carbonic age He 
conformably above the Devonic from which they are distin- 
guished simply by a general widespread, slight bituminous content, 
and the occasional appearance of Alum. The Carbonic is found 
in the same region as the Devonic, but stretches beyond in its 
higher layers ; for example, on the south of the Araxes and on 




Colored Geological Map of Artnenia. 


the islands and the coasts of the Lake Urmi. A break in the 
disposition has occurred in Armenia in the second half of the 
Upper Carboniferous. 

The general sequence of beds of the Carbonic is as follows: 
Upper Carbonic — 

Moskaus tuff. Fusulina zone, dark gray, often dolomitic lime 
with Fusulinella sphaeroida, F. lenticularis, £ndothyra Bryozoan, 
lime algae, etc. 
Lower Carbonic — 

Zone of Products gigantes: coarse banded, bituminous coral- 
line limestone with Cystiphyllum inurchisoni, Lithostrotion mar- 
tini, Lonsdaleia florifornds, Productiis gigantus, Spirifer striatus, 
Spririgera planosulcata. 

Zone of Spirifer, Marly limestone and shale. 

(i). Crinoid limestone, with Platycrynus, Dalmanella Michel- 
ini, Chonetes hardrensis. 

(2). Brachiopod layers with Productus perlongus, Athyris 
amhigua, Spirifer tenticulum. 

PERMO-TRIASSIC. The Permo-Triassic limestones of Julfa 
on the Araxes and the neighboring Kasanyaila district were dis- 
posed in a bay of that sea which extended toward the Indian 
salt range. In contrast to the zone of Palaeozoic folds, in the 
Central Araxes district in, which eruptives of the same age are 
lacking, they show simply flextures with steep N. E. faults, 
and numerous bed veins of diabase and quartz porphyry. Car- 
bonic, Permic and Triassic are comformable and folded together. 
In other places the Triassic of Armenia are not yet known. 
Possibly dolomite of the Jelu Mountain (in the Zab Basin) 
belongs to this formation analogous with the Triassic dolomites, 
of the western Caucasus. Rhetic with plant remains exist only 
on the eastern border of Armenia, namely, in the Alburz chain 
Lower Triassic — 

Quartzite of Negram, apparently with interbedding of Wellen- 
limestone with Werfen fossils. 
Upper Permian. Upper Zechstein — 

Limestones with the appearance of Wellen-limestone, and 
containing Chideru fossils. 
Upper Permian. Lower Zechstein — 

Julfa limestones with a rich fauna, especially of Ceratitidae 


and Brachiopods. Stage of Oteceras Julfense. 

JURASSIC. LIAS. Rocks of the Lias have not yet been 
found in Armenia. But in the Urmi basin, beyond the boundary 
of Armeniais found the Toarcian. Here the association of cen- 
tral European fossil form is explained by advocating a connec- 
tion, thorugh Roumania and Transylvania, with the Hungarian 

The Liassic limestone of Azerbaijan indicates a more open 
sea than the fine-grained shaly, littoral facies of the Central 
Caucasus. Probably they were formerly continuous with the 
Palaeozoic sediments of Kessiktash at Angora in Asia Minor. 
This connecting sediment has either been denuded or still await- 
ing discovery. Perhaps in the Dersim distdict. The coal of 
Gernavig and Kamsakendi (north of Lake Urmi) is probably 
Liassic, but accessible knowledge seems to be against this idea. 

DOGGER. BAjAOiAN TUFF. During the Bajocian time 
and several of the following epochs powerful volcanism existed 
in the neighborhood of the present eastern border range. The 
massive, in part submarine, outbreaks were inimical to animal 
life, so that only small remains occur in the seams of impure 
limestone which were interbedded in the great deposits of tuffs, 
sandstones and lava flows. 

MALM. CALLOViAX. The Macrocephallus and Anceps- 
zones are reported on the east coast of Lake Urmi, as well 
as in the eastern border range at Kabagtepe in the Shamshortal 
Valley, northwest from Elizabetpol. At the last named locality 
the facies indicate a sediment of great land. 

In Armenia it is certain that neither Oxfordian nor Sequan- 
ian are known. The expressed volcanic disturbances which are 
noticed in the Sequanian of Central Caucasus were noticeably 
forerunners of the great Kimmeridgian faulting by which the 
Caucasus and the large part of Armenia was raised above the 
sea. These dislocations were accompanied by the outbreaks of 
most of the disbases and Melaphyrs of Armenia. 

KIMMERIDGIAN is known from the Karabagh district. It 
shows the sponge and coral facies with those of the Natthein 
limestone. At its base lies conglomerate, which suggests a 
trangression in Middle Kimmeridgian time. 


TITHONIAN is known in the West Karabagh, namely, in 
the Kiaki Mountain and Trapassar Mountain (south of Tatev). 
In the coral limestones, the Stylina decemradiata, Calamorphyl- 
lia pseudo stylina, etc., fossils are found. 

LOWER CRETACEOUS, lower neocomian (Valanginian 
has not yet been definitely recorded from the Armenian area, 
although it will probably be found to occur in the Karabagh 
region. According to Abich Neocomian strata are probably pres- 
ent on the Trapassar Mountain overlying Tithonian limestone. 

The lower beds of the Valanginian are, however, well devel- 
oped on the northern borders of Armenia in the Zirula dome 
(Meschic Mountains. Here in the S. W. part of the synclinal 
trough (SE of Kvirila) it consists of marls and marly limestones 
with Terebratula pseudojurensis, Waldheimia moutoniana, Py- 
gone diphyoides, Chama, Strombus, etc. 

distribution on the northeastern, and northwestern borders of 

In the north, it is well developed in the Zirula dome in the 
marly sandstones and limestones, containing Rhynchonella de- 
pressa, Exogyra coidoni, Nautilus pseudoelegans, etc., fossils. 

In the east Karabagh is found the Neocomian marls and 
Exogyra and Lima. Farther south near Araxes is establish- 
ed the presence of Hauterivian beds. Farther south, in Azer- 
baijan, is found Hauterivian Amnionites at Gushaish, in the hills 
on the east of Lake Urmi. A fragment of a large Ammonite 
was also found in the massive limestone of a few miles below 
Muradkhan, on Kharshut River. 

THE UPPER NEOCOMIAN (barremian) is present in 
Armenia only in its Urgonian facies, similar to that of Jura. 
On the northern borders of Armenia — in the Zirula donte — the 
Urgonian beds show evidence of a marked transgression, and of 
closer proximity to land than the very similar deposits in the 
west Karabagh. 

Near Marelision the southern slope of the Zirula dome Rei- 
quienia limestones and marls rest to the basal conglomerates 
and breccias derived from the underlying granite, and to the 
north of Molita they rest discordantly on Upper Jurassic clays' 
sandstones and tuflfs. Urgonian is also well developed in the west 


Karabagh, but has not been recorded from any intermedate 
district. The limestone was noticed on the Trapassar Mountain 
containing characteristic Urgonian fossil (Corals, Requienia am- 
monia, Nerinea). 

APTIAN. Very little is known as yet regarding the presence 
of this formation in Armenia except on its northern borders — on 
the Zirula dome and the south slope of the Central Caucasus. 
On the Zirula dome marls, slightly glauconitic, contain Tere- 
bratula sella, Thetis major, etc., fossils. 

The presence of Aptian in the eastern Border Ranges of 
Armenia is established by Exogyra aquila. 

UPPER CREACEOUS. albian is well developed on 
the northern borders of Armenia in the same localities as the 
Aptian, with which, indeed, it is in continuity. The Albian both 
on Zirula dome and on the southern slope of the Caucasus, repre- 
sented by the sandy marls with Discoides subuculus, glauconitic 
sandstones with Desmoceras bendanti, marly sandstone with 
Crustacea and Phylloceras vcUcdoe. 

CENOMANIAN undoubtedly occurs on the south side of the 
Frat, almost due to south of this locality. The Cenomanian 
limestone rises up to form the Hach Mountain — the E. W. chain 
which divides the districts of Terjan and Kighi. On Zirula 
dome Cenomanian is well developed, consisting of slightly glau- 
conitic sandstones and Disoidea subuculus, Haploceras djumense, 

TURONIAN is particularly well developed in the southern, 
eastern and western Karabagh district, especially in Alikulikent, 
in the gorge of the Bergushet River, where nearly the entire 
Cretaceous is laid bare. Here is recorded a considerable thick- 
dess pf Turonian strata, inuch dislocated, dipping northwards 
and traversed by dikes of amygdaloidal dolerite. Plagioptychus 
agitilloni and large Radiolites and Acteonella fossils are much 
dominant. The only indication of Turonian in the Pantic re- 
gion occurs near the confluence of Ardanush River with the 
lower Chorokh; a very thick series of limestones crystalline in 
places, overlying Cenomanian and underlying Senonian strata. 

SENONIAN of Armenia is well developed in Karabagh re- 
gion. In the west Karabagh at Alikulikent in the Bergushet Val- 


ley, the Senonian conformably overlies the Turonian; it shows a 
northerly dip, and is strongly dislocated and traversed by dikes 
of amygdaloidal dolerite. The lower part cnosists of thick beds 
of white fossils, chalky limestone containing Echinocorys ovata, 
Inoceraimis cnvieri. Ammonites, etc. In the East Karabagh the 
Senonian is extensively developed in the form of fissile litho- 
graphic limestones. Generally the Senonian formation in Kara- 
bagh continued beneath the great depression of Kur, 'rising up 
again on the opposite side in the Caucasus. It is continued 
also to N. \\'. through the Gokcha Range. Near Elizabetpol 
the only recorded Senonian fossils are Foraminifera. Senonian 
limestones reach their greatest height in the region between the 
Debeda, Pambak and Akstafa Rivers. 

To west and north the littoral fades predominate, especially 
in the lower part of the formation. 

EOCENE. LOWER EOCENE. In the north of Armenia 
and in the Caucasus the Lower Eocene consists of a thick series 
of dark, argillaceous fissile sandstones and marls, harder beds 
of variegated shales and laminated limestones and flint, and inter- 
calated in the series but the only fossils are obscure impressions 
of thick stalked Fucoids (Chondrites. Tuffs and volcanic brec- 
cias frequently occur, together with contemporary diabases, 
andesites, dacites, and trachytes. They are well developed in 
the Akhalzik basin, near Borjom and Mikhailov. 

The Lower Eocene is ,, evidently represented along the south- 
ern base of the Taurus. At Arghana the Nummulitic Lime- 
stone is found to overlie carbonaceous marls ; beneath these there 
occur brecciated and quartzose sandstones alternating with 
marls. Again between Ali Mountain and Arghana-Su intrusive 
masses of dialage rock have altered the carbonaceous beds into 
dark, sheared non-bituminous stone coal, with vitreous fracture. 
In all localities of Akhalzik Basin the fossiliferous Eocene beds 
are overlain by the Flysch facies of Upper Eocene, and this in 
turn by Oligocene. This facies is represented by marly calcar- 
eous beds, much laminated, with fucoidal remains, fish scales 
and impressions and teeth of Lanuna clegans, Otodus, Melatta 
sardinntcs, etc. 

MIDDLE. AND UPPER EOCENE. The middle and Upper Eo- 
cene of Lower Rion and Kvirila Basin show the same facies 


as that of the Akhalzik Basin. The NummuHte facies rathei 
more marked here consists of clays, fissile marls and fossillifer- 
ous calcareous beds with OrbitoUtes discus, Serpula, Terebratula, 
etc. These fossils indicate the presence of both the Kressenberg 
and Priabona horizons. Numulitic beds appear in the upper 
valley of Pambak River, in the upper region of the Akstafa 
and Zanga rivers. The same horizon occurs in the Duchu and 
Terter Valleys, and the two areas were evidently in complete 
continuity through N. W. — E. E. Eocene zone, which borders 
Lake Gokcha on the N. and E. The finest section of Nummulitic 
beds in the Mid-Araxes region is near the monastery of Kar- 
mirvank, at the entry of the gorge leading to Julfa. Nummulitic 
limestone and fine grained sandstone are extensively developed 
in the Taurus Mountains, the southern border range of Armenia, 
especially in the plain of Apaud between Kharput and Keban 
Maden, containing Nuinmulites panwndi, N. laeigatus, N. in- 
termedius. The higher parts of Taurus, between Kharput and 
Arghana consists of Calcareous strata abounding in Nummulites, 
overlying Cretaceous beds. 

OLIGOCENE. LOWER oligocene beds occur in the Pontic 
region between the Karchkal Mountains and the Ardahan 
plateau. Here, above Satlel, in the gorge of the Samjel-robat 
River, a soft yellow, very compact, crystalline limestone with 
Harpacto-carcinuf, Certihium, Turbo, Conus, etc., and corals 
and spines of Cidaris. The only remaining instance of Oligocene 
in Armenia is recorded in the Araxes gorge, a few versts above 
Julfa, half way between Julfa and Darosham. Here the hori- 
zontal Nummulitic limestone (overlapping permo Triassic) are 
conformably overlain by Oligocene, consisting of a very thick 
bed of an ash gray, calcareous sandstone, passing upwards into 
brown sandstones overlain by Sar,matian sandstones and con- 
glomerates. Intercalated sandstone then occur between rather 
compact, calcareous beds, enclosing a number of shells (Gastro- 
pod) which are all changed into coarse-graine'd calcite, and diffi- 
cult to determine owing to their fragmentary and altered con- 
dition. Ostrea, Venus, and Natica glaucina are characteristic 

MIOCENE. LOWER MIOCENE is particularly well developed in 
the basin of Lake Urmi. The fossil collected on Ishakdaghi, 


Koyundaghi and the Shahi peninsula indicate: 

( 1 ) LOWER TDRTONiAN compact, rather porous limestone oc- 
casionally like travertine with Alectryonia virlet, Thamnaroea 
polymorpha, Latirus crispus. 

(2) UPPER HELVETIAN, light yellow or white limestone 
and greenish-gray, coarse-grained, molassic-sandstone more or 
less compact, with sphathic portions, capable or high polish, some- 
times partially translucent with Polystomella quartrepunctata, 
Orbicella defrancei, Ccriopora anomalis, Spondylus bifrons, Cly- 
peaster gnnteri, etc. 

(3). LOWER HELVETIAN Concretionary brownish-yellow lime- 
stone, breaks in great slabs, with Pector convexocostatus. 

(4) Fragmental deposits, varying in thickness derived from 

(5) Carbonaceous limestone. 

A great part of the mountainous country between Khoi and 
Ararat seems to consist of Micocene limestone, particularly the 
region E. S. of Bayazid in the Gedargan Mountain, and the 
Valleys of Maku, Tanali and Zangimar. The Miocene area has 
been considerably extended in Turkish Armenia. It is particu- 
larly well exposed in the cliffs of Lake Van. 

In the upper part of the Frat Valley is described the highly 
fossiliferous Micocene limestone of Kardarich, a few miles above 
Ashkala. Here the Erzerum plain is closed in on the west by 
a wall of limestone through which the river has cut a sharp 

UPPER MIOCENE, sarmatian. In the region of the 
Central Caucasus the Sarmartian deposits are the earliest repre- 
sentatives of the Miocene and occur in notable transgression of 
Palaeogenic deposits. Isolated fish scales are usually the only 
fossils that occur in the Upper Miocene of the Armenian plateau. 
At Nakhichevan are found the fishes Clupea lanceolata, and C. 
humilis, in the thick red, yellow and light colored Sarmatian 
marls, which are nearly always unfossiliferous, and enclose gyp- 
sum and rock salt. Near Julfa, lower down the Araxes Sarma- 
tian saliferous marls discordantly overlie the uplifted Eocene 
beds of Dary Mountain, and include Pecten sarmaticus, P. Hop- 
kinsi. At Yaija lower down the Araxes, simalar saliferous 
marls form a plain between the Devil and Itushem Mountains. 
The Saliferous marls are extensively developed in Azerbaijan, 


especially in the Valley of the Aji River, on which Tabriz is 
situated. The saliferous series is widely distrbuted in the basin 
of the Tortum and Olti Rivers, and also in the Valley of the 
Lower Chorokh below Ispir. Rock salt is quarried around here. 
Broad Frat Valley between the Lower Miocene limestone heights 
of Pirnakapan and Ashkala is occupied by clays with thick seams 
of white gypsum. The saliferous series is extremely developed 
to the W. and S. W. of Erzinjan and S. of Erzerum where salt 
pans occur. Some saliferous marls occur on the S. side of the 
Taurus with the same salt pans. 

PLIOCENE. The Pliocene fauna of Maragha, on the E. 
coast of Lake Urmi, consists of the remains of Hipparion, and 
of Cervus in a trachyte-tuff mixed with earthy gypsum. 

The vegetation at the time of Pliocene was luxuriant enough to 
support mastodons, giraffes and antelopes which could wander 
unchecked from Greece to Persia'. Most of the Pliocene lakes 
j>ersisted into the Pleistocene and even at the present day several 
remnants still occur^either of fresh water such as Lakes Gokcha, 
Chaldir, Toporavan and Nazik, or with varying degrees of 
salinity such as Lakes Khozapin, Van, Udmi and the small soda 
lakes southeast of Ararat. 

The Pliocene fauna of Maragha, east of Lake Urmi, is very 
similar to that of Pikermi, and also shows some points of resemb- 
lance to the Sivalik fauna. Characteristic are Palacoh\u,s mara- 
ghaniis, Giraffa attica, Palaeoreas Liiidcrmavcri, Tragoccros, 
Hipparion gracilc, Rhinoceros Persiae, Mastodon pcntilici, Hy- 

Remains of a similar fauna occur in the bed of the Arpa river 
at Alexandropol, and indicated at Zokh at the southern base of 
the Taurus, but this locality still awaits exploration. 

PLEISTOCENE. The Pleistocene deposits consist of hori- 
ontal or slightly inclined calcareous tuffs, marls and clays, which 
are often completely filled with Drcissensia poh'inorpha. 

The deposits vary in their inter-relationship and arrange- 
ment, in almost all exposures, in which they are shown (Melask- 
ert, Khinis, Erzerum, Pasin, Erivan). \\'here the base of the 
series is visible it is represented by conglomerate with rocks 
such as Vivipara vivipara, Valvata piscinalis, Rissoa, Planorbis, 
derived from the neighborhood and contains numerous shells, 


Weritina, Bythinia, Melanopsis, Unio tmnidii^s, Anadonta, and 
Sphaerium, as obtained from various known localities. 

The brackish water deposit with Cardium catillus is found 
in the Lori plain (Somkatian) and that with C. ovatum at Melik- 
sherif in the Kelkid Valley. Recent diatomaceous earth is 
known from Ilija in the plain of Erzerum and at Kissatip in the 
Uraval Valley near Akalzik. Occasionally in the Dreissenia 
beds, mammals (Elephas primigeniiis) appear, for example, at 
Alexandropol and near the junction of the Lori and Debeda. 
Elephas armeniacus is found at Khinis. 

The Dreissensia beds are invariably either covered over or 
interbedded with recent lavas and tuffs ; even today there are 
present the remnants of the ancient lakes either fresh-water, 
like the Gokcha, Chaldir, Toporaran Tortum, Bulama and Nazik 
or more or less of saUne content as Van, Chosapin, Gojik (with 
borax), and further the small soda lakes southeastward from 
Ararat and the Lake Urmi in Persia. The lakes of Gori and 
Goleh have dried out in historic times. Shrinking of the lakes 
is often recognizable through old shore lines ; as, for example, 
those observed by Oswald, on the south cast of Lake at 15, 40, 
and 100 metrs in length and farther in long parallel terraces 
of Pasin northward from Hassankala and those of the Olti be- 
ween Nariman and Id. 

In the border ranges, the recent beds are covered by the 
travertine from lime and iron springs ; for example, at Hamsi 
and Lijera, southward from Trabizond and at Mushoma in the 
Pambak range. Even now deposits of calcareous tuffs are be- 
ing made at many springs, for example, at Gugoghlan near 
Bingol Mountain, Formerly it was developed on a gigantic 
scale, as in the Khinis plain, along the foot of the Ak Mountain 
and near Diadin. Undoubtedly the present wells compared with 
the former ones are but feeble representatives. The extraor- 
dinary vast masses of weathered debris in the entire Pontic range 
still deserve mention. 


The former existence of glaciers on the Bingol Mountain is 
recognized and the evidence for them becomes amplified by ob- 
serving three distinct moraines which commence at about 2 to 


3 miles from the cliffs of the cirques. The Bingol glacier must 
have been partially divided near its head by the long, terraced 
ridges which extend northwards from Karakala. 

On the north side of Ararat one small glacier still exists at 
the head of the great Akhury chasm, descending to as low as 
altitude of 8,000 feet — a notable fact when we consider that the 
line of perpetual snow on this side of Ararat is as high as 14,000 
feet. On the west side of Ararat a broad ravine cuts deeply 
into the flanks of the Kippgol cone and is occupied by a quite 
imposing glacier with very blue banded ice, issuing between 
high moraines. 

In descending to the plain erratic blocks and traversed 
moraine-hillocks can be noticed between which are innumerable 
lakes. In several places lavas alternated with moraine debris. 
Between Igdir and Erivan may be crossed numerous moraines 
full of obsidian fragments. 

Alagoz on the north side of the great mid-Araxes depres- 
sion has also been the birthplace of glaciers even at the present 
time. Moraines were noticed also by Freeh in the valley of 
the northern slope of the Gokcha ranges, i. e., at Delyan. The 
height of Eshak Meidan also show morainic slopes. Numerous 
traces of glacial action in the region of Chorokh is asserted by 

According to Major Mannsell the moraines and glacial lake- 
lets occur on the broad Kashish Mountain (E. of Erzingan) 
and on the Shaitan Mountain (also about 12,000 feet) W. of 

In the Taurus short glaciers are known on the Jelu. 

B. Anatolia. 

Tchihatcheff distinguishes in Anatolia two special forma- 
tions : — "Terrain Indetermines" and "Terrain de Transition." 
In all cases he uses these collective terms to designate the non- 
fossiliferous deposits, on account of high metamorphased and 
dislocated conditions of the rocks. The formation of this nature 
occur in Devonic, Carboniferous, Jurassic, Cretaceous and in 
the different stages of Tertiary. They occup very limited spaces 
and are found separated from one another. The rocks that are 
not furnished by organic remains are attached to the fossiUf- 


erous deposits only by their mineralogical compositions and 
stratigraphical conditions. The nonfossihf erous rocks are clay 
slates, mica-schists and talc-schists, which abount in many points 
of Anatolia, especially in Anti-Taurus and in the surrounding 
districts of Bosphorus. 

At the base of this series comes the formations of granites, 
syenites and gneiss. The Olympus of Broussa is an intrusive 
granite formation in the old schists with white marbles. Follow- 
ing the same meridian we find a gneiss at Geordiz, Alachair on 
the south of Aidin, etc. A very important granite series occur 
between Yozgat and Nigde, on the northwest and southwest of 

Devonic fossils have been found in several places of Anti- 
Taurus and near the Bosphorus. In the south of the Sea of 
Marmora a zone of crystalline and schistose rocks of Paleozoic 
period occurs. There are several other areas of ancient rocks 
in the western part of Anatolia about which very little is known. 

Carboniferous fossils have been found in some localities in 
Anti-Taurus, in Eregli (Heraclea-Pontica) where they have 
been worked for coal. Carboniferous fossils also occur in the 
limestones of Balia-Maden at Mysia. 

Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous beds form a band south of 
the Sea of Marmora, probably the continuation of the Mesozoic 
band of the Black Sea coast. The direction of the folds of 
this region is from west to east, but on the border of Phrygia 
and Mysia they meet the northwesterly extension of the Taurus 
folds and bend around the ancient mass of Lydia. The lime- 
stones of Cretaceous age form a large part of the Taurus, the 
interior zone probably includes the rocks of earlier period. 
Cretaceous limestones and serpentine rocks take a large part in 
the formation of well defined mountain system running nearly 
parallel to the Black Sea coast from Batum to Sinope. West of 
the Sinope Cretaceous beds form a long strip parallel to the 
shore line. 

The deposits of the Central or Lycaonian plateau consists 
of fresh water marls and limestones of late Tertiary or Neogene 
age. Along the southeastern margin, in front of the Taurus 
stands a line of great volcanoes stretching from Kara-dagh to 
Argaeus. They are now extinct, but were probably active till 


the close of the Tertiary period. Limestones of Eocene age 
form a large part of the Taurus. The folding of Anti-Taurus 
effects the Eocene but not the Miocene, while in the Taurus the 
Miocene beds have been elevatd, but without much folding, to 
great height. Marine Eocene beds occur near the Dardanelles, 
but the Tertiary deposits of this part of Anatolia are mostly 
freshwater and belong to the upper part of the system. In 
western Mysia they are much disturbed but in eastern Mysia 
they are nearly horizontal. They are often accompanied by 
volcanic rocks, which are mainly andesitic and they commonly 
lie unconformably upon the older beds. 

SILURIAN. — The Silurian is reported only from the dis- 
trict of Bosphorus with the following fossils: Trochoceras Bar- 
randii, Tentaculites ornatus, Spirifer Pellico and Davonsti, Spiri- 
fer cristata, Orthis Gervillei and basalts, Strophomena rhom- 
boides and Bocci Boblayei etc. All collected by Archaic and 

DEVONIAN. — Lower Devonic beds are found in the dis- 
tricts of Bosphorus, formiing two isolated strips. In the littoral 
of Bosphorus they strike S. W. and S. E. The principal rocks 
of Lower Devonic formations are limestones and clay slates 
passing gradually into mica-schists. The mica-schists and lime- 
stones are equally associated with grits and sometimes with non- 
crystalline quartz. The Devonic beds of Anatolia look poor in 
fauna when it is compared with America and Europe. But, yet 
it is very well developed when it is compared with the fauna 
of Carbonic age of the Anatolia. The Devonic fauna is specially 
concentrated in the blue limestones of Kanlidja-Kov (Bos- 
phorus) where Homalonotiis Gervillei and longicaudatus, Vern; 
Spirifer subspeciosus; S. VerneiiUi, Murch ; ^. Triger, Vern. 
Orthis orbicularis, Arch.; O. Trigeri; O. Beauinonti, Vern; 0. 
devonica. Orb. ; Leploena, ind. ; Chonetes Boblayei, Vern. ; C. 
sarcinvlafa; Autopora tuboe-forwis, Goldf. ; Pleuro dyctium prob- 
lamaticiiim, Goldf. ; C onstinopolitanum , F. Roem, fossils are 

Upper Devonic beds are reported from the southern littoral, 
between Selefke and KiHndria, and from the Anti-Taurus. The 
beds in Karapounar-Dagh strike N. W. ; in Tchatal-Oghlou, 
Karakov, Baghchejik and Yerebakan strike S. E. ; in the dis- 


tricts from Feke to Hadjin, strike W. or S. W.. The prin- 
cipal rocks are white and blue limestones, alternating with dark 
schists or yellow marns. The Upper Devonic system of Anti- 
Taurus is similar in minrealogy and stratigraphy to the Lower 
Devonic of Bosphorus. Only the vertical redressment of the 
beds and the discordance between their elongation is more fre- 
quent in the Upper Devonian. The characteristic fossils found 
in Tchatal-Oghlou : Rynchonella Boloniensis, Orb.; Atrypa reti- 
cidaris, L. ; Spirifer Vemmdli, Murch. ; 5". Pellico, Arch, and 
Vern. ; Orthis striatida, Schlot. -jProductus subacideatus, Murch. ; 
CyatophyUum qnadrigemintim, Goldf.; C. cespitosum, Goldf . ; 
Campophylium, asiaticwn, M. Edw. and Haime. ; Favosites cer- 
mcornis, Blainv. ; Alveolites suhorhicidaris, Lam. ; Stromatopora 
polym-orpha, Goldf. The same fauna is also identified in the 
blue limsetones of Feke with the following extra fossils : — 
Spirifer Trigeri, Vern. ; 5". Seminoi, Vern. ; Chonotes nana, Vern. ; 
Productus Mivrchison, Kon. ; Fenestella antigua, Goldf. ; Cyoto- 
phyllum Marmini, M. Edw. and J. H. Favosites Tchihatcheff, 
J. Haime. ; F. reticulata, Blainv. ; Alveolites suboequalis, M. Edw. 
and J. H. ; Coenites fruticosus, Stein. 

In the Devonic fossiliferous rocks of the Bosphorus is found 
iron and copper pyrite ; in the transition system of the same age 
is found corondum associated with titaniferous iron, argentifer- 
our galena, lead, iron etc. 

CARBONIFEROUS. — Carboniferous beds are reported from 
the northern littoral of Anatolia, between Heraclea (Culm or 
Yordale beds) and Amasry, and from the Anti-Taurus. The 
Carbonic is found in the same region as the Devonic, they 
strike mostly S. W. and conform the. Devonic deposits of Bos- 
phorus and Anti-Taurus, with a direction of S. E. and N. W. 
The Carboniferous system of Anatola is represented by lime- 
stones formations and coal measures. The coal belongs to Mid- 
dle Carboniferous Coal measures and the limestone belongs to 
Lower Carboniferous Marine forwifition. These are some iso- 
lated members of the long chain of Carboniferous system of 
Europe and America. The coal and the limestones are con- 
centrated in the same .direction. The coal deposits are more in 
northern sections of Anatolia than in the southern districts. 
The Lower Carboniferous Marine formations are much more 


developed than the Coal Measures. This shows that the coal 
is rarely continued in the limestones. To the limestones of 
Carbonic age joins clay slates and grits in different talcous 
rocks, specially in great strata of mica-schists, sometimes alter- 
nating with one another and sametimes forming a considerable 
separate mass. The beds of Carbonic age are often strongly re- 
dressed, folded, dislocated, and disposed in the anti-clinal or 
synclinal series, as in Ilkas-Dagh, in the district of Yeni-Khan, 
along the Lake Beishehr, between Yailaji and Hadjin, etc. 

The Carbonic age of Anatolia is very poor in fauna and 
flora. From this consideration it may be said the conditions 
prevailed in Carbonic age has not been favorable for the de- 
velopment of organic life. Schlehan has identified, in the dis- 
trict of Amasry, the Strophomena antiquata, Strophomena acu- 
leata. Fischer has identified the Harmodites radians {Syringo- 
pora reticulata, Goldf., Syringopora catenata, J. Morris). The 
Strophomena antiquata, Br. (Productus semireticiilatus, Mart.) 
is exclusively carbonic, but the Strophomena aculeata, Br. {Pro- 
ductus horridus, Sow.) is probably Permian. 

The exploitable mineral substances are concentrated in the 
transition system of Carbonic age. 

PERMIAN. — The Permian is not known anywhere else, 
but in the transition system of Amasry district by the Stropho- 
mena aculeata, Br. and Productus horridus, Sow. fossils. 

TRIASSIC. — The Triassic croppings are not very well 
known in Anatolia. Only in the northwestern part of peninsula, 
this formation appears with increasing frequency towards the 
Eastern Alps., This fact reveals to us a sea extending from 
the interior of Asia over the south of Europe. It is this 
sea which the study of the distribution disclosed to Neumayer, 
and it has been named by him the "Central Mediterranean." 

JURASSIC. — The Jurassic is reported to form three strips 
situated in the southwest of Angora, in the south of Boli, and 
in the littoral of Paphlagonia, in the district of Amasry. All 
these strips are composed of limestones and marnous rocks, 
and the whole formation is characterized by a considerable re- 
dressment of beds. The predominating directions are S. W.- 
N. E. and N. W. -S. E. with a local oscillation from north to 
south. The Jurassic fossils in Anatolia are not very abundant. 


In the calcareous rocks of Angora district are found the frag- 
ments and imprints of Ammonites among which are Ammon- 
ites tortisulcatis, Orb., Ammonites arduennensis , Orh., Ammon- 
ites plicatilis, Sow., and Am,monites tarticus, Pusch. 

These facies are sufficient to arrange the formation of Cepha- 
lopodes, in the Oxfordian Stage. The absence of these facies 
in the Amasry formations indicates more recent stage, prob- 
ably Kimmeridgian or Portlandian which is comparatively poor 
in Ammonites. In all cases it is probable that the Jurassic for- 
mations of Anatolia are of same age as the formations of 
Crimea and European Russia where Jurassic deposits are not 
newer than Coral-rag, and not older than the Kelloway-rocks. 

CREACEOUS. — The Lowter Cretaceous beds do not exist in 
Anatolia. The Upper Cretaceous is rested upon the Transition. 
The Creaceous system of Anatolia is identified by the white and 
tufa chalf formations. The white chalk is very well developed 
in the Abdi-Pasha, Ekhty-Oghlou, Bithynia, Amasia, Pontus, Ci- 
licia, etc., all containing Cycloites in the vicinity of Cyclolites 
Cancellata. The tufa chalk is only represented by a short de- 
posit situated between Kizilja Punar and Heraclea formng an 
isolated mass in between the two white chalk formations. The 
Cretaceous formations extend in two directions — N. E. S. W. 
and N. W. The formation existing between Kizilja-Punar and 
Heraclea represent the oldest tufa chalk in the peninsula. Both 
white and tufa chalk beds have very normal physiognomy, are 
generally composed of white marnous limestones, horizontally 
stratified, and, in some regions, considerably modified by the 
action of eruptive rocks. The eruptive action has sometimes been 
anterior and sometimes posterior to chalk deposits. The metals 
derived from eruptive rocks are replaced by limestones. The 
aspects of Grauw;ake, due to the eruptive action is found in the 
district of Amassia and Tokat, as an equivalent to the porphyritic 
detritus formation of the Caucasus. The Cretaceous rocks of 
Anatolia are very poor in fossils. In calcareous series, associ- 
ated with sandstone, between Akche-Ova and Abdi-Pasha are 
found the following fossils: — Ammonites varians, Sow., Acmoea 
ind., Terebratula semiglobosa, Sow., Inoceranus Lamarkii, Sow.> 
Ananchytus ovata, Lamk., Pentacrinites, ind., Scyphia indeter- 


Among the compact sandstones existing near Kizilja Punar 
the following fossils are noticed: — Tercbratula desparilis, Orb., 
qiiadricostatus, Sow., Pectcn ind., Inoceranus Lamarkii, Brong., 
Alvcolina near A. cretacea, Arch., etc. The chains of Amasia 
, and Tokat are characterized by Hippurites.— //!>/> irr/f^i cormt- 

EOCENE. — The Eocene formations of Anatolia surrounding 
the older rocks begin with sandstones, conglomerates, and clays, 
which become calcareous and nummulitic upwards, and then 
change again to unfossiliferous sandstones and shales with sub- 
ordinate lacustrine beds. These strata are much disturbed and 
faulted and are often vertical. The deposits of this nature are 
wide spread, forming entirely separate and large patches in the 
opposite directions of the peninsula; in Mysia, Lydia on the 
west; in Pisidia, Lycia, Isauria and Cilicia on the south; in 
Paphlagdnia, Galatia and Bithynia on the north. 

The Eocene of this country does not seem to contain a con- 
siderable lacustrine deposits, all mostly being of pelagic origin. 
From the fades and other stratigraphic considerations the Eocene 
system belongs to the grand type of Aswtico Mediterranean ac- 
cording to Archaic. This system is characterized by the rich 
fauna of Rhizopodes and of the generas of Xummulites. Fos- 
sils : — Terebelhim conviilatum, Lmk., Corbis lamellosa, Lmk., 
Cardium hybridum, Desh., Lucina gigantea, Desh Ostera rari- 
lanella, Millev., Nummulites biaritseusis, A'liinuiulitcs perforata, 
Niiinmulites exponcns, Alvcolina ovoidea, Operculina grannlosa, 
Orbitoides dispansa. In two places in the vicinity of Angora, 
the gypsums and sandstones alternating with white marns contain 
Certhitiin Tchihatchcff and an Ostraca parisensis, in Yozgat, 
the sandstones, are characterized by Alveolines. The Eocene 
deposits look rarely intercolated directly in the Miocene, but 
mostly underlaid the lacustrine deposits which are probably 

OLIGOCENE. — The Oligocene is only identified in the dis- 
trict surrounding the Dardanelles where immediately overlying 
tt e Nummulitic rocks is a succession of lacustrine sandstones, 
cluys, and shales, interstratified with volcanic rocks and contain- 
ing coal seams. This formation is identified by the fossil^ «^/ira 
cotherium, nearly related to A. Minus as evidence of its stage. 


Prof. Toula, in 1895 found remains of Chrysodiiim (Fortisia) 
Lan::acanum. He moreover identified Sterculia Labrtisca. These 
plant remains occur between Kara-Dere and Boz Borum, in two 
marl beds, in a series of sandstones with layers of conglomerates 
and slaty marl, dipping- 45° north-northwestward. At Keshan a 
thin fossiliferous seam, contains abundant casts of Corbicula 
(Cyrcna) semistriata and Melanopsis afif. Mclanopsis fiisiformis, 
accompanied by plant impressions. From the abundance of 
Corbicula semistriata it is certain that the coal seams in the Dar- 
danelles districts is Oligocene. 

The Lower Tertiary volcanic rocks show a marked tendency to 
appear along the coast of the Eocene Sea, and in long belts fol- 
lowing the strike of the foldings of the Lower Tertiary strata. 
The wide spread late Eocene and Oligocene volcanic rocks would 
certainly seem to imply considerable differences in the relief of 
the land, at the time at which they were ejected and is difficult 
to reconcile this with the equally wide spread coal seams, pre- 
sumably requiring shallow lake or marshy country with only 
slight differences of level. 

MIOCENE. — The Miocene of Anatolia is known to exist in 
the districts of Cilicia, Lydia, Caria and Troad. They are de- 
posited in the sea bordering these regions. The rocks of Mio- 
cene age are white or yellow limestones (silicious, amorphous, 
and crystalline), conglomerates, marns, and gypsums. Rocks 
are horizontally disposed, and rested upon the Lower Tertiary 
and sometimes upon the transition. They are sometimes com- 
petely exposed and sometimes covered by recent lacustrine sedi- 

The existence of the Helvetian. — Tortonian deposits between 
the Ponto-Caspian and Mediterranean is proposed by J. English. 
These are overlain by fresh water Sarmatic strata with Lignite 
and Naptha, successively marine Mactra Limestones, which oc- 
cupy nearly the whole of the northern shore of, the Sea of Mar- 
mora, to the exclusion of Levantine Beds suggested by ¥. Von 
Hochstetter, as filling up this area. These Moctra Limestones are 
in direct continuation with those already known in the southern 
Troad and in Dardanelles. At Heraclea occurs an expossure 
of sands and sandy limestones, with a slight southerly dip. These 
beds, close to the present sea level at Eregli, contain typical 


Helvetian-Tortonian fossils— P^c^en aduncus, Alectryonia Vir- 
leti, and Anadora diluvii, also Ostrea lamillosa. Near Myrio- 
phyto, on the southern shore of the Sea of Marmora, a band, 
full of Oistrea crassissima occurs under soft yellow sand, dipping 
about 45" S.-S. E. 700 feet below sea level. Heraclea and 
Myriophyto Lower Miocene mam shell beds, thus formed links 
in a chain of deposits of the same age, extending from the 
Crimea to the Mediterranean; they are detached fragments of 
a continuous sea-beds. 

The rocks of Sarmatic stage of the Miocene is well exposed 
at Evenkovi (Troad) which now known to border the western 
coast of Trojan Plain, beyond the mouth of the Touzla, near 
the promontory of Baba-Burnou. At the site of the ancient 
Hamaxitos, the Mactra-Kalk occurs with its characteristic fos- 
sils from the Acropolis. This limestone is undoubtedly marine 
origin. Beneath the limestone is a great thickness of sand and 
clay beds, which are underlain by a conglomerate and probably, 
at the bottom of the series, by a stratum of red clay. The con- 
glomerate chiefly composed of Andesites and Liperites. All or- 
ganic remains indicates that the strata belong to the Sarmatic 
stage. The marine beds which overlie the Mactra-Kalk are largely 
developed south of the mouth of the Touzla, and contain great 
number of fossils, among which are many Ostreae and Gastro- 
pods. The fresh water series occupies a large part of the in- 
terior of the Troad, about the great plain of Mendere, between 
Eanedeh and Bairarmitch, as well as along the southern coast, 
west of Papazly. According to Prof. Neumayer it must be 
Upper Miocene, Mio-Pliocene or Lower Pliocene, from the de- 
terminations of fossils. Numerous oscillation of the land, as 
indicated by the varying character of strata, must have occurred 
during the Miocene and Pliocene periods. In all probability 
these movements were connected with the extrusion of the erup- 
tive rocks so abjandant in the region. 

Middle Tertiary has been an epoch of the formation of salt 
beds which are very abundant in Anatolia. Most of Miocene 
formation are pelagic origin containing in general — Cerithium 
■modosoplicatiivi, Horn., Fragilia fragilis, L., Cardimn plicatum, 
Eichw. (C gracile, Pusch.) and Cardimn obselatum, Eichw C. 
protractum, id., C. lithopodolicum, Dub.). Among these the 


last two are the characteristic evidence of Sarmatic stage. 

PLIOCENE. — Past Sarmatic eastward extension of the cen- 
tral fold of Tertiary rock resulted in the upheaval of the Dahan- 
Aslan and Serian-Tepe ridge in the district surrounding the 
Dardanelles. This upheaval closed the connection between the 
Marmora basin and the Gulf of Xeros, by the formation of a 
dam, which though much weathered down, is still i8o ft. above 
the present water level. The dam thus formed was the proxi- 
mite cause of the cutting of the Bosphorus and of drainage of 
Marmora into the Black Sea, during Pliocene times. The con- 
glomerate rocks, upon which Gahpoli is built, consists in great 
part of shells of Didacua crossa, Dreissensia Tschandae, and 
Dreissensia polimorpha. Prof. Andrussov considers the Galli- 
poli conglomerate to be the equivalent of the Tchandas beds 
at Kertch, containing Dreissensia polytnorpha, Dreissensia Tchau- 
dae, Cardiuni cros^suni, Cardium Casecal and Cardium Tchau- 
dae, which he shows to be an Upper Pliocene fauna of Caspian 
type, deposited in an enclosed brackish lake before the Dardan- 
elles were in existence. In general the Pliocne marine and lacus- 
trine deposits of Anatolia are found in the Constantinople district, 
in the regions surrounding the Dardanelles in the littoral of 
Sinope, in the Meandre Valley and in the Melik-Sherif district 
with Cardium edule, Cardium protractum, Cardium. Ovatum, 
Desh. Cardium gracile, and Mactra deltoides near the Mactra 
trianffula, from which Cardium edule and Mactra triangula are 
the best characteristic fossils of the Pliocene age. 

PLEISTOCENE. — In several places along the shore line 
of the Sea of Marmora is found a loamy clay surface deposits, 
containing scattered shells of Mediterranean fades, at the heights 
from lo-ioo feet above the water. On the top of a law-coast- 
diff west of Gallipoli, there has been found a deposit of sand 
with Ostrea edulis, Osilium ttwhinatis, Gibbula adriatic and Gih- 
bula Biasolleti at about 40 feet above the sea level. About a 
mile further west, on top of a cHff 90 100 feet high, formed of 
Sarmatic clay and marley limestone, is found a scattered sur- 
face deposits of Cerastodenna edule, Pullastra pullaistra, Tapes 
of. Dianae, Murex truncuhis, Murex Brandaris, Cerithium vulga- 
turi, Loripes lactens; and Petricola lithophya, Didacna crossa 
and Dreissensia polymorpha were also found probably derived 


from Gallipoli conglomerates. 

GLACIAL PERIOD. — The Glacial aation has been proved 
in this classic country by the existence of a considerable num- 
ber of lacustrine lakes and by the striated angular boulders in 
the red loamy clays, dug in Roumeli-Hissar (Constantinople). 
Calvert has also found boulders and clays in the Dardanelles 
Valley, apparently distributed along an old beach from the foot 
of Kemel to the Five Pines, also large blocks of quartz, some 
of them situated in the ancient river-gravels of Rhodius 50-60 
feet above the present level. This quartz block must have 
come from the auriferous reef at Astyra, about 12 miles distant 
to the east-southeast. 


Too little is known at the present time concerning the strati- 
graphic position of the pre-Devonian metamorphic schists. So 
that we cannot assign the period of the foldings. Until it is 
more definitely known we can assume that the S. W.-N. E. ex- 
tending folds, in the crystalline schist of Taurus, in the marbles 
and schists of the Kisilja Mountain, Shatin Mountai|i, Akh 
Mountain and of Dersim in the centre of the plateau, as well 
as those in the smaller outcrops of metamorphic rocks, in the 
northern and eastern border ranges, in Artvin and Ardanush 
Valley in the Pontic Region, in the Meschic horst, in Somkatian 
Mountains, in the region of Daralagoz and the Karabagh were 
caused by the Caladonic Mountain building. In all these regions 
northeastern-southwestern strikes are universal. It appears that 
the land surface has been broken into separate blocks after 
folding, which for the most part sank down at the base of the 
geosyncline of the Devonic Sea. 

The Devonian is at present known only from eastern Ar- 
menia ; but the sea of this period evidently stretched on in- 
terruptedly toward the westward into Asia Minor, for in Araxes 
Channel and in Antitaurus the succession of formations and 
the facies of the Middle and Upper Devonic are identical. The 
calceola limestone following upon sandstones and the conglom- 
erates are evidences of the transgression of the Devonic Sea 
which soon developed such a rich coral and Brachiopod fauna. 


With the end of the Devonic no aUeration occurred in the 
physical relationship. Without interruption the coralline lime- 
stones continued until the Middle of the Upper Carbonic (Mos- 
cow formation). At this time the sea became more shallow as 
may be inferred from, the appearance of Fusilinas, Bryozoas, and 
Calcareous aglae. At the end of this period, according to Freeh, 
a strong folding took place running through N. W.-S. E. di- 
rection. According to Bonnet no folding took place in Armenia 
at this time. And the Permo-Triassic lies wholly concordantly 
upon the preceding beds even implying a deepening of the sea. 

Shales of the Upper Permic and the Lower Triassic are 
known only from the region of Julfa, on the Araxes and the 
Kasanyaila Mountain. We have to do here, probably, with 
sedimentation in an eastern gulf of that sea which stretches 
from the Indian salt chain through Persia, entering then into 
Armenia under the dominion of a period with contniental con- 
ditions. Probably it stood in close connection or relation with 
the old Pontic tableland which at some time formed a half 
island of the western arctic peninsula. Also at this time the 
Central Caucasus was raised ; for there Liassic shales lie dis- 
cordantly over Palaeozoic shales with the Calamites and Syringo- 

Recently the existence of the Triassic sea in the Crimea 
western Caucasus and in Western Anatolia have been proved. 
Crustal movements continued through Post-Triassic time, but 
the Julfa bed of Araxes region and of the northern Persia only 
show flaxures. Armenia seems to have remained a part of a 
stableland whose eastern coast was washed by the Liassic and 
Dogger Sea, which towards Persia became deeper. Only the 
eastern border of Armenia seems to have been touched by the 
transgression known from Dobrusha and Mangishlak, which 
spread from Bajocian to *he Callovian epoch. Remains of the 
plants and the elastic character of the Bajocian sediments points 
to the close proximity of the coast. After a small regression 
in the Oxf ordian and Sequanish the Kimmeridgian transgression 
started strongly in the region of Karabagh as well as Debrusha 
and Libanan. In the eastern part of Armenia clear proofs of 
Tithonian regressions are found and in one region which ex- 
tends from the Meschic horst southward to eastern Karabagh, 


began a pre-Tithonian folding from the south, which preceded 
the volcanic activity. And as a result of this folding a large 
part of Armenia and of Caucasus rose up over the sea level. 
The fresh water deposit of the Purbeck, and the brown coal 
beds of Migri (western Karabagh) prove the dominance of con- 
tiental conditions. 

In the eastern border range there exists a pronounced gap 
between the Kimmeridgian and the lower Cretacic. This regres- 
sion is continued still longer in the region of Lake Urmi, where 
Callovian overlain by the Hauterivian tuff. 

The broad transgression of the Middle Cretacic makes itself 
felt also in Armenia. At Gerjer, just south from Jufa, on 
the Araxes lies a carbonic. The Cenomanian (Caprotinen) 
limestones of the eastern border range which agrees with 
the Mediterranean are separated from the north Armenia. In 
Caucasian and Pontic Cenomanian limestones the central 
European facies dominates. The facial difference of the 
two regions holds also in the Upper Cretacic. At the east of the 
Urgonian they seem to have been separated by a neck of land. 
This extended over the Somkatian Mountain range, which still 
to-day consists partly of crystalline schist, which except in the 
Valley of Bolnis, where they are overlain only by Hippurites, 
limestones, are covered by no younger sediments. Further to the 
south in the Pambak and Gotcha ranges another part of the 
shale continent had remained stable until it was flooded by the 
Turonian sea. In the Turonian still existed the Somkatian 
land barrier as facies limit. Turanian Hippurites limestones 
stretched with interruption from Karabagh along the cliff of 
Shatin Mountain to the Frat. These Hippurites are found as 
recently shown also in the northern slope of the Pontic Range 
and of the Taurus. During the Cenonian there seems in oppos- 
ition to this, i. e., to have existed extending west and south of 
land somewhere from Batum to Ararat, for littoral sediments 
with the detritus of syncroneous volcanoes are found along 
the eastern border of this zone. Southward from Batum there 
cannot have been land; for on the northern slope of the Pontic 
range there is Cenonian, which is lacking, however, southward of 
this range to the northern border of the Taurus, where the Med- 
iterranean Hippurites facies of the Cenonian is well known. 


The upper Cenonian of Eastern Karabagh shows that the 
sea toward the northeast to Daghistan became deeper. Be- 
cause of the general clastic character of the lower Eocene in the 
north, northeast and south and its content of brown coal, it is 
more than probable that at the beginning of the Tertiary most 
of Central Armenia was land. The red sandstones and con- 
glomerates are plainly products of weathering of a land, long 
exposed above sea-level, along the borders of which coals de- 
veloped in delta marshes. The negative movement agrees with 
that of the regression, which is so characteristic for the geosyn- 
clinal zone, the Alpine region. Beginning at this time during 
the course of Tertiary, Armenia became from a continental 
region or region on the border of a geosynclinal zone extending 
from Europe to Asia. The beds beginning with Numimulites 
perforatus, typical for the Middle Eocene of the Alpine, geosyn- 
clines are noticeable in the Tigris basin and in the Zagros Chain. 
The above named beds lie mostly upon Turonian, in places 
even on palaeozoics, and began with great red colored conglom- 
erates. Their fauna is very rich. The sea in which they were 
deposited was warm and favorable for the development of num- 
erous and manifold Nummuliths. In the Pontic region the vol- 
canic activity which had begun in the Cretaceous with the form- 
ation of rhyolites and dacites reached its maximum in the 
Eocene. Lava streams of hornblende and augite-andesites ba- 
salt and the tuffs of these spread over the sea bottom. The 
thin limestone banks interbedded with the volcanic rocks are 
poor in fuana because of the unfavorable conditions of animal 
growth. During the Upper Eocene the Antitauric folding was 
evident in South Armenia and in the Karabagh, so that an ex- 
tensive part of the Armenia again became main land. 

The Flysch facies of the Upper Eocene, with fish scales and 
activity is exhibited strongly in the north (Akalzik and Kur 
basin) and less distinctly in the west Karabagh. Between Hip- 
sala and Kisbeli these Flysch facies appear again in the outer- 
most part of West Armenia. 

In the beginning of the Oligocene the old Somketian land bar 
region was widespread. It completely separates the Caucasian 
sea, with its central European and Arabian character (Akalzik 
basin) from the coral limes of the Daralagoz, with its Castel- 


Gomiberto facies extending into Persia. Littoral aqueous de- 
posits and land plants' have been discovered on the border of 
the Armenian land of that time at Argachi (Northw^est of 
Ararat) and at Platana on the Black Sea. They show relation 
to the Cilician Oligocene with Sotska facies. The post-Oligocene 
folding which appears in the Cilicia also raised the Oligocene 
region of the North Armenia, but does not seem to have influ- 
enced the coral line of Daralagoz which is overlain conformably 
by Lower Eocene. 

The Miocene of Armenia begins in general with a coarse 
conglomerate which shows a most widespread transgression in 
this region. The Palaoezoic plateau of Urmi and Maku (south- 
west of Ararat) which were dry during the Mesozoic sank into 
the Miocene Mediterranean, the north coast of which extends 
in littoral detritus at the foot of the Neocomian heights along the 
north of the Frat of Sipikor (norh or Ersinjan) to the east 
through Kop Mountain. The purity shown by the Miocene 
(Plelvetian and Tortorian) coral and Lithothamnian lime, is 
over. And the lack of fiaviatile deposit indicates that the Anti- 
tauric folding had almost been worn to a peneplain. The de- 
trital deposits of the Upper Eocene and Oligocene were derived 
from the energetic denudation in the region of this land. 

Immediately after the Lower Tortonian a period of folding 
began, syncronous with that of the Alpine which laid the Mio- 
cene chalks into folds. The character of the folding was various 
in different parts of the land while the Miocene at Bayazid 
in the west at Arabkir and Kisheli, it is still horizontal. In 
the latter case the lack of folding can be attributed to the great 
resistance of the old mass. Further west, the Miocene limestones 
massed between the -Tauric horst and the Syrian plateau, again 
show folding, as at Killis, Argona and Mardin. At the same 
time in this Middle Miocene there were mighty intrusions of 
ultra-basalt rocks which for the greater part have been serpen- 

In the Sarmatian epoch a continuous aridity followed and 
desert conditions prevailed. Then the formation of red sand- 
stone and conglomerate (often from serpentine components) 
and of clays (often with great gypsum and rock salt veins) 
ended. Then fresh-water conditions began; for example at 


Khoi and Tabris in Persia. The folding continued during this 
heterogenous Sarmatian epoch. Abich has observed two breaks 
in this series at Khoi. Beds of this age extended in a broad 
zone through northern and southern Armenia. In the south 
the "gypsum" bearing series forms a border at the Zagros and 
Taurus, in the north of the Sarmatian formation stretches from 
the northern border chain to the Caucasus and from the Black 
to Caspian sea. While the beds thrown southward on the south- 
ern slopes of Caucasus are overturned toward the north in the 
Thrialetic chain. Between these two regions in the Mechic 
horst they lie horizontal and undisturbed. 

After this epoch there is no more folding in Armenia. The 
Middle PHocene, lacustnrie tufifs of Maragha and Alexandropol 
lie horizontal with their interesting vertebrate faunas. The 
continuous elevation of the land gave the Armenian highland 
their plateau character in the end and were accompanied by 
shattering, raising and sinking of great blocks. These processes 
began in the lower Pliocene. It is shown by the forceful earth- 
quakes in the graben that it has not come to an end. 

The Pleistocene sea deposits are widespread in the Central 
plateau. The shells of Dreissensia polymarpha are often found 
forming beds. These late formations also show no faulting but 
lie rather horizontal or with a dip of 2-3 degrees. They are in 
great measure covered by lava sheets which have either been ex- 
tended from fissures or have been poured from colossal vol- 
canoes (Ararat, Alagoz, Sipan, Nimrud, Samsar, etc.) and 
smaller pistules arranged in rows (Soganly, Alaja, etc.) The 
still existing great lakes are partly salt (Lake Chpsapin) partly 
fresh (Gokcha and Chaldir). Absence of Dreissensia polymor- 
pha suggests that there has been a change in physical conditions, 
as already ascertained. The last voncanic eruption of the Nim- 
rud was in 1441. Tendurek is still in solphatara condition. 

2. Anatolia 

No obsevations have yet been made to accertain the Primary 
(Pre-Devonic) formations of Anatolia. Although the old gneiss 
and granite series admitted to be formed before the Transition, 
but, yet, in same places, specially in Lycaonia and Galatia, the 
granites reveal a comparatively recent origin ; and some gneissic 


rocks, specilly developed in western Anatolia, pass gradually into 
clay slates and calcareous rocks characterized by Devonic fossils. 

During the long period of Transition only five fossiliferous 
islets had been formed in Anatolia. Of these three belonging 
to Devonian are known to exist to-day in the districts of Bos- 
phorus. Southern Cilicia, and Anti Tourus. These three insular 
groups, being emerged during the Devonian, have all gone 
through the subsequent periods, while the non-fossiliferous beds 
belonging to "Terrain de Transition Inditermines," have never 
been lifted until Middle Tertiary. 

The Devonic beds are often disturbed and they exhibit peculiar 
stratigraphic divergencies. They are characterized by the sa:me 
paleontological richness and variety as the European and Amer- 
ican formations. But, meanwhile the Devonic system of Anatolia 
should not be considered poor either in fauna or flora. Various 
species of Crustaceans, Moluscs, Bryazoas, Annelids, Radiarians 
and Polyps Abound in these districts. 

From the five islets formed du.ring the Transition, the last two 
belongs to Carboniferous which are known to exist to-day in 
Anti Taurus and in the littoral of Black Sea. These islets being 
also emerged during the Devonian, have gone through the sub- 
sequent periods. Carboniferous beds are also often disturbed 
and they show the same peculiar stratigraphic divergeneus. But 
Carboniferous system of Anatolia is very poor in fauna and 
flora ; the pelagic conditions and volcanic activities during this 
period have been inimical for the development of organc life. 

From the Carboniferous to the Middle Jurassic, Anatolia is 
represented only by the islets of "Terrain de Transition," because, 
these islets show very slight vestiges of the Permian, Triassic and 
Lower Jurassic deposits. During the Middle Jurassic Anatolia 
has recevied some representative locations and has developed 
the stage of Oxfordian directly upon the Transition system. 

The Jurassic and Cretaceous formations are, same way, im- 
perfectly developed in Anatolia. The Cretacjeou^ period is 
identified by white and tufa chalk formations. The beds show 
a great variety, from the normal disposition to the most violent 
redressment. This phenomena is due to the eruptive actions of 
serpentine, trachyte, pyroxene and porphyry. Igneous activity is 


much more pronounced in this period and dislocated the beds all 
the way through the Devonic, Carboniferous and Jurassic. The 
most characteristic Cretaceous formations are found to day in 
the littoral of Black Sea. Since the upheaval of this littoral 
band, it is not subjected to immersion of any long duration, and 
in no point it is covered by the sediments of any subsequent 
periods. From this point of view, during the Cretaceous, the 
Black Sea, without any communication with Mediterranean Sea, 
was occupying an immense area, extending up to Baltic Sea in 
cross of Podolia, Volhynia, and eastern Prussia on the north. 
Lake Aral on the east, and Asia Minor on the south. According 
to Prof. Oscar Fraa's observations in Syria, the Cretaceous 
mountains surrounding the littoral, have never been subjected 
to immersion after their upheaval. So that, certain points in 
northern Asia Minor, had already drawn limit, since the Cre- 
taceous, on the southern littoral of the Black Sea. Same way 
the eastern borders of the Mediterranean was already marked 
by certain mountain chains on the Syrian coast, at this time. 

The eminently insular character which Anatolia conserved up 
to the formation of chalk, never disappeared until Lower Ter- 
tiary. At this time the Cretaceous band of northern littoral with 
many islands of Transition, had been disseminated upon the sur- 
. face of the peninsula and connected with vast deposits of Lower 
Tertiary of eastern Europe. These European deposits are dis- 
tinguished from the type of "Asiatico-Mediterranean" by its 
well developed facies of Rhizopodes, through which Asia Minor 
is to-day, considered as a classic country of Nummulites. 

Another system, entirely independent from the Tertiary fos- 
siliferous rocks and entirely barren of organic trace, has been 
distinctly overlaid by the Nummulitic group. This is the Upper 
Stage. The most part of the Lower Tertiary of Anatolia have 
never been subjected tO' immersion, after its upheaval. Because 
the majority of the recent formations are exposed, represent in- 
dej>ent deposits, and are placed in considerable distances from the 

B}'- the upheaval of Eocene deposits one great part of the 
Black Sea was lost in the directions of north-west-north and 
north. In this way it was separated from the Baltic Sea by the 
emersion of eastern Prussia, and a numerous insular groups ex- 


tended in the southern regions of this sea. These were connected 
with vast continental surface, hke the government of Poltava, 
Voroneje, Tombof, Penza, etc. So that, after the emersion of the 
LowerTertiary deposits, the Black Sea resumed the granitic 
steppe comprised between the Bong, Dnieper and the coal basin 
of Donetz. But, the southern, western and eastern limits of this 
sea have not submitted to a notable modification. After the up- 
heaval of Eeocene deposits, the Black Sea was same way cut off 
from all communication with the Mediterranean. The Crimea 
was only existing in a narrow band, rising up as an island, and 
was connected with the waters of Caspian Sea and the Lake Aral, 
at the middle of which now, stands up the insular mass of Cau- 

The Middle Tertiary of AnatoHa is represented by the Num- 
mulitic side of the Miocene Sea. The upheaval of this sediments 
is sometimes operated very slowly, as it may be seen by the vast 
Miocene deposits of Cilician littoral, and sometimes very violent- 
ly, specially in the vicinity of eruptive rocks. 

The period of Miocene has been the time of rock-salt forma- 
tion which occur extensively in Anatolia, specially in the Lyca- 
onian plateau. The majority of these deposits are of pelagic ori- 
gin. Miocene beds, either marine or lacustrine, are poor in fauna 
and flora. The large continental mass that Asia Minor possessed 
during this period was imfavbrable for the development of or- 
ganic life. At this period, Anatolia was separated from the 
Greece but the Cyprus island was yet forming a junction with the 
Cilicia. This was sunken during Pliocene and reappeared in the 
Quartei-nary. A numerous debris of Quarternary fauna is found 
in Cyprus island without any trace of its separation from the 
Cilician littoral. 

During Miocene the Black Sea acquired a considerable exten- 
sion on the north. This extension submitted to a diminition of 
the eastern regions. After the emersion of an insular mass, the 
plateau of Ust-Urt, this region separated in two basins, which 
are to-day called, the Caspian and Aral. The emersion of this 
island accompanied with a depression of the surrounding coun- 
tries, resulting in the grand Touranian Depression and constitut- 
ing the tract of Asiatic Continnent. 

Sarmatian Sea lost one part of its salinity during Pliacene. In 


different modification of its size it was connected into a estuary 
basin, where Aralo Caspian type of deposits overlaid upon the 
Sarmatian. The northern side of Asia Minor continued marking 
the southern littoral by a vast sheet of brackish water, which 
penetrated into Eagean Sea and left many traces of its sojourn 
on the western littoral of the penunsula. During the epoch of 
Aralo-Caspian, the formation of the !^osphorus and the Dar- 
danelles took place through which the waters of Aralo- Caspian 
penetrated intoEagean Sea. 

The limit of soutern littoral of Propontus was already drawn 
since Lower Teriary and Transition. But the Black Sea had not 
yet received its northern limit, which appeared after the emer- 
sion of Southern Russia with characteristic Aralo-Caspian de- 
posits. Probably the emersian of this side accompanied with 
many movements of oscillation and resulted in the remarkable 
redressment of the beds of dififerent regions of which the Crimea 
was composed. 

During the last phases of pliocene period, Asia Minor had re- 
ceived most of its littoral outlines which possess to-day. But the 
interior of the peninsula was covered by locustrine basins. So the 
fresh water sediments were predominating in Pliocene. On ac- 
count of trachytic eruption in the Pliocene a great number of 
species of marine molluscs are perished in Anatolia. The pul- 
verulent ejections of this eruptive rocks resulted in an enormous 
beds of tufifs, known as Diatomaceous forhiation. 


Ultra-B.\sic. Harzburgite. Tauric region (Lake Van), 
Chorokh zone (Kop Mountain), Central Plateau (Elmalidere, 
Palandoken, Gugoghlan). 

Lherzolite. Gokcha region (Karaman, Katch Bulack), Cho- 
rokh zone (Kop Mountain), Central plateau (Khinis Bastok Val- 
ley; Alimur). 

Limburgite. West Karabagh. 

Basic. Hypersthene — Gabbro; Gokcha region (Karaman, 

Hyperstene — Olivine — Gabbro: Central plateau (Elmali-de^ 

Diabase: Gokcha region (Beikaraman) ; Karabagh 


(Chirchan, Shalapli), West Karabagh (Katar), Central Plateau 

Quartz-diabase: Gokcha region (Sarialpas, Kabagtepa). 

Bronzite-diabase : East Karabagh (Shalapli). 

Hornblende-diabase: Thrialitic region (Arjevan Mts.) 

West Karabagh (Migri), Chorokh zone (Sipikor), Central 
plateau (Palandoken, Shatin Mt.). 

Olivine-diabase : Thrialitic region (Keilissi, Koshkaro), 
(Kiavturatal, Gujarettal), Gokcha region, Murov Mt. Khatch 
Bulak) ;East Karabagh (Dumy, Karadagly) ; Central Karabagh 
(Basarkent, Algok, West Karabagh (Dorseli, Askelun, Purunti) ; 
Central plateau (Dorseli, Askelun purunti) ; Central plateau 
(palandoken, Jermik, Sivan). 

(a) With ophitic augite. East Karabagh (Shusha, Jamiat) 
Chasi, Akhbulakh), Central plateau (Akhalkalaki, ElmaUdereh, 

(b) With subophitic augite; Somkatian region (Akhtala, 
Algettal), Gokcha region (Maral Mt.), Central Karabagh (Ka- 
ragol). Central plateau (Akhalkalak, Shubaret, Ani, Palandoken 
Pasin, Muradtal). 

Olivine-Basalt with Granular-Augite. 

(a) Olivine basalt. Pontic region (Kurele) ; Thrialitic re- 
gion (Borjom) ; Central Karabagh (Shipkergol) ; Central plateau 
(Muradtal- Bularik), Bingol plateau (Bastok Valley, Gugoghlan 
near Gumgum). 

(b) OlivineBronzite-Basalt. Central Karabagh (Gerjusi), 
Central plateau (Khartmir). 

(c) Olivine-Hornblende-Basalt. Central Karabagh (Gerjusi), 
Central plateau (Khamur). 

(d) Andesitic-Olivine-Basalt: Imeritic region (Sikari), 
Thrialitic regon (KentzikJaro near Tiflis), Central plateau (Palan- 
doken, Deveh Boyun). Bingol plateau (Tandurek, Tutakh). 

Olivine-Basalt-Tuff. Imeritic region. (Abastuman) Thriali- 
tic region (Kentzikaro) ; Central plateau (Bingol plateau, Sheikh- 
Alkaline basalt : 

(a) Leucite Tephrite. Pontic Region (Trebisond). 

(b) Nepheline Tephrite. Central Karabagh (Gerjusy). 

(c) Sodalite Basalt. Thrialitic region (Sanislo). 


Medium Acidic. Quartz-Mica Diorite : Pontic region (Meir- 
imandereh (Asforos Valley), Gokcha region (Maratal), West 
Karabagh (near Migri, Aldara), Chorokh zone (Golviren, Kho- 
shabpunar), Central plateau (near Gopal). 

Quartz-Mica-Augite-Diorite ; Pontic Region (Meserch, Ka- 
sikli), Gokcha region (Agalagan Mt. Syzismadini, Ulutram 
Shamkhortal), West Karabagh (near Migri), Daralogoz zone 
(near Karmir Vank), Central plateau (Tunus). 

Augite-Diorite : West Karabagh (Aldara). 

Mica' Porphyrite: Pontic region (near; Hamiskoi-Esselji), 
Gokcha region (Gokcha Mt.) West Karabagh (Chundurtal). 

Hornblende Porphyrite: Pontic region (Asfaros Valley), 
Somkatian region (Lialvar Mt.), East Karabagh Agjeken, West 
Karabagh (Njuvadi). 

Horrft)lende'-Pyroxene-Porphyrite : Pontic Region (Ardasa 
Bashkilissa, Ostuk, Kesishkoi) ; Pambak region (Akta in San- 

Pyroxene-porphyhite :Pontic» region (near Khertvis), Som- 
katian (Usunlar, Debedatal), East Karabagh (Dumi), Central 
Karabagh (Tatev, West Karabagh (Airy Mt. Katar), Central 
plateau (Tunus, Sor, Adeljivas). 

Feldspar Porphyrite: Somkatian region (Akhtala), Gokcha 
region (Gokcha Mt.), West Karabagh (Katar). 

Mica Andesite : Central plateau (Bingol Plateau). 

Hornblende Andesite: Pontic region (Trebizond Meirimande- 
reh), Gokcha region (Zinjirli Mt.), Central Karabagh (near 
Hassan Kala near Kharassan). 

Tuff: Pontic region (Ali Meser), Thrialitic region and Gok- 
cha region. 

Pyroxene Andesite: Pontic region, Imeritic region, (Okus 
Mt.), Thrialitic region (Kumis Borjom), East Karabagh (Ger- 
gir), Central Karabagh (near Basarkent), Central Plateau (Lori, 
Ararat, Takjaltu, Soganli, Palandoken, Eyerli, Madrak, Bingol 
Mt., Alimur Sipan, Lake Nazik). 

Tuflf : Pontic region (Mesereh Khan, Central plateau (Ararat, 

Basic Augite Andesite : Pontic region (Esseli Riseh, Batum, 
etc.), Imeritian (Abestuman), Thrialitic (Khertvis, Aspinsi, Bor- 
jom, etc.) ; Somkatian (Lok) ; Gokcha (Lake Gokcha) ; Central 


Karabagh (Tatev, etc.) West Karabagh (Katar) ; Central plateau 
(Soganli, Kars, Armutli, Tandurek, Dumli Palandoken etc.). 

Tuff: Imeritian, Thrialitic, Somkatic (Lok), Gokcha (Tog- 
laja) ; East Karabagh, Central Karabagh (Central Karabagh 
(Sabukh), Central plateau (Palandoken). 

Acidic-Augite Andesite : Central Plateau (Kisvag). 
Augite-Trachyte : Thrialitic region (Beden), Central plateau, 
(Palandoken, Nimrud, etc.) 

PyroxeneTrachyte : Central plateau (Samsar, Karmush). 

Hornblende Trachyte: West Karabagh (Chundur), Central 
plateau (Samsar). 

Phonolite: Daralagoz zone (Garni). 

Acidic. Muscovite Granite: Central plateau (Chermigan in, 

Granitite: Pontic region (Meirimandereh), Somkatian region 
(Lok), West Karabagh (near Sadarak) ; Central plateau (near 

Hornblende Granite: Pontic region (near Ardasa), West 
Karabagh (near Ordabad). 

Pyroxene-granite: Gokcha region (Dashkessan). 

Homblende-Granite-Porphyry : West Karabagh (Kapujik). 

Quartz Porphyry : Thrialitic region, Somkatian region, West 
Karabagh (Airy Mt., Katar). 

Felsitic Porphyry: Somkatic region (Karagaya) ; Gokcha re- 
gion (Khatch bulak). 

Rhyolite : Thrialitic region (Beden), Gokcha region, East Ka- 
rabagh; \Yest Karabagh; Central plateau (Kars, Kharput, Po- 
landoken ) . 

Tuff : Pontic region, Thrialitic region Somkatian region, Gok- 
cha region. 

Dasite : Pontic region, Gokcha region. East Karabagh, Central 
Karabagh, ^^'est Karabagh, Central plateau (Polandoken). 


Eruptive rocks of Anatolia occupy a considerable area which 
in no other countries could probably be seen at the same pro- 
portion. Among those trachytes, diorites and pyroxene- por- 
phyries come first; syenites, granites, serpentines and diorites 


come second, basalts and eurites occupy the third place in im- 

The trachytes represent a particular agglomeration in the west- 
ern part of the peninsula covering the whole western littoral. 
This series goes under the Eagean and reappears again forming 
trachytic islands as Santorin. The trachyte of Anatolia is por- 
ous and rich in oligoclase and vitreous feldspar, as the trachytes 
of Cape Karabouroun, Smyrna, Afion-Karabissar, Mount Arge- 
aus, Nevshehr, Nigde, Karadagh, etc. 

The trachytes of Anatoia exhibit a remarkable phenomena in 
its topographical distribution having been frequently associated 
with saline lakes. The vast group of trachyte of Mount Arge- 
aus is not only situated in the vicinity of Touz-Geullu, but it 
occupies a lake of this nature in its ancient home since the 
Jivah Geul came into existence at the southern foot of Argeaus. 
The trachyte cone of Karabounar, is very remarkable by its 
crater, rising in the middle of a depression covered by the masses 
of salt. 

The trachytes of Anatolia belong to different ages and the dura- 
tion looks to be from Cretaceous to Upper Tertiary, or per- 
haps to Upper Quartemary. The trachytes in the regions be- 
tween Heraclea and Bartan, and between Angora and Mourtad- 
Sou valley are posterior to Cretaceous ; but the trachytes found 
between Kysbeli and Hipsala, between Bolat and Gune and in 
the valley of Kastamouni are anterior to Eocene. They are 
sometimes before and sometimjes after the Upper Tertiary la- 
custrine deposits. Trachytes of Elma-Dagh are before, but the 
trachytes existing in the vicinity of Smyrna, between the Kebsid 
and Bagaditch, and in the districts of Kalburdji, etc., are after 
the Upper Tertiary lacustrine deposits. 

The dolerites are very intimately related to the trachytes and 
pass in one another; as in the regions between Niksar and Sele- 
yailasi, in Koili Hissar, in Samson, in Ala-Dagh, between Moon- 
doorlu, and in the valley of Alan Sou. The dolerites comprise 
also same periods beginning from Cretaceous up to Upper Ter- 
tiary. The dolerites during Creaceous have disturbed the de- 
posits of Amasia district. They are decidedly anterior to the 
nummulitic deposits of Samson, to the Miocene deposits of the 
regions comprised between the Hipsala and Tokat, and to the 


Upper Tertiary lacustrine deposits of Beibazar Valley. 

The dolerites together with the trachytes and basalts have ef- 
fected the rupture of Bosphorus by only one stroke. The nature 
of eruptive rocks spread over this region, reveals an alternative 
phase of repose and activity from Lower to Upper Tertiary. 

Pyroxene-Porphyries occur particularly in the eastern part of 
Anatolia in intimate relation with the syenites and granites which 
have disturbed the Lower Tertiary deposits. 

Syenites and granites pass frequently in one another. They 
are only distinguished mineralogically from each other. Syenite 
is very extensive in Anatolia. In many points of the country 
both eruptives are posterior to the Lower Tertiary as the re- 
gions comprised between Alizy and Yozgat, where it forms veins 
traversing the calcareous rocks, in the Bereketli Maden, Utch- 
Kapou-Dagh, Ak-Dagh-Maden, and between Ala-shehr and Yoz- 
gat, etc. The case is same for the majority of the massive syen- 
ites surrounding the northeastern border of grand saline dis- 
trict of Lyaconia. 

The serpentine rocks occupy only a subordinate position be- 
tween the other eruptives of Anatolia. Serpentine contains 
more or less dialage sometimes pikrolith, bronzite, saussurite, etc. 
Serpentines with dialage are noticed by Tchihatchefif, in the Kor- 
kom-Sou, and a link of Hypersthenite in the Geuk-Sou district. 
In the district of Beldjeis the serpentine rocks are porous and 
undulated on the surface. The calcareous rocks between Ged- 
jik and Dalaman are subjected to an appreciable modification in 
contact with the serpentine. The serpentines in the district 
of Angora form the current itself, while near the Amasia it is 
intimately associated with the dolerites of Souslou-Ova. The 
thermal sources of Troad, and igneous phenomena of Lycia have 
their home in the serpentine. 

The stratigraphic action of serpentine upon the sedimentary 
rocks has very ostensible in Lycia, Pisidia, Aratch (Paphlagon- 
ia), in dislocating violently the Lower Tertiary stratified forma- 

The eruption of serpentine have taken place in different inter- 
vals of time, because alternating activity and repose are noticed 
in some places. The deposits of Araratch valley is posterior, 
and the deposits of Kastamounai valley little further, is an- 


terior to Eocene. Same way in the southern Pontus, between 
Kysbeli and Hipsala, between Hipsala and Khamourli, the ser- 
pentine eruption precedes not only the Lower Tertiary, but 
also the Cretaceous, as in the valley of Euphrates. The rest is 
probably anterior to the Miocene deposits with a few excep- 
tions, as in Lycia and Khorzoun. 

The serpentine of Hadjiman-Yaila is rich in the minerals of 
iron and copper. In the serpentines found in the vicinity of 
Boulgar-Dagh exists a deposit of oligiste iron, while in Lycia 
it contains all the mineral substances. Same way in Anti-Taurus 
the beds of oligiste iron and red hemitite are found in contrast 
with the serpentine. 

The serpentine eruptive rocks, among others, are recognized 
the most metalliferous except the syenite which is considered 
rich in Alunite. The trachytes, dolerites, pyroxene porphyries, 
eurites, basalts etc., rarely contain the usefully exploitable min- 
eral substances. 

The diorite is uniform in its minrealogic composition. It often 
lies with the basalt, as in Bashkoi (Argeaus), sometimes with 
pyroxene porphyry, as in Agatch-Bashi, and sometimes pass in 
the diabase as in Akserai. The diorites belong mostly to Upper 
Tertiary, marking often the separation of Tertiary from Quar- 

The Basalts in Anatolia often offer an imperceptible transition 
to the trachytes and dolerites, as in Argeaus, Valley of Kirmizi- 
Chai, in between Almous and Yousouf-Oghlou, and do not 
play an important role. They are anterior to the Middle Ter- 
tiary, as in the districts of Eschen-Kevi Gediz, and sometimes 
posterior, as in the Gurun, Manjoulik, etc. 

The eurite and the quartzose porphyry, is found often inti- 
mately relating to trachytes and basalts. The eurites of Ana- 
tolia are unfortunately situated in the middle of a system the 
age of which is not determined. 

The trachytes, dolerites, porphyries, basalts and eurites of 
Anatolia are sometimes poured out in elastic or pasty condition, 
or sometimes more or less fluid, both from craters or fissures. 

The most recent plutonic manifestations are , resulted in the 
dislocation of volcanic tuffs, the redressment of the trachytic 
masses posterior to their discharge, and the upheaval of many 


points of the western Thrace and AnatoHan peninsula. 

Actually, the volcanic tuffs of Anatolia, occupies a wide area, 
and evidently, related to the most remote geological epoch, con- 
taining the living species of lacustrine diatomaceous animals. 
In spite of their remote age, tuffs exhibit in the disposition of 
their beds, the most curious example of redressment or folding; 
as in the tuffs occuring between the Bergama and Dere Koi, in 
the districts of Guile, Bolat, Tchandarlik, Bashbouran Koi, Ezder- 
oun, in between the Biyad and Eski Karahissar, in the Evdjiler 
valley, where the tuffs alternate with compact trachytes. 

If the stratigraphic conditions of volcanic tuffs indicate a re- 
cent phenomena, the end of Tertiary or the beginning of Quar- 
ternary, then the same conclusion could be drawn for many 
trachyte eruptions existing to-day. So, the upheaval posterior 
to the out pouring would be attributed to the anomalous position 
of certain trachyte masses in the district of Symma, where the 
most recent masses, which repose upon the lacustrine deposits, 
contain Helix and Unio. 




The occurence of coal has been reported from a large number 
of localities. In only one instance has mining been carried on 
in any manner compatible with the demands of modern con- 
sumption. Aside from this, work has been confined to desultory 
attempts that were scarcely adequate to meet even the limited 
local requirements. In no case can technical data regarding the 
extent, depth or persistence of the seams be had. The present 
contribution will therefore be necessarily limited to an enumera- 
tion of the localities at which the fuel is known to exist. 

The well defined divisions will be adopted in the classification 
of the various deposits listed beow. 

ANATOLIA. — The north-westernmost projection of Asia 
Minor immediatey south-east of the Dardanelles, forms part of 
a district wherein lignite deposits have been worked in a num- 
ber of localities. The formations of this district can also be 
traced to the north on the adjoining European coast of the Mar- 
mora. The lignite beds occur mostly in Tertiary lacustrine de- 
posits and appear to belong to a zone of transition between the 
Miocene and the Pliocene. In the Aegean Sea the same grade 
of coal is found in the island of Mytelene as well as in the 
island of Lemnos, where it was mined in 1875. 

The best known of these deposits is worked at Manjilik. The 
seam outcrop here for a distance of a Km. They are operated 
by the owners of the nearby Balia lead mines. The product is 
used as fuel for an electric power-station feeding the smelters 
and workings. 

Some lignite is also found near Lampsacus, but as yet has not 
been mined. 

In the Troad, lignite is extracted near Edrimid. The fuel is 
transported to the seaport of Akchai where it is slacked along 
the water front and sold in small quantities. 




Farther south, at a short distance from Soma, the terminal 
of a branch Hne from Manissa, a good quantity of this coal has 
been mined on a small scale. 

Near Panderma, at about 4 Km. from Tchamak-dagh, some 
exploration work was undertaken about 25 years ago in the 
Mesepsif Valley. The following sequence was determined in 
this locality. 

1. A basal igneous complex, the upper zone of which consisted 
of a highly siliceous flint-like band of rock averaging 2.5 meters 
in width. 

2. Thick beds of marls with which lignite seams, varying in 
thickness between 2 to 0.86 meters intercalated. The coal be- 
longs to a high grade lignitic variety. Samples of it gave the 
following analysis : 

Volatile matter 32.6% 
Fixed carbon 45.4% 
Ash 12.6% 

The Tertiary succession in this district is best revealed by the 
section afforded in the gorge of the Dovantzi river. The basal 
igneous is overlain by thick beds of tufa, above and lying con- 
formably with which, clayey marl beds occur, with lignite seams 
about 0.30 m. in thickness. 

This series underlies relatively thick strata of bituminous marls. 
The clay above or below the lignite-bearing strata can be easily 
detected by large blocks of jasper and chalcedony that stand out 
from its mass. 

West of this region, lignite outcrops are known at Demir-tash, 
2 Km. north of Broussa, as well as at Ghemlik. 

Mining was also carried on formerly at Tchaidere near Bile- 
jik and at Geuy near Seuyud. 

The most easterly extension of this Tertiary lignite is found 
in the mountains environing Tchai near Afioun Karahissar. 
Seams have been discovered here at an altitude of 1840 meters, 
lying over calcareous conglomerates and capper by clay beds. 
The thickness of the coal attains 2 Meters. Practically every one 
of the above named deposits is susceptible of development in 
order to supply local requirements. 

The southwestern coast of Asia Minor with its hinterland does 
not appear to be devoid of coal. Seams are known near Makry 


in the foothills of the Eljikdagh Mountain. In the province of 
Smyrna, lignite beds exist at Gulhissar Milas, Sokia, Aidin, 
Kiosk, Nazilli, Scala Nuova and Keramos. The Sokia and Na- 
zilli beds have been developed for local use. 

The Heraclea coal-field is at present the best developed in 
Anatolia (See figure). It occupies a belt of about 60 Km. in 
length along the Asiatic coast of the Black Sea between the sea- 
ports of Heraclea and Filios. The Town of Heraclea itself lies 
at a distance of 135 nautical miles from Constantinople. The 
coal-beds outcrop near the coast and are known to extend farther 
than the 8 km. inland. It is believed, however, that they strike 

The Heraclea Ccnl Field 








,„- i4p^" 








^^^^^ ( Bor£«i ] 









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SS^ \ 



V. — N-_y 











south-easterly from the eastern boundary of the district to which 
mining operations have been confined and that they may be re- 
encountered at a greater distance from the sea-shore beyond. 
The coast facing this section of the Black Sea is precipitous. 
Narrow valleys and ridges parallel each other at right angles to 
the shore line. The elevation of the land immediately fronting 
the water does not exceed 60 m. The altitude increases gradu- 


ally southwards until a maximum of 500 m. is attained at a 
distance of about 3 km. from the coast. Here long chains of hills 
with a roughly east-vvest trend, occur. 

The stretch of country extending from Heraclea eastwards for 
a distance of 175 km. along the coast may be considered as a 
geological province on the basis of the presence of three long 
and narrow parallel bands of Carboniferous rocks, which com- 
price Culm, Lower Carboniferous limestones and Upper Car- 
boniferous Coal-Measures. These bands have a general N. 70° 
E. trend. The country lying between them consists of nodular 
calcareous beds, chiefly Caprotina limestones. 

The unity of the geological sequence appears " to have been 
established by Paleontological as well as lithological data. The 
strata can be classified as follows in ascending succession: 

1. A basal Carboniferous limestone containing Productus gig- 
anteous, Syringophyllum and other Polyps. 

2. Coal-bearing Measures containing Sphenopteris Baeumleri, 
Neuropteris gigantea and Neuropteris Schlehani. Above and 
lying unconformably, the Cretaceous is represented in beds of 
great thickness by: 

3. Greyish crystalline limestone with Requenia gryhoides and 

4. A complex of fairly fine-grained, dark colored, clayey and 
sandy strata. 

The correlation of this sequence with the Cretaceous of the 
Balkans has been established. The latter is itself the prolonga- 
tion of the Alpine zone on which outcrops of Carboniferous strata 
appear as at Heraclea. This similarity in the geological rela- 
tionship prevailing on the southwestern coast of the Black Sea 
and in a portion of Central Europe, may have a wide significance 
which does not lie, however, within the scope of these notes. 

Dififertiation of the fossil flora found at Heraclea leads to a 
local subdivision into three stages of corresponding to the Culm, 
Westphalian and Stephanian stages of the European Carboni- 
ferous. These are, respectively, the Aladjaaghzy or lower stage, 
the Cozlou or middle stage, and the Caradon or upper stage. 
The first two are economically the most important but the best 


coal is derived from the middle stage. 

The western boundary of the basin is determined by a long 
fault line occurring at Kiosseaghzy at a distance of about lo 
km. east of Heraclea. The entire measures appear to have sunk 
in depth at this point. Some coal is v^ron here from narrow 
seams which can be correlated with the Cozlou stage. The valleys 
of Kiretchlik, Chaushaghzy and Ilisou appear immediately be- 
yound. Within their limits, the Aladjaaghzy series can be first 
observed. The Cozlou depression lies about 20 km. farther east 
and is the seat of the widest and iTiost actively exploited veins 
of the entire district. From this last point the Coal-Measures 
are detected about 2 km,, farther east, to Domooz, where they 
assume a gradual southerly stike inland. Cutting across the 
Zoongooldak valley, where their width attains 5 km., they ex- 
tend beyond Tchatalaghzy valley to Sooksou. Mining ceases 
at this locality but coal is known to occur as far east as Djide. 

The Aladjaaghzy stage is best represented at the locality bear- 
ing that name. The strata appear first at about 0.5 Km. west of 
the settlement. They have a general east-west strike and dip 
from 10° to 30° south. Fifteen seams of an average thickness 
of about 0.75 m. are distinguished by different names. Although 
they are considered locally as different beds, the profound fault- 
ing to which the region has been subjected, subsequently to the 
formation of the coal, tends to confirm belief in the identity of 
many of the seams. The uniformity of their structure has helped 
the unmethodical native to carry on work with relative ease. 
The same measures have been developed to a less degree, in the 
valley of Kiretchlik, as well as at Tchaoushaghzy. 

A zone of transition between the Aladjaaghzy and the Coz- 
lou measures is revealed by the presence of a number of almost 
vertical seams. Their thickness is the same as that of seams 
below. They occur along a double eastwest line of faulting, 
which also constitutes the southern extremity of the coal-basin, 
since beyond it, to the south, only Carboniferous limestones are 

These vertical seams therefore, indicate the beginning of the 
Cozloo stage, which is best represented in the valleys of Zoon- 
gooldak, Kilimli and Tchatalaghzy. The strata in this zone dip 


respectively to the north and south so as to form an anticlinal 
fold which is plainly discernible in the valley of Kilimli. Twenty- 
five veins are distingueshed locally, but the absence of any de- 
tailed geological survey of the district and the lack of maps pre- 
clude adequate differentiation. The seams have an average thick- 
ness of 1.5 m. 

A possible zone of transition marks again the upper level of 
the Cozlou stage. It is best seen in the vicinity of the Kiosseaghzy 
fault. Two systems of seams occur here and are known as the 
Tsamly and Beylik groups. The former comprises fairly thick 
seams some of which attain a maximum width of 2 m. Their 
dip is northerly, many being almost vertical. The Tsamly sys- 
tem can be traced to the very shore, at the village bearing that 
name. It extends over a distance exceeding 4 km. in length, to 
Camdilly valley. 

The Caradon stage appears above this zone of transition. Eight 
seams are distinguished as belonging to this series. They have 
been worked at Caradon where they are well developed, as well 
as at Tchatalaghzy and Cozlou. Their thickness varies between 
I m. and 1.5 m. Beds of slate of an average width of 1.5 m. 
are intercalated between the seams. The Amasra basin, com- 
prising the Tchatalaghzy district, also appear to form part of 
the same series. Five seams of similar average width are known 
here. It is also surmised that the outcrops east of the town of 
Amasra near Capoosou constitute the prolongation of this group. 
In addition a number of outcrops observable in the valley of 
Ilsou near Sefedler village probably bear the same relationship. 

The coal mined at Heraclea belongs to the bituminous variety. 
It is slightly higher in ash than the corresponding average type 
from European basins. It may be divided into two classes: (i) 
that obtained from the veins of the middle series, containing 
from 30 to 40% volatile matter; (2) that mined from the lowest 
stage containing from 40 to 45% volatile matter. The first is 
excellent for coking purposes, while the Aladjaaghzy product 
is used chiefly in the manufacture of illuminating gas and for 
steam generation. 

The following table shows the annual output for the entire 
region : 


Annual Production of the Heraclea Coal-Field. 

Years Metric Tons 

1884 70,997 1898 211,514 

1885 80,129 1899 253,830 

1886 88,892 1900 390,428 

1887 97,846 1901 341,221 

1888 109,409 1902 364,206 

1889 146,366 1903 453.807 

1890 137,282 1904 518,874 

1891 166,230 1905 592,874 

1892 168,727 1906 610,400 

1893 173,456 1907 625,000 

1894 159,687 1908 650,000 

1895 147,445 1909 675,757 

1896 166,170 1910 

1897 122,890 191 1 750,000 

ARMENIA. — A large number of coal seams of all grades are 
known to occur in the region extending east of the 34th meridian 
east of Greenwich to the Russian and Persian boundaries. Lig- 
nite was reported by Cuinet from Tavshandagh Mountain in the 
vicinity of Mersivan. The same observer noted coal outcrops 
in the immediate neighborhood of Tokat as well as in a district 
lying 60 m. southeast of that town. Outcrops have also been 
detected near the town of Sivas south of the previous named 
locality. In the northern portion of Mamouretulaziz, coal is 
known in a band, wthich practically extends from its eastern to 
its western boundary. The localities are Tchemishguedsek, 
where the coal is stated to be of good quality, Zanfranik, Dersim 
and Derstek. At Shengyah also, near Bailbourt, lignite occurs. 

In the Erzerum province an attempt has been made to mine 
some lignite in the past few years. The seams are imbedded 
in the Upper Eocene. They are well developed at Kheneke, near 
Migri in the valley of the Arax, as well as east, in the Kashkal- 
dagh Mountain. The annual production of the different locali- 
ties is distributed as follows : 



Locality Production 

1910 1911 

Kheneke (Narman) 1,300 Metric tons. 450 Metric tons. 

Vartik (Trejan) 86 " " 

Kukurtlu (Erzerum) .... 120 " " 50 " " 

Sivishlu (Erzerum) 860 " " 45 " 

Tazegul (Erzerum) 20 " " 

Charel (Erzerum) ....... 20 " " 

Proceeding southwards from Erzerum the occurence of de- 
posit of bituminous coal is reported from the mountains lying 
west of the Mush plain. Southeast of the last named locality a 
hard variety of coal resembling anthracite is found near Erooh 
in the province of Bitlis. The coal is stated to occur in abund- 
ance in this region between the villages of Tchemak and Dergal. 

The same variety of coal is found farther west near Palu. 
The meagre reports obtainable from this relatively inaccessible 
town lack definiteness and merely suggest the possible existence 
of an anthracite basin in this district. 

West of the Persian boundary, the province of Van seems to 
have been favored by nature with ample reserves of fuel. At 
Kaskhale in the Hekiari district a number of lignite seams 0.15 
m. in width are known. Near Tcough Pass, at about two days 
horseback ride from Nordooz, the same coal occurs again. At 
Aktchai on the Karasou river and about 24 km. from the harbor 
of Cheraker on Lake Van, a number of seams occur. Their 
width occasionally attains I m. 

CILICIA AND TAURIC REGIONS.— The existence of an- 
thracite coal is reported from the vicinity of Beiroot-dagh Moun- 
tain, where iron has been mined since times immemorial by the 
natives of the town of Zeitoon. This region has been perhaps, 
least visited of all by travellers in Asia Minor. It seems strange 
that the neighborhood of the iron mines should not have stimu- 
lated exploitation of the coal. 

Near Sis, betw*een Adana and Zeitun, anthracite float has 
been detected in the valley of Jihun River. 


Two extensive Miocene lignite deposits, one in Kilissejik-Koi 
and the other in Yailajik-Koi, both in the vicinity of Aintab, 
were worked for a short time in 191 1. The coal was seamed 
with thin layers of clays, and intercalated with iron carbonate. 
A local company of fifty merchants of Aintab City was or- 
ganized to exploit this coal. But on account of no facilities of 
transportation, and on the declaration of Balkan war the opera- 
tion was suspended. 

Coal was mined about half a century ago in the northern sec- 
tion of the ancient province of Harpoot, about 45 km. east of 
Jesireh. The product was used for a while on river boats ply- 
ing on the navigable sections of the Tigris. 

In the lower Eocene foothills of the Taurus, north of Begil, 
between Akra and Zab, are good bituminous coal deposits in 
marls. They extend farther northward in the same line at Her- 
bol and Segisik north of Jadi .Mountain and in the district of 
Nurdus at Mervanen. 

Similar beds are met within Taurus northwestward from Diar- 
bekr, for example at Palu and at Chermak and Komur-Khan 
near the Euphrates. 

Furthermore, coal is found east of Van, namely between Ha- 
zara and Rahmin, at Aghazuchai. 

Coal is obtained at Sillir and at or on Kumach (Komur) and 
exists on the southside of the Merjan Mountain in the Dersim. 

CAUCASIAN ARMENIA.— Brown coal and ligneous anthra- 
cite, suitable for technical purposes in beds of various ages are 
found in Caucasian Armenia. In the Migri Valley (west Kara- 
bagh) a brown coal is used as fuel. A Cretaceous brown coal 
exists at Bolshya Keity, 10.5 km. from Alexandropol. 

Brown coal of lower Eocene is found in the basin of the 
lovVer Araxes (west Karabagh and Karadagh) and is mined 
moreover in the basin of the upper Frat ; for example, at Kirkut 
in Miriam Mountain. In the Chorokh basin coal mines exist at 
Karakana and Hortuk, south of Ispir and at Liesgaf, not far 
from Tortum, besides these there are some on the Lower Chorokh 
at Borchka. Brown coal often of anthracite-like origin exists 
in the Oligocene of the Imeritian and Trialitic region of too 
great amount of pyrite having not appreciable worth. 


FUTURE PROSPECTS.— From the foregoing review, can 
be summed up the following conclusions. In the first place, it 
is probable that the output from Heraclea will increase at a 
somewhat higher rate than hitherto, owing to the settlement of 
the political difficulties. The probable development of the east- 
ern section of this coal district, namely the Amasra-Djide re- 
gion, will also contribute to augment the yield of the basin. 
In this connection the need of topographical and geological map- 
ping is keenly felt at Heraclea itself as well as in the neighbor- 
ing seats of exploitation. Ralli's work on faulting will have to 
be supplemented by a detailed study of this important feature. 

In the second place there exists a possibility of the development 
of numerous lignitic beds to supply the needs of local consump- 
tion. The annual production of this variety of coal has increased 
from 15,000 metric tons in 1898 to 32,000 metric tons in recent 
years. The industrial awakening of the country will eventually 
bring about a larger consumption of lignite. 

Lastly, there exists the possibility of new districts being opened 
up. The development of an anthracite basin near Palu, and in 
the valleys of Sihun and Jihun Rivers, in Adana district, may 
eventually result from a thorough exploration of the region. 
The building of railroads through these sections of the country 
may constitute a factor of no mean consequence in the growth of 
the mining industry. 

The quantity of coal consumed annually in Turkey, and such 
of the neighboring countries as are geographically dependent on 
it (Egypt for instance) can be safely reckoned at about 5,000,000 
tons. The annual production of Turkish coal has been less than 
1,000,000 tons. 


Although no complete explorations have yet been made, there 
is oil, or the indications of oil, in a number of places in Ana- 
tolia and Armenia. 

Traces of oil are recorded at Cherkose-Deli, above Lake Isnik, 
southeast of the Sea of Marmora. 

Boring for oil has been carried out near Ganos, Myriofito, and 
Hara, on the Sea of Marmora, with results which are reported 
to be of an encouraging character. 


Attempts to sink oil wells have been made at Mughla, south 
of Aidin City, and at Alexandretta. 

In Kovak on the southeastern coast of Anatolia, north of Cape 
Chelidonia, a considerable oil occurs. This locality is the famous 
Chemaera of the Greek stories. Here gases are continuously dis- 
anged from fissures and are known to have been burning for 
2800 years at least, for the phenomenon was described by Hesiod 
before the time of Homer. Tchihatcheff, the Russian . Geologist, 
states that the gas is emitted from fissures in serpentine intru- 
sive into limestone. It is interesting to note in this connec- 
tion, that burning fountains of gas were long known in Baku 
oil fields, before the discovery of oil there. There is also on the 
coast of Albania (east shore of Adriatic) the locality of Polino, 
near Durezzo, where gas emanates from the summit of a hill, 
and often accidentally takes fire. The hill is said to be igneous, 
but the existence at the foot of it of an asphalt spring suggests 
an organic rather than a volcanic origin for the gas. Petroleum 
also has been reported from here and seems to have been ex- 
ported on a small scale. This hill was the ancient Apollinia, 
and here the priestess of the famed Delphic Oracle sat and in- 
haled the fumes of gas till dazed, when her words were regarded 
as inspired. 

It is there, an open question as to whether the escaping gas of 
the Chimaera (the modern Turkish name is "Yanar task" — stone 
that burns) is of organic origin, and indicates oil below, or is 
volcanic, but the chances are perhaps, in favor of the former 
alternative, especially as the igneous rocks of the locality, (al- 
tered peridotite) is not one that indicates recent volcanic activity. 

As is perhaps most often the case, there seems to be a gen- 
eral connection between petroleum and natural asphalt in these 

In a general belt running southeastward from the eastern 
part of Armenia, on the Black Sea, down to Persian Gulf, it 
seems likely that important oil fields .can be developed. This is 
said to be the continuation of Caucasian fields. 

Two important localities on this line, one in the vicinity of 
Erzerum, and the other near Van are already knowti to the 
American Standard Oil Company. 

A spring of bitumen rises from the Eocene limestone within 


the cidatrel of Van, and oil is reported at Parghiri, whilst in the 
Muzur-Dagh range, on the Upper Euphrates, the Cretaceous lime- 
stones are locally charged with asphalt, and at Samasata or Son- 
eisat, 70 miles southward, Plimy mentions the occurence of maltha 
or rock-tar. Petroleum is reported as found near Surmeneh, in 

An extensive oil-field ranges from Hit on the Euphrates, for 
200 miles upward to El Deir, and thence to the northeast, to 
Herboul near Zakhu, and eastward from this line to Beyond the 
Persian frontier. At many points in this vast area petroleum 
and gas exude with their usual concomitants, salt and sulphure- 
ous waters, often thermal, from the Miocene saline gypsiferous 
marls and limestones. The oil-wells of Hit, Jibbah, and Kerkuk 
are of great antiquity; those of Herboul, Hammam, Ali, Tel- 
Kiara, El Fahla, Tuz-Kharmatli, Kifri, and Mendeli are of less 
celebrity but possibly of greatly ultimate importance. 

Oil bearing strata in Caucasian Armenia outcrop in many 
places along the Baku-Batum pipe line as in Gori, northwest of 
Tiflis, in Sharopan, south of Kutais, in Ozorget, on the Black 
Sea coast, north of Batum. Oil bearing strata outcrop also in 
many localities in the valleys of Kur and Araxes, as in Mana- 
suck, Karakilissa, and Nakhitchevan district near Shah. These 
oil fields are not yet exploited and are reserved for future de- 

The Caucasus is a recently (geologically) elevated range of 
mountains. It is at least newer than the petroliferous beds oc- 
curing in or contiguous to it, for productive oil-bearing strata 
are found at a great height on its flanks. At Grosny the oil is 
obtained from the summit of a range of hills, where the anti- 
cline is very acute, and the prolific strata only approach the 
surface, to a workable depth, within a very narrow width. An 
enormous area is covered by pertoliferous, which crop out at 
intervals over practically the whole base of the Caucasus, but 
of course only lie at a depth that allows of profitable boring, 
i. e., are prolific enough from a commercial point of view, over 
a comparatively small fraction of the whole. The enormous 
deposits extend beneath the sea (from the Apshiron Peninsula) 
where it is impossible to estimate their value or extent, and re- 
appear in the Transcaspian provinces, which are yet only very 




imperfectly explored. 

The Chatma Oil Field: The District known by the name of 
Chatma, lies about 50 miles from Tiflis. The nearest station is 
Poili, situated on the Transcaucasian Railway, about 300 miles 
from Baku and 260 miles from Batum, a station which is only 
connected with Chatma by a miserable track of some 18 to 20 
miles long. The oil field is appoached by making a ji^ep ascent 
from the railway and then following a series of plains shielded by 
high bare mountains; but the soft calcareous ground is so cut 
up with ravines, which traverse the plain in all directions, that 
great delay is occasioned by fruitless journeys unless the regu- 
lar track is severely followed. The Chatma plateau is an al- 
most level plain, about 8 miles long by 3 miles wide, finaked 
nearly all around by precipitous cliffs which impart to the re- 
gion a irtost imposing upheaval; for the strata have been forced 
into a vertical position, and on the flanks of the valley disin- 
tegration has been forced and caused the harder beds compos- 
ing the hills to stand out, well-defined from the general for- 

Indications of oil are common along the cliffs, and not only 
are beds of hard compact, black bitumen, which the local peas- 
ants call coal, discernable, but there are deposits of highly dis- 
colored oil sands, from which a Httle heavy oil exudes, and thick 
deposits of Kir at the base of the cliffs, which can only have 
originated from effusions of oil. In some places tiny evolu- 
tions of oil and water may be traced oozing from cliffs, which 
flow into shallow trenches excavated by the natives for its 
reception from whence the floating oil is periodically skimmed 
for employment in household operations. At the base of the 
cliffs at the west of the valley the outcrop of an oil sand may 
be traced for a long distance along the ground, and into this 
a number of wells have been bored, by primitive hand-boring 
appliances to a depth of 50 — ^150 feet, which have yielded small 
quantities of black petroleum of a specific gravity exceeding 0.920. 
The strata cannot be so readily traced in the centre of the plain 
on account of the disturbed conditions of the surface material, 
although where traces are visible the same acute angle is observ- 
able, but as there are a number of mud volcanoes which con- 
stantly eject mud and water contaminated with oil, one way 


fairly assume that the oil-bearing beds continue across the pla- 
teau. The verticality of the strata, exposing a broken edge to 
the surface of the ground, naturally permits all the oil bearing 
beds to expel their contents, so that little can be expeced from 
such oil strata unless penetrated to a great depth. 

The most likely spot to secure a fair production would be 
near the apex of the anticline, or, in the event of there being 
two or more species of these, so that unbroken and unexposed 
strata may be tapped. 

The oil field composing the four districts of Balakhany, Saboon- 
tchy, Romany and Zabrat is situated on an almost level plateau 
about 1/5 feet above the Caspian, or about 260 feet above 
the ocean-level. The total area of the plateau under explora- 
tion, comprising the four districts, is no more than 4 square 
miles, 2560 acres. The oil field connected with Baku, which 
lies about 8 miles to southwest, by railway having its destina- 
tion in the village of Saboonchy, but thereis also a first-class 
macadamized road leading from Baku, which is largely used 
for the transport of oil-well requisites as the railway. 

The plateau is sheltered on the northeast, east, south and south- 
east by limestone rocks, which overlie the oil beds where they 
dip down acutely. On the west and northwest, the oil beds out- 
crop at the surface, and continue for may miles exposed on the 
surface of the ground. From Romany towards the west there 
is a steady rise of the strata, the dip being about i in 16; but 
at Romany the dip is great and the angle of dip shown by the 
overlying limestone is approximately correct, the angle is about 
30" A section of the ground in a direct line between the Ro- 
many and Bogboga, near the village of Balakhany will be very 
nearly at right angles to the strike of the beds, and therefore, 
will disclose the true dip of the formations. 

There are 8 well-defined oil zones, separated from each other 
by variable thickness of strata, that range between 70 feet and 
150 feet; but below this the water sand is struck, which makes 
it difficult to ascertain what oil lies beneath. The series of 
sands which underlie the well known oil formations have been 
penetrated to a depth of 400 feet, sometimes with good results 
and sometimes without any reward, and although many of the 
varieties of sand passed through are of the fine "blown" type 


and deeply discolored by pertoleum, there appears to be much 
difficulty in overcoming the. water and thoroughly testing the 
sources at such a great depth. 

Bibi-Eibat Oil Fields : This field is situated about 3 miles due 
south from Baku, from whence all materials are carried by 
road, as there is no railway connection. The valley which is 
fringed by the sea on one hand, and by a semi-circle of almost 
precipituous cliffs behind and around, has an area of about 1.6 
square miles, i. e., 1024 acres of which only about 40 percent, 
are under exploitation. 

The formation of the Bibi-Eibat field partakes of the charac- 
ter of a regular cone. On all sides except, perhaps, the sea 
quarter, the strata descend, and where the limestones are reached 
which cover the oil series, steep cliffs are produced that might 
easily be mistaken for faults by a casual glance. The huge lime- 
stone masses which surround the valley produce an imposing 
spectacle. The oil strata do not slope acutely on sea quarter, for 
there are evolutions of petroleum gas in the sea itself, and it is 
reported that at one time such escapes were more prevalent. 

The Binagadi Oil Field: For several years exploitation has 
been conducted in a district to the west of Balakhany near the 
village of Binagadi. The region has long been knokn to the oil- 
bearing, but no active exploration vras commenced until an oil 
prospector sank well, and struck an oil source in 1896. Since 
that date other wells have been bored around the original site, 
and further interest has been attracted to the place by the ap- 
pearance of a small fountain, in 1901, which yielded about 100,- 
000 poods of petroleum. The oil is very heavy, exceeding, gen- 
erally 0.900 sp-gr., and the wells rapidly dry up when bailed. 

The strata of district are similar to those of Balakhany, con- 
sisting of calcareous clays, sandstones and petroliferous sands, 
but the strata outcrop at the surface at an acute angle, and per- 
mits the escape of gas from the strata might otherwise be 
employed in expelling the oil. The prospect of attaining oil in 
payable quantities, at a reasonable depth, are remote, although 
deep boring might disclose the existence of prolific sands where 
they are uninfluenced by the surface exporsures. 

The situation of the Binagadi district is not unfavorable ly- 
ing as it does only about 7 miles from the Backtown refineries 


and the sea-shore, whilst the railway junction of Baladjari is 
not more than two miles from the oil properties. 

The Puta Oil District: A well-defined anticline sweeps all 
around Baku, the apex of which concedes with the base of a 
valley that follows the coastline for many miles after approach- 
ing the western side of the Bibi-Eibat field. The Puta railway 
station lies about 8 miles owing to the fact that he Trans-Cauca- 
sian Railway keeps to the valleys in order to escape the limestone 
range that divides Baku from the hinterland. The plain is per- 
fectly devoid of vegetation, as a result of the escape of sulphur- 
ous and other gases as well as salt water. In Winter, many 
miles are rendered quite impassable by accumulations of water, 
and in the Summer the heat and glare rival many parts of the 
Sahara. The district has attracted more than superficial atten- 
tion through its proximity to Baku, and as a result of the many 
indications of oil that are everywhere apparent in some form or 

The beds forming the anticline have been forced into an al- 
most vertical position, consequently exposing the f ractured-edges 
of the strata on the surface of the plain, and in consequence for- 
mations of divers characters may be recognized for long dis- 
tances. Hills of asphalt have been formed in some places above 
the vertical petroleum beds, whilst in other cases exudations of 
gas only occur. 

As far back as 1897, the Messrs. Nobel sank a boring near the 
outcrop of one of the beds, and at a depth of a few hundred 
feet a little flow of heavy oil was struck and the well until this 
day discharges continuously a small quantity of thick black 
oil, resembling tar in consistency and appea'rance. This land is 
held in reserve. 

KHORDALAN: — Khordalan is a small Tartar village lying 
about 4 miles southwest of Binagadi and 7 miles northwest of 
Baku. Indications of oil are prevalent everywhere in the vicinity 
and the railway which passes close to the village, has been exca- 
vated in the side of a hill where an excellent section of strata 
is exposed to full view. The cutting actually passes through 
strata wherein oil beds are interposed, from which a gentle 
stream of heavy oil constantly flows and collects in trenches 
provided for its reception at the base of the bank. The nature 


of the soil is evidently more conducive to the growth of vegeta- 
tion, for a coarse grass coats the earth and a little agriculture is 
permissable. The Russian Petroleum and Liquid Fuel Company 
who have been boring a well on a plot to the south of a hill 
near the village of Khordalan, in the Spring of 1903, ,met with a 
strong fountain which threw up a large quantity of sand and 
oil at a moment when the tools were at work in the well, thus 
causing their loss and leading to delay in the exploration. The 
results to some degree satisfactory, do not yet justify the draw- 
ing of any conclusion and fuller investigations must be con- 
ducted to discover the practical worth of the field. 

DIGGA, SARAI, etc. — A large area to the northeast, west 
of Binagadi is known to be oil bearing from the frequency of 
such phenomena as exudations of gas, oil and salt water, es- 
capes of sulphurous gases, and prevalence of mud volcanoes. 
Digga, Sarai, and other villages have transmitted their names to 
districts which surround them, where large areas are laid out 
and held under lease by many of the Baku Companies and by 
private individuals. 

In the intensely interesting region of the Caspian Sea, so many 
phenomena of interest may be seen in operation around its shores, 
that a description may be of value in assisting the reader to real- 
ize some of the conditions that may have had a more or less 
direct relation to the region of petroleum. The Caspian is an 
inland sea, covering an area of from 170,000 to 180,000 square 
miles, from which there is no outlet, the level of the water 
being about 84 feet below the level of the Black Sea. The 
Caspian is in reality the diminuative representative of the im- 
mense expanse of ocean which at some time during the Tertiary 
perod was connected with the Black Sea and Mediterranean, and 
extended over a large area of Europe north-westward of the 
Black Sea, and a still larger area of Asia to the east and south- 
east of the Caspian. The Caspian was doubtless cut off from 
the oceans to the west at the times that the Caucasian range was 
thrust up, and from the oceans to the southeast during those 
orographic changes which resulted in the Himalaya Mountains 
and the highlands of Afganistan and Persia, so that any in- 
formation that can be made to fix the period when the Cas- 
pian was isolated from the oceans. 


That connection with the open sea did once exist is proved 
by the character of the dissolved salts in the water of the Cas- 
pian, and by the fish which abound in the sea. Myriads of 
fish accumjilate around the mouths of the rivers running into 
the Caspian, and thousands of tons are annually caught and 
forwarded to Russian rnarket, but many are, probably on ac- 
count of the brackishness of the water, profoundly modified var- 
ieties of ocean fishes, if not actually distinct species and indi- 
genous to the Caspian. They are particularly of greasy nature. 
The well known Caviar, for which the Caspian is famuos, is 
simply the roe of the sturgeon, and this oily nature character- 
izes many of the fish. Whether it has any bearing on the origin 
of oil one is not yet prepared to say, but it is a fact worthy of 

The amount of water which flows into the Caspian Sea can- 
not be less than 30,000,000 cubic feet per minute, on an average, 
for measurements have shown that the Volga alone, which drains 
nearly half a million square miles of land, discharges sometimes 
as much as one and a half million cubic feet of water per second, 
and besides this there are the Ural, Terek, Kura, and Arax, and 
many others. If this estimation of the water flowing into the 
Caspian is correct, the annual evaporation must equal this amount, 
that is to say, 3 feet of water annually, or an average of nearly 
one tenth of an inch per day must be evaporated to keep the 
Caspian Sea at its present level. The amount of salt in the deep 
southern part of the Caspian — for the northern part of the Cas- 
pian is not more than 50 feet deep, is 2 percent. ,only, whereas 
the oceans exhibit 3.5 percent, of salt. This peculiarity revives 
a special interest which the evaporation is equal to the supply of 
water, cannot only have failed to increase in density, but actually 
decreased in salinity from 3.5 to 2 percent., since it has cut 
off from the sea. 

On the eastern shore of Caspian is a large basin, named Kara- 
boghaz, separated from the open sea only by a mere strip of land, 
and whose only communication with the open sea is by a narrow 
channel about 150 yards wide and 5 feet deep, through which 
a continuous but fluctuating stream of water, averaging 3 miles 
per hour, flows, the current being entirely due to the intense 
evaporation set up in a confined shallow area. The total area 


of Karaboghaz is about 8,000 square miles, and Von Baer, who 
has specially studied the Caspian estimates that no less than 350,- 
000 tons of salt are daily abstracted from the sea by this basin 
alone. As there are many other similar basins of smaller di- 
mensions on the eastern and southern shores of theCaspian, and 
on the northern shores enormous lagoons where salt is deposited 
in a manner very much alike at Karaboghaz, a reason is found 
for the brackishness of the Caspian, and an explanation is forth- 
coming for the intense salinity of some of the strata fringing 
the coasts. 

Into this huge basin are swept daily thousands of fish, which 
cannot survive the intense salinity of the water, and whose re- 
mains must be deposited together with other sedimentary matter. 
(The Russian Government has under its consideration a scheme 
for closing the channel to this basin in order to save the fish.) 
Violent sandstorms periodically sweep the region of Karaboghaz, 
and one is led to inquire whether the deposition of huge quanti- 
ties of known oily fish remain in a deposit of salt, and prob- 
ably sulphate of lime, where practically the only silicous matter 
is sand conveyed by winds, is not forming the material for a 
future oil field, not unlike, in some respects, the existing oil fields. 


Salt occurs in Anatolia and Armenia abundantly in two differ- 
ent modes; first, in beds and masses of rock salt, intercalated 
between the strata of different geological periods; second, as 
products of evaporation of recent periods, due to arid climate. 

The salt mining in these countries was closely controlled by 
Turkish Government and the revenue was assigned to the Pub- 
lic Dept. administration. For this reason the exact statistics of 
production have never been obtained. But, yet, approximate 
production is said to arrive to about 6,000,000 dollars per year. 
One fourth of the entire production has only been exported to 

Salt was manufactured all under the charge of officers ap- 
pointed by the state, in three ways : 

1. By evaporating sea water. 

2. By evaporating the brine from salt springs or lakes. 

3. By mining rock salt. 



The beds of Tertiary rock salts are generally attached, by 
Tchihatcheff, to Miocene. It is probable that this long track of 
Helvetian is the continuation of the chain of Tertiary beds, ex- 
tending from Europe to Anatolia and Armenia, and thence to 
Persia and to the Aralo-Caspian regions. 

On the east of Kizil-Irmak the quarries of salt are exploited 
long ago at Dekilo, Tepesidelik, etc. 

The salt at Tchayan on the north of Loungourlu is also ex- 

On the west of Kizil-Irmak and on the north of Angora, 
the deposits of Gangra (Tchangry) still retains its reputation 
from niedieaeval ages up to present time ; and the mines of 
Maghara and Balybagh are still in a very promising condition. 

On the south of Kizil-Irmak, 50 Km. northeast from Kaiser- 
ieh. the mines of Pallas and the Touz-Koi are important. At 
Touz-Koi there are cliffs of salt with banks attaining 12-15 

On the west of Perghama, a deposit of rock salt which for a 
long time called white rock (Leuke) strikes the eyes of the men 
who enter the boat in the Gulf of Smyrna. 

These beds are continued further to the east, between Erzerum 
and Erzingan. Tchihatcheff mentions calcareous salt deposits 
traversed by dolerites in the valley of Moushlou-Su. These 
are equally connected to Miocene. , 

At Olti in Armenia, the salt is obtained from a depth of 16 

A rock salt of Miocene age is mined at Nakhichevan, Kulpi, 
and Kagizman in the Araxes Valley. At Kulpi a hill of rock 
salt covers an area 1.5 verst and that salt has a thickness of 
150 meters. The single banks are 2.2 meters thick. 

A rock salt is found and worked near Van and at several other 
points in the eastern mountains. Very little is known about 
these workings. Here, an immense track of rock salt of Mio- 
cene age is extending from Lake Van to Lake Urmi. 

At Hazo, on the southern border of Taurus, is found a very 
pure rock salt, in sheets of. one inch thick. 



{Marine or Lacustrine.) 

The Lycaonian plateau is the most important saHne region in 
Anatolia. The centre of Asia Minor, the greatest depression be- 
tween Pontic and Tauric chains, has been a lacustrine or marine 
basin since Miocene; but, moreover, the salt has been concen- 
trating in pools by evaporation, since Pontian epoch. 

Among these saline basins the Touze-Tchollu or Geullu is 
known from antitquity which Strabo cites for curiosity. Sodium 
chloride is the chief constituent which attains to 32.2 per cent. ; 
strongest of all saline basins so far known. While this lake is 
heavily charged with sodium chloride on one hand, the Lake 
Murad-Geul is in its vicinity, charged with magnesium chloride 
on the other hand. The Boulouk-Geul, near Eskil, contain sul- 
phate of magnesium and sodium. 

In extensive central depression of Anatolia the rainfall is col- 
lected in saline lakes. In former times when the climate was more 
moist than at present, these now landlocked basins, probably, 
discharged their overflow seawards. But the old freshwater 
lakes have been transformed to salt lagoons by the gradual des- 
sication of the land and the excess of evaporation over the 
rainfall in the basin of Kizil-Irmak gives it a brackish taste. 
In the Sivas plain it traverses beds of pure salt, where the 
natives of Western Armenia derive their usual supply. 

In the lacustrine region of Central Anatolia seems to have 
formerly formed part of the Sakaria basin, at least for the 
greater part of its extent. Here the largest sheet of water is the 
Tuz-gol or "salt lake," which is at least 60 miles long northwest 
and southeast, nowhere less than 3 or 4 miles wide. It covers 
a total area of over 400 square miles, but in summer its mean 
depth is probably less than 7 feet. Towards the centre are seen 
the traces of a dyke over 7 miles long constructed by a Sultan 
for military purposes, and here the water is nowhere much more 
than 3 feet deep. During the dry season its outlines could scarce- 
ly be recognized but for the plants growing along the shore, be- 
yond which an unbroken deposits of salt stretches for many miles 
in some direction. In winter the whole depression is flooded but 
even then the surface is covered by a saline crust from 2 inches 


to 6 7 feet in thickness, and generally solid enough to support 
a man on horseback. According to Phillips, the water of the 
Tuz-gol is heavier and more saline than that of the Dead Sea, 
containing over 32.3% salt, with a specific weight of 1.40. 

West of Tuz-gol the plain is studded with numerous ponds, 
tarns, salt pools, swamps, and rivulets, which evaporate in sum- 
mer, and which besides salt, often contain sulphate of magnesia 
and soda. The temporary lakes stretching to the south and west 
are also charged with bitter magnesium salts, without any ad- 
mixture of chloride of sodium. Such phenomena are common 
enough in closed basins, and are due to the different chemical 
constituents of the soil traversed by the streams. 

Besides the steppe lakes, evidently the remains of an older and 
more extensive basin which drained northwards through Sakaria, 
there are other reservoirs, where although now occupying dis- 
tinct cavities in almost closed cirques, appear to have belonged 
to the system of seaward drainage. Traces of old communica- 
tions are indicated at several places by channels and ra!vines still 
showing the marks of running water. To the same marine 
basin of Central Anatolia apparently also belonged the reservoirs 
scattered over the depression lying between the Emir-dagh and 
Sultan-dagh, and which are alternately flooded basins and simple 
meres surrounded by aline incrustation. 

In Armenia the Lake Van, on the south of Ararat, and lakes 
Urmi, Khosapin and others, on the east of Ararat, are also 
more or less arrived to the saline condition. Most of these 
lakes are formed in Pliocene, following the recent principal 
movements. Some of them are due to detritus deposits, and rep- 
resent stratigraphically the stage of Pliocene, by lacusrine sedi- 
ments. Others have had free drainag and are remained from 
la^kes of sweet waters, like Gokcha, Chaldir, Toporavan and 
Nazik; some of them manifesting still a degree of saline evap- 
oration like the lakes Khozapin, Urmi and others on the east 
of Ararat. Between these lakes are seen ancient terraces as- 
cending to the level of primitive waters and show evidences of 
falling down by the effect of the gradual evaporation. 

In the Lake Van, the proportion of soHds in solution, princi- 
pally carbonate of potassium and sodium chlorides and sulphates, 
is very large while the amount of suspended matter is very trifling. 



It is estimated that he alkalinity is equal to rather more than 
3.25 ounces of ordinary soda crystals dissolved in a gallon of 

This lake comprises an area of 1300 square miles, at an ele- 
vation of 5737 feet. Its extreme length wrould seem to measure 
78 miles, and the breadth from north to south of the principal 
body is about 32 miles. To all appearances it is very deep ex- 
cept at the northeast and southwest extremities. The color of 
the sheet of water cannot be given in a single word; it varies 
with extraordinary range of scale. A cobalt blue of great bril- 
liancy is perhaps the most frequent hue. A certain milky pale- 
ness becomes invested at morning and evening with an infinite 
number of delicate tints. Only one kind of fish is found in 
Lake Van, resembling a large bleak. 

Samples are taken from the waters of Lake Van by different 
analysts and results are given in the following table : 

PER 100,000.. 




























1 1 15.92 










Not. Det. 





Iron Oxide 


Maganese Oxide 




Silica Alumina 








1. 01 

Total solids 



a little 


Suspended Matter 

organic matter 





Sodium Chloride 938.00 
Sodium Carbonate 861.00 
Sodium Sulphate 333-00 
Potassium Sulphate 55-00 
Magnes. Carbonate 55-0° 

Magnes. Sulphate 

Calcium Carbonate 

Calcium Sulphate 

Calcium Phosphate 

Strontium Sulphate 

Iron Carbonate 

Magnes. Carbonte 

Ammonium Chlor 

Silica 18.00 



Per Cent, of Solids 22.6 17-34 21.10 22.48 

The specific gravity of the water was determined by Chancour- 
tois as 1.0188, and by Abich as 1.0189, both at I9°C. As Abich 
points out the water of Lake Van is nearly identical in composi- 
tion with that of some of the Soda Lakes at the southeastern 
foot of Ararat, in the Araxes plain. In some of these the Chlor- 
ide, in others the carbonate, and in others again the sulphates of 
Sodium is the predominating constituent. Probably the compo- 
sition of the waters of Lake Van vary somewhat in different parts 
of the lake. Abich's sample certainly is less saline than those 
of the other analysts. 

Abnormal salinity is a special feature about the waters of Lake 
Urmi, and extensive beds of rock salts are found in their vicinity. 
It has been estimated that they are six times as salty as the ocean ; 
though only three-fifths as heavily charged with saline matter as 
the waters of the Dead Sea. 

Lake Urmi is situated at an elevation of 4100 feet, covering an 
area of 1823 square miles. Its extreme length from north to 
south is 80 miles, and its breadth from east to west 24 miles. 


















Not. Det. 












It resembles its neighbor on the west in constituting an isolated 
basin, many rivers flowing in but none out. On the other hand 
its significant depth invests it with the character of a lagoon. 
The average being not more than 20 feet and maximum 45 to 
50 feet. Evaporation must be very rapid over such a sheet of 
water. The color is deep azure, neither fish nor molluscs can 
live within them. Shores are impregnated with salt ; upon the 
margin are found fragments of fossil coral and shell. 

The following analysis of the extraordinary saline waters of 
Lake Urmi are appended for contrast rather than for comparison 
with those of Lake Van. 


PER 100,000. 







In this case Abich's sample was a stronge solution than Gun- 
ther's, the percentage of solid salts being 22.28 and 14.89 re- 
spectively. Yet the relative proportion of the various salts is 
very similar as shown by the following comparison of percen- 
tages : 

Gunther & 
Abich Manley 

Sodium Chloride '86.37 86.20 

Magnesium Chloride 6.94 6.82 

Magnesium Sulphate 6.08 4.15 

Calcium Chloride 0.27 .... 

Calcium Sulphate 0.34 i-i5 

Potassium Sulphate . ■ • • 1-74 

100.00 100.061 

Gunther & 















The specific gravity in the two cases were determined 'as 1.175 
and I.I 13 respectively. 


The borate of Anatolia is a particularly interesting deposit, 
which in the past, played an important factor in the world's com- 
merce. Extensive beds of borate, a massive and not entirely 
pure variety of Colemanite, a calcium borate, are mined at Sul- 
tan-Tchair, in the province of Hudavendighiar. The mines 
lie on the mail-route leading from Panderma harbor to Bali- 
kesser 11 Km. south of Susurlu. For this reason the exploited 
borate, the borate of hydrated calcium, is shipped to the port 
of Panderma and called by the name of Pandermite. 

According to Weiss the pandermites occur in Tertiary sedi- 
mentaries lying in a basin surrounded by steep hills of gabbro, 
granite and crystalline schist. The productive beds consist of a 
brownish to bluish gray gypsum, containing nodules of variable 
sizes dispersed within the gypsum and forming from 10 to 20 
per cent, of the aggregate mass. This mine produces 10-15000 
tons of borate annually valuing approximately 2,000,000 fr. An 
English company organized in 1880, produced 7400 tons annually. 
A French company organized in 1891, produced 5,000 tons of 
borate from the mines of Azizie. Finally these two companies 
united by the name of "Consolidated Borax Co." 

The deposit of borate in Sultan-Tchair comprises an area of 
8 square km. In this basin are accumulated the sedimentary 
deposits whose superior part only belong to Tertiary and con- 
tains the beds of borate. The top is covered first with about 
80 m. thick grits and schists, and then with a mass of argillace- 
ous gypsum attaining 30 to 40 m. thickness, and lastly with 
banks of calcareous rocks and conglomerates. The pandermite 
is very ultimately associated with the gypsum on the banks in 
an irregular thickness. It is also found that some compact an- 
hydrates have exteriorly the aspect of marble and white silicate 
of magnesium and lime. The density of mineral attains to about 
2.5 and it is distinguished by this capacity and by chemical com- 
position from the light borate of Chili. 

The beds contaning pandermite have a declination of 5 to 15 


degress to the south in a lanticular shape. The thickness of beds 
falling down rapidly from 5 to o. m. 

The origin of the pandermite must evidently be same as the 
borate deposits of Staasfurt, Chili and California. The evapora- 
tion has given chance to boric acid to combine with diverse 
bases produced from surrounding rocks. It is said that the 
straasfurtite, the double salt of sodium borate and magnesium 
chloride, is found in a salt bearing hill. In California either 
ulixite, sodium and calcium borate, or priceite, borate of lime, 


are formed with the chloride, sulphate and carbonate of sodium, 
for these two cases lagoon character of evaporation is not con- 
testable. But the prior presence of abnormal quantity of boron 
must also be considered. This may not be attributed to the 
constant supply of weak boric acid in the sea water ; because any 
other large region has not given any borate under similar condi- 
tions of concentration. It must be kept in mind that boric acid 
is also supplied by hot springs and salfataras of volcanic origin, 
or from emanations of fumerols or jets of steam issuing from the 

Another region rich in borate, under similar conditions, is 
the Lake Urmi. After Abich a mineral water containing I/2 per 
cent, borate of soda is observed in contact with eupholite and 
serpentine, same condition as the saline beds, associated with 
ophites, of Pyreneese. 

The International Borate Company was tending to control these 
deposits. Since the levy of royalty of 16 per cent, on the gross 
products, work has not been carried on as extensively as here- 
tofore. The annual output ranges: 


Years Metric Tons 

1894 1 

1896 2,602 

1897 2,412 


1892 1 1,622 

1893 9,100 

1894 9,080 

Z] -^^ 

1897 •: 11.375 

1900 and after 10 to 15,000 

The following table shows the position of Anatolia in the pro- 
duction of borate, in comparison with other great producing 
countries : 


United States 17,600 

Chili 3,168 

India 280 

Germany 198 

Italy 2,704 

Peru 11,850 


United States 41,400 

ChiH 16,730 


Germany 135 

Italy 2,624 


Turkey 10 to 15,000 tons per year. 


















to 15,000 

tons per year. 


















The emery has also been a substance of great industrial im- 
portance playing a great role in the world's commerce. 

By the settlement of the political situation it is hoped that 
the new resources will soon be exploited and the production will 
be doubled or trippled. 

The mineral which was first obtained from the Grecian Archi- 
pelago, was discovered in Asia Minor by L. Smith in his ex- 
plorations, which lasted from 1844-1847. At first the emery was 
found in scattered masses on ridges formed mainly from a bluish 
limestone. There were the least remains of the stone in which 
the mineral was originally embedded. 

The emery is found in a district extending from the Gumugh- 
dagh, near Lokia, to Kutaya, also west of Koola and north of 
Smyrna, in fact, on nearly all the ridges separating the river 
valleys in this region. 

Further to the south along the small rivers running from the 
mountain range boulders of emery are found mixed with gravel 
which have probably been carried down from the mountains. 
The region is composed of talcose and chloritic slates passing 
into mica slates, with large beds of limestone. 

The mines lie in a belt extending 200 miles south and southeast 
of Smyrna. Noteworthy localities are Cozbounar, Kuluk 
Azizie, Bahchejik, Hassan-Chaushlar and Saka, on the Aidin 
railway, 50 miles south of Smyrna. 

The richest and best situated deposits of emery are in the 
Gumugh-dagh, and along the railroad which has been built from 
Smyrna to Aindin. Here the emery is found in pockets, some 
of which are several meters across, embedded in limestones. The 
rock is very hard and tenacious, and is difficult to break. As 
mined it is a mixture of corundum with magnetite and hematite. 
Occasionally it is accompanied with chloride with inclosed octa- 
hedral crystals of magnetite. Its sp. gr. varies from 3.75 to 
4.30, the principal constituent being 60 to 70 per cent, aluminum 
oxide, 9 to 33 per cent, iron oxide. The remaining constituents 
are oxide of calcium, silicon dioxide, carbon dioxide and water. 

The original grant for working emery mines was purchased 
by Mr. Abbot for an annual payment of $55,000. He already 


held a contract for mining emery from the Greek Government, 
and later entered into a partnership with the English firm of 
John Taylor and Son. 

The chief mines in Turkey are opened by shafts and galler- 
ies, explosives being used in the extraction of the mineral. At 
the Jackson mine a steam-pump is employed, the one lying at 
considerable depth and water being encountered. At one of 
the Abbot mines the emiery is dug up from the red argillaceous 
earth of the surface. The larger pieces are broken at mine 
by heating and then cooling suddenly with water, being finally 
reduced by sledging. 

As to the origin, Dr. Lawrence Smith came to a firm con- 
clusion that emery has been formed and consolidated in the lime- 
stone in which it is found and that it has not been detached from 
the older rocks as granite gneiss, etc., and lodged in the lime- 
stone at its period of formation. 

All the emery mined is shipped from Smyrna, the United 
States taking about 60 per cent, of total and Great Britain about 
40 per cent. 

The cost of production at the mine is estimated at 8 dollars 
per ton. 

Emery deposits are also found in Khatchbulach, Caucasian Ar- 
menia, 45 Kjm. south of Elizabethpol. 

Years Metric Ton 

1893 8325 

1894 6034 

1895 6591 

1896 3000 

1898 62353 

1899 24475 

MEERSCHAUM. (Sepiolite) 

To the sepiolite of Asia Minor is often given the preference on 
account of its ready adaptation for certain uses in jewelry. It 
occurs in masses in stratified earthy or alluvial deposits, where 
it has been formed from the decomposition of megnesium car- 


bonate which is imbedded in serpentine, in the surrounding moun- 
tains. It is richer in silica than that found in Utah and in 
North Carolina. 

The plains near Eski-shehir, in Asia Minor, constitutes one 
of the important localities from which this hydrous silicate of 
magnesium is mined. The meerschaum district extends from 
the town of Eski-shehir, on the Anatolian railway, almost due 
eastward to the City of Angora. The mines lie at a distance of 
about 22 Km. from the railroad station, to which the ore is 
packed by camel trains. The chief producing mines are those 
of Saresu, Sepki, Sepetji-ojaghi and Kemikji-ojaghi, at a dis- 
tance of three miles from the other. 

The deposits occur in a valley filled with drift material from 
the surrounding mountains. The sepiolite is scattered through 
the drift in rounded nodular masses with fragments of magnesium 
and hornblende rocks. As a rule the nodules do not exceed 3 
inches in diameter, but a few attain larger dimensions. In row 
condition the mineral is soft, light, and non-transparent. The 
color is white, with occasional blending of yellow, red or gray. 
The thickness of meerschaum bearing strata varies between 10 
and 130 ft. 

Almost all the meerschaum mined in Asia Minor was con- 
trolled by Austrian dealers and finds its way to Vienna, where it 
was used extensively in the manufacture of pipe heads and 
cigar holders. 

Mining is carried on by means of leasing system, both in 
open cut and underground Work. Pits from 25 to 120 ft. deep 
are dug, and as soon as the vein is struck, horizontal galleries, 
sometimes of considerable length, are made, but more than two 
galleries are seldom to be found in one pit. The stone as ex- 
tracted is called "ham-tash" rough block, and is soft enough 
to be easily cut with a knife. In this state the blocks are 
purchased by dealers on the spot, not by weight, nor by measure- 
ment, but occording to proximate quantity, either per load of 
three sacks, or per cartload.. The price varying from 25 to 150 
dollars per load, accordingly to quality. These rough blocks are 
dried and subjected to certain preparations before being con- 
veyed to Eski-Shehir. , The manipulation required before they 
are ready for exportation is long and costly. The clayey soil 


attached is removed, and the meerschaum is dried. In summer 
exposure for five or six days to the sun's rays suffices, but in 
winter a room heated to the required temperature and the dry- 
ing takes 8 to ID days. When well dried the blocks are well 
cleaned and polished; then they are sorted into about 12 classes, 
each class being packed with great care in separate cases and 
each block being wrapped in cotton wool. The dimensions of 
these cases vary according to the five classes they are divided into, 
in accordance with the Zolwein system, which has been recently 
generally adopted owing to the fact that the bulk of the meer- 
schaum is sent to Vienna, where it is worked and dispersed all 
over the world, the most of the finest specimens are sent direct 
to Paris. Certain American dealers have visited Aski-Sehir with 
the object of obtaining the raw articles direct instead of through 
Vienna, thereby saving the higher custom house duty payable 
on the worked meerschaum. The quantity annually exported is 
put down at 8,000 to 10,000 cases. 

It is maintained locally that the Eski-Shehir meerschaum is 
superior to that of Sebastopol and Caffa, in the Crimea, of Egrilos 
(Negropont), and of Corinth. 


Sulphur occurs in Anatolia and x^rmenia commonly in the hot 
springs, both active or extinct, in Tufas or volcanic tufifs, and great 
deal in the sedimentary beds in close association with gypsum. 

Brimestone deposits exist in Dardanelles peninsula, in beds of 
clay and is mixed with bitumen. In volcanic islands sulphur is 
found in several places. 

In the Armenian mountains beds of sulphur also exist. Sul- 
phur is dug at Bechanach in the Daralagoz district. These con- 
tain quartzose clay layers, about one meter thick of Miocene age, 
containing 24% sulphur. At Gumiur in the same district trachyte 
is overlying the sulphur. Moreover there exist sulphur mines at 
Daata, 7 km. from Diadin. There a layer of pure sulphur 8 
cm. thick lies under a breccia cemented with sulphur. That rock 
which was deposited from sulphur springs of Diadin contains 
18% sulphur. 65.72% anhydrite. 

The deposits from the fumerols of the Tendurak volcanoes 
which are in solfatine condition, yields "j^Jo sulphur. 



Many alum deposits are known to occur in Asia Minor since 
memorial times. None but one is exploited, in the vicinity of 

The small city of some 13,000 inhabitants in the eastern parts 
of the province of Sivas that bears the official name of Karahis- 
sar-Sharki, or Eastern Kara-Hissar, is generally known on maps 
and in common conversation as "Shabin Karahissar" (Shab mean- 
ing alum). It seems certain that the alum workings within a short 
distance from the town have been in operation for at least 300 
years, and have given the designation of "Shabin" to the town just 
as Afion "Opium" Kara-Hissar in western Anatolia, and a small 
town called Develi (place of camels), Kara Hissar near Ceasarea, 
have acquired their names through some features in the regions 
in which they, are situated. The term "Kara-Hissar" is applied 
to a peculiar outcropping of blackish rock in the form of a tall 
peak or mountain that exists near each of these towns. The hills 
against the sloping of whch Shabin Kara-Hissar is built is sur- 
rounded by a well preserved masonry town and fortress that 
must have been very strong in the days of mediaeval warfare. 

The alunite of Shabin Karahissar is found in the regions com- 
prised between the city of Shahjn Karahissar and the village of 
Lidjesi. The mine is very remarkable not only by its geology 
but by its industrial importance. The alumite is found in the 
Tertiary syenite rocks. The mineral contains both alum and 
alunite which is analized by Mr. Rivot, the director of the labor- 
atory of the School of Mines of Paris. 

Silica 35.75 

Aluminum 14.80 

Iron Oxide 1.20 

Potas. Oxide 6.55 

Sod. Oxide 6.45 

Sulphuric Acid 8.40 

Loss by Calcination. .23.60 

It is a compact mass, yellowish; concoidal fracture, formed in 


the nests and wedges of the syenite with considerable dimensions 
either vertical or horizontal. 

There is plentiful supply of the rock or raw materal, as the 
operatons so far have been primitive, and only the face of the 
hillside has been dug out and reduced. The alum bearing rock 
is brightly colored, usually with a pinkish or red tinge, and the 
waste from the Goynyk workings flows down to a small stream 
along the roadside; to these waters it gives a pinkih white and 
opaque color, incidentally kiling all the brook trout that happen 
to venture into the stained water from tthe higher part of the 

The, operations are conducted by Greeks from the nearby vil- 
lages. Wood for fuel, taken from surrounding mountans until 
they were denuded; it its now brought from relatively long dis- 

The process of alum extraction is briefly as follows : — The 
rock or ore is first roasted and then broken into small pieces, 
which are very light because the chemical elements have been 
burned out. Fifty horseloads of loo okes (282 lbs.) each of wood 
are required to burn 10 tons of stone in the furnace. The broken 
rock is then placed in open pits and allowed to be exposd to th 
rain and weather for a while. 

From reliable source it is learned that the annual production of 
alum in this region is 2000 to 3000 tons. The alum extracted at 
Goynyk is said to be the strongest and most concentrated. Other 
workings are at Gotadza and Geliese, raw material yields 14.8% 
of alum. 

Alum is consumed locally, and large quantities are shipped to 
Harpoot, Diarb^kr, and the regions further inland. There seems 
to be no expo'lation to foreign countries. The principal use of 
alum is connected with the dying of cloth and yarn, the prepara- 
tion of leather and medicinal purposes. Not the least important 
use is f^i a charm, a triangular piece being placed in a case made 
of silver, blue beads, etc. and worn about the neck of both human 
beings and animals. The price of alum at the mine is about 5 to 
7 piasters per batman (7 lbs.) or ij4 to i^ cents per pound, 
while in markets of Karahissar it retails for about 2J5^ cents a 


The existance of this mineral is also reported from the Sam- 
son, Kerason, Tripoli, Trebizond, etc., occurring in the Tertiary 

Alunite of exceptionally good quality is found at Saglik near 
Dashkessan in Gokcha range. It is found in Kidney formed con- 
cretions in trachyte tuffs of Turanian age. The occurances seems 
to be inexhaustible. The alunite contains 37.58% of alum and 
is free from pyrite and iron oxides. Occurances of less tech- 
nical importance lie at Bechanak and in the Dary-dagh in the 
Daralagoz district. 


Cretaceous white calcite occur extensively in both coimtries 
which is locally used for construction, lime and soap manufac- 

ONYX : The beautiful banded and translucent spring deposit of 
recent limestine is known to exist in Pontus, in the Lower course 
of Halys, and Thermodon associated with jasper susceptible to 
take nice polish. 

LITHOGRAPHIC STONE: The fine grained limestone, with imper- 
fect concoidal fracture, gray and yellow in color, occur abundant- 
ly near Panderma. The output was controlled for some years 
by an English Syndicate. A good deal of money was spent with- 
out any result. The failure of the enterprise was attributed to 
the ignorance of Turkish customs and methods of dealing on 
the part of the management. 

ARGILLACEOUS CALCITE rock occur extensively which may be 
readily used for cement manufacturing. The beds of this rock 
have never been exploited. 

MARBLE : The compact type, crystalline, metamorphosed lime»- 
stone occurs also extensvely in both countries. The rock is locally 
used for ornamental masonry. Its banded texture and the beauti- 
ful color due to the mixture of oxides of different metals has 
made it very desirable. According to the color it is locally called 
"white marble," "red marble," "yellow marble," "green marble,*' 
etc. The marbles and other metamorphic calcite rocks occur 
mostly in the vicinity of igneous rocks which is for this reason, 
called contact product of limestone. 


CHALK : The purest and the most white type of limestones is 
widely distributed over both countries. This natural substance 
could readily be used in paper, pigment and marking-chalk manu- 
facturing if a good opportunity is created for the industrial devel- 
opment. No beds of chalk exploited, the marking-chalk is either 
imported from Europe and America. 


The sedimentary Tertiary beds of saline residue of gypsum 
occur extensively in the plateau formations. The efflorescence 
of gypsum are found along the saline lakes of Lycaonia, Lake 
Urmi, Lake Van, etc. The residual sulphate of sodium and car- 
bonates are also found in the same saline regions associated with 
salt and little magnasium sulphate. 


The beds of sodium nitrate is said to occur in saline regions 
associated with gypsum, borate, and also with volcanic tuffs, 
basalts and lake beds in volcanic regions. No attempts have 
been made for its exploitation. 


Clays, of recent age, either sedimentary or residual, occur 
extensively in both countries. The ordinary red clay is used 
in local pottery and tile manufacturing. 

fuller's earth : Every shade, from ray to dark green, occur 
everywhere which is used by natives in baths to clean the body 
from greese and other persperations. The beds of this natural 
substance could, in future be used for the cleaning of garments, 
deoxidizing, decolorizing and clarifying of fats and oils and in 
refining of petroleum. 

KAOLiNE : The purest variety of clay also occur in some places 
without any industrial application. The development of paper, 
paint, putty, crayon, china and pottery manufacturing will soon 
necessitate its exploitation. 



In Asia Minor and Pontus, in the direction towards Kerasun 
and Trebizond, the agate, onyx and jasper is known to exist, 
which is still in the treasures of the famous Mithridate conquered 
by Pompius. The lower course of Halys (Kizil-semak) and 
Thermodon are furnished with these stones. Near Thermodon 
the port of Ounieh where extracted in the white and red cal- 
careous rocks a bank of jasper susceptible to take nice polish. 

Spreading layers of white siliceous marl with 87.2 per cent 
silica, are found in about 5 cm. thick sheets at Kessatip not far 
from Akhalzik in Uraval Valley. A sim^jlar deposit of diatom- 
aceous earth of Pleistocene age is found at Ilija near Erzerum. 




Three major folded arcs, forming as many independent chains 
of lofty peaks, fringe the wave-battered shores of Asia Minor, 
and, encircling, rinl-like, its elevated barren plateaus, determine 
the trend-lines of the structure of this westernmost projection 
of the Asiatic continent. Within the mighty folds of each, oc- 
curs an auriferous zone, genetically related to copious lava-flows 
of comparatively recent origin, detailed studies of which are yet 
to be made. 

The Pontic gold-field lies in the most easterly, and the Ana- 
tolian gold-field in the most westerly, of these zone's of dis- 
turbance, the effects of which have been so far-reaching upon the 
development and history of the peninsula. A third gold-field 
of altogether minor historical importance, lies on the slopes of 
the Tauric mountains, the most imposing of these three great 

This occurence within the only zones where heavy mountain- 
making agenciefs have been at work, of the only known gold pro- 
ducing areas in Asia Minor, can scarcely be regarded as a mere 
coincidence, though it would be hazardous, at this incipient stage 
of our knowledge of the geology of the region, to carry our 
generalizations too far. 

ANATOLIAN GOLD-FIELD. This metalliferous province forms 
part of a geologic belt extending from the plains of Troy 
to the valley of the Pactolus, and slightly further south, so as 
to include Mount Tmolus — the modern Boz-Dagh. It contributed 
largely to the gold-output of proto-historic times, and, as. might 
be naturally expected, it has been duly commemorated in vari- 
ous legends which have descended to us, together with the super- 
abundant exaggerations with which ancient exploits were wont 
to be embellished. 


Its northeast portion was explored during antiquity in the 
vicinity of the Asiatic shores of the Dardanelles. The abund- 
ance of gold jewelry found in the excavations on the site of 
the several cities of Troy indicates a large production of gold 
from localities probably not far away. The best-known of 
these mining camps of the Troad flourished between Pergamos 
and Ataineds, and were inhabited by the Dactyles, a hardy and 
enterprising race. Strabo, in the course of his travels, found 
numerous traces of ancient workings in the vicinity of the 
ancient town of Astyra, then a ruined city which formed part 
of Abydos, but which has been independent when the gold- 
mines in its vicinity were productive. At the time of Strabo's 
visit, close to the dawn of the Christian era, the mines had 
been practically abandoned, and the formerly prosperou!s mining- 
camp had dwindled to commercial insignificance. The extent 
of the ancient workings seen by him indicates that mining had 
been carried on very actively at this point, and legendary tales 
often attribute the immense wealth of Tantalus or of Priam to 
the owner^ship of these diggings. 

The site of Astyra is supposed to coincide with that of the 
modern hamlet of Serjiller, about 14 miles south of the Dar- 
denelles. Abandoned workings of considerable extent are known 
to exist at this point, in a mica-schist country, intruded upon 
by lower Tertiary igneous rocks, which according to Diller, 
English and Flett, consist of liparite, mica-hornblende, and aug- 
ite-andesites, the latter is an advanced stage of decomposition. 
All these volcanic rocks have been ultimately capped with ba- 
salt. This igneous series is remarkably similar to some which 
have been observed in various zones of volcanic activity within 
the great American Great Basin region, such as the southwestern 
portion of Nevada, where appreciable amounts of gold have 
been yielded by veins incafeed within rocks, the chief charac- 
teristic of which appear to consist in the intermediate com- 
position, in a scale of decreasing acidity of the magmas from 
which they have 'solidified. 

A portion of the large quantity of gold articles unearthed on 
the site of Troy must have been derived from Phrygia and 
Lydia, two of the most importanlt miriing-provinces of tlh'e 
wtorld in the first millenium B. C. It may be recalled here 


that the Troad borders on Phrygia, where, according to ancient 
traditions, the discovery of the art of fusing metals took place 
in the course of a forest-fire, during which it was found that 
fragments of ore had been accidentally melted. 

There cannot be any doubt that the Phrygians, in common 
with their better-known eastern neighbors, the Lydians, were 
the most renowned miners and metallurgists during the pre- 
eminence of Hellenic culture. The profusion of mineral species, 
enumerated by Pliny as found in these kingdoms, indicates that 
the natives had abundant opportunities to become proficient in 
the arts of mining and smelting. 

Lydia especially was renowned for its wealthy rulers and 
citizens, most of whom were owners and operators of mines. 
Sardes, the capital, was long a world-market for gold, silver, 
copper, and iron. Not only did the Lydians derive large incomes 
directly from their underground operations but, being situated, 
geographically, midway between Western culture and Eastern 
splendor, they managed to act as commission-agents for both 
parties, so that products from either direction paid them toll 
in transit, and thus increased the wealth of the Lydian capital- 
ists. Herodotus mentions the colossal, forunte reaching far 
into the tens of millions of dollars, amassed by Prince Phthios, 
Supposed by some to have been a descendant of Croesus, the 
wealthiest of the kings of Lydia. This nobleman was the dy- 
nast of Celenes when Xerxes invaded the West. Plutarch de- 
clares that it was his custom to prevent the inhabiants of the 
mining-districts under his rule from pursuing heir agricultural 
labors, lest the time thus spent be subtracted from more profit- 
able employment at underground work. We can more easily 
understand such conditions when we take into consideration 
the great scarcity of metals, and the consequent demand for 
them,, which existed at that time throughout Europe. The lack 
of gold was particularly felt in Greece in the sixth century B. 
C, when the Lacedemonians had to import expressly from 
Lydia the relatively small amount required for the gilding of a 
statue. With regard to the wealth of Croesus, Rawlinson, re- 
ferring to Strabo, says that its reality cannot be questioned; 
for Herodotus had himself seen the ingots of solid gold, six 
palms long, three broad and one deep, which to the number 



of 117 were laid up in the treasury at Delphi. 

The height of Lydian prosperity was attained in the first 
quarter of the seventh century B. C. and successfully main- 
tained during the ensuing 250 years. Throughout this period the 
precious metal was won both from alluvial and from deeper 
mining. Glowing tales concerning the gold-producing banks of 
the Hermos were spread to the confines of the world ; and many 
are the legends that spring from the accounts of the rich clean- 
ups made by enterprising Lydian prospectors in washing the 
gravels of the Hermos and its tributary, the Pactolus. The lat- 
ter stream owed its gold, according to an ancient story, to the 
fact that Midas, the mythical founder of the Phrygian kingdom, 

i Syrian e a e r t'.^a ^i 


had bathed in its waters, upon the advice of Bacchus, in order to 
be deprived of the fatal faculty of turning everything he touched 
into gold. This tradition, like so many others of a kindred nature, 
has value only as indicating the existence of an ancient and 
flourishing placer-indiistry in the valley of the Pactolus. This 
river, as well as the Hermos, of which it is an affluent, rises on 
the northern slope of the Tmolus mountain, itself the site of nu- 
merous mining- excavations. It may be safely assumed, as an 


explanation of these old workings, that the discovery of nuggets 
in the river-sediments stimulated a careful examination of the 
immediate vicinity and that this search led the ancient prospec- 
tors to the ultimate source of the gold, namely, to the aurifer- 
ous veins of the mountain. 

How prolific in their yield of the precious metal these banks 
of the Pactolus must have been may be inferred from a partial 
review of the frequent allusions in ancient literature to the 
gold-bearing sands of this famous river. Tchihtchaff's enumera- 
tion suggests the strong appeal made by this source of wealth 
to the imagination of ancient writers. Among others, Scylan of 
Caryadnis speaks of the Pactolus as having formerly borne the 
name of Chrysoras (the gold-bearing), by reason of its auriferous 
character. He claims, furthemore, that the precious element 
was engendered eternally in its waters. Herodotus also alludes 
to the gold carried by this stream; and it is interesting to note 
that he lays special stress on the notion that the gold was prim- 
arily obtained from the flanks of Mount Tmolus. Poets and 
writers in endless succession have extolled the good fortune of 
the Lydian prospector. Virgil, Juvenal, Sivius Italicus, all re- 
fer in glowing terms to the gold-laden muds borne along with 
the flowing waters. Seneca, with wonted emphasis, describes the 
river as inundating the fields with gold (inundat auro rura). 

Nevertheless, this production was not destined to be everlast- 
ing. In Strabo's time, at the beginning of the Christian era, it 
had dwindled to comparative insignificance. Philostrates quotes 
Appolonius as saying that the Pactolus was "formerly" aurifer- 
ous ; and, inasmuch as this celebrated philosopher was a contem- 
porary of Nero and Vespasian, it may be inferred that very little 
gold was recovered from this source at that time. The same 
writer advances the hypothesis of the primary derivation of the 
nuggets from the very rocks of Mount Tmolus, and his asser- 
tions in this respect indicate a remarkable soundness of deductive 
reasoning. In the light of modern theories on placer-formation, 
a part of their metallic contents may well have been derived 
from the rocks incasing the veins which, in the course of their 
erosion, have contributed the bulk of the metal subsequently re- 
deposited in the form of nuggets. 

A later writer, Festus Avenius, makes use of the term "auriger" 


in the text of a description of this affluent of the Hermos. His 
use of the adjective need not, however, be taken as indicaitve of 
a renewed activity of mining on the Pactolus. It may have been 
employed by way of reminiscence only. Such, indeed, appears 
to be the case in the writings of Constantine Manasses, a By- 
zantine writer of the eleventh century; and John the Lydian, a 
native of the valley of the Hermos, alludes to the Pactolus merely 
to refer to its past contributions to the world's wealth. In our 
own time, peasants dwelling in he vicinity of Boz-Dagh are 
known to make a scanty livelihood by washing the gravels brought 
down by the rivers. But their appearance and mode of living are 
far from supporting a belief in the continued abundance of the 
yellow metal in that region. It is therefore possible that the 
placers of this gold-field were exhausted fifteen centuries ago, 
although the same assertion might not be made with regard to 
the original sources of the nuggets discovered by the ancients. 

The ambition of these early Greek miners was not confined to 
alluvial mining. Numerous deeper workings have been found 
on the slopes of Mount Tmolus. Farther north and in a simi- 
lar direction from the bay of Smyrna, similar vestiges of ancient 
labors are to be seen on Mount Sipylus — the modern Manissa- 
Dagh. Thomae, speaking of gold-ores in the vilayet of Aidin, 
refers to this locality as one from which part of the wealth of 
Croesus was derived. He says the ancient workings had not 
been fully fathomed, although a vertical depth of 200 ft. below 
the crown of the hill has been reached. The same observer calls 
the country-rock in these mines a trachyte, which he found to 
be very much decomposed in the upper levels, worked by the 
Lydians. Small veins, cutting across the same volcanic rock, 
were found to carry argentiferous galena blende, copper, and 
iron pyrites with gold, all with a quartz gangue. An average 
sample taken from a i to 2-ton lot of ore, assayed as follows: 
Gold 13 dwt., and silver, soz. 13 dwt. Troy per ton; lead, 7.6 
copper, 2.2, and zinc 2.7 per cent. 

The Lydians could fairly claim to be the first users of coins 
in history. This, in itself, bespeaks the abundance of the pre- 
cious metals in that richly, endowed country. It was quite natural 
that accumulations of gold and silver should eventually be bar- 
ered for commodities brou^^ht from all over the world to this 


meeting-point of the East and the West. To stamp the metals 
with distinctive signs, and use them as a measure of value, was the 
next step, and an easy on^ in the ordinary course of commer- 
cial transactions. 

The earliest products of the Lydian mints were issued during 
the seventh century B. C, and were made, not of pure gold or 
silver but of a compound of both, known as "elektron," in which 
the ratio of gold to silver was four to one by weight. The name 
is supposed to be derived from the identical Greek word, desig- 
nating amber, which the native alloys of those metals somewhat 
resemble in color. A century latter, gold and silver coins ap- 
peared; and, no doubt, this change was associated with the dis- 
covery of a method of parting the two metals. Gold and silver 
generally occur in nature in alloys of various proportions, the 
character f which is particularly evident where the veins con- 
taining them are the ultimate manifestations of volcanic ac- 
tivity. The Anatolian gold-field, for instance, belong to such a 
region of vulcanism, where gold bearing veins, occuring in igne- 
ous rocks, carry a noteworthy amount of silver. But, apart from 
all extreme manifestations, the general phenomenon is, that metal- 
lic gold occurs in nature generally alloyed with silver (and not 
with copper.) So universal and so well-recognized is this phe- 
nomenon, that the distinguished mineralogist, Breithaupt, Pro- 
fessor of that science at Frieberg, classified native gold and 
native silver as one species, ranging in composition from gold 
with a trace of silver to silver with a trace of gold, and denied 
the occurrence in nature of either metal without some alloy of 
the other. The proportions of the two metals in native alloys 
vary with the composition of the minerals from which they have 
been reduced. It seems probable, therefore, that the "elektron" 
of the Lydians was simply the native alloy characteristic of their 
own district, and was adopted for coinage and commerce until 
the discovery of a method of parting permitted the manufac- 
turer of gold and silver coins separately. 

PONTIC GOLD-FIELD. In the northeastern portion of Asia- 
tic Turkey, and at the point of junction of three empires, the 
snow-capped peak of a huge Tertiary volcano, familiarly known 
as Mount Ararat, rising in majestic loneliness above all surround- 
ing eminences, marks the center of a region characterized by re- 


peated concanic eruptions, and the point of intersection of two 
main axis of high upHft. One of the latter sweeps westwardly, to 
form a long mountain chain which borders all the northeastern 
shore of Asia Minor, and within which gold-mining has been 
actively carried on since proto-historic times. 

An interesting clue to these very ancient operations is afforded 
by the text of a portion of the second chaper of Genesis (vv. 
10-12) : 

"And a river went out of Eden to water the gardens ; and 
from thence it was parted, and became four heads. 

"The name of the first is' Pison ; that is it which compasseth 
the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. 

"And the gold of that land is good ; there is bedellium and the 
onyx stone." 

By many Bible students, the river Pison has been identified 
as the modem choruksu, running generally parallel to the east- 
west extension of the coast. Its valley has been since time im^ 
memorial a region of exceeding fertility, and has also enjoyed, 
thanks to the sheltering barrier formed by the elevated Pontic 
range along the northern bank of the river, the added blessing 
of immunity from the ravages of the bleak northern gales of 
Russia. It is not surprising that the combination of such ad- 
vantages awakened desire for their possession in ambitious lead- 
ers of different periods; and many are the tales of struggle and 
bloodshed over the ownership of these gold-fields. 

One of these stories is repeated by Strabo, whose explorations 
of the then known world at a time when traveling was beset 
with innumerable difficulties, have made his name illustrious 
among students of the geography of antiquity. It appears that 
Alexander the Great, perhaps remembering his father's success- 
ful mininm-ventures in Macedonia, received intimations of the 
abundance of gold in the sambana district, which lay in the 
province of Syspiritides (the modern Ispir), within the Pontic 
productive area. Straightway he dispatched Menon, one of his 
generals, at the head of an armed force, commissioned him to 
secure possession of the wealth-yielding territory. The sturdy 
natives, however resisted the great conqueror's designs regard- 
ing lands which they justly regarded as their own, and having 


routed the invaders, sent back to Alexander the head of Menon, 
his general. 

Some ieght ceituries later, gold-mines south of the harbor of 
Trebizond, in the same district, became the subject of dispuite 
between Justinian, the mighty Byzantine emperor, and Chosroes, 
the King of Persia, his foe. At that time the workings, operated 
on a very extensive scale, were furnishing abundant supplies of 
the precious metal for the mint at Constantinople. Much of this 
gold was won from placers along the banks of the Tchoruksu 
and its tributaries, the latter having their sources in the southern 
facets of the Pontic range. 

Strabbo's copious notes here become again instructive. He says 
that the natives recover gold by first straining the auriferous 
muds through screens and subsequently spreading the undersize 
over sheep-skins specially selected on account of their long fleece, 
the shred of which serve to entangle the particles of metal. 
Incidentally, it may be noted that the derivation of the appela- 
tion "Land of the Golden Fleece," by which this northeastern 
portion of Asiatic Turkey was designated in the oldest tales of 
the Greek mythology, becomes self-suggestive. The corrobora- 
tive testimony supplemented by the name of Cape Jason, applied 
to a nearby promontory, tends to remove all shadow of doubt 
regarding the exact location of the once-famous Eldorado. 

The period of its original discovery, however, cannot be de- 
termined as closely as its location. The earliest known record 
is the mythical narrative of the Argonauts in search of the Golden 
Fleece; and this story yields but a single credible fact — namely, 
that, at some time in early Greek history, not unlikely about looo 
B. C, yet perhaps a few centuries later, a band of adventurous 
Greek immigrants decided to set forth and discover the country 
from which they had received from time to time reports of the 
existence of untold wealth in various forms. 

There is no doubt that, from that time on, and far into the 
fifth century B. C, the various Greek communities were actively 
engaged in the exploration and colonization of the regions lying 
east of their mainland. Such expansions in the course of the 
national growth have invariably been the consequence of pros- 
perity at home. It is not inconceivable that some of the hardier 
and more indefatigable of these explorers surmounted the hard- 


ships attending travel on the turbulent waters of the Black 
Sea, and succeeded in reaching portions of its southeastern shores. 
What they saw there may be inferred from tales which they 
brought back, enriched with the adornments required to fire the 
imaginations of their countrymen. ' 

According to the version of Pliny, Strabo's younger contemi- 
porary, and one of the best known naturalists of antiquity, the 
Colchis, as he calls the Land of the Golden Fleece, was ruled, 
previous to the coming of the Argonauts, by Selances, a descend- 
ant of Actes. This ruler is said to have discovered extensive 
gold-placers in the territory inhabited by the Suanes, who lived 
within the pale of the Colchides. "The whole country, however, 
is renowned for its gold-fields," is Pliny's final comment in con- 
nection with this description. 

TAURic GOLD FIELDS. Gold-bcaring quartz veins have been 
discovered in the Bulgar-Dagh range, in southern Ana- 
tolia (Cilician Taurus). The gold here occurs also associated 
with the argentiferous-lead ores yielding 30 to 40 grams per ton. 

At Harpoot, in Armenian Taurus, alluvial gold has been found 
in Khutel-dagh and Kilvenek on the banks of Murad. 

Abundant gold mines lie in Shirvan Mountains, south of Lake 

In the sands of Chorokh River and in the districts of Batum 
and Sasun gold is found associated with platinum. 

Alluvial gold is found now in the tributaries of lower Chorokh. 
There it is associated with palladium, rhodium, osmium, and 
Irridium, all of which arises from gold bearing copper gravels 
and serpentine rocks. 

The gold in the alluvian of Aliaji streams (west Karabagh) 
reaches an amount, namely, 0.264 grains per ton. It arises doubt- 
less from the west Karabagh chain ; far from Agarak there is a 
piece of electrum which contains 72.22 per cent, gold and 22.2 
per cent, silver. 

A little gold has been gotten from the copper ore of Kalakent 
and in the hornblende diorite which intrudes the Nummulite lime. 

This precious metal is also recovered as by-product in the ex- 
traction of other ores. The descriptions of which will be found 
under respective headings of the copper, argentiferous-lead, and 
arsenic as occurring associated with these ores. 


FUTURE PROSPECTS. To our own generation the point of in- 
terest in connection with any of these gold-fields lies in 
the possibility of a resumption of exploitation of the hitherto 
abandoned workings. This does not necessarily imply that gold 
will again be the chief metal recovered. These have been nu- 
merous instances where mines, at one time gold-producing, have 
eventually turned out to be great producers of copper. Two 
noteworthy instances of such a sequence are furnished by two 
of the world's largest present deposits of low-grade copper sul- 
phides : the Mount Lyell mine in Tasmania, aiid the Rio Tinto 
in the Spanish province of Huelva. The former came into pro- 
minence in 1881, and began to attract attention as a gold- 
producer in the incipient stage of its development. With re- 
gard to the latter, Strabo, to whom frequent reference must 
perforce be made in connection with ancient mining, has given 
us an enhusiatic account of the gold-production in southern Spain 
on the site of what are now the famoiis and immensely pro- 
ductive copper-mines of Rio Tinto. 

Another instance of the same nature occurs at the Mount Mor- 
gan mine in Australia. Here the ore at very shallow depth was 
rich in gold and carried only insignificant quantities of copper. 
Lower down, however, the percentage of the latter metal grew 
considerably higher. 

There are some signs of the recurrence of the same phenomenon 
in the Pontic gold-field. Copper has been mined during the past 
few centuries at various points within this metalliferous province. 
Although these operations have been desultory, there is ground 
to suspect the existence of a rich copper-belt parallel with the 
northeastern coastal development of Asia Minor. Kerassons 
is, among others, a noteworthy locality in which copper-ores in 
large bodies have been reported on various occasions. The re- 
covery of gold as a by-product in the smelting of such ores is by 
no means impossible. 

Work on the Anatolian gold-field, on the other hand, has re- 
mained practically at a stand-still since the beginning of the 
Christian era. Perhaps detailed investigation of the region will lead 
to interesting industrial developments; and, while these ancient 
gold-fields may never again yield such quantities of the pre- 
cious metal as they gave to the miners of antiquity, they may 


produce, through development of lower depths, of the baser 
metals, a greater treasure than they conferred on former gen- 


Years Kilos Worth in dollars 

1891 10 7000 

1892 ID 7000 

1893 10 1000 

1894 12 8000 

189s 12 8000 

1896 12 8000 

1897 12 8000 

1898 12 8000 

1899 12 7975 

1900 1 1.6 7751 

1901 11.6 7751 

1902 20 13292 

1903 31 20607 

1904 31 20607 

1905 43-5 29000 

1906 44 29,000 


In Anatolia and Armenia there are many old silver mines, but 
nearly all of them are idle, not because they have been ex- 
hausted, but there was no inducement to work them under ex- 
isting government. 

Silver mostly occurs associated with lead and zinc. Consider- 
able amount of silver is also extracted from gold mines. The 
chief mines of Argentiferous-galena exist in the provinces of 
Trebizond, Erzerum, Diarbekr, Adana, and Hudavendighar. 

Gumush-hane, near Trebizond, is probably the richest of these 
and has produced lead and silver since remote times. This lo- 
cality of Argentiferous galena has been considered like a School 
of Mines of Constantinople, and a tentative object of recent re- 


Following the old descriptions of this mine, given by Hamilton 
and commented by Tchihatcheff, here Tertiary and Cretaceous 
limestones, marls and the chalk formations are penetrated by 
granite rocks, and both the chalk formations and the granite are 
crossed by veins of silver bearing galena. But the ore is richer 
in the eruptive rocks. Hundred grams of extracted silver yields 
4 grams of gold. 

Bakr-Kuressi, on the south of Ineboli, has been a famous local- 
ity on account of its argentiferous copper mines. 

The district of Kara-Hissar is also known to be rich in silver 
ores, and two foreign companies have acquired rights there since 
1880. The Asia Minor Company have had a concession concern- 
ing six square miles where 20 veins have been located and some 
development done. The veins are chiefly found in the andesite 
and carry argentiferous galena. One of the mines opened has 
a vein 2 meters thick on which several levels have been run. The 
best ores carry about 70 per cent, lead, with from 1.5 Kg. silver 
to the ton. Most of these discoveries have been based on the 
ancient workings. The workings are not being extended. 

In the Derekoi Valley, in the same district, there was also a 
concession granted for 99 years to an English company. This 
covered 24 sq. miles. Exploration had shown several veins exist- 
ing in andesite and porpyhry, carrying lead, silver and sometimes 
little gold. 

At Katirlan three veins have been opened and some develop- 
ment work done. The concession was granted in 1871, and work 
was carried on to 1883, when it was suspended. It was resumed 
in 1892, but has lately been again stopped. The same company 
worked the mines at Keshab. 

Silver mines have also been Worked at Sivas and Avanos. 

In Khortakal, near Ispir (south of Chorokh river) a rich 
argentiferous galena is exploited which outcrops in Baiburt, be- 
tween Trebizond and Erzerum, in the same basin of Chorokh on 
the west. 

About 20 km. southeast of Baibourt is found Maden-Khan mine 
which occupies an area of about 400 M. It is in the vicinity of 
green rocks crossing Lower Cretaceous formations. The copper 
is also associated with these rocks. 

In the valley if Imerkhim, near Artvin, and further south, 


























in Khordalan, the argentiferous lead is found associated with 
copper, zinc and with little manganese and traces of gold. 

Going back to the west, on the western bank of Kizil-Irmak, 
following a meridional zone, we find the argentiferous lead mines 
at Denek-Maden, which is since long time, abandoned. 

Toward the north, Karahissar presents a silver mine, men- 
tioned sometimes by Barth. Further to east on the west of 
Sivas and Akdagh, between Amasia and Kaisarie, and interest- 
ing galena deposit associated with pyrite, found in crystalline 
calcareous rocks, alternating with mica, schists and amphibolic- 
schists, traversed by granites. The minerals in the vicinity pre- 
sent a mass which on the surface, is filled with oxide of iron 
and pyrite, with ochreous matters, and associated with calamine 
which does not outcrop nicely. 

Kebban Maden.- — ^ About i8 miles west-northwest from Khar- 
put, a group of limestone mountains fills up all the space inter- 
vening between this point and the Euphrates to the north and 
West, and through these a deeply cut valley runs to the north- 


west extending for six or eight miles to the Euphrates, where 
for some distance around the point of confluence are worked the 
silver mines of Kebban Maden. The mountains around the silver 
mines exhibit in general bare surfaces of gray, compact lime- 
stones, or of argillaceous and chloritic slates, both of which ap- 
pear to be without fossils. On both sides of the valley in which 
the town is situated, rise sharp peaks of a hard feldspathic por- 
phyry, containing large crystals of pink common feldspar and 
sometimes exhibiting a slaty texture with the crystallized parts 
so ill defined that where it occurs in contact with the clay slates 


it is difficult to assign to each its proper boundary. This erup- 
tive rock also makes its appearance more frequently in the bot- 
tom of the neighboring valleys. A sharp ridge of the same rock 
along the back of the east side of the town and there forms bold 
precipices facing the river virhich flows almost beneath. A little 
farther to the north the porphyry is interrupted by a band of 
ochreous matter which probably before the formation of the val- 
ley of Kebban communicated vy^ith a similar patch on the oppo- 
site side, forming a lode or dike. The surface of hills as well 
as here and there on the opposite side of the Euphrates are cov- 
ered with innumerable rubbish heaps formed in attempts to open 
mines which have already been pushed more than two or three 
feet in the ground. The mines worked lie beyond the ridge on 
the west of the town and are even more miserably directed than 
those of Arghaneh. The edit mouths are driven through shale 
and limestone whfch here and there shows on the surface small 
strings and lumps of galena ; but so irregular and dirty are the 
works that little can be seen underground to inform us how the 
ore occurs. The lower mines exhibited some rich portions of 
nearly pure argentiferous sulphuret of lead but it nowhere had 
the appearance of occuring in veins. In the upper mine, a large 
quantity of soft iron ochre, or sort of gossan mingled with threads 
of gypsum, is excavated as ore, being found to contain Hke the 
galena from an ounce to an ounce and a half of silver in 100 lbs. 
Near the junction of two species of rock, whether limestone or 
shale, or one of these with porphyry, the ore is more plentifully 
disseminated than elswhere. 

This is a complex deposit of Argentiferous galena, blende and 
pyrite with antimony. In higher parts the sulphide and the chlor- 
ide of silver, anglesite, gypsum, etc., exist abundantly. This mine 
had been exploited by German engineers in 1847 and abandoned 
soon after. 

Bulgar-Maden. — The Bulgar-Maden lies in the Cilician Taurus 
sixty-five Km. north of Mersina. The beds toward the south are 
sligtly inclined containing no eruptive rocks; but toward the 
north occurs many plicated eruptive rocks which are followed 
by microgranulites, porphyrites of relatively ancient origin, Cre- 
taceous-Eocene serpentines, and Tertiary discharges, extending 
toward north, in the Argeaus mountains. 



The stratified series starts with the schists in glaucophane, suc- 
ceeding he calc-schists and dolomitic calcareous rocks the age 




































Q P 























































?? o 


1-1 C^ fO 


of which is not exactly determined. Briss includes them in the 
devonian of Anti-Taurus. 

The central calcareous rocks of the chain presents all the char- 
acters of coral reef formations. On the north it becomes more 
marly and much more stretched in the action of ebbing, and 
sharply folded with ruptures. 

To the Devonian axis is applied the Tertiary formations on both 
sides, showing a distinct undulation in the dolomitic calcareous 
rocks. The Hercyenan Movement is here obvious, same way as 
in the Alpian chains. 

These Tertiary deposits include in the Miocene gypsum the 
Lower Eocene Nummulitic beds, the sandstones on the north, the 
Oligocene marly calcareous rocks on the south. Thus the dissim- 
ilarity of Eocene rocks on both sides gives clue for the existence 
of two separate seas of distinct sedimentation 

Toward the northwest the dolomite and porphyrites of Ylang- 
dagh rise up against the folded Tertiary rocks with a fault fol- 
lowing the abundant sources of the thermal of Elidja. Near 
Nigde the Tertiary beds are folded, like those on the south, in a 
slight degree. These roll down towards the plains of Great Salt 
Desert, and disappear under the lavas and dolomites of northeast, 
or under the Pliocene sediments. 


The Bulgar-dagh mine is geographically located in a valley, 
the road of which is opened from Chifte-khan, at the junction of 
main road leading from Nigde to Taurus. 


The hills upon the north flank of the mine, presents the Devon- 
ian dolomitic calcareous rocks overlying the schists and nummu- 
litic grits. The calcareous rocks are traversed by microgranulites 
playing a great role in the dislocation of these metallizing waters. 
These microgranulites form irregular veins, either round or len- 
ticular, in the calcareous rocks. The serpentine rocks of Eocene 
age appear in different points in the ordinary condition of the 

The primitive form of metallization is difficultily visible; be- 
cause the beds are subjected to an extensive alteration. 

The metalliferous formation extends about lOO km. up to the 
contact of calcareous rocks with Eocene schists. The schists 
are traversed by serpentine from which the minerals are derived 
according to Briss. 

Beyond this contact of calcearous rocks with schists, there is 
same way, a contact of calcareous rocks with microgranulites 
which is characteristic phenomena observed in the ore bodies of 
Leadville, Colorado. The zone of this microgranulite is pursued 
in all extension in the metallic formation of Bulgar-Maden. Some 
masses of minerals are filled in the pockets of this microgranu- 
lite which miners call Beyaz-tash (white stone). 

This is a bed of contact which is subjected to alteration 
below the level of the valley. This change, according to Briss, 
is due to subterranean circulating waters, in contact with metal- 
lic sulphures. The traces of many subterranean rivers, ,now 
dried, are still there visible. 

The deposit, situated on an altitude of about 2000 to 2400 
meters, is divided into two zones. The first, (galleries of Seru- 
sat, Tnoalle, Yourkanji, Teki-deresi), approached by the axis 
of the mountain and is deep-seated, and less altered. The more 
compact limestones are more replaced by galena. The second is 
exterior and more superficial and offers big grots. The soil in 
grots represents a sandy and muddy deposit of lead carbonate 
mixed with red, yellow, and black oxide of iron. The pockets 
in calcareous rocks are filled with metals, accumulated without 
any order. There, it exists in a series of natural halls, and in 
arches furnished with stalactite of calcareous rocks, and cov- 
ered with a recent and contemporaneous transparent crust of 
carbonate of lime. 


The deposits, in this special natural phenomena, are extraor- 
dinarily rich in lead, silver and gold. Aicording to Briss, the 
medium tenor of ore contains 20 per cent, lead; 65 Kg. silver 
and 30 to 40 gr. gold per ton of lead. This tenor of gold gives 
clue for the existence of pyrite from which the iron oxide is 

The argentiferous-galena is exploited in Bereketly-Maden, 
in the vicinity of Bulgar-Dagh, on the north east of Arpa-Ouch- 
ourou, in Ak-dagh, extreme west of Ala-dagh; in Farach or 
ourou, in Ak-dagh, extreme west of Ala-dagh; in Bulgar-dagh 
and Mount Argeas; in Gulek, south of Bulgar-dagh. Here, de- 
posits of lead and silver are found in a system of calcareous 
rocks alternating with talc-schists and serpentine which according 
to Tchihatcheff they belong to Eocene. 

The exploitation of argentiferous-auriferous lead of Bulgar- 
dagh is conducted by many specialists but the developments have 
been made in a very rudimentary ,way, without any plan, with 
imagination, and absolute inexperience. Turk government has 
never followed the advices and directions given by French en- 
gineers, and the extraction was soon suspended. The extraction 
attained to about 2000 tons in 1892. 

This mine was Turkish state property, has some mining so far 
little developed in the argentiferous cementation zone. The 
bed stretches for some 20 Km. in length and lies only 16 Km. as 
the crow flies from the Baghdad railway. 

Silver-lead of Hudavendighar. — ^The deposits of the district of 
Mysia have been investigated by many mining engineers for a 
long time. The direction of the beds is to north-east and ex- 
tend from Smyrna to the Sea of Marmora. The essential zone 
of metallization of silver seems to be augite-andesite rocks in 
contact with limestones. According to the observations of 
Messrs. Weiss and Berg this contact had -not only played here 
a physical role like the ■ schists and calcareous rocks of Thasos, 
in Laurion, in Sardaiga, but andesite growth has occasionally 
developed in the embedded calcareous rocks, a gangue of gran- 
ite, angite, epidote and anorthite, among whose the metallic sul- 
phur is crystallized contemporaneously. 

All theories on the origin seem incontestibly to be a Ter- 
tiary metallization, because it is posterior to andesite. 


According to the descriptions of Messrs. Weiss and Berg, the 
metallic sulphur and silica are developed in contact with augite, 
andesite, and carboniferous calcareous rock, in a zone from 2 to 
5 meters large. A similar case is observed by Bukowski in the 
great part of Greek Archipelago and in Thrace. Along this 
contact zone the calcareous rocks have undergone metamorphism 
and have been silicified. The microscopic examination of this 
rock made by Berg, shows well the original association of sul- 
phur with the metamorphic minerals. The Umestones are after- 
wards replaced by silicates a very small proportion of which 
hardly shows the following order of consolidation: first epido- 
lite, second, garnet with pyrite, third, anorthosite with galena. 
The metallic sulphurs are developed in nests or masses, in the 
vicinity of the contact, either in calcareous rocks or specially 
in the same andesite, where it has. met with some good nests 
in the fissures, in which they follow a columnar structure. Some- 
times a pocket of very hard and compact galena is found em- 
bedded in the andesite, 26 meters long, from 3 to 5 meters wide, 
and 6 meters deep. After Weiss is found a galena of columnar 
structure and many meters thick. 

It is observed that the case is most favorable in those places 
where the calcareous rocks lie below the andesite. This con- 
tact is frequtntly marked by a kind of argillaceous and brecci- 
ated residue (salbande) which acknowledge the posterior sliding. 

In the entire system of the deposits manganese also occurs 
near the contact of augite andesite, with calcareous rocks. This 
in relation with the calcareous formations, sometimes attain to 
100 meters in size. It proves mostly the superficial alteration. 
The pyrolusite is mixed there with the argillaceous residue of the 
dissolution of calcareous rocks. 

Balia-Maden. — The best developed silver-lead mines of 
Hudavendighar province occurs near the town of Balia, at a dis- 
tance of about 100 km. from the Sea of Marmora. The ore 
occurs in a contact-zone between Tertiary augite-andesite and 
Carboniferous limestone. The contact zone varies between 6 and 
16 ft. in width. The limestone at the contact is silicified but 
barren. In the andesite, on the other hand, are found accumu- 
lations of pure galena which seem to be connected with fissures 
parallel to contact zone. The ores carry galena, blende, and py- 


rite, and contain on an average from 16 to 20 per cent, lead and 
8 per cent. zinc. 

The plant at Balia comprises a mill of 400 tons daily capacity 
for the production of lead concentrate, and a Wetherhill magnetic 
separator for making a blende product. The smelting works are 
provided with a water-jacket lead-furnace of rectangular sec- 
tion, I by 1.8 meters, of 100 tons daily capacity. The slags pro- 
duced contain 20 per cent, lead, 20 grains silver, and 10 per 
cent, zinc per ton. 

In 1903, the mine output amounted to 63000 tons, yielding 
7600 tons of pig lead, with an average content of 97.5 per cent, 
lead and 1950 grams silver per ton. Output in 1913, 13076 tons 
of crude lead and 5000 tons of zinc ore, with 42 per cent. zinc. 
Amount of ore shown by the latest exploration, made by Germans 
(information from Gen. Beyschlag, 1919) 300,000 to 350,000 
tons; further explorations may show more. 

The pig lead is transported to the coast, whence it is shipped 
to Frankfort in Germany for refining. Besides the lead pro- 
duct, about 200 tons of zinc concentrate, assaying 41% zinc is 
produced annually. The company owns and operates the lig- 
nite coal mines at Manjilik. Here an electric power station has 
been installed. Generators having a total capacity of 700 horse- 
power produce the current, which is transmitted to Balia and 
the mines. The smelting coasts, including preliminary roasting, 
are about 60 francs (11.40 dollars) per ton of ore treated. Mill- 
ing costs amount to 3.8 francs (72 cents). 

South of Kurmasti, two deposits of silver-lead ores are 
known, at Dumbeltek and Kesikdere. An inspection of the aban- 
doned working at this point reveals geological conditions simi- 
lar to those observable at Balia. 

About 25 km. northwest of Soma there exists a district from 
which, according to reports, galena float has been found in as- 
socation with blende and calcopyrite. The ores occur in decom- 
posed andesite, a kind of stockwork containing veinlets of calcite 
and barite, from i to 5 meters large, where exist the galena, cupri- 
ferous pyrite and pyrite. The rocks composed of some lenticu- 
lar quartz and braunspath with galena and blende 5 meters wide 
30 meters long. On this point has never been made a tentative 


A very similar bed exists at 6 km. south of Beigerlerkoi, equal- 
ly galena and blende with barite in trachyte. 

At 10 km. distance from Perghama an antique work carries 
argentiferous galena, with masses of calamine. Some galena and 
cupriferous pyrite are forming pockets or tracing the columns in 
calcareous rocks in the. vicinity of a trachyte in the same condi- 
tions as in Balia-Maden. 

At 45 km. distance from east-southeast of Broussa, 3 km. 
from Hairie, a region represents antimony, a pyriteous mass of 
10 meters large, embedded in the: calcareous rocks, containing a 
little disseminated cupriferous pyrite. Not very far from there, 
in calacareous rocks exists two beds of pyrite with galena, in- 
terstratified in a series of calcareous rocks and schists, inter- 
calated one between the porphyry, the other between the por- 
phyry and calcareous rocks. 

Towards east, between Nicie (Isnik) and Isnik-cheir, near 
Kerasliyaila, the veins of quartz carrying pyrite, galena and a 
little cupriferous pyrite are cut in open air ; these are intercal- 
ated between the decomposed porphyry. These veins are very 

Year Value Kilos 

1891 $55,000 1,323 

1892 55,000 1,323 

1893 159.236 6,334 

1894 30,000 1,516 

189s 33.821 1,516 

1896 32,821 1,525 

1897 29,314 1,515 

1898 28,927 1,525 

1899 38.900 2,033 

1900 40,139 2,033 

1901 38,531 2,033 

1902 250,577 14,942 

1903 250,305 14,566 


1904 345.420 17,022 

1905 367>35i 17.107 

1906 367.351 17.107 

1909 7.791 

1910 7.791 


The provinces of Trebizond (Pontus), Caucasian Armenia, and 
Diarbekr are for a long time known as the best localities of rich 
copper deposits. The copper ores of Trebizond form naturally 
the continuation of the Caucasian deposits. 

On the south of Ineboli,an ancient mine of argentiferous cop- 
per, in Bakir-Kuressi, has been famous since ancient times. 

Six different properties have been operated in the vicinity of 
the sea-port of Sinope. 

Traversing the course of the Kizil Irmak, we find, on the south 
of Kerasun, a group of ores composed of veins of various filHngs, 
generally embedded in the crystalline schists. Among these are 
the copper mines of Maden-Koi, Gelivera, Sarababa, and Ispie. 
At Ispie important exploration is being conducted on a copper 
concession thickly studded with old workings. They are con- 
trolled by an Anglo-native Company. The ore bodies were 
worked superficially 800-900 years ago. Within the cast of 25 
years, French and English syndicates have done considerable de- 
velopment work on these properties. 

Little further toward east and on the south of Trebizond, a 
high grade copper ore is reported from Maden Khan, from vicin- 
ity of the towns of Gumushkhane and Karahissar. In this dis- 
trict the ore exists in the form of veins with copper gravels and 
pyrite, silver bearing galena and sulphate of zinc which cross a 
propylitized augite-andesite. Here and there are volcanic tuffs 
impregnated with copper gravels and which contain concretions 
rich in sulphate of zinc (39 per cent). In other cases there are 
contact conditions involving sulphides (copper gravels, pyrite and 
tremolite) in masses of Cretaceous limestones which have been 
engulfed in eruptive rocks. 

Archavatal is one of the most important centers for getting 
copper and manganese. Old rocks are plentiful here. 

In the Artvin district south of Datum the niines of Zangul 


and Ergha have been worked with success. Here are veins and 
masses of Granophyr passing to a diabase porphyry in a certain 
sandstone and both rocks are penetrated by numerous quartz 
veins which contain irregular ore bodies of different sulphides, 
especially those of copper and iron associated with lead carbonate 
and still less zinc blende. 

Khvartz-khana, near Artvin, had a mining and smelting works, 
ready before the war, but never operated, belonging to the Sie- 
mens family and capable of yielding 2000 tons of copper a year. 
In the same region an American company possesses a mining and 
smelting works at Dzanzul, which produced 3,030 tons of copper 
in 1912 and 4000 tons in 1914, i. e., one third of the whole Cau- 
casus output, and one tenth of that of Russia. 

Karabagh Zone. — At Migri, the copper is found associated with 
molybdenite and iron pyrite in granulites. 

The same group of Copper-Molybdenite exists at Hedgenan. 
The rest of the mineralization is formed especially of copper, in 
the southeast part of western Karabagh, in Pyrdandi, Okchai, 
Katar, Barabatoun, Shikhaus, Gavart, Astamal, Jivanik, etc. In 
dififerent points these chalcopyrite are auriferous and associted 
with galena and blendes. 

On the flank of Sahend copper, lead, antimony and arsenic are 
found associated with each other. 

The oldest rocks of Jurassic age of Caucasian chain are believed 
to contain the most important metalliferous deposits. 

The three copper producing centres of the region are Kedabag, 
26.5 miles from Daliar Station, on the Tiflis-Baku railroad, 
Allah-Verdi, on the railway from Tifiis to Alexandropol ; and 
thirdly, the Elvach or Zangezur district, 130 miles from Elvach, 
on the first named railway. 

Kedabag. — This is the largest producing centre of the Trans- 
caucasia, and has the largest smelting plant. It hes 26.5 miles 
from, and 450 ft. above Dalliar, the nearest railroad station on 
the Baku line. The deposits are found in the side of Copper 
Mountain Mio-Dagh, 5922 ft. high, occurring as lenticular mass- 
es found in a belt of quartz-porphyry 3500 ft. long and 1700 ft. 
wide, with diorite to the south and diabase porphyry on the west. 

The later rock occurs in dikes cutting the quartz-porphyry, 
and also as a mass partly covering the ore-bearing rock and form- 






















ing the mountain summit. A peculiar plagioclase-pyroxene-gar- 
net rock, called "Kedabegite" is the youngest rock of the district, 
and is always near the ores. 

The ore bodies are lenticular in shape; i6 of them are known, 
varying in size from 33 ft to 820 ft. in length, 16.5 ft. to 165 ft. 
in width, and 6.5 ft. to 165 ft. in thickness. These lenses do 
not outcrop, but occur 120 ft. to 420 ft. below the surface. 

The ore consists of pyrite and pyrrhotite carrying chalcnpyrite 
and some covellite, and rarely copper glance. The ore shows 
gradual transitions to the country rock, and the lenses sometimes 
consist of rock seamed by veinlets of pyrites ore. There are, 
however, no true fahlbands. 

The richer ore is found against the hanging wall and fades out 
toward the foot into barren material. The richer copper ores in- 
variably occur with zinc-blende, and carry considerable barite and 
quartz. Galena and magnetite are rare constituents of the ore. 

The ores vary from 3 to 5 per cent, copper, with .005 to .008 
per cent, precious metals, of which .4 is gold. These metals occur 
in the Chalcopyrite. The 7 per cent, or better ore is smelted in 
the reverberatory furnaces, using petroleum as fuel, to a 23 to 
30 per cent, matter, which is re-treated in blast furnaces to an 88 
88 to 90 per cent, blister copper that carries 2 lb. silver and 0.5 
oz. gold per ton. The low grade ore is leached and in part sold 
for acid manufacturers. 

The Galizuski mine is at Elizabethpol. It produced 1,390,095 
lbs., in 1899. 

The Dzansulkli mine in Tiflis (Kutais) has recently been ac- 
quired by the Caucasus Copper Company, an English concern. 
The deposit is a lens 260 to 500 ft. wide, 100 ft. long, and opened 
for 164 ft. in depth. It consists of pyrite carrying Chalcopyrite, 
with a quartz gangue, and averages 3 per cent, copper with no 
precious metals. The output for 1889 was 505,568 lbs. This is 
too siHcious to smelt, as fluxes are expensive. It will be con- 
centrated by magnetic separators, experience showing excessive 
slimes and losses with wet concentration. A 100-ton plant is 

Elvach District. — The Sunik mines are the largest of the dis- 
trict and one of the three largest producers of the transcaucasian 
region. They are located near the Persian frontier, 130 miles 


from Elvach, the nearest station on the Transcaucasian railway 
line. The ores occur in quartz veins carrying chalcopyrite as- 
sociated with bomite, tetrahedrite.pyrite, and rarely native cop- 
per. Small values in gold and silver occur. 

There are 20 veins varying from 7 inches to 4 feet in width 
and clustered, in a range running northwest and southeast, 
through dark green andesite and black diabase. Fault fissures 
cut the veins and country rock. 

The old workings are primitive, narrow adits running 100 to 
300 feet into the hillside, and both ore and water were carried in 
leather bags. 

The copper ores occur in quartz veins. The ore consists of 
chalcopyrite, and bomite, tetrahedrite and pyrite, with accessory 
blende and galena, the usual oxide ores and native copper being 
present. Old shafts 130 feet deep attest the energy of the ancient 
miners, when ores below 15 per cent, were not workable. 

The ore occurs in northwest and southeast quartz veins cut- 
ting andesite, and in crush zones or breccias between syenites and 
diorites, the ores carrying copper glance, galena, and sphalerite. 
The veins have a proved length of 700 feet in depth. The output 
for 1900 was 800 tons of copper. Only 7 per cent, ore or better 
is treated, and this is smelted at Sounthsy for 5.8 dollars a ton. 
Mining costs 8.08 dollars per ton. 

The Allah-Verdi district lies in a very mountaineous tract about 
50 miles south of Tiflis. The ores occur in pockets in fractured 
dacite and quartz andesite. It is pyritic and treated by modified 
pyrite smelting. There are three deposits, Akhtala, Allah- Verdi, 
and Chambuk. An enrichment near gypsum masses is noted. Ga- 
lena rich in gold and silver occur near the uppermost part of the 
first-named deposits. The mines, though ancient, have but recent- 
ly reopened. 

In 1902 the Transcaucasia produced 106,718 tons or ore, yield- 
ing 3438 tons of copper. 

Arganeh-Maden. — An important copper mine is found in the 
Taurus mountains at Arganeh, (district of Diarbekr). Arganeh, 
lies about halfway between Kharput and Diarbekr. The space 
comprised between Kharput which measures about 50 miles from 
the mines presents a series of limestone and marly slates belong- 
ing to Cretaceous period. The higher portion generally consists 

1 66 


of calcareous strata abounding in Nummulites, while the marls, 
■vVhich for the most part occupy a lower position are highly meta- 
morphic, being changed in color and frequently hardened to the 
consistency of siliceous slate. Below both although sometimes 
occurring in dikes high as the mountain sides, appear rocks of dial- 
lage and actinolite in great variety. To the west of Kharput 
the mountains exhibit a dififerent character. Their chief mass 
is composed of limestones and slates of an older period. The 
eruptive rocks occurring in juxtaposition with these are syenites, 
diallage rocks, basalt, similar to that of the plateau of Diarbekr. 
The city of Diarbekr is but on an extensive plain covered with 


1. Dialage rocks. 

2. Sulphuret of iron and copper. 

3. Limestone. 

4. Metamorphic slates. 

rough fragments of basalt, resting upon more compact masses of 
the same rock. On the southwest this igneous formation extends 
beyond the town of Severek, a distance of 60 miles from the Tigris 
and in approaching the mountains to the northwest we find the 
same series continued for 20 miles. At Arganeh the southern 
outposts of the Taurus present their most remarkable feature. 
The serpentine is laid at base of Arganeh Maden, in the valley of 
the Tigris, and in the ravine formed by a rivulet which pours in 
its tribute close below the town. The rocks are generally full of 
leakage, and contain the magnesian minerals also. The breccia 
appears to constitute the outer wall of the cupriferous mass at 
Arganeh Maden. This mass though it continues in depth to the 
level of waters of Tigris, has not hitherto been opened anywhere 
except on the surface of the mountain above the town. It appears 
to be but one large lump of ore consisting of double sulphurets 


of copper and iron, planted amid these serpentines or perhaps be- 
tween them and the marls. In the mines not the slightest charac- 
ter of a vein or bed was to be seen, but floor and walls consisted 
entirely of solid pyrite, diversified only by stalactite cuttings of 
blue and green vitriol. This extended to a depth of 60-70 feet 
but in addition 20-30 feet which had been excavated were filled 
with water. The shafts are scatteded irregularly over a part of 
the mountain which is almost level and is about 300 feet in dia-m- 
eter and since in all of these shafts the same appearance are pre- 
sented, we may be justified in considering the ore as forming 
rather an isolated mass than as belonging either to a bed or lode. 
The pyrite varies so much in quantity that a large proportion is 
left untouched by the miners, not repaying them for working. In 
general, the ore contains from 10-20 per cent, of copper, while 
the better sort rises 20-20 per cent., and occasionally a little vitre- 
ous copper on pure sulphuret occurs, when the percentage is much 

From all accounts very high-grade ore is mined at this point 
within <an area of 12 km. square. The deposit is known to have 
been exploited since the year 1096 A. D. During recent years, 
operations have been carried on intermittently by the Government, 
both on a leasing system and by direct management. In 1874 this 
mine was reopened under the direction of Austrian engineers and 
in 1896 under the Italian egineers, but closed on account of no 
capital. Cuinet gives the following analysis of this ore. Cu 30%, 
Fe 40%, S 30%. Weed states that the ore is high-grade, carry- 
ing from 10 to 12% Cu. Mining is conducted in the rriost primi- 
tive fashion. The ore is broken to nut size, conical heaps of the 
broken material are built up and covered with wood to which fire 
is set. This roasting lasts three days, and is succeeded by a simi- 
lar operation on the product of the first roast. The resulting 
matter, containing 25 to 30 copper, is smelted in closed kilns from 
which the "black copper," as it is known to the trade, is finally 
derived. All of this black copper is transported on camel-back 
to Tokat, where it is refined and subsequently shipped to the 
sea-port of Alexandretta. The cost of mining and smelting is 
estimated at less than 3c. per pound, this being the price paid by 
the Government, which so far, has reseved for itself the sole 
right of purchasing the mattes. Transportation from Tokat to 


Alexandretta costs 2c. per pound. 

According to recent researches of Germans, the ore does not go 
very deep, and that the extent of principal bed is equivalent to 
1.7 to 2 million tons. 

Some old copper mines at Tilek on the south and west exten- 
sion of the Dujik mountain in Dersim are of special interest be- 
cause of association of tin with the rich copper ore. 

Years Metric Tons. 

1897 326 

1900 2341 

1901 1665 

1902 1 1 18 

1903 1422 

1904 965 

1905 711 

1906 432 


There are extensive deposits of iron ores in Anatolia and Ar- 
menia, but the old iron industry is entrely dead, and the Euro- 
pean companies did not invest the capital necessary to build blast 

Toward the east of Trebizond, along the axis of diorite, out- 
crops a bed of iron ores, in the valley of Kalo-potamos at Demir- 
dagh. This deposit which has relation to green rocks, is espe- 
cially noted in reason of historical traditions calling this region 
of Khalybs as the cradle of the metallurgy of iron. 

The Damir-Tash on the left bank of the Bolnis River (Som- 
ketian) shows the intersection of two N. N. — iS. S. E. W. trend- 
ing systems of hematite wth 23-60 per cent, iron, in Turonian 

Similar conditions obtained at Sizimadeni on the southern ex- 
tension of the same N. N. W. — S. S. E. line. The hematite was 
extensively mined. 

Still further south in the Dybakli pass between Varatal and 













Miskhan on the south side of the Pambak chain appear hematite 
veins and nests in the chloritized contact zone in pyroxene por- 

A thin spreading scale magnetite mass exists in an augite epi- 
dote garnet rock at Dashkessen, in the Gokcha chain. 

A very pure hematite has been obtained from the nearby Bo- 

At Chinarii, not far from EHzabethpol the iron is 2.2 meters 
thick and affords up to 65 per cent. iron. 

Considerable beds of limonite and magnetite exist on Kishala 
plateau (east Karabagh.) 

Iron glance is obtained in the Talori mines in Taurus. 

In the vicinity of Diabekir, in the valley of Tigris River, 
sands of magnetite are existing. These mechanical preparations 
executed on volcanic rocks where the tenor of iron oxide is very 
notable as existing in different localities of Armenia playing a 
great role in primitive metallurgy. 

Cilicia is an important district containing the richest ore bodies 
of iron and well known for its old iron industry long time in the 
past. The chief mines are situated in the Bulgar-Dagh, Bierout- 
Dagh (Zeitun), in the vicinity of Aleppo and Belen. All these 
mines occur in the limestone in contact with serpentine rocks. 

In Bulgar-dagh, in Cilician Taurus veins of limonite occur in 
limestone (see description of Bulgar-Maden). In the same 
range, at diflferent points, there are extensive beds of limonite 
and hematite. Some of them have been mined at different times. 
There were formerly furnaces in this region. 

On the slopes of Beirout-Dagh, 15 miles from Zeitun to north- 
east, at the foot of eastern slope of Anti-Tuarus, exists an ex- 
tensive deposit of high-grade hematite. This is known to the 
blacksmiths throughout the Syria and Mesopotamia as obtaining 
their iron from the natives working these deposits. 

The natives have been smelting the iron ore in an imaginarily 
built blast furnace, using the woods cut from neighboring forests 
as fuel, and the blast was supplied by a large pair of bellows 
operated by two especially trained bears. 

This working was abandoned 25 years ago, on account of 
political troubles. This is one of the least visited locations by 
foreign engineers and research men, on account of its inaccess- 


ible location and unfavorable political conditions. 

Continuing the chains of Anti-Taurus we find an abundant de- 
posit of hematite in the veins of the mica schists and argillace- 
ous rocks with calcareous intercalations on the side of Kozan- 
dagh. This region has also been very difficult to approach on ac- 
count of unfavorable political conditions. 

Tchihatcheff has shown long ago the existence of carbonifer- 
ous coal beds either in the vicinity of Zeitun iron mine or Kozan- 

Iron mines are also worked in the vicinity of Aleppo. 

In eastern Asia Minor iron ores have been discovered at Vierla 
and Bazar-Koi. 

Magnetic iron beds are surveyed by Germans during war, at 
Ayasmund north of Smyrna; many other occurrences, specially 
the red iron stone passing into emery are found in this neigh- 


Asia Minor has been for many years the most important pro^ 
ducer of chromite in the world. At least 120 places have been 
named where chrome occurs; these are mostly in the province 
of Broussa, Aiden, Konia, Angora, Adana, Aleppo, Diarkebir, 
etc. The most important mines being in Broussa in Makri, pro- 
vince of Hudavendighar, and in Antioch near Aleppo and Isken- 

The chrome was discovered first by Pro. J. L. Smith in 1848 
at Broussa, city situated on the south east of Constatinople at 
57 miles distance. It occurs here, as elswhere, exclusively in the 
serpentine in the shape of pockets and veins of irregular extent 
and size. The mine of this district was practically a monoply in 
the hands of Messrs. Patterson. Another large deposit, also 
discovered by the same man, exists at Harmanjik, about 15 miles 
south of Broussa, under same conditions of occurrences as above. 

The Chrome ore of Asia Minor having a very low silica 
content and being very soft have been in great demand, and for 
many years have constituted the principal source of supply of both 
American and European consumers. 

Mr. Show contributes the following analysis of these ores : 


Per Cent. 

Sesquioxide of chrome 55-04 51-70 56-8o 

Protoxide of iron 12.63 14-20 12.06 

Alumina "-84 i4-io 14.00 

Magnesia 16.19 i4-30 i5-00 

Silica 2.00 3.50 1.45 

Lime i-40 i-7o 0.70 

Water 40 -30 0.15 

Total 98.86 99.80 100.16 

The Vilayet of Aidin is a province in Asia Minor which has 
a coast line extending from opposite the island of Mytiline to 
beyond Makri, opposite the island of Rhodes, and embraces al- 
most the entire basins of the two principal rivers, the Sarabat 
(Hermas) and the Meander (Mendereh), besides some smaller 
ones. The principal town is Smyrna, the center of trade of the 
district, from which two railways run into the interior along the 
valleys of the two rivers just mentioned. 

The greater part of this country is composed of limestone, 
sand, schists, and presents a fine example of orthodox regional 
metamorphism. The shell, mud and other beds, originally de- 
posited over a sea bottom, extending probably far beyond the 
region here described, have been completely metamorphosed, the 
limestone of pure white saccharoid marble, now covering large 
areas, and the other bed interstratified with it, to schists of vari- 
ous kinds — .mica, chlorite and hydromica, often changing gradu- 
ally the one into other and sometimes passing insensibly into 
gneiss. In several localities the schist contain regular octahedra 
of magnetite up to half an inch in diameter. 

The general strike of these formations throughout the country 
is about east and west, though locally the schists are much folded, 
and strike and dip in all directions. The average dip is steep but 
not uniform, and is not always apparent. South of Aidin it 
appears to be to the north. Further north again, at Odemish, the 
dip is south, indicating several parallel foldings of strata, the 
number and extent of which observations were not sufficient to 

In several places serpentine belts occur. These appear to be 


interstratified with the marbles and schists, and would thus point 
to a result of general metamorphism on original possibly glaucon- 
itic deposits; but further investigation is necessary before it can 
be definitely asserted that they are not alteration products of 
intrusive sheets of basic olivine rocks. Around the bay of Smyrna 
extensive areas consist of volcanic lavas and tuffs, chiefly trachyte. 
Overlying the metamorphosed formations there are found in 
places such as between Suladan and Ala-Shehr, and south of 
Cheshme on the coast, undisturbed beds of sandstone, lying flat 
or dipping at a very sHght angle, and full of fossil shells, chiefly 

The most important chromite occurrence at present are at 
Makri, opposite the island of Rhodes, at Daghardi south and 
southwest of Olymph, and at Kemikli. 

The chrome ore in the province of Aidin was also found by 
Dr. J. L. Smith. It occurs in the serpentine in pockets and in 
veins of irregular extent. Messrs. Patterson owns the mines 
all in the neighborhood of Makri. 

The value of ore depends on its contents of sesquioxide of 
chromium. Shipments have been made from Makri containing as 
much as 58 per cent. The lowest content marketable is 47 per 
cent., and this only if the ore is soft and easily crushed. Such 
ores have been preferred to the very hard ore, which latter must 
contain at least 50 per cent, to be marketable. 

It is a curious fact that Patterson states, that the best ore is 
gotten near the surface, and that in depth it invariably becomes 

Chrome ore mines in the east of Amanur, near sea-port of 
Mersina, running 51 to 53 per cent, chromic oxide. The pro^- 
duction for the year 191 1 was 2000 tons, all being exported to 
Germany and France. 


Years Metric Tons. 

1892 13.780 

^ 20,250 

1894 J ^ 




1896 J 

1897 20,137 

1899 4.538 

1900 9.749 

1901 40,972 


Manganese ores occur abundantly in Asia Minor and Armenia. 
The most extensive beds are found in transcaucasian provinces. 
These last deposits have more or less been exploited and good 
deal of development work has been done so far. 

Transcaucasian Manganese. — Manganese ores are known to ex- 
ist in Caucasian Armenia in a number of localities, viz. : in the 
^government of Kutais, near the village of Chiaturi, in the same 
government near the Chorokh river, southward from Batum ; and 
in the governments of Erivan and Tiflis. In smaller quantities 
they are found in various other places also. The first mentioned 
deposits are by far the most important. All the manganese ore 
now known in the market as "Caucasian" ore comes from Chia- 
turi ; no other deposits in the Caucasus having been worked com- 
mercially; movements have been made, however, towards the 
exploitation of some of those on the Chorokh River. 

No other known deposit of managanese ore can approach that 
of Chiaturi in capacity for producing large quantities of high- 
grade ore at a low cost. The deposit is said to have been dis- 
covered in 1848, by the geologist Abich, but the first shipments 
were not made until 1879, when 870 tons were produced. Since 
that time, the production has steadily increased, until now the 
world relies on this deposit for about one half its supply of 
manganese ore. The total production of the mines of the Chia- 
turi arrived to 1,682,400 tons in 1898. 

Chiaturi is a village of the district of Sharopan, which forms 
part of the Transcaucasian province of Kutais. The village lies 
on the KvriUi river, a tributary of Rion, which enters the Black 
Sea, near Poti, and is now connected by a narrow gauge railway 
with the station Sharopan, 25 miles to southwest, on the main 
line of the Transcaucasian railway. 


The vicinity is characterized by high, and in some instances 
precipitous, mountain spurs left by the erosion of the valley of 
Kvrilli river, and of the ravines through which flow its tributary 

The ores of Chiaturi occur in a bedded deposit, lying almost 
horizontally, near the tops of the lofty hills in the vicinity of the 
village and at an altitude of 1000 feet above the Kvrilli river. 
The action of the elements in forming the rugged topography ob- 
served in this region has carried away, perhaps, more than one 
half the original deposit. 

The existing bed has been opened on seven of the mountains 
near Chiaturi. Of these three designated locally as Perivissi, 
Chocrotti and Itvissi respectively lie to the south of the Kvrilli 
river, and four — Organyi, Zedorganyi, Givimavi and Darkvetti, 
— lie on the south side of the river. 

The bed occurs in a brown sandstone of Miocene age, and 
has an average thickness of between 6 and 7 feet. Its dip, which 
is slight, and fairly regular, is southerly, slight faulting of the 
formation has occurred in some instances ; but few folds are ob- 
served and the bed is free from sudden or extreme variations 
from the average thickness. 

The deposit has a distinctly stratified structure and is com- 
posed largely of pyrolusite, but other oxides of manganese also 
occur. In many instances, strata of sandstone, or of loose, friable 
arenaceous and calcareous material, are intercalated with the 
manganese ore, such strata vary in thickness from a small frac- 
tion of an inch to as much (in some of the intercalated layers of 
sandstone) as 10 inches, or a foot. 

The area given by government engineers is about 60 sq. miles 
embracing the whole bed known at present time. 

It is quite certain, however, that an area of more than 22 square 
miles of the present surface is underlain by ore available for 
mining; and on this basis it is estimated that, even if the crude 
and wasteful methods now pursued should be always continued, 
the bed will yield more than 80,000,000 tons of marketable ore. 
The deposit is intercalated between two beds of limestone of 
Eocene age, and is associated with layers of sand, the ore oc- 
curring either as an oolitic stratum or as lumps disseminated in 
beds of clay, the minerals being chiefly pyrolusite and manfjanite. 


A complete analysis of very well sorted and cleaned ore from 
Chiaturi, gives the following results :— ore dred at 212'' F. 

Manganese peroxide 86.25% 

Manganese protoxide 0.47% 

Iron peroxide 0.61 % 

Oxide of copper o.oi % 

Oxide of nickel 0.30% 

Alumina ' 1-74% 

Lime ' 1-73% 

Magnesia 0.20% 

Baryta i-54% 

Potash & Soda 0.22% 

Silica 3-85% 

Carbonic Acid 0.63% 

Sulphur : 0.23% 

Phosphoric Acid (0.141 P) 0.323 

The occurrence of baryta with manganese shows the destruc- 
tion of neighboring crystalline rocks, rich in manganese, through 
weathering. In course of recent geological periods and immense 
quantity of manganese have been carried by rivers to the sea. 
Manganese so brought to the sea has been precipitated, probably, 
by slow oxidation due to oxygen dissolved in the water, through 
an absorption by descending volcanic ash, bone fragments may 
also have been operative. 

This deposit of manganese formed by sedimentation may be 
regarded as a shallow water deposit containing shark's teeth. 
From the tetonics in the place it is evident that the deposition 
of manganese has taken place in shallow water, probably in 
large lagoons and in a shallow sea fairly near the coast. 

At Kutais gneiss or granite occurs at some distance from the 
manganese deposit. The solutions must be derived this crystalline 

It must be pointed out that the manganese beds as well as 
lodes are not particularly associated with basic rocks, the major- 
ity occurring in genetic relation with acid rocks such as gneiss, 
granite, quartz porphyry, etc. The solutions from acid rocks 


probably therefore originally carried as a rule more manganese 
than similar solutions from basic rocks. 

Manganese elsewhere in Caucasus is found also in veins, often 
in pockets or masses and frequently are mixed with the gangue. 
Pyrolusite of this structure is specially found in Pontic region, 
in Archava, Riseh, and Surmeneh districts. The amount is too 
small to make mining feasible. 

The district of Phlinika in Asia Minor occupy an important 
position in the production of manganese in form of pyrolusite, 
containing 52 per cent, manganese in the ore. 

A small amount of manganese is also mined at the Zengan 
with average assays showing 83 per cent, managanese dioxide. 

Manganese mines are also worked in the province of Trebi- 
zond, on Black Sea coast. 

Occurrences of the manganese ores are, moreover, known in 
the vicinity of the seaport of Mondania, as well as near Sesh- 
keni, Balia, and Ushak, all in Anatolia. 

Internationally most important beds of manganese are found 
at Eregli on Black Sea coast. 

Years Metric Tons. 

1888 669 

1889 8000 

1892 _. . .2900 

1893 2225 

1894 8400 

X896) 23^°° 

1897 49000 

1898 55300 

1899 49468 

1900 38100 

1903 39500 

191 1 18000 




Two deposits of Cinnabar are known at present in Anatolia; 
one in the province of Konieh and the other in the district of 

About 400 miles by rail southeast of Constantinople, in the 
department of Konieh, near the old city of Iconium, now known 
as Konieh. The Konieh Mercury Syndicate, Ltd., was opened 
in 1905 to operate a cinnabar deposit of considerable promise. 

The cinnabar occurs in veinlets, nodules and small particles in 
a crystalline limestone close to the talcose-schist contact at no 
great distance from the old eruptives. The occurrence of the 
minerals is not uniform throughout the limestone ; it appears to 
be present only where, or near where, the limestone is much 
silicified, or entirely replaced by quartz suggesting that the 


1 . Limestones. 

2. Slates. 

3. Ores. 

quartz and mercury had a common origin or were deposited at 
about the same time. 

While there are a few nodules and rich veinlets of several 
inches in width, the greater part of the workable deposits consist 
of the siliceous limestones seamed and veined with the little 
stringers of the sulphide, the whole assaying from i to 2.5 per 
cent, mercury. One considerable body was found associated with 
stibnite; this carried about 8 per cent, of mercury. 

Quartz croppings and float occur at numerous points that where 
work is now being prosecuted. All of these quartz contain visible 


cinnabar, but little of a grade to be treated profitably. Scattered 
over a considerable area, however, it suggested that where the 
quartz penetrates the limestone other workable deposits would 
be found. Subsequent developments have proved this to be the 

This property is probably one of the earliest mercury mines 
to have been worked, though the date of its early operations is 
not exactly known. In this connection its rediscovery and open- 
ing are interesting. 

About 1901, four years before the operation of the mine, a 
goatherder who kept his flocks on the almost baren hills near 
Konieh corralled them at night in a limestone cave within a 
short distance of the buried cities of the Holy Land. Night 
after night they were taken there for protection. One night a 
refractory goat refused to enter the portal, and the goatherder 
picking up a stone to discipline the offending animal, noticed that 
it was heavy and dark red in color, different from other stones 
around there. Laying it aside, he one day broke it open be- 
tween two large stones and saw that it was a beautiful rose color 
on the inside. With curiosity aroused he went to an arroya below 
the cave to look for similar stones; he found one more but that 
was all. 

After this next clip was made, he went on his annual trip to 
Konieh to dispose of it, taking these two peculiar stones with 
him. The wool and stones fell into the hands of a local mer- 
chant acting for the Whittall Bros., exporters of Constantinople, 
and he too, thinking the stones were curious, sent them on to 
the seaport, to his principals when making a shipment of wool. 

One of the Messrs. Whittal was a graduate of Royal School 
of Mines, and as soon the stones fell into his hands he recognized 
them as high-grade cinnabar, knowing that mercury had been 
found at several points in Asia Minor, Hugh Whittall, the en- 
gineer, decided that when convenient, he would visit that local- 
ity. In the course of time he made the trip, with the assistance 
of local agent in Konieh, the goatherder was fotmd, also the 
cave where the goats were kept and the ravine below it, but 
nothing that in any way resembled cinnabar. 

The cave had the appearance of any limestone cave with sides 
worn smooth and the bottom covered with the dirt of centuries. 


The search for cinnabar was about given up when Mr. Whittall 
began to disfigure one of the walls with his sample pick. An 
incrustation was broken ofif and a tiny veinlet of something pink 
was seen ; picking through the incrustation in various places, the 
same conditions were found to exist in several places. In short, 
the whole bed of limestone appeared to be impregnated with 
small seams and veinlets of cinnabar, and what had appeared to 
be an ordinary limestone cave resolved itself into something look- 
ing like an old mine. The property was denounced for mining 
purposes and instructions given for cleaning the dirt. 

When the work was started, in 1905, the opening was about 
15 ft. wide and it extended 50 ft. into the hill, with the roof 
about ID feet above the floor. When completely cleaned out it 
was found to extend a little more than 100 ft. dipping with the 
limestone beds at an angle of about 10 degress from the hori- 
zontal, everywhere that the silicfied limestone appeared thereto 
was cinnabar found. When the cleaning had been done it was 
decided to put dowti a winze in the floor of the deposit to see 
what thickness the impregnated beds might have. The winze 
was started at 6 ft. it broke into several chambers almost under 
the first, parallel with it and of about the same dimensions ex- 
cept that it was nearly 250 ft. long. 

It was a surprise to find that the first cave was a mine, a 
greater surprise was in store in the second cave. Entering 
through the opening in the bottom of the winze a wierd sight 
met the eyes of the miners. Scattered over the floor of the 
chamber, in all conceivable positions, were seen the remains of 
more than 50 human skeltons. Many of the bones were im- 
bedded in the secondary deposits of limestone on the floor. There 
were great quantities of stone, hammers, several pottery lamps, 
a fair amount of charcoal, several rubbing stones and some flint 
arrow heads. 

Mining had apparently been done by firing the barren rock, 
by breaking the softer portions with hammers and by gouging 
where there rich seams of cinnabar. Deep groovers followed all 
high-grade streaks, but the tool for this work were gone. 

Working out to the surface, following the floor of the second 
chamber, 40 to 50 ft. of caved ground was pentrated, suggesting 


that the miners had been entombed by a fall of rock around the 
portal of the opening. 

Sometime before this discovery Sir W. Ramsey, the well 
known English Archiologist, had unearthed a tablet in a neigh- 
boring buried city. This tablet was dedicated to the Phrygian 
goddess of the mines, Zizima. The Phrygians inhabited this 
part of Asia Minor 1500 years B. C. and it is quite possible that 
the deposit was worked as long as 3000 years ago. 

There is no positive evidence connecting the tablet with the 
mercury deposit, but on the other hand, nothing else has been 
found resembling a mine. The thick deposit of lime, on the 
floor and walls of the openings in such an arid country as this 
is positive proof that the bones were lying there a very long time, 
and the probability is that the deposit was a flourishing paint 
mine many centuries before the birth of Christ. 

Up to the middle of the year 1905 about 15,000 tons of one 
per cent, mercury had been opened up. 

KASABOURNOU MINE : Karabournou mines are situated about 
30 km. from the town of Smyrna. The deposit lies in the vicin- 
ity of basaltic flows, and consists of metamorphic siliceous schist 
impregnated with cinnabar. Mining is done entirely in open cuts 
on ores containing as little as 0.25 per cent, mercury. When 
sorted the cinnabar appears to concentrate in the fine, and the ore 
is accordingly screened. The concentrate assays from 0.75 to 2 
per cent, mercury. 

The plant at the mine comprises two double Spirek towers, 
furnaces for broken ore, and a Cermak-Spirek furnace for fine. 

This installation has a capacity of 30 tons per day. This 
mine produces about 3000 flasks annually. The smelting plant at 
this mine includes one Spirek tower of 15 tons daily capacity 
and one Cermak-Spirek furnace of 8 tons capacity per day. 

Mine is found at an altitude of 1800 meters. Operation is 
somewhat hindered by the severe winters at this elevation. 

Years Metric Tons Value 

1908 98.5 1417s 

1909 142.0 22000 
191 1 450 flasks 



Antimony is a well known mineral in Anatolia. It is found 
in irregular veins (as it is the case for all beds of primary 
grounds) and inter-stratified in the schists, specially in veinlets 
of different sizes. The age of the deposits generally not known. 
The formation is always irregular. The stibnite is onlp accom- 
panied with quartz and pyrite. But it must geographically be 
attached to the beds of cinnabar. 

The stibnite occurs in the valleys of Broussa, Smyrna and 

The two important centers of production in the province of 
Smyrna are Eudemish andDjinli-Kaya, in both of which high- 
grade ore is found, often carrying 65 per cent, antimony. 

A double lode, the outcrop of which may be followed for 2 
km. is worked in Djinli-Kaya mine 20 km. southwest of Eudem- 
ish and 100 km. east southeast of Smyrna, on the northwest slopes 
of the Baliamaboli-dagh. The width of the deposit varies from 
a few centimeters to some meters. In 1898, 500 tons of ore 
valued at about 6000 pounds were won. 

In the same Vilayet the mines near Rosdan and Aidin city and 
finally the Gerasmos and Kordelio mines also occur. 

All these are stibnite veins containing m'ore or less pyrite and 
are imbedded in the metamorphic argillaceous schists, mica schists 
or gneiss. 

Antimony in Broussa is represented by lodes o.i to 2.0 meters 
wide, worked in a mine known as the Gometschiftlik-Antimoii 
maden, belonging to the Sultan, situated 24 km. east of GediSj. 
on the south western slope of the Kizil-dagh. The yearly pro- 
duction is about 500 tons of antimony. Here veinfilling in the 
amphibolic gneiss pass in cipolin. The veins are very irregular 
changing continually in thickness and length. They are often 
not longer than tenth of a meter, and are not wider than 2 meters 
as maximum. This mine is exploited in open cut. 

Half a Km. south of Demir-Kapu there are other antimony- 
mines. At Irvindi and Suluk-Koi. Here veinlets of quartz with 
stibnite is intercalated in the argillaceous schists 2 meters long^ 
and some centimeters wide. 

In the Vilayet of Sivas antimony ore has been opened up at 


Kara-hissar. Here the antimony ore occurred in pure igneous 
rocks free of quartz. 

In all these occurrences the antimony forms irregular veins, 
as it is the case in all primary deposits and tend to inter-tratify 
in the schists. The minerals are put usually accompanied with 
the quartz and pyrite. The association of mercury with anti- 
mony is a particularly interesting case in Tertiary formations, 
where antimony looks entirely different in these conditions than 
in the ancient chains, being associated with metallic sulphur, 
among which the cinnabar has different sizes of vein fillings. 


Years Metric Tons. 


1893 ) '°2S 

1893 \ 

1894) '545 

1895 1332 

1896 100 

1897 400 

1899 1173 

1900 267 

1901 224 

1902 481 

1903 298 

1905 188 

1906 1035 


The chief lead mines occur in the provinces of Trebizond, 
Diarbekr, Hudavendighar, Adana and Erzerum. The lead is 
found mostly associated with silver and sometimes with zinc. 

Lead mines near Van, in several adjoining districts, are dis- 
covered. Near Gulek lead mines were formerly worked and 
smelted. The deposits occur as lenticular masses in Cretaceous 
limestones, with flint passing into mica-slate. The ores include 
galenite, sphalerite and arsenopyrite. 

The only lead mines in operation in Anatolia are those at Li- 


jessi, near Karahissar and at Gamlibel, near Enderes, both of 
which are operated by Asia Minor Company. 

In Sivas, the lead ores occur associated with antimony. Two 
of the mines were worked by a British company. 

The most important beds of lead associated with silver occur 
in Balia, Boulgar-Dagh, and Keban. 

Balia-Maden. — The lead-silver is here deposited in the Tertiary 
augite-andesite rock in contact with metamorphosed limestones. 
Metallic sulphur and silica are developed in the contact of igne- 
ous rocks with limestone, in a zone from 2 to 5 meters large. 
A very small proportion of silicate replaced bp calcareous rock 
shows the order of consolidation; epidolite, garnet, with pyrite 
and anorthosite with galena. Here sometimes a pocket of very 
hard and compact galena is found embedded in the andesite, 26 
meters long, from 3 to 5 meters wide, and 6 meters deep. The 
ores carry galena, blende and pyrite, containing on an average 
from 16 to 20 per cent, lead and 8 per cent. zinc. 

Boulgar-Maden. — The mine is found in a valley on the main 
route opened from Chifte Han. The metalliferous formation 
extends about 100 km. up to calcareous rock in contact with 
Eocene schists. The schists are traversed by serpentine with 
which the minerals have relation in origin. Beyond the contact 
of calcareous rocks with schists there is a contact zone of cal- 
careous rocks with microgranulite. This is persued in all exten- 
sions in the metallic formations of Bulgar-Maden. Stone massea 
of ore are filled in the pockets of this microganulite. This bed 
is subjected to alterations below the level of the vaUey; which is 
due to subterranean circulating waters, in contact with metallic 
sulphurs. Ore is rich in lead, the medium tenor being 20 per cent. 

Keban-Maden. — This is a complex deposit of argentiferous- 
galena, blende and pyrite with antimony. Ore is formed in 
contact zone of limestones with porphyry, which is found more 
plentifully disseminated near the junction of two species of rocks; 
although some rich portions of nearly pure argentiferous sul- 
phuret of lead here and there have the appearance of occurring 
in veins. One hundred pounds of excavated ore contains i to 
1.5 ounces of silver. 



Years Metric Ton Years Metric Ton 

1894 1,078 1907 10,398 

1895 1908 11,772 

1896 1.764 1909 12,128 

1897 1,785 1910 12,700 

1900 2,800 191 1 13,000 

1905 10,000 1912 12,500 


From the amount of zinc production listed below, seems very 
probable that the exploitation of its resources has been lately- 
undertaken and some development work has been done. The data 
concerning their geological features are lacking except the zinc 
deposits of Balia. Zinc is also extracted from silver and lead 
mines as it is already discussed under their respective headings. 

A deposit of Calamine was worked at Karasu, close to the Za- 
karia river, in the province of Ismid. The mines were owned by 
a French company. 

Other known deposits of zinc ore occur in the province of 
Adana which have not yet been developed. 

A small amount of work has been done on a zinc mine at 
Bazar, in the district of Bigha. 

Zinc has also been discovered at Kirasliyaila, in the vicinity 
of the ancient town of Pergamos. 

Near Smyrna, zinc occurs with the lead, while at Karalar the 
ore is silver bearing. 

Zinc associated with silver lead of Balia-Maden, is already 

Years Metric Tons. 

1892 100 

1895 112 

f' 1309 


1898 18000 

191 1 40000 



A Tertiary cassiterite tin ore is described in Kurbaba Mountain 
near Tillek (Armenia), and between Sahend and Araxes River 
associated with copper. But those ores have more historical and 
scientific interest rather than industrial importance. 

Some kind of ore is described near Migri, (Caucasian Ar- 
menia) on Araxes associated with molybdenum and in Hejenan 
where molybdenum associated with pyrites and copper in granu- 
lites is found. 

The ancient records show that tin, cassiterite ore, was mined 
near the present towns of Sinous, and also near Aleppo. 


At Julfa, in Daridagh (Armenia), gypsum occurs in cracks. 
In these cracks of gypsum marl are found veins and nests of 
realgar and gold pigment. 

Realgar is also found further north in Bechenak near sulphur 

At Bocha in the basin o,f the lower Charoth south of Batum 
gold pigment is found which is used by dyers of Artvin. 

Valuable gold pigment mines lie at Andanise, between Bash- 
kala and Kochanese in Taurus. 

The mines, in the province of Aidin, in Anatolia, is large and 
rich deposit of Arsenic-pyrite in the vicinity of Eudemish and 

The most important deposit worked is situated in the neighbor- 
hood of Yenikoi, where from 600-800 tons per annum are pro- 
duced. This ore assays as high as 42 per cent, arsenic and car- 
ries considerable gold. 

The mines at Elkhur, near Rozdan, produce 500 tons a year. 
The ore is found in the same veins that carry the stibnite, but 
in pockets free from the presence of this last named mineral. 

Years Metric Tons. 

1893 200 

1894 V 

1895 f 3°3 



A deposit of cobalt ore has been found at Dash-Kessan, in the 
government of Elizabethpol, which takes the form of a dyke im- 
pregnated by cobalt associated with iron and copper pyrites. This 
is important among all mines of cobalt. This cobalt ore is al- 
most entirely free from nickel and consists of a thick bedded 
lode of magnetite. 

The one at Chatakh consists of a large irregular mass of di- 
orite impregnated with iron glance. 




Abdi Pasha "JJ 

Acropolis 80 

Adalia 43 

Adana . 48, 107, 109, 149, 171 

Adapazar 58 

Adriatic 81, no 

Aegean 35, 41, 47, 56, 58, 90, 

Afganistan 117 

Afion-Karahissar 95, 161, 133 

Africa 55 

Ahar 39 

Aghatch-Bashi 97 

Aidin 48, 73, 102, no, 129, 

143, 171 
Aintab 108 
Ajaris 53 
Aji Rvr. 70 
Akbaba 52 
Akcha-Ova •j'j 
Ak-chai 99, 107 
Ak-Dagh 60, 71, 82, 96, 152, 

Akhaltzik 53, 67, 68, 70, 85, 

Akhuri-Rvr. 72 
Akhmongan 39 
Akhtala 165 
Akra 108 
Ak-Serai 97 
Akstafa 67, 68 

Ala-chair "jj^ 

Ala-Dagh 54, 95, 157 

Ala-goz 50, 55, 72, 87 

Aladja-Aghzy 103, 104 

Alaja Mt. 87 

Ala-Shehr 96 

Alashkert 38, 40, 44, 46, 50, 

54, 17, 78, 95, 96, 152 
Albania no 
Albian 66 
Albistan 60 
Aleppo 170, 171 
Alexandrett 28, 58, no, 168 
Alexandropol 43, 46, 70, 71, 

87, 107, 162 
AHMt. 67,111 
Alikulikent 66 
AHzy 96 

Allah- Verdi 162, 165 
Alma-Dagh 58 
Almons 97 
Alps 36, 76, 85, 86 
Altai Mt. 35 
Amanus 56 

Amasia 40, jy , 78, 95, 86, 152 
Amasra 29, 50, 75, 76, IT, 105, 

America 74, 75, 88, 128 
Angora 40, 64, 76, 78, 95, 96, 

Antioch 171 
Anti-Taurus 26, 34, 30, 41, 

I go 


42, 47, so, 52, 53, 59, 73, 
74, 75, 82, 154, etc. 

Apaud 68 

Apshiron 1 1 1 

Arabia 31, 34, 54. 57. §5 

Arabkir 61, 86 

Rratch 96 

Ararat 34, 37, 38, 44, 45, 50, 
54, 55, 61, 69, 70, 71, 72, 
84, 86, 87, 122, 124, 144 

Arax 38, 40, 42, 43, 44, 49, 
50, 55, 61, 63, 65, 68, 69, 
82, 106, 108, III, 117, 120 

Archavatal 161 

Archipelago 35, 41, 129 

Ardahan 43, 68 

Ardanush 53, 60, 66, 82 

Ardebel 50 

Argachi 86 

Argeaus 49, 55, 73, 95, 97, 

153. 157 
Arghana 28, 67, 68, 86, 153 
Arghana-Su 67 
Arjivan 53 
Arkhava 53 
Armutli 43 
Arpa Rvr. 61, 70 
Arpa-gol 43 
Arpa-Ouchourou 1 57 
Arpatal 69 

Artvin 60, 82, 152, 161, 162 
Aryan 27 
Ashakl Mt. 37 
Ashkala 69, 70 
Asheref 50 
Asia 34, 35, 36, 57, 76, 85, 

Asia Minor 27, 29, 34, 45, 48, 

64, 82, 89, 90, 99, 107, 121, 

131, 137, 148, etc. 
Astyria 139 
Astamal 162 
Asterabad 50 
Ataineos 139 
Australia 148 
Avanos 152 
Ayasmand 28 
Azerbaijan 43, 64, 65, 69 
Azizie 126, 129 


Bab. Bournon 79 
Bagaditch 95 
Baghchejik 74, 128 
Baibazar 96 
Baiburt 106, 152 
Bairamitch 80 
Bakr-Kuressi 152, 161 
Baku no, 113, 114, 115, 116 
Balaban 55 
Balakhani 114, 115 
Balia-Maden 28, 56, 99, 158, 

Balkans 35, 37, 103, 108 
Baltic 89 
Balybagh 120 
Barabatan 162 
Barghama 98 
Bartan 95 
Bashbouran-Koi 98 
B ashkala 37 
Bashet 37 
Bashkent 44 
Bash-Koi 97 
Batum 38, 73, 84, III, 113, 

147, 161 
Bayazid 69, 86 
Bechanak 132 



Begil 108 

Behring Sea 35 

Beigerler-Koi 160 

Beirout-Dagh 28, 107, 170 

Beldjeis 96 

Belen 170 

Bereketli-Maden 96, 151 

Bergushet Rvr. 66 

Beylik 105 

Bezobdal 52 

Bibi ii'5 

Bielyiklinch 52 

Bilejik 58 

Binagadi 115, 116, 117 

Bingol 44, 45, 71 

Bitlis 107 

Bithynia 34, 40, 58, 71, JJ, 


Biyad 96 

Black Sea 34, 35, 36, 38, 40, 
42, 47, 48, 55, 57, 73, 80, 
86, 88, 90, 91, 102, no, 

"7. 147 
Bogboga 114 
Borjom 38, 53, 67 
Bolat 95, 98 
Boli 76 
Bolnis 95, 98 
ffolshya ?Keity 1 08 
Borchka 108 
Bosphorus Ji, 74, 75, 88, 90, 

Boulouk-gol 121 
Boz-bouroun 79 
Boz-Dagh 138 
Broussa 48, 57, 73, loi, 160, 

Bulanik 46 
Bulgar-Dagh 97, 157 

Bulgar-Maden 28, 153, 156, 


Caff a 132 

California 127 

Camdilli 105 

Cape-Caledonia no 

Capoo-Sou 105 

Cappadocea 58 

Caria 56, 57, 59, 79, 107 

Carpathians 35 

Caspian Sea 34, 35, 37, 42, 

52, 53. 54, 81, 87, 90, 114, 
117, 118, 119 

Caucasus 32, 35, 36, 52, 53, 
54, 57, 63, 64, 66, (fj, 83, 
84, 87, 90, 108, no, III, 
117, 162, 173 

Chabakchar 36 

Chram- Valley 60 

Chambuk 165 

Chardaklu 52 

Charel 107 

Chatma 113 

Chaoush-Aghzy 104 

Chemaera no 

Cheraker 107 

Cherkos-Deli 109 

Chifte-Khan 154 

China 48 

Chinese 35 

Chili 126, 127, 128 

Chios 56 

Chorokh 36, 38, 39, 45, 52, 

53, 55, 60, 66, 69, 72, 108, 

147, 152 
Cilicia JT, 78, 79, 86, 88, 90, 



Cilician-Gates 41, 48 
Cilician-Taurus 41, 42, 48, 57, 

Colorado 156 
Constantinople 81, 82, 102, 

146, 149, 171 
Corinth 132 
Cosbounar 129 
Cozlou 103, 104, 105 
Crete 56 
Crimea 35, Tj, 80, 83, 90, 91, 



Daata 132 

Dachichek 50, 60 

Daghardi 28 

Daghistan 84 

Dahan-Aslan 81 

Dalaman 96 

Dalmatian 35, 41 

Dammry Mt. 49 

Danga 61 

Daralagoz 39, 40, 49, 60, 61, 

82, 85, 86, 132, 135 
Darasham 68 
Dardanelles 74, 78, 79, 80, 82, 

90, 99, 132, 139 
Dary-Dagh 69 
Dashkessan 135 
Davalu 61 
Davas 59 
Dead Sea 124, 129 
Debeda dj, 71 
Degma 61 
Deki I0120 
Delgam 72 
Demir-Dagh 168 

Demir-Tash loi, 168 

Denek-Maden 152 

Dere Koi 98, 150 

Dergal 107 

Dersim 61 64, 82, 106, 108, 

Derstek 106 
Devehboyoun 55 
Devil Mt. 69 
Diadin Mt. 53, 71, 132 
Diarbekr 28, 54, 108, 134, 149, 

161, 165, 166 
Digga 117 

Digora 53 
Dinaric Arc 56, 57 
Djide 104 
Dneiper 90 
Dobrousha 83 
Dochus-punar 43, 53 
Domooz 104 
Donetz 90 
Dovantzi loi 
Duchu 68 
Dujuk 168 
Dumbeltek 159 
Durezzo no 
Dybakli 168 
Dzansugli 164 
Dzanzul 162 


Eanedeh 80 
isdrimid 99 
Egin 42, 50 
Egrilos 132 
Egypt 109 
Eibet 115 
Ekhiti-Oughlou 74 
Elburz 32, 49, 50, 54, 63 



Eldin III 

Etf ahla 1 1 1 

Elizabethpol 64, 67, 130, 164 

Eljik-Dagh 105 

Elvach 162, 164, 165 

Elma-Dagh 95 

Emir-Dagh- 122 

Eregli 73 

Ergha 162 

Erivan 46, 70, 72 

Erooh 107 

Erzerum 36, 40, 44, 45, 46, 

48, 54, 55, 70. 71, 106, 107, 

no, 137, 149, 152 

Erzingan 39, 45, 46, 50, 54, 

70, 72, 86, 120 
Eschen-Keoi 97 
Eshak-Meidan 72 
Eskil 121 
Eski-Shehr 1 31-132 
Euprates 41, 42, 45, 48, 97, 

108, III, 152, 153 
Europe 27, 36, 56, 57, 58, 74, 

75, 76, 77, 84, 85, 88, 89, 

99, 103, 117, 120 

Evdjiler 98 
Evenkoi 80 
Eyerli 44, 79 
Ezderun 98 

Feke 75 
Filios 102 
Five Pines 82 
Frankfort 159 

Frat 50, 52, 69, 70, 84, 86, 


Gaishtasar 50 

Galatia 78, 87 

Galingaya 50 

Galipoli 81, 82 

Galivera 161 

Galizuski 164 

Gandamir 44 

Gangra 120 

Ganos 109 

Gavart 162 

Gedergan- 69 

Gelies 134 

Geordiz 73 

Gerdiz 97 

Gerjik 96 

Germany 128 

Germavic 64 

Geuk-Sou 96 

Geuy loi 

Ghemlik loi 

Gibbula 81 

Gobi 35 

Gokcha 37, 38, 39, 67, 72, 84, 

Gok-Sou 41, 48 

Goleh 42 

Gori 54, III 

Gotadza 134 

Goynik 134 

Greece 70, 90, no, 140 

Greenwitch 106 

Gtosny in 

Gug Oghlou 71 

Gulek 157 

Gulek-Boghaz 41, 48 

Gul-Hissar 102 

Guile 98 

Gum-gum-liz 54 

Gumugh-Dagh 129 



Gumur 132 
Gune 95 
Gurun 97 
Gushaish 65 
Gutevaria 53 
Gyneshik 61 


Hadjin 75, 76 

Hadjiman-Yaila 97 

Hairie 160 

Halys 55, 58, 13s, 137 

Hammam 1 1 1 

Han-hai 35 

Hara 109^ 

Haran 49 

Harmanjik 171 

Hassan-Chaoushlar 129 

Hassan-Kala 71 

Hazara 108 

Hazo 120 

Hedgenan 162 

Hekiari 107 

Herbol 108, iii 

Heraclea 29, 55, 75, jj, 79, 

80, 95, 102, 103, 104, 105, 

106, 109 
Hermos 141, 143 
Himalaya 35, 57, 117 
Hindu-Kush 32,34,35,41,42 
Hipsala 85, 95, 97 
Hit III 
Hortuk 108 
Hudavendighiar 126, 149, 157, 

158, 171 
Huelva 148 

Id 60, 71 

leni-Chair 58 

Igdir 72 

Ilidja 71, 154 

Ilison 104, 105 

Ilkas-Dagh 76 

Imeritian 38, 52, 53, 108 

Imerkhim 152 

Imerkhevi 53 

India 31, 34, 57, 63, 83, 119, 

Ineboli 40, 152, 161 
Ionian 34, 41 
Iron 34, 36, 39, 57, 40, 46 
Isaurian 41, 48 
Isbarta 41, 48 
Ishikli 50 
Iskenderun 171 
Isnik 160 
Isnik Chair 160 
Ispie 161 
Italy 128 
Itushem 69 


Jadi 54, 108 

Jaxartes 35 

Jejen 52 

Jelu Mt. 37, 39, 60, 63, 72 

Jerjer 84 

Jesireh 54, 108 

Jibbah 1 1 1 

Jihun 41, 49, 107, 109 

Jivah-Geul 95 

Jivanik 162 

Jordan 55 


Kabagtepe 64 
Kargapunar 53 



Kagizman 43, 120 

Kaiserieh 55, 73, 120, 152 

Kalakent 147 

Kalburji 95 

Kalopotamos 168 

Kaulsakendi 64 

Kanlija 74 

Karabagh 32, 37, 40, 49, 50, 
52, 54, 60, 61, 64, 65, 66, 
67, 82, 83, 84, 85, 147, 162 

Karabel-Dagh 42 

Karabournu 56-95 

Kara-Dagh 41, 49, 55, 73, 95 

Karaboghaz 118, 119 

Kara-Dere 79 

Karahissar 53, 60, 68 

Karaja Mt. 54, 55, 107 

Karaja-Kaya 53 

Karakala 72 

Karakana 168 

Karakaya 50 

Karakilissa 1 1 1 

Karakoi 72 

Karapunar 74, 95 

Kara-Sou 50 

Karchkhal Mt. 53, 60, 68 

Kardarich 69 

Karkar 37 

Karmirvauk 68 

Kars 43, 54 

Kar-chai 52 

Kasanyaila 63, 83 

Kashet 55 

Kashkal-Dagh 106 

Kashkale 107 

Kasos 50 

Kastamuni 48, 58, 95, 96 

Katirlan 152 

Keban-Maden 68, 152, 153 

Kebsid 95 

Kedabek 162 

Kegeba 53 

Kegejin 50 

Kehal Jo 

Kelkil 28, 39, 52, 71 

Kemil 82 

Kemikji-Ojaghi 131 

Keramos 102 

Kerason 135, 137, 148, 161 

Kerasliyaila 160 

Kertch 81 

Keshan 79 

Keshat 152 

Keshish-Dagh 38, 39, 52, 71 


Khama 37 

Khamur 45 

Khamurli 97 

Khan Mt. 40 

Khanli 60 

Kharpoot 34, 68, 108, 147, 

152, 165, 166 
Kharshut Rvr. 65 
Khatchboolach 130 
Khenek 160, 107 
Khinis 45, 46, 54, 61, 70, 71 
Khoi 69, 87 
Khordalan 116, 117, 152 
Khortakal 152 
Khozan-Dagh 171 
Khorzoon 97 
Khutel-Dagh 147 
Khvartzkhane 78, 162 
Kiaki Mt. 6 5 
Kifri III 
Kilimli 104, 105 
Kilvenek 147 
Kilissejik 108 



Killindria 74 

Killis 86 

Kiosk 102 

Kiosse Aghzy 104 105 

Kir 113 

Kiretchlik 104 

Kirkut 108 

Kirmizi-Chai 97 

Kisbeli . 85, 97 

Kishala 170 

Kisheli 86, 95, 97 

Kissatib 71 

Kizil-Boghaz 50 

Kizil-lr0iak 41, 42, 47, 48, 

120, 121, 152, 161 
Kizil Mt. 61, 82 
Krasnododsk 35 
Kukurtlu 107 
Kulpi 50, 120 
Kuluk 129 
Kumach 108 
Kur 37.38,42,52,53.54.67, 

85, III, 118 
Kurmasti 159 
Kuru-Dagh 56 
Kush Mt. 37 
Kutahia 28 
Kutais III, 164 
Kuzeh 54 
Kvirila 65, 67 

Lake Aral 89, 90 

Lake Baluk 38 

Lake Beisliekr 75 

Lake Chaldir 52, 70, 71, 87, 

Lake Gokcha 5:? 52, 54, 68. 

70, 87, 122 

Lake Goleh 71 
Lake Goljik 36, 71 
l.ake Gori 71 
Lake Isnik 109 
Lake Khozapian 52 
Lake Medotopa 52 
Lake Nazik 70, 71, 122 
Lake Toporavan 42, 70, 122 
Lake Umri 39, 53, 63, 64, 65, 
68, 70, 71, 84, 120, 122, 
124, 125, 127, 136 

Lake Van 36, 39, 44, 45, 46, 
53, 54, 59, 60, 61, 69, 70, 

71, 107, 120, 122, 123, 125, 

Lampascus 99 
Laurion 157 
Leadville 156 
Lefke 55, 58, 120 
Lerrmos 99 
Levant 79 
Lialvar 52 
Lidjessi 153 
Lijeru 71 
Lilo 52 
Limestone 44, 45, 58, 70, 71, 

72, 7Z, 74. 75, 76, 79. 85. 
102, 129, 130, 135, 150, 

152, 153. 156, 157. 158. 172 
Lokia 129 
Lori 71 

Loungourlu 120 
Lycaonia 40, 55, 56, 57, 73, 

90, 96, 121, 136 
Lycia 41, 56, 78, 96, 97 
Lydia Jz, 78. 79. 140, 141, 

142, 143, 144 

Lyell Mt. 148 




Macedonia 145 

Maden-Khan 152, 161 

Maden-Koi 120 

Maghara 120 

Makry 28, 101 

Maku 69, 86 ' 

Malaria 54 

Mamkodi 53 

Mamuretulaziz 106 

Manasuck 1 1 1 

Mangislik 83 

Manglis 53 

Manisa loi, 143 

Manjilik 97, 99, 159 

M,aragha 70, 87 

Mardin 54, 86 

Marellesion 65 

Marmora 29, 73, 79, 80, 81, 
99, 109, 157, 158 
Meander 48, 80, 81 

Mediterranean 27, 34, 41, 42, 

47, 56, 57, 58, 76, 76, 79, 
80, 84, 86, 88, 90, 117 

Melasket 45, 54, 70 

Melatta 67 

Melik-Sherif 71, 81 

Melpert 40, 50 

Menderli 1 1 1 

Merpan Mt. 39, 45, 108 

Mersina 48 

Mersivan 106, 153 

Mervanen 108 

Mesepsif loi 

Migri 84, 106, 108, 171, 173 

Mikhaelov 67 

Mikus 59 

Milas 102 

Mio-Dagh 162 

Miriam 40, 50, 108 

Mishkhan 170 

Mitilini 56 

Mitskhert 53 

Molita 65 

Mongolia 35 

Morgan Mt. 148 

Mourad-Geul 121 

Mourtad-Sou 95 

Moushlou-Sou 120 

Mta-Skara 38 

Mughla - no 

Murad 36, 38, 45 

Murad-Khan 65 

Mush 36, 39, 44, 46, 107 

Mushoma 71 

Muzur Mt. 39, 45, 50, 52, in 

Mysia 73, 74, 78, 157 

Mytelene 99 


Nariman 71, 107 

Nakhichevan 54, 69, in, 120 

Nazilli 102 

Negropond 132 

Nepiskario 53 

Nevada 139 

Nevshehr 95 

Nicie 160 

Nigde 73, 95, 154 

Niksar 95 

Nimrud 87 

Nisyros 56 

Nordooz 56 

North Carolina 131 

Nuova 102 

Nurdus 108 

Nyassa 55 




Ochital 60 

Okchai 162 

Olti 52, 60, 70, 71, 120 

Olympus 40, 49, 57, 73 

Ordabad 49 

Ormuz 34 

Oshara 53 

Otluk 52 

Ounineh 139 

Ouzouyaila 39, 59 

Oxus 35 

Pactolus 141, 142 
Palandoken 40, 44, 45, 50, 55 
Pallas 120 

Palu 28, 36, 54, 107, 108, 109 
Pambak 52, 60, 67, 68, 70, 

84, 170 
Pamir 35 
Pamphylia 41, 49 
Panderma 26, loi, 135 
Papazly 80 

Paphlagonia 57, 58, 76, 78, 96 
Paris 132 
Pasin 40, 44, 45, 46, SO, 70, 

Pergamos 139 
Perghama 120, 160 
Peril Mt. 37, 38 
Peru 108 
Persia 34, 36, 39, 42, 45, 46, 

61, 70, 71, 83, 85, 86, 106, 

107, no, 117, 120 
Phlinika 177 
Phrygia 55, 139, 140, 141, 142, 

Pirmakapan 70 

Pisidia 41, 78, 96 

Pison 45 

Padolia 89 

Poili 113 

Polatli 59, 78, 87, 91, 99, 122 

Poltava 90 

Pontus 34, 28, 39, 40, 41, 42, 

49. 42, S3> 55. 57. 58, 60, 
66, 68, 71, 77, 79, 82, 83, 
84, 97, 121, 137, 138, 144, 
146, 161 

Poskov Rvr. 53 

Prussia 89 

Puta 116 


Rahmin 108 

Red Sea 55 

Rhodes 56, 57, 58 

Rion 67 

Rio Tinto 148 

Romany 114 

Roumania 64 

Roumeli-Hissar 82 

Rowanduz 55, 60 

Russia 31, 52, 77, 91, 106, 

117, 145, 162 
Saboontchy 1 14 
Saghlik 135 
Sahend 54, 162 
Saigroma 50 
Saka 129 
Sakaria 47, 55, 57, 58, 121, 

Salaka 37 
Salavan 50, 54 
Salgalotto 53 
Salvasti 49 



Sambana 145 

Samsat 54 

Satnothrace 56 

Samsar 87 

Samjel-Robat 68 

Samos 56, 57 

Samsata 1 1 1 

Samson 40 

Samsislo 53 

Santorin 56, 95 

Sarababa 161 

Sarai 117 

Sardes 140 

Sardingo 157 

Sasun 147 

Satah 53 

Scala 102 

Scutaria 58 

Sebastopol 132 

Sefedler 105 

Segisik 108 

Segnak 53 

Selefke "jy 

Seliyaila 95 

Sepetji 131 

Sepki 131 

Seresu 131 

Serian Tepe 81 

Serjiller 139 

Sert 54 

Severek 166 

Shabin Karahissar 133 

Shah Mt. 37, III 

Shahi 69 

Shaitan 72 

Shamshortal 64 

Sharopan i i i 

Shatin 34, 40, 50, 61, 82, 84 

Shengyah 106 

Shermak Mt. 54 

Shikaus 164 

Shivan 59, 147 

Shistapa 42 

Sharian Mt. 53 

Siberia 30, 35, 48 

Sihun 41, 109 

Siller 108 

Sinope 40, 55, 58, 73, 81, 161 

Sipan 45, 54, 87 

Sipikor 52, 86 

Sipilus Mt. 143 

Sis 107 

Sivalik 70 

Sivas 28, 48, 106, 121, 133, 

150. 152 
Sivishlu 107 
Sizi-Madeni 168 
Smyrna 48, 56, 57, 98, 102, 

129, 143, 157 
Soganly 87 
Sokia 87 
Soma 102 
Soma loi, 159 
Somketian 38, 60, 71, 82, 84, 

Soneisat 1 1 1 
Sooksou 104 
Soulou-Ova 96 
Spalmatori 56 
Spain 148 
Staasfurt 127 
Sultan-Chair 126 
Sultan-Dagh 122 
Sunik 164 
Surmeneh ill 
Syrersyrchelly 50 
Syria 34, 41, 48, 49, 86, 89, 




Tabriz 70, 87 

Tadvan 60 

Taginomi 53 

Talish 39 

Talori 1 70 

Tanali 69 

Tanganyka. 55 

Tarim 35 

Tarsus 154 

Tartiz Mt. 53 

Tasmania 148 

Tatakh 45 

Taurus 28, 29, 34, 36, 39, 40, 
41, 42, 47, 48, 49, 53, 54, 
55, 56, 57. 59. 60, 67, 68, 
70, 72, 74, 82, 86, 87, 107, 
108, 120, 121, 138, 147 

Tavshan-Dagh 106 

Tazegul 107 

Tchai 1 01 

Tchai-Dere loi, 107 

Tchamak-Dagh loi 

Tchandarlik 98 

Tchatal-Aghzy 104, 105 

Tchatal-Oghlou 74, 78 

Tchayan 120 

Tchough 107 

Tchemishguezek 106 

Teati-Shan 35, 36 

Tekir-Dagh .56 

Tekman 50 

Telkiari 1 1 1 

Tendurek 87, 132 

Tepesi-Delik 120 

Terek 118 

Terajan 40 

Terter 39, 68 

Thasos 157 

Thermodon 135 

Thrace 98, 158 

Tiiralitic 38, 52, 53, 87, 108 

Tibet 35, 57 

Tiflis 38, 53, III, 113, 162, 

Tigris 54, 85, 108, 166, 170 
Tilek 168 
Tmolus Mt. 141, 143 
Tokat •jj, 78, 95, 106, 167 
Tombof 90 
Tortum 69, 108 
Transylvania 64 
Trapassar Mt. 65, 66 
Trebizond 28, 40, 48, 71, 11 1, 

135. 137. 146, 152, 149. 

Tripoli 13s 

Troad 79, 80, 96, 99, 139, 140 
Trojan 80, 107 
Troy 58 
Tsamly 105 
Touzla 80 
Touz-Geullu 95, 122 
Touz-Kharmatli 1 1 1 
Touz-Koi 120 
Touz-Tchollu 121 


Ural 118 
Uraval 71, 137 
Urfa 54 
Urmi 61, 64, 80 
Ust-Urt 90 
Utah 131 
Utch-Kapou 96 


Van 107, 108, no. III, 120 
Vanik 59 


20 1 

Vartik 107 
Vavuk Mt. 53 
Varzahan 52 
Vizirkhan 55 
Volga 118 
Voroneje 90 


Xeros 81 

Yaylaga 52 
Yaija 69 
Yailaji 76 
Yailajik 107 
Yeni-Khan 76 
Yerebakan 74 
Yeshil-Irmak 48 
Ylang-Dagh 154 
Yosgat 73, 78, 96 

Yousouf-Oghlou 97 


Zab 37, 63, 108 

Zabrat 114 

Zafranik 106 

Zagros 34, 38, 39, 54, 85, 86 

Zakhlu III 

Zamantia-Sou. 41 

Zangesur 162, 164 

Zangimar 69 

Zangra 68 

Zangul 167 

Zeitun 28, 107, 170 

Zerdeji 50 

Zermek Mt. 45 

Zinlerly 40, 50 

Zirula 60, 65, 66 

Zokh 70 

Zoongooldak 29, 104 



Abydos 139 
Acervularia 61 
Acmoea "]"] 
Acteonella 66 
Actinolite 166 
Aculeata 76 
Aduncus 80 
Agate 137 
Algae 63, 83 
Alectryonia 69, 80 
Alveolina 78 
Alveolite 75 
Alum 61, 133, 134 

Alumina 123, 124, 133 
Aluminum Oxide 129 
Alunite 133, 134, 135 
Ambigua 63 
Ammonia 123 
Ammonites 65, 66, 67, TJ 
Ammonium Chloride 124 
Amphibole 152 
Amygdaloidal 66, 67 
Ananchytes J"] 
Anadonta 71 
Anadora 80 
Ancep 64 

Andesite 67, 80, 85, 92, 93, 
94, 139, 152, 157, 161, 165 



Anglesite 153 

Annelids 88 

Anomalis 69 

Anorthite 157 

Anorthosite 158 

Antelops 70 

Antepora 74 

Anthra 78 

Anthracite 107, 108, 109 

Antimony 153, 160, 162, 182, 

Antiquata 75, 76 
Aptian 66 
Aquila 66 
Aquilloni 66 
Archaic 59 
Archaici 61 
Arduenensis 'j'j 
Argentiferous Copper 161 
Argentiferous galena 149, 

151, 153. 157. 160 
Argillaceous Calcite 135 
Argillaceous earth 67, 126, 

Armeniacus 71 
Arsenic 147, 151, 153, 157, 

Asiatico 73 
Asiaticum 75 
Asphalt no, III 
Astrya 70 
Attica 70 
Augite 85, 92, 93, 94, 139, 

157, 158, 161 
Auriferous lead 157 


Baeumleri 103 
Bajocian 64, 83 

Barite 159, 160, 164 

Barrandu 74 

Barremian 65 

Basalis 74 

Basalt 8s, 86, 92, 95, 96, 97, 

Bearitzensis 78 
Beasolleti 81 
Beaumonti 74 
Bendenti 66 
Bifrons 68 
Bituminous 61, 63, loi, 105, 

Blende 153, 158, 159, 160, 

Boblayei 74 
Bocii 74 
Bolomensis 75 
Bong 90 

Borate 126, 127, 136 
Borate of lime 128 
Borax 71 
Boric Acid 127 
Bornite 16 5 
Brachiopod 61, 63, 64, 82 
Brandaris 81 
Braunspath 1 59 
Breccia 65, 67 
Brimestone 132 
Bronzite 92 
Bryozoa 63, 83, 88 

Caesopitosium 61 
Caledonic 82 
Calamine 152, 160 
Calamite 83 
Calamorphite 65 
Calc-Schist 154 



Calcedony loi 
Calceola 61, 82 
Calcium Borate 29, 126, 127 
Calcium Carbonate 124, 156 
Calcium Chloride 125 
Calcium Oxide 129 
Calcium Phospate 124 
Calcium Sulphate 124, 156 
Callovian 64, 83, 84 
Campaphyllum 75 
Cancellata TJ 
Caprotina 84, 103 
Caradon 103, 105 
Carbon dioxide 129 
Carboniferous 56, 61, 63, 72, 
73. 74, 75. 76, 83, 84, 88, 
89, 102, 158 
Carcinis 68 

Cardium 71, 78, 80, 81 

Cassiterite 186 

Castel-Gomberto 85 

Catenates 76 

CatJUus 71 

Cazecal 81 

Cedaris 68 

Cenomanian 66, 84, 85 

Cenonian 84, 85 

Cephalopodes 75 

Cerastoderma 81 

Ceratididae 63 

Ceriopora 69 

Cerithium 68, 78, 80, 81 

Cervicomus 75 

Cervus 70 

Cespitosam 75 

Chalak 27 

Chalk 45, 67, 77, 86, 88, 136, 

Chalkos 27 
Chaleopyrite 159, 162, 164, 

Chama 65 
Chideru 63 
Chlorine 123, 125 
Chlorite-Schist 60 
Chondrite 67 
Chonetes 61, 63, 74, 75 
Chrome 28, 171, 172, 173 
Chrouts 27 
Chrysos 27 
Chrysodium 79 
Cinnabar 178 

Clay 60, 66, 67, 68, 70, 74, 80, 
81, 82, loi, 108, 115, 136 
Clay Slate 60; 61, 76, 152 
Clupa 69 
Clypeaster 69 

Coal 29, 67, 75, 78, 79, 85, 90, 
99, loi, 102, 103, 104, 105, 
Cobalt 187 
Coenites 75 
Colemanite 126 
Concentrica 61 
Conglomerate 61, 64, 65, 70, 
78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 85, 86, 
loi, 126 
Conus 68 

Constinopolitanum 74 
Convulatum 78 
Copper 27, 28, 97, 147, 148, 
152, 153, 161, 162, 163, 
164, 166, 167, 168 
Copper glance 164 
Copper molybdenite 162 
Copper pyrite 75 
Coral 45, 61, 63, 64, 65, 66, 

68, 85, 86 
Coralline 83 
Coral-Rag 77 



Corbicula 79 

Corbis 78 

Cornuvacium 78 

Corundum 15, 129 

Cothirium 78 

Cotuloni 65 

Covellite 164 

Crassissima 80 

Cretacea 78 

Cretaceous 50, 52, 53, 57, 58, 
59, 60, 64, 65, 66, 68, 72, 
73, -jj, 84, 85, 88, 95, 97, 
102, 108, III, 135, 152, 
153. 16s ' 

Crinoid 63 

Crispus 69 

Cristata 74 

Crossa 81 

Crustacea 66, 88 

Cuboidis 61 

Culm 75, 102 

Cupriferous pyrite 159, 160 

Curvieri 67 

Cyathophyllum 61, 75 

Cyclolite T] 

Cyrena 79 

Cystiphyllum 61, 63 


Dacite 63 
Dactyles 139 
Dalmanella 63 
Davousti 74 
Decemradiata 65 
Defrancii 69 
Deltoid 81 
Dephyoides 65 
Depressa 65 
Desmaceros 60 

Despansa 78 

Desparilis 78 

Devonica 74 

Devonian 60, 61, jz, 73, 74, 

75, 82, 83, 88, 89, 131, 152, 

Diabase 44, 60, 63, 64, 67, 91, 

92, 97, 162, 165 
Dialage 96, 166 
Dianae 81 
Diatomaceous 98 
Didacna 81 
Didacus 81 
Diluvii 80 
Diorite 50, 59, 93, 94, 97, 147, 

165, 168 
Discoidus 66 
Discus 68 
Djumense 66 
Dogger 64, 83 
Dolerite 66, 67, 95, 96, 97 
Dolomite 60, 63, 154, 153, 156 
Driessensia 70, 71, 81, 87 

Echinocorys 67 

Edule 81 

Elaphas 71 

Elegans 67 

Emery 129, 130 

Endothyra 63 

Eocene. 53, 57, 58, 67, 68, 69, 
74, 78, 79. 85, 86, 89, 90, 
95, 97, 106, 108, no, 153, 

154, 157 
Epidolite 158 
Epidote 157 
Eupholite 127 
Eurite 95, 97 



Exogyra 65, 66 
Exponense 78 


Fahlband 164 
Favosites 75 
JEeldspar 60, 93, 95, 152 
Feldspathic porphyry 152 
Felsitic 94 
Fenestelk 75 
Flint 67, loi 
Floriformis 62 
Flysch 58,67,85 
Foraminifera 67 
Fortisia 79 
Frazilis 80 
Frusticosus 75 
Fucoides 67 
Fuller's earth 136 
Fusilina 63, 83 
Fusulinella 63 

Gabbro 44, 91, 126 

Galena 75, 150, 152, 153, 156, 
158, 159, 160, 161, 164, 165 

Garnet 158, 164 

Gastropod 68, 80, 173 

Gervillei 74 

Gigentes 63, 103 

Gigentia 78 

Giraffes 70 

Glacier 71, 72, 82 

Glaucina 68 

Glauconite 66 

Glaucophane i 54 

Gold 27, 138, 140, 141, 142, 
143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 
149, 150, 152, 156, 164, 165 

Goldfussi 61 

Graben 87 

Gracile 70, 80, 81 

Granite 49, 59, 60, 65, 73, 87, 

90, 94, 96, 130 
Granitite 94, 126 
Granophyr 162 
Granulosa 78 
Gneiss 52, 59, 60, 73, 87, 130, 

Graphite 61 
Grawake "]"] 
Gryhoides 103 
Gunteri 68 
Gypsum 70, 78, 79, 86, 87, 126 

135, 153 


Hamoxitos 80 

Hanisi 71 

Haploceras 64 

Hardrensis 63 

Harmodites 76 

Harpacto 68 

Harzburgite 91 

Hauterivian 65, 84 

Heliolite 61 

Helix 98 

Helvetian 69, 79, 80, 86 

Hematite 97 

Hercynian 57 

Hipparion 70 

Hippurite 78, 84 

Homalonotus 74 

Hopkinsi 69 

Hornblende 85, 92, 93, 131, 

Bomblende-Schist 59 

Horridus 76 

Horst S3, 54, 57, 82, 86, 87 

Humulis 69 



Hybridum 78 
Hydromica 172 
Hyeximica 70 
Hypersthene 91 
Hypersthenite 96 


Inflatus 61 

Inoceramus 67, ^T, 78 

Intermedius 68 

Iron 27, 28, 95, 97, 107, 108, 

Iron Carbonate 124 
Iron Ochre 153 
Iron Oxide 123, 129, 133, 

152, 156 
Irridiuni 147 


jasper loi 
Julfa 63, 68, 69, 83 
Julfense 64 

Jurassic 58, 59, 60, 64, 65, 
72, 73, 76, -JT, 88, 89, 162 


Kaoline 136 
Kedabergite 164 
Kelloway Rock 'j'j 
Kimmeredgian 64, "j'j, 83, 84 


Labrusca 79 
Lactus 81 
Laeigatus 68 
Lamarkii "j'j, 78 
Lamellosa 78, 80 
Lamma 67 
Lanceolata 69 

Laterius 69 

Lead 28, 75, 147. I49. i57. 

159, 183, 184, 185 -_ 
Lead Carbonate 156, 161 
Lebloena 74 
Lenticularis 63 
Letiensis 61 
Leucite 92 
Lherzolite 91 
Limonite 28, 170 
Lias 64, 83 

Lignite 79, 99, 102, 106, 108 
Lindermeyari 70 
Lima 63, 65 
Limburgite 91 
Lime 123, 125 
Liperite 80, 139 --> 
Lithographic Stone 67, 135 
Lithophya 81 
Lithopodolicum 80 
Lithostration 63 
Lithothamnian 86 . 
Longicoudatis 74 
Lonsdaleia 63 
Loripes 81 
Lucina 78 


Macrocephallus 64 
Mactra-Kalk 79, 80, 81 
Manganese 152, 158, 161. 

173, 174, 175 
Manganese Oxide 123 
Magnesia 123, 125 
Magnesium 120 
Magnesium Carbonate 124, 

Magnesium Chloride 125, 127 
Magnesium Silicate 126, 131 
Magnesium Sulphate 124, 



125, 136 
Magnetite 129, 164, 170, 172 
Major 66 
Malm 64 
Maltha 1 1 1 
Maraghanus 70 
Marble 59, 60, 73, 82, 120, 

Marl 59, 61, 65, 66, 67, 68, 

69. 70. 75. 79. 81, loi, 108, 

152, 165 
Marmini 75 

Marn 76, JJ, 78, 79, 80 
Martini 63 
Mastadon 70 
Medistextus 61 
Meerschaum 130, 131, 132 
Melanopsis 71 
Melaphyr 60, 64 
Mercury 178, 179, 180, 181 
Merista 61 
Mesezoic 59, 73, 86 
Metallon 27 
Mica 59, 61, 74, 93, 139, 152, 

Mica Schist 60, 61, 71, 76 
Mica Slate 124 
Michilini 63 
Microgranulite 153, 156 
Minus 78 
Miocene 53, 54, 59, 68, 69, 

78, 80, 86, 96, 97, 99, 108, 

III, 120, 132 
Modosoplicatum 80 
Mollusc 89, 91 
Molybdenum 186 
Moscow 83 
Moskaus 63 
Moutoniana 65 

Murchisoni 63, 75 
Murex 81 
Muscovite 94 
Myriophyto 80, 109 


Nana 75 

Nantilus 65 

Naptha 79 

Natica 68 

Nathein 64 

Negram 63 

Neocomian 65, 86 

Neogene 73 

Neruea 66 

Nitrate 123, 124, 135 

Nummulite dj, 68, 85, 89, 90, 

147, 154, 156 
Nuropteris 103 


Obselatum 80 

Oligist 97 

Oligocene 50, 54, 59, 67, 68, 

78, 79, 85, 86, 108, 154 
Oligoclose 95 
Olivine 91 
Onyx 135 
Operculina 78 
Ophite 92, 127 
Orbicularis 74 
Orbialla 69 
Orbitolides 68 
Orbitoides 78 
Ornatus 74 
Orthis 74, 75 
Osilium 81 
Osinium 147 
Ostreae 68, 78, 80 



Osteras 64 

Otoidus dy 

Ovata 67, Tj, 81 

Ova turn 71 

Ovoidea 78 

Oxfordian 64, 77, 83, 88 

Palaeophyus 70 

Palaeoreas 70 

Paleozoic 52, 59, 63, 64, 73, 

83, 85, 86 

Pallastra 81 

Pamondi 68 

Pandermite 126, 127 

Parisensis 78 

Paryhiri 1 1 1 

Pecten 69, 78, 80 

Pector 69 

Pellico 74, 75 

Pentagona 61 

Pentacrinites Jj 

Pentilici 70 

Penza 90 

Perforata 78 

Peridotite no 

Perlongus 63 

Permian 54, 63, 76, 83, 88 

Persiae 70 

Petricola 81 

Petroleum 109, no, 115, 116, 

Phonalite 94 
Phosphate 123 
Phylloceras 66 
Pikermi 70 
Piscinalis 70 
Plagioclase 164 
Plagioptychus 66 

Planorbis 70 

Planosulcata 63 

Platana 85 

Platinum 147 

Platycrynus 63 

Plebeja 61 

Pleistocene 70, 81, 87, 137 

Pleuro-Dyctium 74 

Plicatilis JJ 

Plicatum 80 

Pliocene 59, 70, 78, 80, 81, 

87, 91, 99 
Polymorpha 69, 70, 75, 81, 

Polyps 88, 103 
Polystonella 69 
' Porosus 69 
Porphyry 60, -JT, 88, 94, 96, 

97, 152, 153 
Porphyrite 93 
Portlandian "jj 
Potash 123, 125 
Potassium 122 
Potassium Oxide 133 
Potassium Sulphide 124, 125 
Prieceite 127 
Primegenius 71 
Priobona 68 
Problamaticum 74 
Productus 63, 75, 76, 103 
Proecursor 61 
Protractum 8e, 81 
Purbeck 84 
Psuedo elegans 65 
Psuedo jurensis 65 
Psuedo stylina 65 
Pygone 65 
Pyrdandi 162 
Pyrite 152, 153, 156, 159, 160 



161, 164, 165,, 167 
Pyrolusite 158, 177 
Pyroxene 88,, 93, 94, 96, 97, 

164, 170, 172 
Pyrrhotite 164 


Quadrfcostata 78 
Quadrigeminum 61,' 75 
Quadripunctata 69 
Quarternmary 90, 95, 97, 98, 
Quartz 82, 92, 94, 159, 160, 

162, 164 
Quartz Porphyry 63 
Quartzite 59, 66, 63 


Radeans 76, 88 
Radeolite 66 
Rarilanella 78 
Realgar 186 
Reefs 154 
Reticularis 61, 75 
Reticulata 75, 76 
Rhetic 63 

Rhinchonella 61, 65, 75 
Rhizopodes 78, 89 
Rhodium 147 
Rhodius 82 
Rhyolite 85, 94 
Rift 55 
Rissoa 70 

Sacchariod marble J72 

Salbande 158 

Salt 29, 80, 86, 90, 95, III, 

119, 126 
Sandstone 61, 64, 75, 78, 82, 

8 5, 86, 115, 154 
Sarcinulata 74 
Sardintes 67 
Sarmatian 53, 68, 69, 79, 8a, 

81, 86, 87, 90, 91 
Sarniaticus 69 
Schaarung 58 
Schist 52, 59, 60, 73, 75, 82, 

84, 126,' 152, 156, 160, t:6i, 


Schlehani 103 
Schyphia Jj 
Sella 66 
Semigloboza J'j 
Seminoi 75 
Semireticulates j^ 
Semistriata 79 
Senomanian 67 
Senonian 66, 67 
Sepiolite 130, 131 
Sequanian 64, 83 
Serpentine 44, 58, 59, 60, Ji, 

86, 88, 94, 96, 97, 127, 131, 

147, 156, 157 
Serpula 68 

Shale 45, 63, 67, 78, 83, 153 
Silica 123, 124, 133, 158 
Siliceous marl 137 
Siliceous Slate 166 
Silicon dioxide 129 
Silurian 44 
Silver 149, 150, 151, ,152, 

157' IS9' 160, 161, 164, 165 
Silver Chloride 153 
Silver Sulhpide 153 
Slate 59, 60, 79, 129, 152 
Soda 123, 125 
Sodalite 92 
Sodium Borate 127 



Sodium Carbonate 124, 127, 

Sodium Chloride 124, 127 
Sodium Sulphate 124,. 127 
Sphaerium 71 
Sphaeroid 63 • 
Sphalerite 165-,; 
Sphertopteris . 103 
Spirifer 61, 63, 74, 75 
Spirigea 63 
Spondylus 69 
Sponge 64 
Stalactite 156, 167 
Stephanian 103 
Sterculia 79 
Stibnite 182 
Striatula 75 
Striatus 63 
Stromatopora 61,, 75, 
Strombus 65 
Strontium 123 
Strophopiena. 74, 76 
Stylina . 65 
Subaculaeatus ; 75 
Subaculus 66 
Subaequalis 75 
Subo'rbicularis 75 
Subspeciosus 74 
Sulphate 123, 125 
Sulphuret of copper 166 
Sulphuret of lead 153 
Sulphuric acid 133 
Syringo dendron 83 
Syringophyllum 103 
Syringopora 76 

Talc 76 
Tapes 81 


Tarticus ■ 'j'j 

Tentaculites 74 

Tenticulum 61, 63 

Tepherite 92 

Terebellum 78 

Terebratula 65, 66, 68, "JJ, 78 

Tetrahedrite 165 

Trachyte sq,^ 67, 70, 91, .94, 

95, 96, 97, 98, 132 
Tharrmaroea 69 
Thetis 66 
Tin ''186 

Tithonian 60, 66, 67, 85, 90 
Toarcian 64 
Toncasia ,103 
Torticulatis '/~ 
Tortonian 69, 79, 80. 86 
Touranian 60^ 66, 67, 85, go 
Tragoceras 170 
Trenolite 161 

Triassic 63, ^t^, 76, 83, 84. BS 
Trochoeras 74, 160 
Triangular 81 
Trigeri 74. 75 
Trunculis 81 
Tuboeformis 74 
Tufa-chalk ■]■] 
Tuflf 50,52,61,63,64,65,67, 

70. 71, 84. 85, 87, 88, 91. 

92, 93. 94, 98, loi, 132, 

136, 161 
Tchandae 81 
Tumidus 71 

Turanian 36, 84, 135, 168 
Turbinatis 81 
Turbo 68 



Unio 71. 98 



Urgonian 65, 66, 84 


Valangionian 65 
Valvata 70 
Varians yj 
Velledae 66 
Venus 68 
Vermiculare 61 
Verneuili 61, 74, 75 
Vesiculosum 61 
Virleti 69, 80 
Vivipora 70 
Volgaturi 81 
Volhynia 89 


Waldheimia 65 
Wellen 63 
Werfen 63 
Wertina 71 
Westphalian 102 

Yordale 75 


Zechstein 63 

Zinc 28, 149, 152, 159, 185 
Zmc Blende 162, 164 
Zinc Sulphate 161