(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "A practical course in wooden boat and ship building, the fundamental principles and practical methods described in detail, especially written for carpenters and other woodworkers who desire to engage in boat or ship building, and as a textbook for schools"








if^jtafei^-j-^*"! ■?' — J."- „ '■'■St """s 



&i^^'-"T o- 



=1 s_. ~ 








QJortteU Uniuwaity ffiibrarg 

atljaca, Wett) fark 



BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME OF THE 

SAGE ENDOWMENT FUND 

THE GIFT OF 

HENRY W. SAGE 

1691 



Engineering 



DATE DUE 



MII j!) ^ 



^miM 



4mQ^ 



^^ ^(!^i ^ ^wliu i W ^ j l tW. ^ 



-MH 



tW^ 



CAVLORD 



PIUINTED IN IJ.S A 



Cornell University Library 
VM 144.V25 



A practical course in wooden boat and sh 




3 1924 005 005 842 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tliis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924005005842 



A PRACTICAL COURSE 

m WOODEN BOAT anc/ 

SHIP BUILDING 



The Fundamental Principles and Practical 
Methods Described in Detail 



Especially Written for Carpenters and Other Wood- 
workers Who Desire to Engage in Boat or Ship 
Building, and as a Text-book for Schools 

By 
RICHARD M. VAN GAASBEEK 

Head of Department of Woodworking, School of Science 
and Technology, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



FULLY ILLUSTRATED 



CHICAGO 

FREDERICK J. DRAKE & COMPANY 

Publishers 



Copyright, 1918, by 
Frederick J. Drake & Co., Chicago 



Entered at Stationers' Hall, London 



All Rights Reserved 



PEEFACE 

To meet a popular demand for a test-book to 
assist the great army of house carpenters and 
other woodworkers in transferring from their 
usual occupations to the wooden boat and ship 
building industries, now rapidly developing in this 
country, and especially for those men who wish to 
qualify for advanced positions, and for boat and 
ship builders who wish to broaden their experience 
in order that they may prepare for greater re- 
sponsibilities, this work is offered. 

The text is the outgrowth and development of a 
pioneer course organized early in the war by Pratt 
Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y., in response to the de- 
mand caused by shortage of skilled labor in these 
industries. 

It was a study to know how to organize the work 
effectively, to select only those problems that 
otherwise might take years of labor in the industry 
for these men to solve, and to present the prob- 
lems progressively and in such a way that the men 
would grasp the basic principles in the shortest 
possible time. 

It has been the aim of the author to establish a 
fundamental course, — one that would help the ship 
builder as well as the boat builder; for whatever 
the size or type of the vessel, the general principles 

7 



8 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

of construction remain very much the same in all 
cases. 

Those who master this course can direct the 
labor of others, because they themselves will have 
learned by doing, and it is only by manipulative 
skill that a practical understanding of the subject 
can be acquired. 

It was out of the question to build a full-size 
ship. The space and equipment necessary to 
handle heavy timbers, the cost of the lumber itself, 
and the extra labor that would be required of the 
men after a hard day's work, were all factors to 
be considered in determining the kind of instruc- 
tion that would best meet the emergency situation. 

We have built a full-size boat, using full-size 
timbers, and, under exact factory conditions, and 
with the scarfing and adzing of heavy yellow-pine 
timbers and practice calking, both light and 
heavy, a course has developed, which, judging 
from the reports from the men as to their advance- 
ment and success in the industry after completing 
the course, has been most gratifying. 

The author has not attempted to give a complete 
treatise on the subject and therefore offers no 
apology for any omissions that may be found. The 
first part of the work (Chapters I to IV) is strictly 
technical in character, giving the operations in 
sequence as they Avere performed on the job and 
explaining them in such a way that the average 
mechanic can understand. In the second part 
(Chapters V to VIII) an effort is made to show 



PREFACE 9 

typical ship construction views, giving the reader 
an idea of the methods of handling and fastening 
heavy timbers. 

The author wishes to express his appreciation of 
the generous assistance given by Messrs. Chas. 
Rassiga, Jr., Edward J. Weber and Harvey R. 
Saylor, his co-workers, and to leading wooden ship 
builders and manufacturers, without whose aid 
this work would have been impossible. 

Particularly the author wishes to acknowledge 
his indebtedness to Mr. W. G. Hudson, District 
Supervisor, Wood Hull Construction, Second Dis- 
trict, Emergency Fleet Corporation ; Mr. Theodore 
E. Ferris; The Foundation Company, agents of 
the United States Shipping Board, Emergency 
Fleet Corporation; Messrs. Tams, Lemoine and 
Crane ; Stetson Machine Works ; Messrs. J. A. Fay 
& Egan Company and Messrs. C. R. Durkee & Co. 
for permission to use the drawings and photo- 
graphs used in illustrating the second part of the 
work. 

The Authob. 
Pratt Institute, 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
July 1, 1918. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 

PAGE 

The Mould Loft: — Sheer Plan — Half -Breadth Plan — Body 
Plan— Table of Offsets— Model for Taking Off OfEsets— 
Mould Loft Work — Laying Off— Laying Out the Sheer 
Plan — Laying Out the Half -Breadth Plan — Laying Out the 
Body Plan 17 



CHAPTER II 

Stem and Stern Constbtiction : — The Stem — Lower Stem — 
Apron — Deadwood — Stern Post — Stern Post Knee — Shaft 
Log — Stern Deadwood — Horn Timber — Transom — Stem and 
Stern Moulds — Picking Up the Lines^Cutting Out the 
Stock — Rabbeting — Stopwaters — Keel 26 



CHAPTER III 

Puttocks and Feames: — Futtock Moulds — Picking Up the 
Lines — Surmarks— Steam Box — Steam Bending — Bending 
Form — Diagonal Lines — Beveling Frames — Beveling Board 
— Frame Construction — Cross Spalls — Floor Timbers — Rais- 
ing Frames — Ribbands — Harpings — Fairing Up — Projection 
of Diagonals — Filling-in Pieces — Keelson 41 



CHAPTER IV 

Outside Planking; — Principal Strakes — To Find the Width 
of Strakes— Sheer Strake — Binding Strake — Spiling — Gar- 
board Strake — Lower Strakes — Scaling — Beveling for Plank- 
ing — Calking — Finishing 68 

11 



12 CONTENTS 

CHAPTER V 

PAGE 

Ship Construction: — Materials and Processes — Drawings and 
Plans — Specifications — Sheer Plan — Half-Breadth Plan — 
Body Plan — Tables of Offsets — Midship Construction Sec- 
tion — Scantlings or Dimensions — Lofting the Ship — Moulds 
— Frames — Mill Floor Carriages — Ways 84 

CHAPTER VI 

Machines and Labor-Saving Devices: — Sawing and Han- 
dling Large Timbers — Bevel and Edging Machines — Surfac- 
ing Knees — Faying the Knees — Working Rudder Stock — 
Setting Up the Keel — Assembling Platform — Fitting and 
Fastening Frames 110 

CHAPTER VII 

Raising the Frames: — Work of the Riggers — Cant Frames — 
Bolting the Frames — Keelsons — Fairing-up Work — Iron 
Strapping 127 

CHAPTER VIII 

Planking and Finishing: — Layout of the Ship — Preparations 
for Planking — Material — Steam Box — Clamps and Wedges 
— Bottom, Bilge and Side Planking — Calking — Cementing 
Seams and Painting — Shipfitting — Shaping the Masts — 
Shipyards and Ways 138 

CHAPTER IX 

Hand Tools: — Complete List of Tools Used in Wooden Boat 
and Ship Building — Adze — Broad Axe — Calking Irons — 
Calking Mallet — Ship Auger Bits 165 

CHAPTER X 

Wooden Boat and Ship Terminology 170 

Index 199 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

FIGURE PAGE 

1. Sheer plan — moulded lines 18 

2. Half -breadth plan — moulded lines 18 

3. Body plan — moulded lines 19 

4. Fairing-in a line on mould loft floor 21 

5. Detail of stem 27 

6. Detail of stern 28 

7. Moulds for stem 30 

8. Moulds for stern 31 

9. Picking up lines from mould loft floor 32 

10. Bending battens and lining in 34 

11. Fairing up moulds 35 

12. Section through stem, showing the development of rabbet 36 

13. Detail of rabbet. (Section through A-A, Figure 12.) . . 37 

14. Erecting stem and stern and cutting rabbets 38 

15. Boring through shaft log for propeller shaft 39 

16. Futtook moulds forward 42 

17. Futtock moulds aft 43 

18. Picking up lines from mould loft floor with a flexible 

steel template 44 

19. Details of steam box 45 

20. Pipe details of steam box 46 

21. Details of door of steam box 47 

22. Condensation pipe and water seal trap of steam box ... 48 

23. Bending timbers 51 

24. Method of developing bevels on diagonals 52 

25. Bevels on each diagonal 54 

26. Beveling board 56 

27. Sawing timbers 58 

28. Fitting futtoeks to ribbands and installing frames 59 

29. Manufactured frame construction — running ribbands... 61 

30. Built-up frame construction 62 

31. Strap frame construction 64 

32. Bending frames for strap frame boat 65 

13 



14 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

FIGURE PAGE 

33. Projection of diagonals on sheer plan and body plan. ... 66 

34. Scaling for sheer strake 70 

35. Scaling and spiling for sheer and binding strakes 72 

36. Spiling for first lower strake 73 

37. Scaling for binding strake 74 

38. Scaling for lower strakes 77 

39. Form for practice calking 80 

40. Details of form for practice calking 81 

41. Practice calking 82 

42. Standard wooden steamship — sheer plan — moulded lines 

— stem 88 

43. Standard wooden steamship — sheer plan — moulded lines 

— stern 89 

44. Standard wooden steamship — half -breadth plan — 

moulded lines — stem 93 

45. Standard wooden steamship ■ — half -breadth plan — 

moulded lines — stern 93 

46. Standard wooden steamship — moulded lines — body 

plan 94-95 

47. Standard wooden steamship — midship section 98-99 

48. Section from bridge deck to top of wheelhouse of stand- 

ard wooden steamship 100 

49. Section through poop 101 

50. Section through engine foundation, looking forward . . . 102 

51. Section through shaft tunnel, looking aft 102 

52. Section through the forecastle. 103 

53. Mould loft .- 104 

54. Applying mould — laying out timbers 105 

55. Beveling frames on the band saw 106 

56. Cutting a straight timber on the band saw 107 

57. Sectional carriages in mill for handling heavy timbers. . 108 

58. Assembling platform ■ 109 

59. Sawing a heavy timber in a modern mill Ill 

60. Handling heavy timbers in the yard 112 

61. Starting a cut at an angle of 11 degrees to the right. . . 114 

62. Finishing the cut at an angle of 11 degrees to the left. . 115 

63. The finished timber 116 

64. Surfacing knees on a special machine 117 

65. Faying knees on a special beveling machine 118 



LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS 15 

PIGUEE PAGE 

66. Shaping the rudder stock on the beveling machine 119 

67. Shape of a rudder stock after sixteen cuts have been 

completed 120 

68. The rudder stock requires but little time with hand 

tools to complete the work after leaving the machine 121 

69. No hand tools were used in beveling the ceiling in this 

ship 122 

70. Eecord keel laid in ten minutes in a prominent yard on 

the Atlantic coast 123 

71. Assembling platform, showing ways and square framing 124 

72. Assembling platform, showing diagonals 125 

73. The frames are run on two tracks, one on either side of 

the ways 128 

74. Frames in position ready to raise 129 

75. Eaising the frame 130 

76. Frames in position 131 

77. These ways were lowered while the ship was in frame. . 131 

78. Cant frames looking forward, showing heels of timbers 132 

79. Cant frames looking aft, showing heels of timbers. . . . 133 

80. Looking forward — heads of timbers 133 

81. Looking aft — heads of timbers 134 

82. Installing keelson 135 

83. Another view of keelson and timber chute 136 

84. Bow of ship ready for planking 138 

85. Bow of ship planked, showing staging 139 

86. Close-up view of ship, showing detail of bow construction 140 

87. Wooden ship framed up complete, ready for planking. . 141 

88. Partially planked 142 

89. Planked ready for launching 143 

90. The finished ship 145 

91. Stern of ship showing vertical planking 146 

92. Interior of hull, looking aft 147 

93. View of ^framing platform 148 

94. Eeady to launch 149 

95. Framing the poop deck 150 

96. Poop deck completed 150 

97. Eaising the rudder 151 

98. Shaping the masts 151 



16 LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS 

FIGTJRE PAGE 

99. Panoramic view of a prominent shipyard on the At- 
lantic coast 152 

100. Continuation to the left of shipyard scene in Figure 93. 153 

101. Inboard profile of standard wood steamship for the U. S. 

Shipping Board 155 

102. Wheel-house and navigating bridge 156 

103. Top of wheel-house 157 

104. Boat deck, standard wood steamship 158 

105. Top of gun house 159 

106. Poop deck 159 

107. Bridge deck, standard wood steamship 160 

108. Forecastle deck 161 

109. Section through engine room, looking forward 112 

110. Section through boiler room, looking aft 163 

111. Plan view at dynamo flat and engineer's storeroom. . . . 164 

112. Plain adze 167 

113. Lipped adze 167 

114. Scarfing timber with adze 167 

115. Broad axe 168 

116. Dumb or deck iron 168 

117. Calking or making iron 168 

118. Calking mallet 168 

119. Ship auger bit 168 

TABLES 

1. Table of Offsets, Wooden Boat 22-23 

2. Table of Offsets, Standard Wooden Steamship — Heights 

Above Base 90 

3. Table of Offsets, Standard Wooden Steamship — Diag- 

onals 91 

4. Table of Offsets, Standard Wooden Steamship — Half- 

breadths , 92 



A PRACTICAL COURSE IN 

WOODEN BOAT AND 

SHIP BUILDING 



CHAPTER I 

THE MOULD LOFT 

The principal drawing of a vessel is the sheer 
drawing. It is composed of three parts, mutually 
dependent upon each other, as follows : 

Sheer Plan. — Figure 1. — A side view showing 
length of vessel and heights of sheer or gunwale. 

Half-breadth Plan. — Figure 2. — A top view, 
showing a horizontal or floor plan on any water 
lines. 

Body Plan. — Figure 3. — An end view, showing 
curves of the frame line's outside the timber at any 
point in the vessel. Frame lines forward of the 
midship section are on the right of the center line ; 
aft of the midship section on the left of the center 
line. 

TABLE OF OFFSETS 

The table of offsets exhibits the distances from 
a center or base line. These offsets are compiled 
by the naval architect and are used by the mould 
loftsman in laying down the lines on the floor. 
Just how these offsets are compiled is only of pass- 

17 



18 



COUESE IN WOODEN BOAT ANB SHIP BUILDING 





.g 



1 



a 



Hi 



THE MOULD LOFT 



19 



ing interest to the reader, as it is the purpose of 
this work to help the mechanic to apply them. 

Model for Taking Off Offsets. — The most prac- 
tical way of taking off the offsets is to make a 
model of wood, an invention of an American 
mechanic. The model must be made to an exact 




O «(> (0 w 









ro 


't 


10 


vj 


y 


l3 


5 


i 


w 


tn 


«o 



Figure 3. — Body Plan — Moulded Lines. 



scale, usually i^" to 1', and it is generally com- 
posed of two kinds of soft wood of different colors, 
such as pine and cedar, in alternate layers screwed 
or pinned together. The seams between the layers 
represent the water lines. 

The model usually represents the starboard 
half of the vessel and has a plane side, represent- 



20 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

ing the longitudinal midship plane, on which the 
sheer plan is drawn. Its curved side is then grad- 
ually carved, shaved, and filed to such a form as to 
satisfy the eye and the judgment of the designer. 

It is very important, in making the model, to 
fair up perfectly every portion, so that one portion 
of it assimilates with the other. If the model is 
made to a small scale, the discrepancies can be 
more readily detected, because the whole of the 
model can be seen at a glance and the inequalities 
of one end as compared with the other will be dis- 
covered. The model must be perfectly fair, not 
only on all lines, but in every direction. 

Station lines, rabbet line and bearding line, and 
all water lines are laid off to the same scale on the 
model. The layers can then be separated and from 
these the table of offsets is scaled. The accuracy 
with which the model is scaled will save the time 
of the mould loftsman in laying down his lines. 

MOULD LOFT WORK 

Laying Off of the Lines. — The laying off of the 
lines on the mould loft floor can be compared with 
the foreman's layout in carpenter work. (See 
Figure 4.) It is the name given to the process 
of drawing the lines of a vessel to full size in plan 
and elevation, in order to determine the exact 
dimensions of the most important and fundamental 
parts of the structure. The necessity for drawing 
to full size arises from the extreme accuracy with 
which the dimensions of the various parts must 



THE MOULD LOFT 



21 



correspond with one another in order that when 
assembled there may be no irregularity or unfair- 
ness in the surface of the vessel. 

If the mould loft is not long enough for laying 
down the vessel full length, it can be laid doAvn in 







WBtKBA 




1^^ 


w 






Y^f^^^^^^^^l 


HIHI 




^ 


1 












1^ 




n 


lifl 




^S 




H 




V ' WS^ 




- 




1 
f 

i 




- 


1 






. I 




■ , 




j^^jH i 



Figure 4. — Fairing-ln a Line on Mould Loft Floor. 

sections, one overlapping the other, providing the 
sections are long enough to properly fair up the 
lines. If the vessel is very large, this is an impor- 
tant operation, for while looking at one part of the 
line, it may be impossible to see the other side of 
the same line. Figure 4 shows a section of the 



22 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

TABLE OF OFFSETS 



Water Lines Spaced 3 Inches 


Stations Spaced 12 Center Line to Center Line 


Section Lines Spaced 3 Inches 


Stem 
2-2-0 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Height of Gunwale Above Base. , 


1-11-6 i 
0- 0-3 
0-10-0 


1-9-5 


1-7-7 + 


1-6-5 


Balf-Breadth of Gunwale.. 




1-4-2 


1-7-2 


1-8-2 








Half-Breadth of Water Line No. 1 




0-2-1 + 

0-3-5 + 

0-4-7 

0-5-7 

0-6-5 

0-7-5 


0- 5^ + 
0-8-4 
0-10-3 
0-11-6 

1- 1-1 
1-2-3 


0-8-7 
1-0-6 
1-2-7 
1-4-2 + 
1-5^ 
1-6-4 + 


0-11-6+ 


Half-Breadth of Water Line No. 2 




1- 4-0 


Half -Breadth of Water Line No. 3 




1- 5-7 + 


Half-Breadth of Water Line No. 4 




1- 7-1 


Half-Breadth of Water Line No. 5 




1- 7-6 


Half-Breadth of Water Line No. 6 




1- 8-1 + 








Height of Sec. No. 1 Above Base 




0-4-4 
0-1-3 
1-9-4 


0-1-3 + 

0-3-3 

0-6-5 

0-1-3 

1-7-0+ 


0-0-7 + 

0-1-6 

0-3-1 

0-5-1 

0-9-1 

1-4-2 


0-0-6 


Height of Sec. No. 2 Above Base 




0-1-2 + 


Height of Sec. No. 3 Above Base 




0-2-0 


Height of Sec No 4 Above Base 




0-3-0 + 


Height of Sec. No. 5 Above Base 






0-5-0 


Height of Sec. No. 6 Above Base 






0-9-1 














Base Line 


W.L.I 


W. L. 2 • 


W. L. 3 


W.L.4 


EabbetfromF.P 

Habbet from A P 


1- 5-6 
2-10-4 
0-6-7 - 


0-5-5 

1-5-0+ 

0-2-3 


0-3-0 
0-9-7 + 
0-1-0 1- 


0-2-2 
0-4-4 
0-0-4 


0-1-7 


Tore Edge of Stem From F. P. . . 


0-0-1 + 



mould loft floor at Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
The men are f airing-in a line, as can be seen ; that 
is, making its curve true and regular. A mechan- 
ical eye will save a great deal of labor, for much 
depends upon the fairing-in of the lines, as con- 
siderable injury may be done to a good design by 
deviating from the drawings. 

THE SHEEK PLAN 

To lay off the sheer plan, Figure 1, first produce 
the base line and run the water lines in parallel 



THE MOULD LOFT 
TABLE OF OFFSETS 



23 



Stations Spaced 12 Center Line to Center Line 



5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


Tranaom 


1-5-7 


1-5^ + 


1-5-4 


1-5-6 


1-6-1 + 


1-7-0 + 
0-1-1 + 
1-6-5 


1-8-H- 
0-5-0 
1-5-0 + 


1-9-6 
0-11-5 


1-8-4+ 


1-8-5 


1-8^ + 


1-8-1 + 


1-7-4 + 


1-2-6 


1-2-1 + 


1-3-4 
1-7-2 
1-8-3 
1-8-4 
1-8-5 


1-3-4 

1-7-2 + 
1-8-2 + 
1-8-4 
1-8-4 


1-1-7 
1-6-3 + 
1-7-7 
1-8-1 

1-8-1 + 


0-10-2-1- 
1-4-3 
1- 6-5-1- 
1- 7-3 -r 

1- 7-4-1- 
1- 7-4 T 


0- 4-5 
0-11-6 + 
1-3-6 
1-6-0 + 

1- 6-4 r 
1- 6-5 






1-6-1 + 


0-2-5 
0-9-3 
1-2-1 
1-4-2 
1^-7 + 




1-7-5+ 




l^S-2 
1-8-4 


0- 1-7+ 
0-10-1 + 

1- 1-6 + 












0-0-5 + 

0-1-1 

0-1-5 

0-2-2 

0-3-2 + 

0-5-6 


0-0-5 
0-1-0 
0-1-3 
0-1-7 
0-2-6 
0-4-3 


0-0-5 + 
0-1-0+ 
0-1-3 + 
0-1-7 + 
0-2-6 + 
0-4^ 


0-0-6 
0-1-1 
0-1-6 
0-2-3 
0-3-4 
0-5-4 


0-0-7 + 

0-1-6 

0-2-4+ 

0-3-5 

0-5-0 

0-7-7+ 


0-2-3 
0-3-4 
0-4-5 
0-6-1 
0-8-0 
1-0-0 


0- 6-1 
0- 7-3 

0- 8-6 
1-10-4 

1- 0-7 


1-0-2 + 
1-1-2 + 
1-2-3 
1^-0 + 








W. L. 5 


W. L. 6 


Sheer 




0-1-6 


0-1-6 


0-1-6 




0-0-1 


0-0-1 


0-0-1 













to the base line. Then strike in the station lines 
at right angles to the base line and equidistant 
apart. 

The method of laying down one or two lines will 
suffice to give the reader enough information to 
enable him to complete the layout. We will assume 
that the vessel has been outlined and will therefore 
lay off the sheer line and section 5. 

To lay out the sheer line refer to top line of the 
table of offsets. This gives the heights of gunwale 
or sheer above the base line. Point off these dis- 



24 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

tances on the various stations from the base line. 
The first figure represents feet, the second inches, 
and the third eighths, as follows : 

At the stem, 2' 2" ; on station 1, 1' 11 6/8" ; sta- 
tion 2, 1' 9%" ; station 3, 1' Vk" ; station 4, V 6%" ; 
station 5, 1' 5ys"; station 6, 1' 5 4/8"; station 7, 
r 5 4/8"; station 8, V 5 6/8"; station 9, 1' ei/g"; 
station 10, V 7" ; station 11, V 8ys", and at the tran- 
som, r 9 6/8". 

Drive a small nail in at these points and bend a 
thin batten so as to approximate as closely to these 
points as is consistent with absolute fairness and 
continuity. If the batten does not spring well to 
these points, it is best to pass the batten inside 
some and outside others in order to prevent great 
deviation from the design in either direction. 

Likewise refer to section 5 on the sheer plan and 
height of section 5 above base in the table of offsets. 
Point off on each station line as shown, namely, 
station 2, 1' 7"; station 3, 0' 91/3"; station 4, 0' 5"; 
station 5, 0' 3 2/8"; station 6, 0' 2 6/8"; station 7, 
0' 2 6/8"; station 8, 0' 3 4/8"; station 9, 0' 5"; sta- 
tion 10, 0' 8", and station 11, 1' Oyg". Drive a small 
nail in at these points and bend a thin batten 
through them as described in the preceding para- 
graph. 

HALF-BKEADTH PLAN 

To lay off the half -breadth plan. Figure 2, strike 
a line representing the center line and mark in the 
stations of the frames as shown. Set up from the- 



THE MOULD LOFT 25 

center line on the various stations the half -breadths 
of the water lines and sheer lines, taking the dis- 
tance from the table of offsets. 

The method of laying down the half -breadths 
of water line No. 2 will show the reader enough to 
enable him to complete the layout. Eefer to the 
table of offsets, half-breadth of water line No. 2. 

Point off these distances on the various stations 
from the center line, namely, on frame 1, 3%"; 
frame 2, 8 4/8"; frame 3, 1' 6/8"; frame 4, T 4"; 
frame 5, 1' Gi/s"; frame 6, 1' 7 2/8"; frame 7, r 
7 2/8"; frame 8, 1' 6%"; frame 9, 1' 43/s"; frame 
10, 0' 11 6/8" ; frame 11, 0' 2%". Drive small nails 
at these points, and bend a thin batten through 
them, passing it inside some and outside others as 
need be in order to properly fair up the lines, as 
explained in a previous paragraph. 

BODY PLAN 

To lay off the body plan, Figure 3, first produce 
the base line and then the center line. Lay off the 
water lines parallel to the base line and the station 
lines parallel to the center line. Scale off from 
these lines on the drawing the various frame lines 
and transfer these locations to the mould loft 
floor, taking all measurements from the corre- 
sponding line. Drive in small nails at these points 
and bend a thin batten, fairing up the line as may 
be required before striking in the line. 



CHAPTER II 

STEM AND STEKN CONSTKUCTION 

The stem is made up of four members, namely, 
Stem, Lower Stem, Apron, and Deadwood. The 
stern is made up of six members, Stern Post, Stern 
Post Knee, Shaft Log, Deadwood, Horn Timber 
and Transom. 

Stem. — The stem (Figure 5) is the foremost 
boundary of the boat, being a continuation of the 
keel to the height of the vessel, at the fore 
extremity. 

Loiver Stem. — The lower stem is a curved piece 
placed in the angle formed by the apron and the 
upper end of the deadwood. 

Apron. — The apron is the upper member of the 
stem on the inboard side of the boat. It is intended 
to strengthen the stem and afford wood for the 
reception of the outside planking and the heels of 
the foremost timber. 

Deadwood. — The deadwood is the lower member 
of the stem on the inboard side of the boat. The 
deadwood becomes the foundation against which 
the heels of the forward frames are abutted. 

Stern Post. — The stern post (Figure 6) forms 
the after boundary of the frame of the boat, being 
the after continuation of the keel to the height of 

26 



STEM AND STERN CONSTRUCTION 



27 



I? 
Si' 




28 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




STEM AND STERN CONSTRUCTION 29 

the deck, and forms a receptacle for the after ends 
of the outside planking. 

Stern Post Knee. — The stern post knee is placed 
in the angle formed by the keel and stern post. 

Shaft Log. — The shaft log is the member of the 
stern through which the propeller shaft enters. 

Deadwood. — The deadwood is the lowest mem- 
ber of the stern, run up to the height of the floor 
timbers, and on it the after ends of the keelson 
rest. 

Horn Timber. — The horn timber protects the 
end of the stern post and covers up the end wood. 

Transom. — The transom is the last main frame 
of the boat and is placed square with the stern post. 

These members of the stem and stern are united 
to each other and to the fore and after ends of the 
keel by scarfs, bolted together. 

STEM AND STEKN MOULDS 

It is necessary to make a separate mould, or pat- 
tern, for each member of the stem, Figure 7, and 
the stern. Figure 8, on which all construction lines 
are transferred from the mould loft floor. These 
moulds are needed in locating bearding and rabbet 
lines and locating various points such as water 
lines, etc., used in setting up the timbers and fair- 
ing the structure. Accuracy in making the moulds 
is very necessary, in order to insure the economical 
appropriation of timber and to facilitate the execu- 
tion of the workmanship. 

Picking Up the Lines. — A simple method of 



30 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




Figure 7.— Moulds for Stem. 



STEM AND STERN CONSTKDCTION 



31 



picking up the lines is shown in Figures 9 and 10. 
On the floor is shown the full size layout of the 
stem and stern construction shown in Figures 5 
and 6. 
Place a series of tacks with the heads resting 




Figure 8. — Moulds for Stern. 

on the required line, Figure 9. The heads of the 
tacks should be driven into the floor slightly, to 
prevent them from moving out of place. 

Place a piece of stock wide enough to cover the 
member, with the grain of the wood running in the 
direction that will show the least amount of end 
wood (to prevent splitting when cut to shape). 
Give the mould several light taps with the hammer 
in the direction of the curve. The heads of the 



32 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BDILDINQ 



¥SKj ""^^ mgM/ge^^MjiMM 


'''/■'t^-f-- 






■i,:^^ 




:, ■\- 


^^ 




■i 


^ 




: ;:-;l 


M 


1^91 


P 


9 ^-^sltoiste 


k 








5 



STEM AND STERN CONSTRUCTION 33 

tacks will leave a mark into which a small brad can 
be driven and around which a batten can be bent. 
See Figure 10. 

Saw the moulds on the band saw, leaving the 
lines full, and fair up by hand as shown in Figure 
11, making a perfect fit of each piece. 

Transfer the water lines and all construction 
lines from the floor to the mould, when the moulds 
will be ready for use. 

The moulds are generally made of one-half inch 
pine. The stock for the stem, as shown in the de- 
tail, calls for 11/2" stock for all members except the 
apron, which is 21/0" material, and all members of 
the stern 2i/^" stock, excepting the horn timber, 
which is II/2" thick. 

Cutting Out the Stock. — Apply the moulds to 
the stock to be used in the construction of the boat, 
and cut out the stock on the band saw, leaving the 
lines full for fairing up. If the moulds have been 
accurately shaped and fitted, the stock to be used 
can be lined up to these moulds and fitted without 
much trouble. They can now be riveted or bolted 
together. 

RABBETING 

It is usual and proper to cut the rabbet, or recess 
in the stem and stern to receive the ends of the 
planking, before raising them. The bearding line, 
or liae formed by the curved surface of the vessel's 
planking with the stem, keel, and stern post, and 
the rabbet, or outside line of the planking, are 



34 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




STEM AND STERN CONSTEUCTION 




Figure 11. — Fairing Up Moulds. 



36 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




s 



STEM AND STERN CONSTRUCTION 



37 



transferred from the moulds to the stem and stern, 
and the rabbet is cut in with a chisel. 

A section through the stem is shown in Figure 
12 and a full-size detail of the rabbet is shown in 
Figure 13, the line A-B, Figure 13, representing 
the bearding line, and the line C-D the rabbet line. 
E-P is the width of the rabbet on the first water 
line, as shown on the projection, Figure 12, and is 




Figure 13. — Detail of Rabbet. (Section Through A-A, Figure 12.) 



formed by the intersection of the bearding, rabbet, 
and first water lines. 

Make a template or mould the thickness of the 
planking, as shown at G, about l^o" wide and 3" 
long, depending upon the size of the rabbet to be 
cut. Bevel one end as shown, about i/s" in 1". 
Begin chiseling at the rabbet line to the bevel of 
the mould, and cut from the bearding line until 
the mould rests in the rabbet. Figure 14. The 



38 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




STEM AND STERN CONSTRUCTION 



39 




Figure 15. — Boring Tlirougli Sliaft Log for Propeller Shaft. 



40 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

mould being the same thickness as the planking, 
the outside edge must intersect at F, or on the 
rabbet line. 

Stopwaters. — The stopwaters, or round pieces 
of wood or dowels, are driven in at all seams run- 
ning inboard, to render the vessel watertight. 

KEEL 

The keel, forming as it does the lower boundary 
of the longitudinal section, is spoken of as the back- 
bone of the vessel. The pieces are obtained in as 
long lengths as possible, varying in size according 
to the size of the vessel. 

The several pieces forming the keel are joined 
together by lock scarfs and also scarfed to the 
stem and stern, bolted and riveted together. A 
chalk line is run from the center of the stem and 
stern for the purpose of lining them up with the 
center of the keel. 

The rabbet extends along the keel to receive the 
edge of the first strake of planking, or garboard 
strake. Station lines are marked upon the top of 
the keel, giving the location of the various frames. 
See Figure 14. 

Shaft Log. — As soon as the stem and stern are 
plumbed and united to the keel, the opening for 
the propeller shaft should be bored through the 
shaft log. Figure 15. The line of the shaft is laid 
out from the mould. The bit is held in position as 
shown in the illustration to insure the proper direc- 
tion. 



CHAPTER III 

rUTTOCKS AND FRAMES 

The futtocks, commonly called the ribs of the 
vessel, are the curved or crooked timbers giving 
the shape, to which the planking is fastened. Two 
futtocks united, right and left hand, constitute a 
frame. 

FXJTTOCK MOULDS 

A mould should be made of each futtock of a 
different shape. Futtock moulds forward are 
shown in Figure 16. Futtock moulds aft are shown 
in Figure 17. 

The method of picking up the lines from the 
mould loft floor is similar to the one described for 
picking up the lines of the stem and stern con- 
struction. 

Another method is shown in Figure 18, using a 
flexible steel template. This template can be bent 
to any shape and is held in position by winged nut 
screws on the outside. Adjusting the template to 
the required shape on the mould loft floor, and 
fastening the screws, the template can be taken up 
and used in lining the stock to be cut. 

The shape of the futtocks is taken from the body 

41 




Fisuro 10.— Futtock Moulds Forward. 




u:^ 



w 



r^j? 



<9 



Figure 17. — Futtock Moulds Aft. 



u 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 



plan, Figure 3. These lines give the outside lines 
of the frames. The width of the frames will de- 
pend largely upon the size and the demands to be 
made upon the vessel. 




Figure IS. — Picking Up Lines from Mould Loft Floor with a Flexible 
Steel Template. 



Cut the moulds full of the line to allow for fair- 
ing up, finishing the mould by hand. Each mould 
is numbered so it can readily be placed in its proper 
location. 



FUTTOCKS AND FRAMES 



45 



i 




4e 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 



The sheer, diagonal, and keel lines are trans- 
ferred from the floor to the moulds. These lines 
will be needed in lining up and setting the frames^ 
and for locating the beveling spots and running- 
the ribbands. 

Surmarks. — The marks on the moulds showing 




Figure 20. — Pipe Details of Steam Box. 

the intermediate bevel stations, or where the diag- 
onal lines cross the futtocks, are called surmarks. 



STEAM BOX 

The futtocks, ends of ribbands, and planking 
will need to be steamed in order to bend them ta 
the required shape. The size of the steam box 
required is dependent upon the size of the timbers, 
and planking to be bent. 

Details of a steam box are shown in Figures 19,. 
20, 21 and 22. The dimensions can be varied, either 
enlarged or made smaller, to meet a special need. 



FUTTOCKS AND FRAMES 



47 



The box is made of cypress with butted joints and 
calked seams. Cleats continue around all four 
sides, bolted together. 

The steam enters at one end and runs through 
a perforated pipe the entire length of the box, 
which distributes the steam and gives an even tem- 
perature throughout. At the front end a small 







Figure 21. — Detail of Door of Steam Box. 



vent pipe takes off the surplus steam and leads it 
out doors. At the far end there is an outlet for the 
condensation, leading to a water seal trap, shown 
in Figure 22. The water lying in the trap prevents 
the steam from escaping. The condensation can 
be drained into a pail or connected with the sewer 
if desired. 

If the steam box is located out of doors, the con- 
densation will take care of itself, as it can run off 
into the earth and the steam can escape and pass. 



48 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 



off in the atmosphere. If the steam box is located 
indoors, some provision of this kind should be 



«yrj CL03ei/Mv£-r 




Figure 22. — Condensation Pipe and Water Seal Trap of Steam Box. 



made for taking care of the condensation and sur- 
plus steam. 

Packing is placed in the rabbet of the door to 



FUTTOCKS AND FRAMES 49 

make it tight, the door locking with an ice-box 
fastener. 

STEAM BENDING 

Special bending stock should be used. Green 
or unseasoned lumber bends more readily and is 
not so liable to split while being bent as seasoned 
stock is. It would be better to put the stock into a 
water bath for several hours or overnight before 
steaming it. 

The stock should be thick enough to make two 
futtocks, and when removed from the form should 
be resawed, making right and left hand futtocks, 
which, when fastened together, make a complete 
frame. The futtocks being thicker at the heel, 
some material can be saved and the stock will bend 
easier if the timbers are tapered. 

Experience is the best teacher as to the length 
of time required to steam a piece of stock ready 
for bending. The greener or wetter the stock, the 
shorter the time required. If the stock is left in 
the box too long, the life is taken out of the timber 
and it becomes very brittle and breaks ; while, on 
the other hand, if not left in the steam box long- 
enough, the timber will also break. 

STEAM BENDING FORM 

A bending form is shown in Figure 23. The 
shape of the form should be made from the inside 
line of the moulds, and an extra allowance made 
for shaping and fitting, as well as for some spring 
in the timber when removed from the form. In 



50 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

other words, the form should be made to a quicker 
sweep than the moulds. 

Wlien the stock is ready to be bent, one piece is 
removed at a time from the steam box and a thin 
sheet of strap iron is nailed on the back of the 
timber, to give support to it while being bent and 
to insure a fairer bend. 

As soon as this strap iron is fastened, one end 
is inserted under the bar, as shown in the illustra- 
tion, and held in position by a wedge. One man 
bends the timber around the form and another 
man pulls it into place with a clamp. 

The timber will retain the heat for some time, 
so there is nothing to be gained in forcing it to the 
breaking point. 

As the timber is bent around the form, clamps 
are applied at intervals to give added support to 
the stock while bending. The end of the timber 
is held in place by a hook, which catches over an 
iron pipe extending tlae full width of the form. 
This can be seen in the lower right-hand corner of 
the form (Figure 23). 

The timbers should set a day before being re- 
moved from the form, Avhen they can be resawed 
and planed to the required thickness. Line up the 
timbers from the moulds and number each one 
for ready identification. 

DIAGONAL LINES 

The diagonal lines are dra-\vn in on the body 
plan. Figure 3, standing as nearly square as pos- 



FUTTOCKS AND FRAMES 



51 



sible to the frame lines. They are considered the 
most effectual toward fairing the body of the ves- 
sel, or making each portion of the vessel assimilate 
with the others. The diagonals are distinguished 




Figure 23. — Bending Timbers. 

as "1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc., diagonals," and give the 
stations or surmarks of the ribbands, which are 
placed around the timbers to give support to the 
vessel while in frame. 



52 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 



SHCER Line 



Sheer 
Line. 




MM 



Figure 24. — Method of Developing Bevels on Diagonals. 



FDTTOCKS AND FRAMES 



BEVELING FRAMES 



The edges of the frames must be beveled, so that 
when the planking is bent around them they will 
fit tight at all points. These bevels are developed 
on the diagonal lines, as shown in Figure 24. 

Draw two lines at right angles to each other. 
Point off a distance on the vertical line equal to the 
distance between frames, center to center. On the 
horizontal line point off from the intersection of 
these two lines the distance between frames 7 and 
8 on the second diagonal, then the distance between 
frames 8 and 9, the distance between frames 9 and 
10, the distance between frames 10 and 11 and the 
distance between frame 11 and the transom. 

All measurements are to be taken on the second 
diagonal between frames, and all measured off 
from the intersection of the vertical and horizontal 
lines. Connect these points with the point on the 
vertical line, as shown in the illustration. Then 
bevel F is the bevel for frame 8, bevel G is the bevel 
for frame 9, bevel H is the bevel for frame 10, 
bevel I is the bevel for frame 11, and bevel J is the 
bevel for the transom. All bevels are developed 
on the second diagonal. 

Likewise with the forward frames. Draw two 
lines at right angles to each other, as shown to the 
left in Figure 24. On the vertical line measure off 
a distance equal to the distance between frames, 
center to center. On the horizontal line point off 
from the intersection of these two lines the distance 



54 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




FUTTOCKS AND FRAMES 55 

between frames 5 and 6 on the second diagonal; 
then the distance between frames 4 and 5, the dis- 
tance between frames 3 and 4, the distance between 
frames 2 and 3, and the distance between frames 1 
and 2. 

All measurements are to be taken on the second 
diagonal between frames and all measured off from 
the intersection of the vertical and horizontal lines. 
Connect these points with the point on the vertical, 
as shown in the illustration. Then bevel A is the 
bevel for frame 1, bevel B is the bevel for frame 2, 
bevel C is the bevel for frame 3, bevel D is the bevel 
for frame 4, and bevel E is the bevel for frame 5. 
Frames 6 and 7 are amidship and are square. 

Bevels are developed on each diagonal as shown 
in Figure 25. Therefore, in this particular boat, 
each frame has four bevels, namely, sheer, 1st, 
2nd and 3rd diagonals, one fairing into the other. 

BEVELING BOARD 

The mould loftsman makes a beveling board, as 
shown in Figure 26, giving the various bevels. 
These bevels are taken from the developments, 
Figure 25. This saves time, referring to the mould 
loft, when laying out the frames, as it gives all the 
bevels needed for the entire vessel. 

In many yards, and especially in ship work, the 
bevels are spoken of as degrees, and are so listed 
on the beveling board. This is for the information 
of the mechanic operating the band saw, as he tilts 
his saw one way or another to a desired angle, 





BEVELS 3">DMa. 


Men 


1 






2 






<? 




64° 

72° 


^ 




78t 


^ 





Sf° 
ST 


6^7 




do- 




8 




/fT 




sr 






n- 


JO 





7S° 


n 




vi" 


TKm 







mwc 


BEVELS yVUMG. 


ANSU 


1 


^^^ 




z 


^l^^;\ 


71° 


d 


-_____/~ " 


78° 




~~ -H 


82° 

mi° 

87° 
30° 




8 


zi::= 


87° 
77i° 


JO 


-"^^^^^ 


71° 
60° 


n 

ruAm 


^ 







J3£I/£L<S SHEEIt 


/incil 


1 

Z 
cT 

£*7 

8 
9 

10 

11 




Mi' 
7S° 

iz° 

S6° 
So° 
SSi° 

sr 

31° 
7S° 









BBVSIS Z'^DMG 


flHCU 


1 






Z 






J 




G6° 

7Z° 


^ 




78-L° 


oT 




8Z° 
86° 


6*7 

8 
9 




90° 
86i' 

sr 

78l°- 






10 




73' 
66° 


11 






T/KII6 







Figure 26. — Beveling Board. 



FUTTOCKS AND FRAMES 5T 

which is registered on the gauge of the machine, 
telling the operator the angle at which the machine 
is cutting. These degrees are marked on the 
frames at the given stations. The timbers are run 
through the band saw, changing the angle grad- 
ually as the stock nears each bevel. See Fignire 27. 

FRAME COXSTEUCTION 

Several types of frame construction are shown 
in the illustrations. In Figure 28, false frames are 
first installed, ribbands are run, and the vessel 
faired up, after which the futtocks are bent and 
fitted to the ribbands. 

Figure 29 shows a manufactured frame ; that is, 
the futtocks are bent and then lined from the 
moulds and united with the floor timbers. The 
frames are then raised and plumbed, after which 
the ribbands are run and the vessel faired up. 

Figure 30 shows a built-up frame; that is, a 
frame made of a number of pieces and double 
thickness of straight stock fastened together. The 
stock is roughed out, fitted and fastened together, 
and then lined from the moulds. 

Figure 31 shows a strap frame boat. This is 
lighter construction. False frames are first in- 
stalled, ribbands run, and the boat faired up. The 
frames are bent around a form, the ends tied to- 
gether as shown in Figure 32, immediately re- 
moved from the form and sprung in position in 
the boat, while hot, and fastened to the ribbands. 

Cross Spalls. — Cross spalls are long pieces of 



58 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




Figure 27. — Sawing Timbers. 



FUTTOCKS AND FRAMES 



39 




60 COURSE IN WOODEN EOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

plank which have the breadth of the boat at par- 
ticular stations marked on them, and unite the 
heads of the f uttocks to the required width. These 
preserve the form of the boat while it remains in 
frame and until the beams are crossed. Note 
Figures 28 and 30. 

Floor Timbers. — The heels of the futtocks are 
united with a floor timber as shown in Figure 28. 
The bottom edge is beveled to correspond to the 
beveling on the futtocks, the top edge remaining 
square. The two futtocks thus united form a 
frame. 

EAISIXG FRAMES 

The frames should be erected at right angles to 
the keel and perpendicular at their respective sta- 
tions. A ribband is run at the first diagonal on 
both sides of the boat ; square each frame from the 
keel and fasten to the ribband, then plumb every 
other frame, shoring them at the first diagonal 
ribband. 

Install the sheer ribband and space off the tim- 
ber heads to the same spacing as they are at the 
heels, after which all the ribbands may be run on. 

Ribbands. — The ribbands are thin broad battens 
screwed fast to the frames at given stations on the 
square body, usually on the diagonal lines. See 
Figure 29. 

Har pings. — The harpings are the continuations 
of the ribbands beyond the square frames. The 
ribbands and harpings are sometimes scarfed to 



FUXTOCKS AND FRAMES 



61 




FUTTOCKS AND FRAMES 63 

each other, but the connection is more usually kept 
up by one length of the ribband made to overrun 
the other. 

FAIRING XJP 

A great deal depends upon the mechanical eye 
of the builder in fairing up, as a good design can 
easily be ruined at this stage of the construction. 
The lines of the boat should be regular, true, 
smooth, and flowing. 

After the planking is installed, it will be impos- 
sible to cure any defects, and the graceful lines 
intended by the naval architect will be lost sight of. 
If the laying out and the workmanship have been 
careful up to this point, little difficulty should be 
experienced in fairing up. 

PKOJECTION OF DIAGONALS 

Figure 33 shows the method of projecting the 
diagonals on the sheer plan and body plan. While 
these lines are not essential in fairing up, still 
they will help to show the position of the ribbands 
as they are bent around the frames. 

Filling-in Pieces. — The fiUing-in pieces, usually 
2" wider than the top of the keel, are placed in the 
spaces between the frames, level with the floor tim- 
bers. They are fastened to the keel and form a 
rabbet to receive the garboard strake. 

KEELSON 

The keelson may be considered as an intei'nal 
keel. It unites in one mass the keel, deadwood. 



64 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 






FUTTOCKS AND FRAMES 



65 




66 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




niDDLE LINE 



FUTTOCICS AND FRAMES 6T 

and floors, so that a compact union may be formed 
throughout the system. It is placed immediately 
above the keel, lying upon the upper part of the 
floors as far as they extend, and resting fore and 
aft against the deadwood. If the timber will per- 
mit, it should be put in in one length. If two pieces 
are scarfed together, care should be taken to have 
the scarfs properly shifted and clear of the keel 
scarfs. 



CHAPTER IV 

OUTSIDE PLANKING 

The outside planking, or skin, or sheathing, of 
a vessel terminates abaft below the transom, in 
the rabbet of the sternpost, and forward in the 
rabbet of the stem. The strakes are not parallel, 
but of such a breadth as may be required by the 
form of the place where they are situated and the 
circumference of the body at any given distances 
upon them ; narrowing at some places and widen- 
ing at others, according as the body requires the 
form of the edges to hang or ' ' sny. ' ' 

Strakes. — The principal strakes, or breadths of 
planking, are: Binding, bilge, broad, garboard, 
sheer or upper, shutter, and lower strakes. 

The binding strahe is the first strake to be in- 
stalled, unless the horns of the frames are long 
enough to raise the sheer batten high enough to 
permit the installing of the sheer strake. 

If the vessel is large enough, a strake can be 
worked near each ribband ; and when on and fas- 
tened, the 'ribbands can be removed and several 
gangs of workmen can be employed advantageously 
in getting out and working the remainder of the 
plank required to fill up the openings. 

Before commencing to plank a vessel, it is neces- 
sary to determine the number of strakes required 

68 



OUTSIDE PLANKING 69 

and their widths at midship, as well as fore and 
aft. If the vessel is too long for the strakes to be 
obtained in one length, it will be necessary to run 
them in, in two or more lengths butted together. 
The position of these butts must be determined be- 
fore laying out the first plank. They should be 
shifted, and in no case should they be less than four 
strakes apart. 

To find the tvidths of strakes, bend a thin flat 
batten inside of the ribbands on the midship frame 
and obtain the girth or distance from the keel to 
the sheer line. Likewise fore and aft. Lay out on 
this batten the number of strakes required. The 
width of these strakes will depend upon the mate- 
rial available and the shape of the vessel. This 
is a matter of judgment, as there is no given rule 
for determining the width. The garboard plank 
should be the widest. 

From the garboard to where the bilge turns, the 
strakes gradually diminish in width, so that the 
bilge and topsides are the narrowest and nearly 
uniform in width. The sheer strake is generally a 
little wider than the topsides, to allow for fasten- 
ing the moulding, or guard. 

SHEEE STEAKE 

The sheer batten gives the top edge of the sheer 
strake. The plank as it diminishes fore and aft 
must bring out the uniform longitudinal plank 
lines. 

Assuming that the sheer strake is to be 4" on the 



70 



COURSE. IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BDIIjDING 



midship frame, 3i/4" at frame 1, and iy^' at frame 
11, the plank can be scaled as shown in Figure 34. 
Scribe a circle with a radius equal to the width 
of the plank on the midship frame, and strike a 
center line as shown. Measure up, at right angles 
to the center line, a distance equal to the width of 
the plank at frame 1, until it cuts the circle as at A. 




123456789 10 n 

Figure 34. — Scaling tor Sheer Strake. 

Likewise measure up, at right angles to the center 
line, a distance equal to the width of the plank at 
frame 11 until it cuts the circle as at K. 

Divide the distance between these two lines on 
the center line equally into as many spaces as there 
are frames, and lay off parallel lines as showTi. 
Then the distance A is the width of the plank at 
frame 1, B width at frame 2, C width at frame 3, 
D width at frame 4, E width at frame 5, F width 
at frame 6, G width at frame 7, B. width at frame 8, 
7 width at frame 9, J Avidth at frame 10, and K the 
width of planking at frame 11. These points will 



OUTSIDE PLANKING 71 

give a fair diminish for the lower edge of the sheer 
strake, and should be laid off on each frame from 
the sheer line, as shown in Figure 35. 

BINDING STKAKE 

The next problem is to cut the plank so that when 
bent around the frames it will fit without spring- 
ing or bending it edgewise. In order to get the 
shape of the top edge of the binding strake, it will 
be necessary to take a spiling of the lower edge of 
the sheer strake. If material will permit, the 
binding strake is generally installed in one length. 

SPILING 

The spiling batten is a thin piece of stock 5" or 
more in width and longer than the longest length 
of plank to be used. Secure the batten on to the 
frames with clamps, screws, or nails, temporarily, 
with its upper edge a little below the marks giving 
the lower edge of the sheer strake. 

It is important that the batten follow the twist 
of the frames and lie flat against them, taking care 
not to spring it edgewise. See Figure 36. It is 
well to remember that the object is to have the 
batten occupy approximately the same position as 
the strake for which the spiling is taken. 

Mark on the batten the center of the frames and 
take the spiling at these points, numbering each to 
correspond with the frame numbers, for ready 
identification. Spiling can be taken at any point, 
but reference marks must correspond on the spil- 



72 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 



OUTSIDE PLANKING 



7a 







74 COURSE IX WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

ing batten and the point from which the spiling 
was taken; otherwise it will be impossible to find 
the locations again, after removing the batten. 

Set a pair of dividers to an opening a little 
greater than the widest gap between the spiling 
batten and the marks on the frames giving the 
lower edge of the sheer strake. With one leg of 



JCZOCUaOi4Wt-D> 



JL 



1 i 



1 23456789 10 11 

Figure 37. — Scaling for Binding Strake. 

the dividers on this line, point off equal distances 
■on the spiling batten, as shown in Figure 35. This 
gives the points for the upper edge of the binding 
strake. 

Lay the spiling batten on the stock to be cut for 
the plank, mark the spiling spots, and transfer 
these points from the spiling batten to the plank 
to be cut. 

This strake will be narrower than the sheer 
strake and it will be necessary to scale again for 
the lower edge, to get a fair diminish fore and aft. 



OUTSIDE PLANKING 75 

Scribe another circle, as shown in Fignire 37, 
with a radius equal to the desired width of the 
plank on the midship frame, and strike a center 
line. Measure up, at right angles from the center 
line, a distance equal to the width of the plank at 
frame 1, until it cuts the circle as at L. Likewise 
measure up, at right angles to the center line, a 
distance equal to the width of the plank at frame 
11, until it cuts the circle as at F. 

Divide equally the distance between these two 
lines on the center line into as many spaces as there 
are frames, and lay off parallel lines as shown. 
Then the distance L is the width of the plank at 
frame 1, M width at frame 2, N width at frame 3, 
width at frame 4, P width at frame 5, Q width 
at frame 6, R width at frame 7, 8 width at frame 8, 
T width at frame 9, U width at frame 10, V width 
at frame 11. 

Lay off these distances from the spiling spots on 
the plank to be cut, as shown in Figure 35. Bend a 
batten through these points, which will give a fair 
diminish and the shape of the binding strake. 

After the plank is sawed and fitted, a mate can 
be lined out for the other side of the boat before it 
is fastened. 

GAEBOAED STEAKS 

After determining the width of the garboard 
strake at midship and fore and aft, run a ribband 
on the frames for the top edge of the garboard, 
which should look fair from all directions. It is 



76 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

important to have a proper diminisli fore and 
aft, to avoid trouble in installing the shutter 
strake. 

Bend a thin spiling batten around the frames to 
approximate the position of the garboard, and 
take a spiling for the lower edge, as previously 
described. Where the rabbet rounds up into the 
stem and stern, the spilings should be closer to- 
gether and square out from the rabbet. Transfer 
these points from the spiling batten to the stock 
to be used for the plank, and bend a thin batten 
through these points. Measure up from the rabbet 
to the ribband or top edge of the garboard at each 
frame. Transfer these distances from correspond- 
ing positions on the plank, and bend a batten 
through these points, which give the shape of the 
garboard. 

LOWER STKAKES 

After the binding strake and garboard are in- 
stalled, take the girth of the midship frame between 
these two planks and divide the distance into the 
number of planks desired to side in the remainder 
of the boat. Likewise take the girth on frame 1 
and frame 11 and divide these distances by the 
number of planks in order to find the width of each 
plank fore and aft. A spiling must be taken for 
the top edge of each plank and the lower edge must 
be scaled to get a fair diminish fore and aft, bring- 
ing out as it does the parallel longitudinal lines 
of the boat. 



OUTSIDE PLANKING 



77 




78 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

SCALING 

Bend a thin batten around the midship frame to 
get the girth or distance between the garboard and 
binding strake as shown in Figure 38, A-B. Like- 
wise take the girth between the same points on 
frame 1, C-D. Square these two points across the 
batten, E-F, and divide the space up into as many 
equal parts as there are eighths contained in the 
difference between the width of thfe plank at mid- 
ship and the desired width at the stem. 

Assume that the width of the plank is to be 3" 
amidship and 2-2, or 2 2/8", at the stem. The dif- 
ference between 3" and 2 2/8" is 6 eighths ; there- 
fore, divide the difference in the girth of the mid- 
ship frame, or frame 6, and the girth, or frame 1, 
into 6 equal parts, as shown in FigTire 38, E-F. 
Mark the distance of the girth of the midship frame 
on the batten 3", the distance of the girth of frame 
1, 2-2. Each division is then numbered 2-3, 2-4, 
2-5, 2-6, 2-7. 

It will readily be seen that wherever this scale 
is applied with the lower edge of the batten always 
resting against the upper edge of the garboard, 
it immediately gives the width of the plank at that 
particular point. The width at each spiling station 
should be scaled and marked on the strake for 
ready reference. This gives a fair diminish for 
the plank on the forward end only. 

The after end is then scaled in a similar manner, 
as shown in FigTire 38. Take the width of the plank 



OUTSIDE PLANKING 79- 

at midship, as previously described, as 3", and 
assume that the width of the plank at frame 11 is 
to be 1-7 or 1-%"- The difference between 3" and 
1-%" is 9 eighths. Divide the difference in the 
girth of the midship frame and the girth of frame 
11 into 9 equal parts, as shown at I-J. Call the 
girth of the midship frame 3" and the girth of 
frame 11 1-%", and succeeding distances 2-0, 2-1,, 
2-2, 2-3, 2-4, 2-5, 2-6, 2-7, 3-0. This immediately 
gives the width of the plank at that particular 
point. Scale each spiling station as before and 
mark on the strake for ready reference. 

With the width thus determined, it is of course 
unnecessary to run ribbands on the frames, unless 
it appears that the strakes are not running fair, 
but a spiling must be taken for the upper edge of 
each plank. If the frames are curved, it may be 
necessary to hollow the inside of the planking to- 
fit. 

BEVELING FOE PLANKING 

The planking should be beveled square from the 
diagonals. At the bottom edges of the seams the 
planks should be in contact throughout their length. 
After the planks are fitted, the outer edge should 
be beveled about 1/16" in 1", beveling from about 
the center of the plank. If the openings of the 
seams were of equal width throughout their depth 
between the planks, it would be impossible to make 
the calking sufficiently compact to resist the water. 



80 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 



CALKING 



Before beginning to calk, all seams should be 
jacked off and all high spots removed. Begin calk- 



T 



-8-tf' 



lb 



-fOi 



t? 



E3> 



f&M^ 



Iron Bolts-I3"long^ 



lO 



"do 



€" 



i 



4 



.4 



All material used To Be: Yellow Pine. 

Figure 39. — Form for Practice Calking. 

ing at one end and tuck a strand of cotton or oakum 
into the seam, then with a dumb iron gather the 



OUTSIDE PLANKING 



81 



cotton or oakum into a small loop and drive it in ; 
then another loop, and so on along the seam, vary- 
ing the size of the loop to make just the right body 
of cotton or oakum to properly fill the seam. 




Figure 40.- 



enlarge.d section at 
Showing Fastcnings, 
Calking Seams And 
Plugs Over nails. 

-Details of Form for Practice Calking. 



Go over the seam again, using a calking iron, and 
drive the cotton or oakum home, so that room is 
left for the reception of the putty. 

The tendency of the amateur is to drive the 



82 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

oakum into the planking instead of into the seam. 
This is very injurious and leads to leakage and to 
the rotting of the planks themselves. 



Figure 41. — Practice Callcing 



A suitable calking form for practice calking is 
shown in Figures 39-40. In Figure 41 two men are 
seen calking. Experience is the best teacher, and 
so it is worth while to begin practicing on a form 



OUTSIDE PLANKINO S» 

of this kind. This form can be made collapsible^ 
and the calking readily removed for recalking. 

FINISHING 

After calking, the seams are painted with a 
moderately thick paint, working it in well, so that 
it covers the calking material and serves as a 
binder for the putty. A special narrow brush,, 
called a seam brush, is made for the purpose. 

After the paint is dry, the planking should again 
be planed, using a smoothing plane, with the iron. 
set very fine. It should then be sandpapered, first 
across the grain and then with the grain. All 
unfair places will be very conspicuous after paint- 
ing, so it is very important that particular care be 
used at this time. 

The seams are then filled with putty, flush with 
the outside, and again sandpapered, ready for the 
painter. 



CHAPTER V 

SHIP CONSTEUCTION 
MATERIALS AND PEOCBSSES 

Practical sliipbuilding requires a knowledge of 
the properties of the materials used in the con- 
struction of ships, and of the processes by which 
they are produced or prepared for use, so that they 
may be suitably selected for the services for which 
they were intended. It also requires a knowledge 
of the methods, means, and machinery by which, 
after delivery in the shipyards, the materials are 
brought to the required shape, erected in their 
proper relative position, connected together, and 
completed so as to form a structure which will 
fulfill the intentions of the designer. 

There is an ever-increasing demand for rapid 
production. The revival of the wooden shipbuild- 
ing industry necessitates a vigorous and constant 
search for simplification of methods of work, for 
labor-saving and time-saving machinery, and for 
improved means of handling materials. 

The shortage of skilled carpenters has caused 
engineering departments to design and construct 
new machines to take the place of men working on 
certain parts of a vessel, thus releasing a great 
many men for other work, where they can be used 
to better advantage. 

84 



SHIP CONSTRUCTION 85 

In previous chapters the methods of laying- 
down the lines and developing bevels, scaling, spil- 
ing, etc., have been taken up in detail. In the 
following chapters special attention is given to the 
methods of handling and fastening the large tirn- 
bers used in ship construction. 

Drawings and Plans. — The larger the vessel the 
more details there are to be considered. In the 
building of the standard wooden cargo carriers, 
now being built for the United States Shipping 
Board by the Emergency Fleet Corporation 
(photographs of Avhich illustrate the greater part 
of this text) numerous drawings are required be- 
fore the completion of the vessel. 

Drawings must be made showing the general 
arrangement of decks, lower hold, inboard profile^ 
midship construction section, together with lines 
and offsets for lofting the vessel, and framing 
plans. During the progress of the work plans 
are also required to show the drainage, heating,, 
plumbing, sanitary system, steering gear, masts, 
rigging, cargo gear, electric light arrangement 
and wiring, together with all necessary detail hull 
plans. 

Specifications. — The specifications are part and 
parcel of the drawings. They give a statement of 
all the particulars of the ship, including what is 
shown on the drawings as well as what cannot be 
shown on them. The quality of the rnaterials to 
be used is described in detail and the scantlings, 
or dimensions, of the same are carefully recorded. 



86 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

It is also clearly stated how parts not manufac- 
tured by the shipbuilder are to be obtained. 

Any omissions in the specifications, or in the 
drawings, the absence of which from the construc- 
tion of the vessel would be weakening or detri- 
mental, must be furnished by the builder. 

The specifications are prepared by the naval 
architect, but this last clause serves as a check 
upon him. The decision, in all cases of doubt aris- 
ing, rests with the architect. 

Sheer Plan. — FigTires 42 and 43 give the sheer 
plan, or outside form of the ship, stem and stern 
portions, respectively. The sheer plan consists 
of an elevation showing the longitudinal contour, 
the water lines or lines at which the vessel will 
float, and certain other lines parallel to this and 
equally spaced below it, which are also called water 
lines. A series of vertical lines equally spaced 
from stem to stern, called square stations, and cer- 
tain other details are included in the sheer plan. 
The necessary tables of offsets are also given. 

TABLES OF OFFSETS 

Preliminary offsets of standard wooden steam- 
ships are given in the accompanying tables, for 
half-breadths, heights above base, and diagonals, 
respectively. 

All offset figures in these tables are to the out- 
side of frame (inside of plank, and are given in 
feet, inches, and eighths). 

Note that the vertical sections are spaced 13 



SHIP CONSTRUCTION 87 

feet apart ; buttocks and bowlines 2 feet 6 inches 
apart; diagonals and water lines spaced as per 
body plan. 

Dimensions. — The dimensions of the standard 
steamship are as follows : 

Length on deck 281'-6" 

Length bet. perpendiculars. . . 268'-0" 

Breadth moulded 45'-2" 

Depth moulded at side 26'-0" 

Designed load draft (full) . . . 23'-6" 

Half -breadth Plan. — Figures 44 and 45 give the 
half-breadth plan, showing the form of the ship 
at the several water lines, supposing the hull to 
be cut by horizontal planes at the level of these 
water lines. 

Body Plan. — Figure 46 shows the sectional form 
of the ship at the square stations, supposing the 
hull to be cut by transverse planes at these stations. 
The table of offsets required follows the body plan. 

Midship Construction Section. — Figures 47 to 
52 show the structural arrangement of the ship and 
scantlings of the most important parts. The mid- 
ship construction section is shown in detail in 
FigTire 47, while miscellaneous sections appear in 
Figures 48, 49, 50, 51 and 52. 

Figure 48 shows a section from the bridge deck 
to top of the wheel house, including the boat deck 
and boat deck house. 

Figure 49 is a section through the poop to above 
the poop deck. 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




SHIP CONSTRUCTION 



8» 




so 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 



SI 
< 

■H 
> 
O 

< 






E 



Q 

c 
c 

c 
■« 

Z; 



H 
a: 

■fe 

O 

O 

< 



o r~ Tj4 -*< 
I t I I 

CR 00CV5 -H 






I I 

00 Oi 

CO CO CO CO CO 



eo^- -* s^ i^ CO 
I I I I I I 

Oi .-H «5 "I lO ■* 



„; c~ lO ■* o t- 
^ I I I 1 I 
^ CO o »o o o 

a I I 1 I T 

□ OlO o— — 
ij c^ cocoeoco 



' ' ' I I I T I I I I I I 

(CMco'Ss^cooicor-^Hoo 



J)I--.t^OcOOi-*- 



I I I I 

—< -M C±)C 






■ '*'r--cof-.ei(N<Mc^c^c-ai>.r-.Qriix)-^<-ir-. 
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I r 

I iTi ijl I I III I iTl I 



eooor-ooooooocor— o-^iomeor^ 

I 1 I I I i I ] I I I I [ I I I I I I 



O Tji O O O C 



L I I I I I t I I I I 

iiooocooococococno 

— c<i C-J tM CO 



rMOml>-<OOOI=OOOOTt<COf^-C^OO(N<© 

I I I I I I I I 1 I i I I I I I I I I I I 

t^Tt<cOiO"5iO*OiCiOiOiO»OiOtD^C^CO<i^N-"0 



^AAA<J 



-^ lO to 

I I I 



I I I 

>— 1 — CO 



.rt^^^^,^ncoeococococoeoco■I:^OcoOO«^co(^^ 

1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I 

■-f■»fOOOOOOOOOOi±lOCOOlO■JC^^^OCOC^ 
CO r-i CM CS N CO 



-* — COCO 

1 I I I 
OC- to 00 



-— it-OlOCO-^-H-H^ — ^- 

I I I I I I [ I t I I 1 

co5D-*eocococococococococo 



ot*^~o^~I>-^~eo 

I I 1 L I I I I 

3-^eocococococococococo'*'-*a3ioOca»-(tD 
'■TlllIlfllllTllllIll 

iO-HOOOOOOOC3OOOO^i0M3^-f00 — 
C^ i-H (M iMM CO 



C- O O «o 
t~ (O >o o 



i:Ot--r~i-~iocococococococococot--iocMOr^05C^ 
- I I I I I I f I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 

--"■racMc^icMCQir<ic<ic^cMCNC^iMC^CMC^--'coot^c^ 
■illllllllltlliilTjIII 

■>OOOOC=iOOOOOOOOOOCM— <C>Tfl-~-H 



to CO t-- o 
I I I I 



■ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

■^CS'-i'-Hi-HOOOOOOOOOCMQOOf-rtlC^O 

■^yaoooooooooooooo=0'*"coc--H 

-H c^ CS| CO 



iMin t— (N o -■ 

I I I I I I 

SOOOiM CCJCN - 



Sffq(M-^10«t-.OOCTi--CO-*iO«Or-COCC>00'-' — C^ 
l-H.-..— (.-l—IM-^^HIMCMNtMCil 



iMC^l N (M cq I 



M3J0S miij^ 



SHIP CONSTRUCTION 



91 



4 


■ CO W5 0> Oi en en 0> 0> 05 Oi OS O) Oi a> CO •— 1 ^H (6 ■ ■ 

■lllllLllli'llllTVl '■ 

- T)H (O CO eo CO «0 «D CO iX) (O CO CD ea <0 CO -^ (M .-( ■ . 




5-2-1 
3- 5-0 
2-4-6 
1-5-1 


d 


• O O 1— C^ <M C^ CM C^ (M <M <M (M iM r- >C ^~ t^ O 




— C^CJiO ■ ■ 

1 1 1 T ' '■ 

I-.-^CMi-i - ■ 


00 

i 


. , 




COCM t-~ -H - - 

tli-itl : : 

1 r 1 1 ' • 

O0-J<CO-H ■ ■ 


.AJjAiJ<J.i.ii.iJ.iQiiJ,Ji=i,A ■ ■ 




1 t [ T 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 1 1 1 1 1 
CO '-' ira CO t^ r^ i-~ i^ i-~ t— r- r- to m M 00 -^ c^ 






i 


COr~CDCOCD-H(MCMCMC^}<MOOCOiMCMO(M '• 
t 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 
-* m O W t- i-l " --1 1— 1 i-i ^ CO CO 05 CM O — 1 -tJ* ■ 

■ 1 r 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 t 1 1 t 1 T T 1 ■ 
cocvit-o — oicMc-icM<Mc^-Hor-"WO)T»'CM 

•-< ^H CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CS ^ ^ ■ • 




CO--.>flCM ■ 
^QOCOO» 
Oi»0 COi-i ■ ■ 


CD 

d 

Iz; 


• o^~oo CMO f^ t- t-r- 1^ CM cot^ t~ «* coo ■ 

- cDoooj^H oi io oo Tj<ooo -H cs] 0000 - ■ 




COOO^O ■ ■ 


i 


O CO -H CO Tj- CO cO 1:0 CO CO CD ^^ l^ r— f- -^ O CM - 

■oo^Tf ^^cnoioiicor-iocno^cD ■ 

'iiiTiiVYTTTiiiiiii -■ 

■ coco 00 — Tf ■* ■* f ■* -* -^ -^ co-^ t— eoc- CO - ■ 

i-H 1-H CM CM CM N !N CM CM M CM CM CM '— " ^^ ■ ■ 




CD — 00 - 

1 1 1 I ' ' 

co^~■^ CM ■ 


6 
1^ 


■ -* 10 OM-- CM CO CO CO CO CO t- ■* CO — 1 T-i xn ■ - 

' CO CO 00 ^ CO -rt* Tff Tt- ■* -!t< -* -* CO CM O) lO Oi »0 ■ 
1-1 ^ CM CM CM C-J C^l CM CM ff^ !N CM CM --H -H 




1 1 1 t ■ ■ 
>— 1 tO'i'O 

1 I 1 T ■ 

>0 O) CO CM ■ 


CO 

d 
Iz; 


■ t^Tft— coc^or^r^c^p-t— tD-*iooocicot^ - 

1 [ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 { r 1 1 1 1 1 1 

CM 00 to 00 CM OS OiO) Oi 01 Oi r* >* 00 •-< -O -H CO ,-( . 

■ ! 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 t 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

t— COOO -H CO CO coco to CO COCOCOCM or^ — 00 CM ■ 
--.-HCMCMOlCMClCMCMCMCMCMCMCM^i-H 




??t? - 

to ^- OlT- • ■ 
t-CMOC* 


O 

!z; 


- CO ^- to c- -* ■"*! -* -^ ^ f- CM CM Tt< lO -^ tj< 10 1-H ■ 

■ 1 1 1 1 1 1 f 1 I T 1 1 1 f 1 I 1 1 1 ■ ■ 

-^-TfOO— iCMCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCM-HCTunc^lOOO ■ ■ 
1-1 rt CM CM CM CM CM CM C<) CM CM C<l CM e<] T-H 1-. 1-1 


cn 10 CM 00 ■ ■ 


d 

:z; 


CMfOcO — 0>OiOiOiO>r3COClCO-*'C-OCMCO-* ■ ■ 
■ 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 
COCOO-*COOOOOOO^CnioOCM»OI>->-'iO • 

* 1 1 T 1 1 1 1 1 1 ^ ( 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

00 -VOO ^ CM coco CO COeOCOCM MCM ^-0 t— lOCOQO - 
i-i^CMCMC-^CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCM— ■■-1'-' ■ ■ 






o 
d 


■COCOiOC^COCOCMClCMiMCMCOOCOCOira^H^H — COO 

i rt CM — CO COr-OOOOOO 0000 t- lO CMf- Tl>CO-^ OCM CO ■ 

.OiiOCJl-!HCMCMCMCMC-lCMCMOlCMCM-HO00t^eD':t<CR - 
1-1 -H CM CM CJ CM CM CM CM CM C-l CM CM CM CM —1 ^- 1-1 -H 






■CMcc-rf<mcot-oooi — co-*iocDr^cooioo^ — c-ir= 

g rt„^«_H^H^.— CMCMCMCMC^CS 


cnoo — ^c^ 

^^ CM CM CM CM CM 

>. 1 


M3J3 


^"I'^X 



92 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 





oocc(M ■ ■ -oc^eo 


r— b~ CO ■ 

t^CM^ - 

iSiO CO ■ 


( Knuckle 
1 18- 2^6 
17- 0-6 
15- 9-0 
14-0-5 
9- 9-0 


J,,j.li -lAA 






OMCOO OOOt- 


"^ 






-a 

a 


o^-c<^ fo ^r- Tt< ooooo Oio 0(Mcooc<i o c<i ■ - 
itiTiiiiriiiitiriTiTi -■ 

■"-I '-' CS] (M M CS| (M M (M CM CS <M IN Ol (M i-H 1— 1 i-H 1-1 ■ ■ 


^1 

c3 




: 




?-rTT77T?????TT7TT?7V 

liiiTriiiiiiriT'iiiTl 

M«01CV)CqCMCM(M(M(MCMCMC^C^^^.-l 




I 1 T 1 

■^ -^ — ■ CO 

[III 

Oi»0 w « 






O e0l0^~0'^^ COO O000«ir-«i0t— — (M ■ 
lllllllllllllllllll 
QOO)<M^050<c>t^r--t^t^t>.«3C<too^cqca ■ 

icDcot-ocic^'MCMCMc^cMtMM — ioocsr- ■ 

.-. -H C^ (M N (M N C<l (N (M IM CM (M (M r-1 T-. 




1^-f-neo 
1 1 1 1 

00 CM CO CO 




CO 


ooc^r--ocMc-ic-ieMCMoiCMCM(M — Oeooo-^ ■ 

1-1 ■— I CM CM C-J CM (N CM C-) CM <M C^ CM CM ^ 




7??? 
7T77 

CD CJiO CM 






ooococo■^plX>^-^~t^^~^--^ — roc-, oomt— - 
J 1 1 1 f T 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ■ 

O^OCM t— OC<l CM CM CMCM CMCM CM CM — 00 fOcDCM • 
f-. -^ CM CM CS CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM ^ —1 




Oi^-eoeo ■ - 
lilt - ■ 

C: — O CO 
1 1 1 1 


3 


OC^CO'*T»'-*COOOOOO — CO— ' lO COCMCO ■ 
1 1 1 1 1 f 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ■ 
COCOOOCJ— i<OI— t— t^t^t^Tf — C^-Hirj — — . 

iiTTiTriiiiiiTiirTt ■ 

O lO -H CD CD -^ CM CM CM CM C^ CM CM --1 Cb b- r- -^ CM ■ 
^ •—■ CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM ^H i-( 




T??7 . ■ 

COCOCO« 


1 


00 "o Tjt TfH -- ^ (O t- 1^ t^ r~ t~ CO ^~ « CM rjH -H oi ■ 

li lO ^ =D en -H CM CM CM CM CM CM CM — C» lO Oi CO -H ■ 
-^ ^ — CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM — -H 




C050b--H 
1 1 f 1 ' - 

COC^OOtJ. ■ ■ 

1 1 [ 1 

CS-^JHCM^ 




O O O O CO CM «3 O O O O O p CO CM lO t- t« O 

CO-HOOO: cDOOlO^~t-^~C- t-CM O O ^ (Oi-i »0 ■ 

iTlllllllll'Iflllll 
<i ■* <i -O d> — • CM CM CM CM CM CM CM O t-~ CM r- CO « ■ 
1-1 — -H CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM « ^H 




eof-Oi-- 
1 1 1 1 
00 CO CO >— I 

1 1 1 1 

[>fO(N— 1 




CO 


OCMOCMOOOOOOOO»Ot~»OiOu:i WO ■ 
C0C»"«<-H'J<0i0iOC>O<±)0CM— ■— " — CM-H« - 

1-1 w CM CM CM (M CM CM CM CM w —■ 




CO o t— o 

1 1 1 1 


'! 


0-*CO — O00f^t^t~t^t~-0-rf — O — CM 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ( 1 1 1 1 1 1 
00t~>*'C0OSiO-*^^^-*^00C0-^»O<©"5 

icMir-cMiDcsoctoooocitic-qt^co— i 

— >W-HCMCMCMCMCMCM — -^1-" 






IP i : ; 

III 

eOi-" —1 ■ ■ ■ 1 
- 1 




• CMCO'tf'iOCDt^OOOiwirOTfi^COt-OOOsOO-H^-iCM.rS 
Q^ ^ ^^„„_„_^CMCMCMCMCM rt 


OOO-H — CM 
'— CM CM CM CM CM 


AS.3J0S aiA\ 


1 



SHIP CONSTRUCTION 



93 




to 



-■r 




Note:— Siding for Fir 
Figure 46. — Standard Wooden Steamship 




Wood20',fory. p. 16'. 
Moulded Lines — Body Plan. 



S6 CODRSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

Figure 50 shows the section through the engine 
foundation, looking forward. One-third of the 
engine holding-down bolts are put through to the 
bottom of the foundation keelsons. The remain- 
ing two-thirds of the holding-down fastenings are 
heavy lag-screw bolts. 

Figure 51 is a section through the shaft tunnel, 
looking aft, and Figure 52 shows the section 
through the forecastle. 

SCANTLINGS 

The following are the scantlings, or dimensions, 
for various parts of the standard wooden steam- 
ship : 

Stem. — Sided 16", moulded 20", yellow pine. 

Apron. — Double 16x16", yellow pine. 

Knightheads. — Sided 20", moulded same as 
frame, yellow pine. 

Sternpost. — Sided 28" in way of shaft log, 16" 
at keel and head, moulded 24", white oak substitu- 
tion ; built up in four sections ; white oak inner 
stern post of yellow pine, of same dimensions as 
main post. 

Rudder Pos^.— Sided 16", moulded 18", white 
oak. 

Rudder Stock. — 18" diameter, best white oak. 

Rudder Blade. — Built up, yellow j^ine. 

Deadivood Knees. — 16" sided, hackmatac or oak. 

Horn Timbers. — White oak. 

Stern Framing. — Yellow pine. 

Forward Deadwoods. — 16"xl8" yellow pine. 



SHIP CONSTRUCTION 9T 

After Deadwoods. — 16"xl8" yellow pine. 
Shaft Log. — 14"xl4", in four pieces, white oak. 
Hull Bulkhead Planking. — 3"x8" double diag- 
onal, yellow pine. 

Hull Bulkhead Studding. — 8"xl2" yellow pine. 
Pointers. — 3"xl2" yellow pine. 

LOFTING THE SHIP 

The lines are laid down on the mould loft floor 
full size, as previously described. See FigTire 53. 

If space will not permit the laying down of the 
full length, it can be laid down in two or three 
sections, one overlapping the other. The sections 
must be long, however, so that the lines may be 
properly faired up. 

All sections are laid down and the lines proved 
before getting out the moulds. It is not an easy 
task to properly fair in these lines, for while look- 
ing at one portion of the ship, it is impossible to 
see the other end; yet much depends upon the 
accuracy of the mould loft^man in getting out his 
moulds, in order to conserve the labor of the car- 
penter in dubbing off and fairing up the scantlings 
while in frame. 

Moulds. — The moulds are prepared by the mould 
loftsman, having plainly marked on them the 
various beveling stations, water lines, and other 
means of identification, for ready reference when 
assembling. All have to be plainly numbered and 
show the number of pieces required. These are 



98 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




Figure 47. — Midship Section of 



SHIP CONSTKUCTION 




.^c o r T'f ° ;:,'';a -? 



Standard Wooden Steamship. 



100 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

given to the mill superintendent, and from them 
he lays out his parts. 



— ftOAT DEC 




Figure 48. — Section from Bridge Deck to Top of Wheelhouse of 
Standard Wooden Steamship. 



FRAMES 



The frames are double saAved, spaced 36" center 
to center, separated at the butts with 2-inch chocks, 
and each butt fastened with II/4" treenail. 

The frames are laid out from the moulds, as 



SHIP CONSTRUCTION 



101 




5YR PUANKIMO 



Figure 49. — Section Ttiroiigh Poop. 



102 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




-soLiD Yp. riooKs rirrcp ;n »*ay cr engine: bed pLate 

CAuLKCD OR WEDGE.D TWSHT C^^tiKC riTTJNG ENGINE 
rouhOATION KCEL 



S^^ BASE 




— ■STAg&ftARD 






Figure 50. — Section Through Engine Foundation, Looking Forward. 






f mii vJ^ftHf lutJeiWJfe^fl. 



n»M-^t.LCl. 



. ^ _Ciflr,a 

&V IQ' YP-SJPE Pt-ANKING 







Figure 51. — Section lluough Shaft Tunnel, Looking Aft. 



SHIP CONSTRUCTION 



103 



# 






BeAMS 

SPAcep 







[ FbcstixPcck _ 



I 



yUPPER C'ECK 



^ p-l-AMKll-iS 



Figure 52. — Section Through the Forecastle. 



104 CODKSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




SHIP CONSTRUCTION 



105 




a 

+-» 

O 



hi 
I 



a 



a 



106 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

shown in Figure 54, and cut to the required bevel 
on the band saw. See Figures 55 and 56. The 
gauge on the side of the machine registers the angle 
at which the saw is cutting. 

The man guiding the stock through the saw 




Figure G5. — Beveling Frames on tlie Band Saw. 

announces the various degrees or bevels as he 
nears the mark on the timber, while the operator 
at the Avheel gradually tilts the saw one way or the 
other, as the case may be, fairing one bevel into 
the other as the degrees change. 

Mill Floor Carriages. — In the well-equipped 
plant the mill floor is made up of sectional car- 



SHIP CONSTRUCTION 



107 



Tiages, as shown in Figure 57. On the top of the 
carriages are a series of rolls. 

The tops of the rolls are level with the working 
table of the machines, so that a heavy timber can 





■ 




W^S^^^^^^^ 


1 


1 


1 


















^H 




^^^B^M^ 




0^^^S^ 




•i '. I 


^^1 




I^^^J^H^^^ HtJ- 




^^^^^k 






II 


^^^^KSk^^H 


B 




^^ 


1 


■ 


■ 




H 




in 


s 


^^B 






^^^^^^^^^^^1 




iP^^v- - "^^'^^^B 


K 


^^^H 




















^HH 




t;^i'-'' "" - 




fl 






^^^HH 


B^^S^^ ■"■ 


- 




,^^1 






^^^^^^^s 






'. ■ _ - 


'^I^^H 


t;^^^ 




^^^H^^^^R 


».-■?- " 


^ 




'- ' ' "^"BSH 


^^^3 




■BHr!^ 


^SasL^ 




"" 


■ ; .-*^S 


^M 



Figure 56. — Cutting a Straight Timber on the Band Saw. 



be iDassed through a machine and moved about with 
but very little exertion on the part of workmen. 
The timbers are then put on trucks and distributed 
to the assembling platforms at the nead of each 
"way." See FigTire 58. 

Ways. — The set of heavy timber sills upon which 



108 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 



a ship is built, and upon which the vessel slides in 
launching, is called a way. Launching ways sup- 



. . . ;<*»ii. ■'';^;i::-ii '^.ii.«i*K?5S- -^'.fy--'"- ■■-.'.< -•- ■ 


* ^ 


;* _ , .. : ^^j^mm^^^:^"'''. ^ ^''^ 


M'M^ \ 


itk i^sitt,''-- '"^^iBlBj 




^^SHtflMr . -- r .^HBtefiBigS'^^^a.^-^'' '. . '•*' ■'?^; ' ! ^^^jfe^'^^r^ftr^j^i^ ■• 9H£^^^iiS^^^£i^A^^^ud^4K^^:ifj'?HUu.^' -^-vj' 


■■j^KlS 



Figure 07. — Sectional Carriages In Mill for Handling Heavy Timbers. 

port the cradle of a ship, and form the track on 
which it descends into the water. See Figures 99, 
100. 



SHIP CONSTRUCTION 



109 




CHAPTER VI 

MACHINES AND LABOR-SAVING DEVICES 

Sawing and Handling Large Timbers. — Special 
machines and labor-saving devices have been de- 
signed to partially offset the shortage of labor. 
Figure 59 shows the method of sawing a heavy 
timber in a large modern mill. The first slab has 
been removed and the second cut is being made. 
The timber rests on a carriage Avhich slides back 
and forth, and is controlled and held in position 
by a series of hooks operated by a lever on the 
carriage. The finished timbers are moved about 
in the yard on trucks, as shown in Figure 60. 

Bevel and Edging Machines. — One of the latest 
machines to be designed is a bevel and edging 
machine used for beveling ceiling and planking 
(including calking seams), and forecastle deck 
beams ; also for faying knees, rounding edging of 
waterways, main rails, pin rails, etc. 

In Figure 61 is shown a timber starting through 
the machine at an angle of 11 degrees to the right, 
and in Figure 62 the other end is shown coming 
out of cut at an angle of 11 degrees to the left, 
the angle continually changing as the work was 
done. 

The finished timber as it left the machine is 
shown in Figure 63. 

110 



MACHINES AND LABOR-SAVING DEVICES 



111 




112 COUESE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




MACHINES AND LABOR-SAVING DEVICES 113 

In beveling ceiling planking, a complete strake 
can be laid out at a time ; battens are nailed on each 
timber, and the timbers placed on roller skids 
alongside of the machine, from which they can 
quickly and easily be placed on the carriage and 
run through. The collar of the machine rests 
against the batten, and this regulates the depth 
of the cut and the shape. 

Surfacing Knees. — The method of surfacing 
knees is shown in Figure 64. Eleven knees are 
shown after having been surfaced two sides. These 
eleven knees were loaded on the carriage, surfaced 
one side, turned over and surfaced on the other 
side, the complete operation requiring only fifteen 
minutes. 

"Faying" the knees is a simple operation, as 
shown in Figure 65. A small platform is placed 
on the carriage, and a batten is nailed on the khees 
in the same manner that is used in working ceiling 
and planking. To illustrate the work accomplished 
the carriage was reversed and the machine 
stopped. 

Working Rudder Stock. — The working of the 
rudder stock shows another possibility of this 
machine. Formerly all the work was performed 
by hand, while the surfacing of the various parts 
is now done on the machine. 

In Figure 66 the rudder stock (iron bark) is 
placed on blocks sawed to hold it at 45 degrees, the 
carriage of the machine is run forward, and the 
cutting done on the top beveling head. 



114 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




Figure 61.— Starting a Cut at an Angle of 11 Degrees to the Riglit. 



MACHINES AND LABOR-SAVING DEVICES 115 




Figure 62. — Finishing the Cut at an Angle of 11 Degrees to the Left. 



116 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




Figure 63. — The Finished Timber. 



MACHINES AND LABOR-SAVING DEVICES 117 



s 




118 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

As it is especially hard wood, comparatively 
light cuts are made, and each time the carriage is 
reversed the beveling head is lowered slightly by 
power (the dial indicator showing the exact posi- 




Figure 65. — Faying Knees on a Special Beveling Machine. 

tion) and another cut is taken. This operation is 
continued until the timber is cut to the desired 
depth. The rudder stock is then placed in such a 
position that another corner can be cut do%vn in 
the same manner. 



MACHINES AND LABOR-SAVING DEVICES 



119 




120 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




MACHINES AND LABOR-SAVING DEVICES 



121 



3 
o5' 




122 COURSE IX WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




MACHINES AND LABOR-SAVING DEVICES 



123 



Figure 67 shows the same piece after sixteen 
cuts have been completed, the lower part beveled 
two ways, and the sides surfaced. It leaves the 
machine as shown in Figure 68, practically fin- 
ished, requiring comparatively little time with 




Figure 70.- 



-Eecord Keel Laid in Ten Minutes in 
the Atlantic Coast. 



Prominent Yard on 



hand tools to complete the work as shown in the 
illustration. 

Every piece of ceiling used in the ship shown in 
Figure 69 was beveled on this machine, no hand 
tools being used. Even the back of the ceiling at 
the turn of the bilge was beveled, using the top 
beveling head of the machine, thus showing the 
amount of hand labor that may be saved. 

Setting Up the Keel. — The keel. Figure 70, is 
made of yellow pine, 16 by 14 inches, in lengths of 



124 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




MACHINES AND LABOR-SAVING DEVICES 



125 



about 40 feet, scarfed together with 7-foot scarfs. 
Each scarf is fastened with eight li/4" bolts set up 
over clinch rings at both ends. The keel is set up 
on the keel blocks, wedged and shored in position. 
The keel shown in Figure 70 probably holds the 




Figure 72. — Assembling Platform, Shoving 1' i^-onals. 



record, having been laid in 10 minutes in an 
Atlantic Coast shipyard. 

Assembling Platform. — At the head of each way 
is an assembling platform as shown in Figure 
71. Timbers are fastened to the platform on the 
diagonal lines, and upon these timbers the frames 
are assembled as in Figure 72. 

Fitting and Fastening Frames. — If the diagonal 
lines and other reference lines have previously 
been transferred from the moulds to the frame 
timbers before sawing, they will readily find their 



126 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AA'D SHIP BUILDING 

proper location. The timbers come already shaped 
from the band saw, so that very little hand work 
is required at this stage of construction. 

After the joints are fitted, the frames are fas- 
tened together with %-inch drift bolts and I14" 
treenails. The holes are bored with an automatic 
auger bit, followed up by a man putting in the tree- 
nails as fast as the holes are bored, and again fol- 
lowed up by two men driving in the treenails, so 
that by the time the last hole is bored the frames 
are practically ready to raise. 



CHAPTER VII 

BAISING THE FEAMES 

As soon as the carpenters finish a frame, the 
riggers take charge in raising it into position. 
In li^igure 73 is shown a frame about to be raised. 

Two tracks are placed on either side of the ways, 
running from the assembling platform the entire 
length of the ways, and on these tracks the frames 
are run to their positions. Chocks are placed 
against the previous frame raised, to give the 
proper spacing of the frames and serve as a stop 
as the frame slides down the ways. 

Figure 74 is a nearer view of the frames in posi- 
tion ready to raise, and in Figure 75 a frame is 
being raised. 

As soon as the frame leaves the platform, the 
next frame is begun, and in that way both riggers 
and carpenters are kept busy. While one assem- 
bles, the other group raises. 

Figure 76 is a near view of the frames in posi- 
tion. Figure 77 shows the same ship a short time 
before, the ways having been lowered while the 
ship was on them, as shown in Figure 76. 

CANT FRAMES 

The cant frames are the half frames at the fore 
and aft of a ship. It is usual to dispose the trans- 

127 



128 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 



verse framing of a ship entirely in planes per- 
pendicular to the trace of the load water line, with 
the longitudinal plane of synunetry of ships. 

This practice leads to a large and varying bevel 
heing given to the frames at the ends of a ship with 
a very bluff bow or stera, and it becomes a prac- 




Flgure 73. — The Frames Are Run on Two Tracks, One on Either Side 
of the Ways. 

tical question whether it would not be better at 
such parts to dispose the frames in planes Avhich 
are more nearly normal to the general surface of 
the ship, and which need not be perpendicular to 
either of the three planes of reference. 

It is of great economical value and highly im- 
portant that the timber frames be all square or 
nearly square sections, thus eliminating great 
bevels. Most of the bevels in wooden ship timbers 



RAISING THE FRAMES 



129 



do not exceed 10 degrees, very few exceeding 15 
degrees. 

Bolting the Frames. — The lower ends of the cant 
frames are let into the deadwood 1 inch and bolted 
with six bolts in each half — four ll^" and two 
IVs". At least two of the ll^" bolts extend through 




Figure 74. — Frames in Position Ready to Raise. 



the half frame, through the deadwood, and set 
up over clinch rings. 

The cant frames are built up in a similar manner 
to the main frames. Figures 78 and 79 show the 
heels of the cant frames fore and aft of the same 
ship. In FigTire 79 the flooring is being laid and 
the illustration shoAvs the long treenails in posi- 
tion ready to be driven in. A number are set up 
at one time and then the operation of driving thein 



130 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




RAISING THE FRAMES 



131 




Figure 76. — Frames in Position. 




Figure 77. — These Ways Were Lowered While the Ship Was in Frame. 



132 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

is performed dt one time. Figures 80 and 81 show 
the heads of the same frames. 

Keelsons. — The keelson timbers are eight in 
number, as shown on the midship section, Figure 
47. These are put in in lengths not less than 48 




Pigure 78. — Cant Frames Looking Forward, Showing Heels oj Timbers. 



feet long, connected Avith 7-foot scarfs, care being 
taken to get the best shift of scarfs possible. 

Figures 82 and 83 show the keelsons being in- 
stalled. At the lower left-hand corner of Figure 
83 an opening is seen in the frame work. This 
opening is made after the frames are in position, 
and leads to a chute through which the heavy 
timbers of the keelson are hauled into position. 

Fairing-up Worh. — The framed body of the 
ship should be properly ribbanded and shored to 



RAISING THE FRAMES 



13S 




Figure 79. — Cant Frames Looking Aft, Sliowing Heels of Timbers. 




Figure 80. — Looliing Forward — Heads o£ Timbers. 



134 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 



retain shape. The inside surface of the forms 
should be dubbed with an adze, so as not to leave 
over 10 per cent of the sawed surface on the frames. 
The outside of the frames should be dubbed for 
each strake of planking, and the outer surface of 
planking rounded to conform to the shape of the 




Figure 81. — Looking Aft — Heads of Timbers. 



ship. The thick ceiling is rounded on the back, 
so as to fit the frames. 

Iron Strapping. — The entire frame work is 
braced and reinforced by a system of iron strap- 
ping. A top belt of %" by 8-inch iron extends from 
about 12 feet from the forward end to about 12 
feet from the aft end of the ship, fastened to each 
frame bv 1-inch by 10-inch countersunk bolts staff- 
gered. Diagonal straps of i/.-inch by 4r-inch iron 



RAISING THE FRAMES 



135 




136 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




a 
5 



RAISING THE FRAMES 13T 

are let into the outside of the frames and inclined 
at an angle of 45 degrees each way. 

The diagonals are connected to the top belt by 
two %-iiicli rivets and at each crossing by one 
1-inch rivet, and also fastened to each frame timber 
by one 1-inch countersunk bolt. They should be 
carried well down and wrapped around the bilge 
far enough to overlap the ends of the floor timbers. 

The iron straps should be painted with two coats; 
of red lead and oil before planking. 



CHAPTER VIII 

PLANKING AND FINISHING 

Layout of the Ship.—Beiore going into the de- 
tails of planking it will be well to refer to the 




Figure 84. — Bow of Ship Ready for Planking. 

illustrations to get the general layout of the ship 
before planking and in the finished state. 

138 



PLANKING AND FINISHING 



139 



Figure 84 shows the bow of a ship ready for. 
planking. Figure 85 shows the same bow planked, 
with the staging still in position. Figure 86 is a 
closer view of the details of the bow construction. 





!_ 


>f";ai^ 


R". 




iMBE^ilBnflKftQutf 


5^-i^i#^ 


-*— 


M 




^^M 




9" 


■ 



Figure 85. — Bow of Ship Planked, Showing Staging. 



Preparations for Planking. — Figure 87 shows 
the starboard side of the ship ready to plank. Note 
the escaping steam, showing the location of the 
steam box used in bending the planking. Figure 
88 shows the ship partially planked. In Figure 



140 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 



89 it is completely planked just before launching, 
and in Figure 90 the finished ship is seen after 
launching. 

Material. — The planking and ceiling throughout 
is made of yellow pine lumber. The ceiling is put 




Figure 86. — Close-up View of Ship, Showing Detail of Bow 
Construction. 



in in lengths 30 to 50 feet long, and the planking 
in lengths 24 to 40 feet, averaging 32 feet long. 
The bottom planking is 5 inches thick and 14 inches 
wide, bilge planking 6 inches by 10 inches, the 
planks narrowing as they reach up the side of the 



PLANKING AND FINISHING 



141 




142 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




I 



PLANKING AND FINISHING 



143- 




04 
I 



144 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

ship, beginning with 5-inch by 10-inch, then 5-incH 
by 9-inch, and 5-inch by 8-inch, the topside plank- 
ing being 6-inch by 9-inch. 

The lengths of the planking are jointed with 
square butts on the frames, with the seams out- 
gauged for calking. 

The circle of the stern between the knuckle line 
and poop deck is planked vertical, as shown in 
Figure 91. 

Figure 92 shows the interior construction of a 
standard wooden steamship, looking aft. Figure 
93 gives a close-up view of a framing platform. 

Steam Box. — The steam box for bending the ceil- 
ing planks is located inside the ship, while the 
boxes for bending the outside planking are located 
at the head of the ship or the most convenient 
place possible. 

The steam boxes are made in lengths about 8 
feet long and about 30 inches square inside the box. 
A number of these lengths are bolted together to 
get any length of steam box desired. 

The timbers are cut to the required shape before 
steaming them. All joined surfaces throughout 
the construction of the hull should be treated with 
a wood preservative before installing. 

Clamps and Wedges. — When ready to install, 
one end is fastened and held in position by a clamp, 
and as the plank is bent in position, a hook is fas- 
tened around the frames at intervals and a short 
timber is placed between the hook and the outside 
of the planking. Wedges can then be driven to 



PLANKING AND FINISHING 



145 




146 COURSE IN WOODEN UOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

bring the planking up tight against the frames. 
These hold it in position until fastened, when the 
wedges are removed. 

The garboard strake is fastened to each frame 




Figure 91. — Stern of Ship, Showing Vertical Planking. 

with four 1-inch bolts 18 inches long, and edge 
bolted to the keel with 1" by 36-inch bolts every 
second frame spacing. 



PLANKING AND FINISHING 



147 



t'Vir t^r-^ 




148 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 



Bottom, Bilge, and Side Planking. — The bottom, 
Tjilge, and side planking is fastened with %-incli 
Lolts driven over clinch rings. These rings should 




Figure 93. — View of Framing Platform. 

he countersunk and the holes plugged, with the 
grain of the wood running in the same direction 
as the grain of the wood in the planking. 

In addition to the bolts the wide planks have 



PLANKING AND FINISHING 



149 



four treenails in each frame and the narrow planks 
two treenails, all driven in full length, wedged on 
outside of planking and inside of ceiling with oak 
wedges. 




Figure 94. — Ready to Launch. 



The wedges are placed across the grain of the 
wood through which they are driven. The holes 
for the treenails are bored with long, power, ship 
auger bits. 

The head of each treenail is protected with an 



150 COURSE IN WOODEN DOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




Fij;:nre DT). — Framing the I'oop Deck. 




Figure 96. — Poop Deck Completed. 



PLANKING AND FINISHING 



151 







i£ti>l 



a^**' 



Figure 97. — Raising tlie Rudder. 




Figure 98. — Shaping the Masts. 



152 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




PLANKING AND FINISHING 



15S 




134 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

iron cap to take the blow of the sledge while being 
driven in, to prevent it from splitting. 

After the planking is fastened, the outer sur- 
face is rounded to conform to the shape of the 
vessel and joined so as to properly take the paint. 

Calking. — The seams in the hull are opened up 
with a dumb-iron where it is necessary to enlarge 
them to make room for the oakum. Beginning with 
the garboard, which should be calked with at least 
eight threads of oakum, the number of threads is 
reduced up to the five-inch planking, which should 
be calked with at least four threads of oakum, 
double horsed. The oakum is kept in the store 
room as it comes in bales, and is spun into threads 
for the calkers. 

Cementing Seams and Painting. — The outside 
planking seams up to the 18-foot water line should 
be filled with cement, and the remainder of the 
outside seams painted with a white-lead paint and 
linseed oil. 

The bottom of the vessel is painted with three 
coats of cojoper paint up to the light water line, 
and above the light water line a priming coat and 
two coats of pure lead and linseed oil. 

As soon as the hull is completed the vessel can 
be launched, thus releasing the ways for the laying 
of another keel. The hull is then turned over to 
the shipfitters to complete. Fignire 94 shows the 
hull of the vessel just before launching. 

Ship fitting. — Most of the difficult technical prob- 
lems arising in ship work are found in the con^ 



PLANKING AND FINISHING 



1S5 




156 



CUURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 



h 



o 






WIRELESS HOUSe- 
OOINER DECK 

COVERED WITH CANVAS 



r 








:0»L CHUTE WOOD 1-AOgy 
MATCHCOVERS) h4 

V.I •11. |«>!|p'= 




Figure 102. — Wheel House and Navigating Bridge 



PLANKING AND FINISHING 



157 



struction of the hull. When the shipfitters take 
charge, as is shown in Figure 95, framing the poop 
deck, the work takes on the nature of house con- 
struction, with the ordinary problems that may 
confront the average carpenter. Fignire 96 shows 
the poop deck completed. 

Raising the Rudder. — The methods employed in 
getting out the rudder stock have been shown in 
Figures 66, 67, and 68. Figure 97 shows the 
method of raising the rudder in position. 



7/V 




Figure 103. — Top of Wheel House. 



Shaping the Masts. — Each ship (standard car- 
rier) is fitted up with two wooden pole masts, fitted 
with cargo booms. Fignire 98 shows the shaping 
of the masts. These masts were completely shaped 
by hand, the rough cuts being made with an adze 
and finished with a hand plane. 

Shipyards and Ways. — Figures 99 and 100 give a 
panoramic view, taken June 12, 1918, of a prom- 
inent shipyard on the Atlantic Coast. Five ships 
are seen in course of construction and five ways 
are shown to the left of Fignire 100, which is a 
continuation to the left of the view in Figure 99. 



158 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDINe 




Figure 104. — Boat Deck, Standard Wood Steamship. 



PLANKING AND FINISHING 



IS* 




Figure 105. — Top of Gun House. 




Figure 106. — Poop Dofk. 



160 



COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




Figure 107. — Bridge Decli, Standard Wood Steamsliip, 



PLANKING AND FINISHING 



161 



This makes a total capacity for ten ships. In the 
distance is seen the fitting-up wharf, showing a 
ship with the painted camouflage effect, or protec- 
tive coloring adopted for use in wartime. 

STANDAED WOOD STEAMSHIP 

Plans and sections of the standard wood steam- 
ship built for the United States Shipping Board, 




Figure 108. — Forecastle Deck. 



Emergency Fleet Corporation, are shown in Fig- 
ures 101 to 111 inclusive. An inboard profile of 
the ship is seen in Figure 101, and the arrange- 
ment of the decks and numerous other details 
appear in the remaining illustrations. Figure 
102 shows details of the wheel house and navi- 



162 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 








m. i iuv//,riii.inmii ; 



Figure 109. — Section Through Engine Room, Loolsing Forward. 



PLANKING A\D FINISHING 



163 




Figure 110. — Section Througli Boiler Room, Looking Aft. 



164 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

gating bridge, and Figure 103 the top of the 
wheel house. The layout of the boat deck is seen 
in Fig. 104, and the top of the gun house in Figure 
105. Figure 106 shows the poop-deck arrangement, 
and Fig-ure 107 the bridge deck. The forecastle 




Figure 111. — Plan View at Dynamo Flat ani.1 Engineer's Store Room. 

deck plan appears in Figure 108. Figure 109 
shows a section through the engine room, looking 
forward, and Figure 110 a section through the 
boiler room, looking aft. Figure 111 is a plan 
view at the dynamo flat and the engineer's store- 
room. 



CHAPTER IX 

HAND TOOLS 

Among the special hand tools used in wooden 
boat and ship building, the most important are 
the adze, the broadaxe, calking irons, the calking 
mallet, and ship auger bits. A description of each 
of these and their respective uses is given below. 

A complete list of the hand tools used by the ship 
carpenter and boat builder is as follows : 



Adze — lipped 


Chisels — 




Axe — plain broad 


Cape 

cold 




Bevel — ship carpenter's 


slice, 21/2" 




Bits 


wood, 1/4" 


to 2' 


extension 


Dividers 




screwdriver (large 


Draw knife 




and small) 






ship auger with spur 


Gauges — 




1^" to 1" 


marking 






wood, 1^" 


to 2" 


Brace — ratchet 






Hammers — 




Burr set 


ball pein 




Calking irons 


claw 




Calking mallet 


Oilstone 





165 



166 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

Reamers — wood, I/2' 
11/2" 

Saws — 



Pincli bar, 20" 

Planes — 

bailer, for hollowing 

plank 
bilge, for smoothing 

side of hull 
compass 
fore 
jack 
rabbet 
smoothing 

Pliers — end cutting 

Plumb bob 

Easp — wood 



to 



compass 
cross cut 
hack, 
panel 
rip 

Spirit level 

Spoke shave 

Squares — 
large steel 
small try square, 7V2' 



Adze. — Figures 112, 113. The adze is a tool 
resembling a hoe and is used in much the same 
manner for shaping large parts where the wood 
to be removed is too much for the chisel or the 
plane. The lipped adze has the extreme ends of 
the blade turned up and is by far the best kind, as 
these lips insure a clean cut and prevent raising 
splinters. For the best results the cutting should 
be across the grain. See Figure 114. 

For converting large material when machinery 
is not available, the roughing is done with a broad 
axe ; the adze is next used to get close to the finish 
dimensions, and then the work is smoothed up with 
a plane. 

Broad ^a;e.— Figure 115. This axe differs con- 



HAND TOOLS 



167 





Figure 112. — Plain Adze. 



Figure 113. — Lipped Adze. 




Figure 114. — Scarfiog Timber witli an Adze. 



168 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 




Figure 118. — Calkicg Mallet. Figure 119. — Ship Auger Bits. 



HAND TOOLS 169 

siderably from the ordinary axe used for chopping. 
The blade is wide and is sharpened by beveling- 
one side more than the other, somewhat like a 
chisel. Both blade and handle are offset, the whole 
form and hang being adapted to hewing on the side 
of large pieces of timber. 

Calking Irons. — These are made of steel in 
various shapes and sizes. The two in general use 
are the dumb-iron (Fig-ure 116), which has a 
tapered blade almost sharp, and the making-iron 
(Figure 117), which has a small blunt end with a 
channel in it, used for going over the cotton in the 
seams after it has been driven in by the driving- 
iron. The dumb-iron is employed to open the 
seams that are too tight. 

Calking Mallet. — Figure 118. This is a tool used 
in connection with calking irons for driving cotton 
or oakum into the seams, to make them watertight. 
The head, which is long and small in diameter, is 
usually made of live oak and fitted with iron rings 
to add weight and prevent splitting. Several sizes 
are made, the smallest being suitable for boat work. 

Ship Auger Bits. — Figure 119. These are used 
for boring long holes. They are of different shapes 
and are made with and without the feed screw, or 
spur. Those without the spur, sometimes called 
"barefooted," are preferred for very long holes, 
as they are not so readily deflected from a straight 
course. The commercial bits are often too short, 
but it is a small job for a blacksmith to weld in a 
piece, making any length required. 



CHAPTER X 

WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP TERMINOLOGY 

After-timbers. — The timbers abaft the midship 
section of a vessel. 

Air-port. — An opening in a ship's side for air, 
closable by a shutter, sidelight, or deadlight. 

Apostle. — A knighthead or bollard-timber on a 
deck, for belaying hawsers and heavy ropes. 

Apron. — An upper member of the stem on the 
inboard side of a boat. 

Arch-hoard. — The part of the stern over the 
counter, under the knuckles of the stern timbers. 

Auger-bit. — A boring-bit with a twisted shank, 
which clears the chips out of the hole. 

Balance-frames. — Those frames of a ship which 
are of equal area and equally distant from the 
ship's center of gravity. 

Balcony. — The stern gallery of a ship. 

Batten. — A thin strip of wood used in fairing 
lines. 

Beak. — The part of a ship forward of the fore- 
castle, fastened to the stem and supported by the 
main knee. 

Beam. — One of the curved transverse timbers 
■of a vessel, supporting a deck. 

Beam-line. — The line indicating the intersection 
of the top of the beams with the frame. 

17(1 



SHIP BUILDING TERMINOLOGY 171 

Bearding-line. — The line made by the curved 
surface of a ship's skin with the stem, keel and 
stern-post. 

Bend. — One of the strong planks on a vessel's 
sides to which the beams, knees, and futtocks are 
bolted. 

. Bending-strakes. — Two strakes worked near the 
coverings of the deck, running fore and aft a lit- 
tle thicker than the rest of the deck, and let down 
between the beams and ledges so that the upper 
side is even with the 'rest. 

Bevel. — Any angle in a timber except one of 90 
degrees. 

Beveling. — The angles which the sides and edges 
of each piece of a frame make with each other. 

Beveling-edge. — The edge of a ship's frame 
which is in contact with the skin. 

Bilge. — The flat portion of a ship's bottom, or 
the point at which the frames turn from the bottom 
to the sides. 

Bilge-planks.— Strengthenmg planks of the in- 
ner or outer skin, at the bilge. 

Bilge-ivay. — The foundation of the cradle sup- 
porting a ship upon the sliding-ways during build- 
ing and launching. 

Binding-strakes. — Thick strakes, planking, or 
wales, at points where they may be bolted to knees, 
shelf-pieces, etc. 

Body-plan. — An end elevation of a hull, showing 
the water lines, buttock and bow lines, diagonal 
lines, etc. 



172 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

BoU-strake. — The strake or wale through which 
the beam fastenings pass. 

Bow-lines. — Curves representing vertical sec- 
tions of the bow end of a ship. 

Break. — An abrupt change of level, as of a deck. 
The break of a poop-deck is where it ends forward. 

Bridge. — A partial deck running from side to 
side of a vessel amidship. 

Building-block. — One of the temporary struc- 
tures resting upon a slip and supporting the keel 
of a ship while building. They consist of blocks 
of timber so arranged as to be removable by knock- 
ing out the key-pieces or wedges. 

Building -slip. — A yard prepared for shipbuild- 
ing. It includes one or more slips, or inclined 
planes on which a vessel in its cradle is supported 
while on the stocks in the process of construction, 
or upon which a ship is hauled for repair. 

Bulge. — The flat portion of a ship 's bottom ; the 
bilge. 

Bulkhead. — A partition in a ship which divides 
the interior space into compartments, which may 
be made watertight. The bulkheads affording the 
greatest protection are those placed a few feet 
from the stem and stern respectively, the forward 
one checking the inflow of water through a dam- 
aged stem, and the after one averting the danger 
of any accident that might arise to the sternpost 
or rudder-braces, or to the tube of the shaft of 
screw-vessels. The water taken into these com- 
partments would only slightly impede the way of 



SHIP BUILDING TERMINOLOGY 173 

the ship by throwing her out of trim, as the quan- 
tity would be comparatively small. The bulkheads 
more amidships assist in strengthening the ves- 
sel, and serve to prevent fire from spreading be- 
yond the compartment in which it started. In 
case of a leak they confine the water to the com- 
partment which it enters. Watertight bulkheads 
have been used for ages in Chinese shipbuilding, 
but in this country are more generally employed 
in iron than in wooden vessels. In small vessels 
they can only be used transversely, but in larger 
ones they may be applied longitudinally as well. 

Butt. — The meeting joint of two planks in a 
strake. Tlie joint between two strakes is a seam. 

Buttock. — The rounded-in, overhanging part on 
each side of a ship's stern in front of the rudder. 
It terminates below by merging into the run. 

Buttock-lines. — The curves shown by a vertical 
longitudinal section of the after part of a ship's 
hull, parallel to the keel. A similar section for- 
ward shows the bow-lines, and a continuous sec- 
tion through the whole length of the ship exhibits 
the buttock and bow lines. 

Calking. — The process of filling the seams be- 
tween the planks of vessels, and of spreading the 
ends of the treenails, by driving in cotton or oakum, 
to make the seams watertight. Oakum is made 
by cutting old ropes and cables into short lengths 
called junk and picking that to pieces. The seam is 
opened with a dumb-iron or deck-iron, driven with 
a calking mallet, and the threads of oakum driven 



174 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

in, one after another, with a calking iron or making 
iron. It is then payed with melted pitch. 

Camber. — A curvature upward, like the rise or 
crown of a deck amidships, or of a bridge or a 
beam; the curve of a ship's plank. This shape is 
given to increase stability. 

Cant. — An angle, bevel, or slope. 

Cant-frames. — Bow and stern frames canted 
from vertical position for the purpose of eliminat- 
ing greater bevels. 

Cant-timber. — A ship timber that is not square 
with the keel, or that makes an angle with the keel 
of less than 90 degrees. 

Cat-beam. — The longest beam in a ship; the 
beak-head beam. 

Ceiling. — That portion of the inside skin of a 
vessel between the deck-beams and the limber- 
strakes on each side of the keelson. It is also 
called the foot-waling. The strakes of the ceiling 
immediately below the shelf -pieces which support 
the deck-beams are called clamps. The outside 
planking is called the skin. 

Center-line {C.L.). — The central, longitudinal, 
vertical section of a vessel's hull. 

Chain-plate. — One of the plates of iron bolted 
below the channels, for the attachment of the dead- 
eyes to which the shrouds and backstays are se- 
cured. 

Channel. — A corruption of chain-wale. A flat 
ledge of wood or iron projecting outward from 



SHIP BUILDING TERMINOLOGY 175 

the ship's side, for spreading the shrouds or stand- 
ing rigging at each side of the masts, and protect- 
ing tlie chain-plates. The channels are at the 
level of the deck beams. 

Chock. — 1. A block, usually wedge - shaped, 
driven behind the props of a cradle to prevent it 
from slipping on the ways before the ship is ready 
to launch. 

2. A piece of timber, framed into the heads and 
heels of a ship's timbers at their junctions, to act 
as a lap to the joint and make up the deficiency at 
the inner angle, as in the stem-piece and the main 
piece of the head ; also in the deadwood, etc. 

Clinker-built. — A term applied to boats in which 
the lower edge of each plank overlaps the one next 
below it, like the weather-boarding of a house, or 
the shingles or slates of a roof. In such boats the 
lower edge of each strake of plank overlaps the 
upper edge of the next strake below. They are 
not built upon frames, but upon temporary trans- 
verse sectional moulds, two, three, or four in num- 
ber, which are fixed at their proper stations on the 
keel. The strakes are then put on, beginning with 
the garboard strake, and bent to the fig-ure given 
by the moulds. Each strake is fastened to the "next 
below it by nails, driven from the outside through 
the laps or lands, or by screws. When two or 
more lengths of plank are used in a strake, they 
are scarfed to each other, the outside lap of each 
scarf pointing aft. 

Coal-bunker. — One of the spaces provided in a 



17U COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

ship, convenient to the furnace-room, for keeping 
the fuel. 

Coamings. — Also spelled combings. The raised 
border or frame of a hatchway, to prevent the 
water on deck from flowing below. The fore and 
aft pieces of a hatchway frame are coamings, those 
athwart ship are head-ledges. The former rest on 
carlings, which extend from beam to beam, and 
the latter rest on the deck beams. 

Companion. — A wooden covering over the stair- 
way to a ship's cabin; a companion-hatch. The 
staircase is the companion-ladder, or companion- 
way. 

Counter. — That part of a ship's stern which 
hangs over the stern-post. The counter-timbers 
spring from the wing-transom, which extends 
across between the fashion-pieces, crossing in 
front of the stern-post, near its head. At the top 
of the counter-timbers is the taffrail. 

Cradle. — The frame in which a ship lies on the 
ways, and which accompanies her into the water 
in launching, separating from the ship by the act 
of floating. In its simplest form, the cradle con- 
sists of three longitudinal timbers, united by ribs 
or crosspieces. It is also used in hauling out a 
ship for repairs. 

Cross-heam. — A beam in a frame laid cross- 
wise. 

Cross-spalls. — Cross timbers uniting the heads 
of two futtocks. 



SHIP BUILDING TERMINOLOGY 177 

Cutwater. — The forward edge of the stem or 
bow of a vessel ; that which divides the water right 
and left. It is fayed to the forepart of the stem. 

Deadnwod. — The lower member of the stem or 
stern on the inboard side of a boat ; also the solid 
mass of built-up timbers at the narrow portions 
of the extremities of a ship's frame, fore and 
aft, above the keel, and continued as high as the 
cutting-down line. In vessels designed for service 
in arctic waters, the deadwood is in unusual quan- 
tity, to give solidity to a structure liable to contact 
with ice-floes and drifts. 

Dead'ivorks. — -The parts of a vessel above the 
load water line. 

Deck. — Any floor in a ship above the bottom of 
the hold. Decks may run from stem to stern, or 
be only partial. In three-decked ships the decks 
above the water-line are known as the upper, main, 
and lower decks. The deck next below the water- 
line is known as the orlop deck. The upper may be 
known as the spar deck, with the forecastle as its 
foremost part and the quarter deck aft. The 
waist is the space amidships. A transverse deck 
extending across the middle of the vessel is called 
either a hurricane-deck, a bridge-deck, or the 
bridge. Detached structures on a deck are called 
deck-houses. 

Deck-transom. — A horizontal timber under a 
ship's counter. 

Diagonal. — 1. A timber brace, knee, plank, truss, 
etc., crossing a vessel's timbers transversely. 



178 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

2. A line cutting the body plan diagonally from 
the timbers to the center line. 

3. An oblique brace or stay connecting the hori- 
zontal and vertical members of a truss or frame. 

Diagonal-built. — A term applied to boats in 
which the outer skin consists of two layers of 
planking making angles of about 45 degrees with 
the keel in opposite directions. Such boats are 
built, like clinker-built boats, upon temporary 
transverse moulds. After setting up and fixing the 
moulds upon the keel, the gunwale, a shelf -piece, 
and a series of ribbands are temporarily fixed in 
the moulds. Two layers of planking are then put 
on, bent to fit the moulds and ribbands, and fas- 
tened to each other and to the keel, stem, stern- 
post, shelf, and gunwale with screws or nails, 
driven from the outside, and clinched inside upon 
small rings, called clinch-rings or roves. The gun- 
wale is then shored, to keep it in shape. The 
moulds and ribbands are taken out, and floors, 
thwarts, etc., are put in as in a clinker-built boat. 

Diagonal-lines. — Lines showing the boundaries 
of various parts, formed by sections Avhich are 
oblique to the vertical longitudinal plane, and 
which intersect that plane in straight lines parallel 
to the keel. 

Displacement. — The weight of water displaced 
by a vessel floating in it, this weight being equal 
to the weight of the ship. 

Diminishing Stuff. — Planking worked under the 



SHIP BUILDING TERMINOLOGY 179 

strakes and thinned to correspond with the thick- 
ness of the bottom plank. 

Dog-shore. — One of the two struts which hold 
the cradle of the ship from sliding on tlie slip-ways 
when the keel blocks are taken out. The lower 
end of each dog-shore abuts against tlie upper end 
of the ribband of the slip-way, and the upper end 
against the dog-cleat, which is bolted to the side 
of the bilge-way. Beneath each dog-shore is a 
small block called a trigger. In launching, the 
triggers are removed, the dog-shores knocked 
down, and the ship-cradle freed, so that, carrying 
the vessel, it slides down the slip-ways. A time- 
honored signal for launching is "Down dog- 
shores ! ' ' 

Double FuttocJcs. — Timbers in the cant-bodies 
extending from the deadwood to the run of the 
second futtock-head. 

Drift-piece. — One of the upright or curved pieces 
of timber that connect the plank-sheer with the 
gunwale. 

Dubbing. — Dressing a timber smooth witli the 
adze. 

Entering-port. — A port or opening cut in the 
side of the vessel to serve as a door of entrance. 

Expansion. — The expansion of the skin of a ship, 
or rather of a network of lines on that surface, is 
a process of drafting to facilitate the laying-off 
of the dimensions and positions of the planks of 
which that skin is to be made. 

Pair. — To make in true curves or proportions; 



180 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SPIIP BUILDING 

to make regular, true, smooth, or flowing the lines 
of a boat or ship. 

False Keel. — A set of timbers worked onto the 
main or true keel out-board, and intended to pre- 
vent leeway, also to protect the true keel in case 
of grounding. 

Fay. — To fit close together, as two pieces of 
Avood or timber. 

Faying Surface. — The face or end of a piece of 
timber which joins another similar surface so 
closely as to leave no interstice. 

Filling. — Pieces of material or a composition 
fitted in between the frames of the hold, to in- 
crease the watertightness, resist conpression, and 
prevent the accumulation of dirt, bilge-water, and 
vermin. Blocks of wood, bricks, mortar, cement, 
and asphalt have been used. 

Flat. — One of a number of ship's frames of 
equal size and forming a straight middle body; 
also a timber which has no curves, as the floor- 
timbers of the dead-flat amidships. 

Floor. — The bottom part of the hold on each side 
of the keelson; the flat portion of a vessel's hold. 

Floor Timbers. — Cross timbers uniting the heels 
of two futtocks. 

Flush Deck. — A deck running the whole length of 
the ship, from stem to stern, without forecastle 
or poop. 

Forecastle. — (Pronounced foke'sl.) The part of 
a ship forward of the foremast; a forward part 
of the space below decks, for the accommodation 



SHIP BUILDING TKHMINOLOGY 181 

of seamen; in flush decks, a part of the upper deck 
forward of the after fore shroud ; or a short upper 
deck forward. 

Forefoot. — The forward end of a vessel's keel, 
on which the stem-post is stepped. 

Fore-hook. — A strengthening piece in the stem, 
binding the bows together; also called a breast- 
hook. 

Foremast. — The mast nearest the bow in ves- 
sels carrying more than one mast. 

Frame. — A built-up rib of a wooden vessel. Two 
or more futtocks united form a frame. 

Frame Mould. — A pattern or template for the 
frame of a boat or ship. 

Freeboard. — That part of a vessel's side which 
is included between the plank-sheer and the water- 
line. 

Furring. — Double planking of a ship's side. 

Futtock. — One of the curved or crooked timbers 
in a built-up or compound rib or frame of a ves- 
sel. A timber of the dimensions and form for 
a frame of a ship cannot be procured in one piece ; 
the frame is built up of pieces scarfed together. 
The number required is according to the length 
of the sections of the requisite height. They are 
known as the first, second, or third futtock, ter- 
minated by the top-timber. The term futtock is 
also applied to the complete half of a frame. 

Futtock-plank. — The first plank of the ceiling 
next to the keelson; also called the limber-strake. 



182 COURSE IX WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

The first plank of the skin next to the keel is the 
garboard-strdke. 

Gallery. — A balcony projecting from the after 
part of a ship, as the quarter-gallery or stern- 
gallery. 

Galley. — 1. A clinker-built boat for ship's use, 
from 28 to 36 feet long, rowed by ten or twelve 
men. 

2. The cook-house on board ship, which is on 
deck or in a forward part of the vessel. 

Gangway. — An opening in the bulwarks of a 
vessel by which persons come on board or dis- 
embark. 

Garhoard Strake. — The row or strake of planks 
nearest to the keel on the outside of a ship's 
bottom. The rabbet to receive the garboard 
strake is made along the upper edge of the keel. 

Ground Timbers. — The timbers which lie on the 
keel and are bolted to the keelson. 

Ground-icays. — The large blocks and planks 
which support the cradle on which a ship rests 
and is launched. 

Gunnale. — The upper planking covering the tim- 
ber heads around the topside of the ship ; also the 
piece of timber around the topside of a boat, and 
having rowlocks for the oars. 

Half-breadlh Plan. — A plan or top view of one- 
half of a ship divided by a vertical longitudinal 
section in the line of the keel. It shows the water 
lines, bow and buttock lines, and diagonal lines 
of construction. 



SHIP BUILDING TERMINOLOGY 183 

Half -Floor. — One of the timbers of a frame, the 
heel of which is over the keel, while on its head 
rests the heel of the second futtock. It lies for 
half its length alongside the cross-timber, with the 
other half alongside the first futtock. 

Half-timber. — One of the short futtocks in a 
cant-frame. 

Harping. — A continuation of the ribbands be- 
yond the square frames, moulded to the shape of 
the hull and used for proper spacing of cants and 
futtocks. The term harpings is also applied to 
the plank wales of the bow, which are of extra 
strength. Also spelled harpin. 

Hatch. — An opening in a deck or floor, or the 
covering for the same. 

Hatchivay. — One of the large rectangular open- 
ings in the deck of a ship by which freight is hoist- 
ed in or out, and access is had to the hold. The 
coverings are hatches, and these are fastened 
down by battens. There are four pieces in the 
frame of a hatchway, including the coamings 
and head-ledges. The hatchways are called 
fore hatch, or main hatch, or after hatch, as the 
case may be, according to the size and character 
of the vessel. 

Haivsehole. — A hole in the bow through which a 
cable or hawser may be passed. In large ships 
the ha"\\'seholes are four in number. 

Hawse-piece. — One of the cant-frames standing 
next to the knightheads, and fitted close together, 
so as to form a solid mass of timber for the 



184 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

passage of the liawselioles ; also a plank or strake 
on the ship's bow Avhich is pierced by the hawse- 
hole. 

Head. — 1. The fore part, beak, bow, or stem 
end of a vessel. 

2. The upper part of a timber in a frame. The 
other end is the heel. 

3. The forefoot of the keel. 

Heel. — The lower end of a timber in a frame; 
the after end of a ship 's keel. 

Hog-frame. — A fore-and-aft frame forming a 
truss in the main frame of a vessel, to assist in 
giving vertical rigidity to the structure. 

Hold. — The interior part of a ship, in which 
the cargo of a merchant vessel is stored. The por- 
tions are distinguished as the fore, main and after 
holds. 

Horn Timber. — A small timber to protect the end 
of the stern-post and to eliminate end wood. 

Hull. — The body of a ship or boat, exclusive of 
the masts, yards, sails, and rigging. 

Hurricane Deck. — A raised platform extending 
from side to side of a ship, above deck amidships ; 
a bridge or station for the officer in command. 

Inboard. — Inside a ship's hull. 

Inner Post. — A piece brought in at the fore side 
of the main post, and generally continued as high 
as the wing transom to seat the other transoms 
upon. 

Keel. — The lower longitudinal beam or mem- 
ber of the framework of a vessel, serving as the 



SHIP BUILDING TERMINOLOGY 185 

backbone of the entire frame. When a ship is to 
be built the keel is first laid, upon blocks of which 
the upper surfaces form an angle of about three 
degrees with the horizon. These are called keel- 
blocks and are usually about three feet high and 
spaced about four feet apart. White oak is a 
favorite material for the keel. 

Keelson. — A beam running lengthwise above 
the keel, and bolted to the middle of the floor 
frames, binding them to the keel, in order to stiff- 
en the vessel. 

Knee. — Any one of the angular pieces of tim- 
ber or iron connecting the beams and the frames 
of a vesseh 

Knighthead. — One of the first cant timbers on 
each side of the stem, rising obliquely from the 
keel and passing on each side of the bowsprit, to 
secure its inner end. 

Limber. — A passage on each side of the keelson 
for bilge water. It is covered by a movable plank 
called a limber-board, the edges of which rest 
respectively upon the keelson and the limber 
strake. 

Limber Strake. — The strake of the inner skin 
of a ship which is nearest to the keelson. 

Lines {on a Drawing). — The principal lines of 
a ship plan or drawing are as follows : 

(a). Base Line. — A horizontal reference line 
from which vertical measurements are taken. 

(b). Center Line — A vertical line in the center 
of the body plan, perpendicular to the base line. 



186 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING , 

A horizontal line on the half -breadth plan through 
the center of the vessel. 

(c). Diagonals — Lines running diagonally from 
the center line to frame lines. 

(d). Frame Lines — Outlines showing the shape 
of the frames of the vessel. 

(e). Water Lines — Horizontal lines parallel to 
the base line in the body plan; horizontal lines 
parallel to the base line in the sheer plan; curved 
lines in the half -breadth plan. 

Lines Plan. — A drawing showing the general 
outline or form of the vessel. The lines plan com- 
prises three plans ; 

(a). Sheer Plan — A side view showing the 
length of the vessel and heights of the sheer or 
gunwale. 

(b). Half -breadth Plan — A top view showing 
the horizontal or floor plan on any water lines. 

(c). Body Plan — An end view showing the 
curves of the sides or frame lines at any point in 
the vessel. Frame lines forward of the midship 
section are on the right of the center line; those 
aft of the midship section on the left of the center 
line. 

Load Water-line. — The line of flotation of a ship 
when it has its full cargo aboard. 

Loftsman. — A man who lays out and makes 
moulds for a vessel. 

Mast. — A long spar placed amidships, nearly 
perpendicularly upon the keelson, and serving to 
support yards, sails, and rigging, or in steam ves- 



SHIP BUILDING TERMINOLOGY 187 

sels for signaling, hoisting, and other purposes. 
The lower end, or heel, of a mast rests in a step 
on the keelson. 

Mast-hole. — A framed hole in the deck to receive 
a mast. It is made of larger diameter than the 
mast by twice the thickness of the wedges which 
hold the mast in position. 

Mould. — A full-size pattern of the same figure 
and dimensions as the moulding-side of the piece 
which it represents. The mould may be of skeleton 
form and may serve for several frames. It is 
usually a thin plank cut to the form of a ship tim- 
ber and serves as a template for scribing the mem- 
bers for the workmen, Avho saw, hew, and adze 
them into shape. 

Moulding. — The depth or dimension (of a piece 
of timber) which lies in the moulding-plane. 

Moulding-edge. — That edge of a ship's frame, 
which comes in contact with the skin and is repre- 
sented in the plan. The other edge is the heveling- 
edge. 

Mould Loft. — A large open room on the floor of 
which drawings and moulds of a vessel are laid out 
full size. 

Planking. — The skin, or wooden covering of 
plank on the exterior and interior surfaces of the 
ribs or frames, and on the beams of a vessel. A 
line of planking is a strake, and is named from its 
position, as garboard strake, sheer strake, etc. 

Planking-clamp. — A clamp used for bending a 



188 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

strake against the ribs or frames of a vessel and 
holding it until secured by bolts or treenails. 

Plank-sheer. — A plank resting on the heads of 
the top timbers of the frames or ribs ; the gunwale. 

Poop. — A short deck built over the after part of 
a vessel, also called poop-deck; the aftermost, 
highest part of the hull. 

Port. — 1. A framed opening in a ship's side, 
closed by glazed lids, called sidelights, or by water- 
tight shutters, called deadlights. An airport is an 
opening through the side below decks for ventila- 
tion. 

2. The left side of a vessel to a person standing 
on deck and facing forward; formerly called lar- 
board. 

Port-hole. — An embrasure in a ship's side. 

Pump-well.- — A compartment extending from the 
ship's bottom to the lower or the upper deck, as 
the case may be, to contain the pump-stocks, etc. ; 
used to remove bilge water which collects in the 
limbers, or in the event of a leak. 

Quarter. — The side of a ship, aft, between the 
main channels and the stern. 

Quarter-decJc. — A deck raised above the waist 
and extending from the stern to the mainmast in 
a full-rigged ship. 

Rabbet. — The recess cut in the keel, stem, and 
stern to receive the ends of planking. 

Rail. — The top of the bulwarks of a ship. The 
part continued round the stern is the taft'rail. 

Rake. — The forward pitch of the stem of a 



SHIP BUILDING TERMINOLOGY 189 

vessel, or the backward slope of tlie stern, that is, 
the degree in which it overhangs the keel. The 
rake of a rudder is that of the stern-post. 

Reaming-iron. — A blunt chisel used for opening 
the seams between the planking of a ship, before 
calking them with oakum. 

Rib. — One of the curved side timbers of a ship 
or boat, to which the wooden planking and the 
interior sheathing is treenailed or pinned. These 
frames are called libs from their resemblance in 
form and function to the ribs of the human body. 
They are fastened to the keel or backbone of a 
ship in much the same manner as the human ribs 
are articulated to the spine. For wooden vessels 
of considerable size, timber of the required dimen- 
sions and form cannot be procured to make a rib 
of one piece, so each rib or frame is made of sec- 
tions scarfed together. These sections are called 
futtocks. 

Ribband. — A temporary lengthwise strip follow- 
ing a vessel's curves and bolted to its ribs on the 
square body to hold them in place until they re- 
ceive the planking or plating. A number of these 
are fastened at different distances from the keel. 

Ribband Lines. — Oblique longitudinal sections 
of the hull. 

Ribband Shore. — A strut to support the frame- 
work of a ship while building. The head rests 
against the ribbands and the base on the slip or 
way. 

Rider. — A rib within the inner sheathing, bolted 



ISO COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

through the latter into the main ribs and planking, 
for the purpose of stiffening the frame. The 
riders extend from the keelson to the orlop-deck 
beams. 

Riding -hitts. — Two strong upright timbers near 
the bows of a ship, to which the cable is secured ; 
they extend through two decks, are connected by 
a crosspiece, and braced against the strain of the 
cable by horizontal standards bolted to the deck 
beams. 

Rising-line. — A curved line on the plans of a 
ship, marking the height of the floor timbers 
throughout the length, and thereby fixing the 
sharpness and flatness of the vessel's bottom. , 

Risings. — Thick planks supporting the timbers 
of the decks. 

Rudder. — A contrivance, usually consisting of a 
flat frame, hung to the stern-post of a vessel, to 
afford a means of steering. The pintles of the 
rudder are hooked upon the eyebolts of the stern- 
post, thus giving an axis of oscillation as the rud- 
der is moved to and fro by the filler. 

Rudder-port. — The hole in a ship's counter for 
the passage of the rudder-head, or upper cylin- 
drical end. 

Scaling. — The process of developing the proper 
diminish of a plank fore and aft. 

Scantling. — The dimension or size prescribed 
for any part of the hull of a ship, especially the 
transverse dimension of pieces of timber. 

Scarf. — A lapped joint made by beveling off, 



SHIP BUILDING TERMINOLOGY 191 

notching or otherwise cutting away the sides of 
two timbers at the ends, and bolting or strapping 
them together so as to form one continuous piece, 
usually without increased thickness. Also spelled 
scarph. 

Scupper.— A hole or tube leading through the 
ship's side, to carry away water from the deck. 

Scuttle. — A small opening in a ship's deck or 
side, closed by a shutter or hatch. 

Seam. — The space between two planks of a ship 's 
skin, made water-tight by calking. 

Shaft-alley. — A passageway between the after 
bulkhead of the engine room and the shaft-pipe, 
around the propeller shaft and affording a means 
of access thereto. 

Shaft-log. — A member of the stern of a wooden 
vessel through which the propeller-shaft passes. 

Shaft-pipe. — The pipe or tube in the stern of a 
vessel through which the propeller-shaft passes in- 
board. It occupies a hole bored through the stern- 
post and deadwood. 

Sheathing.- — A covering, usually thin plates of 
copper or of an alloy containing copper, to protect 
a ship's bottom. 

Sheer. — The rise or upward curvature of the 
lines of a vessel 's hull toward the bow and stern. 

Sheer-line. — The line of the deck at the side of 
the ship. 

Sheer Plan.—^\iQ plan of elevation of a ship, 
showing the outboard features of the vessel, lines 
of stem and stern, strakes, water lines, etc., also 



192 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

the hang of each deck inside. A vertical, longi- 
tudinal midship section of a vessel, on which are 
shown the features similar to those of an arch- 
itectural elevation, including water lines, level 
lines, diagonal lines, buttock and bow lines, the 
topside line, the cutting-down line, etc. 

Sheers. — An apparatus, usually mounted on a 
wharf, for placing the masts in a ship, hoisting in 
and taking out boilers, etc. It consists of two 
masts, or legs, secured together at the top, and 
provided with ropes or chains and pulleys for hoist- 
ing purposes. 

Sheer Strake. — The strake under the gunwale 
in the topside of a vessel. It is generally worked 
thicker than the rest of the topsides, and is scarfed 
between the drifts. 

Shore. — One of the wooden props by which the 
framework of a vessel is externally supported 
Avhile building ; or by which the vessel is laterally 
supported on the stocks. 

Siding. — Dressing the timbers of a ship to the 
required thickness ; also the timbers so dressed. 
The thickness of a timber in a direction perpen- 
dicular to the moulding plane. 

Skeg. — A knee which unites and braces the 
stern-post and keel of a boat. 

Skin. — The inner or outer planking of a ship. 
The inner skin is commonly called the ceiling. 

Sliding-way. — One of the structures on each 
side of and parallel with the keel, supporting the 
bilgeways of the cradle on which the vessel rests 



SHIP BUILDING TERMINOLOGY 193 

in launching. The sliding-ways are the inclined 
planes down which the vessel slides, and are made 
of narrow planks laid on blocks of wood. 

Slip. — An inclined plane on which a vessel in its 
cradle is supported Avhile on the stocks building, or 
upon which it is handled for repairs. 

Sny. — The trend of the lines of a ship upward 
from amidships toward the bow and the stern; a 
gentle bend in timber curving upward. 

Snying. — Curved planking set edgewise in the 
frame of a vessel at the bow or stern. 

Spiling. — The edge-curve of a plank or of a 
strake in a vessel's hull. 

Spiling Batten. — A batten on which shapes of 
planking, or other scantlings, are laid out to proper 
shape. 

Spilings. — Dimensions taken from a straight- 
edge or rule to different points on a curve. 

Stancliion. — A post for supporting the deck- 
beams of a vessel. 

Standard Knee. — A bent timber having one 
branch fastened against the upright side of a beam 
and the other against the ship's side. One fayed 
vertically to the vessel's side, above or beneath a 
beam, is called a hanging knee. 

Starboard. — The right-hand side of a vessel, 
looking from aft forward; in contradistinction to 
port, the left-hand side, formerly called larboard. 

Stem. — The foremost boundary of a vessel, be- 
ing a nearly vertical continuation of the keel, into 
which the lower end is scarfed. The forward ends 



194 COURSE IX WOODKN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 

of the various strakes are united to the stem, and 
its advanced edge is the cutwater. 

Stem-knee. — A knee at the junction of the stem 
with the keel. 

Stemson. — A knee-piece with its horizontal arm 
scarfed to the keelson and its vertical arm fayed 
into the throats of the transoms. 

Step. — The recessed block in which the foot of 
a mast is placed. 

Stern. — The after part of a vessel, from the taff- 
rail down to the junction of the stern-post with the 
keel. 

Stern-knee. — A knee uniting the stern-post and 
the keel. 

Stern-post. — A slightly raking straight piece, 
rising from the after end of the keel. 

Stern-sheets. — That part of a boat between the 
stern and the aftermost thwart. 

Stemson. — A binding-piece above the deadwood 
in the stern, and practically forming an extension 
of the keelson, on which the stern-post is stepped. 

Stocks. — The framework of blocks and shores 
on which a vessel is built. It slopes gently down 
toward the water, and is usually a timber frame 
which, as the work of construction proceeds, as- 
sumes the form of a cradle. This rests on ways, 
on which it eventually slides, bearing the vessel 
into the water at launching. The vessel is sup- 
ported laterally by shores, Avhile the cradle is held 
by struts and chocks. In launching the ship, the 
shores are removed, so that the vessel rests al- 



SHIP BUILDING TERMINOLOGY 195 

together in the cradle ; the ways are greased, the 
struts are knocked away, the chocks knocked out, 
and the vessel slides down the ways into the water, 
where the cradle becomes detached and floats clear 
of the ship. 

Stopwater. — A piece of wood driven into a hole 
at a scarf joint in a vessel's timber to render it 
watertight. 

Strake. — A breadth of planking or plating, 
especially one continuous from stem to stern on a 
vessel's hull. Strakes are named as follows : 

(a). Binding Strake — The first plank directly 
below the upper strake and generally installed in 
one length if material permits. 

(b). Bilge Strake — A strake passing over a 
vessel's bilge. 

(c). Broad Strakes — All planks below the shut- 
ter strake and the garboard strake. 

(d). G-arboard Strake — The extreme lower 
plank, next to the keel. 

(e) . Sheer or Upper Strake — The extreme upper 
plank. 

(f). Shutter Strake — The last plank of the bot- 
tom to be installed. 

(g). Lower Strakes — All planks below the bind- 
ing strake and above the shutter strake. 

Stringer. — An inside strake of plank, secured to 
the ribs and supporting the ends of the beams ; a 
shelf-piece. 

Surmark. — 1. A mark drawn on ship timbers at 
the intersection of the moulding edge with the rib- 



196 COURSE IN WOODEN BOAT AND SHIP BUILDING 



band line ; tlie stations of the ribbands and harp- 
ings being marked on the timbers. 

2. A cleat temporarily placed on the outside of a 
rib, to give a hold to the ribband by which, through 
the shores, it is supported on the slip-way. 

Taffrail. — The uppermost part of a ship's stern; 
the rail or topside of the bulwarks around the 
stern. 

Topside. — The upper part of a ship 's side. 

Topside Line. — A sheer line drawn above the top 
timber at the upper side of the gunwale. 

Top-timber. — The timber next above the futtocks 
in a built-up frame or rib. 

Top Breadth. — A line in the sheer plan drawn 
to the sheer of the ship fore and aft, at the height 
of the under side of the gunwale amidships. 

Transom. — A beam bolted across the stern-post, 
supporting the after end of a deck and giving 
shape to the stern. 

Transom-knee. — A knee bolted to a transom and 
after-timber. 

Treenail. — A cylindrical pin of hardwood, used 
for securing planking to the frames, or parts to 
each other. Treenails are from 1 to l-''4 inches 
in diameter, and are tightened in their places by 
wedges driven into each end. 

Trimming. — The final shaping of ship timbers, 
etc., after the rough shaping has been done ; also 
called forming. 

Waist. — The middle portion of a ship's deck, 
between the forecastle and the quarter-deck. 



SHIP BUILDING TERMINOLOGY 19T 

Wale. — A wide plank at certain portions of a 
ship's side, extending from stem to stern and fol- 
lowing the curve of the strokes. The various 
wales are known as the gumvale, main-wale, clian- 
nel-ivale, etc. 

Water Lines. — The lines of a ship drawn 
parallel with the surface of the water, at varying 
heights. In the sheer plan they are straight and 
horizontal ; in the half -breadth plan they show the 
form of the ship at the successive heights marked 
by the water lines in the sheer plan. 

Way or Ways. — The timber sills or track upon 
which a ship is built, and upon which she slides 
into the water in launching. 



INDEX 



Adze, plain 166, 16V 

lipped 166, 167 

Angles for beveling frames 56 
Applying mould to ship 

timbers 105 

Apron 26 

Assembling platform 

109, 124, 125 

showing diagonals 125 

showing ways and 

square framing 124 

Auger bits, ship 168, 169 

Axe, broad 166, 168 

Batten, spiling 71 

Battens, use of 

24, 25, 69, 71, 76 

bending 34 

Bearding line 33 

Bending battens 34 

frames for strap-frame 

boat 65 

timbers 49, 51 

Bevel and edging machines 110 

Beveling angles 56 

frames 53 

board 55 

for planking 79 

ship frames on band 

saw 106 

Bevels on diagonals, meth- 
od of developing 52 

on each diagonal 54 

Bilge planking 148 

strake 68 

Binding strake 68, Vl 

sealing for 74 

Bits, auger 168, 169 

Board, beveling 55, 56 

Boat construction 17-83 

false frames for 57, 59 

manufactured frame. 57, 61 



built-up frame 57, 62 

strap frame 57, 64 

Boat deck 158 

Boat timbers, sawing.... 48 

Body plan, boat 

17, 19, 25, 52 

standard wooden steam- 
ship 94, 95 

Bolting ship frames 129 

Boring through shaft log. 39 

Bottom planking 148 

Bow construction, ship.... 140 

Bow lines 172 

Bow of ship, ready for 

planking 138 

planked 139 

Box, steam 45-48 

Bridge deck 160 

Broad axe 166, 168 

Brush, seam 83 

Building-slip 172 

Built-up frame construc- 
tion 57, 62 

Bulkhead 172 

Buttock-lines 173 

Calking, boat 80-83 

ship 154, 173 

practice, form for... 80, 81 

Calking irons 168, 169 

mallet 168, 169 

Camber 174 

Cant frames 127 

looking forward, show- 
ing heels of timbers. . 132 

looking aft 133 

looking forward, showing 

heads of timbers 133 

looking aft 134 

Cargo carrier, standard 

wooden 85 

Carlings 176 



199 



200 



INDKX 



Carriages, mill floor.. 106, 108 

Ceiling 174 

beveled without hand 

tools 122 

Cementing seams 154 

Chock 17.5 

Clamps and wedges 144 

Clinker-built 175 

Coamings 176 

Condensation pipe for 

steam box 48 

Construction, ship 84 

stem and stern (boat) . . 26 

Cotton, calking with 81 

Cradle 176 

Cross spalls 57 

Cutting a timber on band 

saw 107 

heavy timber at an an- 
gle 114, 115 

out the stock 33 

rabbets 38 

Deadwood 177 

stem 26 

stem 29 

Beck, poop 150 

Deck iron 168 

Decks 177 

Degrees on beveling board 55 

Detail of boat stem 27 

of stern 28 

of form for practice 

calking 81 

of rabbet through stem 37 

Development of rabbet... 36 

Diagonal-liuilt 178 

Diagonal lines 52, 53, 54 

Diagonals, bevels on. . .52, 54 

projection of 63, 66 

Dimensions, standard 

wooden steamship 87 

Dog-shore 179 

Drawings, ship 85 

Dumb-iron 168, 169 

Engine foundation, stand- 
ard wooden steamship 103 
Erecting stem 38 



Fairing-in a line 21 

Tairing-up 63, 132 

moulds 35 

False frames 57, 59 

keel 180 

Fastening frames 125 

Faying l^nees 113, 118 

surface 180 

Filling-in pieces 63 

Finished timber 116 

Finishing, boat 83 

ship 154 

Fitting frames 125 

futtocks to ribbands. .. . 59 

Floor timbers, boat 60 

Forecastle 180 

deck 161 

section, standard wood- 
en steamship 103 

Form for practice calk- 
ing 80, 81 

for steam bending 49 

Frame construction 57 

Frames 41 

bending, for strap-frame 

boat 65 

boat, installing 59 

boat, raising 60 

cant ". 127 

fitting and fastening... 125 

in position to raise 129 

ship 100 

ship, beveling 106 

ship, bolting 129 

ship, raising 127, 130 

raised 131 

Framing platform 148 

Freeboard 181 

Futtock 181 

Futtock moulds 41 

forward 42 

aft 43 

Futtocks and frames 41 

Futtocks, fitting to rib- 
bands 59 

shape of 41-43 

Galley 182 

Garboard strake 

40, 68, 69, 75, 182 



INDKX 



201 



Guard 69 

Gun house, top of 159 

Half -breadth plan, boat. 17, 24 
standard wooden steam- 
ship 87, 93 

Hand tools 165 

Handling heavy timbers in 

the yard 112 

Harpings 60, 183 

Hawsehole 183 

Hog-frame 184 

Horn timber 29 

Hurricane deck 184 

Inboard profile of standard 

wooden steamship. . . . 155 

Installing boat frames .... 59 

keelson 135 

Interior of hull, looking 

aft 147 

Iron strapping of hull. . . . 134 

Irons, calking 168, 169 

Keel 40, 184 

scarfing 40 

lock scarfs for 40 

rabbet in 40 

station lines on 38, 40 

record, laid in ten min- 
utes 123 

Keelson 185 

boat 63 

timbers 132 

installing 135 

and timber chute 136 

Knees, surfacing 113, 117 

faying 113, 118 

Knighthead 185 

Labor-saving devices 110 

Launching ways 108 

Laying off lines 20 

Laying out the sheer line. 23 

Layout of the ship 138 

on mould loft floor 20 

Limber strake 185 

Line of shaft 40 

Lines, fairing in 21 

picking up the.,. 29, 82, 44 



Lines, moulded — sheer 

plan 18 

half -breadth plan 18 

body plan 19 

Lines on a drawing 185 

Lines plan 186 

Lining in 34 

Loft, mould 17, 53 

Lofting the ship 97 

Lof tsnian 186 

Lower stem 26 

Lower strake, first, spiling 

for 73 

Lower strakes 68, 76 

scaling for 77 

Machines and labor-saving 

devices 110 

Machines, bevel and edg- 
ing 110 

Making-iron 168, 169 

Mallet, calking 168, 169 

Manufactured frame con- 
struction 57, 61 

Masts, shaping the. . . .151, 157 
Materials and processes, 

ship construction 84 

Midship construction sec- 
tion, standard wooden 

steamship 98, 99 

Mill floor carriages. . .106, 108 
Model for taking off off- 
sets 19 

Mould 187 

applying the 105 

Moulded lines — sheer plan 18 

half -breadth plan 18 

body plan 19 

Moulding 69 

Mould loft. ...17, 53, 104, 187 

work 20 

Mould loft floor 21 

picking up lines from.29, 32 

Moulds, fairing up 35 

futtock 41 

f uttock, forward 42 

aft 4-5 

material for 33 



202 



INDJDX 



Moulds, sliip 97 

boat, for stem 30 

for stern 31 

Navigating bridge 156 

Oakum, calking with 81 

Offsets, tables of 

22, 23, 90, 91, 92 

for wooden boat 22, 23 

for ship — half -breadths. 92 
for ship — heights above 

base 90 

for ship — diagonals -91 

Offsets, taking off 19 

Outside planking 68 

Painting, boat 83 

ship hull 154 

Picking up the lines from 

mould loft floor 29, 32 

with flexible steel tem- 
plate 44 

Pipe details of steam box. 46 

Planing planking 83 

Planking and finishing... 138 

Planking, beveling for... 79 

of stern, vertical. . .144, 146 
of bottom, bilge, and 

side 148 

outside 68 

preparations for 139 

Plans, sheer 17, 18, 22 

half -breadth 17, 18, 24 

body 17, 19, 25 

ship 85 

Platform, assembling 

109,124, 125 

framing 148 

Poop deck.. 159, 188 

framing the 150 

completed 150 

Poop section, standard 

wooden steamship. . . . 101 
Processes, ship construc- 
tion 84 

Profile of wooden steam- 
ship, inboard 155 

Projection of diagonals. 63, 66 
Propeller shaft, boring 

through shaft log for. 39 



Putty, filling boat seams 

with 83 

Eabbet, detail of 37 

development of, through 

stem 36 

in stem and stern 33 

Rabbeting 33 

Eabbet line, stem 36 

Rabbets, cutting 38 

Raising boat frames 60 

ship frames 127, 130 

the rudder 157 

Rib 189 

Ribbands 51, 60, 189 

boat, fitting futtocks to. 59 

running 61 

Rising-line 190 

Rudder, raising the. . .151, 157 

Rudder stock, finished. . . . 121 

shape after sixteen cuts. 120 

working 113, 119 

Running ribbands 61 

Sandpapering planking... 83 
Sawing and handling large 

timbers 110 

boat timbers 55, 58 

Sawmill floor carriages. . . 

106, 108 

Scaling 78, 190 

for sheer strake 70, 72 

for binding strake ... 72, 74 

for lower strakes 77 

Scantling 190 

Scantlings of standard 

wooden steamship. ... 93 

Scarf 190 

Scarfing timber with an 

adze 167 

Scupper 191 

Seam brush 83 

Seams, cementing 154 

Sectional carriages for 
handling heavy tim- 
bers 108 

Section through boat stem, 
showing development 
of rabbet 36 



INDJfiX 



203 



midship eonstruetion sec- 
tion, standard wooden 

steamship 98, 99 

from bridge deck to top 

• of wheelhouse 100 

through poop 101 

through engine founda- 
tion, looking forward . 102 
through shaft tunnel, 

looking aft 103 

through the forecastle. . 103 

through engine room. . . . 162 

through boiler room. . . . 163 

Sections, laying down in. . 21 

Setting up the keel 123 

Shaft log 29, 40 

boring through 39 

Shaft tunnel, standard 

wooden steamship. . . . 102 

Shaping rudder stock 119 

the masts 157 

Sheathing 68 

Sheer 191 

Sheer line, laying out the. 23 

Sheer plan 17,18,22,191 

standard' wooden steam- 
ship 88, 89! 

Sheer strake 68, 69 

scaling for 70 

Sheers . . 192 

Ship bow construction, 

close-up view of 140 

Ship construction 84-169 

drawings and plans .... 85 

specifications 85 

moulds 97 

frames 100 

frames, beveling 106 

frames on tracks 128 

auger bits 168, 169 

Shipfitting 154 

Shipyard, panoramic view 

of 152, 153 

Shipvards and ways 157 

Shore 192 

Shutter strake 68 

Side planking 148 

Siding 192 

Sirmark (Surmark) 195 

Skeg 192 



Skin 68 

Snying 193 

Spalls, cross 57 

Special beveling machine. 110 

Specifications, ship 85 

Spiling 71 

for sheer and binding 

strakes 72 

for first lower strake.. 73 

Spiling batten 71 

Spilings 193 

Standard wooden steam- 
ship 85 

sheer plan — stem 88 

sheer plan — stern 89 

offsets, half -breadths. ... 92 

dimensions 87 

half -breadth plan 87, 93 

body plan 87,94, 95 

midship construction 

section 87, 98, 99 

offsets, heights above 

base 90 

offsets, diagonals 91 

scantlings 96 

section from bridge deck 

to top of wheelhouse. 100 

section through poop... 101 
section through engine 

foundation 102 

section through shaft 

tunnel 102 

section through forecas- 
tle 103 

inboard profile 155 

wheelhouse and navigat- 
ing bridge 156 

top of wheel house 157 

boat deck 158 

top of gun house 159 

poop deck 159 

bridge deck 160 

forecastle deck 161 

section through engine 

room 162 

section through boiler 

room 163 

plan view at dynamo flat 164 

Station lines 20 



204 



INDEX 



Steam bending 49 

form for 51 

Steam box 46, 144 

details of 45,46, 47, 48 

Steel template, flexible. 41, 44 

Stem 26 

detail of 27 

moulds 29 

Stem and stern construc- 
tion 26 

Stemson 194 

Stern 26 

detail of 28 

moulds 29 

Stern post 26 

Stern post knee 29 

Stern of ship, showing 

vertical planking. . . . 146 

Sternson 194 

Stock, cutting out 33 

Stocks 194 

Stopwaters 40 

Strakes 68, 195 

to find the width of... 69 
Strap-frame boat construc- 
tion 57, 64 

Strapping, iron, of hull. . . 134 

Surfacing knees 113, 117 

Surmarks (or Sirmarks).46, 195 

Table of offsets, boat 22, 23 

ship 90, 91, 92 

Taffrail 196 

Taking off offsets, model 

for 19 

Templates 37 

flexible steel 41, 44 

Terminology 170-197 

Tieing ends of boat frames 57 
Timber chute ,,,... 136 



Timber, cutting on band 

saw 107 

heavy, cutting at an an- 
gle 114, 115 

sawing heavy Ill 

Timbers, boat floor 60 

ship, laying out 105 

handling heavy 112 

Tools, hand 165 

Topside 196 

Transom 29, 196 

Treenails 149, 196 

Upper strake 68 

Vertical planking of stern 

144, 146 

Wall 197 

Water lines 186, 197 

Water seal trap for steam 

box 47, 48 

Ways, ship 107, 152, 197 

lowered while ship was 

in frame 131 

Wheel house 156 

top of 157 

Wooden boat and ship ter- 
minology 170-197 

Wooden ship, framed up 

complete 141 

partially planked 142 

planked ready for 

launching 143 

finished 145 

interior of hull 147 

ready to launch 149 

Wooden steamship, stand- 
ard 85, 161 



DRAKE'S MECHANICAL 


BOOKS 


♦Title 


style 1 


Price 


Carpentry and Building Books 




Modern Carpentry. Two volumes . 


Cloth $2.00 


Modern Carpentry. Vol. I 


Cloth 


1.00 


Modern Carpentry. Vol. II 


Cloth 


1.00 


The Steel Square. Two volumes . . 


Cloth 


2.00 


The Steel Square. Vol. I 


Cloth 


1.00 


The Steel Square. Vol. II 


Cloth 


1.00 


A. B. C. of the Steel Square 


Cloth 


.50 


A Practical Course in Wooden 






Boat and Ship Building 


"Cloth 


1.50 


Common Sense Stair Building and 






Handrailing 


Cloth 


1.00 


Modern Estimator and Contrac- 






tor's Guide 


»Cloth 


1.50 


Light and Heavy Timber Framing 






Made Easy 


Cloth 


2.00 


Builders' Architectural Drawing 






Self-taught 


Cloth 


2.00 


Easy Steps to Architecture 


Cloth 


1.50 


Five Orders of Architecture 


Cloth 


1.50 


Builders' and Contractors' Guide 


Cloth 


1.50 


Practical Bungalows and Cottages 


•Cloth 


LOO 


Low Cost American Homes 


•Cloth 


1.00 


Practical Cabinet Maker and Fur- 






niture Designer 


Cloth 


2.00 


Practical Wood Carving 


Cloth 


1.50 


Home Furniture Making 


Cloth 


.60 


Concretes, Cements, Mortars, Plas- 






ters and Stuccos 


Cloth 


1.50 


Practical Steel Construction 


Cloth 


.75 


Practical Bricklaying Self-taught. 


Cloth 


1.00 


Practical Stonemasonry 


Cloth 


1.00 


Practical Up-to-date Plumbing. . . 


. Cloth 


1.50 


Hot Water Heating, Steam and 






Gas Fitting ' 


"Cloth 


1.50 


Practical Handbook for Mill- 






wrights 


Cloth 


2.00 


Boat Building for Amateurs 


Cloth 

s are ma 


1.00 


NOTE. — New Books and Revised Edition 


rked* 





^ 


DRAKE'S MECHANICAL BOOKS 


♦Title 1 Style 


Price 


Steam Engineering Books 




Swingle's Handbook for Steam 




Engineers and Electricians .... "Lea. 


$3.00 


Steam Boilers, Construction, Care 




and Operation *Lea. 


2.00 


Complete Examination Questions 




and Answers for Marine and 




Stationary Engineers *Lea. 


2.00 


Swingle's Catechism of Steam, 




Gas and Electrical Engineering. *Lea. 


1.50 


The Steam Turbine, Its Care and 




Operation Cloth 


1.00 


Calculation of Horse Power Made 




Easy Cloth 


.75 


Railroad Books 




Modern Locomotive Engineering . "Lea. 


$3.00 


Locomotive Fireman's Boiler In- 




structor *Lea. 


1.50 


Locomotive Engine Breakdowns 




and How to Repair Them "Lea. 


1.50 


Operation of Trains and Station 




Work *Lea. 


2.00 


Construction and Maintenance of 




Railway Roadbed and Track. . . Lea. 


2.00 


First, Second and Third Year 




Standard Examination Ques- 




tions and Answers for Locomo- 




tive Firemen *Lea. 


2.00 


Complete Air Brake Examination 




Questions and Answers *Lea. 


2.00 


Westinghouse Air Brake System. Cloth 


2.00 




2.00 


Walschaert Valve Gear Break- 




downs Cloth 


1.00 


NOTE. — New Books and Revised Editions are marked* 1 


h. 


J 



DRAKE'S MECHANICAL BOOKS 

♦Title I Style I Price 

Electrical Books 

Electrical Tables and Engineering 

Data 'Lea. $1.50 

Electrical Tables and Engineering 

Data •Cloth 1.00 

Motion Picture Operation 'Lea. 1.50 

Motion Picture Operation *Cloth 1.00 

Alternating Current Lea. 1.50 

Alternating Current Cloth 1.00 

Wiring Diagrams and Descrip- 
tions *Lea. 1.50 

Wiring Diagrams and Descrip- 
tions 'Cloth 1.00 

Armature and Magnet Winding. .*Lea. 1.50 

Armature and Magnet Winding. .* Cloth 1.00 

Modern Electric Illumination. .. .*Lea. 1.50 

Modern Electric Illumination 'Cloth 1.00 

Modern Electrical Construction . . 'Lea. 1.50 
Modern Electrical Construction. .'Cloth 1.00 
Electricians' Operating and Test- 
ing Manual 'Lea. 1.50 

Electricians' Operating and Test- 
ing Manual 'Cloth 1.00 

Drake's Electrical Dictionary. . . . Lea. 1.50 
Drake's Electrical Dictionary.... Cloth 1.00 
Electric Motors, Direct and Alter- 
nating 'Lea. 1.50 

Electric Motors, Direct and Alter- 
nating 'Cloth 1.00 

Electrical Measurements and Me- 
ter Testing Lea. 1.50 



NOTE. — New Books and Revised Editions are marked* 



DRAKE'S MECHANICAL 


BOOKS 


•Title 


1 style 1 


Price 


Electrical Books — Continued 




Electrical Measurements and Me- 
ter Testing 


Cloth $1.00 
Lea. 1.50 


Drake's Telephone Handbook 


Drake's Telephone Handbook. . . . 


Cloth 


1.00 


Elementary Electricity, Up-to- 
Date 


•Cloth 
•Cloth 


1.25 
1.00 


Electricity Made Simple 


Easy Electrical Experiments 


•Cloth 


LOO 


Wireless Telegraph and Telephone 
Handbook 


Cloth 


1.00 


Telegraphy, Self-taught 


Cloth 


1.00 


Dvnamo-Electric Machines 


Cloth 


1.50 


Electro-Plating Handbook 


Lea. 


1.50 


Electro-Plating Handbook 


Cloth 


1.00 


Modern American Telephony 


Lea. 


2.00 


Handy Vest-Pocket Electrical Dic- 
tionary 


Lea. 


.50 


Handy Vest-Pocket Electrical Dic- 
tionary 


Cloth 


.25 


Storage Batteries 


Cloth 


.50 


Elevators — HydrauKc and Electric 


Cloth 


1.00 


How to Become a Successful Mo- 
torman 


Lea. 


1.50 


Motorman's Practical Air Brake 
Instructor 


Lea. 


1.50 


Electric Railway Troubles 


Cloth 


1.50 


Electric Power Stations 


Cloth 


2.50 


Electrical Railroading 


Lea. 3.50 
s are marked* 


NOTE. — New Books and Revised Edition 




\._ -^ j; 



9. 

J 



I