Skip to main content

Full text of "Past and present of Randolph County, Indiana : with biographical sketches of representative citizens and genealogical records of many of the old families"

See other formats




All books are subject to recall after two weeks. 
Library Annex 





Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 




Randolph County 


With Biographical Sketches of Representative Citizens and 
Genealogical Records of Many of the Old Families 




Indianapolis, Indiana f^' . ^.^j 

, \5l %\ 

\>>; 'iJ ;/ ; 


This work is respectfully dedicated to 


long since departed. May the memory of those who laid down their burdens 

by the wayside ever be fragrant as the breath of summer 

flowers, for their toils and sacrifices have made 

Randolph County a garden of 

sunshine and delight. 



To write a history is but to commit to words in type events as they 
have transpired, and to be pure history, it must be colored as little as pos- 
sible by the views or personal opinions of the writers. 

In presenting this history of Randolph county, the authors have at- 
tempted in every instance, to refrain from the expression of their opinions 
and to give the facts — indeed, it will be noticed, by the careful observer, 
that the same incident is given, in some instances, in different language, in 
more than one place, because coming from different sources of seemingly 
equal authority. We make no claims to originality, but have, with great 
care and much labor, sifted every possible particle of information, hoping 
from the mass to collect the best and most important facts and events for 

It has been impossible to publish all of the matter placed at our disposal; 
much has, no doubt, been omitted which should have been published, and 
much, perhaps, has been published which the reader will consider superflu- 
ous. Much information, in the possession of those who should have been 
glad to furnish it, has been omitted for lack of interest of those parties and 
their failure to furnish us the facts, though often requested so to do. 

The authors desire to express their appreciation of the assistance of 
Enos Lollar, W. P. Noff singer, Willard Upham, Beeson Bros., Elijah Pea- 
cock, H. S. Wood, and many others who have helped in this work. . Espe- 
cially do they desire to pay tribute to the faithful and careful work of Rev. 
Ebenezer Tucker who labored in gaining special information of the pioneers 
among whom he lived. 

The earnest endeavor, on the part of the authors, to give a complete 
history of the county to June 30, 1914, will, we trust, be appreciated. 

John L. Smith, 
Lee L. Driver. 

Randolph County, Ind. 


All life and achievement is evolution; present wisdom comes from past 
experience, and present commercial prosperity has come only from past exer- 
tion and suffering. The deeds and motives of the men who have gone before 
have been instrumental in shaping the destinies of later communities and 
states. The development of a new country was at once a task and a privi- 
lege. It required great courage, sacrifice and privation. Compare the pres- 
ent conditions of the people of Randolph couflty, Indiana, with what they 
were one hundred years ago. From a trackless wilderness and virgin land, 
it has come to be a center of prosperity and civilization, with millions of 
wealth, systems of railways, grand educational institutions, splendid indus- 
tries and immense agricultural and mineral productions. Can any think- 
ing person be insensible to the fascination of the study which discloses the 
aspirations and efforts of the early pioneers who so strongly laid the founda- 
tion upon which has been reared the magnificent prosperity of later days? 
To perpetuate the story of these people and to trace and record the social, 
political and industrial progress of the community from its first inception 
is the function of the local historian. A sincere purpose to preserve facts 
and personal memoirs that are deserving of perpetuation, and which unite 
the present to the past, is the motive of the present publication. The work 
has been in the hands of able writers, who have, after much patient study 
and research, produced here the most complete historical memoirs of Ran- 
dolph county ever offered to the public. A specially valuable and interesting 
department is that devoted to the sketches of representative citizens of this 
county whose records deserve preservation because of their worth, effort and 
accontplishment. The publishers desire to extend their thanks to the citi- 
zens of Randolph county for the uniform kindness with which they have re- 
garded this undertaking and for their many services rendered in the gaining 
of necessary information. 

In placing the "History of Randolph County, Indiana," before the citi- 
zens, the publishers can conscientiously claim that they have carried out the 
plan as outlined in the prospectus. Every biographical sketch in the work 
has been submitted to the party interested, for correction, and therefore any 
error of fact, if there be any, is solely due to the person for whom the sketch 
was prepared. Confident that our efforts to please will fully meet the ap- 
probation of the public, we are, 





First Events, Settlement, Towns, etc. 


General Features — Rivers — General Natural Features — The Soil and Climate 


Story of the Indians — Territory Acquired by White Men. 


Official Acts Connected With Its Organization — Organization of Various 


First Set of Officers — Pioneer and Later Court Houses, Jails and Care' for 
the Unfortunate Poor — Where the Pioneer Settlers Emigrated from — 
Where They First Efifected Their Settlement — First Entries — The 
Early-day Mills — Pioneer Schools and Churches — Customs and Man- 
ners of the First Established Homes — Going to Market — Mail Facil- 


List of All County Officers — State Senators — Representatives — Congressmen 
for Randolph County — Men Who Have Received Appointments to 
Government Positions from This County. 


Their Soldiers — Soldiers of the Mexican and Civil War from the County — 
Those Who Served in the late Spanish-American War. 


Subscription Schools — Public Schools — Growth of the Common School 
System in Randolph County — Present Standing — Number of School 
Houses, Teachers and Pupils by Township. 


Church Schools of the County — Churches in Various Townships. 


Masonic, Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, Red Men, and Other Orders — 
First and All Subsequent Lodges — Insurance Orders — Grand Army 
of the Republic Veterans, Women's Military Societies — Organiza- 
tions, Etc. 



Farming and Stock-raising in Randolph County — Value of Farm Products — 
Advanced Agricultural Methods — Agricultural Societies. 


Early-day Freighting — The First Railroads — Present Railway System of 
the County. 


The Lawyers, Past and Present — Early Courts — Celebrated Legal Battles 
and Important Cases at Bar — Brief Sketches of Many Old-time 


Early Doctors— Their Experiences — Character of the Pioneer Physicians — 
_ List of All Now Practicing — ^Advancement in Science of Medicine, Etc. 




The Original Townships Organized — Changes in Civil Subdivisions of Ran- 
dolph County — Population at Various Periods — ^Early ' Settlement of 
Each Township — History of Towns and Villages in Each Township — 
Special History and Events. 


Their Founders — Incorporations — First Settlers — Early-day Business Inter- 
ests — Growth and Development in Recent Years — City Government — 
List of Mayors — Street Making — -Industries — Fire Department — Water 
Works — Electric Light and Power Plants. 


Agriculture 786 

County Fairs 791 

Farm Machinery 787 

Farm Products, Value of 798 

Alluvium 40 

Altitude ' 38 

Amusements, Early 237 

Attorney, First County 384 


Banks and Banking 887 

Banks of Cities and Towns 887-889 

First Bank 887 

Bear Story 268 

Bell-mak5ng 270 

Bench and Bar 817 

Early Courts 818 

First Courts 820 

First Judges 824 

List of Lawyers 829 

Binding Out Children 199 

Birds and "Varmints" 275 

Board of Commissioners 144 

'Board of Justices 147-400 

Bowlders 42 

Brick and Tile 48 

Bridges, Concrete 380 

Bridges, Wooden 383 

Burning at the. Stake 70 


Cabin Home 224 

Cammack, Elihu 264 

Carding Machine 219 

Cholera (1849) 254 

Church, History of 667 

First Services 669 

First Churches 241 

First Quaker Church 669 

First Methodist Church 707 

First Christian Church 678 

Church History — Continued. 
First Disciple Church 681 

First United Brethren Church 692 

First Presbyterian Church 695 

First Evangelical Church 699 

First Church of the Brethren 700 

First Baptist Church 713 

First Church of God 706 

First Spiritualists 706 

First Holiness Band 706 

First Catholic Church 720 

First Colored Church 721 

Clearing Land 275 

Clothing, Home-made 233 

Commissioners, Drainage '. 411 

Commissionera(, First 398 

Congressmen 407 

Connor, David 71 

Convention, Constitutional 407c 

County, organized 120 

Court, Common Pleas 409 

Court House, Contract 151 

Court House, First i 144 

Court House, First, Sold 162 

Court House, Present 163 

Court House, Second 147 


Death of Fleming 68 

Deerskins — Dress 284 

Drift, The 41 


Early Roads 220 

Early Settlers 206 


Fallen Timber 276 

Fines, List of 393 

First Mill, Corncracker 212 


First Things 28 

First Water Mill 213 

Fleming, the Indian 69 

Fort Jefferson 90 

Franklin Township .' 949 

Early Settlers 949 

Description 949 

Towns 951 

Biographies of Early Settlers — 953-957 
Furniture, Home-made 226 


Gas and Oil 50 

Geology 37 

Geology, Economic 46 

Gravel and Sand 48 

Green, Johnny 65 

Green Township 1005 

Description 1005 

Early Settlers 1006 

Towns 1009 

Greensfork Township 926 

Description 926 

Early Settlers 926 

Land Entries 926 

Towns 929 

Biographies of Early Settlers-_930-938 
Grist Mill, First 213 


Hogs, Wild 229 

Hoosier, Origin of the Xame 75 

House-raising 224 

Hurricane 305 


Indian History 60 

Indian Occupancy 52 

Indiana in 1818 76 

Indiana State Map 59 

Infirmary 1'2 

Infirmary, Physicians of 185 


Jackson Township 997 

Description 997 

Early Settlers 998 

Towns 1000 

Biographies of Early Settlers-1002-1005 

Jail, First 144 

Jail, Present 170 

Jail, Second 166 

Johnny Cake 227 

Judges, Circuit 408 

Judges, Common Pleas 408 

Judges, Probate 408 


Land Entries 209 

Libraries, Public 1482-1507 

Winchester 1507 

Union City 1482 

License, Peddling . 392 

Lost Child 284 


Marriage, First 670 

Medical Profession 841 

Pioneer Physician 841 

Fees 845 

Pioneer Ideas and Beliefs 846 

Physicians, List of 853 

Medical Society 877 

Dentists, List of 876 

Meeting-house, Friends 241 

Military History 412-580 

Soldiers, Revolution 412 

Soldiers, Indian War 413 

Soldiers, War of 1812 413 

Soldiers, Randolph Count)' 414 

Soldiers, Mexican War 417 

War of Secession 412 

First Call for Troops 424 

First Enlistments 424 

First Volunteers 424 

First Relief Fund 428 

First Bounty 430 

First Regiment, Account of 453 

Spanish-American War 556-580 

Volunteers, List of 567 

Monroe Township 1010 

Description 1010 

Land Entries 1011 

Early Settlers 1011 

Towns 1012 

Biographies of Early Settlers_1014-1016 

Moorman, Will of James 187 


Mound Builders S3 

Mound, Burial 57 


Nettle Creek Township 991 

Description 991 

Early Settlers 992 

Land Entries 993 

Towns 993 

Biographies of Early Settlers._99S-997 

Newspapers 880 

First Newspaper 880 

Winchester, Newspapers of 880-884 

Union City, Newspapers of 884-885 

Farmland, Newspapers of 885 

Lynn, Newspapers of 886 

Parker, Newspapers of 886 

Ridgeville, Newspapers of 885 

Saratoga, Newspapers of 886 

Northwestern Territory 81 


Officers, County 407e 

Officers, First _^ 399 

Oil Mill, First 215 

"Old Times" 385 

Organization of County 74 

Orphans' Home 186 


Pioneer Churches 222 

Pioneer Homes 223 

Pioneer Schools 222 

Poor Farm 174 

Prosecuting Attorneys 410 

Public Office Building 160 

Public Square Fencing 387 


Quaternary Age 40 


Randolph County (1818) 117 

Randolph County (1819) 123 

Religion, Early 

Reminiscences — Early Times 244 

Representatives, House of 407a 

Representatives, Joint 407b 

Road Building 369 

Road, Stone 380 

Roads, First 368 

Roads, Gravel 379 

Roads, Public 362 

Roads, Superintendents of 380 

Rock, Analysis of 43-44 


Salamana and Madison Townships 133 

School Examiners 411 

Schools of County 581-666 

Early School House 583 

Early School Trustees 584 

Early School Teachers 588 

County Seminary 593 

Union Literary Institute 599 

Ridgeville College 617 

Normal Schools 621 

Consolidation of Schools 622 

Senators 407a 

Sheriff's Residence 170 

Societies, Secret 725 

Underground Railroad 751 

Sons of Liberty 767 

Temperance, Early '. 771 

Murphy Movement 778 

Temperance, Reminiscences 782 

St. Clair, First Governor 91 

Stoney Creek Township 983 

Description , 983 

Early Settlers — ' 1 984 

Towns 985 

Biographies of Early Settlers 987-991 

Stray Pen 145 

Surface, Configuration 37 


Tavern, License 391 

Tax, First County 235 

Tax Levy, First 389 

Toll Road, First 221 

Trace, Quaker 364 

Transportation 799 

Early Freighting 800 

Flat-boating 801 

First Railroad 803 

First Traction 816 

Turtle, Little 61 



Union City 1016 

Location 1016 

Early Settlement 1017 

First Things 1020 

Official History 1021 

Union City Water Works 1022 

Biographies of Early Settlers-1024-1026 

w ■ ; 

Ward Township 957 

Description 958 

Early Settlers 958 

Land Entries 960 

Roads __- 961 

Towns 961 

Biographies of Early Settlers-_963-969 

Washington Township „„^^^^_^-^ 916 

PescriptioB BjQ 

^ loneers, Principal 916 

Land Entries 917 

Towns 919 

Biographies of Early Settlers— 920-926 

Wayne, Anthony 97 

Wayne Township 969 

Description 969 

Wayne Township — Continued. 

Early Settlers 969 

Land Entries 971 

Towns 973 

Biographies of Early Settlers 975-983 

West River Township 938 

Description ■_ 938 

Early Settlers 938 

Land Entries 940 

Firs*t Things 940- 

Pigeon Roost 942 

Towns , 943 

Biographies of Early Settlers__945-949 

White River Township 890 

Location '. 890 

Early Settlement 891 

Early Settlers 892 

Land Entries . ,,. — 893 

Towns ^-^^ B95 

Biographies of Early Settlers— 896-916 

Winchester 1026 

Location 1026 

Early Settlement 1027 

First Things 1029 

Present Business 1032 

Fire Department 1034 

Water Works 1035 

Biographies of Early Settlers 1035 


Abel, E. Reed 1601 

Abel, M. D., Oscar E 1375 

Abshire, Albert R. 1179 

Adamson, James 1S6S 

Adamson, William 1428 

Addington, Henry Tajdor 1074 

Addington, Mrs. Jessie 341 

Addington, Thomas 304 

Aker, Andrew — 339 

Almonrode, Thomas A. 1538 

Anderson, Alonzo M. 1246 

Anderson, B. 335 

Anderson, Denzil M. 1309 

Anderson, Norman 1308 

Arnold, Mrs. Celia 249 

Ashcraft, Emory L. 1120 

Ashwill, James E. 1567 

Aukerman, Manford 1416 

Aukerman, Orville E. 1368 


Bailey, Elisha T. 322 

Bales, Alonzo L. 1196 

Bales, Cliflf G. 1168 

Bales,- Isaac N. 1058 

Bales, William H. 1057 

Ball, Uriah 278 

Banta, Samuel S. lOSl 

Barber, D. E. 1400 

Barber, George W. 1400 

Barger, Philip 354 

Barnard, M. D., Pliny C. 1366 

Barker, David E. 1568 

Barrett, Harry E. 1276 

Bascom, Erastus K. 1072 

Bascom, George McDowell 1072 

Beard, Jr., Paul 263 

Beeson, Isaac F. I486 

Bickel, -John H. 1465 

Bird, Jesse F. HgO 

Bogue, Parker 1503 

Bolinger, Charles T. 1585 

Boltz, Benjamin F. 1597 

Boots, Albert L. 1112 

Boots, Morgan 1112 

Borror, Isaac M. 1420 

Bosworth, William C. 1524 

Botkin, M. D., Charles L. 1559 

Botkin, Oliver Perry 1580 

Botkin, W. M. 258 

Boiisman, Cyrus 1511 

Bowen, Charles E. 1244 

Boviren, Ephraim L. 1132 

Bowen, J. C. 252 

Bowen, Squire ._ 249 

Bowen, Squire Columbus 1132 

Bragg, Daniel 1404 

Bragg, Mrs. Mary A. E. 1412 

Brandriff, Rev. R. 897 

Branson, Isaac 305 

Brickley^ John C. 1387 

Brosey, Christopher C. 1499 

Brouse, B. V. M. 1380 

Brouse, John A. 1381 

Brown, Aria M. -1209 

Brown, Daniel W. 1434 

Brown, Edwa!rd I. 1578 

Browne, George W. 1134 

Browne, James M. •_ 1207 

Browne, Thomas M. 835 

Bunch, John C. 1320 

Burke, Austin H. 1201 

Burroughs, John 1350 

Burrows, John T. 1232 

Butler, Augustus R. 1341 

Butterworth, Henry E. 1455 


Cadwallader, N. 331 

Caldwell, Frederick S. 1SS7 


Callahan, Daniel W. 1215 

Carter, Columbus R. 1458 

Carter, Elihu 1065 

Carter, John William 1065 

Cheesman, John E. 1082 

Chenoweth, Christopher E. 1336 

Chenoweth, Ernst E. 1153 

Chenoweth, M. D., Forest A. 1156 

Chenoweth, John M. 1154 

Chenoweth, John T. 1157 

Chenoweth, William L. 1338 

Christopher, John 1384 

Clark, James W. 311 

Clark, Sylvander G. L 1579 

Clark, Thomas H. 1172 

Clayton, Stephen E. 1527 

Clevenger, Stephen . 1228 

Clevenger, William 313 

Coats, John 898 

Coats, Seth D. 1150 

Coats, William 1151 

Condon, Thomas H. 1230 

Conklin, Jacob E. 1481 

Corl, Jacob 357 

Cougill, Samuel M. 1409 

Courtney, Cyrus B. 1123 

Cox , Simon 296 

Crist, Charles 320 

Crist, John W. 1287 

Curry, Henry S. 1494 

Curry, Robert H. 1495 


Daggett, Benjamin W. 1461 

Davis, Frank R. 1576 

DeLong, Albert T. 1591 

Denlinger, Benjamin F. 1067 

DeVoss, Joseph C. 1122 

DeVoss, John L. 1121 

Diggs, Jr., William 265 

Downing, John L. 1235 

Dragoo, Andrew C. 1552 

Driver, Lee L. 1396 

Driver, Jacob __, 300 

Drollinger, Harry I. 1562 

Dunn, Ernest M. 1241 


Eastman, George A. 1187 

Eastman, Henry O. 1187 

Edger, Edward 346 

Edwards, Alden J. 1357 

Edwards, George W. 1508 

Emrick, LeRoy 1470 

Engle, Calvin S. 1148 

Engle, Capt. Edmund 1526 

Engle, Isrum H. Zlii 

Engle, James S. 1052 

Engle, John R. 1534 

Engle, William 1052 

Evans,* Edward A. 1335 


Farabee, John W. 1436 

Favorite, Andrew J. 1088 

Favorite, Charlie 1088 

Fields, Charles A. 1569 

Fields, P. 344 

Fink, John 1513 

Fisher, Clifford C. 1301 

Fisher, Jane 260 

Fisher, John 259 

Fletcher, Frank 1582 

Fletcher, James M. 1556 

Focht, Fermen C. 1586 

Fortenbaugh, John B. 1500 

Fowler, William W. 1596 

Fowler, Hezekiah 1343 

Franklin, Elmer E. 1268 

Fraze, Ozzie O. 1278 

Frazier, Francis 268-1466 

Friedline, Joseph E. 1377 

Friddle, Samuel C. ^1595 

Fudge, Albert E. 1248 

Furnas, Miles J. 1451 


Gable, Louis C. 1518 

Gaddis, Albert C. 1564 

Gaddis, Thomas W. 1374 

Gaines, Alden L. 1537 

Gates, John A. 1600 

Gillam, Elihu S. 1242 

Gilmore, Isaac Routh 1456 

Good, Henry D. 1158 

Good, Rudolph 1158 

Goodrich, James P. 1521 

Green, Alva C. 1252 

Green, Benjamin F. 1213 


Green, Levi W. 1078 

Grove, Daniel W. 1561 

Gwin, Mary Frances 1551 


Halliday, Charles F. 1225 

Hamilton, James M. 1292 

Hamilton, Capt. Robert W. 1293 

Harris, Emmett B. 1249 

Harris, William 1448 

Harter, F. Marion 1274 

Harter, George W. 1492 

Hawkins, John 1269 

Hawkins, Joseph ■ 63 

Hawkins, Nathan 1270 

Hawkins, William 1056 

Hawkins, William L. 1056 

Henning, John C. 1143 

Hernley, William A 1360 

Hiatt, Adam R. 1223 

Hiatt, Allen R. 1284 

Hiatt, Nelson B. 1310 

Higi, Joseph F. 1479 

Hill, David Edgar 1411 

Hill. Fanny (Diggs) 267 

Hindsley, Alvah C. 1271 

Hindsley, James W. 1472 

Hindsley, Rufus G. 1529 

Hinshaw, Albert C. 1290 

Hinshaw, Benjamin E. 1091 

Hinshaw, Seth 1210 

Hirsh, Joseph C. 1068 

Hobbick, David 1059 

Hobbick, Hosea F. 1059 

Hoffman, Daniel E. 1272 

Hoke, John 350 

Holsapple, Samuel J. 1590 

Hook, William J. 1598 

Hoover, Peter C 343 

Hoppes, Jesse L. 1169 

Hough, John 1536 

Hough, Thomas W. 1528 

Huber, David 1315 

Hubbard, Thomas 351 

Hull, Henry C. 1177 

Humphreys, James B. 1496 

Hunt, M. D., Bader S. 1144 

Hunt, Robert G. 1460 

Hunt, Samuel H. 1530 

Hunt, Union B. 1291 

Huston, Volney H. 1256 


Jackson, Jesse W. 1190 

Jaqua, Edwin S. 1069 

Jarrett, James C. 1588 

Jerles, William D. 1542 

Johnson, Jacob 337 

Johnson, John I. 1118 

Johnson, J. M. 1118 

Johnson. Jonathan G. 1090 

Johnson, Silas 253 

Jones, John Henry 1474 

Jordan, James B. 1364 


Kabel, Frederic 1365 

Kabel, Herbert M. •__1254 

Kabel, Philip 1554 

Keckler, Simon B. 1298 

Kelley, Dennis 1060 

Kelley, James 357 

Kemp, Isaiah W. 1251 

Kennedy, George P. 1175 

Key, John 314 

Keys, Eli Wright 1388 

King, Albert 1382 

King. William 1463 

Kizer, Thomas W. 1045 

Kizer, William D. 1045 

Knox, James C. 1340 


Lacey, John Edwin 1147 

Lahey, Michael 1316 

Lamb, James A. 1323 

Lasley, David 293 

Leavell, Thomas C. 1589 

Lee, John H. 1282 

Lee, Riley Smith 1509 

Leggett, George E. 1092 

Lennon, Charles H. 1571 

Lewellen, Benjamin F. 1080 

Lewellen, Elias F. 1080 

Locke, William 322 

Lollar, Joseph W. 1516 

Lorton, Israel J. 1484 


Losch, William J. 1398 

Love, Thomas C. 1227 

Lumpkin, Robert H. 1217 


McAllister, Wert 1162 

McCollum, Jesse E. 1333 

McFarland, Elijah W. 1417 

McFarland, Joseph H. 1592 

McKew, Arthur 323 

McNees, Harvey E. 1086 

McNees, John B. 1086 


Macy, Judge John W. 1048 

Macy, Jr., John W. 1050 

Magee, Harry E. 1115 

Mangas, Isaac N. 1426 

Mangas, John W. 1440 

Mann, John l 296 

Markle, M. D., Grant C. 1182 

Markle, M. D., John E. 1182 

Marker, John D. 1348 

Marlatt, M. D., Clarence L. 1602 

Marlatt, William P. 1116 

Marsh, Benjamin F. 1084 

Martin Elisha 336 

Meeks, Amos F. 1306 

Mendenhall, Barzilla C. 1543 

Mendenhall, Hiram 904 

Meredith, D. V. S., William A. 1219 

Middleton, John Fletcher 1261 

Middleton, Thomas 321 

Miller, Thomas P. 1501 

Miller, William E. 1076 

Miller, Daniel B. — 301 

Milligan, M. D., Charles E. 1096 

Mills, John A. 1505 

Mills, G. William 1222 

Mills, Thomas W. 1506 

Mock, John 315 

Money, James D. 1438 

Monks, Edgar L. 1135 

Monks, George W. 1125 

Monks, Hon. Leander J. 1124 

Moore, David W. 1489 

Moore, Arthur R. 1488 

Moorman, Thomas 1137 

Moorman, Thomas F. 1137 

Morgan, M. D., Thomas W. 1332 

Mote, Oliver Perry 1285 

Mote, William H. 1288 

Mullen, Clarence 1424 

Mullin, Fernandis B. 1258 

Murphy, Robert 342 

Murray, Ralph V. 1369 



Xoflfsinger, Ezra 1476 


Orcutt, Amos 356 

Orr, Darius -- . 1395 

Orr, John E. 1394 

Osborn, Charles W. 1445 

Osborn, Daniel Worth 1444 


Painter, Ollie M. 1403 

Parker, Jesse 245 

Parry, Walter G. 1128 

Paul, Samuel 1544 

Paxson, J. 359 

Peacock, Thomas C. 1346 

Peacock, William 281 

Penery, Ira C. L 1304 

Pickett, Mary (Hyatt-Coats) 307 

Pierce, Burkett 297 

, Pierce, Charles F. 1054 

Pierce, Charles W. 1572 

Pierce, Clarence S. 1193 

Pierce, Levi 1573 

Pierce, Rev. Xathan 1574 

Porter, Frank B. 1297 

Porter, James 325 

Porter, Thurman E. 1298 

Price, John R. 1351 

Puckett, Joseph 906 

Puckett, Samuel C. 1391 

Puckett, William Y. 1130 

Pursley, David E. 1236 


Ramsey, Simon 1185 

Reeder, Martin A. 301 


Reeves, Dr. J. L. 1102 

Reinheimer, Lincoln S. C 1195 

Retter, Fred 1234 

Retz, Anna 257 

Rickert, John E. 1318 

Robbins, George W. 1204 

Robinson, William 291 

Robison, George W. 1095 

Robison, M. D., John S 1_109S 

Roby, William H. 1220 

Rogers, Thornton 1313 

Rogers, M. D., Aaron G 1312 

Roll, Charles A. 1601 

Ross, William A. 1239 

Roszell, William T. 1188 

Rubey, John C. _.__ 1362 

Ruby, M. D., Samuel B 1191 


Sala, Albert F. 1063 

Sarff, William H. 1548 

Shaler, Thomas 336 

Shaw, Frank L. 1322 

Sheppard, Julian 1379 

Shierling, Curtis M. 13(^ 

Shockney, Theodore 1164 

^hockney, Theodore H. 1113 

Shockney, Saniuel 1114 

Shultz, Clyde E. J 1353 

Shultz, George C. 1098 

Shultz, Milton 1 1098 

Simmons, Edar ,1422 

Simmons, Nathan C. 1497 

Sipe, John W. 1393 

Slonaker, Arthur S. 1407 

Slusher, Alen B. 1358 

Smiley, Noah F. 1475 

Smith, M. D., Calvin 1593 

Smith, Jere 272 

Smith, John L. 1452 

Smith, Oliver G. 1414 

Smithson, Ira E. 1546 

Smullen, William W. 1390 

Snodgrass, Joseph M. 1280 

Spera, Curtis M. 1361 

Stanton, William -J 360 

Starbuck, John W. 1356 

Strahan, Nathan U. 1141 

Sutton, James B. 1429 

Sutton, Oliver J. 1431 

Swain, Ira 255 


Taylor, J. Vining 1160 

Taylor, William 334 

Thomas, George 282 

Thornburg, Charles L. 1520 

Thornburg, Ernest 1532 

Thornburg, W. A. 308 

Thornburg, William H. , 1583 

Thornhill, Joseph H. 1490 

Tritt, Charles W. 1100 

Turner, John M. 1372 

Ullery, George A, 1433 

Van Pelt, George 1303 


Wallace, M. D., John M 1514 

Ward, Don C. 1198 

Ward, Thomas 293 

Warner, George W. ^_1478 

Warren, Isaac W. 1427 

Warren, J. R. 345 

Warren, William H. 1468 

Watson, Carl W. 1171 

Watson, Seward S. 1238 

Watts, Isaiah P. 1108 

Watts, Joseph 1212 

Watts, Samuel 1109 

Way, Judith (Wilson) 279 

Wiggs, F. G. 311 

Williams, Luther L. 1540 

Wilmore, D. D., Augustus C 1324 

Wilmore, William A. 1330 

Wilmore, W. C. 326 

Wise, Henry 1140 

Woodbury, Bert E. 1279 

Wright, Curtis K. 1265 

Wright, D. D. S., Cyrus C 1200 

Wright, Frank E. 1300 


Wright, Solomon 286 Z 

Wysong, Charles D 1260 


Zeller, M. D., Frank Arthur 1419 

Zimmerman, Albert E. 1401 

Zimmerman, Emanuel 1406 

Yount, Charles F. 1203 Zimmerman, Philip 1547 

//^ f ) /^ 




All things must have a beginning. To trace the beginnings of the ori- 
ginal inhabitants the limits Of Randolph county is of course impossible. 
The first people of which we have a trace left nothing but a few mounds 
and embankments by which we might know them. 

That Randolph county was inhabited by these people known as the 
"Mound Builders" goes without question. Traces of their work and art 
are found in various parts of the county. Their mounds, or look-outs, 
are still fairly well preserved; their "fort," the only one in this portion of 
Indiana, is still partially preserved. It is to be regretted that much of it 
has been destroyed, we know nothing of these people except that they lived 
and built a few crude mounds and forts. We are but little interested in their 
welfare, because they have left nothing by which the world is wiser or 
better. No nation, as well as individual, can hope to have future genera- 
tions interested in its life unless it has left something by which humanity 
has been made better. 

From whence the mound builders came, or whither they went is only a 
matter of conjecture. They attained some degree of skill but certainly 
had no very high degree of civilization. 

Their successor or the Indian dates back to the time of tradition and yet 
the Indians had no tradition of the mound builders, so great was their an- 

The first inhabitants of Randolph county, so far as the knowledge of the 
Indian goes, were the Miami Indians. The Miamis were a fierce war-like 
tribe that inhabited practically all the Northwest Territory as well 
as other portions of the middle west. The Iroquois, on the east, were 
also a fierce war-like tribe and overcame the Miamis about tWo hundred 
years ago. The Miamis, however, with the support of the other Indians and 


the French, succeeded in driving the Iroquois back into New York and again 
claiming the control of the middle west. That the Miamis laid claim to 
the land in this county is clearly shown by a speech made on the 22nd of 
July in council at Greenville, Ohio, by Little Turtle the head chiet ot the 
Miamis, and in his address to General Wayne, he said : 

"I wish to inform you where your younger brothers, the Miamis lived, 
also the Potawatamies of St. Joseph together with the Wabash Indians. 
You have pointed out to us the boundary line of the Indians and the United 
States, but now I take the liberty to inform you that that line cuts off 
from the Indians a large portion of country which has been enjoyed by 
my fore-fathers time immemorial without molestation or dispute. The print 
of my ancestors' houses are everywhere to be seen in this portion. It is well 
known by all of my brothers present, that my fore-fathers kindled the first 
fire at Detroit; from thence he extended his line to the head water of the 
Scioto ; from thence to its mouth ; from thence, down the Ohio to the mouth 
of the Wabash; and from thence to Chicago, on Lake Michigan; at this 
place, I first saw my older brothers, the Shawnees." 

General Wayne in the Treaty of Greenville recognized these claims and 
dealt with the Miami Indians accordingly. 

Later on, 1809, an additional treaty was made with the Miamis at Ft. 
Wayne by which we gained the Twelve Mile Purchase. This purchase is 
a strip of land twelve miles wide, the western bovindary of which is parallel 
to the boundary Hne established by the treaty of Greenville. 

There is no history of Randolph county connected directly with any In- 
dians as the county itself had very few Indians ever dwelling within its 
borders. The few who were here were of the roving type, traveling from 
one camp to another. The only Indian's name identified with the county is the 
word "Mississinewa." 

The territory of which we are now a part was first organized in 1721 as 
Illinois county. The first government was attempted in 1779 when Col. 
John Todd, who bore the commission of county lieutenant of the county of 
Illinois, visited the old settlement of Vincennes and Kaskaskia for the pur- 
pose of organizing, among the inhabitants of these places, forms of tem- 
porary government, according to the provisions of the Acts of the General 
Assembly of Virginia of the previous October. But little headway was made 
with this organization. Indiana territory was organized, as such, by an Act 
of Congress May 7, 1800. By this act we received the name of "Indiana." 
Just why this territory should be called Indiana is not known. The word no 
doubt is a memorial to the Indians, who received their name from Columbus, 


when he thought he had discovered the East Indias. It perhaps was applied 
directly to this territory because a company of Englishmen, whose purpose 
it was to exploit this territory, named their company the "Indiana Company." 

Had Thomas Jefferson's plan been adopted for the new territory, the 
northern part of this county would have been in the state of Metropotam'ia 
and the southern part would have been in the state of Saratoga, as the line 
dividing these ,two suggested states passed through Randolph county. 

Settlers began to come in the county as early as 1814. Many of the 
easterners, especially of Virginia, .had emigrated to the Carolinas and there 
being dissatisfied with local conditions, especially slavery, had come on into 
the then unsettled valley of the Mississippi. Among these settlers were the 
Wrights and the \\'^ays, who started their homes along White river in and 
around Winchester. The Parkers, Thomases and Wilcutts came farther north 
and' settled first in Wayne county, and then moved on over what is now 
the southern boundary of Randolph county. These people being Quakers 
and religiously opposed to slavery had left the Carolinas because of that 
institution, and came into the middle west to establish homes free from its 
pernicious influences. 

By 1818 enough settlers were in the northern part of Wayne county to 
justify the organization of a new county, complete account of which is 
given under the chapter of "Organization," in this volume. 

Courts were established and the wheels of government started. 

The church became an early factor of the community for these people 
were indeed God-fearing, and were not of the rough and wild type to be 
found in many of the frontier settlements. The traveling minister, be his 
denomination what it may, found always a welcome into any of the homes 
where he might wish to stop. Settlers eager and anxious to hear the doc- 
trines of their church discussed or to hear proclaimed from the lips of a good 
man, any doctrines that would lead to the betterment of society. 

The peddler with his stock of goods upon his back was also a welcome 
visitor to the pioneer home. He not only provided the family with tempor- 
ary needs, physically, but was the disseminator of news and gossip from one 
farm home to another. 

The tavern soon became a necessity and many a farm home became the 
stopping place of the traveler. Some such homes bore splendid reputations 
and were always eagerly sought by the wayfarer. Regular taverns were kept 
in some of the settlements. The first to be built in Winchester was in 18 19 
by a Mr. McCooI. Paul W. Way was also another early hotel keeper. 

The justice of the peace was always a man of influence, however ignor- 


ant he might be of the law. He was no doubt Hmited in the finer arts of 
legal practice, but he had, and exercised, great authority. At first it might 
seem that he was an extremist, but it must be remembered that he had drastic 
laws to enforce. For example, horse stealing, upon second offense, was 
punishable by death, and a fine of $i.oo was assessed for each ofifense for 
"blaspheming in the name of God, Jesus Christ or the Holy Ghost." Any 
one who "Marked a hog, shoat or pig other ^than his own, or changed the 
mark of a hog, shoat or pig, other than his own, should be fined in any 
sum not to exceed $10.00 and should have upon his or her bare back lashes 
not to exceed thirty- three." 

It will be seen that travel was extremely difficult, as our rivers were not 
large enough to be navigable and paths had to be blazed through the unbroken 
forests. But man is a social being and the paths soon became trails and the 
trails became public highways. These usually led from one town to another, 
from one church or another or from the neighborhood mill. Indeed, the early 
mill became, what in later days, would be called a "social center." The 
railroads eventually came, and the problem of transportation was solved. 

Many towns were "laid out" and their proprietors hoped to make a 
metropolis of them. Among the towns organized with bright hopes, but 
which never got beyond the dreams of the proprietors were, Randolph, in 
Wayne township, Castle, Mt. Holly, Allensville, Flemingsburg, Spring- 
borough, Rockingham, Steubenville, Royston, Newburg and Newtown. 
Others thrived for a few years but local conditions and locations conspired to 
defeat their becoming a metropolis. Others such as Deerfield, Windsor, 
Huntsville, Arba, and New Pittsburg were trading points of importance but 
were "killed by railroads missing them." 

In the development of the county, in every institution or enterprise, it 
has been and will always continue to be the "survival of the fittest." The 
old must give way to the new; the problem of yesterday is solved today and 
becomes a memory tomorrow. 


The first settler was Thomas W. Parker, on Nolan's Fork, in Greens- 
fork township, west of Arba, in April, 18 14. 

The first boy in the country was Jesse Parker, son of Thomas Parker 
above, eight years old. He lived long at Bethel, Wayne county, Indiana, a 
jovial, hearty old man, honestly earning his living by the constant "rap, rap, 
rap of his well worn hammer." (Died near Lynn, fall of 1881.) 


The first girls were Celia and Sarah Parker, daughters of Thomas and 
Anna Parker above. Sarah was burned to death when a girl; Celia was 
married to Benjamin Arnold, and resides at Arba. 

The first woman was Anna Parker, wife of Thomas Parker above. 
Thomas and Anna Parker died more than eighty years ago. 

The first county formed in what is now Indiana, was Knox county, 
created in 1790, under Governor St. Clair, with Vincennes as the county 
seat, and including all Indiana and Michigan, the settlers along the Ohio, 
a fort and garrison at Fort Wayne, and one at Detroit. 

The first settlement in Indiana was at Vincennes, by the French (per- 
haps) in 1702. A post was established by Sieur Juchereau and Missionary 
Meret at that date. 

When General Gage, a British officer, demanded of the French settlers 
at Vincennes that they should leave their homes and their lands, the French 
protested that they had held them by charter from the French King for 
seventy years, and that to drive them away now would be unjust and cruel, 
and they were allowed to remain. 

The first county east of the "Old Boundary" (Wayne's), agreed on in 
1795, was Dearborn, erected by Indiana Territory in 1803, settled in 1796, 
before any surveys had been made except the "gore" between the Ohio 
line and the "Old Boundary" line, which was surveyed in 1800, three years 
before, and embracing the whole region west of the Ohio line and east of 
Wayne's boundary. 

Wayne county was organized in 18 10, embracing all the territory east 
of the "New Boundary," and north of the southern boundary of the county. 

Randolph county was organized in 1818, at first extending westward 
only to the west boundary of the Twelve Mile Purchase. It was first 
settled in 18 14. 

The first organization of the Northwest Territory was by the (old) 
Congress of the Confederation in 1787. 

The first Governor was Gen. Arthur St. Clair, October 5, 1787. 

The first capital of the Northwest Territory was Marietta, established 
by Governor St. Clair shortly after his appointment. 

The first capital of the state of Indiana was Corydon, in Harrison 
county, in the southern part of the state, almost exactly south of Indianapolis. 

The first Governor of Indiana was Jonathan Jennings, elected in 1816. 

The first Representative for Randolph county was Ephraim Overman. 

The first Senator was Patrick Baird, of Wayne county. 

The first two townships in Randolph county were Greensfork and White 


River, established in 1818 by Eli Overman, John James, Benjamin Cox, 
country commissioners, and embracing the entire county. 

The first road opened through the county was the "Quaker Trace," 
from Richmond to Fort Wayne, in 181 7. 

The first "public road" established was from Winchester to Lynn in 
1819, at the May session of Commissioner's Court. 

The first justice of the peace may have been John Wright. At any 
rate he officiated at the second wedding in February, 18 19. 

The first marriage license was issued by Charles Conway, clerk, to 
Jacob Wright and Sally Wright, February 2, 1819. They were married by 
John Gibson, a Methodist Episcopal minister. 

The first licensed store was opened by William Connor, November, 18 18, 
on sections 10, 18, 14, two or three miles northwest of (Old) Snow Hill, 
in Washington township. (Jesse Connor, son of John Connor, and nephew 
of this William Connor says that he was born in that first store, and that 
the place was where Lynn now is, and not as above stated. Mr. Jesse 
Connor was born, however, not before 183 1, thirteen years after this store 
was licensed. This William Connor was a bachelor, and unsettled in resi- 
dence , a;id business. ) 

The first town laid out was Winchester in November, 181 8. 

The first house in Winchester was built in the spring of 1819. It 
was a round log-cabin, one story, "scutched down" with clapboard roof 
and stick and clay chimney. It stood on inlot No. 9, north front, and was 
owned and occupied for many years by Martin Comer. 

The first steam-mill was built at Winchester by Elias Kizer, in about 
1835. It stood on Salt creek on the north side of Washington street. 

The first steam engine brought to the county was for that mill. 

The first dwelling in the county was erected by Thomas Parker, in the 
spring of 1814, on Nolan's Fork, west of Arba. 

The first meeting-house was built by the Friends, at Arba, in the fall of 

The first school was taught in Friends' meeting-house at Arba, during 
the winter of 1815-16, by Eli Overman. 

The first Methodist meeting was held at the dwelling of Ephraim Bo- 
wen, northwest of Arba, in 1815. 

The first Methodist sermon was preached by the Rev. Holman, of 
Louisville, Kentucky, at the cabin of Ephraim Bowen, in the year of 1815. 

The first white child born in the county was Robert Thomas, son of 


John W. Thomas, the second settler in the county. The child was born near 
Arba, December i8, 1814. 

The second child was a son of Clarkson Willcutts, who was the third 
settler, and it was born February 13, 18 15. 

The first white child born in White River township is thought to be 
Fanny (Diggs) Hill, daughter of William Diggs, Jr., [Old Billy Diggs], 
wife of Matthew Hill, of Jericho; she was born September 11, 1817. 

Lydia (Wright) Jones, sister of Solomon Wright, who lived near the 
mouth of Cabin creek, was born October 5, 1817, three weeks after the 
arrival of her parents from Clinton county, Ohio. 

The first sheriff was David Wright, appointed by Governor Jennings to 
organize the county in 18 18. 

The first county election was held in August, 1818. 

The first officers elected were Wm. Edwards, John Wright, associate 
judges; Charles Conway, clerk, and recorder; David Wright, sheriff; Solo- 
mon Wright, coroner; Eli Overman, Benjamin Cox, John James, com- 

The first Commissioners' Court was held in August, 18 18. 

The first Circuit Court was held at the house of William Way, October 
12, 1818, by the associate judges, Edwards and Wright. 

The first attorney admitted to practice law in Randolph county cir- 
cuit court was James Rariden, who was also appointed first prosecuting 

The building of the first court house was let to Abner Overman, for 
$254.50, December 6, 1818. 

The building of the first jail was undertaken by Albert Banta, for 
$125.00, December 6, 1818. 

They were both accepted by the commissioners, June 6, 1820. 

The first bill by the grand jury was John P. Huddleston versus James 
Frazier, for an afifray, found June, 1820. 

The first trial in the circuit court was Conway versus Connor. 

The first judgment rendered by the court was in the same .case. The 
judgment was for the plaintiff, and the amount $135.00. Time of rende-r- 
ing judgment, April, 1820. 

The first criminal case was State versus James Frazier. Acquittal. 

The first divorce granted was in favor of Huldah Way from her hus- 
band, Nathan Way, August, 1823. 

The first settler in Greensfork township was Thomas Parker, west of 
Arba, April, 18 14. 


The first settler on White river was WilHam Diggs, Jr., who came 
during the summer of 1816, with Paul, Henry H., William and Robert 
Way. He married during the winter of 1816 or 1817, and settled, per- 
haps, February, 181 7. 

The first settler in West River may have been William Blount. He 
first entered land, and may have been the first settler. His entry is dated 
April 10, 1815. It was afterward the Zimmerman (Retz) farm, on West 

The first settler in Ward township is not now known. James Strain 
entered a section of land in 1816, but he is said never to have lived on the 
land. Fifteen entries were made in 1817, the first being Daniel Richard- 
son, May 21, 1817, southwest quarter of 12, 21, 14, on Mississinewa river, 
northeast of John Keys. 

The first settler in Nettle Creek was probably John Burroughs, south- 
west of Losantville, in 1822. 

The first settler in Stoney Creek may have been Isaac Branson. "Aunt 
Patsy" Branson said that she came with her husband to Stoney Creek town- 
ship in 1819. She was perhaps mistaken. He entered his land November 
28, 1822. Yet, he may have resided in the county some years, and he en- 
tered land in that township, November 28, 1822. 

However, David Vestal made the first entry, October 31, 1822, four 
weeks before Isaac Branson did his. Yet Mr. Branson is said to have come 
in February, 1819, and "Aunt Patsy" thought they were first, and perhaps 
they were. 

The first settler in Green township may have been Martin Boots. His 
entry was macie August 18, 1832, six entries being made in that year. 

The first settler in Monroe township was perhaps John Rody. At least 
he entered the first land, April 10, 1833, one mile south of Morristown. 

The first settlers in Wayne township were probably Benoni and Henry 
Hill and Amos Peacock, in the spring of 1818. 

The first resident of Jackson township is thought to have been Philip 
Storms. He lived at a very early day at the Allensville crossing of the 
Mississinewa, and still before that in the southern part of the township. 
He was poor and not able to purchase land, and once or twice had land 
entered from under him, which provoked him, as well it might, since that 
was justly enough reckoned a very serious breach of "squatter unwritten 
law." He resided in the region in 1830. 

The first settler in Washington township may have been Travis Adcock. 


At any rate, he made the first land entry in that township, 18x4, and he 
was residing there at a very early date. 

The first settler in Franklin township was Meshach Lewallyn, during 
the summer of 181 7. 

The first framed bridge (probably) was made over White river north, 
toward Deerfield. 

The first railroad through the county was the Indianapolis & Belle- 
fontaine railroad, completed in 1852-3. This road was afterwards called 
the "Bee Line" and is now a part of the New York Central Lines. 

The first wagon-shop, so far as now known, was owned by Thomas 
Butterworth, before 1840, who lived two and a half miles southeast of Win- 

The first blacksmith shop may have been John Way's at Winchester, 
(not known). James Frazier, father of Francis Frazier, the bellmaker, 
was a bellmaker and blacksmith. He came in 1817, (in the spring). Jere 
Smith's father came in August, 1817, and he was a blacksmith and worked 
at his trade. 

The first brick may have been burned by David Wysong, south of Win- 
chester. He burned the brick for the court house, built in 1826. 

The first lime kiln was probably at Maxville. 

The first orchard is thought to have been set out by Henry H. Way, 
near Sampletown, about 1817 or 181 8. Some of the trees are still standing, 
two to two and a half feet through, and in a bearing condition. 

The first binder was owned by Wm. Wright in Stoney Creek township. 
This machine was a "Buckeye Wire Binder" sold by George Robbins of 
Farmland. It was necessary to watch the machine as it was in danger of 
being destroyed. 

The first brick house in Winchester, and perhaps in the county, was 
built by Martin Comer, where the Randolph County Bank now stands. 

One of the oldest brick dwellings in the county now stands on the Brick- 
ley farm, one mile southwest of Dunkirk meeting-house. The bricks were 
burnt on the farm for the purpose. 

The -first frame house in the county was built in Winchester, by Judge 
Sample, in 1820. 

The first penitentiary sentence was rendered in the August term, 1824, 
against David Banta, for hog stealing. The prisoner escaped into Ohio and 
was never captured, and so the sentence remains not carried out to this day. 

The first conviction was David Banta's. 


The first slander case was tried August, 1826. 

The first slander conviction was February, 1828. 

The first water-mill in Greens fork township may have been Jessup's on 
Greenville creek. It was built as early as 1820, and perhaps earlier. 

The first mill in the county may perhaps have been Lewallyn's, near 
Ridgeville, as early as 18 19, and probably sooner than that. 

The first mill on White river was probably Sample's Mill, west of 
Winchester, or Jeremiah Cox's mill near Jericho. Cox's mill was built in 
1825, five or six miles east of Winchester. No mill is found at either place 

The first carding machine in the county was owned by Daniel Petty east 
of Winchester, very early, exact date not known. 

The first carding machine in Winchester is supposed to have been built 
by Moorman Way, Esq. It was run by ox-power, and was built about 1832. 

The first grist mill in Jackson township is thought to have been a corn- 
cracker, built soon after 1833 by Jacob Johnson. 

The first water mill in Jackson township is thought to have been built 
on the Mississinewa by Hinchey. The exact date is not known. 

The first school in Jackson township was taught by Mrs. Beach in 
1838, in her own house. 

The first pike in Randolph county is thought to have been the Green- 
ville and Winchester pike (or a pike near Bloomingsport). 

The first two-story hewed log cabin in Winchester was built in the fall 
of 1819, on Inlot No. i, west front, by James McCool, a blind man. It 
was good and substantial, and was occupied by him as a hotel in 1819. 

The first cook stove brought to Randolph county was by Edward Edger, 
of Deerfield, about 1838 or 1839. It cost $50.00 in silver at 10 per cent, 
premium, equal to $55.00 in currency, besides the cost of hauling it from 

Another cook stove was brought to the county at the same time for Mrs. 
Kinnear, south of Deerfield. It was just like Mr. Edger's and cost the 
same amount. 

The first entry in Randolph county was by Jeremiah Mottatt, fn Wayne 
township, northwest of Harrisville, December i, 18 12, northwest quarter 
section 18, town 20, range 15. He never occupied the tract. 

The first entry in Greens fork township was by Clarkson Willcutts, Janu- 
ary 9, 1814, southeast quarter section 28, town 16, range i. 

The first entry in Washington township was by Travis Adcock, May 
14, 1814, northwest quarter section 14, town 18, range 14. 


The first entry in West River township was by William Blount, April 
i.o, 1814, southwest quarter section 8, town i8, range 13. 

The first entry in White River township was by Shuball Ellis, Novem- 
ber 30, 18 14, northeast quarter section 18, town 20, range 14. 

The first entry in Ward township was by James Strain, October 16, 
1816, section 13, town 21, range 14. He never lived on it. 

The first entry in Jackson township was by John Abercrombie, Octo- 
ber 16, 1816, southwest quarter section 7, town 21, range 15. Jackson town- 
ship was not settled till long afterwards. 

The first entry in Stoney Creek was by David Vestal, October 31, 1822, 
southwest quarter section 8, town 19, range 12. Two more entries were 
made the same day by John Connor, and five more in the month of Novem- 
ber following, or 880 in all in less than a month. 

The first entry in Nettle Creek was by John Burroughs, October 21, 
1822, southwest quarter section 15, town 18, range 12. Within less than a 
month, 760 acres were entered in that township. 

The first entry in Franklin township was by Meshach Lewallyn, July 
19, 181 7, sections i and 12, town 21, range 13. 

The first entry in Monroe township was by John Rody, April 10, 1833, 
southeast quarter of southeast quarter section 17, town 21, range 12. 

The first entries in Green township were made by John Michael and 
Martin Boots, August 18, 1832, northwest quarter section 8, town 21, range 
12, and northeast quarter section 9, town 21, range 12. 

The first carding machine in Randolph county was on Salt creek, east 
of Winchester,' owned by Daniel Petty, date not known. 

The first tan-yard was probably set up by Hugh Botkins southeast of 
Huntsville. Mr. Botkins came very early. The first one may have been at 

The first burying ground was probably at Arba. Arba, Lynn, Cherry 
Grove, Jericho, White River and Dunkirk meetings were all established short- 
ly after the settlement of the county, Arba being almost certainly the first. 

The first drain-tile made in the county, as also in the state, were manu- 
factured by hand by John K. Martin in a machine made by himself in 1856. 
He made 200 rods and burned them in a brick-kiln in his father's yard. 

The first woolen factory in Randolph county is thought to have been 
at Unionsport by Hiram Mendenhall. The date cannot be stated. 

The first teacher's institute was held at Winchester under the direction 
of Prof.. E. P. Cole, principal of Randolph County Seminary, about 1850. 


Those early institutes were full of interest and profit, and would compare 
very favorably with many held in later times. 

The first session of the Union Literary Institute commenced June 15, 
1846, with Rev. Ebenezer Tucker as principal, in a two-story hewed log 
house, upon ground cleared from the heavy green woods for the purpose. 
A huge tree-trunk, four feet through, lay for years not twenty feet from 
the door, that had just been felled "in the green," and the boarding house 
erected the next year had several green stunips under the floor. 

The first hotel in Winchester was kept by James McCool, a blind man. 
It was set up in 1819. 

The first hotel in the county may have been kept by Joseph Gass, be- 
tween Economy and Winchester. At least it was there in the spring of 
181 7, when the "Way Company" came through from Caroline to White 

The first store in Winchester would seem to have been kept by Esquire 
Odle, at what date is not now known. 

The first hatters' shop was owned by James Oldham, which was begun 
perhaps in 1819. 

The first county treasurer was Jesse Johnson, appointed by the com- 
missioners, Nov.ember, 1818. 

The first assessor (lister) was George Bowles, appointed February, 
,1819. He made his report in May and was allowed $10 for assessing the 

The first treasurer's report was made May, 1819; sum received $10; 
expenditures, $20. 

The first grist-mill on the Mississinewa, above Lewallyn's was built 
by Mr. Parsons, who came there in 1829, and built it soon after. 

The first murder in the eastern part of the state was done in Wayne 
county, in 1816. A man by the name of Criss killed his son-in-law, Mr. 
Chambers. He was tried, convicted, and hung at Salisbury, then the county 
seat of Wayne county. 

The first post offices in the various townships were probably as fol- 
lows: White River (and in the county), Winchester, Ward, Deerfield; 
Greens fork, Spartanburg; Washington, Bloomingsport ; Franklin, Ridgeville; 
Wayne (old) Randolph; Stoney Creek, Windsor; West River, Trenton; 
Huntsville, Nettle Creek, Losantville; Jackson, New Lisbon; Green, Fair- 
view; Monroe, Farmland. 
/ . 


Randolph county being one of the oldest as well as the highest counties 
in the state has been the subject for very careful survey, both as to its geology, 
fauna and flora. 

The geological survey was carefully made of the county in 1882 by 
Prof. A. J. Phinney. Dr. Phinney was a physician, located in Muncie and 
made his report to Prof. John Collett, at that time state geologist. 

Dr. Phinney's report is so complete and exact and was made after such 
careful investigation and research that we feel the best interests of our read- 
ers will be served by re-publishing his report, which is as follows : 


The surface is generally level or rolling, with the exception of three 
ridges in the southern part, which might in places be termed hilly. These ridges 
are highest south of the water-shed, owing to the erosion of the valleys during 
the slow elevation of the divide. The surface near the water-shed is usually 
level, but grows more hilly as you go towards the south line of the county. 
North of White River is a low ridge, forming the water-shed of the north- 
ern part. The highest land in the state is formed on the middle ridge near 
Bloomingsport (one and one-half miles northwest), on the summit between 
Green's Fork and Martindale creek, the elevation of the road bed of the I., B. 
and \Y. R. R., being here 1,234.40 feet above the ocean. Colonel ^loore, 
Chief Engineer, estimates the elevation of some of the hills south of this point 
to be at least fifty feet higher, making the highest point in the state about 
1,285 f^st above the ocean. Hills on the east ridge are nearly as high. The 
following table of altitudes of the road bed of the I., B. & W. R. R. was fur- 
nished by Colonel Moore, Chief Engineer. The base line of this road places 
the Union Depot, at Indianapolis, at 721.20 feet above the sea level. 



Feet Above Ocean. 

West line of Randolph County : 1,171.50 

One-half mile south of Losantvillc 1,140.60 

Valley of Nettle Creek 1,129.40 

Summit between West River and Nettle Creek 1,1 86. 10 

West River Valley Bridge 1,120.00 

Township Line at Hoover's Sawmill 1,220.00 

Summit between Martindale, creek and Green's fork 1,234.40 

Crossing of Richmond, Ft. Wayne R. R. near Lynn 1,173.80 

Elevation of Lynn station 1,183.00 

Summit of line between Washington and Green's Fork Townships 1,187.50 

Summit west of boundary road 1,220.00 

Di^'ide of drainage between Noland's Fork and Greenville creek 1,186.00 

Summit between Noland's fork and east fork of White Water 1,214.60 

State line one mile north of the southeast corner of the county 1,180.44 

East of the point last named the descent is gradual to the Miami Valley. 

Low water Mississinewa river, at Ridgeville 964.00 

Summit between Mississinewa and White Rivers 1,095.00 

\A"inchester, crossing of Bellefontaine R. R 1,088.00 

Union City, C, C, C. & I. R. R 1,107.00 

The county, as a whole, is one of the most elevated in the state, its 
southern part forming the water-shed of eastern Indiana. Streams flow in 
every direction from its summit. The principal rivers are the Mississinewa, 
and its branches, viz. : Elkhorn and Bear creeks, and the Little Mississinewa ; 
White river and its tributaries, viz. : Little White river, Cabin creek. Sugar 
creek, and Salt creek, in the central part. South of the divide. West river, 
Martindale creek, Green's fork and Noland's Fork of White Water river, 
while on the east Greenville and Dismal creeks drain the swampy tracts near 
the summit. All these streams form an abundance of water for stock, though 
none are hardly large enough to furnish much water power for manufactories. 
\Miere streams are not accessible, water can usually be obtained by wells, the 
depth varying from ten to thirty feet. Springs are numerous, though mostly 
small, and the character of the water such as is usually found in limestone 
regions, though a few were observed which are chalj^beate. 

Nearly all the larger streams of the county have their sources in broad, 


swampy tracts, which, when the country was first settled, were almost impass- 
able, and were from one quarter to two miles wide, and the larger from five 
to six miles long. The water-shed between" Noland's Fork and Greenville 
creek is hardly perceptible, and the broad prairie which now borders both these 
streams can be traced from the south line of the county, with the direction a 
little east of north, to a point east of Union City, from thence continuing in 
the same direction for fifteen miles through the northwestern portion of Darke 
county, Ohio. South of Union City a branch of this prairie crosses the east 
ridge, and extends in a southwesterly direction to the valley of Green's Fork, 
forming the broad prairie from which Dismal creek, the east branch of 
Green's fork and White river have their sources. Cabin Creek and West River 
, rise in another long swampy tract, which lies to the east of the west ridge. 
North of West River township, this swampy tract extends for about two miles. 
Bear creek and the stream from the north, which empties into the Mississinewa 
river a short distance above the mouth of Bear creek, are in the same line. 
The streams which occupy these broad valleys could never have excavated 
them; in fact, until ditches were cut, they had not even made a channel for 
themselves. They evidently- mark the course of glacial rivers, flowing from 
the northeast to the valley of the Ohio of the ocean. The direction of the 
flow of these ancient streams, at right angles to the present lines of drain- 
age, shows that the surface at the north was relatively much higher than at 
present, and that the divide now so prominent a feature of the surface con- 
figuration, hardly had an existence at the close of the Glacial epoch. The three 
ridges are only remnants of the broad table land which once existed, the gla- 
cial streams having carried away the material which once united them. The 
hills, so prominent a feature of the southern part of the ridges, were carved 
from the level table land by currents of water. They have nothing in common 
with those hills of sand and gravel (kames), found so frequently in Delaware 
county and other portions of the state. 

Union City is situated on the east ridge, and the people have always had 
more or less difficulty in obtaining water. In order to secure a supply for 
water works, an excavation was made southwest of the city, thirty feet in 
diameter and twenty feet deep. A drill was then sunk twenty feet more, strik- 
ing a vein of water which filled the well and overflowed the top, and has since 
continued to supply the city with clear cold water. They evidently tapped the 
ancient channel which passed a little to the east. In draining the swamps, elks' 
antlers have been found : some very large and having a spread of six feet. 
Remains of the mastodon have been occasionally met with. 

North of the Mississinewa river, in Jay county, is a ridge known as the 


Lost Mountain. This ridge has a similar position, and evidently originated in 
the same manner as the low divide north of White river. Overflows from 
the Glacial river evidently once covered most of Wayne and White River 
townships, finding an outlet through the channel marked "probable course of 
Glacial river." Although no deep channel was formed, enough material was 
removed to give to the remaining portion the character of a ridge, and the 
erosive action of White river has still further contributed to that result. A 
similar condition prevails north of the Missigsinewa river, in fact that chan- 
nel marked "probable course of Glacial river" can be traced through Randolph 
to Jay county. West of Ridgeville it curves to the east, and with a somewhat 
circuitous course terminates in the main channel in Darke county, Ohio, mak- 
ing probably the supposition that the ridge is the result of erosion. 



Under this head may be classed all those de^sits which have taken place 
during and since the close of the Glacial epoch, and it embraces all those 
accumulations of peat, muck and vegetable mold which are now among the 
very best farming lands in the county. The largest of these deposits occur in 
the valleys of those ancient rivers, their channels having been silted up with 
sand and gravel, leaving, at first series of shallow lakes. All depressions in 
the surface were left filled as the waters slowly receded. These lakes and 
ponds, after a long period of time, became filled from the accumulations of an 
aquatic vegetation and the wash from the higher lands.. Although shunned 
by the earlier settlers, the judicious use of ditching has redeemed these wastes, 
and now, over a great part of these prairies, may be seen the fields of golden 
grain. The depths of these deposits varies from two to ten feet, the lower 
part, in places, resembling a marl. The largest of these prairies are found 
bordering Greenville and Dismal creeks on the east and Cabin creek and 
West river, near the southwestern part of the county. Smaller accumulations 
of muck occur in every township. 


All of the streams of the county being small, no very extensive alluvial 
deposits are found here. The valleys of the Mississinewa and ^Vhite rivers 
afford the best example of this formation. Although limited in extent, they 


are noted for their fertility — a characteristic of these deposits wherever 
found. Formed from the finer clay and sand washed from the higher lands, 
and mixed with vegetable detritus, they have every element necessary for the 
production of magnificent crops. 


This deposit covers the whole county, the depth ranging from twenty- 
five to possibly one hundred feet. It is here a. gray and yellowish clay, with 
some sand and gravel in the deeper portions. From ten to thirty feet of 
clay is passed through, in digging wells before gravel is reached. The depth 
■ of the surface clays together with their extent, and the numerous large bowld- 
ers which are found on the surface are records of melting of extensive 
glaciers. The clays, sand and gravel, which are scattered over such a large 
extent of territory, tell us of the mighty force which ground to powder the 
shales, destroyed the cohesion of sandstones, and brought from the Canadian 
highlands mere remnants of tho;e azoic rocks that were torn from their 
parent ledges. 

If, standing upon the summit of Little mountain, Lake county, Ohio, 
seven hundred and fifty feet above the surface of Lake Erie, one will fill, in 
imagination, that vast vacuity which probably extends to the Canadian shore 
with the Erie shale, Waverl}^ group and carboniferous conglomerate, which 
once occupied it, he will be able to form some conception of the mighty force 
which excavated the basin of Lake Erie, and scattered the debris oyer Indi- 
ana and Ohio. That great glacier moved from the northeast to the south- 
west, and the Little mountain, with its precipitous walls facing the lake, indi- 
cates the position of the land side of that glacial plow. Probably the low 
divide, which extends from northeastern Ohio into Indiana, passing through 
the southern part of Randolph county, marked the southern border of this 
glacier. This was followed by the great glacier from the north, which 
covered the continent as far south as the fortieth parallel of latitude. As 
this melted, leaving the debris of its work of destruction behind, to be sorted 
by the volumes of water flowing from it, a depression of the continent took 
place, the glaciers dropped their loads of gravel, sand, clay and bowlders. 
After this part of the ice age the surface clays were deposited and the future 
wealth of the soil determined. During the period of elevation which fol- 
lowed, the sheet of clay was cut through by the rivers which were draining 
the waters from the basins of the Great lakes. As the rivers flowed across 
the divide, they excavated those deep and broad valleys now occupied by 


Greenville and Dismal creeks, Cabin creek and West river. Portions of the 
table land separating them were subject to the action of currents of water, 
which carved those rounded hills, so common near the summit of the divide. 
As the lake basins became drained, the ancient river channels were silted up, 
in many places wholly obliterated, leaving only a series of shallow lakes to 
mark their former course. During this last act in the great drama of water 
and ice, the surface configuration of the county was marked out. Gradually, 
with a continued but unequal elevation, the p^sent lines of drainage became 
established at right angles to those ancient river channels. 


Bowlders are common everywhere, but are found in greater numbers 
in the southern part, near the summit of the divide, the erosion which this 
part of the county has suffered having carried away the finer material, leaving 
them exposed. East of Windsor and south of White river is a line of 
bowlders, extending nearly to IMacksville, many of which are of large size. 
In section 29, White River township, range 14 east, 20 north, is one thirteen 
feet long and five feet above the surface and with not less than five or six 
feet imbedded in the earth. W^est of Fairview and south of the Mississinewa 
river is another nearly as large. Quartzytes, green-stones and granites are 
the prevailing kinds. ^lany of the quartzytes are of great size, and show by 
their well-rounded forms the rough usage to which they have been subjected. 
The greenstones (Dioryte, with others of the Hornblende series) are, many 
of them, large, and are usually angular. All forms of granites occur here. 
The transition into the gneissoid rocks, however, is rare, the tendency of the 
gradations being towards the Syenites. But few limestones were found. 
In many places bowlders were so numerous that the farmers were complelled 
to haul them off their fields. The immense pile along the roadsides afforded 
ample opportunity for their study. 


The only rocks found in the county belong to the Niagara period, Upper 
Silurian age. But few exposures occur, and only along the larger streams. 
At IMacksville, on White river, is an outcrop exposing a thickness of about 
six feet of a soft friable and coarse grained limestone of a whitish cream 
color, becoming yellowish on exposure, judging from what was seen on the 
suiface. This is suitable only for lime, of which it makes an excellent 
quality. It ^ets quick, owing to its being nearly a pure carbonate. Air. J. 


C. Brickley burns annually about seven thousand bushels, which hardly sup- 
plies the local demand. This industry might be much increased if the rock 
was quarried properly. Instead of taking a few loads from where it can be 
obtained the easiest, a quarry ought to be opened and worked below the sur- 
face of tiie river, and with a front not less than ten or twelve rods in length. 
When once opened, rock could be obtained with much less expense than at 
present, and if a continual burner was used the cost of production would be 
much less. Not over two or three feet of stripping is required here, and 
that principally the alluvial deposits of the river. Although this rock is a 
magnesian limestone, the amount of magnesia present is much less than in 
rocks of the same age in Grant and Huntington counties. 

The following analysis is taken from Professor Cox's report for 1878: 


Water exiDclled at 212° Fahr 1.18 

Silicic acid . 1.20 

Ferric oxide : 1.30 

Alumina 4.40 

Lime _ 45.45 

Magnesia 4.01 

Carbonic acid 40.11 

Sulphuric acid .27 

Loss and undetermined 2.08 

Total 100.00 

"The principal ingredients of this rock, as seen from the above, are 
carbonate of lime, carbonate of magnesia and alumina. In calcining, prob- 
ably tiie greater part of the magnesia is driven off, especially if a white heat 
is obtained. The strata here range from two to five inches in thickness, and 
though very soft when first taken from the quarry, become hard on exposure. 
In the upper layers, casts of pentamerus oblongus are very abundant, many 
being nearly perfect; but as no pains have been taken to save the finest ones, 
only weathered specimens could be obtained. Impressions of an Orthis and 
Spirifer were observed, and, judging from the description given, Orthoceras 
annulatum and Platyostoma niagarensis have been occasionally met with. 
The direction and amount of dip could not be determined. A small exposure 
occurs in section 8, West River township, range 13 east, 19 north, on Cabin 


creek, which was worked for lime, on a small scale some years ago. No out- 
crop can be seen at present. 

Near Ridgeville the rock is exposed along the Mississinewa river for 
about two miles. Here is found about six feet of a whitish, coarse-grained 
limestone which, though soft and friable when first taken from the quarry, 
hardens on exposure and forms the principal stone used in the vicinity for 
walls and building. The strata range from two to four inches in thickness. 
This stone makes excellent lime, though nona-is being burnt at present. This 
rock differs very little from that at Macksville, as can be seen from the fol- 
lowing analysis from the Indiana Geographical Report 1878. 


Water expelled at 212" Fahr 0.90 

Silicic acid .70 

Ferric oxide 2.70 

Alumina 3.75 

Lime 45-o8 

Magnesia 4.36 

Carbonic acid 40.21 

Sulphuric acid .44 

Loss and undetermined 1.86 

Total 100.00 

The presence of iron in the upper layers causes them to turn rusty or 
yellowish red upon expoaire to the air, • the oxide becoming a sesquioxide. 
Numerous ixnpressions of fossils were seen. Corals of the genus Favosites 
were numerous, but good specimens could not be obtained. The more com- 
mon of the fossils found are Favosites niagarensis. F. Favosus, Strophomena, 
rhomboidalis, S. striata, Orthis elegantula, Pentamerus oblongus, P. sp., 
Cladopora reticulata, Zaphrentis bilateralis, IMeristina nitida and Platyostoma 
niagarensis. W'est of Fairview, near the river, rock is found about two feet 
below the surface. This differs in no particular from that at Ridgeville, ex- 
cept that the strata are thicker. Only a small amount has been quarried. 
At neither of these localities could the dip be determined. The rocks in this 
county differ from that found in Delaware countv in the absence of the 
argillaceous and cherty layers, as well as the more durable and desirable blue 
stone. The dip in Delaware county being to the southwest, the rock there 
belongs higher in the series. The difference is not due to a change in the" 


lithological character of the same strata, but to a change in the conditions 
under which they were deposited. 

At the close of the Lower Sihirian age the southern portion of that Hne 
of upheaval known as the Cincinnati arch was raised above the sea. In the 
continental ocean surrounding it was deposited the Niagara limestone, the 
most extensive of any of the formations subsequent to the Lower Silurian. 
The Cincinnati arch, extending from Nashville, Tennessee, to a point between 
Toledo and Sandusky. C)hio, was a line of uner|ual disturbance, which finally 
culminated in the elevation of the whole arch above the ocean at the close of 
the Devonian age. This arch is not a single fold, but, as ably shown by Prof. 
J. S. Newberry, in the geological survey of Ohio, its northern portion consists 
of at least two distinct folds. During the deposition of the Niagara lime- 
stone around the Lower Silurian island, the sea was gradually returning with 
the elevation of the arch, and the dififerent portions of the Niagara group, 
following the retreating waters, were deposited successively further from 
the old shore line. Today the most recently formed strata of the Niagara 
are probably found along the AVabash river, showing that there has been a 
gradual elevation of this portion of eastern Indiana, during the Niagara 
period. The dip of the strata is both to southwest and northwest. 

The dip of the blue limestone of Delaware county is such "that the strata, 
if continued into Randolph county, would overlap the whitish rock found 
here. This blue limestone if traced to the northwest, is found to underlie the 
yellowish, massive limestone of Grant county, the probable equivalent of the 
Guelph, Cedarville, or Pentamerus limestone, which is found covered by the 
whitish limestone along the Wabash. The limestone of Jay is similar to that 
of this county, but in Wells county the blue limestone appears in the bed of 
the Waba-h. 

Above the Niagara group in Ohio, is the Salina, with its beds of gypsum, 
but if any of this formation was deposited in Indiana, it is either covered by 
the drift or has been removed by erosion. Immediately succeeding this is 
the water-lime (Lower Helderburg), which forms the surface rock over a 
large part of Ohio, but gradually becomes thinner and disappears before 
reaching this portion of Indiana. It is possible that this formation may be 
covered by the drift in the northeastern part of the state; but so far, where 
the Devonian is exposed v/ith the Niagara, there has been no water-lime inter- 
vening, and the exposures are so numerous along the western border of the 
.arch, that if ever deposited it would have been observed; so far no out-crop 
of water-lime is found in Indiana. The water-lime of the falls of the Ohio 
at Louisville, belongs to the Upper Helderburg of Devonian age. 


The prevalence of rocks of the Niagara group over so large an extent of 
territory in this state, together with the absence of the water-lime and salina, 
indicates that this portion of the state was above the ocean, at the time 
of their deposition. There is no evidence to show that Randolph and Jay 
counties were covered by Devonian seas, although they may have been. It is 
possible, even probable, that investigation will show that the Cincinnati arch, 
north of the Ohio river, consist of three folds instead of two, and that the 
older one of these extended from the Lowei* Silurian island, west of north, 
far into Indiana. 

This county is the highest in the state, because it forms part of the Cin- 
cinnati arch which is crossed by the gentle fold extending from northeastern 
Ohio into Indiana; everywhere through its course it marks a high elevation, 
and where these two lines of disturbances — if they be such — cross, is found 
the highest point measured in Ohio and Indiana. The highest points do not 
necessarily coincide with the water-shed, for deep valleys were excavated 
through this ridge by the glacial streams, showing that its present relative 
altitude is of comparatively recent date. 


The soil of this county is its only genuine and real mine of wealth and 
most bountifully has it responded to the labors of the husbandman. Although, 
with the exception of the prairies, the soil is for the most part a heavy clay, 
it ha.-i been enriched by the vegetable accumulations of ages. The days being 
the debris of many different formations, contain all the elements necessar}' 
for a fertile soil. In the southwestern part of the county the soil is some- 
what sandy; the fields of wheat one can see here, show well the adaptability 
of the soil. North of White river, the soil is a heavy clay, with occasional 
patches of muck; but as all this portion admits of draining but little differ- 
ence could be seen as regards the prospects of a bountiful harvest. Wheat, 
corn and grass are the principal productions, and if the prospects for this 
year are a criterion from which to judge, few counties in the state will have 
better cause to feel proud of their crops of wheat and grass. Some complaint 
was heard that the wheat was turning to chess, but the real difficulty was 
that the farmer showed chess instead of wheat, and now, as harvest is near at 
hand, he tries to shirk the responsibility by claiming his misfortune to be due 
to a freak of nature, rather than to the proper cause — his own carelessness — 
as wheat never turns to cheat, nor cheat to timothy. 

In the southern part of the county the prairies and the clays of the high 


lands are about equally divided, giving more variety of soil than is found in 
the northern part. All this portion admits of easy drainage, and the farmers 
are fast learning that labor expended in ditching is repaid many fold. The 
prairies and tracts of muck are well adapted to corn and wheat, while the 
clays, in addition, produce heavy crops of grass. Many fields will yield from 
two to three tons of hay per acre. Blue grass (Poa pretensis), is the most 
abundant of the native grasses, but timothy (Phleum pratense), grows 
equally well. 

It must not be supposed that, however fertile a soil, it will continue 
to produce abundant harvests unless some effort is made to supply that waste 
of plant food which is lost with every crop harvested. Rotation of crops is 
a help to prolong the fertility of the soil; but as every crop of grass, corn 
stalks or straw, removes some of the silica, potash lime and phosphates, this 
waste will have to be supplied if the soil is expected to produce with its usual 
degree of fertility. 

Randolph is comparatively a new county, and the vegetable accumulation 
of ages is still present, but the time will come when this will disappear, as it 
is constantly exposed to atmospheric agencies, and then over a great part of 
the county will be found a stiff and unproductive clay. The loss of vegetable 
material can be supplied by turning under green crops of clover, weed, corn 
stalks, etc., but the mineral loss must be replaced by some of the many fer- 
tilizers. There has been very little need of the farmer paying much attention 
to this subject; but the time will come when the successful farmer will be the 
one who knows best how to supply the soil the waste of mineral and vege- 
table material." 

Many of the things mentioned in Dr. Phinney's report as existing at 
that time are yet of great importance from a historical standpoint. 

Mr. J. C. Brickley spoken of in connection with the quarries at Maxville 
died but recently. 

Lime is no longer burned in Randolph county. 

The analysis of the rock at Macksville and Ridgeville is of the upper 
strata. At the present time the analysis of the rock at Ridgeville is quite 
different from that reported by Professor Cox, in 1878. The quarries there 
are now worked some forty or fifty feet deeper than what they were in 1878. 
The stone crusher at Ridgeville is one of the largest and complete of 
any found in the state and hundreds of car loads of crushed lime stone are 
sent annually from this quarry for the purpose pi building roads. 



Gravel i? found in abundance in many parts of the county but some have 
been almost destitute. 

Stoney Creek township has some great pits as almost the entire town- 
ship is underlaid with a good quality of gravel. Xettle Creek township in 
the southwestern portion has some gravel ; W§st River has but little excepting 
along the stream of West river. The recent dredging of this stream brought 
to light that the entire valley is underlaid with a vein of gravel twelve and 
fifteen feet thick. Washington township has one or two pits west of Lynn 
but very little elsewhere in the township. Greensfork has but little and 
Wayne township has one or two large pits, especially one that is known as the 
Thornburg pit. Jackson township is somewhat underlaid along the Alissis- 
sinewa, as is W^ard, Franklin and Green. The northeastern portion of 
W hite River has, so far as has been discovered, no supply whatever. These 
pits however, are all surface pits. 

In recent }ear5 it has been discovered that the best gravel is far below 
the surface and can be brought to the surface only by pumping or dredging. 
Thousands of yards of first-class gravel have been brought to the surface in 
this way, principally by dredging. The county commissioners have had a 
dredge on the county farm and thousands of yards have been dredged 
there. In the eastern part of White River township along White river are 
some other dredge pits. Along W'est river many are also found. This has 
been responsiljle in two ways for the many splendid roads spoken of else- 

In the communities where gravel is to be found the gravel roads are 
found, in other communities the crushed stone is to be fuund, the stone com- 
ing from the Ridgeville and !Macksville crushers. 

Alany of these gravel pits also contain sand but the sand is not usually 
considered of being a high quality because of its lack of "grit." 


Abundance of good clay for brick and tile is found in many parts of 
the county. 

Formerly, almost any man who wished to build a very large brick house 
would manufacture the brick on his own farm. This led to local brick yards 
furnishing the immediate community. Scores and scores of such factories 


have been in the county but at this time all have disappeared and all the bricks 
now usecl in the county are shipped from other places. 

Tile has been manufactured in several parts of the county and there 
have been large factories at Farmland, "Strahan's Corner," half way between 
Farmland and AA'inchester, Oak Grove, two miles north of Parker, Hunts- 
ville, Winchester, Ridgeville and no doubt many other places. Two extensive 
factories have been started, one north of Winchester and the other at Lynn 
but at the present time, 1914 both of these factories have stopped making 
tile so it can be said of the tile as of the brick, the industry has gone and all 
the products now used in the county are shipped from other places. 

Since Dr. Phinney has written his article on the geology of Randolph 
county a great change has been made in the water supply of the county. 
The rivers are no longer as large as they were at that time due to clearing 
of the forests and the draining of the land. Practically all of the streams 
of his time have now been tiled and the farmer plows the original bed of the 
small creek. The dug well is rapidly disappearing and very few, if any, are 
.being put down in this day. Through the study of sanitation it has been 
found that the walls in these wells are so easily contaminated, thereby spread- 
ing many diseases, such as typhoid fever, that people no longer use this supply 
of water but resort to the driven deep well. These wells range in depth 
from sixty -to two hundred ninety feet in the county. 

Some obtain the water supply in gravel but nearly all find it in rock or 
limestone. This insures a bountiful supply of pure water which can not 
be contaminated from any surface conditions. ]\Iany flowing wells are 
found in different parts of the county. These wells are found in nearly 
every, part of the count}-. Some of the strongest are along Greenville creek 
near Spartanburg, along AVest river, in West River township, Cabin creek 
in Stoney Creek township, Ali-sissinewa in Jackson and AA^ard townships, and 
Salt creek in AA'hite River township. One of the strongest of these wells 
is upon the count}- farm only a few miles distance from the highest point in 
the state, making it somewhat problematical as to the source of the pressure 
raising this water. These wells have taken the place of the natural springs, 
once found so abundantly in the county and now almost a thing of the past. 
These springs which once furnished the supply of water to the early settler 
have long since ceased to flow, due of course to the draining of the swamps 
and ponds. 



Another natural resource that has proven of great value to the county is 
that of natural gas and oil. When it was discovered that Indiana was under- 
laid with a supply of these fluids the people of Randolph county were quick 
to test for them. Practically the entire county has been tested but only three 
fields of an}' consequence have been found. - The strongest gas wells were 
found in and around Parker, Monroe and Green townships. Many, how- 
ever, have been dug in White River township around Winchester and a few 
have been drilled with success in the neighborhood of Saratoga, in Ward and 
Jackson townships. The rock pressure of these wells originally was about 
three hundred twenty pounds but have decreased in recent years to very much 
less half that amount. This supply was so wantonly destroyed and misused 
that instead of being an abundant cheap fuel, it has been wasted until it has 
become a very expensive one. When the flow of gas was at its height $i.oo 
per month was considered a high price for each stove but at the present time 
with the same amount of gas burned it would cost five to ten times that 
amount. The supply at present is very limited and it is only a question of a 
short time until it will be completely exhausted. 

Oil was discovered about 1896 and the "boom" spread over this county 
as well as the remainder of the state. None of any consequence, however, 
was found in the county except in and around Parker, in Monroe township. 
The supply here was heavy for a while but was soon exhausted and the field 
is now practically abandoned. 

Randolph county is one of the richest agricultural counties in the state, 
made so from its fertile soil, cultivated and developed by its industrious and 
intelligent people. 

That the natural resources of the soil are fast disappearing is a matter 
of fact. These resources have been conserved and replenished by intelligent 
farming in many communities but it must be said that in many cases much 
of it has been wantonly destroyed through ignorance and greed. People 
have constantly taken from the soil as though it was an inexhaustible supply 
but already the efifects of this debauchery may be seen in many communities. 
The agricultural communities are learning the values of conservation and 
fertilization and are giving this question study and experiment as it has never 
been given before. 

At this time the county has as one of its officers, a county agent whose 
duty it is to confer with farmers upon these various questions, also to bring 
to them the latest and most scientific knowledge gained from study and re- 


search work in the problems thej' ha^'e to solve. The present incumbent of 
the office, Mr. Charles A. Mahan is a graduate of Kentucky Agricultural 
College, a man of three and one-half year's experience as a soil expert in the 
Philippines and one year's experience as Coun|:y Advisor in Kentucky, hence 
his services to the county are those that would come from a trained mind and 
are of great benefit to the farming community. Randolph county will no 
doubt be much benefited by the progressive movements along agricultural 
lines as well as other lines. Its inhabitants are progressive, intelligent and 
energetic, characteristics which will make any county great. 




"When man first appeared on the soil of America is unknown; the 
record is lost in the misty ages of the past. Bvit certain it is that for thou- 
sands of years before the age of history man dwelt in America. When the 
Europeans first landed on the American coast, they found in the unknown 
world a race of people who had traditions running back for many centuries. 
So long had they been here that they had lost all knowledge of tradition of 
whence they came. It was a race different in almost every respect from any 
of the other known races of the world. But prior to their time, running 
back for many ages, there had been another race which had peopled the 
continent and governed it for centuries and possibly for thousands of years, 
but that race had disappeared so long before the Indians took possession, that 
the red man had no tradition of them. Whether this race was the predeces- 
sor or the successor of still another race which has left evidence of its exist- 
ence, is not known. The Toltecs of Mexico, the predecessors of the Aztecs, 
left records reaching back for a thousand years before the Christian era, and 
yet these records reach not back far enough to give the world any knowledge 
of the race which built the famous buried cities of Central America. The 
ruins in Central America show that at one time there had existed a race far 
advanced in civilization, living in houses in walled cities. Those cities were 
large enough to have contained a population reaching far in the thousands, 
possessing great wealth and a knowledge of many of the arts and sciences. 
The race that built and occupied those cities had disappeared, and the cities 
had been ruined and destroyed so long before the advent in Mexico of the 
Toltecs that the latter had no knowledge of them. 

The growth of a people which depends for increase upon natural causes 
must of necessity be very slow; therefore, to have reached so great a popula- 
tion as occupied the ruined cities of Central America, the race must have 
dwelt upon the continent many centuries. To destroy a race, overturn its 
cities, and bury their ruins so deep that an occupation of the soil around 
them and over them, by another race for many centuries, revealed no knowl- 
edge of such ruins, must have required ages. Yet such is the history of 



Central America. In Indiana we find no trace of such a race, yet there is 
abundant evidence to show that at one time, long anterior to the coming of 
the red man, Indiana was quite densely populated by a race that lived, flour- 
ished and passed away without leaving any records except in its monuments, 
weapons, and uten^ls for domestic use. ' This has been called the race of 
Mound Builders. Who were they? Whence came they? When, where and 
how did they disappear? These questions remain unanswered, yet the fact 
is patent that at one time Indiana was quite densely populated by them. The 
works left by this prehistoric race are of three kinds — fortifications, mounds 
and memorial pillars. This is not the usual classification, for what are here 
denominational memorial pillars are generally classed as mounds." — Smith's 
History of Indiana.) 

Prehistoric Works of Ramdolph Co 

The greatest specimen of the mound builderS' art and the best known 
group of mounds is near Newark, Ohio, and consists of "elaborate earth 
works, in the form of a circle, octagon and square, enclosing an area of about 
four square miles, on the upper terrace between two branches of the Licking 
river. Scattered over the same plain, and crowning the neighboring hills, are 
numerous mounds, evidently erected by the same people that built the larger 


works." There seems to have been two similar chains of mounds extending 
from Ohio to Central America. They crossed Indiana in two chains, one in 
the southern part of the state, where there are some splendid specimens yet 
remaining, the other through the central part of the state, passing through 
Randolph county. 

We have in this county two classes of mounds ; one a fortification and 
the other memorial mounds. The fortification, or "The Old Fort," as it is 
known in the early history of the county, is hear the city of Winchester, on 
what was formerly the county fair grounds. It is the best specimen of 
mound builders' fortifications found in the state. It is not only the largest, 
but is constructed on more scientific plans than any other of the state. It is 
an enclosure of about forty-three acres, and a rectangle of almost equal size, 
being 1,350 feet east and west, and about 1,200 feet north and south, as is 
shown on the map of it here given. There were two openings of about 
eighty feet, one in the east and one in the west end. The west opening was 
protected by a semi-circular embankment, with one part of the circle opened, 
so as to make the entrance easy of access, and yet protected. The embank- 
ments were from seven to ten feet high and when the first settlers entered 
this county they were covered with large forest trees, similar to those of the 
surrounding country. So far as we are able to learn, no scientific investiga- 
tion has ever been made relative to the structure of these walls, which seems 
to have been made by throwing up dirt from the adjacent territory. The 
walls, except those on the south, have been carried away and made into 
brick. In the exact center of this fortification is a mound, at this time about 
fifteen feet high. No large trees have grown on the mound, but quite a num- 
ber were near its edge. These trees, however, do not in the least indicate 
the proper age of these specimens of the mound builders' art. The mounds in 
general and this mound in particular, Dr. A. J. Phinney, writing of the geology 
of Randolph county for the State Geologist's Report of 1882, says: (It will 
be noted that Dr. Phinney's statements differ a little from the one given be- 
fore, but we give each of them for what they are worth; they matter only in 
details and not in any essentials.) 

"Evidences of a prehistoric race are abundant, and of such a character, 
in view of the magnitude of their works, that the observer experiences a feel- 
ing akin to reverence toward the mighty people, whose history is only written 
in their majestic ruins. In nearly every part those relics, as arrow-heads, 
axes, pestles, etc., have been found. From whence did they come? What 
their conditions of life, their religion, and fate? are questions one intuitively. 


asks when in the presence of their monuments of industry. The largest 
works of this ancient people are near Winchester, west of the confluence of 
Sugar creek with White river. It consists of a walled rectangular enclosure, 
with curved angles, 1,320 feet long, and 1,080 feet wide. Its area is thirty- 
one acres. Part of the south and west walls lies within the county fair 
grounds, the remainder in cultivated fields, and they are in a fair way to be 
entirely destroyed. On the eastern half of the south wall, which has never 
been disturbed, are beech trees two feet in diameter. This part of the wall 
is the highest; and though it may have once been from eight to ten feet in 
height, it is now not over six feet. In the center of the enclosure is a circular 
mound one hundred feet across, and about eight feet high. Excavations have 
been made seven or eight feet in tlepth, both from sides and summit, but noth- 
ing has ever been found. The east and west walls each have, near their 
middle, an opening, or gateway. The one on the east is unprotected, but the 
west one formerly had an embankment in the form of a half circle, which 
overlapped the gate way. No trace of this remains at present. The mound 
lies in a direct line between the two passage-ways. No evidence exists of a 
ditch either on the outside or inside. 

]\Ir. John K. Martin, in removing part of the east wall, north of the 
opening, reports having found a number of holes about fifteen inches in dia- 
meter, and extending seven or eight feet below the summit of the wall. These 
evidently, mark the position of posts, and shows that the enclosure was 
further protected by a palisade. Just inside of the embankment and about 
three feet from the surface, piles of ashes and charcoal are frequently met 
with. Their position indicates that they have been covered by the wash from 
the walls. No relics have been found. Nearly east from the northeast cor- 
ner of the enclosure is a fine spring. 

Southeast of the works along Sugar creek the bluffs are sandy, and the 
Mound Builders probably used them for their burial ground, as many human 
skeletons have been exhumed while digging for gravel. The absence of all 
implements of warfare shows that this enclosure was not occupied for any 
length of time as a fortification but as a permanent residence. The streams 
are small and the bluffs low. Had the inclosure included the spring, the sup- 
position that it was for protection, would have been more probable. It is not 
unlikely that this was a place for holding council or religious ceremonies. In 
section 2^, range 14 east, Washington township, is a large circular mouiid, 
which, although now somewhat reduced in size, could not have formerly 
been less than fifteen feet high and one hundred feet in diameter. In section 


23, same township, is another, which measured three hundred feet in circum- 
ference and fifteen feet high; this was better preserved than the former. 
Small bowlders were observed on the summit and sides. No excavations 
had been made in either of these mounds. Both were evidently built of clay 
taken from the immediate vicinity. They may have served as points of out- 
look, as they are only about one mile apart. In section 4, one mile southwest 
of the last one described, is a very large mound which is considered artificial 
by the people in that vicinity ; but its relation to some small streams suggested 
that it was more likely one of nature's carving. On the map is marked its 
location, as future investigations may probably show that it really belongs 
with the works of the Mound Builders. 

In section 28, range 12 east, 20 north, Stoney Creek township, between 
Stoney creek and White river, is a large mound novjf covered with small oak 
trees. This is nearly circular, fifteen feet high, 150 feet in diameter. Exca- 
vations show that it is composed of clay mixed with charcoal and ashes. At 
the depth of nine feet a skeleton was found; beneath it was a pile of stone 
two feet high and three feet in diameter. Mr. Thompson, on whose farm 
this is situated, has quite a collection of implements found in this vicinity. 

In section 10, range 13 east, 2 north, Franklin township, was a circular 
inclosure, with an area of about one and one-half acres. The walls were four 
feet high. Although when first noticed by the earlier settlers it was in a good 
state of preservation, it has been destroyed, and no trace of it remains. 
North of the Mississinewa river, between Ridgeville and Fairview, are a 
number of small tumuli, which contain ashes and charcoal. These may 
have been built by the Indians, as this used to be their camping ground. 

Many of the gravel banks have served for the Indians as burial places, 
as skeletons are frequently met with while digging gravel for pikes. Some 
of the skeletons were of large size, and deposited with them were articles of 
ornament, as paint, shells, etc. The position of some indicate that they had 
been buried in a sitting posture." 

Another embankment exists west of Winchester, near Sugar creek, 
enclosing, perhaps, an acre. These walls, however, are not very high, and 
little, if anything, can be learned of their structure. 

Washington township has at least three excellent specimens; one near 
the head waters of White river, one near Rural, and one west of Lynn. 
Doctor Moore, of Earlham College, a man of unusual scientific ability and 
carefulness of expression, wrote the following of this mound : 

Mounds and Embankment 
of an Old Port, Near 

Monnd Nen r Windsor. 



Southern Randolph and the adjacent portion of Wayne, is in the main a 
level tract, the land during ordinary seasons being rather wet. 

Besides a number of well-defined made mounds in the neighborhood of 
Lynn Station on the Grand Rapids and Indiana railroad there are frequent 
examples of natural mounds. These are usually much larger than the arti- 
ficial mounds. They may be compared to drift islands surrounded by flat 
■ areas of dark colored soil. Some of these mounds of modified drift have 
been utilized by ancient people as burial grounds. The one I speak of is a 
fraction over a mile west of Lynn Station. It is about one hundred and fifty 
yards in circumference and eighteen to twenty feet high, and is so sym- 
metrical as to have the appearance of a made mound; but in a wide cuttmg 
made through it by the gravel haulers the structure clearly shows an aqueous 
deposit from top to bottom. In this mound the workmen say they have 
opened "more than a hundred graves." They "counted until they reached 
seventy." Quite a number of the skulls were sufficiently preserved to bear 
handling, even after being for a short time exposed to the air. Some of them 
on being treated with a solution of glue have rather a fresh, recent look. 
Very many of the bones were broken to crumbs by visitors in sport. Some 
of the skeletons were in a sitting posture with the chin crowded upon the knees. 

The depth of the graves was from a yard or less to twelve feet or more. 
The skeletons were of both sexes and various ages, some quite young. It 
was alleged that a horse's bones were found, but I was unable to find the least 
scrap. They also tell of a dog's skull with the teeth all perfect. This is pos- 
sibly so, but it would seem more likely that it was the head of a wolf, which 
is quite similar. Quite a number of implements were found, some of which 
are here on the table. One skeleton was found with a large dart in each hand. 

They assert that a scapula was found pierced by a flint dart and that the 
dart was lodged in said bone, and that the bone immediately crumbled from 
about it. There were beads of bone, shell and copper — but few of the latter — 
also copper rings, tube pipes and various other things, the uses of which are 
not very well known. 

You will see in the skulls presented for your examination that there is 
quite a diversity. Two of them are of the brachycephalic or short head type, 
one barely so, the other extremely so. The one has the lateral diameter on 
the proportion to the fore and aft, as 86 to lOO, the other of 92 to 100. The 
others are all orthocephalic, though one of them approaches to the long-head 


You will note, not only the extent to which the teeth are worn, but also 
the peculiar manner of wearing. It will also be seen that decayed teeth, caries 
of the bone knd also signs of gumboils and abscesses are not confined entirely 
to civilized races. The upper wisdom teeth on one of the skulls show, each, 
examples of enamel tubercles on the fangs, a rather rare phenomenon, as I 
understand. You will note also in one of them an extraordinary double 
suture at upper border of occiput. 

A question of interest : Did such diverse»skulls belong to the same tribe, 
or did different tribes at different times bury in the same grounds ? 

No doubt Dr. Moore felt reasonably sure of the authenticity of the above. 

A small mound west of Winchester, near the old Dunkirk meeting 
house, has been partially removed with no evidences of anything other than 
"a pile of dirt." 

Stoney Creek township has the best specimens to be found in the county. 
There are some circular embankments near the Friends' meeting house at 
Cedar. A little north of Cabin creek there are two circular embankments 
together, the circles cutting each other. A small mound is in the center of 
each circle higher than the embankments. The earth for both the walls and 
the mounds would seem to have been taken from the space between the two, 
pretty much the same as is done or has been done in some of the Ohio 
mounds. The largest mound of the county, and one of the largest of the 
state, is to be found just east of Windsor, on the bluff between White river 
and Stoney creek. This is situated on the highest point to be found here and 
being some twenty-five or thirty feet high. It was, no doubt, used for ob- 
servation purposes, while it is now covered with forest trees. We must con- 
sider them no objections to the above theory, because they in no way, as has 
been said before, indicate the age of these mounds. It is said that an exca- 
vation of considerable size formerly appeared, perhaps twenty rods from the 
base of the mound, and this is thought to have been the place from which 
the earth was taken for its construction. Excavations have been made in 
this mound, nothing, however, having been found, excepting some charcoal 
and a few arrow-heads, which were found in abundance in the surrounding 
fields. Squire Thompson, a former owner of this mound, had at one time 
many fine specimens of arrow-heads, hatchets, hammers and various other 
implements used, no doubt, by the builders of these mounds. However, 
these implements may not have been any of the work of the mound builders, 
for this mound would have served the purpose of a watch t6wer or protection 
to the American Indian, as well as to the mound builders, and may be silent 




remainders of many a bloody conflict in ages long since forgotten. There is 
another small mound across the river from the one just spoken of and not 
very far away. 

It is the theory of some investigators that the mound builders emigrated 
from the east to the southwest, taking, perhaps, centuries of time in their 
travels and that these mounds were, in a way, only temporary affairs. But, 
who the mound builders were and whence they came, and whither they went, 
we know but little, for they have left no trace o^ their habitation, except these 
few crude mounds and embankments. In fact, we care but little about them, 
for no nation can expect future generations to be interested in its history 
unless they have left something that will in some way make humanity better. 
The passing of the mound builders was so remote that even the oldest of the 
American Indians have no tradition concerning them. 


Just when or how the American Indian had its origin as such is not 
known. One theory is that they lived across the Bering Strait and have 
come into America through what is now Alaska. Another is, that they may 
have in some way drifted across the Pacific ocean, following the Japan cur- 
rent, and landed on the western coast of North America. The third is, that 
they entered North America from the northeast, having come from Iceland 
or some of the Northern islands. We are little concerned in their history, 
except those that formerly occupied this territory. 

The great family of the Algonquins occupied this territory. Those en- 
tering into the treaty of Greenville were the Chippewas, Ottawas, Pota- 
watamies, Wyandots, Delawares, Shawnees, Miamis, W'eas and Kickapoos. 
Those occupying this immediate territory were the Miamis and the Shawnees. 
This was clearly defined in the speech made on the 22d day of July, 1795, in 
council at Greenville, when Little Turtle spoke as follows : 

"General Wayne : I hope you will pay attention to what I now say to 
you. I wish to inform you where your younger brothers, the Miamis, live, 
and, also, the Potawatamies of St. Joseph's, together with the. ^Vabash• In- 
dians. You have pointed out to us the boundary line between the Indians 
and the United States, but now I take the liberty to inform you that that 
line cuts oiif from the Indians a large portion of country whiclv has been 
enjoyed by my forefathers, time immemorial, without molestation or dispute. 
The print of my ancestor's houses are everywhere to be seen in this portion. 


I was a little astonished at hearing you, and ray brothers who are now pres- 
ent, telling each other what business you had transacted together heretofore 
at Muskingum, concerning this country. It is well known by all my brothers 
present that my forefather kindled the first fire at Detroit; from thence he 
extended his lines to the headwaters of Scioto; from thence to its raouth; 
from thence, down the Ohio, to the mouth of the Wabash; and from thence 
to Chicago, on lake Michigan ; at this place I first saw my elder brothers, the 
Shawnees. I have now informed you of the boundaries of the Miami nation, 
where the Great Spirit placed my forefather a long time ago, and charged 
him not to sell or part with his lands, but to preserve them for his posterity. 
This charge has been handed down to me. I was much surprised to find 
that my other brothers dififered so much from me on this subject; for their 
conduct would lead one to suppose that the Great Spirit, and their fore- 
fathers, had not given them the same charge that was given to me, but, on 
the contrary, had directed them to sell their lands to any white man who 
wore a hat, as soon as he should ask it of them. Now, elder brother, your 
younger brothers, the iliamis, have pointed out to you their country, and 
also to our brothers present." 

The Algonquins were the natural enemies of the Iroquois on the east, 
and the Dakotas on the west, and were held together as a nation because of 
the enmity of those two nations, yet the tribes were frequently at war among 
themselves, which made Indian occupancy uncertain at all times. 

The Aliamis, who inhabited this particular territory, were among the 
highest type of the Algonquin nation of the Potawatamies, the AA'eas-and 
the Kickapoos, and were almost their equal. 

The Shawnees were in southern Ohio and Kentucky and in southern 
Illinois. It were they who created the most trouble through the influence of 
Blue Jacket, Black Wolf and Tecumseh. 

The Aliamis great chief was Me-che-can-noch-qua, or Little Turtle, who 
was a man of extraordinary courage and ability, and with physique equaling 
his courage. He was commanding in appearance and received unusual at- 
tention and rank from both the Indians and the whites. After the Indians 
had surrendered at Greenville, he visited Philadelphia, where, in recog- 
nition of his attitude toward the Americans, he was presented with a sword 
by President Washington. He fought until defeated, but knew when he was 
defeated. He advised against forming the confederacy by Tecumseh against 
the Indians. His successor was Pa-lonz-wa, or Francis Godfrov, as he was 
better known among the early settlers of this county. The Godfroy trail 


from Winchester to Fort Wayne was so named because one of the stations 
was at the home of Francis Godfroy. Godfroy was a man of unusual size 
and his courage and cunning won him a place with the Miamis, second only 
to Little Turtle. "During nearly all the time of his chieftainship he was a 
firm friend of the whites. As early as 1822 he employed some workmen- 
from Fort Wayne to build for him on the banks of the Wabash a large 
house, after the manner and style of the white man of wealth. In this house 
he dispensed the most generous hospitahty, and Indian and white man alike 
were welcome to his board. When his tribe made the final treaty with the 
government and ceded possession of their lands in Indiana, four sections on 
the Mississinewa were reserved for Pa-lonz-wa. On this reservation he 
erected a trading post, and became, for those days, a noted merchant. Reck- 
less and careless of money and having more land than he knew what to do 
with, he scattered his favors with a prodigal hand. It was told of him that 
being at Lafayette on one occasion when a steamboat arrived at that point 
from the Ohio river, he offered the captain a half section of land if he 
would convey him and his party to their homes, some three miles above 
where Peru now stands. The offer was accepted and the trip up the Wabash 
was made, but on the return to Lafayette the steamer was lost. Pa-lonz-wa 
made the deed to the promised half section. 

"He died in 1840, and was buried on a high knoll which overlooks the 
Wabash. On his grave a marble shaft has been erected, bearing on one side 
his white name, and the date of his birth and death. On the other is the 
following tribute to his memory: 'Late Principal Chief of the Miami Na- 
tion of Indians. Distinguished for courage, humanity, benevolence and 
honor, he lived in his native forest an illustration of the nobleness of his 
race, enjoying the confidence of his tribe and beloved by his American neigh- 
bors. He died as he lived, without fear or reproach.' His funeral was one 
of the noted events of that day, and was attended by hundreds of Indians 
and whites. The principal address was delivered by Wa-pa-pin-sha, a noted 
Indian orator of his tribe. Translated, it is as follows : 

'Brothers, the Great Spirit has taken to himself another of our once 
powerful and happy, but now declining, nation. The time has been when 
these forests were densely populated by the red men, but the same hand whose 
blighting touch withered the majestic frame before us and caused the noble 
spirit by which it was animated to seek another home, has dealt in a like 
manner with his and our fathers ; in like manner will he deal with us. Death 
of late has been common among us, so much so that a recurrence of it scarce- 


ly elicits our notice. But when the brave, the generous, the patriotic are 
blasted by it, then it is the tears of sorrow flow. Such is now the case. Our 
brother who has just left us was brave, generous and patriotic, and as a 
tribute to his merit and a reward for his goodness, the tears, not only of 
his own people, but of many white men, who are here assembled to witness 
his funeral rites, freely flow. 

'At this scene the poor of his people weep, because at his table they 
were wont to feast and rejoice. The weak mourn his death, because his 
authority was ever directed for their protection. But he has left the earth — 
the place of vexation and contention — and is now participating with Poca- 
hontas and Logan in those joys prepared by the Great Spirit for such as well 
and faithfully discharge their duties here. Brothers, let us emulate his 
example and practice his virtues.' " 

"Pa-lonz-wa was followed in the chieftainship of his tribe by John 
Baptiste Big Leg, who was the last chief of the Miamis. He lies buried by 
the side of Pa-lonz-wa, and a plain marble slab marks the spot where his 
bones lie. It bears the following inscription : 'Head Chief of the Miami 
and Kansas Tribe. A brave warrior, a generous man, and a good Christ- 
ian.' " Godfrey had three sons, Francis, Poqua and James. 

Some of Godfrey's descendants yet live on the Mississinewa, near 
Peru, and one of them, showed the courage and fire of his ancestors by his 
deeds of bravery and endurance in rescuing and saving the lives of many 
people during the flood of 1913. 

There were many Indians in the county at the time of its settlement, 
although there were no Indian villages. It is interesting to know the opinions 
of some of the early settlers concerning these Indians, and we shall here take 
the liberty to quote some of them, found in Tucker's History, under the head 
of Biographies. 


Mr. Hawkins says: (Joseph Hawkins, of Jay county, Indiana) "I 
was well acquainted with Johnny Green, the old Indian warrior mentioned 
by J ere Smith. 

"The Indian chiefs were Cornstalk, Blue Jacket, Split Log and Capt. 
Johnny, Shawnees or Delawares; Richardville and the two Godfreys, Fran- 
cois and Lewis, Miamis. 

"This Cornstalk was not the chief who led the Indians in the battle of 
the Kanawha, 1774. That Cornstalk (as also his son) was basely shot while 


in a fort by the soldiers therein, into which he and his son had gone in a 
peaceable and friendly manner." 

Mr. Hawkins was intimate when a boy with the Godfroy chiefs and 
their families. He gives the following incident concerning Poqua Godfroy 
(son of Chief Francois) : 

"Poqua Godfroy (son of Chief Francois) got into an affray at Hamil- 
ton. He was about twenty-one years old. He was frightened, and thought 
the white folks were going to kill him, and so he tried to be beforehand with 
them, and clashed away right and left himself. He was arrested for assault 
and battery, but was at length released on bail, and suffered to depart. On 
his way home, the first man he saw whom he knew was my brother, Samuel 
Hawkins, at Winchester, after the mail. The boy was wild with joy; he 
cried out, 'O, you my friend; you shall go home with me. They try to kill 
me, but you my friend!' 

"And Samuel took his mail that way, and went home with Poqua and 
stayed over night at the house of the old chief, much to the delight of the 
frightened Indian boy and his aged father also." Chief Godfroy afterward 
moved to the mouth of the Mississinewa, and died there not far from 1840. 
His stately monument is still to be seen on the north side of the river near the 

Godfroy was the home chief, and Richardville the war chief of the 
Miamis. Godfroy was an honest, upright, reliable man, esteemed by the 
whites and beloved by the Indians. 

Cornstalk (the elder) was a Shawnee chief of bravery and distinction, 
and one of the leaders of his tribe at the battle of the Kanawha (Point 
Pleasant), Va., in 1776. He had tried before that disastrous engagement 
to induce his people to bury the hatchet, but in vain. After that, however, 
his efforts were crowned with success. He submitted in good faith to the 
whites, joined in the treaty and observed it faithfully, and lived c[uietly and 
at peace. Some of the Indians, however, remained hostile, and such was the 
temper of the times and so ready were the whites to commit atrocities against 
the helpless "red men," that, in 1777, when Cornstalk and his son, Enilipsco, 
both of excellent character, of kindly disposition, and entirely and sincerely 
friendly and peaceable, entered, in amity and good will, the American fort at 
Point Pleasant, they were murdered in cold blood. Cornstalk himself fell 
pierced by seven or eight bullets. His grave is said yet to be visible at Point 
Pleasant, near the site of the ancient fortress. 

Some of the descendants of the old chief are thought to be still living, 




wj '4 .,* .^2 wj t 



residing on the Kansas river. One of his sons lived to a greatly advanced 

Cornstalk, the younger, v^ras a chief in later times after the war of 1812, 
He was friendly and a fine, stately, noble Indian. He used to come to Ran- 
dolph county to hunt, spending more or less time among the settlers. A strik- 
ing incident is related of Cornstalk and his wife by Squire Bowen, which 
occurred soon after the settlement of his father, Ephraim Bowen, in the 
county. We have no detailed statement of the life of this chief at our com- 

"Johnny Green" was a chief who dwelt in the region of Randolph, and 
was well known to many of the settlers of that time. Several mention him 
in their "Reminiscences." He was somewhat noted in the Indian wars, being 
present at "Wayne's victory" in 1794. He is supposed to have been con- 
cerned in the killing of Morgan in Wayne county. He had much provocation 
to the deed, since Morgan was a bitter- "Indian hater," and had, not very 
long before, undertaken treacherously to procure the murder of the old In- 
dian. At Brookville (perhaps), "Johnny" had obtained leave to accompany 
some whites in a trip they were making. Soon after they started, Morgan, 
among others, tried to induce the crowd to kill Green, and succeeded in 
getting a vote to that effect. One of the party took 'Johnny under his pro- 
tection and got him safely away. 

A white man was! burned at the stake by the Indians somewhere east of 
Muncie, but the particulars of the fact, whether as to reasons, time or parties 
engaged, we have never learned. 

[Note. — Whether this "Johnny Green's tribe" (mentioned below) be- 
longed to the "Johnny Green" already named, we are not able to state. There 
may have been more than one "Johnny Green," as there were two "Corn- 
stalks" and two "Killbucks."] 

Johnny Green's Tribe. — They emigrated to the West and settled in 
Iowa, and they now live in Story county, near Marshalltown, on the Iowa 
river, above Iowa Rapids. 

Johnny Green, the old chief, is dead, and his son, "Buck Green," is now 
chief. The number of the tribe is about 350. They own a reserve of land; 
have good houses and dress mostly like whites, though the women go bare- 
headed and wear blankets and moccasins, Indian-fashion. 

The men spend most of their time in hunting; the women make baskets 
and beadwork and other curious things. The tribe is harmless and peaceable. 
The squaws mav often be seen riding by on ponies, with pannier baskets 



laden with trinkets for sale, and having, besides, a child in each basket, the 
whole cavalcade presenting a sight comical to behold. [This account is given 
by a friend of the author's, who resides in Iowa, in the vicinity of the tribe 
in question.] 

Francis La Fontaine, Miami Chief. — His Indian name was To-pe-ah. 
His father was French and his mother a Miami] woman, and he was born near 
Fort Wayne in 1810. In 1832 he married Catharine ( Po-con-go-qua ) , 
daughter of C'hief Richardville, and upon the old chief's death was chosen 
principal chief. He moved to the forks of the Wabash, and lived there till 
the removal of his tribe west of the Mississippi, in 1846. 

He spent the winter with his people, but returned in the spring; v>'as 
taken ill on the journey and died at Lafayette, April 13, 1847, aged thirty- 
seven years. In person, he was tall, ; corpulent and robust, a man of wonder- 
ful size and strength, his usual weight being 350 pounds. He presented, 
when dressed in Indian costume, a splendid specinien of manly dignity. 

He had seven children, only two of whom are now living. 

His body was embalmed at Lafayette, brought to Huntington and buried 

John B. Richardville (Pe-che-wa), was the son of the sister of Little 
Turtle, Taucumwah, by a 'French trader, Joseph Drouet de Richeville, born 
about 1761. Pe-che-wa became the recognized chief by a daring act of 
humane valor when but a young man. He was present at Harmar's defeat 
in 1790; signed the treaty of Greenville in 1795, of Fort Wayne and of V"in- 
cennes in 1809, and of St. Mary's in 1818. 

In 1827 he built a fine dwelling on his reservation, five miles from Fort 
Wayne. He was an extensive trader, having an establishment in Fort 
Wayne, but moving, in 1836, to the 'forks of the Wabash, he died a-t his 
house at St. Mary's, August 13, 1841, aged about eighty-one years. He was 
of middling height and weight, quiet, modest and retiring, but genteel and 
manly in his deportment with the whites, and having a large influence over 
his people and, moreover, highly respected and confided in by the white 
settlers. His daughters erected a marble monument over his remains. 

He was succeeded by Francis La Fontaine, who had married Catharine, 
daughter of Richardville. 

"Captain Logan (Spemica Lawba — High Horn), a Shawnee chief, was 
born on Mad river, i Ohio, in 1778. He was captured when a lad by Capt. 
Benjamin Logan, of Kentucky, in 1786; was adopted by him, and afterward 
returned to his tribe, continuing, however, to be the friend of the whites. 


This friendship he showed in a most remarkable manner, finally sealing his 
fidelity with his blood. 

"He was one of General Hull's guides to Detroit in 1812. Afterward 
he conducted twenty-five women and children from Fort Wayne to Piqua, 
through the wilderness, with signal kindness and humanity, making the entire 
journey without sleep, and treating his helpless charge with the utmost gentle- 
ness and the most delicate attention. 

"During the siege of Fort Wayne by the Indians, after the surrender of 
Detroit by Hull in August, 1812, it was determined to send relief from 
Piqua, and it became necessary to convey the information to the beleaguered 
fort. Two white men, with Captain Logan and some friendly and faithful 
Shawnees, undertook the perilous task. They passed the besiegers and 
reached the fort in safety, and Captain Logan, with Captain Johnny and 
Bright Horn, two of his Indian companions, retraced their steps to their 
comrades, who were waiting outside the besiegers' lines. The re-enforcements 
reached the fort, and the Indians finally withdrew and abandoned the siege. 
Subsequently he met his death in a most affecting manner, which can be best 
related by quoting (substantially) from Kingman Bros.' History of Allen 
county, Indiana. 

" 'On the morning of November 22, 1812, a subordinate officer charged 
him with unfaithfulness. Stung by this charge and to prove its falsity, he 
started with Captain Johnny and Bright Horn down the Maumee to recon- 
noiter. Suddenly they were surprised and captured by a company under 
Winamac, a Potawatarnie chief, and Elliot, a half-breed, in the British 
employ. Seizing the opportunity, they attacked their captors, killing two 
and wounding three more. Logan, however, received a fatal wound, and 
Bright Horn was also wounded. Captain Johnny mounted the two wounded . 
men, each upon one of the enemy's horses, and started them toward the 
camp, vifhich they reached about midnight. He stayed long enough to secure 
Winamac's scalp, and came in on foot, reaching camp by daylight. Captain 
Logan lingered two days in intense suffering, and died. He was buried with 
the honors of war, but his death cast a gloom over the entire army, and es- 
pecially caused great grief to him, whose bitter words had impelled Captain 
Logan to the act by which he met his untimely death at the early age of 
thirty-four.' " 

Interesting reminiscences were given concerning some of the early 
traders and Indians. The Indian causing the most trouble in this county 
lived in the Mississinewa country, and was known as Fleming. Fleming 

68 ran;dolph county, Indiana. 

created a 'great deal of disturbance and caused the white people a great deal 
of uneasiness, and it must have been rejoicing when they learned of his death 
■at the hand of Jesse Gray, an early settler of that region. Of this event, we 
take the following from an interview given by Joseph Hawkins, Esq,, of 
Jay county, and Thomas Ward, of Randolph county : : : 


[We subjoin an account of the death of "Fleming," an Indian (not 
indeed a chief), which occurred near Ridgeville, soon after the settlement of 
that vicinity, given by Joseph Hawkins, Esc]., of Jay county, Indiana, as toM 
him by parties acquainted with the transaction. Some account of the same 
tragedy may be found inthe reminiscences of Thomas Ward, George Thomas, 
and perhaps others.] "One Smith, a mulatto, had a white wife. She told 
the Indian, Fleming, that if he would kill Smith she would marry him. The 
Indian shot Smith through the body, but did not kill him. Out of this in 
some way grew the fact that some half -drunk Indians (Fleming and others) 
made an attack on Joab Ward. He was at breakfast, and they came in armed 
with butcher knives. He arose, seized a gun from the hooks, and sprang 
backward to the outer door, and into the back yard, pointing his loaded gun 
at one and another of the gang. Elias Kizer managed to get another loade,d 
gun, and joined Ward in the yard. Then Fleming began to run, and Ward 
told Kizer to shoot him, which he did, the bullet striking his foot, as it was 
raised in running, passing in at his heel and up his leg to his knee. The other 
Indians begged so hard that they were let go. Fleming got across the river 
and lay down in the bushes, remaining there some time. Jesse Gray, the 
famous 'Indian hunter,' hearing the fact, came with his brother John, a lad 
of sixteen), to shoot the Indian. He told his brother to shoot him. The 
Indian lay on his belly, and as the boy went to shoot, he bent his body upward 
from the ground; and' as the boy shot, he drew himself suddenly down, 
hugging close to the ground, and the bullet only grazed his back. But he 
acted as though. he had received a fatal shot, and they thought him killed 
and went off. After the poor fellow had been wounded (in all) three -days, 
Lewallyn, from pityj took him in. Some days, after, Jesse Gray and Smith 
came to Lewallyn's and shot Flemmg in the bed as he lay, and killed him. 
The Indian saw them come, and turned oyer to the wall and- wrapped his 
head in the blanket, and Sniifh put his gun against Fleming's back and shot 
him through the heacVas he lay there in bed." 


-:.- i '[^ote! — Joab AV-ard told- Hawkins "as -to tTie -attack-, arid"- €■l^ar-ks Sim- 
i«6ns, an employe of- David Connor, -told him- as to what .Gray- and Smith 

*d.] - ■■•■^ . - -■ - -: -, - _. - .- -■ ■■■:--■ : ." -- 

-DEATH, OF FiiEHiNG — By- Thomas Ward'. • ---• • 

"A -whi-te man brought, whisky and sold it to the Indians.. .That white 
man fell out with my father, Joab Ward, one ifnorning, and told him he 
should 'smell h — 1' in less than an hour. Within an hour's time three Indians, 
Fleming, Killbuck and another, came to father's house a.-; they were eating 
Jareakfast, armed with big knives and partly drunk. Elias. Kizer. and .Thomas 
Andrews were there. All three, managed to get their guns. iFleming: tried 
hard to kill father ; but when the men got the guns, Fleming ran, and .the 
other Indians began- to beg. Elias Kizer. shot Fleming: as. he ran, 'the ball 
striking his heel when his foot was raised, and running up his leg to his 
knee. He managed to cross the river, but fell in the weeds on the north 
bank, and lay there several days. Jesse Gray and his brother came and un- 
dertook to kill him as he lay in the weeds, and thought they had done so. 
They, however, did not injure him. Xewallyn, who lived near, took him in out 
of pity, but Smith, the mulatto whom Fleming had shot through, but had not 
killed, came with Jesse Gray to Lewallyn's house and shot' him dead in' his 
bed, as he lay upon a pallet of deer skins. Before Fleming was killed, he 
kept on threatening to kill Joab Ward and my father." 

It seems that the Indians were not much offended at the death of Flem- 
ing. " He-vvas vicious, and the}'^ had turned him off, and he skulked around, 
■getting his living from place to place among' the whites as he could. They 
came and buried him, but said, "He no good — Fleming bad Indian." 

Jesse Gray, however, was afraid of the vengeance both of the Indians 
and the whites, and he fled the state, taking up his abode in Ohio, near Hill 
Grove, Darke county, and resided at that place several years. 
-■' - Tyre T. Puckett, residing west of Winchester, relates concerning the 
poor Indian, that Fleming lay wounded on a deer-skin at Lewallyn's cabin. 
The Indians, though they had banished him from their tribes, nevertheless 
took pity on him. In particular, "Aunt Sally," wife of "Uncle Jake," and 
rnother of "Indian Jim," came and doctored him, and said he would get well. 
Gray and Smith came to the cabin. Gray undertook to get Mrs. Lewallyn 
but of the house; she resisted, and he pulled her out, she crying out mean- 
while, "Don't do any murder here." Almost instantly she heard the shot, 
and, struggling back, she saw Fleming lay dead upon his pallet. 


The grand jury (of which Mr. Puckett's father was a member) in- 
dicted Jesse Gray (and probably Smith) for the homicide, and a "true bill" 
was found against them. They fled the county and the state, and no special 
pains were taken to find them, since everybody was glad the "vicious Indian" 
was out of the way. Mrs. Lewallyn was the witness, of course, for the state, 
because she was the one (and the only one, perhaps) who saw the "deed," 
except indeed Smith and Gray themselves. * 

Charles Morgan and his two brothers were killed by the savages at a 
sugar camp in the northern part of Wayne county, where they were boiling 
sugar water. Morgan resisted powerfully, but was overcome and toma- 
hawked. One boy was killed by the tomahawk and the other was shot 'as he 
started to run. All three were scalped. This took place before 1811. Mor- 
gan was a leader 'in the band that tried to murder Johnny Green, an Indian 
warrior residing in the region, and many thought at the time that Morgan's 
death was accomplished by Green in revenge for his bitterness against the 

Armfield Thornburg, a pioneer of Stoney Creek township, is said to have 
said that the three Indians who killed Morgan and the two lads were "trailed 
and were killed on the banks of Stoney creek, three miles south of Windsor, 
just in Delaware county." 


"In the Indian village of Old Town, five miles above Muncie, many 
victims were tortured to death by a slow fire. They were tied to a stake, 
which was of oak, and ten or twelve feet high. 'A ring of ashes was round 
the stake, and the dancing in a circle by the Indians had trampled the ground 
as hard as a brick. The stake remained for many years to be seen and shud- 
dered at by the passing traveler. 

Mr. Thomas S. Neely, of Muncie, Indiana, and a pioneer of that region 
(in history of Delaware county, also elsewhere quoted from), says: 'On 
the farm of Samuel Cecil, in section 25, Center township, in 1839, was a 
piece of ground near the then Richmond state road, now the Burlington 
pike, on which tradition says one Colonel Winchester was burned' by the In- 
dians. The stake was visible when I came, and was charred. Around it for 
about fifty feet the ground was 'level and smooth, and the spot was round 
like a circus ring, only not thrown up on the circle. This tradition had gained 
considerable credence at the time, and all believed it to be true.' " 


Who this Colonel Winchester was, when the act was done, or why in 
particular they subjected this prisoner to that fate we have no information. 
This method of putting to death was but common among the Indians, and 
many wretched captives, both of Indians and whites, perished in that way. 

Among the early Indian traders of this county were : David Connor, 
aong the Mississinewa ; Joseph Gess, on the Muncie-Greenville trail, south 
of Winchester, and Edward Edger, of Deerfield. Of these men, Connor was 
the best known trader of that time. Of him. Tucker says : 

David Connor, Indian trader and chief [white man], came to Green- 
ville in 1811 or 1812, and opened a small store and trading house, from 
which he dispersed blankets, calico, powder, lead, flints, tobacco, whisky and 
what not, to the "noble red men." He was married, but his wife remained in 
Greenville, refusing to accompany him in his wild life among the Indians. 
Although a rough, hard man in many respects, yet he had some good traits. 
He wielded a great influence over the Indians, which he sometimes employed 
for good purposes. In about 1824 (so says Judge Wharry, of Greenville, 
Ohio, who knew Connor all his life) some New York Indians, traveling to 
Green Bay, were murdered by some white villains in Indiana. Connor suc- 
ceeded in securing justice and keeping the peace, and the Miamis on that ac- 
count made him a "chief" of their tribe, with all due 'ceremony. He estab- 
lished himsef at Fort Recovery soon after the war of 1812 had closed in the 
West, probably in 18 14. He had used his influence in securing the treaty of 
peace, and had made some enemies thereby. Several Indians came to his 
store one day, and told him they had come to kill him. "All right," 'said he, 
"give me a few minutes to fix things up." They granted his request and sat 
down. Suddenly he took a keg of powder, poured it on a deer skin, and 
seizing a fire brand, swore in strong, rough Miami, that he and they "should 
go to h — 11 together." They "got" in a "heap hurry." The Indians never 
molested him again. 'One of them told Judge Wharry: "Connor one devil 
of a man; he care no more for Indians than he care for himself." 

He next built a shanty above Deerfield (1820-21). After a few years 
he moved down the river to three miles below Wheeling and twenty miles 
above Marion. Still again he moved three miles below Marion, bought land, 
built mills, grew rich, and died some years ago. 

[Note. — Some will have it that he had a station at Mississinewa cross- 
ing, near Allensville, and also one at Ridgeville, but the residents along the 
river do not understand the matter thus.] 

At Greenville the understanding was that he had a wife and two boys 


and that she wbulcl not go with him in his wild, roving border Hfe,' and he 
"took up" with Polly Voorhees, by whom he raised a large family. . lie was 
'a very rough, outbreaking man,>_ so passionate that few dared to cross him. 
R. H. Surription taught school near him, and six of his. children attended. the 
school. He -did not call for his iDay. till; the. middle of tjie. second term.^ The 
bill was large' aad Mr. Sumiition 'feared ti.e might not take the matter kindly. 
Connor ha:ppened to be in good humor and paid the bill without a word. At 
one of his "posts,'.' the Indians got "ahead" of him. He had a shed at the 
side of his cabin, and a log out on the side next the store-room, and as he 
bought bundles of skins, he would toss them through the "crack" into the 
shed. ' By some means the Indians made or found a hole from the outside 
into the shed, through which they got out parcels of skins. First one would 
get out a parcel and take it in and sell it to Connor, then another, and so on, 
till Connor began to wonder where they got so many coon skins. Polly had 
noticed the game of the "red skins," and at last she said, "Connor, you fool, 
how long are you going to buy your own coon skins?" "Why?" said he. 
"Because," said she, "those tarnal Ingins have been stealing your coon skins 
and selling them to you over and over." What he did then and there is not 
told, but we may easily guess that there was a "rumpus," or danger of one 
about that time. [Burgett Pierce and others mention Connor in their reci- 

The "Jay County History" says "that a pioneer family lived for a con- 
siderable time in a cabin built at Fort Recovery, Ohio, by David Connor, for 
a trading house at that point. So that most probably Mr. Connor traded at 
one period with the Indians near Fort Recovery. Judge Wharry, of Green- 
ville, who knew Connor well, states that he went from Greenville to Fort 
Recovery in 1814, and stayed and traded at that location' for several years. 

Connor is said to have been an adept in deceiving the Indians and at the 
same time commanding their confidence and respect. At one time he went 
among them with a supply of needles, and gave out the information that the 
needle makers had all died and that he had the only known supply and 
emphasized that as soon as this supply was gone, no more needles were to be 
had. He succeeded in disi>osing of his stock, exchanging one needle for each 
coon skin, worth, perhaps, from 50 to 75 cents. He is said to have taken 
tin cups, ^melted' the bottoms out a;nd handles off, and.'traded the rims to 
the Indians, convincing them that they were silver bands. He also did a 
thriving business with them in whisky until as one Indian said: "We no 






trade with Connor. Too much Mississinewa in fire-water. No make Injun 

But, the haughty Indian, erect and defiant, lord of all he saw, was soon 
to give way to the milder Indian, who lived in subjected peace with his white 
neighbor; glad of the opportunity to trade hijii pelts, meat, or baskets, 
moccasins and trinkets for corn, salt, meal, powder, arms and last, but not 
least, fire-water,' the last of which did more to exterminate the red man than 
all other forces combined. Through its influence he became indeed a "red 
devil," ready to fight, stab and kill and then become a helpless, besotted, hor- 
rible example of its exterminating force. It was impossible for him to live 
in civilization, and he was swept west of the Mississippi, never again to be a 
factor in the settlement of the great Middle West. 



"The night was dark, the rain falling in torrents, when the inmates of 
a small log cabin in the woods of early Indiana were aroused from their 
slumbers by a loud knocking at the only door of the cabin. The man of the 
house, as he had been accustomed to do on like occasions, rose from his bed 
and hallooed, 'Who's here?' The outsiders answered, 'Friends, out bird- 
catching. Can we stay till morning?' The door was opened, and the 
strangers entered. A good log fire soon gave light and warmth to the room. 
Stranger to the host, 'What did you say when I knocked?' I said, 'Who's 
here ?' T thought you said Hoosier.' The bird-catchers left after breakfast, 
but next night returned, and hallooed at the door, 'Hoosier,' and from that 
time the Indianians have been called Hoosiers — a name that will stick to 
them as long as Buckeyes will to Ohioans, or Suckers to Illinoians." 

Thus the Hon. O. H. Smith, in his early Indiana trials, accounts for the 
name of Hoosier as an appellation to the people of this great common- 
wealth. There are, however, other explanations of the same term, although 
they may not be as authoritative. There was an early traveler in this state 
by the name of Sulgrove. Meredith Nicholson, in his excellent book, The 
Hoosier, gives the following story : 

"Sulgrove related the incident of an Irishman, employed in excavating 
the canal around the falls at Louisville, who declared after a fight in which 
he had vanquished several fellow laborers, that he was 'a husher,' and this 
was offered as a possible origin of the word. The same writer suggested 
another explanation, that a certain Colonel Lehmanowski, a Polish officer 
who lectured through the west on Napoleon's Wars, pronounced Hussar in 
a way that captivated some roystering fellow, who applied the word to him- 
self in self-glorification, pronouncing it 'Hoosier.' Lehmanowski's identity 
has been established as a sojourner in Indiana, and his son was a member 
of an Indiana regiment in the Civil war. The Rev. Aaron Woods is another 
contributor to the literature of the subject, giving the Lehmanowski story 
with a few variations. When the young men of the Indiana side of the Ohio 
crossed over to Louisville, the Kentuckians made sport of them, calling them 


'New Purchase greenies,' and declaring that they of the southern side of the 
river were a superior race, composed of 'half alligator, half horse, and tipped 
off with snapping turtle!' Fighting grew out of these boasts in the market 
place and streets of Louisville. One Indiana visitor who had heard Leh- 
manowski lecture on "The Wars of Europe" and been captivated by the 
prowess of the Hussars, whipped one of the Kentuckians. and bending over 
him cried, 'I'm a Hoosier,' meaning, 'I'm a Hussar.' Mr. Woods adds that 
he was living in the state at the time and that this was the true origin of the 
term. This is, however, hardly conclusive. The whole Lehmanowski story 
seems to be based on communication between Indiana and Kentucky work- 
men during the building of the Ohio Falls canal." 

This could hardly have been the origin of the time because the canal 
was not built until 1830. Much earlier than this; in fact, 1828, a man by the 
name of John Finley, a Virginian, came to Indiana and lived in the state 
several years. He had been here at least seven years, when he published a 
poem known as The Hoosier Nest, in which he uses the word Hoosier. Evi- 
dently it had been in use for some time, because Finley himself could scarcely 
have originated the term. Finley is describing an early Indiana life when he 

"I'm told in riding somewhere West, 

A stranger found a Hoosier nest ; 

In other words, a Buckeye cabin, 

Just big enough to hold Queen Mab in. 

Its situation low, but airy. 

Was on the borders of a prairie; 

And fearing he might be benighted 

He hailed the house, and then alighted. 

The Floosier met him at the door. 

Their salutations soon were o'er. 

He took the stranger's' horse aside 

i\nd to a sturdy sapling tied. 

Then having stripped the saddle off. 

He fed him in a sugar trough. 

The stranger stooped to enter in. 

The entrance closing with a pin ; 

And manifested strong desire 

To seat him by the log-heap fire. 



Where half a-dozen Hoes-ieroonsv - - -'- 
With- mush' and milk, tin-cups and-spoonsr 

White-heads-, bare feet; and dirty faces, 

Seemed much inclined to -keep their places. 

hOIANA IM 1616 

In order to get a complete understanding of the history of Randolph 
county it will be necessary to go far back into our colonial-history; in fact, 
to the very beginning of it. The territory was claimed by lio less than four 
states — New York, [Massachusetts, Connecticut and A'irginia, which was 
organized under "royal charter, which gave them certain control of land as 
far west as the Mississippi. France also laid claim to this territory, through 
the right of exploration and discovery on the part of LaSalle and other 


Frenchmen. At the close of the French and Indian War, France deeded this 
territory to Great Britain in 1763. The British then had three forts, one a,t 
Detroit, one at Vincennes and one at Kaskaskia. When the colonists de- 
clared their independence in 1776, the settlers west of the Appalachian moun- 
tains, became very restless. Especially was this true of Kentucky, which was 
then no more or less than a frontier settlement of Virginia. So keen did 
they become in the matter, that they sent one of their most forceful citizens, 
George Rogers Clark, to Williamsburg, Virginia, to confer with the gover- 
nor, Patrick Henry, concerning the matter. Clark urged that they were" in 
great danger from the Indian tribes, and this danger could not be overcome 
until the forts along the Ohio were captured. For the British were doing 
all in their power to incite the Indians against the Americans. From the 
forts at Detroit, Vincennes and Kaskaskia, agents were sent out arnong the 
Indians, encouraging them to all sorts of depredation. Rewards were paid 
for prisoners and scalps. Governor Henry was not disposed to look upon the 
scheme with much favor, and gave it but little encouragement at first. Clark, 
however, was insistent and succeeded finally in impi-essing upon him the 
great amount of dissatisfaction that existed among the colonists in Kentucky. 
He did not succeed, however, in doing this until he put the matter squarely 
at Governor Henry, by saying, "A country that was not worth defending, 
was not worth possessing." This remark fired the zeal of Henry, and he 
gave Clark money and authority to raise a companj' of Kentuckians, to move 
against Kaska.skia and Vincennes. Clark succeeded in capturing these forts, 
and upon this claim, Virginia based its claims to what is now known as the 
Northwest territory. Thus, we see that New York, Massachusetts, Con- 
necticut and Virginia, each laid claim to this territory. 

Trouble soon began to occur in Congress between the members of the 
House of Representatives and Senate from these various states, formed from 
the colonies that we have mentioned. This was especially true after the close 
of the Revolutionary war, and the people west of the Alleghenies began to 
clamor for their rights of statehood. The state of Franklin had been organ- 
ized where we now have Tennessee, and the Carolinas and Maryland had had 
difficulties over this matter. Jefiferson was long headed enough to see that 
the only solution of the problem was to put the control of the entire country 
under that of the general central government. Some of the colonies were 
slow to accept this idea, but Virginia through its representatives, kept push- 
ing the matter and urging it not only at home, but in Congress as well. 

"In 1781, Virginia signified her' willingness to, make the cession of the 


land northwest of the Ohio," says O. H. Smith, "when Congress should agree 
to the terms proposed by her. Finally, in 1784, the following deed of cession 
was made: 

"To all whom shall see these presents : We, Thomas Jefferson, Samuel 
Hardy, Arthur Lee and James Monroe, the underwritten delegates for the 
commonwealth of Virginia, in the Congress of the United States of America, 
send greeting : 

"Whereas, The General Assembly of the commonwealth of Virginia, at 
their session begun on the 20th of October, 1783, passed an act entitled 'an 
act to authorize the delegates of this state in Congress to convey to the United 
States, in Congress assembled, all the right of this commonwealth to the 
territory northwestward of the river Ohio in these words, to-wit: 

"Whereas, The Congress of the United States did, by their act of the 
6th day of September, in the year 1780, recommend to the several states of 
the Union, having claims to waste and unappropriated lands in the western 
country, a liberal cession to the United States of a portion of their respective 
claims for the benefit of the Union; and whereas, this commonwealth did, 
on the 2d day of January, in the year 1781, yield to the Congress of the 
United States, for the benefit of the said States, all right, title and claim 
which the said commonwealth had to the territory northwest of the river 
Ohio, subject to the conditions annexed to the said act of cession; and where- 
as, the United States, in Congress assembled, have by their act of the 13th 
of September last, stipulated the terms on which they agree to accept the 
cession of this state, should the legislature approve thereof, which terms, 
although they do not come fully up to the proposition of this commonwealth, 
are conceived on the whole to approach so nearly to thera as to induce this 
state to accept thereof, in full confidence that Congress will, in justice to this 
state, for the liberal cession she hath made, earnestly press upon the other 
states claiming large tracts of waste and uncultivated territory, the pro- 
priety of making cessions equally liberal for the common benefit and support 
of the Union ; be it enacted by the General Assembly, that it shall and may be 
lawful for the delegates of this state to the Congress of the United States, 
or such of them as shall be assembled in Congress, and the said delegates, or 
such of them so assembled, are hereby fully authorized and empowered, for 
and on behalf of this state, by proper deed or instruments in writing, under 
their hands and seals, to convey, transfer, assign and make over unto the 
United States in Congress assembled, for the benefit of the said states, all 
right, title and claim, as well of soil as jurisdiction, which this commonwealth 


hath to the territory or tract of country within the Hmits of the Virginia 
charter, situate, lying and being to the northwest of the river Ohio, and sub- 
ject to the terms and conditions contained in the before recited act of Cong- 
ress of the 13th day of September last; that is to say, upon condition that the 
territory so ceded shall be laid out and formed into states, containing a suit- 
able extent of territory, not less than one hundred nor more than one hun- 
dred and fifty miles square, or as near thereto as circumstances will admit ; 
and that the states so formed shall be distinct republican states and admitted 
members of the Federal Union, having the same rights of sovereignty, 
freedom and independence as the other states ; that the necessary and reason- 
able expenses incurred by this state in subduing any British posts, or in 
maintaining forts or garrisons within, and fqr the defense or in acquirng any 
part of the territory so ceded or relinquished, shall be fully reimbursed by 
the United States; and that one commissioner shall be appointed by Cong- 
ress, one by this commonwealth, and another by those two commissioners, 
who, or a majority of them, shall be authorized and empowered to adjust 
and liquidate the account of the necessary and reasonable expenses incurred 
by this state, which they shall judge to be comprised within the intent and 
meaning of the act of Congress of the loth of October, 1780, respecting such 
expenses; that the French and Canadian inhabitants, and the other settlers 
of the Kaskaskias, St. Vincent's and other neighboring villages, who have 
professed themselves citizens of Virginia, shall have their possessions and 
titles confirmed to them and be protected in the enjoyment of their rights 
and liberties ; that a quantity, not exceeding one hundred and fifty thousand 
acres of land, promised by this state, shall be allowed and granted to then 
Colonel, now General George Rogers Clark, and to the officers and soldiers 
of his regiment who marched with him when the posts of Kaskaskia and St. 
Vincent's were reduced, and to the officers and soldiers that have been since 
incorporated into the said regiment, to be laid off in one tract, the length of 
which not to exceed double the breadth, in such place on the northwest side 
of the Ohio as a majority of the officers shall choose, and to be afterwards 
divided among the said officers and soldiers in due proportion, according to 
the laws of Virginia ; that in case the quantity of good lands on the southeast 
side of the Ohio, upon the waters of the Cumberland river, and between the 
Green river and Tennessee river, which have been reserved by law for the 
Virginia troops upon continental establishment, should from the North Caro- 
lina line bearing in further upon the Cumberland than was expected, prove 
insufficient for their legal bounties, the deficiency should be made up to the 


said troops in good lands, to be laid off between the rivers Scioto and Little 
Miami, on the northwest side of the river Ohio, in such proportions as have 
been engaged to them by the laws of Virginia; that all the lands within the 
territory so ceded to the United States, and not reserved for or appropriated 
to any of the before mentioned purposes, or disposed of in bounties to the 
officers and soldiers of the American army, shall be considered as a common 
fund for the use and benefit of such of the United States as have become or 
shall become members of the confederation or federal alliance of said states, 
Virginia inclusive, according to their ustial respective proportions in the 
general charge and expenditure, and shall be faithfully and bona fide dis- 
posed of for that purpose, and for no other purpose whatsoever; Provided, 
that the trust hereby reposed in the delegates of this state shall not be exe- 
cuted, vmiess three of them at least are present in Congress.' 

"And, whereas, the said General Assembly, by their resolution of June 
6, 1783, had constituted us, the said Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Hardy', 
Arthur Lee and James Monroe, delegates to represent the said common' 
wealth in Congress for one year from the first Monday in November then 
next following, which resolution remains in full force : 

"Now, therefore, know ye that we, the said Thomas Jefferson, Samuel • 
Hardy, Arthur Lee and James Monroe, by virtue of the power and authority 
committed to us by the act of the said General Assembly of Virginia, before 
recited, and in the name, and for and on behalf of the said commonwealth, 
do by these presents, convey, transfer, assign and make over unto the United 
States, in Congress assembled, for the benefit of the said states, Virginia in- 
clusive, all right, title and claim, as well of soil as of jurisdiction, which the 
said commonwealth hath to the territory or tract of country within the lirhits 
of the Virginia charter, situate, lying and being to the northwest of the river 
Ohio, to and for the uses and purposes, and on the conditions of this said 
recited act. In testimony whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names 
and affixed our seals in Congress, the first day of March, in the year- of Our 
Lord, 1784, and of the independence of the United States the eighth." 

New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut finally fell into line, and 
although Connecticut held for a long time to a claim on what is called the 
Western Reserve, it finally surrendered this to the government on the 30th 
of May, 1800. The plan of Jefferson had finally won, and the United States 
had control over the Northwest Territory, having all claims excepting that of 
the Indians. The first thing to do was to establish some sort of government". 
The British had governed it by the common law of" England,, and the' French 



had had scarcely any government at all. At first Congress provided for the 
formation of the nevi^ territory of ten states. Smith, in his history, says: 
"The region west of Lake Michigan and north of parallel 45 v^as to be known 
as the state of Silvania ; the lower peninsula of Michigan north of parallel 43 
as Chersonesus; that part of Wisconsin between parallels 43 and 45 as 
Michigania; between parallels 41 and 43 the eastern state as Metropotamia ; 
and the western as Assenisipia; between parallels 39 and 41, the eastern as 
Saratoga and the western as Illinois; between parallel 39 and the Ohio, the 
eastern state as Pelisipia and the western as Polypotamia; and the territory 
east of a meridian line drawn through the mouth of the Great Kanawha as 
Washington. By this proposition Indiana would have been divided among 
six of the states. No action was ever taken on this report. 

From the time of cession until 1787 there had been no organized con- 
trol over the Northwestern territory. The people had been left to struggle 
along as best they could. Several companies had been organized in the east 
for the purpose of settling and colonizing this territory, and propositions had 
been made to Congress for the purpose of large tracts of land, but none of 
them had ever fully materialized. On April 23, 1787, a committee consist- 
ing of Mr. Johnson, of Connecticut; Mr. Pinckney, of South Carolina; Mr. 
Smith, of New York; Mr. Dane, of Massachusetts; and Mr. Henry, of 
Maryland, reported an ordinance for the government of the Western terri- 
tory. It was discussed from time to time and greatly amended. Finally, 
on the 13th of July, it passed Congress. This great ordinance laid the 
foundation of freedom in the rich states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan 
and Wisconsin, and is known as the Ordinance of 1787, for the government 
and control of the territory. This great document of state is of 
such great importance to all people, that even a history of so small a portion 
of this great territory as Randolph county, could not in any sense be complete 
without a definite knowledge of what this ordinance is. It lays the very 
foundation of our government, giving us our rights and privileges, and de- 
fining our relation to the state. It is as follows : 


Be it ordained by the United States in Congress assembled, that the said 
Territory, for the purposes of temporary government, .be one District ; sub- 
ject, however, to be divided into two Districts, as future circumstances may, 
in the opinion of Congress, make it expedient. 



Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, that the estates both of resi- 
dent and non-resident proprietors in the said Territory, dying intestate shall 
descend to, and be distributed among their children, and the descendants of a 
deceased child, in equal parts ; the descendants of a deceased child or grand- 
child to take the share of their deceased parent in equal parts among them; 
and where there shall be no children or descendants, then in equal parts to the 
next kin, in equal degree; and among collaterals, the children of a deceased 
brother or sister of the intestate shall have, in equal parts among them, their 
deceased parents' share ; and there shall, in no case, be a distinction between 
kindred of the whole and half blood; saving in all cases to the widow of the 
intestate, her third part of the real estate for life, and one-third part of the 
personal estate; and this law relative to descents and dower, shall remain in 
full force, until altered by the Legislature of the District. And until the 
Governor and Judges shall adopt laws as hereinafter mentioned, estate in the 
said Territory may be devised or bequeathed by wills in writing,, signed and 
sealed by him or her, in whom the estate may be ("being of full age), and at- 
tested by three witnesses; and real estates may be conveyed by lease and re- 
lease, or bargain and sale, signed, sealed and delivered, by the person, being 
of full age, in whom the estate may be, and attested by two witnesses, pro- 
vided such wills be duly proved, and such conveyances be acknowledged, or 
the execution thereof duly proved, and be recorded within one year after 
proper magistrates, courts and registers, shall be appointed for that purpose; 
and personal property may be transferred by delivery; saving, however, to the 
French and Canadian inhabitants, and other settlers of the Kaskaskies, Saint 
Vincents, and the neighboring villages, who have heretofore possessed them- 
selves citizens of Virginia, their laws and customs now in force among them, 
relative to the descent and conveyance of property. 

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid. That there shall be appointed, 
from time to time, by Congress, a Governor whose commission shall continue 
in force for the term of three years, unless sooner revoked by Congress : he 
shall reside in the District, and have a freehold estate therein, in one thousand 
acres of land, while in the exercise of his office. 

There shall be appointed, from time to time, by Congress, a Secretary, 
whose commission shall continue in force for four years, unless sooner re- 
^'oked; he shall reside in the district, and have a freehold estate therein, in 
five hundred acres of land, while in the exercise of his office; it shall be his 
duty to keep and preserve the acts and laws passed by the Legislature, and the 
public records of the District, and the proceedings of the Governor in his 


executive department ; and transmit authentic copies of such acts and proceed- 
ings, every six months to the Secretary of Congress : There shall also be 
appointed a Court, to consist of three judges, any two of whom to form a 
court, who shall have a common law jurisdiction, and reside in the District,' 
and have each therein a freehold estate, in five hundred acres of land, while 
in the exercise of their offices; and their commissions shall continue in force 
during good behavior. 

The Governor and Judges, or a majority of them, shall adopt and pub- 
lish in the District, suchJaws of the original States, criminal and civil, as may 
be necessary, and best suited to the circumstances of the District, and report 
them to Congress, from time to time ; which laws shall be in force in the Dis- 
trict until the organization of the General Assembly therein, unless disap- 
proved of by Congress; but afterwards the Legislature shall have authority 
to alter them as they shall think fit. 

The Governor for the time being shall be Commander-in-chief of the 
militia, appoint and commission all officers in same, below the rank of gen- 
eral officers; all general officers shall be appointed and commissioned by 

Previous to the organization of the General Assembly the Governor shall 
appoint such magistrates and other civil officers, in each county or township, 
as he shall find necessary for the preservation of the peace and good order in 
the same. After the General Assembly shall be organized, the powers and 
duties of magistrates and other civil officers shall be regulated and defined by 
the said assembly ; but all magistrates and other civil officers not herein other- 
wise directed, shall, during the continuance of this temporary government, 
' be appointed by the Governor. 

For the prevention of crimes and injuries, the laws to be adopted or 
made shall have force in all parts of the District, and for the execution of 
process, criminal and civil, the Governor shall make proper divisions thereof ; 
and he shall proceed from time to time, as circumstances may require, to lay 
out the parts of the District in which the Indian titles shall have been extin- 
guished, into counties and townships, subject, however, to such alterations as 
may thereafter be made by the Legislature. 

So soon as there shall be five thousand free male inhabitants, of full age, 
in the District, upon giving proof thereof to the Governor, they shall receive 
authority, with time and place, to elect representatives from their counties or 
townships, to represent them in the General Assembly; provided that, for 
every five hundred free male inhabitants, there shall be one representative, and 


SO on, progressively, with the number of free male inhabitants, shall the right 
of representation increase, tmtil the amount of representatives shall amount 
to twenty-five; after which the number and proportion of Representatives 
shall be regulated by Legislature; provided, that no person be eligible or 
qualified, to act as a Representative, unless he shall have been a citizen of one 
of the United States three years, and be a resident in the District, or unless, 
he shall have resided in the District three years, and in either case, shall like- 
wise hold in his own right, in fee simple, two hundred acres of land within 
the same; provided, also, that a freehold in fifty acres of land in the District, 
having been a citizen of one of the States, and being resident in the District, 
or the like freehold and two years' residence in the District, shall be neces- 
sary to qualify a man as an elector of a Representative. 

The Representatives, thus elected, shall serve for the term of two years ; 
and in case of the death of a Representative, or removal from office, the Gov- 
ernor shall issue a writ to the county or township for which he was a mem- 
ber, to elect another in his stead, to serve for the residue of the term. 

"The General Assembly or Legislature, shall consist of the Governor, 
Legislative Council, and a House of Representatives. The Legislative Coun- 
cil shall consist of five members, to continue in office five years, unless sooner 
removed by Congress; any three of whom to be a quorum; and, the member of 
the Council shall be nominated and appointed in the following manner, to 
wit : As soon as Representatives shall be elected, the Governor shall appoint 
a time and place for them to meet together, and when met, they shall nomi- 
nate ten persons, residents in the District, and each possessed of a freehold 
in five hundred acres of land, and return their names to Congress; five of 
whom Congress shall appoint and commission to serve as aforesaid : and 
whenever a vacancy shall happen in the Council, by death or removal from 
office, the House of Representatives shall nominate two persons, qualified as 
aforesaid, for each vacancy, and return their names to Congress ; one of whom 
Congress shall appoint and commission for the residue of the term : And 
every five years, four months at least before the expiration of the time of 
service of the members of council, the said House shall nominate ten persons, 
qualified as aforesaid, and return their names to Congress; five of whom 
Congress shall appoint and commission to serve as members of the Council 
five years, unless sooner removed. And the Governor, Legislative Council, 
and House of Representatives, shall have authority to make laws, in all cases 
for the good government of the District, not repugnant to the principles and 
articles in this ordinance established and declared. And all bills, having 
passed by a majority in the House, and by a majority in the Council, shall 


be referred to the Governor for his assent; but no bill or legislative act 
whatever, shall be of any force without his assent. The Governor shall 
have power to convene, prorogue, and dissolve, the General Assembly, M^hen, 
in his opinion, it shall be expedient. 

The Governor, Judges, Legislative Council, Secretary, and such other 
offices as Congress shall appoint in the District, shall take an oath or affirma- 
tion of fidelity, and of office; the Governor before the President of Con- 
gress, and all other officers before the Governor. As soon as a Legislature 
shall be formed in the District, the Council and House assembled, in one 
room, shall have authority, by joint ballot, to elect a delegate to Congress,- 
who shall have a seat in Congress, with a right of debating, but not of voting 
during this temporary government. 

And for extending the fundamental principles of civil and religious 
liberty, which form the basis whereon these republics, their laws and con- 
stitutions, are erected; to fix and establish those principles as the basis of all 
laws, constitutions and governments, which forever hereafter shall be formed 
in said territory; to provide also for the establishment of states, and perma- 
nent government therein, and for their admission to a share in the Federal 
councils on an equal footing with the original states, at as early periods as 
may be consistent with the general interest. 

It is hereby ordained and declared, by the authority aforesaid. That the 
following articles shall be considered as articles of compact, between the 
original states and the people and states in the said territory, and forever 
remain unalterable, unless by common consent, to-wit : 

Art. I. No person, meaning himself in a peaceable and orderly manner, 
shall ever be molested on account of his mode of worship or religious senti- 
ments, in the said territory. 

Art. 2. The inhabitants of the said territory shall always be entitled to 
the benefits of the writ of habeas corpus, and of the trial by jury"; of a pro- 
portionate representation of the people in the Legislature, and of judicial pro- 
ceedings according to the course of the common law. All persons shall be 
bailable, unless for capital offenses, where the proof shall be evident, or the 
presumption great. All fines shall be moderate; and no cruel or unusual 
punishment shall be inflicted. No man shall be deprived of his liberty or 
property, but by the judgment of his peers, or the law 6-f' the land, and should 
the public exigencies make it necessary, for the common preservation, to take 
any person's property, or to demand his particular services, full compensation 
shall be made for the same. And, in the just preservation of "rights and 


property, it is understood and declared, that no law ought ever to be made, 
or have force in the said territory, that shall, in any manner whatever, inter- 
fere with, or affect, private contracts or engagements, bona fide, and without 
fraud, previously formed. 

Art. 3. Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good 
government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of educa- 
tion shall forever be encouraged. The utmost faith shall always be observed 
towards the Indians ; their lands and property shall never be taken from them 
without their consent; and in their property, rights and liberty, they never 
shall be invaded or disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars authorized by 
Congress ; but laws founded in justice and humanity shall, from time to time, 
be made for preventing wrongs being done them, and for preserving peace 
and friendship with them. 

Art. 4. The said territory and the states which may be formed therein 
shall forever remain a part of this Confederacy of the United States of 
America, subject to the Articles of Confederation, and to such alterations 
therein as shall be constitutionally made; and to all the acts and ordinances of 
the United States in Congress assembled, conformable thereto. The in- 
habitants and settlers in the said territory shall be subject to pay a part of the 
Federal debts, contracted or to be contracted, and a proportional part of the 
expenses of government, to be apportioned on them by Congress; according to 
the same common rule and measure by which apportionments thereof shall 
be made on the other states; and the taxes for paying their proportion shall 
be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the 
district or districts, or new states, as in the original states within the time 
agreed upon by the United States in Congress assembled. The legislatures 
of those districts, or new states, shall never interfere with the primary dis- 
posal of the soil by the United States in Congress assembled, nor with any 
regulations Congress may find necessary for securing the title in such soil 
to the bona fide purchasers. No tax shall be imposed on lands the property 
of the United States; and in no case shall non-resident proprietors be taxed 
liigher than residents. The navigable waters leading into the Mississippi 
and St. Lawrence, and the carrying places between the same, shall be common - 
highways and forever free, as well to the inhabitants of said territory as to 
the citizens of the United States and those of any other states that may be 
admitted into the Confederacy, without any tax, impost, or duty therefor. 

Art. 5. There shall be formed in the said territory, not less than three, 
nor more than five states; and the boundaries of the states, as soon as Vir- 


ginia shall alter her act of cession, and consent to the same, shall become fixed 
and established as follows, to-wit: The western state in the said territory 
shall be bounded by the Mississippi, the Ohio and Wabash rivers; a direct 
line drawn from the Wabash and Post Vincents, due north, to the territorial 
line between the United States and Canada; and by the said territorial line 
to the lake of the woods and Mississippi. The middle states shall be bounded 
by the said direct line, the Wabash, from Post Vincents to the Ohio, by the 
Ohio by a direct line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami to 
the said territorial line and by the said territorial line. The eastern state 
shall be bounded by the last mentioned direct line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania 
and the said territorial line; provided, however, and it is further understood 
and declared, that the boundaries of these three states shall be siibject so far 
to be altered, that, if Congress shall hereafter find it expedient, they shall 
have authority to form one or two states in that part of the said territory 
which lies north of an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend 
or extreme of lake Michigan. And whenever any of the said states shall have 
sixty thousand free inhabitants therein, such state shall be admitted, by its 
delegates, into the Congress of the United States, on an equal footing with 
the original states, in all respects whatever; and shall be at liberty to form a 
permanent constitution and state government; provided, the constitution and 
government, so to be formed, shall be republican and in conformity to the 
principles contained in these articles; and so far as it can be consistent with 
the general interest of the Confederacy, such admission shall be allowed at 
an earlier period, and when there may be a less number of free inhabitants in 
the state than sixty thousand. 

Art. 6. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the 
said territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party 
shall have been duly convicted; provided, always, that any person escaping 
into the same, from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed in any one of 
the original states, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to 
the person claiming his or her labor or service as aforesaid. 

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, that the resolutions of the 
23d of April, 1784, relative to the subject of this ordinance, be, and the same 
are hereby repealed and declared null and void. 

Government became a great necessity in this new territory. The Indians 
were committing all sorts of depredations and were not held in any restraint 
whatever, by what few authorities were there. In fact the same legislative 
bodies that passed the Ordinance of 1787 for the government of the North- 


west territory, of the 13th of July, 1787, also passed on the 21st of July the 
following resolution: 

"Resolved, That the superintendent of Indian affairs for the northern 
department, and in case he be unable to attend, then Col. Josiah Harmar, im- 
mediately proceed to Post Vincennes, or some other place more convenient, 
in his opinion, for holding a treaty with the Wabash Indians, the Shawnees, 
and other hostile tribes; that he inform those Indians that Congress is sin- 
cerely disposed to promote peace and frfendship between their citizens and 
the Indians; that to this end he is sent to invite them, in a friendly manner, 
to a treaty with the United States, to hear their complaints, to know the truth, 
and the causes of their quarrels with those frontier settlers ; and having in- 
vited those Indians to the treaty, he shall make strict inquiry into the causes 
of their uneasiness and hostile proceedings, and form a treaty of peace with 
them, if it can be done on terms consistent with the honor and dignity of the 
United States." 

Nor were the Indian troubles the only troubles of the United States at 
this tirne. The term of the enlisted soldiers was rapidly nearing an end, and 
this led Congress on the 3d of October, 1787, to pass another resolution as 
follows : 

"Whereas, the time for which the greater part of the troops on the fron- 
tiers are engaged, will expire in the course of the ensuing year, 

"Resolved, That the interests of the United States require that a corps 
of seven hundred troops should be stationed on the frontiers to protect the 
settlers on the public lands from the depredations of the Indians, to facilitate 
the surveying and selling the said lands, in order to reduce the public debt, 
and to prevent all unwarrantable intrusions thereon." 

The Indian question was made all the more difficult to handle by a dis- 
sension among those in authority at W^ashington. This is indicated by a letter 
written December 14, 1786, from John Jay to Thomas Jefferson, which reads 
as follows : 

"In my opinion our Indian affairs have been ill managed. Indians have 
been murdered by our people in cold blood and no satisfaction given; nor are 
they (the Indians) pleased with the avidity with which we seek to acquire 
their lands." 

It will be noticed that neither Jay nor Jefferson had ever come in direct 
contact with the Indians or with the Indian question, and balancing against 
their opinion, were the opinions to the contrary of those who had come in 
contract with the Indians in their own habitat. Such men as Washington, 


St. Clair, Clark and Wayne were as strong in their opinions in favor of the 
way the Indians were being treated, as were the opposition. Congress evi- 
dently held to the opinion of these men, as on the 5th of October, 1787, it 
appointed Arthur St. Clair as the governor of the new territory. 

St. Clair was a soldier, having served in the British army during the 
French war, and in the American forces in the Revolutionary war with great 
distinction. Congress evidently felt that he would be severe with the Indians, 
as he was instructed not to neglect any opportunity that might offer of ex- 
tinguishing the Indian right to land as far west as the Mississippi river, and 
as far northward as the completion of the forty-first degree of north latitude. 
He was also instructed to use every, effort to affiliate the various Indian tribes. 
He established his seated government at Marietta on the Ohio river. He had 
a general court composed of three men. That he and these men understood 
the conditions under which they labored is shown by the position that they 
established in their government, which was as follows : 

"Whereas, idle, vain and obscene conversation, profane cursing and 
swearing", and more especially the irreverently mentioning, calling upon, or 
invoking the Sacred and Supreme Being, by any of the divine characters in 
which He has graciously condescended to reveal His infinitely beneficent pur- 
poses to mankind, are repugnant to every moral sentiment, subversive of 
every civil obligation, inconsistent with the ornaments of polished life and 
abhorent to the principles of the most benevolent religion. It is expected, 
therefore, if crimes of this kind should exist, they will not find encourage- 
ment, countenance or approbation in this territory." 

"Whereas, mankind in every stage of informed society, has consecrated 
certain portions of time to the particular cultivation of the social virtues, and 
the public adoration and worship of the common Parent of the Universe ; and 
whereas, as a practice so rational in itself and conformable to the divine pre- 
cepts is greatly conducive to civilization as well as morality and piety; and 
whereas, for the advancement of such important and interesting purposes, 
most of the Christian world have set apart the first day of the week as a day 
of rest from common labors and pursuits; it is therefore enjoined that all 
servile labor, works of necessity and charity only excepted, be wholly ab- 
stained from on said day." 

Thus it is seen that while St. Clair was stern in every particular yet he 
hoped to govern with kindness. This in view, he attempted a compromise or 
treaty with a number of the Indians of the Six Nations, but the Wyandot, 
Delaware, Ottawa, Chippewa, Potawatamie and Sac tribes refused to be 


bound by his treaties and entreaties, and soon began depredations against the 
people of Virginia and Kentucky. 

Three expeditions under Harmar, Scott and Wilkinson had been sent 
against the Indians and had been unsuccessful, especially against the tribes 
of the Miamis and Shawnees. Their people had been killed, their villages had 
been destroyed, their children and women had been taken into captivity. This, 
however, did not subdue the Indians, and St. Clair found it necessary to form 
an expedition himself to go against them. • British agents were making it all 
the worse, because they were secretly helping the Indians at every oppor- 
tunity. This was especially true of the agents, Simon Girty, Alexander 
McKee and Matthew Eliott, who were subordinate agents in the British 
Indian department. It must be remembered that Great Britain still had forts 
along the Niagara and Detroit rivers, which they maintained in defiance of 
their treaty of peace of 1783. Ha-d it not have been for the secret help of 
the British agents, the United States might have had no difficulty in handling 
the Indians and holding them to their treaty. But the British were jealous 
of the power of the United States, and were anxious for the profitable fur 
trade which they were carrying on in this territory. St. Clair, however, was 
not to be discouraged and on the 28th of March, 1791, he left the city of 
Philadelphia and proceeded to Pittsburg. From Pittsburg he went to Lex- 
ington and from Lexington to Fort Washington, where Cincinnati now is, 
where he arrived on the 15th of May. During the first part of the month 
of September, in 1791, General Butler in command of the major part of the 
army, who from Ludlow's Station near Fort Washington, had marched about 
twenty-five miles north where he built a fort called Fort Hamilton. As soon 
as this fort was finished, he continued his march toward the Miami village to 
a point about forty-two miles north of Fort Hamilton, where he built Fort 
Jefferson. Fort Jefferson is just a little south of where Greenville. Ohio, 
now is. 

Having completed Fort Jefferson, they pushed on further to the north. 
Hard rains had been falling for several days and this turning to snow, made 
the soldiers very uncomfortable. The roads, if such they might be called, 
were very bad, indeed. In fact they were frequently stopped on account of 
the road-cutter not being able to keep ahead of the army, slow as it may 
travel. On the 30th of October, they made but seven miles, although they 
traveled all day and left a portion of their equipment behind. Provisions 
were short. The quartermaster's department was not adequate. The militia 
was very much dissatisfied and sixty of them deserted on the 31st. It was 


reported that half of them had gone but this was a mistake. St. Clair sent a 
convoy of soldiers in pursuit of them with orders to Major Hamtramck, to 
send a sufficient guard back with Benham, and to follow the militia about 
twenty-five miles below Fort Jefferson, or until he met the second convoy and 
then return and join the army. Only a few Indians were reported as having 
been seen. In fact they lament, that in one day, they saw five and allowed 
them to get away. This was not due to the fact that Indians were not around 
in plenty, but rather to the fact that the Indians were more skilled and cun- 
ning than the white men in the arts of Indian warfare. At this time the 
Little Turtle, Blue-jacket, Buck-ong-a-he-lax and other Indian chiefs of less 
distinction, were lined a few miles distant from St. Clair's army with about 
twelve hundred warriors, awaiting a favorable moment to begin an attack. 
Simon Girty, the British agent to whom we have referred to before, was an 
active agent among the Indians. The campaign of St. Clair was so disastrous, 
not only in its immediate but in its far reaching ef¥ect, and has such great 
bearing upon the attitude of the settlers in Randolph county years later, that 
we shall give his correspondence in full. 

In a letter, dated "Fort Washington, November 9, 1791," and addressed 
to the secretary of war. Governor St. Clair said : "At this place (the ground 
on which the army was encamped on the evening of the 3d of November), 
which I judged to be about fifteen miles from the Miami village, I determined 
to throw up a slight work, the plan of which was concerted that evening with 
Major Ferguson, wherein to have deposited the men's knapsacks, and every- 
thing else that was not of absolute necessity, and to have moved on to attack 
the enemy as soon as the first regiment was come up. But they did not 
permit me to execute either, for on the 4th, about half an hour before sun- 
rise, and when the men had been just dismissed from parade (for it was a 
constant practice to have them all under arms a considerable time before day- 
light), an attack was made upon the militia. Those gave way in a very 
little time and rushed into camp through Major Butler's battalion (which 
together with a part of Clarke's, they threw into considerable disorder, and 
which, notwithstanding the exertions of both those officers, was never alto- 
gether remedied), the Indians following close at their heels. The fire, how- 
ever, of the front line checked them, but almost instantly a very heavy fire 
began upon that line and in a few minutes it was extended to the second 
likewise. The great weight of it was directed against the center of each, 
where the artillery was placed, and from which the men were repeatedly 
driven with great slaughter. Finding no great effect from our fire, and con- 


fusion beginning to spread from the great number of men who were falling in 
all quarters, it became necessary to try what could be done by the bayonet. 
Lieutenant-colonel Darke was accordingly ordered to make a charge with part 
of the second line and to turn the left flank of the enemy. This was executed 
with great spirit. The Indians instantly gave way and were driven back 
three or four hundred yards, but for want of a sufficient number of riflemen 
to pursue this advantage, they soon returned and the troops were obliged to 
give back in their turn. At this moment they had entered our camp by the 
left flank, having pushed back the troops that were posted there. Another 
charge was made here by the second regiment, Butler's and Clarke's battalions, 
with equal effect, and it was repeated several times and always with success, 
but in all of them many men were lost and particularly the officers, which, 
with so raw troops, was a loss altogether irremediajDle. In that I just spoke 
of, made by the second regiment and Butler's battalion, Major Butler was 
dangerously wounded and every officer of the- second regiment fell except 
three, one of which, Mr. Greaton, was shot through the body. 

"Our artillery being now silenced, and all the officers killed except 
Captain Ford, who was very badly wounded, and more than half of the army 
fallen, being cut off from the road, it became necessary to attempt the regain- 
ing of it and to make a retreat, if possible. To this purpose the remains 
of-the army was formed, as well as circumstances would permit, toward the 
right of the encampment, from which, by the way of the second line, another 
charge was made upon the enemy as if with the design to turn their right 
flank, but in fact, to gain the road. This was effected and as soon as it was 
open, the militia took along it followed by the troops. Major Clark with 
his battalion covering the rear. 

"The retreat, in those circumstances, was, you may be sure, a very 
precipitate one. It was, in fact, a flight. The camp and artillery were 
abandoned, but that was unavoidable, for not a horse was left alive to have 
drawn it off had it otherwise been practicable. But the most disgraceful 
part of the business is, that the greatest part of the men threw away their 
arms and ;accoutemients, even after the pursuit, which continued about four 
miles, had ceased. I found the road strewed with them for many miles, 
but was not able to remedy it, for, having had all my horses killed and being 
mounted upon one that could not be pricked out of a walk, I could not get 
foi'ward myself and the orders I sent forward either to halt the front or to 
prevent the men from parting with their arms, were unattended to. The 


route continued quite to Fort Jefferson, twenty-nine miles, which was reached 
a little after sunset. 

"The action began about half an hour before sunrise and the retreat was 
attempted at half an hour after nine o'clock. I have not yet been able to get 
returns of the killed and wounded, but Major-general Butler, Lieutenant- 
colonel Oldham of the militia, Major Ferguson, Major Hart and Major 
Clarke are among the former. Colonel Sargent, my adjutant-general, Lieu- 
tenant-colonel Darke, Lieutenant-colonel Gibson, Major Butler and the Vis- 
count Malartie, who served me as an aid-de-camp, are among the latter and 
a great number of captains and subalterns in both. 

"I have now, sir, finished my melancholy tale — a tale that will be felt 
sensibly by every one that has sympathy for private distress or for public 
misfortune. I have nothing, sir, to lay to the charge of the troops, but their 
want of discipline, which, from the short time they had been in service, it 
was impossible they should have acquired and which rendered it very difficult 
when they were thrown into confusion to reduce them again to order, and is 
one reason why the loss has fallen so heavy on the officers, who did every- 
thing in their power to effect it. Neither were my own exertions wanting, 
but, worn down with illness and suffering under a painful disease, unable 
either to mount or dismount a horse without assistance, they were not so great 
as they otherwise would, and perhaps ought to have been. We were over- 
powered by numbers but it is no more than justice to observe, that, though 
composed of so many different species of troops, the utmost harmony pre- 
vailed through the whole army during the campaign. At Fort Jefferson I 
found the first regiment, which had returned from the service they had been 
sent upon, without either overtaking the deserters or meeting the convoy of 
provisions. I am not certain, sir, whether I ought to consider the absence 
of this regiment from the field of action as fortunate, or otherwise. I in- 
cline to think it was fortunate, for, I very much doubt whether, had it been 
in the action, the fortune of the day would have been turned; and, if it had 
not, the triumph of the enemy would have been more complete and the 
country would have been destitute of every means of defense. Taking a 
view of the sitttation of our broken troops at Fort Jefferson and that there 
was no provisions in the fort, I called upon the field officers, viz : Lieutenant- 
colonel Darke, Major Hamtramck, Major Zeigler, and Major Gaither, to- 
gether with the adjutant-general (Winthrop Sargent), for their advice what 
would be proper further to be done and it was their unanimous opinion, that 
the addition of the first regiment, unbroken as it was, did not put the army 


on so respectable a foot as it was in the morning, because a great part of it 
was now unarmed; that it had then been found unequal to the enemy and 
should they come on, which was possible, would be found so again; that the 
troops could not be thrown into the fort, both because it was too small and 
that there were no provisions in it; that provisions were known to be upon 
the road at the distance of one or at most two marches; that, therefore, it 
would be proper to move, without loss of time, to meet the provisions, when 
the men might have the sooner an opportunity of some refreshment and that 
a proper detachment might be sent back with it to have it safely deposited 
in the fort. This advice was accepted and the army was put in motion at 
ten o'clock and marched all night and the succeeding day met with a quantity 
of flour. Part of it was distributed immediately, part taken back to supply 
the army on the march to Fort Hamilton and the remainder, about fifty 
horse loads, sent forward to Fort Jefferson. The next day a drove of cattle 
was met with for the same place and I have information that both got in. 
The wounded, who had been left at that place, were ordered to be brought 
to Fort Washington by the return horses. 

"I have said, sir, in a former part of this letter, that we were over- 
powered by numbers. Of that, however, I have no other evidence but the 
weight of the first which was always a most deadly one and generally de- 
livered from the ground — few of the enemy showing themselves afoot, ex- 
cept when they were charged, and that, in a few minutes our whole camp, 
which extended about three hundred and fifty yards in length, was entirely 
surrounded and attacked on all quarters. The loss, sir, the public has sus- 
tained by the fall of so many officers, particularly General Butler and Ivlajor 
Ferguson, can not be too much regretted, but it is a circumstance that will 
alleviate the misfortune in some measure, that all of them fell most gallantly 
doing their duty. I have had very particular obligations to many of them, 
as well as to the survivors, but to none more than to Coloiiel Sargent. He 
has discharged the various duties of his office with zeal, with exactness and 
with intelligence, and, on all occasions, afforded me every assistance in his 
power, which I have also experienced from my aid-de-camp. Lieutenant 
Denny, and the Viscount Malartie, who served with me in the station as a 

In the disastrous action of the 4th of November, 1791, St. Clair lost 
thirty-nine officers killed and five hundred and ninety-three men killed and 
wounded. Twenty-two officers and two hundred and forty-two men were 
wounded. The officers killed were: Major-general Richard Butler; Lieu- 


tenant-colonel Oldham, of the Kentucky militia; Majors Ferguson, Clarke 
and Hart; Captains Bradford, Phelon, Kirkwood, Price, Van Swearingen, 
Tipton, -Smith, Purdy, Piatt, Guthrie, Cribbs and Newman; Lieutenants 
Spear, Warren, Boyd, McMath, Read, Burgess, Kelso, Little. Hopper and 
Lickens; Ensigns Balch, Cobb, Chase, Turner, Wilson, Brooks, Beatty and 
Purdy; Quartermasters Rej^nolds and Ward; Adjutant Anderson; and Doc- 
tor Grasson. The officers wounded were : Lieutenant-colonels Gibson, Darke 
and Sargent (adjutant-general); Major Butler; Captains Doyle, Trueman, 
Ford, Buchanan, Darke and Hough; Lieutenants Greaton, Davidson, De- 
Butts, Price, Morgan, McCrea, Lysle and Thomson; Ensign Bines; Adju- 
tants Whisler and Crawford; and the Viscount Malartie, volunteer aid-de- 
camp to the commander-in-chief. Several pieces of artillery and all the 
baggage, ammunition and provisions were left on the field of battle and fell 
into the hands of the Indians. The stores and other public property lost in 
the action, were valued at thirty-two thousand eight hundred and ten dollars 
and seventy-five cents. The loss of the Miamis and their confederates has 
never been satisfactorily ascertained, but it did not, probably, exceed one hun- 
dred and fifty in killed and wounded. 

With the army of St. Clair, following the fortunes of their husbands, 
there were more than one hundred women. Very few escaped the carnage 
of the 4th of November and after the flight of the remnant of the army, the 
Indians began to avenge their own real and imaginary wrongs by perpetrating 
the most horrible acts of cruelty and brutality upon the bodies of the living 
and the dead Americans who fell into their hands. Believing that the whites, 
for many years, made war merely to acquire land, the Indians crammed clay 
and sand into the eyes and down the throats of the dying and the dead. The 
field of action was visited by Brigadier-general James Wilkinson, at the head 
of a small detachment of mounted militia on the ist of February, 1792, about 
three months after the battle. In a letter dated "Fort Washington, 13th 
February, J 792," written by Captain Robert Buntin, and addressed to 
Governor St. Clair, this expedition of Wilkinson is noticed as follows : — 

"I went with General Wilkinson to the field of action to recover the 
artillery carriages, which he was informed remained there, and to bury the 
dead. His little army for this excursion was composed of about one hun- 
dred and fifty regulars and one hundred and thirty-one volunteer militia on 
horseback. He has a good talent for pleasing the people ; there is no person 
in whom they have more confidence; none more capable to lead them on. 
It ajDpears as if he made the Indian mode of warfare his study since he first 


came to this country. I think him highly worthy your friendship, from his 
attachment to your person and interest. 

"The regulars left Fort Washington as an escort to provisions for Fort 
Jefferson on the 24th ultimo — the snow about ten inches deep — and we 
marched next morning with the volunteers. The sledges which transported 
the forage delayed us so much that we did not get to Fort Jefferson until the 
30th, about twelve o'clock. The general was much longer in getting to this 
place than he expected and in order to Expedite the business and avoid ex- 
pense, he ordered the regulars to return to Fort Washington. This morning 
C30th), the wind from the southward, with a constant fall of snow, rain and 
hail, and a frost the following night made the breaking of the road very 
difificult. Though the front was changed every fifteen or twenty minutes, 
the road was marked with the horses' blood from the hardness of the crust on 
the snow. We left Fort Jefferson about nine o'clock on the 31st with the 
volunteers and arrived within eight miles of the field of battle that evening, 
and next day we arrived at the ground about ten o'clock. The scene was 
truly melancholy. In my opinion those unfortunate men who fell into the 
enemy's hands, with life, were used with the greatest torture, having their 
limbs torn off; and the women have been treated with the most indecent 
cruelty, having stakes as thick as a person's arm drove through their bodies. 
The first, I observed when burying the dead and the latter was discovered 
by Colonel Sargent and Doctor Brown. We found three whole carriages; 
the other five were so much damaged that they were rendered useless. By 
the general's orders pits were dug in different places and all the dead bodies 
that were exposed to view, or could be conveniently found (the snow being 
very deep) were buried. During this time there were sundry parties de- 
tached, some for our safety, and others in examining the course of the creek, 
and some distance in advance of the ground occupied by the militia, they 
found a large camp not less than three quarters of a mile long which was 
supposed to be that of the Indians the night before the action. We remained 
on the field that night and next morning fixed geared horses to the carriages 
and moved for Fort Jefferson. * * * As there is little reason to believe that the 
enemy have carried off the cannon, it is the received opinion that they are 
either buried or thrown into the creek, and I think the latter the most prob- 
able ; but, as it was frozen over with a thick ice, and that covered with a deep 
snow, it was impossible to make a search with any prospect of success. In 
a former part of this letter I have mentioned the camp occupied by the enemy 
the night before the action. Had Colonel Oldham been able to have com- 


plied with your orders on that evening, things at this day might have worn a 
different aspect." — (Dillon's History of Indiana.) 

As we have said, the influence of this defeat was far-reaching. The 
news of it soon spread to Pennsylvania and Virginia and the tide of emigra- 
tion which had been flowing into the middle states was stopped for a long 
time. "The principal causes of failure of the expedition were : Mismanage- 
ment of the quartermaster's department, the unfavorable season at which the 
army marched to attack the Indians and the want of discipline in the troops. 
The failure of the expedition can not justly be imputed to the conduct of the 
commander-in-chief, at any time before or during the battle." 

"St. Clair resigned and Major-general Anthony Wayne was appointed in 
his stead. It was a fortunate thing, indeed, for the settlers of this country, 
that a man of the temperament and ability and training of Anthony Wayne 
was appointed to this responsible place. Wayne had had great training in the 
Revolutionary war, was a natural soldier, had a keen knowledge of Indian 
warfare and was an Indian hater. His indomitable courage, his keen scru- 
tiny of human nature, in fact to the possibilities before him, made him an 
especially good man for this place. Although he hoped to settle these Indian 
problems in a peaceable way, he, soldier that he was, immediately began to 
recruit and organize his army. He sent out spies among the Indians to learn 
their every movement. Agents were also sertt to them to insure them of his 
friendly mission, provided they would be loyal to the United States. These 
agents were to insure the Indians in the strongest and most explicit terms, 
that the United States renounced all claim to Indian land which had not been 
ceded by fair treaties made by the Indian nation. These instructions came 
from the secretary of war to General Ruf us Putnam, on the 22nd of May, 
1792. These agents were furnished copies of former treaties with the 
Indians, so that the Indian might be fully informed as to what the exact con- 
ditions were. There- had been the following treaties : One of Fort Stanwix, 
made on the 22d of October, 1784. One of Fort Mcintosh, made on the 
2ist of January, 1785. One made at the mouth of the Great Miami river 
on the 31st of January, 1876. One at Fort Harmar on the 9th of January, 
1789. To show the Indian, in his sincerity, Wayne was instructed, in April, 
1792, to issue a proclamation informing the people of the frontiers of the 
proposed attempts to conclude a treaty of peace and prohibiting all offensive 
movements of the whites to the northward of the Ohio, until they should 
receive further information on the subject. — (Dillon's History of Indiana.) 



It was a difficult matter for Wayne to convince the Indians of his sin- 
cerity. For example, two messengers were sent from Fort Washington 
with a speech to the Indians on the Maumee. Dillon says that these mes- 
sengers were captured by a party of Indians, who on being informed that 
their captives were messengers of peace, spared their lives and conducted 
them toward the rapids of the Maumee. But, while moving on to the route 
of that place. Freeman and Gerrard, the,/nessengers, asked so many questions 
concerning the number of different tribes, the course of streams, etc., that 
their conductors took them to be spies and killed them when they were within 
one day's march of the main body of the Indian councils. But who can 
blame the poor, benighted Indian, after he had been treated in the manner in 
which he had by both the French and British, for years and years before. 
No wonder that he lacked confidence in the United States, for both the British 
and French had:taught him that the people of the United States were traitors, 
not only to France and Great Britain, but to the Indians themselves, and, was 
merely using every means to gain the land from them and force them west 
of the Mississippi river. And history seems to bear out the truth of such 
an opinion. In order to find out more about the Indians, Wilkinson, the, 
Brigadier-general, advised that William May desert the American army and 
act as a spy among the Indians. 

May did what he was ordered, with the promise that should he execute 
his mission with integrity and effect, he was to be given some little establish- 
ment to make his old age comfortable. May deserted according to orders 
and continued to reside among the Indians until the latter part of September, 
1792, when he left them and arrived at Pittsburg and made his report to 
Major-general Wayne. On the i8th of August, 1794, almost two years 
afterward. May was captured by the Indians near the rapids of the Maumee 
and on the next day he was tied to a tree and shot. President Washington 
had a personal interest in this matter and about the 20th of May, 1792, sent 
Major Alexander Trueman and Colonel John Hardin of Kentucky, with 
copies of a speech to the Hostile Indians. Major Trueman was engaged in 
this service of his own free will and desire and he was joined by Colonel 
Hardin, who undertook to discharge the duties of a peace-messenger, at the 
request of Brigadier-general Wilkinson. The speech with which these 
officers were charged was addressed "To all the Sachems and Warriors of 
the tribes inhabiting the Miami river of lake Erie and the waters of the 
Wabash river, the Wyandots, Delawares, Ottawas, Chippewas, 'Potawa- 
tamies, and all other tribes residing to the southward of the lakes, east of the 


Mississippi, and to the northward of the river Ohio," and it contained the 
passages which follow : 

"BROTHERS— The President of the United States, General Wash- 
ington, the great chief of the nation, speaks to you by this address. Sum- 
mon, therefore, your utmost powers of attention and hear the important 
things which shall be spoken to you concerning your future welfare; and 
after having heard and well understood all things, invoke the Great Spirit 
above to give you due deliberation and wisdom, to decide upon a line of con- 
duct that shall best promote your happiness and the happiness of your chil- 
dren and perpetuate you and them on the land of your forefathers. Brothers, 
the President of the United States entertains the opinion that the War which 
exists is founded in error and mistake on your parts; that you believe the 
United States wants to deprive you of your lands and drive you out of the 
country. Be assured this is not so. On the contrary, that we should be 
greatly gratified with the opportunity of imparting to you all the blessings of 
civilized life, of teaching you to cultivate the earth and raise corn; to raise 
oxen, sheep and other domestic animals; to build comfortable houses and to 
educated your children, so as ever to dwell upon the land. * * i= War, 
at all times, is a dreadful evil to those who are engaged to act against so great 
numbers as the people of the United States. 

Brothers : Do not suffer the advantages you have gained to mislead 
your judgment and influence you to continue the war, but reflect upon the 
destructive consequences which must attend such a measure. The President 
of the United States is highly desirous of seeing a number of your principal 
chiefs and convincing you, in person, how much he wishes to avoid the evils 
of war for your sake, and the sake of humanity. Consult therefore, upon the 
great object of peace; call in your parties and enjoin a cessation of all further 
depredations and as many of the principal chiefs as shall choose, repair to 
Philadelphia, the seat of the general government, and there make a peace, 
founded on the principles of justice and humanity. Remember, that no 
additional lands will be required of you, or any other tribe, to those that 
have been ceded by former treaties, particularly by the tribes who had a 
right to make the treaty of Muskingum (Fort Harmar), in the year 1789. 
But, if any of you can prove that you have a fair right to any lands com- 
prehended by the said treaty, and have not been compensated therefor, you 
shall receive a full satisfaction upon that head. The chiefs you send shall 
be safely escorted to this city; and shall be well fed and provided with all 
things for their journey. * * * Come, then, and be convinced for 


yourselves, of the beneficence of General Washington, the great chief of the 
United States, and afterward return and spread the glad tidings of peace 
and prosperity of the Indians to the setting sun." — (Dillon's History of 
Indiana. ) 

The lack of confidence which the Indians had in peace, or in a docu- 
ment sent to them by Washington, and the treachery which they exercised 
toward his agent, is shown in the story of William May, whom we will 
remember had deserted and joined the 'Indians, as he told it to General 
Wayne on the nth of October, 1792. The story is as follows: "That, in 
the latter end of June (1792), some Indians came on board the vessel for 
provisions; among whom was one who had two scalps upon a stick; one of 
them he knew to be William Lynch's (Major Trueman's waiter), with whom 
he (May) was well acquainted; he had light hair. That he mentioned 
at once whose scalp it was. The other they said was Major Trueman's; it 
was darker than Lynch's. The manner in which Trueman was killed, was 
mentioned by the Indian who killed him, to an Indian who used to go 
in the vessel with May, in his presence, and immediately interpreted, viz : 
This Indian and an Indian boy having met with Trueman, his waiter Lynch, 
and the interpreter, William Smalley; that Trueman gave the Indian a belt; 
that after being together three or four hours the Indians were going to leave 
them. Trueman inquired the reason from the interpreter, who answered 
that the Indians were alarmed, lest there being three to two, they might 
injure them in the night. Upon which Trueman told them they might tie 
both his servant and himself. That his boy Lynch was first tied and then 
Trueman. The moment Trueman was tied, the Indian tomahawked and 
scalped him, and then the boy. That the papers in possession of Trueman 
were given to Mr. McKee, who sent them by a Frenchman called Captain 
Le Motte, to Detroit, on board the schooner of which he. May, had the charge. 
That, upon his return from Detroit to the rapids (of the Maumee) he saw 
a scalp, said to be Hardin's; that he also saw a flag by the route of San- 
dusky; and that the hair was dark brown; but don't know by what nation 
he was killed; these papers were also sent to Detroit, on board the schooner, 
by Mr. Elliott. That a Captain Brumley, of the fifth British regiment, 
was in the action (of the 4th of November, 1791), but did not learn that he 
took any command; that Lieutenant Sylvey, of the same regiment, was on 
his march with three hundred Indians, but did not get up in time to partici- 
pate in the action; that Simon Girty told him there were twelve hundred 
Indians at the place, but three hundred of them did not engage, who were 


taking care of the horses, exclusive of the three hundred with Lieutenant 
Sylvey; in all.fifteen hundred. * * * That it was the common opinion, 
and the common conversation, that no peace would take place unless the Ohio 
river be established as the boundary line between the Indians and the Ameri- 
cans." — (Dillon's History of Indiana.) 

It seems that almost every act on the part of the white man, in the 
wilderness or in Congress at this time, was such as to make the Indians lose 
confidence in their sincerity. Some of the Indians really wanted peace at 
most any price, excepting that of losing their homes. This was true of the 
great Vv'abash and Illinois tribes, and on the 27th of September, 1792, 
Brigadier-General Rufus Putnam succeeded. in forming a treaty with thirty- 
one Indians of these tribes. Nothing in this treaty was unreasonable, and 
Putnam congratulated himself upon the success. You can imagine the con- 
sternation of these Indians when the Senate of the United States, on the 
13th of February, 1793, deemed one of the articles particularly objectionable, 
and after several consultations, finally refused to ratify the treaty by a vote 
of 21 to 4. The article which was so objectionable was: 

"The United States solemnly guaranty to the Wabash and Illinois na- 
tions or tribes of Indians, all the lands to which they have a just claim; 
and no part shall ever be taken from them but by a fair purchase, and to 
their satisfaction. That the lands originally belonged to the Indians; it is 
theirs, and theirs only. That they have a right to sell and a right to refuse 
to sell. And that the United States will protect them in their said just 
rights." — (Dillon's History of Indiana.) 

Is it any wonder that the Indians would doubt the sincerity of the people 
of the United States, when such an article as this, simple and truthful though 
it may be, should be turned down by the Senate of that great government. 
Yet, in spite of such treatment of the Indians, the United States continued 
in their attempt to make treaties with them. One of the strongest nations was 
the Potawatamie. This nation was invited to send a delegation to Wash- 
ington, to consider the subject of treaty. And it is no wonder that the chief 
of the Potawatamie said in a speech : "We are very glad to hear from you ; 
but sorry we cannbt comply with your request (to send a deputation of 
chiefs to Fort Washington). The situation of affairs in this country prevents 
us. We are, every day, threatened by the other Indians, that if we do not ' 
take a part with them against the Americans, they will destroy our villages. 
This,alone, my father, makes it necessary for all the chiefs to remain at home. 
* * * My father : You tell us you art ignorant why the red people make 


war on your white people. We are as ignorant of it as you are; for, ever 
since the beginning of the war, we have lain still in our villages, although we 
have been repeatedly invited to go to war ; but, my father, the confidence we 
have in you has prevented us from making war against you, and we hold you 
by the hand with a stronger grip than ever. My father, keep up your spirits 
more than ever; for you have this year more red people to fight than you 
have had yet. * * * If I could give you a hand I would do it; but I can 
not; and I am glad if me and my people can have a quiet life this summer. If 
I had been disposed to believe all the reports I have heard, I would have made 
your messengers prisoners; for we are told they are spies, and that you have 
an army coming against us ; but I am deaf to everything that comes from the 
Miamis. Every day we received messengers from those people, but we have 
been deaf to them, and will remain so." — (Dillon's History of Indiana.) 

"All this time General Wayne was preparing for war, and on the 7th of 
October, 1793, General Wayne was at the head of two thousand six hundred 
regulars, and four hundred auxiliary, marched from Fort Washington. The 
regular fort at Greenville, and another on the field where St. Clair met his 
defeat. This he called Fort Recovery. Here he remained until the 30th of 
June, 1794, without meeting any resistance. On that day, however, about 
fifteen hundred Indians, with some British and Canadians, assailed a body 
of troops under the very walls of the fort, but were finally repulsed. Not long 
after this, sixteen hundred volunteers under the command of General Scott, 
joined Wayne. His preparation at every point caused consternation to reign 
among the Indians. They had so easily overcome Harmar and St. Clair that 
they had been led to believe that all the Americans could be as easily overcome. 
It did not take long, however, before they saw in General Wayne, an entirely 
different character. Little Turtle, who had the command at the defeat of 
St. Clair, was among the first to recognize Wayne's ability. All that plan 
to surprise him failed. Every effort they had made to defeat him had come 
to naught. They had found him cautious, and diligent on all occasions, and 
he seemed to be endowed with some great power which they did not under- 
stand. Little Turtle referred to him as an "who-never-sleeps," and this had a 
great effect among the Indians. 

That Little Turtle recognized that he had finally met his master, is 
shown by his urging that a treaty of peace be made, in a council held on the 
19th of August of this same year, in which he says : "We have beaten the 
enemy twice under different commanders. We can not expect the same good 
fortune to attend us always. The Americans are now led by a chief who 


never sleeps. The nights and the days are alike to him, and during all the 
time that he had been marching on onr village, notwithstanding the watch- 
fulness of our young men, we have never been able to surprise him. Think 
well of it. There is something whispers me it would be prudent to listen to 
his offers of peace." — (Dillon's History of Indiana.) 

Indians were under the subtle influence of that greatest of all chiefs, 
Tecumseh, and influenced by the magic spell by his brother, the prophet, and 
refused to follow the advice of Little Turtle. Believing in the power of 
Tecumseh and the prophet to protect them against the bullet of the white 
men, and feeling that they were sure of success, they prepared for battle, and 
attacked General Wayne on the morning of the 20th of August. That 
Wayne's separation had been conjplete, that Little Turtle's characterization 
of him was exactly right, and that the Indians were completely crushed, is 
shown by Wayne's report of the battle, which we will here give : 


"Headquarters, Fort Defiance, Grand Glaize, 28th August, 1794. 

"Sir : It is with infinite pleasure that I now announce to you the bril- 
liant success of the Federal army under my command, in a general action 
with the combined force of the hostile Indians, and a considerable number 
of the volunteers and militia of Detroit, on the 20th instant, on the banks of 
the Maumee, in the vicinity of the British post and garrison, at the foot of 
the rapids. The army advanced from this place (Fort Defiance") on the 
15th, and arrived at Roche de Bout on the i8th. The 19th was employed in 
making a temporary post for the reception of our stores and baggage, and 
in reconnoitering the position of the enemy, who were encamped behind a 
thick, brushy wood, and the British fort. 

At eight o'clock on the morning of the 20th, the army again advanced 
in cokimns, agreeably to the standing order of march; the legion on the 
right, its flank covered by the Maumee; one brigade of mounted volunteers 
on the left, under Brigadier-General Todd, and the other in the rear, under 
Brigadier-General Barbee. A select battalion of mounted volunteers moved 
in front of the legion, commanded by Major Price, who was directed to keep 
sufficiently advanced, so as to give timely notice for the troops to form in 
case of action, it being yet undetermined whether the Indians would decide 
for peace or war. 

After advancing about five miles, Major Price's corps received so severe 


a fire from the enemy, who were secreted in the woods and high grass, as to 
compel them to retreat. The legion was immediately formed in two lines, 
principally in a close, thick wood, which extended for miles on our left, and 
for a very considerable distance in front, the ground being covered with old 
fallen timber, probably occasioned by a tornado, which rendered it imprac- 
ticable for the cavalry to act with effect, and afforded the enemy the most 
favorable cover for their mode of warfare. The savages were formed in 
three Hues, within supporting distance of eath other, and extending for nearly 
two miles, at right angles with the river. I soon discovered, from the weight 
of the fire and extent of their lines, that the enemy were in full force in front, 
in possession of their favorite ground, and endeavoring to turn our left flank. 
I therefore gave orders for the second line to advance and support the 
first; and directed Major-General Scott to gain and turn the right flank oi 
the savages, with the whole of the mounted volunteers, by a circuitous route ; 
at the same time I ordered the front line to advance and charge with trailed 
arms, and rouse the Indians from their coverts at the point of the bayonet, 
and when up, to deliver a close and well directed fire on their backs, followed 
by a brisk charge, so as not to give them time to load again. 

"I also ordered Captain M. Campbell, who commanded the legionary 
cavalry, to turn the left flank of the enemy next to the river, and which af- 
forded a favorable field for that corps to act in. All these orders were 
obeyed with spirit and promptitude; but such was the impetuosity of. the 
charge by the first line of infantry, that the Indians and Canadian militia and 
■\^olunteers were drove from all their coverts in so short a time, that, although 
every possible exertion was used by the officers of the second line of the legion, 
and by Generals Scott, Todd and Barbee, of the mounted volunteers, to gain 
their proper positions, but part of each could get up in season to participate in 
the action; the enemy being drove, in the course of one hour, more than two 
miles through the thick woods already mentioned by less than one-half their 
number. From every account, the enemy amounted to two thousand com- 
batants. The troops actually engaged against them were short of nine hundred. 
This horde of savages, with their allies, abandoned themselves to flight and 
dispersed with terror and dismay, leaving our victorious array in full and quiet 
possession of the field of battle, which terminated imder the influence of the 
guns of the British garrison, as you will observe by the inclosed correspond- 
ence between Major Campbell, the commandant, and myself upon the oc- 

The bravery and conduct of every officer belonging to the army, from 


the generals down to the ensigns, merit my highest approbation. There 
were, however, some, whose rani< and situation placed their conduct in a very 
conspicuous point of view and which I observed with pleasure and the most 
lively gratitude. Among whorri, I must beg leave to mention Brigadier- 
general Wilkinson and Colonel Hamtramck, the commandants of the right and 
left wings of the legion, whose brave example inspired the troops. To those 
I must add the names of my faithful and gallant aids-de-camp. Captains 
DeButt and T. Lewis; and Lieutenant Harrison, who, with the adjutant- 
general, Major Mills, rendered the most essential service by communicating 
my orders in every direction and by their conduct and bravery exciting the 
troops to jjress victory. Lieutenant Covington, upon whom the command of 
the cavalry now devolved, cut down two savages with his own hand and 
Lieutenant Webb one, in turning the enemy's left flank. The wounds received 
by Captains Slough and Prior and Lieutenant Campbell Smith, an extra aid- 
de-camp to General Wilkinson, of the legionary infantry, and Captain Van 
Rensselaer of the dragoons, Captain Rawlins, Lieutenant McKenny and 
Ensign Duncan, of the mounted volunteers, bear honorable testimony of their 
bravery and conduct. 

Captains H. Lewis and Brock, with their companies of light infantry, 
had to sustain an unequal fire for some time, which they supported with 
fortitude. In fact, every officer and soldier who had an opportunity to come 
into action displayed that true bravery which will always insure success. And 
here permit me to declare, that I never discovered more true spirit and 
anxiety for action than appeared to pervade the whole of the mounted volun- 
teers and I am well persuaded that, had the enemy maintained their favorite 
ground for one-half hour longer, they would have most severely felt the 
prowess of that corps. But while I pay this tribute to the living I must not 
neglect the gallant dead, among whom we have to lament the early death of 
those worthy and brave officers, Captain M. Campbell of the dragoons and 
Lieutenant Towles of the light infantry, of the legion, who fell in the first 

Enclosed is a particular return of the killed and wounded. The loss 
of the enemy was more than double to that of the Federal army. The woods 
were strewed for a considerable distance with the dead bodies of Indians and 
their white auxiliaries — the latter armed with British muskets and bayonets. 

We remained three days and nights on the banks of the Maumee in 
front of the field of battle, during which time all the houses and cornfields 
were consumed and destroyed for a considerable distance both above and 


below Fort Miami, as well as within pistol shot of the garrison, which was 
compelled to remain a tacit spectator to this general devastation and con- 
flagration, among which were the houses, stores and property of Colonel 
McKee, the British Indian agent and principal stimulator of the war now 
existing between the United States and the savages. 

The army returned to this place (Fort Defiance) on the 27th by easy 
marches, laying waste the villages and cornfields for about fifty miles on each 
side of the Maumee. There remains yet a great number of villages and a 
great quantity of corn to be consumed or destroyed upon Auglaize and the 
Maumee above this place, which will be effected in the course of a few days. 
In the interim we shall improve Fort Defiance and as soon as the escort re- 
turns with the necessary supplies from Greenville and Fort Recovery, the 
army will proceed to the Miami villages in order to accomplish the object of 
the campaign. It is, however, not improbable that the enemy may make one 
desperate effort against the army, as it is said that a reinforcement was hourly 
expected at Fort Miami from Niagara, as well as numerous tribes of Indians 
living on the margin and islands of the lakes. This is a business rather to be 
wished for than dreaded while the army remains in force. Their numbers 
will only tend to confuse the savages and victory will be the more complete 
and decisive and which may eventually insure a permanent and happy peace. 

Under these impressions, I have the honor to be your most obedient 
and very humble servant, 

Anthony Wayne. 
The Hon. Alajor-general H. Knox, Secretary of War. 

The British still maintained a fort on the banks of the Maumee, and 
General Wayne after the battle of the 20th of August, encamped almost 
within reach of the guns of this fort. The British questioned the right of 
Wayne to camp there and several letters were exchanged between their com- 
manding oflficers, Ala j or Campbell and General W^ayne. The first two of 
these letters will show the position of the British in this Indian war and also 
the resolution with which General \\'ayne accepted the conditions. 


Aliami (Maumee) River, August 21, 1794. 

Sir : An army of the United States of America, said to be under your 

command, having taken post on the banks of the Miami f Maumee) for 

upwards of the last twenty-four hours, almost within the reach of the guns 

of tills fort, Ijeing a post belonging to his majesty the king of Great Britain, 


occupied by his majesty's troops and which I have the honor to command, 
it becomes my duty to inform myself as speedily as possible, in what light I 
am to view your making such near approaches to this garrison. I have no 
hesitation on my part to say that I know of no war existing between Great 
Britain and America. 

I have the honor to be, sir, with great respect, your most obedient and 
very humble servant, 

William Campbell^ 
Major 24th Regiment, commanding a British post on the banks of the 

To Major-general Wayne, etc." 


"Camp on the bank of the Miami (Maumee), August 21, 1794. 

Sir : I have received your letter of this date requiring from me the 
motives which have moved the army under my command to the position they 
at present occupy, far within the acknowledged jurisdiction of the United 
States of America. Without questioning the authority or the propriety, sir, 
of your interrogatory, I think J may, without breach of decorum, observe to 
you, that, were you entitled to answer, the most full and satisfactory one was 
announced to you from the muzzles of my small arms yesterday morning in 
the action against the horde of savages in the vicinity of your post, which 
terminated gloriously to the American arms, but, had it continued until the 
Indians, etc., were driven under the influence of the post and guns you men- 
tion, they would not have much impeded the progress of the victorious army 
under my command, as no such post was established at the commencement 
of the present war between the Indians and the United States. 

I have the honor to be, sir, with great respect, your most obedient and 
very humble servant, 

Anthony Wayne, 
Major-general and Commander-in-chief of the Federal Army. 

To Major William Campbell," etc. 

The Indians had been completely crushed and their only hope lay in 
being able to receive support from the British. Wayne had asked them to 
meet him at Greenville to make terms of peace, but the British had succeeded 
in getting them to refuse to go to Greenville but persuaded Little Turtle, Blue 
Jacket, Buck-ong-a-he-las, and other distinguished chiefs to agree to hold a 


council at the mouth of the Detroit river. The British soldiers of this section 
were hoping that Great Britain and the United States would again engage in 
war, which seemed at that time quite a possibility. However, this was averted 
through the skill of John Jay, who, as an emissary to England, succeeded in 
perfecting a treaty of commerce- and navigation between the United States 
and Great Britain.- By this treaty, Great Britain agreed to withdraw on or 
before the first day of June, 1796, all troops and garrisons from all the posts 
and places within the boundary lines of the United States, by the treaty of 
peace of 1783. Further said, "There shall be a firm, inviolable and universal 
peace and a true and sincere friendship between his Britannic majesty, his 
heirs and successors and the United States of America, and betvveen their 
respective countries, territories, cities, towns and people of every degree, 
without exception of persons or places." Preliminary articles of peace agree- 
ing to a meeting of Wayne and the Indians at Greenville, on or about the 1 5th 
of June, 1795, were made during the winter of 1794 by the Wyandots, 
Ottawas, Chippewas, Potawatamies, Sacs, Miamis, Delawares and Shaw- 
nees. The Indians began to assemble at Greenville early in June and by the 
1 6th, were ready to begin negotiations. The council lasted from the i6th of 
June to the loth of August. Perhaps no meeting of Indians has ever brought 
forth such flights of oratory as did the arguments upon this occasion. That 
the Indians were mindful of their rights, understood that they had been 
wronged and imposed upon by the French, the British and the Americans, is 
evident from the argument that they used there. Little Turtle denied that 
his tribe had ever sold their right. ^lasass, a Chippewa chief, speaking on 
the behalf of the Ottawas, Chippewas and Potawatamies, sai-d during the 
course of discussion, "I always thought that we, the Ottawas, Chippewas and 
Potawatamies, were the true owners of those lands, but now I find that new 
masters have undertaken to dispose of them, so that, at this day, we do not 
know to whom they of right belong. We never received any compensation 
from them. I don't know how it is, but ever since that treaty, we have be- 
come objects of pity and our fires have been retiring from this country." 
There seemed to have been a general misunderstanding. Little Turtle, the 
]\liami chief, in addressing General Wayne, said : "I was, yesterday, sur- 
prised when I heard from our grandfathers, the Delawares, that these lands 
had been ceded by the British to the Americans when the former were beaten 
by and made peace with the latter, because you had before told us that it was 
the Wyandots, Delawares, Ottawas, Chippewas. Potawatamies and Sauck- 


eys, who had made this cession." On the 22d of July, Little Turtle spoke as 
follows : 

"General Wayne: I hope you will pay attention to what I now say to 
you. I wish to inform you where your younger brothers, the Miamis, live, 
and, also, the Potawatamies of St. Joseph's, together with the Wabash 
Indians. You have pointed out to us the boundary line between the Indians 
and the United States, but now I take the liberty to inform you that that 
line cuts off from the Indians a large portion of country which has been 
enjoyed by my forefathers, time immemorial, without molestation or dis- 
pute. The print of my ancestors' houses are everywhere to be seen in this 
portion. I was a little astonished at hearing you, and my brothers who are 
now present, telling each other what business you had transacted together 
heretofore at Muskingum, concerning this country. It is well known by all 
my brothers present that my forefather kindled the first fire at Detroit; 
from thence he extended his lines to the headwaters of Scioto; from thence 
to its mouth; from thence, down the Ohio, to the mouth of the Wabash; 
and from thence to Chicago, on lake Michigan; at this place I first saw my 
elder brothers, the Shawnees. I have now informed you of the boundaries 
of the Miami nation, where the Great Spirit placed my forefather a long 
time ago, and charged him not to sell or part with his lands, but to preserve 
them for his posterity. This charge has been handed down to me. I was 
much surprised to find that my other brothers differed so much from me on 
this subject; for their conduct would lead one to suppose that the Great 
Spirit, and their forefathers had not given them the same charge that was 
given to me, but, on the contrary, had directed them to sell their lands to 
any white man who wore a hat, as soon as he should ask it of them. Now, 
elder brother, your younger brothers, the Miamis, have pointed out .to you 
their countrv, and also to our brothers present. When I hear your remarks 
and proposals on this subject I will be ready to give you an answer.- I came 
with an expectation of hearing you say good things, but I have not yet heard 
what I expected." 

Tarke, or Crane, the chief of the Wyandots, then arose and made a 
speech, from which the following passages are copied: "Elder Brother 
(General Wayne): Now listen to us! The Great Spirit above has ap- 
pointed this day for us to meet together. I shall now deliver my sentiments 
to you the fifteen fires. I view you lying in a gore of blood. It is me, an 
Indian, who has caused it. Our tomahawk yet remains in your head. The 


English gave it to me to place there. Elder Brother, I now take the toma- 
hawk out of your head; hut, with so much care that you shall not feel pain 
or injury. I will now tear a big tree up by the roots and throw the hatchet 
into the cavity which they occupied, where the waters will wash it away 
where it can never be found. Now I have buried the hatchet, and I expect 
that none of my color will ever again find it out. I now tell you that no one 
in particular can justly claim this ground; it belongs, in common, to us all; 
no earthly being has an exclusive right to it. The Great Spirit above is the 
true and only owner of this soil, and he has given us all an equal right to it. 
Brother, you have proposed to us to build our good work on the treaty of 
Muskingum; that treaty I have always considered as formed upon the 
fairest principles. You took pity on us Indians. You did not do as our 
fathers, the British, agreed you should. You might, by that agreement, 
have taken all our lands ; but you pitied us, and let us hold part. I always 
looked upon that treaty to be binding upon the United States and us Indians." 

The Indians were keen, but Wayne was keener ; they were sagacious, but 
Wayne more than they ; they were cunning, but Wayne seemed to divine 
every purpose and heated with a direct thrust; they were convincing, but, 
Wayne showed them the fallacy of their position ; they were deternimed, but 
Wayne met them with a greater determination. It was a clash between the 
best men of both nations, and the white man, as usual, won. Wayne suc- 
ceeded in convincing them that he was sincere in what he was trying to do, 
and that the great father at Washington expected to use them and treat them 
as his children. He gave them the exact conditions of the treaty, read the 
provisions to them time and time again, and explained each and every pro- 
vision.' There could be no doubt as to the conditions of this treaty. That 
he was sincere and knew exactly how to impress his sincerity upon the In- 
dians is shown by the following speech which was made in one of these 
meetings : 

"Brothers : All nations present, now listen to me ! Having now ex- 
plained these matters to you and informed you of all things I judged neces- 
sary for your information, we have nothiiig to do but to bury the hatchet 
and draw a veil over past misfortunes. As you have buried our dead with 
the concern of brothers, so I now collect the bones of your slain warriors, 
put them ino a deep pit which I have dug and cover them carefully over with 
this large belt, there to remain undisturbed. I also dry the tears from your 
eyes, and wipe the blood from your bodies with this soft, white linen. No 
bloody traces will ever lead to the graves of your departed heroes — with this 


I wipe all such entirely away. I deliver it to your uncle, the Wyandot, wlm 
will send it round among you. (A large belt with a white string attached.) 
I now take the hatchet out of your heads, and with a strong arm throw it 
into the center of the great ocean, where no mortal can ever find it; and I 
now deliver to you the wide and straight path to the fifteen fires, to be used 
by you and your posterity forever. So long as you continue to follow this 
road, so long will you continue to be a happy people. You set it is straight 
and wide, and they will be blind indeed who deviate from it. I place it also 
in your uncle's hands, that he may preserve it for you. (A large road belt.) 
I will, the day after tomorrow, show you the cessions you have made to the 
United States, and point out to you the lines which may, for the future, 
divide your lands from theirs ; and, as you will have tomorrow to rest, I will 
order you a double allowance of drink — ^because we have now buried the 
hatchet and performed every necessary ceremony to render propitious our 
renovated friendship." 

Thus the battle of argument came and went for several days, until all 
the articles of the treaty had been read and explained the second time. 
Wayne put squarely at the representatives of each tribe, and each in return 
answered that they were satisfied with the treaty, which was signed on the 
3d of August, 1795, by the sachems, chiefs and principal men of the Indian 
nations who inhabited the territory of the United States northwest of the 
river Ohio. A copy of the treaty was delivered to each nation, and on the 
loth of August, in council. General Wayne, at the close of a short speech, 
said : "I now fervently pray to the Great Spirit that the peace now estab- 
lished may be permanent and that it may hold us together in the bonds of 
friendship until time shall be no more. I also pray that the Great Spirit 
above may enlighten your minds and open your eyes to your true happiness, 
that your children may learn to cultivate the earth and enjoy the fruits of 
peace and industry. As it is probable, my children, that we shall not soon 
meet again in public council, I take this opportunity of bidding you all an 
affectionate farewell, and of wishing you a safe and happy return to your 
respective homes and families." 

The past had been a Herculean one, but Wayne had proved himself 
equal to the occasion and the treaty was concluded in a manner satisfactory 
to the government and to the Indian tribes as well. 

The Ordinance of 1787 provided for what is termed the second gov- 
ernment. That is when the territory should contain five thousand free in- 
habitants of full age, they should elect a legislature of their own. The 


people elected the members of the House or Assembly, and this House or 
Assembly, when organized, could send to the President of the United States 
the names of ten persons. From this list the President should select five, 
who should act as a council or upper body of the Legislature. On the 29th 
day of October, 1798, Governor St. Clair issued a proclamation, calling for 
the election of representatives to this General Assembly. The election to 
take place on the third Monday of December and was to convene on the 
following 22d day of January, or January, 1799. The capital at this time 
was at Cincinnati. Governor St. Clair was extremely anxious that the new 
territorial government should be started about upon a broad, sane, moral 
basis, and to that effect he addressed the Assembly or Legislature as follows : 
The providing for ,and the regulating the li\es and morals of the present 
and of the rising generation, for the repression of vice and immorality, and 
for the protection of virtue and innocence, for the security of property and 
the punishment of crime is a sublime employment. Every aid in my power 
will be afforded, and I hope we shall bear in mind that the character and 
deportment of the people and, their happiness, both here and hereafter, de- 
pend very much upon the spirit and genius of their laws." The territorial 
government had scarcely been started when, on the 7th of Alay, 1800, the 
President of the United States, approved an act of Congress, which en- 
titled, "that from and after the fourth day of July next, all that part of the 
territory of the United States northwest of the Ohio river, which lies to the 
westward of a line beginning at the Ohio opposite to the mouth of Kentucky 
river and running thence to Fort RecoAer}- and thence north until it shall 
intersect the territorial line between the United States and Canada, shall, for 
the purpose of temporar\- government, constitute a separate territory, and be 
called the Indiana Territory.'" An act to divide the territory of the United 
States northwest of the river Ohio into two separate governments. This act 
put them back into the first form of territorial government again, and the 
William Henry Harrison, who had been elected as a delegate to Congress 
under the old territorial government, was appointed governor and govern- 
ment was established at Vincennes, where Governor Harrison assumed his 
duties as governor in January, 1801. He immediately called a meeting of 
the territorial judges, who met promptly and enacted several laws. In 1804 
Congress attached all the land which was situated west of the ^lississippi 
river and north of the 33d degree north latitude, to the territory of Indiana, 
tinder the name of "District of Louisiana," but in 1805 it was organized as a 
separate territory. The population of the new Indiana Territory having 


increased svifficiently, Governor Harrison issued a proclamation, calling for 
an election of members of the Assembly to take place January 3, 1805. The 
Assembly met at Vincennes on the first of February, and selected ten names 
for the President to choose a council from, just as they had done in former 
territorial government. A few days after this January election, however, 
Congress again divided territory, cutting off what is known as the "Territory 
of Michigan." 

This was the last change made in the territorial boundaries until 1809, 
when the state received its present boundaries. In that year, February 3d, 
Congress passed a bill organizing the Illinois territory. ' This bill provided 
that on and after the first day of March, 1809, all that part of the territory 
lying west of the Wabash river, and running due north from Vincennes, 
should constitute the territory of Illinois. This left matters in a very muddled 
condition, and many doubted whether the Legislature was really a legally 
organized body or not. General Harrison, himself, was in doubt, and as 
soon as the election was over and the Legislature chosen, it was dissolved 
by him. Another election was called for in May, and he fixed the number of 
members of the House to be elected as eight, one less than the minimum 
number prescribed by the act of Congress. He also called for the election 
of a Congressional delegate at the same time. It has been thought by some 
that his purpose in doing this was to get the real voice of the people on the 
question of slavery. Doubts again arose as to the legality of this election. 
But the governor held that it was legal, and did not change his opinion until 
they held the election illegal. The governor apportioned the territory and 
ordered a new election. 

In the meantime thousands of emigrants were pouring into the state, 
and the feeling became prevalent that the territorial govefnment was inade- 
quate to their needs, and that statehood was desired. Pursuant to this, the 
territorial Legislature adopted a memorial on the 14th of December, 1816, 
asking Congress to admit Indiana into the Union as a state, upon equal foot- 
ing with the original state. This memorial met with favor on the part of 
Congress, and it passed an enabling act authorizing an election to be held on 
the first Monday of May, 1816, for the election of delegates to the conven- 
tion, to frame the state's constitution. The delegates were duly elected and 
the convention began its session at Corydon on June loth, 1816, and re- 
mained in session nineteen days. The act of Congress that enabled the 
people of Indiana Territory to form a Constitution and State Government 
contained certain conditions and propositions in respect to boundaries, juris- 


diction, school lands, salt springs, land for seat of government, etc. All of 
these conditions and propositions were ratified and accepted by an ordinance 
which was passed by the Territorial convention at Corydon on the last day 
of its session, June 29, 1816. The conditions as to boundaries were: that 
the new state should be "bounded on the east by the meridian line which 
forms the western boundary of the state of Ohio, being a north line from 
the mouth of the Miami ; on the south by.the Ohio river, from the mouth of 
the Great Miami to the mouth of the river Wabash; on the west by a line 
drawn along the middle of the Wabash from its mouth to a point where a 
due north line drawn from the town of Vincennes would last touch the 
northwestern shore of said river, and from thence, by a due north line 
until the same shall intersect an east and west line drawn through a point 
ten miles north of the southern extreme of Lake Michigan;, on the north by 
the said east and west line until the same shall intersect the first mentioned 
meridian line which forms the western boundary of the state of Ohio." 
Controversies have arisen at different times concerning the eastern and north- 
ern boundaries of the state, but the one that interests us is the line between 
Indiana and Ohio as that affects the eastern boundary of Randolph county. 
This confusion arises because of the difference between the line as described 
in the act of April 19, 1816, or the one enabling us to be admitted as a state, 
and that of May 7, 1800, when the territory northwest of the Ohio river 
was divided into two districts. By that act, Congress declared, "That from 
and after the fourth day of July next all that part of the territory of the 
United States northwest of the Ohio river, which lies to the westward of a 
line beginning at the Ohio opposite to the mouth of Kentucky river, and 
running thence to Fort Recovery, and thence north until it shall intersect the 
territorial line between the United States and Canada, shall, for the purpose 
of temporary government, constitute a separate territory, and be called the 
Indiana Territory." It will be noticed in the above that this division of terri- 
tory was, "for the purpose of temporary government," and not for a gov- 
ernment permanent as the state would be. The mouth of the Kentucky 
river is several miles west of that of the Great Miami. The line provided 
for in the act of May 7, 1800, would not have been a due north and south 
line, but would have run east of north until it reached Fort Recovery on the 
headwaters of the Wabash, and from thence would run due north. Such a 
line as that proposed by this act would have given to Ohio quite a strip along 
the southeast side of Indiana, while it would have added to Indiana some of 
the territorv now in Ohio north of Fort Recovery. This line enters Ran- 


dolph county about four miles west of the Ohio line and passes out of the 
county almost in the comer of Jackson township. It is known on the map 
as the ''Old Indian Boundary Line.'' 

The convention that formed the first constitution of the state of 
Indiana was composed, mainly, of clear-minded, unpretending men of com- 
mon sense, whose patriotism was uncjuestionable and whose morals were 
fair. Their familiarity with the theories of the Declaration of American 
Independence — their territorial experience under the provisions of the ordi- 
nance of 1787- — and their knowledge of the principles of the Constitution of 
the United States, were sufficient, when combined, to lighten, materially, 
their labors in the great work of forming a constitution for a new state. 
With such landmarks in view, the labors of similar conventions in other 
states and territories have been rendered comparatively light. 

In the clearness and consciousness of its style — in the comprehensive and 
just provisions which it made for the maintenance of civil and religious 
liberty — in its mandates, which were designed to protect the rights of the 
people, collectively and individually, and to provide for the public welfare — 
the constitution that was formed for Indiana in 1816 was not inferior to any 
of the state constitutions which were in existence at that time." 

The voting for the members of the first General Assembly of the State of 
Indiana resulted in the election of ten members of the Senate and twenty- 
nine members of the House of Representatives. What is now a part of 
Randolph county was then a part of Wayne, and our senator was Patrick 
Baird. Our members of the House of Representatives were: Joseph Hol- 
man, Ephraim Overman and John Scott. Ephraim Overman afterwards 
removed to Randolph county and lived near Arba. It was his oldest son, 
Eli, who was one of the first commissioners of the county. Thus the terri- 
torial government of Indiana was superseded by a State Government on the 
7th of November, 1816, and the State of Indiana was formally admitted into 
the Union by a joint resolution of Congress, approved on the nth day of 
December in the same year. Upon its admission into the Union, Indiana had 
fifteen counties, namely: Knox, Gibson, Posey, Perry, Warrick, Wayne, 
Franklin, Washington, Orange, Jackson, Jefferson, Switzerland, Dearborn, 
Harrison and Clark. After the organization of Indiana as a state, the 
organization of counties was very rapid. During 1816-17 four counties 
were organized. During 1818 eight counties, Randolph being one of them. 
After 1818 the settlement of the state became much more rapid, as all of the 
great central and northern part of the state was opened to settlement during 


that year, having been purchased from the Indians October 6, 1818. From 
1818 to 1822 seventeen counties were organized; 1823 to 1828, fourteen 
counties; 1830 to 183.7, twenty-one counties; 1843 to 1871, thirteen counties; 
making in all the ninety-two counties of the state. The state early fixed a 
liberal policy for the organization of counties. After the Legislature 
had passed a bill, authorizing the organization of a new county, in which it 
would state definitely the boundary of said county, the governor would issue 
an order of election to some person in the new county, as sheriff, authoriz- 
ing him to hold an election, in which there would be elected two associate 
judges of the circuit court, one clerk, one recorder, and three commissioners. 
Of course, one of the new needs of a county would be the county seat or seat 
of justice. On January 2, 1818, the Legislature passed an act fixing the seat 
of justices in all the new counties. The General Assembly would appoint 
five commissioners, who were non-residents, three of whom should be a 
quorum. These commissioners "shall proceed to fix in the most eligible and 
convenient place for the permanent seat of justice for each new county, 
taking into vien' the extent of the county, the quality of the land and the 
prospects of future as well as the weight of present population, together 
with the probability of future division; and it shall be the further duty of 
the said commissioners to receive donations in land from any person or per- 
sons owning land in the said county, and offering donations in land for the 
use of the same, and to fix on such place for the seat of justice, in said new 
county, as near as may be the center of that tract or district, which is likely 
to remain permanent after future divisions, as may best conserve to the in- 
terests of said county." The county commissioners should then appoint a 
county agent, A\hose duty it was to plot the ground so donated to the county, 
advertise for the sales of these plots, give deed to the purchasers, and in 
general act as business agent of the county. The money derived from the 
sales of these plots should be used, first, to pay the locating commissioners; 
second, to pay the purchase price if any land had been bought. This was 
not done, however, in Randolph county, as the land was all donated, of 
which we shall speak later. Third, to pay for public buildings, and fourth, 
if any funds then remained, they should be put in the general fund for the 
support of the county. But it will be seen that an exception to thi; law was 
made for a county library fund in Randolph county. Pursuant to and in 
harmony with these laws and upon a petition from people in the north end 
of Wayne county, the following act was approved January 10, 1818. 




An Act for the formation of a new county off the north end of Wayne. 

Section i. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of In- 
diana, That from and after the tenth day of August next, all that part of llie 
county of Wayne, which is enclosed in the following bounds, shall form and 
constitute a new county (that is to say). Beginning at the state of Ohio line, 
where the line that divides the fifteenth and sixteenth townships strikes said 
Ohio line ; thence west with said township line until it strikes the old bound- 
ary; thence westward with the center line of the i8th township in the new 
purchase until it strikes the Indian boundary; thence northward with said 
boundary line until it strikes the state of Ohio line ; thence south with said line 
to the place of beginning. 

Ft Recoverv^ 

Randolph Co. 

Aug. 1818. 

Sec. 2. The said county shall, from and after the tenth day of August 
next, be known and designated by the name and style of the county of Ran- 
dolph; and it shall enjoy all the rights, privileges and jurisdictions which to 
a separate county do or may properly belong. 


Sec. 3. William Major, of Dearborn county; Williamson Dunn, of 
Jefferson county; Stephen C. Stevens, James Brownlee and John Bryson, of 
Franklin county, be, and they are hereby appointed commissioners to desig- 
nate the place for the permanent seat of justice of Randolph county, agree- 
ably to an act, entitled "An Act for fixing the seats of justice in all new 
counties hereafter to be laid off." The commissioners above named shall 
convene at the house of Ephraim Overman, on the first Monday in Septem- 
ber next, and then proceed to discharge Jhe duties assigned them by law; 
and it shall be the duty of the sheriff of the county of Wayne to notify the 
said commissioners, either in person or by written notification, of their said 
appointment, at least ten days previous to the time appointed for the meeting 
of the said commissioners. And the said sheriff shall be allowed a reasonable 
compensation for his services out of the first monies in the treasury of 
said county of Randolph, to be allowed and paid as other county claims are. 

Sec. 4. The board of commissioners of said new county shall, within 
six mouths after the permanent seat of justice shall be established, proceed 
to erect the necessary buildings thereon. 

Sec. 5. Until suitable accommodations can be had, in the opinion of 
the circuit court, at the seat of justice of said new county, all the courts of 
justice shall be holden at the house, of William Way, or such place to which 
the court shall adjourn, in said county ; after which time the circuit court 
and all courts necessary to be held at the county seat, shall be adjourned to 
the same. 

Sec. 6. Whenever the seat of justice within the county of Randolph 
shall have been established, the person or persons authorized to dispose of 
and sell the lots at the seat of justice, shall reserve ten per centum on the 
net proceeds of the whole sale, for the use of a county library in said 
county; which sum or sums of money shall be paid over to such person or 
persons as may be authorized to receive the same, in such manner and in 
such installments as shall be authorized by law. 

Sec. 7. All that part of Randolph county which was formerly the 
county of Wayne shall constitute to form a part of the Wayne district for 
the purpose of electing senators and representatives to the General As- 
sembly, until otherwise authorized by law. 

This act to take effect and be in force from and after the tenth day of 
August next. 

In accordance with the laws then in force, Governor Jennings appointed 
David Wright, sheriff, to organize the county. He did so, by making two 


Ijrecincts, Greensfork and White river, the chief settlements being on these 
two streams. An election was held in August, 1818 (the exact day not 
being known), to choose associate judges, sheriff, clerk, recorder and three 
county commissioners, which officers were chosen as follows : William 
Edwards and John Wright, associate judges ; David Wright, sheriff ; Charles 
Conway, clerk and recorder; Eli Overman, Benjamin Cox and John James, 
commissioners. Mr. Tucker, in his history, speaks of a coroner having been 
elected, and that Solomon Wright was elected to this office, but we have 
failed to find any such mention made in the records. To control the or- 
ganizations of counties and townships and the election of officers in same, 
the legislature has passed the following act : 

An Act to provide for the election of county and township officers. 

Sec. 3. The county commissioners of each county, at their first meet- 
ing after being elected, shall lay off their counties respectively, into a suitable 
number of townships, describing the bounds thereof, which they shall cause 
to be fairly recorded, and shall, from time to time thereafter, make such 
alterations and additional townships as they may think proper: Provided, 
however, no new township shall be laid off without an application from at 
least thirty citizens residing" within the bounds of such intended new town- 
ship by petition ; Said petitioners or some one of them having published such 
intention of applying for a new township, by setting up a written notice 
thereof in three of the most public places within such bounds, thirty days 
before such application is to be made : Provided, that the board of county 
commissioners of the several counties in this state shall not lay off more than 
eight townships in their respective counties; and provided, also, that not 
more than twenty justices of the peace shall be elected or commissioned for 
any one county. 

Sec. 4. After the board of commissioners shall have laid off their 
counties, respectively, into a suitable number of townships as above directed, 
they shall order an election in each, on such day as they may direct, for such 
number of justices of the peace, not exceeding three, as shall be assigned by 
them to each township; which election shall be held and conducted in all 
respects according to the laws of this state regulating elections, and the per- 
son having the highest number of. votes (to the number to be elected in such 
township) shall be elected; the returns of which election shall be made to the 
clerk's office of the circuit court, in the same manner that returns of the 
general elections are made. 



Pursuant to this act, the three commissioners, Eli Overman, Benjamin 
Cox and John James, met in early August, presumably the loth, in the 
cabin of Benjamin Cox, and organized Randolph County into townships. 
The cabin of Mr. Cox stood near the river east of w^hat is known as the 
White River Church, on the southeast quarter of Section 15, Township 20, 
Range 14. This land had been entered by Mr. Cox, September 11, 1817. 

What a wonderful and interesting thing that was surrounded by an un- 
broken wilderness, and with nothing for precedence or guidance they were 
entrusted with the organization of what was to become one of the greatest 
counties of their commonwealth. They were men, howeveV, of unusual 
ability, excellence of character, sincerity of purpose, and actuated by lofty 
ideals of citizenship. 

Mr. Cox was born in North Carolina, in the year 1785 and moved to 
Ohio in 1806, and to W^hite River, east of Winchester, the fall of 1816. He 
married Ann Rhodes and had eight children, all of whom were married 
and had families. He entered land on -White River, and lived there until he 
died in about 1852, sixty-seven years of age. He was a minister among 
Friends and his work was acceptable and useful. While upon a religious 
mission, in North Carolina, his wife died in her sixty-third year. Mr. Cox 
was not only a minister, but taught school, having taught school in the settle- 
ment, probably about 1820. Mr. Cox was especially fitted for the work of 
organization and was the only one of the three commissioners who was buried 
in the county which he had helped to organize. 

Eli Overman, the second commissioner, was also a member of the 
Friends church. We have heard of his having been a minister in the 
church, but he was a teacher and taught the first school in the settlement 
near Arba, having taught there in 1820, probably the same time that Cox was 
teaching near White River. Mr. Overman afterward moved to Grant 
County and died there. Mr. James also lived near Arba, having settled 
there about 1816 to 181 8, having bought the land that was entered by John 
Thomas. Mr. James was a Baptist minister, and, like Mr. Overman, re- 
moved to Grant County, where he died. 

It will be seen that Randolph county was the most northern county or- 
ganized in the state, and that the territory had been obtained from three 
sources. The land beginning at the old Indiana boundary line of 1795 was 
obtained from the Indians in the treaty of Greenville, 1795. The remainder 
of the county was the northern part of what is sometimes called the Twelve 


Mile Purchase or the Cession of 1809. This strip of land is twelve miles 
wide and its western boundary is parallel to the treaty line of 1795, and was 
obtained by a treaty of September 30, 1809, at Fort Wayne with the Miami, 
Delaware and Potawatamie tribes. 

The western boundary of Randolph county at this time is known in the 
record of the New Indian Boundary Line, although recent map makers of 
the county have persisted in the error of calling it the "Old Indian Boundary 
Line." The Old Indian Boundary line is the line of 1795, and it starts in 
Greensfork township and crosses the county to the corner of Jackson. The 
remainder of the land in Randolph county at this time (1914) was obtained 
from the Miami Indians, October 16, 1818, and is usually known as the 
New Purchase. 

As we have said before, Randolph county was organized in early 
August, 1818, in the cabin of Benjamin Cox, with Eli Overman, Benjamin 
Cox, John James, as commissioners, and Charles Conway as clerk. Upon 
that memorable day they proceeded to organize the county as directed by 
law, and the first article written is an account of their meeting. 

It shall be ouj endeavor to give all these records of organization and 
to quote exactly the records as found in the minutes of the meetings of the 
commissioners. These records are well preserved, and with the exception 
of those from 1820 to November, 1826, are all to be found in the court house 
at Winchester. 

Mr. Conway, the clerk, held that office for a number of years, and all 
these records were made by him, and they certainly show the ability of this 
man to act in this capacity. 

The first item placed in these records is as follows : "Beginning on the 
new boundary line one mile South of the Tweenteeth Township and in the 
nineteenth township, thence East With Said Section line to the old Boundry 
line, then South to Where the section line Between Section twenty-two and 
Section twenty-seven Intersect the same, thence East with said line to the 
State line between the State of Indiana and the State of Ohio, all that part 
of Randolph County south of the above Discribed line to be Known by the 
name of Greensfork Township and all that part of said County North of 
said line to be Known by the name of Whiteriver Township. 

Ordered that an Election be held at the house of William Wright in 
Whiteriver Township on the Twenty-ninth day of August, 1818, to Elect 
two Justices of the Peace and two Constables in said Township for the time 
Limited by Law and appointed John Wright Inspector of Elections in said 
Township for one year." There was evidently a mistake in these records 


because if they ran to the old boundary Hne and then south, they could not 
have gone between sections 22 and 27, for this was north of the east and 
west line. In the map of Randolph county of August, 1818, two dotted 
lines will be seen on the upper right hand part of Greensfork township. 
The upper line indicates the line betwen sections 22 and 27, the lower line 
indicates where it would be had they gone south. We think the latter is the 
right one, as will be shown in the organization of Jackson township later on. 
It is no wonder, however, that they shoij^ld make such a slight error, because 
the surveys were not very well known at that time. 

Section three of the act for the formation of Randolph county pro- 
vided that William Major, of Dearborn county; Williamson Dunn, of Jef- 
ferson county; Stephen C. Stevens, James Brownlee and John Bryson, of 
Franklin county, be, and they are hereby appointed commissioners to desig- 
nate a place for the county seat of justice of Randolph county. They were 
to convene at the house of Ephraim Overman, on the first Monday in Sep- 
tember, and then to proceed to describe the duties assigned them by law. It 
is scarcely probable that all these men met at that time; in fact, the only 
record indicates that only two of them were present, for in the November 
term of 1818 we find that it was "Ordered that the treasurer pay unto 
Daniel Petty for accounts Produced from Williamson Dunn and John Bry- 
son two of the State Commissioners for Establishing the seat of Justice in 
Randolph County By the said Petty the sum of Xinetyseven Dollars." Just 
who Mr. Petty was, and why he should have the account is not known. 

It is said that the commissioners were in dotibt as to the best place to put 
the seat of justice. One of them favored putting it at Sampleton, located in 
section 22. The others favored \\'inchester. ^Ir. Sample and other resi- 
dents of that community would not donate any land, however, for the use 
of the county and this became the deciding factor, for by establishing the 
county seat at Winchester, these commissioners received and procured for 
the county donations of land as follows: Charles Conway, 60 acres; John 
Wright, 50 acres; David Wright, 10 acres; David Stout, 18 acres; Daniel 
Petty, 20 acres. One hundred and fifty-eight acres in all is certainly a^ 
splendid donation to the county. This land is all located in sections 20 and 
21, township 20 north, range 14, in and around the town of Winchester. 
These commissioners decided, as they had a right to do, to locate the seat 
of justice upon this land. It is said that when they decided to put the court 
yard where it is, that Eli Overman, who was a school teacher, and for that 
reason was acquainted with the ceremonies that Columbus went through 



taking San Salvador, and the demonstrations that Balboa made in taking the 
Pacific for the King and Queen of Spain, took the Jacob staff and stuck it in 
the ground with a solemn declaration, "Here shall be the northeast corner 
of the public square." Whether Mr. Overman was in jest or in earnest, of 
course, is not known, but it does show the importance Avhich he placed to the 
act that had been done that clay. Paul Way was appointed county agent, at 
what time is not known, but it was before the May term in 1819, however, 
as Mr. Way made a report at that session. Mr. Way was a surveyor and 
laid off the gifts of land in town lots, of which more will be said later on. 
The commissioners proceeded at once to arrange for public buildings, but 
these will be discussed at another time. 

At this time we shall trace the development of township organization, 
until the present or permanent form of the county was obtained. As has 
been said, the county was organized into two townships in August, 1818, as 
shown by the map of the county at that time. The settlement of the county 
was rapid and as the number increased the demand for new townships also 
increased. It is interesting to note that as the population in any part of the 
county would increase, the demand for a new township would be made in 
that part of the county. 

Ft fiKovBKY. 




West River township, as shown by the map of November, 1819, was 
petitioned for in the November session as follows : "Reed the petition of 
sundry Inhabitants of the West Part of Greens fork Township Praying that 
a new Township may be laid off Beginning on the line of Wayne County at 
the West line of Section Sixteen in Township Eighteen and Range fourteen 
thence with Said line to the line of Whiter iver Township. Ordered that all 
that Part of Greensfork Township West of the above described line be and 
the same is hereby stricken off into a new Township to be Known by the 
name of Westriver Township. All Elections in said Township are to be held 
at the house of Jess Cox. William Smith is hereby appointed Inspector of 
Elections in Westriver Township. Ordered that an Election in Westriver 
Township on th€ first Saturday in December next for the Purpose of Elect- 
ing Two Justices of the Peace in said Township." Great changes were made 
in the county in 1820. 


In 1818 the new purchase of the cession with the Miami Indians had 
been made and all the central and northern parts of Indiana were opened to 
settlement. The surveys were made, and dispositions were made of the land 
in 1820. It must be remembered that Randolph county was the most north- 
ern county organized at that time, and on January 20th of that year, the 
following law was approved : Sec. i . Be it enacted by the General Assem- 
bly of the State of Indiana, that all that part of the New Purchase, recently 
acquired from the Indians, which lies east of a due north line, drawn from 
the northwest corner of Randolph county, and north of said Randolph 
county, be, and the same is hereby attached to the said county of Randolph 
county and from henceforth shall be held and considered an integral part 
of Randolph county. The northwest corner of the county at that time was 
where a boundary line of 1809 left the parallel direction to the old boundary 
line and went directly to Fort Recovery, Ohio. It is about one mile south- 
west of where Ridgeville now is. This extended Randolph county to the 
Michigan line and it became necessary to organize this portion into a town- 
ship. The commissioners did this in their August term of that year, when 
it was "Ordered that part of the New Purchase Which was added to the 
County of Randolph by a late act of Assembly into a new Township to be 



Known and Designated by the name of Wayne Township and that all the 
Klections to be held in Wayne Township be held at the house of Dr William 
Turner. Ordered that Ezra Taylor be Inspector of Elections in Wayne 
Township for and During the term of one year. Ordered that an Election 







Randolph Co. 1520 





" o 




White RiVfR. 





be held in Wayne Township on the last Saturday in November Next for the 
Purpose of Electing two Justices of the Peace and one Constable in said 
Township." The Dr. William Turner, in whose house the election was to be 
held, lived m Fort Wayne, as did the inspector, Mr. Ezra Taylor. The 
treasurer's record shows that ^Ir. Taylor received seventv-five cents for 
l)ringing the election returns from Fort Wayne to Winchester. He certainly 
earned his seventy-five cents. This Wayne township should not be contused 
Avith the present township of Wayne. 




On the next clay, August 15, the commissioners proceeded to organize 
Ward township, as follows: "Ordered that all that part of Whiterivcr 
Township North of an East and west line Dividing the twent3'^eth and 
twentyfirst Congressional Township be stricken off into a new Township to 
be Known and Designated by the name? of Ward Township. Ordered that 
all Elections in Ward Township be held at the house of James Massey and 
that James Massey be Inspector of Elections in Ward for one year. Or- 

Randolph Co. 1824 

kVARO \8B0 li: 





' O 


dered that an Election in Ward Township on the second Satturday in Sep- 
tember Next for the Purpose of Electing two Justices of the Peace and one 
Constable in said Township." 

The county retained these boundaries until the 23d of December, 1822, 
when the following act was approved: Be it enacted by the General As- 
sembly of the State of Indiana, that all that part of the New Purchase, 
lately acquired from the Indians contained in the following boundaries, 
to-wit: "Beginning at the southwest corner of Randolph County, thence 
west four miles, thence due north until it strikes the northern boundary of 


Indiana, shall from henceforth form and constitute a part of the County of 
Randolph, in as full and complete a manner as though it had been attached 
to and formed a part of said county at the beginning of its formation." 
This made the boundary line, in December 23, 1820, about three-fourths of 
a mile east of where our present (1914) western boundary is. At this same 
time Randolph county was given control over Delaware county, ~W'hich com- 
prised all the- northwestern part of the state east of the second meridian not 
included in Randolph county. By an act relative to county boundaries, ap- 
proved January 31, 1824, Randolph county was defined as follows: "Sec. 
8. That all the territory included within the following boundaries shall form 
and constitute the county of Randolph, to-wit : Beginning at the Ohio state 
line, where the line dividing townships fifteen and sixteen strikes the same; 
thence west with said township line, until it strikes the old Indian boundary ; 
thence to, and with the center line of township eighteen, to the northwest 
corner of section twenty, in township eighteen, and range twehe east of the 
second principal meridian; thence north to the line dividing townships 
twenty-one and twenty-two; thence east to the Ohio state line, and thence 
with said state line to the place of beginning." 

The records of the county from February, 1821, to November, 1825, 
having been lost, it is not known just what disposition the commissioners 
made of the new part added to Randolph county. It is presumed that Ward 
township. White River township and West River were extended to the 
new county line. 

We must remember that Randolph county had control over Delaware 
county and some time during the year 1825 Liberty township, in Delaware 
county, was organized. The only record we have of it is in Jere Smith's 
reminiscences, in which he says : 


"In the May term of 1825, David Rowe was allowed $1.50 for making 
return of the election of two justices of Liberty township. From this and 
from my recollection, I can say that in January, 1825, either the whole or 
the east part of Delaware county was made into Liberty township. The 
township containing Smithfield is still called Liberty. And as Daniel Stout 
had been county commissioner in Randolph and had moved to what is now 
Delaware county, built a mill and laid out Smithfield, I presume he had that 
county erected into Liberty township. There were but few inhabitants in 
that region, and David Rowe, who brought the election returns, lived pretty 


well up on Prairie creek, at least six miles from Smithfield. Also, May, 
1826, John J. Deeds, who had settled on White river and built a mill above 
Smithfield, was appointed supervisor on the west fork of White river from 
the mouth of Cabin creek to Mont-see-town, as the Indians called it. Hence 
'Mont-see-town' was then (May, 1826) in Liberty township and in Randolph 
county as well." 

Some corroborative evidence of tfeis is that in the January term, 1826, 
David Vestal was appointed assessor in Liberty township for the year 
1826, and Aaron Richardson was appointed inspector of elections in Liberty 
township for one year. John Coon and John H. Myers were appointed 
fence viewers in Liberty township for one year. Then, in the May term of 
1826, "William Vanmeter is appointed supervisor on the state road from 
the post Numbered 39 to the post Numbered 44 ordered that all the hands 
in Liberty Township North and South between the last numbered posts do 
work on said road and also on the west fork of White river from Moncey 
town to the line Dividing Ranges 7 & 8 East." Thus it will be seen there 
can be no doubt that Liberty township was organized, and not very long 
before January, 1826. 


Settlement was now being made very rapidly along the west fork of 
White river and Stoney Creek and West river, which is evident by the change 
in township made in the next few years. In 1827, July 2d, Stoney Creek 
was organized as follows : "Ordered that Congressional Townships 19 & 
20 and 21 in Range 12 East be stricken off into a Township to be known by 
the name of Stoney Creek Township Except such part as are included in the 
bounds of Delaware County. Ordered that an Election be held in Stoney 
Creek Township on the third monday in July (instant) for the purpose of 
Electing one Justice of the peace in said Township. Ordered that all Elec- 
tions in Stoney Creek Township be held at the house of Joseph Thornburgh. 
Samuel Vestal is appointed inspector of Elections in Stoney Creek Township 
for one year." 

Two things concerning this organization are not clear : First, why 
should they omit the half of township 18, included in Randolph county; and 
second, why should they "except such part as are included in the bounds of 
Delaware county," when none of the townships 19 or 20 and 21 of range 12 
were in the county of Delaware? It is quite possible that the petitioners 



and even the commissioners were not very familiar with the survey at that 

The next changes were made in 1831. One new township, Washington, 
was organized and the boundaries of each of the other organized townships 
were changed. The townships at that time being White River, Greensfork, 
Ward, West River and Stoney Creek. Washington township was organized 

Randolph Co. 1827 

as follows: "Be it Known that hereafter all that part of Greensfork and 
West River Townships described as follows to wit Beginning on the Wayne 
County line at the Section corner between Sections 14 & 15 in Range 14 
thence N. 8 miles thence West 7 miles thence S. 8 miles to the line of Wayne 
County thence to the beginning Shall be known by the Name of Washington 
Township with the East half of Section 10 Township 18 of Range 14. Or- 
dered that all Elections in Washington Township shell be held at the house 
of Joatham Beeson in the Town of Blooming Port." 

It seems strange that an exception of the east half of section 10, town- 
ship 18 of range 14, should be made and is not included in Washington 
township. That this was done, however, there can be no doubt, because 


in the March term of 1832 the following is found: "Be it remembered that 
the East line of Washington Township is hereby so altered as to begin at the 
Wayne County line at the corner between Sections 14 and 15 in Range 14 
thence North as formerly including the east half of Section 10 in Township 
18 & Range 14 E. in Washington Township." It is easily explained, how- 
ever, when we consider that Paul Beard owned the east half of Section 10 
and the west half of Section 11. Mr. Beard was an unusual man. He had 
an indomitable will and exceedingly great force of character. Being a phy- 
sician, his influence was unlimited. His buildings were located in section 11, 
and he, not wanting to own land in two townships, persuaded the commis- 
sioners to make an exception of the east half of section 10. 

Verily, there were political bosses even in that day. The time never 
has been when we were without political bosses, the time never will be, when 
we shall not have them. The only question to decide is : What shall be the 
character of the bosses or leaders? May they always be as upright and 
honorable as was Paul Beard. 

On the same day that Washington township was organized. West River 
township was changed as follows : "And West river Township shall contain 
the following bounds (hereafter) towit beginning at the Wayne County line 
on the line dividing Sections 15 & 16 in Range 13 thence N. 8 miles thence 
west 8 miles to the Delaware County line thence direct to the South west 
corner of Randolph County thence direct to the beginning. Ordered that all 
Elections hereafter in West river Township shall be held at the house of 
.Wm. Smith." 

Evidently the people of Stoney Creek township felt this to be a dis- 
crimination against them, as they lost quite a little of their territory. The 
commissioners in this same session equalized the matter somewhat, when it 
was "Ordered that one mile of off the west end of Whiteriver & Ward 
Townships be added to Stoney Creek Township and ordered that all Elec- 
tions in said Township hereafter shall be held at the house of Wm. Moore 
Junior." This evidently didn't yet satisfy the people of Stoney Creek town- 
ship. It is impossible to know at this time just what local forces were acting 
in the matter, but another change was made in the July term, when it was 
"Ordered that two miles & a half & forty poles from the west County line 
and 2 miles South be taken from the N west corner of west river Township 
and added to Stoney Creek Township." These changes are shown in the 
map of 183 1. 




In the meantime, settlement had been very rapid along the Mississi- 
newa. Ward township,, especially in and about l^eerfield, was becoming,' 
one of the most populated parts of the county. This influence spread east. 
until there was a sufficient number of people who desired a new township 
to be organized. This the commissioners did on the 4th day of November, 

Rahoolpm Co. 1831 


Ward »620 

/WniTr RivrR 


t — 

1833, when it was "Ordered that the following bounds be Known hereafter by 
the name of Jackson Township to wit Beginning at the State line at the Sec- 
tion line between Sections 25 and 36 in Town 17 Range one west thence 
west to the old boundary thence to and with the Section line between Sec- 
tions 8 & 17 of Town 19 Range 15 East to the Range line between Ranges 
14 & 15 thence North with said Range line to the north line of the County 
thence East to the State line thence to the beginning And that all Elec- 
tions in said Township be held at the house of Thomas Pettens Ordered 
that an Election be held in Jackson Township on the first Saturday in De- 
cember next for the purpose of Electing two Justices of the peace in said 


Township. William Keennon is appointed inspector of Elections in Jack- 
son Township until the next annual Election for Township officers." 


Thus, it will be seen that the southern end of Jackson township is lo- 
cated upon the first section line south of the point on the Indian boundary 
line, reached in the first organization of the count} . This is why we think 
they came south to this line, rather than north to the line between Sections 
2-/ and 22, as indicated in the record of 1818. 


The northwest comer of the coimt)" was also anxious to have a local 
township, and petitioned the commissioners to organize them into a new town- 
ship, which they did on the 6th of January-, 1834, when it was: "Ordered 
that the following Boimdar}- be hereafter known by the name of Green Town- 
ship to Avit : begnning on the north line of the Count} at the comer b€tA\ een 
Sections 4 & 5 of Town 21 Xorth of Range 13 E thence South 7 miles thence 
west 7 miles to the west line of the Count}" thence with said line to the be- 

"Ordered that an Election be held at the house of Thomas Brown 
Senr, in Green Township on the hrst Saturday in Februarj" next for the 
purpose of Electing a Justice of the peace in said Township. 

John Merine is appointed inspector of Elections in Green Township 
untill the annuel Election for To\\-nship officers." 

A change was also made in the line bet\veen Greensfork and Wash- 
ington townships, in September, 1834, by the line being fixed where it is at 
the present time. This line had been a matter of contention since 183 1, 
and continued to be for a number of years afterward. Just what influence 
was brought to bear to make the change of 1834 is not known, but on Sep- 
tember 2. 1834, the following order was made: "Ordered that one half 
mile be Stricken (jff the west side of Greensfork TovsTiship and added to 
Washington Township and that the dividing line between said Townships 
hereafter, is to begin on the south line of the Count}- at the middle of Sec- 
tion 14 Town 18 Range 14 and extend Xorth paralel with the Section 
lines to the south line of White river Township." 

It must be remembered that Randolph Count}- had at this time control 



of the land north of it in what is now Jay County, although we had a 
northern boundary definitely fixed in 1824. The tax gatherer or collector 
of ''ir834 was Mr. Carey S. Goodrich. At that time taxes were collected by 
visiting the people and assessing and collecting the taxes at the same time. 
The people in what is now Jay County demurred to paying their taxes, 
claiming that they received no benefits whatever from it. Mr. Goodrich 
visited that territory and returned with the report that after seeing the 

Randolph Co. 1833-1634 

Gre£m 165^ 


/W/«w \e^o 

jfYHire RivfR 









country he didn't blame them very much. But this led to a dissatisfaction 
on the part of those people to the extent that the commissioners proceeded 
to organize them into separate townships. 


In January, ■ 1835, the commissioners ordered that, "All that part of 
Randolph County (being the Attached part) lying North of an East and 
west line dividing Townships 21 & 22 in Range fourteen is hereby Stricken 
off into a Township to be known by the Name of Salamana Township, and 


ordered that all Elections in said Township be held at the house of Daniel 
Farber. And ordered that an Election be held in said Township on the last 
Saturday of this Instant January, for the purpose of Electing one Justice 
of the peace in said Township. Obadiah Winters is appointed Inspector of 
Elections in Salamana Township until the next annuel Election for Town- 
ship officers." "Salamana" Township evidently proved to be too large for 
the people to handle, consequently the township was divided in the May term 
of that same year, by the following order: "Ordered that hereafter all that 
part of Jay County (which is attached to this county) included in the fol- 
lowing bounds constitute a new Township to be known by the name of Mad- 
ison Township to wit: Beginning at the south East corner of Jay County, 
thence West along the County line to the south West corner of section 36 
in Township 22 Range 14; thence north With the section line to the north 
line of Jay County; thence East with the County line to the State line; 
thence South with the State line to the place of beginning; and that all elec- 
tions in said Township be held at the house of Benjamin Goldsmith. 

"Abraham Lotz is appointed Inspector of Elections in Madison Town- 
ship to serve until the next annual election for Township officers. 

"Ordered that an election be held in Madison Township on the third 
Saturday in June next for the JDurpose of electing one Justice of the peace 
for said Township." 

These elections were no doubt held, as in September, 1835, the county 
treasurer was ordered to pay "Daniel Farber $1.00 for making return of 
election in August 1835 from Salamony Township."' On the same day an 
election was ordered to be held in Madison township on the second Saturday 
in October for the purpose of electing a justice of the peace for said town- 
ship which election was held in clue time. 

The changes in the townships seem to have taken place in the corners 
of the county, which was no doubt, due to the fact that these parts were at 
this time being settled more rapidly than the center which had been settled 
previously to this time. 

Another change was made in 1835 in the West River township region, 
when the following changes were ordered : "That hereafter the bounds of 
Westriver Township be as follows towit : Beginning on the line between 
Wayne and Randolph Counties at the corner of sections 14-15-22 and 23 in 
township 18 Range 13 thence North eight miles to the corner of sections 
2-3-10 & II in Township 19 Range 13 thence west 4 miles to the Range line 
between Ranges 12 & 13 thence South 8 miles to the County line thence east 



to the place of Beginning and ordered that all Elections in said Township be 
held at the Town of Huntsville." 

Ramdolph Ca 1835 

Gf^Etn 1834 




[v^fiKD )dzo 

yVV*iTE River 







"Ordered that the bounds of Nettle Creek Township be as follows to wit 
beginning at the County line between Wayne and Randolph Counties where 
the line between Ranges 12 & 13 meets the same thence North with said line 
7 miles thence west to the west line of Randolph County thence to the South 
west corner of said County thence east to the place of beginning And ordered 
that all Election in said Township be held at the house of James Harty." 

By a careful comparison of the maps of 1834 and 1835 it will be noticed 
that the north line of Nettle Creek township is one mile north of the southern 
line of Stoney Creek in 1834, and that sections 11 and 12 of township 19, 
12 east, were not included in the order organizing Nettle Creek township, 
lust how and why \\k-9q kccIi'ius u ere placed in Stoney Creek, the records do 



not say, but they are there, and there they will no duuljt stay, unless at SDiiie 
time the territory should be reorganized. 

Randolph Co. 1838 


The organization of townships necessarily depended largely upon local 
conditions. A striking example of this is in an attempt to organize a town- 
ship with Unionsport as its center. Unionsport had been organized as a town 
in 1837, and by the spring of 1838 had begun to assume municipal airs. In 
March, 1838, they attempted to put their hopes and desires into realization 
by petitioning the commissioners to organize a new township at which time 
the commissioners, "Ordered that the following bounds shall Constitute and 
be Known by the name of Union Township to wit to commence at the North 
west corner of West river Township thence South two miles thence East to 
the line of said Township thence North four miles thence west four miles 
thence South to the beginning ordered that all elections in Union Township 
be held at the School house in district number two And Hiram Mendenhall 
is appointed Inspector of Elections in said Township of Union." 

This, no doubt, brought about the storm of opposition which resulted 


in Miles Hunt and others remonstrating, record of Avhich is made in the May 
term of 1838, as follows: "Reed, the Remonstrance of Miles Hunt iV 
others against the Establishment of Union Township which was Publickiy 
read and continued &c.'' No doubt this question received a great deal of 
attention in that community and caused the commissioners quite a little of 
concern, so much so, that the election provided for in the order was not held, 
and in January of 1839 it was, "Ordered that Union Township be disoled and 
rendered null & Void and that the Townships out of which the said Town- 
ship was taken and formed have their former Bounds. And the Board Ad- 
journed until tomorrow morning 9 Oclock. John Coats, George A. McNees 
and John L. Addington." 


The extreme length of Jackson Township made it necessary to organize 
a new township which was done in September, 1838, by the following order: 
"Ordered that all that part of Jackson Township lying South of the line 
dividing Townships 20 & 21 in Range 15 be and the same is hereby Stricken 
off and called Wayne Township and ordered that all Elections in A^'ayne 
Township be held at the house of Harper Poivel. And ordered that all 
Elections in Jackson Township be held at the house of Ezekiel Davis." 


Thus the county remained for almost seven years, when Monroe town- 
ship was organized February 18, 1846. Monroe township was an exception 
in its organization to the usual rule. Heretofore, townships had in the main 
been organized by the division of one township, but Monroe was made up of 
parts of White River, Green and Stoney Creek townships. The petition was 
received and the order made on the i8th day of February, 1846, as follows : 


"Received the petition of Sundry Citizens of White river Township and 
Green Township and Stony Creek Township in Said County praying the 
formation of a new Civil Township in Said County to be formed out of 
Territory belonging to the above named Civil Townships to be Known and 
deisignated by the name of Monroe Township. 

It is therefore Ordered by the Board of Commissioners of said County 



at this their March term aforesaid that Monroe Township be and the Same is 
hereby formed out of and Compresid of the following Territory within the 
following meets and bounds, to wit: commencing at the South East Corner 
of Section Seventeen Township No. twenty North of Range No. thirteen 
East * * * Thence West on Said Section line to the County line Thence 
North along said County line to the center of Section twenty-nine Township 
No. 21 N. of Range No. 12 East thence East on the Said center Section line 
through the center of Sections twenty-nine Section twenty eight Section 

Randolph Co. 1659 






/White River 

twenty seven Section Twenty six and Section tweny five of Township No. 
2 1 N. of Range 12 E and Through the center of Section thirty and Section 
twenty nine in Township twenty one North of Range No. thirteen East to 
the north and South line dividing Sections twenty nine and twenty eight in 
Township and range last menioned thence South on Said Section line to the 
place of Beginning. 

"Ordered by the Board of Commissioners that the School house known 
as Edward O. Haymond School House be and it is hereby made the place of 
holding Elections in Monroe Township." 

"C)\(]crc(] liv lhc Pxijird ibaf Andrew Devo'^s be and be is iiereliy ap- 


pointed inspector of Elections in Monroe Township to Serve until the Annual 
Township Election on the first Monday in April and until his Successor is 
elected and qualified." 


The organization of West River township in 1835 made it long and 
narrow, being four miles wide and eight miles long. This left Washington 
township six and a half miles wide and eight miles long, being two very 
unequal townships. An effort was made to adjust this difference in 1849, 
when the county commissioners, "Received the petition of Sundry Citizens 
of West River and Washington Townships presented by Miles Hunt their 
Attorney, praying for one mile of territory to be taken from the West Side 
of Washington township and attached to the east side of West River town- 
ship." This, however, was not agreeable to all, for the same record says: 
"To which Thomas Philips by Wm. A. Peelle his attorney filed a remon- 
strance to said petition and the Board after hearing the argument of Counsel 
took case under advisement." Mr. Hunt lived in West River township and 
Mr. Philips in Washington, which might explain their positions in this mat- 
ter. Neither, however, desisted in their intentions, for in the last term 
(December 7, 1849), they again attempted the same thing with the following 
result : 

"Now here comes Miles Hunt and Divers others Citizens of West River 
and Washington Townships and present their petition which is in words and 
figures following towit : from which it appears that Said petitioners disire 
to have two miles detached off of and from the West Side of Washington 
Township & attached to West River Township — Also comes Thomas Philips 
and Divers other citizens of Washington Township and remonstrate against 
the prayer of said petition, whch Said Remonstrance is in the words & 
figures following to wit: (here insert) — Whereupon the board after due con- 
sideration and deliberate overrule the prayer of Said petition, & direct that 
the Township boundaries be undisturbed." (Note. — The original petitions 
and remonstrances are not to be found in the records. ) 

But the movement was not to be stopped, nor were the commissioners to 
be released from further attempts to change the boundarie:. of these town- 
ships. In the June term, 1850, on the moi'ning of Friday, the 7th. "The 
Board met pursuant to adjournment present the Honorable Abraham Adam- 
son, John M. Lucas and Emson Wright Esqrs. members of Said Board," 


and "Received the petition of Sundry Citizens of West River and Washing- 
ton TownshijDs praying that a certain portion of territory may be detached 
from Washington Township and attached to West River Township for Civil 

"It is therefore Ordered by the Board that the following territory be 
and the same is hereby attached to the east side of West River township, to 
vvit: Sees. 11, 14, 23, 26 & 35 all of T 19 N. of R 13 E and Sees. 2, 11 & 14 
all of T 18 N. of R. 13 E all of' which the Township officers and others 
Interest in the execution of the laws in West River and Washington town- 
ship will Severally take notice." 

Thus Washington township was to rest from "line troubles," until 1856, 
when the disease broke out in the east part of the township, at which time 
an attempt was made to organize a new township, by presenting the following 
petition : 
"To the Honorable Board of County Commissioners of Randolph Count}^ :" 

"Your petitioners, citizens, residents, householders, freeholders and 
voters of Washington and Greensfork Townships in Said Randolph County, 
would show to your honorable body that from the present size and Shape 
of the said Townships of Washington & Greensfork they labor under great 
inconvenience and are put to great trouble in the transaction of their town- 
ship business, as well as to exceeding great inconvenience in the discharge of 
their duties, and in the exercise of their rights as voters. They therefore 
ask your honorable board to create for them a new township giving it Such 
name as you may See proper & conferring upon it all the corporate powers 
of and pertaining to civil townships under the laws of the State, — Said town- 
ship to be created by detaching one Mile and a half off of the East side of 
Washington township, and Two Miles and a half off of the West Side of 
Greensfork township excepting as to the north end of Greensfork for one 
Mile North & South they only ask that one mile and a half be detached. 
From the territory so proposed to be detached as aforesaid (see the map 
accompanying petition) they respectfully ask that a civil township be organ- 
ized as aforesaid &c." Signed by William Norton, Sr. and one hundred and 
thirty-five others, many of whom were prominent citizens in the county. 
"And thereupon Jeremiah Horn by James Brown his attorney, files a remon- 
strance against granting the prayer of said petition," said remonstrance being 
as follows: 


"To The Honorable Bord of County Commissioners of Randolph County, 

Ind. :" 

"Whereas a petition is about to be — presented to the Bord of County 
Commissioners praying for the formation of a New Township to be Stricken 
off of Washington & Greenfork Townships, Taking off of Washington 
Township one & one half miles & two & one half miles off of Greensfork 
Township, leaving Greensfork Township three & one quarter Miles wide and 
Seven Miles long Completely destroying the geographical form of the Town- 
ship and deranging the School districts as they are now formed it will be 
attended with a Verry Considerable expense to the County now and here- 
after, will anually, take from the School & Township fund the amount paid a 
new Sett of Township officers Therefore we the undersigned Citizens and 
Voters of Greensfork Township remonstrate against any Such division of 
the Township as set forth in the Petition, Considering it unnecessary & un- 
called for seeing no local Matter to Warrant any such divission We therefore 
pray that your Honorable Bord will not grant the prayer of Said Petioners." 
Signed by Thos. Hough and one hundred ninety-four other citizens. 

A similar remonstrance was received from the citizens of Washington 
township, signed by Strother Brumfield and twenty-two others. Evidently 
almost all of the voters and freeholders of the district affected had signed 
either the petitions or remonstrances, and it must have been a relief to the 
commissioners to have been able to make the following entry : 

"In the case of the petition of Sundry citizens of Washington Town- 
ship and Grens-Fork Township. The Board after receiving Sundry re- 
monstrants against granting the prayer of said petition for establishing a cer- 
tain Township therein prayed for. The Board by the agreement of all 
parties continue the case until the next term of this Board. And the Board 
Adjourned until to morrow morning 9 O clock." This matter was evidently 
dropped on the part of both petitioners and remonstrators, as no other action 
was ever taken by the Board of Commissioners. 

This attempt however, was not to be the last one, on the part of the 
citizens of these two townships to change the boundary line. The incon- 
venience of having a township line within half a mile of the principal town 
of another township are too great to go tmnoticed and as late as May 22, 1889, 
an attempt was made to change the line by having the County Commissioners 
act upon the following petition which recites excellent reasons for the change 
desired and let us predict here that the time will yet come when such a change 
will be made and made for the reasons recited in this petition : 


"To the Hon. Board of Commissioners for the County of Randolph : 

W'e the undersigned \^oters and free holders owners of the land afifected 
by the granting this petition do most respectfully pray arid ask tb have the 
township line dividing Greens fork and Washington townships moved one- 
half (J4) mile east of the present line dividing said Greensfork and Wash- 
ington townships it being a section line. By said township line being located 
where it now is we suiifer. great inconvenience thereby many having to attach 
to Washington township for school purposes and on election days have to 
travel from four to six miles otherwise we would have to go the short distance 
of one half to two miles and believing it would not cause any hurtful damage 
to either Greensfork or Washington townships in their social or geographical 
territory all this we ask your Honorable body to consider and grant. 

Names : Isaac Hollingsworth, Wright M. Turner, Jesse Pierson, Paul 
Beard, Wm. Bond, Philip Capper, S. Y. Miles, Henry Rich, Thos. E. Farmer, 
James R. Davis, Fred Davis, Silvester Tillson, Charlie G. Stidham, Gideon 
A. Bird, George \X. Lewis, Abel Hinshaw, W. A. Hinshaw, L. D. Shafer, 
C. K. Karnes, Ed Mann, Emerson Pickett, Joseph A. Brown, James Brown, 
Levi Wenner, J. R. Rhoades, James St. Myers, Thomas Tharp, Labe Tharp, 
Ed. I. Brown, B. H. Piatt, L. C. Boon, F. A. Tillson, L. C. Moody, Ira E. 
Quigg, James Price." 

In June, however, of the same year this petition was "dismissed for want 
of being signed by majority of the interested voters of the townships afifected. 
June terrii, 1889. John R. Phillips, P. B." 


The next and last change to be made in the county, was the organization 
of Franklin Township, off the west end of Ward, when Robert Starbuck and 
one hundred and fifty other citizens of Ward township jiresented the follow- 
ing petition to the county commissioners : 

"To The Honorable the Board of Commissioners of Randolph County and 

State of Indiana :" 

"We the Undersigned Residents And voters of Ward Township In 
Said County Would Respectfully Show your . honors, that owing to the 
Erronnous Length of Said Township East & West Bounded. as it now is 
that we Labour Under Inconveniences in Many Respects And therefore Ask 
your honors for a Dicision of Said Township Believing that it would greatly 
facilite the Interests And Convenience of a Majority of the Citizens of Said 


Township, we ask for Said Division to Commence at the North East C(;r- 
ner of Section one in Township No. 21 of Range No. 13. East on the Town- 
ship and Range line of Said Congressional Township Runing thence Southe 
on Said line to the Southern line of Ward Township as it now is Bounded. 

we ask your honors to Locate and Establish Said Division And as in 
Duty Bound your Petitioners will Every Pray &C." 

This petition was acted upon June 5, 1859, when the following record 
was made: 

"Notice of said petition having been given according to law & the subject 
having been duly considered thereupon the Board granted the prayer of the 
petitioners, & Ordered that Ward Township Randolph County Indiana be 
divided as follows (to wit) commencing at the North East corner of Section 
one, in township No. 21 of Range No. 13 East, on the township & range line 
of said congressional township, running thence South on said line to the 
southern line of Ward township as it is now bounded. The western end of 
said division to be known & designated as Franklin township & No. 12. And 
it is further ordered that such division shall not take effect till on the first 
Monday in Api-il i860." 

No doubt, the time for its taking effect was made for April, i860, so 
as to allow the officers of Ward township time to adjust the financial matters 
between the two townships. This was done in the spring of i860 and on 
March 9, it was "Ordered by the Board that two Justices of the Peace for 
Franklin Township be elected at the April Election i860, & such other Town- 
ship officers as may be required by law." This was the last change in the 
civil townships of Randolph County. As our townships stand today,' Ward 
is the only civil township that coincides with a congressional township, it 
being Township 21, Range 14 East. 

It may be as many more years before any changes will be made, but the 
writer of this article predicts that at sometime the following changes will be 
made: White River township will be divided into two townships by a line 
north and south somewhere near the center, east and west. The West River 
township line will be pushed east at least one-half mile, perhaps one mile. 
The Washington township line will be pushed east one and one-half miles. 

Our purpose in giving the records and details accompanied by the maps 
as found in this chapter, has been to show not only the exact origin of our 
townships as they are today, but to show the people of the present and future 
generations that our fathers wrestled with many local problems and met 
them as well as seemingly could have been done, although were the county 


to be redistricted today, a much better organization could be made. Qjndi- 
tions have arisen that even the most fanciful dreamer of a few years ago 
could not have thought. Alodern times have brought about conditions that 
will make the township problem with its schools and its roads, a more seri- 
ous one in thp future than it ever has been in the past. Men equal to the 
problems of the past have always arisen, and no doubt, the people of the 
future will find their solution by men of equal ability. 


As has been noted before, one of the duties of the newly elected county 
commissioners of a new county, was to provide public buildings to be paid 
for out of the sale of lands donated to that county for that and other purposes 
specified. Agreeably to this, the commissioners of Randolph county early 
set to work to provide for the building of a court house, jail and a stray pen. 
This court house and jail were to be put upon a square selected by the state 
commissioners. These commissioners having established the seat of justice 
in what is now known as Winchester, no doubt advised with the county com- 
missioners as to the exact location of these buildings. The plans and speci- 
fications for the court house and jail are to be found in the first record of 
the county and are as follows : 


"At a special meeting of the Board of Commissioners in the Town of 
\Mnchester for the purpose of the Letting to the lowest Bidder the Building 
of a Court house Jail and Stray Pen in said town The Court house to be of 
the following Description towit 24 feet Long 18 feet wide two stories High 
Covered with Joint shingles made of Walnut or Popler two floors to be made 
of Good seasoned plank ij4 inches thick sills and sleepers made of Oak an 
Walnut the \^^all to be of hewn timber to face at Least 12 inches hewn to 9 
inches thick Both floors to be Tounged and Grooved the underside of the 
upper floor to be made Smoothe 7 joist in Each story. Planed and made 
smooth 7 by 33/2 inches two Doors of a suitable size to be made of good well 
seasoned Plank 4 Windows 2 below and 2 above 12 lights Each with good 
shutters Hung on the out side of the house doors & window shutters to be 
hung with good Iron hinges a good Paire of Winding Stairs doors & win- 
dows Cased A Brick Chimney made of good well burned Brick a good fire- 

l!.iiidoli)li CouiiH' -Inlinii.-ii-y. 

The James Mooriniiu Orplians' Home. 

Soldiers' iintl Sailcji's' Mommient. 


place below and above the house to be Neatly daubed also Set on Walnut 
Blocks 3 at Least on Each side i8 inches long the floor to be well nailed 
down all to be finished in a Workinlike manner Abner Overman Became the 
Undertaker to Build said house for the sum of $2.54 & 50 cents and Give 
Bond and security to have the same Finished according to the foregoing 
Description in 18 Months from this Date. 

The jail to be of the following description towit: To be built of tim- 
ber hewn Square to 13 inches 18 feet Long 14 feet Wide with a partition 
Wall 7 feet from one and floors as above and below with timber of the same 
Discription a Window in Each Room 12 inches square the windows Well 
Lined with Iron and Iron grates Well fastened into said liheing two Doors 
made of Good Soiled Oak Plank well seasoned. 

I inch thick Doubled & nailed with Double tens cut nails in Every three 
inches square Storongly Hung on Good Iron Hinges 7 feet 6 inches Between 
floors the under floor laid on Good Oak sills settled on the Ground so as to 
Bring the floor Verry near the Surface of the Ground a good Joint shingle 
Roof well nailed on the under floor and first Round to be made of Same good 
lasting timber let down Close. 

Albert Banta Became the undertaker to Build said Jail for the sum of 
$1.25 dollars and give his Bond to have the same finished according to the 
above Description in 18 months from this Date." 

No doubt a stray-pen was built as well as a court house and jail, but 
no record is made of such for some time. There may, however, have been 
but little need of the stra3'-pen because there were only a few settlers. Prac- 
tically all stock ran at large and no one would stop to take the time or trouble 
to "pen" a pig, horse or cow. 

The court house and jail were crude affairs'but served their purpose and 
served it well. The men who built them had plenty of time and no doubt 
did their work well as is seen by the report of acceptance at a special term, 
June 6, 1820, just eighteen months to a day from the time the contract was 
let and the exact time that the buildings were to be done. At that time the 
following report was made : 

JUNE 6, 1820. 

"State of Indiana, Randolph County, Board of Commissioners, June 6, 1820: 
A Special Meeting of the Board of Commissioners in the towne of 


Winchester for the purpose of Receveing the Public Buildings in said town. 
Present EH Overman Benjamin Cox and John James. 

It is agreed upon by the Commissioners that they the Court house and 
Jail in said town of Winchester and ordered that the treasurer pay Albert 
Banta the sum of one hundred and twenty Eight Dollars and twenty Cents 
in full of his Contract for building Jail and also Ordered that the treasurer 
pay Abner Overman the sum of two hundred and fifty nine Dollars and 
thirty Cents for Building Court house in said town of Winchester." 

It will be noted that Mr. Overman received the" munificent sum of $4.80 
extra upon the building of this court house, which was certainly a record for 
even so early a time and only equaled by that of Mr. Banta, the undertaker 
of the jail, who received $3.20 extra for his services in the construction of 
the "County Bastile." 

The "oldest inhabitants" differ as to the exact location of the court 
house, some saying that it was on the present court'house square, others that 
it was on the north side of Washington street. No doubt the first opinion is 
the correct one. It could hardly have stood in the center of the court house 
square, as the new one which was built in 1826, is known to have stood in 
the center of the yard and at various times during its construction, the 
records make mention of the meetings and the elections held in the court 
house which would necessarily have been torn away for the construction of 
the new building. 

The jail was situated near the southwest corner of the court yard, just 
east of the box-elder trees now growing at that corner of the yard. There 
are many people now living who remember having seen this jail and all who 
remember it agree that it was a log jail as specified, with the corners inter- 
locked and no opening in the lower room except the window as described in 
the specifications. The entrance to this room was made by a trap door in 
the floor of the upper room. No provision was made for any heat which 
certainly must have made "thirty days" a very unpleasant sojourn in the 
winter. The stairway leading to the second story was what is commonly 
known as the "Mill stairs," and instead of running up the side of the build- 
ing as outside stairs usually do, it is built leaning to the building very much 
as a ladder would stand. 

The court house stood for only a sliort time as we find on May 2, 1826 
it was ordered that : 


MAY TE«M, 1826. 

"John Coats, David Frazier, and Samuel D. Woodworth are appointed 
a committee to form the plan of a courthouse in the County of Randolph and 
make an Estimate of the probable Expense and Report the same to the 
Board of Justices at July term 1826." 

No doubt this was the result of much agitation all over the county. 

There are two important conditions to keep in mind at this time, one is 
that the county did not have county commissioners, the law creating the office 
of county coinmissioners having been repealed, but the business was trans- 
acted by a board of justices. This board of justices was composed of all the 
justices of the peace to be found in this county. This would put a man of 
authority in practically every neighborhood of the county, as every township 
had from one to three justices and frequently the meetings were attended by 
ten to twelve of these men. Another important factor in all public work at 
that time, was the county agent, a man elected by the commissioners or 
justices and whose duties were to look after public affairs in a general way. 
Paul W. Way, of Winchester, was elected near the beginning of the county's 
organization and served for a great many years and was in office at the time 
of the building of the second court house and upon him fell largely the 
responsibilities of its engineering, both as to the building and the raising of 
the funds with which it was to be built. To show that the question was dis- 
cussed thoroughly and that opinions were frequently exchanged, we give the 
transcript of the records concerning this building as follows : 

JULY TERM, 1826. 

'■'At a Randolph Board of Justices began and held at the courthouse in 
Winchester on monday the 3rd day of July, 1826 present the honorable John 
Coats president & William Massey, John Odle, Isaac Barnes, Samuel D. 
Woodworth, William N. Rowe, George Reitenour Esq's members. 

Ordered that Paul W. AVay County Agent advertise and let to the 
lowest bidder the building of a Brick courthouse in the Town of Winchester 
of the following description towit forty feet Square on the out side wall to 
begin one foot at least under the Surface of the Earth two feet three inches 
thick until the wall rises one foot above the Surface of the Earth then the 
wall to be Eighteen inches thick until it rises twelve feet above the Surface 
of the Earth then the wall to be thirteen and one half inches thick until the 


wall is 21 feet high from the Surface o^ the Earth, with two chimneys one in 
the North west and the other in the North East corner of said house with a 
lower and upper fire place in Each chimney and a Brick moulding at the top 
of the wall on the North and South side gable ends of Brick in the usual 
form of a dweUing house brick to be well laid in morter made of Sand and 
lime and clay one third of Each the wall to be penciled on the outside two 
doors in the lower Story one in the middle of the south side and one a proper 
distance from the corner in the East side Sixteen windows of a Suitable Size 
to admit of twenty lights 8 by 10 inches order of the same to be designated 
by the Agent aforesaid Doors and windows faced with Scantling 3 inches 
thick and width thickness of the wall a Post in the center of the house of 
Sufficient Strength and Size to Support all the weight that may be on the 
same from the Second third floor and roof one Summer at Each Story 10 
by 14 inches Post of Black walnut Summers of oak Rafters and collar beems 
of durable timber and Sufficient Size Sheeted with plank ^ inch thick and 
covered with Joint Shingles 18 inches long 4 inches wide ^ of an inch thick 
at the but end popler or black walnut. Sale to be on the last Saturday in 
July (instant) Brick work in one contract and woodwork in another — the 
Brick work to be completed on or before the first day of November 1827 
and wood work on or before the first day of December 1827 one half of to be 
paid to the undertakers on the ist day of January 1827 and the balance 
when the work is completed. Bond and approved Security will be required 
of the undertakers." 

JULY 29, 1826. 

At a called session of the board Of justices began and held at the court 
house in Winchester on Saturday the 29th day of July, 1826 presents the 
honorable John Coats president and David Frazier and Joseph Hale 
Esquires members. 

"Ordered that the following be the conditions of the Brick work of a 
court house in the Town of Winchester in County of Randolph to wit, the 
wall of said house to commence one foot under the Surfice of the Earth, the 
wall to be 2"] inches thick, till it rises one foot above the Surfice of the Earth 
to be made of good sound well burned Brick no Salmon Brick in the first 2 
feet. Then the wall to be 18 inches thick till it rises 16 feet above the Sur- 
fice of the Earth, then to be 121^ inches thick till it rises 27 feet above the 
Surfice of the Earth with a chimney in the North East corner of sd. house 
with a fire place below 4 feet wide, and one above at least 2 feet wide, and 


one in the N. W. corner of the Same description, with Straight arches over 
the doors and windows in a workmanhke manner, the Brick to be laid in 
mortar of Equal parts of Sand, lime) and clay, the work to be done in a 
workmanlike manner and to be completed by the first of November 1827 and 
the undertaker will be Entitled to one half of his pay, on the first of January 
next, the balance on or before the ist of November 1827 if sd. work should 
be then completed, if not, when sd. work is completed the undertaker will 
be required to give Bond with approved Security in double the sum of his 

"Ordered that the following be the description of the carpenters work 
on the before mentioned court house to wit : There are to be i Summer across 
Sufficiently Supported by pillars of Stone, to bear up the Sleepers and all 
the weight that may come on the same, 2 Summers to cross the house at Each 
Story Supported by two Sound Posts under Each, well Supported at the bot- 
tom, and Sufficiently large to Support all the weight of the two upper floors, 
and Roof, Summers to be oak and at least 12 inches Square, and C. 3 Joice 
4 by 12 inches in the Second floor, and C. 3 Joice 3 by 8 in the upper floor, 
with a four Square Roof made in a form to receive a cupolo at a future day 
to be covered with Joint Shingles not more than 18 inches long or 4 inches 
broad five Eights thick at the but end not to Show more than one third the 
length. Shingles to be poplar, one Door frame in the center of the South side 
of sd. House 5 by 7 feet one in the East end 4 by 7 feet 9 window frames to be 
put in the under Story of a Size Sufficient to take 24 lights in Each, 10 by 12 
and 10 window frames in the upper Story Sufficient to take 20 lights in Each 
ID by 12, the door and window frames to be finished in order to receive the 
Sash and Shutters, and plain Solid wood cornish around said house, with 
tin conductors at Each corner to convey the water from said house the 
cornish to be of yellow poplar all the work to be of good durable timber, and 
to be performed in a complete. Strong workmanlike manner, so as to bear 
the inspection of good workmen, the work to be carried on and put in at 
Such time, or times, as the mason may call for the same so as to hinder the 
mason as little as the nature of the case may require the work to be com- 
pleted on or before the first of January 1828. 

The undertaker will be required to give Bond and Security in doublfc 
the amount of his contract and will be entitled to Receive one half the amt. 
of his contract on the first day of January next and the balance when the 
work is completed; 

And the Board adjourned until Board in course. 

John Coats Presd." 


Evidently a contract (which was not recorded), was made and entered 
into between the county and David \\'}'song, to build the walls of the court 
house. This is shown by the order made by the commissioners September 
4, 1826, when they made the following entry: 


"The Board of Justices agree to give David Wysong who heretofore 
became the contractor to build the wall of the courthouse in Winchester the 
sum of two hundred and twenty-five dollars in addition to his former con- 
tract and the said David agrees on his part to make the foundation of said 
house of' rock dimensions to be the same towit: two feet high 27 inches 
thick one half of said $225 dollars in six months after his former contract 
becomes due and the balence in six months after. 

John Coats^ P. of the Board.'" 

Mr. Wysong evidently began on the building immediately as he began 
to receive his pay as early as January, 1827, when it was "Ordered that the 
county treasurer pay David Wysong $292.50 in part for building courthouse." 
Again in January, 1828, ^Ir. Wysong was paid $292.50 "in part for building 
the Courthouse." 

In September, 1828, it was "Ordered that the County treasurer Pay 
David W3'song the sum of one hundred and twelve dollars and fift)- cents 
with legal interest until paid." It was also "Ordered that the County trea- 
surer pay David Wysong the sum of $2.25 interest on contract for laying 
foundation of the courthouse." 

In ]March, 183 1, it was, "Ordered that the county treasurer pay David 
Wysong $127,123.-2 in part and Balance of principal and interest for laying 
foundation of the court house." 

Thus it will be seen that ^Ir. Wysong had to literally "build the court 
house on time,'' as he is said to have said. 

Paul W Way, who was a carpenter, had the contract or a part of it at 
least for the carpenter's work, as on ]\Iay 8, 1827, it was "Ordered that the 
county treasurer pa}' Paul W. Wa}- the sum of one hundred and ninetveight 
dollars and fifty cents in part for doing the carpenters work on the court 
house." 'Mr. Way's duties as we have said, were many and he was prac- 
tically the moving spirit in all the business. This is shown by an entry of 
the same day just mentioned, when it was, 

"Ordered that the county treasurer pay Paul W. Way the sum of 3 


dollars for 2 days spent in going to Centerville &C to advertize Sale of 
courthouse and 2 dollars paid to Scott & Buxton for advertizing 2 dollars 
for writing Conditions of Sale one dollar for crying .Sale 2 dollars for spirits 
writing 4 bonds to close the Sale i dollar total amt. — $11.00." 

Mr. Way, no doubt, employed men to work on the building up until the 
contract was let for the carpenter's work in March, 1828, as we find in July, 

1827, it was "Ordered that the county treasurer pay John Maxwell three 
dollars and fifty cents for putting an Extra Summer in the lower Storey of 
the courthouse as soon as the same is done and completed in a workmanlike 
manner." The real contract for the carpenter's work was made in March, 

1828, as follows: 

MARCH TERM, 1 828. 

"Ordered that the lower floor in the courthouse be laid so far back as 
the south summer to be laid of oak plank not Exceeding 6 inches in width 
and at least i ^ inches thick to be tongued and grooved and laid down broken 
Jointed well nailed down on oak Sleepers at least 12 inches in diameter and 
the bark taken off and not to exceed 2.1 feet from centre to centre. 

one pair of Stairs to Start at on near the west end of the north summer 
to run up the wall till it comes under the centre of the window in the centre 
of the west end of said house thence to turn east and enters the floor in the 
gangway the said Stares to be four feet wide to be railed and banastered in a 
workmanlike manner. 

upper floor to be laid of oak plank of the same description as the under 
floor and put down in the sam manner. 

A petition to be run across the upper floor from East to west to Joining 
the North sound post on the south side of the same with a partition through 
the centre of the North room two doors to be hung in the first pai-tition so 
as to fall back against said partition when opened the partition to be of poplar 
plank not exceeding one foot in width and at least one and J4 inches thick >to 
be dressed on each side tongued and grooved and put up in a workmanlike 
manner with chair boards in side of the rooms and wash boai-ds on each side 
of the partition. 

I Door 4 by 7 feet i do 5 by 7 feet 9 windows 24 lights each 1 1 do 
20 lights each 10 by 12 inches door shutters to be made folding of panel work 
out of white walnut plank i inch thick when dressed and lined with half inch 
plank hung with Strong iron hinges window Shutters to be made in the same 


form of the doors hung in the same manner and made out of the same kind 
of materials windows to be filled with Glass and Sash made out of white wal- 
nut plank at least one & ^ inch thick when dressed the whole to be done 
and completed on or before the second monday in August 1828. 

The County Agent is ordered and directed to advertise and Sell to the 
lowest bidder the above named work in two seperate contracts — the doors 
and windows in one contract and the balance in another. Said Sale to be on 
the 24th day of this instant at the courthouse door in the Town of Winchester 
bond with approved Security will be required of the undertaker the under- 
taker shall receive one half of his pay on the first day of January next and the 
balance in one year from that date." 

This contract was amended in the May term as- follows ; 

MAY TERM, 1 828. 

"Ordered that the agent have the upper floor in the courthouse laid of 
poplar plank not Exceeding eight inches broad, the Stairs to Start as before 
ordered and run within four feet of the South summer then to turn East, the 
under floor to be completed by the second monday in August next and the 
balance to be completed by the Second monday in February next. 

The door and window Shutters to be made of white walnut yellow 
poplar plank, the sash to- be made of white walnut or yellow poplar plank 
the undertaker will have till the second monday in February next to put iti 
the sash and glass March 24 1828." 

There seems to have been some difiiculty concerning the settlement for 
the work, as we find in July, that "Abel Lomax and John Irvin are chosen 
to adjudge the Carpenters work of the Courthouse in Winchester Randolph 
County and report whether said work is done according to contract, and if 
not done agreeable to contract to assess the damages, said arbitrators to meet 
in Winchester on the first monday in September next. 

"Ordered that the County Agent contract with some Suitable person 
to pitch and paint the Cornish on the Courthouse as soon as possible." 

The above committee on adjustments made the following report in the 
September term of 1828: 


"Whereas at the July term of This Board in the year of 1828 Abel 
Lomax Esq. and John Irvin were appointed as referees to adjudge the 


carpenters work of the courthouse in Winchester Randolph County and 
report whether said work was done according to contract and if not done 
agreeable to contract to assess the damages said Arbitrators to meet in Win- 
chester on the first monday in September 1828 and on the day and year last 
aforesaid the said Abel Lomax appeared and the said John Irvin not appear- 
ing, David Haworth is chosen in place of said John Irvin, and the said Abel 
Lomax and David Haworth after being duly affirmed proceeded to discharge 
the trust confided to them who after some time return their award as follows 
(towit) that Paul W. Way the contractor for said work give Bond with 
security to the satisfaction of the Board of Justices that he will Warrant 
said roof and Every part thereof to Stand good for and during the term of 
five years from and after this date and assess four dollars damages in conse- 
quence of the corners of the roof not being made in a workmanlike manner 
and five dollars damages for three of the sound posts in the lower Story." 

In January, 1829, Solomon Wright was paid $112.50 "in part for work 
done on the courthouse in 1828." David Heaston was paid on the same day, 
$109.67 "for work done on the courthouse." George Burkett was paid 
$2.50 for extra work done on the doors of the court house. 

On the 4th of May, 1829, we find the following: "This day the Board 
of Justices have examined and received the work done by David Heaston on 
the courthouse agreeable to his contract." 

Another evidence that Mr. Way hired the work done by the piece and 
that difificulties of all kind arose, was found in the November term of 1829, 
as follows : 

"The Board now takes into consideration the work done on the court 
house by Thomas Wright and consider the same as it Respects the doors and 
windows not finished in a workmanlike manner and leave it to the choice of 
said Wright to get a painter to inspect said work and if it is Judged by said 
painter to be done in a workmanlike manner the county is to pay the cost of 
said inspection if not said Wright is to pay the cost of inspection and finish 
the work in the manner in which it ought to be done, and if it is deceded by 
a painter that the work is now done accoidg to contrack by a Report from 
said painter to Charles Conway he as Clerk of said Board is hereby author- 
ized to issue an order in favour of said Wright for the amount of his con- 
tract, if not considered by a painter to be finished when said Wright does 
finish the work he is to notify five of the Justices of the peace living nearest 
to the town of Winchester to attend and Exmonin the same and report to the 
next term of this Board." 


What painter was selected to inspect the work is not known, but at least 
a portion of the work was found satisfactory and in January, 1830, "The 
Board of Justices having inspected the painting done on the doors and win- 
dows of the courthouse receive the same And order the county treasurer 
to pay Thomas Wright the sum of $150.00 for painting done on the court 

It is a pretty hard matter to know jusj: when any part of the building 
was finished and made ready for occirpancy. It would seem that a building 
begun in 1826 could have been made ready long before this evidently was. 

In 1829, Joseph Crown was "allowed to work at his trade in the west 
room of the courthouse until uext Board of Justices prived he takes the 
necessary care of the courthouse and suffers nothing to be injured therein." 

In January, 1830, Mr. Way was allowed "fifty cents for cleaning the 
shavings out of the lower floor of the courthouse." 

The peculiar manner of contracting public work in vogue at that early 
day is shown by the contract made with Joel Ward in March, 1831, as 
follows ; 

"The Board of Justices hereby contract with Joel Ward to proceed to 
Erect a Bench, Bar and suitable small benches table &c in the court house ac- 
cording to the plan proposed or any better plan in any part of said work that 
said Ward may think proper and said Ward is to have said work completed 
against February term of the circuit court 1832 and when said work is done 
said Ward is to make his charge for the same and if his charge is not agreed 
to by the Board doing County business then to be valued by workmen at the 
expense of the county and they do hereby agree that said Ward draw on the 
county at any time hereafter for the sum of fifty dollars." It is peculiar 
that men transacting public business should make such a contract, and the 
only excuse to offer for it, is the confidence the board had in Mr. Ward. 

JMr. Ward Was unable to complete his work in the specified time and in 
March, 1832, was allowed "further time until the February- term of the cir- 
cuit court in the year of 1833, to finish his contract heretofore entered into 
to erect a Bar, Bench &c in the courthouse." 

W^hen the time for settlement came in September, 1833, it was, "Ordered 
that the County treasury pay Joel Ward $125 in part for making Bar, Bench 
& Seats in the Courthouse." They could not agree upon the remainder of 
the bill. Mr. Ward was claiming $150 for the entire work and as seen above, 
they paid him $125 and made the following entry: 

"As the Board of Commissioners and Joel Ward, the contractor to make 


a Bar, Bench Seats &c in the Court house cannot agree upon the price of said 
work, it is agreed between the contracting parties that Henry Sybowl and 
Thomas N. Davis value said work and report to the next term of this Board." 
Let us state here that Mr. Ward held the esteem of the commissioners, be- 
cause he was this same day appointed by them, a trustee of the county library 
and also on this day, filed his report as overseer of a public road. 

In November, 1833, the following entry was made, "It is further agreed 
between the County commissioners and Joel Ward that Thomas N. Davis and 
Henry Sybowl or Abel Lomax, Shall Value the Bar, Bench & seats made in 
the courthouse by the said Joel Ward & make report of their decision to the 
next term of this Board." Evidently they had some trouble in doing this, as 
in the January term of 1834, we find that "the settlement between the County 
and Joel Ward in Regard to the work done on the Bar &c in the courthouse 
is continued until the next term." In March, 1834, it is noted that "a settle- 
ment between the county commissioners and Joel Ward in regard to making 
the Bar, Bench and Seats in the Courthouse is continued to the next term of 
this Board." 

Mr. Ward's contention had been for only a little over $50.00, so it is 
eacy to imagine his gratification when the following report was made by 
the committee, November, 1834: "The honorable Board of County com- 
missioners for Randolph County November term 1834 we your referees who 
were appointed by said Board to take into consideration the Value of cer- 
tain work done on the courthouse in Randolph County by Joel Ward accord- 
ing to a certain contract of the Board doing County business in Randolph 
County at their March term ;[83i with the aforesaid Joel Ward, now report 
that we have discharged that duty having taken the whole of the work item 
by item into consideration it is our opinion that it is worth $188.00 & 88 
cents November ist, 1834 Thomas N. Davis, Abel Lomax." 

Another evidence in the patch work is that in September, 1835, it was, 
"Ordered that Charles Conway employ a workman either to seal or lath and 
plaster the Northeast Room in the Court house over head as soon as con- 

In the September term of 1836, there are two items a little hard to 
explain, but we give them for what they are worth. "The filling up of the 
south side of the court-house floor and laying the same with brick heretofore 
undertaken by Jehu Robinson is this day examined By the commissioners, ap- 
proved and received," and "Ordered that the County treasurer pay Jehu 
Robinson $22.00 for laying the south side of the Court-house floor." This 


would indicate that all of the lower story had not been used up to that time. 

The final work of completing the court house was started ]\Iarch 6, 1839, 
when it was "Ordered by the Board of Commissioners that Paul W. W^ay 
County Agent sell to the lowest bidder the finishing of the Courthouse in 
Winchester work to be completed on or before the first day of March 1840,"' 
and "Moorman Wa}^ is appointed to Superintend the finishing of the Court- 
house in Winchester." 

Mr. Way procured the plans and, specifications of !Mr. Thomas Best 
and proceeded to advertise and sell the contract, report of which was made 
at the opening of the !May term, 1839, as follows : 

"To the Board of Commissioners of Randolph County, Indiana, at their 
May Term, 1839." 

"Pursuant to your order of last session I proceeded to advertise and sell 
to the lowest bidder the finishing of the courthouse in this Town after the 
order of the draft produced by Mr. Thos. Best, which draft and Book of 
explanation is herewith produced the Sale took place on the 30th day of 
March 1839 in this Town at which time and place the Conditions of the 
said Contract was fully made Known by me. David Pleaston having become 
the lowest and best bidder the said contract was cried of to David Heaston 
at two thousand dollars and the said David Heaston having been called on 
by me to execute his Bond for his performance agreeable to the conditions 
of sd. sale refuseth to execute the same Winchester Alay 6th, 1839. Paul 
\\'. Way C. Agent." 

Whereupon the commissioners again took action in the matter by pay- 
ing Mr. Best Sio.oo "for drawing the draft and making a description of the 
work to be done on the courthouse," and again proceeded in the matter by 
making the following order on IMay 9, 1839: 

"The Board of County Commissioners of Randolph County order that 
Paul \Y Way, County Agent, advertise and resell on Saturday the fifteenth 
day of June next to the lowest bidder the finishing of the court house in said 
County agreeable to the drafts and descriptions made and deposited with 
said Agent, by Thomas Best, by order of said Board Except the Plastering 
of the walls on the outside instead of which the walls are to be painted and 
Penciled, the floor and wood-work of the first Stor^- and the roof and 
Cupola to be completed by the third monday in October next, and the remain- 
der of the work to be completed within twelve months from that time the 
undertaker will be entitled to one-half of his pay on the first monday in 
March next and the residue twelve months from that time provided the 


work is done according to agreement The use of the court house is reserved 
for all Conty Courts at their respective Terms. And Moorman Way is ap- 
pointed to Superinted the said work and report when called on." 

Mr. Way (Paul W.) performed this work and reported to the commis- 
sioners in November, 1839, as follows: 

"Report of Paul W. Way County Agent To the Honorable the Board 
of Commissioners of Randolph County, Indiana. 

"Pursuant to your order issued at your May Term 1839, I have resold 
the finishing of the Court house in this Town on the 15th of June A. D. 
1839. At which sale MichaelAKer of this Town become the Undertaker at 
$248o.}'2 of which Sum is to be paid on or before the ist Monday of March 
1840 & the balance at twelve months from that date provided the 'said work 
is completed and reed, by that date, and the said Michael AKer having 
entered into Bond with surety as required (which Bond is herewith sub- 
mitted) Winchester Sept. 2nd, 1839. Paul W. Way C Agent." 

Mr. Way was paid with the following order : "Ordered that the County 

Treasurer pay Paul W. Way County Agent for advertising crying sale pre- 

. paring Bond and Report of the first sale of the Court house four dollars also 

four Dollars for second sale, two Dollars also for having sale advertised in 

PoUadium and keeping court house Shut making in all ten Dollars." 

Mr. Aker completed the work, received his full pay, and on September 
I, 1841, it was "Ordered that the Job of repairing and iinishing the Course 
house he received and that Michall Aker and Andrw AKern be released 
from any further responsibility relative to said job And the Bonn given by 
the Said AKers be cancelled." 

In the meantime another office building had been constructed, for the 
use of the clerk and recorder. In March, 1836, we find "Jeremiah Smith is 
appointed a Special commissioner to let the Building of a Clerk & Recorders 
office and enclosing the public Buildings in the Townsh of Winchester ac- 
cording to the plan of the Board of -Commissioners." 

Mr. Smith performed that duty and on the 3d of May, 1836, the fol- 
lowing entry was made : "Reed, the Report of Jeremiah Smith the com- 
missioners heretofore appointed to let out the building of a circuit clerk and 
Recorders office, Privy, and enclosing Estray pen, and the Court-house, 
Stating that he had performed that duty and produced the Bonds executed 
by the contractors for said work, which is approved and said report and 
Bonds are ordered to be filed in the clerk's office of this Board, which is 
done accordingly And ordered that said commissioners so alter the contract 


for fencing the Square that the south line of the fence be even with the 
South side of the Jail door and drawn in as far on the west side as will be 
necessary to make that line of the Square and to go north and East so as to 
make the fence ten rods Square making the small gates opposite the doors 
of the court-hous and omitting to make the large gate if the contractor will 
agree to discount one third of the amount he i- to receive for his contract to 
wit $50.06 said fence to be made of Walnut or poplar plank, which altera- 
tion in said contract is agreed to by Paul \X. \\^ay said contractor. And or- 
dered that Robinson ^tlclntire be and he is hereby appointed to Superintend 
the buildings in the place of Jeremiah Smith, who has resigned said Super- 

This building was a two-room, one-story brick, situated in front of ana 
a little to the south of the east entrance of the present court house. The 
contract excepting the office rooms was let to Paul W W^ay. For some rea- 
son the board became dissatisfied with IS'Iv. Wa)^ or his contract, and in 
September, 1836, declared "The contract heretofore made with Paul ^^'. ^^'ay 
in Regard to enclosing the court-house and Estra^'-pen is by agreement be- 
tween the said Paul W. Way and the County commissioners disannulled and 
made entirely \'oid and of none effect." (This contract was certainly can- 
celled.) The contract for the construction of the building was let to David 
Heaston for $587.50. 

Mr. Heaston for some reason Avas unable to complete the building in the 
required time and in Xo\ ember, 1836, it was "Ordered by the Board that 
David Heaston have further time until the next Term of this Board to finish 
the Building of the Clerk and Recorders office by him heretofore undertaken." 
The building, however, was completed and paid for in full in the September 
term of 1837. A man by the name of Samuel Schaggs made the "Batten win- 

These two rooms proved to be too much space at first, so it was "Ordered 
that Paul \y. ^Vay County Agent rent the East Room or Recorders office to 
the highest bidder for a office untill the First IMonday in August Xext and 
Repport to the Xext Term of this Board." 

In January, 1839, ^Ir. Way made the follovnng report: "Pursuant to 
your orders I have advertised and Sold to the highest bidder the recorders 
office in this Town till the 4th day of August next to be occupied as an office 
Doctor Hosea D. Searls become the purchaser at S23.10. Xovember loth, 
1838. Paul \Y. Way C. Agent." 

It is interesting to note that on the same day of the acceptance of the 


completion of the court house, September i, 1841, that it was "Ordered that 
the Auditor & Treasurer be authorized to rent a house for their respective 
Offices of Ehas Kizer One Door A\"est of Goodrich & Brothers Store at three 
dollars per month for both at the Expense of the County from One year from 
this date. Ordered that Elias Kizer be allowed Eighteen Dollars for rent of 
Offices for the Auditor and Treasurer for Six Months." This, however, did 
not prove to be very satisfactory, at least to the commissioners. 

It would be interesting to know the exact inside workings of a change 
that was made February 20, 1846, when it was "Ordered by the Board that 
the Auditor and Treasurer of said County occupy the East room of the 
Brick Building on the public Square Known formerly as the Recorders office 
as the room for their respective offices and to remove all fixtures and other 
apparatus Building to their respective offices from the rooms now occupied 
by said Auditor and Treasurer," and it was further "Ordered that Willis C. 
Wilmore be allowed to move the Book of Record into the west end of the 
Brick building occupied now as the Clerk office which shall be occupied by 
both Clerk and Recorder And Court Adjourned till Court in Course. Read 
and Signed in open court. Henry Leeka, 

Abraham Adamson, 
Nathaniel Kemp." 

It is strange, indeed, that the commissioners would put four such im- 
portant offices as the auditor, treasurer, clerk and recorder's in the two small 
rooms; perhaps it was a "fit of economy." 

The recorder occupied this room until April 18, 1853, when he was 
ordered to "occupy the Room up Stairs in the courthouse known as the Sons 
of Temperance Room as his office for the purpose of Recording Deeds &C 
and all other instruments required to be recorded in said Recorder's office in 
the County of Randolph." 

The crowding of these four important offices into two small rooms and 
the general feeling that prevailed at that time that the court house was not 
safe led to the agitation of the building of a new set of office rooms in 1856, 
when it became known that the county would build a two story brick building 
on the north side of the court house the Odd Fellows conceived the idea of 
building a third story to it. This was considered by the commissioner to be 
an economical plan for the county and we find that on the 22nd day of 
January, 1856, the following agreement was entered into: 

"It is agreed by the Board of County Commissioners now in session and 
Harrv H. Neft', Silas Colgrove, Martin A. Needer and \Mlliam .A Peelf g 


committee appointed by the Winchester lodge No. 121 of the I. O. O. F. that 
the said lodge (upon the Second story of the public building now in con- 
templation of being built on the public square in the town of Winchester) be 
permitted at the entire expenses of said lodge to furnish and carry up the 
wall for a third story and in every respect as to said Story to furnish steps 
and make floor for said third Story and in every respect as to said third 
story to furnish and finish the same Excepting the roof and materials for the 
same and the cornish thereof, the lodge agrees to defray one third the 
expense of roof & cornish. It is also agreed that the said commissioners 
secure in some proper way the quiet and uninterrupted enjoyment of said 
third story for a Lodge room for said order so long as the order may desire 
it and free ingress and egress to the same. 
Read and signed in open Court. 
And the Board adjourned till the ist Monday in March. 

George W. Vanderburgh, 
Nathaniel Kemp, 
Thomas Aker."" 

With this agreement between the county commissioners and the trustees 
of the I. O. O. F., the county commissioners advertised for the letting of the 
contract to build said building and on Saturday, March 8, 1856: 

"The Board of County Commissioners proceeded to let the building of 
the public offices and received sealed proposes according to the advertisement 
and the building of the brick work was awarded to Benedict Feathers at the 
sum of $1,316.00; the carpenters and joiners work was let to Thomas Best 
& Co., for the sum of $744.00 and the plastering of the offices was let to 
Micaijh Puckett for the sum of $210.00 and bond was given by these parties 
to faithfully perform the work." 

April 15, 1856, it was: "Ordered by the Board that Moorman Way, 
Esquire, be and he is hereby appointed the Special Agent for Randolph 
County to visit Dayton, Cleveland, and Cincinnati, Ohio (if necessary) and' 
there to contract for Stone, Iron and Iron Doors and fixtures necessary to 
the erection of the County offices of said County, now under contract for 
building. Said Moorman Way is empowered by this, his said appointment, 
to make all the purchases of said material, which said material shall be paid 
for out of the County Treasury of said County in cash on the ist monday in 
June, 1856." 

At this time the commissioners also located the building as follows : 

"Now, at this time the Board of County Commissioners located the site 


for the County offices on the following described portion of the public Square, 
towit : to be set 30 feet from the north wall of the Court House the east side 
of said offices to be in line with the east wall of the Court House and to be 
laid out and built north of said first line towards Washington Street and to 
front to the east." 

On May 19th, however, the commissioners changed their mind and it 
was ordered : 

"That the edifice about to be erected on the public square for the County 
offices be erected on the north side of the public square, commencing forty 
feet north of the north wall of the Court House to front with the east front 
of the court house and run north forty feet towards Washington street." 

On this same day : "The Board of County Commissioners sold to 
George Monks the present edifice occupied for offices of Auditor, Treasurer 
and Clerk for the sum of $100.00, payable in six months from date; the 
Board excepting the stone forming the foundation of said building and a 
book case in the east side of the Clerk's office." 

, It was evidently the intention of Mr. Monks to use the material of the 
old building in the new building but something must have gone wrong as in 
December of the same year the Commissioners ordered : 

"That Carey S. Goodrich be and he is hereby authorized to have and 
take possession of the edifice known as the old Clerk and Auditors office on 
the public square except the east case in said office and such pigeon holes as 
are not affixed to said building for the sum of $50.00 said edifice to be re- 
moved by the 15th of May next and that George Monks be released from his 
said contract heretofore made with the County Board pertaining to said 

But the building of the new office rooms north of the court house did 
not yet provide adequate room for the various offices of the county. It 
would have been enough had the old court house been secure. It seems that 
this building was never considered safe. The recorder was ordered to take 
the "Sons of Temperance Room" in 1853 and that organization was required 
to move. Tom Brown rented the grand jury room in 185 1 and various other 
rooms were rented in the old building but the people generally seemed to be 
somewhat afraid of it. 

In 1864 the county commissioners rented McKews hall for the purpose 
of holding the Common Pleas Court. They also rented a room of Moorman 
Way in which to hold the Circuit Court. Court was held in McKews hall until 
the 8th of January, 1866, when : 


"It is hereby Ordered by the Board, that the Room known and desig- 
nated as Locke's Hall in the third story of the building situated on the North- 
east corner of Washington and Meridian Streets in the town of Winchester, 
be and the same is hereby furnished to the County for all the uses and pur- 
poses of a Court Room, in lieu of the 'Old Court House' this day sold to the 
said John Ross by said Board." 

Concerning the purchase of the "old court house" the following entry 
is made : 

"The Board proceed to offer the said Court House & Privy for sale to 
the highest bidder and John Ross did then and there bid for the same the 
sum of three hundred and forty dollars and the said sum of $340 being the 
highest and best price bid for said property the same is openly struck of and 
sold to the said John Ross for said sum : . And he the said purchaser is to 
remove from ofif the Public Square said buildings and all the rubbish of same, 
taking care not to injure any of the public property of the County in the 
removal of said buildings or rubbish. He is also required to give his note 
with apjproved security waiving valuation and appraisement laws, to secure 
the payment when it becomes due of the above price. He the said John Ross 
thereupon makes and executes his promissory note, to secure the above sum 
which note is in the words and figures following — towit : 

S340.00 Winchester, Ind., January 8, 1866. 

Twelve months after date we or either of us promise to pay to W. E. 

Murray, Auditor of Randolph County, Indiana, the sum of Three hundred and 

forty dollars, for value received, waiving valuation and appraisement laws. 

This note is given to secure the payment of the price of the Court House and 

privy. Signed, 

John Ross, 
Wm. Daugherty, 
John B. Roberts. 
Filed with Trust Fund notes. 

Which said note and security is approved by the Board, and the said Board 
Order and direct that said old buildings be removed together with the rubbish 
from ofif the Public Square by the first day of July, 1866, to which the said 
purchaser agrees." 

As will be seen by this entry John Ross had purchased the old court 
house that day. This old building was torn down and the material useci to 


build the present three-story brick building on the northeast corner of Frank- 
lin and Main streets. 

Another contract was made in this location of the court room, March 
13, 1867, when the commissioners entered into an agreement for "Bradbury's 
Hall for Use of Courts"; on this day Mr. Bradbury leased to Randolph 
county for the term of three years the third story of the building situated 
on the west part of lot No. 9, north front, town of Winchester, county and 
state aforesaid, and for the sum of $200.00 per annum, commencing on the 
1st day of November 1866 and bound himself to provide said room with 
sufficient seats for court purposes : 

Said room not to be used for other than Court, xVgricultural, Religious 
and Political purposes." 

It will be noted that "McKews," "Locke's" and "Bradbury's" Halls is 
the same room. This hall was afterwards known as "Stone's Hall," and we 
find that March 10, 1869: 

"It is ordered by the Board that A. Stone is allowed one hundred fifty 
dollars in full of amount due and owing to him for rent of his Hall for Court 
room, and he by agreement releases the said Board of Commissioners from 
any further liability for rent for said room under the provisions of a contract 
with D. M. Bradbury made March 13, 1867. (See Comrs. Rec. No. 3 p. 


This contract was cancelled with Mr. Stone because the commissioners 
had on the 21st of December, 1868, purchased of George McAdams : "His 
undivided half in value of the property on the north side of the public square, 
Lots No. 8 and 9 in the north front known as the City Hall in the town of 
Winchester." The commissioners paid Mr. McAdams the sum of $4,000.00 
and received a warranty deed for said property and made the following entry 
concerning it: 

"And it is hereby ordered by the Board that said Hall or room known 
as "City Hall" situate on Lot Number Eight (8) (We^t part) and east part 
of Lot No. (9) Nine in the North Front of the town of Winchester in said 
County be and the same is hereby declared to be for the use of said County 
of Randolph for the purposes of a Court House in which to hold the Circuit 
and Common Pleas Court of said County, and for all other purposes for 
which a Court House is required." 

This room was used for court purposes until the present court house was 
occupied in 1876. 

On April i, 1876, Mr. W. D. Kizer, county auditor, sold the "city hall" 


to Mr. Chas. E. Magee for the sum of $3,075.00, "reserving the right to use 
and occupy the front room in the second story of the building on said real 
estate for one year free of rent, and the right to use and occupy the residue 
of said second story of the building on said real estate during the sessions of 
circuit court for one year free of rent." 

It had been evident for some time that it would be necessary to build 
a new court house and provisions were Ijegun for the same by levying a tax 
as early as 1870. It was the policy to accumulate a fund for that purpose so 
that the rate of taxation would not be so high when the building was actually 
constructed. Quite a sum of money, something like $35,000.00, had been 
accumulated for that purpose and in 1875 the county commissioners were, 
short sighted enough to refuse to make a levy for county purposes thus ex- 
hausting all the surplus and leaving the county without any funds whatever 
when it became necessary to build the new court house. It is said the com- 
missioners took this unwise step largely through personal reasons. 

April 8, 1875, the county commissioners held a special session, the fol- 
lowing of which are the minutes : 

"A special session of the Board of Commissioners of Randolph County, 
Indiana, was begun and held at the Auditors office of said County on Thurs- 
day April 8th, A. D., 1875, in pursuance to a summons duly issued on the 8th 
day of April 1875 by Wm. D. Kizer Auditor of said County, and Served by 
W. A. .Daly, Sheriff, due return whereof was made on said 8th day of April 
1875, by which it is shown that due service thereof was made. Present Philip 
Barger, F. G. Morgan and Thomas Clevenger, members of said Board. Wm. 
D. Kizer Auditor of said County, and Ex-Officio Clerk of said Board, and 
Wm. A. W. Daly, Sheriff of said County. The Board having under con- 
sideration the propriety of building a Court House for said County, and hav- 
ing duly deliberated thereon, adopt certain Plans and Specifications and order 
notice to contractors to be published, which is as follows, viz : 

Notice to Contractors and Builders. 

Auditors Office, Randolph County, Indiana. 

Winchester, April 8, 1875. 
Notice is hereby given that sealed proposals will be 'received by the 
Board of Commissioners of Randolph County Indiana, for the building of 
a county Court House, until June (i6th) Sixteenth 1875, at 12 o'clock M. 
noon, when the bids will be opened. The Commissioners reserve the right 
to reject any or all bids if considered for the best interest of the County. 


A bond signed by two responsible parties will be required to accompany the 
bid in the sum of Five Thousand Dollars that the bidder will enter into a 
contract and furnish sufficient and satisfactory bail if said contract is awarded 
him. Two setts of Plans and Specifications prepared by J. C. Johnson Archt, 
Fremont Ohio can be seen at the Auditors office in Winchester Randolph 
County, from April 14th, 1875, until the day of letting. The building to be 
commenced July ist, 1875, the foundation to be completed by November ist, 
1875, the building to be completed by April ist, 1877. All of the plans will 
be on file from and after June ist, 1875." 

Mr. J. C. Johnson was selected as architect and on June i6th, 1875, the 
following bids on plan No. i were received and bonded : 

On plan No. i, entire building except steam heating were received and 

G. W. Webster, $79,000.00 and $2,800.00. 

Christian Boseker, $73,231.31 and $4,100.00. 

G. W. Myers and M. A. Reeder, $80,000.00 and $3,444.00. 

J. W. Hinkley, $79,500.00 and $3,500.00. 

M. T. Lewman and W. W. Blankenship, $83,666.00 and $3,400.00. 

F. L. Farmer & Co., $88,295.00 and $4,500.00. 

A. G. Campfield, $73,000.00 and $4,300.00. 

Marcus Bossier, $81,807.00 and $3,878.00. 

Beaver & Butts, $76,065.00 and $3,330.00. 

Wm. Ballard for W. H. Ballard, $83,000.00. 

Miller Frayer & Sheets, $82,853.00 and $4,766.00. 

The contract was given to Aaron G. Campfield to build and erect said 
court house at the sum of $73,000.00. Mr. Campfield entered into contract 
with the commissioners on the 2nd day of June, 1875, and proceeded immedi- 
ately to the erection of the court house, which was built according to specifica- 
tions and completed and accepted by the county commissioners April i, 1877, 
at which time Mr. George Ennis was appointed janitor at a salary of $425.00 
per year. Mr. Ennis continued in this position faithfully until his death on 
the 2nd day of August, 1912, at which time Charles Puckett was appointed, 
serving until January i, 1914, when James A. Davis received the appointment. 

It no doubt seemed to the county commissioners that the present court 
house was sufficiently large to accommodate the public for an indefinite period 
but it fs now entirely too small and inadequate to meet the needs of public 
business. It seems strange that a building costing the amount that this one 
did should be built and no protection made against fire of any of the public 


recoixls and up to date no commissioners or county council has ever had the 
"back-bone" to provide the protection against so serious a loss. 

The attic of the present building is a mass of pine timber of the most 
inflammable kind, needing only a small start of flame to completely destroy the 

At this time, 1914, the question of remodeling the building is being agi- 
tated and it is to be hoped that such a splendid thing will in the very near 
future be accomplished. 

Were the records of the county to be destroyed the loss from such 
destruction could not be estimated in dollars and cents. The cost of repair 
of the court house would be a bagatelle in comparison to such loss. 


It has been noted in the earlier part of this chapter that the first jail 
built in the county was begun in 1818 and completed in 1820.. This jail is 
said to have had inter-locking corners and some of the people now living 
who remember seeing it say that it was a double wall but the records give no 
evidence of any such construction. Memory is a very treacherous affair and 
for that reason we are inclined to think that the specifications were followed 
literally and that it was to have had a wall made of logs hewn to 13 inches 

This building stood on the southwest corner of the present court house 
square east of the box-elder tree now growing there. This jail served its 
purpose well for many years and many desperate characters have been' securely 
kept in it, but like all materials the logs in time began to give way through 
age and decay until at last it is said that three prisoners escaped by digging 
their way through the rotten logs. This building stood until some time after 
December term of 1857 in which it was : 

"Ordered by the Board that William W. Smith be and he hereby is 
authorized to remove the old log County Jail off of the public square from 
where it now stands and to sell the iron now attached to said Jail and to pay 
the proceeds of said sale into the County Treasury and make report of his 
doing in the premises to the next term of this Board." 

The jail was removed by Mr. Smith to a lot just back of the present site 
of the A'Vinchester postoffice and was converted into a pig pen. 

December 6, 1856, the commissioners had provided for a new jail and 
ordered that : 

"Thomas Best and Moorman Way be and they are Hereby appointed by 


this Board to get up a plan and Specifications for a County Jail and for the 
purpose of enabling said Best and Way or either of them to give the best and 
most approved plan they or either of them are hereby authorized to visit the 
several prisons in the adjoining counties or adjoining state for the purpose of 
giving the most approved plan for said Building and make report of their pro- 
ceedings in the premises to the next term of this Board." 

The architects evidently did not get their plans and specifications as soon 
as the commissioners expected, but April 14, 1857, the following entry was 
made : 

"Now at this time the Board of County Comrs. had selected the site 
for, and on which to build a County Jail and Sheriff residence which building 
is to be set south of the Court House, and in line with the Court House and 
public offices, and to set forty feet south of the Court House and the east line 
or east front of said building to be set in line with the east line or east front 
of said Court House and public offices. The North east corner of said build- 
mg to set forty feet south of the southeast corner of the Court House and 
run south forty feet thence west thirty feet thence north forty feet thence 
east thirty feet to the place of beginning which building shall be two stories 
high with a permanent stone foundation. According to the specifications 
which may hereafter be adopted by the Board of Co Comrs." 

At a special session held April 29th a very peculiar state of affairs is 
shown when it was : 

"Ordered by the Board that Nathaniel Kemp and Thomas Aker be and 
they are hereby appointed and rec[uired to visit Dayton and Cincinnati for the 
purpose of employing a Mechanic and contracting with same for the building 
Iron Cells and the other necessary appendages to the County Jail And said 
Nathaniel Kemp and Thomas Aker report that they have attended to the same 
and make report of the following contract made and entered into by them 
with Cincinnati JNIechanic at the following terms and prices, etc." 

It will be observed that Mr. Kemp and Mr. Aker were two of the 
county commissioner .s at the time. 

The records have three and a half pages blank following this, hence it 
was evident that they intended to fill in terms and prices at some later time. 
The contract spoken of was made with Jacobs & Co., of Dayton, Ohio. 

It was not until the 2nd of May, 1857, that anything definite was done 
concerning the jail and we find at that time that it was : 

"Ordered by the Board that Nathan Garrett. Auditor of said County, 
give the Notice' to the Contractors for the Building of a County Jail and 


Sheriffs Residence as soon as the time can be fixed upon by Nathaniel Kemp 
& Moorman Way, said Notice to be given by Publication being made in the 
Randolph County Journal a weekly newspaper printed and published in Win- 
chester." , 

The advertisement was properly written and published and on the 15th 
day of June : the 

"Board of County Commissioners proceeded to receive the proposals of 
several mechanics for the erection of the County jail to be together with the 
sheriffs residence on the south part of the public square and after examining 
the several proposals the brick work was let to Benedict Feathers for the sum 
of fourteen hundred dollars it is therefore ordered by the Board that the 
Brick work be and is hereby let to Benedict Feathers for the said sum of four- 
teen hundred dollars and that said Benedict Feathers be required to give bond 
in the penal sum of twenty eight hundred dollars with sufficient free hold 
security to the acceptance by the Board. And after examination of the 
several proposals, the Carpenters work was let to Martin A. Reeder for- the 
sum of six hundred and twenty five dollars, and that said Martin A. Reeder 
be required to give bond in the penal sum of twelve hundred and fifty dollars 
with sufficient freehold security to the acceptance of the Board. And after 
examinations of the several proposals the plastering was let to A. D. and A. 
O. Neffs for the sum of one hundred and forty five dollars. It is therefore 
ordered by the Board that the plastering be and the same is hereby let to 
A. D. & A. O. Neff, for the sum of one hundred and forty five dollars and 
that said A. D. & A. O. Neff be required to give bond in the penal sum of 
two hundred and ninety dollars with sufficient freehold security to the accept- 
ance of the Board." 

This jail was completed in the spring of 1858. The commissioners were 
so well pleased with the work of Mr. Way that on March 3d, of that year 
they passed the following resolutions and ordered it to be "spread" upon the 
records of this Court : 

"W^hereas, the County Buildings being nearly completed and the services 
of Architect and Superintendent being no longer indispensible, therefore : 

Resolved, that the thanks of this Board be and hereby is tendered to 
Moorman Way Esqr for the faithful, efficient, and skillful manner in which 
he has discharged the trusts committed to him. 

Resolved, that Mr. Way be requested to present his claims for services 
rendered, at his earliest convenience to the Board, that the same may be 
passed upon and allowed. 


Resolved, that the Auditor be directed to present Mr. Way with a copy 
of the foregoing preamble and resolutions." 

Final settlement was made for the contract for this building on June 
17th, 1858. 

For the first time in the history of the county the sheriff was provided 
with a residence in connection with the jail and the sheriffs from that time 
on have lived with their families in the jail. 

This jail was peculiarly constructed in the interior. It had a walkaway 
around the cells. If prisoners were disposed to take advantage, they could 
make it very dangerous for the sheriff. 

This walk way extended around a room known as the "Jail Entrance." 

At one time three prisoners had planned to do violence to the deputy 
sheriff and inquired of Mrs. Ford, the sheriff's wife, if Mr. Ford was at 
home and upon being told that he was not, asked when he would return. 
Mrs. Ford answered that she did not know. This conversation did not in any 
way attract her attention, as such a conversation was usual, Mr. Ford being a 
popular man with the prisoners. 

On the evening of May 29th, 187 — , the day of the above conversation, 
Mr. Ford entered his room to put the prisoners in the cells and Mrs. Ford, 
as was the custom, stepped to the door to lock him in the "jail room," when, 
to her horror, she saw one of the prisoners, a man by the name of Dudley, 
strike Mr. Ford. Dudley was standing on this walk-way and had a small 
stick of wood attached to his string which was fastened around his wrist. 

Mr. Ford lived until the first day of the following January, when be 
succumbed to the influence of the blow. 

Prisoners were afterwards overheard to regret their action, as they had 
not intended to strike Mr. Ford, but had expected to strike the deputy. Being 
above him they could not tell which one was there. 

So far as we are able to learn this is the only case where a sheriff or any 
attendant has ever been injured in any way. 

At one time the jail itself was surrounded by a high board fence no doubt 
more to prevent prisoners seeing out and people seeing in than for any means 
of protection. It seems to have been a common playground for the children 
of Winchester at that time, as we have been told by a number of citizens of 
their playing in this enclosure and especially of being able to crawl under the 
building in playing hide and seek. 

At one time when some prisoners had escaped it was thought that they 
were in hiding under the jail and the story is told that Mr. Kb. Hall, a man 


who is fearless, was the only one who would agree to crawl under the building 
and endeavor to find them, and much to his 'satisfaction and that of his 
friends, no prisoners were there. 

It seems strange that in the records of the commissioner's court no men- 
tion has been made whatever concerning the Free and Accepted Masons, 
Winchester Lodge, No. 56, having built the third story of the building; how- 
ever, the fact remains that the building, instead of being situated with the 
length way north and south, it was east and west and the Winchester Lodge 
No. 56 built the third story the same as the Odd Fellows built the third story 
of the north building. 

The Masons occupied this room until the building was demolished, at 
which time, March 13, 1883, they sold their interest to the county for the 
sum of $500. 

The condition of the old jail became so wretched from every point of 
view that the grand jury in 1880 investigated and censured the commission- 
ers so severely for their allowing such a condition to exist in a civilized 
county that the commissioners took notice of it and at a special meeting of the 
board employed E. J. Hodgson, architect, January ist, 1881. Mr. Hodgson 
was to receive the sum of $600.00 for his services. On the first day of Febru- 
ary, 1 88 1, notice was served to contractors and builders that the commis- 
sioners would receive sealed proposals in the auditor's office in the town of 
Winchester, Randolph county, Indiana, until i o'clock p. m., Monday, the 
4Lh day of April, for furnishing material and labor required in the erection, 
construction and completion of a jail and sheriff's residence in the town of 

On April ist two of the commissioners, Elias F. Halliday and William 
R. Coggeshall, met in the commissioner's office, with R. V. Murray, sheriff, 
and George X. Edger, auditor, and received and opened bids which were as 
follows : 

William H. Meyers and Martin A. Reeder, for entire building $39,106.00 

J. W. Hinkley and James Noms, for entire building 37,500.00 

B. F Haugh, for entire building 37,000.00 

Aaron G. Campfield, for entire building 34,500.00 

After inspecting and examining the bids they let the contract to Mr. 
Campfield, who entered into contract with the commissioners to faithfully per- 
form the work in a skillful manner agreeable to the plans and specifications as 


filed in the auditor's office and gave bond for its completion, with Thomas M. 
Brown, D. E. Hoffman, C. E. Magee and Thomas Ward as bondsmen. 

On .the same day the commissioners entered into a contract with Martin 
A. Reeder for Lot No. seven (7) in the southeast square of the town of 
Winchester for the sum of $2,500.00. 

The contracts for the inside work of finishing the jail were let to other 
parties. The contract for tile floor was let to the United States Encaustic 
Tile Compan}^ for $225.00. The plumbing to J- & F. Niel, $1,350.00. Heat- 
ing and ventilating to H. M. Crane, Cincinnati, Ohio, for the sum of 
$1,156.00. The iron work to H. C. Hepburn and William Renschall, of 
Cleveland, Ohio, for $2,089.00. 

The material furnished by Messrs. Hepburn and Renschall was very 
unsatisfactory. May i6th, 1887, the board met and inspected the plate iron 
furnished for the floor and decided it was not of the kind and quality as 
provided for in the contract and specifications and condemned and rejected it 
and ordered the company not to put any of this iron in the jail building, and 
Tuesday, Ma}'' 24th, was set for the time of letting same, on which day they 
received but one bid, being that of William Fitzmaurice. Mr. Fitzmaunce's 
bid was for $3,100.00. 

"And the board having seen and inspected' siid bid and after due con- 
sideration did reject said bid." Two days later, however, Mr. Fitzmaurice 
filed another bid, as follows : 

"1, William Fitzmaurice, do hereby propose and offer to the board of 
commissioners of the county of Randolph to furnish all the material and 
labor and employments mentioned and described in the specifications as 
therein stated and required subject to all the conditions therein mentioned for 
the sum of $500.00, to be paid to me when same is done and accepted and 
approved by the board. Said work to be completed on or before July ist, 
1887." Which bid the commissioners accepted and promised to pay the same 
when the work was completed and accepted by the board. 

The jail, however, was soon completed and was at that time one of the 
most modern structures in the state. It has since that time borne the test put 
upon such buildings and at this time, 19 14, is satisfactory and a very good 
building. At different times grand juries have reported repairs of various 
kinds, which, fo'r the most part, have been made by the county commissioners. 



To care for the poor, to relieve the distressed, to sustain the unfor- 
tunate, and to aid those who, by misfortune or otherwise, are no longer 
able to care for themselves, has been a duty of society since the organization 
of man. No nation has ever been more attentive to this class of unfortunates 
than the United States, and nd state has ever done its part more willingly 
and heroically than Indiana, and we ihope that no county has responded to 
the needs of its unfortunates with more willingness and a greater degree of 
consideration than has Randolph county. It is true this county has been 
governed by state laws and has had to stay within the limits of its means 
and has no doubt at times seemingly fallen short of what it might otherwise 
have done, yet the records of the county are clear as to their having always 
responded to the needs of the poor. 

In the organization of the county a building was provided for the courts 
and offices. The jail was built to care for the criminals, and even a stray 
pen was maintained to care for the stock that had wandered away from its 
rightful domain, but no such provision was made for the poor. 

Each township had two overseers of the poor appointed and it was the 
duty of these men to look after the unfortunates in their respective town- 
ships in the early history, there being few people, the needs of the people 
being small and easily furnished, provisions being somewhat lalentiful, being 
charitable and hospitable and generous to a fault, the poor were cared for 
without any appeal to the public. 

The first recorded appointments of the overseers of the poor were 
made on June 6th, 1820, when we find: 

"Richard Beason and Mashack Luallen appointed overseers of the poor 
in Ward township. 

George Whitehouse and Captain Mackley appointed overseers of the 
poor in Wayne Township for one year. 

James Wright and John Balanger appointed overseers of the poor in 
White River Township for one year. 

Ephraim Overman and John Cammack appointed overseers of the poor 
in Greens fork township for one year. 

William Hunt and Jehue Jackson appointed overseers of the poor in 
West river township for one year." 

It is improbable that any appointments had been made previous to this 
time, as the machinery of government was only just starting at this time. 


Most of the people helped at this time lived in Greens fork and White 
River townships. This can easily be explained because most of the people 
lived in these townships. When it became necessary to care for an unfor- 
tunate person they were farmed out. The first entry we have of this is in 
the November term of 1826, when it was : 

"Ordered that the County Treasurer pay Curtis ' Clenney the sum of 
three dollars and 75 cents fof five days attending as overseer of the poor to 
farming out Levi Halle, a pauper in greensfork Township, and George T. 
Wilson $1.50 for two days attending to the same." 

It was further : "Ordered that the County treasurer pay Joseph Halle 
the sum of six dollars in part for Keeping and maintaining Levi Halle a 

The records have a great many such instances as this where people were 
farmed out and where people were paid for keeping their -own relatives. 
The county has had a few cases where people were kept by the county for 
a great many years. The Levi Halle spoken of was kept until he died, 
February 22, 1830, when it was : 

"Ordered that the County treasurer pay Abraham Reins the sum of 
$2.50 for making a coffin to inter Levi Halle a pauper, who deceased February 
22nd, 1830." 

Mr. Halle was, we take it, an average pauper of that time and we find 
that in May, 1829, he was "farmed out at $39.84 to Joseph Halle for the 
ensuing year." 

The bids were taken on paupers and the prices varied from $12.00 or 
$14.00 a year up to as high as $41.00 or $42.00, depending of course on the 
amount of help the pauper would be to the man bidding for him. 

Another noted case was that of Thomas Morris who was farmed out 
May 5, 1829, at $17.25 to Stanton Bailey for the ensuing year by Curtis 
Clenney and Travis Adcock overseers of the poor of Greensfork township. 
Mr. Morris is still found on the list in 1837 as having been farmed out at 
$60.00. How much longer he remained we do not know. 

A man by the name of James Bailey was put on the list as early as 1827. 
He was farmed out for the sum of $8.00 to Nancy Bailey, his wife. This 
was simply a way of keeping a man and his wife and the less decrepit of the 
two was given the contract of keeping the other, however, in later years, she 
was also paid for keeping a husband and a son. These people lived in West 
River township and were kept by the county for a great many years, in fact, 
in 1854 when the paupers were gathered from over the county and placed in 


the county infirmary we find, "paupers from West River township, are Nancy 
Bailey, Hiram Bailey and James Bailey." In June these same people were 
re-committed to their township which was Nettle Creek and were farmed out 
to Hugh Bailey for the sum, of $150.00 per year. We do not know how long 
they remained dependents on the county but we find that in September, 1859, 
they were returned to the poor asylum from Nettle Creek township. 

We mention these cases, not with the idea -of exploiting the unfortunate 
condition of any special one but to show the great lengths of time from which 
the county has at time extended this class of protection. In fact, there is a 
man living in the county today, 1914, who has been receiving public aid since 
1855 or for a period of almost sixty years. The county, however, is only 
doing its duty, and it is well that the county is able to so well take care of its 
unfortunates. Conditions in some parts of the state were such that the 
legislature was moved to pass a law in 1848 compelling counties to provide 
public i^laces wherein the unfortunate poor might have care and with this end 
in view, December 6th, 1850, it was: 

"Ordered by the Board that Robert Irvin Abraham Adams and Peter S. 
Miller be and they are hereby appointed Special Comrs to select and purchase 
a farm as near the County seat as can be procured taking into consideration 
price and quality, etc., the said farm so procured shall be kept and dedicated 
to the support of the poor of said County. Said Commissioners shall make 
report of their proceedings in the premises to the next term of this Board." 

March 7, 1851, it was: "Ordered by the Board that William A. Peele 
and David Heaston be and they are hereby appointed Trustees to Superin- 
tend and farm out the poor farm of the County to some suitable person and 
to see that the Paupers are Received on the said farm on the ist monday in 
may next & properly provided for and make report of their proceeding in 
the premises to next term of their Board." 

March 28th Messrs. Peele and Heaston were authorized to procure horses 
and wagon and necessary stock and utensils for farming the poor farm of 
said county, as was always the case were to make report at the next meeting. 
This they proceeded to do by buying a "horse beast" of Acil Stone for $50.00, 
a "horse beast" of Samuel Ludy for $59.93, a "waggon" of Henry Lipp 
for $65.00, "goods, wares and merchandise" of Best & Way, $46.76, the same 
of Thos. Ward, $32.58, the same of D. J. Cottom, $8.76, "goods" of Zimri 
Moffett $3.46, plow of Pleasant Diggs, $10.50, harness of Sol Yunker, $7.12, 
"single trees" John Way $2.75, chairs, Lewis Walker $10.00, harrow, Thomat. 
Butterworth $1.75, oats, James Forsythe $4.00, tinware James O. Dormer 


$2.48, potatoe plants David Wysong, 75 cents, bed steads William Allen 
$47.50, necessary articles William H. Fitzgerald $90.17 and so the poor farm 
was started and equipped. 

William Fitzgerald was selected as the first keeper and his term was to 
expire March i, 1852. 

At this time an inventory was made of the property when it was found 
that the county had property to the value of $1,813.10. We are inclined to 
think, however, that some of the property was appraised rather high as we 
find one table, $10.00; three tubs, $4.50, and other things in proportion. 

At the end of that year Mr. Fitzgerald reports having thirteen inmates 
and "here further reports that,none of said paupers are able to perform labor, 
being all very old, very young, weak minded or diseased and that he has 
realized nothing from their industry." He further reports that expenses 
for maintaining his own family and said paupers to be $214.72)4. 

There was no building of any consequence on this farm. The commis- 
sioners met on the loth day of July, 1852, for the purpose of receiving specifi- 
cations and bids for the building of a poor house for the accommodation of 
the paupers when the following order was made : 

"Ordered by the Board that the following plan be and the same is hereby 
adopted by the Board for the Building of a House on the poor Asylum of 
said County for the accommodation of the paupers at said Asylum. The 
house shall be sixty feet long and forty feet wide and twelve feet high. A 
main Hall ten feet wide and sixty feet long through the center of the building 
And a second hall through the center of the building from east to west six 
feet wide and forty feet long, etc. And it is therefore further ordered by 
the Board that Thomas Best or Asahel Stone be and they are hereby appointed 
to draw the draft and furnish specifications for the erection of said building 
and furnish the same to this Board on Saturday the 17th instant by 12 

Mr. Stone made the plans and was -paid $"'io.62>4 for the same. 

In March, 1853, the building' was built by a Joseph Johnson and was ac- 
cepted by the commissioners December 20, 1852, at which time, however, they 
reserved $50.00 until the "painting and whitewashing" is completed. 

In 1853 Mr. Fitzgerald reports having sixteen inmates, to wit: 7 white 
males, 3 white females, 2 black males, 4 black females. He further reports 
that: "all said paupers in said asylum are either from age, infirmity or 
youth unable to perform much manual labor." 

The first loss of the county by fire occurred on the 25th of January, 1854, 


when the "poor asylum" was destroyed. The commissioners found "that 
the paupers of said County are in a destitute condition" and ordered that the 
township overseers of the poor be instructed to care for the paupers from the 
several townships. White River and Greensfork townships were the only 
townships having inmates 'in the asylum at this time. For some reason the 
commissioners ordered : "that the personal property appertaining to the poor 
asylum and belonging to said County be exposed to public sale to the highest 
bidder on the 3rd day of March, next, on the poor farm of said County" 
and the business of the county infirmary was practically closed for a year. 
They, however, proceeded, immediately, to the construction of a new build- 
ing and March 11, 1854, Thomas Best was "employed to make a draft 
and specifications for the Building an Asylum on the poor farm." Mr. Best 
was authorized to visit several asylums and to "adopt a Most Convenient plan 
for the accommodation of the inmates and for the family of the Superintend- 
ant." The auditor was instructed to advertise . for sealed proposals at the 
next term of the commissioners' court on said building. This duty was per- 
formed and on April 17th the commissioners received sealed proposals for 
the building and let the contract to Joseph Johnson for the sum of $5,950.00 
upon condition that the building be completed by May i, 1855. Mr. Johnson, 
evidently, did not succeed very well in his building as on May 7, 1855, the 
commissioners met in a special meeting: "visiting the poor asylum of said 
County and receiving said asylum and superintending the reception of the 
paupers from several townships in said County and to do and transact such 
other and further business as the interests of the said County may require. 
Present, the Honorable Andrew Devoss, George W. Vanderburg and 
Nathaniel Kemp, lEsqs., members of said Board and after visiting the said 
asylum they find the same unfinished and do not receive the same." 

The matter continued with more or less quibbling for almost a year and 
finally Ernestus Strohm was "appointed to furnish material to complete the 
County asylum of said County as near as can be done on the original plan and 
to be governed by the specifications if they can be obtained." Mr. Strohm 
completed the work. 

Final settlement was made with Mr. Johnson September 6, 1856. The 
following entry concerning which is made : 

"Now at this time the Board of County Comrs. settle with Joseph John- 
son and it is approved by and between the Board of County Comrs and the 
said Joseph Johnson that in consequence of said Joseph Johnson indemnifying 
said Board with bond and security approved by said Board to hold said County 


harmless of supposed leins filed against said Johnsons dues or claims against 
said County, and said Bond being by said Johnson given with Jere Smith 
his security the Board Order the Auditor to Issue to said Johnson, Orders to 
the amount of two hundred and eighty six dollars and thirty four cents, the 
Balance due said Johnson after deducting the amount necessary to finish the 
said Johnson undertaking with said County," etc. 

This building served its purpose with more or less efficiency for a number 
of years but as the population of the county increased the needs of a better 
equipment at the poor farm correspondingly increased. Matters went on in 
their usual way with more inmates being committed from year to year and 
no additional accommodations being provided for. 

During the administration of Mr. Hall matters became such that it 
attracted the attention of the public and grand jury after grand jury reported 
after having visited the institution that the needs were wholly inadequate to 
the necessity. Public pressure finally became so strong that in 1899 the com- 
missioners, William Horn, Adam Slonaker and Thomas H. Clark, contracted 
with W. F. Kaufman, architect, Richmond, Indiana, January 19, 1899, "to 
furnish a complete set of drawings, specifications and all detail drawing re- 
quisite and necessary to erect a County Infirmary on the present infirmary 
farm in Randolph County, State of Indiana." Mr. Kaufman was also to act 
as the superintendent of the erection of such building. Mr. Kaufman 
furnished the plans and specifications which were adopted by the board and. 
left in the auditor's office for the use of persons bidding on said proposed 
work which was to be completed on or before October i, 1899. Mr. Kauf- 
man evidently finished his plans as he was paid $600.00 on the same on March 
9, 1899. Just why all bids were not received sooner and contract let is not 
known but it remains a fact that they were not received and opened until 
March 19, at which time the following bids were received : Joseph Shetterly, 
$34,373.00; J. M. Hagerman, $36,290.00; A. G. Campfield, $34,900.00, and 
W. H. Kreep, $34,950.00. The bid of Mr. Shetterly was considered best and 
was accepted and contract was awarded to him. The time of completion was 
extended to November i, 1899. 

Much dissatisfaction arose during the construction of the building as to 
the quality of the material and the work that was allowed to be put into the 
building. Many additional items of expense were also added, making the 
final cost of the building somewhere near $40,000.00. The building is, how- 
ever, splendidly arranged and with the additions and conveniences, that have, 
in recent years, been added, it is now considered a model infirmary. 


Tt should no longer be called a "poor farm" but should rather be called 
"home for the poor.'" With the character of the superintendent and matron 
of recent years it has indeed been a home for the unfortunates who have 
found it necessary to be there. It would be a shame for it to be otherwise 
in such a county a- ours with its wealth, intelligence and high degree of 

In the meantime, January 15, 1855, ]Mr. Simon Gray had been appointed 
to succeed ^Ir. Fitzgerald as the superintendent of the asylum. 

It is interesting to know at this time that bids were taken and that the 
position of Superintendent of the poor asylum was let to the bidder, usuall}^ 
the lowest, who suited the commissioners best. Mr. Gray took the place on 
the following conditions : 

"I do hereby agree to superintend and take care of the poor asjdum of 
Randolph County for one year for four hundred dollars. Furnish 2 horses and 
A wagon and gears and .Six cows, Alyself and \Mfe and one girl ten years 
old and one other woman part of the time, board oursehes and stock till the 
first of Ma)-, 3 beds, 6 chairs, dishes sufficient for our own use and other 
apparatus too tedious to mention." Signed, Simon Gray. 

A\"hereupon the commissioners entered into contract with Air. Gray. 
He giving bond in the sum of fifteen hundred dollars for his faithful perform- 
ance as .such superintendent. January 21, 1856, Mr. Gray submitted two 
propositions to the county commissioners, the first being: 

I do hereb}- agree to take care of the Randolph County poor asylum 
for one year and furnish three horses and gears, one waggon, 5 milk cows, 
Myself and wife and one girl eleven 3'ears old for S400.00, furnish our own 
bedding and "clothes and the increase of all stock to be mine." The second 
was : "I will furnish three horses and gears and one Waggon 5 milk cows 
and 12 or 15 head of sheep and let you (the County) have all the increase 
and profits of all the Stock and furnish labor as before for the sum of 
S450.00. ' The last proposition was accepted by the Commissioners. 'Sir. 
Gray entered into contract, giving bond as before, with Thomas W. Coats as 
his security. 

The next year the Commissioners employed Jeremiah Cox as superin- 
tendent after they had examined se\-eral bids which were submittd. yir. 
Cox submitted the following proposal : "to render his aid and wife and 
four children, two boys, oldest 10 years, youngest nine, two girls, oldest 
seven years, youngest five years old and to find clothing and bedding for the 
comfort of his familv and to furnish the use of two work horses. Harness 


and a two horse Waggon, One two horie plow, one Shovel plow, and the use 
of four milk cows with the increase to be left on the farm and the use of onu 
cook stove with other cooking utensils all the above mentioned for the term 
of one year for the sum of $200.00, prosal made this 3 day of January, 1857.'' 
Signed, Jeremiah Cox. 

The commissioners entered into a contract with Mr. Cox, he giving his 
bond for $1,000.00 with Silas Gray and Nathan Cox as security. 

Evidently the commissioners begun to think the cost of the poor farm 
was unwarranted as in December, 1857, they ordered the auditor to make a 
report of "the whole cost of taking care of paupers of said County at the 
County asylum for the years A. D. 1855, 1856, 1857, including physicians 
salary, superintendents salary, and incedental expenses appertaming to this 
end." They further ordered the auditor : "Ordered by the Board that the 
Auditor be and he is hereby required to give notice by having publication 
made for three weeks successively in the Randolph County Journal of the 
letting of the County Asylum for the next in coming year to the lowest re- 
sponsible bidder, which letting will be at the Court House in Winchester on 
Friday the 15th day of January A. D. 1858. The Board reserving the right 
to decide of the manner proposed, the amount each bidder will undertake to 
furnish, etc., etc., or perform the duties rec[uired of him according to his 
particular bid." 

These bids were received January 15, 1858, and the commissioners 
entered into a contract with Mr. Thomas McConochy, Mr. McConochy giving 
bond with Elias Kizer having "appeared in open Court and offered himself 
as security for the performance of said Thomas McConochy." Mr. Mc- 
Conochy was to receive "the sum of two hundred dollars and seventy-five 
cents to do all the necessary labor in the house and on the farm, without any 
expense from the County, to furnish two horses and gears, and one wagon 
and one milk cow and furnish my beds and bedding for my own family my 
family in number is four, myself. Wife and two children, one boy eight years 
old and a girl eleven years old." 

During the first year of Mr. McConochy's term an incident occurs which 
shoAvs the spirit of the earl)- Society of Friends. The minutes of this trans- 
action are self-explanatory and show the spirit with which that society 
practiced the teachings of the Master. 

"This Memorandum is to certify I, the undersigned, on behalf of the 
poor Committee of White Water Monthly meeting of the Society of Friends 
in the County of Wayne and State of Indiana do hereby Obligate myself to 


pay to Thomas McConochy Superintendent of Randolph County poor house 
on or before the ist day of 2nd Mo. (February) 1859 The sum of Seventy 
Dollars, being for the purpose of assisting to keep and support Samuel David- 
son who is now an inmate of said poor house for Two years past & which two 
years.will expire at that time, and if said Davidson should not live to the end 
of the time above specified a deduction at the rate of thirty five dollars a year 
is to be made from this obligation for the unexpired time. 
8 mo. 13th 1858. Jeremiah Hadley. 

"And it is further agreed and confirmed between us that the said poor 
committee above referred to is to pay yearly for the same purpose to the 
superintendent of the above poor house the sum of thirty five dollars, to be 
paid on the ist day of the 2nd month of each that said Davidson in said poor 
House after the expiration of the time above mentioned in the above obliga- 
8th mo. 13, 1858. Jeremiah Hadley, 

Thomas McConochy Supf 

Mr. Davidson died during the year and Mr. Hadley paid $70.00 to Mr. 
McConochy who acknowledged the receipt of the same March 9, 1859. 

Mr. McConochy was employed again January, i860, for the period of 
one year. He was to receive $350.00 but in addition to his regular work 
agreed to "re-roof the barn, re-set all the fences on the farm that needs it & 
clear up a piece of groimd in the south field on the west side of the State 
road, & put gates where they are needed and make a blind ditch eighteen rods 
long in the field east of the house." 

December 6th, i860, the commissioners received the proposition to super- 
intend the poor asylum from Elias Kizer. Mr. Kizer had been a very promi- 
nent man in the history of the county for some years, having served as road 
supervisor, road viewer, juror and county commissioner seven years. That 
Mr. Kizer was "onto the game" and understood public pulse is shown by the 
character of the proposal that he submitted to the commissioners. Evidently 
Mr. Kizer knew some of the unfavorable conditions existing at the time 
which he hoped to rectify. His proposition upon which he was hired is 
such that we feel justified in giving it in full : 

"Elias Kizer on proposition to Superintend Poor Asylum &c. 

Winchester, Dec. 6th, i860. 
To the honorable board of County Commissioners : 

I propose to undertake the Poor asylum & farm for the coming year 


in Randolph County Indiana. I will furnish team, wagon, plows, & hands 
sufficient to do all the work on the farm & in the house, & not keep any more 
hands than are really needed; the family shall be small so as to make the 
expenses light, as possible on the "County. As for my extras on my table I 
will account for them to the County outside of what the paupers have to live 
on. I will be accountable for all neglect on my part. Likewise I will make 
all the shoes or have them made for the paupers, the County just paying for 
the leather, mending likewise, And I will keep the farm in good repair, & 
leave it in the same. This you may be the judges of yourself es. I will do 
all the dealing that is necessary for the use of the paupers, & keep a correct 
account & report to you every three months if required. N. B. I will fur- 
nish my own beds and clothing. 

This labor is worth five hundred dollars per year, but if you think it 
too much, anything between that & three hundred I will be satisfied with. 
I leave this with you for I think you to be reasonable men & know what is 
reasonable & wright, & if I don't perform the labor according to contract, I 
don't want anything for it. I do this for the good of the County. 

N. B. I will give no meals victuals away, uless" I charge myself with 
it at 25 cts per meal. Thiss I will account to the County for; this is wright 
and just. 

This I submit to your honorable body. 

(Signed) Elias Kizer. 

We the Board of County Commissioners accept the proposition of 
Elias Kizer. He is therefore appointed to superintend the poor asylum & 
farm for one year commencing Feb. ist 1861 and ending Jan. 21st 1869. 

Read and signed in open court and the Board adjourned till Saturday 
morning, usual hour. H. K. Wright, 

C. F. Alexander." 

Mr. Kizer made good and was again employed in 1862 under the propo- 
sition that, "I will superintend the whole matter that I have done for the sum 
of $500.00 for the year and of course do the best I can for the County. I 
will make the expenses as low as possible, doing the land justice, also the 
paupers." Mr. Kizer was again employed in 1863, this time for $550.00. 
The County to pay for medical attendance and medicine. Mr. Kizer was 
again employed in 1864 for the sum of $600.00. "The County to pay for all 
repairs and Smith work, furnish plows and farming implements, Kizer to pay 
the Doctors bills except in extreme cases and the County to pay for all medi- 


cine. The farm to be kept in as good order or better than it now is." Again 
in January, 1865, ]\Ir. Kizer was employed for the year for the sum of 
$700.00. This time he went into the following agreement : "I will do the 
Very best for the County and the Paupers ieaving all I Make on the Farm at 
the end of the Year Except What I take to the farm of my own property." 

The Commissioners were called together January 8, 1866, to consider, 
among other things, "proposals to take charge of the poor asylum for the 
ensuing year." We. do not know how many proposals were offered or by 
whom but the one accepted was made by Jonathan Edwards for the sum oi 
$500.00. The county, "to pay the expenses of all necessary repairs Black- 
smithing, making or re-setting fences, making rails, and necessary to protect 
crops, etc. Said Edwards to keep up all the repairs of his own property at 
his own expense." Mr. Edwards filed bond for $500.00 with Hamilton 
Edwards as security. ]\Ir. Edwards was again employed in 1867 for $500.00. 

Competition .seems to have been lively for 1868 as proposals were re- 
ceived from Jonathan Edwards, James Shaw, John W Bragg, Xathan 
Fiddler, W'm. .\. W. Dah-, Andrew J. Aker, Daniel ]\IcConochy. The pro- 
posal of Jonathan Edwards was accepted after, "the Board having seen and 
inspected the several proposals." Air. Edwards this year was to receive 
$500.00 the same as the year before. The special December term, December 
30, 1868 proposals were received from Amos Hall, Joseph Kemp, Joseph 
Kelly, Nathan Fiddler-, Daniel Barnes, David AlcConochy, Urias Davis, 
Sampson Summers and Charles AI. Stine, the proposal of Air. Hall was 

Air. Hall's contract was more liberal than any that had preceded and tor 
the first time in the history of the county the county agreed to furnish the 
superintendent, "with the assistance of a Matron for said Asylum to assist in 
the management of affairs pretaining exclusively to the health and comfort 
of the paupers and the preparation of their food and who is to perform her 
duties under the direction of the Superintendent and to be included with, and 
considered as a member of his family." The last condition was one very 
easily met from the fact that the superintendent's wife serves as the matron 
as spoken of in the contract. 

Air. Flail served the county for a great many years. In 1873 he received 
the sum of $800.00 for one year from the ist day of February, 1874, with the 
privilege oi keeping the same for one year more on the same terms and 
conditions. Air. Hall did this and in 1875 was hired outright for two years 
from the ist day of Februar)', 1876. Airs. Hall again serving as matron 
and was to receive $130.00 a year. 


In December, 1S77, proposals were again submitted by Amos Hall, 
Madison Hill, Wm. Smith, H. T. Study, Lemuel Grimes, Marion Harter, 
Samuel Witter, C. M. Stine, James Edwards, Samuel Bright. The proposal 
of Mr. Hill was considered "the best and most satisfactory bid for such 
services and was accepted." He was to receive $650.00 for one year from the 
1st day of February, 1878. Mrs. Hill also to serve as matron. Mr. Hill 
served for one year only when Mr. Hall was again employed for one year 
from the ist day of February, 1879, with the privilege of keeping the same 
for one year more for $600.00 per year. 

The commissioners at this time attempted to stop an abuse which had 
crept into the management of the poor farm when they put into Mr. Hall's 
agreement, "that in no case shall the paupers or inmates of said asylum be 
taken from the farm to perform labor for others." Mr. Hall entered into 
contract and gave Simon Ramsey and John R. Philips as security on his bond. 

Mr, Hall was again chosen in December, 1880, for $700.00 per year 
from the ist day of February, 1 881 with the privilege of keeping the same one 
year more on the same terms. Mr. Hall again contracted in December, 1882, 
for $750.00 per year for one year with the privilege of keeping it two years. 
December 10, 1884, Mr. Hall again contracted at $800.00 for one year with 
the privilege of one year longer on the same terms. December, 1886, Mr. 
Hall contracted for $800.00 per year for one year with the privilege of con- 
tinuing the contract for one year on the same terras. Mr. Hall again con- 
tracted January 8, 1889 for $800.00, payable quarterly for one year with 
the privilege of continuing one year longer or until February i, 1891, at 
which time Mr. Hall is again employed under the same conditions as before 
for one year with the privilege of continuing until February i, 1893. 

On the loth day of December, 1892, the commissioners received pro- 
posals from Henry T. Study, Amos Hall, Uriah Davis, Elisha Thompson 
and after due consideration accepted the bid of Henry T. Study and entered 
into contract with him for the sum of $800.00. Mr. Study was to "take 
possession of said poor asylum on the ist day of February, 1893, and it was 
mutually agreed and understood that this contract shall begin and be in force 
from and after the ist day of February, 1893, ^"d shall continue in force 
until the first day of February, 1894." Mr. Study was also given the privi- 
lege of extending the time one year. 

December 12, 1894, Messrs. Study and Hall again put bids before the 
commissioners, Mr. Hall's bid being accepted. Mr. Hall was again em- 
jjloyed for $800.00 per annum for one year with the privilege of continuing 


one year and executed his bond with T. F. Moorman, J. W. Macy and Ed I.* 
Brown security. Mr. Hall again contracted December 15, 1898, for $800.00 
for one year with the privilege of continuing two, or until February i, 1901. 
Mr. Hall, however, was not permitted to serve the entire time of his con- 
tract as death relieved him of his long service to the county and on the morn- 
ing of February 15, 1900, the last respects were paid to him by his many 
friends and on that day the commissioners made the following entry : "No 
business was transacted to enter of record and the Board adjourned until 
tomorrow morning on account of the funeral services of Amos Hall, superin- 
tendent of the County Infirmary." Mr. Study was selected in Mr. Hall's 
place to take possession the 6th of March, 1900, and to continue until the 31st 
day of August, 1901. 

Mr. Study was again employed June 18, 1901, for $978.00 for a period 
of two years, the contract to end the 31st day of August, 1903. 

June I, 1903, the commissioners began a new policy of no longer taking 
bids or proposals but elected otherwise. "The Board proceeded to the elec- 
tion of Superintendent of County Infirmary. Roy Ford receiving the 
majority of votes cast was declared elected as such Superintendent for a 
period of two years and that he received a sum of $978.00 per year for the 
services as such Superintendent and also the services of his wife as matron 
of said infirmary.'' Mr. Ford, however, remained but one term, as on the 
4th of June, 1905, the commissioners entered into contract with Henry C. 
Hull for a period of two years begiiming September i, 1905, at $1,200.00 per 

Mr. Hull continued as superintendent until March i, 1914. Mr. Hull, 
it is said, is the only superintendent who has ever been able to make the poor 
farm self-sustaining. 

March i, 1914, Mr. Hull was succeeded by Henry Judy, who had been 
elected January i, 1914, for a period of four years at the consideration of 
$1,500.00 per annum. 


The matter of medical aid for the poor of the county has been one that 
has attracted a great deal of attention and been given a great deal of serious 
thought throughout the entire history of the county. 

In the earlier day bids were received on this the same as the other care 
of the poor and oftentimes it was not the skill or the success of the physician 
that determined the matter but rather the man that had the lowest bid. Too 


often the pauper has been considered a pubhc care to be gotten rid of with 
the least possible attention and expense. Thanks to civilization that time has 
passed and today the unfortunates receive the same medical care as those of 
their more fortunate brothers. 

One of the first contracts let in the county was in 1857 when Dr. George 
W. Bruce was "employed as a physician for the County Asylum and Physician 
for County Jail for the ensuing year at $25.00 per year as per contract. Said 
physician to find his own medicine and drugs." 

In 1858 Mr. John E. Beverly was appointed "physician and surgeon" for 
county asylum and for county jail and the poor of White River Township for 
one year from this date, the said Beverly to furnish out of his own cost all 
medicine, ointment, drugs, oils, etc., for the sum of one hundred dollars for 
the term aforesaid. 

In 1861 Dr. A. F. Teele was given the contract at $50.00 per year, he to 
furnish all medicine, drugs, etc. 

Matters went on in this way until 1870, the law was changed whereby 
the paupers were to have the physician of their own choice which worried 
some of the county commissioners quite a little. It must be said, to the ever- 
lasting disgrace of some of these men, especially about 1876, that instead of 
considering the bill of physicians or any bill relative to the poor as they would 
any other bill the commissioners upon the insistence of one of their number 
would refuse to allow the bill of the physician. It is said on good authority 
that when a bill was presented these commissioners, this commissioner would 
say to the others, "now let's each one of us mark to see how much we shall 
pay," whereupon each would go into one corner of the room with his back 
towards the others, for fear they might watch him, and would mark some 
amount considerably below what the physicians had asked. This of course 
naturally led to abuses and people making claims would put their claims con- 
siderably higher than they otherwise would be because they knew of the 
unbusinesslike habits of the commissioners at that time. But this custom died 
with the expiration of this man's term of office and since that time this branch 
of the business has been conducted along business-like principles. 

Some of the men who have acted in the capacity of county physicians 
have been : J. J. Evans, Bruce & Harrison, H. P. Franks, N. D. Berry, H. 
H. Yergin, J. S. Berry, David F. Orr, A. H. Farquhar, J. S. Blair, Pleasan'- 
Hunt, Aaron G. Rogers, W. A. Rickard, James V King, T. W. Botkin, G. 
W. Bruce, C. M. Kelley, Franks & Trent, E. T. Bailey, John F. Kinney. J. 
L. McShirley, R. Bosworth, G. C. Baldwin, N. E. Ross, J. L. Conti, Gran- 


ville Reynard, Cyrus Cox, Amos R. Ballard, L. E. White, James K. White, 
D. M. Carter, W. D. Simmons, W. S. Shoemaker, A. F. Huddleston, G. C. 
Markle, J. H. Moroney and E. W. Rine. 

Another interesting item concerning the care of the paupers has been 
the burial expenses; this expense has constantly increased. In 1843 coffins 
cost $2.50; 1847, $5.00; 1848, $6.50; 1857, $8.00 and so on until $30 at the 
present time. 

orphans' home. 

The responsibility of caring for the unfortunate poor has been one of 
the greatest ever placed upon local government. This responsibility carries 
with it the caring for both adults and children. Adults being more or less- 
able to care for themselves at least being past the formative period of life 
are not so difficult to care for as are the children. Indeed, the task of caring 
for and rearing the children of the unfortunate poor has been a Herculean 

The state appreciated that it must be responsible for the intellectual and 
moral elements of the children as well as the mere physical. Children have 
been cared for by the state in two ways. First : By being bound out to 
serve as apprentices, which we shall speak of later on, and second: by being 
cared for until homes could be found for them. Formerly, these children 
were kept at the infirmary, under all the evil influences that would necessarily 
arise from associating with such an indiscriminate people as would naturally 
be found there. It must be expected that all classes of people would be found 
in the county infirmary. The county cared for these children the best they 
could under the circumstances but no one has ever claimed that any of the 
finer elements of society could possibly be inculcated in children under such 

The commissioners, during the course of years, recognized this and 
established a home for the children to which the children of indigent poor 
were taken. Mrs. John D. Howard was selected by them as the matron. 
This was a wonderful step in advance of what had been done prior to that 
time but it remained for a citizen of the county to present the final solution 
of the problem and strange to say the problem was solved By a man who had 
no immediate responsibilities toward childhood. This gentleman, Mr. James 
Moorman had, long before his death, determined to provide a home for chil- 
dren and wrote his will in accordance with that plan. Mr. Moorman became 
incapable for caring for his business affairs long before his death. The will 
was opened by the judge of the circuit court and the policy of Mr. Moorman 


anticipated. This led to the estabHshment of what is known as the James 
Moorman Orphans" Home, provided for in the following will : 


"Item I. I give and devise the North east Quarter of section twenty 
four (24) in Township Twenty (20) North, of Range thirteen. (13) east 
and all that part of the south east quarter of section thirteen (13) in said 
Township Twenty North of Range Thirteen (13) east which is south of 
the Indianapolis and Belief ontaine Railroad and west of the gravelpit owned 
by the town of Winchester Randolph County, Indiana said lands lying and 
being in Randolph County, Indiana to the Board of Directors of the Orplians' 
Home of Randolph County, Indiana in trust, however, for the purposes here- 
inafter set forth and I hereby appoint the following Board of Directors 
of the Orphan's Home to be located on lands above bequeathed, Nathan 
Cadwallader, of Union City, John A. Moorman, of Farmland, Davis Kitsel- 
man of Ridgeville, Clements F. Alexander of Spartansburg and Nathan 
Reed of Winchester and all of said Board of Randolph Comity and State of 

Said Orphan's Home to be under their care and management or the 
care management of their successors in office said Home being for the 
benefit of the Orphans of Randolph County that are under the age of four- 
teen years, children not born in the County being required to be two years 
a resident of the County before they can become an inmate of the Home and 
it is my will and I hereby direct that said Board of Directors or their suc- 
cessors in office retain said lands and premises intact as above described and 
that no part thereof be sold or otherwise disposed of and so improve and 
use the same as shall best secure the benefit of a Home thereon and a sup- 
port and education therefrom to the Orphans of Randolph County under the 
age of fourteen years. I append further on in said Will certain general 
Rules for the government of said Home, leaving however to the above named 
Board of Directors, Nathan Cadwallader, John A. Moorman, Davis Kitsel- 
man. Clements F. Alexander and Nathan Reed on their organization the 
adoption of such special rules as do not conflict with General Rules. 

Item 2. I further give devise and bequeath to the above named Board 
of Directors and their successors in office, as a Trust Fund to be used as 
hereinafter directed the sum of Ten Thousand ($10,000.00) Dollars. It 
is my will and I hereby direct that said sum of Ten Thousand ($10,000.00) 
Dollars be loaned on real estate secured by first mortgage on lands showing 


clear title by abstract said lands to be of three times the value of the loaii 
secured thereby. Said money to be loaned on farms if possible but if in 
cities then only on business rooms, the ground value of which equals the loan 
and the borrower to have a Fire Insurance policy in a Company designated 
by said Board of Directors of the Home as their Mortgage Interest may ap- 
pear the Interest on said loans to be paid semi-annually at such place as mort- 
gagee designates to the Board of Directors or Treasurer thereof of their suc- 
cessors in office and it is my will th^t the Interest that may arise from the 
Ten Thousand Dollars be applied for the support and education of the 
Orphans of Randolph County under the age of fourteen years as herein- 
after directed and it is my will that said lands as described in Item numbered 
One (i) be forever retained for the purposes and uses therein set forth and 
that said premises be held and known as the James Moorman Orphan's Home 
of Randolph County. 

Item 3. I further give and bequeath to the Board of Directors of said 
Orphan's Home and their successors in office. — All judgments that I may own 
or hold against any person or persons or corporations at the time of my 
death, said judgments to be held collected and used under the same restrictions 
and regulations and for the same purposes as provided for in Item Two of 
this Will in regard to the loaning of the "Ten Thousand Dollar Fund." 

Item 4. I give devise and bequeath to said Trustees or Board of 
Directors of the Orphans' Home and any successors in office all notes secured 
by Mortgage that I may own at the time of my death, said notes to be col- 
lected and such of the proceeds as in the judgment of said Board are neces- 
sary to furnish the furniture and outfit essential in rendering the Home com- 
fortable for the orphans shall be so used to purchase said out-fit and such 
other portion of said funds as may not be used, I direct the same to be 
loaned on first mortgage & to be used in some manner and for same purposes 
as set forth, in Item numbered Two of this Will providing however that 
when a school building is erected it be done from this fund. 

Item 5. In case of a vacancy in said Board of Directors of the 
Orphans' Home said vacancy shall be filled by the remaining members of 
the Board provided there be more than one remaining member if there be 
but one remaining member he shall appoint two and the Judge of the Circuit 
Court of which Randolph County is a part shall appoint the remaining two 
if the (re) be no remaining member of the Board the Circuit Judge as afore- 
said may appoint two members of the Board and they after duly qualifying 
shall fill the remaining vacancies. 


Item 6. It is my desire and I hereby direct that said Board of Direc- 
ors of the Orphans' Home and their successors in office appoint a suitable 
man of known moral character & not addicted to the use of intoxicating 
liquors and Tobacco as Superintendent of said Home to rent the farm and 
care for the proceeds thereof and report the same to the Board of Directors, 
said proceeds to be u.ed for the benefit of the Orphan's Home. The said 
Board of Directors shall have power to remove said Superintendent in case 
he prove incompetent or unfit otherwise for said position of Superintendent. 

Item 7. It is my will and I hereby direct that the Orphans of said 
Home be put under the care and education of a prudent female of good char- 
acter who shall reside on the premises and that said orphans be taught Read- 
ing, Writing, Arithmetic and Geography as also Music and I direct that a 
suitable building be erected for educational purposes, it being also understood 
that Physiology Drawing Book-keeping and other usefull branches are desir- 
able if time and opportunity ofifers to add such branches to the list. I desire 
that said orphans be trained to habits of industry and strict morality and to 
that end desire that such light work as they may perform be assigned them 
when out of the school room and further desire and forbid that any one but 
those of good moral character be employed upon the farm or about the build- 
ings and that as one who uses profane language or tobacco or intoxicating 
liquor shall be an inmate or employee on said premises. 

Item 8. In case of applicants for the Benefit of the Orphans Home 
it is my Will and I hereby direct that the guardian or other person who may 
have legal custody of such orphans be required in legal form to release all 
care & control of uch orphans to the Board of Directors of the Orphans' 
Home until said orphan arrives at the age of fourteen years and it is hereby 
made the duty of the Superintendent under instructions from the Board of 
Directors to see that these provisions of this Will is complied with bef'-jre 
the applicant is admitted. 

Item 9. In the government of the orphan's Home it is my will that 
only kind and persuasive measures be used to restrain and reclaim oft'end- 
ers and when such measures shall fail of a reformatory effect that the matter 
be referred to the Board of Directors who may proceed by proper means to 
ascertain the truth of such charge as are brought against such ofifenders and 
dismiss said offenders or otherwise dispose of the case as the best interest 
of the home may require, it is my will and I hereby direct that no harsh or 
unkind measures be used in the management of said Orphans' Home, and 
if anyone connected with the management of said Home be guilty or su-- 


pected of improper conduct in the management of said Orphan's Home, I 
hereby direct that charges be preferred against such offender or suspected 
offender and that the Board of Directors proceed to a thorough investigation 
of the case and if charges are true that said offender or offenders be im- 
mediately dismissed and the vacancy suppHed by other parties if the case be 
other wise to deal with the parties as the best interest of the Orphan's Home 
may require. 

Item ID. It is my will that the Orphans at the Home be supplied with 
good and substantial food suited to the season and that they be supplied with 
good plain clothing and that in winter it be warm and adopted to the age 
and physical condition of the wearer but that in no case there shall be a vmi- 
form or peculiarity of dress that shall mark them as inmates of the Home 
or objects of charity for I would not that anyone have occasion by look or 
remark to "offend one of the least of these" little ones. 

I further desire that every assistance be given the inmates to find good 
homes and suitable employments when they arrive at the age of fourteen 
years that the good influence of the home may not be lost when they come 
in contact with the outer world and that the orphans may at all times feel 
when sick or in need of advice that they have a friend in the Superintendent, 
Matron and Directors of the Home to whom they can with confidence appeal. 

Item II. It is my will and I hereby direct that no part of the ten 
thouand dollars made to the Board of Directors of the Orphans' Home in 
my second bec[uest be used except the interest thereon and that it be kept 
loaned at the highest legal rate of interest attainable. And should anv other 
persons desire to add to this fund on the terms therein set forth or contribute 
to the aid of the home for any other good purpose it is my will that it be 
accepted and used as the donor may desire providing always that nothing be 
accepted except it comply with the standard of good morality. 

Item 12. It is my will that said Board of Directors of the Orphans' 
Home so far as practicable in all cases make special written contracts with 
such persons as it shall be necessary to employ at and about said home and 
giving no more than a reasonable compensation for such services and in all 
cases where such services can be rendered by a female and suitable females 
can be employed it is my desire that such have the preference in the employ 
of the Home. I believe females to be more in sympathy and better calculated 
to care for and control the children and as this is a Labor of Love I shall ex- 
pect the Board to ser\e without pay, trusting that the conscienceness of having 
done a good work will be to them sufficient remuneration and may the Blessed 
Master direct them in the work. 


Item 13. I will and direct that if thought advisable that my bequest 
of Ten Thousand Dollars be paid to said Directors of the Orphans Home 
by the assignment by the Executors of my last AVill and Testament to said 
Directors of the Orphans HomiC which mortgage notes belonging to my estate 
as may be acceptable to said Directors of the Orphans' Home.'' 

"Item 21. I further give and devise to the Board of Directors of the 
Orphans' Home of Randolph County, in trust for the use of said Home, the 
sum of five thouand dollars, to be known as the "Orphans' Home Im- 
provement Fund," said sum to be invested in mortgage loans of one year's 
duration and at such time or times as the demands of the institution may 
recjuire more or larger buildings. It is my will that first the accrued interest 
on the said sum of five thousand dollars be used and after that such portion 
of the principal sum as may be deemed proper for the good of the Orphans' 

Item 24. I hereby give and bequeath to the Board of Directors of 
the Orphans' Home all stock or other interest that I may own in the First 
National Bank of Union City, Indiana, at time of my death and the pro- 
ceeds thereof to be loaned on mortgage security, said fund to be known as 
the 'Orphans' Home Librar}' Fund,' the interest only to be used to purchase 
such books, maps and scientific apparatus as the wisdom of the board may 
direct providing, however, that if there be an excess above the outlay for 
books, etc., at end of each year that said surplus may be added to the prin- 
cipal fund or the ($10,000) ten thousand dollars, as the board may select. 
I hereby grant to said board of directors the privilege in case said Home 
ha\'e sufificient accommodations therefor that when an orphan arrives at the 
age of fourteen that a contract, if desired by the orphan, be made, to remain 
until said orphan is sixteen years of age, upon such terms as may be agreed 
upon by said orphan and said board of directors. 


Item No. I. I give and bequeath to the Board of Directors of the 
Orphans' Home of Randolph County, Indiana, the further- sum of twenty 
thousand dollars ($20,000.00) for the benefit of said home and to be in- 
vested as set forth in Item number two my will of October 19, 1881. 
Said sum of twenty thousand dollars to be divided to the different funds, as 
follows, to-wit : Ten thousand dollars to the permanent fund, Eight Thou- 
sand Dollars to the Building fund & Two Thousand Dollars to the Librarv 


Fund & each to be loaned and- used as set forth in my last Will and Testa- 
ment of October 19, 1881. 

Item No. 3. Having re-affirmed my last will of October 19, 1881, 
I desire further to say that recent conveyances by me made of real estate 
for nominal sums having been criticised by beneficiaries of this will. It is 
my will and desire that if any beneficiaries of this will or codicil shall at- 
tempt or encourage anyone to attempjt to set aside any conveyance of real 
estate heretofore or hereafter by me made, — such beneficiary shall receive 
from my estate the sum of One hundred Dollars in lieu of the benefit in- 
tended and their intendent benefit or inheritance shall be by my executors 
tranferred to the Directors of the Orphan's Home of Randolph Co., Ind. 
& to be added to the permanent fund of said Home. 


Item Three (3). I desire to increase the number of Directors of 
Orphans' Home to seven instead of five and add the names of Joseph R. 
Jackson & Thomas F. Moorman as the new members." 

Winchester, October 8th, 1888. 

"Pursuant to the terms and certain items of the Will of James Moor- 
man, deceased, establishing and endowing the James Moorman Orphans' 
Home Randolph County, Indiana, appointing a Board of Directors therefor. 
The following named persons, named in the said Will as such Board met in 
the Court House in Winchester, Indiana on Monday at 10 o'clock A. M. 
October 8th, 1888, towit: John A. Moorman, Davis S. Kitselman, Clement 
F. Alexander, Nathan Reed, Joseph R. Jackson and Thomas F. Moorman, 
and each of the above named persons thereupon took and subscribed to an 
oath to faithfully perform their duties as members of the Board of Direc- 
tors of the James Moormaa Orphans' Home according to the terms and 
conditions of the last Will of said James Moorman, deceased, and according 
to law. 

Joseph R. Jackson was selected temporary Chairman and Joseph W. 
Thompson was selected temporary Secretary for the Board of Directors. 
Thomas F. Moorman moved that the Board proceed to permanent organiza- 

Whereupon the motion of John A. Moorman it was ordered that the 
Board proceed to the election of officers by ballot without nomination. These 
officers were to serve until September 31, 1899, and the following were 


elected: President, Joseph R. Jackson, first Vice-President Nathan Cad- 
wallader, 2d Vice-President Thomas F. Moorman, Treasurer Nathan Reed, 
Secretary and Attorney, Joseph W. Thompson. 

On motion John A. Moorman was appointed a Committee to make the 
following proposition to the Board of Commissioners of Randolph County, 
Indiana. That the said Board of Commissioners complete and pay for the 
building now in process of erection, this Board to take immediate charge of 
the farm and home set apart in the Will of said James Moorman and this 
Board to pay for the hay and corn contracted for by the said Commission- 
ers and assume all contracts made with said Superintendent and manage and 
control said farm and home from this time on. Mr. Moorman reported 
that the proposition was accepted by the Board of Commissioners. 

By-laws were adopted for the government of business of the Institution 
at its next meeting. 

June 5th, 1889, it became apparent to the Board of Trustees that it 
would be impossible for them to maintain the home for a period of two 
years as the funds would not be available from the James Moorman estate. 
At a meeting of the Trustees on that day it was decided to abandon the 
home for a period of two years and "that the orphans and destitute children 
now in the care and custody of said Board of Directors of said Orphans' 
Home be returned to the Board of Commissioners of said Randolph County." 

It was ordered that the Board of Directors rent and lease to the County 
Commissioners the farm to be run by them as an orphans' home until March 
1st, 1892, the Directors reserving only the right to enter such premises in 
the interest of the Home. Mrs. John Howard was employed by the Com- 
missioners as Matron of the Home, and continued until the Board again 
took charge two years later. 

In 1890 the following officers were elected: President, C. F. Alexan- 
der, Vice-President, Nathan Reed, Treasurer, T. F. Moorman, Secretary, 
J. W. Thompson. 

The Directors at once proceeded to the beautifying of the home and 
bought one hundred trees for that purpose. The orchard in connection with 
the Home was set out in 1891, at which time "Mr. and Mrs. John D. Sum- 
mers donated to said Home one hundred apple trees, which were put out 
on the east side of said lane and north of woods in rows of ten trees each 
way, all trees set thirty feet apart each way. The last orchard to be known 
as the 'Summers Orchard.' " 


The Treasurer's report of 1891 showed $43,445.67 in the hands of the 

Dr. A. F. Huddleston was elected April 26th, 1892, to succeed Davis 
S. Kitselman, who had died a short time before. 

In November, 1892, another member of the Board of Directors, C. F. 
Alexander died and Luther L. Moorman was elected to fill the vacancy. 

Mr. John Howard was at this time Superintendent and Mrs. Howard 
matron of the Home. 

March ist, 1893, "the Board took an inventory of the property at the 
Home and farm and inspected the farm with reference to ditching, clearing, 
building, etc., ate voraciously of a bountiful dinner prepared by Mrs. How- 
ard and viewed with interest the children at dinner. The farm and Home 
are now in a prosperous condition, the children, seventeen in number, seem 
to be well provided for, well clothed, properly instructed and happy and 
contented. The subject of a building was discussed and the ground looked 
over with a view of location." 

April, 1893, the Board again contracted with J. W. Howard, Super- 
intendent, for a period of one year. 

W. E. Miller was elected to the Board February 3, 1893, to take the 
place of Nathan Reed, who died in his home at Winchester, January 26th, 
of that year. 

The position of Joseph R. Jackson was declared vacant in September, 
1893. Mr. Jackson had removed from the County and on October 3rd, 1893, 
A. C. Beeson was appointed in his stead. 

In 1894 the Secretary J. W. Thompson was instructed to draft bill to 
be presented to the next Legislature giving the Board of Commissioners 
power to appropriate money to aid in building Orphans' Homes. 

In 1895 the officers were Pres., Luther L. Moorman, Vice-President, W. 
E. Miller, Secretary J. W. Thompson, Treasurer T. F. Moorman. 

January ist, 1896, Mr. and Mrs. Howard were again contracted with 
for a period of two years. 

December 13th, 1897, "W. E. Miller presented his written resignment 
of a member of this Board, which resignment was accepted," and John 
Howard was elected to fill Mr. Miller's place on the Board. 

January 1898 "The Board was notified that John Howard Superinten- 
dent would not continue after March ist." James M. Moorman submitted 
proposition to serve as Superintendent of the Home for $800.00 per year 


and on motion the proposition was accepted and Secretary ordered to draw 
contract for one year. 

January 28th, 1898, the following resolutions were unanimously ac- 
cepted : "Whereas the house as a Home on the farm owned by this Board 
is badly out of repair and is too small for use as a home and is old and unfit 
for an Orphans' Home, 

And whereas, this Board feels necessity of building a new house suitable 
and convenient and commodious for the inmates, and, 

Whereas, this Board now has first mortgage notes due the building fund, 

Therefore resolutions that this Board proceed to build a suitable house 
and building on said farm for use as an Orphans' Home at a cost not to 
succeed ten thousand dollars providing notes of the building fund to the 
amount of ten thousand dollars can be sold and assigned without recourse at 
an amount not less than the sum due. 

xA.nd the Treasurer is hereby authorized to report to this Board at its 
next meeting if such sale can be made." 

This was the introduction to the present beautiful building located upon 
the Home farm at this time. Mr. W. S. K^aufman was selected to make the 
plans. The bids were let and the following were submitted: Borror & 
Dull, $9,160.00; George A. Mangas, $10,000.00; O. L. Pulse & Co., 
$11,150.00; W. E. Thompson, $10,332.00; J. L. Shetterly, $9,457.00; J. D. 
Babcock, $10,355.45; Hagerman & Peacock, $8,841.00; Norton & Eplis, 
$9,199.00; J. M. Shank, $11,136.00; Louck & Hill, $10,581.00; Marion 
Hathaway, $9,980.00. It was decided to have the building plastered with 
adamant and some of the bids were revised and cost added, which made the 
bid of Hagerman & Peacock $9,000. It being the lowest bid, contract was let 
to them for the said amount. The contract for plumbing, including a ram, 
was let to Hode F. Hobbick for $1,445.00. 

Up to this time there had been no direct relation between the county 
commissioners and the board of trustees of the Home. 

It became necessary, by statute, that the county commissioners remove 
all children from the County Infirmary and provide homes for them elsewhere. 
This being the case the Commissioners did the noble thing of entering into 
the following contract with the board of directors of the Home. This 
contract is still in force excepting the prices paid for the matron. These 
changes, however, are slight, and have been made in accordance with laws 
passed by the Legislature of the state subsequent to the time of this con- 
tract : 





This agreement entered into by and between the Board of Commission- 
ers of the County of Randolph, and State of Indiana, party of the first part, 
and the James Moorman's Orphans' Home, party of the second part. Wit- 
nesseth : that the said Board of Commissioners hereby agree to pay said 
Orphans' Home the sum of six thousand dollars for the support, care, edu- 
cation, control and protection of the dependent, neglected and abandoned 
children for which said County may be liable ; and for in consideration of the 
performance of other stipulants herein contained. Of the above named 
amount of six thousand dollars, the sum of twenty-one hundred and eighty- 
eight dollars is to be paid in cash, for services heretofore rendered by said 
Orphan's Home, in the care of said children, as per verified bills now on file 
before said Board of Commissioners and the sum of three hundred and 
seventeen and 66-100 dollars for each quarter of a year, for twelve successive 
quarters beginning with December ist, 1898, payable at the end of each 
quarter; Provided always that the verified bills filed before said Board of 
Commissioners for the support of such children as aforesaid, for which said 
Board of Commissioners shall be liable' shall be equal said sum of three 
hundred seventeen and 66-100 dollars for each quarter. In the event said 
verified claims shall not amount to the said sum of three hundred seventeen 
and 66-100 dollars each quarter, then said Board of Commissioners agree 
to pay. said Orphans' Home the amount of claims filed for the care of such 
children as aforesaid, until the sum of such payments shall aggregate the 
said sum of six thousand dollars. 

It is further agreed that said Board of Commissioners shall pay said 
Orphans' Home the legal rate for the care of all children for which said 
Orphans' Home can not care for under the provisions of James Moorman's 
Will under which it was established and is now operating. In consideration 
of the foregoing payments the said Orphans' Home hereby agrees to prop- 
erly support, care for, educate, control and protect any and all children 
placed in said Orphans' Home and on and after the payment of said sum of 
six thousand dollars to care for all children free of cost that said County 
may be liable to keep, that said Orphans' Home can not keep under the pro- 
visions of said James Moorman's will ; Provided, however, if the said James 
Moorman's Orphans' Home shall not have sufficient funds so that the net 


income arising therefi-om, without the use of any part of the principal fund, 
to support all of said children which may be placed therein which can be 
supported thereby under the provision of said will after the payment of the 
said sum of six thousand dollars aforesaid, then said Orphans' Home shall 
be compelled to support only such number thereof as it can support with the 
net income of said funds without resorting to the use of any part of the 
principal so as to diminish the principal which may be on hands at the date 
of the final payment of the said sum of six thousand dollars. 

It is further agreed that at least one joint meeting of the Commissioners 
and the Board of Trustees of the said Orphans' Home shall be held at the 
room of said Board of Commissioners at the Court House in the city of 
Winchester, Indiana at such times as may be agreed upon by them, during 
each quarterly session of said Board of Commissioners; at which meetings 
there shall be full, free and mutual consultation of all the business of said 
Orphans' Home, any and all matters in relation thereto and the wards of 
said County therein contained. 

In witness whereof the said parties have hereunto set their hands and 
corporate seals this the 20th day of January, 1899. 

William Horn, 
Adam Slonaker, 
Thomas H. Clark, 

County Commissioners. 

The James Moorman Orphans' Home, by Luther L. Moorman Pres." 

The salary of Superintendent and matron was raised to $900.00 for the 
year beginning March ist, 1899, Mr. James Moorman and Carrie E. Moor- 
man. ' 

On the death of John A. Moorman, Elkanah Hill was elected to his 
place on the Board, April 3rd, 1899. 

J. W. Thompson resigned August 28th, 1900, and B. F. Marsh was 
elected to succeed him. 

John Howard resigned October, 1900, and Thomas H. Clark was 
elected to his place on the Board. 

In 1 90 1 the Board increased the salary of the Superintendent to one 
thousand dollars per year and also agreed to pay $2.00 per week on the 
expenses of one girl when the number of children in the Home was more 
than thirty. 

In 1902 on the recommendation of Amos W. Butler, Superintendent of 


the State Board of Charities, who had visited the Home, the Board of 
Directors made application to the school of Feeble-minded Children, at Ply- 
mouth. This was certainly an excellent policy and it removed that class of 
children from association with the other children. 

Up to this time the children of the home had attended school in the 
District School No. 14, of White River township. The question of their 
being put info a school by themselves was agitated by the patrons of that 
district. July 14, 1903, the Trustee of White River township attended one 
of the meetings and "proposed to equip suitable and furnished room in the 
Home for school purposes for an amount to the Treasurer for heating said 
room equal to the expense of heating a school room during the school period 
in said Township and to employ and pay a well qualified teacher during the 
school term in said Township." Mr. Moorman and Mr. Marsh were ap- 
pointed to draft a contract between the Township and the Home for the 
establishment and maintainance of such school. The school was established 
in the Home in the fall of 1903 and maintained until 1909 when it was 
abandoned and transferred to the Lincoln. This was certainly a step in the 
right direction as these children have every right to association with other 
children and influence that come from mingling with other people other 
than themselves. 

Mr. and Mrs. Moorman resigned in May, 1904, and the Board em- 
ployed Elmer D. Nickey and his wife Ida H., as Superintendent and Matron 
of the Home from June ist, 1904, for the sum of one thousand dollars per 
annum, payable quarterly with the privilege to terminate contract March 
1st, 1905, and served until Mar. ist, 1909. 

Allen R. Hiatt and wife Emma E. were employed as Superintendent 
and ^latron February 12th, 1909, and are still serving in that position. At 
this time, 19 14, Mr. and Mrs. Hiatt have been excellent people for the place 
and have made a splendid record. 

The services of James M. ]\Ioorman and his wife Carrie have been so 
valuable to the Home and appreciated by the inmates and officers of the 
Home to such a degree that in 1910, after Mr. and Mrs. Aloorman had 
taken charge of the Whites' Institute at Wabash, the Trustees requested their 
picture to be hung upon the walls of the Home. Such a mark of distinction 
certainly was merited, as Mr. and Mrs. Moorman were of such disposition 
and character to make their influence felt for years to come. 

A. L. Nichols was appointed a member of the Board, succeeding James 
M. ]\Ioorman, in November, 1910. 

The members of the Board at the present time are : T. H. Clark, presi- 


dent; B. F. Marsh, secretary; T. F. Moorman, treasurer; A. L. Nichols, 
attorney; Dr. A. F. Huddleston, physician, and Elkanah Hill. 

Mr. James Moorman, or "Uncle Jimmie," as he was commonly called, 
"had long conceived and often talked of his purpose of establishing a suitable 
and comfortable home for Orphans and destitute children. He also looked 
with horror upon the fact that little children who were orphans and destitute 
were crowded into the poor house with a vicious class of paupers who there 
seek refuge." 

"It is not singular that when it came to writing his Will not only the 
greater part of it should be taken in providing rules for the Orphans' Home 
but the first item and first sentence of his Will should indicate the object 
and purpose of his life." 

Mr. Moorman showed his keen insight into the future possibilities of 
such a home by the wisdom displayed in the provisions for that Home. 

The rare judgment shown by him in selecting the Board that was to 
take the initiative in the establishment of that Home has only been equalled 
by the judgment of those who have selected the successors to the various 
members of the Board. No home, perhaps, in the state of Indiana has been 
conducted with better business judgment and the higher appreciation of the 
great function of such an institution than James Moorman Orphans' Home. 

The honesty and sincerity at all times of the Board of Directors and a 
fitness of the Superintendent and Matron has indeed made this a HOME to 
the many children who have been placed in that institution. 

It must also be said for the County Commissioners that they have stood 
by the Home, supporting it in every particular and meeting their obligations 
at all times. 

That the children of the Home now enjoy the splendid educational 
facilities which they do, and are permitted to meet upon a common level all 
the other children of the community, take their place in good schools as an 
equal of every other child, a privilege which every free born child has a 
right to demand, is due largely to the conscientious and sincere love of child- 
hood in the heart of G. Walter Hiatt, Trustee of White River township, 
through whose influence the children were taken to the Lincoln school. 


We referred heretofore to the policy of finding homes and occupations 
for children without placing them in either the County Infirmary or the 
Orphan's Home. This was done formerly and was transacted usually by the 
"over-seers of the poor" in each Township. 


It was the custom also at that time for the parents to bind out their 
children as apprentices, sometimes because of better advantages that would 
be offered the child and sometimes because the parents were unable to sup- 
port the child and for that reason we speak of this phase of the child life at 
this point and with this in view here insert the types of various contracts that 
were made in binding out children as apprentices. 

No reflection is intended whatever upon the people who did this because 
it was done with the highest and best of moti\'es and perhaps today if a 
certain class of boys and girls were compelled to work more and to acquire 
the means of providing for themselves, society would be much better off. 

The indentures spoken of are as follows : 

"This Indenture made this the first day of October in the year of our 
Lord one thousand Eight hundred and forty four between Philip Allen of 
the Count}- of Randolph and State of Indiana by and with the consent of 
James Allen his son a minor age seventeen years old and Thomas Costlove 
of the State and County aforesaid W^itnesseth that the said Philip Allen has 
put and placed and doth by these presents put and place the said James 
Allen as an Apprentice to the said Thomas Costlove to learn the trade and 
Mvstery of Boot and Shoemaking Which he the said Thomas Costlove useth 
and the said Philip Allen doth covenant to and with the said Thomas Cost- 
love as an apprentice from the date hereoff until the twentieth day of Sep- 
tember in the year one thousand eight hundred and fortyseven at which time 
the James Will be nineteen years and eleven months age if living during all 
which time the said apprentice shall and will faithfully serve his said blaster 
keep his secrets obej- all his lawful command and shall do no damage to his 
said Master nor suffer none to be done which he can prevent he shall not 
play at any unlawful game nor frequent tipling houses or places of gambling 
nor at any time absent himself from the service of his said ^Master without 
his consent but shall in all things behave himself as a good and faithful 
apprentice during the time aforesaid and the said Costlove doth covenant to 
and with the said Philip Allen that he will teach the said James or cause him 
to be instructed in the art trade and Alistery of Boot and Shoemaking in the 
best manner he can and that during the time foresaid he will send him to 
school for the term of two months and that he will find and provide for the 
said apprentice good and sufficient meat drink and lodging and apparl during 
the said term and shall at the end thereof give to the said James Allen one 
entire new suit and one good and ful set of tools such as are given to Jour - 
neymen of such art and trside. 


In witness of which agreement by and between the said Philip Allen 
and the said Thomas Costlove and of the concent of the said James Allen to 
the covenants and binding aforesaid the said Philip Allen and the said 
Thomas Costlove and the said James Allen have hereunto set their hands 
and seals this the day and year first above written. 

Philip Allen, (Seal.) 
Thomas Costlove, (Seal.) 
James Allen , ( Seal. ) 
Signed, sealed and delivered in the presence 
of Fielding R. Merryfield, Wm. M. Fitzgerald." 

State of Indiana, 
Randolph County. 

"Be it remembered that on the ist day of October in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-four, personally appeared Philip 
Allen Thomas Costlove and James Allen and acknowledged the foregoing to 
be their \oluntary act and deed for the purposes therein mentioned. Given 
under my hand and seal this the day and year aforesaid. 

Fielding R. Merrifield, J. P. (Seal.) 

The above indenture was recorded December the 26th, 1844. 

Willis C. Wilmore, Recorder." 
On margin of page : 

"We hereby certify that by agreement of all the parties concerned this 
indenture is annulled, August 20th, 1845. 

James Allen, 
Tho. Costlove, 
Philip Allen." 

"The Indenture below binding Elijah Hinshaw to Elijah Hinshaw is 
fully satisfied by mutual agreement, and the return of the said apprentice to 
his mother witness our hands and seals this 9th day of October, 1850. 

Jane Jones, alias Hinshaw, (Seal.) 
Elijah Hinshaw. (Seal.)" 

"This Indenture Witnesseth that Jane Hinshaw, late widow and relick 
of Enos Hinshaw, deceased,- of Randolph county and State of Indiana, hath 
put and placed and by these presents doth put and bind her son, Elijah Hin- 
shaw, as an apprentice to Elijah Hinshaw, her brother-in-law, to learn the 
art and mystery of husbandry which he, the said Elijah Hinshaw, pursues as 


an occupation, the said Elijah Hinshaw to dwell with and serve the said 
Elijah Hinshaw as an apprentice from the day of the date hereof until the 
twelfth day of April which will be in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred 
and sixty-two, at which time the said apprentice will be twenty-one years of 
age during all which time the said apprentice shall dwell and faithfully serve 
his said master, keep his secrets and everywhere and at all times readily 
obey his lawful commands he shall do no damage to his said master nor wil- 
fully suffer any to be done by others and if any to his knowledge be intended 
he shall give his said master reasonable notice thereof. He shall not waste 
the goods of his said master; nor lend them unlawfully to any. He shall 
not play cards, dice, or any other unlawful game. He shall not contract 
matrimony during the said term. He shall not haunt or frequent taverns, 
tipling houses or places of gaming. He shall not absent himself from the 
service of his said master, but shall in all things and at all times carry and 
behave himself as a good and faithful apprentice ought during the whole 
term aforesaid. And the said Elijah Hinshaw, on his part, doth hereby cove- 
nant, promise and agree to teach and instruct the said apprentice or cause him 
to be taught and instructed to read and write & sipher as far as the double 
rule of three, if the said apprentice be cable to lern and also to teach and in- 
struct the said apprentice in the art, trade and mystery of husbandry in the 
best way and manner he can, and well and faithfully to find and provide for 
the said apprentice good and sufficient meat, drink, clothing and lodging and 
other necessities fit and convenient for such an apprentice during the term 
aforesaid and at the expiration thereof shall give unto the said apprentice 
two suits of wearing apparel, one suitable for the first day of the week, com- 
monly called Sunday, and the other for working days. In testimony whereof 
the said parties ha\'e hereunto interchangeably set their hands and seals this 
the seventeenth day of February in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight 
hundred and forty-five. 

Jane Hinshaw, (Seal.) 
Elijah Hinshaw, (Seal.) 

Signed, sealed and delivered in the presence of Kersiah Fisher and ]\Iar- 
shall W. Diggs." 

State of Indiana, Randolph county. Be it remembered that the within 
named Jane Hinshaw and Elijah Hinshaw came this day personally before 
me the undersigned associate judge in and for said county of Randolph afore- 
said and acknowledged that they did sign, seal and deliver the within in- 
denture as their act and deed for the purposes therein specified given under 


my hand and seal at home in the county aforesaid this the seventeenth day 
of February in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and forty- 


Associate Judge." 

"The above deed was received for record March i8th, 1845, ^t 10 
o'clock a. m. 

Willis C. Wilmore, Recorder." 

"This Indenture made this sixth day of June, Eighteen hundred and forty- 
five Between Jason Overman and William N. Jackson Overseers of the poor 
of Greensfork Township in the County of Randolph and State of Indiana 
of the first part and Samuel H. Middleton of the County and State aforesaid 
of the Second part witnesseth that the said overseers of the poor have and by 
these presents do place and bind out Henry Sasser a poor boy aged eleven 
years and six days son of James Sasser deceased as an apprentice to the said 
Samuel H. Middleton to be taught the art of farming which the said Samuel 
H. Middleton now uses and to live with and serve him as an apprentice for 
the term of nine years and twenty four days that is to say untill said ap- 
prentice shall arrive to the age of twenty one years provided he shall live so 
long the said Overseers by these presents give unto him the said Samuel H. 
Middleton all the authority power and right to and over the said Henry 
Sasser and his services during said term which by the laws of this state a 
Master hath to and over a lawful Indentured and apprentice. The said Sam- 
uel H. Middleton on his part in consideration thereof doth promise covenant 
and agree to and with the overseers of the poor and Each of them and Each 
of their successors for the time being and with the said poor Ijoys each by 
himself and respectively to learn and instruct the said poor boy as his an 
apprintice or otherwise cause him to be well and sufficiently instructed in 
the art and farming after the best way and manner he can and to Teach 
and instruct him the said apprentice or cause him to be instructed in Read- 
ing Writing and common arithmetic for the term of eighteen months Twelve, 
months between the date of this indenture and seventeen & six months be- 
tween seventeen & twenty one. Also to train him up to habits of obedi- 
ance industry and morality and provide for and allow him meat drink and 
lodging and apparel for summer and winter and all other necessaries suit- 
able for such an apprintice during the term of his services as aforesaid and 
at the expiration thereof shall give to said an apprentice twenty five dollars 
and a good freedom suit of home made Janes Cloth. In witness whereof 


the said parties hath hereunto set their hands and seals the day & date above 
written signed sealed in the presents of 
S. A. Barnes, 
Thomas Middleton. 

Jason Overman, (Seal.) 
W. N. Jackson, (Seal.) 
Samuel M. Middleton. (Seal.)" 
"State of Indiana, 
Randolph County. 

Personally appeared before me the undersigned one of the justices of 
the peace of said County Jason Overman William N. Jackson and Samuel 
H. Middleton and acknowledged the signing and sealing of the above Inden- 
ture to their voluntary act and deed for the uses and purposes therein men- 
tioned. Given under my hand and seal the 22nd day of July 1845. 

Jonah Peacock, (Seal.) 

Justice of the peace." 

"The above Indenture was received for Record June 9th, 1845, '^^ ^^ 
o'clock a. m." 

This Indenture made this 19th day of July in the year of our Lord 
Eighteen hundred and forty five between Daniel Burket of Randolph County 
and State of Indiana of the one part and William P. Gray of the County 
aforesaid of the other part Witnesseth that the said Daniel Burket a minor 
aged fourteen years by and with the concent of Elizabeth Burket his mother 
hath put and placed himself as an apprentice to the said William P. Gray 
to learn the art and occupation of farming which the said William p. Gray 
now useth and the said Daniel Burket does hereby covenant and agree to and 
with the said William p. Gray that he the said Daniel Will dwell with and 
serve the said \\'illiam p. Gray as an apprentice from the day of the date 
hereof untill the Eleventh day of March which will be in the year of our Lord 
Eighteen hundred and fifty two at which time the said Daniel if living will 
be twenty one years of age during all which time the said Daniel shall and 
will faithfully serve the said William p. Gray keep his secrets obey all his 
lawful commands and shall do no damage to his said Master nor suffer any 
to be done b}' others which it is in his power to prevent he shall not play at 
any unlawful game nor frequent tippling houses or places of gaiming nor 
at any time absent himself from the service of the said William p. Gray 
without his consent but shall in all things behave himself as a good faithful 
apprentice during the whole term aforesaid And the said William p. Gray 


on his part does covenant and agree to and with the said Daniel that he will 
teach and instruct the said Daniel or cause him to be taught and instructed 
in the art and occupation of a farmer in the best manner he can and he shall 
also cause him to be taught to read and write and to be instructed in the 
general rules of arithmetic at least to the double rule of three inclusive if 
the said Daniel be capable to learn and also that he the said William p. Gray 
will find and provide for the said Daniel Good and sufficient meat drink 
lodging and apparel during the said term and shall at the expiration thereof 
give to the said Daniel one horse not over six years old worth at least forty 
five dollars one saddle and briddle with worth fifteen dollars and two entire 
new suits of wearing apparel one suitable for Sundays and one for working 

In Witness of which agreement by and between the said Daniel and the 
said William P. Gray and of the consent of the said Elizabeth Burket the 
mother of the said Daniel to the covenants and binding aforesaid the said 
Daniel ; Burket and Elizabeth Burket his mother and the said William p. 
Gray have hereunto set their hands and seals the day and year first above 
written signed sealed and delivered in presence of Stephen Carman 

Daniel X Burket, (Seal.) 
Elizabeth X Burket, (Seal.) 
William X. p. Gray. (Seal.)" 
"State of Indiana Randolph County towit 

Be it remembered that the within named Daniel Burket Elizabeth Bur- 
ket and William p. Gray came this day personally before me the undersigned 
a justice of the peace in and for said County aforesaid and acknowledged 
that they signed sealed and delivered the within Indenture for the purposes 
therein specified Given under my hand and seal in the County aforesaid this 
19th day of July 1845. 

Stephen Cannon J. J. (Seal.)" 

"The above instrument was received for record Oct. 6th 1845 at 2 
o'clock p. m. 

Willis C. Wilmore, Recorder." 




Oh! tell me a tale of the airly days — 

Of the times as they ust to be; 
"Filler of Fi-er" and "Shakespeare's Plays" 

Is a' most too deep for me ! 
I want plane facts, and I want plane words, 

Of the good old-fashioned ways, 
When speech run free as the songs of birds 

'Way back in the airly days. 

Tell me a tale of the timber-lands — 

Of the old-time pioneers; 
Somepin' a pore man understands 

With his feelin's well as ears. 
Tell of the old log house, — about 

The loft, and the puncheon flore — 
The old fi-er-place, with the crane swung out, 

And the latch-string through the door. 

Tell of the things jest as they was — 

They don't need no excuse! — 
Don't tetch 'em up like the poets does, 

Tel theyr all too fine fer use! — 
Say they was 'leven in the fambily — 

Two beds, and the chist, below. 
And the trundle-beds that each belt three, 

And the clock and the old bureau. 


Then blow the horn at the old back door 

Tel the echoes all halloo, 
And the children gethers home onc't more, 

Jest as they ust to do ; 
Blow for Pap tel he hears and comes. 

With Tomps and Elias, too, 
A-marchin' home, with the fife and drums 

And the old Red, White and Blue ! 

Blow and blow tel the sound draps low 

As the moan of the whipperwill, 
And wake up Mother, and Ruth and Jo, 

All sleepin' at Bethel Hill; 
Blow and call tel the faces all 

Shine out in the back-log's blaze. 
And the shadders dance on the old hewed wall 

As they did in the airly days. 

— From Farm Rhymes, by James Whitcomb Riley. Copyright 1901. Used 
by special permission of the publishers — The Bobbs-Merrill Company. 

Most of the early settlers of Randolph county came from North Caro- 
lina. Some of them settled in other parts after leaving Carolina before they 
came to this coufity, but most of them came directly from "The Old Domin- 
ion" to this state. 

Thomas Parker, the first settler, John W. Thomas and Clarkson Wil- 
cutts had left North Carolina in a party of five. Parker, with his wife and 
three children, selected his land near the present town of Arba and proceeded 
at once to build a cabin in which they lived for four weeks. John W. Thomas 
and Wilcutts afterward settled near Mr. Parker. 

Mr. Ephraim Bowen, who came October 22, 1814, came from Maryland 
and settled on the north border of section eighteen, town sixteen, range one 
west. Mr. Bowen had visited this place and returned to his family in the 
east. Mrs. Bowen was not favorable to coming, but the glowing description 
which Mr. Bowen gave of this land induced her, after she had been earnestly 
solicited by the children, to come to the wilderness of Indiana. They arrived 
October 22, 1814. The children soon became very homesick'. Their spirits 
were not raised any by the wailing and howling of the old dog, who was 
seemingly as homesick as they were. The children cried and wanted to 


return, but the mother answered them with the same pleading that they had 
used before they had started. "Oh, mother, do go." "Please, mother, 
do go." I'his soon stopped their being homesick. 

The fifth family was Ephraim Overman, wife and five children, all boys. 
Mr. Overman also settled near the Parker, Wilcutts, Bowen company. Other 
Carolina settlers to come in 1815, or near that time, were David Bowles, 
Jesse Johnson, James Frazier, and James Hodson. They settled near Lynn. 
Some of the Smalls came at that time, also, as did Paul Beard, Daniel Shoe- 
maker, David Kenworthy and James Frazier. Early in 18 16 Paul W. Way, 
Henry W. Way, William Way, Jr., Robert Way and William Diggs came 
from South Carolina and located land four miles west of where Winchester 
now is. 

Paul Way returned for his parents and his family. He returned to 
Randolph county with them, and several families besides, and -arrived in 
March, 181 7. The same fall John B. Wright, David Wright, William Wright 
and John Wright settled from Salt Creek west. In the summer of 1817 Will- 
iam Way returned on horseback, alone, to South Carolina to bring his father, 
William Way, Sr., to the new country, which purpose he successfully ac- 
complished. With them came, among others, a Mrs. Beverly, and Moorman 
Way, then a lad of two years, who was to become one of the most influential 
and wealthy men in the history of the county. 

As to settlements up to the close of 18 18, Jere Smith says, in his 
"Civil History:" "In the year 1818, when Randolph county was erected, 
there were fifty or sixty families on White river and Salt and Sugar creeks; 
fifty or sixty families on Green's fork and Mud creek; thirty families on 
Nolan's fork, including Joshua Foster on the Griffis farm, near the state 
line ; eight or ten families on Martindale's creek, and twelve or fifteen families 
on West river, above the Wayne county line." So that, by Mr. Smith's 
estimation, there were, at the time of the election in 1818, about 180 families 
in the present boundaries of Randolph county. Of course, at that time, the 
population was wholly east of the western boundary of the "twelve-mile 
strip," since the land west of that line was still Indian territory, on which 
white men were bound by treaty not to settle. In 181 8 the tribes ceded those 
lands, and in eight or ten years the county west as well as east of the boundary 
was settled. In fact, that territory began settlement in 1821, but emigration 
was slow to push in for several years. It would be interesting to find the 
"election returns" for August, 1818, the first in Randolph county, to learn 
how many and who were, at that time, the free and independent electors here. 
Those returns, however, have not been discovered. 


On West river, in August, 1817, there were eleven settlers, all living east 
of the boundary and on Sections 7, 8, 17 and 18, the first and the last being 
fractional sections against the boundary. William Blount (and his two sons- 
in-law) on Section 7; James Malcom, Section 17; Henry Shoemaker, Section 
17; Samuel Sales, Section 17; Arny Hall, Section 17; David Jones, Section 
17; Evan Shoemaker, Section 18; Griffin Davis, Section 18; WilHam Smith, 
Sections 5 and 6; Isaac Barnes, Section 7, came in 1818; John E. Hodge, 
Section 8. came in 1818. The sections lie on both sides of West River, but 
on the east side of the boundary, and William Smith (father of Hon. Jere 
Smith) went highest of the river, taking land in Sections 5 and 6, the latter 
section having but a small fraction east of the boundary. 

The early settlers of the north part of the county were a little late in 
arriving. Massix Lewellen came near Ridgeville in 1817. Joab Ward, Bur- 
got Pierce, Thomas Pierce, Henry Kizer, David Connor, James Massey, 
Messrs. Kite, Jacobs, Canada, Reed and -many others. These people were 
practically all from Carolina and had in a great degree very much in common, 
especially as to political and religious belief. Their places of settlement is 
shown directly by the descriptions of the land which they entered. 


So far as land-entries are concerned, a considerable amount of it was 
done in both 1814 and 181 5. Land was often entered months and even years 
before the owners occupied it, and not seldom the patentee never personally 
took possession. And often, on the other hand, persons would live in the new 
country months, or even years, before they could succeed in entering land. 

Many came with no money, and had to work and rent or live out, or do 
some other way to earn the money to pay for what they bought. The records 
of the land office show that the entries in the county, during 1814, were as 
, follows in order of date : Clarkson Wilcutts, Greensf ork, southeast quarter 
of Section 28, Town 16, Range i, 160 acres, January 19, .1814. James 
Cammack, Greensfork, east half of Section — , Town 16, Range i, 323.16 
acres, January 22, 1814. Ephraim Bowen, Greensfork, northeast quarter of 
Section 28, Town 16, Range i, 160 acres, April 13, 1814. Travis Adcock, 
Washington, northwest quarter of Section 14, Town 18, Range 14, 160 acres. 
May 14, 1814. John Thomas, Greensfork, northwest quarter of Section 33, 
Town 16, Range i, 156.58 acres, July 21, 1814 (fractional). Thomas Par- 
ker, Greensfork, northwest quarter of Section 32, Town 16, Range i, 156.88 


acres, August i6, 1814. Ephraim Overman, Greensfork, northwest quarter 
of Section 27, Town 16, Range i, 160 acres, October, 1814. Travis Adcock, 
Washington, southeast quarter of Section 10, Town 18, Range 14, 160 acres, 
October 19, 1814. Shubael ElHs, White River, northeast quarter of Section 
18, Town 20, Range 14, 160 acres, November 30, 1814. EH Overman, 
Greensfork, southeast quarter of Section 33, Town 16, Range i, 156.58 
acres, December 13, 18 14. Thus thjre were in 18 14 ten entries by nine 
persons, comprising about 1,750 acres. Seven were in Greensfork, with about 
1,273 acres, two in Washington, with 320 acres, and one in White River, 
with 160 acres. 

In 1815 there was in Greensfork only one entry, Nathan Overman, 
southwei'L quarter of Section 27, Town 16, Range i, 159.50 acres, September 
13, 181 5. There was but one in White River, to-wit, George W. Kennon, 
southeast quarter of Section 26, Town 20, Range 13, 160 acres, September 
10, 1815. 

In 181 5 there were in West River seven entries, as follows: William 
Blount, southwest quarter of Section 8, Town 18, Range 13, r6o acres, April 
ID, 1S15. Lot Huddleston, northwest quarter of Section 17, Town 18, Range 
13, 160 acres. May 3, 1815. John Jones, Town 18, Range 13, 325.68 acres. 
May 3, 1815. John E. Hodges, northwest quarter of Section 8, Town j8, 
Range 13, 160 acres, July 6, 1815. Isaac Barnes, Section 7, Town iS, Range 
13, 186 acres, July 6, i8i5._ Arny Hall, east half southeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 17, Town 18, Range 13, 80 acres, October 12, 1815. Cornelius Shane, 
northeast quarter of Section 8, Town 18, Range 13, 160 acres, July 6, 1815. 
Seven entries, about 1,230 acres. 

In 1 81 5 there were, in Washington, entries as follows: Curtis Clenney, 
southwest quarter of Section 11, Town 18, Range 14, 160 acres, January 7, 
1815. Obadiah Harris, southwest quarter of Section 10, Town 18, Range 14, 
160 acres, May 8, 1815. John Ozbun, southeast quarter of Section 8, Town 
18, Range 14, 160 acres, August 9, 1815. Paul Heard, northeast quarter of 
Section 10, Town 18, Range 14, 160 acres, August 9. 1815. Paul Beard, 
northwest quarter of Section 11, Town 18, Range 14, 160 acres, /Vugust 9, 
1815. Obadiah Harris, northeast quarter of Section 15, Town 18, Range 14, 
160 acres, October 14, 181 5. George Frazier, northwest quarter of Section 9, 
Town 18, Range 14, 160 acres, October 17, 181 5. Seven entries, equaling 
1,120 acres. The total entries in Randolph county for 181 5 were sixteen 
entries, and 2,669.50 acres, all but two being in Washington and West River 
townships. The entries in Washington were in Sections 8, 9, 10 and 11, of 


Township i8, Range 14. The entries in West River were iti Sections 7, 8, 
17 and 18, Township 18, Range 13. The total entries to the close of 181 5 
(1814, 1815) were twenty-six entries, with 4,420 acres, in four townships, 
Greensfork, Washington, White River and West River. 

The year 1816 saw a great increase of entries, and of settlements also. 
The total for 1816 was 6,109 acres, in the following townships : Greensfork, 
four entries, 830 acres; Washington, thirteen entries, 2,080 acres; White 
River, eighteen entries, 2,880 acres; Ward, one entry, 640 acres; West River, 
three entries, 400 acres. The great rush that year seemed to be to Washing- 
ton and White River; 1,600 acres were entered in the latter township in three 
days, December 4, 5 and 7; and in Washington six entries were made in 
October and four in November, or 1,600 acres in the two months. The years 

181 7 and 181 8 saw a greatly stronger movement, in so much that the entries 
for the two years amounted to 25,200 acres, those for each year being some- 
what neai'ly the same. The entries in 181 7 were in Greensfork, Washington, 
White River, West River, Franklin, Ward and Wayne. Washington, eighteen 
entries, 3,439 acres; White River, thirty-five entries, 5,337 acres; Greensfork, 
-seven entries, 1,178 acres; Ward, eight entries, 1,280 acres; West River, 
twelve entries, 1,832 acres; Wayne, five entries, 800 acres; Franklin, two 
entries, 360 acres. Entries, 87; 14,226 acres. The entries in 1818 were in 
the same townships. Washington, twenty-four entries, 3,060 acres; White 
River, forty-one entries, 8,437 acres; Greensfork, five entries, 437 acres; 
Ward, one entry, 160 acres; West River, nine entries, 1,440 acres; Wayne, 
seven entries, i ,280 acres ; Franklin, one entry, 1 54 acres. Entries, 88 ; acres, 
11,968. Total entries up to the close of 1818 were, in Washington, 64;. 
White River, 96; Greensfork, 24; Ward, 10; West River, 31; Wayne, 12; 
Franklin, 3. 240 entries, with 36,729 acres. Emigration to Randolph after 

181 8 fell off greatly, so much so that during the nine years from 1820 to 1828, 
inclusive, a smaller quantity of land was entered than in 18 17 alone. 

The following statement will show the amounts of land entered year by 
year to 1840: 1812, 160 acres; 1814, 1,744; 1815, 2,512; 1816, 6,109; 1817, 
14.226; 1818. 11,968; 1819, 3,623; 1820, 1,779; 1821, 1,654; 1822, ,2,084.- 
1823, 1,496; 1824, 530: 1825, 789; 1826, 2,047; 1827, 882; 1828, 1,445; 
1829, 2,477; 1830. 4,320; 1831, 10,890; 1832, 8,225; 1833, 16,833; 1834, 
10,430; 1835, 10,909; 1836, 77,368; 1837, 48,308; 1838, 7,293; 1839, 894; 
T840, 700. 

Thus it appears that the rush of settlers to Randolph was at first in 
181 7 and 18 1 8 and then again from 1833 to 1837, inclusive, especially the 


two years 1836 and 1837. "'"he amount of land entered in these two years 
last named reached the amazing quantity of 125,676 acres, and, including 
1833, 142,509, which is almost exactly half the area of the entire county. The 
land entered in 1836 and 1837 exceeded all the previous entries during 
thirty-five years, from 18 12 to 1836, by some 8,000 acres. 

By the close of 1838 almost all the land had been "taken up." Except 
the "school sections," little remained for, original entry, and what was yet 
unentered lay in scattered parcels here and there throughout the county. By 
that time, therefore, Randolph had been bought of "Uncle Sam," and the 
public title was transferred to private hands. 

"Speculators," however, here, as elsewhere, had extensively "got in their 
work," and in various localities vast tracts lay unoccupied for years because 
the speculator's title covered it. It has been said by some of the early pioneers 
that most of the land on both sides of the road between Winchester and Deer- 
field was owned by one man, and after his death that vast body- of land re- 
mained still vacant for many years. As a specimen of the evil work of enter- 
ing land for "speculation," a single person, residing at Cincinnati, appears to 
have "entered" many tracts in several different townships comprising we 
know not how many acres. Another, from Cincinnati, also engaged largely 
in the same speculative work. Still a third individual appears as having 
entered tract after tract, scattered here and there. 

One of the first necessities of any commvmity is a mill. "To live we 
must eat, and if we eat, bread must be prepared," is an old statement, as true 
today as it was at the time at which it was uttered. Many devices were made 
by which com could be cracked or pounded into meal, hut these could only 
supply a very small amount and machines or mills became a necessity. The 
primitive mill or corn cracker is described in some of the reminiscences given 
elsewhere. These mills had also a great function in society, that of becoming 
community centers, as it were, or the meeting places of men from various 
localities. In this way sentiment was disseminated, opinions were exchanged 
and the mill became the "Public Forum." They were the centers of travel 
and were made the objective points of many early roads. The first mills 
were nothing more or less than "corn-crackers," and had an output of but a 
few pounds per day. This was the best they could do and satisfied the needs 
of the community. However, the small output meant that more mills must 
be built to supply the demand, thus, each community had its own mill. Cabin 
Creek seems to have been a favorite location, as it is said at one time there 
were no, less than nine mills in operation upon that stream alone. 



As to mills, etc., before 1820, we have not been able to gain any certain 
or exact information. There were some mills built on Nolan's and Greens- 
forks (as, also, some horse-mill corn-crackers and hominy-pounders). Will- 
iam Smith, father of Hon. Jeremiah Smith, built a mill in 1819, on West 
river. Meshach Lewallyn built one at Ridgeville on Mississinewa, about the 
same time. Jere Cox erected one on White river, some miles east of Win- 
chester, in 1825. Jessup had a mill on Greenville creek as soon as 1820 or 
before. Aaron Hill's father, as also a Mr. Hawkins, in the region of Arba, 
had hominy-pounders, and perhaps corn-crackers, run by horse-power, shortly 
after the first settlers came. However, Aaron Hill's father came to this 
county in 1831. Jesse \\^ay says he thought the first water mill in the county 
was built by John Wright, on Salt creek, just north of Winchester, in 1818 or 
1819. But to find exact dates, and to determine the locations of those early 
mills, is very difficult, and in many cases an impossible task. In the statement 
herein given, locality has been followed rather than priority of date ; and no 
doubt many, after all the labor expended in the work, have been omitted. 


A mill was built at (just below) Macksville by Robert Cox about thirty- 
two years ago ( 1848) . It is now owned by Roberts and Goode. It is a good 
(grist) mill, and does a thriving business. At the mouth of Cabin creek Mr. 
Bunker built a saw-mill very early. Afterward John H. Bond rebuilt the saw- 
mill and added a grist-mill. William Roberts bought and rebuilt the mill 
soon after 1854. It was afterward owned by Dick & Cowgill. Up Cabin 
creek (three-quarters of a mile) is another grist-mill; Jacob Beals built one 
on that site very early. Afterward it was rebuilt by Peter S. Miller (from 
Bucks county, Pennsylvania), and again by William Marine (about) 1844. 
Mr. Marine was the grandfather of James Whitcomb Riley. It was owned 
by John H. Bond and Solomon Wright, and later by Henry Studebaker. 
Steam was used at one time but now water alone. A portable saw-mill was 
there once but it has been taken away. The mill now has a good reputation 
for work, and is the only country mill in the county. Just above that (also 
on Cabin creek), William Marine had built another mill (about) 1839. He 
at one time owned both these mills (called Marine's upper and lower mills). 
While Marine was running both these mills, Nathan Mendenhall undertook 


to build still another mill between Marine's upper dam and the lower mill 
connected with that dam. He built his dam, dug the race, got the timber on 
the ground but finally he stopped. Why, we do not know, for one would 
think a man might as well go clear through as to begin such a job as that. It 
is a pity he had not put to actual test the project of running a water-mill with- 
out water! 

Two miles above (on Cabin creek still) stood Mendenhall's (lower) 
mill, built before 1840. It has been rebuilt once or twice, and was discontinued 
not long ago. The works were taken to Parker, and the mill is in operation 
there now. A mile above was Mendenhall's upper mill, built by Nathan 
Mendenhall (father of the one mentioned above), at a very early day. The 
mill was rebuilt by his son Hiram. It was changed into a woolen factory. It 
was at Unionsport, and is run by both water and steam. 

A s^w-mill was built by William Davison before 1829. It was running 
up to 1852, but was discontinued soon after. Thomas Gillum built a "corn- 
cracker" one-fourth of a mile south of Buena Vista, one of the first water- 
mills in the county. It was gone long ago.- Below ]Macksville mill (on 
White river), Mr. Spillers built a saw-mill (about) 1850. It was rebuilt by 
David Harris. On Sparrow creek a saw-mill was erected (before the Macks- 
ville grist-mill was built) by Morgan Mills. He used to saw day and night. 
He would set his log and start the saw, and then lie down and take a nap. 
When the saw got through the log, the snapping of the trigger would wake 
him up, and he would set the log again. That mill went down sixty years or 
more ago. Robert Cox rebuilt the mill and used it to saw the lumber for the 
mill he built (at Macksville) on White river. Koah Johnson built a grist- 
mill on Sparrow creek at the crossing of the Huntsville and Sampletown 
road, southeast of Macksville, very early, about the same time as Gillum's 
mill on Cabin creek there was also a saw-mill. Both have been gone many 

James Clayton built a saw-mill on "Eight Mile Creek" above :\Iacks- 
ville. That mill quit sawing before 1830. Lewallyn's grist-mill on the 
Mississinewa near Ridgeville, was built (say) 1819 or 1820. It was after- 
ward owned by William Addington, and then by his son, Joab Addington, 
afterward by Addington & House. Still again by Arthur McKew, and later 
by Whipple. Frederick Miller had a grist-mill and saw-mill on Bear creek, 
three miles southwest of Ridgeville, perhaps seventy-five years ago. They 
have been gone many years. On Bear creek, Josiah Bundy and Jacob Horn 
once had a saw-mill. The old Sampletown mill, between Macksville and Win- 


Chester, just east of the "twelve-mile boundary," was built very early, but 
has been gone a long time. Jere Cox built a grist-mill above Winchester on 
White river, in 1825. Joseph and Benjamin Pickett built a saw-mill, William 
Pickett in 1853 purchased the place and both mills. They were operated till 
about 1864, and were torn down in 1870. Mr. Pickett said there were five 
dry years (from 1864 to 1869), in which the water was so low that the mills 
could not run, and they were left to go to wreck, and were taken away in 
1870. Parsons had a grist-mill on Mississinewa one-half mile below Deer- 
field before 1832. Jessup had a "corn-cracker" on Greenville creek, north of 
Spartanburg before 1820. A grist-mill used to stand on Greenville creek 
northwest of the Kennon farm in Wayne township. It was there in 1850, 
but has been gone many years. The timbers are there still. 

A Mr. Hinchy had a saw-mill and grist-mill on the Mississinewa, east 
of AUensville, in the early settlement of Jackson township, which were some- 
what important for several years. There were some mills (one or more), on 
Mississinewa, near Fairview. John Wright is said to have had a corn-cracker 
water-mill on Salt creek, north of Winchester, thought by some to have 
been the first water-mill in the county. Jesse Way said Wright's mill was 
built in 1818 or 1819. 

Joshua Bond had an oil mill (perhaps the only one in the county), as, 
also, a grist-mill, both run by horse-power, near Winchester, very early — 
perhaps as long ago as 1820, or thereabouts. Joshua Bond settled near Win- 
chester about 1818, and set up his mills soon after; and about 1835, or so, he 
removed to Jay county, building a horse mill there also, and running the 
same till a comparatively late day, dying there also about 1878, at the age of 
ninety-four. His mill in Jay county was noted, settlers coming from both 
far and near. 

Old Paul Beard had a saw-mill on Greensfork, which was old in 1837. 
There was a mill site where a grist-mill had been, but had gone down in 1832, 
and a new mill by Levi Stout (same man) two miles lower down on Greens- 
fork, a mile and a half north of west from Lynn, about 1838, which was still 
running in 1854. 

Amos Ellis had a saw-mill in old times between these two mill sites, 
which was gone, however, in 1840. Aimbrough and Mendenhall built a mill 
on Cabin creek some time prior to 1836, but this mill ran only about four 

George Ritenour built a mill near his residence west of Deerfield in 
1838, but this mill lasted only a short time, as the mill at Deerfield was much 


larger and better. Robert W. Bunker built his mill on Cabin creek, 1839. 
Marsh mill, below Deerfield, was built in 1833. John Jackson's mill, on Cabin 
creek, was built in September, 1834. Hurst's and People's mill was built near 
Unionsport in 1841. 

There were other mills built from time to time, particularly saw-mills, 
concerning which no information has been obtained. These early mills must 
not be reckoned to be like the great mills of the present day. They were, 
indeed, but small and insignificant affairs. It is related of one of the first 
mills in Jackson township, that the owner boasted that his whole "fixings" 
had cost him only $2.50. 

Those old-time mills were very humble, unpretending establishments. 
Cox's mill, above Winchester, built eighty years ago, and eleven years after 
the first settlement of the county, bolted flour in a hand bolt. The "corn 
crackers," so called (Jessup's on Greenville creek, for instance), used to grind 
about a peck an hour. The stones employed in many of the first mills were 
simply the native boulders of the region, dressed to suit the purpose. Still 
they served the needs of the settlers in a small way for many years. Some 
half-dressed mill stones are lying beside the highways still. The grist would 
be sent on the back of a horse or a mule with a half-grown lad, and one by 
one these grists would be slowly, oh, how slowly, worked through the ma- 
chinery of the mill. Men, however, who were able to command a wagon and 
team and enough grain to warrant the labor required, would take a trip to the 
more extensive and better appointed mills on the White Water, or the Still- 
water, or even the Miami. In the earliest times boys have been sent on horse- 
back twenty miles or more, from the Arba settleiiaent to the mills on the 
White Water below Richmond, both to buy corn and to get it ground in one 
of the mills in that region. 

The story told by the old settlers of nearly every one of the first mills in 
the whole region, though perhaps not an actual fact as to even a single one of 
them, is yet painfully suggestive of the more important real fact that the 
mills did actually grind so "awful slow" that everybody would naturally be- 
lieve that a dog might "lick the meal by spirits," and lift up his head and 
howl between the "jets" for more. But let us not laugh at these small begin- 
nings of things. The settlers used far more labor, and displayed much greater 
energy in undertaking what they were able to accomplish under such ap- 
palling difficulties than their posterity do in effecting the far greater results 
of the present day. 

For years after the opening of the country for settlement, the use of 


steam power was unknown. To fit up a steam establishment required a 
large amount of money, more, in fact, than most could command. Still as the 
country grew, and the milling necessities began to surpass the capacities of 
the water-power, and the "corn cracker" and the hand-bolt mills of the region, 
men ventured to try how steam would answer the purpose, and one by one, 
mills were built away from the streams. The result has been that water- 
power has dwindled and almost grown out of use, and steam has nearly car- 
ried the day. 

One of the first steam mills in the county, possibly the first, was built by 
Elias Kizer at Winchester, as early perhaps as 1835, on Salt creek on the north 
side of Washington street. 

Mr. Roberts had a steam grist-mill at Winchester (in the west part of 
the city). It was running say in i860, but its rumbling has been silent for 
some years. The brick mill and warehouse near the depot has been standing 
for some fifty years. It was built for a warehouse by John Mumma. Martin 
owned it awhile, then Heaston and Riley, then Colton and Bates, then Bates 
Brothers. It is an extensive mill, has a high reputation, performing good, 
thorough, reliable work, and a large amount of it, now owned and operated 
by C. Graft. 

Deerfield steam mill was built by Jason Whipple eighty-nine years ago 
(1845). Foi' many years it had a very large patronage. At one time it drew 
custom for thirty or forty miles in every direction. Customers had the privi- 
lege, by staying through the night, of having their grists ground in turn, and 
many availed themselves thereof. Sometimes a dozen or twenty teams would 
wait through the darkness of the night, rather than go home through the 
long and tedious journey and then be obliged to return at a future day. Peo- 
ple came from Centerville, Wabash, Greenville, etc. It was owned by Willis 
Whipple, son of Jason Whipple. This mill was torn down in 1907. 

The mill at Allensville was fixed so as to run by water or steam. It was 
built in about 1850, and ceased to be used about 1900. A saw-mill (water and 
steam) was built, and afterward a grist-mill, by McNeely before 1845. The 
establishment was rebuilt by Thomas Reece and Company. There was a steam 
saw-mill on Olive Branch, then it was made a grist-mill, and afterward the 
works were taken out and carried to Farmland. At Farmland, Dr. William 
Macy had a steam saw-mill, afterward belonging to Ford and Company, but 
it has been silent for sixty years. Stanley Brothers had a steam grist-mill at 
Farmland before i860. Having been burned, it was rebuilt with new ma- 


chinery by Hawkins. Another steam-mill at Farmland was built by Charles 
Stanley about 1870. 

A steam-mill was built at Ridgeville on the railroad, by Arthur McKew. 
It was burned and rebuilt of brick. The mill is a good one, and does much 

There was a steam-mill at Harrisville, built some years ago. A steam 
grist-mill was running for several years at Arba, but it burned down in 1877, 
and has not been rebuilt. There were two steam saw-mills at Spartanburg. 
One was built about 1852 by William Luker. The other was built by Wesley 
Locke about 1880. It had a corn-mill and planing-mill attached. A large 
steam grist-mill was erected at Union City, Indiana. It was owned by Con- 
verse & Company ; had a capacity of 200 barrels per day. 

A steam saw-mill has been in operation for several years on the State 
line pike, two miles south of Union City, but it was removed about 1881. Mr. 
Sheets set up a saw-mill west of Union City in 1852. 

There was a saw-mill on Oak street. Union City, and John H. Cam- 
mack had a saw-mill in the Cammack neighborhood, some two miles east of 

There was a saw-mill eight miles southwest of Farmland, and a steam 
grist-mill at Huntsville, also a saw-mill at Huntsville, owned by Peyton 
Johnson, and there was another saw-mill- owned by Jere Hyatt. A saw-mill 
stood not far east of Deerfield, on the State road, from early times until 
about 1880, owned latterly by John H. Sipe. There was, for years, a saw- 
mill on the boundary, southwest of Spartanburg. A saw-mill was in 
operation for twenty years or more near Salem. When Union City began to 
need lumber for building, that mill, among others, helped much to supply the 
demand. A grist-mill and a saw-mill were formerly in operation north of 
Lynn, but one was burned (or both) and now_ there is neither. 

Anthony McKinney built a saw-mill on Mississinewa, one and a quarter 
miles below Fairview, about 1839, put in a corn-cracker about 1840, and built 
a new and more extensive mill, putting in "wheat buhrs" about 1842. He 
had three run of buhrs — and a bolt carried by machinery. It was a good mill 
for a while. Mr. McKinney sold the mill to Samuel Zaner. He owned it 
about a year and sold to Abner Wolverton, about 1864, for wheat. Steam 
was put in in 1875, but has not been used for years. 

Mr. Ward had a saw-mill on Mississinewa, below Ridgeville, which ran 
for several years. John Foust had a saw-mill and corn-cracker in about 1856, 
in Franklin township, just at the township line, on Mississinewa. Cyrus A. 


Reed had a saw-mill one mile above Fairview. It was built about 1850, and 
stood perhaps ten years. There was a saw-mill at Shedville, run by steam. 

Before 1825 Lemuel Vestal undertook to erect a mill on Stoney creek, 
near Windsor. Before completing it, he sold out to John Thornburg, who 
finished the grist-mill and also built a saw-mill. After four years he sold to 
Andrew G. Dye, and he to Moses Neely, and still again the mills were trans- 
ferred to Thomas W. Reece, who built them anew. Their owners since have 
been Neely, Mark Pattis, Johnson & Dye, William A. Thornburg, Reece & 
Sons, Mahlon Clevenger, John Thornburg, Robert Cowgill and John Cleven- 
ger. Doubtless other mills have existed, of which no account has been ob- 


Peter Kabel had a carding machine, etc., in the west part of the county. 
At first Mr. Kabel had a little carding machine in the garret of John H. 
Bond's grist-mill. He was very poor, and got the use of Bond's "power." 
After awhile he bought a waste farm that was too wet for tillage. He 
ditched the prairie and drained the ponds, springs and swamps, and collected 
the water, and got enough to run a carding machine and woolen factory. For 
a long time it was a famous establishment, getting custom far and near, and 
Mr, Kabel made a fortune. His factory is gone now. There are pleasant 
anecdotes about Mr. Kabel and his mill. Somebody had at one time turned 
the water upon the wheel and made the mill run empty through the night. He 
was provoked, and on Saturday he sawed the foot-bridge over the fore-bay 
almost in two, and laid it in its place. Monday morning he came to start his 
mill, and, forgetting all about his "trap," he stepped upon the sawed plank 
and went, souse, into the fore-bay. He scrambled out just as Thomas Ad- 
dington was going to the mill. He ran to meet Thomas, laughing and crying 
out: "O, Thomas, Thomas, I caught mine self, I caught mine self!" Mr. 
Kabel lived three miles south of Macksville. There was for some years a 
woolen factory at Unionsport. It had a good reputation, and its yarns were 
in great demand. There used to be a carding machine at Winchester, be- 
longing to Elias Kizer, but it is not there now. The old county seminary, at 
Winchester, was fitted up and run as a woolen mill factory for several years. 
It was quite extensive and did much work, but it has been discontinued. There 
was, for many years, a carding machine and woolen factory at Deerfield. It 
was burned down and rebuilt, and burned again, and, since the last fire, has 
not been rebuilt. 


It is told. US, as a matter of curiosity, that Moorman Way once undertook 
to fit up a carding machine at Winchester, and run it by ox-power. The es- 
tablishment did some work for awhile. A carding machine was built and 
operated in very early days, near Winchester. It is thought to have been the 
first in the county, but has been gone for many, inany years. It belonged to 
Daniel Petty, and was operated by horse-power. 

Mills and warehouses are now run in connection with each other. This 
has made it impossible to have a miH ofif the railroad. As we have said here- 
tofore, there is but one mill running at this time, that is not located on a rail- 
road. This mill does but very little business. The mills of today are to be 
found in Union City, Lynn, Modoc, Parker, Farmland, Ridgeville and Win- 
chester. Warehouses are to be found in those places and in addition, in 
Crete, Carlos, Losantville, Deerfield and Harrisville. 


The first roads of the county were mere trails or paths that led in and 
around the hills, or upon, crossing the streams at the most available point, so 
as to prevent the least possible difficulty. The trail which was blazed on 
trees or bush was often difficult to follow, even by the most experienced 

Even the roads established by law were very vague indeed, as will be 
seen in some of the entries. The first road was to run from Winchester be- 
tween Jesse Johnson's and Paul Beard's. Another was laid out from the 
west end of Hezekiah Hockett's lane to the Wayne county line, at the south- 
east corner of Martindale's. A third was to go from Hockett's road three- 
quarters of a mile north of "gass" to an irregular direction to the State road 
at Vernon. This is the only reference made to the town of Vernon any- 
where. Another road was to run from the southwest corner of Samuel 
Smith's fence to the crossing south of Jackson's, thence to new road at the 
north end of William Smith's lane. If following the roads was any worse 
than following the descriptions they must have had a sorry time, indeed. 

When roads were finally established the right-of-way was cleared simply 
by cutting the trees and allowing the stumps to stand. It was often with 
great difficulty that a wagon could be drawn along these roads at all because ' 
of the stumps. As the roads became more and more traveled it became neces- 
sary to put them in better condition. This was done by filling up the holes 


with logs and making corduroy sometimes for rods after rods and even for 

But for many years travel in the spring of the year was almost im- 
possible, and no very great distances could be gone at that time. Eventually, 
however, the roads were graded and straightened, but little attention being 
paid to hills or hollows. When the gravel road was suggested it seemed at 
first to be a wild dream. 

In Cottman's History Pamphlets, No. X, p. 17, will be found the fol- 
lowing description of traveling in early days : 

"Most of the year a journey over the roads was simply a slow, labor- 
ious wallowing through mud; the bogs were passable only through the use 
of corduroy, and this corduroy of poles laid side by side for miles, not infre- 
quently had to be weighted down with dirt to prevent it floating off when the 
swamp waters rose. * * * /^^g Qj^g proceeded he must track to right 
and left, not to find the road, but to get out of it and find places where the 
mud was 'thick enough to bear.' * * * Innumerable stubs of saplings, 
sharpened like spears by being cut ofif obliquely, waited to impale the unlucky 
traveler who might be pitched out upon them, and the probability of such an 
accident was considerable, as the lurching wagon plunged over a succession of 
ruts and roots, describing an exhilarating seesaw with most astonishing 
alteration of plunge, creak and splash. Ever and anon the brimming streams 
had to be crossed, sometimes by unsafe fording and sometimes by rude fer- 
ries. In the latter case the ferry keeper was apt to be off at work somewhere 
in his clearing, and the traveler had to 'halloo to the ferry' till he could make 
himself heard." 

At first the toll roads were private enterprises and people had to pay 
toll for traveling upon them. The toll-gate keeper lived at the cross-roads 
and kept the highway closed with the "pole and sweep," so that tra\clers 
might not pass when he was not present. But the toll road has long since 
been a thing of the past and first-class free roads are to be found today. 
James Whitcomb Riley represents an old pioneer talking reminiscent'y at an 
Old Settlers' Meeting. This old man would represent a period of about 
thirty years ago, when Mr. Riley has him say : 

When we had to go on horseback, and sometimes on 'shanks mare,' 
And 'blaze' a road fer them behind that had to travel there. 
"Of the times when we first settled here, and travel was so bad. 


And now we go a-trottin' 'long a level gravel pike, 
In a big two-hoss road-wagon, jest as easy as you like ; 
Two of us on the front seat, and our wimmen- folks behind, 
A-settin' in theyr Winsor cheers in perfect peace of mind!" 

— Riley, James Whitcomb, Neighborly Poems, page 23, Indianapolis, 1891. 

But today the picture which Mr. Riley describes would attract as much 
attention as would have the automobile and motorcycle of today attracted at 
that period. 


Much has been said of the pioneer schools in another chapter. These 
schools were conducted in a private cabin, or in rude houses constructed 
for schools alone. They were built of logs, puncheon floor, if any floor at 
all, a fire place filling one end of the room. For light, greased paper was 

For a graphic description of a pioneer school, see Mr. Macy's article. 

Churches were not built until after private homes had_ been used in a 
community long enough to justify a church association. These churches 
were crude affairs, but they served the people well and were the means of 
bringing a spirit of love, fellowship and communion into the community. 

The ministers of that day preached upon texts taken from the Bible 
and paid no attention whatever to questions outside the church proper. The 
hymn would be announced, the minister would "line" it, the leader would 
pitch the tune, and, with the congregation, sing the song. These songs were 
sung with a fervor and spirit that carried enthusiasm and conviction to all 
who sang and heard. They may have lacked harmony but they did not lack 
in spirit. 

They left an impression never to be forgotten, and many a man and 
woman of today looks back upon the singing in the old days as one of the 
most effective means of worship. 


There's a lot of music in 'em — the hymns of long ago. 

And when some gray-haired brother sings the ones I used to know, 

I sorter want to take a hand. I think of days gone by, 

"On Jordan's stormy banks I stand and cast a wistful eye!" 


There's lots of music in 'em — those dear sweet hymns of old, 
With visions bright of lands of light and shining streets of gold; 
And I hear 'em ringing — singing, where mem'ry, dreaming, stands, 
"From Greenland's icy mountains to India's coral strands." 

They seem to sing forever of holier, sweeter days, 
When the lilies of the love of God bloomed white in all the ways ; 
And I want to hear their music from the old-time meetin's rise 
Till "I can read my title clear to mansions in the skies." 

We never needed singin' books in them old days — we knew 

The words, the tunes, of every one — the dear old hymn book through ! 

We didn't have no trumpets then, no organs built for show, 

We only sang to praise the Lord "from whom all blessings flow." 

An' so I love the ^ Id hynms, and when my time shall come — 
Before the light of day has left me, and my singing lips are dumb — 
If I can hear 'em sing them then, I'll pass without a sigh 
To "Canaan's fair and happy land where my possessions lie." 

— Atlanta Constitution. 


Much of the material given here concerning this subject is the direct 
result of experience of those who gave it, many years ago. These people 
fived in the county and knew exactly the customs, manners and conditions of 
themselves at that time; and if they differ from what they are today we 
must remember that the conditions and environments were very much dif- 
ferent from what we have it. 

Their manners today would in a way seem crude, but nevertheless Ihey 
were as earnest and sincere as we can possibly be today. 

They did the best that could be done under very trying circumstances 
and met the conditions fairly and squarely. For the most part they were hon- 
est and upright people and enjoyed a good time in the crude way of (heir 

Much of the following was gotten from Mr. Martin A. Reeder, an old 
pioneer of the county, and Mr. Joseph Hawkins, who lived in Jay county at 
the time of these interviews. Mr. Hawkins was very familiar with Randolph 



Some articles have been furnished by Hon. Martin A. Reeder, who has 
been a resident of the county for about sixty years, the substance of which 
is given below, with also some additions from other sources : 


Many would put up a "camp," and live in that for some weeks or months, 
and wait to build a cabin until the large trees had been cleared from a place 
extensive enough to prevent danger from the tree trunks falling on the house. 
Others would put up their cabins in the dense woods, with perhaps a dozen 
trees near, any of which might, in a storm of wind, have crushed the dwelling 
and all its inmates. And yet, though scores of cabins were erected thus, it is 
not known that a solitary tree ever threw its huge trunk upon the roof of a 
single settler's dwelling. 


Cabins were built of round logs from eight to ten inches through, and 
covered with clapboards. They were of all sizes; — some perhaps twelve by 
fourteen feet, and some eighteen by twenty-five feet, with one seven or eight 
feet story and a loft above in the roof. A small cabin would have one door 
and one window. A large one might, perhaps, possess two of each. The 
chimney and fire-place would be wholly outside, opening of course into the 

At the "raising" the neighbors for miles around were expected to come 
and lend their aid (who at first, were not many), and they went. No 
"shirks" were there. "Help me and I will help you," was their motto, and 
the rule was faithfully practiced. 

On the "raising day" the body of the house would be completed and the 
roof put on. Cutting out the door and window holes, and the opening for 
the fire-place, putting in the doors and windows, building the fire-place and 
chimney, laying the puncheon floors, chinking and dauljing ibe cracks lietween 
the logs, laying the loft, etc., were done bA- the owner at his pleasure as he had 
opportunity. Barns and outhouses were raised from time to time, so as not 
to tax the settlers too heavily. 

These cabins, though not elegant, were, when properly, solid 
and substantial, and warm to boot; and many, many years ot" happy, con- 


tented, prosperous life have been spent within their lowly walls. And many 
who lived all their youthful years in such a humble domicile but who have 
since become able to abide in stately mansions, can now truthfully declare 
that their happiest days were spent nevertheless beneath the shelter of those 
mighty, overshadowing forest trees, under the lowly roof of that old-time 
log-cabin. How true the words of the poet : 

" 'Tis not in titles, nor in rank, 
'Tis not in wealth like London bank. 
To make us truly blest." 

Note. — Many of the early-built cabins had no windows at all. The door 
and the big, open-mouthed fire-place were the only avenues for light. It is 
within the knowledge of the writer of this sketch that families who emi- 
grated from Carolina to Randolph county in 1847 had never seen any glass 
windows, and had no idea what they were for. Some houses dwelt in in 1846 
had no windows. 

The ideas of convenience then were not just like our own. In about 
1850 the daughter of one of the earliest settlers said of a certain new house 
that she occupied '(with her large family), "the room is so convenient [the 
house had but one room] we can set up six beds in it." 


"Have a big log, cut notches up and down the log fourteen feet spart^, 
set double stakes fourteen feet out from the log, cut small logs six to eight 
inches thick, 'scafe' off the ends so as to fit the notches in the log, put cne end 
in the notch and the other between the stakes ; in the notch let the ends touch, 
but put blocks between the other ends, so as to make the upper one slant 
enough for the roof, put some logs atop of the big log and some across the 
front above; put on the roof, and stuff the cracks with moss. 

Moss was plenty on the old logs, as thick as a cushion and as soft as a 
sheepskin; you could tear off a sheet as long as a bed-quilt if you wished. 
We often used sheets of moss for blankets to ride on instead of a saddle. 
The front of the camp was open six feet high, and logs Vv^ere across above. 
A log heap fire was built in front on the ground. At first we left it unpro- 
tected, but the smoke would sweep into the camp and choke us so that we 
could not stay. Then we took puncheons and set them tipright in a semi- 


circle around (outside of) the fire, leaving passages next the camp to go in 
and out at. This mended matters greatly. We lived in this camp from 
March until November, 1829. We cleared that summer nine acres — ^five for 
early corn and four for late corn, potatoes, turnips, etc. 

The men had built three camps side by side agajnst the same log, expect- 
ing to have three families. Only two came, and that left tvi^o camps for us. 
There were eight in our family, and, the two older boys fixed a bed in the 
extra camp, and the rest of us slept (in three beds) in our own proper camp." 


The houses were made strong in this way. The loft was constructed of 
split logs, and the doors of split timbers three or four inches thick, with 
battens fastened across and hung on strong wooden hinges, having also a 
strong wooden bar across the door inside, fastened at each end by the fork of 
a tree put into the door casing by a hole bored with a large auger. 

To break into such a house as that would be by no means easy, yet the 
dwellings were seldom locked. Such a thing as entering a house unlawfully, 
was well-nigh unknown. 


This country lies far interior, away from all water-courses, those old- 
time channels of inter-communication. Emigrants could reach this county 
only by a long and tedious stretch of wagon road and forest trail. Hence, 
the settlers brought with them commonly only the most necessary things, and 
especially those for which no substitute could be found in the new land; 
kettles, ironware, etc., must be brought, since nothing could be found in the 
West to take their place. Bedsteads, chairs and tables were useful, but they 
were also heavy and bulky, and awkward to move, and substitutes could be 
found, and they were, in many cases, left behind.. 

Feather beds, bedding, pewter ware, cooking utensils, etc., were brought. 
But for bedsteads, the settlers made something- which answered the purpose. 
T\^o rails with one end inserted in the side and end logs of the cabin, meeting 
in a post at the inner corner driven into the ground, with clapboards laid 
across from the side rail to a strip pinned upon the log, would do for a bed- 
stead. One active young wife made one for herself by boring holes in some 
poles and making two benches, and laying eight large, thick clap-boards upon 
them, and lo ! she had a bedstead ; and on went her straw bed, all the bed she 


had, and her sheets and bed quilts ; and she was never prouder of anything in 
her life than she was of her bedstead and her bed, nice and good and brand 

Sometimes, for an extra nice "fixing," men would split out pieces from 
a straight-grained oak, and make bed rails, and prepare other pieces for the 
slats, boring auger holes in the side rail and in, the side house log, and putting 
the slats in these, and that was good and solid. Four high posts would stand 
at the corners, and rods or wires be strung from top to top of the four posts, 
and curtains would be hung on the rods; and who could wish a neater cur- 
tained bed than that ? Often two of these would be made for a single cabin, 
one in each farthest corner ; one for the father and mother, and the other for 
company ; and the children — why, they had to go into the loft, and sleep under 
the rafters to the music of the rain falling on the roof, or of the snow rattling 
on the clapboards. And that was a jolly place to sleep. And instead of chairs 
were made puncheon stools, and puncheon benches, which last were better 
than chairs or stools either, since half a dozen urchi-ns could sit upon one. 
And as for chairs or stools at the table, they were not needed, inasmuch as all 
the half grown boys and girls had feet, and they stood up at the table, like 
folks at a modern Sunday-school celebration picnic dinner; and almost every 
article of convenience that settlers had they made for themselves. Door 
hinges and latches were made of wood, and a string sufificed to raise the latch ; 
and to pull the string inside was better than a lock, because no false key 
could pick the lock or unbolt the door. A poking stick answered for tongs, 
and some stones on the hearth did instead of andirons; and, as for stoves, 
those articles had not been invented yet, or, if they had, it wouia cosi so 
much to haul the bulky things of the sort which were called stoves in those 
days into these western wilds, that when here, the cost would be inore than 
that of a forty-acre lot. 


The people of the present time will doubtless be glad to learn how the 
pioneers managed (not merely to raise or earn, but) to make their bread in 
those days when stoves and ranges, and all the modern paraphernalia of 
bakmg and cooking were not. Bread was made mostly of cornmeal, and m 
three forms, viz : "Dodgers," "Pone," and "Johnny Cake." To the people 
now all these three are reckoned as one; but to the pioneer, they were en- 
tirely distinct, yet all excellent of their kind, and either or all good enough 
to make "a pretty dish to set before the king." 


"Dodgers" were made of meal with pure water and a little salt, mixed 
into a stiff dough, and molded with the hand into a kind of oval cake, and 
baked in a "bake-pan" or '"Dutch-oven," viz., a round iron vessel as wide 
across as a half-bushel, or less, and six or eight inches deep, with legs, of 
course, and a lid with a raised rim to hold coals on the top. The coals were 
put in abundance underneath the "oven," and on the top as well; and when 
the bread was done there came out the "dodgers," as moist, as sweet, as nice 
as epicure ever saw. 

"Pone" was made with meal, water and salt, with the addition of milk 
or cream and yeast, thinner than dodgers, and was bakecj in the same way. 

"Johnny Cake" was made with lard and butter, water and salt of 
course, and baked in a loaf or cake, say six inches wide and an inch thick, 
upon a board perhaps two feet long set up before the fire. When one side was 
baked enough the other side of the cake was turned to the fire till it was done, 
and then you would have perhaps the sweetest and best corn bread ever made. 
Besides these there were grated corn, pounded hominy, lye huminy, green 
corn (roasting ears), etc. Corn has been well said to be the poor man's 
grain, and on account, among other things, of the ease with which it can be 
made into food, the variety of which it is capable, and the general excellence 
of the different kinds. Lye hominy and green corn, the two simplest forms 
of its preparation, are at the same time well-nigh the best and most delicious 
food that ever passed the lips of man. 

After wheat had been raFsed, of course, some flour was used, but still for 
a long time corn was the chief source of bread. The mills were but poor, 
many of the first for grinding wheat having only hand bolts, and the flour 
would be none of the best. But you are not to think that the settlers were 
destitute of meat. On the contrary, they had abundance, and' that of the 
best and rarest kinds. Deer, turkeys, pheasants and what not were plenty; 
and a good rifle would bring some of them down at almost any hour. To 
shoot turkeys standing in his cabin door was no uncommon exploit for the 
pioneer ; and to bring down on an average, one deer a day, besides a full day's 
work, was what many a backwoods man succeeded in doing. Almost every 
settler (and settler's son) was a hunter as well, and those who did not care 
themselves to shoot deer could readily get all the venison they wished of their 
sportsman neighbors, and that almost for a song. 

Then there were hogs, at first or very soon afterward. There were 
many "wild hogs," that were the offspring of such as had strayed from older 
settlements, or from the Indians, some of whom kept swine. These hogs 


were called "elm-peelers," and were long-legged, long-bodied, long-headed, 
sharp-snouted, with short, straight, pointed ears, and as nimble nearly as a 
wolf; and, when very wild, more savage than the bears themselves. They 
would make but a poor show (except as a curiosity) at one of our modern 
fairs, but at that time they were highly valued, even above the fat, un- 
wieldly, helpless things called improved stock. When a "Yankee man" was 
trying to sell some improved breed to the western "hoosier" (or "sucker" it 
may be) and mentioned as an advantage that they could not run. "Can't 
run?" said the settler. "No," said the Yankee. "Don't want 'em," replied 
the "sucker." "My hogs have to get their own living and look out for them- 
selves, and I would not give a snap for a hog that can't outrun a dog." So 
"improved stock" was then and there at a discount. 

These woods-hogs would get fat only during "mast years," and some- 
times the herds of hogs would get to be three or four years old and would 
become thoroughly wild and very savage, fleet of foot and almost as fierce 
as a tiger, so that hunters would be obliged to take to a tree to get beyond 
their reach. During the non-mast years these troops of swine would subsist 
upon roots, etc., such as hickory roots, sweet elm roots, slippery elm bark 
and such like. There was no hog-cholera then. Swine even now peel elm 
trees, eating the bark as high as they can get at it, and in such cases they 
seem clear of cholera. This habit of eating the bark from elm trees is what 
probably gave hogs in those days the name of "elm-peelers." When fatted on 
hickory and beech mast the meat was very sweet but oily, and would not make 
good bacon. Hunting wild hogs was grand sport, though somewhat danger- 
ous withal.. 

Stock, especially hogs, ran wild in the woods ^nd each man had his 
private stock mark. This mark was recorded in the recorder's office and be- 
came the way of marking one's stock. All other settlers must respect this 
mark under penalty of the law. There was a law at that time which said that 
if any one should mark a hog, shoat or pig, other than his own or change the 
mark on a hog, shoat or pig, other than his own, he should be fined in any 

sum not less than $ and should have upon his or her bare back lashes 

not to exceed thirty-three in number. This penalty would indicate the opin- 
ion of the importance of stock protection at that time.. 

The first stock mark recorded in the county was by Christopher Baker. 
"This day Christopher Baker entered his stock mark as follows, towit: A 
smooth crop in the left ear and a slit in the same and an under bit in the right 

"May 31st, 1819. "C. Conway, Clerk." 


Besides pork, as above described, and wild game, the streams abounded 
in fish; bass, sahnon, pike, buffalo, red horse, white and black suckers, silver 
sides, catfish, etc., were plentiful in the streams, and men could have all they 
pleased to catch. Besides bread and meat, potatoes were soon raised, so as to 
furnish a full supply ; as also pumpkins, squashes, cabbages, and other garden 
vegetables. But wheat, for several years, proved nearly a failure, so that 
flour, if used, had to be brought from the Miami or some other older settle- 
ment; and only a few could afford to take the trouble to get it, or cared to 
obtain it if they could. 

But how was cooking (other than baking bread) done? This way: A 
stiff bar of iron-wood (or of iron itself) was fastened in the chimney length- 
wise the fire-place, about midway from front to rear, and perhaps eight feet 
high, called the "lug-pole." On this bar were suspended several hooks of 
different lengths, made of small iron rods (or sometimes of wood). These 
hooks extended far enough downward so that the pots and kettles of various 
sizes would hang above the fire and close enough to it to receive the needful 
amount of heat. Thus, boiling of all kinds was done. 

For roasting (or basting), a wooden pin was fastened over the fire- 
place, and from this pin the turkey, venison saddle, or what not, was hung by 
a string or a wire in front of the blazing fire-place. The side next the fire 
would soon be cooked, and, by turning it round and round, the whole would 
be done "to a turn," the gravy dripping out into a dish set below upon the 
hearth. Thus, with milk and butter in abundance after the first two or three 
years, with tree-sugar and molasses in profusion, with wild berries and 
plums, etc., with which the woods abounded, the settlers, after they once got 
started, had no lack. In fact, many things of which they had a plentiful 
supply, would now be reckoned (if they could be obtained at all) a wonderful 

As to the supply of game and the readiness with which it could be 
gotten, it may be stated that one man has been known to kill nine deer in a 
single day, another has killed six. These are of course extreme cases, yet to 
kill a deer or two, half a dozen turkeys, and fifteen or twenty pheasants in a 
day was nothing uncommon for a single person. 

To light the house, no gas nor kerosene, nor even tallow candles were 
needed. The huge fire-place would, for an ordinary purpose, give light enough. 
Some had a kind of contrivance consisting of a sort of dish or bowl with a 
nose or spout for the rag-wick to lie in. In the dish was melted tallow or 
lard, and the wick lay with one end in the melted lard, and the other up along 


the spout. This lamp would hang by a string in the middle of the room and 
well supplied the place of chandelier or astral. Sometimes a still simpler ar- 
rangement was employed, a broken saucer with some tallow or lard in it 
would have a piece of rag' laid in as a wick, and your lamp was all complete. 
And for outdoor uses, the boys used to light themselves and their company to 
meetings or spelling schools, or to hunting sprees or "hoe down" parties, 
with torches, consisting of a handful of hickory bark. All that had to be 
done was to peel some bark as you went along, light the ends in the fire-place 
when about to start for home, and keep it whisking about as you went on. 
The more wind the better, though wind in those forest paths gave little trou- 
ble. A group of torches scattered along among the trees, flaring and dancing 
and flashing as they were waved hither and thither by their bearers, pre- 
sented so picturesque a sight as in these artificial days can seldom be wit- 
nessed. A good torch-light was worth half a dozen lanterns any day (or any 
night rather). 


Candles were made by taking a wooden rod ten or twelve inches long, 
wrapping a line or cotton cloth around it, and covering it with tallow 
pressed around the stick with the hand. 

Lamps were made by digging the inside from a large turnip, sticking up 
a stick in the center, about three inches long, with a strip of cloth around the 
stick, and turning melted lard, or deer s tallow, in until the rind was full. 
Often the great blazing fire-place gave light enough, and many an evening's 
work has been done with no other means of vision. 


The methods and means of work were simple enough. Trees were 
girdled and felled and cut into lengths with the ax. In fact the ax was to 
the settler the tool of all work. Without it he was helpless. With it he 
was a crowned king. With an ax and an augur and aa old hand-saw he 
could make well-nigh anything. Rail-splitting was done with maul and wedge. 
Moving logs was done with a lever, or hand-spike, while one in a hundred or 
a thousand would boast a crow-bar. Clapboards were split out with a frow. 

Puncheons were split with maul and wedge and shaped and smoothed 
with the ax, or with a large, long frow, suited to the purpose. 

Flax was threshed by whipping the bundles on a barrel-head, or a block 


set endwise. It was spread and rotted and dried and "broke," and swingled 
(scutched), and hatcheled (hackled), the tow carded and the flax or the tow 
spun and reeled and spooled or quilled and warped and woven and colored 
and made up into garments. 

Grain was hand-reaped or cradled and threshed with a flail or tramped, 
on the ground with horses and cleaned with a sheet or a basket fan. 

Hauling was done on a sled made out of "crooks" split from a tree-root. 
Plowing was done with a bar-share plow, which had only a wooden mold 
board. Hoes were huge, ungainly things, large enough to cut and dig 
"grubs" with. 

Men traveled mostly on foot, or on horseback. Many a man went on 
foot to Fort Wayne or to Cincinnati to enter his land. One man entered 
three different forty-acre tracts and went on foot to Cincinnati for the pur- 
pose, several times except that one of the trips was made partly on 
horseback. Boys sixteen years old have tied up their money in a rag and 
gone on "Shank's mares" alone through the woods to make entry of land 
for father or mother or possibly for themselves. 

Many a farm was tilled for years with a single horse, or even an ox. 
Not seldom a poor fellow's only horse would lie down and die and leave 
him in a "fix" indeed. However people were accommodating and a person 
could get help from his neighbors to the extent of their ability. Wagons 
were very scarce. To become the owner of a wagon was an event to reckon 
from as the beginning of a new era. One early settler says that in a space 
of two miles square, where resided perhaps thirty families, only two wagons 
were to be found. He says moreover, that the neighbors got up a milling 
expedition, taking a wagon with six horses and twelve bushels of, grain. 
The horses were restive and wild and would not pull together and the wagon 
became fast in the mud and six men took a horse and a sack of grain apiece 
and "put out" for the mill, leaving the wagon in the mud-hole to be got out 
at some other time. 

Thus our ancestors plodded on; slow and tedious and awkward- their 
methods Avould now be reckoned, but honest, faithful, industrious, frugal, 
simple-hearted, sincere, hospitable and generous. They heroically ac- 
complished the herculean tasks appointed to their lot and bore patiently and 
successfully the burdens which providence laid upon their shoulders. Let 
their posterity beware how they condemn the humble condition of their fore- 
fathers. Let this generation look back to those old-time' scenes and to the 
worthy actors in them, not with a feeling of shame nor a sense of disgrace. 


but let them reckon it an honor to have sprung from a line of ancestry so 
noble, so excellent, so hardy and energetic, so worthy of sincere respect, nay, 
almost of reverence ; and let them see to it that in methods of energetic labor 
and in heroic success in the employment of larger and better means of ac- 
complishment, they prove themselves before the world to be worthy success- 
ors of their venerable progenitors. 


]\lost of the settlers brought with them into the wilderness all they could 
afford to last them until more could be raised, at least to last for one year, 
and often for more than that. After a corn field and a truck patch must 
come a flax patch. When the flax became ripe it was pulled, threshed, 
spread, rotted, gathered up, broken, scutched, hackled, spun, woven and put 
on the back to wear. All the machinery needed for this work was a flax- 
brake, a scutching-board, a hackle, a spinning-wheel, a quill-wheel ana wmd- 
ing blades, warping bars and loom, all of which were very simple and inex- 
pensive and most of them could be made in the vicinity or, even at home. 
And all the work, from sowing the seed to taking the last stitch upon the 
garment, was done upon the premises and much of it was performed as easily 
by the lads and the lassies as by the men and women themselves. Tht 
hackling of the flax produced tow. This tow was carded and spun, the flax 
was spun into "chain," and the tow into filling, and both were woven into 
"tow linen" ; and out of this strong and not unsightly fabric many garments 
for summer wear were made, dresses for females being colored according to 
the taste and the males wearing theirs uncolored. For winter, people had 
sheep and took the wool, carding it by hand, spinning it on a "big wheel," and 
weaving it with linen or cotton warp (or chain) into "linsey-woolsey" or 
"jeans." The "linsey" was worn mostly by the women and the jeans by the 
men; sometimes the fabric was colored "butternut" and sometimes blue. 

Cambrics, muslins, etc., were scarce and costly and rarely used. For 
outer garments men soon began to use deer-skins, making pantaloons and 
"hunting shirts." The latter was much like a modern sack coat and a very 
comfortable, though not especially handsome garment it proved itself. At 
first the buckskin was obtained ready dressed, of the Indians, but the settlers 
soon learned to prepare it themselves. The men had commenced to make 
and sew their own buckskin garments, the work being too hard for female 
fingers. The sewing was done with the sinews from the deer's legs or with 


a "whang," i. e., a thong or string cut from the deer hide, a shoemaker's awl, 
and a very large needle. These buckskin clothes were just the thing. They 
were within the reach of all, costing nothing but labor; they were very 
durable lasting for years ; they were warm and as to looks,, each man looked 
as well as his neighbor and what more is needed ? And they were an almost 
perfect protection. The sting of the nettle, the scratch of the briers and even 
the bite of the rattlesnakes was harmless. The cockle-burs and the Spanish 
needles would not stick to them ; they kept out the cold "like a charm," and, 
moreover, when properly dressed and neatly made, they presented by na 
means an unsightly appearance. 

The garments were commonly made and worn large and free, which of 
course greatly added to their comfort and convenience. Sometimes, how- 
ever, in standing near the fire a man would get his "breeches" hot and an- 
other in mischief would clap the hot buckskin to the flesh and the luckless 
wearer would jump with a yell and a bound clear across the room as though 
the great log fire was tumbling on him. Sometimes too they would get wet 
and if allowed to dry, the skin would become very hard and stiff and could 
not be used again till it had been softened by dampening and rubbing. 

The Indians made moccasins and the settlers bought and wore them, 
being excellent for dry weather, winter or summer, but not for wet. For 
the wet season strong leather shoes were used, though many, especially the 
younger class, went much barefooted. 

Upon the head the men wore in the winter chiefly a strong well-made, 
low crowned, broad-brimmed wool hat, somewhat like that which the older 
Quakers now wear. Sometimes a warm head-gear was made from a coon- 
skin. It was comfortable but looked wolfish. In summer home-made hats, 
braided from whole rye-straw grown for that purpose were in extensive use. 

Women also made their bonnets out of straw, only each particular straw 
was split into five or six nieces by a "splitting machine." 

This machine may be thus described : Narrow strips of tin were firmly 
set in a piece of wood an inch square and six inches long. The straw was 
spread open and drawn through these tin "teeth" and made into strips of 
equal width. Five of these strips (sometimes seven) were plaited into a 
braid, and the braid made long enough for a whole bonnet. The braid was 
ironed smooth (having been bleached if thought necessary), and nicely 
sewed into bonnets ; and they looked equal in neatness (not to say taste) to- 
the fashions of the present day. 

Sun-bonnets were made much as at the present day, of calico, and paste- 


board. The great object of a bonnet was at that time supposed to be to pro- 
tect the face, head and neck from the sun, and the wind and the cold; and 
they were made accordingly. What a bonnet is for now is best known, per- 
haps, to the wearers ; or, if they do not, how should anybody else be expected 
to know ? 

The fashions of that primitive time, doubtless, would seem awkward 
and uncouth at the present day; but the clothing answered the prime ends 
for which clothing is worn, decency and comfort, even better perhaps than 
the garments of the present day. And as to looks, folks were better satisfied 
with what they had then than people are now; and, if they were suited who 
"had them to wear and to look at, surely we who are so far removed by two 
generations of time have no occasion to complain. 

It can be trvily affirmed that underneath those coats and hunting shirts, 
uncouth in looks and awkward in fit, dwelt souls brave and generous and 
hearts tender and kind, loyal, affectionate and true. God grant that the same 
may ever be truly declared of their children and their children's children 
while the ages roll. Fashions may come and fashions may go, but what 
matter, so the deep fountain of love and truth and faithfulness in the human 
soul remains pure, untarnished and perennial. 


Money was scarce, little indeed, was needed, for, as has been shown, 
almost every necessity and luxury was produced at home. Some money, 
however, was necessary, chiefly to pay taxes and to buy iron and salt, powder 
and lead. Taxes indeed for many years were low. The first county tax 
levied in Randolph was "twenty-five cents upon each horse-beast." The first 
settlement of the treasurer showed as follows : 

In May, 1819 — 

Receipts $20.00 

Expenditures 20.00 

Balance 00.00 

In November, $260.00 were the receipts and $259.75 the disbursements. 
In 1820 the county treasury boasted of $462.63, $309.63 of which were 
realized from the sale of lots, and $1 from a fine, leaving $152.00 as the avails 
of county taxation in a single county for a whole year. And up to 1829 the 
annual county taxes still fell short of $900.00. So "taxes" required but a 


small amount of the "needful." But iron and .salt and powder and lead were 
indispensable and heavy and costly. They took money and abundance of it, 
or its equivalent. 

As a specimen of the costliness of articles in those times, the statement 
is made that Benjamin Bond, who came to Wayne county in 181 1, gave for 
nails twenty-five cents a pound and paid for them in cordwood cut upon his 
land just west of New Garden meeting-house in Wayne county at twenty-five 
cents a cord upon the ground, a cord of wood for a pound of nails ! 

Once in western Pennsylvania in the long, long ago, a horse was given 
for a barrel of salt, and at another time (in this region) eighteen dollars was 
given for a bushel. Money could be obtained, indeed, though not largely. * 
Deer skins would bring fifty cents ; raccoon skins, thirty-seven and a half 
cents and muskrats, twenty-five cents. The fur buyer when he came his 
annual round would pay cash, but the merchants paid only in trade. If the 
settler would wait for the fur buyer, he could have the cash, if not, he must 
"dicker" it out and let the merchant finger the cash himself. 

Deer must be killed from May till November and raccoons and muskrats 
from December till April. So the hunter had his harvest all the year round, 
only, if he wanted money, he must store up till the fur-dealer came. But 
necessaries could be gotten at any time. And these were comparatively few, 
though somewhat expensive. A side of sole leather and of upper leather, a 
barrel of salt, powder and shot for himting, some fish hooks and perhaps an 
ax would suffice for a whole year. For land buying some money was re- 
quired of course and after the "specie-circular" in the spring of 1837, only 
silver (for gold was not then in circulation, being before the days of Cali- 
fornia, dear, and of course scarce, or more properly speaking, not in ordinary 
use as money at all) was available and hard work indeed it often was to ob- 
tain the needful. 

One (now old) man tells of the strait he was put to at the time when 
that famous "specie circular" came in force. He was a lad of eighteen 
years. Having had his eye for a long time upon a fine sugar camp near his 
father's dwelling but without money enough for his purpose, he heard that 
another man intended to "enter" the tract. Hurrying to gather up funds 
for that and for some more land desired by his father, he set out on foot 
and alone, carrying his money tied in a knot in his pocket handkerchief most 
of the way in his hand, bound for the land office at Fort Wayne. The 
money was largely in paper and in just three days the "specie circular" was to 
come in force. He hoped to reach Fort Wayne by that time and struggled 


on. But he could not "make it." The third night found him kt St. Mary's, 
a few miles short. The next day he entered the land office, not knowing 
what he could do, fearing the worst yet hoping the best. The receiver hap- 
pened to be an acquaintance of his father's and agreed to take his "paper 
money." And so he made his point and got his land. And then afoot and 
alone he wended his way homeward again without money only as he bor- 
rowed two dollars of his friend, the receiver, but happy in possession of the 
certificate which would in due time bring for him a patent under the "Broad 
Seal" of the United States of America. The reason why he was found thus 
with no money to go home on was this : He supposed that the tract of land 
he wished to enter was an "80 acre" piece. It was 84, which would take 
exactly $5.00 extra, so the question came up, "Will you take all your money 
and get your land or will you save your money and not purchase?" He. had 
come too far to go back with his object all unaccomplished, and the young 
hero decided that he would have the land and get home as he could. And 
have it he did and under the generous offer of his friend, the receiver, he 
accepted the loan of two dollars to pay his expenses homeward. It is a 
pleasant thing to note that, though this boy (and his father) were ardent 
Whigs of that olden time and the receiver was a Van Buren Democrat, he 
befriended the boy nevertheless like the frank and genial man that he was. 


Wherever there are human beings there will be amusements. Thousands 
of years ago a prophet foretold that Jerusalem should be rebuilt and that the 
streets "should be full of boys and girls playing in the midst thereof." 
Wherever there are boys and girls there will be playing and men and women 
are only grown-up children. The sports of the settlers were generally of the 
more active kind as jumping, wrestling, running races, with frequently a 
"hoe-down" at an evening merry-making, after a raising or a log-rolling, 
or a spinning bee or some other gathering for work and assistance. 

An invitation would be given to the men and boys to come and help 
roll logs or to raise a building or something like that, and to the women to 
come and bring their spinning wheels. Both classes would go. The men 
would roll logs or what not and the women would spin. At nightfall supper 
would be served and then for a frolic by such as pleased to take part in it, 
which would doubtless be fast and furious, since those who participated were 
stalwart lads and buxom lasses and in sober truth "all went merry as a mar- 


riage bell." And not seldom the women would carry their spinning wheels 
as they went and returned on foot. 

Applecuttings, husking-bees and spelling schools were also favorite past- 
times. Applebutter was one of the staples of life and when the apples were 
ground and cider made young people would be invited to help "peel apples" 
and help prepare for the "picnic." The young people would gather from 
miles around and enjoy the evening" as only young people ip the bloom of 
life could enjoy themselves. After me work was done, the "hoe-down" or 
some other amusement, was indulged in until a late hour, when all would 
go home to meet at another place perhaps the next evening. 

Corn was snapped, that is, pulled from the stalk, husks and all, and 
hauled to the barn to be husked later on. Neighbors would be invited to the 
husking-bees and all would have a time of merriment while performing this 
work. Fortunate indeed was the man who husked the red ear. 

There have been indeed more harmful sports than these backwoods-balls, 
especially if they were kept free from the mischievous presence of and dis- 
turbing power of intoxicating drinks (which was not always the case), since 
they were for the most part simply lively methods of working off a super- 
abundance of animal spirits, which mere hard work outdoors or indoors 
could not subdue. 

Then for the boys hunting served the purpose both of hard work and 
high sport as well for to chase the bounding deer through the leafy woods 
or to wait and watch for his forest lordship as his kingly horns would come 
tossing proudly among the waving boughs and to bring his active form to the 
earth with the unerring shot of the faithful rifle amid the wild baying of. the 
eager hounds as they gathered to be "in at the death," — these wild and fiery 
hunts were for these rollicking boys the keenest of sports. And thus it was — 

"Mid earnest work and furious play 
The youngsters passed their lives away." 

The spelling school was the great event of winter evenings. Spelling 
was indulged in by old and young and unfortunate indeed was the man who 
could not spell in these contests. Sometimes it was class against class, but 
more often one school against another. The interest taken in these spelling 
matches was very intense and the little old school house would be crowded 
to suffocation. If the contest was one school against another the members 


of each school would line themselves on opposite sides of the room. If it 
were not a contest between any particular communities, the leaders would be 
selected and these would choose alternately of all the people present; these 
would line up on either side of the house and the contest would begin. 

The master or the squire or perhaps the minister, at least some one of 
influence, would pronounce words first to one side then to the other; if a 
word was misspelled it went to the opposite side and so on until spelled 
correctly. All those having missed it would be retired. And so the contests 
would continue until but one would remain on the floor. The master would 
frequently pronounce word after word and page after page and sometimes 
the entire spelling book before all the spellers would be "down." Under con- 
ditions of that kind a special list of words would be given, or perchance the 
dictionary would be resorted to. Spellers were so well acquainted with the 
books of the time that frequently they could spell page after page without 
the word even being pronounced. 

The writer knows of two men who at one time spelled "McGuffy's" 
entire book without having a word pronounced. This seems an exaggerated 
story but many a man knows it is true, having heard it done. 

The spelling school over, the young lads would line themselves up at 
the door ready to ask to see her home, fearful of getting "the mitten" and 
receiving the jeers of his companions. But more usually it was the case of 
"the longest way home is the nearest and best." 

Visiting was indulged in a great deal of Sundays and evenings. There 
being no newspapers, the only method of communication was by meeting 
either at the church or school house or in the home. After the supper work 
was done, the husband would hitch the team to the sled and all would go 
over to neighbor Browns to spend the evening.. Neighbor Brown and family 
were always glad to see them and a pleasant evening was enjoyed. Innocent 
games were indulged in by the younger people while the elders exchanged 
ideas of a more serious nature. The mother would take her knitting and 
spend an evening of usefulness as well as pleasure. The party would soon 
be divided, mutually, into groups. 

"Soon was the game begun. In friendly contention the old men 
Laughed at each lucky hit, or unsuccessful manoeuvre, 
Laughed when a man was crowned, or a breach was made in the 


For the children : 

"Between the andiron's spraddling feet. 
The mug of cider simmered slow, 
The apples sputtered in a row, 
And, close at hand, the basket stood 
With nuts from brown October's wood." 


"sped the time with stories old. 
Wrought puzzles out and riddles told." 

While, perchance with the young folk : 

"Meanwhile apart, in the twilight gloom of a window's embrasure. 
Sat the lovers and whispered together, beholding the moon rise." 

The evening was soon past and only too soon was it necessary to make 
the return trip. Happy indeed were the people of those times, because they 
sought for real pleasure and found it at their own command. 


But not all even of the young spent their leisure hours in sport. For 
many, very many the religious exercises of those earliest days of primitive 
simplicity were more satisfying as they were certainly more profitable than 
any form of mere worldly pleasure could possibly be. Great numbers of the 
first settlers of Randolph were men and women of a strong and earnest re- 
ligious faith and of a hearty, loving spirit, fearing God and delighting to do 
good to men. 

The earliest religious meetings were probably of the Friends or the 
Methodists, possibly the former, though which ever may have been first, the 
other was not far behind. 

Perhaps the earliest houses of worship through the county were built 
by the Friends, the one at Arba being the first, those at Lynn, Jericho, White 
River, Dunkirk, Cherry Grove and perhaps some others, following not long 
after in point of time. The Methodist meetings were held mostly at first in 
private houses, as Mr. Bowen's in Greensfork near Arba; Mr. McKim's at 
Spartanburg; Mr. Marshall's in Ward township; Mr. Hubbard's and Mr. 
Godwin's in Green town.ship and so on. Other denominations also gathered 
congregations in various parts, as : The Disciples, the United Brethren, the 


Christians, the Protestant Methodists, the Baptists, the Presbyterians and in 
latter days the Anti-Slavery Friends, the Wesleyans, as also the African 
Methodist Episcopal church and perhaps others. 

Some of the Methodist churches were built very early as the chapel west 
of Deerfield, the Prospect meeting house east of Deerfield, Macksville, etc. 

In early times many protracted meetings were held and several camp- 
meetings at some of which remarkable seasons of religious awakening were 
witnessed and many souls were brought to repentance and forgiveness. 
Many preachers too have been prominent and successful in their labors for 
Christ. Protracted meetings are still employed (in addition to regular Sab- 
bath and other stated work), as a powerful and efficient means for the spread 
of religious knowledge and the impression of the public mind with religious 
truth. Camp-meetings are also (though more rarely) held, since the altered 
condition of society renders them less a matter of necessity or convenience 
than formerly. Almost every neighborhood now has commodious churches, 
large enough to hold the congregations who desire to gather for Divine 
worship. There are indeed in various places in the county groves which have 
been furnished with seats, etc., for the convenience of meetings; and, during 
the pleasant Sabbaths of summer out-door meetings are occasionally held in 
them. But immense crowds now are rarely seen except upon very unusual 

In the simple-heartedness of those early times the people are thought, 
by the aged veterans who can remember what took place forty, fifty or sixty 
years ago to have been more warm-hearted and whole-souled in their re- 
ligious feelings and convictions than they are to-day. However that may be, 
religion, to those who then professed it was a serious business and they made 
thorough work of it. Women would take a babe in their arms and the hus- 
band a three-year-old child in his, while together they would go cheerfully 
on foot for miles to the place appointed for divine service. The daughter 
of the first settler of the county stated that she often when a "girl in her 
teens," walked from near Arba to Newport to Friends' meetings (at least 
six miles), and was not aware of having done anything worthy of especial 
mention. A young Friend at Cherry Grove would rise at 3 a. m. and work 
several hours in his field and then ride on horseback sixteen miles to week- 
day Friends' meeting. Children, ten, twelve, even sixteen years of age would 
go "barefoot" to church and young women and mothers would carry their 
shoes tmtil near the church, when they would put them on and wear them 


until a short distance on their return, at which time they would take them off 
and go "barefoot" home. A Methodist circuit rider would go his round 
once a month, riding frequently hundreds of miles during the time and hav- 
ing an appointment every day and not seldom one at night besides. The 
preacher honored his calling then and to be a Methodist circuit rider meant 
to go to work at preaching and to have plenty of it to do ; and to their honor 
it should be said that as a rule they performed a great amount of ministerial 
labor, and that, according to the full measure of their ability, they served the 
gracious Lord in His vineyard in their appointed lot. And those old-time 
ministers of Christ have, one by one, lain down to their final rest and their 
souls have gone home to receive the gracious welcome, "Well done, good and 
faithful servant, enter thou into the joy of thy Lord." 

And true it is that the simple-hearted worship offered and the instruction 
given in those rude and uncouth cabins was to the full as acceptable to the 
Great Father of all our mercies as is any now-a-days to be met within the 
grand and magnificent piles of brick and stone that pass for houses of 
worship in these later days. Linsey woolsey home- spun and deer-skin hunt- 
ing shirts, calico sun bonnets and coon-skin head-gear were as pleasing to 
the eye of the Omniscient as can any rich and costly methods and fashions be 
which the descendants of that honest, sturdy, faithful race of sterling men 
and loving women feel themselves called upon now to indulge or to practice. 

It is indeed a comfort to the pure and humble soul, in all ages and places, 
to know and feel the blessed truth, that while "man looketh upon the outward 
appearance, God looketh on the heart" ; that the Good Shepherd knoweth His 
sheep and leadeth them in peace into the green pastures of His love. 

It is an interesting reminiscence of those pioneer days that as late as 
1840 this veteran mail carrier for nearly thirty years on the route north from 
Winchester used to take, on a horse led by his side, a heavy sack of silver 
money, sometimes to the amount of five thousand dollars to six thousand 
dollars at a time for payment at the Ft. Waj'ne land office for land entries 
at that point. He would camp out one night as he went, yet he was never 
molested and to the honor of the veteran who did this no man ever lost a 
cent by unfaithfulness of his. Night and day, summer and winter, through 
mud, snow and rain, whether sweltering in a July sun or shivering in a 
December snow storm, swimming the swollen streams faithfully and untir- 
ingly, heroically did that conservitor of the United States mail press onward 
from south to north and from north to south alternately, growing old but not 


rich in his countrys service and only leaving that department of work to enlist 
in the army at the commencement of the war of 1861. 

One of his stopping places was at the residence of Edmund Edger in 
Deerfield. Mr. Connor would usually get to Mr. Edger's about dark and 
would take the money from the sack and put it under the house through a trap 
door. This trap door was in the floor and covered by a rag carpet. Mr. 
Connor or Mr. Edger never felt any uneasiness about the money being dis- 

This not only indicates the honesty and faithfulness of such men as 
these but indicates the honesty of all the people among whom Mr. Connor 
had to stop or travel. 

May the day be long deferred when such integrity, though found arriong 
the poor and lowly shall fail to receive its due honor in the hearty esteem of 
the public in whose behalf such untiring faithfulness has been done. 

All honor to him through many long years of weariness and privations 
and toil faltered not in the path of public duty, heroically performing what 
was then so indispensable to the public welfare and for accomplishing which 
needed result no better and easier method had then been discovered. 

The writer of this article was searching in the basement of the court 

house a few months ago, and among other old books, found a day book that 

had belonged to E. B. Goodrich who had come to this country in 1831. Mr. 

' Goodrich had written a letter in this old book and evidently had forgotten to 

tear it out and mail it. 

This reflects the experience and attitude of the early settlers so well 
that we shall quote it here : 

"We arrived at our present place on White River, Randolph county, 

Indiana, on the day of , after a long and tedious 

journey. We arrived here without any lives being lost or limbs broken and 
that is all we can say. If I was to tell you of the many difficulties we had t > 
encounter in moving here, extreme cold weather, dangerous roads, in conse- 
quence of ice you would hardly believe me and therefore I shall say nothing 
about it. We are all in good health and spirits and are well pleased with the 
country as far as we have as yet seen." 

This letter shows the spirit of thousands and thousands of the pioneers 
and all honor to the men and women who were willing to brave the dangers 
and hardships to make this country what it is. 

Of the character of these first pioneers, no better portrayal can be made 


than in the eloquent tribute of Rev. Jenkin Lloyd Jones to the father of 
Abraham Lincoln. 

"Only he who knows what it means to hew a hom^ out of the forest; 
of what is involved in the task of replacing mighty trees with corn ; only he 
who has watched the log house rising in the clearing and has witnessed the 
devotedness that gathers around the old log school house and the pathos of a 
grave in the wilderness can und.erstand how sobriety, decency, aye, devout- 
ness, beauty and power belong to the story of those who began the mighty 
continent. In pleading for a more just estimate of Thomas Lincoln, I do 
but plead for a higher appreciation of that stalwart race who pre-empted the 
Mississippi Valley to civilization, who planted the seed that has since growjj 
school houses and churches unnumerable. They were men not only of great 
hearts, but of great heads, aye, women, too, with laughing eyes, willing hands 
and humble spirits." 


Much of the following chapter on the Reminiscences of the Earliest 
Settlers, are the reminiscences actually taken from what is known as the 
Tucker history and tq which we are indebted. These reminiscences were 
taken first hand by Mr. Tucker and as these pioneers have long since gone to 
their reward, the utterances will be all the more valuable. Their experiences, 
joys, pleasures, hardships and privations could only be known to them, and 
can only be appreciated when read in their own language, for they were in- 
deed the only ones who could properly interpret the drama of their' life. It 
is not attempted to give these in chronological order but rather as an ex- 
pression of experiences as they came to the minds of those to whom we are 
under such a great obligation. In this country with our modern homes with 
all their conveniences, with well-improved farms and conveniences made pos- 
sible by modern machinery and devices, with rapid transportation on high- 
way and rail, with the present methods of communications by letter or by 
wire, it is utterly impossible for us to know the hardships and privations 
undergone by them. Their story is the story common in the. great middle 
west. The experiences given here by a few only, reflect the experiences of 
thousands upon thousands of the early settlers and pioneers of this country. 
Their story is the story of all, their experiences, the experiences of all their 
labor, the labor common to all; their society, the society of all; their gift to 
posterity is the gift common from all, to those of the present generation. 
These reminiscences are given years after the events had occurred and per- 


haps time had changed their color. Repetitions had no doubt altered the 
story they had to tell, yet they portray truthfully the experiences of these peo- 
ple. Let us be slow to criticise, because we know little or nothing of what 
they had to undergo. 

The following reminiscences by old and early settlers concerning their 
pioneer life in Randolph county and elsewhere, were written from their own 
lips, mostly in their own language. Care has been taken. to have all the mat- 
ter in these narratives fresh and unique, the same thing not bemg repeated, 
each pioneer's tale giving some fact or phase not found in any other. 

Most of these sketches are from the original settlers, and from those 
who came when the land was heavily laden with. dense, unbroken forests, and 
the country was still a wild and unpeopled waste. 

Some of the "sketches" are arranged for the most part, though not en- 
tirely, in the order of time. 

Some of the "sketches" contain incidents that occurred outside of Ran- 
dolph county, yet in connection with persons who have been at some period 
residents thereof. This portion of the work might have been greatly enlarged. 


son of Thomas W. Parker, first settler, April, 1814, and long of Bethel, Ind., 
but dying November, 1881, near Lynn, Randolph county. 

"The Indians were thick all around us, but they were civil and peaceable 
and friendly. They would help the settlers raise cabins, bring us turkeys and 
venison, etc. Three wigwams were in sight of our cabin. We children had 
great sport with the young Indians, and they were then almost or quite our 
only playmates. 

A squaw once scared me nearly to death. I had gone to drive a calf 
home to its pen. The calf was near one of the wigwams; I felt skittish (this 
was before I had became so familiar with them), but the calf had to be 
brought and I had to do it, for children had to mind in those days. So how 
about the calf? This way — I got around it and started it for the pen, and 
away we went, calf and boy, when, hallo! out popped a squaw full tilt after 
me ! She had jumped behind a tree and stuck out what I took to be a gun, 
and as I came near she bounced after me. My legs flew, you may guess; I 
could keep up with the calf with the squaw after me. She chased me home, 
she was tickled well-nigh to death, and I was scared nearly out of my wits. 
I thought I could feel the ball hit me ; but she had no gun, it was only a stick, 
and she was in fun. But there was no going around nettles then; they flew 


like Sticks in a whirlwind, and she came rushing after me, parting the brush 
as she came! The Indians would often come slipping around watching for 
deer, and would carry the dead deer to their wigwams. The squaws would 
dress the venison and jerk the meat and dress the skins for leather. 

The Indians wore paint and all their war equipments, which made them 
look frightful enough. But we soon got used to them, as they were very 
friendly. As the country settled up, They went farther back — Winchester, 
Macksville, Windsor- — and then to Smithfield, Muncie and Anderson. They 
would pass back and forth on their trails, bringing moccasins, etc., to trade 
for iron, salt, corn,, etc., for their use. 

There were many rattlesnakes, yet but few people ever got bitten by 

Father settled April, 1814; John W. Thomas and Clarkson Willcutts, 
farther north during the summer, and October 22, 1814, Ephraim Bowen 
drove up to father's door, and he went still farther up Nolan's Fork, and the 
farthest north of any. North and northwest was an endless wilderness, ex- 
cept a few soldiers at Fort Wayne and Fort Dearborn and Green Bay and 

At first it seemed lonely, but neighbors came gradually, and the blue 
smoke of their cabins could be seen curling up among the forest trees, as we 
followed the 'blazes' from hut to hut. 

The settlers who had come in by 18 19 were these : Thomas Parker, John 
W. Thomas, Clarkson Willcutts, Ephraim Bowen, Ephraim Overman, Eli 
Overman, John Schooly, Seth Burson, Nathan Overman, Joshua Small, 
George Bowles, Jesse Small, Jonathan Small, David Bowles, James Cam- 
mack, John Cammack, John Jay, Isaac Mann, John Mann, William Mann, 
Stephen Thomas, Elijah Thomas, Stephen Williams, etc., etc. 

We settled near (east of) the old (Wayne's) boundary. Game was 
plenty — deer, opossum, coons, turkeys, crows, wildcats, catamounts, bears, 
wolves, etc. The wolves would come near the door at night to pick up the 
crumbs, though precious little they found to pick, except the bones. Stephen 
Williams built a wolf-pen. Sometimes a wolf would get caught, and there 
would be fun. They would put a dog into the pen, and the wolf would whip 
the dog quick enough. The wolves would howl till one could not sleep for 
their noise. 

Our bedsteads had but one post, and they needed no more. The rails 
were bored into the logs of the house, and met in one post at the corner. But 
we slept first rate. The floor was puncheon, the door was one big puncheon, 
the loft was boards laid on poles, or often none at all. We would climb into 


the loft by a ladder, and slept under the roof to the music of the rain on the 
shingles. The fire-place was cut out six or eight feet long; the back and 
jambs were dirt beaten in and puncheons outside, the chimney was sticks and 
clay; the table was a puncheon upon poles laid on forks; the chairs were 
rough stools, or we had none, or sat on puncheon benches ; yet we were happy 
and' full of glee. Our diet was splendid — venison, turkey, roasted coon, fat 
possum, bear steak, roasted squash, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, corn bread 
baked on a hoe, or a lid, or a board, johnny-cake, or dodger bread, all good. 
Health and hunger make the best sauce, and we had them both. Then we 
had pounded hominy, and lye hominy fit to set before a king. 

About my schooling : It was not much, picked up in the woods. The 
neighbors joined and put up a cabin for church and school, the first of the 
kind in the county. The first school was taught by Eli Overman, and I at- 
tended it and was there the first day. My first book was a primer, and my 
next (and my last) was Noah Webster (spelling book). 

The house had a puncheon floor and door, a puncheon to write on, 
scalped off smooth with the 'pitching ax.' The benches were split poles with 
legs. Not a plank, nor a shingle, nor a brick, nor a nail, nor a pane of glass 
was in the whole house. The nails were pegs, the bricks were dirt, the planks 
were puncheons, the shingles were clapboards, the glass was greased paper 
over a crack for light, and the bigger boys got the wood for fuel. They had 
not far to go; the mighty giants stood huge, grim and frowning, stretching 
far and wide their monstrous arms as if to reach down and devour us. I tell 
you, the way the men and women (and the boys and girls, too) made the 
work hop around was a wonder — a sight to behold. Log-rolling would begin 
and keep on twenty or twenty-five days, people helping one another all around. 
Raising cabins, chopping trees, rolling logs, clearing land, splitting rails, mak- 
ing fences, plowing, planting and what not, kept folks busy enough for weeks 
and weeks the whole year through. People would go miles to help their 
neighbors ; one could hear the ax ring or the maul go crack, crack, or the trees 
come crashing down, from morning till night, all over the woods. The loom 
and the wheel were heard in every cabin ; the giant oaks, and the kingly sugar 
maples and the mighty beeches could be seen bowing their proud and stately 
heads, and coming heavily, helplessly down on every hand. The girls spun 
and the women wove and made the clothing, and took care of the family. 
Now, the first thing when a couple get married, is a hired girl, and the next 
thing a piano. 

We had hard times, indeed, in those grand old days amid the majestic, 
overshadowing forest. And now, how changed! And what shall sixty-six 


years more of time, stretching forward into the dim and wondrous future, 
accomplish for those who shall look on those coming days? We who have 
borne the brunt of the hardy past — how few we stand, how swift our passage 
to the opening tomb ! The rising race — what do they know ? They complain 
of hard times, forsooth! Then, it was the ax, the maul, the iron sledge- 
hammer, the flail, the brake, the swingling-board,' the hatchet, the 'cards,' the 
wheel, the reel, the winding blades, the loom. If we went anywhere, it was 
on foot, or on horseback, or even on oxback, or on rough, home-made sleds. 
And now these things are fled, and the faithless ones of the present day will 
scarcely believe that such things are any more than idle tales made up to be- 
guile the weary hours in the telling ; yet they are true, as the few old pioneers 
know full well. 

The Indians helped father raise his cabin. There was no one else to 
help. He covered his 'camp' with bedclothes and brush the first night. We 
crept into our cabin under the end logs the first night after it was built be- 
cause no door hole had been cut. Father and mother went to Friends' meet- 
ing at New Garden (probably) the next 'First Day' after they moved into the 
forest, seven miles through the woods. John Peelle and Francis Thomas, at 
New Garden pole-cabin meeting-house, one day, swapped pants, and Peelle 
kept the ones he got, and was buried in them, April 21, 1879. The swap took 
place about 1813, so that he must have kept those 'pants' about sixty-six years. 

The Pucketts were eight brothers. Four settled near Dunkirk. Daniel 
settled near New Port, Benjamin lived a few years in Randolph, but moved 
to ]\Iorgan county, Ind., in 1826. 

We crossed the Ohio at Cincinnati, on a flat-bottomed boat, that was 
pulled over by a rope stretched across the river. 

There were just three pole-cabins in Richmond with families living in 
them, and one with goods for sale. The families were John Smith, Jere Cox 
and Robert Hill. 

Robert Hill had the store. Mother sold him some 'slaies,' reeds for 
■.veaving, for some muslin and other 'traps.' 

Francis Thomas lived near the toll-gate below Newport, perhaps. My 
father and John ^V. Thomas went up to Nolan's Fork and picked out their 
'places.' Parker moved to his land first; Thomas next, and afterward Clark- 
son V^illcutts. 

Thomas Parker sold out to John James, and bought out Clarkson Will- 
cutts, and Willcuts bought elsewhere. 

The squaw who scared me so and chased me through the brush, was so 
'tickled' at my terrible 'scare' that she could not tell mother what she had 


done, for laughing. She fell down on the cabin floor, and laughed and 
laughted, and kept on laughing; and to mother's question, she only pointed her 
finger at me as she lay there, and burst out laughing again ; and I stood there, 
as mad as a lad of my age could well be, at the squaw, for scaring me so 
terribly, and then laughing herself well-nigh to death over the fun she had 
got out of me." 


Mrs. Celia Arnold, daughter of Thomas W. Parker, first settler of Ran- 
dolph (who is now living at Arba, Ind.), and sister of Jesse Parker, being 
one of the three children who belonged to the family of the first emigrant 
to the Randolph woods. She says, "I was born in 1811, married Benjamin 
Arnold in 1830, and have had five children, three of whom are living. My 
husband died 12th month, nth day, 1878, aged seventy-two years. He was 
bom 3d month, nth day, 1807. He came to Randolph county in 1823, be- 
ing the son of William Arnold. 

As we were coming to Indiana, our wagon upset and scra.ped my wrist. 
Two families, John Thomas and Thomas Parker, came all the way in the 
same wagon, nine in all, and some of the way Thomas WiUcutts and his wife 
and five children. [Note. — David Willcutts, later of Newport, Ind., Thomas 
Willcutts' youngest son came with us. ] All these did all the riding they did 
on the one wagon. We brought beds and cooking utensils, and one chair 
(for mother). She died in 1823. I used, when a girl in my teens, to go on 
foot to New Garden, six and a half miles, to meeting. I have done it many 
a time, and did not consider myself as having done anything worthy of spe- 
cial mention." 


"The 'Quaker Trace' was begun in 1817. James Clark, with twenty-five 
or thirty men, started with three wagon loads of provisions, as also a sur- 
veyor and chain, etc., and they marked 'mile trees,' and cut the road out 
enough for wagons to pass. They wound around ponds, however, and big. 
logs and trees, and quagmires, fording the Mississinewa above AUensville, 
Randolph county, and the Wabash just west of Corydon, Jay county, and so 
on to Fort Wayne. My brother James and myself first went to Fort Wayne 
(with a four-horse team) in 1820. James himself had been the trip a year 
or so before that. We took our feed along for the whole trip, as there was 
but one house from one mile north of Spantanburg to Fort Wayne, viz., at 
Thomson's Prairie, eight miles north of Wabash river. At Black Swamp 


we had to wade half-leg to knee deep, walking to drive (we always had to do 
that). After that first trip, we always took oxen, generally three yoke for 
a team. Xo feed was needed for the oxen, for they could be turned out to 
pick their living. Our load was commonly about 2,500 pounds of bacon, 
flour, etc. Bacon would be 10 to 12 cents a pound, and flour $7 to $8 a bar- 
rel. The trip would take about' two weeks, and we expected to make about 
$40 a trip. It would take eight days to go, three days in Fort Wayne and 
four days to return. Once an ox team^came through in three days, which 
was the quickest trip ever made. We would unyoke the oxen, 'hopple' them, 
put a bell upon one of them and turn them out. For ourselves, we would 
build a fire by a log, cook supper, throw down an old bed on the leaves under 
a tent stretched before the fire, and lie down and sleep as sound as a nut. 
We would start early, drive till 9 o'clock and get breakfast, and let the oxen 
eat again. From two to six teams would go in company. Sometimes the 
teams would get 'stuck' but not often. If so, we would unhitch the 'lead' 
yoke from another team, hitch on in front, and pull the load through. Once 
only I had to unload. I got fast in the quicksand in crossing the Missis- 
sinewa. We got a horse from a settler (Philip Storms), carried the flour to 
the bank of the river on his back, hitched the oxen to the hind end and pulled 
the wagon out backward. 

The first religious meeting was held in father's cabin. Stephen Williams 
exhorted (perhaps in 1815). The first sermon was preached there also (in 
1815), by Rev. Holman, of Louisville, Ky.. text, Isaiah, 'Is there no balm in 
Gilead? Is there no physician there? Why then is the hurt of the daughter 
of my people not recovered?' It was a good Gospel sermon, and was food to 
the hungry souls longing to be fed in the wilderness. AVe used to go to meet- 
ing to Dwiggins' (near Newport), and they would come up to our house. 
The IMethodist meeting house near Dwiggins' was warmed thus : They had 
a box, nearly filled with dirt, standing in the middle of the floor, and would 
make a fire with charcoal in the box. That house never had a stove in it, but 
was warmed in that way as long as it stood, fifteen or twenty years. They 
would have a rail-pen near the church to hold the coal, and carry it in as it 
might be needed. Mrs. Bowen says she has carried many a basket of coal 
to replenish the fire. The first meeting house was at Arba, built by the 
Friends in 181 5, and used for church and schoolhouse both; I went to school 
there four or five years. Afterward they built a hewed-log church, and had 
a stove in it. 

We would catch wolves in a wolf-pen. We could pay our taxes with 
the 'scalps.' A wolf-pen was made, say six feet long and four feet wide and 


two feet high, of poles for bottom, sides and top, the size of your arm. The 
top was like a 'lid,' withed down to the pen at one end, and so as to 
lift up at the other. The 'lid' would be 'set' with a trap so as to fall and 
catch the wolf and fasten him into the pen. The bait would be deer meat. 
To kill the wolf, take a hickory switch and make it limber by 'witheing' it, 
i. e., twisting it limber. Make a noose and slip it through the pen and around 
the wolf's neck, and lift him against the top of the pen and choke him to 
death. If the wolf was shot and bled in the pen, no more wolves would 
come into it. One big wolf father undertook to choke, but the dogs wished 
so much to get in at him, that we let them in, but the wolf fought them ter- 
ribly, and whipped the dogs, till father put an end to the battle by choking 
him in dead earnest. We moved into the thick, green woods. We would cut 
out the trees a' foot and under, grub the undergrowth, .pile and burn the logs, 
girdle the big trees, and kill them by burning brush piles around them. 

The last time I went to Fort Wayne was in 1829. Several tribes drew 
their payment there for years after Fort Wawne was laid out as a town. 
The Indians around here were Shawnees. They would trap in April and 
May, and then go back to their towns. The squaws would plant and raise 
the corn, and dress the skins. The men did the hunting and the women did 
the work. At one time at Fort Wayne, thirteen Indians were killed during 
one payment in drunken fights. 

Plenty of wild plums and grapes (and some blackberries) were to be 
found. The plums and grapes grew on the banks of the creeks, and along 
the edges of the- (wet) prairies. There were different sorts, red and purple, 
small and round, but very sweet and good, better than most tame plums. 
Some grapes were fall grapes and some winter grapes. The blackberries grew 
on the 'windfalls.' There was one near Spartanburg. There were crab-ap- 
ples, but too sour to use, and pawpaws, but no one would eat them. The woods 
were ftill of weeds of many kinds, and of pea-vines, and horses and cattle 
lived well on them. Some places had been burned over, and the woods, in 
those spots, were open like a big orchard. 

I knew Johnny Cornstalk, the Shawnee chief. My mother-in-law once 
made him an overcoat. He was a large, portly, fine looking, genteel Indian, 
straight as an arrow. 

He once came (with his wife) to my father's, on horseback, to tell him 
that they had found a bee-tree in his woods. They rode up. Cornstalk dis- 
mounted, but his wife sat still upon her horse, tall, straight and lady-like, 
genteel, dressed richly in Indian fashion, with a beautiful side-saddle and 
bridle, and a fine pony. Mother said, 'Won't you light ?' Spry as a cat, she 


Sprang off, and they went into the house. She was waiting for an invitation. 
They were a stately, elegant-looking couple. Cornstalk told father of the 
bee-tree, and father went and cut the tree down and gathered the honey, and 
gave Cornstalk half. They were then "camping' near James Jackson's place. 
I knew Chief Richardville five miles above Fort Wayne, on St. Mary's river. 
He was a Miami chief, had a large, brick house and was rich. His daugh- 
ters dressed Indian fashion, but very grand and stylish. He was a good, 
honest, genteel, friendly man, and mych respected, both by the Indians and 
white men. We made bricks one season at Fort Wayne, and saw him often. 
In plowing, when father first moved, we used a bar-share plow and a 
wooden mold-board. I could tell tales by the hour of those old times, but it 
is not worth the while to print so much of an old man's gossip." 

JAMES C. BOWEN, 1814. 

Son of the fourth settler, who came on his forty-fifth birthday, October 
22, 1814, when James was only a half-grown boy. 

"Hunting was splendid, and game plenty in the woods. Deer, turkeys, 
bears (and wolves) were abundant. 

We used to go to mill to Newport, to George Sugart's mill, but oftener to 
White Water, to Jere Cox's mill. Sugart had a little 'corn-cracker,' run by 
water-power. The buhr went around no oftener than the wheel did. Sugart 
would throw in a bushel of corn, and go out and swingle flax, etc., for an 
hour or two, and then go in and attend to his grist again. Awful slow! 
One day a hound came in and began licking up the meal as it came in spurts 
from the spout. It did not come fast enough for him and he would look up 
with a pitiful howl, and then lick for more meal! We boys would go four-- 
teen miles to mill on horseback. Sometimes we would go with a wagon and 
take a load, and then it would take two days. Often the settlers had to go 
over to the Big Miami for provisions. Sometimes two men would join teams 
and go with four horses, and bring a big load. Once I went with Clark Will- 
cutts' son (we were boys) on horseback to a mill four miles east of Rich- 
mond, to get a grist of corn. We each got a sack of corn, took it to Cox's 
mill, got it ground, and took the meal home. It was twenty miles and took us 
two days. 

Pork was $1.50 a hundred net, and sometimes $1, or even less than that. 
As late as 1835, when I was justice, I rendered judgment on a debt, and the 
defendant said he had wheat at Jeremiah Cox's mill, and he could not get 
I2i/^ cents a bushel, in money, to pay the debt. At Newport, Jonathan Un- 


thank sued David Bowles for $5, balance on a store debt. Bowles was angry 
and declared he would never trade with Untha:nk any more. 'To think,' he 
said, 'that I have traded there so 'much, and he must go and sue me for $5!' 
Benjamin Thomas (Wayne county) said he had as good wheat as ever grew, 
and he could not get 12 J^ cents a bushel, in money, to pay his taxes ! 

In making 'Quaker Trace,' in 181 7, twenty-five or thirty men started 
with three wagon-loads of provisions. I went about twenty-five miles (be- 
yond the Mississinewa river) until one wagonload was gone, and then re- 
turned with that team." 

[Mr. Bowen thinks that Sample's mill, on White river, was the first mill 
of any importance in the country. He says, also, that Cox's mill had at first 
a hand bolt, and that fiour had to be bolted by hand, which was a slow and 
tedious process.] 

[Ephraim Bowen came from Ohio in a big Shaker wagon, with a load 
of "plunder," and then went back after his family. The patent for his quar- 
ter-section was signed by James Madison. E. B. was an intelligent, devoted 
Methodist, and did much to help plant the foundations of religion in this 
western wilderness. His dwelling was the "preacher's home," and a preach- 
ing station for more than thirty years. The first meeting was held at his 
house, and the first sermon was preached there also. All the Methodists in 
the region were there, and others, perhaps thirty persons. The descendants' 
of E. B. are numerous and widespread. There were at his death seventy 
grandchildren and many great-grandchildren. E. B. and his family are a fine 
specimen of the hardy pioneers who subdued these western wilds. Courag- 
eous, honest, industrious, devout, intelligent, energetic, upright, enterprising, 
successful; their labors and achievements have helped the howling wilder- 
ness to become the "garden of the Lord," and to cause the "desert to loud and 
blossom as the rose."] 


"I was fifteen years old when father came here. Paul Beard and Joha 
Moorman and Francis Frazier and John Barnes were here when we came. 
Paul Beard came the same spring. The others had come perhaps the year 
before. Curtis Clenney came, I think, the same fall. Daniel Shoemaker, James 
Frazier, David Kenworthy were early settlers. The settlers before us had 
not been here more than a year, perhaps not so long. John Barnes was very 
old and he died last spring (1880). 

James Frazier (bell-maker) had a large family, and lived in a 'camp.' 


The roof-poles of his camp were put in the forks of a cherry tree, There 
came a heavy snow May 4, 'after the leaves were out, and broke down his 
forks, roof — snow and all right on their hfeads. 

The Friends first attended meeting at Center Meeting in Wayne county, 
but soon Lynn meeting was setup (about 1820). 

Francis Frazier lived west of the pike, a mile south of Lynn. Daniel 
Kenworthy lived east of Jesse Johnspn. Curtis Clenney lived a mile south. 
Daniel Shoemaker lived a half mile east of Lynn. James Frazier lived one 
mile east of Lynn. 

CHOLERA, 1849. 

- In the morning about breakfast, a black cloud came up from the east, 
dark and threatening; there was some thunder and a little rain, suddenly a 
sharp stroke of lightning seemed to strike the earth between Mr. Palmer's 
and the four corners, a mile east of Lynn. The sky was filled with smoke, 
and a fearful sickening smell as of burning sulphur filled the air, which lasted 
some time. A little while afterwards, that same morning, John Lister and 
two sons (one a lad) passed those corners. They were all taken sick that 
evening, John died next morning, and his oldest son during the day. The 
lad lingered a month, but recovered. William Hodgin passed next, and then 
Henry Benson and three others; they were all taken sick and died the next 
day or very shortly. On Chamness' place, a mile off, five or six were taken 
sick, but they did not die. 

Isaac Moody and Jonathan Clevinger nursed the sick all the time, but 
were not sick themselves. Most of the persons east and south of those cor- 
ners were taken sick. Twenty-seven died, and a few got well. It lasted two 
or three weeks. There seemed to be an uncommonly sharp smell after dark. 
[See W. Pickett's, Francis Frazier's and W. D. Stone's accounts.] 

When Jesse Johnson came in the fall of 181 7 (perhaps), Paul Beard 
had cleared a field and burned the standing trees black by piling the brush of 
the undergrowth around the roots of the trees and then burning the brush 

Settlers at that time were Paul Bear'd, Sr., Francis Frazier, John Moor- 
man, John Barnes (Wayne county), Travis Adcock, Isaac Hockett (Cherry 
Grove), Gideon Frazier. 

David Kenworthy had entered land (80 acres) some years before, but 
he came after Jesse Johnson did. 

Jesse Johnson had been here and had entered the land, and came and 
settled soon afterwards. 


Curtis Clenney was the next that bought near Francis Frazier, John 
Moorman and Travis Adcock. 

Clenney was in the Indian war of 1811-13, in the blockhouse and scout- 
ing in the region. 

James Frazier and John Baxter came the next spring. Edward Hunt 
came when Jesse Johnson did, and settled west of, and near to Lynn, 1817. 
James Abshire was an early settler, northwest of Lynn. He was a famous 
hunter. His son Isaac Abshire is still residing in that region." 

IRA SWAIN, 18 1 5. 

"My father, Elihu Swain, was born in 1759, on Nantucket Island, moved 
from there to Guilford county, N. C, in 1776; to Jefferson county, East 
Tennessee, in 1785; to Wayne county, Ind. (near Randolph county line) in 
1815, and died in 1848, aged nearly ninety. He married Sarah Mills in North 
Carolina in 1782. They had ten children, six boys and four girls — ^John, 
Nathaniel, Hannah, Samuel, Joseph, Lydia, Elihu, Rachel, Job and Ira. The 
family lived in a tent made of a wagon sheet for three weeks or more, lying 
in beds on the ground. They built a pole cabin, which for some time had a 
Yankee blanket for a door. 

For two or three years the children used to play with the Indians, who 
were plenty. A dozen Indians lived near, with their families, in 'camps,' 
made of poles set up in a circle, with ash bark peeled off the tree for a roof, 
the fire being built in the middle and a hole at the top in the peak to let off the 

In two or three years the Indians left their wigwams and came back no 
more, but their little pole tents stood tenantless and desolate for years. 

One little Indian by the name of 'J™/ who lived not 200 yards away, 
and with whom I played many a day when we were boys together, was 
adopted by Judge Reeves, and grew up civilized. I met him years afterward 
at La Porte, Ind. He knew me, though I did not know him. He had-traveled 
a great deal, but he came back, and lived on Judge Reeves' old place a few 
years ago, remaining there until he died. When our family was coming 
from Tennessee, I saw a sight of cruelty which will stick by me to my dying 
day, and the memory of which has done much to fasten in my mind an 
eternal hatred of human slavery. As we came through Richmond, Ky., a man 
was being flogged near the road where we passed. I was but a child, but I 
remember it well. The man's hands were drawn down over his knees, and 
a stick was thrust through between his arms and his legs, thus fastening him 


forward. His body was naked,- and they were whipping him terribly. He 
was screaming with all his might, and his back and hips were all cut into a 
jelly. It was a fearful sight. 

Father entered Congress land. The twelve -mile purchase was In mar- 
ket, but the land west of it was not, being surveyed in 1821-22. Father had 
to go or send to mill to ■ Connersville (thirty miles). They would buy com 
near the mill and get it ground and briijg the meal home. 

The first school was near David Moore's (in 1816 or 1817), with, per- 
haps, twenty scholars. The house was a pole cabin, 14x18 feet. One end of 
it was cut out (much of it) for a fire-place. We used to pile up logs in the 
fire-place (i. e., the larger scholars did) for a rousing big fire. The fire-place 
was built up to the mantel, with puncheons filled in with clay inside, and the 
chimney was made above with sticks and clay around. The floor was 
puncheons, and the benches were split poles with legs. The older pupils used 
to get wood at noon to last till the next day noon. That was not much trou- 
ble, though the chief care was not to fell the trees on the schoolhouse, and it 
took 'lots' of wood to keep the house warm. 

For several winters we had no shoes. Then father dug out a large log 
and made a big trough and tanned some hides, and made some leather, and 
so we got some shoes. One man who had a trough and some hides tanning, 
intending to move and wishing to take his hides along (I suppose they were 
not tanned enough, and he thought there was no bark on the prairie where he 
was going), made a big truck wagon with wooden wheels, sawed from a 
large oak tree. He loaded his tan trough, bark, hides and all, upon his huge 
truck-wagon, and away he started for Illinois. After traveling two or three 
days, he bethought himself that he had left some tobacco in a crack of his 
cabin, and, leaving his folks and team (of oxen) in the woods, he 'footed' it 
back after the tobacco, found it, got it, and tramped back again, spending two 
or three days in the operation. What the folks did meanwhile I do not know ; 
I suppose they just waited there in the woods, cooking and eating, and tak- 
ing it easy. 

The people in those days made 'hand-mills' with stones 'a foot over' to 
grind corn with. To turn them was hard work. My wife's father once took 
a peck of corn to grind on one of them; a boy came with a tin cup to toll 
the grist. The man ground and ground, till he got so tired that he called out 
to the boy, 'Come here, sonny, with your tin, and get some more toll, or I 
shall never get done.' People went on horseback, or rather walked and led 
the horse, with a sack of corn or meal on his back, thirty miles to mill. A 
man or a boy would. go with a horse and three bushels of corn in a four- 


bushel sack all that distance. Johnny Banks made a great improvement; he 
loaded one horse and attached a rein, leading one and riding another, thus not 
exactly killing two birds with one stone, but what was still better, getting two 
grists of corn to mill with one boy. Great labor-saving invention, to make 
one boy to accomplish the work of two, and more than that, for the led horse, 
having no boy to 'tote,' could take a full load of corn. We were often two 
weeks without bread. However, mother could make plenty of lye hominy, 
and we had potatoes, and sweet potatoes, and sweet pumpkins and squashes, 
and plenty of bacon and chickens and eggs, venison, wild turkey, etc., so that 
people need not starve even on such fare." 


"Air. Blount lived at first on the Zimmerman place [southern part of 
West river]. Mr. Barnes lived south of it. 

Griffith Davis lived south of Mount Pleasant church. William Smith 
settled a mile north. He came in 1 817. I remember the 'falling timber.' I saw 
a tree fall between the house and the corn-crib, and remember playing under 
the tree top, as it lay there, with Gaboon's children, an Irish family, who 
lived near by. I recollect father's trying to get some colts that were in the 
woods among the fallen timber. We could see them and hear them 'whinny,' 
but he could not get them. They worked round home in three or four days. 
The cattle also took several days to come home. We could hear them bawl, 
but they could not be got at. One heifer did not come, but 
we got her a year afterwards. A man saw the mark on her and came and 
told us, and father went and got her. My sister was keeping house for Isaac 
Branson, with his children; father clambered over the trees after the storm 
and got there, half of the house roof was blown off, and the stable roof also, 
and the logs were blown down round the horse, so that he could not move, 
yet he was not hurt; their cow was killed, and that was the only animal we 
knew to have been hurt. Trees were blown crosswise in every direction; 
east of our house it blew down but ^little ; the storm seemed to rise for a 
spat:e, but it came down again near Albert Macy's and took his house roof 
off ; by-and-by it rose, and did not come down any ,more. The crops were 
injured, but not so badly as one might think; there was no hail; the worst of 
the storm was north of us. The house we lived in at the time of the storm 
is .standing yet, and in good repair." 



W. M. BOTKIN (1816). 

"My father was a tanner; his tan troughs are here yet, though out of 
use for many years. A large cherry tree is growing in the end of one of 
them, as it lies buried in the ground. General muster use to be held on fa- 
ther's farm. A colored man named Jack ran away from Kentucky in early 
times and came to my father's, stopping awhile to work. One night a spell- 
ing-school was held in father's cabin. While they were spelling, a knock was 
heard at the door; father went to the door and asked who was there. Jack 
heard the reply, and knew his master's voice. Peter Botkin opened the win- 
dow and let Jack jump out and escape. The master offered father $50 to 
help him get the slave, but we helped him off instead. 

Plows were made almost wholly of wood; the bar and share were iron, 
but the moldboard, etc., were of wood; sometimes a piece of a saw or the 
like would be put over the moldboard to make the plow scour. 

To make a cradle to rock the baby in, we took a hollow buck-eye and split 
the log, and put rockers on the bottom. 

I have cut many a cord of wood at 20 cents a cord and board, and have 
split rails at 9 1-3 cents a hundred. I have worked many a day for 25 cents 
and 37/4 cents in harvest, from sunrise till sundown at that. Wheat was 
37^ cents a bushel, and pork $1.25 a hundred net. I used to slide on the ice 
barefooted, the skin on the bottom of my feet was hard, almost like a stick. 

Methodist meetings were held in father's cabin, and quarterly meeting at 
Jesse Cox's. Father's cabin burne ddown, and then meetings were held else- 
where; William Hunt and Nathan Gibson were preachers; father was very 
poor when we came to Randolph. 

There is now on my place a tan trough, made by my father more than 
sixty years ago, hollowed from the body of a large tree, the top of the tree, 
some thirty feet long, being still in connection with the trough. There are 
also rails, made of white^ oak, of blue ash and of walntat, still sound and in 
use on the farm, made by father before 1820, and put up into fences by him 
on his original farm in that early day. It is only two or three years since I 
changed the location of some of the rails which had lain all that long time 
unmolested in a fence, and the 'crossing' of the rails were firm and solid." 

[Mr. Botkin, poor though he was when a boy, as his story shows, is 
poor no longer. He owns several hundred acres of excellent land ; has a splen- 
did brick mansion in a beautiful situation; is a thrifty and prosperous farmer, 
and a prominent and influential citizen, foremost in every good work. It is 


really a wonder how many of the rich men of the day are sons of men who 
were very poor, and some of them widows' sons and even orphans. 

Thomas Ward's father was not able to enter forty acres of land. 

Nathan Cadwallader's father died when Nathan was a lad; their old 
horse died and they were too poor to buy another. 

John Fisher was an orphan boy who rode a pony alone from Carolina 
to Indiana. 

Simeon Branham was an orphan boy who went for himself alone in the 
world at sixteen years old. And so on ad. infinitum.] 


"Father was forty-five and mother was forty-two years of age when 
they died and left me a lone orphan in the world. I knew of no settlers in 
Randolph when I came but those on Nolan's Fork. What I understood to be 
the first wagon that went to White river was that of William Wright, from 
Clinton county, Ohio, in the fall of 1817." 

[Mr. Fisher is mistaken. Settlers had come upon Nolan's Fork, Greens- 
fork, Martindale Creek and West River in 1815, and on White river in the 
summer of 1816. Mr. Wright's wagon may have been the first that passed 
through that neighborhood two miles north of Newport (Fountain City). 
The company from Carolina in the spring of 1817, bound for White River, 
most likely went along a route farther west, past Economy, Joseph Gass', etc.] 

"I owned a little mare and a saddle and bridle, and nothing else. I was 
an orphan boy and had no more than that pony and its accouterments. I 
had heard of the free and glorious Northwest, the grand and fertile plains 
be}'ond the mountains and the river, where no slave might tread ; and set my 
heart to find that wondrous country, and I found it and thanked God for 
the consolation. I crossed the Blue Ridge at 'Ward's Gap,' thence to Gray- 
son C. H., Wythe C. H., Abingdon, Va., head of Holston river, Tennessee, 
a large spring, from which flows a wonderful stream as big as the White 
Water at Richmond. I traveled down Holston to French Broad, turning 
north into Kentucky, crossing Clinch mountain, and Cumberland mountains 
to Cumberland river, and so on to Kentucky river, Cincinnati, Richmond. 
The latter place had perhaps thirty houses, one small store kept by Robert 
Morrison, one log tavern, etc. 

Newport was founded in 1822. It was a solid wilderness for years after 
I came. I have voted at every presidential election, beginning with Madison's 
second term, 18 16. I voted for Madison, Monroe and Adams, against Jack- 


son Van Buren; for Harrison and Taylor, against Polk, Pierce, Buchanan; 
for Lincoln, Grant and Hayes. I hope to give yet one more vote, and to help 
elect one more Republican president, and then I must leave national politics 
for younger hands." [Friend Fisher had his wish. He went to the polls and 
helped elect another Republican president; and now he is gone to the land 
"where the wicked cease from troubling, and where the weary are at rest." 
He lacked thirty hours of living long enough to hear the candidate of his 
choice declared president by the presiding Officer of the senate in thfe joint 
convention of the whole congress assembled to witness the counting of the 
electoral votes and the proclamation of the grand result. The second Wednes- 
day of February was on the 9th, and he died on the morning of the 8th, at 
6 o'clock. Father Fisher's era of life was truly an eventful one.] 

Mr. Fisher says : "I had no wagon for seven or eight years ; my hauling 
was all done on a sled, winter and summer. In 1826, a neighbor and I bought 
a wagon 'to the halves' and we used it in company. In 1829, I bought his 
half and owned it alone. That was an event in my life, to be the sole owner 
of a two-horse wagon. Wagons were like 'angels' visits, few and far 

Of course there were some wagons in the country, but great numbers 
had none, and I belonged to that numerous class until the eventful hour when 
the bargain was struck, the trade was complete, and the wagon was mine, 
all mine." 


"Father, Edward Starbuck, Sr., came to Wayne county, in 1817. The 
family who came were father and mother and nine children. One daughter 
had been married in Carolina, and did not come till afterward. Father had, 
in all, eighteen children; ten by his first wife and eight by the second, nhie 
boys and nine girls, the first set five and five, and the second set four and 
four. The first that died was Phebe (Leverton), sixty years old, and that 
was when the youngest was twenty-three years old. The father and' eighteen 
children were alive till the youngest was twenty-three years old. The whole 
eighteen were married. The next that died was James, sixty-five; Edward, 
sixty-one; Betsey, eighty. Thirteen are still living. (1880.) 

I have a large platter (pewter) which was my father's in Carolina, which 
he got from his mother. Its age is probably not less, perhaps more, than 120 
years. The platter is fifteen inches across, is heavy and thick, and has never 
been remolded." 

[Mrs. F. has an iron candlestick, more than fifty years old, and as good 


as new, made by her uncle, Zach'ariah Coffin, a famous blacksmith of those 
early days. It is "the old candlestick" — the family candlestick — that used to 
hang, by a hook at the top, from a chair-back, to study by, when people were 
thankful for "tallow dips;" and the splendors of gaslight and kerosene were 
a thing unknown and unimagined. 

She can show several wooden trays forty years old, in good condition, 
though dusty for lack of use. She can show also the greatest curiosity and 
oddity of all, in the identical "first coat and pants" made for and worn by 
her oldest son Daniel, now in his fifty-ninth year. The ancient relic must be 
about fifty-five years old. They are truly quaint and odd; the coat is not 
"shad-belly," but more like "swallow-tail;" the pants are "single fall," as 
was the fashion sixty years ago; the buttons are good, bright, brass buttons, 
good for fifty years more; the cloth is striped, home-made, strong and smooth, 
and just a trifle coarse.] 

Mrs. F. Says : "When we 'kept house,' at first, we had a table, four cups 
and saucers, half a dozen plates, four knives and forks, one iron pot, one 
skillet, one rolling pin, four chairs, one light feather bed, two sheets, one 
flax-and-cotton, and one tow, one quilt, one coverlet. I have the coverlet yet. 
Mother wove it herself, in old Guilford county, N. C, and she gave it to me. 
I have had it -more than sixty years, and how much older it is I can not tell. 
I borrowed a straw tick of Aunt Rebecca for three or four weeks, till I could 
make some for myself out of tow, which I did, all but the weaving — I hired 
that done. For a bedstead I borrowed an auger and made two benches out of 
puncheons, and lugged in nine clapboards and put across on the benches, and 
on this new, grand bedstead I made up our bed; and, let me tell you, I was 
'set up' greatly, and felt as proud of my bed, all nice and neat, as of anything 
I ever had. My brother Edward and myself went back to North Carolina 
ten or twelve years ago. I was surprised, and pleased, also, to find how well 
I remembered the country; I could go anywhere, and knew every hill and 
stream, every road and farm, although I had been absent fifty years. I 
found in that ancient region four aunts and one sister, whom I had not seen 
since my father moved away. They were, of course, greatly rejoiced that 
we should be spared to meet, face to face, this side of glory land." 

[Note. — Mrs. Jane Fisher, relict of John Fisher, deceased, departed this 
life at- the dwelling of her son-in-law, Capt. J. R. Jackson, Union City, Ind., 
Thursday, February 4, 1882, aged about seventy-eight years. She had be- 
come much enfeebled, having, some months before her death, suffered a 
paralytic stroke, from the effects of which she never recovered.] 



"Joseph Hockett came to Randolph county, Washington township, in 
1816. The Quaker meeting was set up at Cherry Grove in 1816 or 1817; 
they built a double log cabin for a meeting-house. 

Bloomingsport was laid out not far from 1828, by Nathan Hockett. Al- 
fred Blizzard built the first house. Beeson kept the first store. 

Dr. Paul Beard, Sr., was the first *physician in the region; there was 
none in Bloomingsport for a long time. Dr. Gideon Frazier resided there in 
somewhat early years. 

Other physicians were Drs. Gore, Strattan, Kemper, etc. Messrs. Bee- 
son, Comfort, Bullard, Budd, Wyatt, Wright, Coggshall, Hockett, etc., have 
been merchants. 

There has been a potter's shop, a wheelwright's shop, a saw-mill, a 
grist-mill, etc. 

There are two churches, Methodist and United Brethren. At Ridgeville, 
fifty-four years ago, Meshach Lewallyn's daughter Polly married David Ham- 
mer. At the wedding supper, the bride's brothers were present, and one of 
them, dressed in buckskin hunting-shirt, and leather belt, and with a butcher 
knife at his waist, undertook to carve the turkey, and did it with his hunt- 

At another wedding, the people had gathered, but the supper was not 
yet done; and as the women were trying to bake pones or slap jacks or some- 
thing, the crowd of half-drunken fellows would snatch and eat as fast as the 
women would bake, till at last, one chap, not quite so drunk as the rest, took 
a club, and stood and watched, and guarded the women till they got enough 
baked for supper. This was at the house where the boys were chopping as 
related below. The family was immense, a dozen children or so; the cabin 
was small. They had a loom in the house but took it down and out, to make 
room for the 'weddingers.' " 

Mrs. Smith says : "When I was twelve years old, my sister and myself 
went to help one of the neighbors pick wool. They baked a great 'pone,' 
and turned it out on the floor. The ducks came in, waddling and quacking, 
and fell to pecking away at the "'pone' till they had broken it badly. The 
woman had her milk set under the bed, and in scaring the ducks away from 
the 'pone,' they scattered and ran under the bed, and went floundering and 
plunging and paddling 'slapdab' through the milk. As the ducks went out, 
the sheep came in, 'baa-baaing' all over the room. We went home without 


eating, and said to mother, 'If those folks wish us to pick wool, they must 
bring the wool here; we cant' stand such living;' and our picking wool there 
among the sheep and ducks was at an end. 

The boys would come in and stamp the mud off their feet upon the floor 
until the dirt was so thick that they had to scrape it from the floor with a 
hoe to let the door shut. One of our neighbors told us to be sure to call on 
a family of 'new-comers,' who, he said, were 'upper crust,' neat, stylish people, 
and that we must fix up our best. So one day sister and I fixed up in our 
'nicest,' and went over there, a little afraid that we were not slick enough. 
When we got there, lo, and behold, a sight indeed ! Four boys, brothers, from 
eight years and upward, were at the wood-pile chopping wood, with their 
shirts on and — nothing else ! We were taken aback, and thought we must 
have got to the wrong place. But no, this was the very house. We went in ; 
they set us some stools, black and greasy from having had meat chopped on 
them. Hardly knowing what to do, we spread some hankkerchiets on the 
stools and sat down. It was winter, and the creeks were frozen. The boys 
went out to the ice to slide barefoote'd, and when they came back their feet 
were as red as lobsters. 'Are not your feet cold?' 'No, they burn,' was the 
reply. And such times the folks had, and such things were done by young 
and old in days of 'auld lang syne.' " 

PAUL -BEARD, JR., 1817. 

"Settlers, about the same time with my father, were James Frazier, east 
of Lynn; Francis Frazier; John Pegg, three miles southwest of Beard's; 
Obadiah Harris, Cherry Grove; Stephen Hockett, Cherry Grove; Edward 
Thornburg, Cherry Grove; Travis Adcock, Curtis Clenney, Jesse Johnson 
shortly after, and perhaps others." 

[Paul Beard, Jr., and his wife are both living at this time, 1880.] 


"Mother was greatly afraid of the Indians; father was not afraid of 
them at all. They would come at night ; father would get up and make a fire, 
and let them sit and smoke and stay all night if they wished. Sometimes they 
would come late in the night and wish to warm, and when they were warm 
they would go away. Father had to go to Richmond for grain and for mill- 
ing ; this was too much trouble, and they used to pound corn for bread. 

Father made a sweep with a maul at the end, and a pin through the 


maul; two men would take hold of the pin, one on each side, and thus work 
the maul to pound corn into meal in a trough or mortar below. We took 
the finest for bread, and the coarse for mush. We raised a kind of squash 
that was excellent for baking; many a meal has been made on baked squash 
and milk and butter. 

Benjamin Cox was a great hunter, and killed abundance of deer. He has 
shot as many as five and six deer in a day. A prairie w^as near and also a 
spring; he would sprinkle salt around liie spring, and the deer would come 
to lick the salt. He made a scaffold, ten or twelve feet high, in the forks of 
t\\ o elm trees, and from that he watched the deer, and shot them as they 
came. He has killed scores of deer from that scaffold. Mrs. Beard thinks 
her father was the first settler on White River, east of Winchester. 

John Cox, father of Benjamin Cox, came in the spring of 1818; Joshua 
and John Cox, sons of John Cox, came in the fall of 1818. 

Thomas AVard and Joseph Moffatt came shortly afterward; Jonathan 
Hiatt, Zachariah Hiatt and Jehu Robison came not long after. 

White River meeting-house was built of logs in 1820 or 182 1. It was 
warmed by a box filled with dirt, with coals or bark on the top of a fire." 

"Airs. Paul Beard, Jr., is the daughter of Benjamin Cox. She was born 
in 1813. she married Paul Beard, Jr., in 1833. They have had nine children, 
eight are living and seven married." 


"The floor of the barn on my father's farm near Arba was made of lum- 
ber sawed by hand with a whip-saw, done in this way: The log was put on 
a high frame, and one man stood above on the log and the other below, and 
they sawed somewhat as with a cross-cut saw. The work was slow and very 
tedious, but there w as no other way then and there. That barn was covered 
with shingles, and was reckoned the best barn in all that ^region. 

The meeting-house was warmed by a dirt box. They would have a 
great log heap fire out of doors, and take the box out to the fire and shovel 
in coals enough, and then take it back into the house, and set it in the middle 
of the room, and people would, get round it and warm themselves as well as 
they could. 

The cabin in which I was born sixty-three years ago is still standing 
and in good repair. The roof has been renewed, but the logs are sound, and 
a family occupies it now. The cabin was "scutched down,' i. e., scored and 
hewed down after the building was put up. 


I have hauled to Cincinnati many winters; the price of hauling was 50 
cents per hundred ; the trip took a week. A man would make from $6 to $9 
a trip. Teamsters on the 'pikes' would have big Conestoga wagons, and four 
to six horses, and take tremendous loads — equal to a small ship. Dealers 
would pack meat in 'bulk,' and teamsters would haul it 'loose,' and sometimes, 
when they would get 'stalled,' they would throw the load of meat out on the 
ground, like a pile of wood, and come back afterward and pick it up again. 
The first wagon I ever owned myself, about 1841, I bought the iron for in 
Cincinnati, and got the money to pay for it with by selling (hauling) bacon, 
smoked, 'hog-round,' good, sweet and nice, to Cincinnati from near Arba, at 
$2.12 per hundred. The iron was $3.50 per hundred. I have hauled wheat 
to Eaton, selling at 37^^ cents a bushel. I have fattened hogs and sold the 
pork, net, at Spartanburg for $1.25 under two hundred, and $1.37, two hun- 
dred full. This was done about 1842-43. Henry Peacock, of Jericho, now 
dead, has told me that since he settled in Jericho, he has paid $18 a barrel 
for salt, and paid for it in pork at $2 a hundred. 

I must give you a story told me on himself by Judge W. A. Peele, at 
Indianapolis, when he was secretary of state. When he was a boy just old 
enough to turn the grindstone, his father and himself went to my grand- 
father's to grind an ax. They went into the house; grandmother had lately 
made a rag carpet, perhaps the first in the county. His father walked in, and 
stepped on the carpet. William thought the carpet was some nice cloth 
spread upon the floor, and that his father had done very wrong, so he tried 
to better the matter by undertaking to jump across it. He failed, and stum- 
bled upon it, and got dirt on the carpet, and was scolded and laughed at be- 
sides for all the pains he took to keep off the wonderful and mysterious 


"I was born in Anson county, N. C, December 17, 1793. In the year 01 
1816, I came to Indiana to seek a home for myself. Paul, Henry H., Will- 
iam and Robert Way and I came across the country from North Carolina in 
a road wagon, crossed the Ohio river at Louisville, Ky. ; came to Blue River, 
but not being pleased with the country, we came to Wayne county, made our 
temporary abode at Charlotte Way's (afterward my mother-in-law), and 
looked around for suitable places. We finally selected our lands and built our 
camps about two miles west of Winchester. I remained there till the latter 
part of Ausust, when the Indians became so numerous that our friends ad- 
vised us to abandon our claims and seek safety in the settlements. 


I was married to Charlotte Way October 6, 1816, and returned to my 
claim in February, 181 7. At that time there was only one white settler 
nearer than twelve miles. 

We moved into a camp and lived in it till I could cut the logs and build 
a small log house, which seemed a palace to us then. We saw no white man's 
face for eight weeks after settling there. But Indians were plenty, yet 

The first year, I cleared four acre^ of ground, and planted It m corn, 
but it did not ripen, and we had to go to Richmond, where settlers had been 
living for twelve or fifteen years, for all our breadstuff s. Wheat was then 
75 cents a bushel, and corn $1. 

When we were getting out of bread, I would start on horseback for the 
\Vhite \\''ater, buy a sack of corn, get it ground, and take it home. In this 
way we lived till more settlers came. Xot long after, small hand-mills were 
introduced into the county, and as soon as the corn became too hard for 
roasting, we would take a small jack-plane, shave the corn off the cob and 
dry it. We would take this corn to a hand-mill and grind it into meal. The 
nearest mill to my house was three miles. 

Often I have worked hard all day, and then taken a sack of corn on my 
back to the mill, and gone home with it to furnish bread for my family 
next day. 

In this manner we lived till the country settled up so as to afford better 
accommodations. We brought up nine children; all but one are living yet, 
and they were all born in Randolph county, and on White ri^er. The eldest, 
Fannie, now ^Irs. Alatthew Hill, lives at Jericho, Randolph county, Indiana; 
Anna, now' Mrs. Jesse Reynard, lives east of Buena Vista, Randolph county, 
Indiana; Eunice, now I\Irs. Thomas Moorman, of Winchester, Indiana; 
Pleasant W., married Anna Peacock, and now resides at Earlham, ]\Iadison 
county, Iowa; Agnes, not living; Henry H., married Sarah \\'right (now de- 
ceased), and afterward Lois Ann Carpenter. Their home is at Nora, Jo 
Daviess county, Illinois. Anthony Diggs married Elvira C. Thomas, daugh- 
ter of George and Asenath Thomas, and they reside at Earlham, ]\Iadison 
county, Iowa. Ruth, married ^latthew W. Diggs, and they live at Farm- 
land, Randolph county, Indiana. After our children left us, we sold the 
farm which had been our home so many years, and moved to Poplar Run, 
to be near some of our children. We remained there some years when my 
wife's health became poor, and the children had all left that neighborhood. 
We sold that farm also and moved to Winchester. In about sixteen months 
my beloved companion died. Since then I have made my home with my 


cliildven, and am now residing at Earlham, Iowa. My age is now eighty- 
nine years. 

Paul W. Way, Henry H. Way, William Way, and Robert Way and 
myself, came in the summer of 1816; Henry H. Way and myself were both 
single, and we married during the winter of 1816-17, he taking for his wife 
Rachel IManlove, of Wayne county, Indiana; Robert Way stayed, as did all 
the group but Paul Way, who returned to Carolina and brought back a large 
company in the spring of 181 7. During the spring or summer of 181 7, 
William Way went to the south and brought his father and mother to 
White River. 

Paul Way and his company got to White River in the spring of 18 17, 
crossing the Ohio river on the ice with their wagons. 
[XoTE. — That winter was very cold.] 

Henry, William and Robert Way built cabins for themselves and the 
rest. Persons from Williamsburg, fifteen miles away, came and helped raise 
the cabins. 

Fanny (Diggs) Hill is the first white child born in White River, her 
birthday being September 11, 1817. she is living still. My wife died January 
31, 1877. I went to Jo Daviess county, Illinois, in May, 1877, to visit my 
children, stayed there three months, went on to Iowa, and am in Iowa still. 
My health is good, I can walk around town and to church, etc. I am an 
Orthodox 'Body Friend,' never having gone with any "separations.' 

I have voted at every presidential election since I was old enough to vote, 
casting my first presidential ballot for James Monroe in 1816, and having 
voted for president in all seventeen times. I was a Whig in the days of that 
party, and have since been and still am a Republican." 

FANNY (diggs) HILL, 1817. 

"I went to school first at Williamsburg, in Wayne county, Indiana, when 
eight or nine years old. I attended school also under Henry D. Huffman 
in a log schoolhouse three miles west of Winchester. For a wonder, that 
house had window sash and glass! 

When my mother was getting me to sleep one day, she heard a noise out- 
side the cabin door. Hurrying to the door, she looked out, and lo ! there 
stood a bear! 

She scared it away, and it went to the milk-house, and tore the cloth off 
the milk-strainer, etc., but shortly went away. 


Father for years had but one horse; mother has many a time gone out 
and cut an armful of wild grass to feed the horse. 

My mother's father, Henry Way, of Wayne county, Indiana, was killed 
by lightning. 

Mother used to tell me that we were the first family on White river, 
and that our cabin was fifteen miles away from any other dwelling, and that 
for six weeks she saw no white person's face but that of her own husband. 
She used to tell me that the Indians told her when they were at her cabin how 
easily they could have killed her and sister while the girls were milking, as 
the Indians lay hid in the brush." 


"I used to kill many deer. Really, I was too fond of it. My friends 
tried to get me to quit. George Sugart, with a committee of friends, under- 
took to visit me to give me advice. I managed to shun them three times, 
but the fourth time they caught me at home, and I could not dodge them. 
They talked kindly and urged me to lay aside my gun. I tried to do so for 
awhile, but 'what is bread in the bone, will break out in the flesh.' 

One day a boy told me that some swine needed attention out in the woods. 
I went, taking my. gun. Tying two pigs together with my suspenders, I slung 
them across my shoulder, and started for the house. Along flew the hound, 
chasing some deer; pell mell they went and I after them. I tossed the pigs 
between some logs and laid off my shot pouch; had my coat on my shoulder 
and lost it. I shot one deer, and chased the other a mile and a half, but could 
not get it. I came back and found the dead deer, a splendid buck, three 
snagged, three years old. I hung it up, hide on, entrails out, and went to 
hunt for my pigs. They were gone, so were my 'gallowses,' and I have never 
seen them to this day, though that was fifty years ago, or more than that." 


"One damp, drizzily day I was out hunting, and heard a hog squealing 
terribly. I ran toward the noise, perhaps half a mile; came to a thickety 
pond and started into it. I saw nothing, but still heard the squealing, and 
also the bones 'craunching,' and knew a bear was killing the hog. As I 
pushed through the thicket, the thought struck me, 'What if I shoot and 
she takes after me? There is nothing for me to climb, and I shall be a 


I turned and went home, and got my two brothers on horseback to come. 
The dog ran in, the bear bit him, and he bounded out yelling for dear life. 
The bear bounced out too, and we after him, jumping logs, and tearing 
through the bush screeching like a thousand Indians. The dogs treed the 
the bear, I shot him, and down he came tearing through the branches, and 
James rode up just as the bear fell. We skinned it and took the meat home, 
but it was too fat to eat. Once William Kiff came to our house, and wanted 
some venison; so we went out to hunt. The day was cloudy and misty, 
and I was not in humor to stay long. I said to myself, T will go home; 
Kiff may hunt venison for himself,' All at once a red deer stood near me; 
I shot and down he came. It was a grand, four snagged buck, right 'in 
the velvet.' horns drop off in winter. In the spring they begin to grow, and 
the horns will come with 'points' or snags on, one (on each horn) for every 
year of the deer's age. I have seen a deer with thirteen snags, seven on 
one horn and six on the other. I dressed the deer and carried it in, and 
'jerked' the meat, i. e., cooked it in strips over a slow fire. Kiff filled his 
pockets with the venison and went home satisfied. 

We uaed to wear shoes and leggings to keep the snakes from biting us. 
I have killed nine rattlesnakes in one day. The woods had plenty of 
plums and grapes. 

One morning I started toward White river prairie. Seeing something 
run into a hollow log, I stuck my rifle into the log and let fly, but the 
recoil of the rifle came near knocking me down. As I went home, I 
came to a 'maple flat,' and saw a great gray wolf coming. I whistled and 
she stopped, and I shot at her. I went to the house and got father and 
Samuel to go back with me. The old sinner had tried to run, but she had 
made five or six beds as she went, and vomited mutton at each place. After 
awhile we found her nearly dead. We used wolfskins, instead of saddles, 
like blankets on a horse. 

On 'fifth day,' as we were going to meeting, I said to James, 'Let 
us kill a deer as we go home.' 'All right,' said he. James' wife spoke 
up, 'If any deer is killed, James will have it to do.' We went after the deer, 
and the women went home. We went to a pond and saw deer tracks. 
There was a sloping tree with roots turned up, and James sat there watch- 
ing for deer. The bushes crackled, and out sprang two bucks. One threw his 
head up, and I shot it between the eyes and the nose, and down he dropped. 
'Hallo,' cried James, 'is the deer down?' 'Yes.' We tied the feet and 
carried it home on a pole. 'Well,' said James' wife, 'who killed the deer?' 


'Francis,' said James. She hated it that I had shot the deer instead of 
her precious husband." 


"My father was a bell-maker, and so was I. Bells were in great 
demand then. Cattle and horses and sheep ran in the woods, and there 
had to be a bell in the flock to keep t^em together. I tended a little farm, 
and would plow till the flies would vex my beast, and then go and work 
in the shop, making bells. In that way I would make $17 to $22 worth 
in a single week. They sold from 25 cents to $3.50 a piece. Those heavy 
ox bells were large; they could be heard easily four miles. I have heard 
one of them seven miles. (I questioned the accuracy of his memory, but 
the old gentleman rallied gallantly to the defense of his bells, declaring 
that his statement was simply the sober, actual fact. — Author.) 

I would take my saddle-bags and stufif them with 'nests' of bells, i. e., 
little bells in bigger ones, perhaps two dozen bells, and set out for W'inches- 
ter. The bells were ready sale, cash down. I would trade for shoes, hats, 
anything needed, and tie them on my horse, and go home loaded-some times 
to the ^'ery tail of the horse. People would joke me, 'Hallo, there, got a 
horseback grocery?' 'Yes; can't you see for yourself,' I would say. I 
made the bells of the best Juniata iron. When father died, the doctor's bill 
was $60. He wanted his pay in bells, but I would not do it, and he took 
a wagon. Sometimes I used boiler iron, and sometimes sheet iron, but 
Juniata (or Sligo) iron was the best. People would send far ofif for my 
bells. I sent $16 worth to Fort Wayne, and they said, 'They are the best 
bells we ever saw." They sent another order for $100 worth, but I could 
not fill it. The demand at home and from Illinois and Iowa movers was 
more than I could supply. I made bells for over twenty years. 

I was quite wild at one time of my life, and inclined _to skepticism. I 
had two nice horses, perfect idols to me. I would walk to Newport any day 
rather than ride either of them. One day as I was plowing I thought, 'If 
there is a God, I wish he would reveal Himself to me in some way that I 
may know Him !' Shortly afterwards, as I was in the house, and the horses 
were in the stable, suddenly there came a sharp flash of lightning and a 
crashing thunder peal. I went to -the stable and there were my beauties 
with their heads lying on a long trough. I spoke to them, but they made no 
sign. The lightning had killed them both dead. It impressed me greatly, 
'Turn, or the next will be thine,' rang in my soul. I did turn, and since that 


time I have tried in my poor, weak way to serve the Lord, and I humbly 
trust my Maker looks upon my feeble service with gracious favor." 

CHOLERA, 1849. 

"The rise of the cholera near Lynn (1849) was very strange and strik- 
ing. A cloud rose in the morning from the east, with some lightning 
and thunder. The lightning struck the ground at the cross roads near 
Isaac Palmer's east of Lynn, and there came a terrible smell. The cnolera 
began the same day, and ran along those roads west and south. The next 
day, in the morning, when I was at Newport, a neighbor came for a coffin, 
and said 'James Lister is dead with the cholera, sick only a few hours.' I 
went home instantly. Henry Benson was taken also and died that night. 
Hodgen died ako. Jesse Williams came to shave the corpse, and some one 
said, 'Jesse, what is the matter?' He quit shaving, went out of the door, 
sat down, and in a few minutes he was dead. Hodgen and Williams lay 
dead together. Hodgen's wife stayed all night alone with the two corpses. 
Hodgen's body was taken away the next morning for burial, and Williams' 
corpse lay there alone till the next day. Twenty-seven died in all. Dr. Cook 
came down from Winchester, saying that he could cure it easily enough. He 
went into the field and picked and ate blackberries, and in two or three 
hours he was dead himself !" 

Note. — The writer of these sketches then lived at the Union Literary In- 
stitute, near Spantanburg, and some eight miles from Lynn; and it was 
stated at the time that six lay dead before the one that died first had been 
buried. And also that two half-grown lads had to bury their father alone. 
It was said also that at Boston, six miles south of Richmond, Ind., the 
first person was taken sick at sunrise, and that before sundown six persons 
lay dead in the village. Whether these statements were true is not now 
known, but it is certain that they were made at the time as being matters 
of current news, and that they were supposed to be correct. The writer well 
recollects what fear pervaded the school at the institute lest the dread 
scourge should break out amongst them in its terrible power as at Lynn and 
elsewhere. The boarding house of the institution was filled with students, 
and the cholera among them would have been an awful visitation, but by 
God's mercy the fearful plague came no nearer, and they were spared. [See 
also statements of Silas Johnson and William Pickett, and of Elder W. D. 



The subjoined sketch is so apposite and so well drawn that I cannot 
forbear to transfer it, in substance, to my pages : 

"I came to Indiana, in 1817, with my father, William Smith, being twelve 
years old. He stopped that spring near Garrett's mill, on Green's Fork, two 
miles above Williamsburg, In'd. The settlers there were mostly from the 
same neighborhood in South Carolina with my father. David Young had 
come out in the fall of 181 6, rented some ground for father, and a little 
cabin in a new town called Salem, in Wayne county, extinct long ago. 
Father put in a crop on that land, and stayed there till August, and then 
went up into Randolph county. The country all seemed k)w and like a 
river bottom in the jungles. The uncleared land was full of. ramps, a rank, 
ill-smelling weed, eagerly eaten by the cows, and utterly ruining their milk. 
They grew early, however, and were soon gone. Buckeyes, nettles, gnats 
and mosquitoes were very plenty. In May, I saw the first Indians. An Indian 
family camped on the bank of the branch near Salem. I was terribly 
afraid, for all I had ever read Or heard of cruel bloody savages came 
thronging up to my mind. However, I ventured up after awhile, and got 
over my scare. After that, an old Indian, called Johnny- Green, from 
whom Green's Fork was named, used to come and talk with us. He would get 
half drunk, and then the way he would, talk was a wonder. He would 
tell of Wayne's fight with the Indians on the Maumee. He said, acting it 
out as he talked, 'Injun hide in timber, heap Injun. White man come, heap 
white man. Injun shoot, heap shoot. White man get in a row. Injun heap 
shoot, heap shoot. Bimeby old Anthony get mad, heap mad! Gallop horse 
along row, heap halloo, hoo-ee, hoo-ee, hoo-ee.' 

'White man come, heap come, keep come, Anthony heap holloo, hoo-ee, 
hoo-ee, Injun shoot, heap shoot, white man keep come, then Injun run, run, 
run, heap run. Me run, run, heap run. Bimeby me come to a swamp, me jump 
in — yoo-ook, sink down, hide, night come, me slip away.' It excited .me 
greatly to hear the old Indian savage act out this scene, and tell the tale 
of this great battle, and the picture remains in my mind vivid to this day. 
In July, 181 7, father entered fractional sections 5 and 6, town 18, range 13 
east, near the head of West Fork of White Water, now in Randolph, but 
then in Wayne, just east of the new boundary, and two or three miles farther 
up than any other settler, like the Nolan's Fork settlers three years before, 
on the utmost verge of civilization. We laid our corn by, helped Uncle George 




Smith through harvest and haying, and then August i8, 1817, father took 
his team and wagon, my two older brothers, David and Carey, and myself, 
and went out. to his land, several miles through the woods, to build a 
cabin. We stayed all night at old William Blount's (the Zimmerman farm), 
and the next morning went on, cutting a road as we went. A little after noon 
we got to the spot, the top of the hill where my father buiTt, and where 
he spent the rest of his days. We cleared the bushes away, turned the horses 
to the feed trough on the tongue, and went to work. In a week we had 
a cabin up and covered, and had made a fire-place and chimney up to the 
funnel with dirt back and jambs, but the house had no floor. Father and one 
brother went back to bring the family and things, but my other brother and 
myself stayed there and cleared a patch for turnips. The next week the 
family came, and we sowed our turnips. We had a few small late ones that 
fall. We hewed logs and built a house in October,- and had it floored and 
ready in December. In the winter we cleared two acres in the creek 
bottom, smooth for meadow, and sowed it in timothy ; also six acres, "eighteen 
inches and under,' for corn, and built a smith shop for father to work at his 
trade in. He was a blacksmith. 

William Blount lived highest up the creek, but one of his sons-in-law 
built a cabin about one-fourth mile above him, and another son-in-law 
lived on the same section. 

John Proctor lived just below on section 17. Evan Shoemaker had the 
north end, and Griffin Davis the south end of fractional section 18. 

John Jordan (and his son, William) lived on section 19, in Wayne 
county. Thomas Brower and John Gwynn lived below on the same section. 
James Malcom was on the northeast cjuarter of section 17, ana Henry Shoe- 
maker lived with him. Samuel Sales, Arny Hall, and David Jones, lived on 
the southeast quarter of section 17. Isaac Barnes and John C. Hodge 
(brothers-in-law), from Beaver couijty, Penn., had entered land and built 
cabins. They went back for their families, and returned in the spring of 
18 1 8, by boat, down the Ohio to Cincinnati, and thence by land. Mr. 
Barnes' cabin stood on section 7, across the creek from where Blount lived, 
and where Barrett Barnett lived a few years ago. Mr. Hodge's dwelling 
stood on section 8, near and south of where my father built, and where 
Emerson Street lived ten years ago. So Mr. Hodge was our nearest neighbor. 

The country was thickly covered with a tall, heavy forest, having a dense 
undergrowth of shrubs, wild grass and weeds. I will name the trees most 
abundant: first, beech, sugar tree, ash, three varieties, gray, blue and swamp; 


oak, five varieties, white, red, burr, pin, and river; poplar; w^alnut — white 
and black; elm — red or slippery, and white or hickory; hickory — white or 
shell-bark, and black or pignut; buckeye, linn, wild-maple, hackberry, coffee- 
nut, honey-locust, cottonwood. The undergrowth was spice-bush, iron-wood 
water-beech, horn-beam, prickly ash, dog-wood, kunnekanic (Indian name — 
tree now extinct), red-bud, papaw, wild-plumb, red and black haw, sassafras. 
In swamps there were black-alder, willow, thorn, crab-apple, young cotton- 
wood. Weeds and grasses were nettles, pea-vines, may-apple, ginseng, ferns, 
black snake-root, seneca-root, silk-weed, ramps (soon extinct), bear-grass, 
file-grass, skunk's cabbage, pond lily, cats-tail. 

In clearings, there were butter weeds, thistles, mullen, dog fennel; in 
tilled lands, Spanish needles and touch-me-nots. 

The game was deer, squirrels — gray, red and black; turkeys, pheasants 
and bears. Other wild animals — wolves, racoons, ground hogs, opossums, 
porcupines, wild cats, foxes, panthers, mink, otters and polecats. Wild bees 
were abundant. 

People helped each other roll logs, raise buildings and husk corn, often 
going several miles for that purpose. For milling, people haa to go to Mil- 
ton, or even to Connersville. My father got a pair of hand mill-stones, and 
we ground meal upon them, rather than go so far to mill. We also beat 
hominy in a mortar, and used that and potatoes and squashes and pumpkins 
instead of bread. My father finally had his mill-stones geared, and much 
of the corn of the neighborhood was ground upon them. Two turning would 
grind pretty well, but four would rattle it out finely." 


"Our clothing was made of flax, wool and deer-skin, all home made. 
There was no money to buy "store clothes,' and very few to be bought. 
Trade was mostly by barter. Peltry, Jioney, beeswax ( for there were bees, 
both wild and tame), etc., were traded for salt, iron (which always had 
to be bought), and sometimes for leather, though many tanned their own 
leather, and many wore only moccasins. Hides were tanned in great troughs 
made from trunks of large trees chopped out hollow. 

Winter clothing was coon-skin caps, dressed deer-skin hunting shirts, 
pants and moccasins. Summer wear was linen, straw hats, bare-feet or 
moccasins. AVe often got moccasins from the Indians for corn, butter, 
hominy, salt, etc. The people, though now they would be called rough and 


uncouth, were yet neighborly, kind, sociable and affectionate, and intelligent 
and moral withal. 

The wild range was good for many years, and we soon had plenty of 
cattle, which furnished abundance of milk, butter and meat, with hides and 
tallow to buy salt, iron and leather. From 1821 to 1828, a common way to 
trade was, so many young cattle for a thing, for (say) a norse, yoke of 
oxen, piece of land, etc., and anything from six months to three years old 
was 'counted in.' If the parties could not agree, the price was settled by 
referees. Sometimes so many bushels of wheat or corn would be the price. 
In 1826-27, money began to appear somewhat, and barter became less frequent. 
However, in the spring of 1838, I traded a large, rather ugly four-year-old 
horse, and a half -worn dragon-bitted bridle, for a forty-acre lot a mile west 
of ^\'inchester, no price being named in the trade." 


"Clearing land was done thus : 'One foot and under,' or 'eighteen inches 
and under,' i. e., all below twelve or eighteen inches, were cut, and they and 
the 'grub' and old logs were all burned up.. The rest were deadened by 
'girdling' ( /. e., cutting through the bark, or the sap), or by burning brush 
heaps around the trees. If girdling to the 'red,' the tree would die immediately; 
if only through the bark, it would take two or three or four years, soonest if 
deadened in August. The deadened trees would fall more or less, and the 
land would have* to be recleared each season for several years. Many, about 
the fourth year, would cut down everything standing, and clear the land 
fully. The trees would be made into proper lengths for rolling by 'niggering,' 
i. c. burning the trunks into pieces by piling large Hmbs and chunks across, 
and keeping tires across the tree-trunks. Attending to these fires was called 
'watching the niggers.' I have done it many times, attending sometimes a 
hundred fires in one job. Sometimes, at first, land was cleared in the green, 
but as soon as they could, it would be done by deadening, and mostly in 
August, by cutting the undergrowth, with stubs a foot or so long; nearly 
all would rot or die out the third year. The whole might be cleared by 
cutting and cross-piling and firing, with but little labor." 

BIRDS AND '■'varmints." 

"When the land was cleared 'in the green,' the birds, etc., for three or 
four years would nearly take the crop. The trees left standing would 


afford them ample refuge, and they would take heavy toll. In 1821 or 
1822, a general inroad of turkeys, birds, squirrels, raccoons, and even bears, 
passed the West river settlement toward the south. Much of the crops were 
destroyed. The creatures crossed over the Ohio into Kentucky ; vast numbers 
were slaughtered as they passed; I once killed three turkeys from one flock, 
and my father and brothers, five more, making eight in all. The little 
boys used to be kept going round the fields, 'hallooing' and screaming, to 
keep the birds away; sometimes yelling themselves hoarse." 

"pigeon roost." 

"In the fall and winter of 1821-22, a pigeon roost was made between 
father's and Huntsville, on the southwest quarter section 33, township 18, 
range 13, and northwest quarter of section 4, township 18, range 13. They 
began in October or November, and stayed to lay and hatch the next spring. 
They would begin to come about sun-down, and keep coming till 8 or 9 
o'clock at night; some flocks would be more than a mile long. There must 
have been millions of the birds; on still nights, we could hear their noise 
to our house, a mile and a half. People would go there by night and kill 
them by hundreds, coming from Martindale creek, and even from Green's 
Fork. The birds would lay their eggs in March, two in a nest, hatch and fly 
away, such as were left. I have seen but few for many years." 


"In 1824, a terrible hurricane passed over my father's house. It was the 
second Sunday in July — the regular monthly meeting of the Baptist church 
at Salem, of which my father and mother were members. My brother, 
David, and myself had been there and were going home; hence it took place 
July II, 1824, at 5 p. m. As we were going along the Jacksonburg road, 
near the county line, we saw a black cloud rising in the west and we stopped 
in an empty cabin, hitching our colts near by. The cloud roared terribly, 
and the sky became suddenly dark; in five minutes it grew as dark as a 
starlight night ; no sound was heard for twenty or thirty minutes but a deep, 
dead, tremendous roar ; I heard no rain, no thunder, no trees falling, nothing 
but that awful roar, deep, dead and loud; it stopped quite suddenly, and the 
sky grew bright again; on going out, we saw there had been a heavy rain, 
and many trees, both dead and green, had been blown down around us. We 
started again for home, two miles north ; some trees had fallen across the road, 


but we got to old John Zimmerman's (Blount's) place, with little trouble. 
He .and his boys were out fixing the fence to save the crops; forty or 
fifty rods of fence were flat, and many trees also. John Zimmerman said (he 
was Dutch), 'You can't kit home, te trees is all blown acrost te rote.' We 
said, 'We will try.' David said, 'Our colts can go through the brush where 
a wild cat can't.' The farther we went the worse it got. The thick tim- 
ber began one quarter of a mile above, and for a half mile to the creek cross- 
ing there had been no clearing, but it had been dense, unbroken forest. As 
we entered the mass of crushed and fallen timber, we tried to follow the 
track till we got to where Elijah Arnold built, and his widow Rhoda still lives 
(1864). We could get no further; it was nearly dark, and stripping the 
bridles and old riding quilts from the heads and backs of the colts, we 
shouldered the things and put for home. The poor fillies neighed most 
pitifully as we left them; we got home before long, they came three days 
afterwards. They never told us how they got through, neither can I imagine, 
but they made it somehow, we found the family unhurt, frightened at the 
terrible storm, but thankful for safety. Most of the roof was blown off, 
weight poles and all ; some of the clap-boards were carried 200 yards or more ; 
the body of the house was hewed logs, and they stood firm. Early the next 
morning, the whole neighborhood set to work, righting up houses, building 
fences, etc., and on Thursday, we got the road opened again. Half a mile 
south of father's, a sound, thrifty-growing beech tree was twisted like a 
hickory withe, from two to eight feet above the ground, and was lying down 
all whole except that twist. It would seem that the tree had been bent over, 
and that while falling, it had been 'whirled' by the tornado, and the tree 
was so tough and green that it would not break, but just twisted like a 
withe. I helped cut the tree out of the road; it had stood west of the track 
and lay a little north of east. Another fact, at John E. Hodge's house, 
300 yards south of father's, a twelve or fifteen gallon iron sugar kettle 
had been leaning against the southeast corner of the cabin, a low, one-story 
building. The wind moved the kettle three or four feet, and turned it bottom- 
tipward. Mr. Hodge's cabin was wholly unroofed, and some of the ribs 
and logs were thrown out of place; the wind was stronger there than at 
fathers', being 300 yards nearer the center of the storm. How far west 
or how high up in the air the storm was formed I never knew; it seems 
to have struck the timber at the Randolph and Henry line; its course was 
about due east, and nearly in a straight line, verging slightly south. The 
extent of the storm was about six miles from west to east; it seems to 
have come down to the timber about the county line, and to have come 


nearer and widened for two and a half miles, then to have ground and crush- 
ed everything in its reach, for about one and a half miles in length, and a 
mile in width; then it seemed to rise or grow weaker, till at length it ap- 
peared to pass entirely above the timber. My father's house and the road 
we traveled were nearly a mile west of where its effect ceased, and its 
crashing track was about half a mile wide there, its whole track being at 
that point about three miles from north to south; not quite a mile west, 
the crashing power was a mile wide, and for two miles farther west, the 
crashing force was a mile from one to one and a quarter miles. That whole 
region was a dense virgin forest, and the storm threw down all the timber 
in one immense mass. Some four miles west, a road had been opened 
north and south; that road was utterly blocked, and for years was wholly 
impassable for man or beast. This space, four miles east and west, and a mile 
- or so north and south, was called the 'fallen timber.' Some ten years 
later the settlers began to enter and clear the lands and the tract is now 
occupied by fine farms. 

So far as known, no person and no animal was killed or injured, which 
is, indeed, a wonderful fact." 

[Note. — It is stated elsewhere that a cow was killed belonging to Isaac 
Branson. See Reminiscences of Mrs. Anna Retz above. 

URIAH BALL (1817). 

"When father first came west (1817), not being satisfied with Warren 
county, Ohio, he took a flat-boat and floated down the Ohio and the Miss- 
issippi, stopping first in Tennessee, near Chickasaw Blufifs; he bought out an 
improvement there and located, but sickness soon drove us away from that 
region, and he went across the river to Little Prairie, Mo. Before long he 
turned his face northward again, coming back through Kentucky to Warren 
county, Ohio. The first Indian I ever saw was near Chickasaw Bluffs, 
Tenn. I was afraid of him, and tried to hide behind father ; but the Indian 
(all painted and feathered) would 'peek' around father at me, to scare me, 
I suppose. 

The great earthquake had occurred a few years before (1811-12), and 
at Little Prairie we would often come to great 'cracks.' in the ground several 
feet wide. Sometimes trees would be standing split partly open, and 'astrad- 
dle' of the crack. Two miles from Little Prairie, there had been. before the 
earthquake a lake of considerable size. The earthquake so raised the land 
as to 'spill all the water out,' and the bottom was at that time two feet 


higher than the surrounding land. Outside the lake were trees and cane- 
brakes, but in the lake ground were only great weeds like sun-flower weeds, 
"called by the French 'wample-pins.' 

The earth had not done shaking yet, for as I lay on the cabin floor sick 
with the ague, the house and the doors, and the dishes would rattle with 
the shaking of the earth ; and as we were on the Mississippi, the water would 
'ripple' as though there was a heavy shower, while yet the sky was clear 
and the air still. 

In New Madrid the houses had been cracked and twisted by the" earth- 
quake, and stood so yet when we were there (although some years after 
the earthquake had occurred). 

I sat on the west bank of the Mississippi and looked across the river 
with a spy-glass at the deer and the bears as they would come down to the 
river to drink, standing upon the eastern shore." 

[Air. Ball now resides at Union City, aged and feeble.] 

JUDITH (WILSON) way (1817). 

"I was born in Carolina in 1807, and was in my tenth year when father 
emigrated to Indiana in 18 16-17. 

On the first day of December, 1816, a large company of emigrants 
set out from South Carolina, bound for Randolph county, Indiana, as fol- 
lows: Paul W. Way and family, five in number; John Way and family, 
six in number; John Moorman and family, six in number; Benjamin Beverly 
and family, six in number; George T. Wilson and family, five in number; 
Armsbee Diggs and family, two in number they were relatives by blood, or 
marriage, or both. Paul W. and John Way were brothers. George T. Wil- 
son had married John Moorman's daughter. 

Benjamin Beverly's wife was Paul Way's sister, as also was Armsbee 
Diggs' wife. Thus there were six men with their wives and eighteen children, 
making thirty in all. We had four wagons, to wit: One two-horse wagon, 
two five-horse wagons, one four-horse wagon. John Moorman (with his 
son-in-law, George Wilson), had a two-horse wagon and a five-horse wagon; 
Paul W. Way (with Benjamin Beverly, his brother-in-law), had one five- 
horse wagon. John Way (with Armsbee Diggs, his son-in-law), had one 
four-horse wagon, making sixteen horses in all. 

We overtook families of emigrants in every variety of locomotion; some 
had only pack horses, and sometimes there would be a whole family with a 
single horse. I remember one such in particular. They had a little knot 


of a horse piled up with goods, with two or three children on top and the 
woman and baby besides. The whole cry was 'to get to Indiana,' ho mat- 
ter how, so as only to reach that paradise beyond the Ohio. 

As I said, we started from Carolina December i, 1816, and we reached 
Williamsburg, Wayne county, Indiana, February 2'j, 181 7. 

Our route lay across Blue Ridge, over the Holston, along French 
Broad and Crooked rivers, through Sawanna gap, over Cumberland Moun- 
tains, and so through Tennessee and Kentucky to the Ohio river at Cincin- 
nati. We camped on New Year's night on a very high blufif on French 
Broad, with steps cut down to the river. We saw a live alligator, which to 
us children was an unusual sight. There was a severe snow-storm as we were 
on top of the Cumberland Mountains, and we had snow and cold weather 
from there all the way through. The Ohio river was frozen over, and we 
crossed on the ice ; boys were skating, and ladies and gentlemen were riding 
in sleighs on the river. Our folks were afraid to cross with their heavy 
wagons and big teams; and the men went over to Cincinnati and got men 
to come with long ropes and haul the wagons across the ice in that way. 
The hind wheels of Paul Way's wagon (which was the last one to cross), 
broke through the ice, and it was hard work to get the wagon out and across, 
but they succeeded. George Wilson (my father), was likely to have been 
drowned. He fell into an air hole up to his neck, and came near being 
sucked under the ice ; but he held to the ice and the men pulled him out. 

We met a tribe of Indians (I think somewhere in Kentucky), going home 
with their ponies and their squaws. They had been to make peace, and to 
get their pay and their presents. There were 500 or more of them, men 
and women on ponies with the chief. Our company were greatly alarmed, 
but the Indians did us no harm. They asked for tobacco and bread, and 
they got what they asked for, so far as our folks had them. We were 
very glad to get along with them so easily as that. They went on their 
way, and our people passed on toward the Ohio, thankful to escape so 

That winter journey was a severe one, and to look back it is not easy 
to see how we were able to get safely through. But by God's mercy we 
were spared to come safe to our looked-for haven, and to reach the friends 
who had already made the trip, and to meet them in joy and thankfulness 
of heart." 

This is understood to have been the first company of emigrants to 
White river in Randolph county. 

"Paul W; Way, Henry H. Way, William Way, Robert Way and Will- 


iam Diggs had gone up White river from its mouth through the woods to 
Randolph county. Paul Way had gone back to Carolina to pilot the com- 
pany through, and the others had stayed in Indiana. Henry Way and Will- 
iam Diggs went down to Wayne county during the fall and winter, and were 
married, and William Diggs and his wife are understood to have been the 
first family who settled on White river in Randolph county. Fannie Hill, 
of Jericho, oldest daughter of William Diggs, says her mother lived there 
for six weeks without seeing a white face, except probably her husband)." 

Such moving and such settlements as this would not very well suit 
modern notions of pride and comfort. But such was the way of the pioneers, 
and thus this goodly heritage gained its brave and hardy settlers. 

The Ways, the Wrights, the Moormans, the Diggs, the Pucketts, the 
Hills, and many others were numerous and noted in early times among 
the primitive settlers, and many of their descendants still remain. 

[Note. — Truth compels us to state that the romantic travel up White 
river from near its mouth to the neighborhood of Winchester, is declared 
by William Diggs, Jr., one of the party who is supposed to have made 
the wonderful trip, to be wholly a "myth;" that their j.ourney was simply 
from Henry county over into Randolph, far enough indeed, but by no means 
such a journey as a trip the whole length of White river would have been.] 

[Note. 2 — Jesse Way, who says he, too, was a lad in the same com- 
pany of emigrants, though younger than Judith Wilson, insists that the 
party saw no company of Indians like that of which she speaks. It is 
difficult to see how she could imagine the fact, more so than to consider 
that Jesse may have forgotten the circumstance.] 

[Note 3. — Another and perhaps a more serious objection to the cor- 
rectness of her memory, is the question what Indians they could have been, 
and whither they were going. However, Aunt Judith insists that they met the 
Indians, let them be who they might be, and no matter where they had been 
or where they might be going.] 


"Jessup's mill, on Greenville creek, was built some years before Cox's 
mill was, on White river. 

When I was a little boy, say six years old, I used to go with some older 
boys to carry dinner to the men who were building Cox's mill, on White 


For a long time there were no ministers belonging to Jericho meeting. 


John Jones came about 1835. Benjamin Cox belonged to White river, and he 
used often to exercise at Jericho. Mr. Robinson has been a minister about 
fifteen years. 

The early settlers were Henry Hill, Benoni Hill, Amos Peacock, Abram 
Peacock, Stanton Bailey, Jeremiah Cox, William Pickett, Joshua Buckingham. 

The Shockney family did not come for years afterwards — not till I 
was grown." 


Asenath (Hill) Thomas was born in North Carolina, in 1815, and was 
brought to Jericho, Randolph county, Indiana, in 1818. Jeremiah Cox en- 
tered land in the neighborhood before Henry Hill came. Abram and Amos 
Peacock were the first settlers there. They came, also, in 1818, but before 
Henry Hill did. A Mr. Kennedy lived up White river, three miles away, 
near Mount Zion. Mrs. Thomas says, "We used to 'neighbor' with them, they 
lived so near us. We went by a 'blazed path' through the woods. An 'Indian 
trail' passed from the north and west through Jericho, and- past old Benja- 
min Thomas', east of Newport. The Indians would go in companies, fifteen 
or twenty pack-horses at one time. They would call at father's (Henry 
Hill's) for bread and milk. They thought milk was a wonderful treat. 
They would bring hickory kernels, moccasins, baskets, etc., to exchange for 
corn, meal, salt, etc. One of their chiefs was named Johnny Cornstalk. He 
often passed, and was always friendly. He was a stout, heavy man, with 
large limbs and high cheek bones. He would come in and stay and talk 
and laugh and enjoy himself for hours with us. The Indians mostly talked 
ver)- broken English, but he spoke our language quite well. 

There was one bad Indian; the tribe had driven him off. He skulked 
round among the whites. 'Finally he shot a white man, and another white 
man shot him and wounded him, and still another man killed him. The 
Indians would not take him after he was wounded. The poor fellow got 
Mr. Lewallyn, of Ridgeville, to take him in. Mr. Lewallyn sent to the In- 
dians to come and get him. They said 'No bad Indian; don't want him.' 
The man whom the Indian shot, found that he was at Lewallyn's, and came 
there and shot him as he lay wounded in bed." [This was Fleming. See 
other accounts elsewhere.] 

"Friends' ^Meeting at Jericho was established about 182 1. They built 
a log-cabin church, no windows, but merely holes, with shutters. The seats 


vvtre ptiles, with legs. The women's side had a big fire-place; the men's side 
had a hearth in the middle, with a hole above to let the smoke out. They 
would use coals from the fire-place, with bark, etc., that would not smoke 

Benoni Hill, Henry Hill, Amos Peacock, Abram Peacock, Elijah Cox 
and Wm. Cox formed the meeting. The first preacher was John Jones, 1835. 
The first school was in 1822 or 1823, taught by Mariam Hill, consisting of 
twenty or twenty-five pupils, in Friends' meeting-house. Father Henry Hill 
once went to Richmond to work for money to pay his taxes, $1. He could get 
work at 25 cents per day. John Charles lent him $1, and he came back and .paid 
them. He has taken bacon to Richmond, and sold it at $1 a hundred, half 
in trade. Eggs and chickens, for awhile, were no sale at all. Bye and bye 
we could get 3 cents a dozen for eggs, at Winchester. 

The first mill on White river, in this region, was Jeremiah Cox's — 
a water mill; a corn mill at first, then a flour mill also. The first run was 
gray heads; the other run was buhrs' from abroad. It was built in 1825, 
and stood forty-five years. It was somewhat famous in its day. 

The lumber for Jeremiah Cox's house, owned now by Simon Cox — 
house still standing — was hauled fifty-two years ago from Richmond, and 
from Uncle Elijah Thomas' saw-mill, near Newport. 

Henry Hill lived in a pole cabin, fourteen by sixteen feet; no windows, 
but a hole for four lights, with a shutter. He made a sash with his pocket- 
knife, put in the lights, and then we had a witidow, and were grand for a 
fact ! Our hearth was rock and dirt pounded together. Cattle would get fat 
on the wild pea-vines, etc., but they died with what was called the 'bloody 
murrain.' They were fat and full of tallow, but they would be taken sick and 
die in a few hours. Father had four heifers "come in' nearly at one time, 
and three died suddenly. 

People tanned their own leather in tan-troughs, made from big logs 
hewed out. George Thomas has a strip of leather tanned by Henry Hill 
forty-five rears ago. George has worn it in his suspenders forty years, and 
it is good and strong now. 

People went to meeting in home-spun — the men in linen or tow shirts, 
and tow pantaloons, and deer-skin jackets; the women in check home-spun. 
All classes would go barefooted. After awhile, people began to have shoes, 
and women would carry their shoes in their hands, and put them on when 
near church." 



"We went to mill at- Moffat's, Newman's or Cox's. Our corn sacks 
would hold four bushels, but we would take two or three bushels, and put the 
sacks across the horse. Fruit was abundant — gooseberries, plums, etc. Our 
clothing was linsey, home-spun, or buckskin. Breeches, jackets, hunting- 
shirts, were buckskin. 

To dress skins was a great curiosity. The art is now nearly lost. I 
used to dress many skins years ago, and I will tell how :" 


"Soak the skin soft; take off the flesh with a grain knife (a tedious 
job, two good skins are a full day's work) ; hang them up till dry; take deer's 
or beef's brains and dry them on a board, and put them into a sack with 
warm water, and squeeze them till like- soap-suds ; work the skin soft in this 
lather, two or three hours, wring it lengthwise as dry as possible, and stretch 
and pull it in every possible way till entirely dry. Do so (soak, wring, pull) 
three or four times, till white. Then cut off all the flash and smoke the 
skin soft and yellow. It is nice and warm when dry, but when wet it will 
stick to your hide." 


"Once a child, Mr. Burson's, was lost — a three year-old girl. It wan- 
dered off three miles through the woods, to Micajah Morgan's. Mr. Morgan 
saw it clambering the fence, and took it in. Mrs. Morgan said, 'She looks 
like Enoch Burson's child.' Mr. Morgan started on horseback with the girl, 
and met Ephraim Bowen, hunting it. Mr. Bowen took the child and carried 
it home." 


"At one time I hired out, mowing, twenty-six and a half days, at 25 
cents a day. (Eighteen years old.) We used shin-plasters, mostly, for money. 
We seldom could get silver. The coins were commonly cut up into pieces, 
called 'sharp-shins.' Shin-plasters disappeared by and by, but silver was still 
very scarce. Sugar and deerskins were all we had to sell for money. Sugar, 
$6 a hundred; deerskins, from 25 to 50 cents apiece; fawn-skins, 25 cents; 
doe-skins, ZJV'^ cents; old buckskins, 50 cents. Land was, at first, $2 per 
acre; one-quarter down, not less than 160 acres. About 1820, the price was 


put at $1.25, and 80 acres; and afterwards, 40 acres, all down. Many 
paid entry money and could not pay the rest, and lost their land. After- 
wards, the law was made so as to allow a 'floating claim,' i. e., the money 
paid might apply to a part of the land. 

The community was civil and peaceable, mostly. No great crimes, no 
big affrays, nor fights, nor murders. 

There was a mill north of Spartanburg — Jessup's mill. I went there 
once. There was no roof; the mill stood open. The miller's house was 
across the creek from the mill, and a foot-log between. He would take a 
peck measure full over, turn it in, come back and talk awhile, and go with 
another peck, and so all night long; just about a peck art hour." 


"Next day I killed my second deer. I had killed the first deer near 
Overman's. I shot that first deer, and asked him to help carry it in. 'No,' 
said Overman, 'I can't leave planting corn. You just take it on your shoul- 
ders, and its tail between your teeth, and climb a sapling and hang it up.' 
I didn't do it, however. But for my second deer. I was hunting a horse 
in the range. As I was going round a pond at the head of Nolan's Fork, 
a deer sprang up ahead of me, and I drew up my gun and let fly, and down 
came the deer. In 1821, I was staying with a cousin, north of where Spartan- 
burg now is. We had been planting corn, and when that was done I went 
hunting. I saw no game till, finally, I came to Beaver Pond. The deer 
tracks were abundant, but no deer. Coming to a thick maple-top, I laid my 
rifle in it, and cleared away the twigs, and made a 'rest' for my gun. About 
sundown I saw a deer cross, but too far off to shoot. About dusk there 
stood a doe in plain sight, about twenty steps away. I shot and she went. 
I hunted for her, but no doe could I find. I went back to my 'rest' to watch 
for deer again. Presently along came a big buck, not ten yards distant. I 
moved, and he 'bounced.' About 11 o'clock, I heard the water go 'plug-plug.' 
-Soon I saw a deer about 20 steps from me, running its head into the water, 
and flapping its ears. I sighted for two minutes, and shot, and the deer ran. 
I got down to load the gun, but I had not powder enough ; and so I went to 
the cabin about 12 o'clock. 'Where have you been all night?' 'Beaver Pond.' 
'Shooting deer?' 'Yes.' 'What luck?' 'Had two shots, but haven't found 
my deer.' In the morning we went out and found both deer, dead, not ten 
yards apart. This was the Napoleon died, 1821. 

Twice I have shot three deer in one day, and two in a day many times. 


Once I was chasing a gang of deer, and the sky clouded up and I -started 
for home. All at once there stood four deer gazing at me. I let drive at 
them. After loading again, I went to the place and found the 'hair cut' and 
scattered on the snow. I followed the trail and saw blood plenty, and at 
length found the deer, dead, lOO yards from where it had been shot. I 
hung it up, skinned it, left the meat hanging, and, going back, I found another 
place of 'hair cut.' I followed thatj;rail, also and the first I knew, there 
lay the other deer, dead, in a thicket of spice-brush. One shot had killed 
both deer. The carcass of the dead buck lay stiff and cold where it had 
been shot down. I did with that as with the other, and went to the cabin. 
Next morning we brought in the venison, and splendid meat it was, too, 
I can tell you." 


"My grandfather, James Wright, was a Carolinian Quaker, who fled 
to the wilds of the Holston, in Tennessee, to Escape conscription into the- 
army, in the war of 1776. My father, John Wright, was puny at first, and 
was rocked in an old trunk-cover lined with the skin of a sea animal, the 
hair on which is said to rise and fall with the tides. As he grew up, he 
gained strength and vigor. He married Margaret Reece, in Carolina. About 
1804, the Wrights emigrated to Ohio, to military lands. In 1814, or there- 
abouts, the twelve-mile strip came into market, and some fourteen or fifteen 
families, who lost their lands on the military tract through a flaw in the 
title, came, soon afterwards, to Randolph county. They had fine improve- 
ments in Ohio, but they lost the whole. James and Abram Wright moved 
first of this company. My father came out and selected some land, but did 
not move then. James and Abram Wright settled on Eight-mile creek. 
William Haworth came with them. William Diggs and Armsbee Diggs 
came from Carolina about the same time. William Way, Sr., and his sons, 
William, Paul and Henry, all grown and married, came also. I think these 
came in the fall of 1815. James and Abram Wright moved soon afterwards 
from Clinton county, Ohio. 

March 10, 18 16, my brother Isaac (one of the triplets), and myself 
started, with one horse for us both, from Clinton county, Ohio, to go to the 
woods of Randolph. With a few things in a sack slung across the horse 
(among them, seven or eight apples — the last of the season), we set off in 
high glee, I being fourteen years old, taking turns in riding, or as it is called, 
'riding and tying,' a very common practice then. Our route was Waynes- 
ville, Springboro, Eaton, New Paris, Williamsburg, Ind., and so on to 


Randolph. We got to brother James' glad enough. Isaac said, 'I had to walk 
nearly all the way. Solomon was so chicklegged he could hardly go at all.' 
We went to work on father's place to clear and build. One day I had laid 
off my coat and vest on the leaves, when the fire ran and caught them, and 
burnt leaves, coat, vest and all. As I held up the smoking shreds. Uncle 
Haworth cried. 'Save the buttons!' 'There are no buttons to save' was the 
curt reply. There was I, a poor lad fourteen years old, one hundred and 
twenty miles from home, with no clothes but shirt and pants. I had to wear 
an old overcoat of brother James', a world too large and long, which made 
me the laughing stock at all the log-rollings. In warm weather, I gladly shed 
the old coat and took to shirt and pants. 

I stayed through the summer, and were turned home; and in about a 
year father and I came through with a load of provisions. A year after 
that, father moved to his land. Cabin creek was so named on a trip we 
made to David Connor's, below Wheeling. Seeing a group of Indian cabins 
on the bank of the creek, some one cried, 'Let us call the stream Cabin creek,' 
and Cabin creek it is to this day. Muncie was so named from Muncie 
[Montzie], an old Indian. The Indians complained of Connor's whiskey. 
'Too much "Sinewa," they said. I saw the first lot sold in Winchester. 

Once in school, near Dunkirk, on the last day, the girls got behind the 
chimney and pushed the fire-place and back wall over into the house, and 
scattered the clay all over the floor — grand fun, they thought. 

My oldest boy, George Washington, killed a bear. He was quite young, 
and people would ask, Ts that the boy who killed the bear ?' He skinned the 
bear and brought it [the skin] home. 

One day some white men and Indians were jumping near the mill-pond. 
One white man jumped with stones in his hands. The Indians were angry. 
One of them threw the stones into the pond exclaiming, 'No fair !' 

Nathan Thornburg came one day and said, 'We are starving or meat.' 
We went hunting, but found nothing. Just as we were going home, a deer 
started up. I shot the deer and cried to Thornburg, 'There is your meat; 
go get it,' which he did. 

One evening a man came and said, 'There is a bear over the hill yonder.' 
We went, and, sure enough, the dogs had treed a bear. Thornburg snapped 
and I snapped. He stuck in a new flint and shot the bear outright. One 
man said, not very long age, 'The telegraph cannot come here; there is no 
water-course.' Once, as we were traveling near Smithfield, we came upon a 
gang of Indians, lying on the ground under the oak trees. The dog barked, 
and they jumped up and hastily wrapped themselves up in some way. One 


Indian asked me for 'big ax, to cut bee tree.' I told him, 'No; got none.' 
He brought me some venison, as black 9s black cloth, and gave me a piece. 
I took it. The young man with we took none. The Indian was displeased, 
and said, 'No good white man.' 

In 1833, my wife noticed the 'stars falling.' She went to the door and 
cried, 'O, come and look, quick, or the stars will all be down !' While 
we were moving from Ohio, as we std|)pedone evening, a young man sat on 
a stone and sang: 

'O, when shall I see Jesus, and reign with Him above?' 

The occasion was affecting. We felt lonely and sad, and wept freely. 

Between Williamsburg and White River, an old ewe 'gave out,' and we 
laid her on a tree-root 'in the wilderness.' Seven weeks afterward we found 
her there, feeding about, and took her home. A great many Indians were 
here then. I used to hop with them and shoot at a mark. We lived in har- 
mony till two young white men went down below Stoney creek and stole two 
Indian ponies and escaped to Ohio. Shortly, the Indians went after them. 
They said, 'No good white man; steal Indian ponies.' I always noticed that, 
in the Indian difficulties, the whites were mostly to blame, and that the trou- 
ble generally arose from stealing their horses or from selling them liquor. 

A while after we came to Randolph, father sent me to mill, on the Still- 
water below Greenville. I followed the Indian trail through the forest, 
seeing not a living soul, except that I met some Indians, who, upon my asking 
them 'how far to Greenville ?' held up six fingers, to mean, as I supposed, six 
miles. When I got to Greenville, the old fort was there in decay and partial 
ruin, and not much of a town. Passing on, I found the mill on Stillwater, 
some miles below, got my 'grinding,' and returned safetly home." 

[This was probably before 1820. Solomon Wright is probably mistaken, 
by at least one year, in his idea of the time when he came to Randolph. It 
seems well settled that William Diggs and the Ways came in the fall of 1816, 
and that the Wrights, etc., none of them till at least the spring, or, more 
probably, the fall, of 181 7. They did, some of them, certainly arrive that 
fall, and that was probably the time, December, 1817, when William Wright 
went to White River, as told by John Fisher, he thinking that wagon the 
first to White River.] 

The following reminiscences of Solomon Wright were written and fur- 
nished by Miss Lillie A. Garrett : 


"About the time grandpa settled on this farm, he saw a young fawn 
floating down White river, rescued it from the water and put it into a hollow 
sycamore ; and when he came back from hunting, took it home. He kept it 
several years. Grandpa says, 'I put a bell on it, and it would go off into the 
woods, and wild deer would follow it; and when I would hear the bell I 
would look out for the deer and kill them.' 

He became awful cross, and when anybody came, he would turn his hair 
back, bow up his neck, meet them at the gate, and they had to stand back or 
'be floored.' One day, two boys were going to meeting, and 'Buck' made 
them 'climb' to get out of his way ; and he kept them up their saplings till it 
was too late for meeting. At last he 'bunted' over one of the children, and 
grandpa shot him. 

Jacob Wright and Sarah Wright (?) were the names on the first mar- 
riage license issued at Winchester. . : 

Abram Wright and Isom Garrett were pioneer teachers. One taught at 
Dunkirk and one on Green's Fork, and the schools used to meet to 'spell' 
against each other. Those 'spelling matches' were gay times, and were useful, 
to boot. 

To persons inquiring the way to Winchester, Charles Conway used to 
reply, 'Just go on as far as you can get among the logs and brush, and you 
are in Winchester.' Paul W. Way surveyed the town plat, and Abram 
Wright carried the chain for him. David Wright 'cried' the lots at the first 
sale. He said to David Wysong, 'That young man is good-looking, and he 
would look still better if he would bid just a little higher.' Hiram Menden- 
hall and others, between 1830 and 1840, joined their possessions and formed 
a 'Community' at Unionsport. The town still stands, but the 'Community' 
was dissolved long, long ago. 

In time of the 'Millerism' excitement, a deep snow fell, which the 
frightened devotees predicted would turn to brimstone. 

The first teacher at Cabin Creek was Mary Ann Ring. Grandpa sent 
the two oldest children. The little 'chits' hid their dinner, tied up in a rag, 
under the floor before they entered the schoolroom on the first day. 

The Diggs', Littleberry, Marshall and Franklin taught the school in 

after times, and the 'Wright children' grew fond of learning, eight attending 

at one time. And future years found them at Winchester, Williamsburg, 

Liber, etc., and then as teachers through the region. Great interest was taken 



by them in temperance, anti-slavery, etc. Fanny, the youngest, now the wife 
of Judge R. S. Taylor, of Fort Wayne, used to stand on a chair and recite : 

'What, fellow-countrymen in chains! 
Slaves in a land of light and law!' 

— Whittier. 

In the 'Separation,' most of the^ Cabin Creek Friends left the 'Body.' 
Amos Bond, J. H. Bond, Solomon Wright, etc., were noted Anti-slavery 
Friends. Great enthusiasm prevailed, and lectures, papers, pamphlets, etc., 
were the order of the day. The underground railroad track passed this way, 
and 'Cabin Creek' was one of the chief stations. 

When 'Birney's vote' was found to be about 7,000, Hiram Mendenhall, 
who presented the 'petition' to Henry Clay, at Richmond, Indiana, said, 
'Thank God, there are left yet 7,000 men who have not bowed the knee to 
Baal, nor kissed his image' — referring to the rumor that so many kissed 
Henrv Clay. Grandpa kept an inn for many years, as this road was a great 
A\'estern thoroughfare. 

The Van Amburg show passed here once and the men, some of them, 
staved overnight, and the elephant stood in the yard, tied to a young walnut 

Some Mormon converts once camped at the creek ford, and their 
preacher declared they were going to Nauvoo, protected by the same power 
that guarded Daniel in the 'lions' den.' They seemed sincere and hearty in 
their faith. Abram Wright attended a meeting of Mormons, at which the 
people wept profusely under the words of a speaker who said he had prayed 
all night to be delivered from the devil, whose chains he could hear rattling 
down the stairs. 

Samuel Peters, a highly, respected young colored man, used to board 
with us. He went South, after the war, was cashier of the Freedman's Bank, 
at Shreveport, Louisiana, and had been elected to Congress there, when he 
died in the fall of 1873 by yellow fever, which struck that city so fatally at 
that time. First burial in Friends' burying-ground at Cabin Creek was a child 
of Mordecai Bond's, and the next was Jethro Hiatt's wife. 

First mill in Stoney Creek township was built at Windsor b-\- John Thorn- 
burg, 1827. The first cooking stove was owned by Solomon Wright, bought 
at Newport. 

A criminal with his legs fastened round the horse, once stopped for din- 


ner. Two men held the clanking chains upon his ankles as he walked into the 
house. 'Look at that and be honest, boys,' said grandpa to his sons, who 
were standing by and gazing at the poor fellow. 

Eminent Quaker preachers of the olden time, in Randolph county, were 
Isom Puckett, Benjamin Cox and others. In later years, Martha Wooton, 
Daniel Puckett, Charles Osborn, etc., labored here to some extent, though not 
residents within the limits of the. county." 


"I have owned and improved six different farms in this region, building 
six separate houses. When my father moved here I was too young to go to 
mill, but my brothers used to go to Solomon Wright's to mill and get wheat 
ground, unbolted, and then take the meal to an old man who had made a 
sieve by stretching a cloth over a piece of hoop bent round, and they would 
sift the meal through that and thus make flour. 

Soon after father settled, the State road'was made from Winchester to 
the State line toward Greenville, right past father's cabin. I saw the men 
going along blazing 'the trees.' Judge Edwards said that when Paul Way 
surveyed the road, he had a man go along the county road and blow a horn, so 
as to keep him in a straight course. When they reached the 'Dismal,' they 
hunted a narrow passage for a crossing, and curved the road to hit the spot.. 
The State road was the leading highway in this country, and, for many years, 
an immense amount of travel passed upon it. I have counted eighty wagons 
of movers in one day, going to western Indiana, Illinois, etc. My father's 
cabin was a stopping-place, and we have had so many at once that we boys 
often had to go to the hay mow to sleep to give room to the lodgers. 

Years afterward, when the West had become somewhat settled, cattle- 
used to be taken east in immense droves. I have seen 700 or 800 in a single 
herd. David Heaston's, James Griffis', and my father's were the chief places 
for movers and for droves. Father used to charge a man for supper, break- 
fast, lodging and horse feed, ^tlV^ cents. The old National road was another 
great thoroughfare. 

An old man, Banta, built a bridge over Greenville creek on the State 
road, and I helped him do the job. We went out there to work, camping 
in the woods. His folks neglected to bring us any provisions, and for three 
•days we lived on bread and water. 

My father lived here six years before he was able to enter any land. 


He got money to enter his first land by hauling wheat to Lewall)m's mill, at 
Ridgeville, for Hour ; and by buying pork, potatoes, etc., building a flat-boat, 
and taking the boat-load of bacon, flour, etc., down the river to Logansport, 
and selling his load to the Indians. 

He entered land east of Winchester (Kemp farm). A company, of 
whom Jesse \\'ay was one, went down the Mississinewa river with loaded 
flat-boats, and Jesse lost his boat, and his load, too, in trying to run the dam 
at Byles's mill on that river. 

An Indian 'trail' was simply a path through the woods. The path would 
be trodden so as to be plainly visible. Sometimes the amount of pony-travel 
would be so great as to make a heavily-trodden track. 'Trails' passed in 
various directions : One led from Muncie to Greenville, straight as an arrow. 
One from r^Iuncie to Fort Wayne ; one from Godfrey Farm to Fort Wayne, 


"When a girl, I went with my mother to a quilting and corn-husking. 
When we got there nothing seemed ready, but the boys went to the woods 
and got some poles for frames; the women pieced the quilt and carded the 
tow, and so they quilted the quilt, each woman quilting where and how she 
pleased. Doubtless, the quilt was just as warm, which is the chief thing after 
all. One woman got drunk. She said she was getting her 'nats upon the 
taps;' and she would go out and help cook. A\'hisk\- was everywhere. Still- 
houses were plent}-, and much whisky was made and drank. My father 
settled in Union count)- in 1817. He owned the first mill in that county, and 
my oldest brother built a factory. My father came to Ohio from Xew 
Jersey in 1802, to Waynesville, and I was born there. He resided at Cin- 
cinnati eighteen months, then at Covington, operating a woolen factory, and 
building the first good house in Covington. He li\'ed thirtv-six vears on the 
East fork of White river, and then moved to Richmond, residing there for 
four years. He died in 1852. eight}'-four years old. 

Some men from Union countv- took the first (and only) two flat-boats 
down the East Fork of WhiXt Water to _Xew Orleans. There was a heavy 
freshet and the water was very high. There was a great crowd to see them 
start, from all the countrs- round. They sold their load at New Orleans and 
came back all the wav from that distant market on foot." 



"The first money I ever had, when a young lad, as my own, was 12^ 
cents. My brother and I sold a pair of deer-horns for 25 cents, and I had 
half. I managed, afterward, somehow, to get 87^^ cents, and loaned it to 
father, he promising to give me a sheep. His 'sheep' proved to be a lamb, 
but I raised it and traded it for a pig, and then that for a calf, and so on. 
Afterward I came to be the owner of a colt, which I traded again, and so on 
from small things to greater, till, by the time I was twenty-one years old, I 
had become the owner of six hundred acres of wild land." 

[Gideon Shaw states that Thomas Ward, when a lad, was at his father's, 
in the southeast corner of Randolph county, buying furs, etc.] 

"I began very early to trade for things. Father let me have a pig or two, 
and I traded for a calf and then for a motherless colt, and so on. I bought 
my own clothes. As before stated, men would come along and hire me to 
survey and deaden land, and I would do the surveying, and hire the deaden- 
ing for less than what they would give me. At one time I entered an eighty- 
acre tract for $100, and sold it shortly after for $200. I used to trade in 
furs and peltry, and would make, sometimes, $200 in a single winter, or even 
more in that way. 

The first land I ever entered for myself I carried the money in my hand 
all the way to Fort Wayne, traveling on foot the whole distance. There was 
a nice Indian sugar orchard which T wished very much to own. We found 
out that another party was planning to enter it, and I started on foot with 
money for that, tract, and also for some that father wished to enter. I had 
the money tied up, and carried it in my hand the whole way. The 'specie 
circular' had lately been issued, and in just three days it was to take effect. I 
got to John Brooks' the first night, gave Mrs. B. the money to keep and went 
to bed. The next day I got to Adam Miller's, near Bluffton. The third day 
I tried hard to make Fort Wayne, but the traveling was very bad, the snow 
being nearly knee deep, and I was but a boy (eighteen years old, or perhaps 
less), and I had to come short of the mark. In the morning I went to the 
registrar's office, made application for the land for myself and my father, 
got my certificate from that office and went boldly to the receiver. Colonel 
Spencer knew my father and knew me too, for he had stayed at my father's 
at dififerent times. I told him the whole story — the paper money, the sudden 
start, my hard travel on foot, and how I had missed by a few hours, and 
what a disappointment it would be to lose my land after such a chase for it. 


He was a sturdy Democrat, and father was a steadfast Whig; but Colonel 
Spencer was a gentleman and a kind-hearted man, and he pitied the poor 
boy ; and he said to me, 'You shall have your land, and your father shall, too. 
I am going into Ohio on business of my own, and I can use the money my- 
self.' So he took my money and I entered the land. But my piece was some 
four acres more than a full eighty, and it took $5 extra; and that was every 
cent of money I had. But I was determinetl I would have the land, let come 
what would ; so I paid my last cent and g"ot it. I told Colonel Spencer what I 
had done, and he asked me how I expected to get home. I told him I did not 
know, but that I was going to start and risk getting through. 'O, that will 
never do,' said he; and he insisted that I should borrow of him enough to 
take me home. I finally did so, and tramped home again, sending his money 
back the first chance I found. I had an uncle (Daniel Miller), on Robinson's 
Prairie, and I stayed the first night with him, the second night at Portland, 
and got home the third night. When I started in the morning from my 
uncle's, on my way from Fort Wayne, he told me of a nearer way through 
the woods ; that I could go by 'blazes' to the Wabash, and cut off several 
miles. I took his directions, and followed the 'blazes' through without diffi- 
culty. I thought no more of traveling thus through the thick woods, guided 
only by 'blazed' trees, than I would now to travel along a beaten road. 

I have lost great amounts of property during my life. I put two hun- 
dred and forty-five acres of land near Ridgeville, and one thousand acres of 
Iowa land, into the north and south road through Ridgeville, when it was 
first worked on, and lost it. I did more- for the road than anybody else, 
living or dead. Others managed to secure their stock, but my loss by the road 
was $30,000 or more. Mr. Lewallyn's mill, at Ridgeville, was built, probably, 
after 1819. My father, Joab Ward, commenced building boats about 1835. 
When the country along the Wabash, etc., began to settle up, the fact made 
a market for several years, and the people of Wayne and Randolph 
tried to supply it by sending their produce down the Alississinewa to the 
Wabash, and thereabouts. Boats were needed, and Ridgeville was the head 
of high-water navigation, and so father took to building boats and selling 
them to people to take their produce down the river on. He would build a 
boat forty feet long by ten feet wide, at 62^/2 cents a foot, i. e., $25 for the 
boat, all ready for floating. He would cut the timber green, from the woods, 
have two heavy side-pieces sloped rounding upward at both ends, cut a 'gain' 
in the lower edge to receive the ends of the planks which formed the bottom, 
pin the bottom planks to the sides and the middle piece, fasten on some pieces 


of plank at the top of the gunwale, so as to increase the depth of the boat 
(making it, perhaps, two feet), stop up the cracks, and she was ready to 
receive her load and to float along her downward way. This flat-boating 
could be done only in times of flood. 

High water was mostly during the winter and spring. The business 
lasted perhaps ten or fifteen y^ars. The river floods became less, and the 
markets in that region ceased or were supplied in other ways. 

Father built, in all, a large number of boats — thirty-seven in one spring. 
He used to hire hands to work for him, and board them at 12^ cents a meal. 

One spring several boats started down the river, loaded with apples, 
potatoes, cider, etc. At the first mill dam below Marion (McClure's), one 
boat, belonging to Hampton Brown, who lived below Newport (Fountain 
City), in going over the dam, ran under and sunk and lost the whole cargo, 
and the boat was ruined. The men swam out to the shore and were saved. 

At one time a raft came plunging down upon the swift-rushing flood. 
They contrived to land a cable and tied it round a tree ; but the raft broke in 
two and went over the dam. There were two men on the raft. One came 
ashore, but the other shot under the water and was never again seen alive. 
His dead body was found afterward, some distance below." 


"William Edwards came in 1818; Jonathan Edwards came in 1818; 
they lived north toward town. 

David Wysong lived three-quarters of a mile east. 

John Elzroth lived near the 'poor farm,' coming in 1818. 

Thomas Jarrett came in 1818. He lived one-c|uarter mile away. Peter 
Lasley bought his land at private sale, but unimproved. 

In Winchester there were a few log cabins, and a log court house. 
David Heaston came in 1819, a little southwest. In Winchester were Paul 
W. Way, Charles Conway, John Odell, John Wright (blacksmith), John 
Wright (judge). 

I cleared oS the public square in Winchester ; there were three and one- 
half acres; it took me three months, working all day and half the night, and 
I got $35 for the job. Moorman Way got more than double that sum ($75) 
years afterward for putting in new trees. It was all 'in the green,' there came 
a snow and the heaps would not burn well; much was sugar-tree, three feet 
and over. A very large elm stood right in the cross street. The timber in 


this region was sugar-tree, beech, hickory, walnut, oak, elm, etc. Oak was 
scarce, sugar-tree most abundant of all. There was much wet land in the 
region that nobody would have, that land is now the best in the county. I 
helped make a big cross-way on the State road west of Winchester, three- 
quarters of a mile long. The logs were, many of them, eighteen inches through. 
Two of us built it in three months, getting $10 a month, boarding ourselves. 
Poles had to be put in between the logs a.t the top, and the whole was covered 
with dirt six inches deep. We had to cut many of the trees, standing kiiee- 
deep in water, and the logs often floated as we hauled them, making the 
work of drawing them to the track much easier." 


"We used to grind out corn on a hand-mill. My father had one, and 
the neighbors were in the habit of coming and using it. It was hard work; 
a few quarts would tire a man completely out ; you had to turn with one hand 
and feed with the other (a few grains at a time). The mill worked very 
slowly, and we generally ground only enough for a meal or two at once. 
The way the mill was made and worked was this : The lower stone was laid 
flat and fast; the upper stone was fixed to turn upon a center piece in some 
\\ay, and was made to revolve by a pole, fastened (loosely) in a beam above, 
and in the top of the stone below, near the edge of the stone, in a shallow 
hole drilled in the surface. This drilling into the stone was hard to do, for 
there were no tools, and there was no way to fasten anything to the stone. 
These stones were about two feet across, home-dressed and home-made." 

SIMON cox. 

"When I came to Randolph, Charles Conway lived half a mile south of 
Winchester. John Wright (blacksmith) lived on the north side of Win- 
chester. Paul Beard and Jesse Johnson (and perhaps others), were on 
Greensfork, near Lynn. There were some settlers down White river, but I 
did not know them. No settlers were on White river above us. John 
Cox, my father, came in 1818, with eight children; none are now living but 
myself. He died forty years ago. White River meeting was set up about 
1820. The members were Benjamin Cox, John Wright (blacksmith), Jona- 
than Hiatt, Simon Cox, Thomas Ward, Joseph Moffatt and maybe others. 
Jericho meeting was begun soon afterward. The first school was about 1823 ; 
Isaac Pearson was the teacher. George Cox, born 1820, remembers riding 


home from school on his Uncle Pearson's shoulders; George was perhaps 
three years old. 

The first mill was on Salt creek, north of Winchester, water-mill, built 
by Solomon Wright; it ground very slowly, being in use some years. Jere- 
miah Cox's mill was the next — a flour mill — bolt run by hand. The first 
meeting-house was the White River church, warmed by coal in the middle. 

The first doctor I knew of was at Winchester. The first store I knew of 
was there too. The first frame house was Jeremiah Cox's, built about fifty- 
five years, and standing yet in good repair. The first child born in our set- 
tlement was my son, George Cox, born January 6, 1820. 

Benjamin Cox and myself once started to go through to the Johnson 
settlement below Lynn, after some grain to take to mill. One had to go ahead 
and cut 'a road' for the wagon to pass. We had to 'camp out,' and a deep 
snow fell in the night." 


"Meshach Lewallyn and Joab Ward lived near Ridgeville when I came; 

they had been there not long. James Massey and Massey came the 

same fall that I did, and settled near Saratoga. (James Massey was here in 
1818, before B. P. came). George Ritenour came two weeks after me and 
settled across the river. Meshach Lewallyn built a small mill in 18 19 (I 
think), a water-mill; it would grind two or three bushels a day; the meal 
would come by 'spurts.' A dog came in and tried to lick the meal; now he 
would get some meal, and now he wouldn't; it did not suit him, and he 
would throw up his head and howl, and then he would try to lick the meal 
again. ( This story has been told us of four different mills in the region, as 
also of one in Pennsylvania.) 

Mr. Lewallyn afterward built a better mill, which became a noted point 
in those times for many years ; he built a saw-mill also. David Connor built a 
log shanty two miles east of Deerfield, on the Mississinewa, and traded with 
the Indians. He sold them flour, and salt, and powder, and whisky, etc., for 
furs and peltry. He took loads of furs and skins in 'pirogues,' down the 
Mississinewa, up Wabash, up Little river, across the portage nine miles to 
St. Mary's, and so. to Toledo and Detroit. He hauled his goods across the 
portage on wagons with three yoke of oxen. Brother Thomas and I went 
with him once. He had otter, muskrats, beaver, coon skins, minks, etc., a 
heavy load. He got his pay in silver, and bought a pony to bring the silver 
home. (This was in 1822.) He stayed at that point a year or two or so, 


and moved down the river to near Wheeling, and later, to below Marion, 
where he settled, built mills, and spent the rest of his life. He died rich a 
few years ago. I took hogs to him, which he bought and butchered. He 
showed me half a bushel of silver money. He was a 'smart' man, and a man 
of his word; but he would have his own way in a bargain. He made a 
■power' of money. He did not like to sell to settlers, because he could not 
charge them enough. He commonly sold* to Indians, and his price to them 
was very high. 

Lewallyn's son, Shadrach, shot an Indian in their yard. A patch of corn 
had been planted, and the boys were gathering it on a sled (as most of the 
hauling was done then). The Indian had bought some powder and whisky 
at Connor's, and he "cut up' and scared the boys. They unhitched the horses, 
and one of the boys ran, and the Indian ran after him and pointed his gun at 
the boy. Shadrach called out, 'What is the matter?' The boy said, 'The 
Indian is going to shoot me.' Shadrach caught his gun and undertook to 
shoot the Indian. Shadrach's wife tried to pull him away for 100 yards, but 
he shot and killed the Indian right there in the yard. This was in the evening. 
Shadrach went to his father's that night, and in the morning they covered 
the body in the hollow of a tree turned up. Old Meshach went to Muncie 
alone, and told the Indians what his son had done and that he should- be tried 
fairly, and suffer the penalty. He also told the Indians to come and bury 
their comrade and they did so ; fifteen or twenty came and buried him on the 
river bank on my farm. The young man was tried, but he was acquitted; 
and that made the Indians hostile. I went to Connor and talked with him, 
and got him to intercede with the Indians. Connor had great influence with 
them, and they would do almost anything he wished. He told them that I 
was his cousin, and that he wished they, would be reconciled. I had come 
into the county after the shooting and before the trial. The Indians had 
torn up the floor in the cabin I was to live in, and I fixed it. We sent some 
boys to get the cabin ready, and we expected to move up from Joab Ward's. 
While the boys were at the cabin, six or seven Indians came in. One of the 
young men set them a puncheon bench, and they sat down. Presently one 
of them, Big Nose, drew his knife, and caught my brother Thomas, and 
cried, 'Now I kill you; you killed my cousin.' Brother said, 'No, I wasn't in 
the country then.' 'You are a liar,' Big Nose cried. He held Thomas a long 
time, but let him go at last. Another young man, who was with Thomas, ran 
away 100 yards- and caught up his gun. The Indian caught my brother 
again, but finally said, 'I let you go. I no kill you this time — next time I kill 


you, sure." The other Indians smiled like, but said nothing. The Indian 
turned my brother's face toward him and said, 'Look, next time I kill you.' 

The boy came and met us and told us. Joab Ward said, 'Follow the In- 
dians.' I said 'No.' Then he said, 'Go back with me.' My wife stood there 
with the child, and she said, 'Let us go on,' and we started again. We went, 
and my wife followed, trembling, but when we got in sight of the cabin, all 
fear left her. We got to the cabin and unloaded, and there came along a big, 
burly fellow, and offered to stay with us. 'He was not afraid,' he said. He 
stayed. There was a big stump of a tree-root near by. Before bed-time he 
looked out and said. 'I see an Indian out there. I see his blanket and his 
eyes. He is going to shoot' The fellow got his gun and his axe, and stood 
ready a good while. I said, 'I am going to see.' 'Oh, no, he will shoot you.' 
I did go out; there was no Indian, only the stump and some snow. In the 
morning we went out to cut up the tree. I said, 'It would not do for an In- 
dian to come and cut up like that one yesterday.' I looked up, and there stood 
an Indian ! He heard what I said, but he smiled and was friendly. 

In about a month my brother went back to Ohio. He had not been long 
gone when six Indians came and hallooed from across the river, wishing to 
come across. Big Nose among them. I took my canoe, and brought them 
across. I charged him with his mischief. He said, 'No, me civil.' 'Yes, it 
was you.' 'No whisky.' They went up to Connor's, and by and by, re- 
tvirned. (One was called Killbuck.) One was so drunk that he could not 
walk alone; two of them were leading him across waist-deep. When they 
had come across, Killbuck said, 'We not been saucy.' I went into the house, 
but presently he came back, foaming with rage. 'You go and get your gun,' 
said he. 'How do you know,' said I. 'What did you come back for?' 'To 
show you I no coward, give me some bread,' said he. I did, and he went 
away pacified. That poor drunken fellow lay there all night with his feet in 
the water, dead drunk. 

One night an Indian hallooed. 'What do you want?' 'To come in and 
warm.' I let him in. 'Me civil,' said he. After he got in, he began to curse, 
and swore he would kill the first man that came into the cabin. I quieted 
him down, and then he began again. He went on to Connor's, and in the 
morning he came back, and said, 'Connor told me "No," and I won't hurt 

In boating, flat-boats would jump the dams four feet high. People 
would bring fruit from \\'ayne county in wagons, and boat it 'down to 
settlers on the Wabash and elsewhere. 


After Fleming was killed, about twenty-five Indians came and had a 
ceremony over him. They had guns, and marched up very solemnly. One 
old Indian made a speech. He spoke a long time ; KiUbuck interpreted. He 
said, 'Don't be scared, he was a bad Indian. We will be friendly.' As the 
man stood there speaking, he seemed much affected, and the tears streamed 
down his cheeks. 

We used to go to mill at first to Richmond. David Wysong made a 
thread-mill (for oxen). One day I went with a grist, and, in the night, while 
I was there, the oxen slipped through, and stopped the mill, but they could not 
get out and were just hanging by their necks. 

The first school was taught two or three years after I came, in a log 
cabin, kept by Mr. Stevens, at $i per scholar. There were perhaps twenty 
scholars. Half of the patrons could not pay. There were only two or three 
books in the school. The teacher would write letters on paddles to have the 
little fellows learn. I once drove thirty head of hogs to Ross county, Ohio, 
to have them fatten on the 'mast.' The Indians began to shoot them. I 
talked to them. 'Big Jim,' said 'Fat hog make good soup,' and laughed. 
When I came to the county, a big brush heap lay where the Winchester court 
house now stands. 

John Cox settled near Winchester in 1815 or 1816." 

JACOB DRIVER, 1 82 1. 

"Settlers when I came, in 1821 : John Sample, at Sampletown (Mill), 
Paul' W. Way, William Way, Henry Way, William Diggs (old), William 
Diggs (young), Littleberry Diggs, Armsbee Diggs, Tarlton Moorman, Robi- 
son, Mclntyre, Walter Ruble, John Wright and others. 

The Claytons came nearly when I did — perhaps two or three years 

Tarlton Moorman is the brother of James Moorman and the father of 
Stephen Moorman.'' 


"Benjamin Bond, my father, lived, at one time, just west of New Gar- 
den meeting-house, in Wayne county. 

In building a house, he bought nails at 25 cents a pound, and paid for 
them in cord-wood at 25 cents a cord, chopping the wood on his own land, 
and selling it on the ground at the rate of four cords for $1. 

In Western Pennsylvania, in early times, a man gave a horse for a bar- 
rel of salt." 



"The settlers, when I came (on the Mississinewa, 1822), were, Riley 
Marshall, east of Deerfield;. William Massey, James Massey, Robert Massey, 
north of Miller's; Frank Peake, north of Mississinewa river; Samuel Emery, 
on the south side of the river; Burkett Pierce, west, of Deerfield, north of 
river; George Ritenour, west of Deerfield, south of the river; Martin Boots, 
between Deerfield and Ridgeville. He was the first blacksmith in that region. 
He moved to Fairview, afterward. 

I was single, and came on horseback from near Cincinnati, via Rich- 
mond and the 'Quaker Trace,' to Riley Marshall's. I bought eighty acres of 
a non-resident owner, and boarded eighteen months at Riley Marshall's, going 
then to Wayne county to be married, and bringing my wife with me, on 
horseback, into the woods of Randolph. Judge M. thinks James Massey was 
the first settler in Ward township. Some of the Masseys were there in 1818. 
Burkett Pierce says James and another Massey came the same fall he did — 
1820 or 1 82 1. Judge M. thinks, also, that Philip Storms came to Allensvil^e 
after he (Miller) came to Randolph, and that Connor stayed on the river 
above Deerfield, five or six years after 1822. 

Lewallyn's mill ground very slowly. They said a pig crawled into the 
trough and licked up the meal, and that he would sc[ueal because the meal 
did not come fast enough for him. This is probably another version of the 
'hound' story, so often repeated. 

Meetings were held for a long time at private dwellings, i. e., at Riley 
Marshall's, and also elsewhere." 


"John Gass had settled at his place, southwest of Winchester, and was 
keeping tavern there when the Ways, etc., came from South Carolina, in the 
spring of 1817. 

The first entry in Randolph county used to be said to be three miles east 
of Winchester, where Miles Scott now lives. That land was entered by Jere- 
miah Moffett, in December, 1812. 

Anti-slavery societies began to be formed between 1836 and 1840, or 
sooner. The U. G. R. R. had a sort of organization, though not a very elabo- 
rate one. Lists of the stations, of the routes, of the men who would enter- 
tain and who would forward fugitives, etc., were kept for reference along the 


At Winchester, Eli Hiatt was a chief promoter of the work. Others, 
were James P. Way, Frank Diggs, Jesse Way, Moorman Way, Dr. Cook, 
M. A. Reeder and others; George Bailey and others, at Huntsville; Zimri 
Bond, John H. Bond, etc., at Cabin Creek. Large numbers were in sympathy 
with the work ; some, in fact, who would hardly have been expected to do so. 
One man, a landlord in Jay county, who was then, and has always since been, 
a stanch Democrat, was nevertheless a constant and reliable helper in the 
U. G. R. R. 

At one time, a company of twelve stopped at Eli Hiatt's. The pursuers 
came to town while the fugitives were still here. They knew the fugitives 
were not far off, but not that they were in town. 

Dr. Cook went early toward Ridgeville, and, returning, met the man- 
hunters — giving them such information as caused them to suppose their prey 
was ahead, and they pressed vigorously onward (four men, all armed to the 
teeth). The slaves were taken back to Huntsville, from there to John 
Bond's and thence to Camden, and so on toward Canada. 

During the war of 1861, Mr. Reeder and his wife went as nurses in the 
hospital, etc., spending more than a year in that service, and going wholly at 
his own expense. He was at Washington City, at Gettysburg and elsewhere, 
witnessing many sad and fearful scenes of terrible suffering, and doing his 
utmost for its relief. He bore a commission from Gov. Morton, and recom- 
mendations from President Lincoln, which enabled him to go anywhere he 
pleased in the prosecution of his loving work, and he feels thankful for the 
degree of success which attended his labors in his country's cause. Gov. 
Morton's name was itself a 'power,' and, of course. President Lincoln's 'sign 
manual' was omnipotent, and both together became irresistible." 

The following was printed in a Winchester paper in 1875 : 


Last week, Mr. Harris Allman and his wife returned, after an absence of 
forty-five years, to visit their former friends and comrades in this vicinity — 
now, alas, but few. His father, Matthew Allman, was a very early settler 
here, and in 1830 removed to White Lick, between Plainfield and Indian- 
apolis. Since that removal, a wonderful change has taken place ! 

Winchester was then a solid forest. About eight families were at that 
time residents of the place, scattered here and there over the town plat, in 
small log cabins. The heavy timber was near on every hand. The streets 


could not be seen. Only three houses now [1875] remain standing that were 
here when Mr. Allnian left, and one of them has lately been reconstructed. 

The old settlers are mostly gone. M. A. Reeder has been longest a resi- 
dent of the town, including, also, his mother, who is still living. Mr. Allman 
passed through the city (in company with M. A. R.), searching, almost in 
vain, to find the spots of familiar interest of the early olden time. Mr. A. 
pointed out many locations of objects then important, now to the younger 
generation unknown. 

The old schoolhouse, on the site where now stands the residence of A. 
Aker, Jr. ; the old spring at which the scholars slaked their thirst, located on 
the east bank of Salt creek, about a rod south of the Washington street bridge ; 
the old Aker hotel, partly standing, just east of the city hall; the Odle store- 
room, the first dry goods store, afterward the residence of D. Haworth and 
of Jacob Elzroth, Esq., and now occupied by George Isom; Haworth's cabi- 
net-shop, now occupied by J. W Diggs as an undertaken. 

The big oak tree, seven feet through, which stood where now stands 
Col. H. H. Neff's elegant mansion ; the "old fort and mound," near and in the 
"Fair Grounds ;" the "Ring Spring," one hundred yards west of the toll-gate 
on the pike leading westward; the big walnut tree, six feet through, standing 
where now Hon. E. L. Watson resides; the old Quaker (or Richmond) Trace, 
leading from the Wayne county settlements into these northern woods, which 
ran out the south end of East street, which trace is now nearly obliterated — ■ 
these, and other landmarks unknown to the present inhabitants, were full of 
interest to one who spent his boyhood in our vicinity when all was rough and 
wild, full fifty years ago. 


Came to Randolph county, Ind., in 1822 (or sooner), entered land in the 
southern part of Stoney creek, in 1822 [Section 10, 19, 12], being the farm 
afterward owned by Abram Clevinger. This land he sold to Joseph Rooks, 
about 1825, and entered land again in the southern part of Nettle Creek town- 
ship [W. N. W., 15, 18, 12], near Mr. Burroughs, March 26, 1816. They 
sold out again and moved to Delaware county, becoming pioneers in that 

They raised a large family of children, enduring great hardships and 
peril. Mr. Branson died many years ago, but "Aunt Patsy" Branson, as she 
is called, resides with one of her daughters, in Muncie, Delaware county. 
She is nearly ninety years old, but very spry and strong, walking a mile or 


two without difficulty or fatigue, and retaining in memory the events of hef 
old-time life with remarkable tenacity. 

They had peculiar hardships when they first settled in Randolph. They 
came into the woods with one horse of their own, though somebody's two- 
horse wagon moved them there. In less than a week after they arrived, her 
husband cut his knee with a frow, while splitting clap-boards for a roof to 
his "camp," and so badly that he could not step on his foot for six weeks; 
and much of that time he lay helpless on the puncheons of the floor. About 
the same time, his only horse died. The horse was not very good, but it was 
better than none, and it was all they had, and they had nothing to buy another. 

They came in February, and brought four large iron kettles to make 
sugar in. Mrs. Branson and her husband's brother, a lad of seventeen, who 
came with them into their forest home, took hold and opened an immense 
sugar camp that stood ready to their hand, and actually cut the wood, carried 
the water, made the troughs, and produced about three barrels of excellent 
tree-sugar, all nice and dry, as good as need be. This sugar was indeed a 
"God-send" to the poor, afflicted family in the wilderness. Mr. B. ■ hired a 
"plug" pony of his uncle in Wayne county, and contrived to do his work. 
After they got corn planted, he took sugar to Richmond and exchanged for 
corn and other necessaries. But their corn and vegetables grew splendidly, 
and long before the year was out, they had plenty of corn and potatoes and 
such things. They took to the corn as soon as it came to "roasting ears," 
potatoes as soon as they would do to cook, and sc[uashes as soon as they got 
large enough, and so on. 

They had a cow, and the pea-vines were up to her back, and she gave 
abundance of milk, and grew fat on her keeping to boot. 

When Mr. B. went to Richmond with his sugar, he borrowed a wagon 
and a yoke of oxen, and took grain and things, also, for some other neighbor 
settlers, and the trip took a week or more. 

Mrs. B. thinks they came in 1819, which may possibly be the fact; but 
if so, they must have resided here more than three years before they entered 
land, since that took place in the fall of 1822. And that, too, may have been 
true, as Mr. B. seems to have been very poor, and it may have been three 
years before he could raise the money for an entry. 


"Once, when I was a boy at school, the teacher would sleep in 'books.' 
There was a boy in school who was rather 'simple' and greatly given to 
'pranks,' just because he 'did not know any better.' 


One day, a mouse came running across the floor, and the 'simple' boy 
went to chasing it. The teacher was asleep, but the noise waked him. He 
looked up and saw the boy capering about the room. As he spied the lad, he 
caught his whip and chased the little fellow, whipping as he went. The poor 
chap gave no heed to. the slashing of the teacher, but went dancing ahead 
after his movise. At last he 'grabbed' with his fingers, clutched the 'varmint,' 
and turning short round, facing the master, cried, 'See, teacher, I "cotch" 

What the teacher did thereafter is not remembered. The laughing that 
the school accomplished just then was past all control, and the picture of that 
'simple youth,' grinning in glee at his success in grabbing that quadruped, is 
a vivid thing in the minds of all who then beheld the performance of the feat." 


"Settlers at that time were Joseph HoUingsworth, Albert Macy, Jesse 
Ballinger, Joshua Wright, William Stansberry, and others. Daniel Worth 
hved on the John Hunnicutt place ; John Bunker was where John Charles now 
resides; Morgan Thornburg lived near White chapel. Some of these had 
been on their places for several years." 


"Eli B. Barnard says he was twenty-seven months old when the tornado 
took place. Their roof blew off, and they shoved the cradle with him in it 
under the bed to keep him from drowning, and he says he remembers that. 
This was where widow Ballinger lives northwest of Charles W. Osborn's. 

A horse was hemmed in with the fallen trees into a place only a few feet 
square, and yet the horse was not hurt! One man, scared nearly out of his 
wits, had yet sense enough left to pray, and he cried, 'O Lord, ii thou wilt 
spare me this time, I will get away just as soon as I can go!' And he kept 
his word, the people say, and the next morning, picking his way to the near- 
est standing timber, he left for parts unknown. 

Squirrels were one year so poor that they were not iit to eat. William 
Smith's mill was built before 1819." [Doubtful] 


"I have been a miller much of my life. I helped Jeremiah Cox build his 
mill on White river, in 1825. It was a water mill and stood on the place I 


now own; Jeremiah Cox died soon after. Joseph and Benjamin Pickett 
bought the mill, Benjamin Pickett built a saw-mill, and in 1853, I bought the 
farm, 108 acres, and the two mills. The mills ran till the' 'five dry years,' 
1864 — 69; they were pulled down in 1870. The river has far less water now 
than formerly. I worked as a miller three years at White Water, afterward 
off and on at Winchester, dressing buhrs, etc. A steam mill was built there 
about 1835. 

When we were tearing down my saw-mill, a big post fell on me. While 
taking a sill from the second story (the mill was built double), a post, a foot 
square and eleven feet long, knocked me down and fell on me. I was con- 
fined several weeks. They thought I could not live; but that was ten years 
ago and I am here yet." 


"Great numbers of wild hogs were in the woods, descendants of tame 
ones, brought by early settlers, that had become wild. The males would stay 
wild for years. They would get with droves, and in a short time the whole 
drove would become so wild that you could hardly get them back again. 
Wild hogs would attack people when hard pressed. John Chapman, Allen 
county, was attacked by a wild boar when out after the cows. He climbed 
a big log, and had to stay till the creature left. He had a fiste with him ; , 
the hog chased the dog and then took after Chapman himself. He had to 
stay on the log till some time in the night. 

An immense male hog once attacked a cow, in Thomas Coates' lane. 
He stuck his tusk into her breast, and the blood spurted right out. He then 
struck another cow and knocked her down as if she had been shot. His tusk 
was broken, or he would probably have killed her. The children were in the 
lane, they saw the hog, and climbed the fence. The men chased him more 
than half a mile, and shot him again and again, and at last killed him. 

This animal belonged to one of the neighbors, but the creature had gone 
wild. On the ATississinewa hogs were found wild in abundance when the 
settlers first came there, as people would let. their swine run in the woods, 
and after a while hunt them up again, to get them home, or to kill them for 
meat. They would go out and find the 'range,' and when snow would come 
several men would go on horseback, and shoot the hogs as they could find 
them. Sometimes the creatures would be four or five miles from home. 
After they were shot the hogs would be hauled home, by the nose, or on a 
sled or on a wagon. Once in a while people would make a fire out in the 
woods, and scald and dress them before taking them home." 



"Deer sometimes have thirteen prongs. At first the straight 'spike' 
grows, the next year one prong on each horn, and so on. A straight horn is 
called a 'spike;' one prong is called a 'fork;' more than one, 'snags,' three- 
snagged, four-snagged, etc. Deer were fat in the summer and fall and poor 
in the spring. I have often killed old deer that had no horns. Horns of old' 
deer would be perhaps two feet long, when full grown. 

Amos Peacock and Henry Hill once took a load of smoked bacon to 
Richmond, and got only $i a hundred. 

I have bought salt that cost me $11.37 ^ barrel. I had flax seed to sell. 
I paid for hauling the seed, and the salt back from Dayton, and the whole cost 
me as above, $11.37 P^^ barrel." 


"As I was cradling wheat, a cloud gathered south of east, taking several 
hours. It covered nearly the whole sky. There was much lightning and 
thunder, and a little rain; I did not stop cradling. The body of the storm 
seem.ed to pass south. Shortly after I smelt a strong smell of burning sul- 
phur, the smell lasting perhaps half an hour. It made be feel sick and faint, 
and I came near falling to the ground. Shortly after that the cholera broke 
out terribly at Lynn and other places." [See statements by Frazier, John- 
son, Stone, etc.] 


"I was born in Grayson county, Virginia, in 1806. My father, Zachary 
Hyatt, came to Wayne county, Ind., 1814, and to Randolph county in 1817. 
Winchester, when I first saw it, October, 1819, had a court house and jail 
and three houses. Once father lay sick, and I was weaving. Suddenly I saw 
through the open door a deer crawling through a crack in the fence. There 
were two crooked rails, one up and the other down. The deer had one hind 
leg broken. I sprang out with my little thread-knife, and my sisters and my- 
self, with the dog, chased the deer one-quarter of a mile to a pond about 
knee deep. The dog caught the deer by the throat, and we waded in and 
killed it with clubs. We dragged the deer from the water, cut the leaders of 
the legs, and tucked the others in so we could carry it with a pole, and in that 
way we bore it home in triumph. The men were away, except father, and 
he was sick. Once the men were shooting turkeys, and one lit down into the 


yard and tried to crawl through the fence. My sister and I caught it and 
killed it. 

I used to spin and weave a great deal. I have woven many a yard of 
tow, and linen, and woolen. I wove coverlets, etc., for the whole region, 
Richmond, Mississinewa, Wabash, etc. Mr. Lewallyn from Ridgeville, once 
brought five coverlets. I told him, 'I can't weave them, I have more than I 
can do.' 'Don't say a word,' said he, 'I shall leave the work, and you must 
do it, though it should stay here five years.' So, he left the work, and in due 
time I wove them. We used to card and spin raw cotton, and wool too. My 
price for weaving coverlets was $i apiece. 

One day mother went away to be gone ten days. The flax was on the 
ground rotting. We girls took up the flax, dried, broke, swingled and hatch- 
eled it, carded, spun and wove it; and by the time mother came home, the 
cloth was in garments and on the children's backs. 

We used pewter platters, dishes, etc. [Mrs. Pickett showed a large an- 
cient pewter platter, about a foot across, and heavy and thick, that her mother 
bought in 1818. It had never been molded over, and was about as good as 

My father sold his place in North Carolina, and got ready to move to 
Indiana. Everything was packed and loaded, ready to start in the morning. 
The boys got up before daylight, and fed the horses, and got the harness to 
'gear up.' Mother said, 'you need not do it, father is sick.' In ten days, fa- 
ther died. Mother married again, and in a year or two, came to Indiana." 


"When we first came, Richmond was our place of trade. We would go 
with the front wheels of a wagon, taking out the king-bolt, and fixing clap- 
boards on the bolster and the 'slider," putting on our coon skins and deer- 
skins and ginseng, and wheat if we could spare any, and the corn to be 
ground. The trip could be made as handily as you please. With only the 
two wheels, one could turn and twist almost any way around and among the 
trees. The 'truck' would be traded for 'store tea,' and cotton yarn, and pow- 
der and sole-leather.. If, a barrel of salt was needed, father would go with 
the whole wagon. 

The first mill I ever saw was Sample's mill, a corn cracker. The mills 
then were small affairs, but we boys thought them something wonderful. 

Our folks made large quantities of tree sugar. Two springs, we made 


each season, two barrels of grain sugar, loo pounds of cake-sugar, and forty 
or fifty pounds of molasses. 

The third spring of our residence in Randolph, Samuel Anthony, father 
of E. C. Anthony, Esq., of Muncie, came to that place with a store of goods. 
Father needed some things. He said to my mother and myself, 'you go to 
Muncie with a sack of sugar apiece.' We filled the sacks; mother took hers 
before her, but I took a heavy sack. We got there in due time (twelve miles), 
and traded the sugar at 6^ cents a pound for coffee at half a dollar, and 
other goods as high as they could well be. When father built his mill, coffee 
and whisky had both to be furnished, or the men would not work. I had to 
go to Judge Reece's distillery in Delaware county, for the whisky, which 
when a lad, I have often done. Father and I once went to Richmond with 
two yoke of oxen and the wagon, carrying flour and ginseng and sugar and 
deer-skins and coon skins, perhaps $35 worth in all. The trip took four 
days (thirty-five miles). A man named Brightwell was in company. As they 
were about to start for home, Brightwell said, 'take a drink,' handing a bot- 
tle of 'ginger pop,' and as he drew the cork the 'pop' flew clear to the loft. 
Father drank and gave me some. As we came to a big hill father said to 
me, 'you tend the hind cattle, and I will see to the forward yoke,' locking 
the wagon, as he spoke, but taking the forewheel instead of the hind wheel. 
We went down the hill, but it was a terrible 'go,' neither of us knowing what 
the matter was. Just as we reached the bottom, I saw what he had done, and 
said, 'what made thee lock the forewheel?' 'The dogs, I did, didn't I?' 
said he. I told my brother, and he remarked, 'father was pretty tight.' How- 
ever, he was no drinker, but he got caught that time." 


" My uncle, William Simmons, came early to Randolph county, Ind., 
and, I think, as soon as 1821. He lived just at the line between Jackson and 
Ward townships, directly on the Mississinewa river, south of New Pittsburg. 
He died in middle life, but was the father of twenty-one children by the same 
wife. They were all raised 'by hand,' the mother being unable to 'suckle' 
them. Twelve became grown, and ten are still living. 

James Simmons (my father) worked one harvest for Chief Richard- 
ville, near Ft. Wayne. One day an old man passed along the road having a 
tall hat on his head and a bundle on his back, and being otherwise odd looking 
The boys began to 'poke fun' at him. Suddenly he laid down his bundle, took 


off his hat, whirled round and faced them. Said he, 'Do you know the 
eleventh commandment?' 'No, what is it?' 'Mind your own business.' 

That was a 'center shot,' their battery hushed, and without another word 
the old man went his way. 

When he was a boy at home, dttring the .'squirrel year,' James shot squir- 
rels for weeks, throwing them to the hogs outside the field, and leaving them 
to decay upon the ground. It was a hard task, but they saved their corn by 
the means. 

Daniel B. Miller and his wife came on horseback to their forest home, 
and she stuck a black locust riding switch into the ground in the door yard. 
It grew and became a fine, large tree, and a few years ago was there still. 

James Simmons was a great hunter. It may be safely said that he killed 
more deer than any other man in Jackson township. When he was building 
his log house, he set himself to cut and hew four logs a day, and besides that 
to kill one deer, and he did it. They lived at first for two or three months 
in a 'camp' made of rails. 

He has killed six deer in one day. At one time he ran a deer till away 
after dark and got lost, and in the night he kept wandering round and firing 
his gun. His wife heard the firing, and, thinking that he might be lost, she 
took the ax and pounded as hard as she could upon a 'gum' there was in the 
yard. He heard the pounding, and the noise guided him home. 

In winter time, after supper he would sit and tell deer stories as long 
as anybody would listen. He used never to think about going home from 
hunting as long as he could see the 'sjghts' upon his gun, and often he would 
have a 'time' to find his way to his cabin." 


"When I was a little girl, my brother (a little bit of a fellow), and my- 
self were playing by a creek near the house, and a bear came and sat watch- 
• ing us from the opposite bank, a high bluff ten or fifteen feet high. I thought 
it was a dog, and was not scared. Presently mother saw the old fellow, and 
'hissed' the dog, which came and 'tackled' the bear. She called to us, and we 
heeled it for the house. While the dog and the bear were 'tussling,' Jacob 
Harshman came along with his gun, hunting, and he shot and killed the bear. 

They used to have some fun in those days, too. Cameron Coffin, a gen- 
tleman land-owner, came out to see his land; he was not used to the woods, 
and the 'bushwhackers' made game of him. One day he was at James Sim- 
mons' sugar camp, and the boys were making wax. Coffin was 'green' upon 


the subject of wax making, and they made some very hard and sticky, and 
got him to take a great chunk into his mouth to eat ; he chewed the wax till 
his teeth and jaws were all stuck fast together. He worked and worked 
and clawed and dug at the wax till he was nearly choked. Finally the stuff 
softened and melted somewhat in his mouth, and he made out to get clear 
of it ; but he had a terrible time, and the boys nearly died laughing at the fun. 
.Vt another time, they were walking a foot log over the river, and he under- 
took it; he did not know how to keep his balance, and the boys pretended to 
come near falling off, and shook the log so that he did fall off into the water 
waist deep. He was not used to such life; the backwoods boys were too much 
for him, and he 'got out of that,' and went back to the settlement where he 
came from, and left the jolly blades to play tricks upon themselves." 


"Father left North Carolina when I was seven years old; we were six 
weeks and three days on the road, reaching William Arnold's (now Noah 
Turner's), May 5, 1826. I rode a horse (that pulled one of our carts) all 
the way. Father put me on the horse the evening we started, and I rode 
clear through. , We had two carts, and father led the other beast. Mother also 
walked a great deal; we camped under a tent through the whole journey; 
several families were in company: Joseph Copeland, wife and four children; 
Isaac Cook, wife and four children; father and mother and four children, 
eighteen in all. 

Father lent Isaac Cook $25.00 to come with (which he paid afterward). 
Father bought eighty acres of Benjamin Puckett, agreeing to give $250.00 
and a cart valued at $25.00. He afterward entered eighty acres, and mother 
lived on it till she died in the fall of 1881 ; we settled in the wilderness. Will- 
iam Arnold and Frederick Fulghum came just before father did. Fred 
Fulghum had come back to Carolina and told us what a grand place Indiana 
was, and father was not satisfied till he moved out there himself. Deer used 
to come into father's clearing, and they were so tame that they would not 
run away; father had no gun, and never shot any of them." 


"The first school I went to was held in a little horse stable made of slabs 
set endwise. David Semans taught the school. The seats were slabs with legs 
in, no backs, of course. The first church in the town was in 1837, on the old 


church lot, now (a part, of) the graveyard. Three carap-meetings were- fcM 
:near Spartanburg (in 1838-40 probably). The rowdies disliked Preacher 
Bruce. He was pretty 'sharp' on them. They had planned to Eog him. Tlkej 
were swaggering round with peeled canes. He disguised his dress-, gpt a 
'peeled cane,' went down to the spring among the rowdies, arrd heaird aJI tEneir 
plans. He then went back, opened meeting, and told the astonished tricksters 
from the pulpit all their plot. The rowdies did not whip him. There were 
great revival meetings. At one time one hundred members joined'. 

The first disciple meeting was held near old Mr. Stewart's a mile or so' 
west of town. Several persons joined. The Baptists held meeting at Mr. 
Cartwright's. He was a Baptist. 

When I ^^•as a boy, people hired me to hunt their cattle. I could gq< 
anywhere, and not get lost, day or night. When twelve years old, I used to^ 
grind bark for the tanner at eleven pence {12^ cents) a day. Wild hogs; 
were plenty in the 'timber.' I have been treed by them many a time. As I 
would be after the cows, the hogs would be in the woods, and they would 
see and chase my dog, and he would run to me, and they after him. Then 
the hogs would see me and chase me. I would begin to climb right sudden, 
you may guess, a high log or a tree, and there I had to stay till they would 
leave, which sometimes would not be anyways soon. The hogs would boo-boo 
around, and then seem to go away, and suddenly be back, and try to get at 
me again. These wild hogs had sprung from swine that had been tame, and 
had bred in the woods, and so their offspring had grown to be wild. My 
grandfather would let his swine run in the woods, and by-and-by he would 
find where they slept, and build a pen partly round their nest, and watch and 
shut them in. Then he would catch the pigs and mark them, and let the 
whole 'pack' go again. At killing time, men would go out and track and 
shoot them wherever they might chance to be found. When I was twelve 
years old, grandfather was chasing up and killing his hogs. The men would 
shoot them, and I hauled them to the road with a horse. I forgot how many 
I hauled that day. Grandfather marketed that pork at Richmond for $1.50 

A big poplar tree stood in front of Mrs. Hammond's house, and another 
large tree stood on my lot. When I was a boy, I had a young bullock, per- 
haps a two-year-old, that I worked. It was a tough job to catch him, the only 
way being to run him down ; and we would have a tedious race. One day I 
chased him a long time, and finally he plunged into a pond, and I after him 
waist deep. He stopped ; I gathered him by the horns, Frank Morgan waded 


in with a rope, and we roped him and brought his lordship out of the pond 
in triumph." 

[Mr. Clark reckons himself to have been longest a resident of Spartan- 
burg, since 1826, or fiifty-six years ago. Frank Morgan and he were boys 
then together, but Frank spent many years of his youthful life elsewhere, 
and, moreover, he died in 1880 at Spartanburg. Still, Mr. C. is* by no means 
an old man, but is active and vigorous as in former days.] 


"The settlers when father came, 1828 (near father's), were Bezaleel 
Hunt, Nettle Creek; Joel Drake, Nettle Creek; Mark Diggs, Nettle Creek; 
Joab Thornburg, Stoney Creek ; Jonathan Finger, Stoney Creek ; Job Thorn- 
burg, Stoney Creek; Abraham Clevenger, Stoney Creek; David Vestal, Stoney 
Creek. George W Smithson, Stoney Creek; Joseph Rooks, Stoney Creek 
(large family boys) ; Jonathan Clevenger, Stoney Creek; John Diggs, Stoney 
Creek; and in the colored settlement, Richard Robbins (blacksmith), John 
Smith, Benjamin Outlan, Richard Scott, Jerry Terry, Isaac Woods. 

I have been to fifteen log-rollings in one spring. The first show T ever 
went to was an animal show at Muncie. I walked fifteen miles and got there 
by 9 A. M. My father was a member of the Christian church, and a Democrat. 
He voted for Jackson the first time that Jackson was elected, just after he 
came to Randolph county. 

He had just money enough to enter 120 acres. He had one old horse, 
and it died in the spring. He had no way to buy any, and he did without, 
borrowing sometimes, which was hard to do. He cleared ground, and tended 
it mostly with the hoe. By next season he got an ox-team. We plowed our 
corn with an ox, putting harness on it like a horse, and one boy would lead the 
ox and one hold the plow. 

Father and his boys have cleared more land than any other family in 
Randolph county — more than six hundred acres. Father had no. wagon for 
years. He hauled everything on a sled. He never owned a good wagon. He 
bought an old one for $30.00, and got 'bit' at that. That was about 1836. 
He used that seven or eight years, and never owned any other. He made one 
crop with no team, and two crops with oxen. Then he traded the oxen for 
one horse. The oxen were young, and we could not 'break' them well. We 
did mostly with one horse. Sometimes in the winter we would have a boy 
behind the sled with a rope hitched to hold back with. We had no wheat 
bread till we raised some wheat to make it from, for a year or two, at least. 


1 remember when there were only three wagons in two miles square among 
twenty-five or thirty settlers. Once we put horses to a wagon with twenty 
bushels of corn and wheat, and started to mill (Economy). The horses knew 
nothing of pulling together, and the wagon got sttick fast before half a mile. 
Six men took a horse and sack apiece and went ten miles to a mill, and left 
four or five to get the wagon out. The mill was owned by Nathan Proctor. 
Nathan Proctor, Elijah Arnold and others were charged with counterfeiting, 
thieving, etc. They were said to have a 'rendezvous' in the 'fallen timber.' 
Some were convicted, and the gang was broken up at last. One of them, ar- 
rested for passing a counterfeit bill, asking to see the bill, took it and swal- 
lowed it. 

My father got his meat thus : He had a dog that would catch any hog. 
He helped his neighbors catch their wild hogs, and they would pay him in 
pork. The hogs were so wild they would not eat corn. 

How to build a cabin with weight poles : Build the square, let the top 
end logs project a foot or so, put the butting pole farther out than the body 
of the house, have it split and notched and pinned with the edge upright, so as 
to catch the ends of the boards ; lay logs to build up the gables, with their ends 
scafed off to allow the roof boards to cover them, and the supporting poles so 
arranged as to give the proper slant. Put on the first course of boards, and 
lay a pole on the course far enough from the butting pole to receive the sec- 
ond course, keeping the 'weight pole' up by 'knees' between it and the butting 
pole. Put on the second course and another weight pole, and 'knees,' and so 
on to the top. 

Mother never got a meal of victuals on a cook-stove in her life." 


"Father came from Tennessee in 1829. He was a Methodist, and took 
great delight in the religious services of the olden time. When camp-meet- 
ing opened, he would move down to camp to stay while the meeting lasted, 
on a rude wagon with truck wheels made by sawing them from the end of 
a huge oak log. He had no wagon, and for home purposes used a sled. When 
father landed in 'Randolph,' he had just 37^/2 cents, one old horse, and five 
children. Pork was high afterward, and he sold four hogs for $50.00, and 
entered his first forty acres of land. 

Swine would run wild, and often, while we were hunting them and the 
dogs were trying to catch them, the wild creatures would cut the poor dogs' 
throats with their sharp, strong tusks. 


Once while some men were hunting wild swine, the savage beasts under- 
took to run into Dolph Warren's cabin, and scared the family inside well 
nigh to death. Squirrels would be so thick and would make such havoc in the 
corn that the children had to be set to scare the greedy 'varmints' away. 

The pea-vines would grow as tall as a man's head, and as thick as they 
could grow, so that one could track a horse or a cow through the tangled 
masses of pea-vines almost as readily as through a snow-bank. 

Wild plums would grow in the thick woods, loaded down with as nice 
fruit as one would need to see, gooseberries, raspberries and blackberries 
would grow in the 'clearings' and open places. 

The state road through Deerfield to Ridgeville, etc., was cut out about 
1830. Mr. Andrew Key helped cut it out from the state line west, and as- 
sisted in opening it, too. 

Mr. Key entered forty acres at first (with that hog money), and after- 
ward forty acres more ; still later, he bought out Collins (his brother-in-law).'" 

"Andrew McCartney, born in 1804, in Virginia, came first to Jay county, 
in 1837. He has been married several times; once and the last time, to John 
Key's sister. He had had a large family, was a rough, harsh, cruel man. 
with whom no one could live in peace. He would boast of his scrapes and 
exploits, and, in fact, would readily find and plunge into enough of them to 
answer any five ordinary men. 

Riley Marshall lived where Judge Miller did afterward. Mr. Miller 
bought Mr. Marshall out." 


In 1824, Daniel B. Miller lived in Jackson township. In a few years, 
the Harshmans came, and soon afterward, John Sheets settled on the Missis- 
siuewa, and built a saw-mill. Benjamin Devor, Ezekiel Cooper, Thomas De- 
vor. Christian Nickey, Dr. Diehl, the Mikesells, Baileys, Moses Byram and 
the Debolts, also moved in before very long. 

March 24, 1824, Ward (including Franklin) township had seventeen 
families — Meshach Lewallyn, Benjamin Lewallyn. George and Henry Ren- 
barger, Daniel Badger, Burkett Pierce, George Ritenour, William Odle, Elias 
Kizer, Allen Wall, David Connor, Reason Malott, William Massey, Riley 
Marshall, Daniel Mock, Jeremiah Lindsey, Joab Ward. Lewallyn had a mill 
that would crack five bushels of corn in twenty-four hours, if everything 
was in order. In 1829 he put in a hand-bolt and ground wheat, each cus- 
tomer bolting his own grist. A saw-mill was built about that time, near Deer- 


field. At the presidential election in 1824 five votes'iwere cast in the township 
of Ward. At that precinct D. B. Miller was inspector and Riley Marshall, 
clerk. Persons could vote anywhere in the county, and most of the voters 
went elsewhere to cast their ballots. 

In 1829, Ward received a large reinforcement from Tennessee, Key, 
Fields, etc., etc. 

In 1836, George Ritenour built a grist-mill one mile west of Deerfield, 
with two run of buhrs, which did prStty good work. Samuel Helm built a 
saw-mill two and a half miles east of Deerfield. Collins & Fields also put up 
a saw-mill half a mile east of Deerfield. The village of Deerfield was laid 
out in 1 83 1, but did not improve till 1837, when Edward Edger came and 
brought a store, and from that time it grew and a great amount of business 
was done there. 

A long time after the first settlement, William P. Charlton built a steam 
saw-mill at Ridgeville, and William Addington rebuilt the grist-mill, which 
were of advantage to the county round, but no town was established till years 

There were but few settlers in Green township before 1835. John Life 
and Samuel Caylor, Bennet King, the Orrs, Cyrus Reed, Philip Barger, Elijah 
Harbour, Thomas Hubbard, Nathan Godwin, the Garringers and others came 
about that date or soon after. Fitzpatrick, Evans, Haynes, etc., lived at 

Antony McKinney built a mill in 1839. Cyrus Reed built a saw-mill 
near the grist-mill, causing trouble and a tedious lawsuit. 

In 1824, Winchester was a field of stumps, with one store on the north- 
east corner of the square, owned by George Burkett. The old log court house 
was on the north side of the street, which lay north of the square. Charles 
Conway lived in a log cabin between the store and Salt creek, and there was 
a log cabin still nearer the creek. On the northwest corner of the square was 
a double log cabin, occupied as a hotel by John Odle. There was a small log 
cabin in the southwest part of the town, and the new log jail stood on the 
jail lot. Those were the buildings in Winchester in March, 1824. In 1825, 
Thomas and Joseph Hanna put a stock of goods into a new building on the 
north side of the square, and before many years Michael and Andrew Aker 
bought them out, and sold goods a considerable time. Meanwhile the Man- 
sion House was built, and Jesse and William M. Way put a store in it; The 
brick across the street was built, and Jere Smith built the Franklin House. 
A. B. Shaw erected a hvkk on the northwest square. Moorman Way built the 


brick west of the Mansion House. Rush and Kizer put up a brick building 
on the east of the square. 

In 1836, Elias Kizer and David Haworth put up a steam grist-mill east 
of Salt creek, the first steam engine in Randolph county. This mill was of 
great importance, as there was none north of it nearer than Fort Wayne. 
The new (second) court house was built in 1826, or thereabouts. 

Some of the early settlers in the region now called Monroe township 
were Andrew Devoss, John Henenridge, Jesse Addington, Mr. Sloan and 
others. It settled very slowly. The region had no conveniences, no thorough- 
fare, no mill, no village nor town of any sort, until 1852. The southeastern 
and southern portion of the county had been long settled; the Bowens, the 
Fraziers, the Johnsons, the Hocketts, the Hinshaws, the Beards, the Hunts, 
the Botkins, the Smiths, the Arnolds of famous memory and many others had 
filled up that region. But in 1824, Nettle Creek and Stoney Creek were still 
in the deep, unbroken forest. Nathan Mendenhall built a mill on Cabin creek, 
which was a great convenience. John Thornburg put up mills near Windsor 
for both grist and sawing. 

Among the facts of old times, it may be mentioned that there was not a 
shoe shop in Randolph county before about 1830. People made their own 
or got some neighbors to do it for them, and there was not a boot made nor 
worn in the county before that date. 

A man by the name of Hartley made the first pair of boots in Winches- 
ter, for Jklichael Aker, and Aker, after exhibiting them a while to a curious 
crowd, wore the boots himself. 

During the winter of 1824-25, an imitation of a school was had at 
Deeriield, on a grade from arithmetic down, and the teacher could not spell 
the word "highest" any better than to say h-i-e-s-t, nor tell how much salt 
$i.i2j^ will buy, at $i.373'2 for fifty pounds [a rather snug little mental 
problem, by the way]. I never saw a blackboard in a schoolhouse in Ran- 
dolph county, except at the seminary. 

The people in the early days were full of hospitality. The settlers were 
from all quarters — Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee and Carolina — and all classes ^'iell with 
each other in generous hospitality to strangers sojourning in the region. 

None were ever allowed to suffer, and men would kill deer and give the 
flesh away. And so with turkeys and pheasants and fish. The way to catch 
fish was peculiar, and worth a description. 

If the ice was thick enough to stand on, we could cut holes, and drive the 
fish to the holes and spear them. Sometimes, in a sunny day, we would tie 


three hooks back to back, and haul the fish out that way. In the spring they 
would bite freely; later in the season we would take torches of hickory bark, 
and spear the poor fellows as they lay in the ripples of the streams. Sometimes 
we made a "brush-drag" by taking a grape-vine of sufficient length, laying 
strips of thin hickory bark across the vine under it, and then piling brush 
on till there was as much as we wished, tying the brush to the grape-vines 
with these strips of hickory bark ; and, when the drag was completed, it would 
be hauled through the water, and the fish would move along in front of the 
"drag," and so they would be caught. 

There were several ways to kill deer. One way was simply to shoot them 
from the ground; another was to climb a tree, and shoot them as they were 
drinking from a spring. Another, and a very cruel way, was to bleat like a 
fawn, and decoy the does to their death. Hunting turkeys was very sly work, 
as they are wonderfully sharp-witted. However, in the "gobbling time," you 
could call the "gobblers" to you by making a kind of pipe of the center bone 
of the wing. Fox hunting and coon hunting were great sport, though chasing 
the foxes and chopping the trees for the coons made a pretty hard task; yet 
the fun of it made the work seem light. 

The tools for farm work at first were exceedingly simple. An ax, an 
iron wedge, a mattock and a maul, and a big "nigger hoe," an old-fashioned 
single shovel plow, and a barshare plow with an iron share, a coulter in front 
and a wooden mold-board, and a harrow made of wood, teeth and all. These 
were all they had till about 1829. About that time, John Way began to make 
the front part of the mold-board of iron, some of which would scour, and these 
were used till about 1834, when Horney, of Richmond, made a cast-iron 
mold-board and share. And in 1845, Beard & Sinex brought forward the 
steel mold-board. About 1830, John Mansur, of Richmond, sold cast-steel 
axes, and about 1835, the Collins' patent came. About 1840, Gaar & Co., 
produced the four-horse power chaff-piler threshing machine, and later the 
eight-horse power separator came to hand — the Pitts, from Buffalo, for 

In 1836, there was only one open buggy in Ward township, and one 
top buggy, Edward Edger having the former and widow Kinnear the latter. 
Reapers and mowers, hay rakes, corn planters, nor even simple corn-markers, 
had any of them come into use in 1855, when Mr. Mock left Randolph county 
for the West. The first cook stoves in Randolph were brought by Edward 
Edger to Deerfield in 1838, one for himself and one for Mrs. Kinnear. They 
weighed 600 pounds each .and cost $50.00, besides the hauling from Cincin- 
nati, which was a large sum. Roads there were none in those early times 


only perhaps that they were cut out somewhat; and the travel went anywhere 
among the trees and stumps, with mud in the wet season two feet deep, even 
as late as 1855, when he left for Illinois. Mr. M. started from Deerfield 
June 10, 1855, in a wagon with as good a span of horses as could be found 
in the county, with himself and wife and three small children and two trunks, 
perhaps 600 pounds in all, and it was all they could do to get through to 
AVinchester. At least a mile of the corduroy was afloat or under water. 
There were too "little showers" that day, in which the rain fell five inches 

]\Ir. Mock relates that he once shot a horse belonging to one of the set- 
tlers by the name of Cox in the White River settlement, east of Winchester, 
in mistake for a deer. Mock was young, and he was greatly alarmed. He 
went to Mr. Cox and told him. "So thee has killed my horse." "Yes:" "And 
thee thought it was a deer." "I did." "And thee wishes to pay me for the 
horse." "It would be no more than right that I should, I suppose." "Well, 
John, I guess I'll not charge thee -anything for the horse." And then Mock 
felt mightily relieved. 

One of the old settlers (who might be named, but will not be, as he is 
}'et alive ) came to mill one morning and bought a drink of whisky. In un- 
dertaking to swallow it, he threw it up twice, but, catching it in the glass, he 
kept turning it down, exclaiming the third time he swallowed it (with an oath), 
"Stay down; whisky costs too much money to be wasted that way." And it 
stayed at last. 

Jacob Voris was a butcher and a grocer and a baker. He made great 
quantities of gingerbread, that wonderful "nick-nack" of olden time. The 
chaps had a song about it, one stanza of which ran thus : 

"Of all the birds that fly in air. 

The white, the blue, the red; 
Of all the cakes that Voris bakes. 

Give me the 'gungerbread.' " 

At one time they had a spelling match at the school west of Deerfield under 
William Shoemaker as teacher. They spelled from the dictionary, which was 
the first time Mock had ever seen a book of the kind. It scared him out. He 
thought it was of ho use to try to spell from that. 

The best teacher in that region in those days was James Edwards, from 
Cincinnati or thereabouts. He taught a term or two and left again. 



"When we moved to Hancock county, Ohio, there was but one house 
within three miles of where we built our cabin. It was January, and the snow 
.was eight inches deep in the woods. My family stayed at that house, and we 
(brother and myself) tramped back and forth night and morning, to build my 
cabin, and we could get only two other men (four in all) to help raise it. 
It was small, fourteen by sixteen, and just high enough to stand up in. When 
we moved in, it was chinked, but not daubed ; had neither chimney, nor floor, 
and no door (only a hole for one). We built a big log-heap fire to cook and 
warm by for two or three days, till we got a fire-place and chimney made, and 
we hung up a quilt for a door. There were only three or four houses then at 
Fort Firidlay. There was one store ; the two men that kept it were so poor 
that they had only one coat between them, and they brought their goods on 
packhorses. We were as happy then as ever in our lives. The Indians lived 
on their "Reserve," between Findlay and Upper Sandusky (about twelve 
miles away). They used often to pass as they were hunting — Wyandots and 
others. They are gone now, except some who live like white people. I have 
stayed many a night with the Indians. They lived well ; the half-breeds, 
especially were intelligent and industrious. 

For some years, we had to go to mill to Perrysburg (Fort Meigs), on the 
Maumee river, across the 'Black Swamp.' That 'Black Swamp' was a ter- 
rible place. We would take three yoke of oxen, and twenty-five bushels of 
grain, and cross the swamp, eighteen miles, and then go fifteen miles farther 
to the mill. The trip would take us twelve days, sometimes going only two 
or three miles a day. We crossed at what was 'Hull's Trace,' and the places 
were still there where Hull's soldiers cut brush, and little trees, and fixed and 
wove them together, to make places to keep them out of the mud and water 
as they slept at night. The mud was black and deep — how deep I do not 
know. Large rocks were scattered in many places through the swamp. 

At another swamp in that country, there was a 'crossing' made of rails, 
for a road, and the swamp would shake for several rods on each side, as a 
wagon passed along the track, and if a horse or ox got off the rails, he would 
sink into the mire so that he could not get out, only as he was hauled out. 
The 'Black Swamp" has since been drained, and the farms there are among 
the very best. This swamp extended a great distance, perhaps one hundred 
and fifty miles. As we traveled across it, we slept in the wagon, and would 
tie one ox to the wagon, and turn the rest out to feed. The surface away 


from the track was firm enough for cattle to walk on, and feed upon the 
weeds and bushes. I was at Lower Sandusky when the cholera prevailed. 
The emigrants going West died there in great numbers. I saw them lying 
dead around, I cannot tell how many. I got a load of salt to take to Findlay, 
and as I went to get some buckwheat straw to stuff round my barrels, I 
found several corpses lying covered in the straw. 

We lived in Marion county, Ohio, when the 'stars fell,' November, 1833. 
Some people that worked the next day in a deep well saw the 'stars falling' all 
the next day also. In a deep well in Baltimore county, Maryland, eighty-four 
feet deep, which I cleaned out, I saw distinctly the stars from the bottom of 
the well. In Hancock county, Ohio, Mrs. Crist saw a 'ball of fire' fall to the 
ground, and explode in all directions. I, myself, saw, one night, one fall not 
fifty yards oiif. It struck the ground and burst, and the fire flew every way. 
The light was bright enough to see to pick up a pin. It seemed as large as a 
man's hat, and burst as it struck. I have bought cornmeal at $1.00 a bushel 
that was so musty it was green, and that smelt so strong you could smell it 
several feet from the wagon, and we were glad to get even that! I used to 
split rails at 20 cents a hundred, and to work at 40 cents a day. 

The first spring, I cleared up five acres for corn. A good crop grew, 
but the birds and "varmints' mostly ate it up. I used to kill squirrels, and 
coons and turkeys, so many that I did not take the trouble to pidk them up. 
The turkeys would come twenty or thirty in a floclc."' 


"I came to Indiana with $3.00 and a rifle-gun. I have been greatly 
afflicted; had much sickness. Have seven times been sick expecting to die; 
yet I am eighty-one years old, and in moderate, though feeble, health. I have 
paid thousands of dollars for doctors' bills. I was sick, when a boy, and I 
am sick in the same way yet. My back was hurt when I was a small child, 
and it hurts me still. I have had the piles and the gravel from early youth. 
I was ruptured in 1826, which remains till now. Dr. Ruby made thirty 
visits from Bethel at one time. I took my wife and walked and led the mare 
to Richmond. My wife stayed six weeks and got no relief. She came home 
and lived till October. My second wife was visited once a day for seventy 
days. I once sent for Doctor Warner, who prescribed for my case. Said 
he : 'When this medicine is gone come and see me.' I went, and he charged 
me $1.50, and said: 'You can't be cured.' Some doctors will say: 'We 


can cure you, but all they wish is a big bill; they can run that up on you fast 
enough.' I was at one time greatly troubled with the gravel, and Doctor 
Morgan tried to ease me. He injected morphine into my side, which seemed 
to give relief. I had been almost raving and wild with pain from Wednesday 
morning till sometime Sunday. 

Thus many and severe have been my afflictions from my youth even till 
this day, but I have trusted in the Lord, and trust Him still." 


"Doctor Silvers used to live near Ridgeville. He and his cousin, when 
small boys, were captured by the Indians, and lived and traveled with them 
for many years (1811 and onward) from Vincennes to Muncie, Greenville, 
Ft. Wayne, etc. 

When the Indians captured the boys, the clothes were thrown on the 
bank of a creek to make believe the children had been drowned. 

The Indians often passed through portions of Randolph county. 

Doctor Silvers used to say there was a spot on Nolan's Fork, under a 
knotty walnut tree (he thinks on the farm of John Thomas, one of the first 
settlers), where the Indians had buried money. The doctor ha,s gone, in 
later years, and dug to find it; whether he succeeded or not, probably no 
mortal knows. 

At another place, near Richard Corbitt's, he said metal had been found. 

On Greensfork, he said, an old Indian buried a lot of money, and the 
doctor spent months in hunting for it, but whether he found that or not no 
one ever knew but himself. 

The Indians used to have copper kettles (gotten in trade with the Eng- 
lish or the French), and settlers have found some of them. Mr. Frazier, on 
Greensfork, found one in early times." 


"The first preaching appointment at Spartanburg was started by Ohio 
preachers at Brother William McKim's. The Methodists built their first 
church there, in 1837, and their present one in about 1869. 

The first preaching was about 1833. We joined in 1834, in Mr. Mc- 
Kim's barn. Camp-meetings were held a little west of town three different 
seasons. The preachers in charge were Revs. Hall, Bruce and Smith. Large 
numbers joined the church. 


A Mr. Manning died near the camp ground. He had been sick, and 
was feeling better, and he wished so much to attend meeting, that he went 
before he was able, and by the excitement and the night air he took a relapse, 
and was dead before they got him home. 

There had been a little mill where Jessup's mill was afterward built, but 
it was gone. The 'Quaker Trace' had been cut out, but as you went farther 
north, the track went 'all over the woods,' over saplings, round logs and 
ponds, etc. 

John Alexander used to tell how, in high water, the cattle would get on 
the bridges, and the puncheons would be floating, and the oxen would get 
their legs between the puncheons, and the teamsters would unyoke the cattle 
and let them swim out. How the wagons were got across cannot be stated. 
Old Thornton Alexander and his boys (colored) used to wagon regularly to 
Ft. Wayne." 


"When I was a lad, thirteen years old, I went with father to Fort Wayne, 
with two yoke of oxen and a wagon ; and he worked there two weeks. When 
about to start for home, father found a man who was going to Loga'nsport, 
and father waited, went, with him, taking the oxen and wagon, and sending 
me home by the 'Quaker Trace," alone. It took me five days to make the 
journey. It was a lonely trip and I camped out several nights. Father, in 
coming home, lay out the last night. There was a heavy snowfall and he 
spread the blanket over him and raked the snow on and around him to keep 
him warm. 

At one time, Thomas Shaler, whose home was near Camden, Jay county, 
Indiana, came to mill, and after bacon, etc., with a wagon and two yoke of 
oxen. As he started home, in passing a drain bridged with poles, an ox got 
a leg between the poles and broke it. Mr. Shaler came back for help and 
hired me (a boy fourteen years old), to take a yoke of oxen and help him 
through. As we were crossing the 'maple slash,' in Jay county, the ox-tongue 
broke. It was in winter and the snow was six inches deep. Shaler went 
to Mr. Welch's, four miles off, to get help and tools. He returned after 
dark with an ax and an auger and two men. Joseph Hawkins (another boy. 
fourteen years old) and myself took the 'back tracks' of the men, getting to 
Mr. Welch's after midnight, nearly chilled through. She' got up (the woman 
was in bed), and gave us some 'corn dodger,' and it was good, sure. The 
men came with the wagon and team, near daylight, with feet badly frost- 


bitten. After breakfast, Shaler and I went on, getting to Philip Brown's 
for dinner (corn bread and venison )-^near Liber — and staying at Judge 
Winter's that night. In the morning, we cut the ice and crossed the Sali- 
mony, and went on through the thick wood, there being no road ; and away in 
the night we got within a half mile of Shaler's cabin; but there was a creek 
and ice, and the oxen would not cross; so we tied them to the wagon, and, 
shouldering some meal and bacon, footed it to the cabin. But that cabin was 
a sight. No daubing, no chinking, no flbor, no fireplace, no chimney ; fire in 
the middle of the cabin, and the house filled with smoke. The woman got up, 
cooked us some meat and gave us some dodger, and we lay down. That 
woman and her four little girls had been there alone for more than a week, and 
were out of food. [See J. Hawkins' statement.] The next morning I started 
for home with the cattle. I had passed Judge Winters' about i P. M., when 
I met father, with Mr. Lewallyn and Mr. McCartney, hunting me. We got 
home about midnight, I having been absent five days. 

At another time, a horse had strayed. He was 'spanciled,' and I "trailed' 
him. I had on a rimless straw hat and no coat nor vest, but simply tow shirt 
and pants, and was barefooted. I followed the trail to near Huntsville, 
stayed all night with a 'Dunkard,' and the next morning went with him to a 
'woods meeting.' The preacher made inquiry and a man came and told me 
he had seen such a horse, and where. The horse had been raised at Conners- 
ville, and seemed to be heading thither. I went to Connersville, Cambridge 
City, Milton, Jacksonburg, Waterloo, etc., but no horse could I find, and so I 
set out for home. I met father near Maxville, hunting for me. I told him 
what the man had said, and he went and found the horse in that neighbor- 
hood. I had somehow- missed him. My travels had been one hundred miles 
or more, and lasted seven days. At Waterloo they thought me a runaway 
apprentice, and were about to arrest me as such; but a man there happened 
to know my father and myself and they let me go. And truly I was a sight 
to behold, and my story, though true, was entirely unlikely, and people would 
not believe me. 

Flatboating was a great business in those times. We used to steer the 
boats down the river over the dams, etc., to the Wabash, or elsewhere, and 
then go home on foot. Once, five of us were hired to take five boats down 
all lashed together. We got through all safe, got our pay twenty miles below 
Marion and 'put' for Randolph, We struck south for the -road (what there 
was), and so to Marion. Billy Gray said, 'Boys, this makes my thirteenth 
trip. I always had plenty of company at the start but none when I got home.' 


We set forth that day for 'keeps.' The next day Billy Gray was not well, 
but he warmed up and left us. We had to wade waist-deep that day to cross 
a stream. The next day he went ahead again, but we passed him before he 
reached Fairview. Gray stayed at Elijah Thomas', south of Fairview. Add- 
ington stayed at Caylor's Tavern, Roe came home, three miles from Ridge- 
ville and I got home to Ridgeville at midnight, having traveled that day more 
than fifty miles, often wading and in places waist deep." 

[Note. — Arthur McKew died at his home in Ridgeville, January, 1882.] 


"George Porter, my brother, came out in the spring of 1829 and raised 
crops, and then came back and moved his family to Randolph three or four 
weeks before I arrived there. 

There was a mill at Ridgeville when I came. Henry Hinchy built a 
water-mill on the Mississinewa after a while for corn and wheat, bolted by 
machinery in (about) 1844. 

The first school was taught by George Porter's wife about one-half 
mile west of our house (in Ward township), about 1836. 

We used to go to meeting (Methodist Episcopal), at Riley Marshall's 
house, near (what is now) Prospect meeting-house. Mrs. Porter used to 
go afoot and 'tote' the baby — three miles. Mrs. Porter used to be greatly 
afraid of the Indians, though they never injured her. Travelers would often 
pass from Winchester to the 'Quaker Trace.' We were glad to see them 
and have them stay over night. 

The Brockuses would drink and fight. Their wives were fine women 
but the men used them badly. They would not work but would go ofif hunt- 
ing or running about. The women would be at home with nothing to eat. 

I went three times to Cincinnati to enter land — forty acres each time — 
afoot, except, partly the second time. Then I rode a colt to Hamilton and 
sold it there for $35.00 cash to enter land with. I had been offered $100.00 
credit for the horse at home, but I was in a hurry to enter my land for fear 
somebody else would get it before me. I went afoot to Cincinnati and home 

Thomas Shaler lived in a cabin on this place (and his brother; but they 
moved ofif). He had been here three or four years. Samuel Emery came 
in 1826. He lived in Ward township, two miles down the Mississinewa. 
Allen Wall lived close by Emery's. There were no more between here and 
Deerfield on the Mississine^^■a. Daniel B. Miller and Riley Marshall lived 


near Prospect meeting-house, east of Deerfield. Philip Storms lived near 
'Sockum,' at the crossing. He had been there some time. Andrew Debolt 
lived at Mount Holly. William Simmons had been here, had gone away to 
Blue river, and he came again in 1830. Messrs. Keys, Hodge, Manus and 
Fields lived south of here. 

Thomas Devor and Mr. Beach, Jacob Johnson, Joseph Sutton, James 
Wickersham, Amos Smith, Thomas Wiley and John Hoke came after a while. 
John Skinner and James Skinner came also." 


"Before I was five years old I remember being at my grandfather Har- 
rison's; I was with some black boys tramping clothes in a big trough. My 
uncles made me popguns and gave me slices of toast from the plate before the 
fire. When five years old, father took me to his new home and my new 

As I got to the gate I ran into the house and the first thing I knew I was 
in my stepmother's lap. Father settled among the Blue Ridge mountains. 
A part of the farm was creek bottoms, the rest was on the mountains. Some 
of the surface was very steep so that it could be cultivated. The sloping 
land had to be plowed one way and some could not be plowed at all ; and that 
which was too steep to be plowed was cultivated entirely with the hoe. The 
stones and the hoe would often meet, and several hoeing together would make 
lively music. The mountains were full of bears, wolves, panthers, wild cats 
and snakes. Rattlesnakes and copperheads were the most dreaded. Our 
nearest neighbor was a mile distant. We could see no house but our own 
Many days would pass with a sight of none but our own family. The pas- 
ture was fine in the mountains and ravines and ready in March. The cows 
would come to their calves for three or four months and then they had to 
be hunted. I was the cowboy and often night would find me in the moun- 
tains calling the cows. The hair would well-nigh stand on end for fright 
while driving them over rocks and hills and through laurel thickets, not know- 
ing when I might meet a wild beast or tread on a snake. One night, two of; 
my brothers out coon-hunting, came home at daylight and said the dogs were 
baying a bear in the mountain close by. We went with the gun to find the 
den. I walked to its mouth, the bear met me and passed without a word of 
'How-d'ye,' or 'Good bye.' I crawled in and captured three cubs and took 
them home. 

Another night John and I were hunting in a strange place. John fell 


from a cliff; I hugged a tree. At dawn we were at the edge of a precipice 
over a stream. 

One time going home from picking whortleberries we came upon three 
huge rattlesnakes lying in the sun. We cut three long forked sticks and put 
them over their heads and I held down their heads with a short fork and cut 
them off with my pocket-knife. We did this to prevent their biting them- 
selves because we wanted the oil. We dragged our snakes two and a half 
miles to get them home. When I was skinning one of them the headless 
neck drew back and stood in the attitude to strike and gave a forward blow 
as if to bite. My brother laughed at me years afterward for being bitten by 
a rattlesnake without a head. 

In the valley where I was born, in the Blue Ridge, the sun would shine 
far up the western heights long ere we could see its disk above the eastern 
hills and long before night, moreover, it had sunk behind the mountain tops. 
In that rugged country, work began at daylight and at 9 A. M. the horn 
blew for breakfast and at 2 or 3 o'clock for dinner which was the last meal. 
The work kept on from dawn till dark and in winter cotton had to be picked 
till 9 or 10 o'clock at night. 

The hills were very steep, so much so that often we were obliged to 'tote' 
things a long way to where they could be 'hauled.' One day I was driving a 
cart and though several were holding it, over it went — load and all. Luckily 
the 'overturn' did little damage so we loaded up again and went on. 

People here can have little idea of the hardships Of such a life in so 
rough and rugged a land. 

Yet there were some advantages even there. The clear, cool, bright 
springs gushing from the hillsides and the pure, fresh, bracing mountain air 
were a delight to behold and to breathe. 

I had even in my boyhood resolved that this hard and broken land was 
'not the land for me.' I had heard of that fair, level, rich country in the 
Northwest beyond the beautiful Ohio and I determined to find it and view 
its glories for myself. And in due time the opportunity came. Father had 
met with losses and went to Ohio to find a new home. Meanwhile I remained 
behind to settle his business and a hard and tiresome task it was indeed. 
In performing the work I walked more than a thousand miles and rode hun- 
dreds of miles besides. 

Once we 'ran off' a tract of land overflowed by a violent rain, riding 
on horseback and using poles instead of pegs. The survey had to be made 
and the surveyor would not do it and so Tce did. 


When all was done that I could do there for father, I moved stepmother 
with eight children to the 'Great West,' finding father in Gallia county, 
Ohio, in which region he made his new home. So here I was in the wonder- 
ful Northwest and I had come to stay. I had bidden the rough and rugged 
mountains a long, long farewell. I had found the forest plains of which I 
had dreamed so often and so fondly. In Ohio I married, and, after four 
years, made my way to Wayne count}^ Indiana, and after a brief sojourn 
there we pitched out tent under the green beeches of Randolph. 

But the West was not without its hardships also. Work was wearisome 
and money was scarce. Twenty-five cents a day (cash) was i^eckoned fair 
wages. Fifty cents in 'dicker' was easier to get than half that amount in 

I chopped and split rails from heavy oak timber for 25 cents a hundred 
and my board. Everything (that farmers produced) was low. The first 
cow (and calf) I bought was for $6.50. She was three years old and very 
small. When I got home with her and the calf I called to my wife, 'See 
here, I have brought you tivo calves.' She looked and cried out, 'She can't 
raise a calf.' She did though and both of them made splendid milkers. 

We bought pork at $2.00 net, delivered, and corn was I2j^ cents a 
bushel. I boarded a teacher, Samuel Godfrey, in Wayne county, about 1830, 
for 75 cents a week. 

November 17, 183 1, we moved into our cabin and the next day it snowed. 
I had managed by years of hard work to get money with which I had entered 
one hundred and sixty acres of land and I felt richer than a king and hoped 
and expected to prosper. But ,alas, disease and affliction were speedily my 
lot. I was doomed to crutches for life. In less than three months I was 
prostrated with the 'cold plague,' and. I have never stood upon my feet un- 
supported nor walked without crutches since that hour. I lay a long time 
helpless, my wife rolling me over in bed. Nobody thought I would live. 
But here I am ! When it became clear that I could not regain strength, I was 
alarmed at the prospect. What was to become of us? But these fears were 
at that time taken away and I clung to the promise, 'Seek first, etc' We 
resolved to hold together as a family which we have done. To pine, would 
avail nothing. How we lived is hard to tell. 'God delivered us,' is all I can 
say. The wheel and the loom did a brave part. When the calamity came 1 
was engaged in preaching to two churches. Of course I stopped. But when 
I had recovered so as to go on crutches, though not to sit up, I was sent for 
to see a sick man. The house was crowded; I lay on a pallet and pointed 


them to Christ. Since then often have I, lying on a couch in the congrega- 
tion, invited sinners to repentance and bade Christians God speed ! The fol- 
lowers of the Lamb would meet and sing and pray, and I would try to preach 
and the Lord was well pleased for His gracious name's sake. And many a 
time we were fed on heavenly manna ! 

My worldly prospect was indeed dark, but God comforted me and blessed 
be His holy name ! 

I had grace to trust Him and He sustained me. We had kind friends 
and we always had enough; sometimes the bitter tear would fall, but I lifted 
up the eye of faith to Him who sent the ravens to feed Elijah, and to Him 
who, though He rules all worlds, yet had not where to lay his head ! I was 
not disappointed. My friends have been many and kind and with them 
would I live and die ; and may we all rise to light, clothed in the garments 
of salvation ! 

I was converted and joined the Baptists in 1821, was licensed in 1825, 
and ordained in 1830, and in 1839, when we moved to Winchester, a Baptist 
church was organized for that place and region which stood many years. 

There was at the time a Methodist meeting-house and there was no 
other. The Presbyterians began before long and kept up an organization 
for ten or fifteen years, building a house for their worship but the church was 
always weak and at length became extinct. 

After I moved to Winchester, at first I wrote lying on a narrow straw 
bed but mostly on my knees. The recorder's office then was worth but little ; 
an able-bodied man could have done the work but I had to hire a deputy and 
the profits were small. In the summer of 1847, '^^Y disease returned and in 
May, 1848, I was hauled between two feather beds to where I now live. I 
was confined to my bed at that time for more than two years; since then I 
have been several times snatched from the jaws of death by the same hand 
which has led me all my journey through. Like the Jews before Jordan, I 
look across the river and behold the blessed Canaan. 

Like Moses on Mt. Pisgah's top, I view the heavenly landscape o'er and 
humbly wait the appointed time when God shall set my happy spirit free and 
receive my blood-washed soul to the blissful mansions of eternal rest. 

For some years I trusted in the sweet Bible promise and was upheld in 
the midst of my sorrow. But, as my family cares increased, after a time I 
became somewhat disheartened; my way seemed hedged up, darkness was on 
me and I felt glooni)^ and sad. When I looked at my wife and children 
and thought of their needs and my own and my helplessness, my soul cried 
'What will become of us?' 


But one Sabbath after having been to my appointment at Concord (for 
I could preach though I could not stand, and had been greatly helped and 
strengthened in the Lord's work), I came home and at night, when in bed, 
a burden of distress rolled upon my heart and it seemed that I should be 
crushed; I was not asleep, it was no dream; but I saw myself struggling 
through deep water and suddenly my Saviour was walking by my side and 
He sweetly held me up as I buffeted the,waves. Deep peace fell on me, all 
trouble and doubt and sorrow fled, and my soul was bathed in joy unspeak- 
able and full of glory. The holy baptism of that midnight hour has never 
left me; but I have been enabled to walk in the strength of the grace I then 
received, even to this blessed day. 

A cripple bodily I have continued to be to this moment but the ecstasy of 
spirit which my poor soul has many a time received from the Lord, human 
tongue in this world can never tell. And the good Lord is with His unworthy 
servant still. 

The prayer of the Psalmist, 'When I am old and gray-headed, O Lord, 
forsake me not,' has with me and mine been wonderfully answered ! Near 
fifty years ago I lay feeble and helpless, waiting for death to do its work upon 
my wretched body; and yet, here I am still, tarrying in this tabernacle of 
clay, patiently expecting the hour now surely near at hand, when I shall be, 
"not unclothed, but clothed upon" ; and mortality shall be swallowed up of 
life — Avhen I shall be permitted to see the King in His beauty; when my 
crutches and my poor old frame shall be laid aside together, and my freed 
spirit shall go shouting home!" 

"Hallelujah to the I.amb who has purchased our pardon. 
We will praise Him again when we pass over Jordan." 

Since the Baptist church spoken of above went down, Mr. Willmore 
has stood outside of special church relation. But he is in full and blessed 
sympathy with God and all good men and feels that all humble, penitent. God- 
fearing, heaven-seeking souls are his brethren and sisters. He feels too, 

"The church on earth and all the dead. 

But one communion make. 

They all have life in Christ, their Head, 

And of His righteousness partake." 


Through the glass of faith he views from the tops of the "Delectable 
Mountains" the glorious sights and scenes in the New Jerusalem; and feels 
that the time will not be long till he shall be among them, till he shall join the 
ecstatic throng; till with the spirits of the just made perfect with the "church 
of the first-born, whose names are written in heaven," he, too, cleansed and 
purified, "washed in the blood of the Lamb," shall take up the heavenly song 
and swell the hallelujah chorus that rises ever from the hosts of the saved in 
the courts of glory on high ! 


"When I taught school, I did bravely, taking pupils through arithmetic, 
etc., where I had never been myself! The first school was by subscription, 
eight weeks, taught in an old log building in Frederick Davis' field. It had 
once boasted a clay and puncheon fireplace, but that had been pulled down 
and the chimney-place was open, like a barn door. The books were vi'hat- 
ever each pupil brought — Bible, Testament, Life of Washington, Life of 
Marion, History of England, spelling books and so on. Each one used what- 
ever be brought, too ; 'uniformity of text-books' was not in vogue in that 
institution, sure ; of course classification gave no trouble, but each tow-headed 
urchin was head and foot too of his own class. I had, perhaps twenty pupils. 
My school was liked; my governrrient was somewhat unique and certainly 
original. One day I had two lads standing face to face, two or three feet 
apart, with a stick split at both ends and one end on each boy's nose ; another 
mischievous ten-year-old I had thrown astraddle of the naked joist-pole over- 
head ; and a fourth luckless wight who had fallen under my magisterial dis- 
pleasure, was expiating his crime by standing with his hands behind his back 
and his nose plump against the wall ! 

Just at that supreme moment of the endurance of penalty for trans- 
gressing the majesty of violated law in popped a neighbor and patron of the 
school more noted for bluntness than gentility, through the open door. He 
stared, first at one, then at the next, and so on, till at length as the whole 
ridiculous gravity of the curious situation dawned upon his mind, suddenly 
he broke out with a rough expression and, sinking with his ponderous weight 
upon the puncheon floor, burst into a loud and uncontrollable fit of laughter. 
Was not that school-room a sight ? 'Wholesome discipline' was at a discount 
at that moment of supreme ridiculousness ; and teacher, pupils and visitor all 
gave way together and laughed in concert till they got tired and quit because 
they could laugh no longer.' "' 


At another time the same 'school visitor' "cut a shine' in that (or sonic 
neighboring) school, which fun-loving teachers will wonder at when they 
read: The school was in session; all were at their 'books,' and studying 'for 
keeps.' One young man was sitting face to the wall engaged in writing, as 
he sat in front of one of those old slab or puncheon writing-desks, fastened 
against the side of the house. 

All at once in popped 'that same old coon' with a meal-sack slung around 
his neck. Paying no special heed to what was going on in the room, he 
strode straight across the floor to this young man aforesaid; and, before any 
one had the slightest idea of his intention, the old sack was slapped violently 
round the young man's face, the other exclaiming, 'Tend to your books, you 
or-na-ry cuss.' Teachers generally say they like to have visitors; doubtless 
this teacher had often said the same. But probably thereafter his desire for 
visitors contained at least one mental reservation. 

Mr. Cadwallader's school was liked, perhaps all the better for his at- 
tempted 'new departures" and original methods. At any rate he was engaged 
again for the winter school with an enormous increase of wages from 
$7.00 to $9.00 per month — a growth of well-nigh 30 per cent, and an increase 
worthy of especial notice and remembrance; conclusively showing that the 
employers in that backwoods school district thoroughly understood the ap- 
propriate method and means of rendering suitable encouragement to corre- 
sponding merits; and that they put their knowledge earnestly into. practice, 
much to the satisfaction of the worthy subject of the present sketch. 

"That winter furnished some interesting experience. The big boys took 
me at Christmas and ducked me through a hole in the ice up to my chin, till I 
would agree to 'treat,' which I finally did. They let me out and I sent for 
some apples for the 'treat.' The sequel came near being tragic, for the apple 
boys stayed so long that the others thought I was 'shamming,' and had sent 
for no apples and so they caught me and went to duck me again. Luckily 
the boys came just at the nick of time and I was let go and we had a gay 
'treat.' Thus went school life (not very) long ago, when I was young and 
in my 'teens." 

During Mr. Cadwallader's term as Senator, an event occurred so curious 
and vexatious and so apt an illustration of the evils of hasty legislation, and, 
moreover, of the importance of careful and exact expression that we cannot 
forbear to state it somewhat in detail. He had resolved that Indiana should 
have, like her sister states, a law regulating the movements of railroad trains, 
a thing, in fact, greatly necessary. So, he drew up a bill mostly like the Ohio 


law, presented it to the Senate and it was "teetotally" passed in fifteen min- 
utes; in fact, before he sat down. It was read, once, twice, ordered to be 
considered engrossed, read the third time and finally passed, all in the same 
transaction. Not an objection was raised, not a word was changed; it went 
through "clean." It passed the other House much in the .same way and noth- 
ing more was thought of it. On the day in which the law was to go into 
effect, the whole State of Indiana was "waked up'' by the unearthly screech- 
ing of every engine-whistle on every railroad of the State. Especially were 
the ears of our Senator, whose residence is close to the railroad depot in 
Union City, greeted with whistling fit to "wake the dead." When the railroad 
men were asked, "what does this mean?" they replied, "Senator Cadwallader's 
whistle-bill requires it." 

Mr. Cadwallader resolutely denied the allegation, but on examining the 
"Record," there it stood in black and white — "Every engineer shall, within 
eighty rods of any crossing of any street or public highway, sound the whistle 
continuously until he has passed said crossing." Cities were allowed to 
regulate the matter as they chose; but as no town had done so, the law was 
binding in town and country alike. Here was a racket indeed. Mr. Cad- 
wallader was nonplussed, but knowing the bill was not so when he had it pass 
the Senate, he got hold of the copy thereof and found this curious fact to wit : 
The section as he wrote it stood thus : * * * "shall sound the whistle 
and ring the bell continuously until, etc., i. e., sound the whistle once at first 
and then keep on ringing the bell, etc. Somebody had drawn a pencil mark 
across the words "and ring the bell," making the clause read, "shall sound the 
whistle continuously," and thus it stands on the "Record." Who made the 
alteration Mr. Cadwallader has never been able to find out. But it shows 
very strikingly how important it is to have the words of a law just exactly 
right and how great a change a slight alteration will make. The bill as it 
was presented, commanded (though the idea is not very clearly expressed), 
a proper and needful thing. As it stands on the Record, the thing required 
would be an intolerable nuisance. 

Probably no man was ever greeted with such a howl of indignation as 
from every corner of the State met the astounded ears of the Senator frorif 
Randolph. Examination, however, soon quieted the clamor and showed his 
intention and his action to have been proper and that he was simply the vic- 
tim of a strange and, thus far, unexplained mistake (or, possibly, of a trick 
on the part of some truckler to the favor of railroad corporations). Mr. 
Cadwallader has had the satisfaction of witnessing the Indiana Legislature 


pass the "Railroad Whistle Bill" in an amended form, i. e., in the shape that 
he put it through the Senate originally, and of having the Senate pass, unani- 
mously, a resolution that the "blunder" of the previous "act" was in no way 
chargeable to him. One would have supposed that Governor Williams would 
have seen the absurdity of the bill in the form in which it seems to have come 
into his hands, but it appears he did not; and "Governors" are not always 
"sharp" in the matter of language, any more than other people, as the Hoosier 
state, in common with others, has had" occasion to discover. 

I should not do justice to my feelings were I to omit to state that Mr. C. 
is himself an eminent specimen of an honorable and high-minded citizen. 
Though economical, he is not penurious ; though desirous to make money, he 
is not oppressive to the poor and unfortunate; though not, in name, a professor 
of religion, yet in heart he delights in all things good and lovely, and assists 
liberally in building up every worthy enterprise. He is a hearty and earnest 
friend of the temperance reform, and an active and uncompromising Repub- 
lican. He possesses the unqualified respect of all his fellow-citizens, and is 
an honor to the town in which he resides, and to the county which, for well 
nigh fifty years, has claimed him for her own. Although highly honored, 
thus far, by his fellow-citizens, the state will never know what she has lost 
by neglecting to advance him to the post of state school superintendent, for a 
genius so decidedly fresh and vigorous when in the inexperience of untutored 
youth, as shown by his original inventive powers, in the way of penalties for 
violation of school law, would infallibly have wrought out radical and 
thorough reformation in all school appliances and methods, so that lads and 
lasses both in the near and the remote future would have revered and blessed 
his name as the ceaseless ages roll. 


"William McKim laid out Spartanburg. William Dukes lived in the 
house where Taylor now lives. Elias Godfrey and Thomas Hart kept a 
grocery is the house now occupied by John H. Taylor. Mr. Fires buih the 
house where John Wiggs now lives, and sold it to Stephen Barnes, who com- 
pleted it, and occupied it till he died. In the war of 1812, many men went 
from our region to Norfolk or Portsmouth. We lived 200 miles from Nor- 
folk. People used to drive their hogs thither to market. The country where 
we lived was level and sandy. The upper counties were broken, and the soil 
was good for wheat and tobacco. We lived east of Raleigh forty miles. We 


could hear the cannon roar at Raleigh on the Fourth of July. We were six 
weeks and two days on the road coming West. My oldest son and myself 
walked nearly all the way. We camped out every night but one. Jesse 
Jordan had come to Indiana, and stayed three or four years, and returned to 
Carolina for some money that was due him, and he came back to Indiana with 
us. We were well and enjoyed the trip first rale. We had two one- 
horse carts to haul our luggage in. We had a tent, and would throw 
our beds down on the leaves. We slept one night at the foot of ihe 
Blue Ridge. We started the last Sunday of April, and arrived at Arba June 
8, 1836. We came the mail stage route a long way, then through Powell 
Valley, Cumberland Gap, etc. We crossed the Blue Ridge at Good Spur and 
Poplar Camp, and came through Crab Orchard, etc. We traveled nearly a 
week on the Blue Ridge. We could see houses on points of hills and away 
down in valleys where we could not guess how anybody could ever get to 
them. One place called Dry Ridge had no water for a long distance. We 
crossed the Ohio at Cincinnati, which seemed to me to be quite a large town, 
the largest I had ever seen. We did not stop long there, but drove through, 
and camped for the night. As we came through Raleigh they were building 
the new state house. Jesse Jordan had $1,500 in North Carolina currency 
that he had to exchange because it would not pass in Indiana. He got United 
States bank notes, the only bills that would pass. I had my money in gold. I 
paid for my land in half-eagles — seventy half-eagles. I had in North Caro- 
lina 125 acres. I went back to Carolina once and stayed six weeks. Jesse 
Jordan's widow also went back a short time ago. She said the oeople seemed 
to be doing very well." 


"Settlers when we came, in 1833, were Jacob Chenoweth, in Ohio; Heze- 
kiah Locke, on the Bailey place ; Mason Freeman, on the Marquis place. John 
Foster came on the Griffiis place a year or so after we came. [This was not 
the Joshua Foster who was in that vicinity many years before.] Mr. Farms 
had just put up a cabin on the James Ruby place ; had not moved into it yet. 
Smith Masterson lived on the Downing place, north of Dismal. James 
Griffis lived on the Williamson farm, and moved not long afterward to the 
Griffis place, on the Greenville State road." 



"In June, 1832, in a race, molding brick with Silas Connell, I molded, 
from sun to sun, 25,148 brick, and he, 23,365. I was about twenty years old. 
My father-in-law scolded me; told me I should not have tried it, and that I 
could not stand it. He stood by me and kept me from working full speed, 
till 2 p. m., when he told me to 'go it.' Silas led me all the forenoon. A great 
crowd were looking on, and they bet tw(^ to one on Connell. By and by the 
tide turned, and the bets became five to one for me, and I beat. People after 
that offered to bring men to beat me, but they never did. I had a man on his 
yard and he on mine. They set their watches just alike, and we begun to a 
second. We worked till dinner. I had my dinner brought to the yard; took 
a few bites and went to molding again. Men said I molded forty-eight brick 
the last minute. They carried me to the house, washed me in whisky, and 
would not let me lie down till near morning. I went to work the third day 
after. The bet was only $10 on a side. Isrum Engle, of Union City, and 
Ezekiel Clough, of Jackson township, lived at Cincinnati at the time, and 
know that I did what I claim to have done." 

Mr. Martin was a brick molder, and has been for many years. He owns 
a good farm south of Winchester. 


"I had to go to mill at Ridgeville, from near Antioch, Jay county, In- 
diana, generally on horseback. I had to do the milling, while the older boys 
carried the mail from Winchester to Fort Wayne. Thomas Shaler, who used 
to live near, but had moved to near Camden, came to mother's on his way to 
mill with a wagon and oxen. He persuaded her to have me go with him and 
get fifteen bushels of corn, and said he would bring home the meal for her; 
so she sent me. Brother Ben had raised the corn at Joab Ward's, and I 
shelled it; got a horse there and took it to mill, and had the meal all ready. 
But Shaler had been getting drunk and fooling around, and he stayed three 
days. I determined to walk home and bring a horse and get my grist that 
way. But at last he got ready and started. (See Arthur McKew's Reminis- 
cences.) He left my meal at William Welch's, and I took the grist home 
from there (John Adair's place south of Liber). Shaler was away about nine 
days, and his wife and family were at home starving. He was a drunken, 
shiftless fellow, boasting of being half-Indian. His wife was an excellenf 


woman, with four children, all girls. She was there in the woods, ten miles 
from any settler. Their cabin had no fire-place, floor, nor chimney, no. 
daubing nor chinking, and the snow was eight inches deep; everything was 
frozen up, and they had nothing to eat. She had burned some coal in one 
corner of the shanty, had made a sled, and was intending to take an ox, the 
sled, her four children, and a kettle with coals in it to keep the children from 
freezing to death, and to start for Mrs. Hawkins' cabin fifteen miles off, the 
nearest settler she knew. But her husband and young McKew got to thei 
cabin that night about midnight, with the provisions. Shaler and McKew 
cut the ice and crossed the Big Salamonie, near Judge Winters', but there was 
a stream called Big Branch, up which the water had set back from the Big 
Salamonie, over a wide space. The water had suddenly frozen, and then had 
sunk away, leaving the ice, and they could not get the oxen across in the 

[Note. — This Tom Shaler was the same that James Porter found 
"squatted" on the land that Porter entered afterward, northwest part of Jack- 
son township, Randolph county. Shaler moved from there near to Liber, and 
soon after that to near Camden. This incident took place about 1833. 
Joseph Hawkins' father moved to Jay county in 1829. He died in 1833, and 
they were "roughing" it up there in the Jay county woods, a poor widow with 
a large family.] 


"The first resident of Jackson township is supposed to have been Philip 
Storms. He 'squatted' on a piece of land east of my farm; but a Mr. Fager 
entered the land from under him, and he then moved to Mississinewa crossing) 
and remained there several years. It is also said that another person entered 
Mr. Storms' land there; that he was very angry and threatened to shoot thei 
intruder, but that they finally settled the matter amicably and that he moved 
elsewhere. He was living in the region in 1830, how much later is not now 
known, and if he had lived elsewhere in the township several years, he was 
certainly the first comer. Mr. Jacobs is thought by some to have been the first 
permanent settler in the township, but these things are 'mighty hard to find 
out.' Ishmael Bunch was a very early pioneer also. 

I (Johnson) lived in a rail-pen from May 3 to June 22. Our family 
was myself and wife and nine children, and we were as happy as need be. 
We made the floor of the rail-pen of bark, and renewed it twice. When the 


water would splash up through the bark, I would put in a new floor of the 
same sort. 

The State road to Portland was laid out about 1838, only forty feet wide. 

The first justice in Jackson township was James Wickersham. 

The first couple married were David Vance and Sally Smith by Esq. 

The first mill was erected by Jones, on Lowe's Branch, one and a half 
miles above me. 

I built a horse-mill, then a water-mill, and afterward a saw-mill. 

The grist-mill was run twenty years and the saw-mill ten years, but they 
are all rotted down now. 

The graveyard on my place was begun about 1840. 

The Indians were all gone but one, 'Old Duck.' He hunted and trapped 
and took his skins and furs to Greenville. He used to stay with Jacobs, at 
Harshman's, and with Andrew Debolt." 

Note. — This "Duck" is spoken of in Jay County History as being famil- 
iar with the early settlers of that county. He seems to have been a clever, 
civil, honest Indian. At one time he was at a church trial, and when the 
witness began to testify "crosswise," he rose to leave, saying, "Me go; no 
much good here, too much lie." 

The author of Jay County History says (in substance) : 

All early settlers are familiar with the name of the old Indian, Doctor 
Duck, who remained in the county a long time after his tribe had moved to 
Kansas. He showed much skill in the treatment of diseases. * * * He 
was religious and often appeared to be praying to the Great Spirit. He at- 
tended meeting for preaching at Deerfield and the church trial afterward, 
which he left as stated above. He tried to cure John J. Hawking, a pioneer 
of Jay county, but did not succeed, though he lived with Mr. H. six months. 
About two weeks after Mr. H. died (March 15, 1832), the Indian visited his 
grave and spent nearly half a day there alone, apparently preaching and per- 
forming wild ceremonies." 

Settlers (that Mr. Johnson remembers) when he came were: Daniel B. 
Miller, Ward township ; Jacob Harshman, two miles west of Johnson's ; 
Abrani Harshman, same neighborhood ; Reuben Harshman, same neighbor- 
hood (died lately in Union City, Ohio) ; Andrew Debolt, Mount Holly, dead; 
James Reeves, near Castle P. O., dead; Amos Smith, near New Lisbon, gone 
long ago ; Samuel Skinner, near New Lisbon, gone long ago ; John Skinner, 
near New Lisbon, gone long ago; James Willson, James Wickersham, etc. 


John Johnson, his brother, came when he did, dying a year or so ago, 
aged eighty-eight years. 

VVilham Warren, James Warren, James Simmons, came soon after Mr. 

James Porter was li\ing near New Pittsburg, and others had settled near 
Allensville, on the Mississinewa river. 


"]\I)' trade as a merchant was extensive and various. I used to buy every 
commodity that was salable at that day. I bought produce of all kinds and 
shipped it on flat-boats down the Mississinewa, sending sometimes two or 
three boats at once, loaded with flour, bacon, apples, etc. We went to Logans- 
port, Lafayette, etc., selling mostly, though not entirely, to Indian traders. 
Sales would be made on credit, and then we would go down at the time of the 
Indian payments, which were made once a year, generally in August or Sep- 
tember, and get the money for the goods sold to them. The last time I went 
we had three boat loads. The boats were made by Joab Ward, who kept a 
boat-yard near what is now Ridgeville. He would make a boat all complete 
for an amount varying from $25 to $30, which would carry about one hun- 
dred barrels of flour. 

I lost my sight about 1836, and sold goods till 1838. I worked twenty- 
five years at pump-making. I had worked at it when young, and, trying it 
again after blindness came on, I found that I could do the work with success, 
and resumed the business. I have made and sold great numbers of puinps, 
working all through the country, making forty at one time at Recovery. 

Thomas Hanna kept a store at Winchester when I came there. Esq. 
Odle had owned a store before that ; Hanna's store was quite an extensive 
establishment for those days. 

Paul W. Way set up a dry goods store afterwards, and William and 
Jesse Way began also. Michael Aker bought out my stock and followed me 
in the business, though he did not continue long. 

The court house was up and covered when I came to Winchester ; David 
Wysong furnished the brick, and the lime was obtained at New Paris, or at 
Middleboro ; lime was not burned in this county till afterwards. 

Joseph Hinchy had made pumps, hauling his tools with an ox team, and 
making them from farm to farm. He is the same man who planted nurseries 
in various places through the country. 


Soon after I came here I bought io8 acres of John B. Wright and lOO 
acres of Charles Conway. I bought the Daniel Petty land east of town, of 
Oliver Walker, as also a lot in every square in town. I traded the lot in the 
north front with a building on it for the farm I now live on (io8 acres). 

I traded i8o acres with a good house and barn and orchard and 50 acres 
cleared foi" 400 acres, and sold that in four or five years to Joshua Bond for 

Ernestus Strohm began a cabinet shop, and I was in partnership with 
him for awhile. We made a sideboard worth $175 about 1838, the first 
costly piece of furniture made in the county. It is a splendid article — large, 
square, rather low, with a large framed glass at the middle of the top. I 
have it yet in a good state of preservation; in fact, almost as nice and good as 
new. It was the first thing that was made in .that shop, and it was made to 
show what kind of work the shop could furnish. 

Some amusing things would take place in those primitive times. Some 
such incidents occurred in my own experience. 

Curtis Voris and a half-brother of his had moved out here from Green- 
ville. He had some money to spare and he asked, 'Who would be safe ?' The 
person told him, 'Andrew Aker.' So he came to m.e: 'What per cent?' 
'Six.' 'How long time?' 'A year.' 'All right,' said he, 'and I will trade out 
the interest.' 'Better yet,' said I, 'I will take your money. How much can you 
spare?' 'Two dollars and a half,' was the rejoinder. That I was astonished 
is simply the truth. However, I took his money, the whole of it, and he kept 
his bargain by trading out the interest, all of it. 

A man from out North was trading one day, and having made a bill of 
(perhaps) $2, offered in payment a $5 bill. It was a base counterfeit, and I 
told him so. 'Why,' said he, 'it is good; I got it from Hell.' 'Take it back 
there, then, it will not pass here.' He meant a man with that name. 

One day Old Samuel Emery, from the Mississinewa (who died only a 
short time ago), came in with a roll of deer-skins. He was truly a rough- 
looking customer. His pants were buckskin and ripped up nearly to the knee. 
He wore a straw hat, with the rim half torn off; his shoes were ragged and 
tied up with hickory bark ; and altogether he was as forlorn as one often sees. 
He wished to 'trade out' his roll of buckskins. He got several articles, I 
reckoned up the account and the trade was nearly even. He then said, 'I 
wish to get a few more things, powder and lead and some flints, and I would 
like to get trusted.' I spoke to Charlie Conway at the back end of the store. 
'O,' said he, 'Sam Emery is all right, he is one of the substantial citizens out 


on the Mississinewa.' He got his powder and things on credit and paid for 
them promptly according to agreement. After that time he did a large 
amount of trading at my store, always dealing fairly, like the honorable man 
that he was. But when I first set eyes on him as he entered the store with his 
roll of buckskins on his shoulder, he was a strange-looking customer indeed! 

The same man who loaned me the $2.50 also bought a cow of me for $8. 
He agreed to pay me for the creature in two or three months. He paid me, 
though it took a much longer time than that. He made the payment in small 
sums, sometimes as low as i2j^ cents, a,nd never more than 37^ cents at any 
one time. But he paid me fully after a while. 

Shortly after I came to Winchester I built a brick house, getting the 
brick of David Wysong at $2.50 per thousand delivered. Mr. Wysong died 
only two or three years ago, about eighty years old. 

The pump business is carried on at present by my sons-in-law, Knecht 
"and Thomas. They do not make now, but buy and sell, purchasing some- 
times as high as 4,000 pumps at one time." 


"Joab Ward and Meshach Lewallyn lived near Ridgeville. There were no 
houses from here to Winchester. Thomas Addington (not Rev. Thomas) oc- 
cupied a cabin near where George Addington now lives. William Addmgton 
had come on in March, and had settled one mile north. There were no settlers 
east or west that I know of. 

Benjamin Lewallyn and a Mr. Jones, as also James Addington (uncle to 
Jesse), had settled on the Mississinewa, below Ridgeville. That town was 
not begun till long afterward. People used to bring flour, bacon, apples, 
potatoes, apple-butter, etc., to Ridgeville to Ward's, and buy of him a flat- 
boat, to send them down the river to market. Mr. Addington has bought of 
Mr. Ward apples supposed to be spoiled for trade by being frozen. We had 
to go to White River or Mississinewa to get help in raisings or log-rollings. 

Thomas Addington (cousin of Jesse, son-in-law of Joseph Addington, 
on Sparrow Creek) had moved out here just before, had built him a cabin and 
his family (and we, too) moved in without chimney or floor. We stayed 
there, cooking outdoors, for a month, till outs was built. We moved in as 
soon as our cabin was covered, having nothing but log walls and a clapboard 
roof. We cooked by a log-heap fire for several weeks, till a chimney was 
built, some time in August. 


Religious meetings used to be held in private dwellings around the set- 
tlement by the Methodists. There was no school for several years. There 
were several other Addingtons, father and uncles of Jesse Addington." 


"The# county was new. Very few settlers were here in 1834. James 
Griffis lived on the Williamson place; Smith Masterson lived west about a 
mile; William Kennon lived on State road, near Bartonia (father of Thomas 
S. Kennon) ; John Dixon lived one and a half miles northwest of me; Green 
resided on the State road. Kennon and Griffis had been here two years. 
Masterson came the same year but earlier than I did. 

There were no roads, only 'blazes.' There were paths, tracks and 'blazes.' 
Hill Grove and Spartanburg both were towns, but few houses in either. 

For milling, we had to go to Richmond or Stillwater. There was a mill 
at McClure's, which is standing yet. In dry times the water would fail. We 
had to go to Piqua, or Troy, or Dayton, for salt. Andrew Kennedy (Con- 
gressman) once .said that the time would come when a bushel of wheat would 
bring a barrel of salt. No one believed him, but the day has come. 

I once tried to go to the first house in Union City (there was only one) 
to appraise some property there (Star House). I struck the railroad track 
and went on east. Coming to a house, I inquired, 'How far east to Union 
City?' 'Half a mile west,' was the reply. 

We had to cut up corn and haul it to the barnyard to keep the squirrels 
from taking it in the field. 

There were no mills near, not even a corn-cracker. Cole's mill and 
Dean's mill (Ohio) were there. There had been one at Sharp Eye. A dam 
had been built, but the people thought it made them sick, and it had to be 
taken down. When I first came I moved into a cabin near by. 

I came in March, 1834, and cleared seven acres and put it in corn that 
spring. I cut, rolled and burnt what I could, and the rest I killed by piling and 
burning the brush around them. I hired 2,000 rails made and fenced the land. 

I have never bought in all, during forty-six years, ten bushels of corn. 
Two grists of corn and three bushels of wheat is all I have bought in that time. 

I moved with three wagons, -and afterward brought another load of bees, 
grain, etc. I had wheat in Darke county, and after harvest I hauled the 
\\-heat home. 

I worked for one man (Mr. Teegarden) in Darke county one year, at $7 


per month (some of the tune at 31 cents a day). I have worked many a day 
at 31 cents a day. I never hunted or fished much. They must bite quick or 
show themselves, or I was o-p-h. I have killed only two deer. One night, 
fishing in a 'riffle,' in the 'Dismal,' we caught a basketful of suckers with our 
hands, many of them a foot long. One year, the creek froze and then raised' 
above the ice with great numbers of fish, and the water froze again and fast- 
ened the fish between the ice, in great quantities. We could have caught lots 
of them, but we thought freezing tlie fish spoiled them. 

I found a steel-trap in Darke county, and sold it to an Indian for six 
coon-skins to be brought at such a time. The time came, but no coon-skins, 
and I thought 'Good-bye steel-trap, good-bye coon-skins,' but he came and 
brought them afterward and said, smiling, 'Too good sugar-making — couldn't 
come.' Sugar-trees were plenty. We made all the sugar we needed, and 
some to sell. 

The first school in the neighborhood was, say, in 1838. The first meet- 
ing-hotise was at South Salem. 

I used to be a Presbyterian, but have joined the Protestant Methodists." 

The following is a list of old men residing in Wayne township (age,, 
1880) : John Hartman, 76; Jacob Baker, 79; Joel Elwell, 75; William A. 
Macy, 71 ; Ezra Coddington, •j'}) ; Francis Frazier, 79 ; Robert Murphy, 75 ; 
Isaac Clifton, 73; George Huffnogle, 80; William Pickett, 79. 

Mr. Murphy is growing old and somewhat feeble and decrepit, but no 
more so than might be expected at his age. 


Settlers when Mr. Hoover came : Robert Murphy ; John Dixon came 
the fall before and bought out Mr. Kennon; James Griffis, William Kennon, 
Smith Masterson. 

"People were sociable then. Men would go seven or eight miles to a 
raising or a log-rolling — to Sheets', north, or to Griffis' or Carnahan's, south, 
or even farther. People worked then. They did not eat and sit around. 
Twenty to thirty men were a large crowd. The first election (for Jackson 
and Wayne townships together) was held at Peyton's, west of Union City, in 
say 1836, and only seven votes were polled. The rest went to other polls to 
vote. A person could vote anywhere in the county then. 

Mrs. Teeter came early; her husband had died in Pennsylvania. She 
raised a large family and died about 90- years of age." 


P. FIELDS (1833). 

"Settlers when I came^some of them were Burkett Pierce, west of 
Deerfield, very old and living still; George Ritenour, across the river, near 
Pierce's, an early settler, but is now dead ; William Odle, Curtis Butler, living 
along the river below town, moved away, long, long ago. 

There were none above (east of)«town till a mile above me. Samuel 
Emery lived a mile up the river. He became very old and died a year or so 

Mr. Bragg came the fall before I did, in 1832; he is dead. 

Allen Wall was on the north side of the river, opposite Bragg's ; he, too, 
is dead. 

James Mayo, north of the river, also dead. 

Aquila Loveall lived near Mayo's ; he is not living. 

Daniel B. Miller, up the river on the south side ; he is quite old and resides 
at Winchester, having his third wife (he is now dead). 

Robert Parsons lived a mile below Deerfield. He owned a corn-cracker ; 
he is dead. Deerfield had not 'started' yet. One shanty stood there, but no 
town had been begun. A school shanty was standing one and a half miles 
above, on Congress land, on the north of Deerfield and Union City road. 

There was one also near the old (Chapel) meeting-house west of Deer- 

The Chapel meeting-house was built about 1835, and is the oldest one in 
the region. 

Prospect meeting-house was not built till several years after I came 
perhaps about 1840. The cemetery at the Chapel is the oldest one in this part 
of the country. 

When Lewallyn came to settle near Ridgeville, they unloaded their goods 
into the brush. Some stayed and went to building a 'camp' and the others 
went back to get the rest of the 'plunder.' 

Lewallyn's daughter married one Mr. Renberger, who used to live near 
Ridgeville, and she may perhaps be living now. 

I came from Hawkins county, Tennessee, sixty-four miles up Holston 
river from Knoxville. I sold 100 acres of land there for $400. We came 
here with one four-horse wagon and a carriage. 

Lancelot Fields, my brother, had moved to this county before me, and 
had settled near New Pittsburg, not far from James Porter's. He had re- 


turned to Tennessee on business, and, when he came back to Indiana, we came 
along, too. There were thirteen in the company. 

Deerfield & Union City road had been laid and 'blazed,' but it was not 
yet opened through. I helped open it to Middletown. 

One Indian, called 'Old Duck,' lived in Allen Wall's yard, in a little 

Cabins were made with 'knees' and weight-poles and latch-strings. 

The people were social and friendly. We used to go six or eight miles 
to raisings and log-rollings, and to Richmond to mill. 

Deer were plenty, though I did not care for hunting. I never killed but 
one deer in my life. 

But venison was very ea-sily gotten. There were plenty of hunters who 
were only too glad to shoot us all the deer we wanted. George Porter and 
his boys were hunters, and had no land. Zack Key, brother of Andrew Key, 
lived near us, and if we wished any venison, all we had to do was to speak to 
him, and he would shoulder his rifle and bring one down in a hurry. He 
would hang it up and tell me where to find it, and I would go out and bring 
the carcass in. The hunters cared nothing for the flesh. All they wanted was 
the skins, which would sell for from 25 to 50 cents. 

Once I was hunting my horses. They had wandered far, and in looking 
for them, I came to Ephraim Bowen's. It was perhaps in 1835, not long 
after I came to the county. The settlers were far more numerous in that part 
of the county, but farther north it was wild enough. Mr. Bowen and his 
folks were very kind and hospitable. They could not tell me where to find 
my horses, but they did another thing which was first-rate for a tired and 
hungry man. They would not take. 'no' for an answer, but insisted that I 
should stop and take dinner with them, which I did, and went on my wander- 
ing way much refreshed. 

Horses had a wide range then, when running out, and sometimes gave 
immense trouble to their owners in hunting them." 


"Settlers when I came were Daniel B. Miller, on the Miller place; Sam- 
uel Helms, two miles north of Saratoga; Andrew Key, three miles north of 
Saratoga; William Pogue (father of Robert Pogue, Union City), near An- 
drew Key ; John T. Evans, west of Saratoga ; Edward Evans, west of Sara- 
toga; Abram Harshman, east of Saratoga; Alexander, near Harshman's; 


William Bragg, below Andrew Key ; Daniel Mock, west of Saratoga ; George 
W. Barber, one mile west of Saratoga; William Simmons, on Mississinewa 
river ; Samuel Sipe, near Perry Fields ; John Sipe came shortly after I did. 

The first school after I came was near Daniel B. Miller's, about 1840. 

The first meeting-house was the one at Prospect, 1840. 

The first grist-mill was west of Deerfield. 

The first smith shop was kept by Jojl^ocke, north of Saratoga. 

There was but one house in Deerfield. 

A man told me I would not know when I got there." 


"When I came to Deerfield just three families resided there, viz : Henry 
Taylor, Henry Sweet and Jonathan Thomas. Henry Sweet was a blacksmith. 
Henry Taylor had a few groceries in a log cabin there. He also sold some 
whisky, and professed, besides that, to keep a hotel, too. 

Curtis Butler had been doing business there, and had been acting post- 
master at that place. Deerfield was by no means an unimportant place; in 
fact, small though it was, and deep buried in the thick forests of the Missis- 
sinewa. Although that valley had been settled more than twenty years, yet 
along its whole course that little Deerfield was its only town, and its only 
post office, and the only one, it may be said, between Winchester and Fort 

But Mr. Butler had moved to Marion, and left the post office in the 
hands of William Odle. The amount of business may be judged of when it is 
stated that the salary of the office was $1.75 per quarter. It rose afterward to 
$40 per quarter. I was appointed postmaster soon after my removal to Deer- 
field. Shortly after that, and for two or three years, an immense business 
was done in Randolph and Jay counties in the entry of land, especially in Jay 
county, and vast sums of (silver) money were sent by John Connor, the mail 
carrier, to Fort Wayne. 

He used to have two horses — one for the mail and one for the money 
sack. He would have, sometimes, as much money (silver) as two of us could 
well throw upon the horse's back. He would lead the horses and walk, some- 

People would 'look land' and leave the money with me, and I would 
send it by Mr. Connor. 

He has taken thus as high as $6,000 or $7,000 at one trip. We used to 
hide it in a hole in the ground, beneath the puncheon floor, under the bed. 


We handled in that way, in all, many thousand dollars. I would receipt 
for the money, and take Connor's receipt, and he would pay it at Fort Wayne 
and obtain the patents, and bring them to me, and 1 would deliver them to the 
parties concerned, and they would pay at the rate of $i for eighty acres. 

Though Mr. Connor was poor, he was faithful and honest, and, during 
my whole course of business with him, for nearly twenty years, I never suf-' 
fered a cent of loss. 

He carried the mail for some twenty-eight years, up to about 1861. His 
appointment began about 1835. 

The mail routes were as follows : Richmond to Fort Wayne, via Win- 
chester ; Greenville west to Winchester. 

There were perhaps others. The mails were carried once a week from 
Winchester to Fort Wayne and back. Connor had to lie out in the woods 
one night on his trip going to and coming from Fort Wayne. The operation 
would not be considered very safe now, especially with hundreds and some- 
times thousands of dollars in conveyance, but Johnnie Connor was never 

Between Winchester and Deerfield was a dense forest and much swamp. 

There were only two settlers between Elias Kizer's (one mile north of 
AVinchester) and Deeriield, viz. : Samuel Cain and John Kinnear. Mr. 
Cain's was two miles, and Mr. Kinnear's three and a half miles, south of 

A large part of the land on both sides of the road northward from Win- 
chester to Deerfield was held by James G. Birney, a non-resident, and the 
country remained unsettled for many years. 

Deerfield became an important trading point, and it was for years a lively 

David Connor, the Indian trader, left his post -east of Deerfield some 
years before I came, though I think not very long. 

I traded with the Indians for furs, as also in succeeding years in cattle, 
hogs, etc. I traveled extensivly, to Green Bay and the northwest for furs, 
etc., and in general trading, visiting every northern state and the South also. 

The trade at Deerfield at one time extended over Jay and Blackford 
counties, and even much farther than that. I have sold as high as $15,000 
in a single year, and have taken in as much as $700 in one day. One day I 
bought 160 saddle hams that had been killed the day before. There had fallen 
a snow several inches deep, a tracking snow, so called, because the hunter 
could track the deer in it. 


George Shaneyvelt, of Jay county, killed nine deer in one day. 

The furs were coon, mink, muskrat, wild cat, catamount, etc. 

Wolves and bears and wild cats were common, and deer were very plenty. 

Deerskins were of different prices, from 50 cents to $1. 'Short-blues' 
were $1, i. e., deer killed in the fall whose hair was short and whose skins had 
a bluish cast. 

In early times great quantities o| tree-sugar and molasses, and of veni- 
son- hams used to be wagoned to Cincinnati ; and salt and iron kettles, etc., 
would be hauled back. I sold four tons of sugar kettles in one winter. The( 
cost of hauling was great. At one time a quantity of salt that was worth $18 
in Cincinnati, cost $20 to get it hauled from there to Deerfield. 

Four-horse teams would take two or three days to get from Winchester 
to Deerfield. 

Teamsters would cut out a road and then throw _brush across to hide it 
so that nobody else would see the track, that the ones who made the opening 
might have the use of it for several trips. 

I had the first cook stove in the county. It was brought from Cincinnati. 
That and another cost $100 in silver at 10 per cent, premium, equal to $110 in 
currency. The other one was sold to Mrs. Kinnear, south of Deei"field. 

Considerable flat-boating down the Mississinewa was done after I came 
to Randolph. 

At one time the task was undertaken to take several loads of coal down 
the river. 

A German named Keizer, who was poor, wished me to advance goods td 
him and take the coal for security. I would not, but Mr Searl let him have 
the goods and took Frederick Miller as security. The coal was burned, the 
boats were built and caulked with tow, and the coal was loaded upon the boats, 
as also the goods which Mr. Searl furnished to Keizer upon Miller's security. 

I had about two wagon loads of furs which I put upon one of the boats, 
and steered the boat on the trip down the river. 

Mr. Holly steered another of the boats. 

We came to Mr. McKinney's dam below Fairview, and Holly's boat got 
fast on a bar. 

Mr. McKinney came out with his rifle and threatened to shoot if we at- 
tempted to jump his dam. We did attempt it, however, and he did not shoot. 

But the boats could not cross the dam, and the merchandise was a total 
loss, except my furs, which I sent back by wagon to Deerfield. Mr. Searl 
lost about $2,000, which came near breaking him up. These boats were 


loaded at Ritenonr's mill below Deerfield, a point at which many boats re- 
ceived their cargo. 

At another time Joseph Hinchy and I took a boat load of flour and salt, 
etc., down the river. He and I built the boat, and we loaded it at Ritenour's 
mill. I steered the boat and we jumped four or five dams. One of them was 
Connor's, which was only a brush dam, and not hard to pass. 

When we got to the 'Feeder dam' for the canal, they asked $io to go 
through, and it would have taken all day to clear out the logs so as to permit 
the boat to pass. I offered $i.oo for a man to come on the boat with me and 
help me jump the dam. A man accepted the offer ; we performed the feat and 
got the boat over safe. The boat was taken to Logansport, and the cargo was 
sold mostly to the Indians. This was done in 1839. 

This Joseph Hinchy was a very eccentric man. He owned land in many 
places, and set out orchards far and near, planting and grafting the trees; 
and some of his old orchards are standing yet. He set out trees at Joab 
Ward's, at Wheeling, at ]vIarion and many other places. He was a pump- 
maker also. [Mr. Aker says he hauled his tools for pump making on a sled 
with oxen. He wore only buckskin clothes.] 

He used to have plenty of money, and would lend it to almost anybody 
that wanted it. 

Deerfield was for years a place of large business. At first the trade was 
to and from Cincinnati by wagon, afterward to the canal a.t Piqua. We used 
to trade largely in swine. I once drove a herd of hogs from Kentucky to 
South Carolina, beginning to sell them in Xorth Carolina, and so onward till 
they were all disposed of. 

Once in driving swine from Deerfield with 2,000 in the drove, there came 
a terrible freshet (about New Year's). We swam Greenville creek twice. 
The hogs swam the creek. We lost none, but some we had to pull out by the 
ears. The trip to Cincinnati took twenty-one days. There were about ten 
hands with the drove. I got for the hogs $6 net. Pork, however, was very 
variable, and sometimes fell very low, and many have been bankrupted 

I once traveled six weeks in Kansas, sleeping in a wagon the whole 
time. My companion most of the time was an Indian, who was a trusty, 
faithful man. 

When a young man I traveled through the South, working at my trade ; 
as also I was pilot on a steamboat from New Orleans to Louisville, spending 
five or six years in these ways. During these trips I passed through parts of 


North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, Louisiana 
and Texas. When a boy sixteen years old, I went as an apprentice with my 
master, Benedict Thomas, to Texas, from Georgetown, Kentucky, with a flat- 
boat load of furniture and saddles and bridles and dry goods. We took them 
on a flat-boat to the mouth of the river, on a keel-boat to Natchitoches, and 
thence by wagon i6o miles to the old Spanish fort, between the two Trinity's 
(rivers). He traded his goods for jnules and horses and for Spanish hides. 
He stayed in Texas and sent me to New Orleans to exchange the animals 
and hides for mahogany, coffee, molasses and sugar, which I did and returned 
home on foot. Another man came with me. We bought knapsacks and 
started, being twenty days on the road, and sleeping in the woods or with the 
Indians. One place was 140 miles (from French Camps to Fort Columbia 
on the Tombigbee) ; thence we came to Tuscumbia, and so, on home. We got 
provisions of the Indians — jerked meat, bear's flesh and venison, and also 
hominy and sweet potatoes and corn bread. We passed through the Chicka- 
saw and Choctaw nations. 

My brother, Archibald, walked from New Orleans sixteen times, and 
my brother, William, twelve times, from 1809 and onward. They would go 
down with flat-boats and return on foot. The flat-boats would cost $150 and 
would have to be sold at New Orleans perhaps for $10. They generally made 
two trips a year. One of them once tried three trips, but he got sick. They 
commonly traveled 'Carroll's Trace,' from Lake Pontchartrain to Colbert's 
Ferry, on the Tennessee river. The 'trace' stretched for miles and miles 
through deep, tall cane-brakes, a clear well-trodden path with thick canes on 
both sides of the path nearly impenetrable. The canes were sometimes thirty 
or forty feet high and as thick as they could grow. 

In 1847 I went to New Orleans for hemorrhage of the lungs. Recover- 
ing my health, I returned home, and have lived since that time, thirty-five 
years, enjoying still a reasonable degree of health and strength." 


"The settlers in 1836 were, west of Union City, Wayne township, 
Thomas Peyton, Converse place; Jacob Emerick, William Anderson's farm; 
John Emerick, Weimar farm; north of Union City; John Sheets, Smith farm; 
Eli Noffsinger, north of Smith's farm, on Little ^lississinewa: near New Lis- 
bon; Amos Smith, west of New Lisbon; David Vance, William Cox, Isaiah 
Cox, Thomas Wiley, at New Lisbon ; Andrew Debolt, at Mt. Holly, all sons- 


in-law of Amos Smith; Jacob Johnson, west of Mt. Holly, 1833; Seth Macy, 
one and a half miles of Johnson's (west) ; James Skinner, one mile west of 
New Lisbon; John Skinner, near his brother James; James Reeves, father of 
the Reeveses, one-half mile north of Skinner's; James Wickersham, one mile 

south of New Lisbon; Nickum, where Eli Mangas lives; Thomas 

Devor, one-half mile north of Allensville; John Thomson, north of Devor's; 
Jacobs, near Allensville, north of Afississinewa; Simmons, west, on Missis- 
sinewa ; James Porter, south of New Pittsburg ; Philip Storms had been at 
Mississinewa Crossing, but had gone away ; James Warren, near Middletown, 
one-half mile south; John \\'arren, three miles west of Middletown; William 
Warren laid out ^Middletown. 

I think these settlers had been here from two to five years. 

For awhile people used hand-mills to grind corn-meal. 

Air. Skinner had a mill, perhaps the first, in about 1840. It was a corn- 
cracker and stood a few years. 

Mr. Hinchy had a saw-mill and a corn-cracker one-half mile east of 
Allensville. - They stood a long time. 

Others, perhaps, had mills that I do not now call to mind. The Allens- 
ville mill was the first important and extensive mill in the region, and it is 
there now. 

The Indians (Wyandots) used to come and hunt on Gray's Branch, but 
they had mostly stopped coming there two or three years before I -came. A 
few came afterward. 

The first settlers did little but hunt. They thought the country would 
never be filled up, but would remain a superb hunting-ground. Settlers began 
to come in and go to clearing farms, and then they began, too, somewhat. 
Hunters would come through my clearing and say : 'Are you going to clear 
out a farm?' 'Yes, I thought I would.' 'W^ell, maybe that's the best way.' 
The land at first was a good deal wet; half of it stood in water much of the 
time. Clearing and draining has dried it out pretty well." 


"I entered 131 acres and bought, second-hand, 158 acres. I now own 
150 acres. We came in a four-horse wagon, cutting our own road from 
White River, ten or twelve miles, taking two days. 

A maH, Neselrode, had a cabin and we took the cabin. I paid for my 
land and had $50 left. There was a cabin or two stuck around in the woods 


between here and White River. We came the road to Maxville, thence to 
Fairview. I did but Httle hunting, since I could get plenty of deer hams for 
37^ cents a pair. I had to take a sled (I had a good team) to White River 
for corn, staying all night and till late next day. I bought the corn and got it 
ground on White River. Corn was 50 cents a bushel. I raised the first wheat 
in the settlement. I got a man to put in three acres for me, and when I. came, 
in October, the wheat was up and looked nice. The crop was sixty bushels. 

Flat-boats and pirogues were used to go down the river with pork, flour, 
apples, etc. One spring five boats went down loaded with charcoal. The 
boats were 'stove in' near here, and the coal was lost. The river was snaggy. 
One broke up in going over McKinney's mill-dam ; the others were 'stove in' 
before that. Searl, of Deerfield, owned the coal, and he was nearly broken up 
by the loss. They intended to take the coal to New Orleans (about 1840). 

We bought the trees for our orchard of Joab Ward, of Ridgeville, in 
1840. There were 120 budded trees, and they made a good orchard. We 
gave $9 a hundred, and we brought them down the river in a canoe. 

Mrs. Hubbard remembers seeing the soldiers at Chillicothe, guarding the 
British prisoners in the war of 1812. Her father had just moved from 
Pennsylvania, and he was poor, and her mother baked biscuits and pies, etc., 
for the soldiers, sometimes cooking all night to supply their wants. 

A Methodist quarterly meeting was held in our house before the floor 
was laid. The sleepers were used as seats. Afterward the children played 
holding meetings, singing, praying, preaching, etc., going through the whole 
exercise in quite a business-like manner." 


"We had a splendid spring in a 'gum' seven feet deep. We lived on the 
Sample Trace,' leading from Sample's mill, on White river, to.Lewallyn's 
mill on the Mississinewa. And our spring was a noted point. We came 
February 20, 1837. The snow had been deep. The waters were high, and, in 
crossing White River we lost a bunch of keys. We never expected to see our 
keys again, but some one found them, two or three years afterward, and they 
were returned to us, and we have the keys yet. My husband built a cabin on 
his land before we moved to it, and we lived in that cabin more than twenty 
years. He improved his own land somewhat, but he worked out a great deal, 
mowing, clearing, etc., on White river, in the older settlements. I wove, 
braided straw hats,s etc. 

1 XiMl- SnllIi-1' of llll' Wllili' l;i\Hl\ 

A Straifrlit Stretch 
Ne.'ir Ijiir-oln Scliuol 



New Dayton church was built in 1877, but the graveyard has been there 
forty years or more. 

The Methodists formed a society soon after we came, and meetings have 
been held, in dwellings, etc., from that day to this. 

There was no school for some years after our settlement began. The 
people were poor and 'hard run,' and lived far apart. 

William Wright taught once, and so did George McPherson. 

Asenath Wright taught school about 1840 in a little old cabin on Rees_e 
W^right's farm, that had been a dwelling. 

For fifteen years no teacher in this neighborhood could go beyond the 
'Single Rule' in 'Old Talbot,' 

George McPherson was an oddity in the school room. He would call 'to 
books,' sit down to read and let the school run itself. If anybody passed, the 
children would pop up and run to the window to see, and so on." 

[]\Irs. Sherman and her husband, Pardon Sherman, died in the winter 
of 1881-82, within a few weeks of one another, she going before her husband 
to try the realities of the unseen Spirit Land.] 


"David Robison and Peter Hoover were here when I came ; Ezekiel and 
George Gullett came when I did. The woods were alive with wolves and 
bears and turkeys and deer. We once killed two bears before breakfast. 
They came along down the furrows as we were passing back and forth. The 
dogs were called and they tried to catch the bears, chasing them and treeing 
them, and at length they were shot and killed. 

We used to go to Moffat's mill near Richmond. I entered forty acres 
of land and bought forty more." 

[Mr. Dixon died in the spring of 1881. ] 


"I followed brick-making in Cincinnati, also wood-sawing. I was un- 
fortunate and lost all my property and had to begin anew. I sawed wood for 
several years in Cincinnati. One day I sawed and handled ten cords, sawing 
it once in two, and tossing it into a cellar. I was not especially tired, and 
thought nothing particular about the matter." 

[Note. — I. H. E. is the best wood-sawyer and saw-sharpener I ever knew 
or heard of.] 


"I have been a church member for more than sixty-five years, and an 
exhorter and class-leader for thirty-five years. The religion of Christ has 
been a well&pring of joy to my sotil all that long time. I have had deep trials, 
but the Lord has given me triumph over all! I have taken every number of 
the Cincinnati Christian Advocate, now Vol. XLVII, No. 2,500, and before 
that the New York Advocate for several years. I have had abundance, and 
have been brought low ; but my treas^ire is in Heaven, and my heart is there 
also ; and soon, full soon, I shall see the King in His beauty, and He will give 
me the riches of the glory-land !" 

[Mr. Engle has moved to Jay county to reside with one of his sons, and 
his aged wife died there in the spring of 1882.] 


"The county was all woods. A few settlers were scattered here and 
there, but they had only cabins with small clearings that hardly made a 
'break' in the vast wilderness. 

Settlers when Philip Barger came here : 

Alexander Garringer, opposite Fairview, across the river; Martin Boots, 
opposite I^'airview, across the river. 

A Mr. Porter had lived where Fairview is, but he did not stay. Daniel 
Culver bought him out, and he had gone; Culver was living there when 
Barger came. 

Neselrode lived where Hubbard is now : Hubbard bought Neselrode out 
in 1837, and lives there still. 

Alexander Stevens settled in the east part of Green township in 1830. 

John Bone lived below Fairview (living still). 

Anthony (Wayne) McKinney came in 1837. 

His son, J. B. McKinney, lives now opposite Fairview, and owns 1,400 
or 1,500 acres of land. 

Nathan Godwin came in 1837. His son, Thomas Godwin, lives in Fair- 

John Garringer was here in 1836, where Baldwin now lives. 

Martin Smith bought Garringer out in the fall of 1836. 

Bennett King lived in the northwest corner of the county. He is father 
of William O. King, near Deerfield. Bennett King went to Missouri and is 
living there. 

Elijah Harbour lived west of Samuel Caylor's, fall of 1835. 


The Browns lived across the river ; Thomas Brown and three sons. 

Jonathan Green married a Brown. 

The Browns had been there two or three years when he came. They 
sold out to Zebulon Cantrell in 1839 and left for Iowa. 

Israel Wirt entered land south of the Browns about 1836, and moved 
fall of 1837. He died August, 1880, eighty-four years old. 

Tunis Brooks lived on Brooks' Prairie ; had been there two or three year?. 

Samuel Caylor, 1837. 

John Life came spring or summer of 1838. 

Fairview was begun in 1837. 

Alexander Garringer had a store across the river (at his cabin). 

The first mail route was from Deerfield to Granville, Delaware county, 
once in two weeks, out and back, on horseback. I got the fifth number of the 
Winchester Patriot [H. H. Neff], and have taken the paper from that office 
ever since. 

The first mill was built by Anthony McKinney on the river below Fair- 
view, where Wolverton's mill now stands. 

First he built a saw-mill, then he added a corn-cracker, then a grist-mill. 
He was putting in the dam in 1838. He started the saw-mill in 1839, the 
corn-mill in the fall, and the wheat-mill in 1841 or 1842. 

The first smith-shop was by Martin Boots ; he had a shop and was a smith 

Alexander Garringer had a smith shop, and Perry worked for him. 

First school was winter of 1837, in a little round log cabin near the 
bridge, on the river bank at Fairview. 

Horatio Pace was the teacher, and the school was very small. 

First meeting was before I came, perhaps in that round log schoolhouse. 

First meeting-house was a log house in Fairview (about 1839), Metho- 
dist Episcopal. 

About 1844 a quarterly meeting was held at Thomas Hubbard's. Their 
house was new and had no floor, and the sleepers were for seats. Bruce was 
the preacher. 

Methodist meetings used to be held at Nathan Godwin's. 

New Light meetings were held at Martin Smith's. 

Churches were afterward built at Fairview. 

The schoolhouse now standing is the third, log, frame, brick. 

The first brick house was either Samuel Caylor's or William Ore's. 

First brick-kiln was by Thomas Hubbard; 30,000 or 40,000; for chim- 
neys, $3 per thousand. 

356 Randolph county, Indiana. 

First reapers, J. B. McKinney and Philip Barger. Barger's started first. 
They were the Kirby reaper, 1855 o^" ^^S^- 

First threshing machine run was by Philip Stover, of Delaware county — 
'falling beater,' 'chafif piler.' He threshed first for old Elijah Harbour, and 
then for Philip Barger. 

First justice was John Garringer, 1838. They say he kept his docket on 
slips of paper, and stuck them in the cracks of his cabin. Nobody else could 
read them. After him were Jonathan Green and then Thomas Harbour. 

First grave in Fairview graveyard was that of an old lady, Mrs. Shirley, 
mother-in-law of Reuben Eppart. Mr. Godwin laid off the graveyard. 

Thomas Rowell was buried in what is now J. B. McKinney's pasture lot, 
but the exact place is unknown. It was before 1838. 

Elijah Harbour, though a clergyman and an excellent citizen, was also a 
great deer hunter. He has often shot them from his own cabin door. One 
night three wolves chased some deer round his house through the snow, mak- 
ing paths in the snow as they went round and round. 

The wolves were chased away, being followed down the river to Fair- 
view. But father Harbour would never molest the deer on the Sabbath, and 
the deer would come on Sunday and graze quietly on the prairie as though 
they knew they would not be harmed on that day. 

^Ir. Harbour was famous also for holding meetings for worship and- 
preaching, and many a Christian soul has been cheered by his warm and 
loving words and his fervent exhortations and prayers, and many a sinner 
convicted and converted through the blessing of the Spirit upon his earnest 
warnings and appeals. 

His funeral was attended by a very large concourse of people, showing 
thus their respect and esteem for so useful a citizen and so loving and ardent 
a Christian." 


"Deerfield was a small town with two little stores and a few log houses 

The settlers were (1838) Isaac Cherry, on David Harker's place; Sam- 
uel Bryson ; George Ritenour, near the old chapel on the river, west of Deer- 
field; Burkett Pierce, across the river, west of Deerfield. 

There were doubtless others, but there are not now recollected. I was a 
boy thirteen years old when father came to Randolph. There were a large 
family of us, and we had a hard, rough time. 

Father died the same year 1 was married, and mother was left with a 
family of seven or eight children, several of them being small and dependent. 


The family was raised successfully, however. All but one lived to be. mar- 
ried, and all but two are living still. Some of them are getting to be pretty 
well along in years.'' 


"Settlers in 1838: Daniel B. Miller, near Prospect; Abraham Harsh- 
man, near ^^''illiam Warren's; Reuben Harshman, Jackson township, now 
Union Ctiy; Jacob Harshman, Jackson township, dead; Andrew Key, Ward 
township, dead; James Porter, Jackson township, near Pittsburg; William 
Simmons, dead; James Simmons, dead; Joseph Lollar, near Saratoga, dead; 
Simeon Lucas, near Saratoga ; Joseph Lucas, near Saratoga ; Sam Emery near 
Jay county, very old, dead; George Chaneyvelt, one mile west of Pittsburg, 
dead; William Sizemore, near Middletown, nearly one hundred years old, 

There was an old settler, Mr. Nunamaker, at Pittsburg, eighty-four 
years old. He was a soldier in the war of 1812 and has received a pension 
for many years. He died in 1880." 


"i came to Randolph county, Indiana, in 1842, twenty-eight years after 
the first settlement. Prices then were almost nothing. Wheat was 25 cents 
in trade, 32 cents in Cincinnati. It had to be hauled in wagons through the 
mud — though there were some pikes in Ohio. 

Men would go with four-horse teams, hitch their horses before and be- 
hind the wagon to feed them and sleep in the wagon. I was offered pork 
(hogs weighing 200 pounds net) at 75 cents per 100 pounds, for money to 
pay taxes and I did not take it. Myself and wife went over to the Miami, 
helped butcher thirty-seven large hogs, cut the meat, chopped the sausage, 
stuffed them, rendered the lard and salted the pork. They gave us half a 
barrel of stuffed sausages, one large ham, one keg of lard, ribs, back-bones, 
etc., all we chose to carry home. We brought away meat enough to last till 
the next fall, all for two days' work of my wife and myself. 

William Hill, father of Aaron Hill (now living south of Arba), made a 
pestle-mill to pound hominy. He fenced it and ran it by horse-power, getting 
some custom. Another man having a corn-cracker, also made a pestle-mill 
but did not fence it. He would let the mill run itself. In pounding, some 
kernels would scatter out and sheep would come and pick it up. One day 
when the mill was 'going it all alone,' a flock of sheep came picking around 


till a big buck, smelling at the log, climbed up and stuck his head into the mill- 
hole. 'Crack!' came the pestle and knocked the buck dead. The sheep 
climbed up, one by one, till twenty-seven sheep lay dead around the mill and 
the owner of the mill (and this was the pith of the joke) had to pay for the 

Note. — I have given you the story as it was told. If any body doubts 
the tale I cannot help it. 

Aaron Hill's father used to work oxen and sometimes ride them. One 
day Aaron rode an ox over to Eli Overman's on an errand. (One version 
says he went courting.) Said Eli, 'Did thee ride?' 'Yes,' said Aaron. Said 
Eli to one of the boys,- 'Put up Aaron's beast.' The boy went out but came 
back, saying, 'I can't find any beast.' 'I thought thee said thee rode.' 'I did; 
I rode an ox,' piped out the bashful boy. 'Go turn it to the straw-stack,' said 

[Aaron says the stories on him are 'bogus.'] 

James Clark was once driving to Whitewater when a big walnut struck 
him on the back. He was fire-mad in a second, thinking somebody had struck 
him. He wheeled, crying out, 'Who did tjiat?' But 'nary man.' 

A man — Mr. Cartwright — coming from North Carolina, had heard of 
white walnuts and that they were good to eat. He set upon a lot of buckeyes 
and went to eating them. Some one asked him : 

'What are you eating?' 

'White walnuts. 

'Like them ?' 

'Not overly well, but think I will after awhile.' 

A young fellow whom I will not name, once went went to Fort Wayne 
with his brother and brother-in-law with provisions for the Indian trade. 
The roads were terrible through the bogs and the marshes. The young fellow 
— only a lad, as it were, and a mild, gentle lad at that — could not get his oxen 
through the swamps. 

His brother-in-law, a wild, rough, profane fellow, would come and whip 
and swear and thrash them through. 

Finally at a bad crossing the wild fellow told the boy he would not swear 
for him any more; that he must get through himself. The lad tried, but 
'no go.' 

'You must swear at them.' 

'I don't know how ; besides, I don't wish to.' 

'You must or stay here in the swamp,' was the unfeeling reply. 


The boy, grown desperate, seized his gad, swung it over the oxen's head, 
and laying on with fearful blows, broke out into a sort of half swearing, yell- 
ing as if the Indians were after him. The oxen went through, whether by 
the whipping or the yelling or the swearing. But the lad was so mortified 
that he offered the other all his truck money ($3.00 or so), if he would not 
tell of it. The fellow took the money and made the promise but broke his 
word and told of it before he got to Spartanburg and kept the money to boot." 

[Of course these tales, related by Mr. Kelly were obtained by him from 
early settlers since he himself came to the region at a comparatively late date, 
and it is no more than likeh' that they should have been stretched somewhat in 
the various tellings to which they had in the course of years been subjected.] 


■'At Canal Dover, Ohio, a merchant proposed that I be his clerk. I was 
surprised at the offer but 'took up' with it and held it till he sold out (two 
and a half years). At Union City I was putting up a store for Benjamin 
Hawkins. He bought goods at Cincinnati and came and put the bills into my 
hands, saying, 'When the goods come, I wish you to "open them out" and go 
to selling them.' I was astonished, for I was at the first of it, but I took him 
at his word and when the goods were 'hauled' from Greenville (for the rail- 
road was not in running order yet), I went to work. Afterward we agreed 
for my wages and I stayed with him for some years. But he left and I con- 
cluded to set up for myself. I chose the boot and shoe trade. I went to 
Cleveland and bargained for $800 or $900 worth ; I could pay only part cash. 
Said the dealer, 'That is a pretty large bill' ; 'yes, but I need them. If you 
prefer, I will let you take a note I have for a farm I sold ($550.00).' 'Well, 
leave it.' I did so; soon sold out, so as to need a new supply, sent cash in part 
payment of the debt and for the new stock and soon, when that note came 
due, he sent it to me to collect, which I did, and paid him. From that time 
I could always get whatever I wished. My store was the first of the kind 
in the city, and, of course, it is the oldest in the town. I carry now $10,000 
to $12,000 worth of goods, making large sales annually and have been mostly 
without a partner." 

Note. — His failing health and feeble strength made him take in a partner 
a few years ago and finally to sell out entirely in 1880, the firm being now 
Gordon & McKee, and still later Gordon & 



"We passed through Gumberland Gap; they hailed us, but allowed us to 
pass. At Cumberland Ford we encountered Zollicoffer's army. We asked 
to pass their lines. ZoUicoffer said, 'No; you may get through, perhaps, but 
not here.' I said, 'We will not harm you; we have property north and we 
wish to go to it.' But still he said, 'No.' So we turned back through the 
Gap into Powell Valley, taking a circuit of thirty-five miles. We crossed 
Cumberland Mountains by terrible roads. It was a whole day's travel over a 
track but little used. But we met no army nor any soldiers. There were 
eight wagons in company ; four stopped in Tennessee, turning aside to a settle- 
ment of Friends there. These stayed in Tennessee till spring. The other 
four wagons came directly forward through Kentucky. 

We crossed the Ohio river at Madison. People welcomed us in a very 
friendly manner, one old blind man remarkably so. The people wished to 
make a dinner for us but we could not stop. We stayed an hour or two and 
when we started we found in each wagon nice things — pies, caKes, etc., as 
tokens of good will. There were about twenty persons in the company, my 
family having seven in number. We came through Rush county, Indiana, 
to see relatives there, then to West River, where we stayed two months at 
Absalom Dennis.' Afterward we came to Mark Diggs', arriving there in 
January. The main trip took us seven weeks. We got through safe and 
sound, thankful to find at last a quiet haven afar from storm and tempest, 
and a peaceful home among friends in a land of safety." 

"Away from slavery." That refrain has been sung for three-quarters 
of a century and solemnly, mournfully marching to its steady chorus has been 
the ceaseless movement of the endless column, leaving the southern plains and 
valleys, crossing the mountain heights and threading the yawning "gaps," 
crossing the beautiful river and spreading itself at length like a fertilizing 
flood over the virgin Western plains. What wonder that, under the weakening 
power of this depletive process the Southern land should become enfeebled 
and decrepit, as though worn out with deadly infirmity. This avalanche of 
human beings poured in a limitless flow upon these wide-spread plains has 
been like the vital current giving life to the new created body politic. And 
what we have gained they have lost, and what a loss ! Why may the process 
now not be reversed — that as the mighty virgin West once received her life 
and strength through the emigration thither of the best and worthiest of the 
dwellers in the Southern clime, so now the West may, now and in future years, 


give back to the depleted and enfeebel South, depleted by a process of im- 
poverishment extending through several generations and enfeebled and well- 
nigh exhausted by a long and bloody and disastrous war — by hundreds and 
by thousands — the worthy and vigorous descendants of the sturdy pioneers 
who fled years ago from the plague and curse of the Southern land — the 
institution of human slavery? Slavery is gone and the emptied and im- 
poverished South-land cries out to the wealthy and populous" North and the 
hardy and vigorous West to send from their abundant and overflowing 
population to restore her waste and desolte places and to renew the prosperity 
of the elder, ancient time. 



When the first white settlers entered the boundaries of what is now 
Randolph county, there were no roads, not even trails, except one or two made 
by the Indians in their travels from one village to another. The principal 
Indian village in eastern Indiana was at "Mont-See-Town," where the city 
of Muncie now stands. Another was near Camden, Jay county, and the 
third colony was in or near Greenville, Ohio. The trails that crossed the 
county led from Mont-See-Town to Greenville and from Greenville to God- 
froy's, near Camden. The Mont-see-town — Greenville trail was traveled 
more than the other, because the Delaware Indians of Mont-See-Town and 
Strawtown (now Anderson) went to Greenville to receive the bounty which 
the government paid them after the Treaty of Peace in 1795 at that place. 
This trail crossed the county somewhere near Windsor, Huntsville, Spring- 
borough and South Bartonia. This, of course, is only approximate, as no 
definite records of this trail have been left by either record or tradition. 
Jesse Way, one of our earliest settlers, claimed that Springborough was 
south of the trail. Jere Smith claimed that the trail passed near Spring- 
borough. Each of these men were thoroughly familiar with the early times, so 
we see that a definite location of this trail is impossible. Relative to this 
subject. Tucker says: "On the third road (Winchester to Bloomingsport) is 
a point of some interest, Joseph Gass." Mr. Smith says : "His house stood 
on the north side of a brushy prairie in Section 29, Town 19, Range 14, some 
three miles north of Bloomingsport. He built there in early days on teh main 
Indian trail between Muncie (an Indian town at that time) to Greenville, 
where the Indian annuities were paid from Wayne's treaty in 1795 to 1815 or 
181 6, at which time the place of payment was changed from Greenville to 
Fort Wayne. The Indians traveled from Muncie (which they called Mont- 
see-town) up White river on the south side till they crossed Prairie creek at 
its mouth. They then took a 'bee line' for Greenville, which none but an 
Indian can do. The trail passed north of Huntsville and Spartanburg, and 
was about as straight as a surveyor could have made it. The trace was quite 
a plain one and was much traveled even by whites in those days. 


"Joseph Gass was a brother of the Gass who went with Lewis and Clarke 
across the continent to the mouth of the Columbia river (1805-07), and who 
published a journal which he kept on that expedition. Joseph Gass built and 
settled on that trace at that point when there was no white settler from six 
miles west of Greenville to 'JMont-see-town,' and he lodged travelers who 
passed on that trace, and hence his house was a noted place to mention on 
the route of that road. Mr. Smith says he had often seen him and the house 
he built there. 

"The town of Springboro was afterward laid out February 15, 1834, at 
the point where J oseph Gass lived, but the towii was not a success, and it is 
now extinct. 

"j\lr. Gass probably settled there before he entered his land. He was 
there when the 'Way Company' came through from Carolina to White River, 
March, 1817. But the date of his land entry is August 11, 1817. How mucii 
earlier than March, 181 7, Air. Gass settled at that place we are not able to 
state. He seems to have been one of that enterprising class cjuite common in 
those days, whose activity took the form of trading with the Indians, which, 
perhaps, might have been well enough except that it often included the prac- 
tice of selling strong drink to the poor redmen. That business, whether 
among white men or Indians, however lucrative it may be to the trader, 
brings evil and only evil to him who uses the fearful fluid. And as now, so 
of old, the traffic in strong drinks was one great source of trouble between 
the settlers and the savages. A sober Indian was commonly peaceable but a 
drunken savage was an object of fear and dread. 

"However, in those days, the manufacture of intoxicating liquors and 
the traffic in them was not regarded as otherwise than proper and honorable." 
The otiier trail crossed the county through Jackson and Ward townships, 
but, like the other, left no impression upon the minds of the early settlers 
sufficiently to identify." 

The early roads were nothing more than trails, traveled almost exclu- 
sively by men afoot or on horseback, and marked by blazes made upon the 
trees by scouting parties. Naturally, these parties would follow the lines of 
least resistance, traveling the hign ground, thus avoiding swamps and cross- 
ing the streams at the easiest fords, which oftentimes necessitated irregular 
paths to get to these fords. These trails naturally led from one settlement to 
another, which would make them run in all directions, as no attention what- 
ever was paid to section lines, or would lead from some community to a mill 
or to a church. 


One of the first, and perhaps the first regular trail through the county, 
was what is known as "The Quaker Trace." This was a direct route from 
Richmond to J^ort Wayne, and being the first established trail through the 
county, gained a reputation that made it the county's first thoroughfare. Of 
this trace. Squire Bowen sa3\s : 

"The 'Quaker Trace' was begun in 1817. James Clark and twenty-five 
or thirty others took three wagons with provisions and a surveyor with his 
compass and chain and measured distances and blazed trees and marked mile 
trees, cutting out the road wide enough for a wagon to pass. They wound 
around ponds and big logs and trees, and quagmires, forded the Mississi- 
newa and the Wabash, and so on to Fort Wayne. James Bowen went as one 
of the company twenty-five miles to beyond the Mississinewa crossing, till 
one wagon load had been used up. That team returned, and James came 
back with them. The route passed through Arba, Spartanburg, Bartonia, 
South Salem (west of) Union City, through Mount Holly, through Allens- 
ville, crossing the Mississinewa just north of that place, through North 
Salem, and crossing the Wabash at Jay City, Jay county, near Corydon. 
There was but one house between (what is now) Dan Comer's, one mile north 
of Spartanburg and Fort Wayne, viz., at Thompson's Prairie, eight miles 
north of the Wabash." 

This is said to be the only thoroughfare of any consequence whatever in 
the counvy up until May, 1819. Of course, many paths led from one settler's 
home to another, but these were simply private paths and no more. 

At an early meeting of the county commissioners in 1819, perhaps in 
March, ('not definitely known, because no date appears in the record,) the 
county commissioners made the following record : "Jesse Johnson presented 
the petition of himself and Sundry Inhabitants of the south end of Randolph 
County Praying that a Public Road may be laid off -Begining at the town 
of Winchester, thence Nearest and Best way to go Between Jesse Johnson 
an Paul Beard, thence Nearest and Best Way to the County line at the south- 
west Corner of Section 14 in Township 18 and Range 14. Ordered that 
Francis Frazer, James Wright and William Plockett are appointed to lay off 
and Mark .Said Road and make Return of their Proceedings to the Board of 
Commissioners at their next session to be held for said County." It is cer- 
tainly to be hoped that Jesse and Paul stood still the day the viewers were 
there to go between them. The viewers performed their duty and reported 
at the May term, of 1819, to the county commissioners, as they make the fol- 
lowing report : "Received the Report of Francis Frazier and William Hock- 


ett, who were appointed to Lay off and mark a Publick Road from the town 
of Winchester to Between Jesse Johnsons & Paul Beards, etc." This road 
followed in a general way the present Lynn pike, but, of course, was crooked, 
angling and "zigzaggy." But with all the latitude offered for judgment and 
discretion, the viewers failed to satisfy all those interested, as is shown by the 
record of the same date, as follows : "and on the Remonstrance of Albert 
Banta Stating that the Way the said Road is laid off and Marked through his 
land will be Injurious to him. Ordered that John Balanger, John William 
Haworth, Joshua Cox and Henry Hill are appointed to Review Said Road 
through the land of Albert Banta and assess the damages if Any that may be 
due to said Banta and the said Viewers are to meet for that Purpose on the 
last Saturday in June Next at the house of said Banta and make Report of 
their Proceedings to the Board of Commissioners at their August term 
Xext." The viewers completed the work assigned them, and evidently did 
not agree with Banta concerning the damages, for in the August term we find 
the following entry; "Reed the Report of John Way, Joshua Cox and 
Henry Hill, who were appointed to Review that Publick Road laid off 
through Albert Bantas Land and assess the Damages, &c.. Who Report that 
there is no damages Sustained By the said Banta." The road was estab- 
lished and the commissioners "Ordered that Paul Baird be supervisor of the 
Road laid off By Francis Frazer and William Hockett Through Greensfork 
Township." (Greensfork township at that time extended two miles west of 
^vhere Lynn now is). This road, of course, was no exception and wound in 
and arfjund hills where the path could easiest be made. It had not been used 
a great while until changes and alterations were a.sked for. But even these 
changes and alterations were very indefinite, but. no doubt, were made to suit 
the needs of the time. Just how indefinite they were is shown by the follow- 
ing report of the May term of 1834: 'In obedience to an order to us di- 
rected; from the commissioners Court, March term, 1834. to view and mark 
out an alteration in the Fort Wayne road, commencing where the said road 
crosses the south line of Richard Corbit; thence nearly north a Strait direc- 
teon in a few rods of his fince, thence east 18 or 20 rods to the old road 
through the lane to the north end of Sd lane, thence a Strait course to the 
prairee branch about 2 or 3 rods west of where the old road crosses Sd 
Branch, thence a Strait course & nearly north a few rods north a Malachi 
Nichols house, thence East 18 or 20 rods to the old road, intersecting said 
road where the said Nichols line crosses Sd. road, and we the commission- 
ers after viewing the above named ground, believe the ground better than 


the ground where the old road now goes also we think it will be as conven- 
ient for the public, and as to the distance there will be but little if any dif- 
ference, this 2nd May, 1834. (Signed) Isaac Wood, Jeremiah Horn, Will- 
iam Hill. And ordered that said road be opened a necessary width not ex- 
ceeding 40 feet and made in all other respects convenient for the passage 
of travellers." It was straightened south of Lynn in 1849 and from Lynn, 
north. The last change was made on the farm now owned by Zimri Hin- 
shaw in 1847. Evidences of the old road still exist on Mr. Hinshaw's farm, 
as the old house and barn on the south side of this farm were built parallel 
to the old road and are still standing in that position. 

It will be noticed not only in the records of Randolph county, but in the 
state records as well, as we shall show later, that Winchester was the starting 
point for many roads. Settlers were entering the county very rapidly, which 
necessitated many new roads being formed. Great activity in that line is 
shown, as no less than three roads which eventually became real thorough- 
fares, were petitioned for in the August term, 1819. It will be noticed that 
upon the receipt of a petition, the commissioners appoint viewers to "lay off 
and mark said road and fix the time of their report to the commissioners." 
The second, third and fourth roads petitioned for, together with the disposi- 
tion made of such petitions, will illustrate the usual form of such petitions 
and methods of their disposal. "Reed the Petition of sundry Inhabitants of 
Randolph Praying a Publick Road may be laid off leading from the town of 
Winchester of said County Directly West as near the Middle of Section 
19-24-23, &c. as suitable Ground Can be an to the Indiana Boundary with 
an offset of 28 rod North a few rod West of Henry H. Ways Dividing hedge, 
thence west on the line between said Ways and John Samples to the Boundry. 
Ordered that Judge John Wright, John Wright Senr, and Henry H. Way 
Lay off and Mark Said Road and Report to the Board of Commissioners at 
November term, 1819. Reed the Petition of sundry Inhabitants of Ran- 
dolph County praying that a Publick Road may be laid off from the town 
of Winchester in said County the nearest and Best Way to go west of Joseph 
Guess and East of Jonathan Hoskins and on the West side of William 
Hocketts farm and on the best and suitabest Direction to the County line of 
Wayne one mile East of the thirteenth Range line. Ordered that Joseph 
PTockett, Jonathan Edwards and Nathaniel Kase lay off and Mark said 
Road and Report to the Commissioners at November term 18 19. Reced the 
Petition of simdry Inhabitants of Randolph County Greensfork Township 
Praying that the Road Known by the name of the Lawrenceburg Road may 


be Continued from the house of Ephraim Overman to the house of WiUiam 
Yates and that Overseers may be appointed to lay off and mark said Road. 
Ordered that Ephraim Overman, Junr. and David Boivel, sen. lay off and 
mark said Road and Report to the Commissioners at November term 1819." 
The second road is what is known now as the Windsor pike from Winches- 
ter to a point north of the Lincoln school. The third road is what is known 
as the Bloomingsport pike, and the fourth road is the road north through 
Arba, as Ephraim Overman lived near Arba and William Yates lived north- 
west of Spartanburg on the north half of section 9, township 16, range i. 

In November, 1819, the southwest part of the county began to petition 
for roads as follows : "Reed the Petition of Sundry Inhabitants of Greens- 
fork Township Praying that a Public (Road) may be laid off Beginning at the 
line of Wayne County where the Jacksonburg Road Intersects the same, 
thence by Way of William Smiths the nearest and best Way to the town of 
Winchester. William Blunt, William Smith and Paul W. Way are appointed 
to lay off and mark said Road according to Law." These roads and others 
later petitioned for, connected with the Jacksonburg road, so named because 
it lead to Jacksonburg, a small town in Wayne county. White River town- 
ship was not organized until after these roads had been petitioned for, hence 
Greens fork township is the name used in these petitions. West River town- 
ship was. petitioned for during the same session of the commissioners that 
the fifth and sixth roads were petitioned for. 

The sixth road was an irregular affair, which proved to be very unsatis- 
factory and was vacated in 1833, when a change was made in the Winchester 
and New Castle road. The seventh road, petitioned for in February, 1820, 
is what is known as the "Pocket Road," and was "laid off begining where 
the road from the town of Winchester to Jesse Johnsons 8z:c Crosses the 
Congressional Township line between Township Nineteen and twenty, thence 
the neareist and Best Way that a Road Conveintly Can be made to the state 
line Where the Road from Greenville Intersects the same." The eighth road, 
petitioned for in February, 1820, went in a northeasterly direction, as is 
shown by the petitioned record, as follows : "Reed the Petition of sundry 
Inhabitants of Randolph praying that a Road may be laid off from the town 
of Winchester and to Run thence to James Masseys and to intersect near fort 
recovery With the St. maries Road the nearest and best Way. Ordered that 
Richard Beason, James Wright and James Massey Lay off and Mark said 
Road and Report to May term, 1820." James Massey lived in what is now 
Ward township, W. S. W. 11, 21, 14. This road was afterward abandoned. 


The ninth road was petitioned for in May, 1820, and was to run from Sam- 
ple's mill, located on the northwest quarter of section 22, township 20, range 
13, south to Huntsville. The tenth road was petitioned for in May, 1820, 
and was to run from Winchester to John Foster's. Mr. Foster lived on the 
Griffis farm, on section 25, township 17. range i, Wayne township. This 
land was entered in 181 7 by Mr. Chenoweth. About this time the state had 
begun a policy of constructing thoroug^hfares throughout the entire state. 
Canals were built in many parts of the state, but none touched Randolph 
county. This part of the state was provided for in two ways; by the open- 
ing and building of public highways and by the maintaining of open water- 
ways. The first road provided for by state legislation was what is now 
known as the Bloomingsport pike. This road was provided for on the 22d 
of January, 1820, and was to run from Lawrenceburg, on the Ohio, to 
Brookville, Franklin county, Connersville, Fayette county, Waterloo, Wayne 
county, Centerville, AVayne cotmty, to Winchester. Three commissioners, 
of whom John AVright, of Randolph county, was one, were appointed to over- 
see the construction of the road. It was to be built by the nearest and best 
way and not to be over seventy feet wide. The extreme width allowed for 
was the importance that the state attached to this road as a thoroughfare. 
In fact, this was to be the principal road of eastern Indiana, and connected 
the civilization along the Ohio river to that of the northern part of the state, 
namely : Lawrenceburg to Fort AA'avne. This road, however, was never 
built as a state road through Randolph county, although the state provided 
later on for its construction from AA^inchester to Fort AA^ayne, and named 
Charles Conway as the commissioner. On December 31, 1821, a law was 
approved providing for an east and west road known ai the AA'inchester and 
Indianapolis state road. This law provided "that -a road from the Ohio line 
dividing this state from Ohio from a direction from Greenville, in said state, 
to AAlnchester, to intersect the Richmond road to a point not exceeding 
twenty miles from Indianapolis, in length sixty miles, be, and the same is 
hereby established and that the sum of $2,672.56 be, and the same is hereby 
appropriated to the opening of the same, and that Joshua Foster, John AA'ay 
and Ishem Puckett, of Randolph county, be, and they are hereby appointed 
commissioners on said mad." These commissioners were further given the 
right to exercise their discretion in the location and building of all bridges. 
~Slr. Puckett failed to serve as commissioner and Jesse Aloorman was ap- 
pointed in his place. These men made their report January 10, 1823. Of 
this road and its making, -Air. Jere Smith says: 


"In ]\Iay, 1820, \ie\vers were appointed to mark out a road from Win- 
chester to the state line, near Foster's (Griffis farm). The road was re- 
ported and established in August, 1820. John Coates was made supervisor 
from ^^'inchester to the ford of \A'hite river, and Wmos Peacock from 
\\"hite river to the state line. In 1822 or 1823 the Legislature authorized 
the laying of a state road from the state line near Foster's, through Win- 
chester to Indianapolis. Joshua Foster, John Sample and John Way were 
appointed commissioners to la)- the road, They took Paul W. Way for their 
surveyor, and started from Foster's to run to Winchester. But they ran too 
much south, so they made a 'bend' to the north before reaching White river. 
But being still too far south they veered again northward, west of George 
Hyatt's, and came in at the end of Broad (now Washington) street and ran 
on that street through Winchester. Then diverging to the south till they got 
opposite (west of) the middle of the public square in Winchester, they struck 
west on the route of the present state road (pike now) to the west side of the 
county. Thence down White river (south side) to Old Town (Indian 
town) six miles above Muncie, thence down the river by Anderson, Straw- 
town, etc., to Indianapolis. The county road from the state line west to 
^^'inchester was merged in this state road." 

Other interesting stories are told concerning this road. It is said that 
when the viewers were "marking and laying out the road," the pioneer 
viewer, the one who went ahead to direct the blazers, carried a cowbell, 
which he would ring when he had decided on a certain route. The blazers 
would then travel toward the sound, blazing the trees as they went. It is 
said that the variance in direction, of which Mr. Smith speaks, was due to 
the fact that the blazers failed to locate the cowbell and that the bend in this 
road just out of Winchester is the result of such error. But this story, like 
many others, lias to be taken with a grain of salt. 

This state road was eventually built but was cared for by the county. 
Joshua Foster served on this board until his removal from the county in 
1826, Avhich made it necessary to appoint a new commissioner. This was 
done during the May term by the board of Justices, who "proceeded to Elect 
a commissioner to fill said vacancy, whereupon counting Ballots it appeared 
that John Nelson is duly Elected State road commissioner as aforesaid." 
Mr. Nelson served only two years, when his successor, John Sample, was 
elected. (July term, 1828.) It will be seen from the above that Mr. Smith's 
statement is not in accordance with the records, as the form of the report of 


the viewers and the disposition of the report by the commissioners, is shown 
by the following record of the report on road No. 2. "John Wright Senr. 
John Wright and Henry H. Way, who were appointed to lay off and mark 
a Public Road from the town of Winchester west to the Indian Boundry line 
Report that they performed that Duty according to order. John Wright senr. 
is hereby appointed Supervisor of said Road and all the hands in Whiteriver 
Township south of Whiteriver and West shugar Creek includeing David 
Wright and David Stout Except Ezekiel Williams Do Work on Said Road." 
This road gave a great deal of trouble, especially west of Winchester, due to 
the swampy conditions of the ground. It is said that at one time there was 
no less than one mile of continuous causeway of corduroy in this road. 
John Wright, the first supervisor, paid but very little attention to the build- 
ing of this road, but, perhaps, he paid all the attention that could be paid 
b}' anyone at that time. That he did something, is shown by the following 
report: "Reed, the Report of John Wright, supervisor, Stateing that he had 
performed his duty and that all the hands had performed their service accord- 
ing to Law Except William Haworth son of George who is Delinquent four 
days." The commissioners evidently did not intend that Mr. Haworth should 
escape, because they immediately "Ordered that William Haworth son of 
George be supervisor in the Place of John Wright and that the hands south 
of said Road and west of Shugar Creek to the 13 Range line thence north 
with said Range line of Whiteriver Township thence west to the Boundry 
thence south with the Boundry line to Eight mile Creek thence up said Creek 
to the line of Whiteriver Township line thence a Direct line to where said 
Road Crosses the 13th Range line do work on said Road and order Issued." 
Just how long Haworth served can not be known, as the county records from 
February, 1821, to November, 1825, are lost, but Wright was reappointed. 
Later, when the road had been extended by the state, Littleberry Diggs was 
appointed supervisor in the place of John Wright on the state road' "from 
the town of Winchester west to the 14 Mile Stake." This stake was located 
about two miles west of Winchester. The road had in the meantime been 
divided into sections of a certain number of miles each 'indicated by mile 
stakes. This road, like all the early roads, has been changed and straight- 
ened many times. The first change was petitioned for on Tuesday, Novem- 
ber 14, 1820, the record of which is : — "Reed, the petition of Sundry Inhabi- 
tants of Whiteriver Township praying that from the Town of Win- 
chester west may be so altered as to tern North between Henry Way and John 
Sample Eighteen poles Thence west by said Samples house to the Boundry 


line of the twelve mile Purchase Which is Granted and Paul W. Way, John 
Sample and Robinson Mclntire appointed to lay off and mark said Road and 
Report to February term, 1821, and Order Issued." This board of viewers 
reported as instructed, the record of which is made in the February term of 
1 82 1, as follows: "Reed, the Report of Paul W. Way and Others who Were 
appointed to lay off and mark the Road from the house of Henry Way 
through the lane Bearing Eighteen poles North thence west by the way of John 
Samples to the Boundry line of the twelve mile Purchase and Ordered that 
the Supervisor work on said Road the way that it was last laid off." Strange 
to say, one of the latest, if not the last, change in this road, was made at the 
same place where the first change was made. This change is where the road 
angled suddenly to the northwest in the middle of section 22, township 20, 
range 13, east, where the house of Elmer Franklin now stands. The first 
change reported by Mr. Way, caused the road to leave the present road at a 
point near the east line of section 22, where the road runs south. From, this 
point it angled in an almost direct line to the turn just north of the middle of 
the section. The last change was made abou^ 1852. This was one of the 
most traveled roads of the county, because of the western emigration, and 
it is said that the travel on it at, almost equals that of the National road. 

The eleventh road, petitioned for in August, 1820, was "laid off Begin- 
ing at the south End of the main Street West of the Public Square in the 
town of Winchester thence along said street and in a Direction towards Fort 
Wayne to the North Boundry of the twelve mile Purchase." This road was 
more commonly called the Winchester and Ridgeville road or by some-, the 
Winchester and Addington's Mill road. This road followed the Deerfield 
pike to the crest of the hill north of White river, thence in a northwesterly 
directon to Ridgeville. One small section of this road still exists near Stone 
Station, and another section, which was a continuation of this road, exists 
northwest of Ridgeville. Sample's Mill was the principal objective point of 
travel at this time. The tenth road passed it, running'east and west, the ninth 
road ran south, and the next, or twelfth road, petitioned for in May, 1825, 
was to run from Sample's mill to Lewallyn's mill, which was at Ridgeville. 

The twelfth road, petitioned for in May, 1825, was from the southeast 
corner of section 35, township 16, range i west, to Obadiah Small's. The 
point of beginning was on the county line, two miles east of Arba and Obe- 
diah Small owned the land where Spartanburg now stands. This road is 
thought to be the one that used to run from Bethel, Wayne county, by "pin- 
hook," Charles Crist's and Jeremiah Middleton's to Spartanburg. This road 


is now abandoned. No doubt, many roads had been petitioned for and es- 
tablished, the records of which are contained in the book that has been lost. 

We note that in the May term, 1826, "Nathan Hockett is appointed 
Supervisor on Hockett's road from the line of Wayne Cotmty to Joseph 
Gass old place and also on the Road .that passes by cherry grove meeting 
house that lies in Westriver Township." "Benjamin Luallen is appointed 
Supervisor on Luallens road from the ling Dividing Township Whiteriver and 
Ward and all the hands in Luallens Settlement including Kizers Settlement 
Except those attached to oldhams District do work on said road." 

The next road, which we shall call the fourteenth, proved to be a road 
of a great deal of importance. Just when it was petitioned for is not known, 
but in May, 1826, the following record is made: "Reed, the Report of 
^Villiam Massey, Daniel B. Miller & John Odle. who were appointed to view 
and mark a public road from the State line in a Direction from Greenville 
in the State of Ohio to Luallens mill on Missessinewa Stating that they had 
performed that service whereupon William Odle is appointed Supervisor on 
said road from Luallens ^lill to William Masseys Creek and ordered that all 
the hands in Ward Township from Burkett Peirces to the East and west line 
of the School Section in Township 21 do work on said road. Daniel B. 
iMiller is appointed Supervisor on the Road from Luallens mill towards 
Greenville from William Masseys creek to the .State line and that all the 
hands in Ward Township East of the School Section in Township 21 do 
work on said Road." Of this road, Mr. Jere Smith says : 

/'September, 1825, a road was reported beginning at the Greenville road 
northwest from Greenville (Connor's old trace to his trading post) by Daniel 
B. ]\liller's to Lewallyn's mill. This was not opened and worked till 1832. 
February 2, 1832, the Legislature passed an act appointing Daniel B. Miller 
commissioner to lay out a state road from the state line (same point as the 
thirteenth roadl to Parson's mill, thence to Lewallyn's mill, thence to inter- 
sect the Miamisport road, near Sanders', in Delaware county. Judge Miller 
appointed me surveyor, and in August or September, 1832, we began the 

"We started where Connor's trace crossed the state line, a little north 
of Union City, went nearly straight to the east side of Deerfield, thence to 
Parsons" mill, half mile below Deerfield, thence to Lewallyn's mill, near 
RidgevilJe, thence onward beyond Emmettsville, keeping in a straight line 
to Sanders' in Delaware county, passing north of Fairview. The county road 
from the state line to Lewallyn's mill was merged in this state road. The 


road remains substantial!}' as we laid it out, having on -it Middletown, Deer- 
field, Ridgeville and Emmettsville." 

This road crossed the Mississinewa river near the Reitenour Cemetery, 
at the cabin of Burkett Pierce, going from there directly where Ridgeville 
now is. 

The next road of record is in Alay, 1826, and is certainly a very peculiar 
record, and is as follows : "Reed, the petition of Sundry inhabitants of this 
county praying that a Public road may be laid off beginning at Hocketts 
road about j4- of a mile North of Guesses, thence leading Down Sugar creek 
by the Likinses and D. Heastons, thence to the widow Pucketts lane by 
Dunkirk meeting house and on to the Southwest corner of Wm. Ways field, 
thence .along the west side of said field to intersect the State road in meri- 
dian Street in the Town of Varnon. John Likins, David Heaston & Tarlton 
Moorman are appointed to view and mark said road and Report to July term, 

The next road of record is in May. 1827, and ran from Dalton, Wayne 
county, through Losantville to Windsor. 

Our sympathies are certainly with Curtis Clenney, Thomas Hester and 
William Peacock, whose duty it became to "lay out and mark" the following 
road in November, 1827: "Received the petition of sundry inhabitants of 
Randolph County praying that a Public road may be laid out beginning at the 
road leading from Richmond to Winchester at the line between Obadiah 
Harris and John Moorman, thence the nearest and best way to William 
Connors, thence the nearest and best way to Hezekiah Hocketts, thence 
through Samuel Sm.iths lane, thence to the end of Thomas Phillips lane, 
thence to the Meeting house near William Hunts." 

For some reason the viewers did not report at the January term, 1828, 
as instructed, but made their report in the May term of said year, and 
Thomas Phillips was appointed supervisor on the road through White River 
township. This road was extended in September, -1828, as is shown by fol- 
lowing record, November, 1828 : "Jonah Heaton, Bazaleel Hunt and David 
Vestal, who were appointed to view and mark a public road from the meet- 
ing house near William Hunt the nearest and best way so as to pass some 
where near Joseph Rooks then the nearest and best way to the line dividing 
Randolph and Delaware counties in a direction towards Moncey town, now 
verbally report that they have performed that servise it is therefore ordered 
that the same be cut out as a public road or highway." 

In January, 1830, another characteristic petition was received as fol- 


lows : "Received the petition of Sundry citizens of Randolph county pray- 
ing that a public Road may be laid out beginning at the west end of Heze- 
kiah Hocketts lane the nearest and best way to the Wayne line at the South- 
east corner of ]\Iartindales dedning. Which is granted, and Isaiah Rodgers, 
James Smith and David Frazier are appointed to view and mark said roa<l 
and Report to this Board at March term 1830." 

In November, 1830, the commissioners "Received the petition of Elijali 
Arnold and others praying for a public foad to be laid off beginning at the 
Xorth end of Wm. Smiths lane the nearest and best way to Jonathan Cleav- 
engers on Rooks old place." Jeremiah Smith, Joshua Beer and Elijah Ar- 
nold were appointed to view and mark said road. 

In March, 1831, John Wilson and others 23etitioned for a road "be- 
ginning at the Richmond road at or near John Moorman Sr. S. E. corner the 
nearest and best way to Arby meeting house, thence the nearest & best way to 
the State of Ohio line which is granted." 

In ^lay, 1831, Samuel Jackson, William Davidson and William Pea- 
cock were appointed to view and mark a road, the record of which is as fol- 
lows : "Received the petition of Sundry citizens of Randolph county praying 
that a public road may be laid out Beginning at the South west corner of 
Samuel Smiths fence, thence the nearest best way to crossway south of Sam- 
uel Jacksons, thence the nearest and best way to the new road at the north 
end of William Smiths lane." 

In September, 183 1, a cartway was petitioned for, from Winchester 
across the ford of White river to Sample's mill. The distinction between a 
cartway and a road seems to be a difference in width, a cartway being what 
is ordinarily called a lane. ^lany roads of local importance only were peti- 
tioned for at each session of the legislature. 

In January, 1832, another very interesting road record was made, as 
follows: "This day the petition of A^'i!liam Peacock and others was ptib- 
lickly read And John Boroughs, Jesse Johnson and David :Moore are ap- 
pointed to view and mark a publick road beginning at the west end of Heze- 
kiah Hocketts lane from thence on the open line south of Samuel Smith's 
fence until it intersects ihe road leading from Johnson's mill to Sample's mill 
from thence the nearest and best way through Joseph Hollingsworth's lane, 
from thence the nearest and best way until it intersects the road leading from 
Economy to Winchester at or near Jackson"s perarie and report to the next 
term of this board." 

There seems to have been no definite records made of the location of 


roads by any survey tintil 1832. During that year Jere Smith was at that 
time surveyor, and recorded his "field" notes of that part of the state road, 
leading from \A'^inchester to New Castle, which lies in Randolph county, 
Indiana. This was a state road. In October of the same year he filed his 
"field" notes of that part of the state road leading from Richmond to Fort 
Wayne, which lies in Randolph county, and the territory attached to it. 

It will be interesting to note that this road went "to the township line 
between township 25 and 26 north, near the one-half mile stake on the south 
side of section 32 of township 26., range 14, it being the north line of the 
territory attached to Randolph county." This township line passes through 
the present town of Berne, and the one-half mile stake referred to is just 
east of that town. 

On N^ovember 16, 1832. Mr. Smith filed his "field" notes of that part 
of the state road, leading from the Ohio state line to Saunders', which lies in 
Randolph county and the territory attached to it. This is the road of which 
Air. Smith speaks, as running "from the state line to Parson's mill, thence to 
Lewallyn's mill, thence to intersect the Miamisport road near Saunders' in 
Delaware County." From that time on all state roads were surveyed and 
the surveys made a matter of record. 

The early roads were petitioned for, largely to meet local conditions. 
Afterward, many of these same roads were taken up by the state and made 
state roads. For example, the Winchester and Addington's Mill road, peti- 
tioned for in 1820, was taken up by the state in 1839, and was known as the 
"State Road," from Winchester, Randolph county, via Ridgeville, Randolph 
county, Mt. Pleasant and Camden, in Jay county, to Bluffton, the county 
seat of Wells county. The road one mile west of Farmland was taken up by 
the state in 1840, and was known as the Hagerstown and Camden road. The 
Jesse Johnson-Paul Beard road became a part of the Richmond and Fort 
Wayne road. Many roads that were of importance have since been aband- 
oned, because of the building of other roads. The Steubenville and Win- 
chester road, which angled from Steubenville to Maxville, has long since 
disappeared, as has another road in the same part of the county, known as 
the Rockingham road, which leads from Rockingham, Green township, to 
Winchester, merging into the Steubenville and Winchester road. The road 
granted in 1840, running "to Jericho meeting house, from thence to the most 
approved route to White River meeting house." has long since disappeared, 
as has also the road approved in February, 1841, known as the road joining 
the Cherry Grove meeting house, Byum meeting house and Arba meeting 


house, "commencing on the Williamsburg and Winchester road, in Section 
3, thence East by Cherry Grove meeting house on the line dividing the lands 
of Nathan Thornburgh and Elijah Hinshaw, thence on same course between 
Stilwell and Reece, thence the same course between Reece and Way to the 
corner thence angling south 30 rods across William & Obed Beards land to 
the West line a corner between Paul Beard senr. and Jesse Johnson, thence 
with their line East to the road thence south to Beards saw mill, thence the 
line between Paul Beard Jr. and Obed Beard east to near the Branch, thence 
up the Branch to the east fence, thence on a marked line on North side of 
Ljmn Meeting house to the line Between Silas Johnson, Isaac Pearson, 
thence with said line east to David McCrackins' line until near the school 
house, thence North of said school house a few rods until it intersects the 
line between Johnson and Farmer, thence East with said lines to the line be- 
tween Moody and Willis C. Willmore, thence same direction until it strikes 
the line Between Odle and Calfer, thence due East until it intersects the 
Boundry at a corner Between Overman and Semans as Specified in said 
order, thence south and west, the boundary to a point opposite John W. 
Thomas, thence nearly east a marked line to the mouth of said Thomas' lane, 
thence on same course across the creek, thence on nearly the neighborhood 
road a marked line to a lane Between the Lands of Jeremiah Horn and Cam- 
mack's heirs, thence East to where it intersects the Fort Wayne road near 
Arba Meeting house." 

The winding path south from Huntsville has become the Economy and 
Huntsville road, while the road from Huntsville through Unionsport, Max- 
ville and Fairview into Jay county, is only a matter of history. Many other 
roads and petitions for the same might be mentioned, but we have given 
sufficiently to show the nature of our early roads. These petitions seem 
queer and unusual, but they served their purpose and what more, could be 
asked? The country was new, and roads of any consequence were impossi- 
ble. Trails were all that was necessary, because travel Avas almost wholly by 
foot or horseback. When wagons were used, the loads were light, which was 
necessary if they traveled at all, a man putting his small grist upon the 
"hounds" and making his way to the nearest mill as best he could. 

Of these roads. Tucker says : 

"These roads, laid out, as we have said, by public authority, were opened 
and worked to some extent, yet for a long time most of them were but poor 
indeed. The trees were cut away somewhat, a few bridges were made, and 
log ways were built in some places, yet for the most part they were horrid 


enough. David Lasley relates in his 'reminiscences' how he (with another 
man) built three-quarters of a mile of 'log-way' on the road west of Win- 
chester. As late as 1859 there was one and a quarter miles of log-way, 
nearly in one 'string,' north between Winchester and Deerfield. Often logs 
a foot or eighteen inches through would be laid down and sometimes abso- 
lutely nothing on them, and the wagon had to go 'bumping' across that con- 
tinuous log-heap. Each new road would be divided into districts, an over- 
seer appointed, and 'hands' given him for his 'gang' to open and work the 

Travel being heavy, the location of towns and distances from one to 
another being practically unknown, the Legislature as early as 181 7, enacted 
a law requiring that road supervisors should place "at the forks of every 
public road or highway, directing the way and mentioning the most remark- 
able places on each road." Knowing the frailties of man, this law carried 
with it a penalty of a ten dollar fine for anyone convicted of destroying or 
altering" these sign boards in any way. This law has never been repealed, 
but the sign board has long since ceased to exist. At the present time 
(1914), there is but one set of these boards left in place in the county, and 
these are at the site of the old town of Randolph, long since out of existence. 
These boards axe one-half mile west of Bartonia, inscribed, "To Winchester, 
7 miles, to State line, 2V2 miles." 

The author of this article recently had occasion to take a photograph of 
these sign boards, and while taking them was forcibly reminded of the prog- 
ress made in community life since these boards were placed in position, 
years and years ago. Instead of "muddy roads," with their corduroy and 
almost bottomless mud holes, traveled over by the conestoga wagons, pulled 
by two six yoke of oxen, the traveler today travels a macadamized road in 
the most modern vehicles. While taking the picture a school boy rode to the 
crossing on a bicycle, thus reminding one of the new in that mode of travel, 
to deposit a letter in a free rural mail delivery box, thus calling attention to 
the modern means of communication by mail, then rode on to a modern, 
consolidated school, equipped with all modern appliances, maintaining a 
commission course, thereby reminding one of the old-time schools in its 
comparison with the new. Before the picture could be taken it was necessary 
to wait for the settlement of dust from a passing automobile, traveling, per- 
haps, fifty miles per hour. Only one thing was necessary to make the picture 
complete, and that would have been the shadow of a "Limited" aeroplane. 

When the state was young it was thought that the rivers would be the 


great means of transportation, and to that end the Mississinewa and west 
fork of White river were declared navigable streams, and were put in the 
care of supervisors for that purpose. We do not know how far the west 
fork of \\'^hite river was considered navigable, but it was as far up the river 
as Sample's mill. In the May term, 1826, the following entries were made: 
"John Samples is appointed Supervisor on the west fork of Whiteriver from 
said Samples mill to the mouth of caben creek. John G. Deeds is appointed 
Supervisor on the west fork of whiterK^er from the mouth of Cabin creek to 
monsey town on said river." One year from that time, May 8, 1827, we 
find that the purpose of appointing supervisors for these districts was to 
clear the rivers of snags, cut out the shallow places and otherwise make the 
rivers so that flat-boats might be taken down them, especially in the spring. 
We do not know that this was ever done on White river, at least we have 
never heard any old settler ever speak of White river as being navigable. 
Yet, in May, 1827, the river was no doubt worked and certain hands were 
ordered out for that purpose, as is shown by the following: "Henry T. 
Sample is appointed Svipervisor on A\"hiteriver from John Sample's mill to 
the mouth of Stoney creek and ordered that all the hands opposite said dis- 
trict and within 2 miles of said river do work thereon under the direction of 
said Sample." We have failed to find in the records any report of these 
supervisors on White river. The ?ilississinewa. however, was declared by 
law to be navigable, as far as the section line between range 14 and 15 east, 
which is the line dividing Ward and Jackson townships. There is no doubt 
about the jNIississinewa having been "worked" and used as a navigable 
stream. We find that in May, 1835, it was "Ordered that Alexander Garrin-- 
ger, Supervisor in Green Township, work all the hands that live in his dis- 
trict and within one mile of Alississinewa river one day of their time on said 
River. Ordered that Jehu I\IcPherson, Supervisor, work all the hands that 
live in his district within one mile of INIississinewa and west of Lawellins mill 
one day of their time on said Ri\'er." The IMississinewa was used for trans- 
portation purposes as far up the river as Deerfield, but no further than that, 
as we have been able to learn, as is shown by the reminiscences of Mr 
Edger, spoken of elsewhere. Xo mention is made of any appointments of 
supervisors to work the rivers after this time, it being seen, of course, that 
such was useless. 

As the county became more thickly settled and commercial interests 
were correspondingly enlarged and complicated, more attention was paid to 


the subject of roads. It is said that the civilization of any nation can be de- 
termined by its roads. This saying is certainly true of the middle West. 

It is only a step from the blazed trail to the path, from the path to the 
lane, the lane to the cartway, the cartway to the open highway, through its 
various steps of mud road, graded road, gravel road, crushed stone and 

A problem through the forties and fifties was one of straightening old 
roads or establishing new ones upon section lines. The old roads had 
emanated from certain centers and the problem of e.stablishing new ones in 
and around these centers became a very complex one. Among these centers 
were Rockinghams, in the eastern part of Green township; Robinson Mc- 
Intire's farm, which is at Maxville, Huntsville, West River township, Cherry 
Grove, in Washington township, Arba, in Greensfork township. Cox's Mill, in 
White River township, John Massacs, Ward township, Lewallyn's Mill, 
Franklin township, and Marian's Mill and Georgetown, in Stoney Creek 
township, but this problem has been successfully solved, until today there are 
very few roads that do not follow section lines. 

The establishing of roads has always been directly or indirectly in the 
hands of the county commissioners and must, of necessity, depend upon their 
judgment. It was seldom that a petition for a road was rejected, but one 
exception to this occurred the third of May, 1838. On that day petition for 
five roads were received, five of which were rejected, all of which were 
afterwards established. The commissioners, John Coats, Abraham Adam- 
son and George A. G. McNees, were evidently not feeling very well that day. 

As time went on it became evident to all people that the success of the 
country depended upon the condition of its roads. It further became evi- 
dent that roads could not he built without money and it was further shown 
that laws must be enacted v.'hereby the progressive few could compel the 
backward majority to build good roads. Out of this grew the gravel road 
law and the "three-mile road law." Another great movement in the road 
management is what is known as the toll road. These were a system of 
roads built by companies organized for that purpose for the use of which 
toll must be paid. These turnpike and plank road companies were organ^ 
ized, practically, all over the county in about 1856. x\mong them were the 
Union City and Spartanburg; Morristown and Fairview; Williamsburg and 
Blooming-sport; Winchester and State Line; Winchester and Bundy's Mill;. 
Winchester and Jay County Line; Lynn and Winchester; Bloomingsport and 


Winchester; Salem and Jericho; Bloomingsport and Economy; Mt. Holly 
and AUensville, and Huntsville and Boundary. This is only a partial list. 

It was soon learned by the people, however, that public roads should be 
built and maintained at public expense and that they should be open to any 
and all who cared to drive over them. Consequently, these roads were 
either voluntarily abandoned and the management assumed by the county 
or were sold to the various townships or the county. The last of these turn- 
pikes disappeared in the early nineties. 

Randolph county today has among the best roads of any county in the 

In spite of the slipshod methods by which the roads have been handled 
there is no source of greater mismanagement of any public affairs than that of 
the roads. More money has been spent injudiciously and more work done 
without intelligent guidance and more time squandered upon the public roads 
than upon any other matter of ]Dublic utility. This fact is recognized by 
everyone who gives the question any study. The problem of county man- 
agement today is the management of its roads. 

A solution of this has been attempted in the passing of a law whereby 
the county commissioners appointed a county superintendent of roads, who 
appoints sub-superintendents, who, with the county superintendent of roads, 
becomes responsible for the care and management of all county public 

In January, 1814, the county commissioners appointed Robert Jellison 
coimty superintendent of roads. Mr. Jellison proceeded immediately to the 
appointment of his various able superintendents and the work or organiza- 
tion was begun immediately. As to what the ultimate result of this man- 
agement will be is of course problematical, but it must be said that the plan 
bids fair to be the best ever devised. The success of this plan, however, 
will depend largely upon the ability of the men appointed as various super- 
intendents. If ability, knowledge and skill is to be the determining factor, 
the roads will be benefited by it. 

At the present time Mr. Jellison has under his charge the following 
roads : Spence, No. 64, 6,700 feet stone ; Fairview and Ridgeville, No. 8, 
47,520 feet gravel; Camel, No. 148, 6,100 feet gravel; Woods, No. 11, 
44,880 feet gravel; Kitselman, No. 25, 31,680 feet gravel; Stone Staton and 
Olive Branch, No. 21, 34,320 feet gravel; Gray, No. 57, 7,870 feet stone; 
Ridgeville and Farmland, No. 26, 31,680 feet gravel; Huber, No. 87, 14,800 
feet stone; Harker, No. 10, 36,900 feet gravel; Sipe, No. i, 30,360 feet 


gravel; Cummings, No. 135, 31,600 feet stone; Hoover, No. 19, 15,840 feet 
gravel; Warren, No. 131, 15,820 feet stone; Gettinger, No. 58, 5,480 feet 
stone; Saratoga and Stone Station, No. 28, 24,360 feet gravel; Hinkle, No. 
14, 33,000 feet gravel; Stephens, No. 133, 10,430 feet gravel; Olive Branch, 
No. 144, 5,280 feet gravel; Armstrong, No. 112, 6,100 feet stone; Bosworth, 
No. 29, 39,600 feet gravel; Winchester and Deerfield, No. 2, 47,520 feet 
gravel; Shierling, No. 97, 13,050 geet stone; Schlecty, No. 87, 10,644 feet 
stone; Warren & Weimer, No. 27, 21,120 feet gravel; Harshman, No. 86, 
15,836 feet stone; Hoover and Pittsburg, No. 18, 10,560 feet gravel; Rickert, 
No. 17, 26,400 feet gravel; Mundhank, No. 146, 12,330 feet stone; Devor, 
No. 34, 15,840 feet gravel; Salem and Union City, No. 5, 39,600 feet 
gravel; Hinchy, No. 15, 23,760 feet gravel; State Line North, No. 16, 
39,960 feet gravel; Van Pelt, No. 23, 35,640 feet gravel; Manor, No. 125, 
10,560 feet stone; Farmland and Shiloh, No. 24, 15,840 feet gravel; Mc- 
Guire, No. 63, 11,250 feet stone; Windsor and Winchester, No. 3, 72,600 
feet gravel; Goodrich, No. 143, 9,200 feet stone; Sanders, No. 96, 11,700 
feet stone; Adams, No. 72, 16,580 feet stone; Murray Pike, No. 22, 29,040 
feet gravel; Pogue, No. 93, 13,098 feet gravel; Heaston, No. 85, 11,620 feet 
stone; Romock, No. 95, 3,360 feet stone; Fitzmaurice, No. 82, 5,260 feet 
stone; Goodrich, No. 83, 2,288 feet stone; Burke, No. y"], 10,171 feet stone; 
Favorite, No. 81, 13,188 feet stone; Harris, No. 122, 13,091 feet stone; 
Hendrickson, iS^o. 84, 15,760 feet stone; Bousman, No. 116, 14,063 feet 
stone; Winchester and Union City, No. 6, 50,160 feet gravel; Fraze, No. 66, 
10,769 feet stone; Pierce, No. 100, 15,815 feet stone; Mangas, No. 90, 
14,523 feet stone; Baird, No. 73, 15,820 feet stone; Cox, No. 80, 7,290 feet 
.stone; Thompson, No. iii, 11,417 feet stone; Windsor S., No. 41, 19,800 
feet gravel ; Parker and Losantville, No. 40, 44,680 feet gravel ; Cabin Creek 
and Bronson. No, 42, 34,320 feet gravel; Gilmore, No. 44, 9,240 feet gravel; 
Farmland and Modoc, No. 39, 66,000 feet gravel; Vanlandingham, No. 31, 
11,880 feet gravel; Maxville and Unionsport, No. 43, 19,800 feet gravel; 
Moorman, No. 124, 10,890 feet stone; Lasley, No. 144, 12,320 feet stone; 
Buena Vista, No. 30, 13,184 feet gravel; Reinard, No. 126, 5,296 feet stone; 
Baldwin. No. 65, 13,200 feet stone; Beeson, No. 145, 14,520 feet stone; 
Bunda Pike, No. 32, 18,480 feet gravel; Clements, No. 103, 13,391 feet 
stone; Brooks, No. 75, 12,000 feet stone; Lynn and Winchester pike. No. 
20, 46,200 feet gravel; Brown and Benson, No. loi, 5,333 feet stone; Butts, 
No. 33, 14,540 feet gravel; Moore, No. 91, 14,633 feet stone; Green, No. 
T20, 8,220 feet stone; Swank, No. 134, 21,696 feet stone; Chenoweth, No. 
53, 13,200 feet stone; Thornburg, No. no, 14,880 feet stone; Shockley, No. 



109, 11,984 feet stone; Rowe, No. 94, 15,000 feet stone; Bickle, No. 78, 
15,732 feet stone; Union City and White River, No. 12, 18,515 feet gravel; 
H. Bowman, No. 115, 10,919 feet stone; State Line S., No. 13, 31,680 feet 


Foutz, No. 105, 24,879 feet stone; Lumpkins, No. 62, 10,715 feet 
Brewer, No. 102, 15,735 feet gravel; Medsker, No. 45, 15,840 feet 
Cougil, No. 47, 9,240 feet gravel; Farquhar, No. 67, 11,800 feet 
Macy, No. 141, 9,240 feet gravel; Keever, No. 70, 10,560 feet 
Botkin, No. 140, 15,840 feet gravel; Sheppard, No. 99, 13,100 feet 
stone; Brosey, No. 74, 14,620 feet stone; Cady, No. 139, 11,880 feet gravel; 
Marshall, No. 142, 9,240 feet stone; Morrison, No. 108, 6,625 feet stone; 
Huntsville and Modoc, No. 46, 18,480 feet gravel; Adamson, No. 114, 13,221 
feet stone; Jarott, No. 138, 39,040 feet gravel; Cox, No. 104, 10,621 feet 
gravel; Glover, No. 68, 12,156 feet gravel; Mills, No. 88, 12,100 feet stone; 
Hiitchens, No. 61, 15,995 l^^t gravel; R. Murray, No. 48, 11,880 feet stone; 
Sickles, No. 128, 15,840 feet stone; Wysong, No. 29, 13,200 feet gravel; 
Baxter, No. 76, 16,759 feet stone; Morris, No. 89, 14,340 feet stone; Lynn 
West, No. 137, 11,880 feet gravel; Pegg, No. 54, 13,200 feet gravel; Albert- 
son, No. 113, 14,520 feet stone; Shockney, No. 127, 13,391 feet stone; 
Hinshaw, No. 121, 13,056 feet gravel; Brown, No. 143, 10,881 stone; Bev- 
erly, No. 117, 2,691 feet stone; Jordon, No. 59, 14,999 ^^^t stone; Lynn 
East, No. 147, 10,560 feet gravel; Johnson, No. 69, 14,190 feet gravel; 
Kelley, No. 49, 19,800 feet gravel; Moody, No. 92, 5,284 feet stone; Ward, 
No. 132, 10,268 feet gravel; Camel, No. 35, 13,200 feet gravel; S. C. Bowen, 
No. 52, 14,520 feet gravel; Horn Pike, No. 36, 39, 600 feet gravel; Wright, 
No. 130, 23,528 feet gravel; Sam Hill, No. 38, 36,960 feet gravel; W. S. 
Bowen, No. 50, 12,320 feet gravel; Buckley, No. 37, 19,800 feet gravel; 
Jackson Pike, No. 9, 63,360 feet gravel; Burel, No. 51, 13,200 feet gravel. 

Another great factor in the public highway question of this county has 
been its bridges. Formerly the streams were crossed at some suitable place 
called "fords," but the traveling public has long since demanded public 
bridges. Randolph county, having so many streams, makes the building ot 
its bridges a very important one. Formerly all bridges were built of wood 
and the county had several "covered bridges" or bridges that were enclosed 
by roof and siding. 

These bridges served their purpose well, but at this time, 1914, only two 
of any consequence are standing. These are the bridge southwest of Farm- 
land across White river, and at the Steubenville crossing of the Mississinfewa. 
These bridges were built in 1883 and are still in a splendid state of preserva- 


The wooden bridges have given way to the steel structure, which in 
time must give way to those built of cement. 

Among the important bridges of the county are those crossing the 
Mississinewa at Fairvie\v, Emmettsville, Ridgeville, Ritenours, Deerfield, 
Shakerag and at each section line east to the state line. White river is crossed 
at Windsor, Dick's, Farmland, Maxville, Moormans, Harpers, Winchester 
and at each place where it is crossed by a public road. Stoney creek has two 
large bridges near Windsor and smaller ones further up stream. Cabin 
creek is spanned by three large bridges. Bridges of lesser size are to be 
found over West river and Nolan's Fork, Greenville creek, Little Mississinewa 
and various other streams. The smaller bridges are practically all built out 
of concrete and the wooden floors of the steel bridges are being replaced by 
reinforced concrete. 

Bridges of modern times are of such stability that it is not necessary to 
slacken sp.eed. while crossing them. Formerly this was necessary, as early as 
1868, when it was a iineable offense to cross a bridge "faster than a walk," 
and all bridges had fastened on them somewhere in public view the state- 
ment: "$5.00 fine for traveling over this bridge faster than a walk." 

Notes from the Commissioners record : 

The court house was begun December 6, 1818 and finished June 6, 1820. 
Second court house was built in 1826. 

One hundred and fifty-eight acres of land was donated for county pur- 
poses. Paul W AVay made first survey. 

January 3, 1826, the commissioners made the following entry: 

"Ordered that the county treasurer pay Paul Way, county agent, the 
sum of thirty-six dollars and twenty-five cents 

for running ofif 5 surveys at 3.00 $15.00 

for laying ofif 28 lots in the town of Winchester 7.75 

for plat of the same 2.25 

for advertising the sale of lots i.oo 

for 2 days attending said sale 2.00 

for writing 23 deeds to close the late sale at 25 cents each 5.75 

for writing 2 deeds for donation, 50 i.oo 

for 2^ gallons whiskey give at the sale i.oo 

Return of sale .50 

Total $36.25 

In the year 1825." 


We suppose that . whiskey helped sell the lots. Lot sales were ordered 
when the treasury became low, which Avas often. 

Joseph Crown rented a room in the court house in 1829 to work at his 

In 1832 Elias Kizer was ordered to repair the stray pen and the court 

The first stove was bought for the jail in 1837. 

Paul Way was ordered to sell to the lowest bidder the erection of a stray 
pen in Winchester. "Ordered that Paul W Way as agent sell to the lowest 
bidder the erection of an estray pen in Winchester form as agreed on by 
himself and the board of commissioners, said estray pen to be completed 
against the first Monday in May next." We do not know what it cost to 
build it but it was sold in 1851 to Mr. Way for $4.00. 

Xathan Garrett was ordered to secure the safety of the court house in 


First county attorney was Smith Elkins, appointed in 1838. 

The county agent was ordered in November, 1839 to: "Repair the 
upper story of the county jail by lining it with two inch oak plank; must be 
ploughed and grooved and the plank must be fixed in a perpendicular position 
and spiked fast to the wall with sufficient durable nails and also to have a 
good lock put on said jail door. It is further ordered that the trap door of 
said jail be sufficiently secured to guard against the escape of convict.-." 
The trap door referred to was in the floor of the upper room and was the 
only means of putting prisoners in the lower story. 

In ^Jay, 1840, David Moorman was allowed $4.43^ "for taking off old 
lock and putting a new one on the jail." 

Evidently things had been going wrong about the jail for at the same 
session it was "ordered that the county agent have the hinges on the jail door 
made sufficiently strong to secure all prisoners that may be put therein 

In August, 1840, Jesse Way was paid $15.00, Anderson D. Way $15.00, 
\^'m. D. Smith, Si 5.00 and Michael Aker Si 5.00, for assisting to convey 
prisoners to Jeffersonville. At the same time Elisha Martin and Jacob Rem- 
mel were paid $3.33^ each, "for assisting to convey prisoners as far as 
Centerville who were on their way to State prison." Evidently they were 
taking a "bad lot" for Michael Aker was "allowed out of the county treasury 
one dollar fifty cents for furnishing chains to secure prisoners, to take them 


to the State prison," and Jesse Way was "allowed $1.37^^ for pitcher for 
jail and 3 pad locks." 

February, i84i,the Treasurer was ordered to "pay Stephen D. Cun- 
ningham $5.49 for furnishing ^nd irons for the court house." 

Three noted prisoners of 1841 were Austin, Munden and Combs. Thos. 
W. Coats was paid $30.00 for helping to take them to State prison. Joseph 
Kelly, Samuel Burres and Asahel Stone were paid $1.00 each for guarding 
these prisoners "in jail one night." George Clark and John Way were paid 
"one dollar each for their horses service in arresting David Combs." 
' Robert Irvin, jailor, is paid $1.00 for gloves and candles for use of 
Munden, Austin and Combs, prisoners. 

In 1843, Asahel Stone was "allowed $30.50 for building a privy for the 
use of Randolph county." The building was situated on the northwest cor- 
ner of the square. 

In 1843, 't was "ordered that the court house of Randolph county be 
kept for the purposes of holding courts therein and political speaking only 
and that the sheriff of said county have the care of the same. 

Tn June, 1844, Paul W. Way, county agent, was ordered to "cause horse 
racks to be erected on each corner of the public square and other places where 
he may deem necessary on said public square in the town of Winchester." 

June 9, 1844, Elias Kizer, one of the county commissioners, was "ap- 
pointed to furnish a stove for the court house and piping for the same also 
to get piping for the stove for the jail within and for Randolph county. Also 
to repair said jail if needed and report to the next term of this board." Mr. 
Kizer, evidently did this work immediately as the next item is the order for 
$25.00, paying him for the same. 

Abraham Adamson, one of the commissioners, protested against Henry 
Neff as treasurer in 1844. 

A reminder of "old times" is shown in an order of 1846, when Thomas 
W. Reece was "allowed the sum of $1.10 for quills and sand boxes furnished 
for Randolph county up to February 17, 1846." Steel pens were not bought 
for the county until 1851, when A. J. was allowed $1.50 for steel pens. 
Sand boxes were used to hold sand in which the quills were "stuck." The 
sand was also used for blotting. 

December 11, 1846, the board ordered that "David J. Cottom procure 
a clear toned bell for the use of the court house, weighing two hundred and 
fifty pounds, the said bell to be paid for out of the first money paid into the 


county treasury." This bell was hung on the outside of the tower which is 
shown in the picture of the court house and was afterward removed and 
placed on the town hall and became the property of C. E. Magee when he 
purchased that building. Mr. Magee still owns the bell. 

December 11, 1846, the board of commissioners entered into a contract 
with A. D. Way which said that he "be and he is hereby authorized to care 
and take charge of the keys of the court house for the term of five months 
from the date hereof for which he is to have the use of the jury room in the 
northeast corner of the said house, also he obligate himself to keep said house 
in good order." On the same day it was "ordered by the board of com- 
missioners that division No. 26 of the .Sons of Temperance have the privilege 
of holding their meetings in the second story of the court house for the term 
of one year for the sum of $12.00, also the said Sons of Temperance are 
to have the privilege of running a partition across the said second story of 
the court house for which they are to be allowed a reasonable compensation." 

Elias Kizer furnished the wood for the court house in 1848 for $40.50. 

In December, 1848, the board ordered "that D. W. Frazer be allowed to 
occupy the grand jury room up stairs in the court house (excepting when the 
circuit court is in session at which time said Frazer is not to be entitled to 
the use of said room) for the sum of one dollar per month." 

A plague broke out in the town of Winchester in the summer of 1849. 
It was claimed by many to be cholera. People were very much frightened 
as a great many people died. 

August 2nd of that year year a special session of the commissioners was 
held, a report of which is as follows : 

"By a citation issued from the county auditor for the purpose of having 
the place of holding lections changed in White River township at the annual 
August election, A. D. 1849 Present the Honorable Philip Barger, Abraham 
Adamson, Esqrs. members of said board. 

To the honorable the board of commissioners of Randolph county in 
special session we the undersigned citizens respectfully represent to your 
honors that sickness prevails in the town of Winchester the usual place of 
holding the elections in White River township to such an extent that it is 
thought to be dangerous to hold the coming August election in said town. 
We therefore pray your honors to change the place of holding said election 
to some suitable point in said township where the voters may not incur said 
danger and your petitioners will ever pray, etc. : Silas Colgrove, Jno. R. 
Turner, Edmund Thomas, D. J. Cottom, M. L. Jones, J. A. Steele, A. O. 
Neff, J. Y. Howard, J. M. Hill, A. J. Rush, H. Y. Kizer, Wm. Allen, M. A. 


Reeder, B. C. Hoyt, Saml. Y. Ludy, Thos. Wallace, Wm. Darah, Wm. 
Frazee, E. Martin, W. G. Puckett, W. Y. Way, Y. W. Reece. 

Whereas, by the foregoing petition we deem it a sufficient cause for the 
changing of said election; we therefore order that the next annual August 
election be held at a house on Jesse Smith's land near Isaac Ray's about one 
mile west of Winchester in said township. 

Read, signed in open court and the board adjourned until court in course, 

Philip Barger, 
Abraham Adamson.'" 

June II, 1850, it was 

"Ordered by the board that Paul W. Way be and he is hereby appointed 
to sell to the lowest bidder the fencing of the public square in the town of 
Winchester with a good and sufficient plank fence composed of post and 
plank, the post to be of good white oak timber to take bond and security of the 
undertaker for the faithful performance of his contract, said public square 
to be so enclosed as ten feet on the east side and ten feet on the north side 
next the streets unenclosed on the west side enclosed so as to take the market 
house into the enclosure and on the south side on the same line that the 
present fence now stands, and also that said Paul W. Way have the necessary 
removed and permanently set on some site as best suits his own judgment 
concerning the same and make report of his proceedings in the premises to 
the next term of this board." 

In 1850, Martin A. Reeder was "appointed to take charge of the court 
house in Randolph county for the term of one year and keep the same locked 
up except on public occasions and the Union Sabbath school will be permitted 
to hold Sabbath school in the same." 

At the same meeting it was "ordered by the board that the Sons of 
Temperance be permitted to occupy their rooms upstairs at the court house 
for one year at the former rate of rent provided that said Sons shall. collect 
all their dirt and floors cleaning out of the court house." 

In 1851, Haller Skagg was allowed $14.10 part pay for fencing the 
public square. John H. Leake was allowed $14.10 for the same. Ludy & 
Aker were allowed $6.35 for nails and spikes for fencing public square. 
Paul W. Way was allowed $5.50 "for his services superintending building 
new fence and selling old fence all round public square, etc." Solomon 
Yunker was allowed fifty cents, "pay for mending saddle bags for county 
treasurer." It must be remembered at that time the county treasurer col- 
lected the taxes by calling on the various tax payers over the county. 


Thomas M. Brown rented the grand jiir}' room in 1851, "for the term 
of twelve months (except when the grand jury shall be in session) for the 
sum of one dollar per month to be paid into the county treasury quarterly." 

In 1853, the board of equalization was made up of township assessors. 

The Sons of Temperance had to give up their room in 1853 and the 
county recorder "took that room as his office for the purpose of recording 
deeds, etc., and other instruments required to be recorded in the said record- 
er's office in the county of Randolph." The deed and marriage record was 
not indexed by general index until 1852. This work was done by Willis 
C. Wilmore for which he received $203.18. 

In 1853, Joseph Anthony, circuit judge, reports having examined the 
records of the clerk's office and finds "on such examination the records to be 
kept in a fair and legible hand and the papers mostly neatly filed and in good 
state for convenience and preservation." 

December 4, 1853, Wm. A. Peele appeared before the board of com- 
missioners and moved : "The court to order what kind of animals should be 
allowed to run at large upon the unenclosed land or public country of any 
township, which motion is continued for further evidence to the term of this 

It would be interesting to know what Mr. Peele's motion was but no 
record is made of it ever having been heard of again. 

In December, 1853, Wm. Burris was allowed: "Sum of $118.12, pay 
for 78744 words in making up the general index of deeds and marriages 
of Randolph county." 

The first iron safe bought for the county was purchased for the clerk*s 
office in 1858; $100.00 was paid for it. 

In 1858, Elias Kizer was to furnish twenty-five cords of wood for the 
county at $1,40 per cord, "to be corded up on the west part of the public 
square between the court house and the market house." 

A small fire occurred in the court house in 1855. 

Candles were purchased for the court room as late as 1865. 

December 6, 18 18, the first appointment of assessor was made as fol- 
lows: "George Bowls appointed lister for the county of Randolph for the 
year 18 19 who gave bond according to law and took and subscribed the fol- 
lowing affirmation: I George Bowls do solemnly affirm that I will as • 
lister for the county of Randolph to the best of my knowledge and judg- 
ment diligently and indiscreetly honestly and faithfully execute and dis- 
charge the duties of lister according to law. George Bowls." Mr. Bowls 


made his report during the May term of 1819 and received the sum of $10.00 
for his services. 

The first tax levy was made in 1819 and was as follows : "Ordered 
that the taxes for the year 1819 on each and every horse beast, 25 cents." A 
second tax levy was made in May, 1820, as follows: "Ordered that the fol- 
lowing rates of taxation be paid for county purposes for the year on each 
horse creature over three years, etc., 37/^ cents; on each house of entertain- 
ment, $10.00." The tax levy of 1826 was as follows: 

"Ordered that the tax on tavern license be $ 5.00 

The tax on merchandise 10.00 

On ferrys 2.00 

On horses, etc. -37/^ 

On oxen .18^ 

On town lots two per cent, on the value 
On land half the amount of State tax 

On pleasure carriages of two wheels i.oo 

On pleasure carriages of four wheels 1.50 

On silver or pinchback watches .25 

On gold watches i.oo 

On brass clocks i.oo 

On stud horses, one, the price of covering by the season." 
Grocers' license was raised to $10.00 in 1832. 

The rate in 1835 was fixed in the January term of that year when it was 
"ordered that the rate of taxation for the year 1835 be as follows, to wit: 

On grocery license by the year at the rate of $15.00 

On license to vend wooden clocks at the rate of 10.00 

On tavern license by the year 10.00 

On horses, each -37/^ 

On oxen, each .18^ 

On town lots two per cent, of the valuation 

On gold, silver and composition watches, each -37/4 

On pleasure carriages of four wheels i.oo 

On pleasure carriages of two wheels .50 

On first rate land, one cent per acre. 

On second rate land, ^ of a cent per acre. 

On third rate land, Yz cent per acre. 

On polls, 25 cents each. 

On watches -ZyV-^-'' 


The writer of this article, in looking through some rubbish in the attic 
of the court house in 1912, found the original tax duplicate of that year. It 
consists of a book of fifty-six pages, eleven and one-half by fourteen inches, 
bound in hog skin, sewed by hand, and made by C. Conway, clerk at that 
time. It contains the items of descriptions of land, number of acres, value 
of land and taxable buildings, names of towns, in lots and out lots and value 
of same, cattle over two years old, hogs over one year old, merchants' capi- 
tal, value of corporation stock, value of law libraries, value of medical 
libraries, money at interest and aggregate value of all other taxable property 
not specified the number of polls, total amount of taxables and remarks. In 
that year there were 1,248 people assessed in the county. The poll tax was 
37^ cents; value of land and taxable buildings, $232,184.00; value of lots 
and improvements, $6,931.25; value of horses and mules, $48,291.50; value 
of cattle over two years old, $10,363.50; value of hogs over one year old, 
$7,097.25; there were nine merchants, and their capital totaled $7,624.00; 
value of corporation stock, $682.00; value of law libraries, $150.00; value of 
medical libraries, $97.00; money at interest, $4,063.50; aggregate value of 
all the other taxable property not specified, $20,105.50. 

November, 1828, "William Mann is acquitted of 75 cents tax on a horse 
improperly assessed for the year 1828." September, 1827, Albert Banta 
was acquitted of 13 cents tax on a town lot improperly assessed for the year 
1827. In the same year John Coats was acquitted of 16 cents. 

In 1830 it was "Ordered that county treasurer pay Isaac Overman 75 
cents, the tax improperly assessed and collect on two work oxen for the year 

June, 1830, David Frazer was paid "twenty-five cents for one quire 
furnished at election prior to date and fifty cents for making return of the 
election in the year 1829." 

In 1826 Joseph Pierson was paid $7.80 for assessing Greensfork town- 
ship. Robert Way was paid $11.20 for assessing White River towrjship. 
Wm. Hunt paid $7.00 for assessing West River township. Riley Marshall 
$4.50 for assessing Ward township. These were all the townships in what 
is now Randolph county, but that same year David Vestal was paid $5.00 
for assessing Liberty township, being part of Delaware county. May, 
1827, James Clayton was given an order for $30.00 as assessor for the year 
1827. In November, 1827, Mr. Clayton appeared before the board and the 
following entry was made: "This day James Clayton came before the 
board in open session and made affirmation that a county order granted to 


him for assessing the county for the year 1827 is lost or so mislaid that he 
can not get the same therefore ordered that an order issue in the place of the 
one so lost or mislaid." 

The Treasurer reports in May, 1826, a balance of $9.19^.. A balance 
in January, 1829, of $7.04. In ]\Iarch, 1830, the treasurer reports $9.4114- 
In May, 1832, he 'had $1.91. As late as May, 1840, the treasury was so 
depleted that it was "ordered that Goodrich Brothers & Company be allowed 
$6.00 for a record book for surveyors office out of the first money that 
comes into the county treasury." In August of the same year George M. 
Monks was to receive "$13.00 out of the first money that comes into the 
treasury for money by him expended for paper and books." When the 
treasury would get into this condition they would have a lot sale. 

One hundred fifty-eight acres of land, donated to the county by the 
gentleman referred to in the first part of this chapter, was divided into town 
lots, the sales of which were to replenish the treasury of the county, all 
remaining lots in Winchester were also ordered sold in 1827. Paul W. Way 
had this in charge and Way received pay for selling these in 1828. 

William Connor was the first to be granted license to vend merchandise. 
He paid $20.00 for a license for twelve months from November, 1818, to 
November, 1819. 

To keep a tavern one had to have a license which must be obtained by 
twelve disinterested freeholders petitioning the county commissioners to 
grant license to some specified person. The conditions of these petitions is 
shown by the following entry, made in March term of 1840: "Herman L. 
Searls now comes and files a certificate of good moral character signed by at 
least twenty-four freeholders of Ward township, in the county of Ran- 
dolph, Indiana, and also a petition praying the board of commissioners to 
grant him a license to keep a tavern in the town of Deerfield, in said 
county, for one year from this date. And the board of commissioners 
being satisfied that it is the bona fide intention of the said petitioner to keep 
a tavern for the accommodation of the public and that he is furnished with 
the spare rooms and bedding in his mansion house and stabling and good stalls 
.for at least four horses and all things required by law for a tavern keeper 
and having filed a bond and security as required by law, and having produced 
the county treasurer's receipt for the sum of twenty-five dollars the tax 
legally assessed by. the board of commissioners on tavern license. It is 
therefore ordered by the board of commissioners now here that the said 
Herman L. Searls have license to keep a tavern in the said town of Deerfield 


for one year from this date." Petition of Herman L. Searls. The rates were 
fixed by the county commissioners. The first rate was fixed in November, 
1819, for Mr. McCool, who had the first tavern in Winchester : 

"Dieting per meal : $0.25 

Whiskey per ^ pt. , — .I2>^ 

Rum per J4 pt- -37^ 

Brand per )4 do 1 .25 

Gin per J4 do ■ .25 

Fresock Brandy pr do -37/-^ 

Beer or Cider per quart .I2j4" 

In 1828 the rates were changed as follows: 

"Ordered that the following be tavern rates for the year 1828, to wit: 

For dieting $0.18^ 

Whiskey by the half pint .06^ 

Peach Brandy .12^/2 

Rum and French Brandy : .18% 

Forage by the feed of one gallon .o6j4 

Horse feed and grain all night .25 

Lodging .o6j4 

Tavern license by the year 3-oo" 

In 1833, license for peddling wooden clocks was fixed at $10.00 per year. 
In 1847, non-resident peddlers were charged $10.00 per year. In 1844, 
Pomeroy & Fleming were granted a license to vend merchandise and wooden, 
brass and composition clocks in Randolph county for nine months. In 1833 
John Beard paid $2.50 for a permit to sell goods in Ward township for three 
months. Robert Taylor was granted a license to keep a tavern in the town 
of Deerfield in 1839. Thomas & James Burk were granted a license to keep 
a grocery in the town of Winchester for one year, 1834. 

Edmund B. Goodrich was assessor of 1834 and received $52.50 for his 

The first attorney for the county commissioners was appointed in 1840. 
Mr. Smith Elkins at that time was paid $26.00 for thirteen days' services. 

The first woman to be placed in jail was Jemima Mann. Jemima was 
evidently an "old oft'ender," as in January, 1831, the county treasurer was 
"ordered to pay Wm. M. Way, jailer, the sum of $17.00 for confining Ishmael 
Bunch in jail and dieting same four days and confining Jemima Mann in jail 


two different times and dieting the same thirty-eight days, furnishing the 
noblocke for jail door and furnishing bed quilt for prisoners." 

The Indian mound is referred to in 1832 as the old fort. 

IMarch, 1840, Nathan Garrett was "allowed $60.00 for apprehending 
two horse thieves, viz : John W. Keener and Philip W. Hester." 

May, 1834, "Jacob Chrisman received $1.50 for three days extra service 
as supervisor and $1.50 for six finger boards." 

The first weights and measures procured for the county was in Novem- 
ber, 1819, when Charles Conway was "appointed to procure one measure of 
I foot English, one measure of three feet English measure and half bushel, 
one gallon mea^sure and set of weights of lead avoirdupois weight and the 
an initials letters of the county for the use of the county of Randolph." In 
May 1840 Paul W. Way county agent, was ordered to procure a half 
bushel measure one foot one yard measure also scales and weights as provided 
for by law for clerks office. 

An agricultural society meeting was held in 1840. 

Formerly fines and forfeitures must be recorded with the county com- 
missioners. The principal offense at 'that time seems to have been betting. 

The report of January, 1841, is as follows: 

"List of fines assessed in the Randolph circuit court since the first Mon- 
day in January A. D. 1840; at April terrri, 1840: 

State vs. Isom Boswell, 7 cases, retailing fine $2.00 $14.00 

State vs. Joseph Maddox, i case disturbing religious society, fine i.oo 

State vs. Joseph Maddox, i case affray, fine .50 

State vs. Jesse Myers, i case vending merchandise without a license, 

fine 1.00 

State vs. Peter Sapp, i case assault and battery, fine . 2.00 

State vs. George Whiting and State vs. James Alexander, i case A. B., 

fined each i cent .02 

State vs. Enoch Light, 3 cases betting, fined $2 each case 6.00 

State vs. Nathan Garret, i case betting,^ fine i.oo 

State vs. Elijah Arnold, i case violation estray law, fine 15.00 

State vs. William Miller, i case public indecency, fine 5.00 

State vs. Hiram Gillum, i case betting, fine 2.00 

State vs. James Kelly, 2 cases betting, fine $2 each case 4.00 

State vs. Solomon Knight, i case betting, fine 1 2.00 

State vs. Jacob Kelly, i case betting, fine ..: 2.00 


State vs. Benjamin Hill, i case betting, fine 2.00 

State vs. Andrew Lykins, i case betting, fine 2.00 

State vs. William Woolf, i case betting, fine 2.00 

State vs. John Miller, i case betting, fine 2.00 

State vs. Samuel Lasley, i case betting, fine 2.00 

State vs. George Noostadt, i case betting, fine 2.00 

State vs. Morris Johnson, i case betting, Jine 2.00 

State vs. Walter S. Monks, i case betting, fine 2.00 

State vs. Walter S. Monks, i case betting, fine 2.00 

State vs. Enoch Light and State vs. Morris Johnson, look over 77-52 

State vs. David Wyson, State vs. Benjamin Hill and State vs. Madison 

Wheeler, i case each betting, fine $2 each 6.00 

State vs. Peter Wilson and State vs. Henry Taylor, i case obstruct- 
ing legal process, each fined $10.00 20.00 

State vs. Jacob Johnson, i case betting, fine 2.00 

State vs. Jacob Johnson, i case betting, fine 2.00 

State vs. Jacob Johnson, i case Thomas Rhoda betting, fined 2.00 

State vs. John Kelly, i case betting, fined 2.00 

State vs. Samuel McGuire, i case betting, fined 2.00 

State vs. Thomas McGuire, i case betting, fined 2.00 

State vs. Philip W. Hester, i case grand larceny, fined 5.00 

State vs. John W. Keener, i grand larceny, fined 5.00 

State vs. Thomas Jellison, i case A. B., fined i.oo 

State vs. Elijah Arnold, i case larceny, fine 10.00 

At October Term, 1840. 

State vs. Jacob Eltzroth, 2 cases official negligence, fined each $5 10.00 

State vs. Isaac Fowler, i case affray, fined 2.00 

State vs. James H. Hunt, 2 cases betting, fined $1 each 2.00 

State vs. Azariah Warren, i case fine betting 2.00 

State vs. Nathan Garrett, i case A. B., fined 2.00 

State vs. George Bailey, i case vending mdz., fine 2.00 

State vs. Thomas E. Smithson and State vs. Michael Chrisman, and 

State vs. Allen Driskill, i case riot, each fined $8.50 25.50 

State vs. Robert McKay, 2 cases betting, each case fined $1 2.00 

State vs. Henry Martin, i case A. B. on peace maker, fine 7.00 

State vs. Isaac Hoghland, i case affray .50 

State vs. Wesley Dalby, i case A. and B., fine .01 

Bro over $77-52 

George W. Monks, Clerk." 


July, 1829, John Odle makes the following report: 
"State of Indiana, Randolph County : 

Be it remembered that John Stephenson did on the 13th day of June, 
1829, come before me, John Odle, a Justice of the Peace for Randolph 
county, in the town of Winchester, who did then and there swear one fineable 
oath, swearing by God in a violent and angry manner for which I assessed 
one dollar as a fine. June 20th, John Stephenson paid me one dollar for 
his fine. John Odle^ (Seal.) 

Justice of the Peace." 

Mr. Odle of the September term fines the full limit of the law which at 
that time was as follows: (H. I.) 

Isaac Barnes makes the following peculiar report, July, 1830 : 
"State of Indiana vs. Nancy Hoglin: 

On a charge for committing as assault and battery on the body of 
Marget Cox of Randolph county. West River township, at the house of said 
Hoglin on the 14th day of December, 1829. One dollar fine assessed against 
said Nancy lioglin of the above county and township on the 6th day of 
February, 1830, fine, $1.00. 

"I do certify the above statement to be true according to the proceedings 
on trial on the said 6th day of February, 1830. 

Given under my hand and seal on this 13th day of February, 1830. 

Isaac Barnes, J. P." 

In September of 1830, William Hunt, justice of the peace, fined Harper 
Hunt $1.00 "on a charge of stripping and offering to fight." 
Joel Ward made his report on March, 1832, as follows: 
"January the 3rd, 1832, the defendant paid in the above fine and cost of 
suit. Paid over the above fine to Michael Aker, seminary trustee. I certify 
the above to be a true copy from my docket this 3rd day of March, 1832. 

Joel Ward, (Seal.) 
Justice of the Peace." 

It frequently happened that feuds would be carried on between men or 
families and difficulties were certain to arise whenever they met and this 
meant business for the squires. .This was true of Edward McClue and 
Ezekiel Roe. November, 1832, they were fined one dollar and July, 1833, 
were fined one dollar. November, 1833, they were again fined onfe dollar 
and March of 1834, a fine of four dollars and in May, 1834, ten dollars. 


In 1850, Robert P. Budd fined Mary Life "for committing assault and 
battery on the body of Catharine Woods in the sum of $1.00 and costs," but 
he offers the suggestion that "this is doubtful whether it will be collected." 

The seal of the circuit court was adopted as the seal of the board of 
commissioners in November, 1819. 

In May, 1830, a peculiar order for an election was made : 

"Ordered that an election be held in Stoney Creek township for a justice 
')f the peace on the last Saturday in this month if they should get their corn 
planted." George W. Smithson was appointed inspector of the election. 

January, 1831, David Heaston was allowed $20.00 for keeping two 
estray horses for twelve rriotlths. 

A partition was built in the jail in 1830. John Way received the sum of 
$1,871^ for mending the jail and making hinges for the partition door. 

Horse thieves have always been the center of public attention. In 181 7, 
the offense of stealing a horse was punishable by death. 

As late as 1861 George Stevenson and others filed articles in association 
of the Blcomingsport Vigilance Society, which was inspected and approved 
by the board. The purpose of this society was to detect "horse thieves and 
other cnmmals.' The "other criminals" are said to have been Knights of 
the Golden Circle. 

State roads were provided for January 15, 1844. Under that act the 
Huntsville, Maxville and Fairview road was made a state road. The 
Mont-see-iown and Camden road and the Deerfield and Steubenville roads 
were also state roads. 

William Hunt's lane was located by the commissioners in 1844. 

Mail route was established from Greenville to Centerville in 1845. 

Bridge was built over White river on the old State road in 1846. Hands 
were allowed fifty cents per day, team and driver one dollar per day. 

The Board of Equalization made its first report in 1841. 

The first fire engine was purchased for the "town of Winchester" with 
the public buildings therein in 1841. 

December 5, 1845, it was "ordered by the Board of Commissioners that 
the premium allowed for wolf scalps for the year 1845 be and the same is 
$1.50 for each seperate scalp." Jacob Linkle is allowed $1.50 for a wolf's 
scalp on that same day. 

In 1847, W. F. Way paid twenty-five cents for fourteen dozen quills 
for the county. 

The first license granted a woman to sell anything was granted in 1847 
to Mrs. E. McCullough. 


Originally the county commissioners appointed the jurors. The first 
set of grand jurors was appointed during the first meeting, August, 1818. 
"The following men are appointed grand jurors to the October term of the 
circuit court : William Diggs, John Wright, John Way, Jonathan Edwards, 
John BaUenger, William Wright, Jeremiah Meek, Gideon Frazer, William 
Haworth, Curtis Clenney, Isaac Wright, Jesse Johnson, William Canada, 
Travis Adcock, James Massey, William Way, Sr., Jesse Roberts, Armsbee 
Diggs." The following men were appointed petit jurors to the October 
term of the circuit court : "Meshach Lewallyn, Paul W. Way, James Jacobs, 
William Way, Sr., Abraham Wright, Solomon Wright, Jesse Green, James 
Wright, David Stout, Joshua Cox, Samuel Lea, Jonathan Heath." 

In November, 1819: "The following men are appointed grand jurors 
to March term of the circuit court, i§i9 : John Way, James Massey, Wil- 
liam Way, Jr., Tence Massey, John Ballenger, Jonathan Heath, William 
Diggs, David Stout, Samuel Lee, William Haworth, John Wright, Jesse 
Green, John Wright, Joshua Cox, William Wright, Armsbee Diggs, Isaac 
Wright, James Wright. The following men are appointed 1818, petit jurors 
to March term of the Circuit court, 1819: Meshach Lewallyn, William 
Haworth, Jesse Roberts, Jonathan Edwards, Solomon Wright, Daniel Petty, 
William Canaday, John Elzroth, James Wright, Isaiah Cox and Henry 

Bill boards were removed around the public square in 1873. 

Commissioners were very obliging in 1872 when they allowed George 
Irvin the privilege of setting his fence out seven feet in the Huntsville and 
Winchester road with the purpose of planting a hedge along said road. Mr. 
Irvin agreed to move the fence in case they wanted to greater improve the 
road but agreed to move it only long enough for such grading or improve- 
ment to be done." 



One ot the first provisions after the state was organized, was to provide 
for the transacting of the county business by a Board of County Commission- 
ers, to be elected by the people. The method of procedure in the organization 
of a county has been explained in the chapter on "county organization." Un- 
der this act the first commissioners of the county were : 

1818, August, Eli Overman, Benjamin Cox, John James. 

1820, August, John Wright, Zachariah Puckett, John James. 

We have no records of the county commissioners from 1820 to 1825. 
On the 31st of January, 1824, there were two acts approved by the Legis- 
lature, relative to county business. One was that, "each county in the state, 
a board of commissioners for transacting county business, to consist of three 
cjualified electors, any two of whom shall be competent to do business, to be 
elected by the c|ualified electors of the several counties respectively, one of 
whom shall be elected annually, to continue in ofiice three years, and until their 
successors are chosen and cjualified. Sec. 2. At the first election, in pur- 
suance of this act, there shall be elected three commissioners ; the person having 
the highest number of votes, shall serve three years ; the person having the next 
highest number of votes, shall serve two years ; and the person having the next 
highest number of votes, shall serve one year ; but if two or more shall be equal 
in number, their grade shall be determined by lot, and at all subsequent elec- 
tions, where there shall be more than one vacancy, the term of service of the 
person elected, shall be determined by the same rule." This indeed, is a very 
strange procedure of the Legislature, because "This act shall take effect and 
be in force until the first day of September next, and no longer." 

On the same day another act was approved as follows : 

"Sec. I. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, 
That there shall be a county board of justices established, in each and every 
county in this state, for the purpose of transacting county business; to be com- 
posed of the justices of the peace of the respective counties, who shall meet 
together and organize themselves, agreeably to the provisions of this act ; and 
after being organized as aforesaid, shall be known and considered in fact, 


law, and equity, a body politic and corporate, by and under the name and style 
of "The board of justices of the county of "; and as such, and by 

and under such name and style, may sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded, 
defend and be defended, answer and be answered unto, in any court of justice 
whatever; and to do and transact all manner of business on behalf of their 
respective counties, that may be assigned them from time to time by law'; and 
in all cases where the county may, or shall have been injured in its goods, 
chattels, lands, tenements, rights, credits, and effects, or contracts, such board 
of justices, shall by and under their corporate name and style (without setting 
out any of their individual names), bring such suit or suits, action or actions, 
either in law or in equity, as they may deem best calculated to obtain redress 
for any such injury, in the same way and manner, that a private individual 
might, could or would do ; and in all cases where any person or persons, now 
have, or hereafter may have any claim, of any name or nature, against any 
county, suit may be brought thereupon in any court of law or equity, against 
such board of justices, in their corporate capacity aforesaid, and judgment and 
execution had thereon, as in other cases. 

Ses. 2. It shall be the duty of each and every justice of the peace, to 
meet at the places of holding courts in their respective counties, on the first 
Monday of September next, and then and there proceed to organize them- 
selves into a county board of justices, by electing some one of their body as 
president of such court, and causing their names to be entered in the record 
book of the county, as members of such board : Provided however, that in all 
cases where the circuit court shall be in session in any county in this state, 
on the first Monday of September next, it shall be the duty of the justices 
of the peace in such county, to meet on the Monday succeeding the term of 
said court, and perform the duties required by the foregoing provisions of this 

Sec. 3. That the justice so elected as president, shall serve as such, for 
and during the term of one year, and until another shall be elected. It shall 
be his duty to sign all their proceedings, and pronounce the decisions of the 

Sec. 5. The clerks of the circuit courts shall by virtue of their office 
attend the meetings of the county board of justices, and keep a record of their 
proceedings, and do such other business, as shall be required by law ; and the 
sheriff of the county, shall also by himself or deputy, attend said board and 
execute their orders. 

Sec. 6. And it shall be the duty of said county board, at their Novem- 


ber session in each 3'ear, to make out a fair and accurate statement of the 
receipts and expenditures of the county for that year, and have the same set 
up at thC' court house door, or pubHshed in some newspaper printed in the 

Sec. 7. The county board of justices, shall, at their January session 
in each year, appoint a suitable number of listers, constables, overseers of the 
poor, inspectors of elections, superintendents of school sections, fence viewers, 
a county treasurer, and a pound keeper; 'knd it shall be their duty at other 
meetings, to fill all vacancies that may happen in any of their appointments. 

Sec. 8. It shall be the duty of the county board of justices, at their 
May session in each year, to receive and inspect the listers books, and levy a 
county tax according to law, and cause their clerks to make out a duplicate 
for collection accordingly : Provided, however. That it shall require five mem- 
bers of said board to constitute a quorum to do business, at their May and 
November sessions ; and in all cases when a quorum shall not attend, such as 
do attend, shall adjourn from day to day, and compel the attendance of absent 

Sec. 9. Required them to be punctual. 

Sec. 10. Authorized them "to sit three days at each session, if the busi- 
ness before them require it. 

Sec. II. Transferred the authority from the board of county commis- 
- sioners to the county board of justices, "after the said first Monday of Septem- 
ber next. 

Sec. 12. Required the consent of three members to appropriate money. 

Sec. 13. That justices of the peace shall, from and after the first Mon- 
day of September next, be exempt from militia duty, and serving on juries, 
and from working on roads and public highways, for a capitation tax, and 
shall receive no other pay for any of the duties enjoined upon them by this 

Sec. 16. Transferred all powers and privileges and duties required of 
the board of county commissioners, to the county board .of justices. 

"Sec. 17. This act to take effect and be in force from and after the 
first Monday in September next." 

Under the provisions of this act, we have the following: 


1825, John Coats, president, Noah Johnson, Isaac Barnes. Joseph Hale, 
John Odle, 


1826, January, John Coats, president, David Vestal, John Odle, Samuel 
Woodworth, Isaac Barnes, Joseph Hale, William Hunt. 

1826, March, John Coats, president, John Odle, Samuel D. Woodworth. 

1826, May, John Coats, president, Samuel D. Woodworth, Isaac Barnes, 
David Vestal, William Hunt, Joseph Hale, David Frazier, William Massey. 

1826, July, John Coats, president, William Massey, John Odle, Isaac 
Barnes, Samuel D. Woodworth, William N. Rowe, George Reitenour. 

1826, July 29, Special Sessions. John Coats, president, David Frazier, 
Joseph Hale. 

1826, September, John Coats, president, William Massey, Isaac Barnes, 
David Frazier, John Odle, David Vestal, George Reitenour. 

1826, November, Samuel D. Woodworth, president, John Coats, William 
Hunt, David Frazier, George Reitenour. 

1827, January, Samuel D. Woodworth, president, Isaac Barnes, George 
Reitenour, John Coats, Joseph Hale. 

1827, May, Samuel D. Woodworth, president, John Nelson, George T- 
Wilson, David Vestal, Joseph Hale, William Hunt, William Massey, David 
Frazier, Isaac Barnes, George Reitenour. 

1828, July, John Odle, president, David Frazier, George Reitenour, 
George T. Wilson, Daniel B. Millar. 

1828, November, John Odle, president, William Hunt, David Vestal, 
Joseph Hale, Daniel B. Miller, Curtis Voris. 

1829, September, John Odle, president, Joseph Hale, Curtis Voris, David 

1829, November, John Odle, president, Joseph Hale, Curtis Voris, Jesse 
Wright, John Jones, Daniel B. Miller. 

1830, May, William Hunt, president, Curtis Voris, David Semans, 
Horace S. Ra\\son, Joseph Hale. 

1830, September, Horace S. Rawson, president, Alvin C. Graves,. Joel 
Ward, Benjamin Wheeler. 

1830, November, William Hunt, president, Alvin C. Graves, James 

1 83 1, January, Alvin C. Graves, president, Wm. Hunt, Horace Lawson, 
James Smith, Joel Ward, Benjamin Wheeler, Oliver Walker, James C. Bowen. 

1 83 1, July, Alvin C. Graves, president, Joel Ward, David Vestal, George 
W. Smithson, James C. Bowen. 

Agreeably to an act of the Legislature of 1830, the board of justices in 
the Mav term, 1831, divided the county into three districts as follows : 


"All that part lying east of the section line dividing sections 15 & i6 
,in the 14th range to be the first district and all that part lying west of the said 
line dividing sections 15 & 16 to the line dividing sections 15 & 16 in range 
13 to be the second district and all that part west of said section line dividing 
sections 15 & 16 in the thirteenth range to be the third district." 

The election was held, the results of which are indicated in the intro- 
ductory paragraph of the September term, 1831. 

"At a Randolph board of commis^oners began and held at the court 
house in and for the county of Randolph on Monday the 5th day of Septem- 
ber, 1 83 1, present William Macy who produced a certificate of having been 
duly elected county commissioner for the county aforesaid for and during 
the term of three years and John James also appeared and produced a cer- 
tificate of having been duly elected county commissioner for the county afore- 
said for and during the term of two years who were severally qualified into 
office and took their seats." 

Later in the meeting, "Elias Kizer appeared and produced a certificate 
of having been duly elected county commissioner for said county for and 
during the term of one year from this date who was duly qualified and took his 

1831. September — First district, John James, 2 years; second, EHas 
Kizer, i year : third, William Macy. 3 years. 

1832. September — First district, John James; second, Elias Kizer; 
third, William Macy. 

1833. September — First district, John Baxter; second, Elias Kizer; 
third, William Macy. 

1834. September — First district, John Baxter; second, Elias Kizer; 
third, Robinson Mclntire. 

1835. September — First district, John Baxter; second, James Smith; 
third, Robinson Mclntire. 

1836. September — First district, John Coats; second, James Smith; 
lliird, Robinson Mclntire. 

1837. September — First district, John Coats; second, Abraham Adam- 
son. I year ; third, Geo. A. G. McNees. 

1838. September — First district, John Coats; second, John L. Adding- 
ton; third, Geo. A. G. McNees. 

1839. September — First District, William Kennedy; second, John L. 
Addington ; third, Geo. A. G. McNees. 


1840. August — First district, William Kennedy; second, John L. Add- 
ington; third, Samuel Pike. 

1841. August — First district, William Kennedy; second Elias Kizer; 
third, Samuel Pike. 

1842. August — First district, John Baxter; second, Elias Kizer; third, 
Samuel Pike. 

1843. August — First district, John Baxter; second, Elias Kizer; third, 
Henry Leaky. 

1844. August — First district, John Baxter ; second, Abraham Adamson; 
third, Henry Leaky. 

1845. August — First district, Nathaniel Kemp; second, Abraham 
Adamson ; third, Henry Leaky. 

1846. August — First district, Nathaniel Kemp ; second, Abraham 
Adamson ; third, Philip Barger. 

1847. August — First district, Nathaniel Kemp; second, Abraham 
Adamson ; third, Philip Barger. 

1848. August — First district, John M. Lucas; second, Abraham Adam- 
son; third, Philip Barger. 

1849. August — First district, John M. Lucas; second, Abraham Adam- 
son; third, Emson Wright. 

1850. August — First district, John M. Lucas; second, George W. 
Vanderburg; third, Emson Wright. 

1851. August — First district, John M. Lucas; second, George W. 
Vanderburg ; third, Emson Wright. 

1852. March — First district, John M. Lucas; second, George W. 
Vanderburg; third, Andrew DeVoss. 

1852. December — First district, John M. Lucas; second, George W. 
Vanderburg; third. Andrew DeVoss. 

1853. September — First district, John M. Lucas; second, George W. 
Vanderburg; third, Andrew DeVoss. 

1854. September — First district, Nathaniel Kemp; second, George W. 
Vanderburg; third, Andrew DeVoss. 

1855. September — First district, Nathaniel Kemp; second, George W 
Vanderburg: third. Thomas Aker. 

1856. November — First district, Nathaniel Kemp; second, Endsley 
Jones; third, Thomas Aker. 

1857. November — First district, Elihu Cammack; second, Endsley 
Jones : third, Thomas W. Reece. 


The population of the county at this time having increased more rapidly 
in some parts than others, lead the commissioners to redistrict the county by 
the following order : 

"Now at this time the Board of County Comrs. considering that the 
former districting of the county in County Comrs. districts as said districts 
are nof inhabited, having become unequaled in population. It is now therefore 
ordered by the Board of County Commissioners that the territory included in 
the following boundary compose the first commissioners in said county towit 
the territory included in the townships of Jackson, Wayne and Greens Fork 
County Commissioners District No. two to be composed of the territory lying 
west of No. one and east of a line commencing on the south line of the county 
line between sections fifteen and sixteen township eighteen north of range 
thirteen east, running thence north through the county to the N. W. cor. of 
sec. four township twenty-one north of range thirteen east, and county 
Comrs. District No. three to be composed of the territory Lying west of Xo. 
two and east of the county line." 

1858. November — First district, Elihu Cammack; second, Endsley 
Jones; third. Hicks K. Wright. 

1859. December; — First district, Elihu Cammack; second, Arthur Mc- 
Kew ; third, Hicks K. Wright. 

i860. December — First district, Clements F. Alexander; second, Arthur 
McKew ; third, Hicks K. Wright. 

1 86 1. November — First district, Clements F. Alexander; second, Arthur 
McKew; third, A. DeVoss 

] 862. November — First district, Clements F. Alexander ; second, Arthur 
McKew; third, A. DeVoss. 

1863. November — First district, Clements F. Alexander; second, Arthur 
McKew: third, A. DeVoss. 

1864. November — First district, Clements F. Alexander; second, Arthur 
McKew ; third. Hicks K. Wright. 

1865. November — First district, Clements F. Alexander; second Nathan 
Reed ; third, Hicks K. Wright. 

1866. November — First district, Elihu Cammack ; second, Nathan Reed; 
third. Hicks K. Wright. 

1867. November — First district, Elihu Cammack; second Nathan Reed; 
third. Hicks K. Wright. 

1868. November — First district, Elihu Cammack; second, Thomas 
Clevenger; third. Hicks K. Wright. 


1869. November — First district, Elihu Cammack; second, Thomas 
Clevenger; third, Hicks K. Wright. 

1870. November — First district, EHhu Cammack; second, Thomas 
Clevenger : third. Hicks K. Wright. 

In 1871, the districts became known as the Eastern, Middle and Western. 
At least in the December term of that year, Thomas Clevenger filed his cer- 
tificate of election as commissioner from the Middle district. These districts 
remained with these boundaries until recently when the east line was changed 
to the line running north from the Wayne county line, between sections 13 
and 14 east. 

1871. Eastern district, Elihu Cammack; Middle, Thomas Clevenger; 
\A'estern, Hicks K. Wright. 

1872. Eastern district, Elihu Cammack; Middle, Thomas Clevenger; 
Western, Hicks K. Wright 

1873. Eastern district, Francis G. Morgan; Middle, Thomas Clevenger; 
Western, Philip Barger. 

1874. Eastern district, Francis G. Morgan; Middle, Thomas Clevenger; 
^Vestern, Philip Barger. 

1875. Eastern district, Francis G. Morgan; Middle, Thomas Clevenger; 
Western, Philip Barger. 

1876. Eastern district, Wilson Anderson; Middle, Thomas Clevenger; 
Western, Elias Halliday. 

1877. Eastern district, Wilson Anderson; Middle, William Botkin; 
W^estern, Elias Halliday. 

1878. Eastern district, Wilson Anderson; Middle, William Botkin; 
Western, Elias Halliday. 

1879. Eastern district, Wilson Anderson; Middle, \A'illiam Botkin; 
Western, Elias Halliday. 

1880. Eastern district, Wilson Anderson; Middle, William R. Cogge- 
shall ; Western, Elias Halliday. 

1 88 1. Eastern district, Wilson Anderson; Middle, William R. Cogge- 
shall ; Western, Elias Halliday. 

1882. Eastern district, Benj. F. Gettinger; Middle, William R. Cogge- 
shall: Western, Philip K. Dick. 

1883. Eastern district, Benj. F. Gettinger; Middle, William R. Cogge- 
shall ; Western. Philip K. Dick. 

1884. Eastern district, Benj. F. Gettinger; Middle, William R. Cogge- 
shall ; Western, Philip K. Dick. 


1885. Eastern district, Adam R. Hiatt; Middle, William R. Cogge- 
shall ; Western, Luther L. Moorman. 

1886. Eastern district, Adam R. Hiatt; Middle, John R. Phillips; West- 
ern, Luther L. Moorman. 

1887. Eastern district, Adam R. Hiatt ; Middle, John R. Phillips ; West- 
ern, Luther L. Moorman. 

1888. Eastern district, Adam R. Hiatt; Middle, John R. Phillips ; West- 
ern, William C. Diggs. 

1889. Eastern district, Adam R. Hiatt; Middle, Wesley S. Iliff; West- 
ern, William C. Diggs. 

1890. Eastern district, John F. Chenoweth; Middle, Wesley S. Iliff; 
Western, William C. Diggs. 

1 89 1. Eastern district, John F. Chenoweth; Middle, Wesley S. Iliff; 
Western, William C. Diggs. 

1892. Eastern district, John F. Chenoweth; Middle, Joel Mills; West- 
ern,^ William C. Diggs. 

1893. Eastern district, William Horn; Middle, Joel Mills; Western, 
William C. Diggs. 

1894. Eastern district, William Horn; Middle, Joel Mills; Western, 
Adam Slonaker., 

1895. Eastern district, William Horn; Middle, Thos. H. Clark; West- 
ern, Adam Slonaker. 

1896. Eastern district, William Horn; Middle, Tho.3- H. Clark; West- 
ern, Adam Slonaker. 

1897. Eastern district, William Horn; Middle, Thos. H. Clark; West- 
ern, Adam Slonaker. 

1898. Eastern district, William Horn; Middle, Thos. H. Clark; West- 
ern, Adam Slonaker. 

1899. Eastern district, Geo. W. Warner; Middle, Thos. H. Clark; West- 
ern, *W. T. Botkin. 

1900. Eastern district, Geo. W. Warner; Middle, Thos. H. Clark; West- 
ern, John H. McGuire. 

1901. Eastern district, Geo. W. Warner; Middle, Thos. H. Clark; West- 
ern, John H. McGuire. 

1902. January — Eastern district, Geo. W. Warner; Middle, John 
Miller; Western, John H. McGuire. 

1903. January — Eastern district, John H. Miller; Middle, John Miller; 
Western, John H. McGuire. 


1904. January— Eastern district, John H. Miller; Middle, John Miller; 
Western, John H. McGuire. 

1905. January — Eastern district, John H. Miller; Middle, John Miller; 
Western, John H. McGuire. 

1906. January — Eastern district, John B. Fortenbaugh; Middle, John 
Miller ; Western, John H. McGuire. 

1907. January — Eastern district, John B. Fortenbaugh; Middle, John 
Miller ; Western, Luther L. Williams. 

1908. January — Eastern district, John B. Fortenbaugh; Middle, W. M. 
Alills; Western, Luther L. Williams. 

1909. January — Eastern district, Chas. E. Bowen; Middle, W. M. 
Mills ; Western, Luther L. Williams. 

1910. January — Eastern district, Chas. E. Bowen; Middle, W. M. 
^Mills; Western, John E. Cheesman. 

191 1. January — Eastern district, **Chris E. Chenoweth; Middle, W. 
M. Mills ; Western, John E. Cheesman. 

1912. January — Eastern district, Chris E. Chenoweth; Middle, W. M. 
Mills ; Western, John E. Cheesman. 

1913. January — Eastern district, Chris E. Chenoweth; Middle, W. M. 
Mills : Western, Winfield Smullen. 

1914. January — Eastern district, Chris E. Chenoweth; Middle, Clarence 
Mullen; Western, Winfield Smullen. 

* Adam Slonaker died November 26, 1899, ^^id W. T. Botkin was ap- 
pointed in his place. 

** Charles E. Bowen died June 10, 1910, and Chris E. Chenoweth was; 
appointed in his place. 


William Hendricks, 1817-1823, First District— one district in the State. 

John Test, 1823- 1827. 

Oliver H. Smith, 1827-1829; John Test, 1829-1831 ; Jonathan McCarty, 
183 1 -1833 — Third District — three districts. 

Jonathan McCarty, 1833-1837; James H. Rariden, 1837-1841; Andrew 
Kennedy, 1841-1843 — Fifth District- — seven districts. 

Andrew Kennedy, 1843-1847; William Rockhill, 1847-1849; Andrew J. 
Harlan, 1849-1851 ; Samuel Brenton, 1851-1853 — Tenth District — ten 


Samuel Parker, 1853-1855; D. P. Holloway, 1855-1857 — Fifth District. 

David Kilgore, 1857-1861 — eleven districts. 

George W. Julian, 1861-1871; Jeremiah M. Wilson, 1871-1873 — Fourth 

Jeremiah M. Wilson, 1873-1875; William S. Holman, 1875-1877; 
Thomas M. Browne, 1877-1891 — Fifth District. 

1 891 -1 897 — Henry U. Johnson, Sixth District. 

1 897- 1 899 — Charles L. Henry, Madison County, Eighth District. 

1 899- 1 907 — George W. Comer, Eighth District. 

1907-1914 — J. A. M. Adair, Eighth District. 


1816-24 — Patrick Baird, Wayne and Randolph. 
1825 — James Rariden, Wayne, Randolph, Allen; Centerville. 
1826-28 — Amaziah Morgan, Rush, Henry, Randolph, Allen. 
1829-31 — Daniel Worth, Randolph, Allen, Delaware, Cass; Huntsville. 
1832-33 — Samuel Hanna, as next above — Fort Wayne, St. Joseph, 

1834-35 — Andrew Aker, Randolph, Delaware, Grant; Winchester. 

1836-39 — Andrew Kennedy, Delaware, Randolph. 

1840 — Michael Aker, Delaware, Randolph. 

18.11-42 — Michael Aker, Randolph, Blackford, Jay; Winchester. 

1843-45 — Isaac F. Wood, Randolph, Blackford, Jay; Spartanburg. 

1846-48 — Dixon Milligan, Randolph, Blackford, Jay; Portland. 

1849-50 — Jacob Brugh, Randolph, Blackford, Jay. 

1851-52 ^Longshore, Randolph, Jay; Deerfield. 

i^53-56 — Theophilus Wilson, Randolph, Jay; New Corydon. 

3857-60 — Daniel Hill, Randolph; Jericho. 

1860-62 — Asahel Stone, Randolph; Winchester. 

1862-64 — Thomas M. Browne, Randolph; Winchester. 

1864-68 — Thomas Ward, Randolph; Winchester. 

1868-72 — Isaac P. Gray, Randolph; Union City. 

1872-76 — Andrew J. Neff, Randolph; Winchester. 

1876-80 — Nathan Cadwallader, Randolph; Union City. 

1880-84— E'. H. Bundy, Randolph, Henry. 

1882-86 — Marcus C. Smith, Randolph, Henry, Delaware; Muncie. 

1884— John W. Macy (Randolph), Delaware, Henry and Randolph. 


]888 — Theodore Shockney (Randolph), Delaware and Randolph. 

1892 — Ozro N. Cranor (Delaware), Randolph and Delaware. 

1896 — Walter Ball (Delaware), Randolph and Delaware. 

1900 — T. Halleck Johnson (Jay), Randolph and Jay. 

1904 — Seih D. Coats (Randolph), Randolph and Jay. 

1908 — Nathan T. Hawkins (Jay), Randolph and Jay. 

1912 — Bader S. Hunt (Randolph), Randolph and Jay. 


The following list gives name, residence and counties represented: 

18 1 6 — Joseph Holman, Ephraim Overman (Randolph), John Scott, 
Wayne and Randolph. 

1817 — Holman, Scott, Robert Hill, Wayne and Randolph. 

1818, 1819, 1820, 1821 — Supposed to have been represented with Wayne 

1822-24 — John Wright (Randolph), Wayne and Randolph. 

1825 — Daniel Worth (Randolph), Randolph and Allen. 

1826 — Samuel Hanna (Allen), Randolph, Allen, and all the territory 
north of Madison and Hamilton counties to the Wabash not attached else- 

1827-28 — Daniel Worth (Randolph), as next above. 

1829 — Lemuel G. Jackson (Delaware), Randolph and Delaware. 

1830— David Semans (Randolph), Randolph and Delaware. 

1 83 1 — Andrew Aker (Randolph), Randolph alone. 

1832-33 — Eli Edwards (Randolph), Randolph. 

1834 — Zachariah Puckett (Randolph), Randolph. 

1835 — El' Edwards (Randolph), Randolph. 

1836-37 — Zachariah Puckett (Randolph). Randolph. 

1838-39 — Miles Hunt (Randolph), Randolph. 

1840 — Smith Elkins (Randolph), Randolph. 

1841-42 — Robert W. Butler (Randolph), Randolph. 

1843 — Edward Edger, (Randolph), Randolph. 

1844-45 — Roylston Ford (Randolph), Randolph. 

1846 — James Griffis (Randolph), Randolph. 

1848— H. H. Neff, Asahel Stone (Randolph), Randolph. 

1848— Isaac F. Wood. " .'," '] 


i849 — Elza Lank, Jr., James Brown, 

1850 — Elza Lank, Jr. 

1851-52 — John Wilson. ^ 'i 

1853-54 — Josiah Bundy. 

1855-56 — George W. Monks. 

1857-60 — Silas Colgrove. 

1861-64— John A. Moorman. 

1865-66— Thomas W. Reece. 

1867-68 — Enos L. Watson. 

1869-70 — J. T. Vardeman. 

1870-72 — Asahel Stone. 

1872-74 — Nathan T. Butts. 

1874-76 — Martin A. Reeder. 

1876-78 — John A. Moorman. 

i878-8o^Enos L. Watson. 

1880-82— William E. Murray. 

1882-84 — Theodore Shockney. 

1884-86— J. S. Engle. 

1886-88— Jonah L. Catey. 

1888-90— Wm. A. W. Daly. 

1890-92 — Wm. D. Stone. 

1892-96 — Andrew J. Stakebake. 

1896-1900 — Silas A. Canada. 

1898-02 — Joint Representative Blackfoot, Jay and Randolph, John A- 
Bonham, of Blackford. 

1900-04 — Samuel R. Bell. 

1904-06 — Isaiah P. Watts. 

1904-06 — Joint Representative between Jay, Randolph and Blackford, 
Sidney W. Cantrell, (Blackford). 

1906-12 — Miles Furnas. 

1912-14 — Clarence F. Pierce. 


Randolph county, Beattie McClelland. 

Randolph and Jay (Senatorial), Dixon Milligan, Nathan R. Hawkins. 



Charles Conway, 1818-39, did the business now belonging to the auditor's 
office; A. K. Eaton, 1841-45 ; Nathan Garrett, 1845-59; Elisha Garrett, George 
O. Jobes, 1859-61 ; Thomas L. Scott, 1861-65 ; W. E. Murray, 1865-74 ; W. D. 
Kizer, 1874-78; George N. Edger, 1878-82; Benj. F. Boltz, 1882-86; Andrew 
j. Cranor, 1886-90; Albert Canfield, 1890-94; Wm. A. Wiley, 1894-98; Calvin 
S. Engle, 1898-1902; JohnH. 'Boltz, 1902-07; Mack Pogue, 1907-1911 ; Henry 
V Wood, 191 1. 


Charles Conway, 1818-39; George W. Monks, 1839-53: Henry H. Neff, 
1853-61; J. B. Goodrich, 1861-69; Henry T. Semans, 1869-73; Richard A. 
Leavcll, 1873-77; John W. Macy, 1877-81; I. R Watts, 1881-85; R. A. 
Leavell, 1885-89; John R. Engle, 1889-93; -^^ L. Nichols, 1893-97; John E. 
Markle, 1897-01. James J. Eagy, 1901-05; A. L. Farquhar, 1905-09; A. R. 
Helms, 1909-13; Joe Gard, 1913. 


David Wright, 1818-19; Solomon Wright, 1820-24; Thomas Wright, 
1825-27; EH Edwards, 1829-31 ; Jeremiah Smith, 1833; Nathan Garrett, 1837; 
Robert Irvin, 1840-44; Nathan Reed, 1844-48; William Kizer, 1848-52; Amer 
Forkner, 1852-56; William M. Campbell, 1856-60; A. H. Jenkins, 1860-64; 
Joel A. Newman, 1864-68; William M. Campbell, 1868-70: D. F. Ford, 
1870-73; W. W. Macy, 1873-74; W. A. W. Daly, 1874-78; W. W. Macy, 
1878-80; R. Murray, 1880-82; John Ross, 1882; William K. Thornburg, 
1884-86; Benjamin Hawthorn, 1886-90; Benjamin Hawthorn, 188-90; 
James M. Fletcher, 1890-92; James M. Fletcher, 1892-94; David B. Strahan, 
1894- to 1898; James W. Simmons, March 15, 1898, to November 19, 1898; 
Thomas J. Overman, 1898 to 1902; George W. Bright, 1902 to 1907 (term 
begins January 1, 1903); Albert King, 1907 to 191 1; Nathan U. Strahan, 
191 1 ; John C. Henning, 1913. 


Olynthus Cox, Elmer Ross, Thomas A. Almonrode, Pearl Keever. 



John Watts, Miles Eggleston, Charles H. Test, Isaac Blackford, Samuel 
Bigger, David Kilgore, Jeremiah Smith, Joseph Anthony, Jeremiah Smith, 
John T. Elliot, Silas Colgrove, J. J. Cheney, Jacob M. Haynes, Silas Colgrove, 
Leander J. Monks, elected in 1878, 1884 and 1890; Garland D. Williamson, 
appointed in 1894; Albert O. Marsh, ,1894; John W. Macy, elected in 1902; 
James S. Engle, 1908. 


William Edwards, 1818; John Wright, 1818-46; John Sample, William 
Peacock, 1834; Littleberry Diggs, Peter S. Miller, Stephen C. Stephens, John 
T. McKinney, Daniel B. Miller, John Mock. 

It is possible that there may have been more than the ones named above. 


A\'illiam Edwards, associate judge ; John Wright, associate judge ; John 
Sample, associate judge. James T. Liston, sole judge. 1831-33; Zachariah 
Puckett, sole judge, 1833-34; Smith Elkins, sole judge, 1834-36; E. B. Good- 
rich, sole judge, 1836-42 ;Beattic McClelland, sole judge, 1842-49; George 
Debolt, sole judge, 1849-51. 

Closed August 16, 1852. 

Probate business was done at first by the associate judges, then by a single 
judge, afterward by the court of common pleas until that court was discon- 
tinued, and since that time by the circuit court. 

(See Judges of Court of Common Pleas, and also of the Circuit Court.) 


Xathan B. Hawkins, 1853 (died in office) ; James Brown, 1853-54; W. 
A. Peelle, 1854-60; Jacob M. Haynes, 1860-63. 

Since that' time probate business has been done in the circuit court. 

The court of common pleas was abolished (as also the probate court had 
been), and the business of both was transferred to the circuit court, by which 
it is still transacted. 



The court of common pleas was established under the constitution of 
3851, and continued till a few years ago. 

The prosecuting attorneys for that court were William Moorman, elected 
1852; J. J. Cheney. 1854; E. L. Watson, 1856, 1858, 1862; Thomas J. Hos- 
ford, i860; J. E. Mellette, John J. Hawkins. 

SURVEYORS (partial LISt). 

Moorman Way, Samuel D. Woodworth, Jeremiah Smith, C. S. Good- 
rich, Edmund B. Goodrich, Anderson D. Way, Thomas C. Puckett, Enos "L. 
Watson, Pleasant Hiatt, Charles Jaqua, Phinehas Pomery, Ephraim C. Hiatt, 
Michael C. Gafifey, 1880; A. M. Russell, elected in 1882; Charles C. Yunker, 
1884 to 1888; J. Ellsworth Hinshaw, 1888 to 1892; Miles C. Coble, 1892 to 
1894; Jacob E. Hinshaw, 1894 to 1900; Alonzo L. Wright, 1900 to 1909; 
Arthur B. Purdy, 1909 to present time. 


Charles Conway, 1818-39; W. C. Wilmore, 1839-53; William Burres, 
1853-61 ; J. S. Cottom, 1861-65; F. A. Engle, 1865-69; John W. Williamson, 
1869-73; W. C. Brown, 1873-77; D. C. Braden, 1877-81; O. F. Lewellen, 
1881-85; Nimrod Brooks, 1885-89; Benjamin W. Simmons, 1889-92, died 
1892; William G. Moulton, 1892 (until next general election or until his suc- 
cessor is .elected and qualified); Perry Leavell, 1892-99; Nathan R. Cheno- 
weth, 1896-1900; James Curtis Dodd, 1900-05; John R. Fouse, 1905-09; 
Frank F. Fielder, 1909-12; Jesse W. Yost, 1912-. 


Jesse Johnson, 1818-24; John B. Wright, 1825-29; James B. Liston, 
1829-30; John Odle, 1831; Jeremiah Smith; Zachariah Puckett, 1838; An- 
drew Aker, 1839-40; John Neff, 1844; Thomas W. Reece, 1847; Simeon H. 
Lucas, 1850; Ira Swain, 1855-57; John W. Jarnagin, 1857-61 ; E. F. Halliday, 
1861-65; A. M. Owens, 1865-69; James H. Bowen, 1869-73; Simon Ramsey, 
1873-75; Harrison P. Hunt, 1875-77; O- C. Gordon, 1877-81 ; Calvin Puckett, 
1881-83; Mahlon T. Sumption, 1 883-85 ; William A. Martin, 1885-87; J. W. 


Turner, 1887-89; I. V. D. R. Johnson, 1889-91; George W. Veal, 1891-93; 
Mathew H. Ruby, 1893-95 ; Joseph C. Devoss, 1895-96; Harvey E. McNees, 
November 14, 1896-97; Joseph C. Devoss, 1897, until successor is elected and 
qualified; Thomas H. Johnson, December 31, 1903, to January i, 1906; Hicks 
K. Wright, 1899, (bond approved November 9, 1899); John I. Johnson, 
1901, (bond approved December 4, 1901) ; George W. Robbins, 1906, (served 
three years. Harry Jack, treasurer-elect, died the last week of December, 
1908, and Robbins served until a successor could be elected) ; John Collett, 
1909; Tilman W. Baldwin, 191 1; Henry D. Good, 1912. 


Solomon Wright, David Heaston, Benjamin Ramsey, William R. Finn, 
Martin A. Reeder, John H. Peake, Joab Pierce, R. H. Grooms, Jonathan Ed- 
wards, Isaac R. Ford, John D. Carter, J. J. Evans, 1884; Cyrus Cox, 1888; 
J. J. Evans, 1890; John D. Carter, 1892; Oren Coats, 1894; J. J. Evans, 
1896; Jacob E. Hinshaw, 1898; J. J. Evans, 1900-1913; David C. Roney, 
1913; John S. Nixon, October 6, 1913, to December 31, 1914. 


The first prosecuting attorney was James Rariden, appointed by the court. 
After him, at various times, were Bethuel Morris, John Gilmore, Lot Bloom- 
field, Oliver H. Smith, Amos Lane, Charles H. Test, Martin M. Ray, James 
Perry, William J. Brown, Caleb B. Smith, Samuel W. Parker, Jeremiah 
Smith, Andrew Kennedy, Jehu T. Elliott, John Brownlee (up to October, 


Elected — William A. Peelle, Thomas M. Browne, Silas Colgrove, J. J. 
Cheney (common pleas), Enos L. Watson (common pleas), William Garber, 
Thomas M. Browne, Daniel M. Bradbury, E. B. Reynolds, Alexander GuUett, 
A. O. Marsh, J. E. Mellette; Thomas A. Spencer, 1882; Emerson McGriflf, 
1885; S. A. Canada, 1886; J. B. Ross, 1888; B. F. Marsh, 1890; James B. 
Ross, 1892. Clarkson L. Hutchens, 1894-98; Alonzo L. Bales, 1898; Charles 
L. Watson, 1900-1905; W. O. Smith, 1905; Carl Thompson, 1907; W. O 
Smith,. 1909; E. E. Chenoweth, 1911 ; Bert E. Woodbury, 1913. 



James D. Bowen, 1881 ; Reuben C. Shaw, 1881 ; M. C. Gaffey, 1881 ; 

■George W. Hamilton, 1881 ; Albert M. Russell, 1882; Walter C. Shaw, 1884; 

Charles C. Yunker, 1884; Ellsworth Hinshaw, 1888; J. E. Hinshaw, 1890- 
J900; Alonzo L. Wright, 1900- 1909; Arthur B. Purdy, 1909-19 15. 


Jeremiah Smith, George W. Monks, Samuel D. Woodworth, Moorman 
Way, Carey S. Goodrich, Isaac F. Wood, William A. Peelle, J. J. Cheney, 
Pleasant Hiatt, J. G. Brice, A. J. Stakebake. 

The first county superintendent was Charles W. Paris, elected in 1873, 
and was succeeded by Daniel Lesley, in 1875. H. W. Bowers, elected in 
1883; J. W. Denney, 1887, and served ten years, when Charles W. Paris was 
again elected and served until 1907, when the present incumbent, Lee L. 
Driver, was elected. 



Randolph county not being entered by settler until 1814 could not of 
course have had any soldiers in either the Revolutionary War or the War 
of 1812. 

It was only a few of the most adventurous of Revolutionary soldiers 
who pierced the great unbroken west through the spirit of adventure or 
of home seeking. 

Those who had the spirit of adventure merely went from place to 
place stopping here and there and settling nowhere. Those who left the 
eastern colonies in search of fortune or homes came into the west and set- 
tled in Ohio or Tennessee and it was only the most venturesome that 
moved the second time and came from those two states into Indiana. It is 
impossible at this remote period to know who these heroes were or the mo- 
tives that brought them froin the civilization of the east to the wilds of 
what was then the extreme west, however, it is known that a few of these 
old men, for indeed they were old at the time of the organization of 
Randolph county, did enter this county, here to find a home in peace and 
happiness for the remainder of their days. 

Being used to hardships and privations the new settlements offered no 
inconveniences or hardships which they were unwilling to endure. The only 
record we have of these heroes today is the little marker that stands at the 
head of the grave and in some cases these markers have been destroyed or 

In 1840 the county within its boundary had at least seven Revolutionary 
soldiers, who were drawing pension.s as such. In that year, 1840, there were 
Samuel Ambrom {"Amburn), age 79; Drummond Smithson, age 85, who 
lived at Stoney Creek township; Robert Lumpkin, age 84, lived in Nettle 
Creek; Wm. Fitzjerrel (Fitzgerald), age 97, in Washington: Chris Bord- 
ders, 79, Greensfork; Joseph Chandler, age 87, and Elias Porter, age 84, of 
Jackson township. The above list is taken from the official census of pen- 
sioMcrs for 1840, and from that it would seem that no Rexolutionary sol- 
diers' widows were living in this county.