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Full text of "The geology of the country around Ringwood. (Explanation of sheet 314)"

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1902 



fornell Iftnivmitg Jib»g 

BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME 
FROM THE 

SAGE ENDOWMENT FUND 

THE GIFT OF 

Hettrg m. Base 

1891 



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3777 



Cornell University Library 
QE 262.R5R35 1902 

The geology of the country around Ringwo 



3 1924 004 553 172 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

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314. 



MEMOIRS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

ENGLAND AND WALES. 



THE GEOLOGY OF 

THE COUNTRY AEOUND 

R I N a W O O^D . 

(Explanation of Sheet 314.) 

BY 

CLEMENT EEIi), F.R.S., F.L.S, F.G.S. 

With Contributions by F. J. BENNETT, F.G.S., & ERNEST E. L. DIXON, 

B.SC., F.G.S. 



PUBLISHED B; ORDEB OF THE LORDS COUMISSIONSBS 07 HIS UAJE8I7'S IBEASI7RT. 




LONDON : 

PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, 
By Wyman and Sons, Limited, Fetter Lane, E.C. 



And to be purcbaaed from 

E. STANFORD, 12, 13, AND U, Long AoBE, LONDON ; 

JOHN MENZIES AND CO., ROSE Stbeei, EdinbcbSH 

HODG-ES, FIOGIS, AND CO., 104, GBAFTON Sibket, Dfblih ; 

From any Agent for the sale of Ordnance Survey Maps ; or through any Bookseller 

from the Ordnance Survey Office, Southampton. 



1902. 

Price One Shilling. 
(Price of Sheet 314, colour-printed, Is, 6d.) 



LIST OF MAPS, SECTIONS, AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS OF TH€ 
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF ENGLAND AND WALES. 



Xhb Maps are those ol the Ordnance Survey, geologically coloured by the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom, under 
the Superintendence of J. J. H. TKALL, F.B.S., Director. 

(Par Maps, details of Sections, and Memoirs issued by the Geological Survey, see " Catalogue.") 



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1*, 42, 43, 46, 46, NW, SW, NB*, SB* 48, NWt, SW*, NEt, (SB*), (49t), 50t, 61* 52 to 67, (67 NW), 59 to 63, 66 SWt, NEt, 
jrw*, SEt, 67 Nt, (St 68 Et, (NWt), SWf, 71 to 76, 76 (N), S, (77 N), 78, 79, NW*, SW, NE*, SE* 80 NW* SW*, NB*, 
SB*, 81 NW* SW, NB, SB, 82, 83*, 87, 88, NW, SW* NB, SE, 89 NW*, SW* NE, SE*, 90 (NE*), (SB*), 91, (NW*), (SW*), 
NE*, SE*, 92 NW* SW*, NE, SE, 93 NW, SW, NB», SB*, 94 NWt, SWt, (NEt), SEt, 96 NW* NE*, (SB*), 96 NW*, SW*, 
NB*, SE», 97 NW* SW*, NE*, SB, 98 NW, SW, NE*, SE, 99 (NB*), (SB*), 100*, 101 SE, NB* NW*, SW*, 102 NW* NB*, 
SW* SE», 103*, 104* 106 NW*, SW*, (NE*), SE*, 106 NW*, SW*, NE*, SE* 107 SWt, NE*, SB* 108 SW*, NE* SB*, 109 NW* , 
8W», SB* 110 (NW«), (NE*), SB*, SW*. 

Ifew Series.— I. of Man*, 36, 46, 46, 66, 67, 88. 6d. I. of Wight, with Mainland*. 330, 331, 344, 346, 8s. 6d. 156* 187t, 203t, 
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«aah. 

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ENGIAND AND WALES.— Sheet 1 (Title) ; 2 (Northumberland, &C.) ; 3 (Index of Colours) ; 4 (I. of Man) ; 6 (Lake District); 
6 (E. Yorkshire) ; 7 (N. Wales) ; 8 (Central England) ; 9 (Eastern Counties) ; 10 (S. Wales and N. Devon) ; 11 (W. of 
England and S.B. Wales) ; 12 (London Basin and Weald) ; 13 (Cornwall, &c.) ; 14 (S. Coast, Torquay to I. of Wight) ; 
16 (S. Coast, Havant to Hastings). JTew Series, printed in colours, sheet 1, 28. ; sheets 2 to 16, 2s. 6(J. each. 



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VERTICAL SECTIONS. 

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COMPLETED COUNTIES OF ENGLAND AND WALES, on a Scale of 1 inch to a mUe. 

Old Series. 



Sheets marked * have Descriptive Memoirs. 



Sheets or Counties marked t are illustrated by General Memoirs. 



ANGLESBYt,— 77 N, 78. 

BEDFOEDSHIRB,— 46 NW, NB, SWt, SEt, 62 NW, NE, 

SW, SB. 
BEEKSHIRE,— 7*, 8t, 12*, 13*, 34*, 46 SW*. 
BRECKNOCKSHIKEt,- 36, 41, 42, 66 NW, SW, 67 NE, SE. 
BUCKINGHAMSHIRE,- 7*, IS*, 46* NB, SB, 46 NW, SWt, 

62 SW. 
CABRMARTHBNSHIRBt,— 37, 38, 40, 41, 42 NW, SW, 66 SW, 

67 SW, SB. 
CABRNARVONSHIEBt,— 74 NW, 76, 76, 77 N, 78, 79 NW, 

SW. 
CAMBEIDGESHIEEt,— 48 NE, 47*, 61* 62 SE, 64*. 
CARDIGANSHIREt,— 40, 41, 66 NW, 57, 68, 69 SE, 60 

SW. 
CHESHIRE,- 73 NE, NW, 79 NE, SB, 80, 81 NW*, SW*, 

88 SW. 
CORNWALLt,— 24t, 26t, 28t, 29t, 30t, 31t, 32t, & 33t. 
CUMBERLAND,- 98 NW, SW*, 99, 101, 102, NE, NW, SW* 

106 SB, SW, NW, 107. 
DBNBIGHt,— 73 NW, 74, 76 NE, 78 NE, SE, 79 NW, SW, SE, 

80 SW. 
DERBYSHIREt,— 62 NE, 63 NW, 71 NW, SW, SB, 72 NB, 
. 72 SB, 81, 82, 88 SW, SB. 

DEVONSHIEBt,— 20t, 21t, 22t, 23t, 24t, 25t, 26t, & 27t. 
DORSETSHIEB,— 16, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22. 
DUEHAM,— 102 NE, SE, 103, 106 NE, SE, SW, 106 SB 
ESSEX,—!*, 2*, 47*, 48*. 
rLINTSHIEEt,— 74 NE, 79. 

GLAMOEGANSHIEEt,— 20, 36, 37, 41, & 42 SE, SW. 
GLOUCESTBESHIEEt,— 19, 34*, 36, 43, NB, SW, SB, 44*. 
HAMPSHIEE,— 8t, 9t, 10*, lit, 12* 14, 16, 16. 
HEBBF0ED8HIEE,— 42 NE, SE, 43, 66, 66 NB, SE. 
HBRTrORDSHIRB,— It NW, 7*, 46, 47*. 
][UNTINGDON,— 61 NW, 62 NW, NE, SW, 64* 66. 
KENTt,— It SW & SE, 2t, 3t, 4*, 6*. 
LANCASHIRE,— 79 NE, 80 NW», NE, 81 NW, 88 NW, SWt, 

89, 90, 91, 92 SW 

See also New Stries Maps 



LEIOESTERSHIEE,— 63 NB, 62 NB, 63*, 64*, 70*, 71 SB, 

SW. 
LINCOLNSHIEEt,— 84* 66*, 69, 70* 83*, 84*, 85*, 86*. . 
MEEIONETHSHIREt,— 69 NE, SB, 60 NW, 74, 76 NB, 

MIDDLESBXt,— It NW, SW, 7*, 8t. 
MONMOUTHSHIEE,— 36, 36, 42 SE, NE, 43 SW. 
MONTGOMBEYSHIREt,— 66 NW, 69 NE, SE, 60, 74 SW, 

SB. 
NORFOLK t,— 50 NW* NE», 64* 66*, 66*, 67* 68* 69. 
NORTHAMPTONSHIRE,- 64* 45 NW, NE, 46 NW, 68 NW 

NE, SW, 53 NE, SW, & SE, 63 SE, 64. 
NOETHUMBBELAND,— 102 NW, NE, 106, 106, 107, 108*. 109. 

110, NW*, SW*, NE* SE. 
NOTTINGHAM,-70*, 71* NE. SE, NW, 82 NE* SE* SW 

86, 87* SW. 
OXFOEDSHIRB,— 7*, 13* 34*, 44* 46*, 63 SB*, SW 
PBMBEOKESHIEBt,— 38, 39, 40, 41, 68. 
EADNOESHIEB,— 42 NW, NE, 66, 60 SW, SE. 
RUTLANDSHIRE,- this county is wholly included within 

Sheet 64*. 



SHROPSHIEE,-65 NW. NB. 66 NB, 60 NE, SE 61 62 NW 
73,74NE,SE. . . i 

S0MERSETSHIREt,-18, 19, 20, 21, 27, 36 

STAFFORDSHniB*,-64 NW, 66 NE, 61 NB, SE, 62. 63NW 
71 SW, 72, 73 NE, SE, 81 SB, SW. 

SUFFOLK,— 47* 48*, 49*, 60* 61* 66* SE* 67* 

SURREY,— 1 SWt, 6t, 7*, 8t, 12t. 

SUSSEX,— 4*, 6t, 6t, 8t, 9t, lit. 

WAEWICKSHIEE,-44* 46 NW, 63*, 64, 62 NB. SW SE 
63NW, SW,SB. > ". Djs, 

WE3TMOELAND,-97 NW*, SW*, 98 NW, NE* SE* 101 
SE*, 102. ' ' ' 

WILTSHIEB,-12*, 18*, 14, 16, 18, 19t, 34- and 36t 
WOECESTERSHIRE,-43 NE, 44* 64, 65, 62 SW, SB, CI 

YOEKSHIEEt,-86-88, 91 NB,SE 92-87* 98 NE* SE* 101 NB 
SB,103SW SE,104 . i* .iuiJMB 



314. 



MEMOIRS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

ENGLAND AND WALES 



THE GEOLOGY OF 

THE COUNTRY ABOUND 

RINGWOOD. 

(Explanation of Sheet 314.) 

BY 

CLEMENT REID, .F.R.S., RL.S, F.G.S. 

With Contributions BY P. J. BENNETT, F.G.S.,& ERNEST E, L. DIXON, 

B.Sc., F.G.S. 



PUBLISHED BY OKDEK OF THE L0KD3 0OMMI9SI0NEKS OP HIS MAJESTY'S TKEASURT. 




LONDON ; 



PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTY'S STAIIONERY OFFICE, 
By Wyman and Sons, Limited, Fetter Lane, E C. 



And to be purchased from 

E STANFORD, 12, 13, AND 14, LONB AOEE, LONDON ; 

JOHN MENZIES AND CO., ROSE STKEET, EDINBDRQH 

HODGES, FIGGIS, AND CO., 104, GKAFTON Strket, Dublin ; 

From any Agent for the sale of Ordnance Survey Maps ; or through any Bookseller 

from the Ordnance Survey Office, Southampton. 



1902. 

Price One Shilling. 
(Price of Sheet ^314, colour-printed, Is. 6d.) 

EV. 



0£ 



A-3ooH? 



PREFACE 



The area described in this Memoir forms the north-western 
portion of the Hampshire Basin, including a fine range of chalk 
hills bordering Cranbome Chase on the north-west and a part 
of the picturesc^ue woodland of the New Forest on the south- 
east. ~ The origmal geological survey made by H. W. Bristow 
and Joshua Trimmer was published in 1858 on the old series 
map, sheet 15 ; and it is satisfactory that no important alterations 
have been found necessary in the boundaries which were then 
drawn on the old map to indicate the Tertiary and Cretaceous 
divisions. The re-survey was carried out during the years 1896- 
1900, mainly by Mr. Reid in the Tertiary ground, and by Mr. 
Bennett in the Cretaceous area ; Mr. Dixon assisting to finish 
the work around Cranborne Village, Horton, and Verwood. 

In the course of this new survey the Drifts have been mapped, 
and the special studies made by Mr. Reid on these superficial 
deposits have led him to believe that there is evidence of an old 
river course, which probably in Newer Pliocene times connected 
the Salisbury rivers with Southampton, before they were 
captured and diverted along the course of the subsequent 
Lower Avon. 

No memoir was published in explanation of the old series 
map, and the present one has been written by Mr. Reid with 
the aid of notes furnished by his colleagues. Our general 
knowledge of the area owes much to the labours of Prestwich 
on the Tertiary strata, and of Sir John Evans on the deposits 
yielding Palaeolithic implements ; and the officers of the Survey 
have received further assistance from Mr. E. Westlake, Dr. 
H. P. Blackmore, and Mr. G. H. Fowler. 

M.S. copies of the six-inch maps have been deposited in the 
Office. 

J. J. H. TEALL, Director 
2nd December, 1901, 



15300. Wt. 12011. 500—6/02. Wy. ^^, A 3 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Preface by the Director - "i 

Chapter I. Introduction 1 

„ II. Cretaceous - 3 

„ III. Beading Beds - - 8 

„ IV. London Clay 13 

„ V. BagshotSand 20 

„ VI. Bracklesham Beds 24 

„ VII. Barton Clay and Sand 27 

„ VIII. Origin of the existing Physical Features - 29 

,, IX. Plateau and Terrace Gravels - - 33 

„ X. Valley Gravel, Alluvium, and Peat 46 

,, XI. Economic Geology 50 

Appendix. Well Sections and Borings - 53 

Index ... 58 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Fig, 1. Section through Bower Chalk - . 3 

„ 2. Eedlynch Brick Field, west face - 14 

, 3. Sketch-map of the Basin of the Ancient River Solent 32 

4. Diagram Section of the Terraces of the Avon 34 



THE GEOLOGY OF 

THE COUNTRY AROUND 

RING^VOOD. 



CHAPTER L— INTRODUCTION. 

Sheet 314 of the Geological Survey Map takes in an area 
of 216 square miles, of which about 100 belong to Dorset, 70 
to Hampshire, and the remainder to Wiltshire. It extends 
to Downton and to Cranborne Chase on the north, to Ringwood 
and nearly to Wimborne on the south. On the west it includes 
the Chalk Downs of Dorset as far as ToUard Royal and Tarrant ; 
on the east it takes in part of the New Forest near Fording- 
bridge and Ringwood. 

This region is mainly devoted to agriculture and pasture, 
there being neither mines nor manufactures, except corn and 
flax mills, worked by the water-power of the Avon. The small 
amount of mineral products raised, consisting of chalk, brick- 
earth, tile-clay, gravel and sand, is entirely used within the dis- 
trict for building purposes or agriculture. The small towns or 
large villages are also agricultural, though the Avon Valley and 
the New Forest are yearly more resorted to by visitors. Ford- 
ingbridge, Ringwood, Down ton, and Cranborne are the largest 
places within the district. 

About hp.lf of the ared, now to be described consists of undu- 
lating Chalk Downs, which sink towards the south-east and 
pass under the Tertiary strata of the Hampshire Basin. These 
Downs attain their greatest elevation in the escarpment near 
Cranborne Chase, where Winkelbury Hill reaches 852 feet, and 
the ridge to the east does not fall below 600 feet for several 
miles. The average height of the Downs, however, does not 
exceed 300 feet. The Tertiary strata form scenery of a difl'erent 
character, the principal feature of which is the constant 
occurrence of flat-topped plateaus and terraces, cut up by 
valleys and much eroded, but always retaining traces of the 

fently - inclined, gravel - capped plain out of which the 
ills are now being carved. Though scattered outliers on 
the Chalk reach a greater elevation, the maximum 
height attained by these plateaus is only 41 9 feet, found on the 
Southampton and Sahsbury road. From this point they fall 
steadily southward, and also westward towards the Avon. The 
Tertiary area west of the Avon is similar in character, but more 
degraded, and the slope is eastward towards the Avon. The 



Eecent 



Pleistocene 



Eocene 



-I 



^ GEOLOGY OF RINGWOOD. 

River Avon, which ilows from north to south across our area, 
receives the drainage of the greater part of it, though about a 
quarter is drained by the Allen, a tributary of the btour. itie 
water from the small area north of Cranborne Chase reaches the 
River Avon through a circuitous course; but it belongs to the 
same basin as the Crane and Ashford Water, which dram durect 

into that river. , . ,, 

The formations represented on Sheet 314 are the followmg :— 

Peat. 
. Alluvium. 
t Valley Gravel. 
- \ Plateau Gravel. 
I Clay with Flints 

Barton Sand. 

Barton Clay. 

Bracklesham Beds. 

Bagshot Sand. 

London Clay. 
^ Reading Beds. 

(Upper Chalk. 
Middle Chalk. 
Lower Chalk. 
Upper Greensand (Selbornian). 

Nothing is yet known about the strata below ; for though 
Gault will almost certainly be found beneath the Upper Green- 
sand, we might next strike a^ rock between the Lower 
Greensand and the Kimeridge dlay. As far as can be judged 
from surrounding areas, Purbeck Rocks are likely to underlie 
the Gault towards the west and Wealden towards the east. The 
depth to Palaeozoic rocks is quite unknown ; but it may save 
useless expenditure of time and money to say that it is most 
improbable that Coal Measures would be found within 3,000 feet 
of the surface anywhere within the area. 



CEETACEOUS. 



CHAPTER II.— CRETACEOUS. 



*f8 



w 
o 

O 

w 

o 
o 
W 

H 
O 

o 

02 






Upper Gkeensand (Selbobnian). 

The north-west corner of our area 
is traversed by a flexure having an 
east and west axis, and this fold 
brings to the surface Upper Green- 
sand, in a tongue stretching eastward 
to Berwick St. John, and in inliers 
seen in the valleys of Alvediston and 
Bower Chalk. Mr. F. J. Bennett 
notes several sections at Berwick, 
showing sand and sandstone ; while 
south-west of the village black chert- 
bands are interbedded with the sand- 
stone. The small inlier at Alvediston 
he mapped for the first time, noting 
the occurrence in the road south-west 
of the Crown Inn of a foot of hard 
raggy gritty sandstone, resting on 
five feet of compact sand passing into 
sandstone with cherty nodules. Sand 
and sandstone are also seen in the 
road passing through the village. 
The Bower Chalk inlier is larger than 
that at Alvediston. Sand and sand- 
stone are seen in the road-cutting 
running through the village, and 
near the Inn black chert is inter- 
bedded with the sandstone. Sand- 
stone was formerly (juarried here, 
but the pit is now q^uite overgrown. 
At the Smithy sand is dug to 30 feet 
beneath the sandstone, which dips 
10° to the east-north-east. The 
highest bed of sandstone is cherty 
and contains some black chert. No 
junction with the Chalk was seen in 
any of the sections, and apparently 
only about half the thickness of the 
Greensand is exposed. 

Chalk. 

Chalk is exposed at the surface 
over nearly half the area described 
in this Memoir, all three divisions 
of the formation being represented 



4 GEOLOGY OF RINGWOOD. 

though the lower part only of the zone of Belemnitdla 
mucronata has escaped denudation. It is not possible 
accurately to foUow palaeontological boundaries, as these do 
not necessarily make or coincide with features which can be 
traced in the field in the absence of sections. We are com- 
pelled, therefore, to continue to divide the Chalk lithologically, 
drawing the lines between upper, middle, and lower at small 
features made by the outcrop of thin bands of more rocky chalk, 
known as Chalk Rock and Melbourn Rock, which come between. 
For economic purposes the division between Lower and Middle 
Chalk is of considerable importance ; for while the Lower Chalk 
forms retentive, slightly undulating, marly land, low-lying and 
sheltered, the Middle and Upper Chalk give rise to higher, 
steeper and drier Chalk Downs. 

Lower Chalk. 

The Lower Chalk appears only in the north-west corner of 
our district, where it is brought up by the anticline already 
described. It is soft, greyish, marly, and without flints, and has 
a thickness estimated by Mr. Jukes-Browne at 220 feet, though 
the mapping both here and in the Salisbury sheet appears to 
suggest about 80 feet less. Good sections are not common. 
There is a large overgrown pit south of Alvediston and another 
southofWoodminton, while south-east of Bower Chalk church 
an old pit 30 feet deep shows about 12 feet of firm white chalk, 
over grey marly chalk. 

Middle Chalk. 

The outcrop of this division forms generally a narrow belt 
on the hill-slopes which surround the flatter area occupied by 
Greensand and Lower Chalk. Middle Chalk also caps several 
outlying hills within the same area, and reappears as inliers at 
a lower level in valleys on the south side of the escarpment at 
Cranborne Chase. It consists of somewhat hard white chalk, 
with a few flints, mostly in the upper part, and a harder 
splintery rock, the Melbourn Rock, at the base. The thickness 
of this division is about 120 feet. Sections are seen in some of 
the deep-cut roads, locally known as " Hollows," running up the 
escarpment. In the one leading southward from Berwick the 
Melbourn Rock is seen dipping towards the south at 5°, and the 
same rock is again exposed m the road called Trow Hollow, 
south-west of Alvediston. 

Upper Chalk. ' 

By far the larger part of the area is occupied by this division, 
which reaches.a thickness of fully 500 feet. Its general character 
is a soft white chalk, with lines or bands of flints ; but it .can be 
divided into several well-marked zones, each characterised by a 



OBEtACEOtrs. • 5 

peculiar group of fossils. The palseontological zones represented 
in our area are the following, given in descending order :^- 

Zone of Belemnitella mucronata (lower part only). 
,, ,, Actinocamax quadratus. 
„ „ Marsupites. 
„ „ Micraster coranguinum. 

„ „ eortestudinarium. 

„ „ Holaster planus. 

The uppermost of these zones, that of Belemnitella mucronata, 
is only represented by its lower 200 feet, the rest having been 
denuded before the deposition of the overlying Reading Beds. 

Taking the zones in successive order, the outcrops of the 
lower ones, those of Holaster planus and Micraster, are pro- 
bably almost confined to the north-west part of our area, around 
Cranborne Chase. The Chalk Rock, a hard nodular chalk 
belonging to the zone of Holaster planus, and used by the 
Geological Survey as a convenient base for the Upper Chalk, has 
been noted by Mr. Bennett in two sections. One, a Httle to the 
north-west of Rushmore Lodge, shows 4 feet of hard nodular 
chalk with green nodules ; the other is by the road-side a 
third of a mile north of ToUard Church, and shows 5 feet of 
a similar rock with green nodules. ^ The zone of Micraster 
eortestudinarium has also been observed by Mr. Jukes-Browne 
in the Avon Valley a mile north of the edge of the Map, and the 
zone of Micraster coranguinum in another pit north-east of 
Down Barn and just outside our area, as well as at Tarrant 
Crawford, a mile south-west of its limits. 

The succeeding zone, that of Marsupites, is probably quite 
150 feet thick, and seems to occupy the surface over a con- 
siderable part of our area, though characteristic fossils are not 
readily obtained. The Chalk about Tarrant Monk ton, judging 
from its similarity to this zone elsewhere, appears to belong to 
this division ; but I was unable to find Marsupites in it, and it 
is very sparingly fossiliferous, small fragments of Inoceramus 
being the only species at all abundant. 

The zone of Acti^iocamax quadratus has not been recognised 
within our area, for its , characteristic belemnite is not . a 
common fossil in this part of England, and there are here no 
extensive sections belonging to this part of the Chalk. As the 
old custom of chalking the land has generally been given up, 
the pits now worked are mainly for the supply of chalk and 
lime to the Tertiary area and for building purposes in the 
Avon Valley and New Forest. Chalk, therefore, is usually 
dug as near to the Tertiary boundary as possible ; consequently 
in this district we. have more and better exposures of the zone of 
Belemnitella mucronata than of any of the others. Beginning' 
with the north-east corner, we find an excellent section at Lower 
Pensworth Farm, where soft chalk with few thin-skinned black 
flints and the characteristic belemnite has been dug to a depth 
of 20 feet. Black flints with thin rinds are fairly characteristic of 
this zone in Dorset, and ate in striking contrast with the mottle^ 



6 GEOLOGY OF BI^fGWoOD. 

flints with thick or agate-banded rinds found in most of the 
zones below. Continuing south-westward, Mr. E. Westlake has 
again found B. mueronata at Searchfield, just east of the Avon.* 
It occurs again at Breamore, Outwick, Whitsbury, Brookheath, 
West Park, and South Damerham, and it is noticeable that at 
the last two localities the chalk for at least 20 feet below 
the Heading Beds is entirely without flints. 

Mr. Dixon's observations around Cranborne indicate that this 
belt of flintless or almost flintless chalk is there well repre- 
sented. It is soft, often full of rust-balls or nodules of pyrites, 
and contains but few fossils. There are numerous pits in this 
chalk close to the Tertiary boundary, especially near Cranborne. 
We may mention the Burwood Pit half a mile north-east of the 
town, and a group of pits around Castle Hill, two of these 
latter having yielded the characteristic belemnite. Slightly 
lower in the series the chalk contains scattered flint-nodules or 
seams of flint, some of the flints showing a curious secondary 
growth, which can be examined in a sm^l pit on the Salisbury 
Road west of Boveridge Farm. A well mid-way between Cran- 
borne and Knap Barrow proves that the B. mueronata zone 
probably extends 200 feet below the Eocene strata; Mr. 
jDixon describes it as showing a hundred feet of soft white chalk, 
with occasional seams of nodular flints, a few thin tabular flints, 
and two marl seams, one of them at 80 feet yielding numerous 
coccospheres. Belemnitella mueronata was found to 90 feet. 
The water stood at 95 feet, 

Wimborne St. Giles and Woodlands show a similar succession, 
Mr. Dixon noting in the pit south of Avenue Lodge soft chalk 
with rare thin-skmned flints and Belemnitella mueronata, to a 
depth of 25 feet, the pit being close to the Tertiary boundary. 
Half a mile to the west, in St. Giles's Park, another pit, 
probably 100 feet lower in the series, shows soft white chalk 
with abundant flints, both scattered nodular black with thick 
agate rinds, and tabular inclined. This pit yields also B. 
mueronata and Porosphcera glohularis. A pit a quarter of a 
mile south-west of Knowle Hill yields B. mueronata, Kingena 
lima, and some slightly phosphatic granules (foraminifera, etc.). 
The pits around Gussage all show chalk with scattered agate- 
skinned flints, but no zone-fossils have there been found. 

The pits near Horton were also found by Mr. Dixon to show 
soft chalk with few or no flints, but occasional B. mueronata. 
The same beds were seen in a well at the foot of Chalbury Hill, 
at a cottage close to the north corner of Sturt's Copse. The 
Chalk there, at its junction with the Eocene strata,iwas bored into 
by some undetermined boring animal for the top 2 feet, the borings 
being filled with sand. It was soft, white, Avith few thin-rinded 
black flints and occasional fossils, Belemnitella mueronata, 
PUcatula, Diastopora, and Echinocorys vulgaris occurring within 
the first 20 feet. At 63 feet Rhynchonella limbata ? was found • 



* " Outlines of the Geology of Fordingbridge and Neighbourhood," p. -7 
Fordingbridge, 1889. 



CRETACEOUS. 7 

at 70 feet Kingena limM and Spondylus* The large chalk-pit 
immediately south of Hinton Martell is in soft white chalk, 
with marcasite-nodules but no flint; it yields Belemnitella 
mucronata, Terehratuliva striata, and Rhynchonella plicatilis. 
A pit at Mill Hill Copse, near Crichel, yielded B. onucronata. 
It IS estimated that here the zone must also be nearly 200 feet 
in thickness ; for the pit is at a low level and at a considerable 
distance from the Tertiary escarpment. 

On travelling westward, the lower strata with agate-rinded 
flints are again met with at Moore Crichel ; but as usual zone- 
fossils are difiicult to find in this part of the series, though 
similar strata continue as far as Tarrant, where tabular flints 
become conspicuous. Part of these strata may represent zones 
below that of Belerrinitdla inucronata. 

Towards the southern limit of our area two large pits near 
Bradford Barrow exhibit 20 feet of thick-bedded soft chalk, 
containing nodules oi pyrites, rare flints with thick rinds, and 
Echinocorys vulgaris. This chalk also seems to belong to the 
zone of Belemnitella inucronata, for another pit outside the 
Map, though nearly at the same level and along the same line of 
strike, yields in similar chalk both Echinocorys and B. mucro- 
nata. A fourth pit, close to King Down Farm, which lies by 
the side of the Roman road just beyond our present limit, again 
shows soft chalk with B. mu^cronata and no flints. Its top is 
not more than 30 feet below the base of an adjoining Tertiary 
outlier. The large pit between the " British Village " and 
Hinton Parva exhibits an excellent section of 35 feet of these 
strata with massive soft chalk, having merely a few thick-skinned 
flints near the base, and B. mucronata also in the lower part. 
Above this flintless chalk and immediately under the Tertiary 
base a mile further south we see 12 feet of chalk with scattered 
thin-skinned black flints and B. mucronata. Still further south, 
the well and headings of the Bournemouth waterworks at 
Wimborne are entirely in almost flintless chalk, with the same 
belemnite and a few other fossils, the flinty chalk above having 
again been cut out by the uneven base of the overlying Tertiary 
strata 



The Tertiary strata in this well are described in the next chapter, p. 11. 



GfiOLOGY OF RlNGWOOD. 



CHAPTER III.— READING BEDS. 

The Reading Beds occupy a narrow belt, striking north-east 
to south-west across our area. They cling also to the dip-slope 
of the Chalk, capping isolated hills for some distance outside 
the main outcrop, and remains of Tertiary material scattered 
oyer the Downs prove that strata of this age had once a much 
wider extension. The total thickness of the division is about 
80 feet, made up in the main of unfossiliferous red-mottled clay 
above and glauconitic marine loam and sand below. Scattered 
unworn flints with coats stained dark-green generally occur 
near the base. The strata, however, are extremely variable, 
stiff red-mottled plastic clay changing laterally in a very short 
distance into coarse sand with splinters of flint, and glauconitic 
sand passing into pebble-gravel. Thus the surface feature made 
by their junction with the Chalk is also variable ; sometimes a 
well-marked escarpment occurs at this point, sometimes a 
depression.; but nearly always a line of swallow-holes marks 
approximately the transition from Chalk to Tertiary. 

Two wells within our district penetrate the whole thickness 
of the Reading series, and a comparison of the two will show 
how variable are the strata. Moreover, neither of these borings 
shows the gravelly modification of the lower beds, so conspicuous 
in the outhers. The Fordingbridge well (see Appendix, p. 54), 
exhibited according to Mr. E. Wesuake: — Peet 

Sand, shale, and pebbles (Basement - bed of 
the London clay). 

''Light-grey clay laminated with grey sand 6 
Grreenish-brown loam with a little glau-\ 
conitic sand and lignite - -/ 

Buff-coloured calcareous stone, 4 inches - 
Light-brown clay 
Brown clay 

''Whitish-grey or pale-greenl 
clay, with occasional streaks i 
of red - 1 

Light-grey pipe-clay 
Red clay 
■ Yellow clay, greyer towards"! 
the base - - -/ 

Dark-brown or chocolate-col- "> 
cured clay- / 

Purple clay streaked with) 
ochre - - -/ 

Tale buff-coloured marl 
White highly calcareous marl- 
- Pale-green or olive-coloured) 
marl with small calcareous l 
1_ lumps - -j 

Greensand (glauconitic quartz and iron) 
, grains) with oyster shells - - -/ 
Chalk. 



Beading < 

Beds, 
74 feet. 



Mottled 

Clay, 

31 feet. 



llj 

i 
3f 



14 

1 
3 



Marl, 
9 feet. 



10 



READING BEDS^ 9 

The strata above the " light-brown clay " perhaps should be 
classed with the London Clay, thus reducing the thickness of the 
Readying series to 56 feet. 

The details of the well at Verwood Rectory, also given more 
fully in the Appendix, were communicated by Mr. J. W. Titt, of 
Warminster; they are as follows, and though the upper 
limit of the Reading series is not clearly defined, the change in 
the lower part is very marked : — 

Feet. 
Sandy clay (Basement-bed of the London Clay ?). 

Reading (^«'t^,Tl ^l 

Beds 1 Mottled clay 7 

(^ Dead green- sand- 11 

To Chalk 80 

As the deposits belonmig to this series are so extremely 
variable, it will be be advisable to indicate the changes that 
occur from place to place as the escarpment is foUowed from 
north-east to south-west. Unfortunately, however, the great ten- 
dency of the plastic clays to slip and flow down even gentle slopes 
often makes it difiicult to be sure of the thickness, or in some 
cases even of the exact order of the different strata. 

Though the pits around Lowden Copse are all now over- 
grown, the Reading Beds seem there to consist entirely of sand 
and sandstone, with some flint-shingle at the base, and perhaps 
pebbly seams throughout. An open pit at the cross-roads south 
of Lower Pens worth Farm shows rough sand with many grains 
of lydite, underlying an irregular bed of pebbles, which, however, 
may be nothing but the reconstructed basement-bed of the 
London Clay washed from the slope above. Oysters have been 
seen at Redlynch towards the base of the formation, and the 
pit in Morgan's Vale Brick Field shows the upper strata, and 
their junction with the London Clay. The section of the lower 
part of this pit is : — 

Feet. 
London /Brown clay and loam with glauconite. 

Clay \Pebbles . . | 

■p J. C Laminated light-grey clay with leaves 
bSs^I and lignite - 3 

[Brown sand and white clay- 13 

This is an unusual modification of the strata, and the lami- 
nated clay was searched for determinable plant remains, but 
without success. The locality would repay fuller examination 
as the section is cut back. A little further towards the south- 
west red clay makes its appearance, resting on at least 15 feet of 
brown sand. 

On the west side of the Avon sections of the lower part of the 
series are fairly abundant ; but in the various spurs and outliers 
the sands and gravels have been so weathered that all fossils 
have disappeared. A pit on the north side of the stream, about 
^ mil© south-east of Rockboume,. exhibits rough sand ^vith 



10 GEOLOGY OF RINGWOOD 

splinters of flint and black grit, whilst the Damerham Knoll 
outlier shows a basement-bed, consisting of sand and gravel, 
with flint-pebbles, subangular flints, much quartz, a little Green- 
sand chert, and one pebble of hard sandstone. Where the 
strata sink to near the water-leyel, they have suffered less from 
this process of oxidation and decalcification ; consequently, we 
find an interesting series of sections south and south-east of 
West Park. The upper beds, partly seen in Wilkins's Copse, 
at the Brick Kiln, and near Court Farm, consist apparently of 
brown clay and sand ; the middle is not clear, but seemingly 
contains no mottled clay. The lower strata, seen in a well, just 
finished, but with the excavated material still on the spot, at 
the cottage by the road-side a quarter of a mUe east-north-east 
of West Park Farm, yielded in 1899 the following section : — 

Feet. 

{Sand - 10 

Bluish Loam - "j 

Glauconitic loam with Ostrea bellovacina, [ 13 
bored by Pholadidea 1 ) 

Chalk 4 

The actual base is visible in a somewhat overgrown chalk- 
pit a quarter of a mile away, between Pebble Pit and the 
Waterworks ; but this pit being at a higher elevation, the fossils 
have disappeared. The section shows 15 feet of bedded sand 
and ironstone, alternating with glauconitic loam and scattered 
pebbles, and resting on Chalk. Pebble Pit is overgrown. 

The deep road-cutting at Court Farm gives a good general 
view of the character and thickness of the Readmg Series at 
that spot, though the sections are not now very clear. On the 
top 01 the ihill, at West Park Lodge, brown clay with pebbles is 
seen. This is obvibusly the Basement-bed of the London Clay. 
A little lower, at the bend in the road, we find sand and loam ; 
followed by brown glauconitic loam in the deeper part of the 
cutting. Still lower, under Court Farm, there is a bed of flint 
shingle, below which is found a little ironstone and loam with 
pebbles. The Chalk-pit at the foot of the slope shows large 
pipes with glauconitic sand and ferruginous conglomerate, 
penetrating deeply into the twenty feet of flintless chalk there 
seen. The total thickness of the Reading Series at this spot is 
about 80 feet. 

Dark-grey plastic clay has been much dug for coarse 
pottery around Crelidell ; but the only pit now in use is one near 
Holwell Farm (see p. 23). The thickness of the series is irregular ; 
but the general succession agrees with that already described. 
Glauconitic sands and loams with marine fossils can be seen 
beneath the mottled clay and immediately on the Chalk at 
several places, the best spots for examining these marine strata 
being the road-cutting above and west of Ashes Farm, a swallow- 
hole a quarter of a mile south-west of the same farm, and, resting 
on the Chalk, in the road-cutting on the Cranborne road above 
Bellows Cross a,iid at Mutt&n Hole, near Cranborne. At 



READING BEDS. 



11 



each of these ' localities Ostrea bellovacina was found by Mr 
Dixon. Fossiliferous glauconitic loam is again seen in the 
Chalk-pit east of St. Giles's Park, the red-mottled clay 
higher in the series appearing in pits above and around the 
Keeper's Lodge. The junction with the Chalk is also well 
shown in the pits and lane-cutting west of Woodlands, where 
Mr. Dixon notes the following succession : — 

Feet. 
'Red clay (slip). 

Glauconitic loam and clay - 4 

Reading J Brown glauconitic loam full of flints, 
Beds 1 large and unworn, small angular, 
or pebbles ; some green-coated or 
pitted - 
Chalk, cracked and stained yellow. 

Two of the small outliers of the basement-bed south-west ot 
the above section have yielded Ostrea hellovaciTm. 

From Woodlands to half a mile south-west the surface shows 
many angular fragments of sandstone, of fine to medium grain, 
pale but with occasional red blotches, with chalcedonic cement, and 
varjdng from hard sand-rock to cherty sandstone. These contain 
traces of vertical roots, and appear to belong to a greywether 
sandstone in place in the Reading Beds ; they are similar in 
character to the derivative greywether boulders which occur at 
the base of the London Clay and of the Bracklesham series. 

Horton and Chalbury snow numerous exposures of plastic 
clay and sand, with glauconitic deposits towards the base. The 
best section of the lower part of the series was one noted by Mr. 
Dixon in a well on the west side of Chalbury Hill, at a cottage 
at the north comer of Sturt's Copse ; it showed : — 

Feet. 
Soil and mottled clay (red, dark-grey, 

and buff) - 14 

Oyster-bed with race - f 

{ Loose glauconitic sand - 4 

Oyster-bed with race 2 

Glauconitic loam, sand, and clay with 

fossils ... -7 

Chalk (top 2 feet with irregular borings) 111 

The thicknesses were supphed by Mr. H. Hayter. From the beds 
below the mottled clay m this well were obtained the following 
fossUs, determined by Messrs. E. T. Newton and H. A. Allen : — 



Reading 
Beds 



Myliobatis sp. 

Odontaspis elegans, Ag. 

Shark's teeth. 

Fish bones and scales. 

Cardium. 

Corbula. 



Modiola. 

Mytilus (cf. Dutemplei, Desk.). 

Nucula. 

Ostrea bellovacina, Lam. 

Pinna 1 

Lamellibranchs (indeterminable). 



The associated foraminif era are mainly derived from the Chalk 
below; but Mr, F, Chapman, who has examined them, finds 



12 GEOLOGY OF RINGWOOD. 

among them the following indigenous genera, all more or less 
depauperate : — 

Haplophragminum. Pulvinulina. 

Trochammina. Rotalia. 

The. fossils, unfortunately, are badly preserved, and in the 
other sections in the neighbourhood only Ostrea bellovacina 
can be found. Sections in the clay-pit at Sturt's Copse show a 
bed of slightly glauconitic sand in the red-mottled clay, and 
lower down a rapid passage of this clay into the basal marine 
series. The southernmost point to which these marine - fossils 
have yet been traced is in the lane south of Hinton Martell, 
where Mr. Dixon noted in descending order, though not in 
continuous sequence : — 

'Grey clay. 

Eed clay with green streaks. 
Reading J Green loamy clay, abundantly glauconitic a short 
, Beds \ distance down. 
Oyster-bed. 
.Glauconitic loam. 
Chalk. 

Above the highest of these strata the spud shows red clay 
again, followed by pebbly sand (basement-bed of the London 
Clay). 

The sections near Gaunt's House are somewhat confusing, and 
it is not easy to make out the relations of the red clay to the 
sands which there form the bulk of the deposit. A small but 
well-marked escarpment marks the junction of Eocene with 
Chalk, and, as we should expect with this feature, deep pits 
north-east and south-west of Woodcutt's Farm expose 30 feet of 
false-bedded buff sand, worked apparently to within a few feet 
of the Chalk. A ditch north of the first-mentioned pit and at a 
somewhat higher level shows red clay ; but red clay is again seen 
close to the second pit and apparently just above the Chalk. 
This latter, however, may be nothing but a land-shp, for nowhere 
in a clear section has red-mottled clay been seen beneath the 
marine part of the formation, and the other exposures in this 
Map are all high up in the series. 

Before leaving the Reading Series it may be mentioned that 
the persistence of glauconitic sands with marine fossils through- 
out this area makes me now think that the glauconitic sand 
which marks the base of the. series nearly as far west as the 
formation extends is truly marine and the glauconite of con - 
temporaneous origin. The absence of contemporaneous fossils, 
as well as the occurrence at Bere Regis of glauconitic sand con- 
taining Cretaceous foraminifera, formerly suggested that this 
glauconitic material might be entirely derivative and the sands 
not necessarily of marine origin.* 

* " Geology of the Cuun^ry around Dorchester'' pp. 17-38. Mem, Geol, 
Survey, 1899, 



LONDON CLAY. 13 



CHAPTER IV.— LONDON CLAY. 

A general south-easterly dip causes the London Clay to 
appear on the Map as a belt parallel to that formed by the 
Reading Series, but of about twice its width. The thickness 
of the newer deposit is about 120 feet, made up of pyritous blue 
loams, alternating with bluish satid. The interstitial matter 
which cements the sand-grains and makes the deposit look like 
a clay when obtained from a short distance below the surface, 
consists mainly of iron-salts, not of clay. When this cement is 
removed or oxidised by weathering, the residue makes a more 
ssndy soil than would be expected. Beds or seams of flint- 
pebbles are not uncommon, and occur at several levels, though 
most usually towards the base. Tenacious clay, with fossils and 
septarian nodules of the London type is more rare. The land 
formed by this division is wet and somewhat heavy ; but the 
impervious character is largely due to the smallness and closeness 
of the minute sand -grains that form the bulk of the rock, not 
to any large admixture of argillaceous matter. A similar 
deposit of coarser grain would probably be spoken of as a sand, 
instead of as a clay. Most of the area is occupied by woodland 
and pasture, over which few sections are to be seen. So little 
variation is observable in the London Clay of this district that 
it will be needless to do more than describe the good sections 
and those that depart from the ordinary type. One novel point, 
discovered by Mr. Dixon in the course of the Survey, deserves 
particular attention. This is the occurrence around Cranborne 
of a distinct overlap and unconformity between the London Clay 
and the strata below. Mr. Whitaker has already noticed a 
similar overlap on the North Downs, where Oldhaven Beds (the 
pebble-beds at the base of the London Clay) occasionally rest 
directly on the Chalk, without the intervention of any older 
Tertiary strata.* In the Hampshire Basin, however, though 
rolled pebbles of red clay had been found in the basement-bed 
of the London Clay, no distinct evidence of overlap had 
previously been noticed. 

Commencing as before with the north-east comer of our area, 
we find the London Clay around Lover to have an outcrop of 
more than a mile in width. This is due mainly to the coincidence 
of the slope of the ground with the dip of the strata, thus 
exposing the clay for three times the width of the Reading Beds, 
in which the inner and outer margins ooincide in level. The 
material thrown out of a well (just completed) about 250 yards 
south-west of Lover Church was glauconitic sandy loam, with 
ironstone nodules containing a small damaged Cardita and 
Corbula obliqiuita ? Desh., both with the shell preserved. It is 



* " Geology of the London Basin," Chapter xvii, Mem. Geol. Swvey, 
Vol. iv. (1872). 

5300 B 



14 



GEOLOGY OF RINGWOOD. 



unfortunate that the rest of the fossils had been destroyed, for . 
little is yet known about the London Clay fauna in the western 
end of the Hampshire Basin, where the beds become sandy. 

Redlynch Brick Field, situated just at the north end of the 

spur over which the Southampton Road passes, exhibits one of 

the best sections of London Clay now visible in the district. The 

curious relations to the drift above (see Fi^. 2) make it some- 

FiG. 2 — Redlynch Bkick Field (West Face). 







IVescnt floor of Pit 



■ — - 





— — 

















. — 




— — 


^=5>: 


^^^^^U^a^s^^^'^'^^^r^s^^^, 



Drift 

London 
Clay 

Reading 



Brick e»rth 

Rough Gravel 

Bedded blue clay with rare 
septaria, fossils, and a seam 
pebbles (to present floor) 

Ditto, said to rest on pebbles 

Sand. 



re'\ 



Feet. 

7 
3 to 5 

10 

10 



what uncertain, however, whether the apparent dip is real or 
only the result of flow down the slope. This section is interesting 
as yielding internal casts of characteristic London Clay fossils, 
those found belonging to Xanthopsis Leachi, Gytherea ? Pectun- 
culun, Odontaspis miacrotus, and one or two indeterminable 
lamellibranchs. 

Morgan's Vale Brick Field shows an even deeper section, 
though no determinable fossils could here be found in the London 
Clay, and those said by the men to occur were unobtainable at 
the time of my visit. The pit is worked in stages, the complete 
section being as follows : — 



i Brown clay (shells at the base) about 
Sand 
Brown loam with glauconite 
Pebbles 

Laminated light-grey clay with\ 
lignite and leaves / 

Brown Sand 



Reading 
Beds 



Feet 
15 

17* 
h 
3 

13 



Hart Hill Brick-kiln (close to Woodfalls) exhibits the top of 
the London Clay and its junction with the Bagshot Sands ; but 
the oecurrence of marine ifossils in an ironstone near the top of 



LONDON CLAV. 



15 



the section leaves it somewhat doubtful whether these sandy 
beds also should not be classed with the London Clay rather 
than with the Earshot Sand. This is a point that remains 
uncertam and needs further work, for there is the additional 
doubt whether towards the north-east there may not be even an 
overlap of Bracklesham on to London Clay* The two fossils 
discovered unfortunateljr might belong to either of these 
formations. The succession at Hart Hfll is as follows:— 



Feet, 
about 3 



Ins. 






Gravelly wash 
/Brown loam - - „ 

Bagshot Bluish loam 

or I Fossiliferous ironstone with Tvrri- \ 
London | tella imibricataria and ' Cardita [ 8 
Clay planicosta ? - J 

. Buif sand 6 

f Flint pebbles ... 02 

London ) Grey and brown clay with Oslrea, \ 
Clay \ Pinna affinis, and Calyptrcea r 10 
I aperia . J 

The outcrop of the London Clay is tiaceable in the Avon 
bluff as far south as Castle Hill. Then crossing the river it 
reappears around Fordingbridge, though the most complete 
section was that shown in the boring at the Fordingbridge Gas 
Works, the material from this boring having been carefully 
examined and described by Mr. E. Westlake.f His section is 
as follows:- ^^^^^ 



Soil 


Black mould 


2 


Eiver 
Gravel 


J Subangular gravel and sand 


12 


Bagshot 1 


Fine grey quartz sand, clayey in places- 


6 




Grey sandy clay 


8 




Sand and pebbles- 


2 




Hard stiff clay 


10 




Sand, with pebbles at the base 


4 




Sandy clay 


6 




Septarium containing fossils, Turritella 


' 




imbricataria, &c. - 


1 


London 


Clay 


8 


Clay, y 


Hard stone - 


1 


118 feet 


Dark clay 

Dark clay with shells, probably Phola- 


7 




domya 


3 




Dark bluish clay - 


14 




Hard stone - 


h 




Dark bluish clay with a few small peb- 






bles — Cardita planicosta, Bostellaria 






ludda, Turritella imbricataria - 


7 



See also "Geology of the Country around Southampton," p. 13. 
Mem. Geol. Survey, 1901. 

t " Outlines of the Geology of Fordingbridge and Neighbourhood. 
Fordingbridge, 1889. 



esoe 



B 2 



16 GEOLOGY OF BINGWOOD. 

Feet. 

Hard stone - - - ■ J 

Clay - 8 

Brown clay, very hard and compact 4 

London Septarium 1^ 

Clay, I Sand and clay, with water under the stone 20 

118 feet \ Sand and water 3 

{contmited) Sandy clay 7 
Sand, shale, and pebbles (Basement-bed 1 
Doubtful if pebbles are more than 

6 in. thick) 3 

London /Light-greyclaylaminated with grey sand 6 
Clay or J Greenish-brown loam with a little glau- 

Eeading S conitic sand and lignite- 11|^ 

Beds [Buff-coloured calcareous stone, 4 inches- ^ 

iedf °^ }Light-brown clay. 

Mr. E. Westlake's classification gives to the London Clay a 
thickness of 118 feet; but it is possible that strata both 
higher and lower shoiild be included in that division. I should 
be inclined to class the beds marked as doubtful with the 
Basement-bed, making the London Clay 136 feet thick. Pebble- 
beds m this district occur at so many horizons that they cannot 
be taken as marking lines of division ; in this section at least 
four are found. Glauconitic sand, also, in the Reading Series of 
this area seems to be confined to the base of the deposit, 
though it is common throughout' the London Clay. 

Open sections west of Fordingbridge show similar deposits ; 
though it is impossible to obtain good measurements or to 
ascertain to what part of the London Clay the strata may 
belong. The second railway cutting north-east of the station 
passes through carbonaceous and glauconitic sand, apparently 
resting on blue sandy clay. Numerous brickyards have been 
worked further west, around Sandhill Hill, the best exposure 
now visible being in the pit close to Lower Court Wood. This 
shows : — 

Feet. 
Tondon (Bedded brown loam 15 

Clav 1 Black glauconitic loam and septaria, 
•' [ Turritella imbricataria, Ot/iherea 5 

Fossils are rarely to be found, for the best brick-earth is 
usually that which has been the most thoroughly weathered. 
The unweathered pyritous and fossiliferous clays are of compara- 
tively little value. Nearer to the outcrop of the Eeading Series 
than the brickyard just described there is a sandpit, probably in 
the Basement-bed of the London Clay. Red bricks abd tiles are 
made at these yards, one of the kilns south-west of Alderholt 
Mill having made formerly even coarse red pottery, though per- 
haps for this pottery the plastic clay of the Reading Series was 
used. 

On the south side of Ashford Water the railway-cuttings are 
not sufficiently deep to lay bare the junction of the London Clay 



LONDON CLAY. 



17 



with the Reading Series, and the liae traced marks only the 
approximate boundary between clay and sand. The area around 
Cranborne has yielded to Mr. Dixon clear evidence of a gradual 
overlap of the Reading Beds, so that London Clay rests imme- 
diately on Chalk. The change seems to conunence with the 
appearance at the base of the London Clay of coarse pebbly 
sand, in which occur numerous small splinters of Hint. These 
strata are seen at several spots around Crendell. Outhers at 
Noddle Hill and Burwood, north of Cranborne, and Castle HiU 
and Creech Hill, south-east and south-west of the same place, 
show that the basement-bed of the London Clay has become 
still coarser and thicker, has completely cut out the Reading 
•Beds, and rests immediately on Chalk. 

Except as yielding evidence of this overlap, the London Clay 
sections near Cranborne are not of much interest, though one 
noted in the pottery-clay pit of Roke HiU (close to the River 
Crane) is worth recording. It shows : — 



Feet. Ins. 



London 
Clay 



Eeading 



Soil 

Sandy ironstone, enclosing cotes of "j 

glauconitic sandstone. Occa- r 

sional small pebbles --' 

Buff and pale clay 
Ironstone, enclosing pale glauconitic"! 

sandstone -/ 

Clay, buff and pale, 

passing down into 
Fine grey sand with glauconite 
Clay, grey, red, green, etc. 
Pottery clay, dark-grey or black,') 

stiff dicey -/ 

Clay with powdery red patches and 

hard pale masses. 



2 


6 


4 





13 






4 to 6 



Half a mile further down the Crane Valley large blocks of 
ferruginous sandstone of medium grain occur almost in place, 
sandrock occurring also at Hungry Hill. At Smallbridge Farm 
casts of Gardita were found in pieces of ironstone in the soil. 

The Brickyard adjoining Verwood Station shows the most 
interesting sections in the London Clay of Dorset. Just above 
the pit, though not seen in the Brickyard itself, occurs the sand 
of the Bagshot series, the junction, unfortunately, not being 
visible. Then succeeds the following section, noted by Mr. 
Dixon : — 

Feet. Ins. 



London 
Clay 



Clay with Astarte ? Gt/therea ? and fish" 
scale; glauconitic in the lower un- 
weathered part. Inconstant thin 
bands of fine-grained sandy iron- 
stone, one near the base containing 
Twritella and a leaf of Eakea ? - 
Glauconitic clay and pebbles 
Fine glauconitic sand and pebbles - 



18 



10 



18 



GEOLOGY OF BINGWOOD. 



London 

Clay 
(continued.) 



{" Cockle-bed." "White concretionary ^ 
calcareous glauconilic sandstone, 
full of casts of shells (in places j 

( passing into ironstone) 
Buif and pale sand and loam, with] 
occasional thin clay and iron- 
stone seams seen to I 



Feet. 



Ins. 
10 



The fossils of the " cockle-bed " were all London Clay species, 
including Valuta, Fusus, CerithiuTn, Turritella Dixoni, Cardita 
Brongniarti, Modiola elegans, and Ostrea flahellula. A single 
damaged leaf found higher in the series has the fine venation 
beautifully preserved and is of great interest. The venation is 
so peculiar and so like that of an entire-leaved Hakea (compare 
H. saligna) that I cannot refer it to anything but this peculiar 
and now eharacteristically Australasian proteaceous genus. 

Sutton Brickyard, a mile and a half west of Verwood, shows 
sections in the lower part of the London Clay, the eastern face 
exposing : — 

Feet. Ins. 
Clay 2 

Ironstone - 2 

Clay 2 

Ironstone 3 

Loamy glauconitic clay - 2 

Pinkish clay - . - - 2 

Dark-grey glauconitic loam with 

fossils 1 6 

Pinkish clay 2 

Glauconitic loam and sand with 

fossils 4 6 

Pebble-bed, with coarse flint sand - 2 
Fine buff sand - 6 

Pale-grey loam . - . 1 

Slightly glauconitic laminated sand 4 6 



London 
Clay 



The fossils found by Mr. Dixon, mainly in the two ironstone 
seams, and determined by Mr. H. A. AHen are : 



Fish scale. 

Bulla. 

Natica ambulacrum, Sow. 

Phorus. 

Turritella Dixoni, Desh. 

„ sp. 
Voluta elevata, Sow. 



Cardita Brongniarti, Mant. 
Glycimeris (Panopaea) inter- 
media, Sow. 
Modiola 1 
Nucula. 
Ostrea. 
Hemiaster branderianus, Forbes. 



The Clay-pits at Holt Wood, near Hinton Martell again 
show fossiliferous London Clay, a section noted by Mr. Dixon 
40 yards west of the Methodist Chapel exhibiting 10 feet of 
brown clay, with, near the base, a thin layer of ferruginous 
sandstone containing glauconite, a little wood, and shells, both 
unaltered and as casts. The shells are Cardium, Cytherea, 
Ostrea, Turritella Dixoni, and a second species of Turritella. 

A well at Rook's Hill (three-quarters of a mile east-south- 
east of Hinton Martell Church) passed through the lower part 



LONhON OLA?. 



19 



of the London 
Reading Series :— 



Clay and perhaps the 



London 
Clay 



^Mottled weathered clay 
BuiF loam, passing down into 

grey laminated clay with casts 

of lignite 
Loose buff sand with occasional 

clay seams 
Laminated loamy clay with casts 

of lignite 
Glauconitic sand with pebbles 

below 
Laminated loamy clay with casts 

of lignite 
Pebble-bed ; flint-pebbles, some 

10 in. diameter 
Loam with a little glauconite 
Glauconitic sand, passing down 

into medium - grained sand 

without glauconite 



upper part 
Feet, 



of the 



Ins 




10 



10 








19 



A few feet of the sand without glauconite may belong to the 
Reading Beds. 

At Wiltshire Wood, north of Hinton Martell, a London Clay 
outher again cuts down into the Reading Beds, till in one place 
it rests on Chalk. The basement-bed of the London Clay con- 
sists there of ferruginous conglomerate and pebbles, well seen in 
a pit. A similar pebble-bed at Rye Hill, near Woodlands, yielded 
pebbles of greywether sandstone 

The development of gravelly beds, the extreme variability, 
the tendency to overlap older deposits, and the common occur- 
ence of drift-wood (and more rarely of leaves) characterise the 
London Clay towards its western limit; but it stiU yields 
nothing suggestive of freshwater or brackish-water conditions, 
or even of actual shore deposits. 



20 GEOLOGY OF RINGWOOD. 



CHAPTER v.— BAGSHOT SAND. 

The Bagshot Sand consists mainly of light-coloured or buff 
quartz-sand, becoming more coarse in grain towards the south- 
west. Here and there lenticular masses of whitish sandy pipe- 
clay or of shaly loam are intercalated, and these sometimes 
yield leaves of deciduous trees ; though clean fine-grained pipe- 
clay, like that of Poole, is missing within the area here described. 
In fact, if we leave out of account the marine bed of Hart Hill, 
doubtfully referred to this division, and the marine glauconitic 
sands and loams of Daggons lload Brick Works, the deposit 
would appear to be in the main of fluviatile or estuarine origin. 
The thickness is somewhat difficult to estimate, for where Bagsnot 
Sand comes to the surface the land is mainly barren heath, 
sparsely inhabited, and with few sections such as would allow the 
dip to be ascertained in deposits so fuU of current-bedding. 
Perhaps the thickness may be taken as not less than 200 feet ; 
though in the district around Hart Hill the upper part of the 
series may be cut out. 

If we commence as before with the north-east corner of the 
Map, we find around Hamptworth waterlogged sandy heaths, 
over which thin seams of white clay occur sufficiently often to 
hold up and throw out water at various levels. Good sections 
ar'e rare ; but white sands are found below the Bracklesham 
Series in the road-cuttings and stream-beds, especially near 
Heathfield Farm. On following the outcrop westward we meet 
with fair exposures of laminated white and carbonaceous loams 
in the small road-cutting between Loosehanger Copse and the 
road to Lover. This loam looks like a plant-bed and is worth 
further examination, though in the short tiine at my disposal 
no plants could be found. 

The large pit on the north side of the ridge at North Charford 
is in gravel, but a small adjoining pit close to Whiteshoot Farm, 
exhibits under the gravel 22 feet of fine current-bedded sand, 
with seams of white loam and pebbles of lignite and of flint. 
The Hart Hill Brickyard, half a mile further north, has already 
been described (p. 15), and it need only be repeated that the 
marine ironstone nodules there observed are only referred with 
great doubt to the Bagshot Sands. 

No section of interest was noticed at Hale, but a pit at the 
east end of Woodgreen Common exposes 15 feet of false-bedded 
buff sand. Somewhat higher in the series, on the west side of 
Millersford Bottom, a bed of white and carbonaceous clay, 
persistent for at least a mile, throws out water and makes a 
distinct feature on the hillside. Associated with the clay-bed 
occurs a seam of coarse quartz-sand, an association usual in the 
case of pipe-clays, though not easy to explain. Towards the 
junction of Millersford Bottom with the main valley, dark-grey 
or purplish sandy clay crops out in the stream bank, a section a 



BAGSHOT SAND. 21 

quarter of a mile south-east of Folds Farm showing 3 feet of 
this clay, overljang 15 feet of sand and ferruginous sandstone. 
This clay-bed would appear to lie about 80 feet below the band 
in the hill above. 

The steep bluff overhanging the river at Sandy Balls shows 
an excellent section (part landslip, part pit) at its southern end, 
near the Fordingbridge Road. Tne bluff exposes : — 

Feet. 
' Buif and red sand 15 

Bagshot Shaly carbonaceous clay (formerly 
Beds dug for bricks) 20 

Sandy loam. 

A small overgrown pit at a lower level, close to the bend in 
the river, shows another seam of laminated carbonaceous sand 
and loam 

Pits around Blissford and Frogham exhibit the deposits 
immediately below the Bracklesham Series, a brick-pit at Chilly 
Hill, a quarter of a mile soiath-south-east of Blissford Cross, 
passing through : — 

Feet. 
Bracklesham Glauconitic green and buff loam 20 

Bagshot White sand 20 

Another junction-section in the scarp south-west of Hyde is 
somewhat different, showing : — 

■p. 1 1 , / Glauconitic loam, with flint and quartz 

\ pebbles at the base. 

Tj , , / Laminated whitish clay and sand, 

*° \ coarse-grained above. 

Another pit, a hundred yards to the north, continues the section 
downward with 10 feet of current-bedded white sand, containing 
small pieces of decayed flint. 

On crossing the Avon we again find numerous small 
exposures, especially in the river-bluff south of Fordingbridge, 
hard white or brown loams with ironstone-nodules being 
associated with carbonaceous sands, and these sands become 
noticeably coarser as we trace them towards the south-west. It 
is not necessary to describe in detail all these sections, few of 
them being deep or fossiliferous ; perhaps the most curious is 
that seen in the road-cutting down the oluff half a mile north- 
north-west of Somerley. In this we meet in descending 
sequence : — Feet. 

Plateau Gravel 9 

T, , . ("Sand. 
tF ^ ° \ Carbonaceous shale and plant-remains. 
I Sand and ferruginous sandstone. 

The plant-remains seem to be quite indeterminable; those I 
obtained were only obscure impressions of dicotyledonous 
leaves, in a matrix too sandy and weathered for study. 

The railway-cuttings and pits around Alderholt exhibit 
numerous sections somewhat lower in the series ; but there is no 



22 GEOLOGY OF KlNGWOOC. 

noticeable change in the character of the deposits, which here 
also consist of white or buff sand in which are intercalated thin 
lenticular masses of carbonaceous clay and loam. One of the 
best sections is exposed in the brick-yard east of Charing Cross, 
the upper pit showing laminated carbonaceous clay with much 
pyrites, dtig to a depth of 10 feet ; the lower pit showing 20 feet 
of white sand. 

One of the best sections of the lower part of the Bagshot 
Sand, and its junction with the London Clay, is to be seen in 
the Pottery and Brick Works close to Daggon's Road Station. 
Mr. Dixon there noted the following succession : — 

' Clay and laminated loam, passing laterally into coarse 

flinty sand ; lower part glauconitic, with masses of 

concretionary calcareous sandstone containing shells 

Bagshot J (according to workmen) and plant remains. A seam 

Beds ) of flint-pebbles and small contemporaneous greywethers 

with chalcedonic cement near the bottom, another 

with logs of drift-wood and a block of Pholas-hored 

^ sandstone at the base. 

On an eroded surface of 
London Clay? Fine white glauconitic sand, 13 feet seen. 

A few feet above, a sand-pit close to the high-road shows : — 

Feet. 
Bagshot / Laminated loam and fine sand 5 

Beds. 1 Fine buff sand with occasional glauconite - 7 J 

The occurrence of glauconitic sand is noteworthy, for it will 
be observed that the glauconite extends well above the eroded 
surface, which is the only line which can here be taken to 
divide the London Clay from the Bagshot Sand. Possibly the 
whole of these strata may be referable to the Bagshot Sand, 
which in that case in its lower part is here of marine origin. 
Another section, near the railway, a quarter of a mile west of the 
station, gives : — 

Feet. Ins. 
■ Sand and sandstone 1 

Pipe-clay ^ to 6 

Laminated clay and sandstone 6 



Bagshot 
Beds 



Fine to medium-grained glauconite 
sand - 8 



Many other sand-pits, all varying, will be found near King 
Barrow; none of them has yielded fossils. 

On Cranborne Common and Boveridge Heath the base of the 
Bagshot Sand seems to be distinguished from the sandy London 
Clay by its coarser texture and the looser nature of the soil ; 
but it IS impossible to say whether there is a gradual passage or 
a sharp division. The higher strata are more characteristic, 
Mr. Dixon having discovered plant-beds like those of Bourne- . 
mouth at Mount Ararat on Boveridge Heath. The exposures 
are very small, and the deposits much weathered ; but at one 
spot on the east side of the Mount is seen some finely laminated 
snuff-coloured loamy shale, with sand-partings and carbonised 



BAGSHOT SAND 23 

plant-remains. The leaves are preserved in so coarse a matrix 
and are so 'much decayed that it can only be said that they 
are thick laurel-like leaves of more than one species. Clay seams 
appear and thin out over Boveridge Heath just as they do 
in Bournemouth Cliff, but no one bed is traceable for any 
distance. 

The Verwood Potteries do not now use the clays of the Bag- 
shot Series, except for brickmaking. The pottery-clay is carted 
a considerable distance, being obtained from the Reading Beds 
near Cranborne. One section, on the north-east side of Black 
Hill, will suffice to show the general character of the clay-beds 
at Verwood : — 

Feet. 



Bagshot 
Beds. 



/ 
Buff and grey dicey clay, with masses of 

septarian clay-ironstone - 9 

Laminated loam and sand 10 

Dark-grey and buff clay, with masses of 

ironstone in a layer -- 5 

Carbonaceous clay 1 

\ Dark tough clay 3J 



Similar carbonaceous or white clays have been proved at 
various points over Verwood Common, their presence account- 
mg for the very wet nature of much of this Common. The well 
at Verwood Parsonage (see p. 56) is probably sunk in Bagshot 
Sand for the upper 110 feet, though the details are not clear and 
two accounts do not agree. 

Horton Common calls for no special remark, except that a 
good deal of the Bagshot Sand there is very coarse. Holt Heath 
shows few sections, but a fairly clear feature distinguishes the 
sandy Bagshot area from the London Clay. 

When looked at in a broad way there is a striking resemblance 
between the Bagshot Sand of the area described in this Memoir 
and the fluvio-marine and very variable " Bournemouth Beds " 
of Bournemouth cliffs, but it is impossible yet to say whether 
the pipe-clays of Poole and Alum Bay are or are not represented 
also. Beyond a few badly preserved leaves and obscure casts of 
moUusca the Bagshot Sands of the Ringwood area have yielded 
no fossils. 



24 GEOLOGY OF RINGWOOD. 



CHAPTER VI.-BRACKLESHAM BEDS. 

The buff and white Bagshot Sands are succeeded by a series of 
alternating clays and sands, darker-coloured, glauconitic and 
more or less pebbly at the base. Though fossils are scarce within 
the present area, this seems to be more due to the dissolving 
action of percolating water than to original rarity ; for they occur 
abundantly below the water-level at Brook and Bramshaw, 
just outside our district, and hollow moulds are plentiful in hard 
clay above Moekbeggar. The fossils of the Bracklesham Series 
are marine, and the common occurrence of granular glauconite 
throughout points also to marine conditions. At the same time 
beds of flint-pebbles, drift-wood, and bones of the sea-snake are 
met with suflaciently often to suggest that the shore was not far 
distant. The thickness of the strata, as measured by their dip, 
is approximately 200 feet in the Ringwood district: but the 
outcrop being sparsely-inhabited heath-land or forest, over which 
there are neither deep wells nor open sections, .it is not possible 
at present to obtain more accurate measurements. 

Little can be said as to the northern part of the area over 
which Bracklesham Beds appear at the surfece, except that glau- 
conitic sand and loam can readily be traced by the use of the 
spud, and that a fairly accurate boundary can be traced at the 
junction of a mass of glauconitic clay with the whitish sands 
below. This horizon, which has been taken to represent in all 
probability the junction between Bracklesham and Bagshot, is 
commonly marked by a slight scarp formed by the hard clay on 
the loose sand. Occasionally, also, this clay contains scattered 
pebbles ; but only in the area west of Ringwood do these pebbles 
form a definite shingle-bed, like that seen in Bournemoutn cliff. 
The clay is used for brick-making, and was formerly dug for 
making " dob " walls. 

About a hundred feet higher in the Bracklesham Series some 
glauconitic loams, seen in the stream-bed below Picket Corner, 
contain a number of partially-rolled masses of fine-grained grey- 
wether sandstone, having a peculiar wavy or banded structure, 
and often showing vertical cylindrical hollows evidently once 
occupied by roots. The exact mode of occurrence of these 
masses of grejrwether is not easy to make out. They were at 
first thought to be derived from the Plateau Gravel on the hiU 
above. But the greywethers in the Plateau Gravel are rarer, far 
more angular, and larger than those from the Bracklesham 
Beds, though the microscopic character is identical. It is 
evident, therefore, that the two deposits have derived their 
boulders independently from the same source, which probably 
might be found in the Reading Beds of Salisbury Plain. Similar 
greywethers, smaller and perfectly rounded, are not uncommon 
m the pebble-bed of Ashley Heath, a few miles to the south- 
west of Ringwood. 



BRACKLESHAM BEDS. 25 

The next open section met with is a small pit above the 
school at Godshill, where, however, only 2 feet of ferruginous 
and glauconitic loam is seen, and the material is too much 
weathered for fossils to be preserved. At Blissford nearly a 
mile further south, these basement-beds are again dug in the 
Brick Fields, where about 20 feet of dark-green glauconitic loam 
with ironstone nodules rests on white sand of the Bagshot 
Series. Another pit, on the hill above Hyde Farm, shows : — 

f Glauconitic loam with flint and quartz pebbles 
at the base. 
Laminated whitish clay and sand, coarse 
grained above. 

These seem to rest directly on, or perhaps form a passage 
into, the white Bagshot Sand, dug in a small pit a hundred 
yards to the north. Glauconitic loam of similar character, with 
large quartz-grains and occasional flint-pebbles, must constitute 
much of the lower part of .the Bracklesham Series in this 
neighbourhood, for it is again seen in the road-cutting at 
Abbot's Well, between Frogham and Windmill Hill, where it 
must occur 50 feet or so above the base. The basement-bed 
just described is readily traceable past North and South 
Gorley till it disappears beneath the valley gravel near New 
Town. Up till now it has yielded no fossils m this area ; but 
where un weathered sections of the hard clay are exposed these 
deserve more minute search, especially for impressions or hollow 
moulds of mollusca. 

About 150 yards north-east of Mockbeggar Farm a small 
pit opened in the steep bank by the roadside gives the only 
fossiliierons section yet met with in our area. The strata ex- 
posed are probably about 60 or 70 feet above the base of the 
Bracklesham Series ; their succession is as follows : — 

Feet. 
/ Brown and yellow loam 10 

Carbonaceous loam 1 

Greenish loam, with much coarse granular ■, 
glauconite in nests. Hollow moulds of I _ 
Valuta, Plewotorm, Twrritella, Cm-hula, j 
LunuUtes J 

Grey clay with ferruginous concretions \ , j 
and moulds of Cardita mitis ? I ^ 

Grey and brown clay 4 

The fossUs are in the state of hollow moulds, somewhat com- 
pressed, but with the sculpture well preserved, found in a hard 
clay or claystone. Those I obtained, as determined by Mr. E. T. 
Newton and myself, were : — 

Turritella. Corbula pisum, Sow. 

Voluta recticosta ? Soiv. Crassatella Bronni 1 Desk. 

cf mutata, Dfish. ^grignonensis, Desk. . 

Pleurotoma. Solecurtus Deshayesi 1 des Afoul. 

Natica. Lunulites urceolatus 1 Lam. 

Dentalium. Serpula. 

Cardita mitis 1 Lam. Hemiaster branderianus, Forbes. 

Cardium. Nummulites variolarius 1 Lam. 



Brackles- 
ham Beds. 



26 GEOLOGY OF BINGWOOD. 

The higher strata ill the Bracklesham Series are more sandy, 
and though still glauconitic they tend to form heathy land with 
a subsoil of buff or ferruginous sand. Hasley Inclosure is 
surrounded by a belt of bright-red sand and sandstone, and 
numerous small exposures on each side of Dockens Water 
tend to show that in that neighbourhood the upper half of the 
series is mainly sand. Pits at Poulner and Hightown have 
been opened in the sands immediately below the Barton Clay, 
and show these to be light-coloured and of moderately line 
grain. 

Alluvial deposits, hide the Bracklesham Beds around Ring- 
wood; but where the latter reappear in the cliff at Ashley they 
consist of laminated blue loam and ironstone, seen to a depth of 
15 feet in an old brickyard. It is not easy to malce out the suc- 
cession west of the Avon, for the deposits appear suddenly to 
have become exceedingly variable, and a thick pebble-bed like 
that of Bournemouth Cliff, is traceable for a short distance over 
Ashley Heath. Whether this pebble-bed represents the true 
base of the series is doubtful, for though the relations are not 
clear, the pebbles seem to come in above the laminated loams 
and sands which are seen at Ashley, in the railway-cutting to 
the west, and also just outside the map near the Poole road. 
Over part of Ashley Heath, especially around the Tumulus, the 
pebble-bed seems to thicken and scoop through lower beds, so 
as ultimately to rest directly on Bagshot Sand and form a steep 
scarp overlooking Lower Common. The composition of the 
shingle seen in the pit close to the Tumulus (the only clear 
section) is also in mvour of this view, for it contains many 
rolled pebbles of the fine-grained greywether sandstone, of which 
larger and more angular blocks occur near Picket Corner, some 
distance up in the Bracklesham Series. The sandstone at both 
places contains cavities left by the decay of roots, and at Ash- 
ley Heath I also found associated with it a piece of silicified 
exogenous wood. Under the microscope it is seen to be com- 
posed of small angular sand-grains and rare splinters of flint 
cemented by crystalline quartz. The absence of any fossils 
besides vertical roots, combined with the curious wavy bedding, 
suggest that the rock is a consolidated and silicified desert-sand 
of Lower Eocene age ; but beyond this we cannot at present 
go. A rock of exactly this character has not j^et been found in 
place, though an allied form occurs at Stonehenge and in rare 
pebbles at the base of the London Clay. The majority of the 
pebbles on Ashley Heath are of chalk flint ; both angular flint 
and Greensand-chert, so common in newer gravels, being 
entirely absent ; the greywether pebbles do not exceed about 
1 per cent. 



BARTON CLAY AND SAND. 27 



CHAPTER VII.— BARTON CLAY AND SAND. 

These deposits are only preserved, in the south-eastern corner 
of our area, where they occupy the surface, or are more or less 
hidden by Drift. Confined as they are to an almost unculti- 
vated and sparsely inhabited part of the New Forest, it is not 
surprising that few exposures are visible, and that the boundaries 
are somewhat obscure. Even in districts where continuous 
cliff-sections can be examined the line between Bracklesham 
and Barton is difficult to trace, for it depends entirely on a 
gradual and almost imperceptible change in the fauna, not on 
any marked stratigraphical or lithological break. Throughout the 
Ringwood area, however, as already mentioned, the uppermost 
beds of the Bracklesham Series are sandy, while the lowermost 
Barton Beds consist of clay ; but whether the line traced at this 
junction is on exactly the same horizon as that taken elsewhere 
is somewhat doubtful, for only one fossiliferous section has yet 
been discovered in the Barton Clay of the Ringwood district, 
and that section is near the top. 

The fossiliferous section just alluded to will be found in 
Seymour's Brickyard, near the Ringwood and Romsey road, 
three-quarters of a mile east of Poulner. The deposits worked 
are the transition beds between Barton Clay and Barton Sand ; 
but fossils seem only to be preserved in the lowest stratum 
reached, and this lies below the section usually visible. In 1899 
the beds exposed were : — 

Q n f ®^iid and sandy loam (irregular) 8 

Barton J Blue clay (contorted), fossils at the 
Clay. \ base- 7 

The contortion of the blue clay is very marked ; but this 
characteristic is obviously due not to deep-seated movements 
of the strata ; it is clearly an instance of the " creep " or " sag " 
towards a free edge, which happens wherever a plateau com- 
posed of soft strata is cut through by deep valleys. Between 
Seymour's Brickyard and Hightown there is a fall of about 
160 feet. The following fossils were obtained from masses of 
shelly glauconitic loam thrown out in working ; but no doubt a 
much larger series might be obtained when the pit is open to its 
full depth. The species have been determined by Mr. H. A. 
Allen:- 

Odontaspis macro tus, Ag. Corbula pisum, Sow. 

Dentalium. Cardita sulcata, Sol. 

Natica ambulacrum, Sow. Crassatella sulcata, Sol. 

Turritella. Limopsis scalaris, Sow. 

Metula juncea, Sol. Pectunculus deletus, Scl, 

Voluta luctatrix, Sol. Ostrea, 

Pleurotoma crassicosta, Edi'-, Serpuki 
Hippochrenes amplus, SJi 



28 GEOLOGY OF BIN6W00D. 

Mr. G. H. Fowler, of Ringwood, informs me that he had 
obtained a considerable number of moUusca here when the 
fossiliferous bed was exposed. He has given to the Museum a 
fine specimen of the tooth of Odoniaspis macrotus, found with 
them. The other specimens he had already given away. 

No other sections of Barton Clay are visible within our area, 
though with the aid of a spud it is easy to trace this slippery 
glauconitio clay over a good many square miles. The junction 
with the Barton Sand above is clearly marked by a line of 
springs and swampy ground. The total thickness of this 
division is about 130 feet. 

The Barton Sand is an extremely fine-grained, often ahnost 
dust-like, white or buff sand, having a maximum thickness of 
about 60 feet at Picket Post. At that place nearly the whole 
thickness must be preserved, though no trace of the overlying 
Oligocene strata could there be found. Mention has already 
been made of the section in Seymour's Brickyard, where 8 feet 
of the lower part of the sand is visible. Other pits on the ridge 
above show similar fine-grained sand about 30 feet higher in the 
series ; but these are the only sections which show clearly the 
character of the deposit. The black loamy and fossiliferous 
"Becton Bunny Beds," which form a marked division in the 
middle of the series on the coast, are apparently absent in the 
Ringwood area ; for here there is no trace in the sands of any 
definite bed which can throw out water, though a good deal of 
this fine-grained deposit is thoroughly waterlogged and over- 
grown by peaty vegetation. 



PHYSICAL FEATURES, 29 



CHAPTER VIII— ORIGIN OF THE EXISTING 
PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

The exposure of the Cretaceous and Eocene strata at the 
surface in the Hampshire Basin is due to tilting and subse- 
quent denudation, not to the original mode of deposition. It 
may be taken that the Upper Cretaceous and Eocene strata, 
at any rate in the district here described, were laid down in 
nearly horizontal layers of fairly uniform thickness, with only 
slight irregularities between. After the deposition of the Middle 
Oligocene rocks, and probably in Miocene times, there came 
a long period of disturbance, during which the whole of the 
strata previously formed were bent, tilted, and folded into ridges 
and troughs having axes approximately east and west -Tne 
principal result of this disturbance is seen in the main anticline 
of the Weald and in the main syncline of the Hampshire Basin. 
The south-eastern part of the area here described belongs to 
the main syilcline, which causes a general fall towards the south- 
east, so that the same stratum lies about 1,500 feet lower at 
Burley than at Berwick St. John. The smaller subordinate 
folds, so conspicuous in districts further south, are less notice- 
able in our present area, though one of them, already referred 
to, is seen in the anticline of Bower Chalk. 

The folding and tilting, to which allusion has just been made, 
resulted in the exposure of the strata thus elevated to the denuding 
action of sea and rivers. The exact course of events is not to 
be made out within the limited area now under consideration ; 
but the study of adjoining -areas suggests a long period during 
which the ridges were planed down by the sea. This was fol- 
lowed by a period of elevation, apparently from Newer Pliocene 
onward, durmg which the gently undulating plain thus formed 
was trenched and cut into by rivers, whose initial direction was 
south vard and eastward, towards the ancient Solent River, the 
remains of which still occupy the middle of the main syncline of 
the Hampshire Basin. 

The long periods of folding, elevation, and erosion above 
referred to have left but little trace within our district as far as 
contemporaneous deposits are concerned. Naturally, an area 
raised and cut into in the way described has been mainly an 
area of erosion, not of deposition ; nevertheless, we have relics of 
certain ancient valley deposits which may possibly date back as 
far as the Newer Pliocene period, though the stages earlier in 
time are represented by erosion alone. The most ancient deposit 

Preserved is perhaps the sheet of Plateau Gravel which caps the 
igh ridge betAveen Downton and Picket Corner. This gravel 
consists of a mass of subangular flints, mixed with a consider- 
able proportion of flint and quartz-pebbles, much Grcensand- 

5300. C 



30 GEOLOGY OF RINGWOOD. 

chert, a tew greywethers, and rare fragments ol silicified shell- 
limestone of Purbeck age. The subangular flint is obviously 
derived from the erosion of the extensive Chalk-area which hes 
to the north and north-west, and includes Sahsbury Plain. The 
pebbles of flint, quartz, and Palaeozoic grit, as well as the angular 
blocks of greywether sandstone, point to th« destruction of 
Eocene strata lying in the same direction. From the same 
source may be derived many of the harder rolled fragments of 
Greensand-chert, pebbles of which are known to occur in Eocene 
gravels. Most of the Greensand-chert, however, and probably all 
of the softer cherty sandstone, which occurs in masses of several 
pounds weight, must have been brought direct from the Green- 
sand outcrop in the Vale of Wardour, from which region only can 
also be derived the fossiliferous Purljeck chert. The occurrence 
of these pieces of fossiliferous rock of .Upper Greensand and 
Purbeck age raises curious questions as to the level at which the 
ancient river flowed, its course, and its relation to the existing 
drainage' channels. 

The gravels with which we are here dealing occupy a ridge 
running north-west and south-east from Woodfalls to Long 
Cross above Bramshaw. The ridge is more than 400 feet above 
the sea, and 300 feet above the valleys on either side ; it seems 
to mark approximately the ancient course of a stream which 
connected m a direct hne the Sahsbury rivers with Southampton 
Water. If we leave out of account the material derived from 
the Chalk or Eocene strata and concentrate attention on the 
Greensand and Jurassic fragments, we arrive at the following 
results : — The highest point at which the ancient river bed has 
been preserved is 419 feet above Ordnance Datum, and Purbeck 
rocks have now been discovered in it up to 386 feet. This is 
about 290 feet above the level of the existing alluvial plain oi 
the Avon. Allowing a hke fall (7J feet in the mile) for the 
ancient as for the modern river, we should find the only 
Purbeck strata in the basin, those in the Vale of Wardour, 
entirely overlapped and hidden by Cretaceous rocks, so that 
they could yield no fragments to be carried down by tha 
ancient river. But in a sluggish river, whose bed has 
nearly reached its permanent gradient (unlike the Avon, 
which is a fairly rapid salmon-stream) a less fall would 
be found. The drop between the highest Purbeck ex- 
posure of the Vale of Wardour and the gravel near Picket 
Corner is equivalent to a fall of about 5J feet in the mile ; quite 
sufficient to account for the transportation of Purbeck and 
Greensand material from the Vale of Wardour, especially with 
the occasional aid of anchor- or bottom-ice in winter. It may 
be observed also that near Picket Corner the fragments of 
Purbeck chert are extremely small and rare, as though the old 
River Nadder in the Vale of Wardour had only just begun to cut 
into that rock. At lower levels, in the gravel-terraces nearer 
Fordingbridge, the fragments are both larger and more 
abundant. Greensand-chert and cherty sandstone, on the other 
hand, occur abundantly in the highest gravels; but as the 



, PHrSICAL FKATUREP. 31 

Greensand outcrop in the Vale of Wardour l-ises fulty 200 feet 
above the highest point reached by the Purbeck rocks, there is 
no difficulty in accounting for the presence of Greensand-chert 
over the highest ground in the New Forest. 

If the reasoning above applied be correct, we obtain an 
insight into the physical geography and river systems of the 
southern counties at a period when the Salisbury rivers flowed 
nearly 300 feet above their present level, and joined an old 
Southampton River, which emptied into the River Solent, whose 
water reached the sea far to the east of the present Isle of 
Wight. 

It still remains for us to explain the relation of the existing 
Avon, which holds so different a course, to the more ancient and 
important river ; and in order to do so it will be necessary to 
refer to the general structure of the Hampshire Basin, most of 
which lies outside the district more immediately dealt with in 
this Memoir. During Pliocene times the Hampshire Basin, now 
cut into on the south" by the sea, was enclosed by a high rim of 
Cretaceous and Jurassic rocks, which connected the hills of 
Purbeck with those of the Isle of Wight. Through the basin 
thus enclosed flowed the River Frome, at a level and inclination 
corresponding roughly with those of the ancient Salisbury Rivers. 
This river received on its northern side the drainage of great 
part of Dorset, Wiltshire, and Hampshire, including the ancient 
Avon, then a stream of minor importance rising probably some- 
where near Fordingbridge. As long as the rocky barrier on the 
south side of the basin remained intact the Avon flowed at a 
high level, as a mere upland tributary of the Stour ; while the 
drainage of Salisbury Plain followed its natural course, through 
the middle of the syncline to the sea east of Spithead. When, 
however, the sea breached the ridge of rock west of the Needles, 
there must have been an immediate or extremely rapid lowering 
of all the river-courses belonging to the upper half of the old 
system of the Solent. For many of the rest also, Southampton 
Water was no longer the shortest route to the sea. The Avon, 
with its short direct north and south course, and its mouth 
nearly opposite the g^p, must have received an enormously in- 
creased fall per mile, which enabled it rapidly to cut back the 
head of its valley, till it breached laterally the main Salisbury 
valley north of Fordingbridge, tapped the much larger river, 
and diverted it into a direct channel to the sea, saving probably 
at least 20 miles of its course. 

The sudden diversion of a river-system in the way just 
described is not a thing that ought lightly to be postulated. A 
close study of the whole of the basin of the ancient Solent River 
shows, however, that there is no escape from this conclusion, 
unless there is a flaw in the reasoning, or unless the apparently 
clear evidence now obtained has somewhere been misinterpreted. 
The result arrived at has only been reached unexpectedly, and 
as a necessary sequence to researches into the old course of the 
Solent, commenced many years since, continued by Mr. Strahan 
and myself in the Isle of Wight, and subsequently followed up 

5300 c 2 



32 GEOLOGY OF RINGWOOD. 

in each successive district examined.* The former continuity 
of the Needles with the Chalk hills of Studland in Dorset ; the 
existence of an ancient River Solent, with a basin nearly as 
large as that of the Thames ; the breaching of the southern 
rim of this basin by the waves of the English Channel ; and the 
consequent diversion of the SaUsbury group of rivers, through 
the flank attack of the Avon, all hang together as connected 
parts of one series of consequent changes. 

In order better to explain the changes in the Avon Valley, I 
have added a sketch-map, (Fig. 3) showing the probable relation 
of the ancient to the modem river-systems. The exact position 
of the coast-line at the period here dealt with is, of course, 
unknown, as is the position of the mouth of the ancient Solent 
River. The mouth of that river may then have been as far east 
as Beachy Head ; but until we can ascertain the sea-level for 
that period, we cannot fix even approximately the position of 
the long-destroyed river-mouth. If the faU from the Purbeck 
outcrop in the Vale of Wardour (5| feet in the mile) were con- 
tinued, and the sea stood then at its present level, the mouth 
of the Solent should be reached in about 70 miles, i.e., opposite 
Brighton; but, of course, other things being equal, as a river 
increases in volume its fall per mile must decrease, and the 
mouth of the Solent should be looked for even further to the 
east. On the other hand, what little evidence is available as to 
■ the Pliocene geology of the south of England suggests that when 
the stream-bed was at the high leyel described, the sea-level 
also was somewhat higher than now, in which case the mouth 
of the Solent would be found no further east than is shown on 
the sketch-map. -" 

A few words will explain how the map of the ancient River 
Solent has been made. In the first place, it has been accepted 
as a safe rule that rivers once started continue to occupy 
approximately the same sites, however much the valleys may be 
lowered ; except in the rare cases where they are captured by 
other rivers, their valleys are breached by the sea, or have been 
tilted by movements of the earth's crust. The ancient rivers, 
therefore, have been shown as following their present courses, 
except that the later Middle Avon is indicated by a dotted line, 
and the courses of all the rivers have been continued seaward to 
accord with the then more distant sea-coast. The peculiar 
courses of the reconstructed rivers south of the Solent corres- 
pond with the fragments preserved, and with the known geological 
structure of the area, which consists of narrow ridges and furrows 
of alternating hard and soft rocks. A faint line indicates the 
present coast, and shows its relation to the old topography. 

* See the following Menvnrs of the Geological Survey : — " Isle of 
Wight," 2nd edit., chaps, xiii. and xiv. (1889) ; " Bognor," pp.' 9-11 (1897) ; 
"Isle of Purbeck," chaps, xiv. and xvi. (1898); "Bournemouth," p. 10 
(1898) ; " Dorchester," chaps, vii. and viii. (1899) ; " Southampton," 
chap. X. (1901) : " Salisbury " (in preparation) ; see also Codrington, " On 
the Superficial Deposits of the South of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight," 
Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xxvi., pp. 528-551 (1870) ; and Prestwicn, 
'■ The Solent River," Geol, Mag., 1098, p. 349, 



PLATEAU AXD TERRACE GRAVELS. 83 



CHAPTER IX.— PLATEAU AND TERRACE GRAVELS. 

The last Chapter described briefly the initiatory stages of the 
existing river-system ; but the only deposits which can wLth 
any probability be referred to those stages are certain high-level 
gravels. These gravels, unfortunately, have been so thoroughly 
decalcified by the action of percolating rainwater that no trace 
of contemporaneous fossils can be found in them ; and as they 
are derived from the same river-basin, and composed of the same 
materials as the newer and lower terraces, it has been found 
impossible yet to make on the Geological Map any distinction 
between the stages. All the high-level or Plateau Gravels will 
therefore be described together in this Chapter ; but as far as 
possible the successive stages will be taken in order of date. 
Moreover, it seems advisable here to deal with the heterogeneous 
deposit, overlying the Chalk, known as " Clay-with-FlLnts." This 
consists ot a thin sheet, seldom more than 5 feet thick, of black 
or ochreous 'day, full of unworn or broken flints, mixed 
with a large but varying percentage of quartz-sand and of rolled 

febbles, evidently derived from the destruction of Eocene strata, 
t is not, in this district at any rate, the product mainly of the 
solution on the spot of the superficial parts of the Chalk, for the 
percentage of its material which cannot be so derived is very 
large. Ihe material seems to have been derived partly from the 
Chalk exposed in the neighbourhood (though sometimes from 
lower beds cropping out at higher levels), partly from destroyed 
Eocene outliers. It does not usually show signs of having been 
moved any great distance. Like the Plateau Gravel overlying 
the Eocene strata, it probably represents various stages in the 
denudation of the country — stages which at present we cannot 
differentiate. 

The oldest river-gravels now preserved, as remarked in the 
last Chapter, are those occupying the ridge at 400 feet between 
Woodfalls and Picket Corner. To the same period, when the 
main valley was nearly 300 feet less deep than at present, may 
belong the extensive sheet of Clay-with-Mints around Cranbome 
Chase. This occupies gently sloping ground at various levels up 
to 680 feet, dominated by still higher Chalk Downs towards the 
north, from whence were probably derived both the Chajk 
flints and the Eocene material. This correlation is only sug- 
gested on the ground that each deposit seems to point to a 
similar early stage in the valley erosion, and that the difference 
in the material is only such as might be expected in comparing 
the gravel of a flowmg river with the rainwash and subaeriEd 
deposits which accumulate on upland slopes not far from the 
watershed. The Clay-with-Flints, like the Plateau Gravels, has 
been deeply trenched by valleys of later date. Neither of the 
deposits ,]ust described nppetu-K yet to have yielded implements 



34 UEOLOGY OF RINGWOOD. 

made by man; but it may be observed that these ancient 
gravels have been so often channelled and reconstructed at a 
later period, that the exact mode of occurrence of any specimens 
found will need careful examination. The oldest implements 
vet recorded in the district seem to belong to the stage next 
to be described. 

Directly the Avon was enlarged to many times its former 
volume, through receiving the drainage of Salisbury Plain, its 
rapidity and consequent erosive power must also have increased 
greatly. Its valley through soft Tertiary strata would quickly be 
deepened, till the river-gradient became more gentle. To this 
period of rapid lowering belong, I believe, the large sheets of 
coarse gravel which in gentle slopes or in ill-defined terraces 
border the Avon high above its present level. The circumstance 
that no other river in the Hampshire Basin shows similar tier 
above tier of sloping terrace, suggests that we are dealing with 
something quite outside the ordinary routine of valley erosion. 
We find, it is true, small outliers of gravel at levels nearly as 

Fig. 4. — ^Diagram" Section of the Terraces of the Avon. 



/ 



'" ' ■^■^0 - I (EQUTHIC). 



I ?J TERRACE 
^00 .. \l PALAEOLITH IC). 

250 " n VALLEY GRAVEL 
\aMEQLACIAL), 
fO~^'~- 



> , „~T~,.. _ ALLUVIUM. 



100 
SEA LEVEL . - ' . 



high ; but find no such extensive and continuous sheets of coarse 
gravel as those of the Avon. Everything suggests an abnormally 
rapid erosion of this valley, with but short delays such as would 
enable the stream to swing from side to side and destroy its pre- 
viously formed gravel-flats and erode well-defined bluffs and 
terraces. 

It will be seen from what has just been written that I speak 
of both river-terraces and of sheets of gravel sloping towards the 
valley. The structure of the Avon Valley is very curious ; but 
though sufiiciently striking in the field, it is difficult to explain 
without constant reference to a large-scale closely-contoured 
map. A glance at the 1-inch Geological Map will show, 
however, that the sheet of high-level gravel described in the 
last Chapter is continued by long spurs, which slope down- 
wards towards the Avon, till they end in a steep bluff, 
which everywhere separates them from the newer Valley Gravel. 
A closer examination shows, however, that the slope is not con- 
tinuous, but is broken here and there by steeper tails, and that 
tliese breaks become more and more sharply defined towards the 
river, till, as above mentioned, they tend to separate distinct 



PLATEAU AND, TERRACE GRAVELS. 35 

terraces at different levels. The best way to study this structure 
is to walk, or better still to bicycle, for the bicycle is a good indi- 
cator of slight changes of gradient, along each of these spurs. 
Starting from the Avon we lirst cross a flat of Valley Gravel, 
which has a gentle eastward rise, but ends suddenly against an 
old river-bluf^ the foot of which is usually 30 or 40 feet above 
the recent Alluvium. On climbing this steep bluff, which is 
about 80 feet high north of Fordingbridge, but is somewhat lower 
south of Kingwood, we suddenly reach the first terrace. This has 
a westward slope nearly as gentle as that of the gravel plain 
below, and, hke that plain, it ends eastward against a well-defined 
bluff, approximately parallel to the lower one, but on a level 
about 120 feet higher. 

Though since its formation the first terrace has been a good 
deal trenched .and cut into by small tributaries of the Avon, yet 
its resemblance to the plain of river-gravel below is so strikmg 
that no one would hesitate to call it a terrace of the Avon. The 
next step, however, is less clearly defined. After ascending this 
second bluff, which makes a noticeable rise even where the gravel 
above and below are continuous, we travel over a gravel slope 
broken here and there by slightly steeper gradients, till we reach 
the top of the ridge, at 400 feet. The slight changes of gradient, 
however, appear never to have marked the limits of well-defined 
terraces, for these breaks occur at different levels on the different 
spurs. 

J'he meaning of the second bluff and of the terrace imme- 
diately below cannot be explained from a study of the Ringwood 
area alone. But on following these features continuously 
ttiroughout a much wider district, we discover a similar terrace 
tind bluff in the valleys of the Frome, Stour, Avon, Test, Itchen, 
and we find that the foot of the older river-bluff descends sea- 
ward to the level of about 145 feet, at which height it merges 
into a feature y/hich has been traced eastward right across 
Hampshire into Sussex, till at Goodwood it runs into an 
undoubted sea-cliff, with marine deposits banked against the 
Chalk.* The " first terrace " in the Avon Valley would seem, 
therefore to mark the period of repose, when the sea stood 
about 140 feet above its present level and this interglacial sea- 
cliff was being cut. While this subsidence lasted the fall. of the 
river- valleys was slight, and there was time for the rivers, like 
the sea, to cut out definite terraces. The first terraice in the 
Avon Valley is not itself a marine deposit ; but it bears the 
same relation to the ancient sea-level and to the old marine 
deposits as the modern Alluvium does to the existing sea-level 
and to the now-forming beach deposits. 

The composition of the gravel at all levels is so uniform that 

there is little to add to the description already given of the 

'highest series. In one small point, however, they vary. As the 

river cut its valley deeper, a larger area of the Jurassic rocks was 

* See also Eeid, "Geology of Dorchester," pp. 39,40, Memoirs Oeol. 
Survey (1899) ; and " Pleistocene Deposits of the Sussex Coast," Qvxirt. 
Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xlviii., pp. 344—364 (1892). 



36 GEOLOGY OF.RINGWOOD. 

exposed in its upper reaches ; consequently, a greater proportion 
of the silicified Purbeck limestone occurs in the lower than in 
the higher deposits. The higher gravels are also less stratified 
than the lower series ; though this may be merely due to the 
greater amount of subsequent disturbance to which the older 
gravels have been exposed. All the higher gravels show sign of 
" sag " towards the free edge of the plateau, or of " creep " down 
the slopes. In fact, ancient soil-cap motion seems to have- 
played an active part in the formation of some of the slopes, and 
may also account for the partial obliteration or obscurity of the 
more ancient terrace features. 

It is unfortunate that the whole of the gravels just described 
are so porous that any fossils originally contained in them have 
been destroyed by percolating ramwater ; but though bones and 
shells have disappeared, the presence of man is indicated by the 
occurrence on some of the terraces of rude implements of 
Paleolithic type. The highest elevation from which implements 
have yet been recorded is from the gravel at the top of the 
chalk-pit north of Eedlynch. As the exact conditions under 
which this implement were found are important, Prestwich's 
account will be quoted. Speaking of the gravel, which is 320 
feet above the sea and 200 feet above the Avon at Downton, he 
says that " This consists, as usual, of subangular flints and a few 
pebbles of quartz, with some worn fragments of iron sandstone 
and flint pebbles from the adjacent tertiary strata. It reposes upon 
a worn and furrowed surface of the chalk, and is from 2 to 7 feet 
thick. A portion of this bed had slipped down ; and on examining 
the talus for the constituent parts of the gravel I found a small 
flint implement, very well finished, and of the ovoid type, 
colour, and aspect common to those found at Waren's Pit, St. 
Acheul. _ It is 3^ inches long by If broad, finely pointed, and 
white, with a porcellaneous lustre. It shows no wear."* Four 

J)oints are noteworthy in this description : the implement was 
ound at a level considerably higher than the terrace which 
^uelds the well-known Palaeolithic implements of the Avon 
Valley ; it is weU-made, and belongs to a type generally 
considered as characteristic of somewhat late stages in the 
Palaeolithic period ; it is white and porcellaneous, like a bleached 
surface specimen ; and it was not found in place, but picked 
up among fallen material. At such a height above the river 
within our district no other implements have yet been recorded ; 
but at the same level 3| miles north of the chalk-pit (though 
not so high above the river in the neighbourhood), a gravel at 
Alderbury has yielded at all depths to the researches of Dr. 
H. P. Blackmore multitudes of implements of extremely rude or 
"Eolithic" type," unmixed, however, with any of the well- 
known Palaeohthic forms.i- The Alderbury gravel, judging from 

* Prestwich, " . . on the occurrence of a FUnt Implement on a high 
level at Downton." Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, vol. xxviii., pp. 39, 40 (1872). 

f Blackmore in BuUen, " EoUthic Implements." Trans. Victoria Inst. 
1900. The deposit at Dewlish, correlated with that of Alderbury, is, I think, 
much older. 



PLATEAU AND TEKEACE GRAVELS. 37 

its less elevation above the river, is probably n^wer than the 
supposed Palaeolithic gravel north of Redlynch ; yet it yields 
implements of more ancient type. 

The Alderbury gravel is apparently continued southwards in 
the "second terrace" of Godshill Inclosure, Sandy Balls, 
Hyde Common, Ibsley Common, Rockford Common, and east 
of Ringwood, all which localities deserve careful search for 
implements of the Eolithic type. 

A well-marked low^r terrace, strongly developed and covered 
with gravel, which is extensively dug for road-metal, has already 
been described as the " first terrace." It has yielded numerous 
Palaeolithic implements of the ordinary St. Acheul and West 
Norfolk types, especially in the large gravel-pit at Woodgreen, 
east of Breamore. The height of this terrace on the east of the 
Avon is about 100 feet above the river at Woodgreen. South 
of Fordingbridge it covers an extensive area on the west side of 
the river at a slightly lower elevation ; and as it is traced south- 
ward it falls somewhat more rapidly than the present river, till 
it merges into the wide sheet of implement-bearing gravel so 
well seen in Bournemouth and Barton Cliffs. 

The Plateau and Terrace gravels vary so little in composition, 
that full descriptions of every exposure are needless. But as 
the Ringwood and Fordingbridge district is of exceptional im- 
portance for the study of the anti(juity of man and of his 
relation to ancient changes in physical geography, notes will 
be given of all good sections visible at the time of the Survey 
(1896-1900). Perhaps the most convenient method of doing 
this will be to take the deposits in approximate order of anti- 
quity, though it must again be remarKed that it is impossible 
to vouch for the relative age of many parts. Channellmg and 
tilling up must have gone on throughout the Glacial Period, 
even on the highest plateaus, and I believe that much of this 
reconstruction belonged to a late stage, represented by the 
Coombe Rock of Sussex, by the lower River Gravels still to be 
described, and by the loam at Fisher ton, near Sahsbury, which 
yields so many Arctic mammals. 

East of the Avon. 

High Plateau. 

Taking first the high-level deposits of the old Southampton 
River, which crossed the highest part of the existing New 
Forest plateau, south-east of Downton, we find the following 
sections : — 

Woodfalls, between the main-road and Hart Hill Brickyard, a pit at 
about 370 feet, shows 5 feet of gravel, dug for road-metal, and in the 
Brickyard below there is 3 feet of wash or slip from the same gravel. 

North Charford, east of the village, a large brickyard and gravel- 
pit, the highest part of which touches 380 feet, shows :— Feet 
Reddish sandy loam - - 5 
Gravel with large unworn 'flints and flint-pebbles 18 
Sand (Bagshot). 



38 GEOLOGY OF RINGWOOD. 

A smaller pit, immediately to the north, shows 10 feet of the sandy 

loam, resting on 8 feet of gravel. Another, lower, to the south-east 

and close to Whiteshoot Farm, exposes the bottom of the gravel as 

follows :— Feet. 

Loam and gravel mixed 3 

Gravel 4 

Fine false-bedded sand, with seams of white loam 

and pebbles of lignite and flint (Bagshot) 22 

These sections are of the greatest importance, for the lower part of 
the gravel at any rate seems never to have, been disturbed since it 
was laid down. If implements can be found in it, they will carry 
back the antiquity of man to a period which probably must be classed 
as Preglacial or Newer Pliocene. Though I spent some time in the 
search, I could find none. In this connection it may be observed that 
the Eoliths found by Dr. Blackmore at from 486 to 533 feet at 
Laverstock, near Salisbury, which may be of this date, were found on 
the surface, and that the flints associated with Elephas meridionalis at 
Dewlish are so battered that their artificial origin is open to much 
doubt. The specimens of these implements are mostly preserved 
in the Blackmore Collection in the Salisbury Museum. 

Hatchet Green. — A large gravel-pit at about 340 feet shows 
coarse flint-gravel 15 to 17 feet thick, on Bagshot Sand. Much of 
this gravel is cemented into a ferruginous conglomerate. 

Mount Pleasant Farm. — At the edge of the escarpment above 
Loosehanger Copse, at about 380 feet, a small pit shows coarse gravel 
of unworn flints and flint-pebbles, with a few pebbles of greywether 
sandstone and Greensand. 

Wvndyeats.—Yd\\.owiT\g the Southampton road south-eastward, one 
finds a pit by the road-side just before the open common is reached, 
and close to the bench-mark 386 feet shown on the Map. The gravel 
has been dug to a depth of 4 feet. It is composed of unworn flints 
and flint-pebbles, much Greensand, and a few small quartz-pebbles ; it 
also yielded one pebble of quartz-grit (perhaps greywether), and one of 
silicified shell-limestone from the Purbeck Beds. The ground on the 
opposite side of the farm rises to 399 feet, and I am not sure that the 
whole of the gravel seen in this pit may not be reconstructed. 
Another pit a quarter of a mile south of Windyeats Farm, and half 
that distance west of the high-road, lies at about the same level, and 
shows 6 feet of gravel. 

Hale Purlieu. — A small pit at about 350 feet just outside Millers- 
ford Plantation shows 4 feet of gravel of large flints, flint-pebbles, 
Greensand-chert, and grey wethers containing roots. 

Beadman Hill. — South of the small depression called on thfe 6-inch 
map Rushy Flat, the ground rises to 400 feet, and just above the 
contour-line there is a small pit close to the Downton road. It shows 
angular flints, much cherty sandstone (Greensand), flint-pebbles, small 
quartz-pebbles, one greywether pebble, and one small angular grey- 
wether. Another larger pit at about 356 feet on the south side of the 
Fordingbridge road shows 7 feet of coarse gravel, in which were 
observed two pebbles of greywether and one of black Palseozoic grit. 

Ashley Walk. — Small pits 5 or 6 feet deep will be found at Lodge 
Hill at 345 feet, and on Cooper's Hill at 360 feet ; they call for no 
remark. 



PLATEAU AND TEBHACE GRAVELS. 39 

Some of the best sections of the gravel at heights over 400 feet will 
be found just east of the area described in this Memoir, on Black Bush 
Plain and Longcross Plain, in Bramble Hill Walk. 

Highest Terrace. 

We will follow next the highest and ill-defined terrace of the 
Avon, which lies 350 feet above the sea near Downton ; but, 
unfortunately, sections in this terrace-gravel happen to be few. 

Redlynch. — The terrace commences with a small plateau on the 
watershed at Eedlynch House, at a height of just 350 feet. The only 
exposure is in an overgrown pit behind the Infant School. Wash from 
this terrace seems to form the slightly lower deposit at the top of the 
chalk-pit immediately to the north, where Prestwich found the 
Palseolithio implement already alluded to. At about the same level 
as this terrace (350 feet) occurs the gravel seen in Eedlynch Brick- 
field (see Fig. 2, p. 14), which, however, is so curiously disturbed 
as to suggest slipping in mass from a higher level. 

Wood/alls. — Here the terrace distinctly passes into the Avon Valley, 
being separated from other districts by the high plateau already 
described. It gradually descends southward, passing through the spurs 
north and south of Hale at about 330 feet. 

Oi-avel Pit Hill (over which the Fordingbridge road passes) is sepa- 
rated from the higher plateau by a slight but distinct bluff, which 
occurs at the point above Stone Quarry Bottom where the Map shows 
a break in the continuity of the gravel at 340 feet. There is a large 
pit, 5 feet deep, close to the high-road at the point where a height of 
324 feet is marked on the map. 

Hampton Ridge shows a similar slight break at about 340 feet, and 
the gravel just below has yielded a fragment of silicified oolite of 
Purbeck age, though no clear section is visible. 

Hasley Incloswe. — Thia outlier at 325 feet belongs to the same 
terrace. 

Broomy IFalk shows a similar slight but well-marked fall at 335 
feet, the spur south-east of Broomy Plain, from 326 down to 310 feet, 
belonging to the terrace here described. The fall towards the river is 
very slight ; but at 310 feet there is another sharp drop. 

Bratley Plain and the long spur that stretches southward towards 
Burley, being parallel to the valley, are nearly level, having only a 
slight fall towards the south. The height is 348 feet at Broomy 
Walk, and 345 near the " Tumuli " marked on the Map, east of which 
lies a small pit in subangular flint gravel, with many flint-pebbles, 
much 'Rreensand-chert, and some Palseozoic (radiolarian f) chert. 
Bratley Plain is 344 feet, Backlej' Holmes 338, the thirteenth 
milestone near Handy Cross 332. Sections are rare, the only one 
being a small pit at Lazy Bush. 

Picket Post. — The plain here lies at 314 feet, and there is a small 
gravel-pit north-west of the road near the houses. At the disused 
"Picket Post Turnpike" there is a drop of about 15 feet to the 
next terrace. 

Vereley Plill has a flat top at 312 feet. A large gravel-pit close to 
the high road at the south end of this spur, exposes 10 feet of sub- 



40 GEOLOGY OF RINGWOOD. 

angular gravel t)f flint and chert, with many flint-pebbles, a few 
veined Palaeozoic grits, and silicified Purbeck limestone. The gravel 
here is ferruginous, and its bedding is obscure. 

It is wortli notice that the fall of this terrace between North 
Charford and Vereley Hill (40 feet) is just the same as the fall 
of the gravel flat in the valley 200 feet below. The flat is 
120 feet near Downton, and about 80 at Hightown. There is 
also a similar fall towards the river in each. case. The 
coincidence is striking, for this angle of slope does not 
characterise either the implement-bearing terraces immediately 
below or the recent Alluvium, both of which fall more sharply 
towards the south. Do similar slopes point to similar conditions, 
the highest terrace marking the earliest cold period, as the 
valley gravel marks the latest, the implement-bearing deposits 
coming between ? 

Eolithic Terrace. 

The terrace next below appears to coincide with the Eolithic 
gravel of Alderbury, which lies on the left bank of the Avon, 
about two miles north of our limits and at a height of 320 feet. 
Unfortunately clear sections are not abundant on this terrace. 

Barfwd Park. — An outlier cut through by the railway lies on or just 
below the 300 foot contour. The cutting shows 6 feet of gravel and 
chalk-rubble containing much Greensand-chert. 

Downton. — Gravel between 250 and 290 feet caps the ridges east of 
Downton, and a fair section of it can be seen at the top of the Chalk- 
pit in the hollow north of the high road. Other outliers just touching 
300 feet occur under Wobdfalls. 

Godshill. — The upper limit of this terrace is marked by a distinct 
bluff at the 300 foot contour in Densome "Wood and Godshill Inclo- 
sure, its lower by the drop and gap between Densome Wood and 
Woodgreen, continued southward by a bluff passing through the wood 
and seen also at Godshill on each side of the valley. On the north 
of the valley a pit at 270 feet will be found close to the road leading 
up the hill. It shows 7 feet of gravel of the usual character. 

Hampton Ridge. — The extreme west end of this ridge is cut off from 
the rest by a sudden drop which occurs at 290 feet. Below this drop 
the gravel belongs to the terrace here described. 

Ihsley Common.— T^ho, upper edge of this terrace has been entirely 
destroyed ; the lower edge is defined by a steeper slope just below 
240 feet, but the division from the newer terrace is somewhat 
obscure. 

Rockford Common.— A. distinct but slight bluff marks the lower limit 
of the terrace. This bluff runs across the plateau from north to south 
from near New Buildings to a point a quarter of a mile north-east of 
Highwood Farm, where it is cut off by a lateral valley. 

Picket Post. — The part of the spur west of the old Turn Pike belongs 
to the upper half of this terrace, which is here fairly level at about 
380 feet. The large gravel-pit near Bellevue Nursery shows 7 feet of 
gravel, of subangular flint, flint-pebbles, Greensand-chert, PalEeozoic 
grit, &c., resting on Bagshot Sand. 



PLATEAU. AND TERRACE GRAVELS. 41 

The pits in the gravel of this terrace are worth careful 
search K)r Eolithic implements like those found at Alderbury. 
At present none have been recorded in this part of the Avon 
Valley. 

Pakeolithic Terrace. 

We now come to the first or Palaeolithic terrace, to which 
belongs the well-known pit at Woodgreen, where so many fine 
specimens have been obtained. This gravel is somewhat more 
angular, and also somewhat cleaner than the gravels above, but 
otherwise not noticeably different in composition. 

Charfard. — North of Charford this teij-ace has been entirely cut into 
and destroyed by the Avon ; but near Searchfield Farm it appears as 
a narrow ledge, on which patches of gravel have been preserved. Its 
upper limit lies at about 220 feet. A pit will be found in the 
northernmost outlier, just above the road to Lodge Farm, the section 
being nearly 10 feet deep. The next outlier, just east of Searchfield 
Farm, also shows a pit, in clean gravel 8 feet deep. The other small 
outliers are not at present dug. 

Woodgreen. — As the Avon swings to the west, the terrace widens 
perceptibly ; but there is no section in the level platform of Wood- 
green Common, which lies at about 210 feet. The celebrated Wood- 
green pit lies a little to the south, just on the 200-foot contour, close 
to the Godshill Road. The pit is a very large one, nearly 20 feet deep 
in places, with many small blocks of greywether lying about, these 
blocks showing root cavities. The gravel is very coarse, mainly of 
unworn flints, but having flint pebbles and Greensand-chert in about 
equal quantities. I found also rare pebbles of quartz, and of the schorl- 
rock, so widely scattered in the Hampshire Basin, and one of grey- 
wether sandstone. A large series of the implements from this pit will 
be found in the Blackmore collection in the Salisbury Museum, and 
others have been obtained by Mr. Ernest Westlake.* They include all 
the common Palaeolithic types. From the pit a long spur of this 
gravel extends southward to Folds Farm, having a height of 100 feet 
above the Alluvium. The upper edge of the terrace has already been 
mentioned as passing through Godshill Inclosure. 

Godshill. — The wide spread of gravel which covers the plateau 
between Godshill Green and Sandy Balls slopes from 265 feet down to 
210 feet at its lower edge. It seems to form a connecting link between 
the Eolithic and Palseolithic Terraces, or, perhaps, should be considered 
an independent terrace coming between. There is one excellent sec- 
tion, 15 feet deep, at its lower edge, close to the road to Fording- 
bridge. 

Hi/de Common lies at about the same level, and shows several good 
sections. A pit at the upper edge of the terrace at Frogham Hill lies 
at about 260 feet above tho sea and exposes 6 feet of gravel ; another 
at 205 feet close to the Church is dug to 7 feet. There are others at 
250 feet at Hungerford, and 200 feet at Gunville The last-mentioned 
is 15 feet deep and very like the Woodgreen section. As at Godshill 
no clear feature here separates the upper from the lower part of this 
terrace, tho gravel sloping continuously towards the Avon. 

* " Geology of Fordingbridge," pp. 16, 17 (1889). 



42 . GEOLOGY OF RINGWOOD. 

nsley Common forms a plateau isolated by the destruction of th^ 
bluff which formerly bounded it on the east. Like all this terrace it 
shows a slight southward fall combined with a more decided slope 
towards the Avon. The highest part of this plateau lies at about 
260 feet ; but at 240 feet a division can be traced into an upper 
(Eolithic f) and a lower (Paleolithic f) plateau, this division being 
marked by a steeper slope. Pits on the lower plateau will be found 
on the roaid to Furze Hill, at about 230 feet; at New Town, at 
220 feet (a large pit 8 feet deep) ; and at the road to Mockbeggar, at 
220 feet (two pits). 

Rochford Common has a similar structure, the feature between upper 
and lower plateau, as already mentioned, being well defined. At 
220 feet on the road to Moyle Court a large pit nearly 9 feet deep has 
been opened; and two smaller ones at 212 feet will be found at High- 
wood. The lower edge of this plateau descends to 190 feet. 

Poulner. — The outliers here indicate a terrace sloping from 205 feet 
near its upper edge to 140 feet towards the Avon. A few miles south 
the old valley opens out, and the bluff, the foot of which has sunk still 
further, turns to the east, forming the upper boundary of the Palaeo- 
lithic gravels of Barton Cliff. 

Terraces West of the Avon. 

The more complete preservation of the series of ancient ter- 
races east of the Avon has made it convenient to describe that 
side first. It still remains, however, to deal with the gravels west 
of the river, where the first terrace (Palasolithic) has an even greater 
development, though the more ancient ones are but poorly 
represented by sheets of gravel capping isolated plateaus within 
the Tertiary area. The whole of the sheets of gravel lying 
between the County boundary and the Avon flat from Ring- 
wood to Fordingbridge belong to the Palaeolithic series. They 
fall southward and slope towards the river in the same way as 
the eastern terrace just described ; but owing to more extensive 
denudation the upper edge of the western terrace is nowhere 
preserved, and instead of the gravel abutting against rising 
ground it ends in _ the air and forms usiially a distinct escarp- 
ment facing west. 

It will be convenient in this area also to describe the gravels 
in order of antiquity, premising, however, that the correlations 
of the higher gravels on the two sides of the Avon are merely 
suggestions, Miich the complete isolation of the plateaus and 
the destruction of all terrace features make it impossible to carry 
further from stratigraphical evidence alone. West of the Avon, 
no river deposits equivalent to those capping the high ground 
at Picket Corner, nor even to those of the highest terrace, a re 
found. The most ajicient of them may represent the Eolithic 

f ravel of Alderbury ; but can scarcely be more ancient. These 
lolithic outliers were mostly examined by Mr. Dixon, from 
whose notes the following description has been compiled. 

Eolithic Terrace. 
- Pistle Down lies a mile and a-half north-east of Verwood Station. It 
is a flat topped hill,, everywhere rising above the 300 foot contour, but 



PLATEAU AND TERRACE GRAVELS. 43 

whose highest point is only 316 feet. Mr. Dixon notes four pits in 
) all at about the same level. The largest is on the road east of 
farrow Farm ; it shows 9 feet of gravel, resting on fine clean Bagshot 
if ff ■'^°^* °^ *^® stones are lying with their longer axes vertical, in 
a butt sandy matrix. By far the greater number of the stones are 
pebbles, chiefly flint, but they also include quartz, Greensand-ohert, 
rare quartzite, greywether, and Palaeozoic rocks. The subangular material 
includes Greensand-chert, as well as the more abundant flint. In the 
old gravel-pit on the north-eastern side of the plateau, near the bridle- 
way that crosses it, these pebbles from the Eocene strata make up 95 
per cent, of the gravel. Another pit on Pistle Hill shows 7| feet 
of gravel, resting on coarser sand of Bagshot age. The propor- 
tion of pebbles among the larger stones of the gravel is here about 
60 per cent. 

Furze Common Copse. — -The next outlier in point of height is that 
capping the hill immediately east of Edmondsham. It just touches 
300 feet, and most of it is not much below that level. The spur 
descending southward to 230 feet, near Smallbridge Farm, is so 
narrow that its lesser height may well be due to gradual sagging and 
settlement of the clay foundation. The whole outlier, which rests on 
London Clay, is less flat-topped than those resting on sand. The best 
section is in the Gravel-pit near the north-west corner of Mill Copse, 
where the coarse material is imbedded irregularly in an abundant 
loamy matrix, and consists in equal proportions of pebbles and of 
angular stones. A thickness of 5 feet is seen. The level of this 
outlier being lower than that of Pistle Down, though the outlier 
is further from the Avon, suggests that it may belopg to a tributary 
of somewhat later date rather than to the main river ; but it is 
impossible to say how much of its lower elevation is duetto the 
settlement of its foundation, clay always tending to settle to a 
greater extent than sand. 

Woodlands Common. — This outlier rises apparently to over 250 feet, 
but its height has not been determined. In the large gravel-pit south 
of the high road as much as 7 feet has been dug at one point without 
reaching the bottom ; though in other places the total thickiiess is 
only 4 feet. The coarse material consists chiefly of pebbles, including, 
besides flints, greywethers, which form the majority of the large 
pebbles, as well as the usual pebbles of quartz, quartzite, chert, &c. 

Wedge Hill, Harton Plantation, and Mamiington. — These outliers 
show a rapid southward fall, from the level of the Woodlands Common 
plateau to 120 feet south of Mannington. They are more probably 
connected with the Stour than with the Avon. They may include 
terraces of two dates, for there is a sudden drop to a lower plateau 
at Mannington, and further south there is a similar drop between the 
two outliers at Holt Heath. Mr. Dixon notes a pit at Wedge Hill 
showing 4 fee: of unstratiiied gravel, containing 50 per cent, of pebbles 
of the usual character. Another at Redman's Hill shows 8 feet of 
gravel, in which Mr. Dixon found a fragment of Purbeck chert. A 
pit on the south side of the Ringwood road at Clump Hill gave the 
approximate composition of the coarser material of the gravel as 
follows :— Per cent. 

Flint-pebbles G8 

Angular and subangular flint 29 

Angular and subangular Greensand chert ' « 2 

6360 3 



44 GEOLOGY OF RtNGWOOB. 

the remaining 1 per cent, consisting of quartz, greywether, Tertiary 
ferruginous grit, and probably schorl-rock. Numerous other sections 
will be found in these outliers, but it is needless to describe them. 

Holt Heath. — Here also two plateaus seem to be represented, the 
Small outlier at 131 feet being separated from the larger one at 152 to 
1 85 feet by a distinct bluff. lu each case the gravel consists mainly of 
fiint-pebbles derived from the Eocene strata. Numerous pits are open. 

Chattmry Hill. — There still remains this outlier, which rises to 330 
feet, but is so far away as to be in all probability quite unconnected 
with the ancient Avon. The gravel has now been worked out and the 
pits are overgrown ; but from an examination of the ploughed fields 
Mr. Dixon was able to ascertain that the pebbles and the angular con- 
stituents were about equal. The other materials were of the usual 
character, and may have been derived entirely from Eocene strata. 

PalceoUthic Terrace. 

The wide sheet of gravel between Fordingbridge and Eingwood 
is so uniform in composition and so nearly continuous that a 
general description and a note of the principal sections is all that 
will be needed. The gravel covers a plateau which at its upper 
edge on Plumley Heath just reaches 200 feet above the sea ; but 
at that height it is doubtful whether it is a true Avon gravel, 
It yields 90 per cent, of Tertiary pebbles, though immediately to 
the east, at a level of 160 feet, the proportion is only 50 per cent. 
The true terrace perhaps does not rise above 170 feet towards 
Fordingbridge and 130 feet near Riiigwood. At 160 feet on 
Ashley HeaQi it ends against a bluff of Eocene strata ; elsewhere 
this old bluff has been entirely destroyed and the gravel caps 
isolated plateaus. On the side towards the Avon this terrace 
ends abruptly at the top of a steep bluff which overlooks the 
river-flat. 

The gravel is composed so entirely of material derived from 
the elder terraces, or from the underlying Eocene strata higher up 
the valley, mixed with angular flints and chert derived from the 
higher reaches, that it will be needless to note in detail its com- 
position at different spots. The following are the best sections 
now visible : — 

Fordinglridge.—M.idghajm Farm, at 165 feet 12 feet of rough 
ferruginous gravel, dug in a pit at the edge of the river-bluff. 

Alderhelt gravel-pit, close to Drove End, at 165 feet. A large pit in 
ferruginous gravel dug to 12 feet. About 30 per cent, of the stones are 
subangular. 

Bleak Hill. — Pit at 158 feet. G-ravel of subangular flint, flint- 
pebbles and much Greensand chert, dug to 7 feet. 

Plvmley. — At North Plumley Farm, at 150 feet, gravel with 50 per 
cent, of pebbles is dug to 6 feet ; a small pit at 200 feet near the 
"Tumuli " marked on the ]^ap shows 90 per cent, of pebbles j Hare- 
field at 170 feet gives 80 per^cent. of pebbles, and at 160 feet they form 
about 50 per cent. 



PLATEAU AND TERRACE GRAVELS. 45 

Somerhy. — Pit on the edge of the scarp on the road to Nea Farm 
shows 9 feet of gravel ; others will be found a quarter of a mile west 
of the School, on the high road a quarter of a mUei south of Ivy Lodge 
at 150 feet, a quarter of a mile north-west of South Lodge at the 
lame level, and at 120 feet above Sunderton Cottage. A pit at 130 
feet at Baker's Hanging shows 18 feet of subangular flint-gravel, the 
upper part sandy and with pockets of sand (perhaps blown sand). 

Ashley. — A pit on the Poole Eoad at 90 feet shows tho gravel ir- 
regular and rubbly above, bedded and clean below. Another pit 
showing 8 feet of gravel will be found just at the edge of the Map. 



53(X> • D 2 



46 aEOLOaT OF BINGWOOP. 



CHAPTER X.— VALLEY GRAVEL, ALLUVIUM, AND 

PEAT. 

Valley Gravel. 

Though the ancient Terrace Gravels of the Avon are cut_ oft' so 
sharply from the later River Gravel, yet in all probability no 
great lapse of time intervenes. The change, which led to the 
formation of the marked river-bluff, which everywhere like a low 
vvair bounds the Avon flat, both on the west and on the east, 
was probably a mere change of climatic conditions, perhaps 
accompanied by a slight change in the sea-level. The climate 
became Arctic, the river was far .more liable than before to 
iloods in the spring, when the snow and ice thawed, 
and its rush, aided by floating ice, cut into the banks on 
either side. The River Gravel thus deposited has now been left 
as a broad sheet, one and a-half to two miles in width, through 
which winds the modern river with its more narrow alluvial 
flat. 

The Valley Gravel of the Avon, though everywhere clearly 
distinguished from the older series, is not all of the same age. 
Certain parts of it may form a low terrace, defined above and 
below by noticeable bluff's, and in the gravel of this terrace*, as 
well as on the one above, Palaeolithic miplements are not un- 
common. The Valley Gravel, not being so thoroughly decalci- 
fied as the Plateau Gravel, contains m places teeth of the 
jiiammoth and a few fresh water shells. Within our district, 
ho\vever, it has yielded no fauna approaching to the numerous 
Arctic mammals found in the contemporaneous brick-earth of 
Fisherton, near Salisbury. In describing this deposit, we will 
first follow the river downward, and then take the tributaries of 
the Avon, followed by those which flow southward into the 
Stour. 

Downton. — The gravel here forms flats, sloping gently from east and 
west towards the river and rising near the bluffs about 30 feet above 
the modern Alluvium. A quarter of a mile south of Downton, on the 
left bank of the Avon, the stream has cut into the lower edge of this 
gravel, forming a low cliff, in which is seen some gravelly sand and 
marl with freshwater shells. 

Breamore. — Here, in addition to the flat seen at Downton, there is a 
low terrace 30 or 40 feet higher, or 50 feet above the present river. 
This • is the " 50-foot terrace " of Mr. Westlake.* It can be traced 
from North Charford on the north to Fordingbridge on the south, 
always divided from the flat below by the slight bluff marked on the 
Gtologiftal Map. Its gravel can be examined in a pit north-west of 
Breamore and in another at Outwick. The flat below is very little 
above the level of the recent Alluvium, into which it merges im- 
perceptibly. 

* " Uutlitie« of the Q^tA^gn nS. li^oirdiiigl^ddge," gp. 16 (1168). 



VALLEY GRAVEL. 47 

Fordingbridge. — The lower gravel-flat increases in width southward 
and slopes gently upwards away from the river to 110 feet, or about 
30 feet above the Alluvium. In it, at the Workhouse, a tooth of 
mammoth was found in 1887 just below the water-level. The low 
terrace has its lower edge at 120 feet, rises to 135 feet at the railway- 
cutting, and to 150 feet near Friern Court, where a pit will be found 
at 140 feet. The best sections, however, were those formerly seen in 
the railway-cutting near the station and now visible in the ballast-pit 
close by. These have yielded numerous implements, and also teeth of 
mammoth.* Several of the implements can be seen in the Blackmore 
Museum at Salisbury, and one is figured by Sir John Evans. Two 
other pits, at about the same level as the railway cutting, will be found in 
the small outlier of the low-terrace gravel on the road to Bower Wood. 

Bickton. — The left bank of the Avon is here a low cliff cut in clean 
rough gravel, which is exposed to a depth of 10 feet in a pit a quarter 
of a mile north of the Mill. Between Bickton Weir and the Mill Mr. 
Westlake found in the gravel a seam of marl with land-shells {Pupa) ; 
he also mentions that the gravel is 16 feet thick, and yields but 
few implements. 

Ihsley. — Near Ibsley Church the river again cuts into the gravel 
forming a low cliff, in which a gravel-pit has been opened. 

Blashford. — Here the flat on the east of the river has widened con- 
siderably, but at the foot of the bluff it is still only 30 feet above the 
recent Alluvium. Towards the river it seems to merge imperceptibly 
into the Alluvium, or, perhaps, we should say that the Alluvium is 
encroaching on the gravel, and tending to level up its lower hollows. 
The same peculiarity is noticeable to the south of Blashford, and 
becomes more marked as the mouth of the river is approached. 

Ringwood. — A large ballast-pit is open between Ringwood Station 
and the Cemetery; its depth is about 12 feet. Here there is a ten- 
denc}' for the wide flat, no part of which is more than 30 feet above 
the recent Alluvium, to split up into several minor terraces, bounded 
by slight features, which soon disappear when traced in either direc- 
tion. 

The small tributaries east of the Avon show Httle gravel 
beyond the relatively modern wash from the surrounding 
gravelly uplands. These valleys show no terraces, and nothing 
that clearly indicates a former higher level of the streams, or 
unmistakably points to a flow of water in places now dry ; any 
such indications seem to have been obscured by subsequent 
erosion. 

Conditions are different west of the Avon ; for the wide Chalk 
Downs are full of winding valleys, deeply eroded by water, but 
having their bottoms far above the level of saturation in the 
porous rock below. The flats in these valleys are covered to a 
depth of several feet with gravel swept from the Downs above ; 
but no stream now disturbs the gravel in the higher vaUeys, 
which remain unchanged from year to year, and often show old 
houses arid walls built ^across the former channel. Only under 
one rare set of conditions are vaUeys such as these occvipied by 



* See A. H. Stevens, "Flint Chips," p. 47; Sir John Evans, "Ancient 
S^pne Implements," 2nd edit., pp. 632-634 (1897) ; and Westlake, op cit. 



48 GEOLOGY OP RIN6W00D. 

streams. After long-continued severe cold has frozen the wet 
surface-rock to a depth of several feet, the first spring rains fall 
on strata rendered completely impervious to water. _ Under 
these circumstances each upland valley will be occupied by a 
short-lived mountain torrent, which will rapidly thaw, tear up, 
and carry away the surface layer of chalk already shattered by 
the frost ; but as soon as the' stream has cut through the frozen 
layer it will disappear, as all rain falling on the Chalk does at the 
present day. 

In Hampshire and Dorset such a combination of circum- 
stances is of extremely rare occurrence ; but in the Chalk Avoids 
of Lincolnshire and Yorkshire several instances are on record, 
and in more Arctic climates the greatest amount of erosion 
occurs in the spring, when rain falls on a frozen impervious 
soil, or snow covering such a soil melts rapidly. We have 
already mentioned that the fossil mammals of Fisherton show 
that the Avon Valley had an Arctic chmate at the period with 
which we are now dealing ; to that period, therefore, belong 
probably the present surface-contours of the Downs and the 
deposition of the gravel in the dry valleys. 

The Map shows so clearly the distribution of these gravels 
that it is unnecessaiy to describe them in detail. It must be 
observed, however, that at lower levels they merge imperceptibly 
into the gravels of existing streams, and it is impossible to 
separate them or to make any satisfactory division between 
them and the recent Alluvium. In their upper stages, however, 
they point, like some of the gravels of the Avon, to a gradual 
lowering or even diversion of the streams. For instance, a 
sheet mapped by Mr. Dixon in the Crendell valley has been 
left dry, apparently by the diversion of the water into a lower 
and more easterly course, north of Buddlesgate Farm. 

In addition to the Valley Gravel of the Chalk area above 
described, we find between Verwood and Woolsbridge an 
extensive gravel-covered flat at a height of about 10 feet above 
the stream. The underlying stratum is Bagshot Sand, and the 
gravel, usually not more than 4 feet in thickness, consists 
mainly of Eocene pebbles. Mr. Dixon, who mapped the greater 
part of it, found that near Verwood Farm it occupies a 
distinct terrace a few feet above the recent Alluvium and 
separated from that Alluvium by a small bluff. It has evi- 
dently been cut into and partly destroyed by the modern 
stream. A good section 5 feet in depth is exposed in the 
terrace north of the Crane, opposite Verwood Manor Farm. 
The mode of occurrence of this gravel corresponds exactly with 
that of the low terrace of the Avon Valley Gravel already 
described. 

Allijbviunn and Peat. 

The Alluvium of the Avon cannot be described in much 
detail, for though it probably fills a channel which cuts 
considerably below the present bed of the river in the valley 
south of Fordingbridge, yet we have no sections or borings 



ALLUVIUM. 49 

which prove the depth of this particular channel. We can only 
say that all the valleys of the south of England that have been 
examined show in their lower reaches land - surfaces or 
" submerged forests " well below the present sea-level, and where 
borings are available we can often prove the existence of 
channels 50 feet or more below the existmg rivers. In Neolithic 
times the land stood 50 feet above its present level ; it has since 
sunk (or the sea has risen), so that the parts, of the old 
channels beneath the sea-level have been silted up, or now form 
estuaries and harbours. 

The Avon being a fairly swift salmon-stream, its Alluvium 
consists largely of gravel, with occasional areas of peaty-loam, or 
seams of shell-marl. These deposits merge imperceptibly into 
each other, and there do not seem to be any deposits of either 
peat or marl worth digging in the part of the valley we are now 
describing. 

The tributaries of the Avon are more sluggish, and conse- 
qtiently there Alluvium tends to take the form of peaty loam 
or of workable peat. Along Dockens Water, for instance, we 
find a peat-bog 150 yards wide, and in the stream-bank we can 
examine sections of this peat 4 or 5 feet deep. The peat, 
however, runs up the slope on each side, and is a true vegetable 
growth on waterlogged sand, as are nearly all the peat-bogs of 
the New Forest, ihe only other areas of peat worthy of notice 
are those connected with the Moors River, which also runs over 
sands. Over two of the begs on Verwood Common, examined 
by Mr. Dixon, the peat has now been almost entirely removed 
for fuel, leaving exposed many masses of bog-iron-ore which 
occurred beneath. Another bog and alluvial flat, in Wild 
Church Bottom, showed a stream-section at its lower end a few 
yards from the first enclosure. This exposed, according to Mr. 
Dixon, 4 feet of pale unstratified loamy clay, stained with rust 
about the rootlets which penetrate the top. Beneath this clay 
was dark carbonaceous loam, finely laminated and crowded 
with leaves of willow, belonging to Salix aurita, S. repens, anc 
S. cinerea. These do not suggest climatic conditions differin,' 
from those now holding in the district* 



50 GEOLOGY OF RINGWOOD. 

CHAPTER XI.— ECONOMIC GEOLOGY. 

Building Materials. 

The building material throughout the area included in 
Sheet 314 is now mainly brick, though many of the older houses 
are built of "dob" or mud, and a few are of flint-rubble. The 
deposit of brickearth most used is the loamy and sandy London 
Clay, which, when thoroughly weathered and decalcified, makes 
excellent bricks. It is dug throughout the area wherever there 
is a market for the bricks. The brickearths in the Reading 
Beds and Bagshot Sand are more uncertain in quality, varying 
greatly from place to place, and consisting bf irregular lenticular 
masses of limited extent. In the neighbourhood of Fording- 
bridge the glauconitic loam which forms the base of the Brackle- 
sham Series has been dug. Barton Clay is used in a brickyard 
near Poulner, and a brickearth associated with the gravel of the 
high plateau is used at North Charford. , 

Rough flints and masses of Tertiary ironstone are still occa- 
sionally used, though not to any great extent' at the present 
day. Large flints suitable for dressmg are not readily obtained 
in the Chalk af this area. Sandstone and chert from the 
Upper Greensand are quarried in the Bower Chalk and Berwick 
St. John district. 

Lime for building can be made from any part of the Upper 
or Middle Chalk. The Lower Chalk yields hydraulic lime, for 
which purpose, however, the only exposures of this rock within 
our area are placed too inconveniently to supply the towns. 
Hydraulic lime is more cheaply brought by rail 

Rough sands are commonly obtainable from the Reading 
Series, or from the cleaner parts of the gravel. The Bagshot 
Sands are commonly whiter and of somewhat finer grain ; those 
of the Barton Series are usually buff, extremely fine, and often 
dust-like. Even the London Clay is occasionally dug for 
sand. In the Bower Chalk and Berwick valleys the 
glauconitic sand of the Upper Greensand is dug; it usually 
weathers rusty. 

Pottery and Tiles. 

In the Verwood potteries stoneware, terra-cotta, and rough 
earthenware pipes and tiles are made from the plastic clay of the 
Reading Series, the pipe-clay found in the Bagshot Sands of this 
dintrict not being sufficiently good for pottery. Tiles and pipes 
»ie also manufactured from the more clayey parts of the 
London and Barton Clays. 

Road Metal. 

There is seldom much difficulty in obtaming road-metal 
throughout this area. Over the Tertiary half of it the Plateau 
or Valley Gravel is always to be had, though the value of this 



ECONOMIC GEOLOGY 51 

gravel decreases greatly where the proportion of pebhles is 
large. Pebble-gravel is found in the base of the London Clay- 
around Cranborne and is extensively used for roads. The ease 
with which Drift or Tertiary gravel can be obtained from the 
outliers and carted dowii hill, leads to its use even where much 
better material is obtainable. ' Weathered flints picked off the 
fields over the Chalk make far better road-metal than the 
Eocene gravels, but are more expensive. This is one of the 
reasons of the extreme badness of many of the roads in the 
district. 

Water Supply. 

Though powerful springs are thrown out at points where 
Chalk at a low level is overlapped by impervious Eocene strata, 
these springs have not be utilised for the supply of the towns, 
wells being dug everywhere. Taking the springs in order, the 
most copious will be found at Burgate, where the Avon finally 
passes from Chalk to Tertiary strata. Then following the escarp- 
ment towards the south-west we find Sagles Spring, in a similar 
position in the small valley below Kockboume. The next valley 
shows similar springs below South Damerham. Another set 
appears in the Crane Valley at Holwell ; others at Edmondsham 
and Horton, all these being perennial. Away from the Tertiary 
escarpment the springs given out by the Chalk tend to vary their 
position according to the season, or rather according to the rise 
or fall of the plane of saturation. Thus after an exceptionally 
wet season springs burst out in the Chalk valleys at points con- 
siderably higher than usual ; while an exceptionally dry season 
stops the flow of the normal springs and only leaves the lower 
ones. 

Throughout the Tertiary area, though there is a great deal of 
swampy and boggy land, the water is generally given out as a 
" soak ' over a considerable area, not as clearly defined spriags. 
There are some good springs, however, one of the best being 
given out in the valley north of Rockford Common, apparently 
from a sand which rests on the impervious glauconitic clay near 
the base of the Bracklesham Series. About this level a good 
deal of water oozes out in other places. Nearly all the springs 
from the Tertiary strata are more or less ferruginous ; those from 
the Chalk are hard from the dissolved carbonate of lime ; the 
•gravel springs vary considerably in quality, and tend to fail in 
dry seasons. 

A supply from wells can be obtained anywhere over the Chalk 
area, the only difficulty being the great depth to which it is often 
necessary to sink before the plane of saturation is reached in this 
porous rock. Where, over the Tertiary area, the Chalk can be 
reached within a reasonable distance, water is also readily 
obtained, as in the Fordingbridge well, which commences at the 
base of the Bagshot Sand. Where, however, the outcrop of the 
Chalk is more distant, and the depth to be bored is greater, the 
chance of obtaining water from the Chalk becomes very 
uncertam. Few deep wells have been sunk within our area, 



52 GEOLOGY OF RINGWOOD. 

except over the Chalk downs. Those about which we have been 
able to obtain information are mentioned in the Appendix. 

Soils. 

The connection between the geology as laid down on the 
Geological Map and the nature of the soil is by no means a 
direct one. Over most of our district the slopes are dominated 
by higher gravel-capped plateaus, the downward wash from 
which causes gravelly soil to overlie strata of all sorts. Thus the 
area occupied by heavy clay land is much less than the width of 
outcrop of the Barton Clay, London Clay, and the clays of the 
Reading Series would seem to indicate. Taken as a whole, the 
district is one of light soils, dry and chalky in the north-west 
half, gravelly, loamy, poor in lime, and often very wet in the 
south-east. Even over the Chalk there is usually so much 
gravelly and clayey debris from the Tertiary strata as entirely 
to alter the character of the soil, sometimes for the better, some- 
times for the worse, for the lower Tertiary strata are extremely 
variable. 

The Bagshot Series, though in the main sandy, contains so 
many seams and thin beds of impervious clay, which throw out 
water, that it seldom forms a soil dry at all seasons. In fact 
over the whole area it tends to form waterlogged or wet light 
land of poor character, which, however, may scorch through the 
failure of the springs during long-continued drought. Wide 
expanses of nearly level gravelly land form one of the most dis- 
tinctive features of the Ringwood area, but even these vary 
greatly in quality, according as they are covered with loamy 
soil, as in the valleys, or form stony and often wet commons, as 
on the plateaus. 



53 



APPENDIX. 



WELL SECTIONS AND BORINGS 
(principally collected by Mr. F. J. Bennett). 

BAEFORD.-^Home Farm. 
Sunk and communicated by Mr. Hobbs, Ilm^'nster. 12 feet of water. 

Feet. 
Gravel 21 

Chalk • 9 

Berwick St. John. — Bridmore Farm, at Blind Ditch Bottom. 
Sunk and communicated by Mr. Hobbs. Chalk, 232 feet. 

Breamoee. — Dairy Farm at Upper Street. 
Sunk and communicated by Mr. .John Works. 4 feet of water. 

Feet, 
'travel 16 

Chalk 34 

Chalbuey, see p. 11. 

Ckanboene, half-mile north of the Manor House. 

About 280 or 290 feet above O. D. Water at 100 feet, rose 5 feet. 
Soft white chalk, occasional seams of nodular flints, a few thin tabular 
flints, and two thin marls. 100 feet. 

DowNTON. — At Dr. Whiteley's, near the Church. 

Sunk and communicated by Mr. Hobbs. 

Feet 
Gravel 18 

Chalk 32 

DowNTON. — Near Bull Inn. 
Sunk by Mr. Hobbs. Gravel, 14 feet. Water, 3 feet. 

DowNTON. — Hill, half a mile south-east of the station. 
Sunk and communicated by Mr. Hobbs. Chalk, 153 feet. 

Faenham. — New Town. 
Sunk and communicated by Mr. Hobbs. Soft white chalk, 170 feet. 

F0EDI»GBEIDGE. — IJ mile north of. 
Sunk and communicated by Mr. Hobbs. Water, 2 feet. 

Feet. 
Gravel - - - - - 9 

Black clay full of oyster shells [Heading Beds] 26 

FoEDiNGBEiDGE. — Bower Wood. 

Sunk and communicated by Mr. Hobbs. 

Feet. 

[Plateau] Gravel : 4 

[Ba^hot f Yellow clay- 20 

Beds] \ Light coloured sand 36 

[London f Bkck clay - - 8 

Clay]\ Yellow sand 2 



54 



GEOLOGY OF RIN6W00D. 



FOEDINGBEIDGE.— Gasworks, 1887. 
Bored by Messrs. Tilley & Co. From Westlake's " Geology of Fording- 
bridge," p. 28. Level, 88 feet above Ordnance Datum. Water from the 
sand at 125 feet rose to 13 feet above the ground. Thickness. Depth. 

Feet. 



Soil. Black mould - . - 2 

River /Broken subangular gravel in a good deal) ^g 
Gravel. \ of sand - - J 

Bagshot, I -pjj^g gj.gy qyg^j(-2 g^nd, chyey in places [• 6 

/Grey sandy clay 8 

Sand and pebbles 
Hard stiff clay - 
Sand, with pebbles at the base - 
Sandy clay 

Septarium, contaming fossils, Twrritella} 
iinbricataria, &c- J 

Clay 

Hard .stone 

Dark clay - - - 

Dark clay with shells, probably Pkola-\ 
domya - j 

London Dark bluish clay 

Clay, / Hard stone 
llSfeet. 1 Dark bluish clay, with a few smalH 
pelibk'S — Cardita planicosta, Hostel- V 
laria lucida, Titrritella imhricataria ) 
Hard stone 

Clay - - 

Brown clay, very hard and compact - 
Septarium - 

Sand and clay, with water under the stone 
Rand and water 
Sandy clay 

Sand, shale, and pebbles (Basement") 
bed V) Doubtful if pebbles are more V 
than 6 in thick . - - J 

Light grey clay laminated with grey sand 
Greenish - brown loam ' with a little"! 
glauconitic sand and lignite -/ 

Buff-coloured calcareous stone, 4 inches 
Light-brown clay 
Brown clay 

Whitish - grejr or pale-green") 
clay, with occasional [ 
streaks of red J 

Mottled Light-grey pipe clay 

clay; 1 Red clay 
31 feet. \ Yellow clay, greyer towards"! 
the bage - - J 

Dark - brown or chocolate \ 
coloured clay - - J 
Purple clay streaked with ochre 
I Pale buff-coloured marl 
Marl, White highly-calcareous marl - 
9 feet. 1 Pale green or olive- coloured"! 
\ marl with calcareous lumps/ 
Qreensand (glauconitic quartz and iron\ 
grains with oyster shells) J 

Chalk ... 4 



Reading 
Beds. 



10 



Feet. 
2 

14 
20 



2 


30 


10 


40 


4 


-44 


6 


50 


1 


51 


8 


59 


1 


60 


7 


67 


3 


70 


14 


84 


i 


84i 


7 


91i 


i 


92 


8 


100 


4 


104 


li 


105^ 


20 


125i 


3 


128| 


7 


135i 


3 


138i 


6 


144i 


Hi 


156 


I 


156J 


3} 


160 


2 


162 


14 


176 


1 


177 


3 


180 



188 

190 

193 
196 

200 

202 

212 
219 



GussAGE St. Michael.— Ryall's Farm. 

Sunk and communicated by Mr. John Weeks. 4 or 5 feet water. 
Soft Chalk, a few flints - 43 feet 



APPENDIX. 55 

Hale. — Manor House, in kitchen garden. 

Sunk and communicated by Mr. Hobbs. 

Feet. 
Gravel - - . 3 

Sharp yellow sand [Bagshot] 37 

Hale. — Home Farm. 

Sunk and communicated by Mr. Hobbs. 3 feet of water. 

Feet. 
Yellow loam [London Clay ?] - 27 

Handley. 

Communicated by Mr. Weeks. At the bottom of the village, 85 feet. 
Can nearly dip the water when the springs are high, and when the water 
runs in the " bottom " lower down. At the Fishponds 80 feet, runs over 
at times. At Oakley Down, soft chalk with few flints, 80 feet; the 
water runs over the road at the eleventh milestone when the springs are 
high. 

Handley.— Woodcutts. 
Two Eoman wells cleared out, 140 and 180 feet deep, dry now. 

HaTCHEtT GitEEN. 

Sunk and communicated by Mr. Hobbs. 

Feet. 
Gravel ... . 2 

Soft light-coloured sand [Bag.>ihot? I *- 42 

Lover.— At Randalls. 

Sunk and communicated by Mr. Hobbs. 5 feet of water. 

Feet. 
London /Loam - 10 

Clay \ Black clay 20 

Odstook Down.— Great Yews. 

Sunk and communicated by Mr. Hobbs. 4 to 40 feet of water. 

Feet. 
Chalk 101 

RocKBOURNE. — Pebble Pit Cottage. 

Sunk by Mr. Hobbs. 3 feet of water. 

Feet. 
Sandy loam, with pebbles [Reading BedsJ 20 

Chalk 30 

RocKBOURNE. — Cottage i mile east-north-east of West Park Farm. 

Feet. 
Sand 10 

Bluish loam - "1 

Glaueonitic loam with Ostrea bellovacina bored by!- 13 

Pholadidea ? - j 

Chalk -. 4 



RocKBOURNE. — Down Farm, near Knap Barrow. 

Sunk by Mr. Hobbs. 5 feet water. 

Feet. 
Gravel ...•■.-. . g 

6hai!k .«.;;-.■.» e 



56 GEOLO^y OP RINGtWOOl). 

KoKE Hill, see p. 17. 
Kook's Hill, see p. 18, 

RusHMOEE House. 

Sunk and communicated by Mr. Jolin Weeks. Chalk, 270 feet. Plenty 
of water, though none in the well in the kitchen garden Sunk to 
300 feet. 

Someeley.— At Dairy. 

Sunk and communicated by Mr. Hobbs. 4 feet of water. 

Feet. 
Gravel - - - - - - 20 

Light-coloured sand [Bagshot] - - 22 

ToLLARD Faenham.— Hand-in-Hand public house. 

Sunk and communicated by Mr. John Weeks. Soft thick-bedded chalk. 
178 feet. 

Veewood.— Rectory, 1897. 

Sunk by Messrs. Isler and Co. Communicated by Mr. J. W. Titt. 
Bore 415 feet deep, 3 inches diameter at bottom. 

Feet. 

(Sandy loam 20 

Clay and stone - - - - 10 

Grey sand 75 

Sand and pebbles 5 

{Dead green sand - 53 

Pebbles and dead sand 6 

Sand and stone - 28 

Sandy clay - 3 

("Dead sand - 62 

[Reading Beds, ■< Mottled clay - 7 

100 feet.] (.Dead green sand 11 

Chalk and flints - - 135 

WOODFALLS. 

Wells sunk and communicated by Mr. Hobbs, of Ilminster. 

(1) Farm, 1 m. south-east of Downton Station. 8 feet of water. [ 

Feet. 

Yellow clay [London Clay] - 32 
Yellow sand, with a layer of white about every 5 feet 

[Reading Beds] - - . . - 41 

Sand and pebbles [Reading Beds] - - - 19 

Upper Chalk - ... - 130 

(2) Woodfalls Hill, near the Saw Mills. 9 feet of water. 

Feet. 
Gravel - - - - 7 

Yellow clay [London Clay] . q 

(3) Near the Old Inn. 15 feet of water. 

Feet. 
Gravel - - - . - . . 5 

Yellow clay [London Clay] - - - - 10 

Black clay [London Clay] - - 20 

(4) At the Corn Mill. 60 feet of water. 

Feet. 
Gravel - - - - - . . 5 

Yellow clay [London Clay ?] - - 15 

Black clay [Reading Beds - . . , qq 



APPENDIX. 57 

(5) At th« Brickyard. 50 feet of water. 

Feet. 
Light-yellow sharp sand [Keading Beds] - 18 

Slate-coloured clay [Reading Beds] - 30 

Pebbles [Reading Beds] - 22 

Chalk - - . . . . 132 

(6) At the Blacksmith's Shop at the cross roads north of North 
Cnarford. 4 feet of water. 

Feet. 
Gravel - - - .4 

Soft light-coloured sand [Bagshot] 39 

WooDGEEEN.— At east end of Common. 

Sunk and communicated by Mr. Hobbs. 2j feet of water. 

Feet. 
Gravel - - - - .... is 

Light sand [Bagshot] - - 17 

WooDGBEEN. — At south-east end of Common. 

Sunk and communicated by Mr. Hobbs. 3 feet of water. 

Feet. 
Gravel - - - 13 

Blue clay - - 9 

Woodlands.— Knowle Hill. Two wells close together. 

Communicated by Mr. H. Hayter. (1) No water. 

Feet. 
Soil and pebbles [London Clay] 3 

Red clay [Reading Beds] - 12 

Dry white ( and [Reading Beds] - - 10 

Blue marly clay and greensand [Reading Beds] 15 

(2) Water found. 

Soil and red clay (slip) - 14 

Chalk 131 



58 



INDEX. 



Abbot's Well, 25. 

Actinocamax quadratus, Zone of, T). 

Adur, Eiver, 32. 

Agriculture, 1, 4, 13, 52. 

Alderbury, 36, 37, 40-42. 

Alderholt, 21, 42. 

Mill, 16. 

Allen, H. A., 11, 18, 27. 
Allen Eivtr, 2. 
Alluvium, 40, 46-49. 
Alum Bay, 23. 
Alvediston, 3, 4. 
Anchor-ice, 30, 46. 
Arctic conditions, 37, 46, 48. 
Area of the district, 1. 
Arun, River, 32. 
Ashes Farm, 10. 
Ashford Water, 2, 16. 
Ashley, 45. 

Heath, 24, 26, 44. 

Walk, 38. 

Avenue Lodge, 6. 
Avon, 1, 2, 49. 

, Arcient course of the, 

29-48. 

bluff, 15, 21, 26, 34, 35, 45, 46. 

channel, Depth of the, 49. 

, Middle, 32. 



Backley Holmes, 39. 

BagshotSand, 15, 20-23,50. 

Baker's Hanging, 45. 

Barford Park, 40, 53. 

Barrow Farm, 43. 

Barton Clay and Sand, 27, 28, 50, 

52. 

^Cliff, 37, 42. 

Basement-bed of the London Clay, 

13, 14, 16-19, 55. 
Becton Bunny Beds, 28. 
Belemnitella mucronata, 4-7. 

quadrata, 5. 

Bellevue Nursery, 40. 

Bellows Cross, 10. 

Bennett, F. J., 3, 5, 53-57. 

Bere Eegis, 14. 

Berwick St. John, 3, 4, 29, 50, 53. 

Bickton, 47. 

Black Bush Plain, 39. 

Hill, 23. 

Blackmore collection, 41, 47. 
,Dr. H. P., 36-38. 



Blaehford, 47. 
Bleak Hill, 44. 
Blissford, 25, 44. 
Bognron-orei 49i 



Bournemouth, 23, 24, 26, 37. 

Waterworks, 7. 

Boveridge Farm, 6. 

Heatb, 22, 23. 

Bower Chalk, 3, 4, 29, 50. 

Wood, 47. 

Bracklesham Beds, 15, 24-26, 50, 51. 

Bradford Barrow, 7. 

Bramble Hill Walk, 39. 

Bramshaw, 24, 30. 

Bratley Plain, 39. 

Breamore, 6, 37, 46, 53. 

Bricks and brickearth, 16, 24,50. 

Bridmore Farm, 53. 

British Village, 7. 

Brook, 24. 

Brookheatb, 6. 

BroomyWalk, 39. 

Buddlesgate Farm, 48 

Building materials, 50. 

Bullen, Rev. R. A , 36. 

Burgate, 51. 

Burley, 29, 39. 

Burwood, 17. 

Pit, 6. 



Calyptrcea aperta, 15. 
Cardita Brongniarti, 16. 
-^mitis, 25. 



planicosta, 15. 

sulcata, 27. 

Castle Hill, 6, 15, 17. 
Chalbury Hill, 6, 11, 44. 
Chalk, 3-7, 50-52. 

Downs, Valleys of the, 47, 48. 

Rock, 4, 5. 

, Water from the, 51, 52. 

Chapman, F., 11. 
Charford, 41. 
Charing Cross, 22. 
Chert for building, 50. 

in Greens .nd, 3. 

, Radiol -irian, 39. 

boulders in Eocene, 14, 26. 

in Drift 30, 31, 38-41, 

43, 4-4. 
Chilly Hill, 21. 
Clay-with-Flints, 33. 
Climatic chang^s, 37, 46, 48. 
Clump Hill, 43. 
Coal Measures, Depth to, 2. 
Coccospheres in Cbalk, 6. 
Codrington, Thos., 32. 
Coombe Rock, 37. 
Cooper's Hill, 38. 
Cerbvla oUiquatai 13i 



INDEX. 



59' 



Gorbula pisvrni, 27. 

Court Farm, 10. 

Cranbirne, 6, 10, 13, 17, 23, 51, 53. 

Chase, 1, 4, 5, 22, 34. 

Crane Eiver, 2, 17, 48. 

Valley, 51. 

Crassatella grignonensis, 25. 

sulcata, 27. 

Creech HiU, 17 

' Creep ' in soft strata, 27, 36. 

Crendell, 10, 17. 

Cretaceous, 3-7. 

Crichel, 7. 



Daggons Eoad, 20-22. 
Damerham, 51. 

Knoll, 10. 

Dearlman Hill, 38. 

Decalcification, 9, 10, 24, 33, 36, 46. 

Densome Wood, 40. 

Denudation, 29-49. 

Dewlish, 36, 38. 

Diastopora, 10. 

Disturbances, 29. 

Dixon, E. E. L., 4, 11-13, 17, 18, 22, 

42-44, 48, 49. 
" Dob " for building, 24, 50. 
Dockens Water, 26, 49. 
Down Barn, 5. 

Faiin>' 55. 

Downton, 29, 36, 37, 40, 46, 53, 56. 

Drove End, 44. 

Dry valleys. Erosion of, 47, 48. 



EcMnocorys scutaius (vulgaris), 6, 7. 
Economic geology, 1, 5, 50-52. 
Edmondsham, 43, 51: 
Elephas meridionalis, 38. 

primigenius, 46, 47. 

Eolithic implements, 36-38. 

terrace, 40-44 

Erosion, Marine, 29, 31, 32. 

, Valley, 29-49. 

Evans, Sir J., 47. 



Farnham. 53. 
Fisherton, 37, 46, 48. 
Flints for building, 50. 

road-metal, 50, 51. 



in'ChaIk,M-7. 



Flint-splinters in' Eeading beds, 8, 

9. 
Folds Farm, 21, 41;. 
Foraminifera in Chalk, 6- ■ 

Heading Beds, 11, 12: 

Fordingbridge, 8, 15, 16, 21, 30, 31, 

35, 37, 42, 44, 46, 47, 50, 51, 53, 

54. 
Formations, Table of, 2. 
Fossils, Lists- of, 11, 12, 18, 25, 27. 
Fowler, G. H., 28. 

5.S00 



Freshwater shells in gravel, 46, 47. 

Friern Court, 47. 

Frogham, 21, 25^ 41. 

Frome Eiver, 31, 32, 35. 

Frozen soil, 48. 

Furze Common Copse, 43. 

HiU, 42. 

Gault, 2. 

Gaunt's House, 12. 

Glacial Period, 37, 40, 48. 

Glauconite, 8-12, 16-20, 22, 24-28. 

Godshill, 25, 37, 40, 41. 

Goodwood, 35. 

Gorley, 25. 

Gravel, Composition of the, 29-31. 

Pit Efill, 39. 

Great Yews, 55. 
Greehsand-chert, 3. 

in Plateau Gravel, 

30, 31, 38-41, 43j 44. 

in Eeading Beds, 



10. 

Greywether pebbles in Bracklesham 
Beds, 24, 26. 

— — r- London Clay, 



15. 



■ Plateau Gravel, 



24, 30, 38, 41. 
Greywether sandstone, 11. 
Gunville, 41. 
Gussage, 6, 54. 



Hahea in London C ay, 17, 18. 
Hale, 20, 39, 55. 
Purlieu, 38. 



Hampshire Basin, 1, 13, 14, 
Hampton Eidge, 39, 40. 
Hamptworth, 20. 
Handley, 55. 
Handy Cross, 39. 
Harefield, 44. 
Hart Hill, 14, 15, 20, 37. 
Hasley Inclosure, 26, 39 
Hatchet Green, 38, 55. 
Hayter, H., 11, 57. 
Heathfield Farm, 20. 
Hemiaster branderianus, 18, 25. 
High-level gravels, 33-45. 
Hightown, 26, 40. 
Highwood, 42. 

Farm, 40. 

Hinton Martell, 7, 12, 18. 

Parva, 7. 

Hippochrenes amplus, 27. 
Hobbs, Mr., 53, 55-57. 
Holaster planus, 5. 
"Hollows," 4. 
Holt Heath, 23; 43, 44. 

Wood, 18. 

Holwell, 51. . 
Farm, 10. 



31. 



60 



INDEX. 



Horton, 6, 11, 51. 

dommon, 23. 

Plantation, 43. 

Hungerford, 41. 
Hungry Hill, 17. 
Hyde, 21. 

Common, 37,41. 

Farm, 25. 



Ibsley, 47. 

Common, 37, 40, 42. 

Ice, Anchor or bottom, 30, 46. 

Implements in Drift, 33, 34, 36-38. 

Ironstone, 50. 

Isle of Wight, 31, 32. 

Isler & Co., 56. 

Itchen Kiver, 35. 

Ivy Lodge, 45. 



Jukes-Browne, A. J., 4, 5. 
Jurassic pebbles in Drift, 30-32, 35, 
36, 38-40, 43. 



Kimeridge Clay, 2. 
King Barrow, 22. 
— — Down Farm, 7. 
Kingena lima, 6, 7. 
Knap Barrow, 6, 55. 



Land-shells in Drift, 47. 
Landslips, 9, 11, 21, 27, 43. 
Laverstock, 38. 
Lazy Bush, 3&. 
Lime, 50. 
Lodge Farm, 41. 

Hill, 38. 

London Clay, 13-19, 50-52. 
Long Cross, 30. 
Longcross Plain, 39. 
Loosehanger Copse, 20, 38. 
Lover, 13, 20, 55. 
Lowden Copse, 9. 
Lower Common, 26. 

Court, 16. 

Pensworth, 5, 9. 

I/ummlites v/rceolatus, 25. 
Lydite pebbles, 9. 



Mammoth, 46, 47. 
Man, Antiquity of, 37. 
Mannington, 43. 
Marine erosion, 29, 31, 32. 
Marsupites, 5. 
Melbourn Bock, 4. 
Micraster coranguirvwm, 5. 

coHeilwiinariv/m, 5. 

Mil Copse, 43. 
Millerstord Bottom, 20. 
Plantation, 38. 



Mill Hill Copse, 7. 
Mineral products, 1, 50, 51. 
Miocene disturbancep, 29. 
Mockbeggar, 24, 25, 42. 
Morgan's Vale, 9, 14. 
Moore Crichel, 7. 
Moors Eiver, 49. 
Mount Ararat, 22. 

Pleasant Farm, 38. 

Moyle Court, 42. 
Mud Walls, 24, 50. 
Mutton Hole, 10. 



Nadder River, 30. 

Nea Farm, 45. 

Needles, The, 31. 

Neolithic Period, 49. 

New Buildings, 40. 

Newer Pliocene, 29-39. 

New Forest, 5, 27, 37, 49. 

Newton, E. T., 11, 25. 

New Tovra, 25, 42. 

Noddle Hill, 17. 

North Charford, 20, 37, 40, 50, 57. 

Downs, 13. 

Nummulites variolarius, 25. 



Oakley Down, 55. 
Odontaspis macrotus, 14, 27, 28. 
Odstock Down, 55. 
Oldhaven Beds, 13. 
Ostrea bellovacina, 8-12. 

flahellula, 18. 

Outwick, 6, 46. 

Overlap, Eocene, 13. 

Oxidation of glauconitic sands, 9, 10. 

Oysters in Reading Beds, 8-12. 

PalEeolithic implements, 36, 37, 46. 

terrace, 41-45. 

Palaeozoic rocks, 2. 

pebbles in Drift, 30, 38- 



40, 43. 



■Reading. 



Beds, 9, 10, 
Peat, 49. 
Pebble Pit, 10. 

Cottage, 55. 

Pectunculus deletus, 27. 
Pholadidea, 10. 

Phosphatic granules in Chalk, 6. 
Physical features, 1, 2. 

Origin of, 29-48. 

Picket Corner, 24, 26, 29, 30, 33, 42. 

— ^ Post, 28, 39, 40. 

Pinna affimis, 1 %. 
Pipe-clay, 20, 23. 
Pipes and tiles, 50. 
Pistle Down, 42. 

Hill, 43. 

Plants in greywether sandstone, 24, 

26, 



INDEX. 



61 



Plants in the Bagshot, 21, 23. 

London Clay, 18. 

Eeading Beds, 9. 

Plastic Clay, 8-12. 

Plateau Gravel, 29-45. 

Pliocene, 29-39. 

Plumley Heath, 44. 

Poole, 23. 

PorospJuBra globularis, 6. 

Potteries, 50. 

Poulner, 26, 27, 42, 50. 

Preglacial, 29-39. 

Prestwich, Sir J., 32, 36. 

Proteaceous leaf in London Clay, 

17, 18. 
Purbeck Beds, 2. 

Isle of, 31, 32. 

pebbles in Plateau Gravel, 

30-32, 35, 36, 38-40, 43. 
Pyrites in Chalk, 6. 



Eadiolarian chert, 39. 
Raised Beach, 35. 
Eandalls, 55. 

Eeading Beds, 8-12, 50, 52. 
Redlynch, 9, 14, 36, 37, 39. 
Eedman's Hill, 43. 
Eed-mottled clays, 8-12. 
Ringwood, 24, 26, 27, 37, 42, 44, 47, 

52.. 
Eiver system. Origin of the, 29-48. 
Eoad metal, 37, 50, 51. 
Eockbourne, 9, 51, 55. 
Eockford Common, 37, 40, 42, 51. 
Eoke Hill, 17. 
Eook's Hill, 18. 
Eoots in greywether sandstone, 24, 

26. 
Bostellaria lucida, 15. 
Rushmore, 5, 56. 
Eushy Flat, 38. 
Eyalrs Farm, 54. 
Rye Hill, 19. 



Sagles Spring, 51. 

"Sag" of strata, 9, 27, 36, 43. 

St. Acheul, Implements from, 36, 

37. 
St. Giles's Park, 6, 11. 
Salisbury, 37, 38, 46, 48. 

Museum, 38, 41, 47. 

Plain, 24, 30, 31, 34. 

Rivers, 30-32. 

Salisc in Alluvium, 49. 
Sandhill Hill. 16. 
Sands for building, <fec., 50. 
Sandstone for building, 50. 
Sandy Balls, 21, 37, 41. 
Scenery, 1. 

Schorl-rock in Drift, 41, 44. 
Searchfield, 6, 41. 
Selbornian, 3. 



Septaria, 13. 

Seymour's Brickyard, 27, 28. 
Shtll-marl, 49. 
Silicified wood, 26. 
Smallbridge Farm, 17, 43. 
Soil-cap motion, 36. 
Soils, 1, 4, 13, 52. 
Solent Eiver, 29-32. 
Somerley, 21, 45, 56. 
Southampton Eiver, 37. 

Water, 30, 31. 

South Damerham, 6, 51- 

Spithead, 31. 

Springs, 51. 

Stevens, A. H., 47. 

Stonehenge, 26. 

Stone Quarry Bottom, 39. 

Stoneware, 50. 

Stour Eiver, 2, 31, 35, 46. 

Strahan, A., 31, 32. 

Strata, Table of. 2. 

Studland, 32. 

Sturt's Copse, 6, 11, 12. 

Sunderton Cottage, 45. 

Sutton Brickyard, 18. 



Table of strata, 2. 
Tarrant Crawford, 5. 

Monkton, 5, 7. 

Terebratulina striata, 7. 
Terrace Gravels, 33-45. 
Terra-cotta, 50. 
Test Eiver, 35. 
Tiles, 50. 
Tilley & Co., 54. 
Titt, J. W., 9, 56. 
Tollard Church, 5. 

Farnham, 56. 

Trow Hollow, 4. 



Upper Greensand, 3, 50. 



Vale of Wardour, Stones from the, 

30-32 
Valley Gravel, 34, 46-49. 
Valleys, Erosion of the, 29-49. 
Vereley Hill, 39, 40. 
Verwood, 9, 17, 23, 42, 48, 49. 
Voluta elevata, 18. 
luctatrix, 27. 



Water supply, 51-57. 
Wealden, 2. 

Anticline, 29. 

Weathering of the London Clay, 13, 

16. 
Wedge Hill, 43. 
Weeks, J., 54, 56. 
Wells, 6, 8-11, 13, 15, 16, 18, 19, 51, 

57. 



liTDEX. 



Westlake, E., 6, 8, 15, 16, 41, 46, 47, 

54. 
West Park, 6, 10, 55. 
Whitaker, W^- 13. 
Whiteshoot Farm, 20, 38. 
Whitsbury, 6. 
Wild Church Bottom, 49. 
Wilkins's Copse, 10. 
Willow-leaves in Alluvium, 49. 
Wiltshire Wood, 19. 
Wimborne, V. 

St. Giles, 6 

Windmill Hill, 25 
Windyeats, 38. 



WinkeHjpry, 1. 

Woodcutts, 12, 55. . 

Woodfalls, 14, 30, 33, 37, 39, 40, 56, 

57. 
Woodgreen, 37, '40, 41, 57. 

— — Common, 20. 

Woodlands, 6, 11, 19, 57. 

Common, 43. 

Woodmintoh, 4. 
Woolsbridge, 48. 

Xanthopsis Leachii, 14. 

Zones in the Chalk, 5. 



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