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Full text of "Handbook of thermodynamic tables and diagrams; a selection of tables and diagrams from Engineering thermodynamics"

Cornell Hmrmitg pilr«g 

BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME 
FROM THE 

SAGE ENDOWMENT FUND 

THE GIFT OF 

Henrg m, Sage 

1891 



6.3>-a^V^ ly^mfe 



Hani 



and*a 





PI Cornell University 
B Library 



The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924004628008 



HANDBOOK 

OP 

THERMODYNAMIC TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



McGraw-Hill BookCompaip^ 

Electrical World Th?EjigineGrin^ andMining Journal 
EngineGring Record Engineering News 

Railway Age Gazette American Machinist 

Signal E-nginoer American Eti^tieer 

Electric Railway Journal Coal Age 

>fe>tallurgical and Chemical Engineering P o we r 



HANDBOOK OF 

THEEMODYNAMIC TABLES 
AND DIAGEAMS 

A SELECTION OF TABLES AND DIAGRAMS FROM 

ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS 

BY 
CHARLES EDWARD LUCRE, Ph. D. 

PROFESSOR OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN COLUMBIA UNIVERSITT 
NEW YORK CITY 



ARRANGED AND AMPLIFIED BY 

JOHN J. FLATHER, Ph. B., M. M. E. 

PROFESSOR OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN UNIYBRSITY 
OP MINNESOTA, MINNEAPOLIS 



First Edition 



McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, Inc. 
239 WEST 39TH STREET, NEW YORK 

6 BOUVERIE STREET, LONDON, E. C. 

1915 

S 



copybight, 1915, by the 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 



THE. MAPLE. PRESS. YORK-PA 



PREFACE 



While the following tables and diagrams have been arranged primarily for 
use with the authors' Textbook of Engineering Thermodynamics it is thought 
that they will be of considerable value to all students of engineering as well as 
practicing engineers or others who may have occasion to undertake thermo- 
dynamic computations. 

Most of the tables have been taken from Dr. Lucke's larger work on Engi- 
neering Thermodynamics, but some new ones have been added, among which 
are the very convenient four place hyperbolic and common logarithms, the 
plates for which were kindly loaned by Professor E. V. Huntington. 

The authors desire to acknowledge their obligations to the various sources 

of information utilized in the preparation of the tables and diagrams. Special 

mention is due Professors Marks and Davis, for the use of material from their 

Steam Tables (Longmans, Green & Co.); to Mr. E. D. Thurston, Jr., whose 

invaluable help is gratefully acknowledged, and to Mr. T. M. Gunn for aid on 

part of the work. 

C. E. L. 

June. 1915. J- J- F. 



CONTENTS 



PAQH 

Phbpacb V 

List op Tables ix 

List of Chaets and Diagrams xi 

Part I 

Introduction 1-4 

Tables 5-137 

Part II 

Construction and Use op the Diagrams 139-150 

Charts 151-230 

Index 231—238 



Vll 



LIST OF TABLES 



No. Paob 

1. Conversion table of units of distance 5 

2. Conversion table of units of surface 5 

3. Conversion table of units of volume 5 

4. Conversion table of units of weights and force 5 

5. Conversion table of units of pressure 6 

6. Conversion table of units of work 6 

7. Conversion table of units of power 7 

8. Units of velocity 7 

9. Heat and power conversion table 7 

10. Barometric heights, altitudes and pressures 8 

11. Conversion table inches of mercury to pounds per square inch 10 

12. Piston positions for any crank angle 11 

13. Horse-power per pound mean effective pressure 12 

14. Constants for the curve PV = K 13 

15. Values of s for adiabatic expansion of steam 14 

16. Values of sin the equation PF = constant for various substances and conditions. . 15 

17. Fixed temperatures 15 

18. Temperatures, Centigrade and Fahrenheit 16 

19. Values of x for use in Heck's formula for missing water 18 

20. Baum^specific gravity scale 19 

21. Freezing-point of calcium chloride brine 19 

22. Specific heats of solids 20-21 

23. Specific heats of gases 22-23 

24. Specific heats of liquids 24 

25. Specific heat of sodium chloride brine 25 

26. Coefiicient of linear expansion of solids 25 

27. Coefficient of cubical expansion of liquids 26 

28. Coefficient of volumetric expansion of gases and vapors at constant pressure 26 

29. Coefficient of pressure rise of gases and vapors at constant volume 27 

30. Compressibihty of gases by their isothermals 28 

31. Values of the gas constant R 28 

32. Density of gases 29 

33. Ignition temperatures 30 

34. The critical point 30 

35. Latent heats of vaporization 31 

36. Latent heats of fusion 31 

37. Boiling-points 32 

38. International atomic weights 34 

39. Melting- or freezing-points 34 

40. Properties of saturated steam 36 

41. Properties of superheated steam 40 

42. Properties of saturated ammonia vapor 41 

43. Properties of saturated carbon dioxide vapor 60 

44. Relation between pressure, temperature and per cent. NHa in solution 64 

ix 



X LIST OF TABLES 

No. Paqh 

45. Values of partial pressure of ammonia and water vapors for various temperatures 

and per cents, of ammonia in solution 58 

46. Absorption of gases by liquids 60 

47. Absorption of air in water 60 

48. Air required for combustion of various substances 61 

49. Radiation coefficients 61 

60. Coefficients of heat transfer 62 

61. Heats of combustion of fuel elements and chemical compounds 63 

52. Internal thermal conductivity 65 

63. Relative thermal conductivity 68 

54. Comparison of cellulose and average wood composition 69 

65. Composition and calorific power of characteristic coals 70 

56. Combustible and volatile of coals, lignites and peats 78 

57. Classification of coals by gas and coke qualities 87 

58. Paraffines from Pennsylvania petroleums 88 

59. Calorific power of mineral oils by calorimeter and calculation by density formula of 

Sherman and Kropff 89 

60. Properties of oil-gas 90 

61. Composition of natural gases 91 

62. Properties of mineral oils 92 

63. Composition of coke oven and retort coal gas 94 

64. Composition of U. S. coke 98 

65. Products of bituminous coal distillation 99 

66. Average distillation products of crude mineral oils 99 

67. Fractionation tests of kerosenes and petroleums 100 

68. Fractionation tests of gasolenes 102 

69. Composition of blast-furnace gas and air gas 104 

70. Rate of formation of CO from CO2 and carbon 106 

71. Composition of producer gas 108 

72. Composition of water gas II3 

73. Composition of oil producer gas II3 

74. Gas producer tests II4 

76. Composition of powdered coal producer gas 116 

76. Composition of boiler-flue gases lig 

77. Calorific powers of best air-gas mixtures II7 

78. Limits of proportions of explosive air-gas mixtures llg 

79. Rate of combustion of coal II9 

80. Diagram factors for Otto cycle gas engines 122 

81. Heat balances of gas and oil engines 123 

82. Mean effective pressure factors for Otto cycle engines 124 

83. Values of C for air flow (Weisbach) 125 

84. Flow change resistance factors Fr (Reitschel) 125 

85. Efficiency factors for reciprocating steam engines and turbines 126 

86. Chimney capacities (Kent) 13q 

87. Chimney draft \^i 

88. Common logarithms, 1 . to 1 . 999 132 

89. Common logarithms, 1 ,0 to 9.99 I34. 

90. Hyperbolic logarithms, 1 . to 10 . 13g 



LIST OF CHARTS 



Chabt pagb 

1. Work and horse-power for single-stage compressors 151 

2. Work and horse-power for two-stage compressors 152 

3. Work and horse-power for three-stage compressors 153 

4. Mean effective pressure of compressors, one-, two-, and three-stages 154 

5. Value of supply pressure in maximum work and mean effective pressure 156 

6. Relative work of two- and three-stage compressors compared to single stage 157 

7. Diagram to give economy of exponential cycles referred to isothermal as standard . 158 

8. Compressor cylinder displacement for given capacity 159 

9. Graphical determination of mean effective pressure for single cylinder engines 160 

10. Relations for equal distribution of work in compound engine 161 

11. Specific heats of gases 162 

12. Specific heat of superheated steam 163 

13. Equivalent gas densities at different pressures and temperatures 164 

14. Ammonia pressure-temperature relations, for saturated vapor 165 

15. Carbon dioxide pressure-temperature relations for saturated vapor 166 

16. Steam, pressure-temperature (Table XL) 167 

17. Steam, heat of the Hquid (Table XL) 168 

18. Steam, latent heat (Table XL) 169 

19. Steam, total heat (Table XL) 170 

20. Steam, specific volume and density of the liquid (Table XL) 171 

21. Steam, specific volume and density of the vapor (Table XL) 172 

22. Vapor pressure of hydrocarbons and light petroleum distillates of the gasolene class . 173 

23. Vapor pressure of heavy petroleum distillates of the kerosene class 174 

24. Vapor pressure of the alcohols 175 

25. Relation between wet and dry bulb psyohrometer readings and dew point for air 

and water vapor 176 

26. Relation between humidity and weight of moisture per cubic foot of saturated air . 177 

27. Ammonia-water solutions, relation between total pressure and temperature 178 

28. Ammonia-water solutions, relation between total pressure and per cent. NHs in 

solution 179 

29. Ammonia-water solutions, relation between temperature and per cent. NHs in 

solution 180 

30. Fractional distillation of kerosene and petroleums 181 

31. Fractional distillation of gasolenes 182 

32. Composition of hypothetical producer gas from fixed carbon 183 

33. Heats of reaction for hypothetical producer gas from fixed carbon, B.T.U 184 

34. Relation between temperatures and heat for gases according to the constant and 

variable specific heat 185 

35. Rate of combustion of coal with draft 186 

36. Heat per pound of steam above feed temperature. Evaporaition per hour per 

boiler horse-power. Factor of evaporation 187 

37. Heat balance for locomotive boiler 188 

38. Influence of various factors on boiler eflficiency 189 

39. Influence of various factors on boiler efficiency 190 

xi 



xii LIST OF CHARTS 

CHART PAGE 

40. Constant volume lines for steam on the temperature-entropy diagram 191 

41. Exponential gas changes. Small pressure ratios 192 

42. Exponential gas changes. Larger pressure ratios 192 

43. Exponential gas changes. Relation between initial and final ratios of pressures, 

volumes, temperatures, and entropies 193 

44. Temperature-entropy diagram with lines of constant pressure and constant quality 

for steam 194 

45. The MoUier total heat entropy diagram for steam 195 

46. Rankine cycle. Thermal efficiency. Steam initially dry and saturated 196 

47. Rankine cycle. Thermal efficiency. Steam initially of any quality 197 

48. Rankine cycle. Work per lb. of steam (m.e.p.) and jet velocity. Steam initially 

dry saturated 198 

49. Rankine cycle. Work per lb. of steam (m.e.p.) and jet velocity. Steam initially 

of any quality 199 

50. Carnot steam cycle and derivatives. Thermal efficiency. Steam initially dry 

saturated 200 

51. Carnot steam cycle and derivatives. Thermal efficiency. Steam initially of any 

quality 201 

52. Carnot steam cycle and derivatives. Work per lb. of steam (m.e.p.) and jet 

velocity. Steam initially dry and saturated 202 

53. Carnot steam cycle and derivatives. Work per lb. of steam (m.e.p.) and jet 

velocity. Steam initially of any quality 203 

54. Thermal efficiency. Non-compression gas cycles, Brown, Lenoir, and Otto and 

Langen 204 

55. Work per lb. of gases and (m.e.p.). Non-compression gas cycles. Brown, Lenoir, 

and Otto and Langen 205 

56. Stirling gas cycle. Thermal efficiency. Heat of regeneration, plotted against 

heat from the fire 206 

57. Ericsson gas cycle. Thermal efficiency. Heat of regeneration plotted against 

heat from the fire 207 

58. Stirling gas cycle. Thermal efficiency. Heat of regeneration plotted against com- 

pression pressure 208 

59. Ericsson gas cycle. Thermal efficiency. Heat of regeneration plotted against 

compression pressure 209 

60. Otto, Brayton, Carnot, Diesel, and complete expansion Otto cycles. Thermal 

efficiency, with heat supplied 210 

61. Otto, Brayton, Carnot, Diesel, and complete expansion Otto cycles. Thermal 

efficiency, with compression 211 

62. Otto, Brayton, Carnot, Diesel, and complete expansion Otto cycles. Work and 

(m.e.p.) with heat supplied 212 

63. Otto, Brayton, Carnot, Diesel, and complete expansion Otto cycles. Work and 

(m.e.p.) with compression 213 

64. Otto gas cycle. Work and (m.e.p.) for heat added after compression 214 

65. Diesel gas cycle. Work and (m.e.p.) for heat added after compression 215 

66. Comparison of rational and empiric formulas for air and steam flow. Any initial 

pressure ' 216 

67. Comparison of rational and empiric formulas for air and steam flow. Any back 

pressure 217 

68. Harter's values of Napier's coefficient and weight of flow for superheated steam 218 

69. Velocity of air in pipes in terms of pitot tube readings 219 

70. Coefficients of friction for air in ducts 220 

71. Diagram to determine chimney diameters 221 



LIST OF CHARTS xiii 

CHAKT PAGE 

72. Diagram to determine refrigerating effect per pound of ammonia 222 

73. Diagram to determine refrigerating effect per pound of carbon dioxide 223 

74. Density and specific volume of ammonia-water solutions 224 

75. Temperature-entropy diagram for ammonia 225 

76. MoUier diagram for ammonia 226 

77. Temperature-entropy diagram for carbon dioxide 227 

78. MoUier diagram for carbon dioxide 228 

79. Work in B.T.U., by ammonia vaporizing to dry saturated vapor 229 

80. Work in B.T.U., by ammonia vaporizing to any quality or superheat at 15 pounds 229 

81. Work in B.T.U., by carbon dioxide vaporizing to dry saturated vapor 230 

82. Work in B.T.U., by carbon dioxide vaporizing to any quality or superheat 230 



TABLE OF SYMBOLS 



A = area in square feet, 
a = area in square inches. 
= coefficient of linear expansion. 
B6. = Baume. 

B.H.P. = brake horse-power; also boiler horse-power, 
(bk. pr.) = back pressure in pounds per square inch. 
C = Centigrade. 

= coefficient for air flow. 
= specific heat. 
Cp = specific heat at constant pressure. 
C« = specific heat at constant volume. 
Ci = clearance expressed in cubic feet, 
c = clearance expressed as a fraction of the displacement. 

= constant. 
D = displacement in cubic feet. 

(del. pr.) = delivery pressure in pounds per square inch. 
Ev = volumetric efficiency (apparent). 
V = constant in equation for pipe flow. 

= Fahrenheit. 
Fr = resistance factor, Fr X velocity head = loss due to resistances. 
g = acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 (approx.) feet per second, per second. 

H = as a subscript to denote high-pressure cylinder. 
H.P. = horse-power. 

h = height in inches. 
K = coefficient of thermal conductivity 
= constant. 

Ke = engine constant = „„ „„„ in expression for horse-power = 



1/ = as a subscript to denote low-pressure cylinder. 
= latent heat. 
= length of stroke in feet. 
(L.P. Cap.) = low-pressure capacity. 

I = length. 
(M.E.P.) = mean effective pressure, pounds per square foot, 
(m.b.p.) = mean back pressure in pounds per square inch, 
(m.e.p.) = mean effective pressure in pounds per square inch, 
(m.f.p.) = mean forward pressure in pounds per square inch. 
N = revolutions per minute =R.P.M. or R.p.m. 
P — pressure in pounds per square foot, 
p = pressure in pounds per square inch. 

Q = quantity of heat or energy in B.T.U. gained by a body passing from one state to another. 
R = gas constant. 

Be = ratio of cylinder sizes in two-stage air compressor or compound engine. 
Rp = ratio of delivery to supply pressure. 

XV 



XVI TABLE OF SYMBOLS 

(rec. pr.) = receiver pressure in pounds per square inch. 
S = piston speed. 

= pounds of steam per pound of air in producer blast. 
s = general exponent of V in expansion or compression of gases, 
sp. gr. = specific gravity. 
sp. ht. = specific heat, 
(sup. pr.) = supply pressure, in pounds per square inch. 
T = temperature, degrees absolute. 
t = temperature in degrees scale. 
T(l> = temperature-entropy. 

V = volume in cubic feet. 

V = volume. 

W = work in foot-pounds. 
w = weight in pounds. 
Wt. = weight. 

X = constant in the expression for missing water. 
= fraction of total weight liquified from the solid, or vaporized from the liquid = quality. If 
the vapor be superheated, the number of degrees of superheat also = quality. 
y = ratio of the volume of receiver to that of the high-pressure cylinder of the compound 

engine. 
Z = fraction of the stroke of the steam engine completed at cut-off. 
z = ratio of R.P.M. to cycles per minute. 

a, (alpha) = coefficient of cubical expansion. 

a, = constant in equation for variable specific heat at constant volume. 
ap = constant in equation for variable specific heat at constant pressure. 
y, (gamma) = special value for s for adiabatic expansion or compression = 

specific heat at constant pressure 

specific heat at constant volume 
S, (delta) = density in pounds per cubic foot. 
f , (zeta) = coefficient of friction. 
2, (sigma) = summation. 
* = 0, (phi) = entropy. 

Note. A small letter when used as a subscript to a capital in general refers to a point on a 
diagram, e.g., Pa designates pressure at the point A. Two small letters used as subscripts 
together, refer in general to a quantity between two points, e.g., Wab designates work done 
from point A to point B. 



HANDBOOK OF 
THERMODYNAMIC TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 

PART I 
INTRODUCTION 

The province of Engineering Thermodynamics is to guide numerical thermal 
computations deahng with actual substances and apparatus in accordance with 
the laws of thermodynamic philosophy. In order to do this, numerical values 
for heat effects must be available for the various substances and materials 
used in engineering under the varying conditions of practice, and in such units 
as may readily be apphed; these include especially that class of units known as 
physical constants which embrace, for example, such quantities as the coeffi- 
cients of expansion, the specific heats, latent heats of fusion and vaporization, 
the ratio of the pressure-volume product to absolute temperature, the expo- 
nent "s" in adiabatic expansion of gases and vapors, and various other quanti- 
ties. In addition to the physical constants which are necessary in the work of 
thermodynamic computation, the solution of numerical problems is greatly 
faciUtated by the use of other correlated tables and diagrams many of which are 
given in the present book of tables, but to correctly use such aids there should be 
no ambiguity in regard to the units employed. 

It should be noted that true pressures are always absolute, that is, measured 
above a perfect vacuum or counted from zero, while most pressure gages and 
other devices for measuring pressure, such as indicators, give results measured 
above or below atmospheric pressure. In all problems involving work of 
gases and vapors, the absolute values of the pressures must be used; hence, if a 
gage or indicator measurement is being considered, the pressure of the atmos- 
phere found by means of the barometer must be added to the pressure above 
atmosphere in order to obtain the absolute or true pressures. When the pres- 
sures are below atmosphere the combination with the barometric reading will 
depend on the record; if the record be taken by an indicator it will be in pounds 
per square inch below atmosphere and must be subtracted from the baro- 
metric equivalent in the same units to give the absolute pressure in pounds per 
square inch. When, however, a vacuum gage reads in inches of mercury below 
atmosphere, as such gages do, the difference between its reading and the baro- 
metric gives the absolute pressure in inches of mercury directly, which can be 
converted to the desired units by the proper factors. 

In general, steam pressures are most commonly stated in pounds per square 

1 



2 HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 

inch and are designated as either gage or absolute. Pressures of compressed 
air are commonly expressed in the same units as steam, either gage or absolute, 
though sometimes in atmospheres. Steam pressures below atmosphere are con- 
veniently stated as a vacuum of so many inches of mercury, or they may be 
given as a pressure of so many inches of mercury absolute or so many pounds 
per square inch absolute. The pressures of gases stored in tanks under high 
pressure are frequently recorded in atmospheres due to the convenience of 
computation of quantities on this basis. Pressures of air obtained by blowers 
or fans are sometimes given in ounces per square inch above atmosphere, but 
such pressures, and also differences of pressure of air due to chimney draught, 
or forced draught, and the pressure of illuminating gas in city mains are com- 
monly stated in inches of water. In many cases the data are given in other units 
which must be converted by the use of tables, diagrams or otherwise, before 
the results can be properly interpreted or intelligently compared. 

Time is an important item in all engineering work and none the less so in 
computations, so that convenient tables and diagrams are most essential to 
the solution of such problems. In some cases graphic methods are the only 
means of solution; in others the problems may be solved directly without the 
use of formulas, and in still others certain steps may be shortened. In many 
engineering calculations no one is justified in using a complicated mathematical 
formula; if too much time be required to make the calculation in commercial 
work it will not be made, therefore indirect and often approximate methods are 
substituted. In such cases the nearest tabular or chart value must be used, 
and generally the result will be as accurate as the work requires. 

In the following tables and charts the accompanying title usually indi- 
cates the character of each table or diagram and little explanation is necessary. 
The tables for dry saturated steam, and properties of superheated steam are 
those of Marks and Davis. From the investigation made by Marks and Davis 
it is beheved that the properties of saturated steam given in the tables are 
correct to within one-tenth of 1 per cent, for pressures within the range of 
ordinary engineering practice. 

The unit of heat and of energy in these tables is a mean B.T.U. or -jjj of the 
heat required to raise 1 lb. of water from 32° to 212°. 

The value of one mean B.T.U. as used in these tables is equivalent to 777.52 
ft.-lbs. when the gravitational constant is 980.665 cm. sec.^ which corresponds 
to 32.174 lbs. and is the value for latitude between 45° and 46°. For many 
years it has been most common to use in engineering calculations, the round 
number 778; for most problems this round number is still the best available 
figure, but where special accuracy is needed it is likely that no closer value 
can be relied upon than anything between 777.5 and 777.6 for the above 
latitude. 

Investigations, particularly by Knobloch and Jacob, by Thomas and by 
Henning, show that the specific heat of superheated steam is not constant, but 
is a function of both pressure and temperature. The curves derived by Marks 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 3 

and Davis for specific heat of superheated steam from a critical examination 
of the material available are given in the charts. 

As the method used in the derivation of the steam tables is so rational and 
scientific it has been adopted for a new determination of the relations between 
pressure and temperature for ammonia and carbon dioxide, both important 
substances in refrigeration. The tables of properties for ammonia and carbon 
dioxide thus determined give the final values of total heat, heat of liquid, latent 
heat, specific volume and density of dry saturated vapor based upon large scale 
plottings, without equations beyond those for the pressure-temperature rela- 
tions for saturated vapor. The results are believed to be as reliable as it is 
possible to have them without more experimental data. 

The Mollier total heat-entropy diagram for steam makes possible the 
solution of many problems involving both saturated and superheated steam. 
Since this chart is so convenient for turbine work, a scale of corresponding 
steam-jet velocities has been added to the diagram. Temperature-entropy 
and Mollier diagrams have also been plotted for ammonia and carbon dioxide, 
from which the work may readily be obtained. 

The analyses of gases, oils, coals, and other fuels given in the tables will be 
found of great value to the engineer. These values have been selected from the 
most reliable sources available, but it is worth noting that in the analyses of 
oil gas there is quite a probability of uncertainty in the hydrocarbons reported. 
There is also some doubt, at least for gases, in the values given in the table of 
ignition temperatures (Table XXXIII). The ignition of a combustible is not 
by any means a simple operation especially when the fuel is in the form of an 
explosive gas mixture. With the latter the ignition temperature, true or appar- 
ent, is different for different proportions of air and fuel, and likewise still 
different when neutrals are present. For this reason there may be various ig- 
nition temperatures for the same substance; this is known to be true for gases. 
The values given in the tables therefore must be considered as ignition tem- 
peratures not the ignition temperature. 

Attention is called to the general coal tables (No. LV and LVI), the first 
of which gives the proximate and ultimate analysis of upward of 200 different 
coals covering the range from peat to anthracite. For each fuel the calorific 
power is also given. Table LVI constitutes a new table derived from No. LV 
in which the chemical and thermal properties have been re-determined as ash 
and moisture free. In this table the calorific power of the combustible is re- 
ported, total and as divided between the fixed carbon and the volatile parts, and 
finally the calorific power of the volatile itself per pound is found. The prod- 
uct of the fractional weight of the fixed carbon and 14,544, its known calorific 
power, gives the heat due to the combustion of the fixed carbon part of the 
combustible, and this subtracted from the B.T.U. per pound of combustible 
gives the heat per pound of combustible derived from its volatile. The heat 
per pound of combustible derived from its volatile only, when divided by the 
fractional weight of volatile in the combustible gives the B.T.U. per pound of 



4 HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 

volatile itself. Thus the character of heating power of the volatile of the coals 
furnishes a new basis of classification with direct reference to availability as 
fuels, and makes possible the calculation of the calorific power of a coal with 
fair accuracy, from its easily found proximate analysis. 

In general, the charts presented in this book have been drawn to a suflSciently 
large scale to permit direct solution of most problems with a reasonable degree 
of accuracy. However, in certain cases it is advisable to plot new diagrams to 
a larger scale in order to ensure still greater accuracy of result. 

Where it has been deemed advisable the derivation and use of the chart has 
been given in the text; but where this description would involve a lengthy ex- 
planation it has been omitted; in such cases the reader is referred to the authors' 
Textbook of Engineering Thermodynamics for a complete discussion of the con- 
struction of the diagrams. It will be understood that the numbers of equations 
given in the descriptive matter refer to the textbook quoted. In some of the 
charts the curves have been plotted from tabular values derived from experi- 
ment or calculated from formulas; under these conditions the method of deri- 
vation is obvious and will not be referred to in the text. 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 

Table I 
CONVERSION TABLE OF UNITS OF DISTANCE 



Metera.' 


Kilometera. . 


Inchea. | 


Feet. 


Statute Miles. 


Nautical Miles. 


1 

1000 

0.0254 
0.304801 

1609.35 

1853.27 


0.001 

1 

0.0000254 

0.0003048 

1.60935 

1.85327 


39.37 
39370.1 
1 

12 
63360 
72963.2 


3.28083 
3280.83 

0.083333 

1 
5280 
6080.27 


0.000621370 

0.62137 

0.0000157828 

0.000189394 

1. 

1.15157 


0.000539587 

0.539687 

0000137055 

0.000164466 

0.868382 

1. 



^ In accordance with U. S. Standards (see Smithsonian Tables). 

Table II 
CONVERSION TABLE OF UNITS OF SURFACE 



Sq. Meters. 


Sq. Inches. 


Sq. Feet. 


Sq. Yards. 


Acres. 


Sq. Miles. 


1 

.000645 
.0929 
.8361 
4046.87 


1550.00 

1 

144 

1296 


10.76387 
.00694 
1 
9 
43560 
27878400 


1.19599 

.111 
1 
4840 
3097600 


.000247 

.000206 
1 
640 


001562 


2589999 




1 









Table III 
CONVERSION TABLE OF UNITS OF VOLUME 



Cu. Meters. 


Cu. Inches. 


Cu. Feet. 


Cu. Yards. 


Lities 
(1000 Cu. Cm.) 


Gallons (U.S.) 


1 


61023.4 

1 

1728 

46656 

61.023 

231 


35.3145 
.000578 
1 

27 

.035314 
.13368 


1.3079 


1000 

.016387 
28.317 


264.170 
00433 


.028317 
.76456 


.03704 
1 
.001308 
.004951 


7.4805 
201 974 


.001 
.003785 


1 

3.7854 


.26417 

1 



Table IV 
CONVERSION TABLE OF UNITS OF WEIGHT AND FORCE 



Kilogrammes. 


Metric Tons. 


Pounds. 


U. S. or Short Tons. 


British or Long Tons. 


1. 
1000. 

0.453593 
907.186 
1016.05 


0.001 

1. 

0.000453593 

0.907186 

1.01605 


2.20462 
2204.62 

1. 
2000. 
2240. 


0.00110231 
1 . 10231 
0.0005 
1. 
1.12000 


0.000984205 

0.984205 

0.000446429 

0.892957 

1. 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 

Table V 

CONVERSION TABLE OF UNITS OF PRESSURE 



Pounda per 
Square Foot. 



Pounda per 
Square Inch. 



Inchea of 

Mercury at 

32" F. 



Atmoapherea 
(Standard at 
Sea Level), 



One lb. per sq. ft 

One lb. per sq. in 

One ounce per sq. in 

One atmosphere (standard at sea 
level) 

One kilogramme per square meter . . 

One gramme per square millimeter . 

One kilogramme per square centi- 
meter 

FLUID PRESSURES 

One ft. of water at 39.1° F. (max. 
dens.) 

One ft. of water at 62T 

One in. of water at 62° F 

One in. of mercury at 32° F. (stand- 
ard) ' 

One centimeter of mercury at 0° C. . 

One ft. of air at 32° F., one atmos. 
press 

One ft. of air, 62° F 



1 

144. 
9. 

2116.1 

20.4817 
204.817 

2048.17 



62.425 

62.355 

5.196 

70.7290 
27.8461 

0.08071 
0.07607 



0.006944 

1. 

0.0625 

14.696 
0.142234 
1.42234 

14.2234 



0.43350 
0.43302 
0.036085 

0.491174 
0.193376 

0.0005604 
0.0005282 



0.014139 

2.03594 

0.127246 

29.924 
0.289579 
2.89579 

28.9579 



0.88225 
0.88080 
0.07340 



0.393701 

0.0011412 
0.0010755 



0.0004724 

0.06802 

0.004252 



0.009678 
0.09678 

0.9678 



0.029492 
0.029460 
0.002455 

0.033416 
0.0131S8 

0.00003813 
0.00003594 



1 Presbubes MEASrRED BY THE Meecttrt 'CoLtJMN. For temperatures other than 32° F., the density 
of mercury, pounds per cubic inch, and hence the pressure, pounds per square inch, due to a column of 
mercury 1 inch high, is given with sufficient accuracy by the following formula: 

p = 0.4912-((-32) XO.OOOl. 

The mercurial barometer is commonly made with a brass scale which has its standard or correct length 
at 62° F, and a linear coefficient of expansion of about 0.000001 for each degree Fahrenheit. Hence, to 
correct the standard mercury at 32° F., the corrected reading will be 

' '^ 11000 
where Hi is the observed height at a temperature of 1° F. ' 



Table VI 
CONVERSION TABLE OF UNITS OF WORK 



Kilogrammetera. 


Foot-pounda. 


Foot Tons (Short Tons). 


Foot Tons (Long Tons). 


1. 

0.138255 
276.510 
309.691 


7.23300 

1. 
2000. 
2240. 


0.00361650 
0.000500 
1. 
1.12000 


0.00322902 
0.000446429 
0.892857 
1. 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



Table VII 
CONVEESION TABLE OF UNITS OF POWER 



Foot-pounds per 
Second. 


Foot-pounda per 
Minute. 


Horae-power. 


Cheval-Vapeur. 


Kilogrammeters per 
Minute. 


1. 

0.0166667 
550.000 
542.475 

0.120550 


60. 

1. 
33000. 
32548.5 

7.23327 


0.00181818 

0.000030303 

1. 

0.986319 

0.000219182 


0.00184340 

0.0000307241 

1.01387 

1. 

0.000222222 


8.29531 
0.138252 

4562.42 

4500.00 
1. 



Table VIII 
UNITS OF VELOCITY 



Feet per Minute. 



Feet per Second. 



One foot per second 

One foot per minute 

One statute mile per hour 

One nautical mile per hour = 1 knot, 

One kilometer per hour 

One meter per minute 

One centimeter per second 



60. 
1. 

88. 
101.338 

54.6806 
3.28084 
2.00848 



1. 

0.016667 

1.4667 

1.6890 

0.911344 

0.054581 

0.032808 



Table IX 
HEAT AND POWER CONVERSION TABLE 



Calorie 
KUo °C. 


B.T.U. 
Lb. "F. 


. Lb. - C. 


KUo -F. 


Calorie 
per Lb. 


B.T.U. 
per Lb. 


B.T.TJ. 
per KUo. 


Calorie 
per KUo. 


1. 

.252 
.4536 
.5556 


3.9683 
1. 
1.8 
2.2046 


2.2046 
.5556 
1. 
1.2261 


1.8 
.4536 
.8165 

1. 


1. 
.252 
■ .1143 
.4536 


3.9683 
1. 

.4536 
1.8 


8.7483 
2.2046 
1 
3.9683 


2.2046 
.5807 

1. 



Calorie 
per Cu. Ft. 


B.T.U. 
per Cu. Ft. 


Calorie 
per Liter. 


B.T.U. 
per Liter. 


1. 

.252 
28.317 

7.136 


3.9683 

1. 

112.37 
28.317 


.0353 
.0089 
1. 
.252 


.1402 
.0353 

3.9683 

1. 



Ft.-Lb. 


B.T.U. 


Calorie. 


Cent. Heat 
Unit, At. 


H.P. Sec. 


H.P. Min. 


H.P. Hour. 


1 

777.5 

3086 

1399.5 

550 
3.3X10* 
1.98X10» 


1. 286X10-' 

1 

3.5683 

1.8 

.7074 

42.44 

2545 


.324X10-' 
.252 

1 

.4536 
.1783 
10.695 
641 


.18X10-' 

.5556 

2.2046 

1 

.3931 

23.578 

1.413X10' 


1. 818X10-' 

1.414 

5.61 

2.545 

1 

60 
3600 


.303X10-* 
2.356X10-' 
9.35 XlO-2 
4.24 X10-' 
1.67 X10-» 
1 
60 


5.05 X10-' 
3.927X10-* 
1. 558X10-' 
.707X10-' 
2.777X10-* 
1.67 X10-' 
1 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



Table X 
TABLE OF BAROMETRIC HEIGHTS, ALTITUDES, AND PRESSURES 
(Adapted from Smithsonian Tables) 

Barometric heights are given in inches and millimeters of mercury at its standard density 
(32° F.). 

Altitudes are heights above mean sea level in feet, at wtiich this barometric height ia 
standard. (See Smithsonian Tables for corrections for latitude and temperature.) 

Pressures given are the equivalent of the barometric height in lbs. per sq. in. and per 
sq. ft. 



Standard Barometer. 




Pressure, Pounds per 




Altitude, Feet above 
Sea Level. 














Inches. 


Centimeters. 




Square Inch. 


Square Foot. 


17.0 


43.18 


15379 


8.350 


1202.3 


17.2 


43.69 


15061 


8.448 


1216.6 


17.4 


44.20 


14746 


8.546 


1230.7 


17.6 


44.70 


14435 


8.645 


1244.8 


17.8 


45.21 


14128 


8.742 


1259.0 


18.0 


45.72 


13824 


8.840 


1273.2 


18.2 


46.23 


13523 


8.940 


1287.3 


18.4 


46.73 


13226 


9.038 


1301.4 


18.6 


47.24 


12931 


9.136 


1316.6 


18.8 


47.75 


12640 


9.234 


1329.7 


19.0 


48.26 


12352 


9.332 


1343.8 


19.2 


48.77 


12068 


9.430 


1357.9 


19.4 


49.28 


11786 


9.529 


1372.1 


19.6 


49.78 


11507 


9.627 


1386.3 


19.8 


50.29 


11230 


9.726 


1400.4 


20.0 


50.80 


10957 


9.825 


1414.6 


20.2 


51.31 


10686 


9.922 


1428.7 


20.4 


51.82 


10418 


10.020 


1442.9 


20.6 


52.32 


10153 


10.118 


1457.0 


20.8 


52.83 


9890 


10.217 


1471.2 


21.0 


53.34 


9629 


10.315 


1485.3 


21.2 


53.85 


9372 


10.414 


1499.4 


21.4 


54.36 


9116 


10.511 


1513.6 


21.6 


54.87 


8863 


10.609 


1527.7 


21.8 


55.37 


8612 


10.707 


1541.8 


22.0 


55.88 


8364 


10.806 


1556.0 


22.2 


56.39 


8118 


10.904 


1570.1 


22.4 


56.90 


7874 


11.002 


1584.3 


22.6 


57.40 


7632 


11.100 


1598 4 


22.8 


57.91 


7392 


11.198 


1612.6 


23.0 


58.42 


7155 


11.297 


1626.7 


23.2 


58.92 


6919 


11.395 


1640.8 


23.4 


59.44 


6686 


11.493 


1655.0 


23.6 


59.95 


6454 


11.592 


1669 3 


23.8 


60.45 


6225 


11.690 


1683.3 


24.0 


60.96 


5997 


11.788 


1697.4 


24.2 


61.47 


5771 


11.886 


1711.6 


24.4 


61.98 


6547 


11.984 


1725 . 7 


24.6 


62.48 


5325 


12.083 


1739 9 


24.8 


62.99 


6105 


12.182 


1754.0 


25.0 


63.50 


4886 


12.280 


1768.2 


25.2 


64.01 


4670 


12.377 


1782 3 


25.4 


64.52 


4455 


12.475 


1796 is 
1810 7 


25.6 


65.02 


4241 


12.573 


25.8 65.53 


4030 


12.671 


182418 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



Table X — Continued 



Standard Barometer. 


Altitude, Feet above . 
Sea Level. 


Pressure, Founds per 


Inches. 


Centi meters. 


Square Inch. 


Square Foot. 


26.0 
26.1 
26.2 
26.3 
26.4 


65.04 
66.30 
66.55 
66.80 
67.06 


3820 
3715 
3611 
3508 
3404 


12.770 
12.819 
12.868 
12.918 
12.967 


1838.9 
1846.0 
1853.1 
1860.2 
1867.3 


26.5 
26.6 
2'6.7 
26.8 
26.9 


67.31 
67.57 
67.82 
68.08 
68.33 


3301 
3199 
3097 
2995 
2894 


13.016 
13.065 
13.113 
13 163 
13.212 


1874.3 
1881.4 
1888.5 
1895.5 
1902.6 


27.0 
27.1 
27.2 
27.3 
27.4 


68.58 
68.84 
69.09 
69.34 
69.60 


2793 
2692 
2592 
2493 
2393 


13.261 
13.310 
13.359 
13.408 
13.457 


1909.7 
1916.7 
1923.8 
1930.9 
1938.0 


27.5 
27.6 
27.7 
27.8 
27.9 


69.85 
70.10 
70.35 
70.61 
70.87 


2294 
2195 
2097 
1999 
1901 


13.507 
13.556 
13.605 
13.654 
13.704 


1945.1 
1952.1 
1959.2 
1966.3 
1973.3 


28.0 
28.1 
28.2 
28.3 
28.4 


71.12 
71.38 
71.63 
71.88 
72.14 


1804 
1707 
1610 
1514 
1418 


13.753 
13.802 
13.850 
13.899 
13.948 


1980.4 
1987.5 
1994.5 
2001.6 
2008.7 


28.5 
28.6 
28.7 
28.8 
28.9 


72.39 
72.64 
72.90 
73.15 
73.40 


1322 
1227 
1132 
1038 
943 


13.998 
14.047 
14.096 
14.145 
14.194 


2015.7 
2022.8 
2030.0 
2037.0 
2044.1 


29.0 
29.1 
29.2 
29.3 
29.4 


73.66 
73.92 
74.16 
74.42 
74.68 


849 
756 
663 
570 
477 


14.243 
14.293 
14.342 
14.392 
14.441 


2051.2 
2058.2 
2065.3 
2072.4 
2079.4 


29.5 
29.6 
29.7 
29.8 
29.9 


74.94 
75.18 
75.44 
75.69 
75.95 


384 
292 
261 
109 
+18 


14.490 
14.539 
14.588 
14.637 
14.686 


2086.5 
2093.6 
2100.7 
2107.7 
2114.7 


29.92 


76.00 





14.696 


2116.1 


30.0 
30.1 
30.2 
30.3 
30.4 


76.20 
76.46 
76.71 
76.96 
77.22 


- 73 
-163 
-253 
-343 
-433 


14.734 
14.783 
14.833 
14.882 
14.931 


2121.7 
2128.8 
2135.9 
2143.0 
2150.1 


30.5 
30.6 
30.7 
30.8 
30.9 


77.47 
•77.72 
77.98 
78.23 
78.48 


-622 
-611 
-700 

-788 
-877 


14.980 
15.030 
15.078 
15.127 
15.176 


2157.2 
2164.2 
2171.3 
2178.4 
2185.5 


31.0 


78.74 


-965 


15.226 


2192.6 



10 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



Table XI 

CONVERSION TABLE INCHES OF MERCURY TO POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH 

(Calculated for a Temperature of 32° P.) 

To correct for other temperatures see footnote Table V 



In. 

Hg 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 







0.0491 


0.0982 


0.1473 


0.1964 


0.2456 


0.2947 


0.3438 


0.3929 


0.4421 


1 


0.4912 


0.5403 


0.5894 


0.6385 


0.6877 


0.7368 


0.7859 


0.8350 


0.8841 


0.9333 


2 


0.9824 


1.0315 


1.0806 


1 . 1297 


1 . 1788 


1.2280 


1.2771 


1.3262 


1.3753 


1.4244 


3 


1.4736 


1.5227 


1.5718 


1.6209 


1 . 6701 


1.7192 


1.7683 


1.8174 


1.8665 


1.9157 


4 


1.9648 


2,0139 


2.0630 


2.1121 


2.1613 


2.2104 


2.2595 


2.3086 


2.3577 


2.4069 


5 


2.4560 


2.5051 


2.5542 


2.6033 


2.6525 


2.7016 


2.7507 


2.7998 


2.8489 


2.8981 


6 


2.9472 


2.9963 


3.0454 


3.0945 


3.1437 


3.1928 


3.2419 


3.2910 


3.3401 


3 . 3893 


7 


3.4384 


3.4875 


3.5366 


3.5857 


3 . 6349 


3.6840 


3.7331 


3.7822 


3.8313 


3 . 8809 


8 


3.9296 


3.9787 


4.0278 


4.0769 


4.1261 


4.1752 


4.2243 


4.2734 


4.3225 


4.3717 


9 


4.4208 


4.4699 


4.5190 


4.5681 


4.6173 


4.6664 


4.7155 


4.7646 


4.8137 


4,8629 


10 


4.912 


4.9611 


5.0102 


5.0593 


5 . 1085 


5.1576 


5.2067 


5.2558 


5.3049 


5.3541 


11 


5.4032 


5 . 4523 


5.5014 


5.5505 


5.5997 


5.6488 


5.6979 


5.7470 


5.7961 


5.8453 


12 


5.894 


5.9435 


5.9926 


6.0417 


6.0909 


6.1400 


6.1891 


6.2382 


6,2873 


6.3365 


13 


6.3856 


6.4347 


6.4838 


6 . 5329 


6.5821 


6.6312 


6.6803 


6.7294 


6.7785 


6.8277 


14 


6.8768 


6.9259 


6.9750 


7.0241 


7.0733 


7.1224 


7.1715 


7 . 2206 


7.2697 


7.3189 


15 


7.3680 


7.4171 


7.4662 


7.5153 


7.5645 


7.6136 


7.6627 


7.7118 


7.7609 


7.8101 


16 


7.8592 


7.9083 


7.9574 


8.0065 


8.0557 


8.1048 


8.1539 


8.2030 


8.2521 


8.3013 


17 


8.3504 


8.3995 


8.4486 


8.4977 


8.5469 


8.5960 


8.6451 


8.6942 


8.7433 


8.7925 


18 


8.8416 


8.8907 


8.9398 


8.9889 


9.0381 


9.0872 


9 . 1363 


9.1854 


9,2345 


9.2837 


19 


9 . 3328 


9.3819 


9.4310 


9 . 4801 


9.5293 


9 . 5784 


9.6275 


9.6766 


9,7257 


9.7788 


20 


9.8240 


9.8731 


9.9222 


9.9713 


10.020 


10.069 


10.118 


10.168 


10.217 


10.266 


21 


10.315 


10.364 


10.413 


10.462 


10.511 


10.561 


10.610 


10.659 


10.708 


10.757 


22 


10.806 


10.855 


10.904 


10.953 


11.003 


11.052 


11.101 


11.150 


11.199 


11.248 


23 


11.297 


11.346 


11.396 


11.445 


11.494 


11.543 


11.592 


11.641 


11.690 


11.739 


24 


11.789 


11.838 


11.887 


11.936 


11.985 


12.034 


12.083 


12.132 


12.181 


12.231 


25 


12.280 


12.329 


12.378 


12.427 


12.476 


12.525 


12.574 


12.624 


12,673 


12.722 


26 


12.771 


12.820 


12.869 


12.918 


12.967 


13.017 


13.066 


13.115 


13.164 


13.213 


27 


13.262 


13.311 


13.360 


13.409 


13.459 


13.508 


13.557 


13.606 


13.655 


13.704 


28 


13.753 


13.802 


13.852 


13.901 


13.950 


13.999 


14.048 


14.097 


14.146 


14.195 


29 


14.245 


14.294 


14.343 


14.392 


14.441 


14.490 


14.539 


14.588 


14.637 


14.689 


30 


14.736 


14.785 


14.834 


14.883 


14.932 


14.981 


15.030 


15.080 


15.129 


15.178 


31 


15.227 


15.276 


15.325 


15.374 


15.423 


15.473 


15.530 


15.571 


15 . 620 


15.669 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 

Table XII 
PISTON POSITIONS FOR ANY CRANK ANGLE 



11 



From Bbqinninq op Stroke Away from Crank Shaft to Find Piston Position from 
Dead-Center Multiply Stroke by Tabular Quantity 



Crank 
Angle. 


^=4 
r 


i=4.5 
r 


i = 5 

T 


i = 5.5 
r 


^ = 6 
r 


r 


-5 = 8 

T 


I 
-=9 

r 


5 


.0014 


.0015 


.0015 


.0016 


.0016 


.0016 


.0017 


.0019 


10 


.0057 


.0059 


.0061 


.0062 


.0063 


.0065 


.0067 


.0076 


15 


.0128 


.0133 


.0137 


.0140 


.0142 


.0146 


.0149 


.0170 


20 


.0228 


.0237 


.0243 


.0248 


.0253 


.0260 


.0265 


.0302 


25 


.0357 


.0368 


.0379 


.0388 


.0394 


.0405 


.0413 


.0468 


30 


.0513 


.0531 


.0545 


.0556 


.0565 


.0581 


.0592 


.0670 


35 


.0698 


.0721 


.0740 


.0754 


.0767 


.0787 


.0801 


.0904 


40 


.0910 


.0939 


.0962 


.0981 


.0997 


.1022 


.1041 


.1170 


45 


.1152 


.1187 


.1215 


.1237 


.1256 


.1286 


.1308 


.1468 


50 


.1416 


.1458 


.1491 


.1518 


.1541 


.1576 


.1607 


.1786 


55 


.1713 


.1759 


.1828 


.1827 


.1853 


.1892 


.1922 


.2132 


60 


.2026 


.2079 


.2122 


.2157 


.2186 


.2231 


.2295 


.2500 . 


65 


.2374 


.2431 


.2477 


.2514 


.2545 


.2594 


.2630 


.2886 


70 


.2730 


.2794 


.2844 


.2885 


.2929 


.2973 


.3013 


.3290 


75 


.3123 


.3187 


.3239 


.3282 


.3317 


.3372 


.3414 


.3705 


80 


.3516 


.3586 


.3642 


.3687 


.3725 


.3784 


.3828 


.4132 


85 


.3944 


.4013 


.4068 


.4113 


.4151 


.4210 


.4254 


.4564 


90 


.4365 


.4437 


.4495 


.4547 


.4580 


.4641 


.4686 


.5000 


95 


.4816 


.4885 


.4940 


.4985 


.5022 


.5081 


.5126 


.5436 


100 


.5253 


.5323 


.5378 


.6424 


.5461 


.5520 


.5564 


.5868 


105 


.5711 


.5775 


.5828 


.5870 


.5905 


.5961 


.6002 


.6294 


110 


.6150 


.6214 


.6265 


.6306 


.6340 


.6393 


.6530 


.6710 


115 


.6600 


.6657 


.6703 


.6740 


.6771 


.6820 


.6856 


.7113 


120 


.7026 


.7080 


.7122 


.7157 


.7186 


.7231 


.7265 


.7500 


125 


.7449 


.7495 


.7533 


.7563 


.7588 


.7628 


.7658 


.7868 


130 


.7844 


.7885 


.7920 


.7947 


.7969 


.8004 


.8030 


.8214 


135 


.8223 


.8258 


.8286 


.8308 


.8327 


.8357 


.8379 


.8535 


140 


.8570 


.8600 


.8623 


.8642 


.8658 


.8682 


.8703 


.8830 


145 


.8889 


.8913 


.8931 


.8946 


.8958 


.8978 


.8993 


.9096 


150 


.9173 


.9191 


.9204 


.9216 


.9226 


.9241 


.9252 


.9330 


155 


.9420 


.9432 


.9452 


.9451 


.9457 


.9468 


.9476 


.9531 


160 


.9625 


.9633 


.9640 


.9645 


.9650 


.9656 


.9661 


.9698 


165 


.9787 


.9792 


.9796 


.9799 


.9802 


.9805 


.9809 


.9829 


170 


.9905 


.9908 


.9909 


.9911 


.9912 


.9913 


.9915 


.9924 


175 


.9976 


.9977 


.9977 


.9977 


.9978 


.9978 


.9979 


.9981 


180 


1.0000 


1.0000 


1.0000 


1.0000 


1.0000 


1.0000 


1.0000 


1.0000 



Z = length of connecting rod. 
r = radius of crank. 



12 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



Table XIII 
HORSE-POWER PER POUND MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE 





VALUE OF Xe- 33^^00 


Area n"X speed 


in ft.p.m 








33000 




Diameter 


Speed of Piston in Feet per Minute. 


OI 

Cylinder, 




















Inchea. 


100 


200 


300 


400 


500 


600 


700 


800 


900 


4 


0.0381 


0.0762 


0.1142 


0.1523 


0.1904 


0.2285 


0.2666 


0.3046 


0.3427 


4^ 


0.0482 


0.0964 


0.1446 


0.1928 


0.2410 


0.2892 


0.3374 


0.3856 


0,4338 


5 


0.0592 


0.1190 


0.1785 


0.2380 


0.2975 


0.3570 


0.4165 


0.4760 


0.5355 


5J 


0.0720 


0.1440 


0.2160 


0.2880 


0.3600 


0.4320 


0.5040 


0.5760 


0.6480 


6 


0.0857 


0.1714 


0.2570 


0.3427 


0.4284 


0.5141 


0.5998 


0.6854 


0.7711 


61 


0.1006 


0.2011 


0.3017 


0.4022 


0.5028 


0.6033 


0.7039 


0.8044 


0.9050 


7 


0.1166 


0.2332 


0.3499 


0.4665 


0.5831 


0.6997 


0.8163 


0.9330 


1.0490 


71 


0.1339 


0.2678 


0.4016 


0.5355 


0.6694 


0.8033 


0.9371 


1.0710 


1.2049 


8 


0.1523 


0.3046 


0.4570 


0.6093 


0.7616 


0.9139 


1.0662 


1.2186 


1.3709 


8i 


0.1720 


0.2439 


0.5159 


0.6878 


0.8598 


1.0317 


1.2037 


1.3756 


1.5476 


9 


0.1928 


0.3856 


0.5783 


0.7711 


0.9639 


1.1567 


1.3495 


1.5422 


1.7350 


9^ 


0.2148 


0.4296 


0.6444 


0.8592 


1.0740 


1.2888 


1.5036 


1.7184 


1.9532 


10 


0.2380 


0.4760 


0.7140 


0.9520 


1.1900 


1.4280 


1.6660 


1.9040 


2.1420 


11 


0.2880 


0.5760 


0.8639 


1.1519 


1.4399 


1.7279 


2.0159 


2.3038 


2.5818 


12 


0.3427 


0.6854 


1.0282 


1.3709 


1.7136 


2.0563 


2.3990 


2.7418 


3.0845 


13 


0.4022 


0.8044 


1.2067 


1.6089 


2.0111 


2.4133 


2.8155 


3.2178 


3.6200 


14 


0.4665 


0.9330 


1.3994 


1.8659 


2.3324 


2.7989 


3.2654 


3.7318 


4.1983 


15 


0.5355 


1.0710 


1.6065 


2.1420 


2.6775 


3.2130 


3.7485 


4.2840 


4.8195 


16 


0.6093 


1.2186 


1.8278 


2.4371 


3.0464 


3.6557 


4.2650 


4.8742 


5.4636 


17 


0.6878 


1.2756 


1.9635 


2.6513 


3.3391 


4.0269 


4.6147 


5.4026 


6.1904 


18 


0.7711 


1.5422 


2.3134 


3.0845 


3.8556 


4.6267 


5.3987 


6.1690 


6,4901 


19 


0.8592 


1.7184 


2.5775 


3.4367 


4.2858 


5.1551 


6.0143 


6.8734 


7.7326 


20 


0.9520 


1.9040 


2.8560 


3.8080 


4.7600 


6.7120 


6.6640 


7.6160 


8.6680 


21 


1.0496 


2.0992 


3.1488 


4.1983 


5.2475 


6.2976 


7.3471 


8.3966 


9.4462 


22 


1.1519 


2.3038 


3.4558 


4.6077 


5.7596 


6.9116 


8.0643 


9.2164 


10,367 


23 


1.2590 


2.5180 


3.7771 


6.0361 


6.2951 


7.6541 


8.8131 


10.072 


11,331 


24 


1.3709 


2.7418 


4.1126 


5.4835 


6.8544 


8.2253 


9.5962 


10.967 


12,338 


25 


1.4875 


2.9750 


4.4625 


5.9500 


7.4375 


8.9250 


10.413 


11.900 


13.388 


26 


1.6089 


3.2178 


4.8266 


6.4355 


8.0444 


9.6534 


11.262 


12.871 


14.480 


27 


1.7350 


3.4700 


5.2051 


6.9401 


8.6751 


10.410 


12.145 


13.880 


15.615 


28 


1.8659 


3.7318 


5.5978 


7.4637 


9.3296 


11.196 


13.061 


14.927 


16.793 


29 


2.0016 


4.0032 


6.0047 


8.0063 


10.008 


12.009 


14.011 


16.013 


18.014 


30 


2.1420 


4.2840 


6.4260 


8.5680 


10.710 


12.852 


14.994 


17.136 


19.278 


31 


2.2872 


4.6744 


6.8615 


9.1487 


11.436 


13.723 


16.010 


18.287 


20.685 


32 


2.4371 


4.8742 


7.3114 


9.7485 


12.186 


14.623 


17.060 


19.497 


21.934 


33 


2.5918 


5.1836 


7.7755 


10.367 


12.959 


15.551 


18.143 


20.735 


23.326 


34 


2.7513 


5.5026 


8.2538 


11.005 


13.756 


16.508 


19.259 


22.010 


24.762 


35 


2.9155 


5.8310 


8.7465 


11.662 


14.578 


17.493 


20.409 


23.224 


26.240 


36 


3.0845 


6.1690 


9.2534 


12.338 


15.422 


18.507 


21.591 


24.676 


27.760 


37 


3.2582 


6.5164 


9.7747 


13.033 


16.291 


19.549 


22.808 


26.066 


29.324 


38 


3.4367 


6.8734 


10.310 


13.747 


17.184 


20.620 


24.057 


27.494 


30.930 


39 


3.6200 


7.2400 


10.860 


14.480 


18.100 


21.720 


25.340 


28.960 


32.680 


40 


3.8080 


7.6160 


11.424 


15.232 


19.040 


22.848 


26.656 


30.464 


34.272 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



13 



Table XIV 
CONSTANTS FOR THE CURVE PV = K 
(Modified from Klein and Heck) 
The tabular value under "Exp." is equal to ( tt) corresponding to the given ratio of the 
assumed increasing volume Vi to initial volume Vi ; the tabular value under "Comp." is 
equal to I p- Is corresponding to the given ratio of the assumed increasing pressure Pi to 
the initial pressure P2. 





Logarithmic 

expansion 

s = 1 


Constant 
steam weight 


Adiabatie of satu- 
rated steam for x = 
0.7 0.9 1.0 


Compression curve 
with steam jaclceted 
cylinder 


Adiabatie of 
superheated 
steam 


Adiabatie of 
air 


Katio 


s = 1.065 


1.105 


1.125 


1.135 


8 = 1.250 


s = 1.33 


s = 1.406 




Exp. 


Comp. 


Exp. 


Exp. 


Exp. 


Exp. 


Comp. 


Exp. 


Comp. 


Exp. 


Comp. 


1.25 
1.50 
1.75 
2.00 

2.25 
2.50 
2.75 
3.00 

3.50 
4.00 
4.60 
5.0 

6.0 
7.0 
8.0 
9.0 

10.0 
12.0 
14.0 
16.0 

18.0 
20.0 
26.0 
30.0 


0.8000 
0.6667 
0.5714 
0.5000 

0.4444 
0.4000 
0.3636 
0.3333 

0.2857 
. 2500 
0.2222 
0.2000 

0.1667 
0.1429 
0.1260 
0.1111 

0.1000 
0.0833 
0.0714 
0.0625 

0.0556 
0.0600 
0.0400 
0.0333 


0.7885 
0.6493 
0.5610 
0.4780 

0.4216 
0.3769 
0.3405 
0.3104 

0.2634 
0.2285 
0.2015 
0.1801 

0.1483 
0.1259 
0.1092 
0.0963 

0.0861 
0.0709 
0.0602 
0.0622 

0.0460 
0.0412 
0.0324 
0.0267 


0.8110 
0.6843 
0.5913 
0.5216 

0.4670 
0.4230 
0.3868 
0.3565 

0.3084 
0.2721 
0.2436 
0.2206 

0.1859 
0.1609 
0.1419 
0.1271 

0.1151 
0.0970 
0.0839 
0.0740 

0.0663 
0.0600 
0.0487 
0.0410 


0.7815 
0.6389 
0.5388 
0.4649 

. 4082 
0.3633 
0.3270 
0.2970 

0.2606 
0.2161 
0.1898 
0.1689 

0.1381 
0.1165 
0.1005 
0.0882 

0.0786 
0.0642 
0.0541 
0.0467 

0.0410 
0.0365 
0.0285 
0.0233 


0.7780 
0.6337 
0.5328 
0.4585 

0.4016 
0.3567 
0.3204 
0.2906 

0.2443 
0.2102 
0.1841 
0.1636 

0.1332 
0.1120 
0.0964 
0.0844 

0.0750 
0.0611 
0.0614 
0.0442 

0.0387 
0.0345 
0.0268 
0.0218 


0.7763 
0.6312 
0.6299 

0.4553 

0.3984 
0.3535 
0.3172 
0.2874 

0.2413 
0.2073 
0.1814 
0.1609 

0.1309 
0.1099 
0.0944 
0.0826 

0.0733 
0.0696 
0.0500 
0.0430 

0.0376 
0.0334 
0.0259 
0.0211 


0.7669 
0.6024 
0.4968 
0.4265 

0.3629 
0.3121 
0.2824 
0.2533 

0.2089 
0.1768 
0.1526 
0.1337 

0.1066 
0.0878 
0.0743 
0.0642 

0.0562 
0.0450 
0.0369 
0.0313 

0.0270 
0.0236 
0.0179 
0.0142 


0.8366 
0.7230 
0.6391 
0.6743 

0.5226 
0.4804 
0.4451 
0.4162 

0.3671 
0.3299 
0.3002 
0.2760 

0.2386 
0.2158 
0.1895 
0.1724 

0.1585 
0.1369 
0.1210 
0.1088 

0.0991 
0.0910 
0.0759 
0.0658 


0.7427 
0.6824 
0.4742 
0.3969 

0.3393 
0.2947 
0.2596 
0.2311 

0.1882 
0.1575 
0.1346 
0.1170 

0.0917 
0.0747 
0.0625 
0.0534 

0.0464 
0.0364 
0.0296 
0.0248 

0.0212 
0.0184 
0.0137 
0.0107 


0.8459 
0.7378 
0.6572 
0.5946 

0.5443 
0.5030 
0.4683 
0.4387 

0.3908 
0.3536 
0.3237 
0.2991 

0.2609 
0.2324 
0.2102 
0.1925 

0.1778 
0.1551 
0.1382 
0.1250 

0.1144 
0.1057 
0.0894 
0.0780 


0.7307 
0.5656 
0.4563 
0.3774 

0.3198 
0.2757 
0.2412 
0.2134 

0.1718 
0.1424 
0.1207 
0.1041 

0.0805 
0.0448 
0.0537 
0.0455 

0.0393 
0.0304 
0.0245 
0.0203 

0.0172 
0.0148 
0.0108 
0.0084 


0.8533 
0.7495 
0.6716 
0.6108 

0.5617 
0.5212 
0.4870 
0.4578 

0.4102 
0.3731 
0.3431 
0.3183 

0.2796 
0.2506 
0.2274 
0.2096 

0.1944 
0.1708 
0.1631 
0.1392 

0.1280 
0.1188 
0.1013 
0.0890 



14 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



Table XV 
VALUES OF "s" FOR ADIABATIC EXPANSION OF STEAM. 



A. Expansion op Water from 200 
Lbs. Abs. 



B. Expansion of Dry Saturated Steam from 
200 Lbs. Abs. 



Values of s for 10-lb. 


Values of 3 for Whole 


Values 


of s for 10-lb. 


Values of s for Whole 


1 


ntervala 






Range. 




Intervals. 






Range. 




Pressure. 


Calcu- 


Cor- 


200 Lbs. 


Calcu- 


Cor- 


Range." 


Calcu- 


Cor- 


200 Lbs. 


Calcu- 


Cor- 


lated. 


rected. 


to 


lated. 


rected. 




lated. 


rected. 


to 


lated. 


rected- 


200-190 


.0987 


.1 


190 


.0987 


.100 


200-190 


1.132 


1.145 


190 


1.132 


1.143 


190-180 


.1435 


.141 


180 


.1175 


.118 


190-180 


1.153 


1.145 


180 


1.143 


1.143 


180-170 


.1847 


.182 


170 


.1348 


.135 


180-170 


1.142 


1.145 


170 


1.143 


1.143 


170-160 


.2304 


.223 


160 


.1519 


.153 


170-160 


1.148 


1.145 


160 


1.144 


1.143 


160-150 


.2671 


.264 


150 


.1682 


.168 


160-150 


1.138 


1.144 


150 


1.143 


1.143 


150-140 


.3069 


.305 


140 


.1843 


.184 


150-140 


1.128 


1.144 


140 


1.140 


1.143 


140-130 


.3509 


.346 


130 


.2007 


.202 


140-130 


1.150 


1.143 


130 


1.142 


1.142 


130-120 


.3911 


.387 


120 


.2172 


.218 


130-120 


1.130 


1.143 


120 


1.140 


1.142 


120-110 


.4304 


.428 


110 


.2341 


.235 


120-110 


1.135 


1.142 


110 


1.139 


1.142 


110-100 


.4738 


.470 


100 


.2517 


.2.52 


110-100 


1.137 


1.141 


100 


1.139 


1.141 


100- 90 


.5168 


.510 


90 


.2699 


.270 


100- 90 


1.148 


1.140 


90 


1.140 


1.140 


90- 80 


.5512 


.551 


80 


.2889 


.290 


90- 80 


1.126 


1.138 


80 


1.138 


1.139 


80- 70 


.5897 


.592 


70 


.3089 


.310 


80- 70 


1.144 


1.137 


70 


1.139 


1.139 


70- 60 


.6320 


.633 


60 


.3306 


.332 


70- 60 


1.138 


1.136 


60 


1.138 


1.138 


60- 50 


.6790 


.674 


50 


.3547 


.356 


60- 50 


1.125 


1.135 


SO 


1.137 


1.137 


50- 40 


.7147 


.716 


40 


.3811 


.382 


50- 40 


1.143 


1.133 


40 


1.138 


1.136 


40- 30 


.7658 


.760 


30 


.4125 


.412 


40- 30 


1.131 


1.131 


30 


1.136 


1.135 


30- 20 


.8150 


.808 


20 


.4518 


.448 


30- 20 


1.131 


1.130 


20 


1.135 


1.134 


20- 10 


.8718 


.870 


10 


.5085 


.504 


20- 10 


1.125 


1.128 


10 


1.133 


1.131 


10- 1 


1.0557 


1.042 


1 


.6381 


.638 


10- 1 


1.124 


1.126 


1 


1.124 


1.127 



C. Expansion of Steam. Supebheated throughotit D. Expansion of Steam Initiallt Superheated 
Expansion, from 200 Lbs. Abs. and 540" Super- and Finally Wet, from 20D Lbs. Abs. and 150° 

HEAT. Superheat. 

(Note. — Croaaea saturation line at 70 lbs. aba.) 



Values 


of S for 10-lb. 


Values of s for Whole 


Values 


of s for 10-lb. 


Values 


of s for Whole 1 


I 


ntervals. 






Range. 




Intervals 






Range. 






Calcu- 


Cor- 


200 Lbs. 


Calcu- 


Cor- 


Range. 


Calcu- 


Cor- 


200 Lbs. 


Calcu- 


Cor- 




lated. 


rected. 


to 


lated. 


rected. 


lated. 


rected. 


to 


lated. 


rected. 


200-190 


1.354 


1.342 


190 


1.354 


1.342 


200-190 


1.249 


1.334 


190 


1.249 


1.339 


190-180 


1.314 


1.342 


180 


1.333 


1.342 


190-180 


1.365 


1.332 


180 


1.306 


1.338 


180-170 


1.455 


1.342 


170 


1.374 


1.342 


180-170 


1.396 


1.330 


170 


1.336 


1.337 


170-160 


1.257 


1.342 


160 


1.340 


1.342 


170-160 


1.333 


1.327 


160 


1.336 


1.336 


160-150 


1.403 


1.341 


150 


1.354 


1.341 


160-150 


1.314 


1.324 


150 


1.331 


1.335 


150-140 


1.213 


1.341 


140 


1.323 


1.341 


150-140 


1.325 


1.321 


140 


1.330 


1.333 


140-130 


1.422 


1.341 


130 


1.340 


1.341 


140-130 


1.367 


1.316 


130 


1.334 


1.332 


130-120 


1.343 


1.340 


120 


1.340 


1.340 


130-120 


1.302 


1.312 


120 


1.329 


1.330 


120-110 


1.329 


1.340 


110 


1.339 


1.339 


120-110 


1.303 


1.306 


110 


1.325 


1.328 


110-100 


1.332 


1.339 


100 


1.338 


1.339 


110-100 


1.270 


1.300 


100 


1.317 


1.326 


100- 90 


1.338 


1.338 


90 


1.338 


1.338 


100- 90 


1.396 


1.292 


90 


1.328 


1.323 


90- 80 


1.287 


1.336 


80 


1.331 


1.336 


90- 80 


1.311 


1.283 


80 


1.326 


1.320 


80- 70 


1.331 


1.335 


70 


1.331 


1.335 


80- 70 


1.337 


1.272 


70 


1.327 


1.316 


70- 60 


1.340 


1.334 


60 


1.332 


1.334 


70- 60 


1.230 


1.156 


60 


1.314 


1.304 


60- 50 


1.315 


1.332 


60 


1.330 


1.332 


60- 50 


1.150 


1.150 


50 


1.290 


1.289 


50- 40 


1.327 


1.330 


40 


1.329 


1.330 


60- 40 


1.144 


1.146 


40 


1.268 


1.270 


40- 30 


1.318 


1.327 


30 


1.328 


1.327 


40- 30 


1.138 


1.140 


30 


1.246 


1.260 


30- 20 


1.328 


1.325 


20 


1.328 


1.325 


30- 20 


1.093 


1.134 


20 


1.216 


1.226 


20- 10 


1.323 


1.322 


10 


1.327 


1.322 


20- 10 


1.157 


1.127 


10 


1.202 


1.200 














10- 1 


i.iie 


1.120 


1 


1.163 


1.176 



Note. Irregularities in values of s have been corrected by plotting a smooth curve through calculated 
values, and taking corrected values from this curve. 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



15 



Table XVI 
VALUES OF s IN THE EQUATION PV = CONSTANT FOR VARIOUS SUBSTANCES 

AND CONDITIONS 



Substance. 




s ' 


Komarks or Authority. 


All gases 


Isothermal 
Constant pressure 

Isothermal 

Constant volume 

Adiabatic 

Compressed in cylinder 

Adiabatic, wet 

Adiabatic, superheated 

Adiabatic 

Adiabatic 

Adiabatic 

Adiabatic 
Adiabatic 

Adiabatic 
Adiabatic 
Adiabatic 
Adiabatic 
Adiabatic 
Adiabatic 
Adiabatic 
Adiabatic 
Adiabatic 
Adiabatic 
Adiabatic 

Adiabatic 

Adiabatic 

Adiabatic 

Expanding in cylinder 

Saturation law 


1 1 





00 J 
1.4066 
1.4 
1.1 
1.3 
1.293 
1.300 
1.403 

1.200 
1.323 

1.106 
1.029 
1.410 
1.276 
1.316 
1.410 
1.291 
1.24 
1.26 
1.300 
Variable 

1.111 

1 +. 14 X% moist. 

1.035 + 1.0X% moist. 

1. 

1.0646 




All gases and vapors . . 
All saturated vapors . . 
All gases and vapors. . 
Air 


Accepted thermody- 
namic law 


Air 


Experience 

Average 

Thermodynamics 


Ammonia (NH3) 

Ammonia (NH3) 


Carbon dioxide (CO2) . 
Carbon monoxide (CO) 
Carbon disulphide 
(CS2) 


Rontgen, Wullner 
Cazin, Wullner 

Beyne 
Strecker 

Beyne, Wullner 

Muller 

Cazin 

Muller 

Muller 

Cazin 

Wullner 

Pintsch Co. 


Chlorine (CI) 

Chloroform 

(CCl3CH(OH)2).... 
Ether (C2H5OC2H6)... 

Hydrogen (H2) 

Hydrogen sulph . (H2S) 

Methane (CHi) 

Nitrogen (N2) 

Pintsch gas 


Sulphide diox (SO2) ... 
Steam, superheated . .. 
Steam, wet 


Cazin, Muller 
Smithsonian Tables 
(From less than 1 to 




more than 1.2) 
Rankine 




Perry 




Gray 


Steam, wet 


Average from practice 


Steam, drv 


Regnault 







Table XVII 

FIXED TEMPERATURES 
U. S. BUREAU OF STANDARDS 



Temperature, 
°C. 


Temperature, 


Determined by the Point at which 


232 


449 


Liquid tin sohdifies 


327 


621 


Liquid lead solidifies 


419.4 


787 


Liquid zinc solidifies 


444.7 


832.5 


Liquid sulphur boils 


630.5 


1167 


Liquid antimony solidifies 


658 


1216 


Liquid aluminum, 97.7% pure, solidifies 


1064 


1947 


SoUd gold melts 


1084 


1983 


Liquid copper solidifies 


1435 


2615 


Solid nickel melts 


1546 


2815 


Solid palladium melts 


1753 


3187 


Solid platinum melts 



16 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 

Table XVIH 

TEMPERATURES, CENTIGRADE AND FAHRENHEIT 



c. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


-40 


-40. 


26 


78.8 


92 


197.6 


168 


316.4 


224 


435.2 


290 


564 


950 


1742 


-39 


-38.2 


27 


80.6 


93 


199.4 


159 


318.2 


225 


437. 


300 


572 


960 


1760 


-38 


-36.4 


28 


82.4 


94 


201.2 


160 


320. 


226 


438.8 


310 


590 


970 


1778 


-37 


-34.6 


29 


84.2 


95 


203. 


161 


321.8 


227 


440.6 


320 


608 


980 


1796 


^36 


-32.8 


30 


86. 


96 


204.8 


162 


323.6 


228 


442.4 


330 


626 


990 


1814 


-35 


-31. 


31 


87.8 


97 


206.6 


163 


325.4 


229 


444.2 


340 


644 


1000 


1832 


-34 


-29.2 


32 


89.6 


98 


208.4 


164 


327.2 


230 


446. 


350 


662 


1010 


1850 


-33 


-27.4 


33 


91.4 


99 


210.2 


165 


329. 


231 


447.8 


360 


680 


1020 


1868 


-32 


-25.6 


34 


93.2 


100 


212. 


166 


330.8 


232 


449.6 


370 


698 


1030 


1886 


-31 


-23.8 


35 


95. 


101 


213.8 


167 


332.6 


233 


451.4 


380 


716 


1040 


1904 


-30 


-22. 


36 


96.8 


102 


215.6 


168 


334.4 


234 


453.2 


390 


734 


1060 


1922 


-29 


-20.2 


37 


98.6 


103 


217.4 


169 


336.2 


235 


455. 


400 


752 


1060 


1940 


-28 


-18.4 


38 


100.4 


104 


219.2 


170 


338. 


236 


456.8 


410 


770 


1070 


1958 


-27 


-16.6 


39 


102.2 


105 


221. 


171 


339.8 


237 


468.6 


420 


788 


1080 


1976 


-26 


-14.8 


40 


104. 


106 


222.8 


172 


341.6 


238 


460.4 


430 


806 


1090 


1994 


-25 


-13. 


41 


105.8 


107 


224.6 


173 


343.4 


239 


462.2 


440 


824 


1100 


2012 


-24 


-11.2 


42 


107.6 


108 


226.4 


174 


345.2 


240 


464. 


460 


842 


1110 


2030 


-23 


- 9.4 


43 


109.4 


109 


228.2 


175 


347. 


241 


465.8 


460 


860 


1120 


2048 


-22 


- 7.6 


44 


111.2 


110 


230. 


176 


348.8 


242 


467.6 


470 


878 


1130 


2066 


-21 


- 5.8 


45 


113. 


111 


231.8 


177 


360.6- 


243 


469.4 


480 


896 


1140 


2084 


-20 


- 4. 


46 


114.8 


112 


233.6 


178 


362.4 


244 


471.2 


490 


914 


1150 


2102 


-19 


- 2.2 


47 


116.6 


113 


235.4 


179 


354.2 


245 


473. 


500 


932 


1160 


2120 


-18 


- 0.4 


48 


118.4 


114 


237.2 


180 


356. 


246 


474.8 


510 


950 


1170 


2138 


-17 


+ 1.4 


49 


120.2 


115 


239. 


181 


357.8 


247 


476.6 


520 


968 


1180 


2156 


-16 


3.2 


50 


122. 


116 


240.8 


182 


359.6 


248 


478.4 


630 


986 


1190 


2174 


-15 


S. 


51 


123.8 


117 


242.6 


183 


361.4 


249 


480.2 


540 


1004 


1200 


2192 


-14 


6.8 


52 


126.6 


118 


244.4 


184 


363.2 


250 


482. 


550 


1022 


1210 


2210 


-13 


8.6 


53 


127.4 


119 


246.2 


185 


365. 


251 


483.8 


660 


1040 


1220 


2228 


-12 


10.4 


54 


129.2 


120 


248. 


186 


366.8 


252 


485.6 


570 


1058 


1230 


2246 


-11 


12.2 


55 


131. 


121 


249.8 


187 


368.6 


253 


487.4 


680 


1076 


1240 


2264 


-10 


14. 


56 


132.8 


122 


251.6 


188 


370 4 


264 


489.2 


590 


1094 


1250 


2282 


- 9 


15.8 


57 


134.6 


123 


263.4 


189 


372.2 


255 


491. 


600 


1112 


1260 


2300 


- 8 


17.6 


58 


136.4 


124 


255.2 


190 


374. 


256 


492.8 


610 


1130 


1270 


2318 


- 7 


19.4 


69 


138.2 


125 


257. 


191 


376.8 


257 


494.6 


620 


1148 


1280 


2336 


- 6 


21.2 


60 


140. 


126 


258.8 


192 


377.6 


258 


496.4 


630 


1166 


1290 


2354 


- 5 


23. 


61 


141.8 


127 


260.6 


193 


379.4 


259 


488.2 


640 


1184 


1300 


2372 


- 4 


24.8 


62 


143.6 


128 


262.4 


194 


381.2 


260 


500. 


650 


1202 


1310 


2390 


- 3 


26.6 


63 


145.4 


129 


264.2 


195 


383. 


261 


501.8 


660 


1220 


1320 


2408 


- 2 


28.4 


64 


147.2 


130 


266. 


196 


384.8 


262 


503.6 


670 


1238 


1330 


2426 


- 1 


30.2 


65 


149. 


131 


267.8 


197 


386.6 


263 


605.4 


680 


1256 


1340 


2444 





32. 


66 


160.8 


132 


269.6 


198 


388.4 


264 


607.2 


690 


1274 


1350 


2462 


+ 1 


33.8 


67 


152.6 


133 


271.4 


199 


390.2 


265 


509. 


700 


1292 


1360 


2480 


2 


35.6 


68 


164.4 


134 


273.2 


200 


392. 


266 


610.8 


710 


1310 


1370 


2498 


3 


37.4 


69 


156.2 


135 


275. 


201 


393.8 


267 


612.6 


720 


1328 


1380 


2516 


4 


39.2 


70 


168. 


136 


276.8 


202 


395.6 


268 


514.4 


730 


1346 


1390 


2534 


6 


41. 


71 


159.8 


137 


278.6 


203 


397.4 


269 


616.2 


740 


1364 


1400 


2552 


6 


42.8 


72 


161.6 


138 


280.4 


204 


399.2 


270 


618. 


750 


1382 


1410 


2570 


7 


44.6 


73 


163.4 


139 


282.2 


205 


401. 


271 


519.8 


760 


1400 


1420 


2588 


8 


46.4 


74 


165.2 


140 


284. 


206 


402.8 


272 


521.6 


770 


1418 


1430 


2606 


9 


48.2 


75 


167. 


141 


286.8 


207 


404.6 


273 


523.4 


780 


1436 


1440 


2624 


10 


60. 


76 


168.8 


142 


287.6 


208 


406.4 


274 


525.2 


790 


1454 


1450 


2642 


11 


51.8 


77 


170.6 


143 


289.4 


209 


408.2 


275 


627. 


800 


1472 


1460 


2660 


12 


53.6 


78 


172.4 


144 


291.2 


210 


410. 


276 


628.8 


810 


1490 


1470 


2678 


13 


55.4 


79 


174.2 


145 


293. 


211 


411.8 


277 


630.6 


820 


1508 


1480 


2696 


14 


57.2 


80 


176. 


146 


294.8 


212 


413.6 


278 


532.4 


830 


1526 


1490 


2714 


15 


59. 


81 


177.8 


147 


296.6 


213 


415.4 


279 


534.2 


840 


1544 


1500 


2732 


16 


60.8 


82 


179.6 


148 


298.4 


214 


417.2 


280 


536. 


860 


1662 


1510 


2750 


17 


62.6 


83 


181.4 


149 


300.2 


215 


419. 


281 


537.8 


860 


1680 


1520 


2768 


18 


64.4 


84 


183.2 


150 


302. 


216 


420.8 


282 


539.6 


870 


1698 


1530 


2786 


19 


66.2 


85 


185. 


151 


303.8 


217 


422.6 


283 


541.4 


880 


1616 


1540 


2804 


20 


68. 


86 


186.8 


152 


305.6 


218 


424.4 


284 


543.2 


890 


1634 


1550 


2822 


21 


69.8 


87 


188.6 


153 


307.4 


219 


426.2 


285 


545. 


900 


1652 


1600 


2912 


22 


71.6 


88 


190.4 


154 


309.2 


220 


428. 


286 


546.8 


910 


1670 


1650 


3002 


23 


73.4 


89 


192.2 


155 


311. 


221 


429.8 


287 


648.6 


920 


1688 


1700 


3092 


24 


75.2 


90 


194. 


166 


312.8 


222 


431.6 


288 


550.4 


930 


1706 


1750 


3182 


25 


77. 


91 


195.8 


157 


314.6 


223 


433.4 


289 


552.2 


940 


1724 


1800 


3272 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 

Table XVIII — Continued 

TEMPERATURES, FAHRENHEIT AND CENTIGRADE 



17 



F. 


C. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


C. 


P. 


C. 


-40 


-40. 


26 


- 3.3 


92 


33.3 


158 


70. 


224 


106.7 


290 


143.3 


360 


182.2 


-39 


-39.4 


27 


- 2.8 


93 


33.9 


159 


70.6 


225 


107.2 


291 


143.9 


370 


187.8 


-38 


-38.9 


28 


- 2.2 


94 


34.4 


160 


71.1 


226 


107.8 


292 


144.4 


380 


193.3 


-37 


-38.3 


29 


- 1.7 


95 


35. 


161 


71.7 


227 


108,3 


293 


145. 


390 


198.9 


-36 


-37.8 


30 


- 1.1 


96 


35.6 


162 


72.2 


228 


108.9 


294 


145.6 


400 


204.4 


-35 


-37.2 


31 


- 0.6 


97 


36.1 


163 


72.8 


229 


109.4 


295 


146.1 


410 


210. 


-34 


-36.7 


32 


0. 


98 


36.7 


164 


73.3 


230 


110. 


296 


146.7 


420 


216.6 


-33 


-36.1 


33 


+ 0.6 


99 


37.2 


165 


73.9 


231 


110.6 


297 


147.2 


430 


221.1 


-32 


-35.6 


34 


1.1 


100 


37.8 


166 


74.4 


232 


111.1 


298 


147.8 


440 


226.7 


-31 


-35. 


35 


1.7 


101 


38.3 


167 


75. 


233. 


111.7 


299 


148.3 


450 


232.2 


-30 


-34.4 


36 


2.2 


102 


38.9 


168 


75.6 


234 


112.2 


300 


148.9 


460 


237.8 


-29 


-33.9 


37 


2.8 


103 


39.4 


169 


76.1 


235 


112.8 


301 


149.4 


470 


243.3 


-28 


-33.3 


38 


3.3 


104 


40. 


170 


76.7 


236 


113.3 


302 


150. 


480 


248.9 


-27 


-32.8 


39 


3.9 


105 


40.6 


171 


77.2 


237 


113.9 


303 


150.6 


490 


254.4 


-26 


-32.2 


40 


4.4 


106 


41.1 


172 


77.8 


238 


114.4 


304 


151.1 


600 


260. 


-25 


-31.7 


41 


5. 


107 


41.7 


173 


78.3 


239 


115. 


305 


151.7 


510 


265.6 


-24 


-31.1 


42 


5.6 


108 


42.2 


174 


78.9 


240 


115.6 


306 


152.2 


520 


271.1 


-23 


-30.6 


43 


6.1 


109 


42.8 


175 


79.4 


241 


116.1 


307 


152.8 


530 


276.7 


-22 


-30. 


44 


6.7 


110 


43.3 


176 


80. 


242 


116.7 


308 


153.3 


540 


282.2 


-21 


-29.4 


45 


7.2 


111 


43.9 


177 


80.6 


243 


117.2 


309 


153.9 


550 


287.8 


-20 


-28.9 


46 


7.8 


112 


44.4 


178 


81.1 


244 


117.8 


310 


154.4 


560 


293.3 


-19 


-28.3 


47 


8.3 


113 


45. 


179 


81.7 


245 


118.3 


311 


155. 


570 


298.9 


-18 


-27.8 


48 


8.9 


114 


45.6 


180 


82.2 


246 


118.9 


312 


155.6 


680 


304.4 


-17 


-27.2 


49 


9.4 


115 


46.1 


181 


82.8 


247 


119.4 


313 


156.1 


590 


310. 


-16 


-26.7 


50 


10. 


116 


46.7 


182 


83.3 


248 


120. 


314 


156.7 


600 


315.0 


-15 


-26.1 


51 


10.6 


117 


47.2 


183 


83.9 


249 


120.6 


315 


157.2 


610 


321.1 


-14 


-25.6 


52 


11.1 


118 


47.8 


184 


84.4 


250 


121.1 


316 


157.8 


620 


326.7 


-13 


-25. 


53 


11.7 


119 


48.3 


185 


85. 


251 


121.7 


317 


158.3 


630 


332.2 


-12 


-24.4 


54 


12.2 


120 


48.9 


186 


85.6 


252 


122.2 


318 


158.9 


640 


337.8 


-11 


-23.9 


55 


12.8 


121 


49.4 


187 


86.1 


253 


122.8 


319 


159.4 


650 


343.3 


-10 


-23.3 


56 


13.3 


122 


60. 


188 


86.7 


254 


123.3 


320 


160. 


660 


348.9 


- 9 


-22.8 


57 


13.9 


123 


60.6 


189 


87.2 


255 


123.9 


321 


160.6 


670 


354.4 


- 8 


-22.2 


58 


14.4 


124 


51. 1 


190 


87.8 


256 


124.4 


322 


161.1 


680 


360. 


- 7 


-21.7 


59 


15. 


125 


51.7 


191 


88.3 


257 


125. 


323 


161.7 


690 


365.8 


- 6 


-21.1 


60 


15.6 


126 


52.2 


192 


88.9 


258 


125.6 


324 


162.2 


700 


371.1 


— 6 


-20.6 


61 


16.1 


127 


52.8 


193 


89.4 


259 


126.1 


325 


162.8 


710 


376.7 


- 4 


-20. 


62 


16.7 


128 


53.3 


194 


90. 


260 


126.7 


326 


163.3 


720 


382.2 


- 3 


-19.4 


63 


17.2 


129 


53.9 


195 


90.6 


261 


1P7.2 


327 


163.9 


730 


387.8 


- 2 


-18.9 


64 


17.8 


130 


54.4 


196 


91.1 


262 


127.8 


328 


164.4 


740 


393.3 


- 1 


-18.3 


65 


18.3 


131 


55. 


197 


91.7 


263. 


128.3 


329 


165. 


750 


398.9 





-17.8 


66 


18.9 


132 


65.6 


198 


92.2 


264 


128.9 


330 


165.6 


760 


404.4 


+ 1 


-17.2 


67 


19.4 


133 


56.1 


•199 


92.8 


265 


129.4 


331 


166.1 


770 


410. 


2 


-16.7 


68 


20. 


134 


56.7 


200 


93,3 


266 


130. 


332 


166.7 


780 


415.6 


3 


-16.1 


69 


20.6 


135 


67.2 


201 


93.9 


267 


130.6 


333 


167.2 


790 


421.1 


4 


-15.6 


70 


21.1 


136 


57.8 


202 


94.4 


268 


131.1 


334 


167.8 


800 


426.7 


5 


-15. 


71 


21.7 


137 


58.3 


203 


95. 


269 


131.7 


335 


168.3 


810 


432.2 


6 


-14.4 


72 


22.2 


138 


68.9 


204 


95.6 


270 


132.2 


336 


168.9 


820 


437.8 


7 


-13.9 


73 


22.8 


139 


59.4 


205 


96.1 


271 


132.8 


337 


169.4 


830 


443.3 


8 


-13.3 


74 


23.3 


140 


60. 


206 


96.7 


272 


133.3 


338 


170. 


840 


448.9 


g 


-12.8 


75 


23.9 


141 


60.6 


207 


97.2 


273 


133.9 


339 


170.6 


850 


454.4 


10 


-12.2 


76 


24.4 


142 


61.1 


208 


97.8 


274 


134.4 


340 


171.1 


860 


460. 


11 


-11.7 


77 


25. 


143 


61.7 


209 


98.3 


275 


135. 


341 


171.7 


870 


465.6 


12 


—11.1 


78 


25.6 


144 


62.2 


210 


98.9 


276 


135.6 


342 


172.2 


880 


471.1 


13 


-10.6 


79 


26.1 


145 


62.8 


211 


99.4 


277 


136.1 


343 


172.8 


890 


476.7 


14 


—10. 


80 


26.7 


146 


63.3 


212 


100. 


278 


136.7 


344 


173.3 


900 


482.2 


16 


- 9.4 


81 


27.2 


147 


63.9 


213 


100.6 


279 


137.2 


345 


173.9 


910 


487.8 


16 


— 8.9 


82 


27.8 


148 


64.4 


214 


101.1 


280 


137.8 


346 


174.4 


920 


493.3 


17 


- 8.3 


S3 


28.3 


149 


65. 


215 


101.7 


281 


138.3 


347 


175. 


930 


498.9 


18 


— 7.8 


84 


28.9 


150 


65.6 


216 


102.2 


282 


138.9 


348 


175.6 


940 


504.4 


19 


- 7.2 


85 


29.4 


151 


66.1 


217 


102.8 


283 


139.4 


349 


176.1 


950 


510. 


20 


— 6.7 


86 


30. 


152 


66.7 


218 


103.3 


284 


140. 


350 


176.7 


960 


515.6 


21 


- 6.1 


87 


30.6 


153 


67.2 


219 


103.9 


285 


140.6 


351 


177.2 


970 


521. 


22 


— 5.6 


88 


31.1 


154 


67.8 


220 


104.4 


286 


141.1 


352 


177.8 


980 


526.7 


23 


- 5. 


89 


31.7 


155 


68.3 


221 


105. 


287 


141.7 


353 


178.3 


990 


532.2 


24 


- 4.4 


90 


32.2 


156 


68.9 


222 


105.6 


288 


142.2 


354 


178.9 


1000 


537.8 


26 


- 3.9 


91 


32.8 


157 


69.4 


223 


106.1 


289 


142.8 


355 


179.4 


1010 


643.3 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



18 

The missing water, or difference between the actual steam consumption of an 
engine and that shown by the indicator cards is given by Prof. Heck as: 

Missing water • _QjZ j^ 
Indicated steam VN\ 



[ Sjxi — x-i) 
PiZ 

in which S=the ratio of cylinder-displacement surface in sq. ft. to displace- 
ment in cu. ft., or 

S=^+A. 2=fraction of card length completed at cut-off;— 
L 48 

iV = R.P.M. of engine; d = dia. cyl. in in.; L = stroke in ft. 

The term {xi-xi) is to be supplied from Table XIX and is the difference 
between the x for the high pressure and that for the low pressure, both 
absolute. 



Table XIX 
VALUES OF X FOR USE IN HECK'S FORMULA FOR MISSING WATER 



Absolute 
steam Pressure. 


X 


Absolute 
Steam Pressure. 


X 


Absolute 

Steam Pressure. 


X 





170 


70 


297.5 


165 


393 


1 


175 


75 


304 


170 


397 


2 


179 


80 


310 


180 


405 


3 


183 


85 


316 


185 


409 


4 


186 


90 


321.5 


190 


413 


6 


191 


95 


327 


195 


416.5 


8 


196 


100 


332,5 


200 


420 


10 


200 


105 


338 


210 


427 


15 


210 


110 


343 


220 


431 


20 


220 


115 


348 


230 


441 


25 


229 


120 


353 


240 


447.5 


30 


238 


125 


358 


250 


454 


35 


246 


130 


362.5 


260 


460.5 


40 


254 


135 


367 


270 


467 


45 


262 


140 


371.5 


280 


473 


50 


269.5 


145 


376 


290 


479 


55 


277 


150 


380.5 


300 


485 


60 


284 


155 


385 






65 


291 


160 


389 







TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



19 



Table XX 
BAUME SPECIFIC GRAVITY SCALE 

Specific gravities axe for 60° F. referred to water at same temperature as unity, at which 
temperature it weighs 62.34 lbs. per cubic foot. 
Tabular results are calculated from: 



Degrees Baum6 = 



145- 



145 






. \speci: 



specific gravity/ 
140 



for liquids heavier than water. 



, . . .^ - — 130 1 for liquids lighter than water. 

\Bpecmc gravity / 

Relation between Specific Gravitt and Baumb 





.00 


.01 


.02 


.03 


.04 


.05 


.06 


.07 


.08 


.09 


Specifio 
Gravity 






















Degrees Baum6. 


.60 


103.33 


99.51 


95.81 


92.22 


88.75 


85.38 


82.12 


78.95 


75.88 


72.901 


.70 


70.00 


67.18 


64.44 


61.78 


69.19 


56.67 


64.21 


51.82 


49.49 


47.22 » 


.80 


45.00 


42.84 


40.73 


36.68 


36.67 


34.71 


32.79 


30.92 


29.09 


27.30' 


.90 


25.56 


23.85 


22.17 


20.54 


18.94 


17.37 


16.83 


14.33 


12.86 


11.411 


1.00 


10.00 




















1.00 


0.00 


1.44 


2.84 


4.22 


5.58 


6.91 


8.21 


9.49 


10.74 


11.97» 


1.10 


13.18 


14.37 


15.54 


16.68 


17.81 


18.91 


20.00 


21.07 


22.12 


23.15* 


1.20 


24.17 


25.16 


26.15 


27.11 


28.06 


29.00 


29.92 


30.83 


31.72 


32.60' 


1.30 


33.46 


34.41 


35.15 


35.98 


36.79 


37.50 


38.38 


39.16 


39.93 


40.68' 


1.40 


41.43 


42.16 


42.89 


43.60 


44.31 


45.00 


45.68 


41.36 


47.03 


47.68 » 


1.50 


48.33 


48.97 


49.60 


50.23 


50.84 


51.45 


52.05 


52.62 


53.23 


53.80' 



Adapted from Smithsonian Tables No. 65. 



1 Specific gravity less than 1.00 particularly useful for liquids fuel, oils, and alcohob. 
' Specific gravities greater than 1.00 particularly useful for non-freezing brines. 



Tablts XXI 
FREEZING-POINT OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE 

U. S. BuBEAu or Standards 



Denaity of Solution. 


Per cent CaCli by Wt. 


Freezing-point, 


Freezing-point. 


1.12 


14.88 


- 9 


16.8 


1.14 


16.97 


-13 


8.6 


1.16 


19.07 


-16 


3.2 


1.18 


21.13 


-20 


- 4.0 


1.20 


23.03 


-24 


-11.2 


1.22 


24.89 


-29 


-20.2 


1.24 


26.77 


-34 


-29.2 


1.26 


28.55 


-40 


-40.0 



20 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 











Table 








SPECIFIC HKATS 






Atomic 






Claa*. 


Substance. 


Weight 
H=l. 


Specific 
Gravity, 


Authority. 




Aluminum 


26.9 


2.57 


MaUet 




Carbon (amorphous) 


11.99 








Carbon graph. 


11.99 


2.10-2.32 


Smithsonian Tables 




Copper (cast) 


63.07 


8.8-8.95 


Smithsonian Tables 




Iron (pure) 


55.41 


7.85 


Smithsonian Tables 


Elements ^ 












Iron (pure) 


55.41 


7.85 


Smithsonian Tables 




Lead (cast) 


205.46 


11.37 


Reich 




Mercury- 


198.5 


14.18 


Mallet 




Nickel 


58.21 


8.65 


Smithsonian Tables 




Tin (cast) 


118.1 


7.29 


Mathiessen 




Zinc (cast) 


64.88 


7.05 


Smithsonian Tables 




Bronze 




8.75-9 


Smithsonian Tables 




Brass 




7.8-8.6 


Smithsonian Tables 




Brick work, Masonry 




1.84-2.3 


Smithsonian Tables 




Butter 




.865 


Smithsonian Tables 




Clay 




1.80-2.6 


Smithsonian Tables 




Coal 




1.2-1.5 


Smithsonian Tables 




Wood 




.4-1.2 


Smithsonian Tables 


Common substancea 


Glass 




2.4-2.8 


Smithsonian Tables 




Ice 




.9 


Smithsonian Tables 




Cast Iron 




6.8-7.5 


* 




Wrought Iron 




7.4-7.9 


* 




Marble 




2.5-2.8 


Smithsonian Tables 




Steel 




7.7-7.9 


* 




Sand 




1.45-1.6 


Smithsonian Tables 




Stone 




2.1-3.4 


* 



• Kent'a Mechanical Engineera' Pocketbook. 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



21 



XXII 

OF SOLIDS 



Bpeoifio Heat. 



At Temperature. 



F. 



Speoifio Heat 

Calculated from 

Atomio 

Weights. 



Authority. 



.2089 

.2226 

.2739 

.241 

.1138 

.1605 

.467 

.310 

.0924 

.0985 

.1162 

.1091 

.1376 

.1765 

.218 

.1989 
' .0299 

.0324 

,0319 

.1084 

.1233 

.1608 

.0545 

.0538 

.0915 

.0996 

.0935 

.0858 

.0939 
About .2 

.55 

.197 
.2-. 241 
.45-. 65 
.16-. 18 

.504 

.1298 

.1138 

.21 
.1165-. 1175 

.195 
.a-. 22 




20-100 
500 


-60 
+11 
977 
16-1000 
17 
300 

15 
300 
500 
720-1000 
1000-1200 
15 
200 
-78 to -40 
21-99 
500 
1000 
0-100 
16-197 
18 
200 
0-100 
15-98 



32 
68-212 
932 
32 
-58 
52 
1795 
61-1832 
62 
572 
32 
59 
572 
392 
1328-1832 
1832-2192 
59 
392 
-108 to -40 
69-210 
932 
1832 
32-212 
69-387 
64 
392 
32-212 
59-208 



.238 



.102 
.117 



.117 



.031 



.0323 
.11 



.052 
.099 



Bontschew 

Bontschew 

Bontschew 

Olsen 

Weber 

Weber 

Weber 

Dewar 

Naccari 

Naccari 

Olsen 

Naccari 

Naccari 

Pionchon 

Fionchon 

Pionchon 

Naccari 

Naccari 

Regnault 

Voigt 

Tilden 

Pionchon 

Bunsen 

Spring 

Naccari 

Naccari 

Bunsen 

Regnault 

Regnault 

* 

Siebel 

Regnault 

Regnault 

* 

Regnault 
Regnault 
Regnault 
Regnault 
Regnault 

Regnault 

* 



• Kent's Mechanical EngiueerB' Pocketbook. 



22 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



Table 
SPECIFIC HEATS OF GASES: 



Substance. 


Cj, 


At Temperature. 


Authority. 


C, 




"C. 


j._ 




Hvdroffen. Ha 


3.3996 

3.409 

3.410 


-28-4-9 
12-198 
21-100 


-18.4^15.8 
53.6-388.4 
70-212 


Regnault 
Regnault 
Wiedeman 


2 4219 






Oxveen. O2 


.2175 
.2240 

.2300 


13-207 
20-440 
20-630 


65-405 
68-824 
68-166 


Regnault 

Holborn-Austin 

Holborn-Austin 


1603 






Nitrocen. Ns 


.2438 
.2419 

.2464 
.2497 


0-200 
20-440 
20-630 
20-800 


22-392 
68-824 
68-1166 
68-1472 


Regnault 
Holborn-Austin 
Holbom-Austin 
Holborn-Austin 


1715 






Air 


.2377 
.2374 
.2375 
.2366 
.2429 
.2430 
.2389 


-30—1-10 
O-lOO 
0-200 
20-440 
20-630 
20-800 
20-100 


32-50 

32-212 

32-392 

68-824 

68-1166 

68-1472 

68-212 


Regnault 

Regnault 

Regnault 

Holbom-Austin 

Holborn-Austin 

Holborn-Austin 

Wiedeman 






.1703 


Ammonia, NH3 


.5202 

.5356 
.5125 


23-100 
27-200 
24-216 


73-212 
80-392 
75-421 


Wiedeman 
Wiedeman 
Regnault 


4011 






Carbon diox., CO2 


.1843 
.2025 
.2169 


-28-+7 
15-100 
11-214 


—18-45 
59-212 
62-417 


Regnault 
Regnault 
Regnault 


.1558 


Carbon monoxide 


.2425 

.2426 


23-99 
26-198 


74-210 
79-388 


Wiedeman 
Wiedeman 


.1734 




Methane, CH4 


.5929 


18-208 


64-406 


Regnault 


.4505 




Benzole, CjHe 


.2990 

.3325 
.3754 


34-115 

35-180 

116-218 


93-239 

95-356 

241-424 


Wiedeman 
Wiedeman 
Regnault 


.2131 




Ethylene, CoHi 


.4040 


10-202 


50-396 


Regnault 


.3404 





TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 
XXIII 

RATIOS AND DIFFERENCES 



23 



Determined {rom 


C^-Co 


777.52(Cj,-C,) 
I (y) in ft.-lbs. 


Cp^Co 


Wiedeman C, = 3.41 and 

77 = 1.408 at 4° -16° C. by Lummer and Pringsheim 


.9881 


768.267 


1.408 


Holbom and Austin Cj, = .2240 and 

r 

-^=1.3977 at 5° to 14° C. 


.0637 


49.528 


1.3977 


Holborn and Austin Cj, = .2419 and 

C, 

^ = 1.41 by Cazin 


.0704 


54.737 


1.4105 


Wiedeman Cj, = .2389 and 

Q 

-^ = 1.4025 at 5° to 14° C. by Lummer and Pringsheim 
Co 


.0686 


53.338 


1.4028 


Wiedeman Cp = .5202 and mean of 

(7^ = 1.3172 at 0° C. and -^ = 1.2770 at 100° C. 
\Ct Cb / 

= 1.2971 by WiiUner 


.1191 


92.603 


1.2969 


Regnault Cj, = .2025 and 

— = 1.2995 by Lummer and Pringsheim 


.0467 


36.310 


1.2997 


Wiedeman Cj, = .2425 and mean of 

(^ = 1.4032 at 0° C. and ^ = 1.3946 at 100° C. ) 
\p, Co / 

= 1.3989 by WuUner 


.0691 


53.726 


1.3985 


Regnault C, = .5929 
^=1.316 at 30° C. by MuDer 

Co 


.1424 


110.719 


1.316 


Wiedeman Cj, = .2990 and ^ = 1.403 at 60° C. by 

Co 

Pagliani 


.0859 


66.789 


1.4031 


Regnault Cp = .4040 and -^=1.1870 at 100° C. by 
Co 

WuUner 


.0636 


49.450 


1.1867> 



24 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 





s 




h-t 




& 




c 








Hi 


l> 


P^ 


X 


O 


X 


S 


S 




3 


n 


H 


D 




t— 1 




tK 




hH 




IJ 




H 




fe 




a 



^ 



mo 



S 

m 



02 00 (M T ri •* o 



o S 



. (N O 

. O CO 



to 

M 00 to 00 00 
y~i in Oi ^ Oi 

iioLiob 
t- lO CO lO to 



o 

ico O © 
T-l CO 
CO CO I 
00 
C<I 



\n o o 

COOO_0_^'0»H 
I CP C<1 Q "T" Q p 



s I 



I O O I I 
iH ■* »0 O 



00 o o o o 

lO C<1 CO CJl CO 

th i o (i o 

IM >H c^ .-I (N 



>0 U3 "fl 
t~^ (-^ t~^ 



COCO 1ON.00C0OS (MCO 

CO^rHCOCOlOlOt^OOCOCO+3 

coco-*cocoi:^o-*o>'<*'C^t^ 3 
- — — — --coiocoTtiio 5 

• • ••§ 



CO r- o 

CO Oi t^ lO 

t- O CO lO 

Tl( Til lO "O 



CD O O O O O »r3 



ri .1 I 



O CO CO 
O) CO o 
■^ IC3 lO 



00 CO 
00 CO o 
Oi Oi Oi 



T-l 


T! 


o 


O 


B 


a 


9 


9 







-^ 




(1 


a 










a 


.9 


> > 



-§ 

H 



II 






■a 

9 



■§-§ 

•□•a 

o o 

CO CQ 



1 



■a 1 1 -1 1 



CQ CQ 



MM 



M 



IS- 


C>2 lO 


»o ^ 

^2 ; ; ; : ; : ; : ; ; ; ; 



CO 

d d 



W5 (35 
CO CD 



00 CT 
CTi O OS 

t> 00 00 






00 00 



oL 

CO 



CO »0 CO 

_, Tj( CO CO 

V o S3 3; 

cfc ° °. 9 



3 

fq 1-1 



S d 






o 
o 




O 







TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



25 



Table XXV 
SPECIFIC HEAT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE BRINE 



Density, B€ 



Sp.gr. 



Per cent NaCl 
by Wt. 



Sp. Heat. 



Temp. F. 



Authority. 



1.007 



5 
10 



1.037 
1.073 



15 



1.115 



19 



23 



1.150 

i.igi 



1 


.992 


1.6 


978 


4.9 


.995 


5.0 


.960 


10.0 


.892 


10.3 


.892 


10.3 


.912 


11.5 


.887 


12.3 


.871 


15.0 


.892 


18.8 


.841 


18.8 


.854 


20.0 


.829 


24.3 


.7916 


24.5 


.791 


25 


.783 



-0 

64.4 

66-115 

-0 

-0 

59-120 

59-194 

61-126 

64.4 

-0 
63-125 
68-192 

64-68 
64 



Common 

Thomsen 

Winkelmami 

Common 

Common 

Teudt 

Teudt 

Marignac 

Winkelmann 

Common 

Teudt 

Teudt 

Common 

Winkelmann 

Thomsen 

Common 



Table XXVI 
COEFFICENT OF LINEAR EXPANSION OF SOLIDS 



' Substance. 


aXlO* 

per degree C. 


At Temp. 
C. 


aXlC 


At Temp. 
F. 


Authority. 


Alimiinum. . 


.2313-. 3150 


40-600 


.1285-. 175 


104^1112 


Fizeau and 
Le Chatelier 


Antimony. . 


.0882-. 1692 


40 


.049-. 094 


104 


Fizeau 


Carbon coke 


.054 


40 


.03 


104 




Carbon 












graphite. . 


.0786 


40 


.0437 


104 






Copper 


.1678 


40 


.0932 


104 






Iron 


.1061-. 1210 


40 


.059-. 0672 


104 






Steel 


.1095-. 1322 


40 


.06085-. 0735 


104 






Lead 


.2924 


40 


.1625 


104 






Nickel 


.1279 


40 


.071 


104 






Platinum. . . 


.0899 


40 


..05 


104 






Tin 


.2234 


40 


.1241 


104 






Zinc 


.2918 


40 


.1621 


104 




Brasses and 










Limits of 


bronze. . . . 


.17-.21 


0-900 


.0889-. 1167 


32-1652 


determination 


Rubber 


.770 


16.7-25.3 


.4278 


62-77.5 


Kohbausch 


Glass 


.058-. 0897 


0-100 


.03222-. 0498 


32-212 


T;imits of 

determination 


Solder 


.2508 


0-100 


.1338 


32-215 


Smeaton 


Ice 


.376 


-20to-l 


.2083 


-4-30.2 


Brunner 


Paraffin .... 


1.0662-4.7707 


0-16; 38-49 


.6621; 2.6505 


32-60.8 
100.4-120 


RodweU 


Porcelain. . . 


.0413 


20-790 


.023 


68-145.4 


Braun 


Wood 


.0325-. 0614 


2-34 


.0181-. 0341 


35.6-93.2 


Limits of 
determination 


Wax 


2.300-15.227 


10-26; 


1.278 


50-78.8 


Kopp 






43-57 


8.46 


109.4-134.6 




Concrete. . . 
Masonry . . . 


14.W 




.0795 




Clark 


.046-. 089 




.0256-. 0494 




Clark 











2G 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



Table XXVII 
COEFFICIENT OF CUBICAL EXPANSION OF LIQUIDS 



Substance. 



aX10» 

per ° C. 



At Temp. 
C. 



aXlO' 
per " r. 



At Temp. 
F. 



Authority. 



Alcohol (methyl) 

Benzene 

Bromine 

Calcium chloride, CaCU, 5.8 per cent. 
Calcium chloride, CaCl2,40.9 per cent. 

Ether 

Hydrochloric acid, HCl+6.25 H2O . . 

Hydrochloric acid, HCl+50 H2O 

Mercury 

Olive oil 

Phenol, C,H,0 

Petroleum, Sp.gr. .8467 

Sodium chloride, NaCl, 1.6 per cent.. 

Sulphuric acid, HsSOi 

Sulphuric acid, H2SO4 



.1433 
.1385 
.1168 
.0506 
.0510 
.2150 
.0489 
.0933 
.0179 
.0742 
.0899 
.1039 
.1067 
.0489 
.0799 



-38-+70 

11-81 

-7-+60 

18-25 

17-24 

-15-+38 

0-30 

0-30 



3-157 
24-120 

0-30 
0-30 



.0796 
.0770 
.0649 
.0281 
.0283 
.1195 
.0272 
.0519 
.0099 
.0412 
.0500 
.0577 
.0593 
.0272 
.0444 



-36-158 
32-178 
19-140 
64-77 
63-75 
5-100 
32-86 
32-86 



97-314 
75-248 

32^86 
32-86 



Pierre 

Kopp 

Pierre 

Decker 

Decker 

Pierre 

Marignao 

Marignac 

Spring 

Pinette 

Frankenheim 

Marignac 

Marignac 

Marignac 



Table XXVIII 

COEFFICIENT OF VOLUMETRIC EXPANSION OF GASES AND VAPORS AT 

CONSTANT PRESSURE 

(Heated without change of state.) 



Substance. 



Pressure (Cm Hg) 



aj,X100 
per Deg. C. 



aj,Xl00 
per Deg. F. 



Authority. 



Air 

Air 

Hydrogen 

Hydrogen 

Carbon dioxide 

Carbon dioxide 

Carbon dioxide 0°-64'' 

Carbon dioxide 84°-100° . . . 

Carbon dioxide 0°-7.5"' 

Carbon dioxide 64 "-100°. . . 

Carbon dioxide 0°-64'' 

Carbon dioxide 0°-7.5° 

Carbon dioxide 0°-64° 

Carbon dioxide 0°-100° 

Carbon monoxide 

Nitrous oxide 

Sulphur dioxide 

Sulphur dioxide 

Water vapor (steam) 0°-119 

Water vapor 0°-141'' 

Water vapor 0°-162° 

Water vapor 0°-200° 

Water vapor 0°-247° 



76 

256 

76 
254 

76 
252 

17.1 atm. 
17.1 atm. 
24.81 atm. 
24.81 atm. 
24.81 atm. 
34.49 atm. 
34.49 atm. 
34.49 atm. 
76 
76 
76 
98 

1 atm. 
1 atm. 
1 atm. 
1 atm. 
1 atm. 



.3671 
.3693 
.36613 
.36616 
.3710 
.3845 
.5136 
.4747 
.7000 
.5435 
.6204 
1.097 
.8450 
.6514 
.3669 
.3719 
.3903 
.3980 
.4187 
.4189 
.4071 
.3938 
.3799 



.2040 

.2055 

.2034 

.20342 

.2060 

.2135 

.2855 

.2635 

.38885 

.3020 

.3446 

.6100 

.470 

.362 

.204 

.2065 

.217 

.221 

.23261 

.23272 

.22617 

.21878 

.2111 



Regnault 

Regnault 

Regnault 

Regnault 

Regnault 

Regnault 

Andrews 

Andrews 

Andrews 

Andrews 

Andrews 

Andrews 

Andrews 

Andrews 

Regnault 

Regnault 

Regnault 

Regnault 

Him 

Him 

Him 

Hirn 

Him 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 
Table XXIX 



27 



COEFFICIENT OF PRESSURE RISE OF GASES AND VAPORS AT CONSTANT 

VOLUME 

(Heated without change of state.) 



SubstaQoe. 



Pressure (Cm Hg) 



«„xioo 

per Deg. C. 



a„X100 
per Deg. F. 



Authority. 



Air 

Air 

Air 

Air 

Air 

Air 

Air 

Air 

Air 

Air 

Air 

Air 

Air 

Air 

Air 

Air 

Carbon dioxicfe 

Carbon dioxide 

Carbon dioxide 

Carbon dioxide 

Carbon dioxide 

Carbon dioxide 0°-64° . . 
Carbon dioxide 64°-100° 
Carbon dioxide 0°-64''. . 
Carbon dioxide 64°-100° 
Carbon dioxide 0°-64°. . 
Carbon dioxide 64°-100°. 

Carbon monoxide 

Hydrogen 

Hydrogen 

Nitrogen 

Nitrous oxide 

Nitrous oxide 

Oxygen 

Sulphur dioxide, SOa. . . 



.6 
1.6 
10.0 
26.0 
37.6 
75.0 
76-83 
11-15 
17-24 
37-51 
76 
200 
2000 
10000 
76 

1 atm. 
1 atm. 
1 atm. 
76-104 
174 
793 

16.4 atm. 

16.5 atm. 
25.87 atm. 
25.87 atm. 
33.53 
33.53 



atm. 
atm. 
atm. 
atm. 
atm. 
atm. 
atm. 
atm. 



.3767 
.3703 
.3663 
.3660 
.3662 
.3665 
.3670 
.3648 
.3651 
.3658 
.3665 
.3690 
.3887 
.4100 
.3671 
.3670 
.3706 
.3726 
.3686 
.3752 
.4252 
.4754 
.4607 
.5728 
.5406 
.6973 
.6334 
.3667 
.3669 
.3656 
.3668 
.3676 
.3705 
.3674 
.3845 



.20915 

.2057 

.2035 

.20335 

.20345 

.20360 

.20370 

.20265 

.20285 

.20320 

.20360 

.205 

.206 

.22775 

.20395 

.20290 

.2059 

.2070 

.20475 

.2085 

.2361 

.2641 

.256 

.3182 

.30035 

.38740 

.35190 

.2037 

.20353 

.2031 

.20375 

.20410 

.206 

.2041 

.21350 



Meleander 
Meleander 
Meleander 
Meleander 
Meleander 
Meleander 
Magnus 
Regnault 
Regnault 
Regnault 
Regnault 
Regnault 
Regnault 
Regnault 
Rowland 
JoUy 
Jolly 

Meleander 
Regnault 
Regnault 
' Regnault 
Andrews 
Andrews 
Andrews 
Andrews 
Andrews 
Andrews 
Regnault 
Regnault 
JoUy 
Regnault 
Regnault 
JoUy 
Jolly 
Jolly 



28 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



Table 

COMPRESSIBILITY OF GASES BY THEIR ISOTHERMALS. VALUES OP PF AT 

AND AT 1 ATMOSPHERE 



Pressure in Atmosphere. 


1 


100 


200 


300 


400 


600 


600 


Oxygen at 


f32°F. 
211.1 
391.1 


1.000 


' .9265 


.9140 
1.4 
1.819 


.9624 
1.4529 
1.8849 


1.0516 

1.532 

1.96 


1.1560 

1.622 

2.05 


1.2690 
1.7202 
2.142 


f 32° F. 

Air at] 210.92 

[392.72 


1.000 


.9730 


1.010 
1.472 
1.886 


1.0974 

1.551 

1.9866 


1.2144 

1.668 

2.096 


1.3400 
1.7825 
2.211 


1.4700 
1 908 
2.3298 


[32°F. 
Nitrogen at { 211 . 1 
[391.28 


1.000 


.9910 


1.0390 
1.4890 
1.9064 


1.1358 
1.5903 
2.1045 


1.2568 
1.7060 
2.1324 


1.3900 
1.8275 
2.2575 


1.5258 
1.9548 
2.3838 


Hydrogen at 


r32°F. 
210.74 
393.5 


1.000 




1.1380 
1.5134 

1.884 


1.2090 
1.5858 
1.956 


1.2828 
1.6588 
2.030 


1.3565 
1.7310 
2.105 


1.4322 
1.8036 
2.1762 


( ^2° F 
Carbon dioxide J 2]^2 

^* 1 38819 


1.000 


.202 
1.03 
1.582 




.559 

.890 

1.493 




.891 
1.201 
1.678 




NHj at 


r32'>F. 
211.28 
362.48 


1.000 




.9290 
.9750 


.8625 
.9555 


.832 
.9380 


.7450 
.8875 


.5850 
.8700 



Calculated from Smithsonian Tables Nos. 55 and 58, reporting Amagat's results 



Table XXXI 
VALUES OF THE GAS CONSTANT B 



Determined from 

Specific Heats by 

R = 777.52{Cp-Cv) 



Determined from 

Volume of One Lb. 

at 32° F. and 

29.92 ins. Hg. 



Authority for 
Specific Volume. 



Hydrogen, Hj 

Oxygen, O2 

Nitrogen, N2 

Air 

Ammonia, NHj 

Carbon dioxide, CO2 . . 
Carbon monoxide, CO 

Methane, CH4 

Benzole, CeHj 

Ethylene, CsH* 



768.267 
49.528 
54.737 
53.338 
92.603 
36.310 
53.726 

110.719 
66.789 
49.450 



765.893 
48.244 
55.981 
53.332 
90.467 
35.084 
55.135 
96.200 
Liquid at 32° 
54.153 



Rayleigh 

Rayleigh 

Rayleigh 

Rayleigh and Leduo 

Leduc 

Rayleigh 

Leduc 

Thomson 

Saussure 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



29 



XXX 

VARIOUS PRESSURES AND TEMPERATURES; THE VALUE OF PV AT 32° F 
TAE£EN AS 1.00. 



700 


800 


900 


1000 




1.3853 

1.827 

2.2414 


1.6032 
1.9336 
2.3432 


1.6200 
2.0412 
2.4462 


1.7350 
2.151 


Critical point 


' Pressure 50 atm. 
.Temperature 180.4° F., 


Wrobleweki 


1.6016 
2.0328 
2.4514 


1.7344 
2.1592 
2.5752 


1.8630 
2.2896 
2.7 


1.992 
2.415 
2.828 


Critical point ■ 


' Pressure 39 atm. 

, Temperature 220° F. , 


■ Olszewski 


1.6618 

2.086 

2.5123 


1.7920 

2.22 

2.64 


1.9341 
2.3544 
2.7765 


2.0680 


Critical point 


' Pressure 35 atm. 

, Temperature 230 . 8° F. , 


Olszewski 


1.5043 

1.876 

2.2484 


1.5776 
1.9552 
2.32 


1.6488 
2.1096 
2.3913 


1.7200 
2.093 


f Pressure 20 atm. 1 
Critical point Dewar 
[ Temperature 390 . 1 ° F. , 








1.656 
1.999 


Critical point 


' Pressitte 27 atm. 
, Temp. +87.66° F. 


• Andrews 


".87i5' 


igooo' 


!93i5" 


".95" 


Critical point 


' Pressure 115 atm. 
, Temp. +266° F. 


■Dewar 



and Table 62 Roth's results; also Table 218 reporting miscellaneous data. 



Table XXXII 

DENSITIES OF GAS AT ONE ATMOSPHERE =29.92" Hg AND 32° F., COMPARING 
EXPERIMENTAL VALUES WITH COMPUTED VALUES FROM MOLECULAR 
WEIGHTS 



Gaa. 


Sp.Gr. 
Alr=l. 


Lba. per 
Cu.ft. 
Exptl. 


Cu.ft. 
per Lb. 


Authority. 


Molecular 
Weight 
Exact. 
H=2. 


Lba. 
Cu.ft. 
from 
Exact 
Molecular 
Weight. 


Molecular 
Weight 
Approx. 


Lbs. 

Cu.ft. 

from 

Approx. 

Molecular 

Weight. 


Hydrogen, H, . . 

Oxygen, O2 

Nitrogen, Nj . . . 
Air 


.0696 

1.053 

.9673 
1.000 

.597 

1.5291 

.9672 
.6576 

;9852 
1.075 
2.01 


.005621 
.08922 
.07829 
.08071 

.04758 

.12269 

.07807 
.04470 
Liquid 
.07951 
.08379 
.16194 


177.9093 

11.208 
12.773 
12.390 

21.017 

8.1506 

12.8090 
22.349 

12.578 
11.9354 
6.1751 


Rayleigh 

Rayleigh 

Rayleigh 

Rayleigh 

and Leduc 

Leduo 

Rayleigh 

Leduc 
Thomson 

Saussure 

Kolbe 

Frankland 


2. 

31.76 
27.80 

1619 

43.75 

27.87 
15.99 

27.98 
29.98 
57.96 


! 08926 
.07813 

.04750 

.12295 

.07833 
.04494 

.07862 
,08426 
.16289 


2 

32 

28 

17 

44 

28 
16 

28 
30 

58 


.08993 
.07869 


Ammonia, NHs. . 
Carbon dioxide 
CO2 


.04778 
.12366 


Carbon mon- 
oxide, CO 

Methane, CH4 . . 
Benzole, CeHe... 
Ethylene, C2H4. . 
Ethane, CaHe. . . 
Butane, C4H10. . . 


.07869 
.04497 

.07868 
.08431 
.16301 



Computed from data reported in Smithsonian Tables, Nos. 71 and 276. 



30 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



Table XXXIII 
IGNITION TEMPERATURES, °F* 



Substance. 



Carbon, C 

Soft coal 

Anthracite 

Peat 

Lignite dust 

Hydrogen, Hz 

Hydrogen, H2 

Hydrogen, Hu 

Carbon monoxide, CO. 
Carbon monoxide, CO. 
Carbon monoxide, CO. 
Methane, CH4 



Ignition Temperature. 



752 

600 

750 

430 

300 

1077 

1124 

1031 

1253 

1347 

1211 

1212 



(Sexton) 



(Strohmeyer) 

(Olsen) 

(Meyer) 

(Le Chatelier) 

(AUen) 

(Meyer) 

(Le Chatelier) 

(Allen) 



Substance, 



Methane, CH4 . . 
Methane, CH4 . . 
Ethane, CaHc . . . 
Ethylene, C2H4. . 
Ethylene, C2H4. . 
Propylene, CsHe. 
Acetylene, C2H2. 
Acetylene, C2H2. 
Propane, CjHg. . 
Alcohol, CaHsOH 
Coal gas 



Ignition Temperature. 



1201 
1213 
1141 
1124 
1124 

940 
1038 

896 
1017 
1292 
1100 



(Meyer) 
(LeChateUer) 
(AUen) 
(Allen) 
(Meyer) 
(Allen) 
(Allen) 
(Robinson) 



(Robinson) 



•Owing to the controlling influences of proportions and other factors on ignition temperatures the value 
given are of doubtful accuracy for the ignition temperature, at least for gases. 



Table XXXIV 
THE CRITICAL POINT 





Symbol. 


Critical Temp. 


Critical Pres- 
sures. 


Critical 
Density 
Water 

at 
4°C=1. 


Authority. 


Criti- 
cal vol. 
Cu.ft. 
per Lb. 




Substance. 


0° C. 


OT. 


Atm. 


Lbs. 

per 

Sq.in. 


Authority. 


Hydrogen 


Hi 
Oj 

Nj 

NHi 
NHj 

COi 
COj 

HjO 
H2O 
H2O 

H2O 

HjO 
HjO 


-243.5 
-118.1 

-146.1 

+130.0 
+131.0 

+ 31.35 
+ 30.921 

+358.1 
+364.3 
+365.0 

+374. 

+374.6 

+374.5 


-390.1 
-180.4 

-232.8 

266. 
267.8 

88.43 
87.67 

676.4 
687.7 
689. 

705.2 

706.3 

706.1 


20 
501 

35.1 

115. 
113. 

72.9 

77.1 

194.61 
200.5 


294 
735 

515 

1690 
1660 

1070 
1130 

2859 
2944 

3200 
3200 


.652 
.44" 

.464. 
.452 

.429 


Olszewski 
1 Wroblewski 
' Dewar 
1 Olszewski 
' Wroblewski 

Dewar 
Vincent and 
Chappuis 

Amagat 

1 Andrews 

2 Cailietet and 

Mathias 
Nadejdini 
Batteli 
Cailietet and 

Colardeau 
Traube and 

Teichner 
Holborn and 

Baumann 
Marks 


26.8 
13. 




Nitrogen 

Ammonia 

Ammonia 

Carbon dioxide. . . 
Carbon dioxide. . . 




Water 


Nadejdini 
Battel! 


Water. . . 


Water 


Water 













TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



31 



Table XXXV 
LATENT HEAT OF VAPORIZATION AT ONE ATMOSPHERE PRESSURE 

Selected from Landolt, Bornstein, Meyerhoff, and Smithsonian Physical Tables. 



Substance. 


Symbol. 


Cal. per Kg. 


B.T.U. per Lb. 


G. 


F. 


Authority. 


Ammonia 


NHa 


294.21 


530 


7 8 


4 6 


Regnault 
Regnault 






291.32 


524.45 


11.04 


51.87 






297.38 


535 


16.0 


60.8 


Regnault 






296.6 


534 


17 


62.6 


Strombeck 


Water 


iisO 


635.9 
532.0 


964.6 
957.6 


100 
100 


212 
212 


Andrews 




Schall 


Benzol 


C.H, 


109. 
132.1 


196 
238 




100 


32 
212 






Regnault 






154.5 


278 


210 


410 


Regnault 


Air 




44.02 
45.4 


79.3 
81.7 






Shearer 






Shearer 


Oxygen 


b 


68.0 
60.9 


106.1 
109.8 ; 


-188 


-306.4 


Shearer 




Estreicher 


Nitrogen 


N 


49.83 


89.6 






Shearer 


Carbon dioxide 


COa 


72.23 


130 


-25 


- 13 


Cailletet 






67.48 


103.2 





32 


Matthias 






66.25 


10 .3 





32 


Chappuis 






60.76 


91.5 


6.5 


43.7 


Matthias 






31.80 


67.2 


22.4 


72.3 


Matthias 






14.40 


25.9 


29.85 


85.7 


Matthiaa 






11.60 


20.9 


30 


86 


Cailletet 






3.72 


6.7 


30.82 


87.4 


Matthias 


Alcohol, methyl 


CHOH 


267.48 


482 


64.5 


148. 


Wirtz 


Alcohol, ethyl 


CjHeOH 


206.4 


372 


78 


172.4 


SchaU 


Alcohol+5% water. . . 




214.25 


386 


78.4 


173.1 


Brix 


Decane 


CioHjj 


60.83 
87.3 


109.5 
157.1 


159.45 
68 


319 
154.4 


Louguinine 




Mabery 










70 


158 


Goldstein 


Octane 


CsHii 


71.1 


128 


125 


257 


Goldstein 







Table XXXVI 
LATENT HEATS OF FUSION 
Selected from Landolt, Bornstein, Meyerhoff, and Smithsonian Physical Tables. 



Substance. 


Symbol. 


Cal. per Kg. 


B.T.U .per Lb. 


C. 


F. 


Authority. 


Aluminum. . . 


Al 


239.4 


432 


625 


1157 


Pionchon 


Lead 


Pb 


5.37 


9.66 


362.2 


619.2 


Person 


Iron 


Fe 
Cu 


6.0 
43.0 


10.8 
77.4 


1000-1050 


1832-1922 


Pionchon 


Copper 


Richards 


Nickel 


Ni 


4.64 


8.35 






Pionchon 




Zn 

Sn 
NHa 


28.1 
14.25 
108.1 


50.5 
25.65 
195 


415 
233 
-75 


779 
451.4 
-102 


Person 


Tin 


Person 


Ammonia. . . . 


Massol 


Ice-water 


H2O 


79.25 


142.5 





32 


Person and Regnault 






79.06 


142.2 





32 


Regnault 






79.24 


142.5 





32 


Desains 






79.91 


143.9 





32 


Smith 






80.025 


144.3 





32 


Bunsen 


Benzol 


CeH. 


30.08 


55.5 


5.3 


41.6 


Fisher 



32 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 
Table XXXVII 



BOILING-POINTS (at 29.92 Hg) 
Selected from Landolt, Bornstein, Meyerhoff, and Smithsonian Physical Tables. 



Class. 



Substance. 



Symbol. 



Boiling-point. 



F. 



Authority. 



Elements 



Inorganic com- 
pounds 



Hydrogen 

Oxygen 

Nitrogen 

Chlorine 

Mercury 

Bromine 

Phosphorus 

Potassium 

Sodium 

Sulphur 

Tin 

Bismuth 

Cadmium 

Lead 

Zinc 

Antimony 

Magnesium 

Aluminum 

Silver 

Copper 

Manganese 

Chromium 

Iron 

Ammonia 

Carbon monoxide 

Carbon dioxide . . 
Sulphur dioxide. . 
Zinc chloride .... 



H 
O 
N 
CI 
Hg 
Br 

P 
K 

Na 

S 

Sn 
Bi 
Cd 
Pb 
Zn 
Sb 
Mg 
Al 
Ag 
Cu 
Mn 
Cr 
Fe 
NH, 
CO 

C02 
S02 

ZnClj 



Air. 



-252.5 
-182.7 
-194.4 

- 33.6 
357 

61.1 

287 
712 

750 

444.7 
2270 
1430 

782 
1525 

918 
1440 
1120 
1800 
1955 
2310 
1900 
2200 
2450 

- 38.5 
-191.5 

- 79.1 

- 10.8 
730 

-192.2 
-191.4 



-412 
-297 
-318 
- 28.5 

674 

142 

558 
1372 

1382 

837 

4118 

2607 

1440 

2777 

1686 

2622 

2047 

3272 

3552 

4192 

3452 

3992 

4442 
-37.4 
-313 

-110.5 
12.6 
1347 

-314 
-312.5 



Dewar, 1901 

Holborn, 1901 

Olszewski 

Regnault 

Crafts-Regnault 

Mean of Thorpe, van dgr 

Plaats 
Schrotter, 1848 
Perman, Ruff, and Johann- 

sen 
Perman, Ruff, and Johann- 

sen 
Rothe, 1903 
Greenwood 
Barus, Greenwood 
Barus, 1894 
Greenwood 
Berthelot 
Greenwood 
Greenwood 
Greenwood 
Greenwood 
Greenwood 
Greenwood 
Greenwood 
Greenwood 
Regnault, 1863 
Mean of Wroblewski and 

Olszewski 
Villard and Jarry 
Regnault, 1863 
Freyer and Meyer 

Wroblewski 
Olszewski 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 
Table XXXYII— Continued 

BOILING-POINTS (at 29.92 Hq) 
Selected from Landolt, Bornstein, Meyerhoff, and Smithsonian Physical Tables. 



33 



Class. 



Substance. 



Symbol. 



Boiling-point. 


C. 


F. 


-165 


-265 


- 93 


-135 


- 45 


- 49 


+ 1 


33.8 


36.3 


97.3 


69 


156.2 


98.4 


209.1 


125.5 


257.9 


150 


302 


173 


343.4 


195 


384 


214 


417.2 


234 


453.2 


252 


485.6 


270 


518 


287 


548.6 


303 


677 


317 


602 


330 


626 


-103 


-153.4 


- 60.2 


- 58.5 


+ 1 


33.8 


36 


96.8 


69 


156.2 


96-99 


205-210 


122-123 


251-255 


140-142 


284-288 


175 


347 


- 85 


-121 


66 


150.8 


78 


172.4 




424 app. 




177 app. 



Authority. 



Hydrocarbon 
constituents of 
liquid and 
gaseous fuels 



ParafiBne series, 
CoHsn-i-: 



Ethylene series, 
CsHsa 



Methane 

Ethane 

Propane 

Butane 

Pentane 

Hexane 

Heptane 

Octane 

Nonane 

Decane 

Undecane 

Dodecane 

Tridecane 

Tetradecane. . . 
Pentadecane. . 
Hexadecane. . . 
Heptadecane. . 
Octadecane. . . 
Nonadecane. . . 

Ethylene 

Propylene. . . . 

Butylene 

Amylene 

Hexylene 

Heptylene. . . . 

Octylene 

Nonylene 

Decylene 

Acetylene 

Methyl alcohol 
Ethyl- alcohol. . 

Naphthas 

Benzines 



CHi 
CaHfi 
CaHg 
C4H10 
CeHij 

CgHi4 

C7H16 
CgHis 
C9H20 
C10H22 
C11H24 
C12H26 
C13H28 

Ci4H30 
C16H32 
C18H34 
C17H36 
C18H38 
C19H40 

C2H4 
C3H6 
C4H8 
C5H10 
C6H12 
C7H14 
CsHi6 

C9H18 

C10H20 

C2H2 

CH30H 

CsHfOH 

Mixture 
Mixture 



Young 

Ladenberg 

Young, Hamlen 

Butlerow, Young 

Thorpe, Young 

Schorlemmer 

Thorpe, Young 

Thorpe, Young 

Kraft 

Kraft 

Kraft 

Kraft 

Kraft 

Kraft 

Kraft 

Kraft 

Kraft 

Kraft 

Kraft 

Olszewski 

Ladenburg-Kriigel 

Sieben 

Wagner 

Wreden 

Morgan 

Moslinger 

Beilstein 

Beilstein 

Villard 



General 
General 



34 HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 

Table XXXVIII 

INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC WEIGHTS 

Selected from Report of the International Committee on Atomic Weights, Journal Amer. 
Chem. Soc, 1910. 



Substance. 


Symbol. 


Atomic Weight, 
= 16. 


Atomic Weight, 
H = l. 


AhlTTllTlUTTl 


Al 
Ca 

C 

CI 
Cu 

H 

Fe 

Pb 

Mg 

Mn - 

Hg 

Ni 

N 


Pt 

K 

Si 
Na 

S 
Sn 
Zn 


27.1 
40.09 
12.00 
35.46 
63.57 
1.008 
55.85 

207.10 
24.32 
54.93 

200.00 
58.68 
14.01 
16.00 

195.00 
39.10 
28.30 
23.00 
32.07 

119.00 
65.37 


26.9 


Calcium 


39.77 


Caibon 


11.99 


Chlorine 


35.19 


Copper 


63.07 


Hydrogen 


1.00 


Iron 


55.41 


Lead 


205.46 


Magnesium 


24.13 


Manganese 


54.49 


Mercury ... 


198.50 


Nickel 


58.21 


Nitrogen . 


13 90 


Oxygen 


15.88 


Platinum 

Potassium 


193.40 
38.79 


Silicon 


28.20 




22 82 


Sulphur 


31.82 


Tin 


118.10 


Zinc 


64 88 







Table XXXIX 
MELTING OR FREEZING-POINTS (at 29.92 Hg) 
Selected from Landolt, Bornstein, Meyerhoff, and Smithsonian Physical Tables. 



Class. 


Substance. 


Symbols. 


Freezing-point. 






C. 


F. 




Elements: 


Hydrogen 

Oxveen 


H 


N 
CI 

Br 
P 

K 

Na 

M 


-258.9 
-230 
-210.5 
-102 

- 38.85 

- 7.3 
44.2 
62.5 
97 

113.5- 
119.5 


-432 

-382.5 

-347 

-151.5 

- 38 

45.2 

111.5 

144.5 

206.5 

236-247 


Travers, 1902 

General 

Fischer-Alt 

Olszewski 

Vincentini and Omodei, 1888 

Van der Plaats, 1886 

Helff, 1893 

Holt and Sims, 1894 

Kurnakow and Puschin, 1902 

Depending on form of S 




Nitrogen 

Chlorine 

Mercury 

Bromine 

Phosphorus 

Potassium 

RoHiiim. 




Sulphur 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 

Table XXXIX— Continued 
MELTING OR FREEZING-POINTS (at 29.92 Ho) 
Selected from Landolt, Bornstein, Meyerhoff, and Smithsonian Physical Tables. 



35 



Class. 



Substance. 



Symbols. 



Freezing-point. 



C. 



Authority. 



Elements: 



Inorganic 
poimds 



Hydrocarbon 
constituents of 
liquid and 
gaseous fuel 

Paraffine series, 
CisHsB+a 



Ethylene Series, , 

CoH2n 



Tin 

Bismuth 

Cadmium 

Lead 

Zinc 

Antimony 

Magnesium 

Aluminum 

Silver 

Gold 

Copper 

Manganese 

Silicon 

Nickel 

Cobalt 

Chromium 

Iron 

Platinum 

Tungsten 

Anmionia 

Calcium chloride 
Carbon monoxide 

Carbon dioxide . . 
Sodium chloride . 
Sulphur dioxide. . 
Zinc chloride .... 
Air 



Ethane 

Nonane 

Decane 

Undecane 

Dodecane 

Tridecane 

Tetradecane . . . . 
Pentadecane . . . . 
Hexadecane . . . . . 
Heptadecanc .... 

Octadecane 

Nonadecane . . . . 



Sn 

Bi . 

Ca 

Pb 

Zn 

Sb 

Mg 

Al 

i^ 

Cu 

Mn 

.Si 

Ni 

Co 

Cr 

Fe 

Pt 

W 

NHs 

CaClj 

CO 

CO, 
NaCl 

SO2 
ZnCla 



Ethylene .... 
Ethyl alcohol . 



C2Ha 
C9H20 
C10H22 
C11H24 
C12H26 
C13H28 
C14H30 
C16H32 
CiaH34 
C17H311 
C18H38 
CuHio 

C2H4 

CsHsOH 



231.5 

269.2 

321 

326.9 

419 

624 

632.6 

657.3 

961 

1063 

1083 

1225 

1420 

1450 

1490 

1505 

1600 

1755 

2950 

- 75.5 
780 

-203 

- 57 
820 

- 76 
262 

-1922 



171.4 
51 
31 
26 
12 

6 

5 
10 
18 
22 
28 
32 



+ 



-169 
-130 



451 

517 

610 

621 

787 

1154 

1171 

1217 

1651 

1947 

1892 

2232 

2592 

2647 

2813 

2792 

2912 

3192 

5347 

-104 
1454 
-331.5 

70.8 
1510 

-105 
504 

-314 

-276.5 

- 59.8 

- 23.8 

- 14.8 
10.4 
21.2 
41 
50 

64.4 
71.6 
82.4 
89.6 

-272 
-202 



Kurnakow and Puschin,1902 

Callendar, 1899 

Kurnakow and Puschin,1902 

Holborn and Day 

Holborn and Day 

Fay and Ashley 

Heycock and Neville, 1895 

Holborn and Day 

Holborn and Day 

Roberts and Austin 

Roberts and Austin 

Day-Sosman 

General 

Camelley, Pictet, 1879 

General 

General 

Roberts and Austin 

Mean of three 

Waidnei^-Burgess, 

Waterburg 
LadenburgandKrugel, 1900 
Ruff and Plato, 1903 
Wroblewski, Olszewski 

(mean) 
General 

Ruff and Plato, 1903 
Faraday, 1845 
Braun, 1875 
Wroblewski, 1884 

LiQtTiD Density 

.446 at 32° F. 

.733 at 32° 

.745 at 32° 

.756 at 32° 

.765 at 32° 

.771 at 32° 

.775 at 40° F. 

.776 at 10° C. 

.775 at 18° C. 

.777 at 22° C. 

.777 at 28° C. 

.777 at 32° 



'F. 
F. 
'F. 
'F. 
■F. 



0. 



.610 

.806 at 32° F. 



36 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



Table XL 
PROPERTIES OF SATURATED STEAM 

(Condensed from Marks and Davis's Steam Tables and Diagrams, 1909, by permission of 
the publishers, Longmans, Green & Co.) 



Vacuum 






Total Heat Above 












in inches 
Hg or 


Absolute 
Pressure 
Pounds 


Tempera- 
ture, 
Faliren- 


32 


°F. 


Latent 

Heat, 
L=H~h 


Volume, 

Cu. Ft. in 

1 Lb. of 


Weight of 

1 Cu. Ft. 

Steam, 


Entropy 
of the 
Water. 


Entropy 


Gauge 
Pressure 
Pounds 


In the 


In the 


of Evap- 


per Sq.in 


heat. 


Water, 

h 

Heat-unit 


Steam, 

H 

Heat-unitE 


Heat-unit 


Steam. 


Pound. 


oration. 


perSq.in 
















29.74 


0.0886 


32 


0.00 


1073.4 


1073.4 


3294 


0.000304 


0.0000 


2.1832 


29.67 


0.1217 


40 


8.05 


1076.9 


1068.9 


2438 


0.000410 


0.0162 


2.1394 


29.56 


0.1780 


50 


18.08 


1081.4 


1063.3 


1702 


0.000587 


0.0361 


2.0865 


29.40 


0.2562 


60 


28.08 


1085.9 


1057.8 


1208 


0.000828 


0.0555 


2.0358 


29.18 


0.3626 


70 


38.06 


1090.3 


1052.3 


871 


0.001148 


0.0745 


1.9868 


28.89 


0.505 


80 


48.03 


1094.8 


1046.7 


636.8 


0.001570 


0.0932 


1.9398 


28.50 


0.696 


90 


68.00 


1099.2 


1041.2 


469.3 


0.002131 


0.1114 


1.8944 


28.00 


0.946 


100 


67.97 


1103.6 


1035.6 


350.8 


0.002851 


0.1296 


1.8505 


27.88 


1 


101.83 


69.8 


1104.4 


1034.6 


333.0 


0.00300 


0.1327 


1.8427 


25.85 


2 


126.15 


94.0 


1115.0 


1021.0 


173.5 


0.00576 


0.1749 


1.7431 


23.81 


3 


141.52 


109.4 


1121.6 


1012.3 


118.5 


0.00845 


0.2008 


1.6840 


21.78 


4 


153.01 


120.9 


1126.5 


1005.7 


90.5 


0.01107 


0.2198 


1.6416 


19.74 


5 


162.28 


130.1 


1130.5 


1000.3 


73.33 


0.01364 


0.2348 


1.6084 


17.70 


6 


170.06 


137.9 


1133.7 


995.8 


61.89 


0.01616 


0.2471 


1.5814 


15.67 


7 


176.85 


144.7 


1136.5 


991.8 


53.56 


0.01867 


0.2579 


1.5582 


13.63 


8 


182.86 


150.8 


1139.0 


988.2 


47.27 


0.02115 


0.2673 


1.5380 


11.60 


9 


188.27 


156.2 


1141.1 


985.0 


42.36 


0.02361 


0.2766 


1.5202 


9.56 


10 


193.22 


161.1 


1143.1 


982.0 


38.38 


0.02606 


0.2832 


1.5042 


7.52 


11 


197.75 


165.7 


1144.9 


979.2 


35.10 


0.02849 


0.2902 


1.4895 


5.49 


12 


201.96 


169.9 


1146.5 


976.6 


32.36 


0.03090 


0.2967 


1.4760 


3.45 


13 


205.87 


173.8 


1148.0 


974.2 


30.03 


0.03330 


0.3025 


1.4639 


1.42 
lbs. 


14 


209.55 


177.5 


1149.4 


971.9 


28.02 


0.03569 


0.3081 


1.4623 


gauge 


14.70 


212 


180.0 


1150.4 


970.4 


26.79 


0.03732 


0.3118 


1.4447 


0.3 


15 


213.0 


181.0 


1150.7 


969.7 


26.27 


0.03806 


0.3133 


1.4416 


1.3 


16 


216.3 


184.4 


1152.0 


967.6 


24.79 


0.04042 


0.3183 


1.4311 


2.3 


17 


219.4 


187.5 


1153.1 


965.6 


23.38 


0.04277 


0.3229 


1.4215 


3.3 


18 


222.4 


190.5 


1154.2 


963.7 


22.16 


0.04512 


0.3273 


1.4127 


4.3 


19 


225.2 


193.4 


1155.2 


961.8 


21.07 


0.04746 


0.3315 


1.4046 


5.3 


20 


228.0 


196.1 


1156.2 


960.0 


20.08 


0.04980 


0.3355 


1.3965 


6.3 


21 


230.6 


198.8 


1157.1 


958.3 


19.18 


0.05213 


0.3393 


1.3887 


7.3 


22 


233.1 


201.3 


1158.0 


956.7 


18.37 


0.05445 


0.3430 


1.3811 


8.3 


23 


235.5 


203.8 


1158.8 


955.1 


17.62 


0.05676 


0.3465 


1.3739 


9.3 


24 


237.8 


206.1 


1159.6 


953.5 


16.93 


0.05907 


0.3499 


1.3670 


10.3 


25 


240.1 


208.4 


1160.4 


952.0 


16.30 


0.0614 


0.3532 


1.3604 


11.3 


26 


242.2 


210.6 


1161.2 


950.6 


15.72 


0.0636 


0.3564 


1.3542 


12.3 


27 


244.4 


212.7 


1161.9 


949.2 


15.18 


0.0659 


0.3594 


1.3483 


13.3 


28 


246.4 


214.8 


1162.6 


947.8 


14.67 


0.O682 


0.3623 


1.3425 


14.3 


29 


248.4 


216.8 


1163.2 


946.4 


14.19 


0.0705 


0.3652 


1.3367 


15.3 


30 


250.3 


218.8 


1163.9 


945.1 


13.74 


D.0728 


0.3680 


1.3311 


16.3 


31 


252.2 


220.7 


1164.5 


943.8 


13.32 


3.0761 


0.3707 


1.3267 


17.3 


32 


254.1 


222.6 


1165.1 


942.5 


12.93 


D.0773 


0.3733 


1.3205 


18.3 


33 


255.8 


224.4 


1165.7 


941.3 


12.57 


3.0795 


0.3759 


1.3155 


19.3 


34 


257.6 


226.2 


1166.3 


940.1 


12.22 


3.0818 


0.3784 


1.3107 


20.3 


35 


259.3 


227.9 


1166.8 


938.9 


11.89 


).0841 


0.3808 


1.3060 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 
Table XL — Continued 



37 









Total Heat Above 


















3a° 


F. 












Gauge 


Absolute 
Pressure 


Tempera- 
ture, 






Latent 
Heat, 


Volume, 
Cu. Ft. in 


Weight of 
1 Cu. Ft. 


Entropy 
of the 
Water. 




Pressure 






Entropy 


Pounds 


Pounds 


Fahren- 


In the 


In the 


L=H-h 


1 Lb. of 


Steami, 


of Evap- 


per Sq.in. 


per Sq.in. 


heat. 


Water, 

h 

Heat-units 


Steam, 

H 

Heat-units 


Heat-units 


Steam. 


Pound. 


oration. 


















21.3 


36 


261.0 


229.6 


1167.3 


937.7 


11.58 


0.0863 


0.3832 


1.3014 


22.3 


37 


262.6 


231.3 


1167.8 


936.6 


11.29 


0.0886 


0.3865 


1.2969 


23.3 


38 


264.2 


232.9 


1168.4 


936.6 


11.01 


0.0908 


0.3877 


1.2925 


24.3 


39 


265.8 


234.5 


1168.9 


934.4 


10.74 


0.0931 


0.3899 


1.2882 


25.3 


40 


267.3 


236.1 


1169.4 


933.3 


10.49 


0.0953 


0.3920 


1.2841 


26.3 • 


41 


268.7 


237.6 


1169.8 


932.2 


10.25 


0.0976 


0.3941 


1.2800 


27.3 


42 


270.2 


239.1 


1170.3 


931.2 


10.02 


0.0998 


0.3962 


1.2769 


28.3 


43 


271.7 


240.5 


1170.7 


930.2 


9.80 


0.1020 


0.3982 


1.2720 


29.3 


44 


273.1 


242.0 


1171.2 


929.2 


9.69 


0.1043 


0.4002 


1.2681 


30.3 


45 


274.5 


243.4 


1171.6 


928.2 


9.39 


0.1065 


0.4021 


1.2644 


31.3 


46 


276.8 


244.8 


1172.0 


927.2 


9.20 


0.1087 


0.4040 


1.2607 


32.3 


47 


277.2 


246.1 


1172.4 


926.3 


9.02 


0.1109 


0.4059 


1.2671 


33.3 


48 


278.5 


247.5 


1172.8 


925.3 


8.84 


0.1131 


0.4077 


1.2536 


34.3 


49 


279.8 


248.8 


1173.2 


924.4 


8.67 


0.1153 


0.4095 


1.2502 


35.3 


50 


281.0 


250.1 


1173.6 


923.5 


8.51 


0.1175 


0.4113 


1.2468 


36.3 


51 


282.3 


251.4 


1174.0 


922.6 


8.35 


0.1197 


0.4130 


1.2432 


37.3 


52 


283.5 


252.6 


1174.3 


921.7 


8.20 


0.1219 


0.4147 


1.2405 


38.3 


53 


284.7 


253.9 


1174.7 


920.8 


8.06 


0.1241 


0.4164 


1.2370 


39.3 


54- 


285.9 


255.1 


1176.0 


919.9 


7.91 


0.1263 


0.4180 


1.2339 


40.3 


55 


287.1, 


256.3 


1175.4 


919.0 


7.78 


0.1285 


0.4196 


1.2309 


41.3 


66 


288.2 


267.5 


1175.7 


918.2 


7.66 


0.1307 


0.4212 


1.2278 


42.3 


67 


289.4 


258.7 


1176.0 


917.4 


7.52 


0.1329 


0.4227 


1.2248 


43.3 


58 


290.5 


259.8 


1176.4 


916.6 


7.40 


0.1350 


0.4242 


1.2218 


44.3 


59 


291.6 


261.0 


1176.7 


915.7 


7.28 


0.1372 


0.4257 


1.2189 


45.3 


60 


292.7 


262.1 


1177.0 


914.9 


7.17 


0.1394 


0.4272 


1.2160 


46.3 


61 


293.8 


263.2 


1177.3 


914.1 


7.06 


0.1416 


0.4287 


1.2132 


47.3 


62 


294.9 


264.3 


1177.6 


913.3 


6.95 


0.1438 


0.4302 


1.2104 


48.3 


63 


295.9 


265.4 


1177.9 


912.6 


6.85 


0.1460 


0.4316 


1.2077 


49.3 


64 • 


297.0 


266.4 


1178.2 


911.8 


6.75 


0.1482 


0.4330 


1.2050 


60.3 


65 


298.0 


267.5 


1178.6 


911.0 


6.65 


0.1503 


0.4344 


1.2024 


61.3 


66 


299.0 


268.5 


1178.8 


910.2 


6.56 


0.1525 


0.4358 


1.1998 


52.3 


67 


300.0 


269.6 


1179.0 


909.5 


6.47 


0.1647 


0.4371 


1.1972 


53.3 


68 


301.0 


270.6 


1179.3 


908.7 


6.38 


0.1569 


0.4386 


1.1946 


54.3 


69 


302.0 


271.6 


1179.6 


908.0 


6.29 


0.1590 


0.4398 


1.1921 


56.3 


70 


302.9 


272.6 


1179.8 


907.2 


6.20 


0.1612 


0.4411 


1.1896 


66.3 


71 


303.9 


273.6 


1180.1 


906.6 


6.12 


0.1634 


0.4422 


1.1872 


57.3 


72 


304.8 


274.5 


1180.4 


905.8 


6.04 


0.1656 


0.4437 


1.1848 


58.3 


73 


305.8 


275.5 


1180.6 


905.1 


5.96 


0.1678 


0.4449 


1.1825 


59.3 


74 


306.7 


276.5 


1180.9 


904.4 


6.89 


0.1699 


0.4462 


1 1801 


60.3 


75 


307.6 


277.4 


1181.1 


903.7 


6.81 


0.1721 


0.4474 


1.1778 


61.3 


76 


308.5 


278.3 


1181.4 


903.0 


5.74 


0.1743 


0.4487 


1.1755 


62.3 


77 


309.4 


279.3 


1181.6 


902.3 


5.67 


0.1764 


0.4499 


1.1730 


63.3 


78 


310.3 


280.2 


1181.8 


901.7 


5.60 


0.1786 


0.4511 


1.1712 


64.3 


79 


311.2 


281.1 


1182.1 


901.0 


6.64 


0.1808 


0.4523 


1.1687 


65.3 


80 


312.0 


282.0 


1182.3 


900.3 


6.47 


0.1829 


0.4535 


1.1665 


66.3 


81 


312.9 


282.9 


1182.6 


899.7 


6.41 


0.1861 


0.4546 


1.1644 


67.3 


82 


313.8 


283.8 


1182.8 


899.0 


5.34 


0.1873 


0.4557 


1.1623 


68.3 


83 


314.6 


284.6 


1183.0 


898.4 


5.28 


0.1894 


0.4568 


1.1602 



38 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 
Table XL — Continued 









Total Heat Above 
32° F. 












Gauge 


Absolute 

Pressure 

Pounds 

per Sq.in. 


Tempera- 
ture, 
Fahren- 
heat. 






Latent 

Heat, 

L=H-k 

Heat-units 


Volume, 

Cu. Ft. in 

1 Lb. of 

Steam. 


Weight of 
1 Cu. Ft. 
Steam, 
Pound. 


Entropy 
of the 
Water. 


Entropy 
of Evap- 
oration. 


Pressure 

Pounds 

per Sq.in 


Iq the 

Water, 

h 

Heat-unita 


In the 

Steam, 

H 

Heat-unita 


















69.3 


84 


315.4 


285.5 


1183,2 


897.7 


5.22 


0.1915 


0.4579 


1.1581 


70.3 


85 


316.3 


286.3 


1183.4 


897.1 


5.16 


0.1937 


0.4590 


1.1561 


71.3 


86 


317.1 


287.2 


1183.6 


896.4 


5.10 


0.1959 


0.4601 


1.1540 


72.3 


87 


317.9 


288.0 


1183.8 


895.8 


5.05 


0.1980 


0.4612 


1.1520 


73.3 


88 


318.7 


288.9 


1184.0 


895.2 


5.00 


0.2001 


0.4623 


1.1500 


74.3 


89 


319.5 


289.7 


1184.2 


894.6 


4.94 


0.2023 


0.4633 


1.1481 


75.3 


90 


320.3 


290.5 


1184.4 


893.9 


4.89 


0.2044 


0.4644 


1.1461 


76.3 


91 


321.1 


291.3 


1184.6 


893.3 


4.84 


0.2065 


0.4654 


1.1442 


77.3 


92 


321.8 


292.1 


1184.8 


892.7 


4.79 


0.2087 


0.4664 


1.1423 


78.3 


93 


322.6 


292.9 


1185.0 


892.1 


4.74 


0.2109 


0.4674 


1.1404 


79.3 


94 


323.4 


293.7 


1185.2 


891.5 


4.69 


0.2130 


0.4684 


1.1385 


80.3 


95 


324.1 


294.5 


1185.4 


890.9 


4.65 


0.2151 


0.4694 


1.1367 


81.3 


96 


324.9 


295.3 


1185.6 


890.3 


4.60 


0.2172 


0.4704 


1.1348 


82.3 


97 


325.6 


296.1 


1185.8 


889.7 


4.56 


0.2193 


0.4714 


1.1330 


83.3 


98 


326.4 


296.8 


1186.0 


889.2 


4.51 


0.2215 


0.4724 


1.1312 


84.3 


99 


327.1 


297.6 


1186.2 


888.6 


4.47 


0.2237 


0.4733 


1.1295 


85.3 


100 


327.8 


298.3 


1186.3 


888.0 


4.429 


0.2258 


0.4743 


1.1277 


87.3 


102 


329.3 


299.8 


1186.7 


886.9 


4.347 


0.2300 


0.4762 


1.1242 


89.3 


104 


330.7 


301.3 


1187.0 


885.8 


4.268 


0.2343 


0.4780 


1.1208 


91.3 


106 


332.0 


302.7 


1187.4 


884.7 


4.192 


0.2336 


0.4798 


1.1174 


93.3 


108 


333.4 


304.1 


1187.7 


883.6 


4.118 


0.2429 


0.4816 


1.1141 


95.3 


110 


334.8 


305.5 


1188.0 


882.5 


4.047 


0.2472 


0.4834 


1.1108 


97.3 


112 


336.1 


306.9 


1188.4 


881.4 


3.978 


0.2514 


0.4852 


1.1076 


99.3 


114 


337.4 


308.3 


1188.7 


880.4 


3.912 


0.2556 


0.4869 


1.1045 


101.3 


116 


338.7 


309.6 


1189.0 


879.3 


3.848 


0.2599 


0.4886 


1.1014 


103.3 


118 


340.0 


311.0 


1189.3 


878.3 


3.786 


0.2641 


0.4903 


1.0984 


105.3 


120 


341.3 


312.3 


1189.6 


877.2 


3.726 


0.2683 


0.4919 


1.0954 


107.3 


122 


342.6 


313.6 


1189.8 


876.2 


3.668 


0.2726 


0.4935 


1.0924 


109.3 


124 


343.8 


314.9 


1190.1 


875.2 


3.611 


0.2769 


0.4951 


1.0895 


111.3 


126 


345.0 


316.2 


1190.4 


874.2 


3.556 


0.2812 


0.4967 


1.0865 


113.3 


128 


346.2 


317.4 


1190.7 


873.3 


3.504 


0.2854 


0.4982 


1.0837 


115.3 


130 


347.4 


318.6 


1191.0 


872.3 


3.452 


0.2897 


0.4998 


1.0809 


117.3 


132 


348.5 


319.9 


1191.2 


871.3 


3.402 


0.2939 


0.5013 


1.0782 


119.3 


134 


349.7 


321.1 


1191.5 


870.4 


3.354 


0.2981 


0.5028 


1.0755 


121.3 


136 


350.8 


322.3 


1191.7 


869.4 


3.308 


0.3023 


0.5043 


1.0728 


123.3 


138 


352.0 


323.4 


1192.0 


868.5 


3.263 


0.3065 


0.5057 


1.0702 


125.3 


140 


353.1 


324.6 


1192.2 


867.6 


3.219 


0.3107 


0.5072 


1.0675 


127.3 


142 


354.2 


325.8 


1192.5 


866.7 


3.175 


0.3150 


0.5086 


1.0649 


129.3 


144 


355.3 


326.9 


1192.7 


865.8 


3.133 


0.3192 


0.5100 


1.0624 


131.3 


146 


356.3 


328.0 


1192.9 


864.9 


3.092 


0.3234 


0.5114 


1.0599 


133.3 


148 


357.4 


329.1 


1193.2 


864.0 


3.052 


0.3276 


0.5128 


1.0574 


135.3 


150 


358.5 


330.2 


1193.4 


863.2 


3.012 


0.3320 


0.5142 


1.0550 


137.3 


152 


359.5 


331.4 


1193.6 


862.3 


2.974 


0.3362 


0.5155 


1.0525 


139.3 


154 


360.5 


332.4 


1193.8 


861.4 


2.938 


0.3404 


0.5169 


1.0501 


141.3 


156 


361.6 


333.5 


1194.1 


860.6 


2.902 


0.3446 


0.5182 


1.0477 


143.3 


158 


362.6 


334.6 


1194.3 


859.7 


2.868 


0.3488 


0.5195 


1.0454 


145.3 


160 


363.6 


335.6 


1194.5 


858.8 


2.834 


0.3529 


0.5208 


1.0431 


147.3 


.162 


364.6 


336.7 


1194.7 


858.0 


2.801 


0.3570 


0.5220 


1.0409 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 
Table XL — Continued 



39 









Total Heat Above 


















32° 


F. 












Gauge 


Absolute 


Tempera- 






Latent 


Volume, 


Weight of 






Pressure 


Pressure 


ture, 






Heat, 


Cu. Ft. in 


1 Cu. Ft. 


Entropy 


Entropy 


Pounds 


Pounds 


Fahren- 


In the 


In the 


L=H-h 


1 Lb. of 


Steam, 


of the 
Water. 


of Evap- 


per Sq.iQ. 


per Sq.in. 


heat. 


Water, 

h 

Heat- units 


Steam, 

H 

Heat-units 


Heat-units 


Steam. 


Found. 


oration. 


















149.3 


164 


365.6 


337.7 


1194.9 


857.2 


2.769 


0.3612 


0.6233 


1.0387 


151.3 


166 


366.5 


338.7 


1196.1 


856.4 


2.737 


0.3654 


0.6245 


1.0365 


153.3 


168 


367.5 


339.7 


1195.3 


856.5 


2.706 


0.3696 


0.6267 


1.0343 


155.3 


170 


368.5 


340.7 


1196.4 


864.7 


2.675 


0.3738 


0.6269 


1.0321 


157.3 


172 


369.4 


341.7 


1195,6 


853.9 


2.645 


0.3780 


0.5281 


1.0300 


159.3 


174 


370.4 


342.7 


1196.8 


853.1 


2.616 


0.3822 


0.5293 


1.0278 


161.3 


176 


371.3 


343.7 


1196.0 


852.3 


2.688 


0.3864 


0.6305 


1.0257 


163.3 


178 


372.2 


344.7 


1196.2 


851.5 


2.560 


0.3906 


0.5317 


1.0236 


165.3 


180 


373.1 


345.6 


1196.4 


850.8 


2.533 


0.3948 


0.5328 


1.0216 


167.3 


182 


374.0 


346.6 


1196.6 


850.0 


2.507 


0.3989 


0.6339 


1.0195 


169.3 


184 


374.9 


347.6 


1196.8 


849.2 


2.481 


0.4031 


0.6361 


1.0174 


171.3 


186 


375.8 


348.6 


1196.9 


848.4 


2.466 


0.4073 


0.6362 


1.0154 


173.3 


188 


376.7 


349.4 


1197.1 


847.7 


2.430 


0.4115 


0.6373 


1.0134 


175.3 


190 


377.6 


350.4 


1197.3 


846.9 


2.406 


0.4157 


0.6384 


1.0114 


177.3 


192 


378.5 


361.3 


1197.4 


846.1 


2.381 


0.4199 


0.6395 


1.0096 


179.3 


194 


379.3 


362.2 


1197.6 


846.4 


2.358 


0.4241 


0.6405 


1.0076 


181.3 


196 


380.2 


353.1 


1197.8 


844.7 


2.336 


0.4283 


0.6416 


1.0066 


183.3 


198 


381.0 


354.0 


1197.9 


843.9 


2.312 


0.4325 


0.5426 


1.0038 


185.3 


200 


381.9 


364.9 


1198.1 


843.2 


2.290 


0.437 


0.6437 


1.0019 


190.3 


205 


384.0 


357.1 


1198.6 


841.4 


2.237 


0.447 


0.5463 


0.9973 


195.3 


210 


386.0 


359.2 


1198.8 


839.6 


2.187 


0.467 


0.6488 


0.9928 


200.3 


215 


388.0 


361.4 


1199.2 


837.9 


2.138 


0.468 


0.6613 


0.9885 


205.3 


220 


389.9 


363.4 


1199.6 


836.2 


2.091 


0.478 


0.5538 


0.9841 


210.3 


225 


391.9 


365.5 


1199.9 


834.4 


2.046 


0.489 


0.5662 


0.9799 


215.3 


230 


393.8 


367.6 


1200.2 


832.8 


2.004 


0.499 


0.5586 


0.9758 


220.3 


235 


395.6 


369.4 


1200.6 


831.1 


1.964 


0.509 


0.5610 


0.9717 


225.3 


240 


397.4 


371.4 


1200.9 


829.5 


1.924 


0.620 


0.5633 


0.9676 


230.3 


245 


399.3 


373.3 


1201.2 


827.9 


1.887 


0.530 


0.6655 


0.9638 


235.3 


250 


401.1 


375.2 


1201.5 


826.3 


1.860 


0.541 


0.6676 


0.9600 


246.3 


260 


404.5 


378.9 


1202.1 


823.1 


1.782 


9.561 


0.5719 


0.9526 


255.3 


270 


407.9 


382.5 


1202.6 


820.1 


1.718 


0.582 


0.5760 


0.9454 


265.3 


280 


411.2 


386.0 


1203.1 


817.1 


1.658 


0.603 


0.5800 


0.9385 


275.3 


290 


414.4 


389.4 


1203.6 


814.2 


1.602 


0.624 


0.6840 


0.9316 


285.3 


300 


417.5 


392.7 


1204.1 


811.3 


1.651 


0.646 


0.5878 


0.9251 


295.3 


310 


420.5 


395.9 


1204.6 


808.5 


1.602 


0.666 


0.6915 


0.9187 


305.3 


320 


423.4 


399.1 


1204.9 


805.8 


1.456 


0.687 


0.6961 


0.9126 


315.3 


330 


426.3 


402.2 


1206.3 


803.1 


1.413 


0.708 


0.5986 


0.9065 


325.3 


340 


429.1 


405.3 


1206.7 


800.4 


1.372 


0.729 


0.6020 


0.9006 


335.3 


360 


431.9 


408.2 


1206.1 


797.8 


1.334 


0.750 


0.6053 


0.8949 


345.3 


360 


434.6 


411.2 


1206.4 


795.3 


1.298 


0.770 


0.6085 


0.8894 


355.3 


370 


437.2 


414.0 


1206.8 


792.8 


1.264 


0.791 


0.6116 


0.8840 


365.3 


380 


439.8 


416.8 


1207.1 


790.3 


1.231 


0.812 


0.6147 


0.8788 


375.3 


390 


442.3 


419.5 


1207.4 


787.9 


1.200 


0.833 


0.6178 


0.8737 


385.3 


400 


444.8 


422 


1208 


786 


1.17 


0.86 


0.621 


0.868 


435.3 


450 


456.5 


436 


1209 


774 


1.04 


0.96 


0.636 


0.844 


485.3 


500 


467.3 


448 


1210 


762 


0.93 


1.08 


0.648 


0.822 


535.3 


650 


477.3 


469 


1210 


761 


0.83 


1.20 


0.669 


0.801 


685.3 


600 


486.6 


469 


1210 


741 


0.76 


1.32 


0.670 


0.783 



40 



HANDBOOK OP THERMODYNAMIC 



Table XLI ^ >, Z.'^ 
PROPERTIES OF SUPERHEATED STEAM 

(Condensed from Marks and Davis's Steam Tables and Diagrams) 
=apecifio volume in cubic feet per pound, k =total heat, from water at 32° F. in B.T.U. per pound, 
n = entropy, from water at 32°. 



Pressure 
Absolute, 


Temp. 


Degrees of Superheat. 


Founds 


Sat. 




















per Sq.in. 


Steam. 





20 


so 


100 


150 


200 


250 


300 


400 


500 


20 


228.0 


V 20.08 


20.73 


21.69 


23.25 


24.80 


26.33 


27.85 


29.37 


32.39 


35.40 






h 1156.2 


1165.7 


1179.9 


1203.5 


1227.1 


1250.6 


1274.1 


1297.6 


1344.8 


1392.2 






n 1.7320 


1.7456 


1.766^ 


1.7961 


1.8251 


1.8524 


1.8781 


1.9026 


1.9479 


1.9893 


40 


267.3 


V 10.49 


10.83 


11.33 


12.13 


12.93 


13.70 


14.48 


15.25 


16.78 


18.30 






h 1169.4 


1179.3 


1194.0 


1218.4 


1242.4 


1266.4 


1290.3 


1314.1 


1361.6 


1409.3 






n 1.6761 


1.6896 


1.7089 


1.7392 


1.7674 


1.7940 


1.8189 


1.8427 


1.8867 


1.9271 


60 


292.7 


V 7.17 


7.40 


7.75 


8.30 


8.84 


9.36 


9.89 


10.41 


11.43 


12.45 






h 1177.0 


1187.3 


1202.6 


1227.6 


1252.1 


1276.4 


1300.4 


1324.3 


1372.2 


1420.0 






n 1.6432 


1.6568 


1.6761 


1.7062 


1.7342 


1.7603 


1.7849 


1.8081 


1.8511 


1.8908 


80 


312.0 


V 5.47 


5.65 


5.92 


6.34 


6.75 


7.17 


7.56 


7.96 


8.72 


9.49 






h 1182.3 


1193.0 


1208.8 


1234.3 


1259.0 


1283.6 


1307.8 


1331.9 


1379.8 


1427.9 






n 1.6200 


1.6338 


1.6532 


1.6833 


1.7110 


1.7368 


1.7612 


1.7840 


1.8265 


1.8658 


100 


327.8 


v4.43 


4.68 


4.79 


5.14 


5.47 


5.80 


6.12 


6.44 


7.07 


7.69 






h 1186.3 


1197.5 


1213.8 


1239.7 


1264.7 


1289.4 


1313.6 


1337.8 


1386.9 


1434.1 






n 1.6020 


1.6160 


1.6358 


1.6668 


1.6933 


1.7188 


1.7428 


1.7656 


1.8079 


1.8468 


120 


341.3 


v3.73 


3.85 


4.04 


4.33 


4.62 


4.89 


5.17 


6.44 


5.96 


6.48 






h 1189.6 


1201.1 


1217.9 


1244.1 


1269.3 


1294.1 


1318.4 


1342.7 


1391.0 


1439.4 






n 1.5873 


1.6016 


1.6216 


1.6517 


1.6789 


1.7041 


1.7280 


1.7505 


1.7924 


1.8311 


140 


353.1 


V 3.22 


3.32 


3.49 


3.76 


4.00 


4.24 


4.48 


4.71 


6.16 


6.61 






h 1192.2 


1204.3 


1221.4 


1248.0 


1273.3 


1298.2 


1322.6 


1346.9 


1396.4 


1443.8 






n 1.674? 


1.6894 


1.6096 


1.6395 


1.6666 


1.6916 


1.7152 


1.7376 


1.7792 


1.8177 


160 


363.6 


v2.83 


2.93 


3.07 


3.30 


3.53 


3.71 


3.95 


4.15 


4.66 


4.95 






h 1194.6 


1207.0 


1224.5 


1251.3 


1276.8 


1301.7 


1326.2 


1350.6 


1399.3 


1447.9 






n 1.5639 


1.5789 


1.5993 


1.6292 


1.6661 


1.6810 


1.7043 


1.7266 


1.7680 


1.8063 


180 


373.1 


V 2.53 


2.62 


2.76 


2.96 


3.16 


3.35 


3.64 


3.72 


4.09 


4.44 






h 1196.4 


1209.4 


1227.2 


1254.3 


1279.9 


1304.8 


1329.6 


1253.9 


1402.7 


1451.4 






n 1.5543 


1.5697 


1.6904 


1.6201 


1.6468 


1.6716 


1.6948 


1.7169 


1.7581 


1.7962 


200 


381.9 


V 2.29 


2.37 


2.49 


2.68 


2.86 


3.04 


3.21 


3.38 


3.71 


4.03 






h 1198.1 


1211.6 


1229.8 


1257.1 


1282.6 


1307.7 


1332.4 


1367.0 


1405.9 


1454.7 






n 1.6456 


1.5614 


1.5823 


1.6120 


1.6385 


1.6632 


1.6862 


1.7082 


1.7493 


1.7872 


220 


389.9 


v2.09 


2.16 


2.28 


2.46 


2.62 


2.78 


2.94 


3.10 


3.40 


3.69 






h 1199.6 


1213.6 


1232.2 


1259.6 


1285.2 


1310.3 


1335.1 


1369.8 


1408.8 


1457.7 






n 1.5379 


1.5541 


1.5753 


1.6049 


1.6312 


1.6558 


1.6787 


1.7005 


1.7415 


1.7792 


240 


397.4 


V 1.92 


1.99 


2.09 


2.26 


2.42 


2.67 


2.71 


2.85 


3.13 


3,40 






h 1200.9 


1215.4 


1234.3 


1261. a 


1287.6 


1312.8 


1337.6 


1362.3 


1411.5 


1460.5 






n 1.6309 


1.5476 


1.5690 


1.6986 


1.6246 


1.6492 


1.6720 


1.6937 


1.7344 


1.7721 


260 


404.5 


V 1.78 


1.84 


1.94 


2.10 


2.24 


2.39 


2.62 


2.66 


2.91 


3.16 






h 1202.1 


1217.1 


1236.4 


1264.1 


1289.9 


1315.1 


1340.0 


1364.7 


1414.0 


1463.2 






n 1.6244 


1.6416 


1.6631 


1.6926 


1.6186 


1.6430 


1.6668 


1.6874 


1.7280 


1.7655 


280 


411.2 


V 1.66 


1.72 


1.81 


1.95 


2.09 


2.22 


2.36 


2.48 


2.72 


2.95 






h 1203.1 


1218.7 


1238.4 


1266.2 


1291.9 


1317.2 


1342.2 


1367.0 


1416.4 


1465.7 






n 1.6185 


1.5362 


1.6580 


1.5873 


1.6133 


1.6375 


1.6603 


1.6818 


1.7223 


1.7597 


300 


417.6 


V 1.65 


1.60 


1.69 


1.83 


1.96 


2.09 


2.21 


2.33 


2.55 


2.77 






h 1204.1 


1220.2 


1240.3 


1268.2 


1294.0 


1319.3 


1344.3 


1369.2 


1418.6 


1468.0 






n 1.6129 


1.6310 


1.6530 


1.6824 


1.6082 


1.6323 


1.6550 


1.6766 


1.7168 


1.7641 


350 


431.9 


V 1.33 


1.38 


1.46 


1.58 


1.70 


1.81 


1.92 


2.02 


2.22 


2.41 






h 1206.1 


1223.9 


1244.6 


1272.7 


1298.7 


1324.1 


1349.3 


1374.3 


1424.0 


1473.7 






n 1.6002 


1.5199 


1.5423 


1.6715 


1.6971 


1.6210 


1.6436 


1.6660 


1.7052 


1.7422 


400 


444.8 


l\-'^^ . 


1.21 


1.28 


1.40 


1.60 


1.60 


1.70 


1.79 


1.97 


2.14 






h 1207.7 


1227.2 


1248.6 


1276.9 


1303.0 


1328.6 


1363.9 


1379.1 


1429.0 


1478.9 






n 1.4894 


1.6107 


1.5336 


1.5625 


1.5880 


1.6117 


1.6342 


1.6554 


1.6955 


1.7323 


450 


456.5 


V 1.04 


1.08 


1.14 


1.25 


1.35 


1.44 


1.53 


1.61 


1.77 


1.93 






h 1209 


1231 


1252 


1281 


1307 


1333 


1358 


1383 


1434 


1484 






n 1.479 


1.502 


1.626 


1.554 


1.580 


1.603 


1.626 


1.647 


1.687 


1.723 


600 


467.3 


V 0.93 


0.97 


1.03 


1.13 


1.22 


1.31 


1.39 


1.47 


1.62 


1.76 






h 1210 


1233 


1266 


1285 


1311 


1337 


1362 


1388 


1438 


1489 


— ^^ 




n 1.470 


1.496 


1.619 


1.548 1.573 


1.597 


1.619 


1.640 


1.679 


1.715 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



41 



1^ 

2 
> 

o 

6 ^ 



S 

w 
O 



Is 


C0C0C3NrH,HQO0iai0000t^t*C0«O»Ol0"<*<'^-^C0CCN(Ni-ti-l 




TtiQQcD(Ngo«oc3Q'<i<eooOTt(OQ<NiMootD-*ooocoeqooooN 

^Sog'0«00022r-jOSO^CaS{^MNOOOCDCO,-lOS(OaN 
CDCDlOiO"3lOTj*'^'<J<'^COCOCOCOCOlNClNC<It-H,-l,-lF-tOOOO 


Mi 


eO'*"5t-030P>OT->Jl«Dt^OOOOOC<l(N(M'*iOtOtO*i-ie<l-*SS 




p 


rHei3"3<Di>oc^ci3>oi>ooOiHro"a<coi>050(Meo-*ioi>ooo50 


^1 ^^ ^1 ""^ ^51 ^51 TJI ^1 ^51 ^1 ^1 ^1 ^11 ^51 ^51 ^1 ^1 ^51 ^1 '^1 ""qt ^( ^Jl ^1 Tjt TJ1 ^(1 


Density of 

Liquid, 

Founds 

per Cu.ft. 


«>-*THOO«3(NC»«DCOOCDC<30t^-*,HOO-*T-IOO>0,-ll>-*,-<t- 


Sp. Vol. 
of Liquid, 
Cu.ft. per 

Found. 


U300 .-l(NCi3-*lOI>OOrtM-*CDOOOT-(COCOOOOT-ieoiOI>05i-l 

coco^-l>^^-^^-^-^-^^^-oooooooooool0505050>ooooooTH 

COCOCOC<3C<5MMCOCi5CO«CO«>COCOCOCOCOC13mrl<-*-*-.J<Tt<-*-* 




Density of 
Vapor, 
Founds 

per Cu.ft. 


OOe01>0>rH(MtOOTH-*l>0-*0>COI>e0001>-*tOtDI>0(M-*I> 
00OT-tC<|-<t^C0000iOi-HC0'^U3i>00OTHC01Ot^00i-IC0THC000 




Sp. Vol. 
of vapor, 
Cu.ft. per 

Found. 


SSSS§S^88gSS§§^§^§E;Sgg5gS§g^8g 


lOTilTHCOCqtNi-HOOOJOOOOOt^t^t^CDcDlOlC-^TjlTHCOCOCOC^ 


Total 
Heat. 
Above 
32° F. 


(NC^C^COCOCOMCOMCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO 


|1 


OOOOOOOiOSOiOSOSOiOiOlOsOiCiOiOlOOGOGOMMCOOOOO 


Heat of 
Liquid 
Above 
32«F. 


C<»C<»C<IC<IC<lWWCOeOTH'^'<^'^COCOC<l(N(N(N(>li--(i-<i-HWOO 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 M 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


Pressure, 
Pounds 

per Sq.in. 
Gage. 


lOOt^OOOO »00 ICO 
00cDCCi-lCX)iOr-(t*-<*lOcO(NI>-e0i-liOO»OOC0OSTtiOS'^asW3,-H 


THT^Tt<'*COCOeO(NC^C^T-(t-HOOOO'-lT-HC^C^C<ICOCO'rt<'^iOCD 

I 1 1 i 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 t + 


Pressure, 

Pounds 

per Sq.in. 

Absolute. 


ai 1-H i-^' c<) c<I c^' M M Tji TiH ■^' 10 vo CO CD ^^ ^^ 00 06 Oi OS 


4 k 

■S^" 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 




O'HIMC0-*«?tDI>0005Oi-ICqM->J(l0t0l^0001O"-llNC<5-*lOtQ 



42 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



I 
s 



X 

m 



o 



;2; 
o 



o 

CO 

W 

w 
o 

At 



|4 


NNoocoa5Ti<oiO'HcDMi>.cco»'<*OtO'-it-NoO'*0'0,Hi^eo 

000505000000t^t^CDCOIO»OTt<-^^COCOC<I(NT-(i-trHOOOSOS 
CCC0(N(NININ(N(NININ(N1N(N(NC!)(MNC^(N(N<N(M(NIMN.-Irt 




OOOCOOOOO"!(<OINtDINOOOOONOCDIMlO(NOcD-*cOOO<N 

ot^'n«>>-iooto^mcnt^iO(Noooto«i'Ha)t^ir5(NOootDTj(,-i 
rHOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 






oo>oo.-HlOOTt^T)^c<^(M(M^-l^^(^^(N(^^co^>otDooo^Ol^>■<^^cDoo 


I0l0»0l0w3i0l0l0i0»0»0l0»0»0l0»0i0i0i0i0i0»0»0l0l0l0l0 


■a* . 

a a4 


0'Hl^lTt^Tt^lotD!Docloooooooooooooo^~cDlo■*(^I■-lOooto•*<^l 

(NM-*lQ501>00030^1NCO-*U30t^OOOSOrHINCO-*-*>OCl^ 
OJ OJ OS OJ OJ 03 OJ Oi O O O O d O O O O O --I ■"( i-i ^' >-H ,-! tH rH rH 


Density of 
Liquid, 
Pounds 

per Cu.ft. 


TtH.Hl^TtHOt^COOtD(N05iO--lOOTtl01^Ma:>Oi-ll>TtlOcb(MOO 
Tt<'»<e<3C0Ci3(MC^(N.-l>-lOOO05C»O50000t^l>l:^CD<DCDir5l0-* 


Sp. Vol. 
of Liquid, 
Cu.ft. per 

Pound. 


CC»Ot^OSi-HCOCOt^O(NCOc0050C^lOCDOOOi!*it^050MCDOOOi 
(MNIM(M(M(NIMM(N<NC<>IMC<IINC<)(NN(M(N(N(N(M(N(N(N(MIN 

ooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 




Density of 
Vapor, 
Pounds 

per Cu.ft. 


00-*INOQOOOO 
OIM-*tOOOO(N^t^COrHCOCOOO>-I^CO<35(N-*t^O(NtD05(N10 

oocoooooooc3(350J050JC)OOOi-i,-i,-irt(>)(Nc^eocoeom-*'* 

OOOOOOOOOOi-Hi-HT-irHT-lrHi-(T-H,-(,-tT-(TH,-lTH,-H,-H,-l 


Sp. Vol. 
of Vapor, 
Cu.ft. per 

Pound. 


O(N^00NtDC<I00^lM CDTt<TtiOOOOC<)-*COO-*OO^lOO 
»0i-H00iOCCO00»OC0TH05C0'^IMO00C0'^(NO001>>»OC0(NOO 


cq(N.-H,Hr-(,-iooooai05050>05ooooooooooi>i>i>i>i>i^io 


Total 
Heat. 
Above 
32° F. 


(N»o05r^cocoo5(^»lOoOT-^cNlOoo(^^-<i^t>05(^^'^coo01-^cocDoocl 


t^t--t^ooooooooaiOJO>oooo>-i>-i.-i.-icqcq(M(NMcoeoMco 

CCC0COcOCOCOC0MC0C0Tt1-^'^"<*Tj<^-^-*iH-«^.riH.ct*Tt<TtlTjHrJHTlHTP 


3a 


^<^SSrido>aio6N^iotdio-*-*co(^l^'doo5odt^cDcDiOTii 

00QOGO000000r^l^r^r^t^t^t^t>.t-*t^t^t^t^i>.CDCDCDCDCDCDCD 


Heat of 
Liquid 
Above 
32'= F. 




1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


Pressure, 

Pounds 

per Sq.in. 

Gage. 


t^C005l0TH00MHOt^C0Ot>.TtlO00lCWOC0CDTt1C0(NrHO 05 
<Dt^l>-COOaaiO^»-((NCOCO-^iOiOCOt-OOOOOSO»-H(NCOT(jlOU3 


Pressure, 

Pounds 

per Sq.in. 

Absolute. 


SHSGSS"3''5'^t^f-«Jo>oidT-Hr-Ic<i"MTi<iocD<oi>odosd 
c^eql^^N(Nc<^(^^(N(^lc<^<Nl^^(Ncqc<3corococ^3McoMmeoMM^ 




T"H T^ ^H ^-1 ■ ■ ^_J _J 

1 1 1 1 II 







TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



43 



2 





o 

< 
p 



< 
m 

o 

§ 



^ > 


.^^.^'^'^'^'-|'~;'~;'-''-''-''-''-*'-''-|'-|'-iSthooooo 

rt,-lrHr-lr-lrtr-l,-l,-l,-l,-l,-lr-lr-lrt,-l,-ir-(,-Irt,Hr-lT-(,-irtr-irt 


1 rs 

1 a 




'*"S • 


':;ogoooo^^colO■*MC3^0OToiog^;;cg»OT);M(N■,-H'do^ 


•a*. 
IP 




Density ol 
Liquid, 
Pounds 

per Cu.ft. 


^S^g385^SSSfe§§§gSg3SE2SJg8SS^^^^_ 


Sp. Vol. 
of Liquid, 
Cu.ft. per 

Pound. 


?'!P?'S'2"5'^®£2!29Se2?!2®'-*M«ooO(Niot^OMma5iN 




Density of 
Vapor, 
Pounds 

per Cu.ft. 


,-, rt ,M rf_ T-i_ rH rH rt ,-1 rH rH rH rH .-H rH N (N IN C<] (N <N IN IM_ (N (M (M IN 


Sp. Vol. 
of Vapor, 
Cu.ft. per 

Pound. 


"3O>OIN00THO00tDTt(MIMlMIM(NC0C0-*a3t^0CPO,-IM'i(t000 

i> <o "^ CO 1-1 o.oi'i:^ oio-*ra(NT-ioosooi>toio^^«iiNrHom 


CO<OracOCOCO>OlOlOiOlO»010"0>0-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*T)lTt<CO 


Total 

Heat 

Above 

32° F. 


^-^^^o»o»oio»ocoococor*r^t^t^t^t^GOoooooOQOoooooo 

^3^ ^3^ ^^ '"^ ' "^ ' "-J' "nJ ' ^T* ^^ "vj ' ^^ ^^ ^3^ xj' ^5^ vl ' "nJ' ^^ ^3^ ^^ ^^ ^^ VJ» 'vji ^^ ^5^ ^^ 


P 


COC^THOOC>GO^^CDcD»OTt^COC^^^-lOC>05c6^-CDlOTt^CO(^Il-^0 


Heat of 
Liquid 
Above 
32° P. 


C0<N(NCNi-iOOOOC30S00t^c0CDi0Oi0'^t^CX)00OOrH(NC0 


rHi-Hi-Hi-li-Hi-li-li-Hi-H 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ++ + 


Pressure, 

Pounds 

per Sq.in. 

Gage. 


a)aia>aia>a>ooo<H(NM^tooOi-i-*cDO(N"305Mt-,-i«o,H 


«ON.00050i-IM-*lOCDt^00020,-HM-*iOt000010IN«llOtOOO 

iNiNiNiNi:ocoroc<jcoMcc«co-*-*TtH-4i^-*-*-*ioiOiO>raii3io 


Pressure, 

Pounds 

per Sq.in. 

Absolute. 


OCD<:OCOCDCOt^l>t*0003 THCClOQOi-HCOCOOilNCOO'^QOCQoo 


rH(NCOTt<100t^OOa50,-HCOTtH»OcDt^050,-HIN'^>OWQOCT)iHM 


_g ft . 


Tff>OCOWOOOSOi-IIMM-*iO'33t^OOa50'HINCO-*OCOr~00050 
,-lTHr-(T-lr-lr-<<N<N(NININININlNlNC<lCOMCOCl3C<3C<3Ci3MCCMTH 




■^U3COI>00050THlNCO'*»OCOt^00010^C<ICOTt<iOCOt^OOO>0 



44 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



I 



Hi 



o 
o 






O 

tn 

W 

w 
o 



1 > 


00rHOC0W00'*O>O<N00C*5a>iOi-Hl>-CCOSiOi-H00'<i<OS5C<)00'* 
t^l>-JVCDCDiOi0l0-^Tt<C0C0(N(NC^i-Hi-tOOO0S0303G000l>-t^ 

OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOSOiOSOSOiOSOi 




OOlN"^"^cOOOOOOOOt^<N(MCNCOCS10000iHTj<iOcDOOcDOOO 
OM'^CO00OC<I"*cD0lOC0i0I>0>>-(CQCD00OC^'^C000ONl0 

i§g§.g§§gg§sssss§§§§ss§§s&&fe 




d d 43 

h V d 

2^w 


osooooooooc^t^t-ccj^oioioio-^-^-^-^cocococ^i-HT-iT-ioosas 




d d4^ 

h V o3 

|3> 


!D^cOi-l':DTH»00-^OOi-i-^OOT-<rJil>-OCC»0000(N-^»Ot^OOCs 
l050COI>l>OOOOCI5a5CnOOOrtT-(,-l(M(M(N(NC<OCOC<3eOCOCOei3 




Density of 
Liquid, 
Pounds 

per Cu.ft. 


01>OOCO^t^(NOOCOOl^O>00'OOlOO«30>00>OOc0^tD 
(MlMiM>-lw0003030000001>-t>tOCO>0>0-*TtlcOCO(M<Nrt,-10 




Sp. Vol. 
of Liquid, 
Cu.ft. per 

Pound, 


■*Q0.-l-*t>05(NTtll>OT)l|>OC0<0OrJ<l^O-*l>O-*00i-H-*00 
^'?J^iOlOiO»OCOCC)COt^l:^t^OOG00005a>03000i-Hi-Hi-HCN(NC<I 

C^(NC^tN(M(N(NC<)(M(N(M(M(N(N(M(N{N(N'(NtN(N(M(NCSI(N(N(N 

ooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 




Density of 
Vapor, 
Pounds 

per Cu.ft. 


lOCDCDt^t^000005O3OO^T-l(NC0C0-^iO»Oa3CD1^0000OiO'-l 
(N{N(M(N<NC<»CN(M<NCOCOcOCCCCCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOM'^'«i< 




Sp. Vol. 
of Vapor, 
Cu.ft. per 

Pound. 


i-l'Jft^O'Jlt^T-HTtHOOfqcOi-llOOOCOt^i-lcOOI^CMt-MOOCOO:-* 
0)001>t-CCllOir3rt<CQCO(MC^i-iOO<3105QOOOt^t>tDcOir5K5-*-* 


c»3COCOCOCOCOmMCOCOCOCOCOOTCOCq(M(M(N(NiMN(N<N(NINN 


Total 
Heat 
Above 
32° F. 


OOOOaSOS0050505050aOOOOOOOOOT-H^^,-(,-(T-H,-(iH 


4« 


lOw:tiCcOCOCOCOcOcClcOCO':DCDCOCOCOCD':OCOCD»OlOlO'^'<*<COCO 


as00t^C0W3-«^C0(NT-IO0300t^C0lO-*C0(N^O0S00t^CD»/i'<^C0 
eOC<3COCOCOfOC>:iCOCOCO(NIN<MIMIMCS<M(N(N(Mi-l,-l,-l,-l,-l,-(-( 


Heat of 
Liquid 
Above 
32° F. 




030--i(McOT)(u5t~oooio.-iiMmmcoi^oooio^iMcOTtiiot~M 

,-H,-l,-(W,-lrtrtiHTH(NIN(MlMIMC^(M<N(MMCOCOC<3COC<3CO«l- 


Pressure, 

Pounds 

per Sq.in. 

Gage. 


^00>OC»u^(NO>l0^5 00CD-*ci0lM(Ni-lT-lrH,-ia>00000000OrH 


O5.-H(MMl0t~Cl0O(N-*mt^a3,-IC<5lOt^CT>,-IC0-*tD00O<N-*t^ 

iotoco<0(050tDt-i>i>t^t^t^ooooooooooo5ai0502a500oo 

fH i-H r-* ,H 


Pressure, 

Pounds 

per Sq.in. 

Absolute. 


(Nt^(NCDC^O'X)C<)Ot^»OCOT-4 O5C300000000CC)lO»OW3lOCD00 


'^10t~OOOt-ICOini^OOOIMTt4cDr^02^MlOt~m.-ICO>Ot~c35i-l 
t*i>l>l>.000000000000050SC50SC505OOOOOi-lT-lTH^HTH(M 


oft . 


rHC3o5-*>ocoi>ooo>o>-iiNro-*>ocot^oocnOrH(NM-*>otoi^ 




'-<(NeOrHlO<:Dt^00050T-t(NCOTjHlO:Ot^OOO^O'-^(MCC'^>OCCit>- 

OOOOOOOOOr-lr-lr-lrHrHr-ir-l-Hr-lrHC-<<N(NlMlN(N(NlN 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



,45 



Pi 
o 

S3 





\^i 


1 


o 


.K 


s 


■g 


<! 


^°. 


P 




H 


1 


H 


a 


^ 


h-i 


B 


X 


^ 


pq 


Oi 


m 


F^ 


■<! 


O 


H 


!/> 




|x 




h- 




H 








Ee] 




PLh 








pj 




P4 



H 


pt^C005»OiHC0THOC0N00l0iHl>CCOC0(MOSl0r-ttN.CpOON 




r^ 




M a) CS 


gSSSfeS^gS2fefeg8§§§S§SSfe^??3Sg§ 


^§;5§^^^^^^^^i^|:^^§^^^^««^«g 


III 


§^g?il^^^^^^^§g5J5§gg5§Jgcg«ooocD^g, 


iOir3»0*oiOir3ir3io»OiOW3WD'OiO»r3ir3io»£3»o»0»oiO»OiSSioIo 


Density of 
Liquid, 
Pounds 

per Cu.ft. 


,-HC0»-4OT-l<:0(Mt*Nt-"(Nt^C<)t^C^C0T-HiOOlOO-rJ<a)C000Nt^ 
0<3SOSOOOOI>I>COtOlOlO'*^05C<31N(MT-lSoOro«)OOF:KS 




Sp. Vol. 
of Liquid, 
Cu.ft. per 

Pound. 


»HlOOOC3iO^(N-*OOT-<1000IM>00»C<3000lOO=MtDO«5ai'*t^ 




Density of 
Vapor, 
Founds 

per Cu.ft. 




A'' 


Sp. Vol. 

of Vapor, 

Cu.ft. per 

Pound. 


Cq (N Ci <N (N (N (N M N N N rH r-! r-i tH r-! r-i 1-H rH ,H ^ rH tH r-i rH rH r-I 


Total 
Heat 
Above 
32° F. 




3« 


(N i-H -H O Ol 05 00 t- to lO •* CO rH aH> «3 ■* CO 1-1 00 l> "3 CO tH 05 

<N rH O OJ 00 (O >0 Til CO (N 1-H O OJ 00 O lO ■* CO N i-i O 00 t-.' to lO ■* C<|' 
fH,-HrHOOOOOOOOO03050^03050i0iai0i000000000000 


Heat of 
Liquid 
Above 
32° F. 




mO.-H(NCOT|(i01>00050.-H(MeO-*lOCD00050i-lC<ICO>OtDr-00 
CO-*-*-*Ttl-*-*'*Tl(-*iO"3lOiOiOU3"3"3iOCD«OtDtO«OtOtO!0 


Pressure, 

Pounds 

per Sq.in. 

Gage. 


(M-*i>T-(iocncooocooo-*oioa»cDcOTH,Hio>OT)(eoeor-(THcoio 


05THCOOOOOCOmoOOCOCOOOOCOCDa>(MrJ<r^OCOC005C^»000 
OT-H,-lrHrH<N(N(N(NC0C0C0C0TJ<Tf(Ttl-*101010CD«DCDC0t~r-t^ 


Pressure, 

Pounds 

per Sq.in. 

Absolute. 


05 >-l ■* 00 (M CD lO lO ,-1 1> (N CO CO O 00 00 IN (N 1-H 00 00 N 

COcdodocOlOOOOCOlOodocOU300^'cOtDO>IN"500T-HCOCOOCO 
C<IN(MCOC0C0COTttTt*THT:JHlO»O»OiOCDCOCOCOt^t^t^000000O5Oi 


IF 


ooo»Ot-(MeO'}iu5!Or-.Qoe50-He<icOT)Hu)tDt^oo(350THeqco'* 
fflcDt>t>.t>.t>.t-.wt-Wi^t>ooooooooooooooooooooCTiaioa<»o» 




00050T-4(NCO-*lOCOt~OOC»Q^fjCO-*lffltOt^00010'-l(MCO'* 



46 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



o 
> 



o 



i 



^ ^ 



i-:i 


y 


M 


^ 


w 


t/j 


i-i 
n 


h 


<! 


o 


H 


rn 




W 




1— I 




H 




rt 




M 




Ph 




o 




rt 




p-l 



1 s 


00T*HOl>>i:005CC'NC0C0i-tl>C0OcDC<J0>iOi-(00Tt<iHI>-**iOc0N 
OCDCDiOiO-<**-<i<THCOCOCO(N(N(Mi-lrMOOOCSOS05000000l>-t* 

00CttO0COO0GOCOO0CXlGOO0O00000O0O0O0GOCiOI>t>l>l>-t^l>.J>t^ 




Entropy 

of 
Liquid. 


OOOOOSOOC<)C<I(NC<l(N(NC<llNCq(NC<ICOCOCOTJK-<^COCOCOCO(N(N 




OC0lCCV5iHC0CD0SCSi0C0CD-^l>O'^00i--l»0CT>(:0C<Ii-ll0OTH0i 


M03(M(NC<IC<<tN'-Hi-li-(T-(i-HT-li-l,-tOOOOOOOO0iaia)0> 




OI>iOiMOSi>-^T-iCOiO(NC3CDCOOcO(NOSiO.-II>(r003iOOaDi-l 
(^^^T_iOOOOCl03a)OOOOOOOOI>>l>':DCOO»0»0'<4<"<^-^COCO 


rJlTj<'rJ<'ttlTj1-<:^-rJ1-^MC0COCOCOC0COC0COCOC0COCOCOC0C0COCOC0 


Density of 
Liquid, 
Pounda 

per Cu.ft. 






Sp. Vol. 

of Liquid, 

Cu.ft. per 

Pound. 


C^iOOSCOr^COcDi-HlOOiOCSCOt^T-lcOi-ftOOlOOSTiHOOCOaiCCOO 

Mcoo:iTtiTt<ioococOb-i:^t>oooocnoiOOTH.-('^c<i(NcocoTt<TH 
ooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 




Density of 
Vapor, 
Pounds 

per Cu.ft. 


OOOOOi-li-H-^-^lOCDOOOS^H^cOOCOI^tMCOlOOt^COCOI^OlC 
L0cD00aiO'-<(NC0^iOcD0005OClC0'^CDt^G0O>-l(N-^iOt^00 

<:ocococc'i>i>-i>i>i>i>t>i>i>.oooooooocoooooo5a5050ia)0ioj 




Sp. Vol. 
of Vapor, 
Cu.ft. Der 

Pound. 


C<l O) !v -^ c^ O CO CO.tH (NOCOcD'<^(MOOOcO"<*COT-ia)OOCD'*COi-H 

lOTtiTtHTt<-<^-^COCOCOCOCO(MC^(M(N(Ni-li-(i-HT-lTHOOOOOO 


Total 
Heat 
Above 
32° F. 


'^COCOTHOOOI:^l^l>rJ<'^CO(N<Ni-l<3500cOiOM(NOiOOiOrHOOi 
i-Hi-Hi-ii-ii-iOOOOOOOOOOasOiOiOiOiOSodcOCOOOOOt^ 


Si 


i>.ioeoiHooioccr-4a5i:OTHiHoococo t*ThTHCioioi-<oo'^ coco 

i-H005COcO»OTt<COTHOOSOOcOiOTt<COi-IOa>b-.CDlOOO(NT-(C)CO 

00<XJ^-^^l>■^*^^^^t>-^-CC>CDCOcDcDcOCDcDlO»O^O^OlOlOlO■^'^ 


Heat of 
Liquid 
Above 
32° F. 


t^COOOtNCOTHcDCOOOOfN-^CDOOCai-lCq-^iOt^OOOTHM-^CO 


050C^CO'=*i»OOb-OOOiTH(NirO'^lOCOOOOiOT--l(NCCiOCDt^C>Da> 

cDi>t-i:-i>t-i>i>i>i>oooooooooooooooo^aic^cnoo^asoso: 


Pressure, 

Pounds 

per Sq.in. 

Gage. 


C0D^^-O5COC0C000COC0C000CC^COC0^:)COC0C0COC0C000CCC0C0C0 
C000G00SOClOOO^,-HrH(NCq(NC0C0-g^^^S3i0§Sot^t-^ 


Pressure, 

Pound 
per Sq.in. 
Absolute. 


■tM CO >0 lO lO lO , lo 




§Sfe§SS|g§Sg8§§§232J2^:32^S2SS 






!2S^^°S'5Q'iNe^5r(^^0c0^-000^OT-l(^^c0T^^l0«0t^000!O'H 

ffiSSSSS^'S^'0'^'5«o=oa3St~K;b-^iSt=.r-t--t--oooo 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



47 



i 

s 



X 





COcOCOlOlOkO-^-^^COCOCOWtMtN^i-ti-HOOOCSOsSoOOOt^lr* 




1=1 


r~CTi.-iMiot~CTir-(coiot>airteoir5i>os-Hcomt><»r-irou5i^o> 

OOOOOsa50>Oi0300000^i-HrHtHTH(NC<I(N(NNMCOCOCCCO 
^_ ,-[ rH i-l iH i-J 1-; CS IN (N (N (N <N <N_ IN IN IN IN IN IN N IN IN IN (N (N IN 


■3-a . 


'*aieoQOT)<aii'30>ntDi^Ttior-Kiooo>ON>ot~a)t»oeo(Dio 

t~C0r-l00t0INOC0CCOW-*IN00"^Caro<DC005>Oi-ll>-<}lot0iN 


«llNiH0500(^CDTj(roiN00500tO>n-*(MiHOOOt^cO-*MN005 
OSCSO50000000000Q00000t^t^N.I^t^t^t>t-CDCO;D5D:DCDCD»O 

coeoeoeocowMcOMMMMcocQTOcococOMMMcocoeocoroco 




tDiHt~lNCD^mOlOO>COOOCOt^OIN>noOO«COOOOlNT)<io 
<NIN'-<'-;OOa505001>l>tDtD10-*-*COINi-lT-l0050000t^(©10 

M M CO M M M IN (N C<i IN IN IN (N ci IN (N IN (N IN IN IN i-I i-I ,-i rH ,-1 ,-! 


Density of 

Liquid, 

Founds 

per Cu.ft. 


U30>COt^iHU30SMr~0-*OOIN«3ailNCDOT)IOOIN"303rott)OC<3 
OCnOSOOOOOtOCOiOlO'sl^CCMC^^THOOOOOOOt^lOtDlOiOTtt 


»0-*T)(TjlTli-*-*-*TJ(rtl-*-*-*-*T)lT)lTtlTHmMCOMCOCClCOCOCO 


Sp. Vol. 
of Liquid, 
Cu.ft. per 

Pound. 


Ml>e01>COt>.-ll>eOOONOi-*05«3^00>-llOINI>INOO-*0>OIN 

m>ototDt~-t^oooocnoioo-Hr-iiNcoc<3'J<-*ioiotocot9S9S2 

00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00QS030)0)03O)030)G90)0>G^OOG30^ O) 
(N(N(NINC^IN(N(N(NIN<NC^IN(MIN(NININ(NINININININ(NIN(M 

ooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 




Density of 

Vapor, 

Pounds 

per Cu.ft. 


i-HC^i-^cot^oooic^icoiot^asocoTiHcDoooT-icoicr^OiTHooio 


Sp. Vol. 
of Vapor, 
Cu.ft. per 

Found. 


O >0 O >0 O O O O U3 lO « 

OOSt~tO-*COIN^0500t^lO-*«li-l00500t~tOlO-*C<5IN'-l OS 
OOaa5050505010300000000000000001>I^t>l>l>l:^t^t^l^l>CO 


T-l 


Total 
Heat 
Above 
32° F. 


OOvOCOINT-(aiOOlO-*iH051>tO-*i-IOOt^lOMOOO»f3(N"-II>cOeO 


I0i0"b»0»0»0l0l0»0»0l0»0»0»0»0»0l0»0l0»0»r3»0»0i0»0>0l0 


li 


cocoot-coo>oiNooira.-(oo'>*o<ocoaiioo«3>-i«DiNt^cooo 


t>lO-*COT-IOCT>r~<OTl<MINOC»OOC01iOMIN.-l0500m>OroiNO 


Heat of 
Liquid 
Above 
32° F. 


OOCTiOlN-*«OOOOINCO-*tDOOO'HlN'^cOOOOIN-*«OaiOCOiO 


OT-(C0TH>OtDt-0:OrtlNm-*CDb-00CnO>-IC0Ttll0CDt^CTiOW 




Pressure, 

Pounds 

per Sq.in. 

Gage. 


COSOMOOCOMCCCOMMCOMMCOCOMCOMOOMCCCOCOMeOMM 


T-(-!HOO<Nr~iH100'00>'30>OOOOlOO>0,-ltO,-ll^lNt^Ma> 

ooooooososoO'-HT-iiNiNcoco-'^-^ioiocoor^t^ooooaiOsoo 

C^IWC^ININCOCOCCCOCOCOCOCCCOCOCOCOCOCCCOCOCOCQCOCO'^'^ 


Pressure, 

Pounds 

per Sq.in. 

Absolute. 


coaicot^cq!OOiooioo>ooinQ>noioocOrHcDiNr-Noo-* 
050500^rtiNiNcoc<5Ti(-*inio3a3r^i^ooooo50>oo^T-iiN 
iNiNMCococoeocoeocoMMcocoeocoMMcoeoMeo-*-*-*'*-* 




aasiSaasisssssisiiSS^^SsSSS 




IN«>-*lOC0r~000»O--l(MC0-rt<U5CDr~00l3SOrH(NTO'*lOCDr~00 
OOOOOOOOOOQOOOOOOSOJOi050SOS03050Ja>000000000 



48 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



■« 



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§ 


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o ro fl » 

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oqEh 



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^-cocClOlO>OlO'.#Tt^T:t^COCOCO(M^^^T-^1-(rHOOOO^CT>OiGOCO^- 



(MCNOOOi-HOOSCSOOOOOOOOOOGOt^cOcO-^-^CJOOOOCOX 
T-^M»O^-0i^MC0T^iCD00O<N■<*^cC>C0O<NTt^c000Ol^^'«*^c000a)l--l 
Ttl"7h'^'^Tt<»OiOiOlOiOCDcC'CDCDcOt>-t^I>-b-t^0000Ci0C00000O5 



Tj<(Ni-<OOOOOOOOOtHe<lTj<iOt-.OOOC3'<^cOCOOWiOOO 

00"^OI>a30i"^OcDi-(iOTHr^(NcDi-HiOOiOO"^00C^J>T-Hioai 

^^cDlOco(^^oo5oocDlOcoc<^oo^^*co^co»-^ooocO'oco(^^ooo 

COMCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCQCOCOCOCOCOCOCCCOCO 



CDOOOiOOOOOOOOOOJOOcDWacOC^OOOcO'^tNOCOiON 
■^CO(M(Nr-lOC5CiOI>CDiO"^(NrHOCsCO£^CC''<**COC<lT-HOCiOt>0 

,— (,_(,_(.r-*T-ii-HOOOOOOOOOOiOiOlO>OlOl05<3iO>OOGOOO 



CCCOCOCOCOCOM(NC<ic4c^(Ne^C^C^C^C<IC^C^C^i-li-t.-li-(T-lr-(rH 

COCOCOCOCCCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCQCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO 



a5Oi-tr-l(M<NC0C0TtHi0i0cDr^00C0CnOOi— l{N(NC0'^'<*iiOcDl> 
OiOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOi— 1t-Ht-Ht— It— It— (i— (i— (i— ItHW 

c<icoi:ocococococo<^c^cococococococococococococoncocon 
ooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 



b-CT)i-l-^OOOOC^^cOCX)(N»OCDCiO(NlOOOi-H'^b*C5(NiOI^OCO 
TtH-^l010lOlO':C'CDCOCDCDt>i>t-I>-C00000050505C3000i-lrH 



1 N (N (N (N (M 



T-l(MTj<cOOOO-<#OOOOOOOOe<IC<l'<^COOOC<lTHCO(M':00 

OOb-COlO-^COtNi-HOOOSOOt^cDcDiO-^COtNi-lOOCiOOCOt^b- 



i-i00iOC<lOI>'C0Ot*C00it^rt<OOC^00'^O':DC^t*iHl0O»0--i 
Cq^.pH»HT-lOOOOSOSOOCOOOCCl>^t^CDcD«D»OlO-<*<Tj<COCOC<I)N 



cn t-^ o ■^' CO i-H o CO ^-* lo TtH c^* rH as b^ CD -rji c^* ,-t ci bJ CD TjJ c<i 1^^ 

OOOOOOOOiOSOSOiOOSOOOOOOOOCOOOt-t^b-t^t^-t^OcO 
■^•Til-rtl-^'^'^'^COCOCOCOCOCOCQCOCOCOCOCClCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO 



OOOINC<5CDOOO(N-*COO>!NT)HcDOS.-lTt<CDaii-(Tl<Ol>000(N>0 




COCOCOCOCOeOMMMMCOOOeOCOCOCOCCeOCOCOCOCOMMMCCM 



•^Oi0C0t^(N00'^Oc0i-HI>-C«50iiOC000'^i-lb-"^i-l00i0OOO 



05iOOOO(Mt^CCCiiOi-Hi:D(MGO-<**OOOC005CD(MCT>COCOOW3'<*0 

C3CO'<:tH'*iOlOcDcDl>000005050tHi-lCSl<NCOTjHTHiOCDt^l>0001 



010wC3cO-<*lOcOt*OOOSOi-i(MM'^W30l>OOOiOi-C(NCO'^iO 

TJ^l0^o»OlOiOlOlO»J::)lOlOcDcDcDCDcDcDcDcOcDCD^-b-t^l>t^^- 



^OrH(MCOTHiOCDr^OOCT>Of-lC<ICOTj<iO<Ob-OOOsOW(NCOTfiO 
CDcOcOcOQOCOCOCD^COCDCOO^cOcOO^OCOCOCOCDCOCDCO^ 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



49 



o 



"w 


S 


1 


§ 
<) 


g 


q 


CI 


W 


1 


^ 


a 


h 


ri 


H 


X 






CQ 


§ 


p^ 


pq 


o 


<l 




H 


w 



I 



la 


U5(MOO'<i<Ot-eOO»>ONOOtOO«ONOOTHO«ONOOTHO(Oeil 

tiif-:coStD10IO-*-*-^Mm>CO(Nc5rHrtrtOoSoS*00 
iOiniO>0"3>0>OU5'0«5iniOU)u5iOiOir5lOit3S5^M''*-*-* 


f 


1 a 


COtOSC^OIMOOOSOOOOOQOOOOCOTM^I-djTitTjlTflTltTH-^M 
c<5Wt>03i-icoiOt^QOOCq'*CDOOO(N'*CDoOON^SSH 
05a50i0500000i-H»Hr-l,-H,-IWC<JCqC<)eacOCOCOCOCffl^ 






§^J^SS§?§^S^888Sg^SS§S§Sgg88§S 


THtHTHr^,-lOOOOOoao50^050so>oooooooOQO^*t^^-^-- 


1^^ 


S§?5Sgg3§S5^S.g^gS§SS§gfeS?oSg 


^1 ^t ^1 ^1 ^1 ^1 ^gl ^1 *^ ^31 ^1 ^1 ^J1 *^ ".^ ^1 ^1 ^^ ^^ ^^ *^ ^^ ^^ ^( ^^ 


Density of 
Liquid 
Pounds 

per Cu.ft. 


•^COCO(NT-tOOa5001:^COCCl»O^COMC<lt-HOOiOOt*COW3»0 


Sp. Vol. 
of Liquid, 
Cu.ft. per 

Found. 


05t~lOCOOOOtOT)HrH005tDT)(CO(NOOOS050SOOOOO 

t>oooJOr-irH(NcOTtiiointor~ooaio,-iT-i(Nco-*cDt>.ooos 

CO CO CO COCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO CO 

0000000000000000000000000 




Density of 
Vapor, 
Pounds 

per Cu.ft. 


tDOOO(MrHl>OCOOOO"305COinivCOr~OiOOO(MtDO-*00 
i-l,-l<N(N(N<NCOCOCO-!H-*-*>OlO>OCDCDt^I^l>00000>OSO 


(M(MM(M(N(NN(NN(NM(M(M<N(NIM(M(N(NININNIMC<)C<1 


Sp. Vol. 
of Vapor, 
Cu.ft. per 

Pound. 


•*00-*0500'*OOOCOOO(MU3INCOO-#0-*0-<J<0-*0!0 

coio»o»OT)HTHcoc3(Ni-iooa50soooor^t^cDcoio»oMi-,^co 

Th ■^■^■^^^^'^"^■^^^COCOCOCQCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO CO 




Total 
Heat 
Above 
32° F. 




rH,-iooCTioooot~to>o>0'*coe<i(N>-iooiooi>500io-*eo 

COCOCOCO(MCiICq(M(N(NIN<NC<l(N(N(NIMT-l,-l,-l,-l,-l,-l,-l,-l 


4a 


OTHTj(OOOCT)0050000000CTiOOOOl^t010Tl(eOT-lO 


to-*c<iooocD>o<M.Ha>r->oeo.-i05to-5|H(MOootD-*(NOoo 

CDOOCDlOIOIOIOIO'^^Ttl'rtHTtHTtHCOCOCOCOCOMNCqC^C^,-! 
CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 


Heat of 
Liquid 
Above 
32° F. 




lOCOOOOSOt-ICOTt<iOCOCX)CiO^CO-^»OCOOOOSOt-(C<ITt<lO 
COCDCC)CDWt^l:^t^r^t^l>t^O0000000000000C0O>OiOsOSOS 


Pressure, 

Founds 

per Sq.in, 

Gage. 


COCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO 


coor~>o,-icnioco,-io>>o-*,-io>r~>o-*cor-iosr-i--i2ioco 

OOC3050^.-l(NCO-*<l<>OtDr~t^00050T-'?'?'F':*l''JPE- 
lC»C»OCOOOOCOCOCOCOOOCOCDCDt^t-t*t*t— i>r*r^c* 


Pressure, 

Pounds 

per Sq.in. 

Absolute. 






Ot^COOSOW(MCOTHiOCDl>C0050iH(MM>^l5eON-00^0 

t^t^t^i>oooooooooooooocooocoa50>OiOiOsajCR^^50 

T-HiHT-Hi-Ci-ii-lrHr-lTHi-lTHi-Hi-lTHi-lT-tr-li-Hi-ti-Hi-li-li-lrHC^ 


in °' • 


CDb-C0050i-tC^COTHlOCC>t^OOOSOi-lMCO'^lOCDI>CO<50 



50 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



o 

Q 



!3 
O 



hH CO 

5 h 



<i1 

OS 

o 

g 

Pli 

o 
Pi 



M 


»F-S^c4iHd500CO-*C<3C<IOOOt^W*MrtSoOt^lO^C3:i 






OSOO(NC<jair^cOCDt-Ht*cO(NWlOOOlOt^OOT-(OOOi-IOOCDOO 

S^^o^Qootococcoolwc»(NOl^l■*(^^TJ(,-^Tt<a^^^u^cDoo>o^^ 

i-iO03001>CO>OlOC<3MrHT-lO05001>C0lOTtHC<0INrHO0>00t> 

§§SSSSSSSSSSSS§g§§8§§S§§S§ 




1l^ 


i-H(NTttcDb-00 (NOSi^OOOtHOcDOO t>.CT)lOi-ll>.COTtH CD 
00"^0<:0(NOO'^THl>(MCOiJ^OCC>C^OOlOO<:D(MOOCOOiiOi-((0 


.HrHT-t,-lTHT-HTHr-t,-tT-li-HT-ir-lrHi,HrHt-lT-(THTH 


-3^ . 


00t^t^t^I>I>t^t^«:'CD<^C0C0C0*0«O'O»O»O-^Tj1'«^-^Tt*Tj* 


■^^■^■"^tl-'^t*-^-^-^"*-^"^*^'^*'**'^'^'^'^'^"^'*^'**''^"^'^"^ 


Density 

of Vapor, 
Pounds 
per Cu.ft. 


■^t^t^OOOOiCOOOCOrJIOOT-tt^C^OO-^OC^OCDt^CDt^OlO 
a3tOt~OOOOCT)aiOOr-l(NlNC<3COTtl^iOlOtOr~t^OOOOOJOO 




Sp. Vol. 
of Vapor, 
Cu.ft. per 

Pound. 


(MOOCDTH-^iOOOOOi-HtNcOOC^lCOlCCOtMi-HOOOOO 
OOOCOt005<NCOO-*00(NCD,-lt~(Mt^mQO^OCO(NOOTtlOtO 
t^t^O»OTjH-^COCO<N'-li-IOOa>050000t^t^t^CDCD»OlO»CTH 
i:OC<3C<3C<3MCOa3C<3MC>3COi:OC<5IMC^<NCN(MIN(M(NlM(NC<«(N(N 




Denaity 
of Liquid, 

Pounds 
per Cu.ft. 


10t>l>l>l^WCOlOCO-*COO<Ni-<00000000!DlOlO>OU3^CO 

Tifro(Ni-ioaJooi>a3>o-*eo(Ni-ioosi>to»o-^coiMT-ioo5oo 

CO CO M « CO n" <N (N (N <N (N IN (N (N (N i-I rH ,-1 ,H rH t-I ,-1 ,-1 ,-1 O O 


Sp. Vol. 
of Liquid 
Cu.ft. per 
Pound. 


^OCO 00O.-(00O-*(N 00«5Tt<IM OSOOTtlcONOO 
COOOOcoiOOOOCOCOOOr-l-*t.-OlN'000^-*cOCTi(NiOOOr-l-3( 
t~t^OOOOOOOOC35010CJOOOT-(T-lT-lrHCvl(NC^(NCOCOCOTt<TlH 

,-(,-lTHrHT-(T-HT-(T-li-tT-lT-t,-H^rH,-l,-(^^rHrH.HTHi-lrH,-l,H 

oooooooooooooooooooooooooo 




Total 
Heat 
Above 
32° F. 


tDCOcOtOtDa3a30«DCDCOCD<DCDtDaDt>l>r~J>000000000000 






OINOO-*Oa3(NOO-*CTilOlMCOlMOOT)iOCO(NI>eOOO-*0>0'-l 


C^'c^'-Hi-l'-fOOOiaiOOOOOOt^t^cDCOCOiOiO-^-^COCOCOCqiN 

(M(N(MC<|lM(N<Ni-lT-t,-HT-(rHTHT-li-lr-tT-lT-l,-l,-(,-l,-l,-Hi-l,-(r-l 


Heat of 
Liquid 
Above 
32° F. 


COC<JOOTt<0':0<NOOC003»OOcDC<IGOC005'^OlOOcDT-lt>-C<I 


^COCOlMlM(MrH,-lOOai02OTOOQ01>I^050COiO>0-*TtlCOCO 
C<»CMIM(N<N(N<N(N{N(Nr-tT-t,-ti-t,-t.-tTHT-l.-(T-ti-t,-(T-lT-t,-ti-l 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


Pressure, 

Pounds 

per Sq.in. 

Gage. 


OOCO(NOSi-ia>COi-HCOOiCOCOOi-HPDlO iOtH OOOi-HCOCOOO 

-*(xjcOt^.-HI>Co'oi^OJU305c01>^.-ilOOTl<oi-*odT|icnT)<Cft-* 
OO'-H'-HC<l(MC0C0Tt<^iO»OC0c0t^t^0000000i05OO^'-H(N 
(NINIM(N<N(N(M(MIMIM(M<N(M(N(NIM(MIN(N(NIMCOCOCOCOCO 


Pressure, 

Pounds 

per Sq.in. 

Absolute. 


lO OJCOOOO 00 CO t^OO nt^lNOOt^lOt^OO lO 

05cot~-'(N'b-^iNoocoa2-*o-*t^,-I«50Ttia»cooocoodcoo>Ttioi 

(NIN(NIN(N(NIMIN<N(NC^(N(NIN(N(NIMINC0COCOCOCOCOCOC0 


SB, . 


oosoot:^cciiOTticoc<irH005QOt>-cc)":)-^co(NiHOi-ic^co*^»o 

T7777777777 i i i i i i i i i 







TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



51 





M 


«OOU30tOT-(t^TH«0,Ht^iHinOmON«00-*l005MOOSM 

,*••••••••■• 






00 t^ CO C^ -^ OS lO 

eot^eomcot^THO fflicicoooeoc».-i-*-5|HcDto-*(NOto»HeD 

0005CDl^C005:Dt-OSOOC3»r3»OCO^t^t*(N<M<MC<)(M(Nt-HTHO 
CDU5-*«<NiHOOaOOt>COlO^CO<N^OOiOOt^COlO-*c<3lMt-l 
C<I<MCq(M(NC<lC<»i-<i-tTH*-HTHT-lTHi-lT-iT-lOOOOOOOOO 

oooooooooooooooooooooooooo 










(MfOOOOOOOOOOOMOOOOCOOOO>r-ICOT-imiO(Mrt4iHm05Mt^OS 

Mt>(Ni>cooo-!»(cn-<i(aiu305-*0'no-*oorot>r-(U505-*w<M 




aiaio>030s3jSoJ030>050so=050202ooooooooooooooooWM 






m)(MlMM(MC<llMC<<(N(MlNC<lT-lOit--*(NOOOiO-*OtDIMOO'^ 
•*-*-*-*T|H-*Tt<-^-*-*-*-*TtlMCOC<3C<3e<3C<lC<l(N(NiHi-IOO 


rt 


2!2!32!3;2i3;2!;2i3;3^;2;;2;;2;;2!;2!;2i^3;2!333;s;;5 


!> 




C^^OS^Ol-^00■^lH00■^tlT-t00lO(^:^T-^o^^^-"<i^cOT-^O5^^CD»O•«d^COC0 
THi-l(MC<5C<5Tt(l010COt>l>OOOaOO'-l(NCOTH-*ir3COt-OOOSO 


1 






(M0010i-IOOir3.-l0010(NaiCOINa:«3COOt~-*(N01COMrHOO>0 
T5™M"<N(N<NiHiHTHOOOO=0!0:0500COOOl^t~l>l--<0(0 
M_IM(N(N(N(N(M(NIM(NlM(M(NTHTH>-li-lTHTH>-{r-lr-l>Hi-li-(T-l 


12; 
o 

< 


a)i-t o H 


T-iooooi>co(NOooiocoaitomooiMO<oc<ii^~cocn-*iOT-(ioo 

l>'0^ei3(N'-10001>tO-*CO(NOa:OOOlOCOINOCTit>iO-<KC<3 


oooooooo5a>ojo>a>ojCT)OOooooooooooooi>t^i>t>i> 


u 
O 

S 


^3S 


(N^(Nmi-ai00Tt(OO(M00-*-*THTj(-iJ(TjlTtl00<M03O-*00-5»IO 
t~O03C0djlM«2OMt^O-*00iMtDO^00<Mt^.-lcOTHU5O"O 
■«#lO"OlOlOCOCDl>t^t*Q00000050SOOOT-lTH<N(NCCCO'^-^ 
OtOCOCOCDtDtDCDtOtOtOtOOtOiOt^t~Ot^t-l^-l^t>t>t>l^ 

rH^.-I^T-li-tr-tT-tT-tr-tr-iT-*rHTHTHrHrH^rH.-Hi-Hi-Hi-li-(i-(rH 

oooooooooooooooooooooooooo 






III 


00 00 a: OS (33 OJ 00 00 00 00 00 o !> l> t^ l> xi lo >J5 ■* CO cq th on 00 


^ 




§ 




loio o om W300 loioio loioicioiolo 

COt-Ht^C^00C0O5COCT)'^C5"*O5rHO3COIr^i-HCO C01>i-liO0)C0 


1 


sSSSsilsssssssssiisssii^^^ 


5-1 1^ 


UDiOiOiOiO lO icioioio 




1— 1 1-H 1— 1 T— ) 1— 1 tH 1— 1 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 


fill 


coococijMiHccMoocooocooooeorocoMcoeooocoTOoocooo 




0"3i-Ht>-COa5lOi-Ht^'^Ot^Tt(Ot^'^T-HOO»OWOSt^*^THOO»0 
COCOTtH-^lOiOCD^^t^OOO^O^O^^CNCOCO-^iOiOCOt^OOOOOS 
MCOMCOCCMCOCOCOMMCvj-^Ttl-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-* 




m SCO'S 


lodtD(MOOCOOCDINOJli5(ModiO(M05tOMOt^'J<(NOiOCod 




Oft . 
CD Eh" 


Ot-00C»O;He22;*OOt^003OjHf,N^WOg^00OO5H 









52 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 






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00t^iOCC^a)00C0TH{NO00CO-^(N0St^iOC0.-l01CDTP(MOt* 
CiO:050i03GOCOCOOOOOOOI>I>l>I>cDcDCDcDCOiOiOiO»OiO"<# 



Oi-t(Ni-(-<tiiOCDl>-OOOi-lC<l'^«OCOaii-(COCDOOO-^lO'*i> 

OOOOOOOOOi-(t-<rHrH»-lr-I^r-l(N(N(M<NC^(NC<IC^ 
00000000000000000000000000 

i ^ 



COrHlOOOCOCOlOcOTjlTjiOOCySCOrH'^lOi-lOOOOiCOC^lOCOrH 
r^-C^OOiC^lOOStNiOCOT-HCCCDOii-lC^'^CDt-Oi-HCOiOCDt-t- 

C0C0<Mi-li-IOO05G0t^l:^CDi0Tj<-<^C0C<|i-HOO0500I>.CD10-^ 
CX30000GOOOOOi:^t^i>l>'l>t--i>J>l>'l>t>i>i>t--':D(Cii:DcDCDCD 



Oi-^OiOOTjHN.OTHCDcOt^l>t^t^cDiOM<(NOcO(NOOiOiMOi 

C50iaiOOGOI>CDcD»OTtiCO(NT-lOai001>.CDiO'**<(Ni-iasCiOJ>iO 


cocococococccococococo 

1— 1?— Ii— li— li— It— ii-ir-lT— ii— li— 1 


CO 


CO 
J— 1 


CO 
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CM 
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<N <M C^ CM C<) 
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I— 1 rH ^H 
I— 1 .— 1 r- ) 





eO(Nt-"<*<CO(Na>OOt^"<^Oi'^COC<tiOOOOOOCO(NOOi-tOt^O 
C<JC<I»Hi-i(NC<)C^-^Tt<cDCOas(NiOOJ{NcO.-iiOOCOi-iOOiOi-iOi 
»HCNCO'^iO':DI>G0030rHC^TtiiOcDOOOii-<(N'^iOI>OOOiMCO 



COI>-COOi'^OcD(Mi-it>(MOI>"^i-tOO»OCO*-iOOOb-CDiOiOiO 

COOOOLOCOi-lOOcD-^rHOSt^TjHlMOI^^iOCOT-lOSCD-^tNOQOcD 
cOcD^OlOlOlOTt^-^Tt^-^COCOCOCOCOC^^(^](N(^^^-^T-ll-^l-lT-^00 



i-HCDC0t^rW(MC0-<:JHC0C0i-H05C0OI>-»O'^t^OOOC<lCD00'pHi-4 
i-HOJl>iO'<**(NOOOCDTtH(Ma3t-'£>(NOOOiOCOi-lOOlOC^03i>.Tt< 

|s,cDi:DtO'CcC'C0>O'OiOiOrtt>^ThrH"^C0C0C0C0<NC^C^i-li--ii--( 



Oio(NcO'^tH-*oO'*o<N'*<d-^<:o':o<:DcdoOOoocdocdco 

OiOi-ICD(NGO-^QI>-"*T-(CiOiOCOi-lC3I>-CDOlO'<*<COCOCOCO-^ 
iOi0<DCDJ>.X>-00OTOSOi-li-l(NC0Tt<"^»Oc0I^00a)O»-l(NC0'<*< 
l>t^I>.I>.J>-t^X>-t^t-00G000C000C0000000000000OSCT)aiOiOi 

1— (.— (i— iT-HrHrHi— It— li— IrHrHi— It— li— It— (i— It— It— li— (rHi— (i— (.— Ii— I,— (.— I 

00000000000000000000000000 



lOioioiooio 10 »ooioio»omio 

l>cD-^COCN005ir^iOCOT-IOOcDrt<i-(l>'^OI>-^Ot^'^OcDi-t 



io»o»o>ooo »o lo lo 0100 OlCO 

l:^i-lTHt^OCOCDOOi-lCOiOCOOOOi-li-lC^<NCOT}i-<^iO»CiO"^CO 

^-t^OLO^O■^COC<1CNT--(OC500CO^»CDlO'^CO(N■^-lOCT)COt^CO 

asc30iaso5050sosa5a50ioocx)ooooooooooGOoOGOooi>t*i>t^ 



10 10 10 10 10 

OiOOc0(Mt^C000rtHOcDC^00rtHOc0C^00TiHOt0CN05»OC<l00 

T-HTH(NC^C0C0"<:tlLQ»0cC><X)l>0000030iOT-lrH{NC<IC0TjHTH 



lOCOOCOCOCOCOOOCOCOOOlOCOOOCOCOOCOCOCOCOOOGOCOOO 

COT-HOSI^^'<*l(NOGOiOCOT-IOO<£>THC<IOa>OOcD'<*l(NOOO':DlO'<:fJ 

Ot— It— l(MC0-^»O»Oc0l>'0000OlOi-<CNCNC0-^lOCDI>-I>000sO 



OOcOCOi— I03t>>0(NOOOCDCO'-l05t^iOrt<NTH03t-»iOCOTHOas 
»-<(MCOTjH-rt<iOcOI:^0000050T-ii-i<MCO-^iOcDcDI>-GOOiOT-ir-i 



C<lCO'^lOCDI>C0050i-l(NCOTHlOcON.OOCT)OT-IC^COTt<lOCOb* 
COCOCOCOCOCOCOCO•*rt^■<i^T^^•^Tt^'«i^Ti^'^•^^lOlOlOW^lOlOlOlO 



C3CO^iOcDl^OOOJOi-lMCO->:JH*0<:Ot>.OOCl50'-H(NCO'^lOcOI>. 

22SSSS^35'^'^^*^'^'^'^'^'^Ot-It-),-(t-Hi-Hi-I^,-1 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



53 



I 

.a 
s 

o 



1—1 



o 
o 

X 
o 



15 
o 
n 

< 
o 

o 

I 

< 

ft! 

o 

OS 

I 

O 
Ah 



|4 


iHioOTttoooiHeommtoiortiNoot-eoosiooJiNtoo 

-!jl-*THMeoeO(N(N<N(N'-l,H,-IOOOgggOOOOOOt^ 


1=1 


lON-i-tt^cococot^ooeot^cot* oico-^oo,-hoooocd-* 

Oe<3l>0-*00(NlO'-ltOrHOOCOOCO-*>Or-IOOi030t-l 

ooooooooooooooooooooooo 






g5BgS5!SS§SS??§S??§§2§2§2^g§ 


1S^ 


COC«505-*0>-*tOt^OOOOOOOOcOINl^(NI>i-leOOrocO(M 
■*C«DTHOOOI>>OCOi-IOSl>>OmiTHOOCOC<Ji-HOOtOC001:^ 


T-l,H,-l,HOOOOOai0505050>0000«)OOt^l>t-I>CD 
r-tFHTH,-HrH»HfH)HT-H 


Density 
of Vapor, 

Pounds 
per Cu.ft. 


t^rt<'^TH»Ot^0iC000'^(MOO(N^O'OC<10iCX)T-lt^c0 
U5t~airHe010J>0(N«COOi-l-*t>0-*l>r-l-<ilOOC<5t^(M 


0S05asOOOOTHi-H»-Ht-HC^(M(NC0C0C0TH-<^'<!H»O»0CD 


Sp. Vol. 
of Vapor, 
Cu.ft. per 

Pound. 


lOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOOcOCOcpcOt^OOOfNCOTjHCD 
■*(NO00'O-*(NO00C0-*(NO00c5-*<NO0J1>iOC0tH 

22S§§ggg§§i§§fefefefefe8SSg8 




Density 
of Liquid, 

Pounds 
per Cu.ft. 




THOOOOSO>OS0000001>t^l^cOCDlOlO-*-*rt(CO(MIM 


Sp. Vol. 
of Liquid, 
Cu.ft. per 
Pound. 


OININO^OOOOOCq'^COOOOOOOINCqOOOO 
CDI>0l(N-*tOCnrl(03TtHCT)iO-^(NOOOKll>.(MO00O 
iOtOt~050rHC^T(llOt>OOOtN'*lcOOOOIN-*t~0(MCO 
050305050000000T-HrHrH,-l,-HC^(NC<l(NCOCOCO 




Total 
Heat 
Above 
32° F. 


lo lo lo >o >o o lo m lo io lo - 


ooo505oooor~i:^toioira-*coco(M'-iooaioot^i>co 

O5C»O000O00000O00000000OO00000000000t>l>t>I>t^ 


1^ 


1-IOOOCOTO COOT01>Oi-lCOO^OO(NlOOOOIMCO-*CO 




Heat of 
Liquid 
Above 
32° F. 


to in lo 


lC.tOCOI^OOOJ050»H(NCOCO^"20t~OOOSOrHC<l«)^ 
,-lr-liH,-HrHrtr-lC<l(N(N(MlM(N(N(NIN(N(NCOCOeOK)CO 


Pressure, 

Pounds 

per Sq.in. 

Gage. 


CO00COCOCOCCCCQ0tX)00GOCO0000COCCCOCO00WCO00C0 


'lICOCOMCOMMCOTtllOlOCDCOWltOlVl^t^t^OOOSOiO 
i-l<NCO*^10COt^OOa50'-l(NCO'<:t^»OCDr^OOO^OT-t(MTt1 

t^i>i>.j>i>l>i^wi>ooooooooooooooooooooojosaios 


Pressure, 

Pounds 
per Sq.in. 
Absolute. 


OSodoOOOOOOOQOodoio'o^.-Ior-l(M(M<NlM'cOTflT)<lO 


CQfH 


00050i-IIMCO->lllO«DI>00050'-l(NCO-*"3tOI>OOa50 




OOC350'-l(NM'*U3tDt^'oOa>0.-H(Nm-*lOiOt~OOOSO 



64 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



Table 

SOLUTIONS OF 

RELATION BETWEEN PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE 

Upper figures are Starr values, 



hs 


m • 


ll 


Pounds per Square Inch Gagb 


O „M 


























<Sg| 


V 03 

am 







5 


10 


15 


20 


25 


30 


35 


40 


45 


SO 


55 


1 






206.3 


223.6 


234.9 


247.4 


256.2 


263.8 


270.4 


277.1 


282.8 


288.1 


292.9 


297.5 






204 


219 


232 


242 


251 


260 


267 


274 


280 


286 


291.5 


297 


1.84 


11 


.993 


201.4 


219.3 


231.6 


243.3 


261.7 


259.4 


266.4 


272.7 


278.4 


283.7 


288.5 


293.1 


198.5 


214 


226 


236.6 


245.5 


254 


261.5 


269.5 


274.5 


281 


286.6 


292 


2 






201.1 


218.5 


230.8 


242.1 


250.9 


258.6 


265.5 


271.9 


277.6 


282.8 


287.7 


292.2 






194 


212.5 


225 


235.5 


244.5 


263 


260.6 


267.5 


273.6 


280 


285.5 


291 


3 






195.8 


213.2 


225.5 


236.6 


245.6 


253.3 


260.2 


266.8 


272.3 


277.6 


282.4 


288.9 






191 


206 


219 


229 


238 


246.5 


254 


261.5 


267 


274.5 


280 


285 


3.80 


12 


.986 


191. S 


208.8 


221 


232.3 


241 


248.7 


255.7 


262 


267.7 


272.9 


277.8 


282.4 


186.5 


200.5 


214 


224.6 


233 


241.6 


249.5 


256 


262.5 


269.5 


274.6 


280.5 


i 






190.5 


207.7 


220 


231.2 


240 


247.6 


254.7 


260.9 


266.7 


271.8 


276.1 


281.4 






185 


200 


213 


223 


232 


240.5 


248 


255 


261 


268 


273.5 


279.5 


6 






185.2 


202.4 


214.6 


225.8 


234.6 


242.2 


249.3 


255.6 


261.4 


266.6 


271.4 


276.1 






180 


195 


207.5 


217.5 


226.5 


235 


242 


249 


265 


262.6 


268 


273.5 


5.30 


13 


.979 


183.5 


200.7 


212.8 


224.1 


232.8 


240.5 


247.6 


253.8 


259.6 


264.8 


270.2 


274.1 




178 


192.5 


206 


216 


225 


234 


240.5 


252.5 


254 


201 


266 


272 


5 






180 


197.1 


209.2 


220.6 


229.2 


237 


243.9 


250.2 


256.1 


261.2 


266.7 


271.2 








175 


189.5 


202 


212.5 


221 


229.5 


237 


248.6 


249.5 


257 


262.6 


268 


6.80 


14 


.972 


175.8 


193 


205 


216.2 


224.9 


232.6 


239.6 


246.0 


251.8 


257 


262.1 


266.7 




171 


185.5 


198.5 


208.5 


217 


225 


232.5 


239.6 


245.5 


262.5 


268 


263.5 


7 






170 


192.1 


204 


216.3 


223.9 


231-.7 


238.6 


245.1 


250.8 


266.1 


261.1 


265.8 






170 


184.5 


197.5 


207.6 


216 


224 


231.5 


238.5 


244.5 


251.5 


257 


262.5 


8 






168.8 


187.2 


199.1 


210.3 


218.9 


226.9 


233.7 


240.1 


245.9 


251.2 


266.2 


260.8 






165.5 


180 


193 


203 


211.5 


219.6 


227 


233.5 


239.5 


246 


252 


257.5 


8.22 


15 


.966 


165.4 


185.8 


197.8 


209 


217.7 


225.4 


232.4 


238.6 


244.2 


249.3 


264.1 


258.7 






164.5 


179 


191.5 


202 


210.5 


218.6 


226 


232.5 


239 


245 


250.6 


256.5 









160.8 


182.5 


194.5 


205 


214.3 


222 


229 


235.2 


240.8 


246.9 


2.50.7 


255.3 






161 


176.5 


188.5 


198.5 


207 


215 


222.6 


229 


235 


241.6 


247 


252.5 


10 


10 


.960 


156 


177.7 


189.6 


200.6 


209.2 


216.9 


223.9 


230.1 


235.5 


240.6 


246.4 


250 






156.6 


171.5 


184.6 


194.0 


203 


211 


218 


225 


230.6 


237 


242.6 


247.5 


11 






156.4 


173.2 


185.1 


196.1 


204.7 


212.4 


219.4 


226.6 


231 


236.1 


240.9 


244.5 






152.5 


167.5 


179.6 


190 


198.5 


206.6 


213.6 


220 


226 


232.5 


237.6 


242.5 


12 






151.9 


108.9 


180.6 


191.9 


199.6 


208.3 


214.8 


221 


226.4 


231.6 


236.4 


240.0 






149 


163 


175.5 


185.6 


194.5 


202.5 


209.6 


216 


222 


228 


233 


238 


12.17 


17 


.953 


151 


168 


179.9 


191.0 


199.6 


207.3 


213.6 


219.6 


225.0 


230.3 


234.4 


239.0 








147.5 


162 


174.5 


184.6 


192.6 


201.5 


208.5 


216 


221 


227 


232.5 


237 


13 






147.5 


164.4 


176.4 


187.4 


196.1 


203.7 


210.1 


216.1 


221.4 


226.8 


230.8 


235.5 






144.5 


159 


171 


181.5 


190 


198 


205 


211.5 


217.5 


223.5 


228.5 


233.5 


13.88 


18 


.946 


143.7 


160.6 


172.3 


183.4 


192 


199.7 


206 


212.1 


217.6 


222.7 


227.2 


231.8 








141 


155 


167.5 


178 


186.5 


194.6 


201.6 


207.5 


214 


219.5 


224.5 


230.0 


14 






143.2 


160 


171.8 


182.9 


191.6 


199.2 


206.5 


211.6 


217.1 


222.2 


226.7 


231.3 








140.5 


154.5 


167 


177.5 


186 


193.6 


201 


207 


213.5 


219 


224 


228.5 


15 






139 


156.8 


167.6 


178.7 


187.3 


196.0 


201.3 


207.4 


212.9 


218.0 


222.5 


227.1 






137 


151 


163 


173.5 


182 


190 


197 


203 


209.6 


215 


220.0 


225 


16 






134.8 


151.6 


163.4 


174.5 


183.1 


190.8 


197.1 


203.2 


208.7 


213.8 


218.3 


222.9 








132.5 


147 


159 


169.6 


178 


186 


192.5 


199 


205 


211 


216.5 


220.5 


16.22 


19 


.94 


133.8 


150.6 


162.3 


173.3 


181.4 


189.5 


196 


201. S 


207.1 


212.3 


217.1 


221.7 








131.6 


146 


157.5 


168.5 


177 


185 


192 


198 


204.5 


210 


215.0 


220.0 


17 






130.6 


147.4 


169.1 


170.1 


178.2 


186.3 


192. S 


198.6 


203.9 


209.1 


213.9 


218.5 








129 


143 


156 


165.5 


174 


182' 


188 


195 


201 


207 


211.5 


216.5 


18.03 


20 


.935 


126.2 


142.9 


154.6 


165.6 


174.2 


181.9 


188.9 


195.1 


200.7 


206.7 


209.5 


214.1 








125 


139 


151 


161.5 


170 


177.6 


184.6 


191 


197 


202.5 


207.5 


212.5 


19 






122.3 


138.9 


150.7 


161.6 


170.3 


177.9 


185.0 


191.1 


196.8 


201.7 


205.6 


210.1 








121.5 


135.5 


147.5 


157.5 


166.5 


173.5 


180.5 


187 


193 


198.5 


203,0 


208.5 



XLIV 

AMMONIA IN WATER 

AND PER CENT NH3 IN SOLUTION 

lower figures are new. 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



55 



Abovb Ohb Standabd Atmosphebd 


tf 


11 


P.S^ 




























60 


65 


70 


75 


80 


85 


90 


95 


100 


105 


110 


115 


kO 


Ob 


301.9 


306.3 


310.4 


314.4 


318.2 


321.8 


325.2 


328.5 


331.7 


334.8 


337.8 


340.7 






1 


301.5 


306 


310 


315 


318.5 


322 


325.5 


329 


307.5 


335.5 


339 


341.5 






297. S 


301.8 


306 


310 


313.8 


317.4 


320.8 


324.1 


327.3 


330.4 


333.4 


336.3 


.993 


11 


1.84 


296.5 


301 


305.5 


310 


313.5 


317.5 


321 


324.5 


330.5 


331 


334 


337 


296.7 


300.9 


305.2 


309.2 


312.9 


316.6 


320 


323.2 


326.5 


329.6 


332.6 


335.4 






2 


295.5 


300 


304.5 


309 


312.5 


316 


320 


323.5 


327 


330 


333 


336 






291.4 


295.6 


300 


303.9 


307.6 


311.3 


314.7 


317.9 


321.2 


324.3 


327.3 


330.1 






3 


289.5 


294.5 


299 


303 


307 


311 


314.5 


317.5 


320.5 


324 


327.5 


330 






286.8 


291.1 


395.3 


299.3 


303.1 


306.7 


310.1 


313.4 


316.6 


319.7 


322.7 


325.6 


.986 


12 


3.80 


284.5 


290 


294 


298.5 


302 


306.5 


310 


313 


316 


320 


323 


325.6 


285.7 


290.1 


294.2 


298.3 


302.1 


305.6 


309.1 


312.4 


315.5 


318.7 


321.6 


324.5 






4 


284 


289 


293 


297.5 


301 


305.5 


309 


312 


315 


318.5 


326.5 


324.5 




' * * 


280.4 


284.8 


288.9 


293 


296.3 


300.3 


303.8 


307.1 


310.2 


313.4 


316.3 


319.2 






S 


278.5 


283 


287.5 


292 


295.5 


299.5 


303 


306 


310 


313 


316.5 


319 






279.2 


283.5 


287.1 


291.7 


295.6 


299.1 


302.5 


305.8 


309 


312.1 


315.1 


318 


.979 


13 


6.30 


276. S 


281.5 


285.5 


290 


294 


298 


301 


304.5 


307.5 


311 


315 


317.5 






275.6 


280 


284.1 


288.2 


291.9 


295.5 


299 


302.2 


305.5 


308.5 


311.6 


314.4 






6 


273 


277.5 


281.5 


286 


290 


294 


302 


300.5 


304 


307 


310.5 


313.5 




'" 


271.1 


275.4 


279.6 


283.6 


287.4 


291 


294.4 


297.1 


300.9 


304 


307 


309,9 


.972 


14 


6.80 


269 


278.5 


277.5 


281.5 


285.5 


289.5 


303 


296 


300.6 


303 


306.5 


309 


270.1 


274.5 


278.6 


282.7 


286.4 


290.1 


293.5 


296.7 


300 


303 


306.1 


308.9 






7 


267.5 


277.5 


276.5 


281 


284.5 


288.5 


302 


295 


299.5 


302 


305 


308 






266.2 


269.6 


273.7 


281.7 


281. S 


285.2 


288.6 


291.7 


295.1 


298.1 


301.2 


303.9 






8 


262 


267 


271.5 


275.5 


279.5 


283.6 


287 


290 


293 


296.5 


300 


303 






263.1 


267.4 


271.6 


275.6 


279.4 


283 


286.4 


289.7 


292.4 


296 


299 


301.9 


.966 


15 


8.22 


261 


266 


270 


274.5 


278 


282.5 


286 


289 


292 


295.5 


296.5 


301.5 








250.7 


264 


268.2 


272.2 


276 


279.6 


283 


286.3 


289.6 


292.6 


295.6 


308.5 






9 


257 


262 


266.5 


270.6 


274.5 


278 


282 


285 


282 


291.5 


294.6 


297.5 






234.4 


258.7 


262.9 


266.9 


270.7 


274.3 


277.7 


281 


284.2 


287.3 


230.3 


293.2 


.960 


16 


10 


252.5 


257.5 


261.5 


265.5 


269.5 


274 


277 


280 


277 


287 


290 


293 








249.9 


254.2 


258.4 


262.4 


266.2 


268,8 


273.2 


276.5 


279.7 


282.8 


285.8 


288.7 






11 


247.5 


252.5 


256.5 


260.5 


264.6 


268.6 


272.5 


275 


272 


282 


285 


288 






245.4 


249.8 


25^.9 


257.9 


261.7 


264.3 


268.7 


272 


275.2 


278.3 


281.3 


289.2 






12 


242.5 


247. E 


251.5 


256 


259.5 


264 


267.5 


270 


267 


277 


280 


283 




... 




243.4 


247.7 


251.9 


255.4 


259.7 


263.3 


266.7 


270 


273.2 


276.3 


279.3 


282.2 


.953 


17 


12.17 


242 


246.5 


251 


255 


253.6 


263 


266.5 


269 


266.5 


276 


279 


282 








239.9 


244.2 


248.4 


251.8 


256.2 


259.8 


263.1 


266.5 


269.6 


272.8 


275.7 


278.6 






13 


238 


243 


247 


251 


25g 


258 


263 


266 


262.5 


272.5 


275.5 


278.5 




... 


236.2 


240.5 


244 


248.7 


252.5 


256.1 


259.8 


262.8 


266 


269.1 


272.1 


275 


.946 


18 


13.88 


234.5 


239 


243.5 


247 


250.5 


255 


259.0 


261.5 


258 


268.6 


271.5 


274.5 








235.7 


240 


243.5 


248.2 


252 


255.6 


259 


262.3 


265.5 


268.6 


271.6 


274.5 






14 


234 


238.5 


242.5 


246.5 


250 


254.5 


258.5 


261 


257.5 


268 


271 


274 








231.5 


235.8 


239.4 


244 


247.8 


251.4 


254.8 


258.1 


261.3 


264.4 


267.4 


270.3 






15 


229.5 


234 


238.5 


242.5 


246 


250 


254 


256.5 


260 


263.5 


266.5 


270 








227.3 


231.6 


235.1 


239.8 


243.6 


247.2 


250.6 


253.7 


257.1 


260.2 


263.2 


266.1 






16 


225 


230 


234 


237.5 


241.5 


246 


249.5 


252 


255.5 


259 


262 


265 








226.1 


230.4 


234.6 


238.6 


242.4 


246 


249.4 


252.7 


255.9 


259 


262 


264.9 


.94 


19 


16.22 


224.5 


229 


233.5 


237 


241 


245 


248.5 


251.5 


254.5 


258 


261 


264 








222.9 


227.2 


231.4 


235.4 


239.2 


242.8 


246.2 


249.5 


252.7 


255.8 


258.8 


261.7 






17 


221 


225.5 


230 


233 


237.5 


241.6 


245 


248 


251 


254.5 


257.5 


260.5 








218.5 


222.8 


227 


231 


234.8 


238.4 


241.8 


245.1 


248.3 


251.4 


254.4 


257.3 


.935 


20 


18.03 


217 


221. B 


225.5 


229. S 


233 


237.5 


241 


243.5 


247 


250 


253 


256.5 








214.6 


218.8 


223.1 


227 


230.9 


234.4 


237.9 


241.1 


244.4 


247.4 


250.5 


253.4 






19 


213 


217.5 


221.5 


225 


229 


233 


237 


239.5 


243 


246 


249 


252 









56 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 

Table 

SOLUTIONS OF 

RELATION BETWEEN PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE, 



kt 


8«» 


11 

oaO 


PouNDB pebSquahb Inch Gagb 


^gi 





5 


10 


15 


20 


25 


30 


35 


40 


45 


60 


55 


19.87 


21 


.928 


119.4 


135.9 


147.6 


158.6 


167.2 


174.4 


181.5 


187.2 


192.5 


197.5 


202.3 


206.9 


118 


132 


144 


154 


163 


170.5 


177 


184 


189.5 


195.5 


200.S 


205 


20 






118.9 


135.5 


147.1 


158.2 


166.7 


174.4 


181.1 


186.7 


192.1 


197 


201.9 


206.4 








117.5 


131.5 


143.5 


153.5 


162.5 


170 


176.6 


183.5 


189 


195 


200 


204.5 


21 






115.2 


131.8 


143.4 


154.5 


163.0 


170.7 


177.4 


183.0 


188.4 


193.3 


198.2 


202.7 






* * * 


114 


128 


140 


160 


168.5 


166 


173 


179.6 


185 


191 


195.5 


200 


21.75 


22 


.921 


112.9 


129.4 


141 


151.9 


160.5 


168.2 


174.6 


180.1 


186.3 


190.3 


195.1 


199.7 






111.5 


125.5 


137.5 


147 


155.5 


163.5 


170 


176.5 


182.5 


188 


193.0 


197.5 


22 






112 


128.5 


140.1 


151.0 


159.6 


167.3 


173.7 


179.2 


184.4 


189.4 


194.2 


198.8 






. . . 


110.5 


124 


136.5 


146 


154.5 


162.5 


169 


175.5 


181.5 


187 


191.5 


196 


23.03 


23 


.915 


108 


124.5 


136.1 


147 


155.6 


163.3 


170.0 


175.4 


180.2 


185.2 


190.0 


194.6 








107 


120.5 


132.6 


142.5 


150.5 


158.5 


165 


171.5 


177.5 


183 


187.5 


192.5 


24 






114.8 


121.3 


132.9 


143.8 


152.4 


160.1 


166.8 


172.2 


177.0 


182 


186.8 


191.4 








103.5 


117 


129 


138 


147 


154.5 


161.5 


168 


174 


179 


184 


188.5 


24.99 


24 


.909 


101.5 


117.8 


129.3 


140.1 


148.6 


156.3 


163 


168. 4 


173.6 


178.6 


183.2 


187.8 








99 


113.5 


125.5 


135 


143.5 


151 


158 


164.6 


170 


175.5 


180 


185 


26 






98.3 


114.6 


126.2 


136.9 


145.5 


153.1 


169.8 


165.3 


170.4 


175.6 


179.9 


184.7 








95.5 


110.0 


122.0 


131.5 


140 


147 


154 


160.5 


166.5 


171.5 


176.5 


181 


27 






95.1 


111.4 


123.1 


133.7 


142.3 


150.0 


156.6 


162.1 


167.2 


172.4 


176.7 


181.3 








92.5 


106.5 


118.6 


128 


136.5 


143.5 


160.5 


167 


162.5 


168 


172 


177.5 


27.66 


25 


.904 


93.0 


109.4 


121.0 


131.7 


140.1 


147.9 


154.5 


169.9 


165.1 


170.3 


174.4 


178.9 








90.0 


104.0 


116.5 


126 


134 


141.5 


148.5 


154.5 


160.5 


165.6 


171 


175 


28 






92.0 


108.3 


120.0 


130.6 


139.1 


146.8 


153.4 


158.9 


164.0 


169.3 


173.3 


177.9 




... 




89.0 


103 


115 


124.5 


132.5 


140 


147 


153.5 


169 


163 


169.6 


173.5 


29 






88.9 


105.2 


117.0 


127.6 


136 


143.8 


150.3 


155.8 


161 


166.2 


170.2 


174.8 








86.0 


99.5 


111.5 


121 


129 


136.5 


143 


149.5 


155 


160.5 


165 


170 


29.60 


26 


.898 


87 


103.3 


114.7 


125.4 


133.9 


141.6 


148.2 


163.8 


159 


164.3 


168.1 


172.7 








83.6 


97.5 


109.5 


119 


127 


134.5 


141 


147 


152.6 


158 


163.5 


167.5 


30 






85.8 


102.1 


113.5 


124.2 


132.7 


140.4 


147 


152.6 


167.8 


163.1 


166.9 


171.6 








82.5 


96.5 


108 


117.5 


125.5 


133 


139.5 


146 


152 


157 


162 


166 


31.05 


27 


.891 


82.6 


98.8 


110.2 


120.9 


129.4 


137.1 


143. S 


149.2 


154.5 


159.8 


163.6 


168.3 








79.0 


93.0 


104.5 


114 


122 


129.5 


136 


142 


148 


153 


158.5 


162.5 


32 






80.1 


96.2 


107.6 


118.3 


126.8 


134.5 


140.9 


146.6 


151.9 


157.2 


161.0 


165.7 








76.0 


89.5 


101 


110.5 


118.5 


126 


132.5 


138.5 


144.5 


149.5 


164.5 


159 


33 






77.4 


93.5 


104.9 


115.6 


124.1 


131.8 


138.7 


143.9 


149.2 


164.6 


158.3 


163.0 








73.0 


86.5 


98 


107 


115.0 


122.0 


129 


135 


140.5 


146 


151.6 


155.5 


33.25 


28 


.886 


76.5 


92.6 


103.9 


114.6 


123.1 


130.8 


137.8 


143 


148.3 


153.6 


157.4 


162.1 








72.0 


85.5 


97 


106.5 


114.5 


121.5 


128 


134 


140 


145 


150.0 


154.5 


34 






74.6 


90.7 


102 


112.7 


121.2 


128.9 


135.9 


141.1 


146.4 


161.7 


155.6 


160.2 








69.5 


83.0 


94.5 


104.0 


111.6 


119 


126.6 


131.5 


137.5 


142.5 


147.6 


152 


35 






72 


88.1 


99.4 


110.1 


118.6 


126.3 


133.3 


138.6 


143.8 


149.1 


162.9 


157.6 








67.5 


80.0 


91.5 


100.5 


108.5 


115.5 


122 


128 


134.0 


139 


144 


148.5 


35.60 


29 


.881 


70.4 


86.5 


97.8 


108.5 


117 


124.7 


131.7 


137.9 


142.2 


147.5 


151.3 


156.0 








64.5 


78.0 


89 


98.5 


106 


113.5 


120 


126 


132 


136.6 


142 


146 


36 






60.5 


85.6 


96.9 


107.5 


116.1 


123.8 


130.8 


137.0 


141.7 


147.2 


151.0 


155.7 








63.5 


77 


88 


97 


105 


112.5 


118.5 


124.5 


130 


135 


140 


145 


37 






67.2 


83.3 


94.6 


105.2 


113.8 


121.5 


128.5 


134.7 


140.7 


146.8 


150.2 


154.9 








60.5 


73.3 


85.0 


94 


101.6 


108.5 


116.0 


121.5 


127 


132 


137 


141 


38 






65.0 


81.0 


92.3 


104.9 


111.6 


119.2 


126.2 


132.5 


138.4 


143.9 


149.4 


154.0 








57.5 


70.5 


81.6 


90.5 


98.6 


106.5 


112 


117.5 


123.5 


138.6 


133.5 


137.5 


38.20 


30 


.875 


64.5 


80.5 


91.8 


102.5 


111.0 


118.7 


126.7 


132 


138.1 


143.6 


149.3 


153.9 








56.5 


70.0 


81.0 


90 


97.5 


105 


111.5 


117.0 


123.0 


127.5 


133 


137.0 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 

XLIV — Continued 

AMMONIA, IN WATER 

AND PER CENT NH, IN SOLUTION 



57 



Above One Standabd Atmosfhebe 


IS 


vvu 


in 


























fetS's 


60 


65 


70 


75 


SO 


85 


90 


95 


100 


105 


110 


115 


So 


fin 


(S§^ 


211.3 


215.6 


219.8 


223.8 


227.6 


231.2 


234.6 


237.9 


241.1 


244.2 


247.2 


250.1 


.928 


21 


19.87 


209.5 


214 


218 


221.5 


225 


229.5 


233 


236 


239 


242 


245.6 


248 


210.8 


215.2 


219.3 


223.4 


227.1 


230.7 


234.1 


237.4 


240.7 


243.8 


246.7 


249.6 






20 


200 


213.5 


217.5 


221 


224.5 


229 


232.6 


235.5 


238.5 


241.5 


245 


247.5 


* * * 




207.1 


211.5 


215.6 


219.7 


223.3 


227 


230.4 


233.7 


237 


240.1 


243 


245.9 






21 


205 


209.5 


213.5 


217.5 


221 


224.5 


227.5 


231 


234.5 


237.5 


240.5 


243.5 






204.1 


208.4 


212.6 


216.6 


220.4 


224 


227.4 


230.7 


233.9 


237 


240 


242.9 


.921 


22 


21.75 


202 


206.5 


210.5 


214 


218 


221.6 


225.5 


228.5 


232 


234.5 


237.5 


240.5 


203.2 


207.5 


211.7 


215.7 


219.5 


223.1 


226.6 


229.8 


233 


236.1 


239.1 


242 






22 


201 


205.5 


209.5 


213 


215 


220.5 


224.5 


227 


230.5 


233 


236.5 


239.5 






199 


203.3 


207.5 


211.5 


215.3 


218.9 


222.3 


225.6 


228.8 


231.9 


234.9 


237.8 


.915 


23 


23.03 


106.5 


201.5 


205 


209 


211 


216.5 


220 


223 


226.5 


229 


232.5 


235 


195.8 


200.1 


204.2 


208.3 


212.1 


215.7 


219.1 


222.4 


225.6 


228.7 


231.7 


234.6 






24 


193 


197.5 


201.6 


205 


207 


212.5 


216 


219 


222.5 


225 


228.5 


231 




' * ' 


192.2 


196.5 


200.7 


204.7 


208.5 


212.1 


215.6 


218.8 


222 


225.1 


228.1 


231 


.909 


24 


24.99 


188.5 


193 


197.5 


201.5 


205 


208.5 


212 


215.0 


218.5 


221.6 


224.6 


227 


189.1 


193.3 


197.5 


201.6 


205.3 


208.9 


212.2 


215.6 


218.9 


221.9 


225 


237.8 






26 


185.5 


190 


194 


197.5 


201.5 


205 


208 


211.5 


214.5 


271.5 


220.5 


223.5 




... 




185.9 


190.2 


194.3 


198.4 


202.2 


205.7 


209 


212.5 


215.8 


218.7 


221.8 


234.7 






27 


181.5 


186 


190 


194 


197.5 


201 


204.5 


207.6 


210.5 


213.5 


216.5 


219.5 


• < * 


. • • 


183.3 


187.6 


191.8 


195.8 


199.6 


203.2 


206.6 


209.9 


213.1 


216.2 


219.2 


222.1 


.904 


25 


27.66 


179 


183.5 


187.5 


191.5 


195 


198.5 


202 


205.5 


208.5 


211 


214.5 


217 




183.2 


186.6 


190.7 


194.8 


198. S 


202.2 


205.6 


208.8 


212.1 


215.1 


218.2 


221.0 






28 


177.5 


182 


186.6 


190 


193.5 


197.5 


200.5 


204 


207 


210 


212.5 


216.5 




... 




180.2 


183.5 


187.6 


191.8 


195.4 


199.1 


202.6 


205.7 


209.0 


212.1 


215.1 


217.9 






29 


174 


178 


182.5 


186 


190 


193.5 


196.5 


200 


203 


206 


209 


211.6 




• D . 




178.1 


181.4 


185.6 


189.6 


193.4 


197.0 


200.4 


203.7 


206.9 


210 


213.0 


215.9 


.898 


26 


29.60 


171.5 


176 


180 


184 


187.5 


191 


194.5 


198 


201 


203.6 


207 


209.5 








176.9 


180.2 


184.4 


188.4 


192.2 


195.8 


199.2 


202.6 


205.7 


208.8 


211.8 


214.7 






30 


170 


174.5 


179 


182.6 


186 


189.6 


192.5 


196.5 


199.5 


202.0 


205 


208 


... 


• . . 


173.5 


177.0 


181.2 


185.2 


189.0 


192.6 


196 


199.3 


202.5 


206.6 


209.6 


212.5 


.891 


27 


31.05 


166.5 


171 


174.5 


178.5 


182.5 


185.5 


189 


192.5 


195.0 


198.0 


201 


204.5 








170.9 


174.4 


178.6 


182.6 


186.4 


190 


193.4 


196.7 


199.9 


204 


207 


209.9 






32 


163 


167 


167.5 


175 


178.5 


182 


185.5 


188.5 


192 


194.5 


197.5 


200.5 






168.2 


171.7 


175.9 


179.9 


183.7 


187.3 


190.7 


194.0 


197.2 


201.3 


204.3 


207.2 






33 


159.5 


163.5 


163.5 


171.5 


175 


178.6 


181.5 


185 


188 


191.0 


194 


196.5 






157.3 


170.8 


175 


179 


182.8 


188.4 


189.8 


193.1 


196.3 


200.4 


203.4 


206.3 


.886 


28 


33.25 


169.0 


163 


162.5 


170.5 


174.5 


177.6 


180.5 


184 


187.5 


190 


193 


196.0 








165.4 


168.9 


173.1 


177.1 


180.9 


184.6 


187.9 


191.2 


195.4 


198.5 


201.5 


204.4 






34 


156 


160 


160 


168 


171.6 


175.5 


178 


181.5 


184.5 


187.5 


190 


193.0 






162.8 


166.3 


170.5 


174.5 


178.3 


181.9 


185.3 


188.6 


192.8 


195.9 


198.9 


201.8 






35 


152.5 


156.5 


156.5 


164 


168 


171.0 


174 


177.5 


180.6 


183.5 


187 


189.5 




... 


161.2 


164.7 


168.9 


172.9 


176.7 


180.3 


183.7 


187.0 


191.2 


194.3 


197.3 


200.2 


.881 


29 


35.60 


150.5 


154.5 


154.5 


163 


165.5 


169 


172 


175.6 


178.5 


181.0 


184.5 


187 








160.8 


164.5 


168.7 


172.7 


176.5 


180.1 


183.6 


186.8 


191 


193.9 


196.9 


199.8 






36 


149.0 


153 


153.0 


160.5 


160.5 


167.5 


170.5 


174 


177.0 


179.5 


182.6 


186.5 








159.7 


163.7 


167.9 


171.9 


175.8 


179.3 


182.7 


186.0 


190.2 


192.8 


195.8 


198.7 






37 


145.5 


149.5 


149.5 


157 


153 


164.0 


167 


170.5 


173 


176.0 


179.5 


182.0 






158.6 


162.9 


167.1 


171.1 


175 


178.6 


181.9 


185.2 


189.4 


191.7 


194.7 


197.6 






38 


142 


146 


146 


153.5 


150 


160.5 


163.6 


166.5 


170 


172.5 


175.5 


178.5 




... 


1S8.3 


162.6 


167 


171.0 


174.8 


178.4 


181.8 


185.1 


188.3 


191.4 


194.4 


197.3 


.876 


an 


38.20 


141.5 


145.5 


145.5 


153 


149.5 


160 


163 


166 


169.6 


172 


175 


178 





58 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



Table XLV 
AMMONIA— WATER SOLUTIONS 

VALUES OF PARTIAL PRESSURES OF AMMONIA. AND WATER VAPOR FOR 
VARIOUS TEMPERATURES AND PER CENTS OF AMMONIA IN SOLUTION 



Per cent 
NHa 




2. 


5 




5.0 


7.5 




•s 


•s 


• a 


S 


o.- 





g 


a 


"Sj 


"o 


g 


1- 


(4 

o 




£ 

is 


g m 


S 


i „s 

1 £•§ 


S . 

gs 

n p, 
P4> 


il 


h a 

Is 




il 


h 




1 


14 


11 


2"^ 


O^ 


5 S<! 


31 




(ijm 

n 


«^ 


•as 


^1 




a 


P4^ 


p<*^ 


H° 


H 


P<^ 


f4*^ 


H 


H 


P4 


(k 


PH 


H 


P 


resa. Inc 


aes Hg 




Press. Inches Hg 


Press. Inches Hg 


32. 


.236 


.177 


.413 




.612 


.158 


.670 




.788 


.158 


.946 




35.6 


.256 


.197 


.453 




.571 


.197 


.768 




.867 


.197 


1.064 




39.2 


.276 


.236 


.512 




.591 


.236 


.827 




.945 


.216 


1.161 




42.8 


.295 


.276 


.671 




.650 


.276 


.926 




1.041 


.266 


1.297 




46.4 


.315 


.315 


.630 




.709 


.315 


1.024 




1.16 


.296 


1.455 




50.0 


.354 


.355 


.709 




.788 


.355 


1.343 




1.28 


.335 


1.615 


1.6 


53.6 


.394 


.413 


.807 




.866 


.394 


1.260 




1.415 


.374 


1.789 


1.8 


57.2 


.434 


.472 


.906 




.965 


.452 


1.417 




1.575 


.433 


2.008 


2. 


60.8 


.492 


.532 


1.024 




1.062 


.611 


1.673 


l.( 


) 1.75 


.473 


2.223 


2.1 


64.4 


.552 


.590 


1.142 




1.18 


.690 


1.770 


IS 


) 1.925 


.562 


2.477 


2.5 


68. 


.611 


.670 


1.281 


i!c 


i 1.319 


.649 


1.958 


2. 


2.125 


.611 


2.736 


2.9 


71.6 


.670 


.748 


1.318 


1.; 


) 1.455 


.728 


2.183 


2.5 


• 2.34 


.689 


3.029 


3.1 


75.2 


.729 


.847 


1.576 


i.f 


) 1.592 


.826 


2.418 


2.e 


> 2.58 


.788 


3.368 


3.6 


78.8 


.807 


.945 


1.752 


i.i 


5 1.76 


.925 


2.675 


2.S 


2.836 


.866 


3.701 


3.9 


82.4 


.885 


1.06 


1.945 


2. 


1.925 


1.043 


2.968 


3. 


3.09 


.985 


4.076 


4.1 


86 


.985 


1.2 


2.185 


2!] 


2.126 


1.180 


3.305 


3.£ 


3.49 


1.122 


4.612 


4.8 


89.6 


1.085 


1.36 


2.445 


2. J 


) 2.30 


1.34 


3.64 


3.8 


3.70 


1.28 


4.98 


5.2 


93.2 


1.18 


1.515 


2.695 


2.i 


! 2.52 


1.495 


4.015 


4.1 


4.06 


1.435 


5.495 


5.8 


96.8 


1.28 


1.69 


2.97 


3 


2.725 


1.672 


4.397 


4.E 


4.42 


1.615 


6.036 


6 


100.4 


1.38 


1.89 


3.27 


3.^ 


L 3.01 


1.870 


4.880 


5 


4.82 


1.81 


6.63 


6.7 


104.0 


1.455 


2.125 


3.580 


3.5 


i 3.29 


2.085 


6.376 


5.2 


6.27 


2.03 


7.30 


7.3 


107.6 


1.655 


2.36 


4.015 
4.431 


4 


3.58 


2.30 


5.88 


6 


5.72 


2.245 


7.965 


8 


111.2 


1.811 


2.62 


4.e 


) 3.90 


2.66 


6.46 


6.6 


6.18 


2.60 


8.68 


8.8 


114.8 


1.970 


2.95 


4.920 


5 


4.23 


2.816 


7.045 


7 


6.78 


2.76 


9.64 


9.4 


118.4 


2.15 


3.21 


5.36 


5.2 


! 4.58 


3.11 


7.69 


7.8 


7.33 


3.05 


10.38 


10.2 


122.0 


2.320 


3.54 


5.860 


5S 


4.96 


3.44 


8.40 


8.5 


7.89 


3.37 


11.26 


11.3 


125.6 


2.520 


3.88 


6.400 


6.4 


t 5.36 


3.80 


9.16 


9 


8.65 


3.70 


12.25 


12. 


129.2 


2.740 


4.29 


7.030 


7 


6.80 


4.22 


10.02 


10. 


9.25 


4.07 


13.32 


13.2 


132.8 


2.955 


4.73 


7.685 


7.S 


6.25 


4.66 


10.90 


11 


9.89 


4,5 


14.39 


14.4 


136.4 


3.15 


5.21 


8.36 


8.2 


6.72 


5.12 


11.84 


12 


10.06 


4.98 


15.04 


15.8 


140 


3.37 


5.77 


9.14 


9 


7.2 


6.63 


12.83 


12.9 


11.45 


5.49 


16.94 


16.9 





10 


12.5 


15 


32 


1.21 


.158 


1.368 


1 


1.68 


.138 


1.718 


1.6 


2.11 


.138 


2.248 


?. 


35.6 


1.24 


.177 


1.417 


1.6 


1.72 


.157 


1.877 


1.8 


2.3 


.157 


2.457 


2 6 


39.2 


1.36 


.197 


1.667 


1.5 


1.89 


.177 


2.067 


2.1 


2.54 


.177 


2.717 


2,8 


42.8 


1.495 


.236 


1.731 


1.7 


2.09 


.217 


2.307 


2.5 


2.79 


.217 


3.007 


3 


46.4 


1.67 


.276 


1.946 


1.9 


2.31 


.256 


2.566 


2.8 


3.07 


.256 


3.326 


3 2 


60 


1.87 


.316 


2.185 


2 


2.66 


.295 


2.855 


3 


3.41 


.295 


3.706 


3,8 


63.6 


2.05 


.355 


2.405 


2.4 


2.82 


.335 


3.155 


3.3 


3.76 


.335 


4.096 


4 1 


57.2 


2.28 


.413 


2.693 


2.9 


3.12 


.394 


3.514 


3.7 


4.14 


.374 


4.614 


4,7 


60.8 


2.52 


.472 


2.992 


3 


3.45 


.453 


3.903 


4 


4.55 


.433 


4.983 


5 


64.4 


2.79 


.532 


3.322 


3.4 


3.82 


.512 


4.332 


4.5 


5.02 


.492 


6.512 


5.6 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 
Table XLV — Continued 



59 



Per cent 
















NH. 


10 




12 


.5 






15 




"Sm- 


■s 


a 


a 


"Sj 


•3 


a 


a 


"o 1^ 


"o 


a 


a 




§1 


§ is 


Ol 


i4 

u 


iS' 




3 

m 


i4 

is 


is 


£ . 


9 

a) 


|l 




s> 


B 


il 


3-§ 


s> 


■3ft( 

1^ 




n 

i- 


S_g. 




a 


"3 B 




■sS, 

1= 


•a* 


3 


1^ 


pi, to 


■a a 




■3 Oh 
1° 


11 


Preaa. Inches Ilg 


Presg. Inches Eg 


Press. Inches Hg 


68 


3.09 


.590 


3.680 


3.8 


4.22 


.571 


4.791 


5 


5.55 


.552 


6.102 


6 


71.6 


3.4 


.670 


4.070 


4 


4.61 


.66 


5.26 


6.4 


6.1 


.631 


6.731 


7.7 


75.2 


3.74 


.767 


4.507 


4.6 


5.04 


.729 


5.769 


6 


6.7 


.71 


7.41 


7.6 


78.8 


4.09 


.847 


4.937 


5 


5.55 


.827 


6.377 


6.6 


7.33 


.81 


8.14 


8 


82.4- 


4.49 


.965 


5.455 


5.4 


6.08 


.926 


7.006 


7 


7.98 


.906 


8.886 


8.9 


86 


4.9 


1.1 


6.0 


6.1 


6.66 


1.04 


7.70 


7.8 


8.66 


1.005 


9.666 


9.9 


89.6 


5.35 


1.24 


6.59 


6.8 


7.26 


1.18 


8.44 


8.5 


9.6 


1.12 


10.62 


10.7 


93.2 


5.86 


1.4 


7.26 


7.4 


7.92 


1.32 


9.24 


9.3 


10.35 


1.26 


11.61 


11.9 


96.8 


6.37 


1.555 


7.925 


7.9 


8.63 


1.47 


10.10 


10 


11.28 


1.42 


12.70 


12.8 


100.4 


6.94 


1.75 


8.69 


8.8 


9.38 


1.67 


11.05 


11 


12.25 


1.59 


13.84 


13.9 


104.0 


7.5 


1.95 


9.45 


9.5 


10.18 


1.87 


12.05 


12 


13.22 


1.77 


14.99 


15 


107.6 


8.19 


2.165 


10.355 


10.4 


11.02 


2.07 


13.09 


13 


14.30 


1.98 


16.28 


16.3 


111.2 


8.88 


2.42 


11.30 


11.4 


11.9 


2.32 


14.22 


14.4 


15.45 


2.2 


17.65 


17.8 


114.8 


9.6 


2.68 


12.28 


12.2 


12.88 


2.66 


15.44 


15.7 


16.62 


2.44 


19.06 


19 


118.4 


10.38 


2.97 


13.35 


13.3 


13.85 


2.83 


16.68 


17 


17.9 


2.69 


20.59 


20.6 


122.0 


11.22 


3.25 


14.47 


14.5 


14.95 


3.13 


18.08 


18 


19.3 


2.97 


22.27 


22.2 


125.6 


12.05 


3.58 


15.63 


15.5 


















129.2 


12.95 


3.96 


16.91 


17 


















132.8 


13.95 


4.37 


18.32 


18.2 


















136.4 


15.0 


4.81 


19.81 


20 


















140 


16.6 


5.29 


21.79 


21.2 


















- 


17.5 


20 


22.5 


32 


2.72 


.138 


2.858 


2.8 


3.46 


.118 


3.678 


3.5 


4.37 


.118 


4.488 


4.6 


35.6 


3.0 


.157 


3.157 


3.1 


3.84 


.138 


3.978 


4 


4.85 


.138 


4.988 


5 


39.2 


3.29 


.177 


3.467 


3.5 


4.22 


.158 


4.378 


4.3 


6.33 


.158 


5.488 


5.9 


42.8 


3.62 


.217 


3.837 


3.9 


4.65 


.177 


4.827 


4.9 


6.86 


.177 


6.037 


7 


46.4 


4.02 


.256 


4.276 


4.2 


5.12 


.217 


6.337 


6.1 


6.43 


.197 


6.627 


6.7 


50 


4.41 


.295 


4.705 


4.8 


5.63 


.256 


5.886 


6.9 


7.07 


.236 


7.306 


7.3 


53.6 


4.87 


.335 


5.205 


5.2 


6.2 


.295 


6.495 


6.4 


7.74 


.275 


8.016 


8 


57:2 


5.36 


,374 


5.734 


5.9 


6.8 


.335 


7.135 


7.1 


8.48 


.315 


8.795 


9 


60.8 


5.92 


.433 


6.353 


6.5 


7.49 


.394 


7.884 


7.8 


9.3 


.354 


9.654 


9;7 


64.4 


6.5 


.492 


6.992 


7 


8.2 


.453 


8.653 


8.6 


10.18 


.394 


10.574 


10.8 


68 


7.13 


.552 


7.682 


7.8 


9.0 


.512 


9.512 


9.5 


11.12 


.453 


11.573 


12 


71.6 


7.8 


.631 


8.431 


8.5 


9.85 


.571 


10.421 


10.3 


12.15 


.512 


12.662 


12.9 


75.2 


8.55 


.71 


9.26 


9.3 


10.75 


.65 


11.40 


11.5 


13.25 


.571 


13.821 


14 


78.8 


9.33 


.788 


17.118 


10.3 


11.75 


.73 


12.48 


12.4 


14.45 


.65 


15.10 


15.2 


82.4 


10.2 


.866 


11.066 


11.4 


12.75 


.86 


13.60 


13.6 


15.85 


.729 


16.579 


17 


86 


11.1 


.966 


12.066 


12 


13.9 


.905 


14.805 


15 


17.40 


.807 


18.207 


18 


89.6 


12.1 


1.08 


13.18 


13.3 


15.05 


1.14 


16.19 


16.1 










93.2 


13.2 


1.22 


14.24 


14.6 


16.30 


1.26 


17.56 


17.9 










96.8 


14.35 


1.36 


15.71 


16.8 


17.75 


1.4 


19.15 


18.9 










100.4 


15.6 


1.5 


17.1 


17 


19.35 


1.55 


20.90 


20.6 










104.0, 


16.95 


1.67 


18.62 


18.6 


21.05 


1.71 


22.76 


22.3 










107.6 


18.45 


1.85 


20.30 


19.9 
















^ , 



60 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



Table XL VI 

ABSORPTION OF GASES BY LIQUIDS 

Selected from Smithsonian Physical Tables, 

Values of x«= volume of gases referred to 32° F. and 29.92 ins. Hg which one volume of 
water can absorb at atmospheric pressure and temperature of first column. 



Temperature. 


























COi. 


CO. 


H. 


N. 


0. 


Air. 


NH,. 


HiS. 


Me- 
thane. 


Ethy- 
lene. 


•c. 


°F. 





32 


1.797 


.0354 


.02110 


.02399 


.04925 


.02471 


1174.6 


4.371 


.04573 


.2563 


6 


41 


1.450 


.0315 


.02022 


.02134 


.04335 


.02179 


971.5 


3.965 


.04889 


.2153 


10 


60 


i.185 


.0282 


.01944 


.01918 


.03852 


.01953 


840.2 


3.586 


.04367 


.1837 


15 


59 


1.002 


.0254 


.01875 


.01742 


.03456 


01795 


756.0 


3.233 


.03903 


.1615 


20 


68 


.901 


.0232 


.01809 


.01599 


.03137 


.01704 


683.1 


2.905 


.03499 


.1488 


25 


77 


.772 


.0214 


.01745 


.01481 


.02874 




610.8 


2.604 


.02542 




30 


86 


• • • • 


.0200 


.01690 


.01370 


.02646 












40 


104 


.506 


.0177 


.01644 


.01195 


.02316 












50 


122 




.0161 


.01608 


.01074 


.02080 












100 


212 


.244 


.0141 


.01600 


.01011 


.01690 













Table XL VII 
ABSORPTION OF AIR IN WATER (Winkueb, 1904) 
Air free of COi and NHs measured at 29.92 ins. and 32° F. 



Temper- 
ature. 


Cu.ft. 
Oxygen at 
29.92 ins. 


Cu.tt. 

Nitrogen 

per 1000 

cu.£t. water. 


Sum of 
Oxygen 

and 
Nitrogen. 


Temper- 
ature. 


Cu.ft. 
Oxygen at 
29.92 ins. 


Cu.ft. 
Nitrogen 


Sum of 
Oxygen 


»C. 


Hg per 1000 
ou.ft. water. 


"C. 


Hg per 1000 
ou.ft. water. 


per 1000 
cu.ft. water. 


and 
Nitrogen. 





10.19 


18.99 


29.18 


16 


6.89 


13.25 


20.14 


1 


9.91 


18.51 


28.42 


17 


6.75 


13.00 


19.75 


2 


9.64 


18.05 


27.69 


18 


6.61 


12.77 


19.38 


3 


9.39 


17.60 


26.99 


19 


6.48 


12.54 


19.02 


4 


9.14 


17.18 


26.32 


20 


6.36 


12.32 


18.68 


5 


8.91 


16.77 


25.68 


21 


6.23 


12.11 


18.34 


6 


8.68 


16.38 


25.06 


22 


6.11 


11.90 


18.01 


7 


8.47 


16.00 


24.47 


23 


6.00 


11.69 


17.69 


8 


8.26 


16.64 


23.90 


24 


6.89 


11.49 


17.38 


9 


8.06 


15.30 


23.36 


25 


6.78 


11.30 


17.08 


10 


7.87 


14.97 


22.84 


26 


5.67 


11.12 


16.79 


11 


7.68 


14.66 


22.33 


27 


5.56 


10.94 


16.50 


12 


7.52 


14.36 


21.87 


28 


5.46 


10.75 


16.21 


13 


7.35 


14.06 


21.41 


29 


5.36 


10.56 


15.92 


14 


7.19 


13.78 


20.97 


30 


5.26 


10.38 


15.64 


15 


7.04 


13.61 


20.56 











TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



61 



Table XLVIII 
AIR REQUIRED FOR COMBUSTION FOR VARIOUS SUBSTANCES 
(Combustion complete in every case except for C burning to CO) 



Substance 



1 Lb. of SubBtance 
Hequirea Air 



Lbs. 



Cu.Ft. 
Standard 



1 Cu. Ft. of Substance 

(Standard) 

Requires Air 



Lbs. 



Cu.Ft. 
Standard. 



Carbon, C to CO2 

Carbon, CtoCO. 

Hydrogen, Hj 

Carbon monoxide, CO 

Sulphur, S 

Methane, CH4. . . . 

Ethane, C2H6. . . . 

Ethylene, C2H4 

Acetylene, C2H2. . . . 

Propane, CsHg. . . 

Propylene, C3H6. . . , 

AUylene, CjH,. . . , 

Butane, C4H10 . . . 

Butylene, C4H8. . . 

Pentylene, CsHio. . . 

Hexane, CeHu . . . 

Benzole, CsHe. . . 

Heptane, C7H16. . . 
Methyl alcohol, CH3OH. 

Ethyl alcohol, CjHsOH 



11.55 

5.77 

34.64 

2.47 

4.32 

17.32 

16.16 

14.85 

13.32 

15.75 

14.85 

13.86 

15.53 

14.85 

14.85 

15.22 

13.32 

15.24 

6.49 

9.04 



143.10 
71.55 
429.19 
30.6 
53.52 
214.59 
200.22 
183.99 
165.07 
195.14 
183.99 
172.73 
192.42 
183.99 
183.99 
188.68 
165.07 
188.85 
80.47 
111.96 



.193 
.193 

.774 
1.354 
1.157 

.964 
1.929 
1.736 
1.543 
2.508 
2.315 
2.890 
3.66 
2.89 
4.243 

.58 
1.17 



2.39 
2.39 

9.59 
16.73 
14.34 
11.95 
23.90 
21.51 
19.12 
31.07 
28.68 
35.85 
45.45 
35.84 
52.58 

7.17 
14.34 



Table XLIX 
RADIATION COEFFICIENTS 



Radiating and Ab- 
sorbing Powers. 



Reflecting Power. 



Porous carbon (black body) 

Glass 

Ice 

Polished cast iron 

Wrought iron polished 

Steel polished 

Brass pohshed 

Copper hammered 

Silver polished 



1.00 
.90 
.85 
.25 
.23 
.19 
.07 
.07 
.03 



0.00 
.10 
.15 
.75 
.77 
.81 
.93 
.93 
.97 



62 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 
Table L 
COEFFICIENTS OF HEAT TRANSFER 
Average Pkacticb 



Thermal Action in Substances. 


B.T.U. per Hour per 

Square Foot per 
Degree. 




Giving Up Heat. 


Receiving Heat. 






Liquid warming 


50-75 


Liquid heat exchangers, aqua 
ammonia water and beer 
coolers, ammonia absorber 
cooling coils 


Liquid cooling 


Gas warming 


2-6 


Hot-water radiators and cool- 
ing tower surfaces, depending 
on air velocity and character 
of water surface 




Liquid boiling 


100 
10-20 
30-50 


Shell brine coolers with circu- 
lator; tank brine coolers 
without circulator; double 
pipe brine coolers depending 
on velocity and hot hquid 
evaporators 




Liquid warming 


2-5 


Brine coolers in cold storage 
rooms depending on air circu- 
lation. Air coolers with 
water or brine coils; econo- 
mizers 




Gas warming 


2-A 


Steam superheaters 




Liquid boiling 


2-5 


Direct expansion ammonia coils 
in cold storage rooms de- 
pending on air circulation. 
Steam boilers 


Vapor condensing .... 


Liquid warming 


150-350 
1000 


Feed-water heaters and steam 
condensers depending on wa- 
ter velocity and removal of 
air on steam side. Experi- 
mental feed-water heater 
high .velocity 


Gas warming 


2-4 


Steam radiators and pipes 




Liquid boiling 


400-600 


Vacuum evaporators with con- 
densing exhaust steam de- 
pending on viscosity of solu- 
tion 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



63 



o 

Q 



Q 


o 


£ 


i 


Q 


rt 


H 3: 


U 


H 


s 


ta 


W 


iz; 


C/J 


M 


^ 


UJ 


1 


§ 
^ 


^ 


H 


<) 




PLh 


Q 


S 15 


o 


< 


u 


r/3 


IJ1 


tL 




^ 


S 


H 


C3 


;3 




>^ 


« 






C/J 


<! 


H 


s 


^ 


iz; 


M 







s 


< 


N 


rt 






1-4 


P=H 


p^ 


1^ 


t3 


o 


Pm 






Ph 


o 


^ 


o 


% 


l-H 




H 


y. 


«j 


l-H 


P 




cq 


(— 1 


o 
o 


iz; 


p^ 


« 


o 




rn 




H 








i^ 




4 





P,- 




























.U. per 
at 32° 
I 29.92 






•* iH »l 


rH 00 1-1 




ee 09 






■* 'Jl OS 


-^t^ eo -^ 




«e to 






CO vt Iff 


CO CO CO 




O OS 


^SS|.H 












1H 


«3« 














o 














i 

•3 














> 
o 














1 






1 


s 




c 




o 
<! 






1 


1 









kI^'cj 






CO 


o 






t.pe 
32° 

29.9: 
Hg. 






Ol 


05 




OS 






^ 


« 




^ 


'3^'^S 






I>^ 


<N 




(N 








1— I 


i-H 




(N 




§ g 


II 


§gg§ 
i a a i 


s 




g CI 






i 




^5 


02 oa 






11 


1^ 


"5 « 4^'g += 


■2« a 


^ "2 s a-s 
i 1 ^^^ ^ 


«1- 
gag 


i^i 


d-t^ s a 


o 


(U 0) OJ 


OJ cw 


GQ (U CO 


aj CJ *w ti3 


i 


P* ^ F-i K" ^ 






1 ^-S 


o t: o 


ll-l^ 


^ 


5 e S 5 S 


fe s "s 




A S ^ 




pi,fflfq[i,fq 


fefflO 


Hmhi 


EHfflOO 


^i 


■* 1> (N CO tC 


i-H O tH 


O Tl< t^ » IM l> 


a lit eo 


00 I^ o 


rH t> » M 




lO 00 nfl 


o »o t^ ffi OS 1-1 


CO »l b^ 


OS CT. .-1 


•* .-1 •* !D 




Tt( Tjl M 


(N 00 Ttl 50 00 t> 


CO CO CO 


OS 00 00 


00 O ® ■«« 


■*-*■*-* rt 




i-H O T-H O IH .H 




n CO >a 


CO Tf « iH 


pip. 






CO « «s » u: la 






IM (N CT »1 














p=; 














o CQ CJ 














Tt< -.^Jl rH .-H 














CO CO (M N 












-a 


"13 fe 


1 






^ ■ r ■ r ■ f^ f^' f^ 
f^ f^ P^ o O O . 




S, 1 




s 


(5- » . . 


O. - 


o o (>J (N (M 


6- - 


M- ;3 


M k 


^3 
S 


o- - " - 


o- - 


Tj< O T}H rH r-H T-H 

O OJ CO IN (N (N 


o- - 


c5- <5 


q 


A( 






:2 g 




02-02 
























.. 


























u 






1 




















-§ 
















o 






>5 




*■* 


1 




■ c 


CJ 


c 


s" 


w 


§ 








"^ oTcr^ 


- g 


g 


a 


CD 






lilil 


1 


o' 


g 




1 




a 




1 


s 




a 


3 




11 


^ 


o 


3 

CQ 


lU 



64 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



i 

s 



n 



f^ 



B.P.U. per 

Cu.ft. at 32= F. 

and 29.92 

ins. Hg. 






o © 

l> CO 

a «o 


en u5 

•« as 
OS r« 

CO CO 


as © 

lO IS 


■>• Oft 

iH r-l 
Od 00 


l>> US 


a 

I 
S 

! 

a 
<1 


2 
1 


- 


: 


: 


: 


- 


Cu.ft. per 

Lb. at 32= F. 

and 29.92 

ins. Hg. 


^ 
wj 


Tfl 


^ 

-* 


CO 


1— 1 




P 

E-i 
ffl 

£>^ 

1 


^=a=« 

-a a a 


1 

a 

B 
m 


§1 

KDOl 

a a 
■a -a 


.p a a 
J s s 

CQOO 


a a 
's's 

GQ CO 

^ a a 

^ c5 d 

Sou 


ji 

g '3 «£J >tl 

Hmoo 


II 

Jill 


fflS 


■* to 00 

CO U5 i» 
O O OS 
(N IN IH 


t^ ^ -r^ 
o o o» 

IM W IH 


O OS CO 
CO t^ i>« 

i-l IH IH 


•^ ^ CO 
IN IN iH 


o to CO e« 

lO 03 © rH 
IN m IN IH 

o a> © OS 


>o 00 «c © 
c^ -^ ^ © 

CO 1> IN 1-1 
CO (N CO IN 
1-1 T-l tH rH 


■s 

1 


* 
.^ (N (M 

^ T-l T-H 

■^ C^ (M 

1=1 

q 

w 


(N IM 
CO IN (N 


IN (N 

T}< ^ tH 

CO IN IN 

■s- t 


IN IN 

■<:t< T-t T-l 

CO IN N 


IN IN 
•^ rt< r-l r-( 

CO CD IN IN 

i-l 
■s- - ^ 


CO CO IN IN 

1- r 


6 
o 












03 

a 

03 
CO 


o 

g 

1 


1 

CD 

a 




o 

1 


S 
a 


a 

o 
1 

o 

■s 


a 
q 

1 
1 



a 

■a 



.Q OS 

r'a 



23 



a Pi 

.a a 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



65 



Pi 

•a 
§ 









Ph 

■a 

o 



3 .5 I 



pi] ^ 


































a 


E 


























1 ^ 


1 










w i 


1 








MM 


IS 
« ° ? . 


4 


^ 




a a 


i i *§ 




-*3 o 




s m "So i 

2 -s -e ai So P 
h:iH H<1 <lM 




h5 [i4 H S < K 


1 




M Ph h M OJ QJ 

^ ►S ^3 S 1 ^ 




^ 


p. 

1 


S"s^ ss- 




CO ff c? " c? " 


"?? 


^is^ 


P 


M (N 1 (N (N 




1 CO CO (N CO C^ 


(N CO 


1 1 CO 


1 M 1 CO CO 




1 1 1 CO 1 CO 


CO 1 


1 1 1 


S,^ 


iiS-ii 




So»» J, »i 


1 i 


O 05 ■^ 


.11 


t> » tH » -S- 




1> 00 (N ^ lO -S- 


C3- (M 


00 t-- <N 




(N cq th CO OS 




(N 00 (N 05 Tt* lO 


CD 05 




"I'g 


r-t 00 O 00 kO 


P^ 


O I^ t^ i-< 00 lO 


CO 00 




aS 


S o S o o P^ 




rH O 




mfl 






O O 


8 ^ S 


t.^ 


O O O O O o 


(N 


o o o o o o 


o o 


H 


i' i' r i' i' s 


C<l 


+++ 1' i' r 


+ + 


+i r 


%" 


1 . 1 1 . — . . — . . 1 53 


« 


zi ^ zi j^ Hi '"' 


.nl ^ o o lo 


rilo^ 


a 






o o o o o o 




G 


CO CD r-t t^ t^ CO 


(N 


00 CD CO 00 lO >0 


(N CO O W oi 




u 


CO o t> o t-- '^ 

■^ CO lO IQ lO •'^ 


t~ 


O O --H 05 00 (N 


Oi i-H CO (N t^ 


g. 


■* 


(N N CO (N C^ CO 


lO t>- t-H CO (N 


tj 












H 












« 












s 












0. 
























^a 






i 






S*^ 










O 




O rH O 1-1 <N O 

?q888?5 

' 1 1 1 1 -*^ 




lO '-^ O -^ (N 


If 


lo i^ Fi •*- 


■la 


d 

o 

8 


g ^ 2 ?3 IfSS" 

§ '"' o o o o 


is " 

O O o 

++ i : 


i i i ^ "■ 

° ° ° °« So 

+ 11:::: 


T-( 1 ' 1 ' 03 


c3 




T-H i-l 


rH 1— 1 1-H o3 ^ 


















t^ 


C5 


■-1 o o o ■* 


10 CD 00 CO CO 


=3 


CD Oi l> lO OS N 


(N 


00 „ » CO 


■* CD (N ^ CC 


CO CO <N (M lO CO 


OS 


CD O Oi I> OS lO 


CD 


1-H T-1 00 IN 00 (N 


O Tf CD rH CT 


Tt< 00 m lO CO Oi 


a 


1— ) W I— I i-H 1-H T— ) 


i-t 


I^ t~ O O 05 T-( 


(N <N O rH CD 


CO iH >-H (N 


CQ 






1-1 tH 1-t 




r-t 






































































g 
































% 
























































u 

































0. 














^ 












^ 






a 












ICQ 


^ 
























OJ 

rG 























■^ 
M 




J 






j 






1 




5 




.5 


1 
1-^ 


.C 






— ' 

1 



»-l •-< & 



66 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



I 
o 



n 

e1 

















9 <= 
00 












































IJ 


9 9 i i 


■g 

XI 

■1 


o_rooo— -— r w ^ ^ S oo g 






o^-sooo^-gggg'§ss:issssoosg8ssso 










d a 


l4 


o bO 


^ 


8 § 


b 


^H O 





^ 1 


Ki 


8§ 3 


4 


« ^ § 


S3 


& "S .- 


uH 


■* S .3 




to . s 




8 
a 


1 00 iM *^^^l>••. oor-i,-iioio>i:i(Mioioco(N 


P 


OOiO ' CDC0»O OOi-H(NCni>COt*00-^t^l^O'<^CCiOC^OiTt<(NOO(N 


10COC00005t^lOOOCOrHCCCDTjlTtlK)OOOOC01N^(MrHOCC'-<OIN 


H 


ai»OC0C^<N(N i-HCQ CDt-l i-li-H Cai-t 


m 


T-H r-( 




d d 


1 


'3 

8 6i 


i 


^ 1 


e4 





¥ 


13 ° 


Sh 


to a 


=2- 


1— t ca fT 
to ° CO o S 's 
8 •• 1 ^g ^ 


Is 






o 


*^T-l COCO OOOCOCOCO.-IIN'^ 10C01000Tt<CO(MTt<.-l(N 




CO>#b-t~r^gCTi(N(N^-<rHg{NiO.-HCOCOTl<Tt(^OOOrtOI^-* 


^ 




CO 






a. 


-£ 






















































0) 

s 




1 "- 

1 §^ 








































na 






a. 




1 




1 
a 

1 


c 

1 

1 


i 

1 
1 


T 
c 

1 


1 


> 

i: 

IE 

t: 
1 


1 

of 


i 


1 

5v 


1 

4 
c 


t 

c 

1 




4 
C 

i 
> 


3 


i 


<2 


1 

1 


c 

i 

1 


1 

1 


1 
1 

< 


1 

i 


u 



1 


1 


1 

i 
1 

"c 


1 

c: 

J 


1 


•^ 

a 


1 

E 

-*- 


i 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



67 



I 

4 



I 






•9 -S. 



^^^^a 




miiiiii 



i 

s 

a 



£ II 

03.3 



5£ 



(3 



8 

o 

+ 



CO (N IN 1> CO 

■* (N CO OS O 



to O 



(N (N e<5 

CO CO I 

I I ' 



sgg 

o S o 
+ + + 



>a i-i 

CO'^ «3NC00giOO5 

iHiH0505t-ti-Hi-Hr-*0 






go 



h 0. 



o 



< o 



ci- 



o o 

o o 00 

00 o o 

i-t CO »H 

ri ^ ^ 

tH t^ (N 

(N "3 (N 

tH T-H Cq 

o o o 

o o o 



O O O 



a a 

o o 



lO CO 
0> (N 

SS 

o o 



O 



O 



S3 

"§ CO ira 

" CO lO 
00 CO CO 
O Q O 




to ■* 1> 
(N ■* t-l 

o o o .^ 

o o o O 

+ + + 

tH 1-t ^H .tj 

roo^ * 

00 05 W OS 

CO CO <N 1-i 

O O CO CO 

o o o o 

o o o o 

o o o o 



00 00 

d d. 



oo 





HH m Ph ^ 



d 



■a S S S fl 

O OJ O O M> B 

■3 1.1>S S'.s 



t£.a 



-d 
■fi ^ 

1^ 
o o 

a 
o o 

it 



IhWM^oSoo 



68 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 
Table LIII 
RELATIVE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY 



Conductivities Carbon Dioxide 1 

AND t 

Resistances Silver J 



= lat32''F. 



Substance. 



Conductivity Carbon 
Dioxide = 1. 



llesistaQCe 



Conductivity 
Silver =1. 



Iron 

Iron (Wiederman and Franz) . . . 

Copper 

Copper (Wiederman and Franz). 

Steel 

Steel (Wiederman and Franz) . . . 

Aluminum 

Lead 

Lead (Wiederman and Franz) . . . 
Tin 



Tin (Wiederman and Franz) . 

Zinc 

Zinc (Wiederman and Franz) . 
Silver 



5700 
4165 

23000 

25760 
3600 
4165 

11000 
2700 
2975 
5000 
5320 
5000 
9835 

35000 



5.23 
8.60 
1.52 
1.36 
9.74 
8.60 
3.18 
12.95 
11.75 
7 

6.58 
7 

3.56 
1 



Slate 

Granite and sandstone . 
Marble, limestone, etc. 

Portland cement 

Plaster of Paris 

Soil 

Sand, white dry 

Chalk 

Firebrick 

Carbon 

Glass 

Diatomic earth 

ParaflSne 



Ice 

Sawdust 

Snow, packed . . 

Woods 

Strawboard. . . 
Pasteboard. . . . 
Asbestos paper . 
Blotting paper . 

Felt 

Cotton wool. . . 



117 

176 

153-182 

23.2 

22.8 

10.7 dry; 52.2 wet 

30.4 

6.52 

9.12 

13.2 

35.8 to 75 
4.24 
7.50at0°C. to 
55.0 at 100° C. 
72.7; 18.5 
3.92 
16.6 
9.8 w.g.; 2.94 a.g. 
9.8 
14.7 
14.0 
4.9 
2.84 
1.4 



300 
199 
228-192 
1511 
1531 
3270 dry; 6700 wet 
1150 
5370 
3840 
2650 
978 to 467 
8260 
4670 at 32° F. to 637 at 212° 

481; 189.0 

8940 

2110 
3570 with grain; 11900 ac.gr. 

3570 

2380 

2500 

7150 
12300 
25000 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



69 



Table LIII — Continued 
RELATIVE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY 





Conductivity Carbon 
Dioxide =1. 


1 


Substance. 


Conductivity 

Silver = 1. 


Cotton wool, pressed 


1.08 
3.92 
1.37 
2.34 
13.7 


32400 


Flannel 


8930 


Haircloth 


26600 


Cork 


1495 


Leather, cowhide 


2560 






Water 


39.09 
16.12 
10.70 
13.78 
12.07 
12.53 
21.22 
10.83 
11.25 
11.66 


896 




2170 


Methyl alcohol (De Heen) 


3270 


Ethyl alcohol 


2540 


Ethyl alcohol (Henneberg) 


2900 


Ethyl alcohol 90% (Henneberg) 


2990 
1650 




3240 


Benzole (Weber) 


3100 




3030 








1.86 
1.27 
1.7 
1.28 
1.37 
10.65 
12.97 
13.14 
1.71 
1.83 
1.89 
2.30 
2.57 
1.62 
1.81 
1.00 
1.16 
1.09 
4.94 


18900 


Ammonia . 


27600 




20600 


Ethylene 


27400 


Ethvlene 


2960 . 




3280 


Hvdroeen fStefan) 


2960 


Hydrogen (Kindt and Warberg) 


7100 
20460 




19100 




26500 


TVfpthane 


15200 


Mpthanp fStefanl 


18500 




21600 


Oflrbmi dioxide 


19300 
35000 


rinrbnn dimridp TStefan^ 


30400 


Carbon dioxide (Kindt and Warberg) . . 
TnnTni-nn+inP" firas TPlank^ . . 


32100 
13600 







Table LIV 

COMPARISON OF CELLULOSE AND AVERAGE WOOD (Dbt and Ash Fbee) 



Constituent. 



Carbon 

Hydrogen 

Oxygen 

Oxygen and nitrogen . 



Cellulose. 



44.44% 

6.17% 

49.39% 



Wood, Average of 

Maple, Oak, Pine, 

Willow. 



49.2% 
6.1% 



44.7% 



Spores of Club Moss, 



63.0% 
8.6% 



28.4% 



70 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 









(NCOOOCOCOC^OOt^C^tNCOOOt^OOOlTtHCDOOtNaPt^C^'-''^ 



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TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



71 






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t> t- lO 

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72 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



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Gas coal. Lens, F 
Ruhr coal, Pluto, 
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.a 


t. r. of m., Upp 
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uhr coal, Reckli 
t. r. of m., K 
U.S.G.S. No. 9 
t. r. of m., Upp 
U.S.G.S. No. 3 
as coal, Wigan, 
uhr coal, Ewald 
gnitic flaming c 
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t. r. of m., Tha 
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TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



73 



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C0Q0OTHOCSOt^C0;D05 



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iO CO 03 T}1 t^ CD CO 
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■^ r-t rH CO CO CO CO 



CO Tfl i-H 05 

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00 lO ■* 

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lO lO CO 
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HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



Table LVIII 
PARAFFINES (C„H2„+2) FROM PENNSYLVANIA PETROLEUM 



Porzuula. 



Boiling-point. 



C. °F. 



Specific Gravity 
at 32° F. 



Molec- 
ular 
Weight 
Approx. 



Composition 
by Weight. 



%C. %H. 



Gas 



Liquid 



Solid 



Methane 

Ethane 

Propane 

Butane 

. Pentane normal . . 

Pentane iso 

Hexane normal . . . 

Hexane iso 

Heptane normal . . 

Heptane iso 

Octane normal. . . . 

Octane iso 

Nonane 

Decane 

Endecane 

Dodecane 

Tridecane 

Tetradecane 

Pentadecane 

Hexadecane 

Octodecane 

Eicosane 

Tricosane 

r Paraffine (myricle) 
\ Paraffine (ceryl) . . 



CH, 
CgHs 

CsHg 

C4H10 
C6HI2 

CsHij 
CeHii 
CeHu 
C7H18 
CrHia 
CsHis 
CsHis 
C9H20 
C10H22 

C11H21 

Cl2n2B 

C13H28 
C14H30 
C16H32 
CisHsi 
OisHsa 
C20H42 
C23H48 
C25H62 
C27H66 
C30H62 



-25 



38 

30 

69 

61 

97.5 

91 

125 

118 

136 

173 

182 

198 

216 

238 
258 
280 

205 
234 



370 



-13 

32 

100.4 

86 

156.2 
141.8 
207.5 
195.8 
257 
224.4 
276.8 
343.4 

359.6 

388.4 

420.8 
460.4 
496.4 
536. 

401. 
453. 



698 



.446 

.536 

.60 

.627 at 57 

.628 

.658 at 68 

.664 

.683 at 68 

.699 

.702 at 68 

.703 

.718 at 68 

.741 

.73 at 68 

.757 

.774 at -15 

.765 

.773 at -10 

.776 

.792 

.775 at 39 

.775 at 64 

.778 at 99 
.779 at 118 



16 
30 

44 
58 
72 

72 
86 
86 
100 
100 
114 
114 
128 
142 

156 

170 

184 
198 
212 
226 
254 
282 
324 
352 
380 
422 



75 

80.12 

81.84 

82.76 

83.33 

83.33 
83.76 
83.76 
84.00 
84.00 
84.21 
84.21 
84.38 
84.51 

84.62 

84.71 

84.78 
84.85 
84.92 
84.96 
85.02 
85.10 
85.18 
85.23 
85.26 
85.31 



25 

19.98 

18.16 

17.24 

16.67 

16.67 
16.24 
16.24 
16.00 
16.00 
15.79 
15.79 
15.62 
15.49 

15.38 

15.29 

15.22 
15.15 
15.08 
15.04 
14.98 
14.90 
14.82 
14.77 
14.74 
14.69 



ETHYLENES (C„H2„) AND NAPHTHALENES (aHsn-e+He) FROM RUSSIAN 

PETROLEUM 



Ethylenes 
Ethylene. . . 
Propylene. . 
Butylene. . . 
Amylene. . . 
Hexylene. . . 
Heptylene . 
Octylene. 



Naphthalenes . 



Nonylene 
Diamylene 



Oct. Naphthalene 



Dodeca Naphthalene 



Triamylene . . 
Tetraamylene 



C2H4 
CsHe 
CiHs 

CcHm 

C6H12 
C7H14 

CsHie 
CsHio-f-He 
C9H18 
C10H20 
C11H22 
C12H24 
C12H18+H6 
C14H2S 
C15H30 
CaoH4o 



gas 

gas 

1 

36 

70 

84 

119 

136 

161 
180 

196 
240 
248 
over 
390 



33.8 
96.8 
158 
183.2 
246.2 
276.5 

321.8 
356 

384.8 
464. 
478.4 
over 
734 



.635 



.76 
.714 
.733 
.771 



.777 



.803 



28 


85.7 


42 


85.7 


56 


85.7 


70 


85.7 


84 


85.7 


98 


85.7 


112 


85.7 


106+6 


85.7 


126 


85.7 


140 


85.7 


154 


85.7 


168 


85.7 


162+6 


85.7 


196 


85.7 


210 


85.7 


280 


85.7 



14.3 
14.3 
14.3 
14.3 
14.3 
14.3 
14.3 
14.3 
14.3 
14.3 
14.3 
14.3 
14.3 
14.3 
14.3 
14.3 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 
Table LIX 



89 



CALORIFIC POWER OF MINERAL OILS BY CALORIMETER AND 
CALCULATION BY DENSITY FORMULA OF SHERMAN AND KROPFF 



No. 



Class of Oil. 



Sp.gr. 

at 
15° C. 



Degree B6. 



B.T.U. per Pound. 



Calo- 
rimeter. 



Calcul. 
S.&K.Form. 



Error. 
% 



1 

2 
3 
4 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 



Gasolene 

Gasolene 

Gasolene 

Gasolene 

Kerosene 

California, refined. . . 
West Virginia, crude . 
Kerosene 



Ohio, crude 

Pennsylvania, crude. 
California, refined. . . 

Kansas, refined 

West Virginia, crude . 
California, refined. . . 
West Virginia, crude . 



Pennsylvania, crude. 

Ohio 

Indian Territory . . . . 



Indian Territory. . 
California, refined. 
Kansas, crude. . . . 



Kansas, crude. 
Illinois, crude. 



California, refined. . . . 
Pennsylvania, fuel oil . 



Pennsylvania, fuel oil . 
Indian Territory 



Kansas, crude 

Pennsylvania, fuel oil . 
Kansas, crude 



.71 

.7175 

.72 

.7709 

.7830 

.7850 

.7945 

.795 

.7964 

.8048 

.8059 

.8080 

.8103 

.8237 

.8248 

.8261 

.8321 

.8324 

.8418 

.8421 

.8436 

.8466 

.8500 

.8510 

.8514 

.8534 

.8580 

.8597 

.8616 

.8640 

.8648 

.8660 

.8670 

.8690 

.8708 

.8712 

.8745 

.8773 

.8800 

.8807 

.8810 



67.2 

65.1 

64.4 

51.6 

48.8 

48.35 

46.2 

46.1 

45.8 

44.0 

43.7 

43.2 

42.8 

40.0 

39.7 

39.5 

38.2 

38.2 

36.3 

36.25 

36.0 

35.4 

34.7 

34.5 

34.45 

34.05 

33.20 

32.8 

32.5 

32.05 

31.9 

31.65 

31.5 

31.1 

30.8 

30.7 

30.1 

29.6 

29.0 

29.0 

28.9 



21120 

20389 

20527 

20038 

20018 

20014 

20030 

20135 

20236 

20068 

20057 

19802 

19963 

19766 

19827 

20021 

19757 

19782 

19710 

19795 

19924 

19685 

19715 

19724 

19701 

19784 

19389 

19379 

19741 

19555 

19656 

19555 

19530 

19534 

19654 

19614 

19354 

19428 

19447 

19435 

19435 



20938 

20854 

20726 

20314 

20206 

20194 

20098 

20094 

20082 

20010 

19998 

19979 

19962 

19850 

19838 

19830 

19778 

19778 

19702 

19698 

19690 

19666 

19638 

19630 

19630 

19610 

19578 

19562 

19550 

19530 

19526 

19516 

19610 

19494 

19482 

19478 

19454 

19434 

19410 

19410 

19406 



- .91 
+2.33 
+ .99 
+1.38 
+ .92 
+ .89 
+ .33 

- .20 

- .76 

- .29 

- .29 
+ .88 
± .00 
+ .42 
+ .05 

- .05 

+ .11 

- .02 

- .04 

- .48 
-1.17 

- .09 

- .38 

- .47 

- .35 

- .86 
+ .95 
+ .95 

- .95 

- .12 

- .65 

- .19 

- .10 

- .20 

- .86 

- .68 
+ .50 
+ .03 

- .18 

- .47 

- .15 



90 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



Table LIX — Continued 

CALORIFIC POWER OF HYDROCARBON OILS BY CALORIMETER AND 

CALCULATION BY DENSITY FORMULA OF SHERMAN AND KROPFF 



Claaa of Oil. 



Sp.gr. 

at 
15 °C. 



Degrees B6. 



B.T.U. per Pound. 



Calo- 
rimeter. 



Calcul. 
S.&K. Form 



Error, 
% 



42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 



Kansas, crude. . . 
Indian Territory. 



Indian Territory. 
Texas, crude. . . . 



Kansas, crude. 



Kansas, crude. . . 
Texas, crude. . . . 
Texas, crude. . . . 
Texas, crude. . . . 
California, crude. 

Fuel oil 

California, crude. 
California, crude. 
Texas, crude. . . . 
California, crude. 



.8820 
.8828 
.8833 
.8860 
.8862 
.8900 
.8914 
.8970 
.9007 
.9050 
.9065 
.9066 
.9087 
.9114 
.9137 
.9153 
.9155 
.9158 
.9170 
.9179 
.9182 
.9336 
.9644 



28.75 

28.7 

28.5 

28.0 

28.0 

27.3 

27.1 

26.1 

25.4 

24.7 

24.45 

24.4 

24.1 

23.6 

23.2 

22.95 

22.9 

22.9 

22.7 

22.5 

22.5 

20.0 

15.2 



19643 
19249 
19474 
19454 
19372 
19418 
19242 
19355 
19359 
19228 
19352 
19089 
19282 
19303 
19028 
19246 
19008 
18572 
19103 
18779 
18985 
19080 
18589 



19400 
19396 
19390 
19370 
19370 
19342 
19332 
19294 
19267 
19238 
19228 
19226 
19213 
19194 
19178 
19168 
19166 
19166 
19157 
19150 
19149 
19048 
18858 



-1.22 
+ .73 

- .42 

- .42 

- .01 

- .39 
+ .45 

- .31 

- .47 
+ .05 

- .63 
+ .69 

- .35 

- .55 
+ .76 

.39 
+ .80 
+2.58 
+ .28 
+1.94 
+ .83 

.16 
+1.42 



Table LX 
PROPERTIES OF OIL GAS 



No. 



Description. 



Thwaite oil gaa .... 

Pintsch American oil 

Pintsch American oil 

Oil gas 

Pintsch gaa from 
petroleum residue 

Pintsch gas from 
paraffine oil 

American petroleum 
oil gas 

Pintsch gas, Moore- 
head 

General 

Crude oil Retort gas, 

England 

English shale oil gas, 
Young and Bell . . . 



Volumetric Analysis. 



CHi 



63.19 
63.1 
61.2 
58.3 

58.0 

54.9 

53.7 

52.5 
48. 

35.4 

19. 



31.61 
5.6 
6.4 

24.3 

24.3 

5.6 

4.8 

18.5 
32. 

6.6 

16.85 






27.4 
28.3 
17.4 

17. 

28.9 

41.2 

23.5 
16.5 

49.4 

44.83 



CO. 



CO2 



.2 

1.0 

1.5 
.63 



5.06 



3.5 
3.0 



1.15 



At 32° F. and 29.92" Hg Pressure. 



Lbs. 
Cu.Ft. 



.03427 
.05142 
.05109 
.04313 

,04081 

.0591 

.05726 

.04777 
.04318 

.05972 

.04670 



Cu.Ft. 
per Lb. 



29.18 
19.45 
19.6 
23.2 

24.5 

16.92 

17.46 

17.32 
23.16 

16.750 

21.41 



B.T.U.^per 
Cu. Ft. 



High. Low, 



893.5 
1173. 
1260.7 

995.9 

990.2 

1126.8 

1294.8 

1157.6 
901.3 

1390.7 

1043.1 



818.0 
1074. 
1064. 

803.9 

898. 

1034.8 

1192.0 

966.5 
716. 

1107. 

966.0 



B.T.U. per 
Lb. 



High. Low. 



26072 
22815 
24710 
23096 

24260 

19065 

22607 

20060 
20874 

23282 

22333 



23869 
20889 
20854 
18650 

22000 

17509 

20812 

16940 
16583 

18542 

20682 



The hydrocarbon analyses in this table for oil gas are quite uncertain, 
lent to kerosene and gasolene. 



but less so than the hydrocarbons equiva- 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 

Table LXI 

COMPOSITION OF NATURAL GASES 



91 



Source, 



Authority 



Volumetric Analysia. 



2. • 


CO. 


CsH4. 


Ns. 




.25 




1.2 


, 


2.69 








4.4 






7 


.55 


.3 


2.8 


42 


.65 


.3 


2.8 


74 


.44 


.2 


2.98 


14 


.44 


.2 


2.98 


2 


.6 


.15 


3.42 


4 


.6 


.15 


3.42 


64 


.41 


.35 


3.41 


84 


.41 


.35 


3.41 




1.0 


. . . 


2.9 


98 




. . . 


1.9 


98 






.49 


86 


.73 


.47 


3.02 


01 


.73 


.47 


3.02 


89 






3.82 


89 


.55 


.20 


3.82 


5 


.4 


.25 


3.53 


35 


.45 


.25 


3.63 


3 


.6 


.3 


3.5 


18 


.5 


.31 


3.61 


94 


.93 
3.60 




2.13 


79 


.26 


4.39 


.6 


2 






.65 


5 




5.72 




1 




18.12 




6 


1. 








1. 


3.0 






.6 


1.0 


3.0 




.6 


5.0 


3.0 


12 


.8 






03 


.58 






64 


1.0 




23.41 


92 


.4 


12.3 





West Virginia. 
Kansas 



Caucasus 

Caucasus 

Kokomo, Ind 

Kokomo, Ind. . . . 

St. Mary's, Ohio. 



Marion, Ind. . . 
Marion, Ind. . . 
Findlay, Ohio. . 
Findlay, Ohio. . 

English 

Russian 

Caucasus 

Anderson, Ind. 
Anderson, Ind. 

Ohio 

Fostoria, Ohio. 
Munoie, Ind.. . 
Muncie, Ind.. . 
Findlay, Ohio. . 



Caucasus 

Caucasus 

Leechburg, Pa. . . 
Penna. & W. Va. . 
West Virginia. . . , 



Butler County, Pa. 
Butler County, Pa. 

U. S 

Pittsburgh, Pa. . . . 

Penna 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

U. S 

U. S 

U. S 

U. S 



Report Gas Eng. 

Com.N.E.L.A... 

Report Gas Eng. 

Com.N.E.L.A... 

Bunsen 

Bunsen 

Levin 

Eng. &M. J 

Levin 

Lucke 

Eng. & M. J 

Levin 

Eng. & M. J 

Levin 

Lewes 

Lewes 

, Bunsen 

Eng. & M. J 

Levin 

Lewes 

Eng. & M. J 

Levin 

Eng. & M. J 

Gill 

Lucke 

Bunsen 

Bunsen 

Hoyle 

Allen & Burrell 

Report Gas Eng. 

Com. N. E. L.A... 

Hoyle 

Hoyle 

Ford 

Levin 

Jiiptner 

Hoyle 

Ford 

Ford 

Ford 

Ford 



.4 



.25 



.3 
.3 

.35 
.36 
.55 
.55 
.39 
.39 



.42 

.42 

.36 

.35 

.35 

.35 

.3 

.34 



.15 



1.1 

.8 



.8 
.8 
.78 
2.1 



99.5 
« 

98.3 
97.57 
96.56 
94.16 
94.16 
93.85 
93.85 
93.57 
93.57 
93.35 
93.35 
93.16 
93.1 
93.09 
93.07 
93.07 
92.84 
92.84 
92.67 
92.67 
92.6 
92.6 
92.49 
92.24 
89.65 
83. . 

f 

81.5 

80.11 

75.44 

72.18 

72.18 

67.0 

67.0 

65.75 

60.7 

57.86 

49.68 



2.94 
3.26 
3.26 



.35 



16.4 



17.6 



5.0 

1. 

1. 
.8 
.6 



.29 

.29 



.3 
.3 
.25 



2.18 
2.18 
.26 
.26 
.75 
.20 

.25 
.3 
2.6 



.35 



.66 

.34 

.8 

.8 

.6 

.6 

.6 



.4 



92 



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TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



95 



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HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



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TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



97 



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98 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 

Table LXIV 

COMPOSITION OF UNITED STATES COKE 

(Mainly from U. S. Geological Survey Eeports) 



Origin, 



Moia1>- 



Vol- 
atile. 



Fixed 1 
Carbon, 



Ash. 



From ConnelsviUe bituminous coal, 72 hours roasting 
From ConnelsvUle bituminous coal, 48 hours roasting 
Foundry Ganley Mountain, U,S, Geological Survey, , , 

Foundry Milwaukee Solvay, U.S,G.S 

From ConnelsviUe, U.S.G,S 

From Alabama coal, U.S.G.S. No. 1 

From Arkansas coal, U.S,G,S. No. 6 

From Illinois coal, U.S.G.S. No. 2 

From Illinois coal, U.S.G.S. No. 3 

From Indiana coal, U.S.G.S. No. 1 

From Indian Territory, U.S.G.S. No. 2 

From Iowa, U.S.G.S. No. 1 

From Iowa, U.S.G.S, No. 3 

From Kentucky, U.S.G.S. No. 1 

From Kentucky, U.S.G.S. No, 4 

From Missouri, U.S.G.S, No. 2 

From West Virginia, U.S.G.S. No. 1 

From West Virginia, U.S.G.S. No. 2 

From West Virginia, U.S.G.S. No. 3 

From West Vu-ginia, U.S.G.S. No. 4 

From West Virginia, U.S.G.S. No. 5 

From West Virginia, U.S.G.S. No. 6 

From West Virginia, U.S.G.S. No. 10 

From West Virginia, U.S.G.S. No. 12 

ConnelsvUle average of 3, J. B. Proctor 

Chattanooga, Tenn., average of 4, J. B. Proctor 

Birmingham, Ala., average of 4, J. B. Proctor 

Pocahontas, Va., average of 3, J. B. Proctor 

New River, W. Va., average of 8, J. B. Proctor 

Big Stone Gap, Ky., average of 7, J. B. Proctor 

Alabama, run-of-mine, foundry, Moldenke 

Alabama washed slack, foundry, Moldenke 

Colorado washed slack, foundry, Moldenke 

lUinois washed slack, foundry, Moldenke 

Pennsylvania washed slack, foundry, Moldenke 

Pennsylvania washed slack, foundry, Moldenke 

Tennessee, foundry, Moldenke 

Tennessee, foundry, Moldenke 

Virginia, foundry, Moldenke 

Virginia, foundry, Moldenke 

West Virginia, foundry, Moldenke 

AVest Virginia, foundry, Moldneke 

Proposed standard foundry coke specification 



.23 

.19 

.75 

.27 

.18 

.33 

1.30 

1.67 

.96 

1.16 

2,60 

2.11 

1.80 

.61 

.52 

2.18 

.40 

.59 

.38 

.20 

.42 

1.00 

.60 

1,00 



1,34 
.75 
.44 

2.78 
.23 
.91 
.22 

1.67 
.16 

1.52 
.67 
.60 
.6 



1,32 

.51 

.35 

.48 

.32 

.72 

2,85 

2,83 

.44 

1,24 

1,85 

1.79 

1,95 

.84 

.73 



88.18 

89,6 

86,38 

89.63 

88.75 

82.63 

78.84 

75.42 

87.08 

84,81 

80.25 

77.01 

78.64 

93.25 

86.40 



1,82 


81.34 


1.95 


87.47 


1.31 


86.70 


.87 


84.48 


1.15 


85.42 


.43 


84.34 


1.85 


89,60 


.65 


90.34 


.75 


90.37 




88,96 




80,61 




87.29 




92.53 




92.38 




93.23 


1.03 


83.35 


.75 


86.00 


1.31 


82.18 


.74 


83.35 


.29 


92.53 


2,26 


80.84 


,11 


92.44 


1,6 


76,87 


.80 


93.24 


1,67 


88.52 


,46 


95.47 


2,35 


84.09 


.75 


89.75 



10.27 

9.7 

12,52 

9.62 

10.75 

16.32 

17.01 

20.18 

11.52 

13.19 

15.30 

19.09 

17.61 

6.40 

12.35 

14.66 

.18 

11.40 

14.27 

13.23 

14.81 

7.55 

8.51 

7.88 

9.74 

16.34 

10.64 

5.74 

7.21 

5.69 

14.28 

11.50 

16.07 

13.13 

6,95 

15.99 

7.23 

19.86 

5.80 

8.29 

4.00 

12.96 

9.0 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



99 



Table LXV 

PRODUCTS OF BITUMINOUS GA^ COAL DISTILLATION (Juptnerj 

(Variation with coal composition) 



Coal from 


Paa De Calais. 


England. 


Commentry 


Blanzy. 




Moisture 

Ash 


2.17 2.70 

9.04 7.06 


3.31 ■ 
7.21 


4.34 
8.80 


6.17 
10 73 








Coal composition, 


O2 


6.66 6.66 
5.06 5.36 
88.38 86.97 
1 1 


7.71 

5.40 

85.89 

1 


10.10 
5.53 

83.37 
1 


11 70 


per cent by weight 


H2 


5.64 




C 


81 66 




. N2 


1 










rGas 


13.70 15.08 
3.90 4.65 
4.69 5.57 

71.48 57.63 
6.33 7.07 


15.81 
6.08 
6.80 

64.90 
7.41 


16.95 
5.48 
8.61 

60.88 
8.08 


17.00 




Tar 


6.69 


Products of distilla-. 
tion, per cent by 


Ammonia water 
Coke 


9.86 
58.00 


weight 


Coal dust 


9.36 


Gas produced per ^^j ^.^^j,. ^^^^^ 
kg coal 


30.13 31.01 


30.64 


29.73 


27.44 




fCOj 


1.47 1.58 
6.68 7.17 

64.21 62.79 

34.37 34.43 

.79 .99 

2.48 3.02 


1.72 

8.81 

60.10 

35.03 

.96 

3.98 


2.79 
9.86 
45.46 
36.42 
1.04 
4.44 


3.13 




CO 


11.93 




H2 


42.26 


Volumetric analysis 


CH4 


37.14 


CeHe 


.88 


of gas 




4.76 









Table LXVI 
AVERAGE DISTILLATION PRODUCTS OP CRUDE MINERAL OILS (Robinson) 



Clasa. 


Name of Product. 


Average 

Per Cent 

Yield. 


Speoi6o Gr. 
60° F. 


B«. 


Boiling- 
Point, F. 






f Cymogene 


small 
.1 

1 -1.6 

10 

2 - 2.6 
2- 2.6 

12 -20 
40 -65 


' .690 
.625-.631 
.635-. 668 
.680-. 700 
.717-. 72 
.742-. 745 
.780-. 785 
.800-. 810 
.85 

.885-. 920 
.980 


107 
94-92 
91-83 
76-70 

65 

58 

49 

44 

35 
28-22 

13 


32 

64 
86-158 
140-212 
176-260 
212-265 
300-575 
300-700 




Petroleum ether. . . . 


Rhigolene 






, Gasolene 




Petroleum spirit. . . . 


'[■ C naphtha (benzene) . . 
B naphtha 


a 


, A naphtha (benzene) . 
f Water white 




Lamp kerosene 

Intermediate. 


\ Ordinary kerosene .... 
Gas oil 


■^ 


Heavy oils 


Lubricating oil 


17.5 

2 
6 -10 




Residue and loss 




Petrol 


Gasolene or benzene . . 
Kerosene 


5 -16 
30 -40 
10 -12 
12 -15 
26 -40 

3 -6 

10 -16 


.725-. 765 
.817-. 828 
.840-. 860 
.870-. 897 
.908-. 912 
.915-. 920 

.900-. 950 


63-63 
41-39 
37-33 
31-26 

24 
23-22 

25-17 






TiR.Tnn oils 




Tntpmapdiatp 


Solar oil 











Lubricating oils .... 


■ Engine oil 


a 


, Cyhnder oil 


'i 


Fuel oil 


Residue, astatki or 
gondron 


rt 













100 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 
Table LXVII 



FRACTIONATION TESTS OF KEROSENES AND PETROLEUMS 









Temperature of 










Volumetric 


Distillation. 


Specific 
Gravity of 
Distillate, 


Density, 
Baum£. 


No. 


Class and Density of Original. 


Per Cent 










Distilled. 


Deg. F. at 
Beginning. 


Deg. F. at 
End. 


60° F. 








23 


257 


302 


.748 


57.21 






11 


302 


347 


.767 


52.5 






8 


347 


392 


.783 


49.0 




American kerosene 


9 


392 


437 


.794 


46.6 


1 


Robinson 


10 


437 


482 


.807 


43.5 


Sp.gr. .797 


16 


482 


627 


.821 


40.8 




BL 45.67 


7 


527 


572 


.831 


38.8 






3 


572 


680 


.836 


37.5 






Left as res. 














13 


680 




.843 


36.5 






9 


239 


284 


.786 


48.2 






18 


284 


329 


.799 


45.4 






20 


329 


374 


.816 


41.6 




Russian kerosene 


13 


374 


419 


.829 


38.9 


2 


Robinson 


18 


419 


464 


.831 


38.5 


Sp.gr. .825 


12 


464 


509 


.845 


36.8 




B6. 39.9 


6 


509 


654 


.857 


33.5 






1 


554 


680 


.864 


32.2 






Left as res. 














3 


680 




.877 


29.8 






25 


293 


338 










23 


338 


383 








American kerosene 


28 


383 


428 






3 


Robinson 

Sp.gr. 


13 


428 


473 








7 


473 


618 










3 


518 


572 








Alsatian petroleum 


.08 
30.35 


302 


302 
392 






4 


Engler & Schestopal 
Sp.gr. .801 


44.7 


392 


482 








20.2 


482 


572 








B6. 44.8 


3.8 


572 


608 








"Kaiser " oil 


29.7 


302 


392 






5 


Engler & Schestopal 


32.3 


392 


482 






Sp.gr. .795 


26.3 


482 


572 








B6. 46.1 


11.7 


572 


608 










15.8 




302 








Pennsylvania kerosene 


22 


302 


392 






6 


Masehinenfabrik, Augsburg 


19.25 


392 


482 








Sp.gr. .800 


16.8 


482 


572 








B6. 45 


26.15 


572 


608 







TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 
Table LXVII — Continued 
FRACTIONATION TESTS OF KEROSENES AND PETROLEUMS 



101 





Class and DeDsity of Original. 


Volumetric 
Per Cent 
DistlUed. 


Temperature of 
Distillation. 


Specific 

Gravity of 

Distillate, 

60° F. 


Density, 
Baum6. 


No. 


Deg. F. at 
Beginning. 


DcK. F. at 
End. 


7 


German, benzol 
Maschinenfabrik, Augsburg 
Sp.gr. .873 B6. 30.5 


68 

28.7 


212 ' " 
302 


212 
302 






8 


Beaumont, Texas 
Richardson & Wallace 
Sp.gr. .912 
B4. 23.5 


2.5 
40.0 
20.0 
25.0 


230 
302 
572 
752 


302 
572 

752 


.8749 

.9089 
.9182 


30.1 
24.2 
23.6 


9 


Ohio 

Mabey & Noble 
Sp.gr. .829 
B^. 38.9 


23.0 
21.0 
21.0 
27.0 


185 
302 
572 
762 


302 
572 
752 


.7297 
.8014 
.8404 
.8643 


62.3 
45.1 
36.8 
32.2 


10 


Pennsylvania 
Sp.gr. .914 
B6. 23.2 


21.0 
41.0 
14.0 
23.0 


176 
302 
572 
752 


302 

672 
752 


.7188 

.7984 

.8334 

Paraffine 


65.2 
45.8 
38.3 


11 


Virginia, petroleum, heavy 
B. Redwood 
Sp.gr. at 32° F. .873, Be. 30.5 


1.0 

1.3 

12.0 


212 
284 


212 
284 
356 






13 


Virginia, petroleum, light 
B. Redwood 
Sp.gr. 32° F. .8412 
B6. 36.6 


1.3 
4.3 
11.0 
17.7 
25.2 
28.5 


212 
248 
284 
320 
356 


212 
248 
284 
320 
356 
392 






13 


Pennsylvania, light 
B. Redwood 
Sp.gr. at 32° F. .816 
Be. 41.6 


4.3 
10.7 
16.0 
23.7 
28.7 
31.0 


212 
248 
284 
320 
356 


212 
248 
284 
320 
356 
392 






14 


Penn., heavy, B. Redwood 
Sp.gr. at 32° F. .886. B6. 


"i2!6" 


500 ' ' 


500 
636 






15 


Java, petroleum 
B. Redwood 
Sp.gr. at 32° F. .923 
Be. 21.8 


1.0 
1.0 

"'7.'7" 
15.0 
22.3 
24.3 


' '212 " 
248' 
320 
356 
392 
428 


212 
248 
320 
356 
392 
428 
464 







102 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 

Table LXVIII 
FRACTIONATION TESTS OF GASOLENES 





Class and Density of Original. 


Volumetric 
Per Cent 
Distilled. 


Temp, of Distillation. 


Density of 

Distillate, 

60° F. 


Density, 
Baum6. 


No. 


Deg. F. at 
Beginning. 


Deg. F. at 
End. 


1 


Gasolene [Blount] 
Sp.gr. .739 
B6. 59.5 


39 

49 
7.5 
3.5 


158 
212 
248 
271 


212 
248 
271 


.722 
.748 
.757 
.767 


63.9 
57.2 
55.0 
52.6 


2 


Gasolene [Blount] 
Sp.gr. .736 
B6. 60.2 


48 
37 
11.5 
2.5 


158 
212 

248 
271 


212 
248 
271 


.727 
.747 
.762 
.767 


62.5 
57.5 
53.9 
52.6 


3 


Gasolene [Blount] 
Sp.gr. .717 
B^. 65.3 


65.5 

26.5 

4.5 

2.5 


149 
212 
248 

271 


212 
248 
271 


.708 
.742 
.754 
.769 


67.9 
58.8 
65.8 
52.2 


4 


Gasolene [Blount] 
Sp.gr. .716 
B6. 65.5 


69.0 
22.0 

4.5 

3 


149 
212 
248 
271 


212 
248 
271 


.707 
.743 
.751 
.770 


68 
68.5 
56.5 
61.9 


5 


Gasolene [Blount] 
Sp.gr. .716 
B6. 65.6 


65.0 

26.0 

5.0 

2.5 


145 
212 
248 
271 


212 
248 
271 


.704 
.742 
.753 
.772 


68.9 
68.9 
66 
51.5 


6 


Gasolene [Blount] 
Sp.gr. .717 
B6. 65.3 


70.0 

24.0 

3.0 

1.5 


149 
212 
248 
271 


212 
248 
271 


.71 
.744 
.753 
.769 


67.2 
58.2 
56.9 
62 


7 


Gasolene [Blount] 
Sp.gr. .719 
B6. 64.7 


67.0 

21.0 

6.0 

4.5 


140 
212 

248 
271 


212 
248 
271 


.706 
.742 
.750 
.770 


68.2 
68.9 
66.8 
61.9 


8 


Gasolene [Blount] 
Sp.gr. .711 
B6. 66.9 


66 

24 
6.5 
2.5 


140 
212 

248 
271 


212 
248 
271 


.700 
.731 
.741 
.762 


70 
61.6 
68.9 
63.8 


9 


Gasolene [Blount] 
Sp.gr. .715 
B6. 65.8 


59 
28.5 ^ 

7.0 

4.0 


145 
212 
248 
271 


212 
248 
271 


.701 
.736 
.750 
.765 


69.8 
60.2 
56.6 
63.0 


10 


Gasolene [Blount] 
Sp.gr. .712 
B6. 66.7 


62.0 

25.0 

7.0 

5.0 


145 
212 
248 
271 


212 
248 
271 


.699 
.730 

.742 
.758 


70.1 
61.8 
68.8 
64.8 


11 


Gasolene [Blount] 
Sp.gr. .710 
B6. 67.2 


68 

22.5 
6.5 
2,0 


136 
212 
248 
271 


212 
248 
271 


.699 
.736 
.750 
.736 


70.1 
60.2 
66.6 
60.2 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 

Table LXVIII — Continued 
FRACTIONATION TESTS OF GASOLENES 



103 





CUsa and Deasity of Original. 


Volumetric 
Per Cent 
Distilled. 


Temp, of Distillation. 


Density of 

Distillate, 

60° F. 


Density, 
Baum6. 


No. 


Deg. F. at 
Beginning. 


Deg. F. at 
End. 


12 


Gasolene [Blount] 
Sp.gl:. .700 
B6. 70 


86.5 

11.5 

■■■■■-■ 


133 
212 
248 
271 


212 
248 
271 


.692 
.739 


72.3 
59.5 


13 


Gasolene [Blount] 
Sp.gr. .718 
B6. 65 


59 

29 

8 

3 


145 
212 
248 
271 


212 
248 
271 


704 
.742 
.755 
.768 


69 
58.8 
55.5 
52.5 


14 


Gasolene [Blount] 
Sp.gr. .717 
B6. 65.3 


- 64 
26 
6.5 
2.5 


149 
212 
248 
271 


212 
248 
271 


.705 
.740 
.754 
.770 


68.8 
59.4 
65.8 
61.7 


15 


Gasolene [Blount] 
Sp.gr. .717 
B6. 65.3 


68 

23 
5.5 
2.5 


149 
212 
248 
271 


212 
248 
271 


.705 
.743 
.755 
.773 


68.8 
68.6 
55.5 
51.2 


16 


Gasolene [Blount] 
Sp.gr. .717 
B6. 65.3 


67.6 

22 
5,5 
3.5 


143 
212 
248 
271 


212 
248 
271 


.706 
.742 
.758 
.770 


68 

68.8 
64.9 
51.8 


17 


Gasolene [Blount] 
Sp.gr. .715 
B6. 65.8 


58 

24 
9.5 
6.5 


136 
212 

248 
271 


212 

248 
271 


.700 
.733 
.749 
.770 


70 
61 
57 
51.8 


18 


Gasolene [Blount] 
Sp.gr. .705 
B6. 68.6 


73 
17.5 

5 

3 


131 
212 
248 
271 


212 
248 
271 


.697 
.736 
.751 
.768 


71 

60.2 
56.5 
52.6 


19 


Gasolene [Blount] 
Sp.gr. .705 
B6. 68.6 


74 

15.5 
5.0 
4.0 


140 
212 
248 
271 


212 
248 
271 


.696 
.736 
.745 
.764 


71.1 
60.3 
57.9 
53.2 


20 


Gasolene [Chambers] 
Sp.gr. .71 
BL 67.18 


6.67 
6.66 
6.67 
6.67 
6.66 
6.67 
6.67 
6.66 
6.67 
6.67 
6.66 
6.67 
7.67 
5.66 
4.37 


148.8 

149.2 

167.0 

176 

176 

186.8 

197.6 

206.6 

212.0 

219.2 

226.4 

233.6 

248.0 

258.8 

284.0 


149.2 
167.0 
176.0 
176 
186.8 
197.6 
206.6 
212.0 
219.2 
226.4 
233.6 
248.0 
' 258.8 
284.0 
311 







104 



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HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 

Table LXX 
RATE or FORMATION OF CO FROM CO2 AND CARBON 





Temp. 
Deg. F. 


Time. 

Seconds. 


Volumetric Analysis. 




Form of Carbon. 


CO2 


CO 


CO 

C02 


CO 


Authority. 




CO+COj 




Fine, amorphous 

Charcoal, 2-5 mm 

Charcoal, hazel nut . . . 

Coke, 2-5 mm 

Coke, hazel nut 

Gas carbon, 2-5 mm . . 
Gas coke, hazel nut, . . 


1472 

1472 
1472 
1472 
1472 
1472 
1472 


480 
480 
480 
480 
480 
480 
480 


13.6 
39.9 
17.1 
79.1 
83.6 
80,1 
86.7 


86.4 
60.1 
82.9 
20.9 
16.4 
19.9 
13.3 


6.43 
1.51 
4.88 
.26 
.20 
.25 
.15 


.864 
.601 
.829 
.209 
.164 
.199 
.133 


Boudouard 


1 . Charcoal, 5 mm .... 


1472 
1472 
1472 
1472 
1472 
1472 
1472 
1472 
1472 


189 

116 

57 

46 

24 

16 

12 

2.7 

1.6 


49.7 
49.6 
48.2 
47.8 
62.5 
71.7 
75.5 
93.7 
96.1 


50.3 
50.4 
51.8 
52.2 
37.5 
28.3 
24.5 
6.3 
3.9 


1.01 

1.01 

1.07 

1.09 

.60 

.40 

.32 

.067 

.041 


.503 
.504 
.518 
.522 
.375 
.283 
.245 
.063 
.039 


Clement 


2. Charcoal, 5 mm. . . . 


1562 
1562 
1562 
1562 
1562 
1562 
1562 
1562 


123 

54 

24 

13 
9.3 
4.6 
3.7 
3.3 


25.7 
29.8 
42.8 
47.4 
70.3 
70.3 
77.6 
77.5 


74.3 
70.2 
57.2 
52.6 
29.7 
29.7 
22.4 
22.5 


2.88 

2.36 

1.34 

1.11 

.42 

.42 

.29 

.29 


.743 
.702 
.572 
.526 
.297 
.297 
.224 
.225 


Clement 


3. Charcoal, 5 mm. . . . 


1652 
1652 
1652 
1652 
1652 
1652 


64 

44 

10 
4.3 
2.8 
2.2 


12.7 
13.3 
29.2 
50.2 
68.9 
65.6 


87.3 
86.7 
70.8 
49.8 
31.1 
34.4 


6.87 

6.52 

2.42 

.99 

.45 

.52 


.873 
.867 
.708 
.498 
.311 
.344 


Clement 


4. Charcoal, 5 mm. . . 


1697 
1697 
1697 
1697 
1697 
1697 


119 
81 
12 

5.8 
4.3 
2.3 


6.3 

6.7 

15.2 

28.2 
35.8 
62.5 


94.7 
93.3 
84.8 
71.8 
64.2 
37.5 


17.9 

13.9 

5.57 

2.54 

1.79 

.60 


.947 
.933 
.848 
.718 
.642 
.375 


Clement 


5. Charcoal, 5 mm. . . 


1832 
1832 
1832 
1832 
1832 


70 

18.6 
8.2 
3.7 
2.3 


5.1 

5.7 

9.7 

20.3 

20.5 


94.9 
94.3 
90.3 
79.7 
79.5 


18.6 
16.5 
9.3 
3.92 

3.88 


.949 
.943 
.903 
.797 
.795 


Clement 


Charcoal, 5 mm 


2012 
2012 
2012 
2012 
2012 


36.5 

10.4 

4.97 

3.6 

1.9 


1.3 
1.7 
1.9 
2.7 
5.4 


98.7 
98.3 
98.1 
97.3 
94.6 


75.9 
57.8 
51.6 
36.0 
17.5 


.987 
.983 
.981 
.973 
.946 


Clement 


6. Coke 


1652 
1652 
1652 
1652 


142 
80 
44 
25 


72.4 
86.9 
90.6 
94.3 


27.6 

13.1 

9.4 

5.7 


.382 
.151 
.104 
.061 


.276 
.131 
.094 
,057 


Clement 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 

Table LXX — Continued 
RATE OF FORMATION OF CO FROM CO2 AND CARBON 



107 





Temp. 
Deg. F. 


Time, 
Seconds. 


Volumetric Analysis. 




Form of Carbon. 


CO! 


CO 


CO 
COs 


CO 


Authority. 




CO +C0! 




6. Coke 


1652 
1652 
1652 


16 
9.6 
3.7 


95.1 
97.4 
99.2 


4.9 
2.6 

.8 


.051 
.027 
.008 


.049 
.026 
.008 








7. Coke 


1832 
1832 
1832 
1832 
1832 
1832 
1832 
1832 


123 

80 

33 

19 
6.4 
4.1 
3.1 
2.0 


21.6 
35.6 
47.1 
68.0 
86.1 
88.6 
90.8 
93.7 


78.4 
64.4 
52.9 
32.0 
13.9 
11.5 
9.2 
6.3 


3.62 
1.81 
1.12 
.47 
.16 
.13 
.101 
.067 


.784 
.644 
.529 
.320 
.139 
.115 
.092 
.063 


Clement 






8 Coke 


2012 
2012 
2012 
2012 
2012 
2012 
2012 
2012 
2012 
2012 


90 

30 

13 
6.7 
3.2 
1.8 
1.7 
1.6 
1.5 
.96 


2.9 
14.6 
33.9 
44.4 
68.3 
69.6 
76.0. 
77.9 
78.6 
86.7 


97.1 
85.4 
66.1 
55.6 
31.7 
30.4 
24.0 
22.1 
21.4 
13.3 


33.6 
6.85 
1.95 
1.25 
.46 
.437 
.316 
.284 
.272 
.154 


.971 
.854 
.661 
.556 
.317 
.304 
.240 
.221 
.214 
.133 


Clement 






9. Coke 


2192 
2192 
2192 
2192 
2192 
2192 


19 

13 
8.3 
2.4 
1.6 
1.1 


1.1 

2.2 

4.7 

31.5 

56.1 

66.5 


98.9 
97.8 
95.3 
68.5 
43.9 
33.5 


89.7 

44.4 

20.2 
2.18 
.78 
.504 


.989 
.978 
.953 
.685 
.439 
.335 


Clement 






Coke 


2372 
2372 
2372 
2372 


8.9 
4.1 
2.1 
1.1 


.1 

2.1 

6.8 

16.6 


99.9 
97.9 
93.2 
83.4 


999 
46.5 
13.7 
5.02 


.999 
.979 
.932 
.834 


Clement 






10. Anthracite 


2012 
2012 
2012 
2012 
2012 


34 
9.4 
5.4 
3.3 
2.4 


12.2 
39.9 
52.3 
69.8 
73.5 


87.8 
60.1 
47.7 
30.2 
26.5 


7.2 

1.5 
.91 
.43 
.36 


.878 
.601 
.477 
.302 
.265 


Clement 


11. Anthracite 


2192 
2192 
2192 
2192 
2192 


47 

10 
6.1 
2.8 
1.6 


.3 

14.4 
28.5 
57.7 
69.0 


99.7 
85.6 
71.5 
42.3 
31.0 


332.3 
5.95 
2.5 
.73 
.45 


.997 
.856 
.715 
.423 
.310 


Clement 


12. Anthracite 


2372 
2372 
2372 
2372 
2372 
2372 


12.4 
6.0 
3.6 
3.0 
1.91 
1.07 


.1 
3.5 
17.6 
19.1 
33.7 
49.7 


99.9 
96.5 
82.4 
80.9 
66.3 
50.3 


999 

27.6 . 
4.68 
4.23 
1.97 
1.01 


.999 
.965 
.824 
.809 
.663 
.503 


Clement 



108 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



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PhCO 



.-, 73 C y 

ffl ^ fl fi -^ W w O Ph Ph P5 O 



o S 2 






a.S' 

03 o 



"a 
■g 5 6D^_ 

rft O S 53 a; 

3 .og -a -a oj 
.Sap, p,q3 

-I ^ P O fi 










110 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



rt|-o 

6 d 



O 
O 



MM 



I 

e 

o 



X 
X 



O 

w 
o 
p 

Q 
O 

O 

o 



02 

o 

o 
o 






o 
o 



COCO(NC<l05u:)CD»OCDT}<0'^Tt<COlOO(N-^T-HOSC<IO»-lT-< 
O0000000l>.00t^f-O0t>-O0t>.b-O0l>0000t-O0t~t^t-I>-C» 



OO00OCClO00(Nt^(MO3.-li-l>OO>O1^05O50'-Hi-lt^(N 

OOt-cOOClW(N0002<NO>a5^00000'^OOCD"*-*CO 

•O W ^li Tfi OT lO CO CO Ti< (N -^ C<I C<i W C<3 Tji Tli (N Tt< CO (N (N (N ■*' 



OOCOOOOOOcDt^t^COCOO ooocoooot^coo 

OOOi-IOO-*lCOOOCDi-l05(Nt^001>COt>-(NtOTf(M(M 
CDlOCOCOfMOS-^ioOOT-HOtN-^COCOOi-l-^OOOfN^^COO 



• o o o o o o 

■ C^ Tjl (N O ■* CO 



coo5->}ioooooooooooooTt<ooooa300 

CDCDCOOOOOCDCDOOCOOOOOtHiOiOOOCOOI^-^OOOO 



. o 



o 
o 



0(MrHooooTt<cocoi^r-ooooot^ooO'«*-*o o 

OOOOOOOCC>lOt-HTHiOCOlOi-tOOOCOOOOOCO»OCX!COOCO l^ 

C0C0-^ON.C^C0-*Ot>*00c0»Ol>TH^HC0»O»-lOc0t^cD05 N^ 



^^WOOOOOOO'^OO 
■<l(-*i-lOOOOOOOQ01>I>t~«D«5COi 



COCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCNC^C<lC<I(MC^C<lC<l(NC<)C<ICqTHt-lTHT-( 
C<l<N(NC<lC^C^(NC^(NC101<NC^(NC^C<lC<IC<IC^Cq(N<M<MlM 



o 
to 



a a 

COGQ 



a § S 

o o § o 

0, (U OJ H 

p p " M ( 

o o fi -2 

eg eg H TJ 

^ P P P 



T3T3 
O O 



s-s s 



bO hC hO bC ^ 

t^ t-i Lj C-i O 

S q3 S S a 

O O O O -rH 

p D a ij a 

■ ■73 T3 ^3 "73 M 

p p p o ^ 



•N w y i-rt 

■g -g o «■ _ _ _ _ 




cOTPlOq^^'^ooosOT-lC^coTt^iOcot^ooo50T-l<NcOT}^lOcD^* 

0505D;OtOtD;Ot>.l>t^t^t^t>t>.t>.I>t»OOOOOOOOCX)000000 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



111 



^HOcOO^t^(»1-^lOcD'*OcO^*C)bc»lOOcoost^OaQO^-^cDlHO>ONO^>OOoo^>■cDOO 
C^ iO iO lO CO C^ (N C<» l> 03 O O 

c^weoo(^^030-*coOlO^O(^^cDl-^ooolN^lOTt^l>OcDrt^l-^lo»ocoocD^*(NeOrHcoM 

i0C0N-^»0Ot>W3OC0i0C0(NO<:0i-i0S'^£^'^O'^'^O0si0rt^i0C0C0C0C0'^C0C0OO 
W C^ CO C<i Tti C)i CO N CO CO lO C^ CO C^ CO W i-H (N T-H ,H (N tH rH ^ 

OOOQOOOOOtHO'^C00sOO'<$tHi-I0010OC000OC0O«DtHC001'^C<IO10OO 
WiOOOCft-^000(N"3cDCOO'<*<CniOT--tOiiOC^OS(NOOO-^C^OOOC^CDt^»HC<l*00000 

■^^^O^HTJ^ooO'*cocOt^Oi^-OiU^lO^*W^OOSC^lOOGOl©^*1-^a>0^0<:O^^OCOojcD':D 



s 


8 


S ?5 S M • 


O IN 1> ■* 1-1 t^ CO • 


00 IN (N in • 


O • • •* lO 0> O (N CO IN O IN W3 O O • • 
iH • •C^CO»OT-tr-lCOINi-li-tC<»COW • • 




r-l 






ca 


.— 1 






s 


8 


lO CO ;0 


§s 


SSgSS§SS§SS;lS§2gS?S8SSff8SS^§g5Sg 


00OSCD00'*O3iO00cD^C000iO01»C000it^OT-t 

1—1 r-l 


oo.-ithoooooo>ooi-iooosoo(N(N 

1— li— IrH T— (1— 1 »-ti— tr-t t— ti— lT-li-1 


: 


: 


: :S 


: : 


... o ... o 

. . . C^ . . .1-1 






::::::: :5 :: : 


tH 


S 




8 00 ° 


.§ 


• • i-t O 05 CO 00 i-f 


• 3°o^S8cS^ • 


INiOO>O00tD.-100OOOO 

ici-*od-*>ocDO!Osococo 


1-t 




^ ■* (N 


■ CO 


■ i—H CO "^ *— t "^ T— ( 


• •* to lO 


>o in (N CO • 


>0-*COCDI^1C-<1(0(N10ININ 


(N lO lO CO Cft 


Sooo^oggooog«g«oo«2oeS3§3So3§SgSSg 


.-1 


1—1 


05-*coco(Nb-«'Oiot^>0(»05mosoi-it~t~T(05T-ii^do6oJoidc<lc<ioJcoa5-*-* 

1-1 i-(rHi-({NTH i-l N i-(T-l (SjrHi-1(N'-l i-l rH i-t (N(N 


8 


8 


S§gSS^S28§§fe§§g3S^SSS2ggS532f:5^?32SgS§ 


1— 1 




i-*ooooooooo5aiooxooooi>t^i>. 

C<I(MtM(N(N(N(N(MC^r-(,-i,-l.-(rH,-(r-H,-(TH 


CDCDiXJlOlO^OlOlOi^-^-^Tjl-^^-^COCOCO 







)0aO1-^NC0Tt^l0<O^-C0OO1HC<^C0■^>OcDt^G0^Ol-^C^C0Tt^U^CD^-C00iO^-lC<IC0rt^ 
) 00 CS Oi OS OS Oi 05,OS OS0505000000gOOO^^^rM^r-jT-(i-(i-li-tca(NNC^(N 



112 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



o o 
olo 



lOlO»O»O>OTt*TjH-*D5'^CO-^C0'^C00000t>000000000000000 

"^CO 00 COOWO-^CDCCCCOCOIO " 

(NiO'^rHlor^OOi-<"^CO-^t^05COl-^05t^C<IOOC^»OClW30CD 

cO(^^*-^(N•-l05co^-<fflcClcOGO»oco■^ooococDMC^IO^oc^co 

CO t-l CO -^ 

CX)QiOCOt^t* OOTt*000000000000»0 

•^OC5t^cD0500»OOCO{NCC>0^1>Tt<00>t-HCOOOOOl003 

OOo6oi-HOilMCO(NCOCDCOC0050>OOOOOit^b-^t^OOOI^lO 

■^ .-H CO 00 o 

oot^osco^r^ o • -oo ■ -o • -oo • • 

OiHfNi-HfNO C^ • • r^ T-t • -i-l . •C<)tH • • 

CO 

■-HiOt^cDCqOOOOOOt-OOOOOOOOOOOXSlO 
'X>O00(MC000O"3i-liO00O00OO"300(Nt>.OO00«0(M0S 

0...0.0 

■>*...I^.-* . . . . 

' ' ' ' y~i 

00 i-( F; 

irat^(N"-l OOOOOOCOOOOOOOOOOOOiOO 
t>.;D»0-<**'^i-lO»0000'^COCOOiOC01>.cOOO(Nt>-OCOCO'^ 

«0 t^ «D 1> CO CO <N <n' i-H (N CD (N CO to tH im' ci I-l (N >-l (N T-I CO CO 

00 Ol rJH 

ocac<i»oiooooooocoooooooooooooo 

COlOOiO-^CDOOINiOC^ICDOOOCOOOaSTjtoOT-lOOOi-lcDCO 

OOs0050500SOOt^t^»Ot>»THCOTj<cOiOCDOOC300lOlOCDo6 
.-I .-I T-llMINe<»(NIM INIM(M r-l il 

lOt^lOOIMCOOOOOOCOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 
l>iOi^i^C»'*OOOO00>0«0Oi-lc0!N00l>C0OTj(00C0Tt< 

!N(NC<J(NtHi-HT-(T-tTHTHOOOOOOCOOOl^CDCOa)o6l>.|>»rD 
-<.-ii-l.-l— iTH.-lWrHi-l.-l.-11-lr-l <N<M<N(M(N(M(M(NIMIN 



03 

<! 
O 

o 

p 

§ 

Ph 

o 

o 



CO 

o 

o 
o 



...•s^ 



o 
o 



CI 



s 



WW -^ 



w 



o 
o 




!£?SEr:°°'^'^'~'<^'^'*''''0'^ooo^Oi-iiNcoTitu3cot^oooi 

C-)(NIN(MIMCOCOmCOCOCOCOeOCOCO-*T)(TK^-^^^ij<-5<iSi 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 

Table LXXII 
COMPOSITION OF WATER GAS 



113 



No. 



8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 

14 
15. 

16 

17 

18 

19 



Description. 



Essen water gas, coke, Sexton 

Dellurck process water gas, Lewes 

No. 3 

Strong water gas, Moore 

DeUurck Process water gas, Lewes 

No. 1 

Average water gas, Lewes 

From anthracite before carburetting 

for illumination, O'Connor. . . . 
Dellurck Process water gas, Lewes 

No. 2 

Blue water gas, Morehead 

Water gas, Alien 

Uncarburetted water gas 

Uncarburetted water gas 

Essen water gas, coke, Tliorpe . . . 
Water gas before carburetting, 

LoweU 

Average water gas, Lewes 

Water gas before carburetting, 

average 

Water gas before carburetting, 

average 

Lowe water gas, anthracite, Thorpe 
Water gas, anthracite, Loomis Petti- 
bone 

Water gas, bituminous coke, Loomis 

Pettibone 



Volumotrio Analysis. 



lU 



54.62 



51.8 



50. 
50. 
49, 
49, 
49, 
49, 

48. 



47.97 



CO. 



31.86 

37.60 
35.88 

38.30 
40.08 

43.4 

39.95 
43.25 
42.89 
45.89 
35.93 
43.75 

43.2 
35.93 

42.75 

44.85 
42.10 

42.4 

32.6 



CH4. 



1.62 
4!il 

!io 



.5 
.75 

1.05 
.31 

2.0 
1.05 

4.23 

4.41 

2.7 
2.9 



CO2, 



12. 

4.08 
2.05 

4.73 
4.80 

3.5 

5.38 

3.0 

2.97 

3.87 

4.25 

2.71 

3.0 
4.25 

2.80 

4.45 
3.60 

3.5 

5.3 



00 



Oj. 



N2. 



5.2 
4.33 

3.80 
3.13 

1.3 

3.36 
3.25 
3.74 
.71 
8.75 
4.00 

2.8 
9.95 

2.2 

.77 
9.80 

6.9 

16.8 



Ratios. 



CO 
COa 



9.2 
17.5 

8.1 
8.35 

12.4 

7.4 
14.4 
14.4 
11.8 

8.45 
16.1 

14.4 
8.45 

15.3 

10.1 
11.7 

12.1 

6.16 



CO 



CO +CG! 



.90 
.95 

.89 
.89 

.93 

.88 

.935 

.935 

.92 

.89 

.94 

.93 
.89 

.94 

.91 
.92 

.92 

.86 



Table LXXIII 
COMPOSITION OF OIL PRODUCER GAS 



Name. 


Volumetric Analysis, Per Cent. 


Ratio. 


B.T.U. per 
Cubic Foot. 


CO 


H2 


CH4 


C„H2„ 


Oi! 


CDs 


N2 


CO 
COj 


CO 


High. 


Low. 




CO +C02 


Process of Interna- 
tional Amet. Co . 

Do 

Do 


8.0 

8.6 

7.8 

7.3 

8.36 

6.0 


12.0 
10.0 
9.8 
47.4 
53.65 
46.0 


16.2 
7.0 
6.0 
28.6 
22.50 
26,0 


2.0 
4.2 
4.0 

10.0 
5.4 

10.30 


.2 
.3 
.4 
.2 
.4 
.3 


4.2 

5.4 

6.6 

2.0 

2.25 

3.0 


57.4 

64.4 

65.5 

4.5 

7.45 

8.4 


1.9 
1.6 
1.2 
3.7 

3.7 
2.0 


.66 
.61 
.55 
.78 
.79 
.67 


275 
209 
192 
661 
543 
630 


249 
192 
176 
605 
487 
566 


Lowe process 



114 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 





H 








CO 








H 




D2 




H 




^ 


> 


o 


i 






(J 


1 


O 


a 


Q 


m 


a 


n 


o 


a 


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hi 


rt 


m 


p 




M 


^ 


< 




M 




o 




o) 








O 













-a -A 




"S 


- -3 

o o 


•a 


■a 

o 






o . o 


O O GOO 


cT ^ 


o 






ra " m " 


",•"•" a " 


r§ a 


. u 




si 


li§^ 


lalll^ 




ti 


li 




H 


§8 ^"8 


O O O O O .S CO 


o o 


o o 


"3 8 

1> § 






o CD lo lo O in CO 


xn -^ 


o o o 


CD O 










fl 




s 






CO 1-1 


o" oT CO o o 


a" 


ca d 


o 


o 






r-H i-l 


I— ) 




m r-1 




i-H 


rH 


rH 






o 
o 

+ 




t^ 


o 


a> 


■o 


ca 


^-^ 


^77 


' ~~^ 


Tl< 


'-^ 




Sn 


CD 


o 


CO 


Tti 


t^ 


C^l 


iH 






c^ 




So 


O 


o 


1^ 


U3 


o 


CO 


t^ 


o 




s 




o 
o 


1> 


t^ 


CO 


CO 


w 


CO 


CO 


CD 


CO 


■o 


'°- 




2 1 " 

So o 


O 


y^ 


lO 


O 


o 


CJ 


>o 


CD 


C<l 


CO 


CO 


; 


Ttl 


CO 


o 


a> 


CO 


t>- 


o 


Ira 


"3 


Tjt 


lO 


^OIO 


(N 


(N 


(N 


T-< 


IN 


T-( 


C<I 


iH 


iH 


rH 


iH 






<M 


lO 


o 


CO 


1—1 


o 


■* 


00 


CO 


cn 


CD 






o 


CD 


T-H 


lO 


I-l 


cn 


(N 


00 


■* 


r-t 


o 




T-H 


O 


en 


b- 


00 


ira 


<N 


00 


l> 


1-t 


cn 






lO 


>o 


lO 


lO 


K3 


lO 


CO 


ta 


>o 


CO 


U3 




CO 


1— I 


CO 


o 


CO 


•o 


o 


Tit 


(33 


lO 


IN 




6 


(M 


rH 


CO 


IM 


ri 


lO 


tH 


IN 


"3 


rH 


rH 




03 


>o 


^ 


Q 


CB 


1— I 


CO 


CO 


r-l 


CO 


N 




o 


o 


(M 


o 


CO 


IN 


rH 


tH 


iH 


^■1 


>o 


1> 




u 


00 


00 


en 


03 


l> 


o 


00 


o 


o 


o 


OS 


s 














tH 






^^ 


rH 




m 


lO 


05 


'^tt 


T— t 


o 


o 


T)< 


Tfl 


C<1 


CD 


Q 


■53 


M-d S3 


00 


CD 


00 


00 


CO 


o 


CO 


I> 


lO 


Tl< 






























o3 

a 


o.| 


-* 


Tf 


Tt< 


'^l 


CO 


>o 


"3 


CO 


»o 


Tl< 


CD 




CO 


Oi 


o 


CO 


CO 


»o 


o 


CD 


05 


lO 


00 


O 


„ 


CO 


CD 


o 


CD 


tH 


o 


c^ 


o 


J> 


CO 


03 


M 


TtJ 


t-^ 


00 


cn 


o 


1-( 


t^ 


iH 


o 


oo 


cn 




tH 










T— t 




tH 


rH 








o 


C33 


t^ 


C-l 


^ 


00 


lO 


C<l 


CD 


tH 


CI 




O 


en 


CO 


CD 


(M 


CO 


CO 


CO 


00 


Tft 


CO 


r-t 




O 


o 


en 


00 


00 


t^ 


1> 


CD 


lO 


lO 


lO 


lO 






d 


T-H 


1— I 


1— I 


tH 


^ 


tH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


to*"H 


2§Ss 


CO 


r)i 


>o 


CO 


00 


-* 


CO 


IN 


00 


tH 


a> 


H° 


£5£S 


CD 


CD 


lO 


1> 


00 


CO 


l> 


00 


lO 


CD 


CO- 


tD 




O 


O 


o 


o 


o 


Q 


<-, 


o 


00 


o 


o 




CO 


(N 


00 


<o 








iH 


CD 


CO 


tH 


00 


CO 


ta 


o 








CO 


rH 


CO 




1> 


00 


CD 


00 


o> 


t^ 


05 


r-t 
iH 


CD 


00 


00 




^|0o 


irj 


>o 


-* 


CD 


<N 


>o 


lO 


IN 


CO 






D . 


lO 


lO 


CO 


00 


cn 


^ 




o 


lO 


tH 






C^ 


Til 


en 


O 


CO 


C<1 




T— t 


CO 


o 






CO 

I-l 




I— I 
tH 




(N 

r-t 


rH 


o 


CO 
r~t 


rH 






CO 


T— I 


m 


00 


CD 


>o 


o 


M 


C<l 


CO 


IN 




^ 


CO 


"O 


1> 


(M 


CO 


00 


lO 


00 


t> 


t- 


IN 




< 


CD 


00 


o 


t^ 


CO 


lO 


a> 


on 


CO 


a> 


05 


1' 
SO 








1—1 




T-( 








CI 






13 


O 


00 


tH 


CO 


00 


lO 


cn 


o 


cs 


00 


o 


.2d 


CO 




CO 


1> 


CD 


CO 


cs 


CO 


CO 


t^ 


tt 


go 

■g.s 


CD 


03 


CO 


cn 


o 


rH 


CO 


(3 


TH 


rH 


»o 






Ttl 


(N 


^ 


>* 


lO 


CD 


CO 


lO 


"d^ 


, 


00 


rH 


s 


^ 


CD 


CO 


lO 


cn 










rt oJ 


t^ 


lO 


(N 


05 


fq 


■* 


00 


o 


00 


CD 


>"** 


t^ 


CO 


■* 


o> 


CO 


(N 


CO 


00 


lO 


o 


IN 


<! 












CO 


CO 


CO 


CI 


CO 


CO 


CO 


^ 


CO 


o 


o 


r-t 




Tt( 


CO 


O: 


Ttt 


C<l 


CO 




•s 2i 










o 


ca 


l> 


OJ 


TH 


CD 


Tjl 




2== 


05 


lO 


T-t 


CO 


OS 


o 


CO 


iH 


03 


!>. 


c^ 








1— t 


CO 




CI 










rH 




^ 


1 

.1 


1 : 
^ : 
a • 

^ 1— I 
M . 
O 


1 

el 
o 


■a 


3 


h -H 


.s ^ 

" IN 

g 6 


1 


1 

a • 

^ : 
^ : 

^ : 


Ji : 

1 i 

O CO 

Id 


Ji : 

.a . 

O Ttt 

■id 






fe 
■^ 




|3 






03 o 

V a 






o 


■M rH 


c< 


a Tji 


-fs 


J2 cS 


9 ^ 


a » 


c ^ 






d ,i<i 


cj 






,.. -^ 


^ 


-« .a 

m 


o H 


o a 










^1 

S 




1^ 


s 


m' 


a " 
(3 


a " 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



115 



■a 

o 



•a -a 

o o 



1 






p'O 



•a "a 

o o 



-a -a 

o o 

-_ TO '^ TO '^ m CQ 



■a • 

a _§ - 

00000 0'o3©OOOOeO'300lClOOOO 
lOOiOOOirso WjO(NOQ>Oro B,OQ1>0<COO 



^' o d ^ 



roe<3 
to CO 



CO CO t^ cx> 
(N to i^~ ^» 

to u: u3 lo 



CO 



I> 

QO 



to 



03 

to 

"3 



0> 03 CO 09 

to lO (N lO 

•* CO 05 to 

in ITS ■* Tjt 



• 


• 




• 


• 




• 


• 




• 




• 






j-H 


^ 

1-i 


I-J 




£3 

cc 


CO 

1-4 


Oi 

T-i 


tH 


o 


to 

1-i 


^ 


00 


»o 

00 


g^ 


§ 


U5 


CO 

1-1 


i§ 


^ 


8 


Ol 


K 


5 


S; 


CO 


§ 


to 


g 


fe 


§ 


OS 


g 


g 


2§ 


o 
to 


o 

to 


OS 


CO 

to 


S| 


?5. 


o 

1-H 




in 


°. 


§ 




OJ 


CO 


^. 


s 


°. 


g- 


s 


§ 


^ 


00 


§ 


s 


8 


S5 




CO 
CO 


o 

00 


o 


00 




o 


o 

T-t 


OS 


o 

»— 1 


05 


o 
t-l 


o 

1— t 


O 


o 

tH 


tH 
tH 


tH 


!§ 


^ 


to 
>o 


to 


§ 


s 


to 


to 


c^ 


^ 


^ 


o 

iH 


CO 
CO 


«p 


t» 


in 


•* 


to 


to 


to 


t^ 


to 


t~ 


to 


to 


to 






T-H 

00 


§ 


g 


s 


CO 


CO 


§ 


o 


^ 


o 

to 


s 


o 


o 


<N 




05 


o» 


2 


OS 


o 

1— I 


05 


OS 


o 

tH 


t^ 


J: 


CO 
CO 


CO 


1— I 


O 


g 


{2 






o 


CO 

t:s 


to 


CO 


3 


1-H 








CO 


rH 






s 


tH 
tH 


tH 

tH 


o 

tH 


g 


to 
to 


S 


s 


s 


g 


00 


00 
00 


to 


OS 


to 


g 


s 



o o 
to to 



o o 

ta CO 

tH i^ 

o t^ 



00 CO c» 



o o 

O tH 

a> o 




^ ^ a a M 



o 

C<1 

00 
00 



1-H 


8S 
g 

t-H 


8 


rH 


o 

CO 


tH 


1 


OS 
tH 


to 

CO 
tH 




rH 




CO 

1-i 

rH 


§ 


to 

CO 


i-H 


^ 


§ 


s 


fe 


o 


OS 
OS 


(N 


g 


K 


S 


to 


o 

t-H 


ZD 


to 


s 


U3 


CD 


o 


00 


rH 
1-i 


lO 


OS 


tH 


s 


g 


5 


OS 
r-t 


f5 


tH 

to 


to 

tH 


OS 
rH 


to 

tH 


^ 


8 


OS 


00 
C<l 


g 


CO 
C<l 




CO 


^ 


OS 
K3 


OS 

to 


tH 

CO 






OS 


tH 


f§ 


o 


^ 


00 


§ 


o 


O 

o 


OS 
tH 




1^- 


OS 


s 


8 


00 


t-H 
CO 


g? 


g 


00 

iH 


to 

CO 


CO 


tH 


tH 
CO 


00 

CO 


rH 
CO 


CO 


tJS 

CO 


CO 




g 


1— ( 
CD 


CO 


rH 


8 


§ 


OS 

to 


^ 


CO 


8 


s 


8 


(N 


CO 
CO 


rH 


rH 


iH 
iH 


(N 


(N 


to 

iH 


t- 


^ 


(N 


00 


rH 
1-i 



o 



ffl 



116 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



Table LXXV 
COMPOSITION OF POWDERED COAL, PRODUCER GAS 





Volumetric Analysis, Per Cent. 


Ratio. 


B.T.U. per 
Cubic Foot. 


Sample. 
















CO 


CO 








CO 


H2 


CHj 


C„H!„ 


02 


CO2 


Na 


CO2 


CO +CO2 


High. 


Low. 


1 


15.85 


6.17 


4.09 




1.4 


9.2 


63.29 


1.7 


.63 


119 


Ill 


2 


13.52 


11.51 


5.17 




.3 


8.1 


61.40 


1.7 


.63 


140 


129 


3 


12.20 


10.50 


3.20 




.0 


7.6 


66.50 


1.6 


.62 


112 


103 


4 


18.2 


12.20 


2.1 


.1 


.1 


4.9 


62.40 


3.7 


.79 


128 


119 


5 


13.8 


10.4 


2.5 


.5 




8.0 


64.80 


1.7 


.63 


118 


109 



Table LXXVI 
COMPOSITION OP BOILER FLUE GASES— (Volumetkic) 





Stat. Boiler, Illinois Coal.U. S. Geological Survey. 


Locomotive Boi 


er, U. S. Geological Survey. 


Average 
of. 


Analysis. 


CO 

CO2 


CO 


Analysis. 


CO 

CO2 


CO 




CO2 


O2 


CO 


CO+CO2 


C02 


O2 


CO 


CO +CO2 


4 


3.4 


17.5 











10.16 


8.49 


.13 


.0128 


.0126 


3 


3.7 


17.2 











11.10 


7.84 


.23 


.0207 


.0203 


5 


4.4 


16.3 











11.15 


7.52 


.20 


.0179 


.0176 


6 


5.0 


15.0 











11.45 


6.92 


.00 








5 


5.3 


14.7 


.1 


.0189 


.0185 


11.46 


7.49 


.10 


.00875 


.00865 


5 


6.9 


14.4 


.04 


.0068 


.00674 


11.50 


7.08 


.17 


.0148 


.0147 


6 


6.2 


14.1 


.03 


.00485 


.00482 


11.96 


7.00 


.23 


.0193 


.0189 


9 


6.4 


13.7 


.07 


.0109 


.0108 


11.96 


7.07 


.14 


.0117 


.0155 


16 


6.6 


13.0 


.10 


.0152 


.0149 


12.05 


6.93 


.15 


.0125 


.0123 


9. 


6.8 


12.6 


.01 


.00147 


.0147 


12.20 


6.94 


.05 


.0041 


.0407 


14 


7.0 


12.8 


.06 


.0086 


.0085 


12.45 


5.87 


.22 


.0177 


.0174 


20 


7.2 


12.6 


.08 


.0111 


.011 


13.57 


4.49 


.20 


.0147 


.0145 


18 


7.4 


12.4 


.00 








13.87 


4.75 


.25 


.018 


.0177 


20 


7.6 


12.9 


.05 


.0066 


.00655 












14 


7.8 


12.1 


.03 


.00385 


.00375 












30 


8.0 


11.7 


.04 


.005 


.00498 












31 


8.2 


11.6 


.10 


.0122 


.012 












27 


8.4 


11.3 


.10 


.0119 


.01175 












16 


8.6 


11.1 


.10 


.0116 


.0115 












17 


8.8 


10.8 


.20 


.0228 


.0222 












19 


9.0 


10.7 


.10 


.0111 


.011 












14 


9.2 


10.4 


.10 


.0109 


.01075 












16 


9.4 


10.1 


.20 


.0213 


.0208 












10 


9.6 


9.9 


.20 


.0208 


.0204 












8 


9.8 


9.4 


.20 


.0204 


.02 












8 


10.0 


9.2 


.20 


.020 


.0196 












6 


10.2 


9.9 


.20 


.0196 


.0192 












8 


10.4 


8.9 


.5 


.048 


.046 












4 


10.8 


8.6 


.02 


.00185 


.00185 












3 


11.0 


8.8 


.36 


.0327 


.0317 












2 


11.1 


8.6 


.30 


.027 


.0253 












1 


11.4 


7.9 


.40 


.035 


.034 













TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



117 





£ 

.a 


Per 
Cu.ft. 
32° F 
29.92" 

Hg. 


>OiH00O>l>O5Ml>CO 
OXCSOO>00305'00 


iH lO 

O CD 

OS 03 


94.53 
59.30 
88.09 


IN 

O 

CD 


59.15 
64.98 
66.67 


W CO 00 

IN 00 CO N CO 

d d CD t^ r-! 

CO O O C 05 

rH rH rH 






^1 


CO «J<t-.!0>-H.-lt~10 

oooicO'-HcDos-'^^a) 

"5<D1>C<305t-h-*.-iO 


CO >o 
i-I oi 

1-1 iH 
IN IN 

1—1 1—1 


CO o> 

CO U3 00 

rH T-H 


CO 

CO 
OS 

00 


CO IN 

o lo 00 

CD 00 OS 


■* 00 in l> rH 

d IN CO d CO 

rH 1— 1 1— 1 1— 1 






m 
o 




CD ^ (N 

r-l(MO)>lClcDlO(Nt^C<l 

Tj*O5»OO5i-lO5Tt<I^00 

eoc<»05ioi>t^iocDTji 

1-1 i-t CO 


1-^ 


CO CO 
CO »0 tH 

OS cq I> 


CO 
iH 

•*' 
CO 

rH 


rr ^ r* 

d 1-! ■* 
1-1 CO -^ 

*H tH 1-1 


CD OS t^ » rH 

d ■^' rH t^ d 

in in CO rH in 

rH m r~ CO OS 

rH m OS 




m 

1 


-1 
^1 


l> o: ■* 
oscqcoe<3THioc<J(No6 

COOSCOlOOOOtNiOlO 
MOO-^OtHMOtII^ 

10(MC<I(Nt-Hi-Hi-1i-H 


CO ■* 
Tt< OS 

1—1 1—1 


00 

00 t^ Tr 
00 IN CO 
IN rH CO 


OS 

1-1 


I>^ OS (N 

OS -Tt^ OS 
CO 00 IN 
1-H rH IN 


OS Ttl t> 

^8SS3 

IN rH in (N CO 

(N IN O O rH 

rH IN (N C^ 






N 


O 05 ■* CO •* 
gO<3)OOlO lOOCD 

00 -COiOOSlOCCOOOO 

N t^ (N (N T-i ■>* T-I N lO 


o ira 

00 IN 


00 OS t^ 
iC3 ■* 00 

2 2g3 


i-H 


IN 

•* •* O 
lo r^ CO 

CD O 00 
IN ■*' lO 

iH rH rH 


in (N CO 

^WCOINC^ 


1 


w 


3 " 


r-( (N to 

I> (N 1-1 OS 1-- IN O 
Ocot^iot^cooooot> 

00»0-^05COCSi-HCOOO 
t^O'itl^OOi-ICO-^CO 
O O O O O IN O O O 


3g 


r- OS 00 

OS Ttl CD 
CO O CO 




rH OS 
C<1 lO CO 
O O rH 

ill 


O lO 


< 




t^iN-^»oi-tasoo»oo 

-*C<3IN'Oi-(iHC01>m 
C<i-*l>-*CDM<Ni-!oi" 


IN CO 

d ■* 


lO OS 

OS o 'ii 

CO CO CO 
OS l> OS 

00 CO 


T-H 

1— I 


OS IN CO 

lO CD OS 
O rH ^ 

l~^ i-{ ^^ 


CO 

i 8 ^ i § 

rH OS m m t* 

r^ i-\ r-i 


•3 
1 




00 ^ 03 
OSOSCO-^COIOOWIO 

cocoioeoi>oooe<3-* 
(N c<i OS ■*' CO lo xii CD nJ 

1— f 1— 1 CO 


iH CO 

^ CO 
xa rH 

1— 1 


1* OS 00 
OS t> rH 

IQ ' (N 


CO 


Tjl rH 
I^ CO rH 
CO (N t^ 
OS O rH 


O Cq Tl< rH OS 

CO Tl( t^ t> CO 

rH •<}! (N 00 d 
rH m 00 


a 
a 

1 


1 

•f 

1 

•c 

1 
s 
■3 


£ 


• ; ; ; ; • lO CD ■* 

• • • • ■ ■ CO U3 ■*' 

1-4 


rH • 
CD • 

iH 


IN >« (N 
(N CJS OS 


OS 

IN 
lO 


OS 

CD >0 lO 

Hi 


S : : : : 

1_, . . . . 
m 


i 


CO 

1^ 


o 
o 


IC5 rH 

• iH IN CO 


lO >o 

IN 


00 O IN 

co' d ■* 

iH 




S IN in 

d 00 ^" 


OS 

CD • • • ■ 

00 • • ■ • 


1 

s 


o 


: : : : : : °. '^ ■*. 

rH 


1-1 U5 


"3 : ; 


■* 


2^_ : 


CO in 

fq . . . IN 


fill 
■3 


1 

Ph 

o 




O r-1 Ol (N 

: : : lOrn'iNrt 


O 00 

(N rH 

1— t 


: : : 




: : : 


T-i 


1 




; : : :8 : : : : : : : : : : : : : 


1 




■ • • g • • r-l 05 CO 
. - • T-t ■ • iH C<) 1-1 


IN r-i 

rH 


OS • • 
(N ■ • 




■ IN • 




w 


s 
g 


S 


■ • O • • • CO •* rH 

. • tH . • . fH O t* 
CO ■* IN 


CO lO 

•* IN 

CO U3 




IN 


in o o 
in ci ei 


00 ■ • ■ IN 

•^ '■'■'■ CO 

OS 




d 


w" 


• O ; ■ ; • lO ■* IN 

• iH ■ ■ ■ • (N l> CO 

•O CO tH 


IN 00 

Tjl rH 


00 O "O 
(N ■"# 


CO 

1— i 


1— I 
00 o 


g . . . . 

TjJ : : ; I 

1— t 






o 
u 


O • - - - • CO i-l IN 

1-1 '. '. '. '. i 00 1> CO 


o o 

CD rH 


CO 
rH lO OS 


1> 

J5 


M O 

•*' d IN 
rH Cq rH 


O lO 
05 • - • (M 








o 

d 


na *^ >— * « 

S : : : ' ' ^ 3 s ^ 
i?i<B!D • -oSSS 

1111111333' 


■ U 

■ s 

11 




a . p. 


"* -a '^ o d G 




■ • : Si" 

: oJ m «* 
o|iil 





118 HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 

Table LXXVIH 
LIMITS OF PROPORTION FOR EXPLOSIVE AIR-GAS MIXTURES 



Gas. 



Per Cent of Gas in the Mixture by Volume. 



Combining 
Proportion. 



Wlien Air is in 
Excess. 



When Gas is in 
Excess. 



Authority. 



Carbon monoxide . 



Hydrogen . 



Gasolene. 



86° B6. 
71° B6. 
65° B6. 



Alcohol . 



Blau oil gas . . . 
Pintsch oil gas . 
Ethane 



29.6 
29.6 
29.6 
29.6 



fC 


29.6 


it 


29.6 


Water gas, 
it 




29.6 


n 


29.6 


it 


actual 




tt 


( ( 




it 


IC 




Coal gaa. . 




14 9 


( ( 


14 9 


1 1 


14.9 


(< 


14.9 


(< 




ii 




Boston illu 

n 

Acetylene . 


minating gas 

1 1 


7 9 


tt 


7.9 


tl 


7 9 


I { 


7 9 


tt 


7.9 


Ethylene 


6 5 


It 


6 5 




9.5 


It 


9.5 




9 5 


Ether 


3.4 


tl 


3.4 




2.7 


t c 




(( 






2.6 


IC 


2.6 



6.5 
6.5 



9.0 



16.5 
16.5 
13.0 
9.45 
9.45 
7.69 
5.00 
12.4 
12.4 
9.0 
3.8 
8.33 
7.9 
7.9 
5.3 
6.0 
6.7 
6.25 
6.67 
6.25 
6.67 
3.35 
3.35 
1.54 
2.96 
3.0 
4.1 
4.1 
6.1 
6.1 
5.0 



75 
75 
65 



2.65 

2.4 

2.4 

2.4 

2.5 

1.54 

1.64 

1,31 

3.95 

3.95 

4.0 

6.0 

4.0 



74.95 

58.4 

75 

66.4 

54.4 

33.3 

72.0 

66.76 

54.3 

55.0 

16.7 

33.3 

19 



11.2 
16.7 
29 
20 

14.28 

25.0 

12.5 

20.0 

52.3 

49.0 

47.6 

66.7 

82.0 

14.6 

10.5 

12.8 

9.7 

13.0 

7.7 

5.0 

6.5 

3.9 

4.9 

2.6 

4.9 

2.4 

4.76 

4.76 

4.76 

13.65 

9.7 

8.0 

13.0 

22.0 



Eitner 

Bunte 

Clowes 

Eitner 

Bunte 

M.I.T. 

Clowea 

Eitner 

Bunte 

Clowea 

M.I.T. 

M.I.T. 

Eitner 

Bunte 

Clerk 

Clowes 

Clerk 

Grover 

M.I.T. 

M.I.T. 

M.I.T. 

Eitner 

Bunte 

M.I.T. 

Clowes 

Eitner 

Bunte 

Eitner 

Bunte 

Clowes 

Eitner 

Bunte 

Eitner 

Bunte 

Eitner 

Bunte 

Eitner 

Bunte 

M.LT. 

M.I.T. 

M.I.T. 

Eitner 

Bunte 

HaUock 

Lucke 

Clowes 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



119 



o 
o 

o 

iz; 
o 

P 

« 

o 
o 



p 

o 

3 
o 

o 
® a3 






3 


•^ 


00 g M 


on 


lOlOOOONOlOO 





n 


00 in e 


r' 


in e 




o 


S5 


eO'^CDOOtC «)05>-l00lOtO(NlOO0)O(3>CX3O-*O-**C5"3 


H 


r^^ 


t^tDQO-*CO'*-*t>-©50eOU5001>t^05000000©000000 


I 


ji 




O 




SfeSg'SSc3§^^g§8S§?5SS^gg5n5J5§^S 


« 


b 


CO 


n 


O00.-l5D00int^O>OCT>i-ll>T4((MrH05C0(MiHNO0Si-lT-(.H 
C<lrH(NiHi-li-ltHi-IN.-4<Ni-4CSI(N(N>-(N(N(NNNT-l(NCqe<l 




P. 
J3 


i. 


«3'*CDC<5050i-H"30iHOOi-lcOO>(NO"300iOOO>nl>(M-*-* 






s 


fa 


§2i^SS22SS§Sg5^§!S?5SS^Sg5S?5?3?^ 


^ 


^ 


g 


00001>(MlOlOiracOINCT>OOCOClO>OrH«OrHe<53cOCD(NNOOr-l 




1 


*-tiHTHfHr-ti-tt-ti-t(NT-H(NCOT-ti-t(NT-t(N(Mi-Hi-trHr-li-Hf-l(N 


a 


ta 


10 to to OS 


■3 





tDCOaitO>0>Ot^OOlOCOCOO(NOOlO(N05Tt<OOT-lOCOOi02 


P 





CO^C<3MCCMCO'iltD-*(10tOTl<TH»0>0»ncD10Tl<10COTO-*U5 






0)^Tjl-*0(NM>0>-l'-<tOt^ascOlOtDiOOOTl<COl005l>C<001 




ja 


OiTH»OOC<l-*CO(NOT-liOCO.-10>OT|HC<300<MOO'*OI^«l01 




■< 


CCMC<5e«3O00IN0300O-r-ll0lOOi-lTHT-ITtHC01>lN(N05O(N 

T-Hl-tT-tT-tT-t T-l iHl-tT-i r-iTHTHtHT-ilH tHfH 1-tl-t 




d 


iNtDiotomiraO'*-aiooooQ'-<(N>oo5eoiNcorHOOiHoo!0 
^oo^tDc*^tDtocot^oo^toOl^»^'^>"^cDtD(N'^■<i^cocc»oco 


•3 


■0 


1 


iJ 


IMO00t01^MO(N(NT-IC00500n-H00rHC00lMOOt0Ot^«0 


fi( 


iO»o-^tOtDl>COt^t01>l>COCO^-^-^'*CO-^"^'*'^lOTj*Ttl 




s 


<u 


OO00rH.-itDai'*l>Ot0T)l>Or-lt^0500-*'-H0Jt>T)<CO-lO-* 

OO0St0(M00'^OC0O»000ait^»H'^Tt<C0t^T-tO03(MC0-^ 


a 


1 


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p^ 


> 


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TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



121 



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122 HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 

Table LXXX 
DIAGRAM FACTORS FOR OTTO CYCLE GAS ENGINES 



Engine. 



Size in Inches. 



Bore. Stroke. 



Test 
Authority. 



Compression. 



Vol. before 



Vol. after 



Press, after 



Press.before 



Efficiencies, Per Cent. 



Actual. 



Air Card 

Standard, 



Four cycle. 



7.8 



Four cycle. 



40 H.P. four cycle 



Cockerill 

Delamarre 

Cockerill 

Letombe 

Winterthur .... 
Cie. Berlin Anhalt 

Benz 

Soest 

Deutz 

Tangye 

Fetu 

Schmitz 

Otto-Deutz. . . . 

Niel 

Winterthur. . . . 

Schmitz 

Winterthur .... 

Benier 

Tangye 

Dudbridge 

Tangye 

National 

Giildner 

Catteau 

Tangye 

Four cycle 



51.18 
33.465 
22.64 
23.622 
23.622 
20.47 
16.92 
16.73 
15.75 
14.173 
14.5 
13.78 
13.78 
13 

13.78 
12.2 
85 



,8 



1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

10 

10 

10 

9.85 

9.85 

9 

7 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 



11.8 



12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 



55.07 

39.37 

37.4 

31.5 

31.5 

29.92 

27.56 

22 

22.83 

22.87 

22 

22 

21.26 

22.83 

19 

17.7 

18 

17.7 

17.3 

20 

18.6 

19 

19 

18 

15.75 

15.75 

18 

16 

12 

12 

12 

12 

12 



Meyer 



Burstall 



Hopkinson 



Hubert 

Witz 

Frangois 

Witz 

AUaire 

Witz 

Mathot 



Witz 
Mathot 



Witz 
Mathot 



Witz 

Mathot 

Schrotter 

a 

Witz 

Hirsoh 

Burstall 



6.37 



3.73-6.45 



4 

2.44 

4 

2.78 
2.7 



3.03-8.13 
3.03-8.13 
3.03-8.13 
3.03-8.13 
3.03-8.13 
3.03-8.13 
3.03-8.13 
3.03-8.13 



9.18 

10.35 

5.8 

7.28 

8.03 

11.2 

8.17 

13.06 

7.35 

11.65 

4.83 

9.12 

9.12 

9.4 

11.58 

7.75 

11.3 

10.32 

4.39 

10.64 

4.83 

6.81 

6.8 

6.88 

10.6 

10.6 

12.59 

10.2 



25 
24.4 

21.4 
18.8 
18.9 

21.2 

21.9 

23.1 

16.6 

18.7 

17.2 

18.1 
33.5-37.0 
depending 
upon load 

22.9 

25.0 

19.75 

24.3 

27.3 

25.6 

26.9 

23.8 

31.3 

30.4 

30.6 

18.0 

24.2 

38.8 

31.8 

31.6 

31.3 

25.2 

13.75 

29.8 

29.2 

27.4 

30.1 

21.2 

39.0 

33.9 

37.2 

25.8 

21.0 

18.0 

18.0 

17.6 

16.4 



44 
42 
37 



66 

33 


.57 


36 


.59 


43 


.51 


47 


.49 


33 


.50 


36 


.52 


43 


.40 


47 


.38 


52 


.64^.71 


46.9 


.49 


48.7 


.514 


39.7 


.498 


43.4 


.56 


45.0 


.606 


49.9 


.514 


45.2 


.595 


52.0 


.457 


43.6 


.718 


50.3 


.605 


36.2 


.845 


46.9 


.384 


46.9 


.515 


47.3 


.82 


50.4 


.63 


44.6 


.71 


50.1 


.625 


48.7 


.618 


34.3 


.4 


49.2 


.605 


36.4 


.802 


39.7 


.69 


42.4 


.71 


39.9 


.53 


49.1 


.795 


49.1 


.69 


51.5 


.723 


48.6 


.53 


42.8 


.49 


29.6 


.608 


42.8 


.42 


33.3 


.529 


32.7 


.502 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



123 



Table LXXX — Continued 
DIAGRAM FACTORS FOR OTTO CYCLE ENGINES 



Engine. 



Size in 


[nches. 


Bore. 


Stroke. 


6 


12 


6 


12 


6 


12 


6 


12 


6 


12 


6 


12 


6 


12 


6 


12 


6 


12 


8i 


13 


8i 


13 


SI 


13 



Test 
Authority^ 



Compression. 



Vol. before Press, after 



Vol. after 



Press. before 



Efficiencies, Per Cent. 



Actual. 



Air Card 

Standard. 



Dia- 
gram V 
Factor. 



Fourcycle. 



Meyer 



2.04 

2.17 

4.0 

4.0 

1.75 

2.7 

2.22 

2.94 

4.0 

3.75 

3.6 

2.84 



16.2 
15.6 
13.6 
13.4 
12.6 
11.7 
19.4 
20.0 
22.7 
32.7 
26.8 
20.2 



34.6 
26.2 
42.8 
42.8 
19.5 
32.7 
26.9 
35.0 
42.8 
41.2 
40.3 
35.2 



.468 

.595 

.318 

.313 

.646 

.358 

.721 

.572 

.53 

.794 

.665 

.574 



Compression pressure ratio has been calculated assuming an initial pressure of 14.7 lbs, 
per square inch. 

Table LXXXI 
HEAT BALANCES OP GAS AND OIL ENGINES (Feb Cent of Gas or Oil Heat) 



En^e and Authority. 



I.H.P. 



B.H.P. 



Friction. 



Exhaust. 



Jacket. 



Radiation 
and Un- 
accounted 
for. 



Donkin 

Beck engine, Kennedy 

Griffin engine, Kennedy 

Atkinson engine, Kennedy 

Otto Crossley engine, Kennedy. . . . 

Comp. Ratio. R.P.M. a/g (Air-gas) 

2.67 187 7.11, Slaby 

2.67 247 7.35, Slaby 

4.32 187 7.43, Slaby 

4.32 247 7.40, Slaby 

General, Mathot 

Westinghouse, Bibbins 

300 H.P. engine at 197 H.P., Eberly 
" 294 H.P., Eberly 

" 335 H.P., Eberly 

6 H.P. engine, I.C.E 

24 H.P. engine, I.C.E 

Deutz 2 H.P., Wimplinger 

Giildner 20 H.P., Schroter 

Wab-ath 75 H.P,, Geer and Yane- 
lain 

300 H.P., Goldsmith and Hart- 
wig 

Hornsby, Robinson 

De la Vergne F, H., Towl 

Pierce-Arrow, Chase 



22.32 

19.4 

21.1 

25.5 

22.1 

18.0 

18.1 

24.4 

23.7 

33.0 

29.48 

43.5 

45.8 

41,5 

31.8 

33.3 

21.5 

42.7 

27,1 

24,4 

21 

40,14 



28.0 
24.9 
33.5 
32,2 
30.9 
26.7 
28.3 
16.1 



21.3 

17.1 
18 

27.52 
18 



5.0 

4., 58 
10.0] 
13.6ft 
10.6 

5.1 

5 

5,4 



■ 5.8 

7.3 
3 
12.62 



43.29 

42.9 

39.8 

37.9 

35,5 

30.8 

36.3 

21.8 

26.8 

31.0* 

36.3 

24.1 

23.9 

24.8 

41.1 

37,1 

25 

24.1 

23,4 

50.6 

29 

20.03 



32.96 

33.0 

35.2 

27.0 

43.2 

61.2 

45,6 

53.8 

49.5 

36.0 

34.22 

34.3 

31.8 

33.8 

27,11 

29,6 j 

50.4 

33.2 

49.5 

25.0 
50 

26.50 
29.4 



1,43 
4,7 
3.9 
9.6 

,8 excess 



1,9 excess 
1,5 " 
,1 " 



3,1 



13.33 



* Including radiation, f Including pumps, t Including external radiation. 



124 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



Table LXXXII 
MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE FACTORS FOR OTTO CYCLE ENGINES 

(m.e.p')=5.4f^[l- (g)^] Eq. (933) 



Px 
Pa 


m' 


[-(f:)*] 


^■A}-im 


Px 

Pa 


(f:)* 


v-im 


^■A^-&\ 


Atmos 








Atmos 










1 


.0000 


.000 




.2150 


.4592 


2.481 


1.0 


1.000 






8.6 


9.332501-10 


9.662040-10 


.394658 




.878 


.0508 


.274 




.2115 


.4628 


2.600 


1.2 


9.43442-10 


8.705622-10 


9.438140-10 


8.8 


9.325369-10 


9.665384-10 


.398002 




.786 


.0917 


.495 




.2082 


.4662 


2,519 


1.1 


9.895623-10 


8.962180-10 


9.694798-10 


9 


9.318398-10 


9.668591-10 


0.401209 




.715 


.1256 


.679 




.1931 


.4821 


2.604 


1.6 


9.854271-10 


9.098990-10 


9.831608-10 


10 


9.285714-10 


9.683092-10 


.415710 




.656 


.1546 


.836 




.1804 


.4960 


■2.680 


1.8 


9.817662-10 


9.189181-10 


9.921799-10 


11 


9.256148-10 


9.695456-10 


.428074 




.610 


.1797 


.971 




.1695 


.5083 


2.746 


2.0 


9.784979-10 


9.254451-10 


9.987069-10 


12 


9.229156-10 


9.706154-10 


.438172 




.669 


,2017 


1.090 




.1601 


.6195 


2.807 


2.2 


9.755412-10 


9.304706-10 


.037324 


13 


9.204328-10 


9.715552-10 


.448170 




.535 


.2213 


1.196 




.1518 


.5296 


2.861 


2.4 


9.728421-10 


9.344981-10 


.077599 


14 


9.181337-10 


9.723891-10 


.456509 




.505 


.2389 


1.291 




.1445 


.5378 


2. 911 


2.6 


9.703591-10 


9.378234-10 


.110842 


16 


9.159935-10 


9.731355-10 


.463973 




.479 


.2549 


1.377 




.1380 


.5471 


2,956 


2.8 


9.680601-10 


9.406300-10 


. 138918 


16 


9.139914-10 


9.738099-10 


.470717 




.456 


.2694 


1.456 




.1322 


.6649 


2.998 


3.0 


9.659199-10 


9.430398-10 


.163016 


17 


9.121108-10 


9.744231-10 


.476849 




.436 


.2827 


1.528 




.1269 


.6621 


3.037 


3.2 


9.639179-10 


9.451403-10 


. 184021 


18 


9.103376-10 


9.749837-10 


.482455 




.417 


.2951 


1.594 




.1221 


.5688 


3.073 


3.4 


9.620372-10 


9.469925-10 


.202543 


19 


9.086604-10 


9.764990-10 


.487608 




.401 


.3065 


1.666 




.1177 


.5751 


3.107 


3.6 


9.602641-10 


9.486402-10 


.219020 


20 


9.070693-10 


9.799751-10 


.492369 




.383 


.3171 


1.713 




.1136 


.5810 


3.139 


3.8 


9.585869-10 


9.501223-10 


.233841 


21 


9.055556-10 


9.764169-10 


.496787 




.372 


.3271 


1.767 




.1099 


.5865 


3.169 


4.0 


9.569957-10 


9.514615-10 


.247233 


22 


9.041126-10 


9.768283-10 


.500901 




.359 


.3364 


1.817 




.1065 


.5915 


3.197 


4.2 


9.554822-10 


9.526804-10 


.259422 


23 


9.027337-10 


9.772131-10 


.504749 




.347 


.3451 


1.866 




.1033 


.5967 


3.224 


4.4 


9.540391-10 


9.537983-10 


.270601 


24 


9.014135-10 


9.775741-10 


.508359 




.336 


.3534 


1.909 




.1003 


.6014 


3.249 


4.6 


9.526601-10 


9.548256-10 


.280873 


25 


9.001471-10 


9.779127-10 


.511745 




.327 


.3612 


1.952 




.0976 


.6058 


3.273 


4.8 


9.513399-10 


9.657760-10 


.290378 


26 


8.989305-10 


9 . 782339-10 


.514947 




.3168 


.3686 


1.991 




.0950 


.6100 


3.296 


6.0 


9.500736-10 


9.566579-10 


.299197 


27 


8.977597-10 


9.785344-10 


.517962 




.3080 


.3757 


2.030 




.0925 


.6141 


3,318 


6.2 


9.488569-10 


9 . 574794-10 


.307413 


28 


8.966316-10 


9 . 788204-10 


.620822 




.2998 


.3823 


2.006 




.0902 


.6179 


• 3.338 


6.4 


9.476861-10 


9.582461-10 


.315079 


29 


8.955430-10 


9.790918-10 


.523636 




.2921 


.3887 


2.100 




.0881 


.6215 


3.368 


5.6 


9.465580-10 


9.689648-10 


,322266 


30 


8.944914-10 


9.793504-10 


.626122 




.2849 


.3948 


2.133 




.0860 


.6251 


3.377 


6.8 


9.454694-10 


9.696410-10 


.329028 


31 


8.934741-10 


9.795963-10 


.528581 




.2781 


.4007 


2.165 




.0841 


> .6285 


3.396 


6.0 


9.444178-10 


9.602776-10 


.335394 


32 


8.924893-10 


9.798305-10 


.530923 




.2716 


.4063 


2.195 




.0823 


.6318 


3.413 


6.2 


9.434006-10 


9.608794-10 


.341414 


33 


9.915347-10 


9.800546-10 


.533164 




.2656 


.4116 


2.224 




.0806 


.6349 


3.430 


6.4 


9.424167-10 


9.614486-10 


.347104 


34 


8.906086-10 


9.802691-10 


.635309 




.2598 


.4168 


2.252 




.0789 


.6379 


3.446 


6.6 


9.414611-10 


9.619886-10 


.352504 


35 


8.897094-10 


9.804746-10 


.637364 




.2543 


.4217 


2.278 




.0773 


.6408 


3.462 


6.8 


9.405351-10 


9.625025-10 


.357643 


36 


8.888355-10 


9.807623-10 


.639341 




.2491 


.4265 


2.304 




.0758 


.6436 


3.477 


7.0 


9.396359-10 


9.629909-10 


.362527 


37 


8.879056-10 


9.808616-10 


.541234 




.2441 


.4311 


2.329 




.0744 


.6463 


3.492 


7.2 


9.387620-10 


9 . 634558-10 


.367176 


38 


8.871583-10 


9.810434-10 


.543052 




.2394 


.4365 


2.353 




.0730 


.6489 


3.506 


7.4 


9.379120-10 


9.639008-10 


.371626 


39 


8.863625-10 


9.812192-10 


.544810 




.2349 


.4398 


2.376 




.0717 


.6514 


3.620 


7.6 


9.370847-10 


9.643265-10 


.375883 


40 


8.865671-10 


9.813881-10 


.646499 




.2306 


.4439 


2.399 




.0705 


.6639 


3.533 


7.8 


9.362789-10 


9.647334-10 


.379952 


41 


8.848011-10 


9.815511-10 


.548129 




.2264 


.4480 


2.440 




.0693 


.6563 


3.646 


8.0 


9.354936-10' 


9.651239-10 


.383857 


42 


8.840733-10 


9.817082-10 


.549700 




.2225 


.4518 


2.446 




.0681 


.6586 


3.558 


8.2 


9.247276-10 


9.654984-10 


.387602 


43 


8.833147-10 


9.818609-10 


.561227 




.2187 


.4556 


2.462 




.0670 


.6608 


3.570 


8.4 


9.339801-10 


9.658584-10 


.391202 


44 


8.826105rl0 


9.820076-10 


.652694 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 

Table LXXXIII 

VALUES OF C FOR AIR FLOW (Wbibbach) 

Orifice of diameter = .394 ins. 

Rp 1.05 1.09 1.43 1.65 1.89 2.15 

C 555 .589 .692 .724 .754 .788 

Orifice of diameter = .843 ins. 

Rp 1.05 1.09 1.36 1.67 2.01 

C 558 .573 .634 .678 .723 

Short tube, diameter = .394 ins.and length = 1.181 ins. 

Rp 1.05 1.10 1.30 

C 730 .771 .830 

Short tube, diameter = .557 and length = 1.673 ins. 

Rp 1.41 1.69 

C 813 .822 

Short tube, diameter = .394 ins. and length = .630 ins. rounded entrance 

Rp 1.24 1.38 1.59 1.85 2.14 

C .979 .986 .965 .971 .978 

C= coefficient of friction in formula v = C'\/2gh 
Rp = ratio of pressures. 

The coefficient of efflux, C, Weisbach gives as follows: 

For conoidal mouthpiece with pressures from 0.23 to 1.1 atm. Ce= .97 to .99 

Circular orifices in thin plates, = .56 to .79 

Short cylindrical mouthpieces, = .81 to .84 

The same rounded at inner end, = .92 to .93 

Ckjnical converging, = .90 to .99 



125 



Table LXXXIV 
FLOW CHANGE RESISTANCE FACTORS P^ (Rbitschel) 



Condition. 



Resistance Factor i'^n 



Sharp 90° elbow 

" 135° elbow 

Long bend: r = width of duct 

" r=2 to 4 duct widths ' 

" r = 5 to 6 duct widths 

Long bend 135° 

Long double offset 

Outlet register with valves f free area and 2 X flue area 

" " face at | free area 

' ' wire screens 1.5 Xflue area 

Entrance for square corners 

" rounded corners 

' ' flue extending into header as short pipe . . 

Enlargement of area from Ai to Ai, sharp corners 

Reduction of area from Ai to Ai, sharp comers 

Free discharge into room when velocity becomes zero . 



1.1 
.3 
.25 
.15 
.07 
.15 
.4 to .1 
.6 
.4 

0.0 

1.0 
.5 to .2 

1.5 

1.0 



126 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



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TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



127 






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128 



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TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



129 



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C0.-l(Nr-((NlMCOC0'-<r-l 


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lO lO 

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in 
II 


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b- .-1 ^^ o ^ iM 

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TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



131 



Table LXXXVII 



THEORETICAL DRAFT PRESSURE IN INCHES OF WATER* IN A CHIMNEY 

100 FT. HIGH 





(For other heights the draft varies 


directly as the height) 






Temperature in 


Temperature of External Air (Barometer 30 Ins.) 


Chimney 


























Fahr. 


0° 


10° 


20° 


30° 


40° 


50° 


60° 


70° 


80° 


90° 


100° 


200° 


0.453 


0.419 


0.384 


0.353 


0.321 


0.292 


0.263 


0.234 


0.209 


0.182 


0.157 


220 


0.488 


0.453 


0.419 


0.388 


0.355 


0.326 


0.298 


0.269 


0.244 


0.217 


0.192 


240 


0.520 


0.488 


0.451 


0.421 


0.388 


0.359 


0.330 


0.301 


0.276 


0.250 


0.225 


260 


0.555 


0.528 


0.484 


0.453 


0.420 


0.392 


0.363 


0.334 


0.309 


0.282 


0.257 


280 


0.584 


0.549 


0.515 


0.482 


0.451 


0.422 


0.394 


0.365 


0.340 


0.313 


0.288 


300 


0.611 


0.576 


0.541 


0.511 


0.478 


0.449 


0.420 


0.392 


0.367 


0.340 


0.315 


320 


0.637 


0.603 


0.568 


0.538 


0.505 


0.476 


0.447 


0.419 


0.394 


0.367 


0.342 


340 


0.662 


0.638 


0.593 


0.563 


0.530 


0.501 


0.472 


0.443 


0.419 


0.392 


0.367 


360 


0.687 


0.653 


0.618 


0.588 


0.555 


0.526 


0.497 


0.468 


0.444 


0.417 


0.392 


380 


0.710 


0.676 


0.641 


0.611 


0.578 


0.549 


0.520 


0.492 


0.467 


0.440 


0.415 


400 


0.732 


0.697 


0.662 


0.632 


0.598 


0.570 


0.541 


0.513 


0.488 


0.461 


0.436 


420 


0.753 


0.718 


0.684 


0.653 


0.620 


0.591 


0.563 


0.584 


0.509 


0.482 


0.457 


440 


0.774 


0.739 


0.705 


0.674 


0.641 


0.612 


0.584 


0.555 


0.530 


0.503 


0.478 


460 


0.793 


0.758 


0.724 


0.694 


0.660 


0.632 


0.603 


0.574 


0.549 


0.522 


0.497 


480 


0.810 


0.776 


0.741 


0.710 


0.678 


0.649 


0.620 


0.591 


0.566 


0.540 


0.515 


500 


0.829 


0.791 


0.760 


0.730 


0.697 


0.669 


0.639 


0.610 


0.586 


0.559 


0.534 



* The available draft will be the tabular values less the amount consumed by friction in the 
stack. In stacks whose diameter is determined by Eq. 1005 the net draft will be 80 per cent 
of the tabular values. Hence to obtain from the table the height of stack necessary to pro- 
duce a net draft of say 0.6 in., the theoretical draft will be 0.6 X 1.25 = 0.75 in., which can 
be obtained with a stack 100 ft. high with flue-gas temperature of 420° F., and air temperature 
of 0° F.; or a stack 125 ft. high when the air temperature is 60° F. and the flue temperature 
460°. 



132 HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 

Logarithms to the Base 10 

1334 5 6789 10 

1.00 0.0000 0004 0009 0013 0017 0022 0026 0030 003S 0039 0043 

1.01 0043 0048 0052 0056 0060 0065 0069 0073 0077 0082 0086 

1.02 0086 0090 0095 0099 0103 0107 0111 0116 0120 0124 0128 

1.03 0128 0133 0137 0141 014S 0149 0154 0158 0162 0166 0170 

1.04 0170 0175 0179 0183 0187 0191 0195 0199 0204 0208 0212 

1.05 0212 0216 0220 0224 0228 0233 0237 0241 0245 0249 0253 

1.06 0253 0257 0261 0265 0269 0273 0278 0282 0286 0290 0294 

1.07 0294 0298 0302 0306 0310 0314 0318 0322 0326 0330 0334 

1.08 0334 0338 0342 0346 0350 0354 0358 0362 0366 0370 0374 

1.09 0374 0378 0382 0386 0390 0394 0398 0402 0406 0410 0414 

1.10 0.0414 0418 0422 0426 0430 0434 0438 0441 0445 0449 0453 

1.11 0453 0457 0461 0465 0469 0473 0477 0481 0484 0488 0492 

1.12 0492 0496 0500 0504 0508 0512 0515 0519 0523 0527 0531 

1.13 0531 0535 0538 0542 0546 0550 0554 0558 0561 0565 0569 

1.14 0569 0573 0577 0580 0584 0588 0592 0596 0599 0603 0607 

1.15 0607 0611 0615 0618 0622 0626 0630 0633 0637 0641 0645 

1.16 0645 0648 0652 0656 0660 0663 0667 0671 0674 0678 0682 

1.17 0632 0686 0689 0693 0697 0700 0704 0708 0711 0715 0719 

1.18 0719 0722 0726 0730 0734 0737 0741 0745 0748 0752 0755 

1.19 0755 0759 0763 0766 0770 0774 0777 0781 0785 0788 0792 

1.30 0.0792 0795 0799 0803 0806 0810 0813 0817 0821 0824 0828 

1.21 0828 0831 0835 0839 0842 0846 0849 0853 0856 0860 0864 

1.22 0864 0867 0871 0874 0878 0881 0885 0888 0892 0896 0899 

1.23 0899 0903 0906 0910 0913 0917 0920 0924 0927 0931 0934 

1.24 0934 0938 0941 0945 0948 0952 0955 0959 0962 0965 0969 

1.25 0969 0973 0976 0980 0983 0986 0990 0993 0997 1000 1004 

1.26 1004 1007 1011 1014 1017 1021 1024 1028 1031 1035 1038 

1.27 1038 1041 1045 1048 1052 1055 1059 1062 1065 1069 1072 

1.28 1072 1075 1079 1082 1086 1089 1092 1096 1099 1103 1106 

1.29 1106 1109 1113 1116 1119 1123 1126 1129 1133 1136 1139 

1.30 0.1139 1143 1146 1149 1153 1156 1159 1163 1166 1169 1173 

1.31 1173 1176 1179 1183 1186 1189 1193 1196 1199 1202 1205 

1.32 1206 1209 1212 1216 1219 1222 1225 1229 1232 1235 1239 

1.33 1239 1242 1245 1248 1252 1255 1258 1261 1265 1268 1271 

1.34 1271 1274 1278 1281 1284 1287 1290 1294 1297 1300 1303 

1.35 1303 1307 1310 1313 1316 1319 1323 1326 1329 1332 1335 

1.36 1335 1339 1342 1345 1348 1351 1355 1358 1361 1364 1367 

1.37 1367 1370 1374 1377 1380 1383 1386 1389 1392 1396 1399 

1.38 1399 1402 1405 1408 1411 1414 1418 1421 1424 1427 1430 

1.39 1430 1433 1436 1440 1443 1446 1449 1452 1455 1458 1461 

1.40 0.1461 1464 1467 1471 1474 1477 1480 1483 1486 1489 1492 

1.41 1492 1495 1498 1501 1504 1508 1511 1514 1517 1520 1523 

1.42 1523 1526 1529 1532 1535 1538 1541 1544 1547 1550 1553 

1.43 1553 1556 1559 1562 1565 1569 1572 1575 1578 1581 1584 

1.44 1584 1587 1590 1593 1595 1599 1602 1605 1608 1611 1614 

1.45 1614 1617 1620 1623 1626 1629 1632 1635 1638 1641 1644 

1.46 1644 1647 1649 1652 1655 1658 1661 1664 1667 1670 1673 

1.47 1673 1676 1679 1682 168S 1688 1691 1694 1697 1700 1703 

1.48 1703 1706 1708 1711 1714 1717 1720 1723 1726 1729 1732 

1.49 1732 1735 1738 1741 1744 1746 1749 1752 1755 1758 1761 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 133 

LOGAEITHMS TO THE BaSE 10 

1234 5 6?89 10 



1.50 


0.1761 


1764 


1767 


1770 


1772 


1775 


1778 


1781 


1784 


1787 


1790 


1.51 


1790 


1793 


1796 


1798 


1801 


1804 


1807 


1810 


1813 


1816 


1818 


1.52 


1818 


1821 


1824 


1827 


1830 


1833 


1836 


1838 


1841 


1844 


1847 


1.53 


1847 


1850 


1853 


1855 


1858 


1861 


1864 


1867 


1870 


1872 


1875 


1.54 


1875 


1878 


1881 


1884 


1886 


1889 


1892 


1895 


1898 


1901 


1903 


1.55 


1903 


1906 


1909 


1912 


1915 


1917 


1920 


1923 


1926 


1928 


1931 


1.56 


1931 


1934 


1937 


1940 


1942 


1945 


1948 


1951 


1953 


1955 


1959 


1.57 


19S9 


1962 


1965 


1967 


1970 


1973 


1976 


1978 


1981 


1984 


1987 


1.58 


1987 


1989 


1992 


1995 


1998 


2000 


2003 


2006 


2009 


2011 


2014 


1.59 


2014 


2017 


2019 


2022 


2025 


2028 


2030 


2033 


2036 


2038 


2041 


1.60 


0.2041 


2044 


2047 


2049 


2052 


2055 


2057 


2060 


2053 


2056 


2068 


1.61 


2068 


2071 


2074 


2076 


2079 


2082 


2084 


2087 


2090 


2092 


2095 


1.62 


2095 


2098 


2101 


2103 


2106 


2109 


2111 


2114 


2117 


2119 


2122 


1.63 


2122 


2125 


2127 


2130 


2133 


2135 


2138 


2140 


2143 


2146 


2148 


1.64 


2148 


2151 


2154 


2156 


2159 


2162 


2164 


2167 


2170 


2172 


2175 


1.65 


2175 


2177 


2180 


2183 


2185 


2188 


2191 


2193 


2196 


2198 


2201 


1.66 


2201 


2204 


2206 


2209 


2212 


2214 


2217 


2219 


2222 


2225 


2227 


1.67 


2227 


2230 


2232 


2235 


2238 


2240 


2243 


2245 


2248 


2251 


2253 


1.68 


2253 


2256 


2258 


2261 


2263 


2266 


2269 


2271 


■2274 


2275 


2279 


1.69 


2279 


2281 


2284 


2287 


2289 


2292 


2294 


2297 


2299 


2302 


2304 


1.70 


0.2304 


2307 


2310 


2312 


2315 


2317 


2320 


2322 


2325 


2327 


2330 


1.71 


2330 


2333 


2335 


2338 


2340 


2343 


2345 


2348 


2350 


2353 


235S 


1.72 


2355 


2358 


2360 


2363 


2365 


2368 


2370 


2373 


2375 


2378 


2380 


1.73 


2380 


2383 


2385 


2388 


2390 


2393 


2395 


2398 


2400 


2403 


2405 


1.74 


2405 


2408 


2410 


2413 


2415 


2418 


2420 


2423 


2425 


2428 


2430 


1.75 


2430 


2433 


2435 


2438 


2440 


2443 


2445 


2448 


2450 


2453 


245S 


1.76 


24SS 


2458 


2460 


2463 


2465 


2467 


2470 


2472 


2475 


2477 


2480 


1.77 


2480 


2482 


2485 


2487 


2490 


2492 


2494 


2497 


2499 


2502 


2504 


1.78 


2504 


2507 


2509 


2512 


2514 


2516 


2519 


2521 


2524 


2526 


2529 


1.79 


2529 


2531 


2533 


2536 


2538 


2541 


2543 


2545 


2548 


2550 


2553 


1.80 


0.2SS3 


2555 


2558 


2560 


2562 


2565 


2567 


2570 


2572 


2574 


2577 


1.81 


2577 


2579 


2582 


2584 


2586 


2589 


2591 


'2594 


2596 


2598 


2501 


1.82 


2601 


2603 


2605 


2608 


2610 


2613 


2615 


2617 


2620 


2522 


2525 


1.83 


2625 


2627 


2629 


2632 


2634 


2636 


2639 


2641 


2643 


2646 


2548 


1.84 


2648 


2651 


2553 


2655 


2658 


2660 


2662 


2655 


2657 


2669 


2672 


1.85 


2672 


2674 


2676 


2679 


2681 


2683 


2686 


2688 


2690 


2693 


2695 


1.86 


2695 


2697 


2700 


2702 


2704 


2707 


2709 


2711 


2714 


2716 


2718 


1.87 


2718 


2721 


2723 


2725 


2728 


2730 


2732 


2735 


2737 


2739 


2742 


1.88 


2742 


2744 


2746 


2749 


2751 


2753 


2755 


2758 


2760 


2762 


2755 


1.89 


2765 


2767 


2769 


2772 


2774 


2776 


2778 


2781 


2783 


2785 


2788 


1.90 


0.2788 


2790 


2792 


2794 


2797 


2799 


2801 


2804 


2806 


2803 


2810 


1.91 


2810 


2813 


2815 


2817 


2819 


2822 


2824 


2826 


2828 


2831 


2833 


1.92 


2833 


2835 


2838 


2840 


2842 


2844 


2847 


2849 


2851 


2853 


2856 


1.93 


2856 


2858 


2860 


2862 


2863 


2867 


2869 


2871 


2874 


2876 


2878 


1.94 


2878 


2880 


2882 


2885 


2887 


2889 


2891 


2894 


2896 


2898 


2900 


1.95 


2900 


2903 


2905 


2907 


2909 


2911 


2914 


2916 


2918 


2920 


2923 


1.96 


2923 


2925 


2927 


2929 


2931 


2934 


2936 


2938 


2940 


2942 


2945 


1.97 


2945 


2947 


2949 


2951 


2953 


2956 


2958 


2960 


2962 


2964 


2957 


1.98 


2967 


2969 


2971 


2973 


2975 


2978 


2980 


2982 


2984 


2986 


2989 


1.99 


2989 


2991 


2993 


299S 


2997 


2999 


3002 


3004 


3006 


3008 


3010 



134 HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 

Logarithms to the Base 10 

These two pages give the common logarithms of numbers between 1 and 10, correct to four 
places. Moving the decimal point n places to the right (or left) in the number is equivalent to 
adding n (or — ») to the logarithm. Thus, log 0.017453=0.2419 — 2 [=2.2419]. 

To facilitate interpolation, the tenths of the tabular differences are given at the end of each 

line, so that the differences themselves need not be considered. In using these aids, first find the 

nearest tabular entry, and then add (to move to the right) or subtract (to move to the left), as the 
case may require. 

Pages 132-137 are reprinted by permission from Huutingtons "Four Place Tables." 

Tentlis of tlie 
Tabular Difference 

1334 5 6789 10 12345 

0253 0294 0334 0374 0414 

064S 0682 0719 0755 0792 

1004 1038 1072 1106 1139 

1335 1367 1399 1430 1461 To avoid interpo- 

1644 1673 1703 1732 1761 lation In the first 

1931 1959 1987 2014 2041 '^" fl?;,"^' IJ" 

2201 2227 2253 2279 2304 special table on tho 

2455 2480 2504 2529 2553 Preceding page. 

2695 2718 2742 2765 2788 

2923 2945 2967 2989 3010 

3139 3160 3181 3201 3222 2 4 6 8 11 

3345 3365 3385 3404 3424 2 4 6 8 10 

3541 3560 3579 3598 3617 2 4 6 8 10 

3729 3747 3766 3784 3802 2 4 5 7 9 

3909 3927 3945 3962 3979 2 4 5 7 9 

4082 4099 4116 4133 4150 2 3 5 7 9 

4249 4265 4281 4298 4314 2 3 5 7 8 

4409 4425 4440 4456 4472 2 3 5 6 8 

4564 4579 4594 4609 4624 2 3 5 6 8 

4713 4728 4742 4757 4771 13 4 6 7 

4857 4871 4886 4900 4914 13 4 6 7 

4997 5011 5024 5038 5051 13 4 6 7 

5132 5145 5159 5172 5185 13 4 5 7 

5263 5276 5289 5302 5315 13 4 5 6 

5391 5403 5416 5428 5441 13 4 5 6 

5514 5527 5539 5551 5563 12 4 5 6 

5635 5647 5658 5670 5682 12 4 5 6 

5752 5763 5775 5786 5798 1 2 3 S 6 

5866 5877 5888 5899 5911 12 3 5 6 

5977 5988 5999 6010 6021- 12 3 4 6 

6085 6096 6107 6117 6128 12 3 4 5 

6191 6201 6212 6222 6232 12 3 4 5 

6294 6304 6314 6325 6335 12 3 4 5 

6395 6405 6415 6425 6435 12 3 4 5 

6493 6503 6513 6522 6532 12 3 4 5 

6590 6599 6609 6618 6628 12 3 4 5 

6584 6693 6702 6712 6721 12 3 4 5 

6776 6785 6794 6803 6812 12 3 4 5 

6866 6875 6884 6893 6902 12 3 4 4 

6955 6964 6972 6981 6990 12 3 4 4 



1.0 


0.0000 


0043 


0086 


0128 


0170 


0212 


1.1 


0414 


0453 


0492 


0531 


0569 


0607 


1.2 


0792 


0828 


0854 


0899 


0934 


0959 


1.3 


1139 


1173 


1206 


1239 


1271 


1303 


1.4 


1461 


1492 


1523 


1553 


1584 


1614 


1.5 


1761 


1790 


1818 


1847 


1875 


1903 


1.6 


2041 


2068 


2095 


2122 


2148 


2175 


1.7 


2304 


2330 


2355 


2380 


2405 


2430 


1.8 


2553 


2577 


2501 


2625 


2648 


2572 


1.9 


2788 


2810 


2833 


2856 


2878 


2900 


2.0 


0.3010 


3032 


3054 


3075 


3096 


3118 


2.1 


3222 


3243 


3263 


3284 


3304 


3324 


2.2 


3424 


3444 


3464 


3483 


3502 


3522 


2.3 


3617 


3636 


3555 


3574 


3692 


3711 


2.4 


3802 


3820 


3838 


3856 


3874 


3892 


2.5 


3979 


3997 


4014 


4031 


4048 


4055 


2.6 


4150 


4166 


4183 


4200 


4216 


4232 


2.7 


4314 


4330 


4346 


4362 


4378 


4393 


2.8 


4472 


4487 


4502 


4518 


4533 


4548 


2.9 


4624 


4639 


4654 


4559 


4683 


4698 


3.6 


0.4771 


4786 


4800 


4814 


4829 


4843 


3.1 


4914 


4928 


4942 


4955 


4969 


4983 


3.2 


5051 


5065 


5079 


5092 


5105 


5119 


3.3 


5185 


5198 


5211 


5224 


5237 


5250 


3.4 


5315 


5328 


5340 


5353 


5355 


5378 


3.5 


5441 


5453 


5465 


5478 


5490 


5502 


3.6 


5563 


5575 


5587 


5599 


5511 


5623 


3.7 


5682 


5594 


5705 


5717 


5729 


5740 


3.8 


5798 


5809 


5821 


5832 


5843 


5855 


3.9 


5911 


5922 


5933 


5944 


5955 


5956 


4.0 


0.6021 


6031 


6042 


6053 


6064 


6075 


4.1 


6128 


6138 


6149 


6160 


6170 


6180 


4.2 


6232 


6243 


6253 


6263 


6274 


6284 


4.3 


6335 


6345 


6355 


6365 


6375 


6385 


4.4 


6435 


6444 


6454 


6464 


6474 


6484 


4.5 


6532 


6542 


6551 


6561 


6571 


6580 


4.6 


6628 


6537 


6646 


6556 


6665 


6575 


4.7 


6721 


6730 


6739 


6749 


6758 


6757 


4.8 


6812 


6821 


6830 


6839 


6848 


6857 


4.9 


6902 


6911 


6920 


6928 


6937 


6946 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



135 



Logarithms to the Base 10 







6.0 


0.6990 


6998 


7007 


7016 


7024 


5.1 


7076 


7084 


7093 


7101 


7110 


5.2 


7160 


7168 


7177 


7185 


7193 


5.3 


7243 


7251 


7259 


7267 


7275 


5.4 


7324 


7332 


7340 


7348 


7356 


5.5 


7404 


7412 


7419 


7427 


7435 


5.6 


7482 


7490 


7497 


7505 


7513 


S.7 


7S59 


7566 


7574 


7582 


7589 


5.8 


7634 


7642 


7649 


7657 


7664 


5.9 


7709 


7716 


7723 


7731 


7738 


6.0 


0.7782 


7789 


7796 


7803 


7810 


6.1 


7853 


7860 


7868 


7875 


7882 


6.2 


7924 


7931 


7938 


7945 


7952 


6.3 


7993 


8000 


8007 


8014 


8021 


6.4 


8062 


8069 


8075 


8082 


8089 


6.5 


8129 


8136 


8142 


8149 


8156 


6.6 


8195 


8202 


8209 


8215 


8222 


6.7 


8261 


8267 


8274 


8280 


8287 


6.8 


8325 


8331 


8338 


8344 


8351 


6.9 


8388 


8395 


8401 


8407 


8414 


7.0 


0.8451 


8457 


8463 


8470 


8476 


7.1 


8513 


8519 


8525 


8531 


8537 


7.2 


8573 


8579 


8585 


8591 


8597 


7.3 


8633 


8639 


8645 


8651 


8657 


7.4 


8692 


8698 


8704 


8710 


8716 


7.5 


8751 


8756 


8762 


8768 


8774 


7.6 


8808 


8814 


8820 


8825 


8831 


7.7 


8865 


8871 


8876 


8882 


8887 


7.8 


8921 


8927 


8932 


8938 


8943 


7.9 


8976 


8982 


8987 


8993 


8998 


8.0 


0.9031 


9036 


9042 


9047 


9053 


8.1 


9085 


9090 


9096 


9101 


9106 


8.2 


9138 


9143 


9149 


9154 


9159 


8.3 


9191 


9196 


9201 


9206 


9212 


8.4 


9243 


9248 


9253 


9258 


9263 


8.S 


9294 


9299 


9304 


9309 


9315 


8.6 


9345 


93S0 


93SS 


9360 


9365 


8.7 


9395 


9400 


9405 


9410 


9415 


8.8 


9445 


9450 


9455 


9460 


9465 


8.9 


9494 


9499 


9504 


9509 


9513 


9.0 


0.9542 


9547 


9552 


9557 


9562 


9.1 


9S90 


9595 


9600 


9605 


9609 


9.2 


9638 


9643 


9647 


9652 


9657 


9.3 


9685 


9689 


9694 


9699 


9703 


9.4 


9731. 


9736 


9741 


9745 


9750 


9.S 


9777 


9782 


9786 


9791 


9795 


9.6 


9823 


9827 


9832 


9836 


9841 


9.7 


9868 


9872 


9877 


9881 


9885 


9.8 


OrtTO 


OOIT 


QQ91 


QQ9.fi 


qq.^0 


9.9 













5 6 7 8 9 

7033 7042 7050 7059 7067 

7118 7126 7135 7143 7152 

7202 7210 7218 7226 7235 

7284 7292 7300 7308 7316 

7364 7372 7380 7388 7396 

7443 7451 7459 7466 7474 

7520 7528 7536 7543 7551 

7597 7604 7612 7619 7627 

7672 7679 7686 7694 7701 

7745 7752 7760 7767 7774 

7818 7825 7832 7839 7846 

7889 7896 7903 7910 7917 

7959 7966 7973 7980 7987 

8028 8035 8041 8048 8055 

8096 8102 8109 8116 8122 

8162 8169 8176 8182 8189 

8228 8235 8241 8248 8254 

8293 8299 8306 8312 8319 

8357 8363 8370 8376 8382 

8420 8426 8432 8439 8445 

8482 8488 8494 8500 8506 

8543 8549 8555 8561 8567 

8603 8609 8615 8621 8627 

8663 8669 8675 8681 8686 

8722 8727 8733 8739 8745 

8779 8785 8791 8797 8802 

8837 8842 8848 8854 8859 

8893 8899 8904 8910 8915 

8949 8954 8960 8965 8971 

9004 9009 9015 9020 9025 

9058 9063 9069 9074 9079 

9112 9117 9122 9128 9133 

9165 9170 9175 9180 9186 

9217 9222 9227 9232 9238 

9269 9274 9279 9284 9289 

9320 9325 9330 9335 9340 

9370 9375 9380 9385 9390 

9420 9425 9430 9435 9440 

9469 9474 9479 9484 9489 

9518 9523 9528 9533 9538 

9566 9571 9576 9581 9586 

9614 9619 9624 9628 9633 

9661 9666 9671 9675 9680 

9708 9713 9717 9722 9727 

9754 9759 9763 9768 9773 

9800 9805 9809 9814 9818 

9845 9850 9854 9859 9863 

9890 9894 9899 9903 9908 

9934 9939 9943 9948 9952 
9983 9987 9991 9996 







Tenths of tlie 




Tabular Dlfferencs 


10 




2 


3 4 6 


7076 




2 


3 3 4 


7160 




2 


3 3 4 


7243 




2 


2 3 4 


7324 




2 


2 3 4 


7404 




2 


2 3 4 


7482 




2 


2 3 4 


7559 




2 


2 3 4 


7634 




2 


2 3 4 


7709 






2 3 4 


7782 






2 3 4 


7853 






2 3 4 


7924 






2 3 4 


7993 






2 3 3 


8052 






2 3 3 


8129 






2 3 3 


8195 






2 3 3 


8261 






2 3 3 


8325 






2 3 3 


8388 






2 3 3 


8451 






2 3 3 


8513 






2 2 3 


8573 






2 2 3 


8633 






2 2 3 


8692 






2 2 3 


8751 






2 2 3 


8808 






2 2 3 


8865 






2 2 3 


8921 






2 2 3 


8976 






2 2 3 


9031 






2 2 3 


9085 






2 2 3 


9138 






2 2 3 


9191 






2 2 3 


9243 






2 2 3 


9294 






2 2 3 


9345 






2 2 3 


9395 






2 2 3 


9445 







12 2 


9494 







1 2 2 


9542 







12 2 


9590 







12 2 


9638 







12 2 


9685 







1 2 2 


9731 







12 2 


9777 







1 2 2 


9823 







12 2 


9868 







1 2 2 


9912 







1 2 2 


9956 







12 2 









1 2 2 



136 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



Logarithms to the Base e 



These two pages give the natural (hy- 
perbolic, or Napierian) logarithms of 
numbers between 1 and 10, correct to 
four places. Moying the decimal point 
n places to the right (or left) in the num- 
ber is equivalent to adding w times 2.3026 
(or n times 5.6974) to the logarithm. 



2.3026 

4.6052 
6.9078 
9.2103 
11.5129 
13.8155 
16.1181 
18.4207 
20.7233 



0.6974-3 

0.3948 -S 

0.0922-7 

0.7897-10 

0.4871-12 

0.1845-14 

0.8819-17 

0.5793-19 

0.2767-21 



Logj (Base e 


= 2.71828 +) 











1 


3 


3 


4 


5 


1.0 


0.0000 


0100 


0198 


0296 


0392 


0488 


1.1 


0953 


1044 


1133 


1222 


1310 


1398 


1.2 


1823 


1906 


1989 


2070 


2151 


2231 


1.3 


2624 


2700 


2776 


2852 


2927 


3001 


1.4 


3365 


3436 


3507 


3577 


3646 


3716 


1.5 


4055 


4121 


4187 


4253 


4318 


4383 


1.6 


4700 


4762 


4824 


4886 


4947 


5008 


1.7 


5305 


5365 


5423 


5481 


5539 


5596 


1.8 


5878 


5933 


5988 


6043 


6098 


61S2 


1.9 


6419 


6471 


6523 


6575 


6627 


6678 


3.0 


0.6931 


6981 


7031 


7080 


7129 


7178 


2.1 


7419 


7467 


7514 


7561 


7608 


7655 


2.2 


7885 


7930 


7975 


8020 


8065 


8109 


2.3 


8329 


8372 


8416 


8459 


8502 


8544 


2.4 


8755 


8796 


8838 


8879 


8920 


8961 


2.5 


9163 


9203 


9243 


9282 


9322 


9361 


2.6 


9555 


9594 


9632 


9670 


9708 


9746 


2.7 


0.9933 


9969. 


[0006 


0043 


0080 


0116 


2.8 


1.0296 


0332 


0367 


0403 


0438 


0473 


2.9 


0647 


0682 


0716 


0750 


0784 


0818 


3.0 


1.0986 


1019 


1053 


1086 


1119 


1151 


3.1 


1314 


1346 


1378 


1410 


1442 


1474 


3.2 


1632 


1663 


1694 


1725 


1756 


1787 


3.3 


1939 


1969 


2000 


2030 


2060 


2090 


3.4 


2238 


2267 


2296 


2326 


2355 


2384 


3.5 


2528 


2556 


258S 


2613 


2641 


2669 


3.6 


2809 


2837 


2865 


2892 


2920 


2947 


3.7 


3083 


3110 


3137 


3164 


3191 


3218 


3.8 


3350 


3376 


3403 


3429 


3455 


3481 


3.9 


3610 


3635 


3661 


3686 


3712 


3737 


4.0 


1.3863 


3888 


3913 


3938 


3962 


3987 


4.1 


4110 


4134 


4159 


4183 


4207 


4231 


4.2 


4351 


4375 


4398 


4422 


4446 


4469 


4.3 


4586 


4609 


4633 


4656 


4679 


4702 


4,4 


4816 


4839 


4861 


4884 


4907 


4929 


4.5 


S041 


5063 


5085 


5107 


5129 


5151 


4.6 


5261 


5282 


5304 


5326 


5347 


5369 


4.7 


5476 


5497 


5518 


5539 


5560 


5581 


4.8 


5686 


5707 


5728 


5748 


5769 


5790 


4.9 


5892 


5913 


5933 


5953 


5974 


5994 



6 



8 9 10 



0583 0677 0770 0862 0.0953 

1484 1570 1655 1740 1823 

2311 2390 2469 2546 2624 

3075 3148 3221 3293 3365 

3784 3853 3920 3988 4055 

4447 4511 4574 4637 4700 

5068 5128 5188 5247 5306 

5653 5710 5766 5822 5878 

6206 6259 6313 6366 6419 

6729 6780 6831 6881 0.6931 

7227 7275 7324 7372 7419 

7701 7747 7793 7839 7885 

8154 8198 8242 8286 8329 

8587 8629 8671 8713 8755 

9002 9042 9083 9123 9163 

9400 9439 9478 9517 9555 

9783 9821 9858 9895 0.9933 

0152 0188 0225 0260 1.0296 

0508 0543 0578 0613 0647 

0852 0886 0919 0953 1.0986 

1184 1217 1249 1282 1314 

1506 1537 1569 1600 1632 

1817 1848 1878 1909 1939 

2119 2149 2179 2208 2238 

2413 2442 2470 2499 2528 

2698 2726 2754 2782 2809 

2975 3002 3029 3056 3083 

3244 3271 3297 3324 3350 

3507 3533 3558 3584 3610 

3762 3788 3813 3838 1.3863 

4012 4036 4061 4085 4110 

42SS 4279 4303 4327 4351 

4493 4516 4540 4563 4586 

4725 4748 4770 4793 4816 

4951 4974 4996 5019 5041 

5173 5195 5217 5239 5261 

5390 5412 5433 5454 5476 

5602 5623 5644 5665 5686 

5810 5831 5851 5872 5892 

6014 6034 6054 6074 1.6094 



Tenths of ttis 
Tabular Differencs 

12 3 4 5 



10 19 29 38 48 

9 17 26 35 44 

8 16 24 32 40 

7 15 22 30 37 

7 14 21 28 34 

6 13 19 26 32 
6 12 18 24 30 
6 11 17 23 29 
5 1116 22 27 
5 10 15 21 26 

5 10 15 20 24 
5 9 1419 23 
4 9 13 18 22 
4 9 13 17 21 
4 8 1216 20 

4 81216 20 

4 81115 19 

4 71115 18 

4 7111418 

3 7101417 

3 7101316 

3 61013 16 

3 6 91215 

3 6 912 15 

3 6 91214 

3 6 81114 

3 5 81114 

3 5 81113 

3 5 8 1013 

3 5 81013 

2 S 71012 
2 S 71012 
2 5 7 912 
2 5 7 911 
2 4 7 911 

2 4 7 911 

2 4 6 911 

2 4 6 811 

2 4 6 810 

2 4 6 810 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 137 

Logarithms to the Base e 





























Tenths Of the 


























Tabular Difference 







1 


a 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


1 


2 


3 


4 5 


5.0 


1.6094 


6114 


6134 


6154 


6174 


6194 


6214 


6233 


6253 


6273 


6292 


2 


4 


6 


810 


S.l 


6292 


6312 


6332 


6351 


6371 


6390 


6409 


6429 


6448 


6467 


6487 


2 


4 


6 


810 


5.2 


6487 


6506 


6525 


6544 


6563 


6582 


6601 


6620 


6639 


6658 


6677 


2 


4 


6 


8 10 


S.3 


6677 


6696 


6715 


6734 


6752 


6771 


6790 


6808 


6827 


6845 


6864 


2 


4 


6 


7 9 


5.4 


6864 


6882 


6901 


6919 


6938 


6956 


6974 


6993 


7011 


7029 


7047 


2 


4 


6 


7 9 


5.5 


7047 


7066 


7084 


7102 


7120 


7138 


7156 


7174 


7192 


7210 


7228 


2 


4 


5 


7 9 


5.6 


7228 


7246 


7263 


7281 


7299 


7317 


7334 


7352 


7370 


7387 


7405 


2 


4 


5 


7 9 


5.7 


7405 


7422 


7440 


7457 


7475 


7492 


7509 


7527 


7544 


7561 


7579 


2 


3 


5 


7 9 


5.8 


7579 


7596 


7613 


7630 


7647 


7664 


7681 


7699 


7716 


7733 


7750 


2 


3 


5 


7 9 


5.9 


7750 


7766 


7783 


7800 


7817 


7834 


7851 


7867 


7884 


7901 


1.7918 


2 


3 


5 


7 8 


6.0 


1.7918 


7934 


7951 


7967 


7984 


8001 


8017 


8034 


8050 


8066 


8083 


2 


3 


5 


7 8 


6.1 


8083 


8099 


8116 


8132 


8148 


8165 


8181 


8197 


8213 


8229 


8245 


2 


3 


5 


7 8 


6.2 


8245 


8262 


8278 


8294 


8310 


8326 


8342 


8358 


8374 


8390 


8405 


2 


3 


5 


6 8 


6.3 


8405 


8421 


8437 


8453 


8469 


8485 


8500 


8516 


8532 


8547 


8563 


2 


3 


5 


6 8 


6.4 


8563 


8579 


8594 


8610 


8625 


8641 


8656 


8672 


8687 


8703 


8718 


2 


3 


5 


6 8 


6.5 


8718 


8733 


8749 


8764 


8779 


8795 


8810 


8825 


8840 


8856 


8871 


2 


3 


5 


6 8 


6.6 


8871 


8886 


8901 


8916 


8931 


8946 


8961 


8976 


8991 


9006 


9021 


2 


3 


5 


6 8 


6.7 


9021 


9036 


9051 


9066 


9081 


9095 


9110 


9125 


9140 


9155 


9169 




3 


4 


6 7 


6.8 


9169 


9184 


9199 


9213 


9228 


9242 


9257 


9272 


9286 


9301 


9315 




3 


4 


6 7 


6.9 


9315 


9330 


9344 


9359 


9373 


9387 


9402 


9416 


9430 


9445 


1.9459 




3 


4 


6 7 


7.0 


1.9459 


9473 


9488 


9502 


9516 


9530 


9544 


9559 


9573 


9587 


9601 




3 


4 


6 7 


7.1 


9601 


9615 


9629 


9643 


9657 


9671 


9685 


9699 


9713 


9727 


9741 




3 


4 


6 7 


7.2 


9741 


9755 


9769 


9782 


9796 


9810 


9824 


9838 


9851 


9865 


1.9879 




3 


4 


6 7 


7.3 


1.9879 


9892 


9906 


9920 


9933 


9947 


9961 


9974 


9988j0001 


2.0015 




3 


4 


5 7 


7.4 


2.0015 


0028 


0042 


0055 


0069 


0082 


0096 


0109 


0122 


0136 


0149 




3 


4 


5 7 


7.5 


0149 


0162 


0176 


0189 


0202 


0215 


0229 


0242 


0255 


0268 


0281 




3 


4 


5 7 


7.6 


0281 


0295 


0308 


0321 


0334 


0347 


0360 


0373 


0386 


0399 


0412 




3 


4 


5 7 


7.7 


0412 


0425 


0438 


0451 


0464 


0477 


0490 


0503 


0516 


0528 


0541 




3 


4 


5 6 


7.8 


0541 


0554 


0567 


0580 


0592 


0605 


0618 


0631 


0643 


0656 


0669 




3 


4 


5 6 


7.9 


0669 


0681 


0694 


0707 


0719 


0732 


0744 


0757 


0769 


0782 


2.0794 




3 


4 


5 6 


8.0 


2.0794 


0807 


0819 


0832 


0844 


0857 


0869 


0882 


0894 


0906 


0919 




2 


4 


5 6 


8.1 


0919 


0931 


0943 


0956 


0968 


0980 


0992 


1005 


1017 


1029 


1041 




2 


4 


5 6 


8.2 


1041 


1054 


1066 


1078 


1090 


1102 


1114 


1126 


1138 


1150 


1163 




2 


4 


5 6 


8.3 


1163 


1175 


1187 


1199 


1211 


1223 


1235 


1247 


1258 


1270 


1282 




2 


4 


5 6 


8.4 


1282 


1294 


1306 


1318 


1330 


1342 


1353 


1365 


1377 


1389 


1401 




2 


4 


5 6 


8.5 


1401 


1412 


1424 


1436 


1448 


1459 


1471 


1483 


1494 


1506 


1518 




2 


4 


5 6 


8.6 


1518 


1529 


1541 


1552 


1564 


1576 


1587 


1599 


1610 


1622 


1633 




2 


3 


5 6 


8.7 


1633 


1645 


1656 


1668 


1679 


1691 


1702 


1713 


1725 


1736' 


1748 




2 


3 


5 6 


8.8 


1748 


1759 


1770 


1782 


1793 


1804 


1815 


1827 


1838 


1849 


1861 




2 


3 


5 6 


8.9 


1861 


1872 


1883 


1894 


1905 


1917 


1928 


1939 


1950 


1961 


2.1972 




2 


3 


4 6 


9.0 


2.1972 


1983 


1994 


2006 


2017 


2028 


2039 


2050 


2061 


2072 


2083 




2 


3 


4 6 


9.1 


2083 


2094 


2105 


2116 


2127 


2138 


2148 


21S9 


2170 


2181 


2192 




2 


3 


4 5 


9.2 


2192 


2203 


2214 


2225 


2235 


2246 


2257 


2268 


2279 


2289 


2300 




2 


3 


4 5 


9.3 


2300 


2311 


2322 


2332 


2343 


2354 


2364 


2375 


2386 


2396 


2407 




2 


3 


4 5 


9.4 


2407 


2418 


2428 


2439 


2450 


2460 


2471 


2481 


2492 


2502 


2513 




2 


3 


4 5 


9.5 


2513 


2523 


2534 


2544 


2555 


2565 


2576 


2586 


2597 


2607 


2618 




2 


3 


4 5 


9.6 


2618 


2628 


2638 


2649 


2659 


2670 


2680 


2690 


2701 


2711 


2721 




2 


3 


4 5 


9.7 


2721 


2732 


2742 


2752 


2762 


2773 


2783 


2793 


2803 


2814 


2824 




2 


3 


4 5 


9.8 


2824 


2834 


2844 


2854 


2865 


2875 


2885 


2895 


2905 


2915 


2925 




2 


3 


4 5 


9.9 


2925 


2935 


2946 


2956 


2966 


2976 


2985 


2996 


3006 


3016 


2.3026 




2 


3 


4 5 



PART II 

CHARTS 

CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF DIAGRAMS 

Chart 1. This chart gives the work required to compress and deliver 
a cubic foot of (sup.pr.) air, or the horse-power to compress and dehver 1000 cu. 
ft. of (sup.pr.) air per minute, if the ratio of pressure (del.pr.)-h (sup.pr.), the 
value of s and the (sup.pr.) are known, and compression occurs in one stage. 
The work or H.P. for any number of cubic feet is directly proportional to num- 
ber of feet. The curves are dependent upon the formulas, Eq. (31), for the case 
when s = l, and Eq. (49) for the case when s is not equal to 1. They were 
drawn as follows : 

On a horizontal base various values of Rp are laid off, starting with the value 
2 at the origin. The values for work were then found for a number of values 
of Rp with a constant value of (sup.pr.) and s. A vertical work scale was then 
laid off from origin of Rp and a curve drawn through the points found by 
the intersection of horizontal lines through values of work, with vertical 
lines through corresponding values of Rp. The process was then repeated for 
other values of s and curves similar to the first, drawn for the other values of s. 
From the construction so far completed it is possible to find the work per cubic 
foot for any pressure ratio and any value of s for one (sup.pr.) by projecting 
up from the proper value of Rp to the curve of value of s and then horizontally 
to the scale of work. It will be noted from these formulas, however, that 
the work may be laid off on the horizontal base and a group of lines drawn so 
that the slope of the line equals ratio of work for any supply pressure to that 
for the (sup.pr.) originally used. For convenience, in order that the group of 
s curves and the latter group may be as distinct as possible, the origin of the 
latter group is taken at the opposite end of the base line. If from the point for 
work originally found, a projection is made horizontally to the proper (sup.pr.) 
curve, the value for work with this (sup.pr.) will be found directly below. 
It will be noted that from point of intersection of the vertical from the Rp 
value with the s curve, it is only necessary to project horizontally far enough to 
intersect the desired (sup.pr.) curve, and since no information of value will 
be found by continuing to the work scale for the original (sup.pr.) this is omitted 
from the diagram. 

In brief, then, the use of this chart consists in projecting upward from the 
proper value of Rp to the proper s curve, then passing horizontally to the value 
of (sup.pr.) and finally downward to the work scale. As an example of the use 
of the curve: Find the work to compress 1000 cu. ft. of free air from 1 to 8§ 

139 



140 HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 

atmospheres adiabatically. On the curve project upward from Rp = 8.5 to 
curve of s= 1.406, then over to 14.7 (sup.pr.) curve and down to read work 
= 6,300,000. 

Chart 2. This gives the work required to compress and deliver a cubic 
foot of (sup.pr.) air or the horse-power to compress and deliver 1000 cu. ft. of 
(sup.pr.) air per minute if the ratio of pressures, the value of s and (sup.pr.) are 
known and if compression occurs in two stages with best-receiver pressure and 
perfect intercooling. The work or H.P. for any other number of cubic feet 
may be found by multiplying work per foot by the number of feet. The 
method of arriving at this chart was exactly the same as that for one stage. 

As an example of the use of the chart, find the work to compress 5 cu. ft. of 
free air from 1 to 8| atmospheres adiabatically in two stages. Project upward 
from Rj, = 8.5 to curve s = 1.406, then over to 14.7 curve and down to read 
5320 ft. -lbs. per cubic foot. 

Chart 3. This chart gives the work necessary to compress and deliver a 
cubic foot of (sup.pr.) air, or horse-power to compress and deliver 1000 cu. ft. of 
(sup. pr.) air per minute, if the ratio of pressures, the value of s, and the (sup. 
pr.) are known and if the compression occurs in three stages with best-receiver 
pressures and perfect intercooling. The work or horse-power for any other 
number of cubic feet may be found by multiplying the work for one foot by 
the number of feet. 

As an example of use of this chart, determine the horse-power to compress 
100 cu. ft. free air per minute adiabatically in three stages from 15 lbs. per square 
inch abs. to 90 lbs. per square inch gage. From Rp = 7, project to curve of 
s = 1.4 then over to (sup.pr.) = 15 and down, and the horse-power will be 
found to be 13.6. 

Chart 4. This chart is for finding the (m.e.p.) of compressors. In the 
case of multi-stage compressors with best-receiver pressure and perfect inter- 
cooling, the (m.e.p.) of each cylinder may be found by considering each cylinder 
as a single-stage compressor; or the (m.e.p.) of the compressor referred to the 
L.P. cylinder may be found. 

The chart depends on the fact that the work per cubic foot of (sup.pr.) gas 
is equal to the (m.e.p.) for the no-clearance case and that the (m.e.p.) 
with clearance is equal to the (m.e.p.) for no clearance, times the volumetric effi- 
ciency. Diagrams 1, 2 and 4 are reproductions of Charts 2, 3 and 4 to a smaller 
scale and hence need no explanation as to derivation. Their use may be briefly 
shown. From the given ratio of pressures project upward to the proper curve, 
then horizontally to the (sup.pr.) and downward to read work per cubic feet of 
(sup.pr.) gas. 

The volumetric efficiency diagram was drawn in the following manner: 
From Eq. (59) vol. eff. ={l + c-cRps), showing that it depends upon three 
variables, R^, c and s. A horizontal scale of values of Rp was laid off. Values 
of Rps were found and a vertical scale of this quantity laid off from the same 
origin as the Rp values. Through the intersection of the verticals from various 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 141 

values of Bp with the horizontals drawn through the corresponding values of 
{Rp)7 for a known value of s, a curve of this value of s was drawn. In a similar 
way curves of other values of s were drawn. From the construction so far 
completed it is possible to find the value of (Rp)^ by projecting upward from any 
value of Rp to the curve of s and then horizontally to the scale of {Rp)'s. Values 
of volumetric efficiencies found for various clearances and the values of {Rp)^ 
are laid off on' a horizontal base, with the origin at the opposite end of scale 
from that of Rp values, in order that clearance curves and s curves might be 
as distinct as possible. These clearance curves were drawn through the inter- 
section of horizontals through the (i2j,)» values, and of verticals through the 
vulmetric efficiency values corresponding to them for the particular clearance 
in question. 

To find volumetric efficiency then it is merely necessary to project from value 
of Rp to the proper s curve, then across to the given clearance and finally 
down to volumetric efficiency. As the value of (Rp)^ is not desired, the hori- 
zontal projection is carried only to the intersection with the clearance curve 
and not to the edge of the diagram. To find the (m.e.p.) for single stage, the 
work per cubic foot is found from the diagram and then the volumetric efficiency, 
both as described above. The product is {m.e.p.). 

For multi-stage compressors with perfect intercooling and best-receiver 
pressure, as stated above, the (m.e.p.) of each cylinder may be found, consider- 
ing each to be a single-stage compressor and remembering that (1 rec.pr.) 
becomes (sup.pr.) for second stage, and (del.pr.) for first stage; and that (2 rec. 
pr.) becomes (sup.pr.) for third stage, (del.pr.) for second stage. The (m.e.p.) 
reduced to low-pressure cylinder is found by taking work per cubic foot of 
(sup.pr.) gas and multiplying by volumetric efficiency of low-pressure cyHnder. 

To illustrate the use of this curve solve the following problem. A three- 
stage air compressor runs at 100 R.P.M. with best receiver pressure; the low- 
pressure cylinder is 32 X 24 ins., clearance 5 per cent. Compression from 
atmosphere to 140 lbs. per square inch absolute, s=1.4. Find horse-power 
and the best receiver pressures. 

Projecting upward from the pressure ratio of 9.35 to the line of s=1.4 
and then over to (sup.pr.) = 15 in diagram 4, since compression is three stage 
and from 15 lbs. per square inch to 140 lbs. per square inch, work per cubic 
foot or (m.e.p.), is found for no clearance to be 37.8 abs. per square inch; 
since best-receiver pressure assumed is 31.6, which gives a ratio of 2.1 for the 
low-pressure cyfinder. From diagram 3, by projecting upward from Rp = 2.1 
and over to the 5 per cent clearance line, volumetric efficiency is 96.5. The 
product gives (m.e.p.) reduced to low-pressure cyHnder and is 36.5. From the 
(m.e.p.) Lan ^ ^ ^^^ horse-power is found to be 358. 

33,000 , s . . 

Chart 5. There is one (sup.pr.), which for a definite (del.pr.) will give the 
maximum work of compression. This chart, originated by Mr. T. M. Gunn, 



142 HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 

gives a graphical means of finding this value of (sup.pr.) when the (del.pr.), 
clearance and value of s are known. It also gives on the right-hand of the chart 
a means for finding the (m.e.p.) for this condition. The figure was drawn by- 
means of Eqs. (139) and (142). 

To find the (sup.pr.) to give maximum work for any (del.pr.) it is only 
necessary to project from the proper value of s to the given clearance curve, 
and then horizontally to read the value of Rp. The (del.pr.) divided by this 
gives the (sup.pr.) desired. To obtain the (m.e.p.) project upward from the 

value of s to the clearance curve, then horizontally to read the ratio ( 3— j 

The (del.pr.) multiplied by this quantity gives the m.e.p. 

As an example of the use of this chart let it be required to find the (sup.pr.) 
for the case of maximum work for 9 X 12 in. double-acting compressor running 
200 R.P.M., having 5 per cent clearance and delivering against 45 lbs. per square 
inch gage.; also the horse-power. Compression such that s = 1.3. 

Projecting from the value 1.3 for s on the left-hand diagram to the line of 

5 per cent clearance find Rp to be 2.8, hence (sup.pr.) =^r-- = 21.4 lbs. per 

square inch absolute = 6.4 lbs. per square inch gage. Again, projecting from 
value 1.3 for s on right-hand diagram to line of 5 per cent clearance find 

that-^H = -383, hence (m.e.p.). = 23 and I.H.P. = ??^^^^^^^ 
(del.pr.) 33,000 

= 17.8. 

Chart 6. This chart is designed to show the saving in work done in com- 
pressing and delivering gases by two-stage or three-stage compression with 
best-receiver pressure and perfect intercooling over that required for compress- 
ing and delivering the same gas between the same pressures in one stage. The 
chart was made by laying off on a horizontal base a scale of pressure ratios. 
From the same origin a scale of work for two or three stage divided by the 
work of one stage was drawn vertically. For a number of values of Rp the 
work to compress a cubic foot of gas was found for one, two and three stage 
for each value of s. The values found by dividing the work of two or three 
stage by the work of single stage were plotted above the proper Rp values, and 
opposite the proper ratio, values and curves drawn through all points for one 
value of s. To find the saving by compressing in two or three stages project 
from the proper Rp value to the chosen s curve for the desired number of 
stages, then horizontally to read the ratio of multi-stage to one-stage work. 
This value gives per cent power needed for one stage that will be required to 
compress the same gas multi-stage. Saving by multi-stage as a percentage 
of single stage is one minus the value read. 

To illustrate the use of this chart, find the per cent of work needed to com- 
press a cubic foot of air adiabatically from 1 to 8J atmospheres in two stages 
compared to doing it in one stage. From examples under charts Nos. 1 and 
2 it was found that work per cubic foot was 6300 ft.-lbs. and 5320 ft.-lbs. respec- 
tively, for one- and two-stage compression, or that two stage was 84.5 per cent 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 143 

of one stage. From Rp, 8i project up on Chart 6 to s = 1.406 for two stage, and 
over to read 84.6 per cent, which is nearly the same. 

Chart 7. This chart, designed by Mr. T. M. Gunn, shows the economy 
compared to isothermal compression. 

The chart was drawn on the basis of the following equation : 

_, /. ,, ,N m.e.p. isothermal (no clearance) 

Economy (isothermal) = 1 — , — s : — ; 

m.e.p. actual H-iia actual 

Values of this expression were worked out for each exponent, for assumed values 

of Rp. A scale of values of Rp was laid off horizontally and from the same 

origin a vertical scale of values of the ratio of isothermal to adiabatic. The 

results found were then plotted, each point above its proper Rp and opposite 

its ratio value. Curves were then drawn through all the points found for the 

same value of s. In a similar way a set of curves for two-stage and a set for 

three-stage compression were drawn. 

This chart is also useful in obtaining the (m.e.p.) of the cycle if the (sup.pr.) 
and the volumetric efficiency of the cylinder be known. A second horizontal 
scale laid off above the Rp scale shows the (m.e.p.) per pound of (sup.pr. for) 
the isothermal no-clearance cycle. This is found to be equal to loge Rp, since 
the (m.e.p.) for no clearance is equal to the work per cubic foot of (sup.pr.) gas, 
which, in turn, for the isothermal case is (sup.pr.) loge Rp or loge Rp when 
(sup.pr.) = 1. 

Knowing the ratio of pressures, economy compared to isothermal can be 
found as explained above. Also knowing Rp the (m.e.p.) per pound initial is 
found from the upper scale. 

Since the latter quantity is assumed to be known, by multiplying it by 
factor just found there is obtained (m.e.p.) isothermal. Since volumetric 
efficiency is assumed known, all the factors are known for the first equation 
given above which, rearranged, reads 

, s , 1 m.e.p. isothermal (no clearance) 

, (m.e.p.) actual = t : — rr ^ . jp , 

^ *^ ' (economy isothermal) —-& J 

Chart 8. This chart is drawn to give the cylinder displacement for a 
desired capacity, with various values of Rp, s and clearance. From the formula 
Eq. (58): (L.P. Cap.)=D(l-Hc-cfipF). 

The right-hand portion of the diagram is for the purpose of finding values 
of (Rp)^ for various values' of Rp and s, and is constructed as in Chart 2. The 
values of the lower scale on the left-hand diagram give values of Z) = (L. P. Cap.) 
-i-{l+c—cRps), where capacity is taken at 100 cu.ft., this scale was laid 
out and the clearance curves points found by solving the above equation for 
various values of (Rp)s for each value of c. To obtain the displacement neces- 
sary for a certain capacity with a given value of Rp, c and s, project upward 
from Rp to the proper s curve across to the c curve and down to read displace- 
ment per hundred cubic feet. Also on the left-hand diagram are drawn lines of 
piston speed, and on left-hand edge a scale of cylinder areas and diameters to 
give displacements found on horizontal scale. To obtain cylinder areas or 
approximate diameters in inches project from displacement to piston speed line 



144 HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 

and across to read cylinder area or diameter. Figure? given are for 100 cu.ft. 
per minute. For any other volume the displacement and area of cylinder will 
be as desired volume to 100, and diameters will be as -\/desired volume to 100. 

As an example of the use of Chart 8, let it be required to find the low-pres- 
sure cylinder size for a compressor to handle 1500 cu. ft. of free air per minute. 
Receiver pressure to be 45 lbs. per square inch gage and (sup.pr.) to be atmos- 
phere. Piston speed hmited to 500 ft. per minute. Compression to be so that 
s=1.4 and clearance = 4 per cent. Projecting upward from Rp = 4: to s 
= 1.4, across to c = 4:%, and down to piston speed = 500, find the diameter of 
a cylinder for 100 cu. ft. per minute is 6.3. For 1500 cu. ft. the diameter will 
be as a/TsX 6.3 = 3.9X6.3 = 24 ins. 

Chart 9. This diagram for mean effective pressure in terms of initial and 
back pressure, clearance, compression and cut-off, facilitates the solution of Eq. 
(184) . The mean effective pressure is the difference between mean forward and 
mean back pressure. The former is dependent upon clearance, cut-off and initial 
pressure. In the example shown on the figure by letters and dotted lines, 
clearance is assumed 5 per cent, shown at A. Project horizontally to the point 
F, on the contour line for the assumed cut-off, 12 per cent. Project downward 
to the logarithmic scale for "mean forward pressure in terms of initial pressure" 
to the point G. On the scale for " initial pressure " find the point H, represent- 
ing the assumed initial pressure, 115 lbs. absolute. Through G and H a straight 
line is passed to the point K on the scale for "mean forward pressure," where 
the value is read, m.f.p.=49.5 lbs. absolute. 

Mean back pressure is similarly dependent upon clearance, compression 
and back pressure, and the same process is followed out by the points, A, B, C, D 
and E, reading the mean back pressure, 3.2 lbs. absolute at the point E. Then 
by subtraction (m.e.p.) = (m.f. p.) — (m.b.p.) =49.5 — 3.2=46.3 lbs. 

Chart 10 is arranged to show what conditions must be fulfilled in order to 
obtain equal work with complete expansion in both cylinders in a compound 
engine, finite receiver, logarithmic law, no clearance, when low-pressure ad- 
mission and high-pressure exhaust are not simultaneous. The diagram repre- 
sents graphically the conditions expressed in Eqs. (283) to (286). 

To illustrate its use assume that in an engine operating on such a cycle, 
the volume of receiver is 1.5 times the high-pressure displacement, 1.5 = 2/, 

then - = .667. Locate the point A on the scale at bottom of diagram, corre- 
sponding to this value. Project upward to the curve marked "ratio of cut-offs" 
and at the side, C, read ratio of cut-offs Zh/Zi^ = .572. Next extending the 
line AB to its intersection D, with the curve GH, the point D is found. From D 
project horizontally to the contour line representing the given ratio of initial 
to back pressure. In this case, initial pressure is assumed ten times back pres- 
sure. Thus the point E is located. Directly above E at the top of the sheet is 
read the cylinder ratio, at F. Rc = Di^/Dij = 2.4:. 

If cylinder ratio and initial and final pressures are the fundamental data of 
the problem, the ratio of cut-offs and ratio of high-pressure displacements to 
receiver volume may be found by reversing the order. 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 145 

Chart 12. Diagram (A) is the Marks and Davis modification of the Cp 
curve of Knobloch and Jacobs, the integral of which (C) gives the heat of super- 
heat from any temperature of steam generation to actual steam temperature, 
while {B) shows the values for the mean specific heat above the temperature of 
saturation for the particular pressure in question. 

Chart 13. This diagram is for the purpose of finding the cubic feet per 
pound, or pounds per cubic foot, of a gas at 32° F. and a pressure of 29.92 ins. 
of Hg, if its volume or weight per cubic foot be known at any pressure and 
temperature. The curves depend upon the fact that the pounds per cubic foot 
(S) vary directly as the pressure and inversely as the temperature. That is 

T 29 92 
532°) 29.92" = & Tp 402 p • The line of least slope is so drawn that for any 

temperature on the horizontal scale its value when divided by 492 may be 
read on the vertical scale. The group of lines with the greater slope is so drawn 
that for any value on the vertical scale this quantity times 29.92/P may be 
used on the horizontal scale. That is, the vertical scale gives the ratio of 
densities as affected by temperature for constant pressure, while horizontal 
scale gives the ratio as affected by both temperature and pressure. A recipro- 
cal scale is given in each case for volume calculations. 

To find the pounds per cubic foot of gas at 32° F. and 29.92 ins. of mercury 
when its value is known for 90° and 13 lbs. per square inch. On the temperature 
scale, pass vertically until the temperature line is reached, then horizontally 
until the curve for 13 lbs. absolute is reached. The value on the scale below is 
found to be 1.265, so that the density under the standard conditions is 1.265 
of the value under known conditions. Had it been required to find the cubic 
feet per pound the process would be precisely the same, the value being taken 
from the lower scale, which for the example reads .79, or, the cubic feet per 
pound under standard conditions is 79 per cent of the value under conditions 
assumed. 

Charts 16 to 21, These are diagrams of the properties of steam and give 
respectively the pressure-temperature values, heat of the liquid, latent heat, 
total heat, specific volume and density of the liquid, and specific volume and 
density of the vapor. The values in the charts correspond to the tabular 
values given in the steam table (XL). 

Charts 25 and 26. These diagrams, devised by Professor Parr were de- 

<„-32^ 



rived from Eq. (576), h = h' -O.OOO^Qlhi{ti-U) ( 1- ), where h is 

barometric height in inches, after applying all corrections, and h' is pressure 
of saturated water vapor, in inches of mercury, corresponding to the temperature 
<„,. The vapor pressure, h, is in ins. of mercury corresponding to given read- 
ings of the wet- and dry-bulb thermometers, td and ty,, degrees F. The use of 
the curves is best illustrated by an example: if the dry-bulb reading is 75° 
F. and the wet-bulb 65° F., find the dew point. The difference of wet- and dry- 
bulb temperatures is 10°. From 10° at the top of the diagram {B) Chart 25 
project downward, and from 75° air temperature at the left of diagram project 
10 



146 HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 

to the right to the intersection, where the dew point is read by interpolation 
between the contour curves at (C) to be 59.5° F. These curves are drawn for a 
barometric pressure of 29.92 ins. (standard) and will not apply correctly, when 
the barometer is not equal to this, though with fair approximation, so long as 
the difference in barometer is not great. Where there is much departure the 
formula must be used. Chart 26 gives weight of aqueous vapor per cubic foot 
of mixture, in grains (tsViT '^O ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ degree of humidity. The tempera- 
ture of the dew point 59.6° F., is located at (C) on the right-hand side. Inter- 
polation between the ends of the contours for weight, gives 5.6 grains per 
cubic foot. On the same scale the temperature of the air, F., is represented at 
point (A) 75°, projecting to the intersecting point D and down to the bottom of 
the diagram gives on the scale for degree of humidity, 60 per cent. 

Charts 27, 28 and 29. These diagrams have been plotted chiefly from ex- 
perimental data: the lower values are new, but the upper are those given by 
Starr several years ago and generally accepted by refrigeration engineers, • as 
standard. 

These data refer to the equilibrium conditions of the solution, and in 
using them for practical problems care must be taken to avoid applying them 
to other conditions, for example to solutions that are not homogeneous, or in 
which there has not been sufficient time for the establishment of equilibrium. 

Charts 30 and 31. These represent various fractionation tests plotted in 
curve form, on which are indicated the boiling-points of known hydrocarbons, 
and bands are added for the class of distillate in accordance with the Robinson 
classification. Horizontal distances represent fractions distilled, a fraction 
being the per cent by volume that has been discharged between two given tem- 
peratures in a boiling mass, the temperature continually rising. Incidentally 
it may be noted that the temperature is different in the vapor than in the boil- 
ing liquid, though that of the liquid is usually taken. The rate of boiling or 
application of heat very seriously affects these curves, any one of which might 
easily be changed thereby. 

Chart 33. This diagram gives the heats of reaction plotted as a function of 
S alone, laid off horizontally, and a separate curve drawn for each value of the 

CO 

pr^ ratio, 2, 6, 15 and infinity. The vertical distances are heats of reaction, 
CO2 

first, per pound of gases produced and second, per pound of carbon, the former 
being a measure of temperature rise, and the latter of efficiency of reaction. 
These two heats are derived from Eq. (658) in the two Eqs. (661) and (662). 
S is the weight of steam per pound of air reacting. 

Chart 34. Here one set of the Mallard and Le Chatelier values for the mean 
specific heat of various gases given in Eq. (674) has been used to calculate the 
temperature rise above 32° for various quantities of heat. For any heat incre- 
ment per pound of gases there is a corresponding temperature increment that 
can be read off directly. Thus, for CO2, consider 1 lb. to receive 1000 B.T.U.; 
starting at 32° F., the temperature rise would be 3290° F.- 32° F.= 3258°, 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 147 

whereas from 1000° F. as a starting point this same 1000 B.T.U. would yield a 
temperature of 3690° F. or a rise of 2690°. 

Chart 36, The values of the factor of evaporation and equivalent pounds of 
water per hour per boiler horse-power may be found directly from the curves, 
which also give the heat per pound for dry saturated, wet or superheated steam 
above any feed-water temperature. The construction of this chart is given on 
the diagram. 

Charts 38 and 39. These represent a number of boiler tests with some one 
item of importance, selected to show the effect of various conditions of service 
and fuels in the same and different boilers, all of which are self explanatory. 

Chart 40. Calculation and use of diagram, giving constant volume lines for 
steam. To illustrate the method, the location of the line of constant volume of 
2 cu. ft. will be traced. Let the first temperature be taken at 800° F. absolute 
for the first point A, corresponding to 340° F. From the steam tables dry satu- 
rated steam at 340° F. has a specific volume of 3.786 cu. ft., so that the quality 
when the volume is 2 cu. ft. is 3/^6 ~ 52.8 per cent. The entropy of the 
water at 340° F., from the steam tables, is 0.4903, therefore the entropy in- 
crease in making this steam from 32° F. and at 340° F. = entropy of the steam 
-fentropy of water content -entropy at 32° = ^„-<^32 = (.528X1.0984 + .4903) 
— = 1.0703. Another pqint B is located by assuming a temperature 
<6 = 440° F. or ^6 = 900, for which </>6-032 = 1.5602 by the same method. 

To illustrate the use of the diagram in solving problems, suppose 1 lb. of wet 
atmospheric pressure steam, occupying 10 cu. ft. be enclosed in tank and heated 
to raise the pressure to 30 lbs. per square inch absolute, find the final tem- 
perature, entropy and dryness. From 14.7 lbs. per square inch on the pressure 
scale project to point P on the constant volume line of 10 cu. ft. and follow this 
line to the point C for 30 lbs. per square inch absolute pressure. Projecting 
from C to D the absolute temperature is found to be 710° or < = 250° F., and 
projecting from C io E the entropy 0^ — 032 = 1-332. The final quality 

== = 72.4 per cent. 
OM ^ 

Again, if heat be added to raise the temperature to 842° absolute the entropy 
is found by following the 10 cu. ft. line to the point K opposite the temperature, 
and projecting down from K to Q the entropy is found </>* — 032 = 1.724. 
The quality may be read off directly from Chart 44 which carries lines 
of constant quality that might be superimposed on this constant-volume 
chart. 

Charts 41, 42 and 43. These have been drawn to facilitate calculations of 
P, V, T relations for expansions and compression having various values of s; 

Charts 41 and 42 have been plotted to a vertical scale of \^\ , with a double 

horizontal scale for the corresponding U^J and [j^j • ^^°^ curve is for a 
different value of s, as marked on it. These are also given on logarithmic 



148 HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMJC 

cross-section paper in Chart 43 as arranged by Gunn, where all lines become 
straight, to which an entropy scale is added. 

Chart 44. Calculation and use of temperature entropy diagram, lines of 
constant pressure and quality. Let it be assumed that the line of quahty 80 per 
cent is to be located, starting with the pressure of 200 lbs. per square inch ab- 
solute, point A. From the steam tables t = 381.9° F. or Ta = 841.9, the en- 
tropy of the liquid is .5437, of evaporation complete, 1.0019, so that ^a — <i>z2 
= .8X1.0019-1-. 5437 = 1. 3452. To locate a point B in the superheat region 
at the same pressure and for 100° of superheat, the steam tables are found 
to give directly 06 — 032 = 1-6120. 

The following problem will serve as an example of the use of the diagram. 
Steam at a pressure of 160 lbs. per square inch absolute, dry and saturated ex- 
pands adiabatically to atmospheric pressure and to some unknown quality to 
be found. From the point C representing the initial condition project verti- 
cally down to the pressure line 14.7, at point D. By interpolation the quality 
is found to be 86.5 per cent, as point D lies between the two lines of 80 per cent 
and 90 per cent quality. 

Another example will illustrate the passage into the superheat region. At- 
mospheric exhaust steam at 20 lbs. per square inch absolute, is superheated 120° 
by a reheater and then expands adiabatically in an exhaust steam turbine to an 
absolute pressure of half a pound per square inch absolute, to find the final 
quality. The initial condition is represented by point E, from which project- 
ing downward to the low-pressure line at H, lying between 80 per cent and 90 
per cent, the quality is found by interpolation to be 88.4 per cent and the tem- 
perature by projecting to K,i^T = 540°. The corresponding volumes may be 
read off from Chart 40. 

Chart 45. The MoUier Diagram. On this diagram the total heats above 
32° are ordinates, and entropy from 32° are abscissa, plotted in a series of curves. 
On this chart the vertical distance from any pressure, temperature or quality, 
to any other, is the work done in heat units, by the whole cycle including an 
adiabatic expansion; this can be marked off on a strip of paper and referred to 
the scale of heat to permit the work to be read directly, or the ordinate of the 
low can be subtracted from that of the high point. As this is so convenient for 
turbine work a scale of corresponding steam jet velocities has been plotted 
beside that for total heats. A large scale chart of this sort is very necessary 
when many calculations of this nature are to be made and such may be plotted 
from the steam tables. 

Chart 46. To illustrate the use of the diagram, the following problem will be 
graphically solved. Find the Rankine cycle efficiency, heat and steam con- 
sumption for an initial pressure of 150 lbs. per square inch gage and dry satu- 
rated steam with a back pressure of 10 lbs. per square inch absolute. Starting 
at the initial pressure point B, project up to the 10-lb. back pressure curve point 
C, and then across to the efficiency scale point D, reading there a thermal 
efficiency of 19.3 per cent and a heat consumption of 13,200 B.T.U. per hour 
per I.H.P. Continuing across horizontally to the back pressure curve of 10 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 149 

lbs. in the left-hand angle to point E and thence downward to the water-rate 
scale point F, the value 12.6 lbs. steam per hour per I.H.P. is read off directly. 

Chart 47. To illustrate the use of this chart, find the thermal efficiency, 
heat and steam consumption, for the Rankine cycle, when steam is 90 per cent 
initially dry at 200 lbs. per square inch gage pressure, and the back pressure 15 
lbs. per square inch absolute. From the scale of quality at 90 per cent, point 
E, project up to point F on 15- lb. curve, and then horizontally to point G at 
18.98 per cent thermal efficiency and 13,400 B.T.U. per hour per I.H.P. heat 
consumption. Continue across to H and down to K, reading the water rate 
value 14.4 lbs. of steam per hour per I.H.P. on the bottom scale. 

Chart 48. To illustrate the use of this diagram, find the jet velocity, work 
per pound of steam, and mean effective pressure for the Rankine cycle for steam 
at 75 lbs. initial pressure gage, dry and saturated expanding to 10 lbs. absolute. 
Project up from point B to point C and across to point F where there is read, 
work done = 115,000 ft.- lbs. per pound of steam. Continuing across to D and 
down to E, (m.e.p.) =23.5 lbs. per square inch, or continuing CD across to G 
the jet velocity is 2790 ft. per second. 

Chart 49. To illustrate the use of this diagram, find work, jet velocity, and 
mean effective pressure, for the Rankine cycle when initial pressure is 200 lbs. 
per square inch gage, 50° superheat and back pressure 1 lb. per square inch 
absolute. Projecting up from point E to F and across to G, read, work 
= 272,000 ft.-lbs., velocity=4190 ft. per second, and stopping on the 1-lb. 
curve at point H the mean pressure 7.4 lbs. per square inch is read directly 
below at K. 

Chart 50. Carnot steam cycle. To illustrate the use of the diagram, 
solve the problem: For the Carnot cycle with dry saturated steam between 150 
lbs. per square inch gage and 10 lbs. absolute find the thermal efficiency, heat, 
and steam consumption. From point B pass up to C and across to D, reading 
efficiency = 21.1 per cent, and heat consumption 12,060 B.T.U. per hour per 
I.H.P. Passing horizontally to E and down to F' the water rate of 13.9 lbs. 
per hour per I.H.P. may be read off directly. 

Charts 51, 52 and 53. Carnot steam cycle. The use of these diagrams 
requires no special explanation since they follow in general the methods given 
for the Rankine cycle charts. 

Chart 54. Non-compression gas cycle. To illustrate the use of the dia- 
gram find for a Lenoir cycle receiving 800 B.T.U. per pound of working gases 
the thermal efficiency, heat consumption, and cubic feet of 300 B.T.U. per cubic 
foot fuel gas per hour per I.H.P. From the 800 point E pass vertically to point 
F on the Lenoir curve and thence horizontally to G on the efficiency scale, 
reading 35.2 per cent and heat consumption, 7250 B.T.U. per hour per I.H.P. 
Passing across to the 300 B.T.U. calorific power curve at H and down to K, 
the gas consumption is found to be 24 cu. ft. per hour per I.H.P. 

Chart 55. Work of the non-compression gas cycle. The following prob- 
lem illustrates the use of this diagram: Find the work per pound of working 
gases and the mean effective pressure for an Otto and Langen cycle receiving 



150 HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 

500 B.T.U. per pound of gases. Starting at the 500 B.T.U. point G, pass up to 
the cycle curve at H and then across to the point K on the work scale, reading 
260,000 ft.-lbs. Passing horizontally across to the point L and thence down- 
ward to point M the mean effective pressure is found to be 1.18 lbs. per 
square inch. 

Chart 56. Stirling gas cycle. To illustrate the use of this chart, find the 
efficiency, cyclic and fuel heat consumption for a Stirling cycle, for 300 B.T.U. 
suppUed from fire per pound of working gases, 30 atm. compression, and a fur- 
nace efficiency of 40 per cent. Starting at point E at the value 300 on the upper 
scale, pass vertically up to point F on the efficiency curve referred to fire heat, 
and horizontally to G, reading thermal efficiency of 62.8 per cent, and cyclic 
heat supplied 4050 B.T.U. per hour per I.H.P. Continuing across to point H 
on the 40 per cent furnace efficiency curve and down to fire heat scale at K, 
the fire heat supplied is found to be 10,200 B.T.U. per hour per I.H.P. 

Charts 57 and 59. A similar procedure applies to the curves for the 
Ericsson cycle, which need no detailed explanation. 

Charts 60 and 61. Adiabatic compression cycles. Illustrating the use 
of the curves the solution of the following problem is traced graphically on 
C hart 60. Req uired the thermal efficiency, cyclic heat, and fuel consumption for 
the Diesel cycle, supplied with an oil yielding 1500 B.T.U. per cubic foot in its 
vapor, the cycle receiving 600 B.T.U. per pound of working gases after 10 atm. 
compression. From the 600 point E on the heat-supplied scale pass up to the 
10 atm. compression Diesel curve F, and horizontally across to the efficiency 
scale G reading 28.6 per cent and 8900 B.T.U. per hour per I.H.P. Continuing 
across to the fuel calorific power curve of 1500 B.T.U. per cubic foot H, and 
thence down to K, the fuel consumption is found to be 6 cu.ft. 

The second set of efficiency curves. Chart 61, is used in exactly the same way 
as Chart 60, the only difference between the two being the scales. 

Charts 66 and 67. Comparison of rational and emperic formulas for air and 
steam flow. These have been calculated for air from Eq. (25) using y = 1.4; 
and by the Mollier diagram for steam. To this diagram are added some curves 
of experimental flow laws stated in Eqs. (951), (952) and (953). 

Chart 69. Velocity of air pipes. This diagram was calculated from Eq. 
(968) and also by the simple equation in which density changes are neglected. 
These give comparative results as indicated in the chart, reproduced from 
Kneeland. 

Chart 71. Chimney diameter. This diagram corresponds to Eq. (1005) 
which assumes that the minimum-cost steel stack has a diameter depending 
solely upon the horse-power of the boilers it serves, and a height proportional 
to the net draft required. 

Charts 72 and 73. Refrigerating effect, ammonia and carbon-dioxide. 
See the diagrams for construction and use. 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



151 



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152 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



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153 



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154 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 




77 



e 7 8 9 10 11 " 12 

I Ratio of Pressunes I I 

70 63 SB 49 42 35 28 21 

Work per Cu. Ft. of (Sup. Pr.) Gas-i-U4 



1' I 



Chakt 4. — Mean Effective Pressure of Compressors, One-, Two-, and Three-stages. 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



155 



J. Initial Pressure Lbs. per Sq. In. Alis. 




2 

91 ' 



Si 



i 
77 



6 7 8 9 

Batio of Pressures 

63 56 49 42 35 

Work per Cu. Ft. of (Sup. Pr.) Gas-HlU 



18 
21 



13 
U 



U 
7 



id 





Chart 4. — Mean Effective Pressure of Compressors, One-, Two-, and Three-stages. 



156 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 




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Note; SolidLines = 3 Stage; Broken Lines = 2 Stage 

Chart 6. — Relative Work of Two-stage and Three-stage Compressors 
Compared to Single Stage. 



158 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



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I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 
.? .6 



TT c! 1 -D *■ Density at 32°&29.92" ^ „ , „ ^. 

Upper scale = Katio -p^ .^ _^ rr.i,^T. Lower Scale= Ratio 



Density at any T&P 



Volume at 32°&29.92" 
Volume at any T&P 



Outer Scale = Ratio : 



s^ Inner Scale = Ratio 



Volume at any T """" ■^^""^ ^^c.^.^ Density at any T 
Chart 13. — Equivalent Gas Densities At Different Pressures and Temperatures. 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



165 



























































































/ 




*-s 








































/ 






Si 
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|l.4 




































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A 


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From Values ol Wood o 

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—40 10 60 110 160 310 360 

Temperatures in Degrees i"ahr. 

Chart 14. — Ammonia Pressure-temperature Relations, for Saturated Vapor. 



166 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 




.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 

COritical Temperatuie Divided by any other Temperature)-! 



900 









600 



A4 
m 



O 

Ah 



300 



Olj 




50 50 

Xempetatures in Degrees Fahr. 



Chart 15.— Carbon Dioxide Pressure-temperatuie Relations for Saturated Vapor. 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



167 




Temperature to Degrees rahr. 



Chaht 16. — Steam, Pressure-temperature (Table XL). 



168 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



14 18 


18 20 






















































pn 





ITEper Horizontal Scale =Pressures in Iibs.Per Sq. In. Ata . 
lower " " =Temperature in Degrees F. 

Yertical Scale =Heait Per Pound In B.T.Us Aljove 32° 



£05 


215 225 
■9 10 11 12 





















































































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200 225 250 























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255 205 275 



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275 300 

































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30 M 60 230 .210 «50 *06 ^15 SaS ' 655 605 576 

Chart 17.— Steam, Heat of the Liquid (Table XL). 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



169 



Si Se 33 10 




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300 m 

















































































? 


9 10 11 1? 












































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180 190 


'200' 205 

r 






































155 Ills 


175 180 





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1010 




























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130 

lOZO 



150 155 330 



2030 



105 
1035 
1015 



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u 


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L 






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' OO 100 105 
2.^ 3 3,5 i 1,6 








1050 




























1060 










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5 C5 


75 80 



1065 
1076 



1 


1,5 2 












; = ''±: :" 



















605 015 

575 GOO 


BJJ5 530 

650 7(?0 






























































^80 100 
4^0 480 50 


500 ' 605 
525 5^0 


















































IW 








4^ 'm' 


' 4-^5 ' 480 



2400 2500 


2GpO 27|00 











































































655 0C5 675 6S0 

2000 2100 2200 2300 



60 65 2S0 290 300 305 455 165 ' ' iis ' 180 030 610 

Lower Scale =Teinperature in Degrees F. Upper Scale -Pressure in lbs. per sq.in. abs. 

Chart 18. — Steam, Latent Heat (Table XL). 



170 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



am " ■ ■** 


IS 13 U 


















UJ5 -.,. 


















9u am 21(1 



Lower Scale = Temperature Degrees FahrenTieit 
Upper Scale = Pressure Lbs. Per Square Incli Absolute 



:|U86 



820 900 


1000 1152 
















































±1l::±^_ 



aeo 1210 




150 100 no 

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1 I'l 'l 'l 'l \ 

























































3200 



J195. 



180190|2OO, S 


210 


27? 




























































±::: 


±~'~~''J. 


X 




300 120 510 CO* 

Temperature, Fahrenheit 




370 390 410 

— 103 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 



J190 



ttttVfV" 






































X... 



m, 110 120 130 

« 0. 7 ^ 0.8 ^ 0.9 1 1.1 J.25 . JJ85 



^oo 



^ 




100 _ 110 

0.3750.4 0.45 6 0.05 0,0 0.7 
llOO ' ■ ' 




f .Ti™ 




70 1166 



21 


22 23 


24 


25 26 27 28 29 29.8 










IS 


































































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x:-. 











































































"'"680 


690 


6UU 



1080 
J075 



0,1 0.125 0.15 0.175 'ff '^*'> 



iM 1152 1200 1250 1300 1350 



a 



670 



Chabt 19. — steam, Total Heat (Table XL). 



-TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



171 



eo.i 






















60.2 






















60.3 






















60 4 






















eo.s 






















60.0 






l£ 1 1 


20U 



6S.2 

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53.6 
65.8 
56.0 



OO.i 

60.7 

60. 

60.0 

Cl.O 

Cl.O 

61.1 

61.2 

61.3 

61.1 



S:: 



i60 a 


180 


































































UO 1 


aO 1 




■""■"310 3 


jO 3ti0 


































































320 .a 


30 ai( 



17.8 

310 18.2 

18:c 


























^::~.::.::::::~.j±± 



■1-| I 1 I T I 1 'T 1 


iTi [ 1 — m^ 




















J -- - 






























a 1 


aio 



'M 



320 ISO 
10.8 
50.2 
50.6 



1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 M-jT 





















lOO ^50 500 £50 600 



" X- ' 





















51.0 

500 55.0 
66.0 
'57.0 
58.0 
69.0 
60.0 



tjtu^eTCurye 



m 



^11 



a 




Vertical^cale =iDensity, Pounds per Cu.Ft. 
Horizoatal.Scale-= Temperature jahteflheit 



Chart 20. — Steam, Specific Volume and Density of the Liquid (Table XL). 



172 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



2,5 ? 4 

































0035 ?55 



Oh 100 - + 



SSO 1.3 



ui ooo 




180 
400 450 40 































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155 200 215 2Sa 335 



255 
16 IS 20 1.6 



3 
















































































160 J- ^ " 





•° .J350__1160 



1.035 405 



200 220 250 



F. 60S 



3 


80 i05 555 

1^5 170 185 000 975 


58C 
1050 














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125 140 























































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50=i 750 



III: 



305 80 


90 100 











































































505 

5CS 620 


530 
6^5 











































































55 155 180 305 330 18i) 

Lower Scale =Temp.in Degrees Pahr., Upper Scale =Press;'in Lbs.per Sq.In.ifbs. 



Chabt 21. — Steam, Specific Volume and Density of the Vapor (Table XL). 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



173 



Temperature,Deg. Cent. , 








1 


) 


SO 




30 




40 


, ^ 


1 ™ . 


^P 




80 




SO 


100 


, " 


, 


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32 












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// 






















-800 


30 












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1 




IJ 






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i/i 






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-750 


28 














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= 










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i/7 


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86 










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/ 




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If 




















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1 p 


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24 










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A 


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r 




/ 
















1 


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22 








J 




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40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 

Teniperature,Deg. Falir. 

Chaht 22.— Vapor Pressure of Hydrocarbons and Light Petroleum Distillates of the Gasolene 

Class. 



174 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



Temperature Deg. Centigrade 



4.0 







I 


1 





1 




20 

1 




1 




30 






40 

1 


1 




50 

1 




I 


e 





1 




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1 
















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1 
















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3.5 








Aut 


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tit 


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/ 


















-90 
















(6) Robirison 




























/ 












































































/ 


















- 
























































1/ 




ty 






































































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- 80 


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40 60 80 100 120' 140 160. 180 200 

.TempBratnre Deg, Fahrenheit 

Chart 23.— Vapor Pressure of Heavy Petroleum Distillates of the Kerosene Class. 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



175 



Temperature, Deg. Centigrade 

20 30 40 50 

I I I III t 




30 i) 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 
Temperature Degrees, Fahrenheit 

Chaet 24. — Vapor Pressure of the Alcohols. 



176 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



Difference in Temperature:Wet and Dry Bulbs: Degrees Fahrenheit 
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 30 




'0 T ' 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 ' 11 

Difference in Temperature:Wet and Dry Bulbs: Degrees Centigrade 

Chart 25. — Relation between Wet and Dry Bulb Psyohrometer Readings and Dew Point for 

Air and Water Vapor. 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



177 




10 



30 30 40 50 60 70 

Degree of Humidity, Per Cent 



90 100 



Chart 26. — ^Relation between Humidity and Weight of Moisture per Cubic Foot of 

Saturated Air. 



12 



178 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 




no 130 150 170 190 

Temperatiire in Degress Fahrenheit 

Chart 27. — Ammonia-water Solutions, Relation between 

Total Pressure and Temperature 

(Dotted Lines MoUier Data). 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



179 




6 i8^^-® ^ 20 23.3925 30 33.73 35 4041.55 45 50 

JPer cent by Weight of AnrmoiiSa in Soltflaan. 

Chart 28. — Ammonia-water Solutions, Relation between Total Pressure and 
Per Cent NH3 in Solution. 



180 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 




10 11-8 15 20 23.3925 30 33,7335 loy-es" iS"' 

Percent by Weight of Ammonia in Solution 



50 



55 



Chart 29. — Ammonia-water Solutions, Relation between Temperature and 
Per Cent NH3 in Solution. 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



181 




"■JUB^ 'dvaaj, 



KS ss a s 



182 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



10^ 60^ 'Slii 

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185 


















































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IW 



Chart 31. — Fractional Distillation of Gasolenes. 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



183 








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184 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



























































































































































































































































































rooo 


















































































































V 
























































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— 






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4 Upper Curves -Heat of Keaetion 
per lb. of Carbon. 
i Lower Curves - Heat of EeaotLou 
per lb. of Gas produced. 












EOOO 








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1 




























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Chart 33. — Heats of Reaction for Hypothetical Producer Gas from Fixed Carbon,B- T. U. 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



185 















COjConst. 


0„C0Mt.^!', 


St CO Simst 
CO 


Wt.) 0, 


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Var \ Sleum Consl. / /(HaVarJ 
















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500 



1000 



1500 2000 2500 

33. T.TJ. per Pound of Gas 



3000 



3500 



4000 



Ghabt 34. — Relation Between Temperatures and Heat for Gases According to the Constant 

and Variable Specific Heat, 



186 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 

















\ 


\\ 


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(Ml'Bil JO eauoui) -ji^tisypuo eaBuan^naaAnaq pajrabaa wo^a }0 aojoj 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



187 



2790 



2790 B 



OJ t 

A 



2790 >J 



2790 lio 

•a 
2790 S 



1 
2790 tJ 

pq 



2790 















































































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■■ ~ 






1300 
1250 
1200 
11, W 


1.339053 

1.288128 

1.236603 

1.18507 

1.13355 

1.93050 

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c 

1 

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I 

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25.7SS 

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1 
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% 

t 
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I 
41.8485 

47.827 

55.798 

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66.9576 

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83.697 

i 

111.596 
167.399 

J34.788 



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Upper Line=TerBperature for Satuxatioa 
lower Line=Absolute Pressures 

Chart 36. — Heat per Pound of Steam above Feed Temperature. Evaporation per Hour 
per Boiler Horse-power. Factor of Evaporation. 

Each of the upper curves gives directly the total heat per pound of steam above 32° 
and the distance between them and the lower curve intercept, that for any feed-water tem- 
perature, by a vertical distance. If, therefore, AB be the total heat for the steam above 
32° at 100 lbs. per sq. in. absolute and 20° superheat and DE the heat of liquid at 200° F. 
feed temperature above 32°, then AC, the vertical distance between these two points, is the 
heat per pound of steam above the feed temperature 200° F. for 100 lbs. steam with 20° 
superheat. This can be marked on a slip of paper and read off on the extra scale to the 
right in terms of, heat in B.T.U., or factor of evaporation, or actual weight of water that 
must be evaporated per hour to give a boiler horse-power. 



188 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 




5 6 r 8 ^9 10 11 12 13 li 15 16 

Evaporation From & at 212°'E, per Square Toot of Heating Surlace per Hour. 

Chart 37.— Heat Balance for Locomotive Boiler Workina Under Various Rates of Evaporation. 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



189 






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Chart 38. — Influence of Various Factors on Boiler EflSciency. 



190 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



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Evaporation jer Sq. Ft. of Heating 
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12345678 
Evaporation per Sq. Ft. of Heating 
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Chart 39. — Influence of Various Factors on Boiler Efficiency. 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



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TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



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218 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



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Chart 70. — Coefficients of Friction f for Air in Ducts. 



These values of tlie coefficient of friction are given by Rietschel for straight ducts of 
brick and iron for velocities up to 50 ft. per second; for iron ducts different values are given 
for perimeters or circumferences from 8 to 100 in. They are intended especially for air 
ducts with the usual velocities of air, 6 to 24 ft. per second when served by fans, and 3 to 
8 ft. per second when the flow is due to natural draft. 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



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Chart 71. — Curve Showing Diameter of Chimney Stacks at Sea Level. (Stirling). 
For brick or brick-lined stacks, increase the diameter 6 per cent. 



222 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 



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Refrigerating Coil Press, ibs, per Sq,.lii.) Ga, 

Chabt 72. — Chart to Determine Available Refrigerating Effect per Pound of Ammonia 
for Any Refrigerator Pressure and Any Refrigerator or Liquid Temperature. 



Construction and use of Diagrams, Charts 72 and 73. These diagrams are for the pur- 
pose of finding the refrigerating effect per pound of fluid, which is made up of the latent 
heat, or as much of it as is available, less the heat necessary to cool the liquid from its original 
temperature to that due to the pressure in the coils, plus the heat absorbed in superheating 
the vapor. 

A horizontal scale of pressures is laid off in both directions for a vertical axis carrying 
a B.T.U. scale. In the section to the right of the center axis curves are drawn representing 
various temperatures of the liquid before entering the refrigerator coils. These are so 
drawn that the vertical scale opposite the intersection of a vertical from any pressure with 
any curve gives the latent heat for that pressure, less the heat required to cool the liquid. 
This is the available heat for refrigerating if the vapor leaves the coils dry and saturated. 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



223 



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Kefdgeiator Coil Press, Lbs, Sq, In, Ga. 



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600 



Chart 73. — Chart to Determine Available Refrigerating Effect per Pound of Carbon Dioxide 
for any Refrigerator Pressure and any Refrigerator or Liquid Temperature. 



In the section to the left of the center axis are two sets of curves, the lower, representing 
temperatures of the vapor leaving the coils, is so drawn that the value of the left-hand 
vertical scale opposite a point of intersection of a vertical from any pressure with any curve, 
gives the heat absorbed in superheating the vapor. The sum of this and the value found in 
the first section gives the total refrigerating effect for the case when the vapor leaves the coils 
in a superheated state. The upper curves in this section represent quality of the vapor if 
the liquid has not been entirely evaporated and are so drawn that the value on the vertical 
scale opposite the point of intersection of a vertical from any pressure with any curve, 
shows the heat unavailable for refrigerating, due to incomplete evaporation of the liquid, and 
the difference between this value and that found in the first section gives the total refrigerat- 
ing effect for the case of wet vapor leaving the coils. 

As an example of the use of Chart 72 let it be required to find the refrigerating effect per 
pound of ammonia when the pressure in the coils is 20 lbs. gage, the temperature of the liquid 



224 



HANDBOOK OF THERMODYNAMIC 





d 
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Chart 74. — Density and Specific Volume of Ammonia-water Solutions. 



before entering the coil is 70° F. and 



(a) Vapor leaves dry and saturated; 
(6) Vapor leaves 92.5 per cent, dry; 
(c) Vapor leaves at a temperature of 30° 



F. 



From 20 in the right-hand section (Chart 72) project up to curve 70° The value on the 
vertical scale at this point is 502 B.T.U., which is the value for case (a). From 20 in the 
left-hand section project to curve 92.5 per cent.; the value on the left-hand vertical scale is 
43, therefore, for case (6) the result is 502 — 43 = 459 B.T.U. For case (c), project from 
20 to curve 30°, the value on the vertical scale corresponding to which is 12.5, hence the result 
for this case is 502 + 12.5 = 514.5. 

The refrigeration per pound of fluid may be obtained from Eq. (1030), but since these 
are all tabular values, except the heat of air and of vapor superheat, the determinations 
can be readily made by means of the charts. From the data of these diagrams the dis- 
placements of compressors and pumps may be computed directly by the use of the slide- 
rule. When superheated vapor densities are to be evaluated, either vapor — ammonia or 
carbon dioxide — may be assumed to behave as a perfect gas, volumes being directly, and 
density inversely proportional to absolute temperatures. 

The volume per pound of ammonia solutions may be read off directly from Chart 74. 



TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 



225 




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INDEX 

(Numbers refer to pages) 



Absorption of air in water (Winkler), table 
of, 60 
of gases by liquids, table of, 60 
Accuracy of Marks and Davis tables, 2 
Adiabatic expansion of steam, values of s, 

table, 14 
Air, absorption of in water, table of, 60 
and steam flow, charts of, 216, 217 
and water vapor, dew point, chart of, 

176 
flow, coefficient of friction for, in ducts, 
chart of, 220 
values of C for, table of, 113 
gas, blast-furnace, composition of, 
table, 99 
mixtures, best calorific properties of, 
table, 107 
explosive, limits of proportion, 
table of, 108. 
required for combustion, table of, 61 
velocity of, in pipes, chart of, 219 
Alcohols, vapor pressure of, chart, 175 
Altitudes and barometric pressures, 8 
Ammonia, gas, Mollier diagram for, 226 
pressure-temperature relations, for satu- 
rated vapor, chart of, 165 
refrigerating effect per pound, chart, 

222 
solutions, table of relations of, 54 
tables of properties of, how derived, 3 
T<ii diagram for, 225 
vapor, properties of saturated, table of, 

41 
water solutions, table of partial pres- 
sures, 58 
relation between temperature and per 
cent NHa in solution chart of, 180 
relation between total pressure and 
per cent NH3 in solution, chart of, 
179 
relation between total pressure and 
temperature, chart of, 178 
work absorbed in refrigeration by, 
charts of, 229 
Atomic weights, international, table of, 34 
Average distillation, products of, crude 
mineral oils, table of, 90 

Balance, heat, for locomotive boiler, diagram 

of, 188 
Barometric heights, altitudes and pressures, 

tables of, 8 
pressure, how used, 1 
Baum6 specific gravity scale, table of, 19 
Bituminous gas coal distillation, products of, 

table, 95 



Blast-furnace gas and air gas, composition of, 

table, 99 
Boiler efficiency, influence of various factors 
on, charts, 189, 190 
flue gases, composition of, table, 106 
horse-power, evaporation per hour, 

chart of, 187 
locomotive, heat balance for, diagram 
of, 188 
Boiling points, table of, 32 
Brayton gas cycle, thermal efficiency, heat 
and fuel consumption, charts of, 
210, 211 
use of diagrams, 150 
Brine, sodium chloride, specific heat of, 

table, 25 
British thermal unit (B.T.U.) vlaue of, 2. 
of steam and gases, variation of with 
temperature, chart, 185 

Calcium chloride, freezing points, table of, 19 
Calorific power and composition of coals, 
table of, 70 
of hydrocarbon oils, table of, 90 
of mineral oils, table of, 89 
properties of best air-gas mixtures, 
table of, 117 
Carbon dioxide, Mollier diagram for, 227 
pressure-temperature relations for satu- 
rated vapor, chart of, 166 
refrigerating effect of, per pound, chart 

of, 223 
tables of properties of, how derived, 3 
vapor, properties of saturated, table of, 

50 
work absorbed in refrigeration by, 
charts of, 230 
Carnot steam cycle and derivatives. Ther- 
mal efficiency and heat consmnp- 
tion, charts of, 200, 201 
use of charts, 149 

work and jet velocity, charts of, 202, 203 
Cellulose and wood, comparison of, table, 69 
Centigrade and Fahrenheit temperatures, 

table of, 16 
Charts, construction and use of, 139-150 
Chemical compounds, heats of combustion 

of, 63 
Chimneys, dimensions of, by Kent's for- 
mula, table, 130 

relation of diameter to horse-power, 
chart of, 221 
construction of chart, 150 
Classification of coals by gas and coke quali- 
ties, table of, 87 
new basis of, 4 



231 



232 



INDEX 



CO from CO2, rate of formation, table of, 106 
Coals, classification of by gas and coke 
qualities, table of, 87 

combustible and volatile of, table of, 78 

combustion, rate of, table, 119 

new basis of classification of, 4 

new table of chemical and thermal prop- 
erties of, 3 

powdered, producer gas, composition of, 
table, 116 

rate of combustion of with draft, dia- 
gram of, 186 

table of composition and calorific power 
of, 70 
Carnot gas cycle, thermal efficiency, heat 
and fuel consumption, charts of, 
210, 211 

use of diagrams, 150 
Coefficient of cubical expansion of liquids, 
table of, 26 

of friction for air in ducts, chart of, 220 

of heat transfer, table of, 62 

of linear expansion of solids, table of, 25 

of pressure rise of gases and vapors, 
constant volume, table of, 27 

of radiation, table of, 61 

of volumetric expansion of gases and 
vapors, constant pressure, table of, 
26 
Coke oven, and retort coal gas, composition 
of, table, 94 

United States, composition of, table, 
98 
Combustible and volatile of coals lignites and 

peat, table of, 78 
Combustion, air required for, table of, 61 

heats of, table of, 63 

of coal, rate of, table of, 119 

rate of with draft, chart of, 186 
Complete-expansion Otto, gas cycle, thermal 
efficiency, heat and fuel consump- 
tion, charts of, 210, 211 

use of diagrams, 150 
Common logarithms, 132, 134 
Composition and calorific power of charac- 
teristic coals, table of, 70 

of blast-furnace gas and air gas, table of, 
99, 104 

of boiler flue gases, table of, 116 

of coke oven and retort coal gas, table of, 
94 

of hypothetical producer gas from fixed 
carbon, chart of, 183 

of natural gases, table of, 91 

of oil producer gas, table of, 113 

of powdered coal, producer gas, table of, 
116 

of producer gas, table of, 108 

of United States coke, table of, 98 

of water gas, table of, 113 
Compound engines, equal distribution of 

work in, chart of, 161 
Compression gas cycles, thermal efficiency, 
heat and gas consumption, charts 
of, 207-211 

work and m.e.p., charts of, 212, 213 
Compressibility of gases, table of, 82 



Compressor cylinder displacement for 

given capacity, chart of, 159 
Compressors, one, two and three stages, 
mean effective pressures of, charts 
of, 154 
Conductivity, thermal, table of internal, 65 

table of relative, 68 
Constant, gas, values of R, table of, 28 

pressure and constant quality lines for 

steam with T41 diagram, 194 
volume, gases and vapors, coefficient 

of pressure rise of, table, 27 
lines for steam on the T<1> diagram, 191 
construction and use of diagram, 
147 
Constants for the curve PV = K, table of, 
13 
for use in Heck's formula for missing 
water, table of, 18 
Construction and use of charts, 139-150 
Consumption, fuel, Brayton gas cycle, 
charts of, 210, 211 
Carnot, 210, 211 

complete-expansion Otto, 210, 211 
Diesel, 210, 211 
Ericsson, 207, 209 
Otto, 210, 211 
Stirling, 206, 208 
gas, and thermal efficiency, non-com- 
pression cycles, charts of, 204 
heat, and thermal efficiency, Carnot 
steam cycle, charts of, 200, 201 
Rankine cycle, steam, charts of, 196, 
197 
Conversion table, heat and power, 7 

inches of mercury to pounds per square 

inch, 10 
of units of distance, 5 
of power, 7 
of pressure, 6 
of surface, 5 
of volume, 5 
of weight and force, 5 
of work, 6 
Crank angle and piston position, table of. 

Critical point, table of, 30 

Crude mineral oils, average distillation, prod- 
ucts of, table, 99 

Cubical expansion of liquids, coefficient of, 
table, 26 

Cylinder, compressor, displacement for given 
capacity, chart of, 159 

Densities, equivalent gas, at different pres- 
sures and temperatures, chart of, 
164 
of gas, comparison of experimental and 
computed values, table of, 29 
Density and specific volume of ammonia- 
water solutions, chart, 224 
of the liquid (steam), chart of, 171, 172 
Determination of m.e.p. for single-cylinder 
engines, chart of, 160 
construction and use of chart, 144 
Dew point for air and water vapor, chart of, 
176 



INDEX 



233 



Diagram factors for Otto-cycle gas engines, 
table of, 122 
to give economy of exponential cycles 
referred to isothermal, chart of, 158 

Diesel gas cycle, work and m.e.p. for various 
amounts of heat added, chart of, 
215 
thermal efficiency, heat and fuel con- 
sumption, charts of, 210, 211 
use of diagrams for, 150 

Dimensions of chimneys by Kent's for- 
mula, table of, 130 

Displacement for given capacity of compres- 
sor cylinder, chart of, 159 

Distance, units of, conversion table, 5 

Distillation, average, products of crude min- 
eral oils, table of, 99 
of gasolenes, fractional, chart of, 182 
of kerosene and petroleums, fractional, 
chart of, 181 

Distillates, vapor pressures of, chart of, 173, 
174 

Distribution of work, equal, in compound 
engines, chart of, 161 . 

Draft, rate of combustion with variation in, 
diagram of, 186 

Economy of exponential cycles referred to 

isothermal, diagram of, 158 
Efficiency, boiler, influence of various factors 
on, charts, 189, 190 
volumetric, of compressors, chart of, 
154 
Empiric and rational formulas for air and 

steam flow, charts of, 216, 217 
Engine, see under separate headings, steam 

and gas cycles. 
Engines, Otto cycle, mean effective pressure 
factors for, tables of, 124 
steam, and turbine efficiency factors, 
table of, 115 
Entropy diagram, total heat for steam, 
Mollier, 195 
-temperature and PV relations of gases, 
chart of, 193 
diagram with constant pressure and 
constant quality lines for steam, 
194 
for ammonia, diagram of, 225 
for carbon dioxide, diagram of, 227 
for steam, diagram of, 194, 195 
Equal distribution of work in compound 
engines, chart of, 161 
construction and use of chart, 144 
Equivalent gas densities at different pres- 
sures and temperatures, chart of, 
164 
Ericsson gas cycle, thermal efiiciency, heat 
and fuel consumption, charts of, 
207, 209 
use of diagrams, 150 
Ethylenes and naphthalenes from Russian 

petroleum, table of, 88 
Evaporation, factor of, chart of, 187 

of locomotive boiler, heat balance of, 

diagram, 188 
per hour, per boiler h.p., chart of, 187 



Expansion and compression, tabular values 
for, PF- =K,1Z 
cubical of liquids, coefiicient of, table, 

26 
linear of solids, coefficient of, table, 25 
volumetric of gases and vapors at con- 
stant pressure, coefficient of, table, 
26 
Explosive air-gas mixtures, limits of propor- 
tion, table of, 118 
Exponential cycles referred to isothermal, 
diagram to give economy, 158 
gas changes, charts of, 192, 193 
construction of charts, 147 

Factor of evaporation, chart of, 187 
Factors, efficiency, piston steam engine and 

turbine, table of, 126 
Fahrenheit and Centigrade temperatures, 

table of, 16 
Feed temperature and heat per pound of 

steam, chart of, 187 
Fixed temperatures, tables of, 15 
Flow change resistance factors, table of, 125 
Flue gases, boiler, composition of, table, 106 
Force and weight, conversion table of units 

of, 5 
Formation of CO from COa, table of, 106 
Fractional distillation of gasolenes, chart of, 
182 
of kerosenes and petroleums, chart of, 
181 
Fractionation tests of gasolenes, table of, 102 
of kerosenes and petroleums, table of, 
100 
Freezing, or melting points, table of, 34 

point of calcium chloride, table of, 19 
Friction, coefficient of, for air in pipes and 

ducts, chart of, 220 
Fuel consumption, Brayton cycle, charts of, 
210, 211 
Carnot, 210, 211 

complete-expansion Otto, 210, 211 
Diesel, 210, 211 
Ericsson, 207, 209 
Otto, 210, 211 
Stirling, 206, 208 
elements, heats of combustion of, table, 

63 
liquid and gaseous, boiling points of, 

table, 33 
table of composition of coals, 70 
Fusion, latent heats of, table of, 31 

Gas, air-, mixtures, best, calorific properties 

of, table of, 117 
and air gas, blast-furnace, composition 

of, table, 104 
and oil engines, heat balances of, table, 

123 
changes, exponential, charts of, 192, 193 
coal distillation, bituminous, products 

of, table of, 99 
constant, R, table of, 28 
consumption of, and thermal efficiency, 

non-compression cycles, charts of, 

204 



234 



INDEX 



Gas, Bray ton cycle, charts of, 210, 211 
Carnot, 210, 211 

complete-expansion Otto, 210, 211 
Diesel, 210, 211 
Ericsson, 207, 209 
Otto, 210, 211 

Stirling cycle, charts of, 206, 208 
cycles compression, work and m.e.p. 
charts, of, Brayton, 210, 211 
Carnot, 210, 211 

complete-expansion Otto, 210, 211 
Diesel, 210, 211, 215 
Ericsson, 207, 209 
Otto, 210, 211, 214 
Stirling, 206, 208 

thermal efficiency, heat and fuel con- 
sumption, charts of, 
Brayton, 210, 211 
Carnot, 210, 211 

complete-expansion Otto, 210, 211 
Diesel, 210, 211 
Ericsson, 207, 209 
Otto, 210, 211 
StirUng, 206, 208 
non-compression, thermal efficiency of, 
charts, 204 
work and m.e.p., charts of, 205 
densities equivalent at different pres- 
sures and temperatures, chart of, 
164 
comparison of experimental and com- 
puted values of, table of, 29 
engines. Otto cycle, diagram factors for, 

table of, 122 

from fixed carbon, heats of reaction for 

hypothetic producer, chart of, 184 

composition of hypothetic producer, 

chart of, 183 

oil producer, composition of, table, 113 

pressure-temperature-volume relations, 

charts of, 192 
producer, composition of, table, 101 

tests, table of, 114 
PV and Tcj) relations, chart of, 193 
water, composition of, table, 113 
Gases, absorption of by liquids, table of, 60 
and vapors at constant volume, pres- 
sure rise of, coefficient of, table, 27 
at constant pressure, coefficient of 
volumetric expansion, table of, 26 
boiler flue, composition of, table, 116 
compressibility of^ table, 28 
natural, composition of, table, 91 
relation between temperatures and heat, 

chart of, 185 
specific heat of, chart, 162; of table, 22 
Gasolenes, fractional distillation of, chart of, 
182 
fractionation tests of, table of, 102 
vapor pressure of, chart of, 173 

Barter's weight of flow, superheated steam, 

chart of, 218 
Heat and fuel consumption, compression gas 
cycles, charts of, 
Brayton, 210, 211 
Carnot, 210, 211 



Heat and fuel consumption, complete-expan- 
sion Otto, 210, 211 
Diesel, 210, 211 
Ericsson, 207, 209 
Otto, 210, 211 
StirUng, 206, 208 

and gas consumption, and thermal 
efficiency, non-compression gas 
cycles, charts of, 204 
and power conversion table, 7 
and temperatures, relation of, for gases, 

chart of, 185 
balance for locomotive boiler, diagram 

of, 188 
balances of gas and oil engines, table of, 

123 
consumption and thermal efficiency, 
Carnot steam cycles, charts of, 
200, 201 
Rankine cycle, (steam), charts of, 196, 
197 
latent, steam, chart of, 169 

of fusion for various substances, table 

of, .31 
of vaporization for various substances, 
table of, 31 
of the liquid, steam, chart of, 168 
per pound of steam above feed tem- 
perature, chart of, 187 
specific of gases, chart of, 162; table of, 

22 
of liquids, table of, 24 
of solids, table of, 20 
of superheated steam, 2; chart of, 163 
supplied and work, compression gas 

cycles, chart of, 214, 215 
total entropy diagram for steam, Mol- 
lier, 195 
steam, chart of, 170 
transfer, table of coefficients of, 62 
unit of, 2 
Heats of combustion of fuel elements and 
chemical compounds, table of, 63 
of reaction for hypothetical producer 
gas from fixed carbon, chart of, 184 
Heck's formula for missing water, 18 
Horse-power of chimneys, diameter for, 
charts of, 221 
per pound m.e.p., table of, 12 
per 1,000 cu. ft. per minute supply 
pressure gas, for single-stage com- 
pressors, chart of, 151 
for two-stage compressors, chart of, 

152 
for three-stage compressors, chart of, 
153 
construction and use of chart for 
single-stage, 139 
two-stage, 140 
three-stage, 140 
Humidity and weight of moisture, cubic foot 
saturated air, chart of, 177 
construction and use of chart, 145 
Hydrocarbon oils, calorific power of, table, 90 
Hydrocarbons, vapor pressure of, chart of, 

173 
Hyperbolic logarithms, 136 



INDEX 



235 



Hypothetical producer gas from fixed car- 
bon, composition of, chart of, 183 
heats of reaction of, chart, 184 

Ignition temperatures, 3; tables of, 30 
Inches of mercury to pounds per square inch, 

conversion table, 10 
of water, theoretical draft pressure, 

table of, 117 
Indicator card, missing water from, 18 
Internal thermal conductivity, table of, 65 
International atomic weights, table of, 34 
Isothermals, compressibility of gases by, 

table of, 28 

Jet velocity and work, Carnot steam cycle, 
charts of, 202, 203 
Rankine, cycle (steam), charts of, 198, 
199 

Kerosene and petroleums, fractional distil- 
lation of, chart of, 181 
fractional tests of, table of, 100 
Kerosenes, vapor pressure of, chart of, 174 

Latent heats of fusion, table of, 31 
of vaporization, table of, 31 
of steam, chart of, 169 
Lignite, composition and calorific power of, 

75, 77 
Lignites, combustible and volatile of , 83, 85, 86 
Limits of proportion for explosive air-gas 

mixtures, table of, 118 
Linear expansion of solids, coefficient of, 

table, 25 
Liquid and gaseous fuels, boiling points of, 

table, 33 
Liquids, absorption of gases by, table of, 60 
coefficient of cubical expansion of, table, 

26 
specific heats of, table, 24 
Logarithms to the base e, 136 
to the base lo, 132, 134 

Marks and Davis' steam tables, 36, 40 
Maximum work and supply pressure, chart 

of, 156 
Mean B.T.U. value of, 2 

effective pressure and h.p., table of, 12 
and maximum work, chart of, 156 
and work non-compression gas cycles, 
chart of, 205 
Diesel cycle, for heat added, chart 

of, 215 
Otto cycle, for various amounts of 
heat added, chart of, 214 
compression gas cycles, Brayton, 
Carnot, Diesel, Otto and complete- 
expansion Otto, charts of, 212, 213 
Mean effective pressure, determination of, 
for single cylinder engines, chart of, 
160 
factors for Otto cycle engines, table of, 

124 
of compressors, one, two and three 
stages, charts of, 154, 155 
construction and use of charts, 140 



Melting or freezing points, table of, 34 
Mineral oils, calorific power of, table of, 89 
crude, average distillation, products of, 

table of, 99 
properties of, table of, 92 
Missing water. Heck's formula for, 18 
Moisture, weight of, per cubic foot of satu- 
rated air, chart of, 177 
Mollier diagram for ammonia, 226 
for carbon dioxide, 227 
total heat entropy diagram for steam, 
95 
Multi-stage compressors, mean effective 
pressure of, chart of, 154 

Napierian logarithms, 136 

Napier's coefficient of steam flow, chart of, 

218 
Naphthalenes from Russian petroleum, table 

of, 88 
Natural gases, composition of, table, 91 
Non-compression cycles, thermal efficiency, 

heat and gas consumption, charts 

of, 204 
use of diagrams, 149 
work and m.e.p. chart of, 205 

Oil and gas engines, heat balances of, table 

of, 123 
Oil gas, properties of, table of, 90 

producer gas, composition of, table of, 

113 

Oils, hydrocarbon, calorific power of, table 

of, 90 

mineral, calorific power of, table of, 89 

crude, average distillation, products 

of, table of, 99 
properties of, table of, 92 
Otto-cycle gas engines, diagram factors for, 
table of, 122 
mean effective pressure factors for, 
tables of, 124 
thermal efficiency, heat and fuel con- 
sumption, charts of, 210, 211 
use of diagrams, 150 
work, and m.e.p. for various amounts of 
heat added, chart of, 214 

Paraffines from Pennsylvania petroleum, 

table of, 88 
Parr's psychrometric diagrams, 176, 177 
Peat, composition and calorific power of, 77 

combustible and volatile of, 86 
Petroleum and kerosene, fractional distilla- 
tion of, chart of, 181 
distillates, vapor pressure of heavy, 

chart of, 174 
ethylenes and naphthalenes from, table 

of, 88 
kerosenes, fractionation tests of, table of, 

100 
light, vapor pressure of, chart of, 173 
paraffines from, table of, 88 
Pipes, velocity of air in, chart of, 192 
Piston positions for any crank angle, table of, 
11 



236 



INDEX 



Pitot tube readings and velocity of air, chart 

of, 219 
Pounds per square inch to inches of mercury, 

conversion table, 10 
Power and heat, conversion table, 7 
(h.p.) and m.e.p., table of, 12 
units of, conversion table of, 7 
Pressure, barometric, table of, 8 

constant of steam, with T<j> diagram, 194 
in inches of water, theoretical draft, 

table of, 131 
mean effective, for compressors, one two 

and three stages, chart of, 154 
rise, of gases and vapors at constant 

volume, coefficient of, table, 27 
temperature, relations for saturated 
vapor, carbon dioxide, chart of, 166 
for saturated vapor of ammonia, 

chart of, 165 
steam, chart of, 16, 167 
volume relations of gases, charts of, 
192 
units of, conversion table, 6 
vapor of heavy petroleum distillates, 
chart of, 174 
of hydrocarbons, chart of, 173 
volume and T^ relations of gases, chart 
of, 193 
ratios, constants for, table of, 13 
values of, for gases, various condi- 
tions, table of, 28 
Pressures, interpretation of, 1 
Producer gas, composition of, table of, 108 
from fixed carbon, composition of hypo- 
thetical, chart of, 183 
hypothetical from fixed carbon, B.T.U., 

heats of reaction, chart of, 184 
powdered coal, composition of, table of, 

116 
tests of, table of, 114 
Products of bituminous gas coal distillation, 
table of, 99 
of crude mineral oils, average distilla- 
tion, table of, 99 
Properties of ammonia and carbon dioxide, 
tables of, how derived, 3 
of mineral oils, table of, 92 
of oil gas, table of, 90 
of saturated carbon dioxide vapor, table 
of, 50 
ammonia vapor, table of, 41 
steam, table of, 36 
of superheated steam, tables of, 40 
Psychrometer readings, chart of, 176. Con- 
struction and use of chart, 145 

Quality, constant steam, lines of with T(#) 
diagram, 194 

R, gas constant, table of, 28 
Radiation coefficients, table of, 61 
Rankine cycle (steam) thermal efficiency and 
heat consumption, charts of, 196, 
197 
use of charts, 148, 149 
work and jet velocity, charts of, 198, 
199 



Rate of combustion of coal with draft, dia^ 
gram of, 186 
table of, 119 
of formation of CO from CO2 and car- 
bon, table of, 106 
Rational and empiric formulas, air and steam 

flow, charts of, 216, 217 
Reaction, heats of, for hypothetical producer 
gas from fixed carbon, chart of, 184 
Refrigerating effect per pound ammonia, 
chart of, 222 
carbon dioxide, chart of, 223 
Refrigeration, work absorbed in by am- 
monia, charts of, 229 
by carbon dioxide, charts of, 230 
Relative thermal conductivity, table of, 68 
work of two-stage compressors, com- 
pared to single-stage, chart of, 157 
Resistance factors, flow change, table of, 125 
Retort coal and coke oven gas, composition 
of, table of, 94 

s values of for adiabatic expansion of steam, 
table of, 14 
for various substances and conditions, 
15 
Saturated ammonia vapor, properties of, 
table, 41 
carbon dioxide vapor, properties, table 

of, 50 
steam, table of properties of, 36 
Single cylinder engines, determination of 
mean effective pressure in, chart 
for, 160 
-stage ■ compressors, horse-power per 
1,000 cu. ft. per minute supply 
pressure gas, chart of, 151 
work per cubic foot supply pressure, 
chart of, 151 
Sodium chloride brine, specific heat of, table, 

25 
Solids, coefficient of linear expansion of, 
table of, 25 
specific heats of, table, 20 
Solutions, ammonia-water, relation between 
total pressure and per cent NH3 in 
solution, chart of, 179 
relation between total pressure and 
temperature, chart of, 178 
between temperature and per cent 
NH3 in solution, chart of, 180 
table of relations of, 54 
of partial pressures, 58 
Specific gravity scale, Baum6, table of, 19 
heat of sodium chloride brine, table of, 
25 - 

of gases, chart of, 162; table of, 22 
of liquids, table of, 24 
of solids, table of, 20 
of superheated steam, 2; chart of, 
163 
volume and density of the liquid, 
(steam), chart of, 171, 172 
Stack, see Chimney. 

Steam, adiabatic expansion of, values of s 
for, table of, 14 
and air flow, charts of, 216, 217 



INDEX 



237 



Steam, consumption of, and thermal effi- 
ciency, Camot cycle, charts of, 200, 
201 
Rankine cycle, charts of, 196, 197 
engine (piston) and turbine efficiency 
factors, table of, 126 
piston position and crank angle, table 
of,ll 
expansion and compression of, tabu- 
lar values for given ratios of PV, 13 
flow, curves of for superheated steam, 

218 
heat of the liquid, chart of, 168 
heat per pound of, above feed tempera- 
ture, chart of, 187 
latent heat, chart of, 169 
pressure-temperature, chart of, 167 
relation between temperatures and 

heat, chart of, 185 
saturated, table of properties of, 36 
specific heat of, 2 
specific volume and density of the liquid, 

chart of, 171, 172 
superheated, table of properties of, 40 

specific heat of, chart of, 163 
tables, saturated 36; superheated, 40 
thermal efficiency and heat consump- 
tion of (Rankine cycle), charts of, 
196, 197 
(Camot cycle) charts of, 200, 201 
total heat, chart of, 170 

entropy, diagram for, Mollier, 195 
work per pound of and jet velocity 
(Camot cycle), charts, 202, 203 
Rankine cycle, charts of,' 198, 199 
Stirling gas cycle, thermal efficiency, heat 
and fuel consumption, charts of, 
206, 208 
use of diagrams, 150 
Superheated steam, flow of, chart of, 218 
properties of, table of, 40 
specific heat of, 2; chart of, 163 
Supply pressure and maximum work, chart 
of, 156 
construction and use of chart, 141 
Surface, units of, conversion table, 6 
Symbols, table of, xv 

Table of symbols, xv 

Tables, see list of, page ix; also under sepa- 
rate headings. 
Temperature-pressure, relations for am- 
monia saturated vapor, chart of, 
165 
relations for carbon dioxide saturated 
vapor, 166 
for steam, chart of, 167 
volume relations of gases, charts of, 192 
Temperatures and heat, relation of for gases, 
chart of, 185 
construction of chart, 146 
Temperatures, Centigrade and Fahrenheit, 
table of, 16 
fixed, table of, 15 
of ignition, 3; table of, 30 
Thermal conductivity, table gf internal, 65 
table Qf relative, 6§ 



Thermal efficiency and heat consumption, 
Rankine cycle (steam), charts of, 
196, 197 
Carnot steam cycle, charts of, 200, 
201 
heat and fuel consumption, adiabatic 
compression cycles, use of diagrams, 
150 
Thermal efficiency, heat and fuel consump- 
tion, Brayton cycle, charts of, 210, 
211 
Carnot cycle, charts of, 210, 211 
complete expansion Otto, 210, 211 
Diesel, 210, 211 
Ericsson, 207, 209 
Otto, 210, 211 
Stirling, 206, 208 
non-compression gas cycles, charts of, 
204 
Theoretical draft pressure in inches of water, 

table of, 131 
T<t> and PV relations of gases, chart of, 193 
T^ diagram and constant-volume lines, 191 
for ammonia, 225 
for carbon dioxide, 227 
with lines of constant pressure and 
quality for steam, 194 
construction and use of diagram, 148 
Three-stage compressors, horse-power of, 
chart of, 153 
work of, chart of, 153 
Transfer of heat, table of, coefficients for, 

62 
Turbine and piston engines efficiency factors 

for, table of, 126 
Two-stage and three-stage compressors, 
compared to single-stage, chart of, 
157 
Two-stage compressors, horse-power of, 
chart of, 152 
work of, chart of, 152 

Unit of heat, 2 

Units of distance, conversion table of, 5 
of heat and power, conversion table, 7 
of power, conversion table, 7 
of pressure, conversion table, 6 
of surface, conversion table, 5 
of velocity, table, 7 
of volume, conversation table, 5 
of weight and force, conversion table, 5 
of work, conversion table, 6 

United States coke, composition of, table of, 
98 

Use and construction of charts, 139 to 150 

Values of C for air flow, table of, 125 
of the gas constant, B, table of, 28 
of s for adiabatic expansioil of steam, 
table of, 14 
for various substances and condi- 
tions, 15 
of X for use in Heck's formula for missing 
water, 18 
Vapor pressure of the alcohols, chart of, 175 
of heavy petroleum distillates, chart of, 
174 



238 



INDEX 



Vapor pressure of hydrocarbons of the gaso- 
lene class, chart of, 173 
Vaporization, latent heat of, table of, 31 
Velocity of air in pipes, chart of, 219 

units of, table of, 7 
Volatile and combustible of coals, lignites, 

and peat, table of, 78 
Volume, pressure and T(j> relations of gases, 
charts of, 193 
-temperature-pressure relations of gases, 

charts of, 192 
units of, conversion table, 6 
Volumetric efficiency of compressors, chart 
of, 154 
construction and use of chart, 140 
expansion of gases and vapors at con- 
stant pressure, coefficient of, table 
of, 26 

Water, absorption of air by, table of, 60 
gas, composition of, table of, 113 
missing, from indicator card, 18 
Weight and force, units of, conversion table 

of, 5 
Weights, atomic, international, table of, 

34 
Wet and dry bulb psychrometer readings, 

chart of, 176 
Wood and cellulose, table of comparison of, 

69 
Work absorbed in refrigeration by ammonia, 
charts of, 229 
by carbon dioxide, charts of, 230 



Work absorbed and jet velocity, Carnot 
steam cycle, charts of, 202, 203 
Rankine cycle, (steam), charts of, 198, 
199 
and m.e.p. Diesel cycle for various 
amounts of heat added, chart of, 
215 
Otto cycle, chart of, 214 
for the compression gas cycles, 
Brayton, Carnot, Diesel, Otto, 
and complete expansion Otto, 
chart of, 212, 213, 214, 215 
for non-compression gas cycles, 
charts of, 205 
use of diagram, 149 
Work, equal distribution of in compound 
engines, chart of, 161 
maximum, and supply pressure, chart 

of, 156 
of two-stage and three-stage compress- 
ors, compared to single-stage, 
chart of, 157 
per cubic foot of supply pressure gas for 
single-stage compressors, chart of, 
151 
construction and use of chart, 139 
for two-stage compressors, chart of, 
152 
construction and use of chart, 140 
for three-stage compressors, chart of, 
153 
construction and use of chart, 140 
units of, conversion table, 6 






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