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Cornell University Library 
F 612.H5W28 

History of Hennepin County and the City 

3 1924 006 600 484 

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the Cornell University Library. 

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the United States on the use of the text. 















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, We live not alone in the present but also in the past and future. The 
radius that circumscribes our lives must necessarily extend backward indefi- 
nitely and forward infinitely. We can never look out thoughtfully at our im- 
mediate surroundings but a course of reasoning will start up leading us to 
inquire the causes that produced the development around us, and at the same 
time we are led to conjecture the results to follow causes now in operation. 
We are thus linked indissolubly with the past and the future. 

" Now for my life," says Sir Thomas Browne, " it is a miracle of thirty 
years, which to relate were not a history, but a piece of poetry, and would 
sound to common ears like a fable. * * Men that look upon my outside, 
perusing only my condition and fortune, do err in my altitude ; for I am above 
Atlas his shoulders. I take my circle to be above three hundred and sixty. 
Though the number of the arc do measure my body, it comprehendeth not 
my mind." 

If, then, the past is not simply a stepping-stone to the future, but a part 
of our very selves, we can not afford to ignore it, or separate it from ourselves, 
as a member might be lopped off from our bodies ; for though the body thus 
maimed might perform many and perhaps most of its functions, still it could 
never again be called complete. 

We, therefore, present this volume to our patrons in Hennepin county, 
not as something extrinsic, to which we would attract their notice and secure 
their favor, but as a part of themselves, and an important part, which it is the 
province of the historian to re-invigorate and restore to its rightful owner. 
Moveover, we can not but hope that we shall thus confer much pleasure. 
The recounting of events which have transpired in .our own neighborhood is 
the most interesting of all history. There is a fascination in the study of the 
intermingled fact and fiction of the past which is heightened by a familiarity 
with the localities described. The writer remembers the glow of enthusiasm 
with which he once stood at the entrance of the old fort at Ticonderoga, and 
repeated the words of Ethan Allen : " In the name of the Great Jehovah and 
the Continental Congress, etc." " The river which flows through our native 
village acquires a new interest when, in imagination, we see the Indian canoe 
on its surface and the skin-covered tepee on its banks, as in days of yore. 
Log cabins, straw roofs, and the rude " betterments " of the hardy pioneer, 
are the next changes on the scene, followed soon by mushroom towns, some 
of which perish as quickly as they spring up, while others astonish us by 
their rapid growth ; cities are built, and moss and ivy, the evidences of age, 
soon accumulate. The log cabin and all the incipient steps of first settlement 
are things of the past ; "The place which knew them shall know them no more 


Our purpose is to present these pictures in their natural succession, 
arousing the enthusiasm of the reader, if possible, giving him a more vig- 
orous enjoyment of the present by linking it with the past. The compass of 
the virork is wide, extending over a long period of time, embracing the accounts 
of early explorers, also reaching back among the legends of the past, and 
approaching the events of to-day, almost undesignedly casting a prophetic 
glance forward at what must be the future after such a beginning. 

St. Anthony Falls and the environs present an exceptionally rich field 
for a work of this character. By situation, it was the highway of travel for 
Indian and white man, explorer, missionary, voyageur arid trader. This was 
the favorite hunting ground "as ^well as the battle-field of our savage predeces- 
sors. Here, too, they calmed their barbarous hearts, and bowed in worship 
of the Manitou, whose abode was at the great water-fall. 

Incidents connected with the early settlement derive interest from the 
military reservation, and are unique in character. While reviewing these 
events and enterprises inaugurated for the development of the county, we 
come to regret that we can not claim the prestige belonging to the aristocracy 
of early settlers. 

To give in detail all the various sources from which the facts here given 
have been obtained, would be tedious if not impracticable. It may be suffi- 
cient to say that it fairly presents the history of our remarkable development 
and a faithful picture of our present condition. We must, however, exprc^ss 
our obligations to a host of living witnesses, from whom a large portion of the 
facts have been obtained and doubtful points verified ; they have our hearty 
thanks. Material has been drawn largely from the columns of newspapers, 
which have given, from time to time, a record of passing events. The contri- 
bution of Rev. Edward D. Neill will be of great permanent value in imperish- 
able print, and will be greatly prized by histographers everywhere. We have 
also drawn upon the accumulation of facts in the possession of the Minnesota 
Historical Society, for a valuable paper by its secretary, Mr. J. Fletcher Wil- 
liams. The value of a reservoir of historical data at the capital of the state, 
for such purposes, was fully appreciated, and the maintenance of such a 
centre of information can not be too strongly advocated. 

In conclusion, we have an obligation to express to our patrons, and are 
pleased to acknowledge a liberal patronage and more than ordinary courtesy 
toward our employees ; for all of which we tender our hearty thanks. Hoping 
that those who have subscribed for and are about to receive this volume, will 
favor it with a kind reception, and take as much interest in reading as we 
have in compiling the history of Hennepin county, we are, very respectfully, 







opp. 1 


Explorers and Pioneers of Minnesota — Eev. 
Edward Duffield Neill, 1-128 


Outlines of the History of Minnesota from 
1858 to 1881— J. Fletcher WiUiams, 129-160 


Fort Snelling, 161-166 


Hennepin County History, 167-187 

"War Eecord, - 188-211 

EicMeld, . 212-221 

Bloomington, 222-230 

Eden Prairie, 231-237 

Minnetonka, - ' 238-246 

Excelsior, 247-256 

Minnetrista, 257-262 

Independence, - 263-268 

Medina, 268-277 

Crystal Lake, - 278-284 




Osseo, 294-297 

ChampUn, 298-301 

Dayton, 302-306 

Hassan, - 307-310 

Greenwood, 311-316 

Corcoran, 317-321 

Maple Grove, 322-328 

Plymouth, 328-338 

Minneapolis, Town of, 339-353 

Saint Anthony, Town of, 353-356 


Minneapolis, City of, 357-499 


Minneapolis, City, Biographies, 


Chronology, 662-668 

Directory, 669-696 

Index, - - 697 



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Scale Smiles to a/t /'//cA 

North Star Publishing Co 

.SiiiiMLuTi^Oli StiDMspdhs 






Minnesota's Central Position.— D'Avagour 'a Prediction.— Nicolet's Visit to Green 
Bay.— First White Men in Minnesota.— Ifotices of Groselliers and Tladisson.— 
Hurous Flee to Minnesota. — ^Visited by rrenclinien. — Father Menard Disap- 
pears. — Groselliers Visits Hudson's Bay.— Fatlier Allouez Describes the Sioux 
Mission nt La Pointe.— Father Marquette.— Sioux at Sault St. Marie,— Jesuit 
Missions Fail.— Gr&selliers Visits England.— Captain Gillam, of Boston, at Hud- 
son's Bay. — Letter of Mother Superior of UrsuUnes., at Quebec, — Death of 

The Dakotahs, called by the Ojibways, Nado- 
waysioux, or Sioux (Soos), as abbreviatsd by the 
French, used to claim superiority over other peo- 
ple, because, their sacred men asserted that the 
mouth of the Minnesota Eiver was immediately 
over the centre of the earth, and below the centre 
of the heavens. 

While this teaching is very different from that 
of the modem astronomer, it is certainly true, 
that the region west of Lake Superior, extending 
through the valley of the Minnesota, to the Mis- 
souri Eiver, is one of the most healthful and fer- 
tile regidns beneath the skies, and may prove to 
be the centre of the republic of the United States 
of America. Baron D'Avagour, a brave oflScer, 
who was killed in fighting the Turks, while he 
was Governor of Canada, in a dispatch to the 
Trench Government, dated August I4th, 1663, 
after referring to Lake Huron, wrote, that beyond 
" is met another, called Lake Superior, the waters 
of which, it is believed, flow into New Spain, and 
this, according to general opinion, ought to he the 
centre of the country.'''' 

As early as 1635, one of Champlain's interpre- 
ters, Jean Mcolet (Nicolay), who came to Cana- 
da in 1618, reached the western shores of Lake 
Michigan. In the summer of 1634 he ascended 

Entered according to act of Congress, in tlie year 1881, Ijy Geo. E. Warkkr and 

the St. Lawrence, with a party of Hurons, and 
probably during the next winter was trading at 
Green Bay, in "Wisconsin. On the ninth of De- 
cember, 1635, he had returned to Canada, and on 
the 7th of October, 1637, was married at Quebec, 
and the next month, went to Three Elvers, where 
he lived until 1642, when he died. Of him it is 
said, in a letter written in 1640, that he had pen- 
etrated farthest into those distant countries, and 
that if he had proceeded " three days more on a 
great river which flows from that lake [Green 
Bay] he would have found the sea." 

The first white men in Minnesota, of whom we 
have any record, were, according to Garneau, two 
persons of Huguenot afiinities, Medard Chouart, 
known as Sieur Groselliers, and Pierre d'Esprit, 
called Sieur Eadisson. 

Groselliers (pronoimced Gro-zay-yay) was bom 
near Ferte-sous-Jouarre, eleven miles east of 
Meaux, in France, and when about sixteen years 
of age, in the year 1641, came to Canada. The fur 
trade was the great avenue to prosperity, and in 
1646, he was among the Huron Indians, who then 
dwelt upon the eastern shore of Lake Huron, 
bartering for peltries. On the second of Septem- 
ber, 1647, at Quebec, he was married to Helen, 
the widow of Claude Etienne, who was the daugh- 
ter of a pilot, Abraham Martin, whose baptismal 
name is still attached to the suburbs of that city, 
the " Plains of Abraham," made famous by the 
death there, of General "Wolfe, of the English 
army, in 1759, and of General Montgomery, of 
the Continental army, in December, 1775, at the 

C, M. Foots, ia tile office of the Librarian ofCongress, at Washington, D. Ci 


commencement of the " War for Independence." 
His son, Medard, was born in 1657, and the next 
year his mother died. The second wife of Gro- 
selliers was Marguerite Ilayet (Hayay) Radisson, 
the sister of his associate, in the exploration of 
the region west of Lake Superior. 

Radisson was born at St. Malo, and, while a 
boy, went to Paris, and from thence to Canada, 
and in 1656, at Three Rivers, married Elizabeth, 
the daughter of Madeleine Hainault, and, after 
her death, the daughter of Sir David Kirk or 
Kerkt, a zealous Huguenot, became his wife. 

The Iroquois of New York, about the year 1650, 
drove the Hurons from their villages, and forced 
them to take refuge with their friends the Tinon- 
tates, called by the French, Petuns, because they 
cultivated tobacco. In time the Hurons and 
their allies, the Ottawas (Ottaw-waws), were 
again driven by the Iroquois, and after successive 
wanderings, were found on the west side of Lake 
Michigan. In time they reached the Mississippi, 
and ascending above the Wisconsin, they found 
the Iowa River, on the west side, which they fol- 
lowed, and dwelt for a time with the Ayoes 
(loways) who were very friendly ; but being ac- 
customed to a country of lakes and forests, they 
were not satisfied with the vast prairies. Return- 
ing to the Mississippi, they ascended this river, 
in search of a better land, and were met by some 
of the Sioux or Dakotahs, and conducted to their 
villages, where they were well received. The 
Sioux, delighted with the axes, knives and awls 
of European manufacture, which had been pre- 
sented to them, allowed the refugees to settle 
upon an island in the Mississippi, below the 
mouth of the St. Croix River, called Bald Island 
from the absence of trees, about nine miles from 
the site of the present city of Hastings. Possessed 
of firearms, the Hurons and Ottawas asserted 
their superiority, and determined to conquer the 
country for themselves, and having incurred the 
hostility of the Sioux, were obliged to flee from 
the isle in the Mississippi. Descending below 
Lake Pepin, they reached the Black River, and 
ascending it, found an unoccupied country around 
its sources and that of the Chippeway. In this 
region the Hurons established themselves, while 
their allies, the Ottawas, moved eastward, till 
they found the shores of Lake Superior, and set- 
tled at Chagouamikon (Sha - gah - wah - mik - ong ) 

near what is now Bayfield. In the year 1659, 
Groselliers and Radisson arrived at Chagouamik- 
on, and determined to visit the Hurons and Pe- 
tuns, vnth whom the former had traded when 
they resi(i0d east of Lake Huron. After a six 
days' journey, in a southwesterly direction, they 
reached their retreat toward the sources of the 
Black, Chippewa, and Wisconsin Rivers. Prom 
this point they journeyed north, and passed the 
winter of 1659-60 among the " Nadoueehiouec," 
or Sioux villages in the Mille Lacs (Mil Lak) re- 
gion. From the Hurons they learned of a beau- 
tiful river, wide, large, deep, and comparable with 
the Saint Lawrence, the great Mississippi, which 
flows through the city of Minneapolis, and whose 
sources are in northern Minnesota. 

Northeast of Mille Lacs, toward the extremity 
of Lake Superior, they met the "Poualak," or 
Assiniboines of the prairie, a separated band of 
the Sioux, who, as wood was scarce and small, 
made fire with coal (charbon de terre) and dwelt 
in tents of skins ; although some of the more in- 
dustrious built cabins of clay (terre grasse), like 
the swallows build their nests. 

The spring and summer of 1660, GroseUiers and 
Radisson passed in trading around Lake Superior. 
On the 19th of August they returned to Mon- 
treal, with three hundred Indians and sixty car 
noes loaded with " a wealth of skins." 

" Purs of bison and of beaver, 
Purs of sable and of ermine." 

The citizens were deeply stirred by the travelers' 
tales of the vastness and richness of the region 
they had visited, and their many romantic adven- 
tures. In a few days, they began their return to 
the far West, accompanied by six Frenchmen and 
two priests, one of whom was the Jesuit, Rene Me- 
nard. His hair whitened by age, and his mind 
ripened by long experience, he eeemed the man 
for the mission. Two hours after midnight, of the 
day before departure, the venerable missionary 
penned at " Three Rivers," the following letter 
to a friend : 

'Reverend Father : 
" The peace of Christ be with you : I write to 
you probably the last, which I hope will be the 
seal of our friendship until eternity. Love whom 
the Lord Jesus did not disdain to love, though 
the greatest of sinners; for he loves whom he 


loads with his cross. Let your friendship, my 
good Father, be useful to me by the desirable 
fruits of your daily sacrifice. 

" In three or four months you may remember 
me at the memento for the dead, on account of 
my old age, my weak, constitution and the hard- 
ships I lay under amongst these tribes. Never- 
theless; I am in peace, for I have not been led to 
this mission by any temporal motive, but I think 
it was by the voice of God. I was to resist the 
grace of God by not coming. Eternal remorse 
would have tormented me, had I not come when 
I had the opportunity. 

" "We have been a little surprized, not being 
able to provide ourselves with vestments and oth- 
er things, but he who feeds the Uttle birds, and 
clothes the lilies of the fields, will take care of 
his servants ; and though it should happen we 
should die of want, we would esteem ourselves 
happy. I am burdened with business. What I 
can do is to recommend our journey to your daily 
sacrifice, and to embrace you with the same sen- 
timents of heart as I hope to do in eternity. 
" My Eeverend Father, 

Your most humble and affectionate 
servant in Jesus Christ. 

"From the Three Rivers, this 26th August, 2 

o'clock after midnight, 1660." 

On the Idth of October, the party with which 
he journeyed reached a bay on Lake Superior, 
where he found some of the Ottawas, who had 
fled from the Iroquois of New York. For more 
than eight months, surrounded by a few French 
voyageurs, he lived, to use his words, " in a kind 
of small hermitage, a cabin built of flr branches 
piled one on another, not so much to shield us 
from the rigor of the season as to correct my im- 
agination, and persuade me I was sheltered." 

During the summer of 1661, he resolved to visit 
the Hurons, who had fled eastward from the Sioux 
of Minnesota, and encamped amid the marshes of 
Northern "Wisconsin. Some Frenchmen, who had 
been among the Hurons, in vain attempted to dis- 
suade him from the journey. To their entreaties 
he replied, " I must go, if it cost me my Ufe. I 
can not suffer souls to perish on the ground of 
saving the bodily life of a miserable old man like 
myself. What! Are we to serve God only when 
there is nothing to suffer, and no risk of Ufe?" 

"Upon De I'lsle's map of Louisiana, published 
nearly two centuries ago, there appears the Lake 
of the Ottawas, and the Lake of the Old or De- 
serted Settlement, west of Green Bay, and south 
of Lake Superior. The Lake of the Old Planta- 
tion is supposed to have been the spot occupied 
by the Hurons at the time when Menard attempt- 
ed to visit them. One way of acpess to this seclu- 
ded spot was from Lake Superior to the head- 
waters of the Ontanagon River, and then by aport- 
age, to the lake. It could also be reached from 
the headwaters of the "Wisconsin, Black and Chip- 
pewa Rivers, and some have said that Menard 
descended the "Wisconsin and ascended the Black 

Perrot, who lived at the same time, writes: 
"Father Menard, who was sent as missionary 
among the Outaouas [Utaw-waws] accompanied 
by certain Frenchmen who were going to trade 
with that people, was left by all who were with 
him, except one, who rendered to him imtil death, 
all of the services and help that he could have 
hoped. The Father followed the Outaouas rUtaw- 
waws] to the Lake of the Illinoets [lUino-ay, now 
Michigan] and in their flight to the Louisianne, 
[Mississippi] to above the Black River. There 
this missionary had but one Frenchman for a 
companion. This Frenchman carefully followed 
the route, and made a portage at the same place 
as the Outaouas. He found himself in a rapid, 
one day, that was carrying him away in his canoe. 
The Father, to assist, debarked from his own, but 
did not find a good path to come to him. He en- 
tered one that had been made by beasts, and de- 
siring to return, became confused in a labyrinth 
of trees, and was lost. The Frenchman, after 
having ascended the rapids with great labor, 
awaited thg good Father, and, as he did not come, 
resolved to search for him. "With all his might, 
for several days, he called his name in the woods, 
hoping to find him, but it was useless. He met, 
however, a Sakis [Sauk] who was carrying the 
camp-kettle of the missionary, and who gave him 
some intelligence. He assured him that he had 
found his foot -prints at some distance, but that 
he had not seen the Father. He told him, also, 
that he had found the tracks of several, who were 
going towards the Scioux. He declared that he 
supposed that the Scioux might have killed or 
captured him. Indeed, several years afterwards, 



there were found among this tribe, his breviary 
and cassock, which they exposed at their festivals, 
making offerings to them of food." 

In a journal of the Jesuits, Menard, about the 
seventh or eighth of August, 1661, is said to have 
been lost. 

Groselliers (Gro-zay-yay), while Menard was 
endeavoring to reach the retreat of the Hurons 
which he had made known to the authorities of 
Canada, was pushing through the country of the 
Assineboines, on the northwest shore of Lake 
Superior, and at length, probably by Lake Alem- 
pigon, or Nepigon, reached Hudson's Bay, and 
early in May, 1662, returned to Montreal, and 
surprised its citizens with his tale of new discov- 
eries toward the Sea of the North. 

The Hurons did not remain long toward the 
sources of the Black Biver, after Menard's disap- 
pearance, and deserting their plantations, joined 
their allies, the Ottawas, at La Pointe, now Bay- 
field, on Lake Superior. While here, they deter- 
mined to send a war party of one himdred against 
the Sioux of Mille Lacs (Mil Lak) region. At 
length they met their foes, who drove them into 
one of the thousand marshes of the water-shed 
between Lake Superior and the Mississippi, where 
they hid themselves among the tall grasses. The 
Sioux, suspecting that they might attempt to es- 
cape in the night, cut up beaver skins into strips, 
and hung thereon little bells, which they had ob- 
tained from the Trench traders. The Hurons, 
emerging from theirwatery hidingplace, stumbled 
over the unseen cords, ringing the bells, and the 
Sioux instantly attacked, killing all but one. 

About the year 1665, four Frenchmen visited 
the Sioux of Minnesota, from the west end of 
Lake Superior, accompanied by an Ottawa chief, 
and in the summer of the same year, a flotilla of 
canoes laden with peltries, came down to Mon- 
treal. Upon their return, on the eighth of Au- 
gust, the Jesuit Father, AUouez, accompanied the 
traders, and, by the first of October, reached Che- 
goimegon Bay, on or near the site of the modern 
town of Bayfield, on Lake Superior, where he 
found the refugee Hurons and Ottawas. While 
on an excursion to Lake Alempigon, now Ne- 
pigon, this missionary saw, near the mouth of 
Saint Louis Kiver, in Minnesota, some of the 
Sioux. He writes : " There is a tribe to the west 
of this, toward the great river called Messipi. 

They are forty or fifty leagues from here, in a 
country of prairies, abounding in all kinds of 
game. They have fields, in which they do not 
sow Indian corn, but only tobacco. Providence 
has provided them with a species of marsh rice, 
which, toward the end of summer, they go to col- 
lect in certain small lakes, that are covered with 
it. They presented me with some when I was at 
the extremity of Lake Tracy [Superior], where I 
saw them. They do not use the gun, but only 
the bow and arrow with great dexterity. Their 
cabins are not covered with bark, but with deer- 
skins well dried, and stitched together so that the 
cold does not enter. These people are above aU 
other savage and warUke. In our presence they 
seem abashed, and were motionless as statues. 
They speak a language entirely unknown to us, 
and the savages about here do not understand 

The mission at La Pointe was not encouraging, 
and AUouez, " weary of their obstinate unbelief," 
departed, but Marquette succeeded him for a brief 

The "Belations" of the Jesuits for 1670-71, 
allude to the Sioux or Dakotahs, and their attack 
upon the refugees at La Pointe : 

" There are certain people called Nadoussi, 
dreaded by their neighbors, and although they 
only use the bow and arrow, they use it with so 
much skill and dexterity, that in a moment they 
fill the air. After the Parthian method, they 
turn their heads in flight, and discharge their ar- 
rows so rapidly that they are to be feared no less 
in their retreat than in their attack. 

"They dwell on the shores and around the 
great river Messipi, of which we shall speak. 
They number no less than fifteen populous towns, 
and yet they know not how to cultivate the earth 
by seeding it, contenting themselves with a sort 
of marsh rye, which we call wild oats. 

" For sixty leagues from the extremity of the 
upper lakes, towards sunset, and, as it were, in 
the centre of the western nations, they have all 
united their force by a general league, which has 
been made against them, as against a common 

" They speak a peculiar language, entirely dis- 
tinct from that of the Algonquins and Hurons, 
whom they generally surpass in generosity, since 
they often content themselves with the glory of 


having obtained the victory, and release the pris- 
oners they have taken in battle. 

" Our Outouacs of the Point of the Holy Ghost 
[La Pointe, now Bayfield] had to the present time 
kept up a kind of peace with them, but affairs 
having become embroiled during last winter, and 
some murders having been committed on both 
sides, our savages had reason to apprehend that 
the storm would soon burst upon them, and judged 
that it was safer for them to leave the place, which 
in fact they did in the spring." 

Marquette, on the 13th of September, 1669, 
writes : " The Nadouessi are the Iroquois of this 
country. * * * they lie northwest of the Mission 
of the Holy Ghost [La Pointe, the modem Bay- 
field] and we have not yet visited them, having 
confined ourselves to the conversion of the Otta- 

Soon after this, hostilities began between the 
Sioux and the Hurons and Ottawas of La Pointe, 
and the former compelled their foes to seek an- 
other resting place, toward the eastern extremity 
of Lake Superior, and at length they pitched 
their tents at Mackinaw. 

In 1674, some Sioux warriors came down to 
Sault Saint Marie, to make a treaty of peace with 
adjacent tribes. A friend of the Abbe de Galli- 
nee wrote that a council was had at the fort to 
which "the Nadouessioux sent twelve deputies, 
and the others forty. During the conference, 
one of the latter, knife in hand, drew near the 
breast of one of the Nadouessioux, who showed 
surprise at the movement ; when the Indian with 
the knife reproached him for cowardice. The 
Nadouessioux said he was not afraid, when the 
other planted the knife in his heart, and killed 
him. All the savages then engaged in conflict, 
and the jS'adouessioux bravely defended them- 
selves, but, overwhelmed by numbers, nine of 
them were killed. The two who survived rushed 
into the chapel, and closed the door. Here they 
found munitions of war, and fired guns at their 
enemies, who became anxious to burn down the 
chapel, but the Jesuits would not permit it, be- 
cause they had their skins stored between its roof 
and ceiUng. In this extremity, a Jesuit, Louis 
Le Boeme, advised that a cannon should be point- 
ed at the door, which was discharged, and the two 
brave Sioux were killed." 

Governor Prontenac of Canada, was indignant 

at the occurrence, and in a letter to Colbert, one 
of the Ministers of Louis the Fourteenth, speaks 
in condemnation of this discharge of a cannon by 
a Brother attached to the Jesuit Mission. 

Prom this period, the missions of the Church of 
Rome, near Lake Superior, began to wane. Shea, 
a devout historian of that church, writes: "In 
1680, Father Enjalran was apparently alone at 
Green Bay, and Pierson at Mackinaw ; the latter 
mission still comprising the two villages, Huron 
and Kiskakon. Of the other missions, neither 
Le Clerq nor Hennepin, the EecoUect, writers of 
the West at this time, makes any mention, or in 
any way alludes to their existence, and La Hon- . 
tan mentions the Jesuit missions only to ridicule 

The Pigeon Biver, a part of the northern boun- 
dary of Minnesota, was called on the French maps 
GroseUier's River, after the first explorer of Min- 
nesota, whose career, with his associate Radisson, 
became quite prominent in connection with the 
Hudson Bay region. 

A disagreement occurring between GroseUiers 
and his partners in Quebec, he proceeded to Paris, 
and from thence to London, where he was intro- 
duced to the nephew of Charles I., who led the 
cavalry charge against Fairfax and Cromwell at 
Naseby, afterwards commander of the English 
fleet. The Prince listened with pleasure to the 
narrative of travel, and endorsed the plans for 
prosecuting the fur trade and seeking a north- 
west passage to Asia. The scientific men of Eng- 
land were also full of the enterprise, in the hope 
that it would increase a kno\^ledge of nature. 
The Secretary of the Royal Society wrote to Rob- 
ert Boyle, the distinguished philosopher, a too 
sanguine letter. His words were : " Surely I need 
not tell you from hence what is said here, with 
great joy, of the discovery of a northwest passage; 
and by two Englishmen and one Frenchman 
represented to his' Majesty at Oxford, and an- 
swered by the grant of a vessel to sail into Hud- 
son's Bay and channel into the South Sea." 

The ship Nonsuch was fitted out, in charge of 
Captain Zachary Gillam, a son of one of the early 
settlers of Boston ; and in this vessel GroselUers 
and Radisson left the Thames, in June, 1668, and 
in September reached a tributary of Hudson's 
Bay. The next year, by way of Boston, they re- 
turned to England, and in 1670, a trading com- 



pany was chartered, still known among venerable 
English corporations as " The Hudson's Bay 

The Reverend Mother of the Incarnation, Su- 
perior of the Ursulines of Quebec, in a letter of 
the 27th of August, 1670, writes thus : 

"It was about this time that a Frenchman of 
our Touraine, named des Groselliers, married in 
this country, and as he had not been successful 
in making a fortune, was seized with a fancy to 
go to New England to better his condition. He 
excited a hope among the English that he had 
found a passage to the Sea of the North. With 
this expectation, he was sent as an envoy to Eng- 
land, where there was given to him, a vessel, 
with crew and every thing necessary for the voy- 
age. With these advantages, he put to sea, and 
in place of the usual route, which others had ta- 
ken in vain, he sailed in another direction, and 
searched so wide, that he found the grand Bay of 
the North. He found large population, and filled 
his ship or ships with peltries of great value. * * * 

He has taken possession of this great region for 
the King of England, and for his personal benefit 
A publication for the benefit of this French ad- 
venturer, has been made in England. He was 
a youth when he arrived here, and his wife and 
children are yet here." 

Talon, Intendent of Justice in Canada, in a dis- 
patch to Colbert, Minister of the Colonial Depart- 
ment of France, wrote on the 10th of November, 
1670, that he has received intelligence that two 
English vessels are approaching Hudson's Bay, 
and adds : " After reflecting on all the nations 
that might have penetrated as far north as that, 
I can alight on only the EngUsh, who, under the 
guidance of a man named Des GrozeUers, for- 
merly an inhabitant of Canada, might possibly 
have attempted that navigation." 

After years of service on the shores of Hudson's 
Bay, either wdth English or French trading com- 
panies, the old explorer died in Canada, and it has 
been said that his son went to England, where he 
was Uving in 1696, in receipt of a pension. 





Sagard, A. D. 1636, on Copper Mines.— Boucher, A. D. 1640, Describes Lake Supe 
lior Copper.— Jesuit Relations, A. D. 1660-67.— Copper on Isle Royals.— Half- 
Breed Voyageur Goes to Prance with Talon.— Jolliet and Perrot Search for 
Copper.— St. Lusson Plants the French Arms at Sault St. Marie.— Copper at 
Ontonagon and Head of Lake Superior. 

Before white men had explored the shores of 
Lake Superior, Indians had hrought to the tra- 
ding posts of the St. Lawrence Hi ver, specimens of 
copper from that region. Sagard, in his History 
of Canada, published in 1636, at Paris, writes: 
' • There are mines of copper which might be made 
profitable, if there were inhabitants and work- 
men who would labor faithfully . That would be 
done if colonies were established. About eighty 
or one hundred leagues from the Hurons, there 
is a mine of copper, from which Truchemont 
Brusle showed me an ingot, on his return from a 
voyage which he made to the neighboring nation." 

Pierre Boucher, grandfather of Sieur de la Ve- 
rendrye, the explorer of the lakes of the northern 
boundary of Minnesota, in a volume published 
A. D. 1640, also at Paris, writes : " In Lake Su- 
perior there is a great island, fifty or one hundred 
leagues in circumference, in which there is a very 
beautiful mine of copper. There are other places 
in those quarters, where there are similar mines ; 
so I learned from four or five Frenchmen, who 
lately returned. They were gone three years, 
without finding an opportunity to return; they 
told me that they had seen an ingot of copper all 
refined which was on the coast, and weighed more 
than eight hundred pounds, according to their es- 
timate. They said that the savages, on passing 
it, made a fire on it, after which they cut ofE pie- 
ces with their axes." 

In the Jesuit Eelations of 1666-67, there is this 
description of Isle Eoyale : " Advancing to a 
place called the Grand Anse, we meet with an 
island, three leagues from land, which is cele- 
brated for the metal which is found there, and 
for the thunder which takes place there; for they 
say it always thunders there. 

" But farther towards the west on the same 
north shore, is the island most famous for copper, 
Minong (Isle Royale). This island is twenty-five 
leagues in length ; it is seven from the mainland, 
and sixty from the head of the lake. Nearly all 
around the island, on the water's edge, pieces of 
copper are found mixed with pebbles, but espe- 
cially on the side which is opposite the south, 
and principally in a certain bay, which is near 
the northeast exposure to the great lake. * * * 

" Advancing to the head of the Mke (Fon du 
Lac) and returning one day's journey by the south 
coast, there is seen on the edge of the water, a 
rock of copper weighing seven or eight hundred 
pounds, and is so hard that steel can hardly cut it, 
but when it is heated it cuts as easily as lead. 
Near Point Chagouamigong [Sha - gah - wah - mik- 
ong, near Bayfield] where a mission was establish- 
ed rocks of copper and plates of the same metal 
were found. * * * Returning still toward the 
mouth of the lake, following the coast on the south 
as twenty leagues from the place last mentioned, 
we enter the river called Nantaouagan [Ontona- 
gon] on which is a hill where stones and copper 
fall into the water or upon the earth. They are 
readily found. 

"Three years since we received a piece which 
was brought from this place, which weighed a 
hundred pounds, and we sent it to Quebec to Mr. 
Talon. It is not certain exactly where this was 
broken from. "We think it was from the forks of 
the river ; others, that it was from near the lake, 
and dug up." 

Talon, Intendent of Justice in Canada, visited 
France, taking a half-breed voyageur with him, 
and while in Paris, wrote on the 26th of Febru- 
ary, 1669, to Colbert, the Minister of the Marine 
Department, " that this voyageur had penetrated 
among the western nations farther than any other 
Frenchman, ' and had seen the copper mine on 
Lake Huron. [SuperiorV] The man offers to go 



to that mine, and explore, either by sea, or by 
lake and river, the communication supposed to 
exist between Canada and the South Sea, of to 
the regions of Hudson's Bay." 

As soon as Talon returned to Canada he com- 
missioned JoUiet and Pere [Perrot] to search for 
the mines of copper on the upper Lakes. Jolliet 
received an outfit of four hundred livres, and four 
canoes, and Perrot one thousand Uvres. Minis- 
ister Colbert wrote from Paris to Talon, in Feb- 
ruary, 1671, approving of the search for copper, 
in these words : " The resolution you have taken 
to send Sieur de La Salle toward the south, and 
Sieur de St. Lusson to the north, to discover the 
South Sea passage, is very good, but the principal 
thing you ought to apply yourself in discoveries 
of this nature, is to look for the copper mine. 

""Were this mine discovered, and its utility 
evident, it would be an assured means to attract 
several Frenchmen from old, to New Prance." 

On the 14th of June, 1671, SaintLusson at Sault 
St. Marie, planted the arms of Prance, in the pres- 
ence of jSTicholas Perrot, who acted as interpreter 
on the occasion ; the Sieur Jolliet ; Pierre Moreau 
or Sieur de la Taupine ; a soldier of the garrison 
of Quebec, and several other Prenchmen. 

Talon, in announcing Saint Lusson's explora- 
tions to Colbert, on the' 2d of November, 1671, 
wrote from Quebec : " The copper which I send 
from Lake Superior and the river Nantaouagan 
[Ontonagon] proves that there is a mine on the 
border of some stream, which produces this ma- 
terial as pure as one could wish. More than 
twenty Prenchmen have seen one lump at the 
lake, which they estimate weighs more than eight 
hundred pounds. The Jesuit Fathers among the 
Outaouas [Ou-taw-waws] use an anvil of this ma- 
terial, which weighs about one hundred pounds. 
There will be no rest until the source from whence 
these detached lumps come is discovered. 

" The river Nantaouagan rOntonagon] appears 

between two high hills, the plain above which 
feeds the lakes, and receives a great deal of snow, 
which, in melting, forms torrents which wash the 
borders of this river, composed of solid gravel, 
which is rolled down by it. 

" The gravel at the bottom of this, hardens it- 
self, and assumes different shapes, such as those 
pebbles which I send to Mr. BeUinzany. My 
opinion is that these pebbles, rounded and carried 
ofE by the rapid waters, then have a tendency to 
become copper, by the influence of the sun's rays 
which they absorb, and to form other nuggets of 
metal similar to those which I send to Sieur de 
BeUinzany, found by the Sieur de Saint LusEon, 
about four hundred leagues, at some distance from 
the mouth of the river. 

"He hoped by the frequent journeys of the 
savages, and French who are beginning to travel 
by these routes, to discern the source of nroduc- 

Governor Denonville, of Canada, sixteen years 
after the above circumstances, wrote : " The cop- 
per, a sample of which I sent M. Amou, is foxmd 
at the head of Lake Superior. The body of the 
mine has not yet been discovered. I have seen 
one of our voyageurs who assures me that, some 
fifteen months ago he saw a lump of two hundred 
weight, as yellow as gold, in a river which falls 
into Lake Superior. When healed, it could be 
cut with an axe ; but the superstitious Indians, 
regarding this boulder as a good spirit, would 
never permit him to take any of it away. His 
opinion is that the frost undermined this piece, 
and that the mine is in that river. He has prom- 
ised to search for it on his way back." 

In the year 1730, there was some correspond- 
ence with the authorities in France relative to 
the discovery of copper at La Pointe, but, practi- 
cally, little was done by the French, in developing 
the mineral wealth of Lake Superior. 




Du Luth's Relatives.— Bandin Visits Extremity of Lake Superior. — Su Luth 
Plants King's Arms, — Post at Kaministigoya.— Pierre MoreaP, alias La Taupine. 
— La Salle's Visit. — A Pilot Deserts to tile Sioux Country, — uaffart, Du Lutli's 
Interpreter. — ^Descent of tlie River St. Oroix. — Meets Fatlier Hennepin. — Crit- 
icised by La Salle. — Trades with New England. —Visits France. — In Command 
at Machinaw, — Frenchmen Murdered at Keweenaw.— Du Luth Arrests and 
Shoots Murderers. — Builds i^rt above Detroit. — With Indian Allies in the 
Seneca War. — Du Luth's Brother. — Cadillac Defends the Brandy Trade. — Du 
Luth Disapproves of Selling Brandy to the Indians. — In Command at Fort 
Frontenac. — Death. 

In the year 1678, several prominent merchants 
of Quebec and Montreal, with the support of 
Governor Prontenac of Canada, formed a com- 
pany to open trade with the Sioux of Minnesota, 
and a nephew of Patron, one of these merchants, 
a brother-in-law of Sieur de Lusigny, an oflBcer 
of the Governor's Guards, named Daniel Grey- 
solon Du Luth [Doo-loo], a native of St. Germain 
en Laye, a few miles from Paris, although Lahon- 
tan speaks of him as from Lyons, was made the 
leader of the expedition. At the battle of Seneffe 
against the Prince of Orange, he was a gendarme, 
and one of the King's guards. 

Du Luth was also a cousin of Henry Tonty, who 
had been in the revolution at Naples, to throw off 
the Spanish dependence. Dii Luth's name is var 
riously spelled in the documents of his day. Hen- 
nepin writes, "Du Luth;" others, "Dulhut^" 
" Du Lhu," " Du Lut," " De Luth," " Du Lud." 

The temptation to procure valuable furs from 
the Lake Superior region, contrary to the letter 
of the Canadian law, was very great ; and more 
than one Governor winked at the contraband 
trade. Eandin, who visited the extremity of 
Lake Superior, distributed presents to the Sioux 
and Ottawas in the name of Governor Prontenac, 
to secure the trade, and after his death, DuLuth 
was sent to complete what he had begun. With 
a party of twenty, seventeen Prenchmen and 
three Indians, he left Quebec on the first of 
September, 1678, and on the fifth of April, 1679, 
Du Luth writes to Governor Prontenac, that he 
is in the woods, about nine mUes from Sault St. 
Marie, at the entrance of Lake Superior, and 

adds that : he " will not stir from the Nadous- 
sioux, until further orders, and, peace being con- 
cluded, he will set up the King's Arms ; lest the 
English and other Europeans settled towards 
California, take possession of the country." 

On the second of July, 1679, he caused his 
Majesty's Arms to be planted in the great village 
of the Nadoussioux, called Kathio, where no 
Prenchman had ever been, and at Songaskicons 
and Houetbatons, one hundred and twenty leagues 
distant from the former, where he also set up the 
King's Arms. In a letter to Seignalay, published 
for the first time by Harrisse, he writes that it 
was in the village of Izatys [Issati]. Upon Pran- 
queUn's map, the Mississippi branches into the 
Tintonha [Teeton Sioux] country, andnot far from 
herej he alleges, was seen a tree upon which was 
this legend: " Arms of the King cut on this tree 
in the year 1679." 

He estabUshed a post at Kamanistigoya, which 
was distant ilfteen leagues from the Grand Port- 
age at the western extremity of Lake Superior ; 
and here, on the fifteenth of September, he held 
a council with the Assenipoulaks [Assineboines] 
and other tribes, and urged them to be at peace 
with the Sioux. During this summer, he dis- 
patched Pierre Moreau, a celebrated voyageur, 
nicknamed La Taupine, with letters to Governor 
Prontenac, and valuable furs to the merchants. 
His arrival at Quebec, created some excitement. 
It was charged that the Governor corresponded 
with Du Luth, and that he passed the beaver, 
sent by him, ia the name of merchants in his in- 
terest. The Intendant of Justice, Du Chesneau, 
wrote to the Minister of the Colonial Department 
of Prance, that " the man named La Taupine, a 
famous coureur des bois, who set out in the month 
of September of last year, 1678, to go to the Ou- 
tawacs, with goods, and who has always been in- 
terested with the Governor, having returned this 
year, and I, being advised that he had traded in 



two days, oiie hundred and fifty beaver robes in 
one village of this tribe, amounting to nearly nine 
hundred beavers, which is a matter of public no- 
toriety ; and that he left with Du Lut two men 
whom he had with him, considered myself bound 
to have him arrested, and to interrogate him ; but 
having presented me with a license from the Gov- 
ernor, permitting him and his comrades, named 
Lamonde and Dupuy, to repair to the Outawac, 
to execute his secret orders, I had him set at 
liberty : and immediately on his going out, Sieur 
Prevost, Town Mayor of Quebec, came at the head 
of some soldiers to force the prison, in case he 
was still there, pursuant to his orders from the 
Governor, in these terms : " Sieur Prevost, Mayor 
of Quebec, is ordered, in case the Intendant arrest 
Pierre Moreau alias La Taupine, whom we have 
sent to Quebec as bearer of our dispatches, upon 
pretext of his having been in the bush, to set him 
forthwith at liberty, and to employ every means 
for this purpose, at his peril. Done at Montreal, 
the 5th September, 1679." 

La Taupine, in due time returned to Lake Su- 
perior with another consignment of merchandise. 
The interpreter of Du Luth, and trader with the 
Sioux, was Faffart, who had been a soldier under 
La Salle at Port Prontenac, and had deserted. 

La Salle was commissioned in 1678, by the 
Bang of Prance, to explore the West, and trade in 
cibola, or buffalo skins, and on condition that he 
did not traffic with the Ottauwaws, who carried 
their beaver to Montreal. 

On the 27th of August, 1679, he arrived at 
Mackinaw, in the " Griffin," the first sailing ves- 
sel on the great Lakes of the "West, and from 
thence went to Green Bay, where, in the face of 
his commission, he traded for beaver. Loading 
his vessel with peltries, he sent it back to Niag- 
ara, while he, in canoes, proceeded with his ex- 
pedition to the Illinois Eiver. The ship was 
never heard of, and for a time supposed to be lost, 
but La Salle afterward learned from a Pawnee 
boy fourteen or fifteen yeais of age, who was 
brought prisoner to his fort on the I llinois by some 
Indians, that the pilot of the " Griflhi " had been 
among the tribes of the Upper Missouri, lie had 
ascended the Mississippi with four others in two 
birch canoes with goods and some hand grenades, 
taken from the ship, with the intention of jom 
ing Du Luth, who had for months been trading 

with the Sioux ; and if their efforts were unsuc- 
cessful, they expected to push on to the EngUsh, 
at Hudson's Bay. While ascending the Missis- 
sippi they were attacked by Indians, and the pilot 
and one other only survived, and they were sold 
to the Indians on the Missouri. 

In the month of June, 1680, Du Luth, accom- 
panied by Paflart, an interpreter, with four 
Prenchmen, also a Chippeway and a Sioux, with 
two canoes, entered a river, the mouth of which 
is eight leagues from the head of Lake Superior 
on the South side, named Nemitsakouat. Beach- 
ing its head waters, by a short portage, of half a 
league, he reached a lake which was the source 
of the Saint Croix Kiver, and by this, he and his 
companions were the first Europeans to journey 
in- a canoe from Lake Superior to the Mississippi. 

La Salle writes, that Du Luth, finding that 
the Sioux were on a hunt in the Mississippi val- 
ley, below the' Saint Croix, and that Accault, Au- 
gelle and Hennepin, who had come up from the 
Illinois a few weeks before, were with them, de- 
scended until he found them. In the same letter 
he disregards the truth in order to disparage his 
rival, and writes: 

" Thirty-eight or forty leagues above the Chip- 
peway they found the river by which the Sieur 
Du Luth did descend to the Mississippi. He had 
been three years, contrary to orders, with a com- 
pany of twenty " coureurs du bois" on Lake Su- 
perior; he had borne himself bravely, proclaiming 
everywhere that at the head of his brave fellows 
he did not fear the Grand Prevost, and that he 
would compel an amnesty. 

" While he was at Lake Superior, the Nadoue- 
sioux, enticed by the presents that Uie late Sieur 
Randin had made on the part of Count Fronte- 
nar , and the Sauteurs [Ojibways], who are the sav- 
ages who carry the peltries to Montreal, and who 
dwell on Lake Superior, wishing to obey the re- 
peated orders of the Count, made a peace to 
unite the Sauteurs and French, and to trade with 
the Nadouesioux, situated about sixty leagues to 
the west of Lake Superior. Du Luth, to disguise 
his desertion, seized the opportunity to make 
some reputation for himself, sending two messen- 
gers to the Count to negotiate a truce, during 
which period their comrades negotiated still bet- 
ter for beaver. 

Several conferences were held with the Na- 



douessioux, and as he needed an interpreter, he led 
ofE one of mine, named Faflart, formerly a sol- 
dier at Fort Frontenac. During this period there 
■were frequent visits between the Sauteurs [Ojib- 
ways] and Nadouesioux, and supposing that it 
might increase the number of beaver skins, he 
sent Faffart by land, with the Nadouesioux and 
Sauteurs [Ojibways]. The young man on his re- 
tnm, having given an account of the quantity of 
beaver in that region, he wished to proceed thither 
himself, and, guided by a Sauteur and a Nadoue- 
sioux, and four Frenchmen, he ascended the river 
Nemitsakouat, where, by a short portage, he de- 
scended that stream, whereon he passed through 
forty leagues of rapids [Upper St. Croix Eiver], 
and finding that the Nadouesioux were below with 
my men and the Father, who had come down 
again from the village of the ITadouesioux, he 
discovered them. They went up again to the 
village, and from thence they all together came 
down. They returned by the river Ouisconsing, 
and came back to Montreal, where Du Luth in- 
sults the commissaries, and the deputy of the 
'procureur general,' named d'Auteuil. Count 
Frontenac had him arrested and imprisoned in 
the castle of Quebec, with the intention of return- 
ing him to France for the amnesty accorded to 
the coureurs des bois, did not release him." 

At this very period, another party charges 
Frontenac as being Du Luth's particular friend. 

Du Luth, during the fall of 1681, was engaged 
in the beaver trade at Montreal and Quebec. 
Du Chesneau, the Intendant of Justica for Can- 
ada, on the 13th of November, 1681, wrote to the 
Marquis de Siegnelay, in Paris : "liTot content 
with the profits to be derived from the countries 
under the King's dominion, the desire of making 
money everywhere, has led the Governor [Fron- 
tenac], Boisseau, Du Lut and Patron, his uncle, 
to send canoes loaded with peltries, to the En- 
glish. It is said sixty thousand livres' worth has 
been sent thither ;" and he further stated that 
there was a very general report that within five 
or six days, Frontenac and his associates had di- 
vided the money received from the beavers sent 
to New England. 

At a conference in Quebec of some of the dis- 
tinguished men in that city, relative to difficulties 
with the Iroquois, held on the 10th of October, 
1682, Du Luth was present. From thence he went 

to France, and, early in 1683, consulted with the 
Minister of Marine at Versailles relative to the 
interests of trade in the Hudson's Bay and Lake 
Superior region. Upon his return to Canada, he 
departed for Mackinaw. Governor De la Barre, 
on the 9th of November, 1683, wrote to the French 
Government that the Indians west and north of 
Lake Superior, " when they heard by expresses 
sent them by Du Lhut, of his arrival at Missili- 
makinak, that he was coming, sent him word to 
come quickly and they would unite with him to 
prevent others going thither. If I stop that pass 
as I hope, and as it is necessary to do, as the Eng- 
lish of the Bay [Hudson's] excite against us the 
savages, whom Sieur Du Lhut alone can quiet." 

While stationed at Mackiaaw he was a partici- 
pant iti a tragic occurrence. During the summer 
of 1683 Jacques le Maire and CoUn Berthot, while 
on their way to trade at Keweenaw, on Lake Su- 
perior, were surprised by three Indians, robbed, 
and murdered. Du Luth was prompt to arrest 
and punish the assassins. In a letter from Mack- 
inaw, dated April 12, 1684, to the Governor of 
Canada, he writes: "Be pleased to know. Sir, 
that on the 24th of October last, I was told that 
FoUe Avoine, accomplice in the murder and rob- 
bery of the two Frenchmen, had arrived at Sault 
Ste. Marie with fifteen families of the Sauteurs 
[Ojibways] who had fled from Chagoamigon [La 
Pointe] on account of an attack which they, to- 
gether with the people of the land, made last 
Spring upon the Nadouecioux [Dakotahs.] 

" He believed himself safe at the Sault, on ac- 
count of the number of allies and relatives he had 
there. Eev. Father Albanel informed me that 
the French at the Saut, being only twelve in num- 
ber, had not arrested him, believing themselves 
too weak to contend with such numbers, espe- 
cially as the Sauteurs had declared that they 
would not allow the French to redden the land 
of their fathers with the blood of their brothers. 

" On receiving this information, I immediately 
resolved to take with me sis Frenchmen, and em- 
bark at the dawn of the next day for Sault Ste. 
Marie, and if possible obtain possession of the 
murderer. I made known my design to the Eev. 
Father Engalran, and, at my request, as he had 
some business to arrange with Eev. Father Al- 
banel, he placed himself ia my canoe. 

" Having arrived within a league of the village 



of the Saut, the Eev. Pather, the Chevalier de 
Fourcille, Cardonnierre, and I disembarked. I 
caused the canoe, in which were Baribaud, Le 
Mere, La Fortune, and Macons, to proceed, while 
we went across the wood to the house of the Eev. 
Pather, fearing that the savages, seeing me, might 
suspect the object of my visit, and cause Folle 
Avoine to escape. Finally, to cut the matter 
short, I arrested him, and caused him to be 
guarded day and night by six Frenchmen. 

" I then called a council, at which I requested 
all the savages of the place to be present, where 
I repeated what I had often said to the Hurons 
and Ottawas since the departure of M. Pere [Per- 
rot], giving them the message you ordered me. 
Sir, that in case there should be among them any 
spirits so evil disposed as to follow the example 
of those who have murdered the French on Lake 
Superior and Lake Michigan, they must separate 
the guilty from the innocent, as 1 did not wish 
the whole nation to suffer, unless they protected 
the guilty. * * * The savages held several 
councils, to which I was invited, b:it their only 
object seemed to be to exculpate the prisoner, in 
order that I might release him. 

" AU united in accusing Achiganaga and Ids 
children, assuring themselves with the belief that 
M. Pere, [Perrot] with his detachment would not 
be able to arrest them, and wishing to persuade 
me that they apprehended that all the Frenchmen 
might be killed. 

" I answered them, * * * ' As to the antici- 
pated death of M. Pere [Perrot], as well as of the 
other Frenchmen, that would not embarrass me, 
since I believed neither the allies nor the nation 
of Achiganaga would wish to have a war with us 
to sustain an action so dark as that of which we 
were speaking. Having only to attack a few 
murderers, or, at most, those of their own family, 
I was certain that the French would have them 
dead or alive.' 

" This was the answer they had from me during 
the three days that the councils lasted ; after 
which I embarked, at ten o'clock in the morning, 
sustained by only twelve Frenchmen, to show a 
few unruly persons who boasted of taking the 
prisoner away from me, that the French did not 
fear them. 

" Daily I received accoimts of the number of 
savages that Achiganaga drew from his nation to 

Elaonan [Keweenaw] under pretext of going to 
war in the spring against the Ifadouecioux, to 
avenge the death of one of his relatives, son of Ou- 
enaus, but really to protect himself against us, 
in case we should become convinced that his chil- 
dren had killed the Frenchmen. This precaution 
placed me between hope and fear respecting the 
expedition which M. Pere [Perrot] had under- 

" On the 24th of November, [1683], he came 
across the wood at ten o'clock at night, to tell me 
that he had arrested Achiganaga and four of his 
children. He said they were not all guilty of the 
murder, but had thought proper, in this affair, to 
follow the custom of the savages, which is to seize 
all the relatives. FoUe Avoine, whom I had ar- 
rested, he considered the most guilty, being with- 
out doubt the originator of the mischief. 

" I immediately gave orders that FoUe Avoine 
should be more closely confined, and not allowed 
to speak to any one ; for I had also learned that 
he had a brother, sister, and uncle in the village 
of the Kiskakons. 

" M. Pere informed me that he had released the 
youngest son of Achiganaga, aged about thirteen 
or fourteen years, that he might make known to 
their nation and the Sauteurs [Ojibways], who are 
at Nocke and in the neighborhood, the reason 
why the French had arrested his father and bro- 
thers. M. Pere bade him assure the savages that 
if any one wished to complain of what he had 
done, he would wait for them with a firm step ; for 
he considered himself in a condition to set them 
at defiance, having found at Kiaonau [Keweenaw] 
eighteen Frenchmen who had wmtered there. 

" On the 25th, at daybreak, M. Pere embarked 
at the Sault, with four good men whom I gave 
him, to go and meet the prisoners. He left them 
four leagues from there, under a guard of twelve 
Frenchmen ; and at two o'clock in the afternoon, 
they arrived. I had prepared a room in my house 
for the prisoners, in which they were placed under 
a strong guard, and were not allowed to converse 
with iiny i)ne. 

"On the 26th, I commenced proceedings; and 
this, sir, is the course I pursued. I gave notice 
to all the chiefs and others, to appear at the 
council which I had appointed, and gave to FoUe 
Avoine the privilege of selecting two of his rela- 



lives to support his interests ; and to the other 
prisoners I made the same offer. 

" The council being assembled, I sent for Folic 
Avoine to be interrogated, and caused his answers 
to be written, and afterwards they were read to 
him, and inquiry made whether they were not, 
word for word, what he had said. He was then 
removed under a safe guard. I used the same 
form with the two eldest sons of Achiganaga^ and, 
as FoUe Avoine had indirectly charged the father 
with being accessory to the murder, I sent for 
him and also for Polle Avoine, and bringing them 
into the council, confronted the four. 

" FoUe Avoine and the two sons of Achiganaga 
accused each other of committing the murder, 
without denying that they \vere participators in 
the crime. Achiganaga alone ^ongly maintained 
that he knew nothing of the idesign of FoUe 
Avoine, nor of his children, and called on them 
to say -if he had advised them to kill the French- 
men. They answered, 'Ko.' 

" This confrontation, which the savages did not 
expect, surprised them; and, seeing the prisoners 
had convicted themselves of the murder, the 
Chiefs said: 'It is enough; you accuse your- 
selves; the French are masters of your bodies.' 

" The next day I held another council, in which 
I said there could be no doubt that the French- 
men had been murdered, that the murderers were 
known, and that they knew what was the prac- 
tice among themselves upon such occasions. To 
all this they said nothing, which obliged us on 
the following day to hold another council in the 
cabin of Brochet, where, after having spoken, and 
seeing that they would make no decision, and that 
all my councils ended only in reducing tobacco to 
ashes, I told them that, since they did not wish to 
decide, I should take the responsibility, and that 
the' next day I would let them know the deter- 
mination of the French and myself. 

" It is proper, Sir, you should know that I ob- 
served all these forms only to see if they would 
feel it their duty to render to us the same justice 
that they do to each other, having had divers ex- 
amples in which when the tribes of those who 
had committed the murder did not wish to go to 
war with the tribe aggrieved, the nearest rela- 
tions of the murderers killed them themselves; 
that is to say, man for man. 

" On the 29th of November. I gathered together 

the French that were here, and, after the interro- 
gations and answers of the accused had been read 
to them, the guilt of the three appeared so evi- 
dent, from their own confessions, that the vote 
was unanimous that all should die. But as the 
French who remained at Kiaonan to pass the win- 
ter had written to Father Engalran and to myself, 
to beg us to treat the affair with all possible len- 
iency, the savages declaring that if they made 
the prisoners die they would avenge themselves, 
I told the gentlemen who were with me in coun- 
cil that, this being a case without a precedent, I 
believed it was expedient for the safety of the 
French who would pass the winter in the Lake 
Superior country to put to death only two, as that 
of the third might bring about grievous conse- 
quences, while the putting to death, man for 
man, could give the savages no complaint, since 
this is their custom. M. de la Tour, chief of the 
Fathers, who had served much, sustained my 
opinions by strong reasoning, and all decided that 
two should be shot, namely, FoUe Avoine and 
the older of the two brothers, while the younger 
should be released, and hold his life. Sir, as a gift 
from you. 

" I then returned to the cabin of Brochet with 
Messrs. Boisguillot, Pere, De Eepentigny, De 
Manthet, De la Ferte, and Macons, where were 
all the chiefs of the Outawas du Sable, Outawas 
Sinagos, Kiskakons, Sauteurs, D'Achiliny, apart' 
of the Hurons, and Oumamens, the chief of the 
Amikoys. I informed them of our decision * 

* * that, the Frenchmen having been killed by 
the different nations, one of each must die, and 
that the same death they had caused the French 
to suffer they must also suffer. * * * This 
decision to put the murderers to death was a hard 
stroke to them all, for none had believed that I 
would dare to undertake it. * * * I then left 
the council and asked the Rev. Fathers if they 
wished to baptize the prisoners, which they did. 

"An hour after, I put myself at the head of 
forty-two Frenchmen, and, in sight of more than 
four hundred savages, and within two hundred 
paces of their fort, I caused the two murderers 
to be shot. The impossibility of keeping them 
until spring made me hasten their death. * * 

* When M. Pere made the arrest, those who had 
committed the murder confessed it; and when he 
asked them what they had done with our goods, 



they answered that they were almost all con- 
cealed. He proceeded to the place of conceal- 
ment, and was very much surprised, as were also 
the French with him, to find them, in fifteen or 
twenty different places. By the carelessness of 
the savages, the tobacco and powder were entire- 
ly destroyed, having been placed in the pinery, 
under the roots of trees, and being soaked in the 
water caused by ten or twelve days' continuous 
rain, which inundated all the lower country. 
The season for snow and ice having come, they 
had all the trouble in the -^orld to get out the 
bales of cloth. 

" They then went to see the bodies, but could 
not remove them, these miserable wretches hav- 
ing thrown them into a marsh, and thrust them 
down into holes which they had made. Not sat- 
isfied with this, they had also piled branches of 
trees upon the bodies, to prevent them from float- 
ing when the water should rise in the spring, 
hoping by this precaution the French would find 
no trace of those who were killed, but would think 
them drowned; as they reported that they had 
found in the lake on the other side of the Portage, 
a boat with the sides all broken in, which they 
believed to be a French boat. 

" Those goods which the French were able to 
secure, they took to Kiaonau [Keweenaw], where 
were a number of Frenchmen who had gone there 
to pass the winter, who knew nothing of the death 
of CoUn Berthot and Jacques le Maire, imtil M. 
Pere arrived. 

" The ten who formed M. Pere's detachment 
having conferred together concerning the means 
they should take to prevent a total loss, decided 
to sell the goods to the highest bidder. The sale 
was made for 1100 livres, which was to be paid in 
beavers, to M. de la Chesnaye, to whom I send 
the names of the purchsers. 

" The savages who were present when Achiga- 
naga and his children were arrested wished to 
pass the calumet to M. Pere, and give him cap- 
tives to satisfy him for the murder committed on 
the two Frenchmen; but he knew their inten- 
tion, and would not accept their offer. He told 
them neither a hundred captives nor a hundred 
packs of beaver would give back the blood of his 
brothers ; that the murderers must be given up 
to me, and I would see what I would do. 

" I caused M. Fere to repeat these things in the 

council, that in future the savages need not think 
by presents to save those who commit similar 
deeds. Besides, sir, M. Pere showed plainly by 
his conduct, that he is not strongly inclined to 
favor the savages, as was reported. Indeed, I do 
not know any one whom they fear more, yet who 
flatters them less or knows them better. 

" The criminals being in two different places, 
M. Pere being obliged to keep four of them, sent 
Messrs. de Eepentigny, Manthet, and six other 
Frenchmen, to arrest the two who were eight 
leagues in the woods. Among others, M. de Ee- 
pentigny and M. de Manthet showed that they 
feared nothing when their honor called them. 

" M. de la Chevrotiere has also served weU in 
person, and by his advice, having pointed out 
where the prisoners were. Achiganaga, who had 
adopted him as a son, had told him where he 
should hunt during the winter. ***** 
It still remained for me to give to Achiganaga and 
his three children the means to return to his 
family. Their home from which they were taken 
was nearly twenty-six leagues from here. Know- 
ing their necessity, I told them you would not be 
satisfied in giving them life ; you wished to pre- 
serve it, by giving them all that was necessary to 
prevent them from dying with hunger and cold 
by the way, and that your gift was made by my 
hands. I gave them blankets, tobacco, meat, 
hatchets, knives, twine to make nets for beavers, 
and two bags of com, to supply them till they 
could kill game. 

" They departed two days after, the most con- 
tented creatures in the world, but God was not ; 
for when only two days' journey from here, the 
old Achiganaga fell sick of the quinsy, and died, 
and his children r'^tumed. AHien the news of his 
death arrived, the greater part of the savages of 
this place [Mackinaw] attributed it to the French, 
saying we had caused him to die. I let them 
talk, and laughed at them. It is only about two 
months shice the children of Achiganaga returr.e 1 
to Kiaonan." 

Some of those opposed to Du Luth and Fron- 
tenae, prejudiced the Iving of France relative to 
the transaction we have described, and in a letter 
to the Governor of Canada, the IQng vreites : " It 
appears to me that one of the principal causes of 
the war arises from one Du Luth having caused 
two to be killed who had assassinated two French- 



men on Lake Superior ; and you sufficiently see 
now much this man's voyage, which can not pro- 
duce any advantage to the colony, and which was 
permitted only in the interest of some private 
persons, has contributed to distract the peace of 
the colony." 

Du Luth and his young brother appear to have 
traded at the western extremity of Lake Superior, 
and on the north shore, to Lake Nipegon. 

In June, 1684, Governor De la Barre sent Guil- 
let and Hebert from Montreal to request Du Luth 
and Durantaye to bring down voyageurs and In- 
dians to assist in an expedition against the Iro- 
quois of New York. Early in September, they 
reported on the St. Lawrence, with one hundred 
and fifty coureurs des bois and three hundred and 
fifty Indians ; but as a treaty had just been made 
with the Senecas, they returned. 

DelaBarre's successor. Governor Denonville, 
in a dispatch to the French Government, dated 
November 12th, 1685, alludes to Du Luth being 
in the far West, in these words : " I likewise sent 
to M. De la Durantaye, who is at Lake Superior 
under orders from M. De la Barre, and to Sieur 
Du Luth, who is also at a great distance in an- 
other direction, and all so far beyond reach that 
neither the one nor the other can hear news from 
me this year ; so that, not being able to see them 
at soonest, before next July, I considered it best 
not to think of undertaking any thing during the 
whole of next year, especially as a great number 
of our best men are among the Outaouacs, and 
can not return before the ensuing summer. * * * 
In regard to Sieur Du Luth, I sent him orders to 
repair here, so that I may learn the number of 
savages on whom I may depend. He is accredit- 
ed among them, and rendered great services to 
M. De la Barre by a large number of savages he 
brought to Niagara, who would have attacked 
the Senecas, was it not for an express order from 
M. De la Barre to the contrary." 

In 1686, while at Mackinaw, he was orderea to 
establish a post on the Detroit, near Lake Erie. 
A portion of the order reads as follows : " After 
having given all the orders that you may judge 
necessary for the safety of this post, and having 
well secured the obedience of the Indians, you 
will return to Michilimafikinac, there to await 
Rev. rather Engelran, by whom I will commu- 
nicate what I wish of you, there." 

The design of this post was to block the pas- 
sage of the English to the upper lakes. Before 
it was estabUshed, in the fall of 1686, Thomas 
Boseboom, a daring trader from Albany, on the 
Hudson, had found his way to the vicinity of 
Mackinaw, and by the proffer of brandy, weak- 
ened the allegiance of the tribes to the French. 

A canoe coming to Mackinaw with dispatches 
for the French and their allies, to march to the 
Seneca country, in New York, perceived this New 
York trader and associates, and, giving the alarm, 
they were met by three himdred coureurs du 
bois and captured. 

In the spring of 1687 Du Luth, Durantaye, 
and Tonty all left the vicinity of Detroit for Ni- 
agara, and as they were coasting along Lake Erie 
they met another English trader, a Scotchman 
by birth, and by name Major Patrick McGregor, 
a person of some influence, going vidth a number 
of traders to Mackinaw. Having taken him pris- 
oner, he was sent with Roseboom to Montreal. 

Du Luth, Tonty, and Durantaye arrived at Ni- 
agara on the 27th of June, 1687, with one hun- 
dred and seventy French voyageurs, besides In- 
dians, and on the 10th of July joined the army of 
Denonville at the mouth of the Genesee River, 
and on the 13th Du Luth and his associates had 
a skirmish near a Seneca village, now the site of 
the town of Victor, twenty miles southeast of the 
city of Rochester, New York. Governor Denon- 
ville, in a report, writes: " On the 13th, about 4 
o'clock in the afternoon, having passed through 
two dangerous defiles, we arrived at the third, 
where we were vigorously attacked by eight him- 
dred Senecas, two hundred of whom fired, wish- 
ing to attack our rear, while the rest would attack 
our front, but the resistance, made produced 
such a great consternation that they saon resolved 
to fly. * * * We witnessed the p3,inful sight 
of the usual cruelties of the savages, who cut the 
dead into quarters, as is done in slaughter houses, 
in order to put them into the kettle. The greater 
number were opened while still warm, that the 
blood might be drunk. Our rascally Otaoas dis- 
tinguished themselves particularly by these bar- 
barities. * * * We had five or six men killed 
on the spot, French and Indians, and about 
twenty wounded, among the first of whom was the 
Rev. Father Angelran, superior of all the Otaoan 
Missions, by a very severe gun-shot. It is a great 



misfortune that this wound will prevent him go- 
ing hack again, for he is a man of capacity." 

In the order to Du Luth assigning him to duty 
at the post on the site of the modern Fort Gra- 
tiot, above the city of Detroit, the Governor of 
Canada said: " If you can so arrange your affairs 
that your brother can be near you in the Spring, 
I shall be very glad. He is an intelligent lad, 
and might be a great assistance to you; he might 
also be very serviceable to us." 

This lad, Greysolon de la Tourette, during the 
winter of 1686-7 was trading among the Assina- 
boines and other tribes at the west end of Lake 
Superior, but, upon receiving a dispatch, hastened 
to his brother, journeying in a canoe without any 
escort from Mackinaw. He did not arrive until 
after the battle with the Senecas. Governor Den- 
onville, on the 25th of August, 1687, wrote: 

" Du Luth's brother, who has recently arrived 
from the rivers above the Lake of the Allempi- 
gons [Nipegon], assures me that he saw more than 
fifteen hundred persons come to trade with him, 
and they were very sorry he had not goods suffl- 
eient to satisfy them. They are of the tribes ac- 
customed to resort to the EngUsh at Port Nelson 
and River Bourbon, where, they say, they did not 
go this year, through Sieur Du Lhu's influence." 

After the battle in the vicinity of Rochester, 
New York, Du Luth, with his celebrated cousin, 
Henry Tonty, returned together as far as the post 
above the present city of Detroit, Michigan, but 
this point, after 1688, was not 0,gain occupied. 

Prom this period Du Luth becomes less prom- 
inent. At the time when the Jesuits attempted 
to exclude brandy from the Indian country a bit- 
ter controversy arose between them and the 
traders. Cadillac, a Gascon by birth, command- 
ing Port Buade, at Mackinaw, on August 3, 1695, 
wrote to Count Prontenac: " Now, what reason 
can we assign that the savages should not drink 
brandy bought with their own money as well as 
we? Is it prohibited to prevent them from be- 
coming intoxicated? Or is it because the use of 
brandy reduces them to extreme jnisery, placing 
it out of their power to make war by depriving 
them of clothing and arms? If such representa- 
tions in regard to the Indians have been made to 
the Count, they are very false, as every one knows 
who is acquainted with the ways of the savages. 
* * * It is bad faith to represent to the Count 

that the sale of brandy reduces the savage to a 
state of nudity, arid by that means places it out 
of his power to make war, since he never goes to 
war in any other condition. * * * Perhaps it 
will be said that the sale of brandy makes the 
labors of the missionaries unfruitful. It is neces- 
sary to examine this proposition. If the mission- 
aries care for only the extension of commerce, 
pursuing the course they have hitherto, I agree 
to it; but if it is the use of brandy that hinders 
the advancement, 9£ the cause of God, I deny it, 
for it is a fact which no one can deny that there 
are a great number of savages who never drink 
brandy, yet who are not, for that, better Chris- 

"All the Sioux, the most numerous of all the 
tribes, who inhabit the region along the shore of 
Lake Superior, do not even like the smell of 
brandy. Are they more advanced in religion for 
that? They do not wish to have the subject men- 
tioned, and when the missionaries address them 
they only laugh at the fooUshness of preaching. 
Yet these priests boldly fling before the eyes of 
Europeans, whole volumes filled with glowing 
descriptions of the conversion of souls by thou- 
sands in this coimtry, causing the poor missiona- 
ries from Europe, to run to martyrdom as flies to 
sugar and honey." 

Du Luth, or Du Lhut, as he wrote his name, 
during this discussion, was foimd upon the side 
of order and good morals. His attestation is as 
follows : "I certify that at different periods I 
have lived about ten years among the Ottawa 
nation, from the time that I made an exploration 
to the Nadouecioux people until Port Saint Jo- 
seph was estabUshed by order of the Monsieur 
Marquis Denonville, Governor General, at the 
head of the Detroit of Lake Erie, which is in the 
Iroquois country, and which I had the honor to 
command. During this period, I have seen that 
the trade in eau-de-vie (brandy) produced great 
disorder, the father killing the son, and the son 
throwing his mother into the fire; and I maintain 
that, morally speaking, it is impossible to export 
brandy to the woods and distant missions, with- 
out danger of its leading to misery." 

Governor Prontenac, in an expedition against 
the Oneidas of New York, arrived ^t Port Pron- 
tenac, on the 19th of July, 1695, and Captain Du 
Luth was left in command with forty soldiers, 



and masons and carpenters, with orders to erect 
new buildings. In about four weeks he erected 
a building one hundred and twenty feet in length, 
containing officers' quarters, store-rooms, a bakery 
and a chapel. Early in 1697 he was com- 
mand of the post, and in a report it is mentioned 
that " everybody was then in good health, except 
Captain Dulhut the commander, who was unwell 
of the gout." 

It was just before this period, that as a member 
of the Eoman Catholic Church, he was firmly 
impressed that he had been helped by prayers 
which he addressed to a deceased Iroquois girl, 
who had died in the odor of sanctity, and, as a 
thank offering, signed the following certificate : 
'*!, the subscriber, certify to aU whom it may 
concern, that having been tormented by the gout, 
for the space of twenty-three years, and with such 

severe pains, that it gave me no rest for the spac 
of three months at a time, I addressed myself to 
Catherine Tegahkouita, an Iroquois virgin de- 
ceased at the Sault Samt Louis, in the reputation 
of sanctity, and I promised her to visit her tomb, 
if God should give me health, through her inter- 
cession. I have been as perfectly cured at the 
end of one novena, which I made in her honor, 
that after five months, I have not perceived the 
slightest touch of my gout. Given at Fort Fron- 
tenac, this 18th day of August, 1696." 

As soon as cold weather returned, his old mal- 
ady again appeared. He died early in A. D. 1710. 
Marquis de Vaudreuil, Governor of Canada, un- 
der date of first of May of that year, wrote to 
Count Pontchartraln, Colonial Minister at Paris, 
" Captain Du Lud died this winter. He was a 
very honest man." 





Palla of St. Anthony Visited Ijy White Men.— La Salle Gives the First Description 
or Upper Mississippi Valley.— Accault, the Leader, Accompanied by Augello 
and Hennepin, at Falls of Saint Anthony.— Hennepin Declared Unreliable by 
La Salle.— His Early Life.— His First Book Criticised by Abbe Bornou and 
Tronson. — Deceptive Map. — First Meeting with Sioux.] — Astonishment at 
Reading His Breviary, — Sioux Name for Cruns. — Accault and Hennepin at 
Lake Pepin. — Leave the River Below Saint Paul. — At Mille Lacs. — A Sweating 
Cabin, — Sioux Wonder at Mariner's Compass. — Fears of an Iron Pot. — Making 
a Dictionary. — Infant Baptised. — Route to the Pacific. — ^Hennepin Descends 
Rum River. —First Visit to Falls of Saint Anthony.— On a Buffalo Hunt.— Meets 
Du Luth.— Returns to Mille Lacs.- With Du Luth at Falls of St. Anthony.— 
Returns to France. — Subsequent Life. — His Boolis Examined. — Denies in First 
BookHisDesoenttotheGulfofMoxieo.— Dispute with Du Luth at Falls ofSt, 
Anthony.— Patronage of Du Luth. — Tribute to Du Liith.— Hennepin's Answer 
to Criticisms.— Denounced by D'Iberville and Father Gravier.— Residence in 

In the summer oJ 1680, Micliael Accault (Ako), 
Hennepin, the Franciscan missionary, Augelle, 
Du Luth, and FafEart aU visited the Tails of 
Saint Anthony. 

The first description of the valley of the upper 
Mississippi was written by La SaUe, at Fort 
Fronteriac, on Lake Ontario, on the 22d of Au- 
gust, 1682, a month before Hennepin, in Paris, 
obtained a license to print, and some time before 
the Franciscan's first work, was issued from the 

La Salle's knowledge must have been received 
from Michael Accault, the leader of the expedi- 
tion, AugeUe, his comrade, or the clerical attache, 
the Franciscan, Hennepin. 

It differs from Hennepin's narrative in its free- 
dom from bombast, and if its statements are to 
be credited, the Franciscan must be looked on as 
one given to exaggeration. The careful student, 
however, soon learns to be cautious in receiving 
the statement of any of the early explorers and 
ecclesiastics of the Northwest. The Franciscan 
depreciated the Jesuit missionary, and La Salle 
did not hesitate to misrepresent Du Luth and 
others for his own exaltation. La Salle makes 
statements which we deem to be wide of the 
truth when his prejudices are aroused. 

At the very time that the Intendant of Justice 
in Canada is complaining that Governor Fronte- 
nac is a friend and correspondent of Du Luth, 

La Salle writes to his friends in Paris, that Du 
Luth is looked upon as an outlaw by the governor. 

While oflScial documents prove that Du Luth 
was in Minnesota a year before Accault and asso- 
ciates, yet La Salle vfxites: " Moreover, the Na- 
donesioux is not a region which he has discov- 
ered. It is known that it was discovered a long 
time before, and that the Eev. Father Hennepin 
and Michael Accault were there before him." 

La SaUe in this communication describes Ac- 
cault as one well acquainted vrtth the language 
and names of the Indians of the Illinois region, 
and also " cool, brave, and prudent," and the head 
of the party of exploration. 

We now proceed vsdth the first description of 
the country above the Wisconsin, to which is 
given, for the first and only time, by any writer, 
the Sioux name, Meschetz Odeba, perhaps in- 
tended for Meshdeke Wakpa, Eiver of the Foxes. 

He describes the Upper Mississippi in these 
words : " FoUovrtng the windings of the Missis- 
sippi, they found the river Ouisconsing, Wiscon- 
sing, or Meschetz Odeba, which flows between 
Bay of Puans and the Grand river. * * ■* About 
twenty-three or twenty-four leagues to the north 
or northwest of the mouth of the Ouisconsing, 
* * * they found the Black river, called by the 
Nadouesioux, Chabadeba [Chapa Wakpa, Beaver 
river] not very large, the mouth of which is bor- 
dered on the two shores by alders. 

" Ascending about thirty leagues, almost at the 
same point of the compass, is the Buffalo river 
[Chippewa], as large at its mouth as that of the 
Illinois. They follow it ten or twelve leagues, 
■where it is deep, small and without rapids, bor- 
dered by hills which widen out from time to time 
to form prairies." 

About three o'clock in the afternoon of the 11th 
of April, 1680, the travelers were met by a war 
party of one hundred Sioux in thirty-three birch 
bark canoes. "Michael Accault, who was the 



leader," says La Salle, "presented the Calumet," 
The Indians were presented by Accault with 
twenty knives and a fathom and a half of tobacco 
and some goods. Proceeding with the Indians 
ten days, on the 22d of April the isles in the Mis- 
sissippi were reached, where the Sioux had killed 
some Maskoutens, and they halted to weep over 
the death of two of their own number ; and to 
assuage their grief, Accault gave them in trade a 
box of goods and twenty-four hatchets. 

When they were eight leagues below the Palls 
of Saint Anthony, they resolved to go by land to 
theii; village, sixty leagues distant. They were 
well received ; the only strife among the villages 
was that which resulted from the desire to have 
a Frenchman in their midst. La Salle also states 
that it was not correct to give the impression that 
Du Luth had rescued his men from captivity, for 
they could not be properly called prisoners. 

He Continues: "In going up the Mississippi 
again, twenty leagues above that river [Saint 
CroixJ is found the falls, which those I sent, and 
who passing there first, named Saint Anthony. 
It is thirty or forty feet high, and the river is nar- 
rower here than elsewhere. There is a small 
island in the midst of the chute, and the two 
banks of the river are not bordered by high hills, 
which gradually diminish at this point, but the 
country on each side is covered with thin woods, 
such as oaks and other hard woods, scattered wide 

"The canoes were carried three or four hun- 
dred steps, and eight leagues above was found 
the west [east?] bank of the river of the Nadoue- 
sioux, ending in a lake named Issati, which ex- 
pands into a great marsh, where the wild rice 
grows toward the mouth." 

In the latter part of his letter La Salle uses the 
following language relative to his old chaplain: 

" 1 believed that it was appropriate to make for 
you the narrative of the adventures of this canoe, 
because I doubt not that they will speak of it, and 
if you wish to confer with the Pather Louis Hen- 
nepin, Recollect, who has returned to Prance, you 
must know him a little, because he will not fail 
to exaggerate all things; it is his character, and 
to me he has written as if he were about to be 
burned when he was not even in danger, but he 
' believes that it is honorable to act in this manner. 

and he speaks more conformably to that which 
he wishes than to that which he knows." 

Hennepin was born in Ath, an inland town of 
the Netherlands. Profu boyhood he longed to 
visit foreign lands, and it is not to be wondered 
at that he assumed the priest's garb, for next to 
the soldier's life, it suited one of wandering pro- 

At one time he is on a begging expedition to. 
some of the towns on the sea coast. In a few 
months he occupies the post of chaplain at an 
hospital, where he shrives the dying and admin- 
isters extreme unction. Prom the quiet of the 
hospital he proceeds to the camp, and is present 
at the battle of SenefEe, which occurred in the 
year 1674. 

His whole mind, from the time that he became 
a priest, appears to have been on " things seen 
and temporal," rather than on those that are " un- 
seen and eternal." While on duty at some of the 
ports of the Straits of Dover, he exhibited the 
characteristic of an ancient Athenian more than 
that of a professed successor of the Apostles. 
He sought out the society of strangers "who 
spent their time in nothing else but either to tell 
or to hear some new thing." With perfect non- 
chalance he confesses that notwithstanding the 
nauseating fumes of tobacco, he used to slip be- 
hind the doors of sailors' taverns, and spend days, 
without regard to the loss of his meals, listening 
to the adventures and hair-breadth escapes of the 
mariners in lands beyond the sea. 

In the year 1676, he received a welcome order 
from his Superior, requiring him to embark for 
Canada. Unaccustomed to the world, and arbi- 
trary in his disposition, he rendered the cabin of 
the ship in which he sailed any thing but heav- 
enly. As in modem days, the passengers in a 
vessel to the new world were composed of hete- 
rogeneous materials. There were young women 
going out in search for brothers or husbands, ec- 
clesiastics, and those engaged in the then new, 
but profitable, commerce in furs. One of his 
fellow passengers was the talented and enterpri- 
prising, though unfortunate. La SaUe, with whom 
he was afterwards associated. If he is to be 
credited, his intercourse with La Salle was not 
very pleasant on ship-board. The yoimg women, 
tired of being cooped up in the narrow accommo- 
dations of the ship, when the evening was fair 



sought the deck, and engaged in the rude dances 
of the French peasantry of that age. Hennepin, 
feeling that it was improper, began to assume 
the air of the priest, and forbade the sport. La 
Salle, feeling that his interference was uncalled 
for, called him a pedant, and took the side of the 
girls, and during the voyage there were stormy 

Good humor appears to have been restored 
when they left the ship, for Hennepin would oth- 
erwise have not been the companion of La Salle 
in his great western journey. 

Sojourning for a short period at Quebec, the 
adventure-loving Franciscan is permitted to go 
to a mission station on or near the site of the 
present town of Kingston, Canada West. 

Here there was much to gratify his love of 
novelty, and he passed considerable time in ram- 
bling among the Iroquois of New York. In 1678 
he returned to Quebec, and was ordered to join 
the expedition of Robert La Salle. 

On the 6th of December Father Hennepin and 
a portion of the exploring party had entered the 
Niagara river. In the vicinity of the Falls, the 
winter was passed, and while the artisans were 
preparing a ship above the Falls, to navigate the 
great lakes, the EecoUect whiled away the hours,, 
in studying the manners and customs of the Sen- 
eca Indians, and in admiring the subUmest han- 
diwork of God on the globe. 

On the 7th of August, 1679, the ship being 
completely rigged, unfurled its sails to the breezes 
of Lake Erie. The vessel was named the " Grif- 
fin," in honor of the arms of Frontenac, Governor 
of Canada, the first ship of European construc- 
tion that had ever ploughed the waters of the 
great inland seas of North America. 

After encountering a violent and dangerous 
storm on one of the lakes, during which they had 
given up all hope of escaping shipwreck, on the 
27th of the month, they were safely moored in 
the harbor of " Missilimackinack." From thence 
the party proceeded to Green Bay, where they 
left the ship, procured canoes, and continued 
along the coast of Lake Michigan. By the mid- 
dle of January, 1680, La Salle had conducted his 
expedition to the Illinois Elver, and, on an emi- 
nence near Lake Peoria, he commenced, with 
much heaviness of heart, the erection of a fort, 

which he called Crevecoeur, on account of the 
many disappointments he had experienced. 

On the last of February, Accault, Augelle, and 
Hennepin left to ascend the Mississippi. 

The first work bearing the name of the Eev- 
erend Father Louis Hennepin, Franciscan Mis- 
sionary of the Recollect order, was entitled, " De- 
scription de la Louisiarie," and in 1683 published 
in Paris. 

As soon as the book appeared it was criticised. 
Abbe Bernou, on the 29th of February, 1684, 
writes from Eome about the " paltry book" (mes- 
hcant livre) of Father Hennepin. About a year 
before the pious Tronson, under date of March 
13, 1683, wrote to a friend: " I have Interviewed 
the P. Eecollect, who pretends to have descended 
the Mississippi river to the Gulf of Mexico. I do 
not know that one will believe what he speaks any 
more than that which is in the printed relation of 
P. Louis, which I send you that you may make 
your own reflections." 

On the map accompanying his first book, he 
boldly marks a Eecollect Mission many miles 
north of the point he had visited. In the Utrecht 
edition of 1697 this deliberate fraud is erased. 

Throughout the work he assumes, that he was 
the leader of the expedition, and magnifies trifies 
into tragedies. For instance, Mr. La SaUe writes 
that Michael Accault, also written Ako, who was 
the leader, presented the Sioux with the calu- 
met ;" but Hennepin makes the occurrence more 

He writes : " Our prayers were heard, when on 
the 11th of April, 1680, about two o'clock in the 
afternoon, we suddenly perceived thirty- three 
bark canoes manned by a himdred and twenty 
Indians coming down -with very great speed, on a 
war party, against the Miamis, Illinois and Maro- 
as. These Indians surroimded us, and while at 
a distance, discharged some arrows at us, but as 
they approached our canoe, the old men seeing us 
with the calumet of peace in our hands, prevent- 
ed the young men from killing us. These sava- 
ges leaping from their canoes, some on land, 
others into the water, with frightful cries and 
yells approached us, and as we madfe no resist- 
ance, being only three against so grea;t a number, 
one of them wrenched our calhmet from our 
hands, while our canoe and theirs were tied to 
the shore. We first presented to them a piece of 



French tobacco, better for smoMng than theirs' 
and the eldest among them uttered the words' 
" Miamiha, Miamiha." 

" As we did not understand their language, we 
took a little S'tick, and by signs which we made 
on the sand,' showed them that their enemies, the 
Miamis, whom they sought, had fled across the 
river Colbert [Mississippi] to join th^ Islinois; 
when they saw themselves discovered and unable 
to surprise their enemies, three or four old men 
laying their hands on my head, wept in a mourn- 
ful tone. 

" With a spare handkerchief I had left I wiped 
away their tears, but they would not smoke our 
Calumet. They made us cross the river with 
great cries, while all shouted with tears in their 
eyes; they made us row before them, and we 
heard yells capable of striking the most resolute 
with terror. After landing our canoe and goods, 
part of which had already been taken, we made a 
fire to boil our kettle, and we gave them two large 
wild turkeys which we had killed. These Indians 
having called an assembly to deliberate what they 
were to do with us, the two head chiefs of the 
party approaching, showed us by signs that the 
warriors wished to tomahawk us. This com- 
pelled me to go to the war chiefs with one young 
man, leaving the other by our property, and 
throw into their midst six axes, fifteen knives 
and six fathom of our black tobacco ; and then 
bringing down my head, I showed them with an 
axe that they might kill me, if they thought 
proper. This present appeased many individual 
members, who gave us some beaver to eat, put- 
ting the three first morsels into our mouths, accor- 
ding to the custom of the country, and blowing on 
the meat, which was too hot, before putting the 
bark dish before us to let us eat as we liked. We 
spent the night in anxiety, because, before reti- 
ring at night, they had returned us our peace 

" Our two boatmen were resolved to sell their 
lives dearly, and to resist if attacked ; their arms 
and swords were ready. As for my own part, I 
determined to allow myself to be killed without 
any resistance ; as I was going to announce to 
them a God who had been foully accused, un- 
justly condemned, and cruelly crucified, without 
showing the least aversion to those who put him 
to death. We watched in turn, in our anxiety, 

so as not to be surprised asleep. The next morn- 
ing, a chief named Narrhetoba asked for the 
peace calumet, filled it with willow bark, and aU 
smoked. It was then signified that the white 
men were to return with them to their villages." 

In his narrative the Franciscan remarks, "I 
found it difiicult to say my office before these 
Indians. Many seeing me move my lips, said in 
a fierce tone, ' Ouakanche.' Michael, all out of 
countenance, told me, that if I continued to say 
my breviary, we should all three be killed, and 
the Picard begged me at least to pray apart, so as 
not to provoke them. I followed the latter's 
advice, but the more I concealed myself the more 
I had the Indians at my heels ; for when I en- 
tered the wood, they thought I was going to hide 
some goods under ground, so that I knew not on 
what side to turn to pray, for they never let me 
out of sight. This obliged me to beg pardon of 
my canoe -men, assuring them I could not dis- 
pense with saying my ofiSce. By the word, ' Ou- 
akanche,' the Indians meant that the book I was 
reading was a spirit, but by their gesture they 
nevertheless showed a kind of aversion, so that 
to accustom them to it, I chanted the litany of 
the Blessed Virgin in the canoe, with my book 
opened. They thought that the breviary was a 
spirit which taught me to sing for their diversion ; 
for these people are naturally fond of singing." 

This is the first mention of a Dahkotah word 
in a European book. The savages were annoyed 
rather than enraged, at seeing the white man 
reading a book, and exclaimed, " Wakan-de I" 
this is wonderful or supernatural. The war 
party was composed of several bands of the M'de- 
wahkantonwan Dahkotahs, and there was a di- 
versity of opinion in relation to the disposition 
that should be made of the white men. The 
relatives of those who had been killed by the 
Miamis, were in favor of taking their scalps, but 
others were anxious to retain the favor of the 
French, and open a trading Intercourse. 

Perceiving one of the canoe-men shoot a wild 
turkey, they called the gun, " Manza Ouackange," 
iron that has understanding; more correctly, 
" Maza Wakande," this is the supernatural metal. 

Aquipaguetui, one of the head men, resorted 
to the following device to obtain merchandise. 
Says the Father, " This wily savage had the 
bones of some distinguished relative, which he 



preserved with great care in some skins dressed 
and adorned witli several rows of black and red 
porcupine quiUs. From time to time he assem- 
bled his men to give it a smoke, and made us 
come several days to cover the bones with goods, 
and by a present wipe away the tears he had shed 
for him, and for his own.son killed by the Miamis. 
To appease this captious man, we threw on the 
bones several fathoms of tobacco, axes, knives, 
beads, and some black and white wampum brace- 
lets. * * * We slept at the point of the Lake 
of Tears [Lake Pepin], which we so called from 
the tears which this chief shed all night long, or 
by one of his sons whom he caused to weep when 
he grew tired." 

The next day, after four or five leagues' sail, a 
chief came, and telling them to leave their canoes, 
he piilled up three piles of grass for seats. Then 
taking a piece of cedar fuU of Uttle holes, he 
placed a stick into one, which he revolved between 
the pahns of his hands, until he kindled a Are, 
and informed the Frenchmen that they would be 
at Mille Lac in six days. On the nineteenth day 
after their captivity, they arrived in the vicinity 
of Saint Paul, not far, it is probable, from the 
marshy ground on which the Kaposia band once 
lived, and now called Pig's Eye. 

The journal remarks, " Having arrived on the 
nineteenth day of our navigation, five leagues 
below St. Anthony's Palls, these Indians landed 
us in a bay, broke our canoe to nieces, and se- 
creted their own m the reeds." 

They then followed the trail to MUle Lac, sixty 
leagues distant. As they approached their villa- 
ges, the various bands began to show their spoils. 
The tobacco was highly prized, and led to some 
contention. The chalice of the Pather, which 
gUstened in the eun, they were afraid to touch, 
supposing it was "wakan." After five days' 
walk they reached the Issati p^ahkotah] settle- 
ments in the valley of the Rum or Knife river. 
The different bands each conducted a Prenchman 
to their village, the chief Aquipaguetin taking 
charge of Hennepin. After marching through 
the marshes towards the sources of Rum river, 
five wives of the chief, in three bark canoes, met 
them and took them a short league to an island 
where their cabins were. 

An aged Indian kindly rubbed down the way- 
worn Pranciscan; placing him on a bear- skin 

near the Are, he anointed his legs and the soles 
of his feet with wildcat oil. 

The son of the chief took great pleasure in car- 
rying upon his bare back the priest's robe with 
dead men's bones enveloped. It was called Pere 
Louis Chinnen. In the Dahkotah language Shin- 
na or Shinnan signifies a buffalo robe. 

Hennepin's description of his life on the island 
is in these words : 

" The day after our arrival, Aquipaguetin, who 
was the head of a large family, covered me with 
a robe made of ten large dressed beaver skins, 
trimmed with porcupine quiUs. This Indian 
showed me five or six of his vsdves, teUing them, 
as I afterwards learned, that they shouP' in fu- 
ture regard me as one of their children. 

" He set before me a bark dish fuU of fish, and 
seeing that I could not rise from the ground, he 
had a small sweating-cabin made, in which he 
made me enter with four Indians. This cabin he 
covered vyith buffalo skins, and inside he put 
stones red-hot. He made me a sign to do as the 
others before beginning to sweat, but I merely 
concealed my nakedness with a handkerchief. 
As soon as these Indians had several times 
breathed out quite violently, he began to sing vo- 
ciferously, the others putting their hands on me 
and rubbing me while they wept bitterly. I be- 
gan to faint, but I came out and could scarcely 
take my habit to put on. "When he made me 
sweat thus three times a week, I felt as strong as 

The mariner's compass was a constant source 
of wonder and amazement. Aquipaguetin hav- 
ing assembled the braves, would ask Hennepin 
to show his compass. Percei^'ing that the needle 
turned, the chief harangued his men, and told 
them that the Europeans were spirits, capable of 
doing any thing. 

In the Prancisean's possession was an iron pot 
with feet like lions', which the Indians would not 
touch unless their hands were wrapped in buffalo 
skins. The women looked upon it as " wakan," 
and would not enter the cabin where it was. 

" The chiefs of these savages, seeing that I was 
desirous to learn, frequently made me write, 
naming all the parts of the human body ; and as 
I would not put on paper certain indelicate words, 
at which they do not blush, they were heartiLjr 



They often asked the rranciscan questions, to 
answer which it was necessary to refer to his lex- 
icon. This appeared very strange, and, as they 
had no word for paper, they said, " That white 
thing must he a spirit which tells Pere Louis all 
we say." 

Hennepin remarks : " These Indians often 
asked me how many wives and children I had, 
and how old I was, that is, how many winters; 
for so these natives always count. Never illu- 
mined by the light of faith, they were surprised 
at my answer. Pointing to our two Frenchmen, 
whom I was then visiting, at a point three leagues 
from our village; I told them that a man among 
us could only have one wife ; that as for me, I 
had promised the Master of life to live as they 
saw me, and to come and live vrith them to teach 
them to be Uke the French. 

" But that gross people, till then lawless and 
faithless, turned all I said into ridicule. ' How,' 
said they, ' would you have these two men with 
thee have wives? Ours would not live with them, 
for they have hair all over their face, and we have 
none there or elsewhere.' In fact, they were 
never better pleased with me than when I was 
shaved, and from a complaisance, certainly not 
criminal, I shaved every week. 

" As often as I went to visit the cabins, I found 
a sick child, whose father's name was Mamenisi. 
Michael Ako would not accompany me; the 
Picard du Gay alone followed me to act as spon- 
sor, or, rather, to witness the baptism. 

" I christened the child Antoinette, in honor of 
St. Anthony of Padua, as well as for the Picard's 
name, which was Anthony Auguelle. He was a 
native of Amiens, and nephew of the Procurator- 
General of the Premonstratensians both now at 
Paris. Having poured natural water on the head 
and uttered these words : ' Creature of God, I 
baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of 
the Son, and of the Holy Ghost,' I took half an 
altar cloth which I had wrested from the hands 
of an Indian who had stolen it from me, and put 
it on the body of the baptized child; for as I 
could not say mass for want of wine and vest- 
ments, this piece of linen could not be put to bet- 
ter use than to enshroud the first Christian child 
among these tribes. I do not know whether the 
softness of the linen had refreshed her, but she 
was the next day smiling in her mother's arms. 

who believed that I had cured the child ; but she 
died soon after, to my great consolation. 

" During my stay among them, there arrived 
four savages, who said they were come alone five 
hundred leagues from the west, and had been four 
months upon the way. They assured us there 
was no such place as the Straits of Anian, and 
that they had traveled without resting, except to 
sleep, and had not seen or passed over any great 
lake, by which phrase they always mean the sea. 

" They further Informed us that the nation of 
the Assenipoulacs [Asslniboines] who lie north- 
east of Issati, was not above six or seven days' 
journey ; that none of the nations, within their 
knowledge, who lie to the east or northwest, had 
any great lake about their countries, which were 
very large, but only rivers, which came from the 
north. They further assured us that there were 
very few forests in the countries through which 
they passed, insomuch that now and then they 
were forced to make fires of buffaloes' dung to 
boil their food. All these circumstances make it 
appear that there is no such place as the Straits 
of Anian, as we usually see them set down on the 
maps'. And whatever efforts have been made for 
many yearns past by the English and Dutch, to 
find out a passage to the Frozen Sea, they have 
not yet been able to effect it. But by the help of 
my discovery aud the assistance of God, I doubt 
not but a passage may stUl be found, and that an 
easy one too. 

" For example, we may be transported into the 
Pacific Sea by rivers which are large and capable 
of carrying great vessels, and from thence it is 
very easy to go to China and Japan, without cross- 
ing the equinoctial line; and, in all probability, 
Japan is on the same continent as America." 

Hennepin in his first book, thus describes his 
first visit to the FaUs of St. Anthony: "In the 
beginning of July, 1680, we descended the [Rum] 
River in a canoe southward, with the great chief 
Ouasicoude [Wauzeekootay] that is to say Pierced 
Pine, with about eighty cabins composed of more 
than a hundred and thirty families and about 
two hundred and fifty warriors. Scarcely would 
the Indians give me a place in their little flotilla, 
for they had only old canoes. They went four 
leagues lower down, to get birch bark to make 
some more. Having made a hole in the ground, 
to hide our silver chalice and our papers, till our 



return from the hunt, and keeping only our bre- 
viary, so as not to be loaded, I stood on the bank 
of the lake formed by the river we had called St. 
Francis [now Eum] and stretched out my hand 
to the canoes as they rapidly passed in succession. 

"Our Frenchmen also had one for themselves, 
which the Indians had given them. They would 
not take me in, Michael Ako saying that he had 
taken me long enough to satisfy him. I was hurt 
at this answer, seeing myself thus abandoned by 
Christians, to whom I had always done good, as 
they both often acknowledged; but God never 
having abandoned me on that painful voyage, in- 
spired two Indians to take me in their little 
canoe, where I had no other employment than to 
bale out with a little bark tray, the water which 
entered by little holes. This 1 did not do with- 
out getting aU wet. This boat might, indeed, be 
called a death box, for its lightness and fragility. 
These canoes do not generally weigh over fifty 
pounds, the least motion of the body upsets them, 
unless you are long accustomed to that kind of 

" On disembarking in the evening, the Picard, 
as an excuse, told me that their canoe was-half- 
rotten, and that had we been three in it, we 
should have run a great risk of remaining on the 
way. * * * Pour days after our departure for 
the buffalo hunt, we halted eight leagues above 
St. Anthony of Padua's Palls, on an eminence 
opposite the mouth of the Elver St. Prancis [Rum] 
* * * The Picard and myself went to look for 
haws, gooseberries, and little wild fruit, which 
often did us more harm than good. This obliged 
us to go alone, as Michael Ako refused, in a 
wretched canoe, to Ouisconsin river, which was 
more than a hundred leagues off, to see whether 
the Sieur de la Salle had sent to that place a re- 
inforcement of men, with powder, lead, and 
other munitions, as he had promised us. 

"The Indians would not have suffered tliis 
voyage had not one of the three remained with 
them. They wished me to stay, but Michael 
Ako absolutely refused. As we were making the 
portage of our canoe at St. Anthony of Padua's 
Palls, we perceived five or six of our Indians who 
had taken the start ; one of them was up in an 
oak opposite the great fall, weeping bitterly, with 
a rich dressed beaver robe, whitened inside, and 
trimmed with porcupine quills, which he was 

offering as a sacrifice to the falls; which is, in it- 
self, admirable and frightful. I heard him while 
shedding copious tears, say as he spoke to the 
great cataract, ' Thou who art a spirit, grant that 
our nation may pass here quietly, without acci- 
dent ; may kill buffalo in abundance ; conquer 
our enemies, and bring in slaves, some of whom 
we will put to death before thee. The Messenecqz 
{so they call the tribe named by the French Outa- 
gamis) have killed our kindred ; grant that we 
may avenge them.' This robe offered in sacrifice, 
served one of our Frenchmen, who took it as we 

It is certainly wonderful, that Hennepin, who 
knew nothing of the Sioux language a few weeks 
before, should understand the prayer offered at 
the Falls without the aid of an interpreter. 

The narrator continues : " A league beyond 
St. Anthony of Padua's Falls, the Picard was 
obliged to land and get his powder horn, which he 
had left at the Falls. * * * As we descended 
the river Colbert [Mississippi] we found some of 
our Indians on the islands loaded with buffalo 
meat, some of which they gave us. Two hours 
after landing, fifteen or sixteen warriors whom we 
had left above St. Anthony of Padua's Falls, en- 
tered, tomakawk in hand, upset the cabin of those 
who had invited us, took all the meat and bear 
oil they found, and greased themselves from head 
to foot," 

This was done because the others had violated 
the rules for the buffalo hunt. With the Indians 
Hennepin went down the river sixty leagues, and 
then went up the river again, and met buffalo. 
He continues : 

"While seeking the Ouisconsin Eiver, that 
savage father, Aquipaguetin, whom I had left, 
and who I believed more than two hundred 
leagues off, on the 11th of July, 1680, appeared 
with the warriors." After this, Hennepin and 
Picard continued to go up the river almost eighty 

There is great confusion here, as the reader 
will see. When at the mouth of the Eum Eiver, 
he speaks of the Wisconsin as more than a hun- 
dred leagues off. He floats down the river sixty 
leagues ; then he ascended, but does not state the 
distance; then he ascends eighty leagues. 

He continues : " The Indians whom he had left 
•with Michael Ako at Buffalo [Chippeway] Eiver, 



with the flotilla of canoes loaded with meat, came 
down. * * * AH the Indian women had their 
stock of meat at the mouth of Buffalo Eiver and 
on the islands, and again we went down the Col- 
bert [Mississippi] about eighty leagues. * * * 
We had another alarm in our camp : the old men 
on duty on the top of the mountains announced 
that they saw two warriors in the distance ; all 
the bowmen hastened there with speed, each try- 
ing to outstrip the others ; but they brought back 
only two of their enemies, who came to tell them 
that a party of their people were hunting at the 
extremity of Lake Conde [Superior] and had found 
four Spirits (so they call the Prench) who, by 
means of a slave, had expressed a wish to come 
on, knowing us to be among them. * * * On 
the 25th of July, 1680, as we were ascending the 
river Colbert, after the buffalo hunt, to the In- 
dian villages, we met Sieur du Luth, who came 
to the Nadouessious with five French soldiers. 
They joined us about two hundred and twenty 
leagues distant from the country of the Indians 
who had taken us. As we had some knowledge 
of the language, they begged us to accompany 
them to the villages of these tribes, to which I 
readily agreed, knowing that these two French- 
men had not approached the sacrament for two 

Here again the number of leagues is confusing, 
and it is impossible to believe that Du Luth and 
his interpreter Faffart, who had been trading 
with the Sioux for more than a year, needed the 
help of Hennepin, who had been about three 
months with these people. 

"We are not told by what route Hennepin and 
Du Luth reached Lake Issati or Mille Lacs, but 
Hennepin says they arrived there on the 11th of 
August, 1680, and he adds, " Toward the end of 
September, having no implements to begin an 
establishment, we resolved to tell these people, 
that for their benefit, we would have to return to 
the French settlements. The grand Chief of the 
Issati or Nadouessiouz consented, and traced in 
pencil on paper I gave him, the route I should 
take for four hundred leagues. With this chart, 
we set out, eight Frenchmen, in two canoes, and 
descended the river St. Francis and Colbert pium 
and Mississippi]. Two of our men took two bea- 
ver robes at St. Anthony of Padua's Falls, which 
the Indians had hung in sacrifice on the trees." 

The second work of Hennepin, an enlargement 
of the first, appeared at Utrecht m the year 1697, 
ten years after La Salle's death. During the in- 
terval between the pubUcation of the first and 
second book, he had passed three years as Super- 
intendent of the EecoUects at Eeny in the province 
of Artois, when Father Hyacinth Lef evre, a friend 
of La Salle, and Commissary Provincial of Recol- 
lects at Paris, wished him to return to Canada. 
He refused, and was ordered to go to Eome, and 
upon his coming back was sent to a convent at 
St. Omer, and there received a dispatch from the 
Minister of State in France to return to the coun- 
tries of the King of Spain, of which he was a 
subject. This order, he asserts, he afterwards 
learned was forged. 

In the preface to the English edition of the 
New Discovery, published in 1698, in London, he 
writes : 

"The pretended reason of that violent order 
was because I refused to return into America, 
where I had been already eleven years ; though 
the particular laws of our Order oblige none of us 
to go beyond sea against his will. I would have, 
however, returned very willingly had I not known 
the malice of M. La Salle, who would have ex- 
posed me to perish, as he did one of the men who 
accompanied me in my discovery. God knows 
that I am sorry for his unfortunate death ; but 
the judgments of the Almighty are always just, 
for the gentleman was killed by one of his own 
men, who were at last sensible that he exposed 
them to visible dangers without any necessity and 
for his private designs." 

After this he was for about five years at Gosse- 
lies, in Brabant, as Confessor in a convent, and 
from thence removed to his native place, Ath, in 
Belgium, where, according to his narrative in the 
preface to the "Nouveau Decouverte," he was 
again persecuted. Then Father Payez, Grand 
Commissary of Recollects at Louvain, being in- 
formed that the King of Spain and the Elector of 
Bavaria recommended the step, consented that 
he should enter the service of William the Third 
of Great Britain, who had been very kind to the 
Roman Catholics of Netherlands. By order of 
Payez he was sent to Antwerp to take the lay 
habit in the convent there, and subsequently 
went to Utrecht, where he finished his second 
book known as the New Discovery. 



His first volume, printed in 1683, contains 312 
pages, witli an appendix of 107 pages, on the 
Customs of the Savages, while the Utrecht book 
of 1697 contaias 509 pages without an appendix. 

On page 249 of the New Discovery, he begins 
an account of a voyage alleged to have been made 
to the mouth of the Mississippi, and occupies 
over sixty pages in the narrative. The opening 
sentences give as a reason for concealing to this 
time his discovery, that La Salle would have re- 
ported him to his Superiors for presuming to go 
down instead of ascending the stream toward the 
north, as had been agreed ; alid that the two with 
him threatened that if he did not consent to de- 
scend the river, they would leave him on shore 
during the night, and pursue their own course. 

He asserts that he left the Gulf of Mexico, to 
return, on the 1st of April, and on the 24th left 
the Arkansas ; but a week after this, he declares 
he landed with the Sioux at the marsh about two 
miles below the city of Saint Paul. 

The account has been and is still a puzzle to 
the historical student. In our review of his first 
book we have noticed that as early as 1683, he 
claimed to have descended the Mississippi. In 
the Utrecht publication he declares that while at 
Quebec, upon his return to France, he gave to 
Father Valentine Eoux, Commissary of Recol- 
lects, his journal, upon the promise that it would 
be kept secret, and that this Father made a copy 
of his whole voyage, including the visit to the 
Gulf of Mexico ; but in his Description of Louis- 
iana, Hennepin wrote, " We had some design of 
going to the mouth of the river Colbert, which 
more probably empties into the Gulf of Mexico 
than into the Red Sea, but the tribes that seized 
us gave us no time to sail up and down the river." 

The additions in his Utrecht book to magnify 
his importance and detract from others, are 
many. As Sparks and Parkman- have pointed 
out the plagiarisms of this edition, a reference 
here is unnecessary. 

Du Luth, who left Quebec in 1678, and had 
been in northern Minnesota, with an interpreter, 
for a year, after he met Ako and Hennepin, be- 
comes of secondary importance, in the eyes of 
the Franciscan. 

In the Description of Louisiana, on page 289, 
Hennepin speaks of passing the Falls of Saint 
Anthony, upon his return to Canada, In these 

few words : " Two of our men seized two beaver 
robes at the Falls of St. Anthony of Padua, 
which the Indians had in sacrifice, fastened to 
trees." But in the Utrecht edition, commencing 
on page 416, there is much added concerning Du 
Lnth. After using the language of the edition 
of 1683, already quoted it adds: "Hereupon 
there arose a dispute between Sieur du Luth and 
myself. I commended what they had done, say- 
ing, ' The savages might judge by it that they 
disliked the superstition of these people.' The 
Sieur du Luth, on the contrary, said that they 
ought to have left the robes where the savages 
placed them, for they would not fail to avenge 
the insult we had put upon them by this action, 
and that it was feared that they would attack us 
on this journey. I confessed he had some foun- 
dation for what he said, and that he spoke accor- 
ding to the rules of prudence. But one of the 
two men flatly replied, the two robes suited them, 
and they cared nothing for the savages and their 
superstitions. The Sieur du Luth at these words 
was so greatly enraged that he nearly struck the 
one who uttered them, but I intervened and set- 
tled the dispute. The Picard and Michael Ako 
ranged themselves on the side' of those who had 
taken the robes in question, which might have 
resulted badly. 

" I argued with Sieur du Luth that the savages 
would not attack us, because I was persuaded 
that their great chief Ouasicoude would have our 
interests at heart, and he had great credit with 
his nation. The matter terminated pleasantly. 

" When we arrived near the river Ouisconsin, 
we halted to smoke the meat of the buffalo we 
had killed on the journey. During our stay, three 
savages of the nation we had left, came by the 
side of our canoe to teU us that their great chief 
Ouasicoude, having learned that another chief of 
these people wished to pursue and kill us, and 
that he entered the cabin where he was consult- 
ing, and had sti-uck him on the head with such 
violence as to scatter his brains upon his associ- 
ates ; thus preventing the executing of this inju- 
rious project. 

" We regaled the three savages, having a great 
abundance of food at that time. The Sieur du 
Luth, after the savages had left, was as enraged 
as before, and feared that they would pursue and 
attack us on our voyage. He would have pushed 



the matter further, but seeing that one man would 
resist, and was not in the humor to be imposed 
upon, he moderated, and I appeased them in the 
end with the assurance that God would not aban- 
don us in distress, and, provided we confided in 
Him, he would deliver us from our foes, because 
He is the protector of men and angels." 

After describing a conference with the Sioux, 
he adds, " Thus the savages were very kind, 
without mentioning the beaver robes. The chief 
Ouasicoude told me to offer a fathom of Marti- 
nico tobacco to the chief Aquipaguetin, who had 
adopted me as a son. This had an admirable 
effect upon the barbarians, who went off shouting 
several times the word ' Louis,' [Ouis or We] 
which, as he said, means the sun. "Without van- 
ity, I must say that my name will be for a long 
time among these people. 

"The savages having left us, to go to war 
against the Messorites, the Maroha, the Illinois, 
and other nations which live toward the lower 
part of the Mississippi, and are irreconcilable foes 
of the people of the North, the Sieur du Luth, 
who upon many occasions gave me marks of his 
friendship, could not forbear to tell our men that 
I had all the reason in the world to believe that 
the Viceroy of Canada would give me a favorable 
reception, should we arrive before winter, and 
that he wished with all his heart that he had been 
among as many natives as myself." 

The style of Louis Hennepin is unmistakable 
in this extract, and it is amusing to read his pa- 
tronage of one of the fearless explorers of the 
JSTorthwest, a cousin of Tonty, favored by Fron- 
tenac, and who was in Minnesota a year before 
his arrival. 

In 1691, six years before the Utrecht edition of 
Hennepin, another Recollect Franciscan had pub- 
lished a book at Paris, called " The First Estab- 
lishment of the Faith in New France," in which 
is the following tribute to Du Luth, whom Hen- 
nepin strives to make a subordinate : " In the last 
years of M. de Frontenac's administration, Sieur 
Du Luth, a man of talent and experience, opened 
a way to the missionary and the Gospel la many 
different nations, turnmg toward the north of 
that lake [Superior] where he even built a fort, 
he advanced as far as the Lake of the Issati, 
called Lake Buade, from the family name of M. 

de -Frontenac, planting the arms of his Majesty 
in several nations on the right and left." 

In the second volume of his last book, which is 
called " A Continuance of the New Discovery of 
a vast Country in America," etc., Hennepin no- 
ticed some criticisms. 

To the objection that his work was dedicated 
to William the Third of Great Britain, be repUes : 
"My King, his most Catholic Majesty, his Elec- 
toral Highness of Bavaria, the consent in writing 
of the Superior of my order, the uitegrity of my 
faith, and the regular observance of my vows, 
which his Britannic Majesty allows me, are the 
best warrants of the uprightness of my inten- 

To the qviery, how he could travel so far upon 
the Mississippi in so Uttle time, he answers with 
a bold face, " That we may, with a canoe and a 
pair of oars, go twenty, twenty-five, or thirty 
leagues every day, and more too, if there be oc- 
casion. And though we had gone but ten leagues 
a day, yet in thirty days we might easily have 
gone three hundred leagues. If during the time 
we spent from the river of the Illinois to the 
mouth of the Meschasipi, in the Gulf of Mexico, 
we had used a little more haste, we might have 
gone the same twice over." 

To the objection, that he said, he nad passed 
eleven years in America, when he had been there 
but about four, he evasively rephes, that " reck- 
oning from the year 1674, when I first set out, to 
the year 1688, when I printed the second edition 
Of my ' Louisiana,' it appears that I have spent 
fifteen years either in travels or printing my 

To those who objected to the statement in his 
first book, in the dedication to Louis the Four- 
teenth, that the Sioux always call the sun Louis, 
he writes : "I repeat what I have said before, 
that being among the Issati and Nadouessans, by 
whom I was made a slave in America, I never 
heard them call the sun any other than Louis. 
It is true these savages call also the moon Louis, 
but with this distinction, that they give the moon 
the name of Louis Bastache, which in their lan- 
guage signifies, the sun that shines in the night." 

The Utrecht edition called forth much censure, 
and no one in France doubted that Hennepin 
was the author. D 'Iberville, Governor of Lou- 
isiana, while in Paris, wrote on July 3d 1699, to 



the Minister of Marine and Colonies of France , 
in these words : " Very much vexed at the Eec- 
oUect, whose false narratives had deceived every 
one, and caused our suffering and total failure of 
our enterprise, by the time consumed in the 
search of things which alone existed in his imag- 

The Eftv. Father James Gravier, in a letter 
from a fort on the Gulf of Mexico, near the Mis- 
sissippi, dated February 16th, 1701, expressed the 
sentiment of his times when he speaks of Hen- 
nepin " who presented to King William, the Kelar 
tion of the Mississippi, where he never was, and 
after a thousand falsehoods and ridiculous boasts, 

* * * he makes Mr. de la Salle appear in his 
Relation, wounded with two balls in the head, 
turn toward the Recollect Father Anastase, to 
ask him for absolution, having been killed in- 
stantly, without uttering a word • and other Uke 
false stories." 

Hennepin gradually faded out of sight. Bru- 
net mentions a letter written by J. B. Dubos, 
from Borne, dated March 1st, 1701, which men- 
tions that Hennepin was living on the Capitoline 
Hill, in the celebrated convent of Ara Coeli, and 
was a favorite of Cardinal Spada. The time and 
place of his death has not been ascertained. 





Early Life, — Searches for Copper, — Interpreter at Sault St, Marie, Employed by 
La Salle. — Builds Stockade at Lake Fepin, — Hosiile Indians Rebuked. — A 
Silver Ostensorium Given to a Jesuit Chapel,— Perrot in the Battle against 
Senccas, in New York, — Second Visit to Sioux Country,— Taking Possession by 
"Proces Verbal," — Discovery of Lead Mines, — Attends Council at Montreal, — 
Establishes a Post near Detroit, in Siohigan, — Parrot's ueath, and his Wife. 

Nicholas Perrot, sometimes -written Pare, was 
one of the most energetic of the class in Canada 
known as " coureurs des bois," or forest rangers. 
Born in 1644, at an early age he was identified 
with the fur trade of the great inland lakes. As 
early as 1665, he was among the Outagamies 
[Foxes], and in 1667 was at Greei} Bay. In 1669, 
he was appointed by Talon to go to the lake re- 
gion in search of copper mines. At the formal 
taking possession of that country in the name of 
the King of France, at Sault St. Marie, on the 
14th of May, lb71, he acted as interpreter. In 
1677, he seems to have been employed at Fort 
Frontenac. La Salle was made very sick the 
next year, from eating a salad, and one Mcholas 
Perrot, called Joly Coeur (Jolly Soul) was sus- 
pected of having mingled poison with the food. 
After this he was associated with Du Luth in 
the execution of two Indians, as we have seen. 
In 1684, he was appointed by De la Barre, -the 
Governor of Canada, as Commandant for the 
"West, and left Montreal with twenty men. Ar- 
riving at Green Bay in Wisconsin, some Indians 
told him that they had visited countries toward 
the setting sun, where they obtained the blue 
and green stones suspended from their ears and 
noses, and that they saw horses and men like 
Frenchmen, probably the Spaniards of New Mex- 
ico ; and others said that they had obtained hatch- 
ets from persons who lived in a house that walked 
on the water, near the mouth of the river of , the 
Assiniboines, alluding to the English established 
at Hudson's Bay. Proceeding to the portage be- 
t«'een the Fox and Wisconsin, thirteen Hurons 
were met, who were bitterly opposed to the es- 
tablishment of a post near the Sioux. After the 

Mississippi was reached, a party of Winnebagoes 
was emplayed to notify the tribes of Northern 
Iowa- that the French had ascended the river, 
and wished to meet them. It was further agreed 
that prairie fires would be kindled from time to 
time, so that the Indians could follow the French. 

After entering Lake Pepin, near its mouth, on 
the east side, Perrot found a place suitable for a 
post, where there was wood. The stockade was 
built at the foot of a blufE beyond which was a 
large prairie. La Potherie makes this statement, 
which is repeated by Penicaut, who writes of 
Lake Pepin : " To^he right and left of its shores 
there are also prairies. In that on the right on 
the bank of the lake, there is a fort, which was 
built by Nicholas Perrot, whose name it yet [1700] 

Soon after he was established, it was announced 
that a band of Aiouez [loways] was encamped 
above, and on the way to visit the post. The 
French ascended in canoes to meet them, but as 
they drew nigh, the Indian women ran up the 
blufEs, and hid in the woods ; but twenty of the 
braves mustered courage to advance and greet 
Perrot, and bore him to the chief's lodge. The 
chief, bending over Perrot, began to weep, and 
allowed the moisture to fall upon his. visitor. 
After he had exhausted himself, the principal 
men of the party repeated the slabbering process. 
Then buffalo tongues were boiled in an earthen 
pot, and after being cut into small pieces, the 
chief took a piece, and, as a mark of respect, 
placed it in Perrot's mouth. 

During the winter of 1684r-85, the French tra- 
ded in Minnesota. 

At the end of the beaver hunt, the Ayoes 
[loways] came to the post, but Perrot was absent 
visiting the Nadouaissioux. and they sent a chief 
to notify him of their arrival. Four Illinois met 
him on the way, and were anxious for the return 
of four children held by the French. When the 



Sioux, who were at war with the Illinois, per- 
ceived them, they wished to seize their canoes, 
but the French voyageurs who were guarding 
them, pushed into the middle of the river, and 
the French at the post coming to their assistance, 
a reconciliation was effected, and four of the 
Sioux took the Illinois upon their shoulders, and 
bore them to the shore. 

An order having been received from Denon- 
ville. Governor of Canada, to bring the Miamis, 
and other tribes, to the rendezvous at Niagara, 
to go on an expedition against the Senecas, Per- 
rot entrusting the post at take Pepin to a few 
Frenchmen, visited the Miamis, who were dwel- 
ling below on the Mississippi, and with no guide 
but Indian camp fires, went sixty miles into the 
country beyond the river. 

Upon his return, he perceivea a great smoke, 
and at first thought that it was a war party pro- 
ceeding to the Sioux country. Fortunately he 
met a Maskouten chief, who had been at the post 
to see him, and he gave the intelligence, that the 
Outagamies [Foxes], Kikapous [Kickapoos], and 
Mascoutechs [Maskoutens], and others, from the 
region of Green Bay, had determined to pillage 
the post, kill the French, and then go to war 
against the Sioux. Hurrying on, he reached the 
fort, and learned that on that very day three 
spies had been there and seen that there were 
only six Frenchmen in charge. 

The next day two more spies appeared, but 
Perrot had taken the precaution to put loaded 
guns at the door of each hut, and caused his men 
frequently to change their clothes. To the query, 
" How many French were there?" the reply was 
given, " Forty, and that more were daily expected, 
who had been on a buffalo hunt, and that the 
guns were well loaded and knives well sharpened. ' ' 
They were then told to go back to their camp 
aud bring a chief of each nation represented, and 
that if Indians, in large numbers, came near, they 
would be fired at. In accordance with this mes- 
sage six chiefs presented themselves, After their 
bows and arrows were taken away they were in- 
vited to Perrot's cabin, who gave something to 
eat and tobacco to smoke. Looking at Perrot's 
loaded gims they asked, '-If he was afraid of his 
children?" He replied, he was not. They con- 
tinued, " You are displeased." He answered, 
' ' I have good reason to be . The Spirit has warned 

me of your designs; you will take my things 
away and put me in the kettle, and proceed 
against the Nadouaissioux, The Spirit told me 
to be on my guard, and he would help me." At 
this they were astonished, and confessed that an 
attack was meditated. That night the chiefs 
slept in the stockade, and early the next morn- 
ing a part of the hostUe force was encamped in 
the vicinity, and wished to trade. Perrot had 
now only a force of fifteen men, and seizing the 
chiefs, he told them he would break their haads 
if they did not disperse the Indians. One of the 
chiefs then stood up on the gate of the fort and 
said to the warriors, " Do not advance, young 
men, or you are dead. The Spirit has warned 
Metaminens [PerrotJ of your designs." They fol- 
lowed the advice, and afterwards Perrot present- 
ed them with two guns, two kettles, and some 
tobacco, to close the door of war against the Xa- 
douaissioux, and the chiefs were all permitted to 
make a brief visit to the post. 

Returning to Green Bay in 1686, he passed much 
time in collecting allies for the expedition against 
the Iroquois in New York. During this year he 
gave to the Jesuit chapel at Depere, five miles 
above Green Bay, a church utensil of silver, fif- 
teen inches high, still in existence. The stand- 
ard, nine iruches in height, supports a radiated 
circlet closed with glass on both sides and sur- 
mounted with a cross. This vessel, weighing 
about twenty ounces, was intended to show the 
consecrated wafer of the mass, and is called a 
soleil, monstrance, or ostensorium. 

Around the oval base of the rim is the follow- 
ing inscription: 




^^9 V7 ss aaI^"^'^ 


In 1802 some workmen in digging at Green 
Bay, Wisconsin, on the old Langlade estate dis- 



covered this relic, which is now kept in the vault 
of the Eoman Catholic bishop of that diocese. 

During the spring of 1687 Perrot, with De Lu- 
th and Tonty, was with the Indian allies and the 
French in the expedition against the Senecas of 
the Genessee Valley in New York. 

The next year Denonville, Governor of Canada, 
again sent Perrot with forty Frenchmen to the 
Sioux who, says Potherie, " were very distant, 
and who would not trade with us as easily as 
the other tribes, the Outagamis [Foxes] having 
boasted of having cut oif the passage thereto." 

When Perrot arrived at Mackinaw, the tribes 
of that region were much excited at the hostility 
of the Outagamis [Foxes] toward the Sauteurs 
[Chippeways]. As soon as Perrot and his party 
reached Green Bay a deputation of the Foxes 
sought an interview. He told them that he had 
nothrag to do with this quarrel with the Chippe- 
ways. In justification, they said that a party of 
their young men, in going to war against the 
Nadouaissioux, had found a young man and three 
Chippeway girls. 

Perrot was silent, and continued his journey 
towards the Nadouaissioux. Soon he was met by 
five chiefs of the Foxes in a canoe, who begged 
him to go to their village. Perrot consented, and 
when he went into a chief's lodge they placed be- 
fore him broiled venison, and raw meat for the 
rest of the French. He refused to eat because, 
said he, "that meat did not give him any spirit, 
but he would take some when the Outagamis 
[Foxes] were more reasonable." He then chided 
them for not having gone, as requested by the 
Governor of Canada, to the Detroit of Lake 
Erie, and during the absence of the French fight- 
ing with the Chippeways. Having ordered them 
to go on their beaver hunt and only fight against 
the Iroquois, he left a few Frenchmen to trade 
and proceeded on his journey to the Sioux coun- 
try. Arriving at the portage between the Fox and 
Wisconsin Elvers they were impeded by ice, but 
with the aid of some Pottawattomies they trans- 
ported their goods to the Wisconsin, which they 
found no longer frozen. The Chippeways were 
informed that their daughters had been taken 
from the Foxes, and a deputation came to take 
them back, but being attacked by the Foxes, who 
did not know their errand, they fled without se- 
curing the three girls. Perrot then ascended the 

Mississippi to the post which in 1684 he had 
erected, just above the mouth, and on the east 
side of Lake Pepin. 

As soon as the rivers were navigable, the Na^ 
douaissioux came down and escorted Perrot to 
one of their villages, where he was welcomed 
with much enthusiasm. He was carried upon a 
beaver robe, followed by a long Une of warriors, 
each bearing a pipe, and singing. After taking 
him around the village, he was borne to the chief's 
lodge, when several came in to weep over Ms head, 
with the same tenderness that the Ayoes (loways) 
did, when Perrot several years before arrived at 
Lake Pepin. " These weepings," says an old 
chronicler " do not weaken their souls. They are 
very good warriors, and reported the bravest in 
that region. They are at war with all the tribes 
at present except the' Saulteurs [Chippeways] and 
Ayoes [loways], and even with these they have 
quarrels. At the break of day the Nadouaissioux 
bathe, even to the youngest. They have very fine 
forms, but the women are not comely, and they 
look upon them as slaves. They are jealous and 
suspicious about them, and they are the cause 
of quarrels and blood-shedding. 

" The Sioux are very dextrous with their ca- 
noes, and they, fight unto death if surrounded, 
Their country is full of swamps, which shelter 
them in summer from being molested. One must 
be a Nadouaissioux, to find the way to their vil- 

While Perrot was absent in New York, fight- 
ing the Senecas, a Sioux chief knowing that few 
Frenchmen were left at Lake Pepin, came with 
one hundred warriors, and endeavored to pillage 
it. Of this complaint was made, and the guilty 
leader was near being put to death by his associ- 
ates. Amicable relations having been formed, 
preparations were made by Perrot to return to 
his post. As they were going away, one of the 
Frenchmen cornplained that a box of his goods 
had been stolen. Perrot ordered a voyageur to 
bring a cup of water, and into it he poured some 
brandy. He then addressed the Indians and told 
them he woidd dry up their marshes if the goods 
were not restored ; and then he set on fire the 
brandy in the cup, The savages were astonished 
and terrified, and supposed that he possessed su- 
pernatural powers ; and in a little while the goods 



were found, and restored to the owner, and the 
French descended to their stockade. 

The Foxes, while Perrot was in the Sioux 
country, changed their village, and settled on the 
Mississippi. Coming up to visit Perrot, they 
asked him to establish friendly relations between 
them and the Sioux. At the time some Sioux 
were at the post trading furs, and at first they 
supposed the French were plotting with the 
Foxes. Perrot, however, eased them by present- 
ing the calumet and saying that the French con- 
sidered the Outagamis [Foxes] as brothers, and 
then adding: "Smoke in my pipe; this is the 
manner with which Onontio [Governor of Can- 
ada] feeds his children." The Sioux replied that 
they wished the Foxes to smoke first. This was 
reluctantly done, and the Sioux smoked, but 
•would not conclude a definite peace until they 
consulted their chiefs. This was not concluded, 
because Perrot, before the chiefs came down, 
received orders to return to Canada. 

About this time, in the presence of Father Jo- 
seph James Marest, a Jesuit missionary, Boisguil- 
lot, a trader on the Wisconsin and Mississippi, Le 
Sueur, who afterward built a post below the Saint 
Croix River, about nine miles from Hastings, the 
following document was prepared: 

" Nicholas Perrot, commanding for the King at 
the post of the Nadouessioux, commissioned by 
the Marquis Denonville, Governor and Lieuten- 
ant Governor of all New France, to manage the 
interests of commerce among all the Indian tribes 
and people of the Bay des Puants [Green Bay], 
Nadouessioux, Mascoutens, and other western na- 
tions of the Upper Mississippi, and to take pos- 
session in the King's name of all the places where 
he has heretofore been and whither he will go: 

" We this day, the eighth of May, one thousand 
six hundred and eighty-nine, do, in the presence 
of the Reverend Father Marest, of the Society of 
Jesus, Missionary among the Nadouessioux, of 
Monsieur de Boisguillot, commanding the French 
in the neighborhood of tlie Ouiskonche, on the 
Mississippi, Augustin Legardeur, Esquire, Sieur 
de Caumont, and of Messieurs Le Sueur, Hebert, 
Lemire and Blein. 

" Declare to all whom it may concern, that, be- 
ing come from the Bay des Puants, and to the 
Lake of the Ouiskonches, we did transport our- 
selves to the country of the Nadouessioux, on the 

border of the river St. Croix, and at the mouth 
of the river St. Pierre, on the bank of which were 
the Mantantans, and further up to the interior, 
as far as the Menchokatonx [Med-ay-wah-kawn- 
twawn], with whom dwell the majority of the 
Songeskitons [Se-see-twawnsJ and other Nadou- 
essioux who are to the northwest of the Missis- 
sippi, to take possession, for and in the name of 
the King, of the countries and rivers inhabited by 
the said tribes, and of which they are proprietors. 
The present act done in our presence, signed with 
our hand, and subscribed." 

The three Chippeway girls of whom mention 
has been made were still with the Foxes, and 
Perrot took them with him to Mackinaw, upon 
his return to Canada. 

While there, the Ottawas held some prisoners 
upon an island not far from the mainland. The 
Jesuit Fathers went over and tried to save the 
captives from harsh treatment, but were unsuc- 
cessful. The canoes appeared at length near each 
other, one man paddling in each, while the war- 
riors were answering the shouts of the prisoners, 
who each held a white stick in his hand. As 
they neared the shore the chief of the party made 
a speech to the Indians who lived on the shore, 
and giving a history of the campaign, told them 
that they were masters of the prisoners. The 
warriors then came on land, and, according to 
custom, abandoned the spoils. An old man then 
ordered nine men to conduct the prisoners to a 
separate place. The women and the young men 
formed a line with big sticks. The young pris- 
oners soon found their feet, but the old men were 
so badly used they spat blood, and they were con- 
demned to be burned at the Mamilion. 

The Jesuit Fathers and the French officers 
were much embarrassed, and feared that the Iro- 
quois would complain of the little care which had 
been used to prevent cruelty. 

Perrot, in this emergency, walked to the place 
where the prisoners were singing the death dirge, 
in expectation of being burned, and told them to 
sit down and be silent. A few Ottauwaws rudely 
told them to sing on, but Perrot forbade. He 
then went back to the Council, where the old men 
had rendered judgment, and ordered one prisoner 
to be burned at Mackinaw, one at Sault St. Marie 
and another at Green Bay. Undaunted he spoke 
as follows : "I come to cut the strings of the 



dogs. I will not suffer them to be eaten . I have 
pity on them, since my Father, Onontio, has com- 
manded me. You Outaouaks [Ottawaws] are 
like tame beats, who will not recognize them who 
has brought them up. You have forgotten Onon- 
tio's protection. When he asks your obedience, 
you want to rule over him, and eat the flesh of 
those children he does not wish to give to you. 
Take care, that, if oyu swallow them, Onontio 
will tear them with violence from between your 
teeth. I speak as a brother, and I think I am 
showing pity to your children, by cutting the 
bonds of your prisoners." 

His boldness had the desired effect. The pris- 
oners were released, and two of them were sent 
with him to Montreal, to be returned to the Iro- 

On the 22nd of May, 1690, with one hundred 
and forty-three voyageurs and six Indians, Per- 
rot left Montreal as an escort of Sieur de Lou- 
vigny La Porte, a half-pay captain, appointed to 
succeed Durantaye at Mackinaw, by Frontenac, 
the new Governor of CanMa, who in October of 
the previous year had arrived, to take the place 
of Denonville. 

Perrot, as he approached Mackinaw, went in 
advance to notify the French of the coming of 
the commander of the post. As he came in sight 
of the settlement, he hoisted the white flag with 
the fleur de lis and the voyageurs shouted, " Long 
live the king ! ' ' Louvigny soon appeared and was 
received by one hundred "coureur des bois" 
under arms. 

From Mackinaw, Perrot proceeded to Green 
Bay, and a party of Miamis there begged him to 
make a trading establishment on the Mississippi 
towards the Ouiskonsing ( Wisconsin. ) The chief 
made him a present of a piece of lead from a 
mine which he had found in a small stream which 
flows into the Mississippi. Perrot promised to 
visit him within twenty days, and the chief then 
returned to his village below the d'Ouiskonche 
(iWsconsin) Eiver. 

Having at length reached his post on Lake 

Pepin, he was informed that the - Sioux were 

forming a large war party agaiast the Outaga- 

mis (Foxes) and other allies of the French. He 

gave notice of his arrival to a party of about four 

hundred Sioux who were on the Mississippi. 

They arrested the messengers and came to the 
post for the purpose of plunder. Perrot asked 
them why they acted in this manner, and said 
that the Foxes, Miamis, Kickapoos, Illinois, and 
Maskoutens had united in a war party against 
them, but that he had persuaded them to give it 
up, and now he wished them to return to their 
families and to their beaver. The Sioux declared 
that they had started on the war-path, and that 
they were ready to die. After they had traded 
their furs, they sent for Perrot to come to their 
camp, and begged that he would not hinder them 
from searching for their foes. Perrot tried to dis- 
suade them, but they insisted that the Spirit had 
given them men to eat, at three days' journey 
from the post Then more powerful influences 
were used. After giving them two kettles and 
some Eierchandise, Poerrt spoke thus: " I love 
your life, and I am sure you will be defeated. 
Your Evil Spirit has deceived you. If you kill 
the Outagamis, or their allies, you must strike me 
first; if you kill them, you kill me just the same, 
for I hold them under one wing and you under 
the other." After this he extended the calumet, 
which they at first refused; but at length a chief 
said he was right, and, making invocations to the 
sun, wished Perrot to take him back to his arms. 
This was granted, on condition that he would 
give up his weapons of war. The chief then tied 
them to a pole in the centre of the fort, turning 
them toward the sun. He then p'ersuaded the 
other chiefs to give up the expedition, and, send- 
ing for Perrot, he placed the calumet before him, 
one end in the earth and the other on a small 
forked twig to hold it firm. Then he took from 
his own sack a pair of his cleanest moccasins, and 
taking off Perrot's shoes, put on these. After he 
had made him eat, presenting the calumet, he 
said: " We listen to you now. Do for us as you 
do for our enemies, and prevent them from kill- 
ing us, and we will separate for the beaver hunt. 
The sun is the witness of our obedience." 

After this, Perrot descended the Mississippi 
and revealed to the Maskoutens, who had come to 
meet him, how he had pacified the Sionx. He, 
about this period, in accordance with his prom- 
ise, visited the lead mines. He found the ore 
abundant " but the lead hard to work because it 
lay between rocks which required blowing up. 
It had very little dross and was easily melted." 



Penicaut, who ascended the Mississippi in 1700, 
wrote that twenty leagues below the "Wisconsin, 
on both sides of the Mississippi, were mines of 
lead called " Nicolas Perrot's." Early French 
maps indicate as the locality of lead mines the 
site of modern towns, Galena, in Illinois, and Du- 
buque, in Iowa. 

In August, 1693, about two hundred French- 
men from Mackinaw, with delegates from the 
tribes of the West, arrived at Montreal to at- 
tend a grand council called by Governor Pronte- 
nac, and among these was Perrot. 

On the first Sunday in September the governor 

gave the Indians a great feast, after which they 
and the traders began to rfetum to the wilder- 
ness. Perrot was ordered by Frontenac to es- 
tablish a new post for the Miamis in Michigan, 
in the neighborhood of the Kalamazoo Eiver. 

Two years later he is present again, in August, 
at a council in Montreal, then returned to the 
West, and in 1699 is recalled from Green Bay. 
In 1701 he was at Montreal acting as interpreter, 
and appears to have died before 1718: his wife 
was Madeline Raclos, and his residence was in 
the Seigneury of Becancourt, not far from Three 
Rivers, on the St. Lawrence. 





La HoDtan, a Gascon by Birth.— Early Life.— Description of Vox. and Wisconsin 
Rivers — Indian Feast.^Alleged Ascent of Long River.— Bobe Exposes the 
Deception.— Route to the Pacific. " 

The " Travels " of Baron La Hontan appeared 
in A. D. 1703, both at London and at Hague, and 
were as saleable and readable as those of Hennepin, 
which were on the counters of booksellers at the 
same time. 

La Hontan, a Gascon by birth, and in style of 
writing, when about seventeen years of age, ar- 
rived in .Canada, in 1683, as a private soldier, and 
was with Gov. De la Barre in his expedition of 
1684, toward Niagara, and was also in the battle 
near Rochester, New York, in 1687, at which Du 
Luth and Perrot, explorers of Minnesota, were 

In 1688 he appears to have been sent to Fort 
St. Joseph, which was built by Du Luth, on the 
St. Clare River, near the site of Fort Gratiot, 
Michigan. It is possible that he may have accom- 
panied Perrot to Lake Pepin, who came about 
this time to reoccupy his old post. 

From the following extracts it will be seen that 
his style is graphic, and that he probably had been 
in 1688 in the valley of the Wisconsin. At Mack- 
inaw, after his return from his pretended voyage 
of the Long Eiver, he writes: 

" I left here on the 24th September, with my 
men and five Outaouas, good hunters, whom I 
have before mentioned to you as having been of 
good. service to me. All my brave men being 
provided with good canoes, filled with provisions 
and ammunition, together with goods for the In- 
dian trade, I took advantage of a north wind, and 
in three days entered the Bay of the Pouteouata- 
mis, distant from here about forty leagues. The 
entrance to the bay is full of islands. It is ten 
leagues wide and twenty-five in length. 

" On the 29th we entered a river, which is quite 
deep, whose waters are so affected by the lake 
that they often rise and fall three feet in twelve 

hours. This is an observation that I made dur- 
ing these three or four days that I passed here. 
The Sakis, the Poutouatamis, and a few of the 
Malominis have their villages on the border of this 
river, and the Jesuits have a house there. In the 
place there is carried on quite a commerce in furs 
and Indian com, which the Indians traflBc with 
the ' coureurs des bois' that go and come, for it is 
their nearest and most convenient passage to the 

" The lands here are very fertile, and produce, 
almost without culture, the wheat of our Europe, 
peas, beans, and any quantity of fruit unknown 
in France. 

" The moment I landed, the warriors of three 
nations came by turns to my cabin to entertain 
me with the pipe and chief dance ; the first in 
proof of peace and friendship, the second to indi- 
cate their esteem and consideration for me. In 
return, I gave them several yards of tobacco, and 
beads, with which they trimmed their capots. The 
next morning, I was asked as a guest, to one of 
the feasts of this nation, and after having sent my 
dishes, which is the custom, I went towards noon. 
They began to compliment me of my arrival, and 
after hearing them, they all, one after the other, 
began to sing and dance, in a manner that I will 
detail to you when I have more leisure. These 
songs and dances lasted two hours, and were sea- 
soned with whoops of joy, and quibbles that they 
have woven into their ridiculous musique. Then 
the captives waited upon us. The whole troop 
were seated in the Oriental custom. Each one 
had his portion before him, like our monks in 
their refectories. They commenced by placing 
four dishes before me. The first consisted of two 
white fish simply boiled in water. The second 
was chopped meats with the boiled tongue of a 
bear ; the third a beaver's tail, all roasted. They 
made me drink also of a syrup, mixed with water, 
made out of the maple tree. The feast lasted two 



hours, after which, I requested a chief of the 
nation to sing for me ; for it is the custom, when 
we have business with them, to employ an inferior 
for self in all the ceremonies they perform. I 
gave him several pieces of tobacco, to oblige him 
to keep the party till dark. The next day and the 
day following, I attended the feasts of the other 
nations, where I observed the same formalities." 

lie alleges that, on the 23d of October, he 
reached the Mississippi Eiver, and, ascending, on 
the 3d of November he entered into a river, a 
tributary from the west, that was almost without 
a current, and at its mou^h filled vfith rushes. 
He then describes a journey of five hundred miles 
up this stream. He declares he found upon its 
banks three great nations, the Eokoros, Essa- 
napes, and Gnaesitares, and because he ascended 
it for sixty days, he named it Long Eiver. 

For years his wondrous story was believed, and 
geographers hastened to trace it upon their maps. 
But in time the voyage up the Long Eiver was 
discovered to be a fabrication. There is extant 
a letter of Bobe, a Priest of the Congregation of 
the Mission, dated Versailles, March 15, 1716, and 
addressed to De L'Isle, the geographer of the 
Academy of Sciences at Paris, which exposes the 

He writes: " It seems to me that you might 
give the name of Bourbonia to these vast coun- 
tries which are between the Missomi, Mississippi, 
and the Western Ocean. "Would it not be well to 
efface that^reat river which La Hontan says he 

"All the Canadians, and even the Governor 
General, have told me that this river is unknown. 
If it existed, the French, who are on the Illinois, 
and at Ouabache, would know of it. The last 
volume of the ' Lettres Ediflantes' of the Jesuits, 
in which there is a very fine relation of the Illinois 
Country, does not speak of it, any more than the 
letters which I received this year, which tell won- 
ders of the beauty and goodness of the country. 
They send me some quite pretty work, made by 
the wife of one of the principal chiefs. 

" They tell me, that among the Scioux, of the 
Mississippi, there are always Frenchmen trading; 
that the course of the Mississippi is from north 
to west, and from west to south; that it is known 
that toward the source of the Mississippi there is 
a river in the highlands that leads to the western 

ocean; that the Indians say that they have seen 
bearded men with caps, who gather ^old-dust on 
the seashore, but that it is very far from this 
country, and that they pass through many nations 
unknown to the French. 

" I have a memoir of La Motte Cadillac, form- 
erly Governor of Missilimackinack, who says that 
if St. Peters [Minnesota] Eiver is ascended to its 
source they will, according to all appearance, find 
in the highland another river leading to the West- 
ern Ocean. 

" For the last two years I have tormented 
exceedingly the Governor-General, M. Raudot, 
and M. Duche, to move them to discover this 
ocean. If I succeed, as I hope, we shall hear 
tidings before three years, and I shall have the 
pleasure and the consolation of having rendered 
a good service to Geography, to EeUgion and to 
the State." 

Charlevoix, in his History of New France, al- 
luding to La Hontan's voyage, vsrites: " The 
voyage up the Long Eiver is as fabulous as the 
Island of Barrataria, of which Sancho Panza was 
governor. Nevertheless, in France and else- 
where, most people have received these memoirs 
as the fruits of the travels of a gentleman who 
wrote badly, although quite lightly, and who had 
no religion, but who described pretty sincerely 
what he had seen. The consequence is that the 
compilers of historical and geographical diction- 
aries have almost always followed and cited them 
in preference to more faithful records." 

Even in modem times, NicoUet, employed by 
the United States to explore the Upper Mississ- 
ippi, has the following in his report: 

"Having procured a copy of La Hontan's 
book, in which there is a roughly made map of 
his Long Eiver, I was struck -with the resem- 
blance of its course as laid down vnth that of 
Cannon Eiver, which I had previously sketched 
in my own field-book. I soon convinced myself 
that the principal statements of the Baron in ref- 
erence to the country and the few details he gives 
of the physical character of the the river, coin- 
cide remarkably with what I had laid dovm as 
belonging to Cannon Eiver. Then the lakes and 
swamps corresponded; traces of Indian villages 
mentioned by him might be foimd by a growth 
of wild grass that propagates itself aroimd aU old 
Indian settlements." 





Le Suetir Visits Lake Pepin. — Stationed at La Pointe. — Establishes a Post on an 
Island Above Lake Pepin.— Island Described by Penicaut.— First S oux Chief 
at Montreal. — Qjibway Chiefs' Speeches.— Speech of Sioux Chief.— Teeoskah- 
tay's Death. — Le Suenr Goes to France. — Posts West of Mackinaw Abandoned 
— Lo Sueur's License Revoked.— Second Visit to France.- Arrives in Gulf of 
Mexico with D'Iberville. — Ascends the Mississippi. — Lead Mines. — Canadians 
Fleeing from the Sioux.— At the Mouth of the Wisconsin.— Sioux Robbers,- Elk 
Hunting. — Lake Pepin Described. — Rattlesnakes. — La Place Killed. — St. Croix 
River Ifained After a Frenchman. — Le Sueur Reaches St. Pterre, now Minne' 
sota River. — Enters Mankahto, or Blue Earth, River. — Sioux of the Plains. — 
Fort L'Huillier Completed. — Conferences with Sioux Bands. — Assinaboines a 
Separated Sioux Band. — An Indian Feast — Mames of the Sioux Bands.- Char- 
levoix's Account. — Le Sueur Goes with D'Iberville to France. — D'Iberville's 
Memorial.— Early Census of Indian Tribes.— Penicaut's Account of Fort L'Huil 
lier.— Le Sueur's Departure from the Fort.- D'Evaqe Left in Charge.- Return" 
to Mobile. — Juchereau at Mouth of Wisconsin. —Bonder a Montreal Merchant — 
Sioux Attack Miamis.— Boudor Robbed by the Sioux. 

Le Sueur was a native of Canada, and a rela- 
•tive of D'Iberville, the early Governor of Louis- 
iana. He came to Lake Pepin in 1683, with 
Nicholas Perrot, and his name also appears at- 
tached to the document prepared in May, 1689, 
after Perrot had re-occupied his post just above 
the entrance of the lake, on the east side. 

In 1692, he was sent by Governor Prontenac of 
Canada, to La Pointe, on Lake Superior, and in a 
dispatch of 1693, to the French Government, is 
the following : " Le Sueur, another voyageur, is 
to remain at Chagouamagon [La Pointe] to en- 
deavor to maintain the peace lately concluded be- 
tween the Saulteurs [Chippeways] and Sioux. 
This is of the greatest consequence, as it is now 
the sole pass by which access can be had to the 
latter nation, whose trade is very profitable ; the 
country to the south being occupied by the Foxes 
and Maskoutens, who several times plundered the 
French, on the ground they were carrying ammu- 
nition to the Sioux, their ancient enemies." 

Entering the Sioux country in 1694, he estab- 
lished a post upon a prairie island in the Missis- 
sippi, about nine miles below the present town of 
Hastings, according to Bellin and others. Peni- 
caut, who accompanied him in the exploration of 
the Minnesota, writes, " At the extremity of the 
lake [Pepin J you come to the Isle Pelee, so called 
because there are no trees on it. It is on this island 

that the French from Canada established their 
fort and storehouse, and they also winter here, 
because game is very abundant. In the month of 
September they bring their store of meat, obtained 
by hunting, and after having skinned and cleaned 
it, hang it upon a crib of raised scaffolding, in 
order that the extreme cold, which lasts from 
September to March, may preserve it from spoil- 
ing. During the whole winter they do not go out 
except for water, when they have to break the ice 
every day, and the ;abin is generally built upon 
the bank, so as not to have far to go. When 
spring arrives, the savages come to the island, 
bringing their merchandize." 

On the fifteenth of July, 1695, Le Sueur arrived 
at Montreal with a party of Ojibways, and the 
first Dakotah brave that had ever visited Canada. 

The Indians were much impressed with the 
power of France by the marching of a detach- 
ment of seven hundred picked men, under Chev- 
alier Cresafl, who were on their way to La Chine. 

On the eighteenth, Frontenac, in the presence 
of Callieres and other persons of distinction, gave 
them an audience. 

The first speaker was the chief of the Ojibway 
band at La Pointe, Shingowahbay, who said: 

" That he was come to pay his respects to Onon- 
tio [the title given the Governor of Canada] in the 
name of the young warriors of Point Chagouami- 
gon, and to thank him for having given them 
some Frenchmen to dwell with them; to testify 
their sorrow for one Jobin, a Frenchman, who 
was killed at a feast, accidentally, and not ma- 
liciously. We come to ask a favor of you, which 
is to let us act. We are allies of the Sciou. Some 
Outagamies, or Mascoutins, have been killed. 
The Sciou came to mourn with us. Let us act. 
Father; let us take revenge. 

" Le Sueur alone, who is acquainted with the 
language of the one and the other, can serve us. 
We ask that he return with us." 



Another speaker of the Ojibways was Le Bro- 

Teeoskahtay, the Dahkotah chief, before he 
spoke, spread out a beaver robe, and, laying an- 
other with a tobacco pouch and otter skia, began 
to weep bitterly. After dryiug his tears, he said: 

" All of the nations had a father, who afforded 
them protection; all of them have iron. But he 
was a bastard in quest of a father; he was come 
to see him, and hopes that he will take pity on 

He then placed upon the' beaver robe twenty- 
two arrows, at each arrow naming a Dahkotah 
vUlage that desired Frontenac's protection. Ee- 
suming his speech, he remarked: 

" It is not on account of what I bring that I 
hope him who rules the earth will have pity on 
me. I learned from the Sauteurs that he wanted 
nothing; that he was the Master of the Iron; that 
he had a big heart, into which he could receive 
aU the nations. This has induced me to abandon 
my people and come to seek his protection, and 
to beseech bim to receive me among the number 
of his children. Take courage. Great Captain, 
and reject me not; despise me not, though I ap- 
pear poor in your eyes. All the nations here 
present know that I am rich, and the little they 
offer here is taken from my lands." 

Count Frontenac in reply told the chief that he 
would receive the Dahkotahs as his children, on 
condition that they would be obedient, and that 
he would send back Le Sueur vnth him. 

Teeoskahtay, taking hold of* the governor's 
knees, wept, and said: " Take pity on us; we 
are well aware that we are not able to speak, be- 
ing children; but Le Sueur, who understands our 
language, and has seen all our villages, will next 
year inform you what will have been achieved by 
the Sioux nations represented by those arrows be- 
fore you." 

Having finished, a Dahkotah woman, the wife 
of a great chief whom Le Sueur had purchased 
from captivity at Mackinaw, approached those in 
authority, and, with downcast eyes, embraced 
their knees, weeping and saying: 

" I thank thee. Father; it is by thy means I 
have been liberated, and am no longer captive." 

Then Teeoskahtay resumed: 

" I speak like a man penetrated with joy. The 
Great Captain; he who is the Master of Iron, as- 

sures me of his protection, and I promise him that 
if he condescends to restore my children, now 
prisoners among the Foxes, Ottawas and Hiurons, 
I will return hither, and bring with me the twen- 
ty-two villages whom he has just restored to life 
by promising to send them Iron." 

Pn the 14th of August, two weeks after the 
Ojibway chief left for his home on Lake Superior, 
Nicholas Perrot arrived with a deputation of 
Sauks, Foxes, Menomonees, Miamis of Maramek 
and Pottowatomies. 

Two days after, they had a coimcU with the 
governor, who thus spoke to a Fox brave: 

" I see that you are a yoimg man; your nation 
has quite turned away from my wishes; it has 
pillaged some of my yoimg men, whom it has 
treated as slaves. I know that your father, who 
loved the French, had no hand in the indignity. 
You only imitate the example of your father 
who had sense, when you do not co-operate 
with those of your tribe who are wishing to go 
over to my enemies, after they grossly insulted 
me and defeated the Sioux, whom I now consider 
my son. I pity the Sioux; I pity the dead whose 
loss I deplore. Perrot goes up there, and he wUl 
speak to yoior nation from me for the release of 
their prisoners; let them attend to him." 

Teeoshkahtay never returned to his native land. 
While in Montreal he was taken sick, and in 
thirty-three days he ceased to breathe; and, fol- 
lowed by white men, his body was interred in the 
white man's grave. 

Le Sueur instead of going back to Minnesota 
that year, as was expected, went to France and 
received a license, in 1697, to open certain mines 
supposed to exist in Minnesota. The ship in 
which he was retm-ning was captured by the Eng- 
lish, and he was taken to England. After his 
release he went back to France, and, in 1698, ob- 
tained a new commission for mining. 

Wliile Le Sueur was in Europe, the Dahkotas 
waged war against tlie Foxes and Miamis. In 
retaliation, the latter raised a war party and en- 
tered the land of the Dahkotahs. Finding their 
foes intrenched, and assisted by " coureurs des 
bois," they were indignant; and on their return 
they had a skirmish with some Frenchmen, who 
were carrying goods to the Dahkotahs. 

Shortly after, they met Perrot, and were about 
to burn him to death, when prevented by some 



friendly Foxes. The Miamis, after this, were 
disposed to be friendly to the Iroquois. In 1696, 
the year previous, the authorities at Quebec de- 
cided that it was expedient to abandon all the 
posts west of Mackinaw, and withdraw the French 
from Wisconsin and Minnesota. 

The voyageurs were not disposed to leave the 
country, and the governor wrote to Pontchar- 
train for instructions, in October, 1698. In his 
dispatch he remarks: 

" In this conjuncture, and under all these cir- 
cumstances, we consider it our duty to postpone, 
until new instructions from the court, the execu- 
tion of Sieur Le Sueur's enterprise for the mines, 
though the promise had already been given him 
to send two canoes in advance to Missilimackinac, 
for the purpose of purchasing there some pro- 
visions and other necessaries for his voyage, and 
that he would be permitted to go and join them 
early in the spring with the rest of his hands. 
"What led us to adopt this resolution has been, 
that the French who remained to trade off with 
the Five Nations the remainder of their merch- 
andise, might, on seeing entirely new comers 
arriving there, consider themselves entitled to 
dispense with coming down, and perhaps adopt 
the resolution to settle there; whilst, seeing no 
arrival there, with permission to do what is for- 
bidden, the reflection they will be able to make 
during the winter, and the apprehension of being 
guilty of crime, may obUge them to return in the 

- " This would be very desirable, in consequence 
of the great difficulty there will be in constraining 
them to it, should they be inclined to lift the mask 
altogether and become buccaneers; or should 
Sieur Le Sueur, as he easily could do, furnish 
them with goods for their beaver and smaller 
peltry, which he might send down by the return of 
other Frenchmen, whose sole desire is to obey, and 
who have remained only because of the impossi- 
bility of getting their effects down. This would 
rather induce those who would continue to lead a 
vagabond life to remain there, as the goods they 
would receive from Le Sueur's people would afford 
them the means of doing so." 

In reply to this communication, Louis XIV. 
answered that — 

" His majesty has approved that the late Sieur 
de'Frontenac and De Champigny suspended the 

execution of the license granted to the man named 
Le Sueur to proceed, with fifty men, to explore 
some mines on the banks of the Mississippi. He 
has revoked said license, and desires that the said 
Le Sueur, or any other person, be prevented from 
leaving the colony on pretence of going in search 
of mines, without his majesty's express permis- 

Le Sueiu:, undaunted by these drawbacks to the 
prosecution of a favorite project, again visited 

Fortunately for Le Sueur, D'Iberville, who was 
a friend, and closely connected by marriage, was 
appointed governor of the new territory of Louis- 
iana. In the month of December he arrived from 
France, with thirty workmen, to proceed to the 
supposed mines in Minnesota. 

On the thirteenth of July, 1700, with a felucca, 
two canoes, and nineteen men, having ascended 
the Mississippi, he had reached the mouth of the 
Missouri, and six leagues above this he passed the 
Illinois. He there met three Canadians, who 
came to join him, with a letter from Father Mar- 
est, who had once attempted a mission among the 
Dahkotahs, dated July 13, Mission Immaculate 
Conception of the Holy Virgin, in IlUnois. 

" I have the honor to write, in order to inform 
you that the Saugiestas have been defeated by the 
Scioux and Ayavois [lowas]. The people have 
formed an alUance with the Quincapous [Kicka- 
poosj, some of the Mecoutins, Eenards [Foxes], 
and Metesigamias, and gone to revenge them- 
selves, not on the Scioux, for they are too much 
afraid of them, but perhaps on the Ayavois, or 
very likely upon the Faoutees, or more probably 
upon the Osages, for these suspect nothing, and 
the others are on their guard. 

"As you will probably meet these allied nar 
tions, you ought to take precaution against their 
plans, and not allow them to board your vessel, 
since they are traitors, and utterly faithless. I pray 
God to accompany you in all your designs." 

Twenty-two leagues above the Illinois, he passed 
a small stream which he called the Biver of Oxen, 
and nine leagues beyond this he passed a small 
river on the west side, where he met four Canar 
dians descending the Mississippi, on their way to 
the Illinois. On the 30th of July, nine leagues 
above the last-named river, he met seventeen 
Scioux, in seven canoes, who were going to re- 



venge the death of three Scioux, one of whom had 
been burned, and the others killed, at Tamarois, 
a few days before his arrival in that village. As 
he had promised the chief of the Illinois to ap- 
pease the Scioux who should go to war against 
his nation, he made a present to the chief of the 
party to engage him to turn back. He told them 
the King of France did not wish them to make 
this river more bloody, and that he was sent to tell 
them that, if they obeyed the king's word, they 
would receive in future all things necessary for 
them. The chief answered that he accepted the 
present, that is to say, that he would do as had 
been told him. 

From the 30th of July to the 25th of August, Le 
Sueur advanced fifty-three and one-foiu:th leagues 
to a small river which he called the River of the 
Mine. At the mouth it runs from the north, but 
it turns to the northeast. On the right seven 
leagues, there is a lead mine in a prairie, one and 
a half leagues. The river is only navigable in 
high water, that is to say, from early spring till 
the month of June. 

From the 25th to the 27th he made ten leagues, 
passed two small rivers, and made himself ac- 
quainted with a mine of lead, from which he took 
a supply. From the 27th to the 30th he made 
eleven and a half leagues, and met five Canadians, 
one of whom had- been dangerously wounded in 
the head. They were naked, and had no ammu- 
nition except a miserable gun, with five or six 
loads of powder and balls. They said they were 
descending from the Scioux to go to Tamarois, 
and, when seventy leagues above, they perceived 
nine canoes in the Mississippi, in which were 
ninety savages, who robbed and cruelly beat them. 
This party were going to war against the Scioux, 
and were composed of four different nations, the 
Outagamies [Foxes], Poutouwatamis [Pottowatta- 
mies], and Puans [Winnebagoes], who dwell in a 
country eighty leagues east of the Mississippi 
from where Le Sueur then was. 

The Canadians determined to follow the detach- 
ment, which was composed of twenty-eight men. 
This day they made seven and a half leagues. 
On the 1st of September he passed the Wisconsin 
river. It runs into the Mississippi from the north- 
east. It is nearly one and a half miles wide. At 
about seventy-five leagues up this river, on the 
right, ascending, there is a portage of more than 

a league. The half of this portage is shaking 
ground, and at the end of it is a small river which 
descends into a bay called Wimiebago Bay. It is 
inhabited by a great number of nations who carry 
their furs to Canada. Monsieur Le Sueur came 
by the Wisconsin river to the Mississippi, for the 
first time, in 1683, on his way to the Scioux coun- 
try, where he had already passed seven years at 
difCerent periods. The Mississippi, opposite the 
mouth of the Wisconsin, is less than half a mile 
wide. From the 1st of September to the 5th, our 
voyageur advanced fourteen leagues. He passed 
the river " Aux Canots," which comes from the 
northeast, and then the Quincapous, named from 
a nation which once dwelt upon its banks. 

From the 5th to the 9th he made ten and a half 
leagues, and passed the rivers Cachee and Aux 
Ailes. The same day he perceived canoes, filled 
with savages, descending the river, and the five 
Canadians recognized them as the party who had 
robbed them. They placed sentinels in the wood, 
for fear of being surprised by land, and when 
they had approached within hearing, they cried to 
them that if they approached farther they would 
fire. They then drew up by an island, at half the 
distance of a gun shot. Soon, four of the princi- 
pal men of the band approached in a canoe, and 
asked if it was forgotten that they were our 
brethren, and with what design we had taken 
arms when we perceived them. Le Sueur replied 
that he had cause to distrust them, since they had 
robbed five of his party. ;N"evertheless, for the 
surety of his trade, being forced to be at peace 
with all the tribes, he demanded no redress for 
the robbery, but added merely that the king, their 
master and his, wished that his subjects should 
navigate that river without insult, and that they 
had better beware how they acted. 

The Indian who had spoken was silent, but an- 
other said they had been attacked by the Scioux, 
and that if they did not have pity on them, and 
give them a Uttle powder, they should not be able 
to reach their villages. The consideration of a 
missionary, who was to go up among the Scioux, 
and whom these savages might meet, induced 
them to give two pounds of powder. 

M. Le Sueur made the same day three leagues; 
passed a stream on the west, and afterward an- 
other river on the east, which is navigable at aU 
times, and which the Indians call Ked Kiver. 



On the 10th, at daybreak, they heard an elk 
whistle, on the other side of the river. A Cana- 
dian crossed in a small Scioux canoe, which they 
had found, and shortly returned with the body of 
the animal, which was very easily killed, " quand 
il est en rut," that is, from the beginning of Sep- 
tember until the end of October. The hunters at 
this time made a whistle of a piece of wood, or 
reed, and when* they hear an elk whistle they an- 
swer it. The animal, believing it to be another 
elk, approaches, and is killed with ease. 

From the 10th to the 14th, M. Le Sueur made 
seventeen and a half leagues, passing the rivers 
Baisin and Pjiquilenettes (perhaps the Wazi Ozu 
and Buffalo.) The same day he left, on the east 
side of the Mississippi, a beautiful and large river, 
which descends from the very far north, and 
called Bon Secours (Chippeway), on account of the 
great quantity of buffalo, elk, bears and deers 
which are found there. Three leagues up this 
river there is a miae of lead, and seven leagues 
above, on the same side, they found another long 
river, in the vicinity of which there is a copper 
mine, from which he had taken a lump of sixty 
pounds in a former voyage. In order to make 
these mines of any account, peace must be ob- 
tained between the Scioux and Ouatagamis (Fox- 
es), because the latter, who dwell on the east side 
of the MisMssippi, pass this road continually when 
going to war against the Sioux. 

Penicaut, in his journal, gives a brief descrip- 
tion of the Mississippi between the Wisconsin 
and Lake Pepin. He writes: "Above the Wis- 
consin, and ten leagues higher on the same side, 
begins a great prairie extending for sixty leagues 
along the bank; this prairie is called Aux Ailes. 
Opposite to Aux Ailes, on the left, there is 
another prairie facing it called Paquilanet which 
is not so long by a great deal. Twenty leagues 
above these prairies is found Lake Bon Secours " 
[Good Help, now Pepin.] 

In this region, at one and a half leagues on the 
northwest side, commenced a lake, which is six 
leagues long and more than one broad, called 
Lake Pepin. It is bounded on the west by a 
chain of mountains; on the east is seen a prairie; 
and on the northwest of the lake there is another 
prairie two leagues long and one wide. In the 
neighborhood is a chain of mountains quite two 
hundred feet high, and more than one and a half 

miles long. In these are found several caves, to 
which the bears retire in winter. Most of the 
caverns are more than seventy feet in extent, and 
two hundred feet high. There are several of 
which the entrance is very narrow, and quite 
closed up with saltpetre, It would be dangerous 
to enter them in summer, for they are filled with 
rattlesnakes, the bite of which is very dangerous. 
Le Sueur saw some of these snakes Which were 
six feet in length, but generally they are about 
four feet. They have teeth resembling those of 
the pike, and their gums are full of small vessels, 
in which their poison is placed. The Scioux say 
they take it every mornin j, and cast it away at 
night. They have at the tail a kind of scale which 
makes a noise, and this is ealled the rattle. 

Le Sueur made on this day seven and a half 
leagues, and passed another river, called Hiam- 
bouxecate Ouataba, or the Kiver of Flat Rock. 
[The Sioux call the Cannon river Inyanbosndata.] 

On the 15th he crossed a smaU river, and saw 
in the neighborhood several canoes, filled with 
Indians, descending the Mississippi. He sup- 
posed they were Scioux, because he could not dis- 
tinguish whether the canoes were large or small. 
The arms were placed in readiness, and soon they 
heard the cry of the savages, which they are ac- 
customed to raise when they rush upon their en- 
emies. He caused them to be answered ia the 
same manner; and after having placed all the 
men behind the trees, he ordered them not to fire 
until they were commanded. He remained on 
shore to see what movement the savages would 
make, and perceiving that they placed two on 
shore, on the other side, where from an eminence 
they could ascertain the strength of his forces, he 
caused the men to pass and repass from the shore 
to the wood, in order to make them beheve that 
they were numerous. This ruse succeeded, for 
as soon as the two descended from the eminence 
the chief of the party came, bearing the calumet, 
which is a signal of peace among the Indians. 
They said that having never seen the French navi- 
gate the river with boats like the felucca, they had 
supposed them to be EngUsh, and for that reason 
they had raised the war cry, and arranged them- 
selves on the other side of the Mississippi; but 
having recognized their flag, they had come with- 
out fear to inform them, that one of their num- 
ber, who was crazy, had accidentally killed a 



Prenchman, and that they would go and bring his 
comrade, who would tell how the mischief had 

The Frenchman they brought was Denis, a Ca- 
nadian, and he reported that his companion was 
accidentally killed. His name was Laplace, a de- 
serting soldier from Canada, who had taken ref- 
uge in this country. 

Le Sueur replied, that Onontio (the name 'they 
give to all the governors of Canada), being their 
father and his, they ought not to seek justification 
elsewhere than before him; ,and he advised them 
to go and see him as soon as possible, and beg 
him to wipe off the blood of this Frenchman from 
their faces. 

The party was composed of forty-seven men of 
different nations, who dwell far to the east, about 
the forty-fourth degree of latitude. Le Sueur, 
discovering who the chiefs were, said the king 
whom they had spoken of in Canada, had sent 
him to take possession of the north of the river; 
and that he wished the nations who dwell on it, 
as well as those under his protection, to live in 

He made this day three and three-fourths 
leagues; and on the 16th of September, he left a 
large river on the east side, named St. Croix, be- 
cause a Frenchman of that name was shipwrecked 
at its mouth. It comes from the north-northwest. 
Four leagues higher, in going up, is found a small 
lake, at the mouth of which is a very large mass 
of copper. It is on the edge of the water, in a 
small ridge of sandy earth, on the west of this 
lake. [One of La Salle's men was named St. 

From the 16th to the 19th, he advanced thir- 
teen and three-fourths leagues. After having 
made from Tamarois two hundred and nine and a 
half leagues, he left the navigation of the Missis- 
sippi, to enter the river St. Pierre, on the west 
side. By the 1st of October, he had made in this 
river forty-four and one-fourth leagues. After he 
entered Blue river, thus named on acco>mt of the 
mines of blue earth found at its mouth, he found- 
ed his post, situated in forty-four degrees, thir- 
teen minutes north latitude. He met at this 
place nine Scioux, who told him that the river 
belonged to the Scioux of the west, the Ayavois 
(lowas) and Otoctatas (Ottoes), who lived a little 
farther off; that it was not their custom to hunt 

on ground belonging to others, imless invited to 
do so by the owners, and that when they would 
come to the fort to obtain provisions, they would 
be in danger of being killed in ascending or de- 
scending the rivers, v/hich were narrow, and that 
if they would show their pity, fee must establish 
himself on the Mississippi, near the mouth of the St. 
Pierre, where the Ayavois, the Otoctatas, and the 
other Scioux could go as well as they. 

Having iinished their speech, they leaned over 
the head of Le Sueur, according to their custom, 
crying out, "Ouaechissou ouaepanimanabo," that 
is to say, " Have pity upon us." Le Sueur had 
foreseen that the estabUshment of Blue Earth 
river would not please the Scioux of the East, 
who were, so to speak, masters of the other Scioux 
and of the nations which will be hereafter men- 
tioned, because tliey were the first mth whom trade 
was commenced, and in consequence of which they 
had already quite a nmnber of gims. 

As he had conunenced his operations not only 
with a view to the trade of beaver but also to 
gain a knowledge of the mines which he had pre- 
viously discovered, he told them that he was sor- 
ry that he had not known their intentions sooner, 
and that it was just, since he came expressly for 
them, that he should establish himself on their 
land, but that the season was too far advanced 
for him to return. He then made them a present 
of powder, balls and knives, and an armful of to- 
bacco, to entice them to assemble, as soon as pos- 
sible, near the fort he was about to construct, 
that when they should be all assembled he might 
tell them the intention of the king, their and his 

The Scioux of the AVest, according to the state- 
ment of the Eastern Scioux, have more than a 
thousand lodges. They do not use canoes, nor 
cultivate the earth, nor gather wild rice. They 
remain ' generally on the prairies which are be- 
tween the Upper ^lississippi and Missouri rivers, 
and live entirely by the chase. The Scioux gen- 
erally say they have three souls, and that after 
death, that which has done well goes to the warm 
country, that which has done evil to the cold 
regions, and the other guards the body. Poly- 
gamy is common among them. They are very 
jealous, and sometimes fight in duel for their 
wives. They manage the bow admirably, and 
have been seen several times to kill ducks on the 



■vying. They make their lodges of a number of 
buffalo skins interlaced and sewed, and carry 
them wherever they go. They are all great smo- 
kers, but their manner of smoking differs from 
that of other Indians. There are some Scioux 
who swallow all the smoke of the tobacco, and 
others who, after having kept it sonie time in 
their mouth, cause it to issue from the nose. In 
each lodge there are usually two or three men 
with their families. 

On the third of October, they received at the 
fort several Scioux, among whom was Wahkan- 
tape, chief of the village. Soon two Canadians 
arrived who had been hunting, and who had been 
robbed by the Scioux of the East, who had raised 
their guns against the establishment which M. 
Le Sueur had made on Blue Earth river. 

On the fourteenth the fort was finished and 
named Fort L'Hiiillier, and on the twenty-second 
two Canadians were sent out to invite the Aya- 
vois and Otoctatas to come and establish a vil- 
lage near the fort, because these Indians are in- 
dustrious and accustomed to cultivate the earth, 
and they hoped to get provisions from them, and 
to make them work in the mines. 

On the twenty-fourth, six Scioux Oujalespoi- 
tons wished to go into the fort, but were told 
that they did not receive men who had killed 
Frenchmen. This is the term used when they 
have insulted them. The next day they came to 
the lodge of Le Sueur to beg him to have pity on 
them. They wished, according to custom, to 
weep over his head and make him a present of 
packs of beavers, which he refused. He told 
them he was surprised that people who had rob- 
bed should come to him ; to which they replied 
that they had heard it said that two Frenchmen 
had been robbed, but none from their village had 
^been present at that wicked action. 

Le Sueur answered, that he knew it was the 
Mendeoucantons and not the Oujalespoitons ; 
" but," continued he, "you are Scioux; it is the 
Scioux who have robbed me, and if I were to fol- 
low your manner of acting I should break your 
heads ; for is it not true, that when a stranger 
(it is thus they call the Indians who are not 
Scioux) has insulted a Scioux, Mendeoucanton, 
Oujalespoitons, or others— all the villages revenge 
upon the first one they meet?" 

As they had nothing to answer to what he said 

to them, they wept and repeated, according to 
custom, " Ouaechissou ! ouaepanimanabo !" Le 
Sueur told them to cease crying, and added that 
the French had good hearts, and that they had 
come into the country to have pity on them. At 
the same time he made them a present, saying to 
them, " Carry back your beavers and say to all 
the Scioux, that they will have from me no more 
powder or lead, and they will no longer smoke 
any long pipe until they have made satisfaction 
for robbing the Frenchman. 

The same day the Canadians, who had been 
sent ofE on the 22d, arrived without having found 
the road which led to the Ayavois and Otoctatas. 
On the 25th, Le Sueur went to the river with 
three canoes, which he filled with green and blue 
earth. It is taken from the hills near which are 
very abundant mines of copper, some of which 
was worked at Paris in 1696, by L'lluillier, one 
of the chief collectors of the king. Stones were 
also found there which would be curious, if 

On the ninth of November, eight Mantanton 
Scioux arrived, who had been sent by their chiefs 
to say that the Mendeoucantmis were still at tlieir 
lake on the east of the Mississippi, and they could 
not come for a long time ; and that for a single 
village which had no good sense, the others ought 
not to bear the punishment ; and that they were 
willing to make reparation if they knew how. 
Le Sueur replied that he was glad that they had 
a disposition to do so. 

On the 15th the two Mantanton Scioux, who 
had been sent expiessly to say that all of the 
Scioux of the east, and part of those of the west, 
were joined together to come to the French, be- 
cause they had heard that the Christianaux and 
the Assinipoils were making war on them. 
These two nations dwell above the fort on the 
east side, more than eighty leagues on the Upper 

The Assinipoils speak Scioux, and are certainly 
of that nation. It is only a few years since that 
they became enemies. The enmity thus origi- 
nated: The Christianaux, having the use of arms 
before the Scioux, through the English at Hud- 
son's Bay, they constantly warred upon the As- 
sinipoils, who were tlieir nearest neighbors. 
The latter, being weak, sued for peace, and to 
render it more lasting, married the Christianaux 



women. The other Scioux, who had not made 
the compact, continued the war; and, seeing some 
Christianaux with tlie Assinipoils, broke their 
heads. The Christianaux furnished the Assini- 
poils with arms and merchandise. 

On tlie 16th the Scioux returned to their vil- 
lage, and it was reported that the Ayavois and 
Otoctatas were gone to establish themselves to- 
wards the Missouri Eiver, near the Maha, who 
dwell in that region. On the 26th the Mantan- 
tons and Oujalespoitons arrived at the fort; and, 
after they had encamped ip the woods, Wah 
kantape came to beg Le Sueur to go to his 
lodge. He there found sixteen men with women 
and children, with their faces daubed mth black. 
In the middle of the lodge were several buffalo 
■ skins which were sewed for a carpet. After mo- 
tioning him to sit down, they wept for the fourth 
of an hour, and the chief gave him some wild 
rice to eat (as was their custom), putting the 
first three spoonsful to his mouth. After which, 
he said all present were relatives of Tioscate, 
whom Le Sueur took to Canada in 1695, and who 
died there in 1696. 

At the mention of Tioscate they began to weep 
again, and wipe their tears and heads upon the 
shoulders of Le Sueur. Then Wahkantape again 
spoke, and said that Tioscate begged him to for- 
get the insult done to the Frenchmen by the 
Mendeoucantons, and take pity on his brethren 
by giving them powder and balls whereby they 
could defend themselves, and gain a living for 
their wives and children, who languish in a coun- 
try full of game, because they had not the means 
of killing them. " Look," added the chief, " Be- 
hold ihy children, thy brethren, and thy sisters; 
it is to thee to see whether thou wishest them to 
die. They will live if thou givest them powder 
and ball; they will die if thou refusest." 

Le Sueur granted them their request, but as 
the Scioux never answer on the spot, especially 
in matters of importance, and as he had to speak 
to them about his establishment he went out of 
the lodge without saying a word. The chief and 
all those within followed him as far as tlie- door 
of the fort; and when he had gone in, they went 
around it three times, crying with all their 
strength, " Atheouanan! " that is to say, " Father, 
have pity on us." [Ate unyanpi, means Our 

The next day, he assembled in the fort the 
principal men of both villages; and as it is not 
possible to subdue the Scioux or to hinder them 
from going to war, unless it be by inducing them 
to cultivate the earth, he said to them that if 
they wished to render themselves worthy of the 
protection "of the king, they must abandon their 
erring life, and form a village near his dwelling, 
where they would be shielded from the insults of 
of their enemies; and that they might be happy 
and not hungry, he would give them all the com 
necessary to plant a large piece of ground; that 
the king, their and his chief, in sending him, had 
forbidden him to purchase beaver skins, knowing 
that this kind of hunting separates them and ex- 
poses them to their enemies; and that in conse- 
quence of this he had come to establish himself 
on Blue Eiver and vicinity, where they had many 
times assured him were many kinds of beasts, 
for the skins of which he would give them all 
things necessary; that they ought to reflect that 
they could not do without French goods, and that 
the only way not to want them was, not to go to 
war with our allied nations. 

As it is customary with the Indians to accom- 
pany their word with a present proportioned to 
the affair treated of, he gave them fifty poimds of 
powder, as many balls, six guns, ten axes, twelve 
armsful of tobacco, and a hatchet pipe. 

On the first of December, the Mantantons in- 
vited Le Sueur to a great feast. Of four of their 
lodges they had made one, in which were one 
hundred men seated around, and every one his 
dish before him. After the meal, Wahkantape, 
the chief, made them all smoke, one after another, 
in the hatchet pipe which had been given them. 
He then made a present to Le Sueur of a slave 
and a sack of wild rice, and said to him, showing 
him his men: " Behold the remains of this great 
village, which thou hast aforetimes seen so nu- 
merous! All the otliers have been killed in war; 
and the few men whom thou seest in this lodge, 
accept the present thou hast made them, and are 
resolved to obey the great chief of all nations, of 
whom thou hast spoken to us. Thou oughtest 
not to regard us as Scioux, but as French, and in- 
stead of saying the Scioux are miserable, and have 
no mind, and are fit for nothing but to rob and 
steal from the French, thou shalt say my breth- 
ren are miserable and have no ipijid, and we must 



try to procure some for them. They rob us, but 
I will take care that they do not lack iron, that is 
to say, all kinds of goods. If thou dost this, I as- 
sure thee that in a little time the Mantantons will 
become Frenchmen, and they will have none of 
those vices, with which thou reproachest us." 

Having finished his speech, he covered his face 
with his garment, and the others imitated him. 
They wept over their companions who had died 
in war, and chanted an adieu to their country in 
a tone so gloomy, that one could not keep from 
partaking of their sorrow. 

Wahkantape then made them smoke again, and 
distributed the presents, and said that he was go- 
ing to the Mendeoucantons, to inform them of the 
resolution, and invite them to do the same. 

On the twelfth, three Mendeoucauton chiefs, 
and a large number of Indians of the same vil- 
lage, arrived at the fort, and the next day gave 
satisfaction for robbing the Frenchmen. They 
brought four hundred pounds of beaver skins, and 
promised that the summer following, after their 
canoes were built and they had gathered their 
wild rice, that they would come and establish 
themselves near the French. The same day they 
returned to their village east of the Mississippi. 


Mantantons— That is to say. Village of the 
Great Lake which empties into a small one. 

Mbndeouacantons— Village of Spirit Lake. 

Qtjiopetons — Village of the Lake with one 

PsiotTMANiTONS — Village of Wild Rice Gath- 

OxJADEBATONS — The River Village. 

Otjaetemanetons — Village of the Tribe who 
dwell on the Point of the Lake. 

SoNGASQUiTONS— The Brave Village, 


TouCHOUAESiNTONS — The Village of the Pole. 

PsiNCHATONS — Village of the Red Wild Rice. 

OujALESPOiTONS — Village divided into many 
small Bands. 

PsiNOUTANHiNHiNTONs — The Great Wild 
Rice Village. 


OuAEPETONS — Village of the Leaf. 
OuAPEONTETONs— Village of those who shoot 
in the Large Pine. 

HiNHANETONS — Village of the Red Stone 

The above catalogue of villages concludes the 
extract that La Harpe has made from Le Sueur's 

In the narrative of Major Long's second expe- 
dition, there are just as many villages of the Gens 
du Lac, or M'dewakantonwan Scioux mentioned, 
though the names are different. After leaving 
the Mille Lac region, the divisions evidently were 
different, and the villages known by new names. 
Charlevoix, who visited the valley of the Lower 
Mississippi in 1722, says that Le Sueiur spent a 
winter in his fort on the banks of the Blue Earth, 
and that in the following April he went up to the 
mine, about a mile above. In twenty-two days 
they obtained more than thirty thousand pounds 
of the substance, four thousand of which were se- 
lected and sent to France. 

On the tenth of February, 1702, Le Sueur came 
back to the post on the Gulf of Mexico, and found 
D'Iberville absent, who, however, arrived on the 
eighteenth of the next month, vidth a ship from 
France, loaded with supplies. After a few weeks, 
the Governor of Louisiana sailed again for the 
old country, Le Sueur being a fellow passenger. 
On board of the ship, D'Iberville wrote a mem- 
orial upon the Mississippi valley, with sugges- 
tions for carrying on commerce therein, which 
contains many facts furnished by Le Sueur. A 
copy of the manuscript was in possession of the 
Historical Society of Minnesota, from which are 
the following extracts: 

"If the Sioux remain in their own country, 
they are useless to us, being too distant. We 
could have no commerce with them except that 
of the beaver. M. Le Sueur, who goes to France 
to give an account of this country, is the proper per- 
son to make these movements. He estimates the 
Sioux at four thousand famUies, who could settle 
upon the Missouri. 

"He has spoken to me of another which he 
calls the Mahas, composed of more than twelve 
hundred families. The Ayooues (loways) and the 
Octoctatas, their neighbors, are about three 
hundred families. They occupy the lands be- 



tween the Mississippi and the Missouri, about 
one hundred, leagues from the Illinois. These 
savages do not know the use of arms, and a de- 
scent might be made upon them in a river, which 
is beyond the Wabash on the west. * * * 

" The Assinibouel, Quenistinos, and people of 
the north, who are upon the rivers which fall into 
the Mississippi, and trade at Port Nelson (Hud- 
son Bay), are about four hundred. We could 
prevent them from going there if we wish." 

" In four or five years we can establish a com- 
merce with these savages of sixty or eighty thou- 
sand buffalo skins; more than one hundred deer 
skins, which will produce, delivered in France, 
more than two million four hundred thousand 
livres yearly. One might obtain for a buffalo 
skin four or five pounds of wool, which sells for 
twenty sous, two poimds of coarse hair at ten 

"Besides, from smaller peltries, two hundred 
thousand livres can be made yearly." 

In the third volume of the " History and Sta- 
tistics of the Indian Tribes," prepared under the 
direction of the Commissioner of Indian affairs, 
by Mr. Schoolcraft, a manuscript, a copy of which 
was in possession of General Cass, is referred to as 
containing the first enumeration of the Indians of 
the Mississippi Valley. The following was made 
thirty-four years earlier by D'Iberville: 

"The Sioux, Famihes, 4,000 

Mahas, , 12,000 

Octata and Ayoues, 300 

Canses [Kansas], . . . * 1,500 

Missouri, 1,500 

Akansas, &c., ■ . . . . 200 

Manton [Mandan], 100 

Panis [Pawnee], ' . . . 2,000 

Illinois, of the great village and Cama- 

roua [Tamaroa], 800 

Meosigamea [Metchigamias], .... 200 
Kikapous and Mascoutens, .... 450 

Miamis, . , 600 

Chactas, 4,000 

Chicachas, 2,000 

Mobiliens and Chohomes, 350 

Concaques [Conchas], 2,000 

Ouma [Houmas], 150 

Colapissa, 250 

Bayogoula, 100 

People of the Fork, 200 

Counica, &c. [Tonicas], 300 

Nadeches, 1,500 

Belochy, [Biloxi] Pascpboula, .... 100 

Total, 23,850 

" The savage tribes located in the places I have 
marked out, make it necessary to establish three 
posts on the Mississippi, one at the Arkansas, 
another at the Wabash (Ohio), and the third at 
the Missouri. At each post it would be proper 
to have an oflScer with a detachment of ten sol- 
diers with a sergeant and corporal. All French- 
men should be allowed to settle there with their 
families, and trade with the Indians, and they 
might establish tanneries for properly dressing 
the buffalo and deer skins for transportation. 

" No Frenchman shall lie allowed to follow the 
Indians on their hunts, as it tends to keep them 
hunters, as is seen in Canada, and when they are 
in the woods, they do not desire to become tiller? 
of the soil. ******* 

" I have saidnothing in this memoir of which 
I have not personal knowledge or the most relia- 
ble sources. The most of what I propose is 
founded upon personal reflection in relation to 
what might be done for the defence and advance- 
ment of the colony. ***** 
* * * It will be absolutely necessary 
that the king should define the limits of this 
country in relation to the government of Canada. 
It is important that the commandant of the 
Mississippi should have a report of those who 
inhabit the rivers that fall into the Mississippi, 
and principally those of the river Illinois. 

" The Canadians intimate to the savages that 
they ought not to Usten to us but to the governor 
of Canada, who always speaks to them with large 
presents, that the governor of Mississippi is mean 
and never sends them any thing. This is true, 
and what I cannoTao. It is imprudent to accus- 
tom the savages to be spoken to by presents, for, 
with so many, it would cost the king more than 
the revenue derived from the trade. When they 
come to us, it will be necessary to bring them in 
subjection, make them no presents, and compel 
them to do what we wish, as if they were French- 

" The Spaniards have divided the Indians into 
parties on this point, and we can do the same. 
When one nation does wrong, we can cease to 



trade with them, and threaten to draw down the 
hostility of other Indians. "We rectify the diffi- 
culty by having missionaries, who will bring 
them into obedience secretly. 

" The Illinois and Mascoutens have detained 
the French canoes they find upon the Mississippi, 
saying that the governors of Canada have given 
them permission. I do not know whether this is 
so, but if true, it follows that we have not the 
liberty to send any one on the Mississippi. 

"M. Le Sueur would have been taken if he 
had not been the strongest. Only one of the 
canoes he sent to the Sioux was plundered." ** * 

Penicaut's account varies in some particulars 
from that of La Harpe's. He calls the Mahkahto 
Green Eiver instead of Blue and writes: " We 
took our route by its mouth and ascended It forty 
leagues, when we found another river falling in- 
to the Saint Pierre, which we entered. "We 
called this the Green Eiver because it is of that 
color by reason of a green earth which loosening 
itself from from the copper mines, becomes dis- 
solved and makes it green. 

" A league up this river, we found a point 
of land a quarter of a league distant from the 
woods, and it was upon this point that M. Le 
Sueur resolved to build his fort, because we could 
not go any higher on account of the ice, it being 
the last day of September. Half of our people 
went hunting whilst the others worked on the 
fort. "We killed four hundred buffaloes, which 
were our provisions for the winter, and which we 
placed upon scaffolds in our fort, after having 
skinned and cleaned and quartered them. We 
also made cabins in the fort, and a magazine to 
keep our goods. After having drawn up our 
shallop within the inelosure of the fort, we spent 
the winter in our cabins. 

" "When we were working in our fort in the 
beginning seven French traders &om Canada 
took refuge there. They had been pillaged and 
stripped naked by the Sioux, a wandering nation 
living only by hunting and plundering. Among 
these seven persons there was a Canadian gen- 
tleman of Le Sueur's acquaintance, whom he rec- 
ognized at once, and gave him some clothes, as 
he did also to all the rest, and whatever else was 
necessary for them. They remained with us 
during the entire winter at our fort, where we 
had not food enough for aU, except buffalo meat 

which we had not even salt to eat vnth. "We had 
a good deal of trouble the first two weeks in ac- 
customing ourselves to it, having fever and di- 
arrhoea and becoming so tired of it as to hate the 
smell. But by degrees our bodies became adapt- 
ed to it so well that at the end of six weeks there 
was not one of us who could not eat six pounds 
of meat a day, and drink four bowls of broth. 
As soon as we were accustomed to this kind of 
living it made us very fat, and then there was no 
more sickness. 

" When spring arrived we went to work in the 
copper mine. This was the beginning of April of 
this year [1701.] We took with us twelve labor- 
ers and four hunters. This mine was situated 
about three-quarters of a league from our post. 
We took from the mine in twenty days more than 
twenty thousand pounds weight of ore, of which 
we only selected four thousand pounds of the 
finest, which M. Le Sueur, who was a very good 
judge of it, had carried to the fort, and which has 
since been sent to Prance, though I have not 
learned the result. 

'• This mine is situated at the beginning of a 
very long mountain, which is upon the bank of 
the river, so that boats can go right to the mouth 
of the mine itself. At this place is the green 
earth, which is a foot and a half in tMckness, 
and above it is a layer of earth as firm and 
hard as stone, and black and burnt like coal by 
the exhalation from the mine. The copper is 
scratched out with a knife. There are no trees 
upon this mountain. * * * After twenty-two 
days' work, we returned to our fort. When the 
Sioux, who belong to the nation of savages who 
pillaged the Canadians, came they brought us 
merchandize of furs. 

"They had more than four hundred beaver 
robes, each robe made of nine skins sewed to- 
gether. M. Le Sueur purchased these and many 
other skins which he bargained for, in the week 
he traded with the savages. * * * * 
We sell in return wares which come very dear to 
the buyers, especially tobacco from Brazil, in the 
proportion of a hundred crowns the pound; two 
little horn-handled knives, and four leaden bul- 
lets are equal to ten crowns in exchange for 
skins ; and so with the rest. 

" In the beginning of May, we launched our 
shallop in the water, and loaded it with green 



earth that had been taken out of the river, and 
with the furs we had traded for, of which we had 
three canoes full. M. Le Sueur before going 
held council with M. D'Evaque [or Eraque] the 
Canadian gentleman, and the three great chiefs 
of the Sioux, three brothers, and told them that 
as he had to return to the sea, he desired them 
to live in peace with M. D'Evaque, whom he left 
in command at Fort L'lluillier, with twelve 
Frenchmen. M. Le Sueur made a considerable 
present to the three brothers, chiefs of the sava- 
ges, desiring them to never abandon the French. 
Afterward we the twelve men whom he had chosen 
to go down to the sea with him embarked. In set- 
ting out, M. Le Sueur promised to M. D'Evaque 
and the twelve Frenchmen who remained with 
him to guard the fort, to send up munitions of 
war from the Illinois country as soon as he should 
arrive there ; which he did, for on getting there 
he sent off to him a canoe loaded with two thou- 
sand pounds of lead and powder, with three of 
our people in charge." 

Le Sueur arrived at the French fort on the 
Gulf of Mexico in safety, and in a few weeks, in 
the spring of 1701, sailed for France, with his 
kinsman, D'Iberville, the first governor of Lou- 

In the spring of the next year (1702) D'Evaque 
came to Mobile and reported to D'Iberville, who 
had come back from France, that he had been 
attacked by the Foxes and Maskoutens, who killed 
three Frenchmen who were working near Fort 
L'Huillier, and that, being out of powder and 
lead, he had been obliged to conceal the goods 
which were left and abandon the post. At the 
Wisconsin River he had met Juchereau, formerly 
criminal judge in Montreal, with thirty-five 
men, on his way to establish a tannery for buffalo 
skins at the Wabash, and that at the Illinois he 
met the canoe of supplies sent by Bienville, 
D 'Iberville's brother. 

La Motte Cadillac, in command at Detroit, in 
a letter written on August 31st, 1703, alludes to 
Le Sueur's expedition in these words: " Last 
year they sent Mr. Boudor, a Montreal merchant, 
into the country of the Sioux to join Le Su- 
eur. He succeeded so well in that journey he 
transported thither twenty-five or thirty thous- 
and pounds of merchandize with which to trade 
in all the country of the Outawas. This proved 

to him an unfortunate investment, as he has 
been robbed «f a part of .the goods by the Outa- 
gamies. The occasion of the robbery by one of 
our own allies was as follows. I speak with a 
full knowledge of the facts as they occurred while 
I was at Michillimackianc. From time immemo- 
rial our allies have been at war vidth the Sioux, 
and on my arrival there in conformity to the or- 
der of M. Frontenac, the most able man who has 
ever come into Canada, I attempted to negotiate 
a truce between the Sioux and all our allies. 
Succeeding in this negotiation I took the occa- 
sion to turn their arms against the Iroquois with 
whom we were then at war, and soon after I ef- 
fected a treaty of peace between the Sioux and 
the French and their allies which lasted two years. 

"At the end of tha; time the Sioux came, in 
great numbers, to the villages of the Miamis, un- 
der pretense of ratifying the treaty. They were 
well received by the Miamis, and, after spending 
several days in their villages, departed, apparent- 
ly perfectly satisfied with their good reception, as 
they certainly had every reason to be. 

" The Miamis, believing them already far dis- 
tant, slept quietly; but the Sioux, who had pre- 
meditated the attack, returned the same night to 
the principal village of the Miamis, where most 
of the tribe were congregated, and, taking them 
by surprise, slaughtered nearly three thousand(?) 
and put the rest to flight.. 

"This perfectly infuriated all tne nations. 
They came with their complaints, begging me to 
join with them and exterminate the Sioux. But 
the war we then had on our hands did not permit 
it, so it became necessary to play the orator in a 
long harangue. In conclusion I advised them to 
' weep their dead, and wrap them up, and leave 
them to sleep coldly till the day of vengeance 
should come;' telling them we must sweep the 
laud on this side of the Iroquois, as it was neces- 
sary to extinguish even their memory, after which 
the allied tribes could more easily avenge the 
atrocious deed that the Sioux had just committed 
upon them. In short, I managed them so well 
that the affair was settled in the manner that I 

" But the twenty-five permits still existed, and 
the cupidity of the French induced them to go 
among the Sioux to trade for beaver. Our allies 
complained bitterly of this, saying it was injust- 



ice to them, as they had taken up arms in our 
quarrel against the Iroquois, while the French 
traders were carrying munitions of war to the 
Sioux to enable them to kill the rest of our allies 
as they had the Miamis. 

" I immediately informed M. Frontenac, and M. 
Champigny having read the communication, and 
commanded that an ordinance be published at Mon- 
treal forbidding the traders to go into the country 
of the Sioux for the purpose of traflSc under penalty 
of a thousand francs fine, the confiscation of the 
goods, and other arbitrary penalties. The ordi- 
nance was sent to me and faithfully executed. 
The same year [1699] I descended to Quebec, 
having asked to be relieved. Since that time, in 
spite of this prohibition, the French have con- 
tinued to trade with the Sioux, but not without 
being subject to affronts and indignities from our 
allies themselves which bring dishonor on the 
French name. * * * I do not consider it best 
any longer to aUow the traders to carry on com- 
merce with the Sioux, under any pretext what- 

ever, especially as M. Boudor has just been 
robbed by the Fox nation, and M. Jucheraux has 
given a thousand crowns, in goods, for the right 
of passage through the country of the allies to 
his habitation. 

" The allies say that Le Sueur has gone to the 
Sioux on the Mississippi; that they are resolved 
to oppose him, and if he offers any resistance they 
will not be answerable for the consequences. 
It would be well, therefore, to give Le Sueur 
warning by the Governor of Mississippi. 

"The Sauteurs [Chippeways] being friendly 
with the Sioux wished to give passage through 
their country to M. Boudor and others, permit- 
ting them to carry arms and other munitions of 
war to this nation; but the other nations being 
opposed to it, differences have arisen between 
them which have resulted in the robbery of M. 
Boudor. This has given occasion to the Sau- 
teurs to make an outbreak upon the Sacs and 
Foxes, killing thirty or forty of them. So there 
is war among the people." 



CHAPTER yill. 


Re- Establishment of Mackinaw. — Sieur de Louvigny at Mackinaw. — Do Lignery 
at Mackinaw. — Louvigny Attacks ihe Foxes. — Du Luth's Post Reoccupiod. — 
Saint Pierre at La Pointe on Lako Superior. — Preparations for a Jesuit Mission 
among the Sioux. — La Perriere Boucher's Expedition to Lake Pepin. — De 
Gonor and Guipuas, Jesuit Missionaries.— Visit to Poxes and Winnebagoeg. — 
'Wisconsin River Described. — fort Beauharnois Built. — Fireworks Displayed, — 
High Water at Lake Pepin, — De Gonor Visits Mackinaw.— Boucherville, Mont- 
brun and Guiguas Captured by Indians.— Montbrun's Escape. — Boucherville's 
Presents to Indians. — Exaggerated Account of Father Guiguas' Capture. — Dis- 
patches Concerning Fort Beauharnois. — Sieur de la Jemeraye. — Saint Pierre at 
Port Beauharnois.— Trouble between Sioux and Foxes. — Sioux Visit Quebec. — 
De Lusignan Visits the Sioux Country, — Saint Pierre Noticed in the Travels 
of Jonathan Carver and Lieutenant Pike. 

After the Fox Indians drove away Le Sueur's 
men, in 1702, from the Makahto, or Blue Earth 
river, the merchants of Montreal and Quebec did 
not encourage trade with the tribes beyond Mack- 

D'Aigreult, a French officer, sent to inspect 
that post, in the summer of 1708, reported that 
he arrived there, on the 19th of August, and 
found there but fourteen or fifteen Frenchmen. 
He also wrote: " Since there are now only a few 
wanderers at Michilimackinaek, the greater part 
of the furs of the savages of the north goes to the 
English trading posts on Hudson's Bay. The 
Outawas are unable to make this trade by them- 
selves, because the northern savages are timid, 
and will not come near them, as they have often 
been plundered. It is, therefore, necessary that 
the French be allowed to seek these northern 
tribes at the mouth of their own river, which 
empties into Lake Superior." 

Louis de la Porte, the Sieur De Louvigny, in 
1690, accompanied by Nicholas Perrot, with a de- 
tachment of one hundred and seventy Canadians 
and Indians, came to Mackinaw, and until 1694 
was in command, when he was recalled. 

In 1712, Father Joseph J. Marest the Jesuit 
missionary wrote, " If this country ever needs 
M. Louvigny it is now ; the savages say it is ab- 
solutely necessary that he should come for the 
safety of the country, to unite the tribes and to 
defend those whom the war has caused to return 
to Michilimacinac. ****** 

I do not know what course the Pottawatomies 
will take, nor even what course they will pursue 
who are here, if M. Louvigny does not come, es- 
pecially if the Foxes were to attack them or us." 

The next July, M. Lignery urged upon the au- 
thorities the establishment of a garrison of trained 
soldiers at Mackinaw, and the Intendant of Can- 
ada wrote to the King of France : 

" Michilimackinac might be re-established, 
without expense to his Majesty, either by sur- 
rendering the trade of the post to such individu- 
als as wiU obligate themselves to pay all the ex- 
penses of twenty-two soldiers and two officers; to 
furnish munitions of war for the defense of the 
fort, and to make presents to the savages. 

" Or the expenses of the post might be paid by 
the sale of permits, if the King should not think 
proper to grant an exclusive commerce. It is ab- 
solutely necessary to know the wishes of the King 
concerning these two propositions; and as M. 
Lignery is at Michilimackinac, it will not be any 
greater injury to the colony to defer the re-estab- 
ment of this post, than it has been for eight or 
ten years past." 

The war with England ensued, and in April, 
1713, the treaty of Utrecht was ratified. France 
had now more leisure to attend to the Indian 
tribes of the West. 

Early in 1714, Mackinaw was re-occupied, and 
on the fourteenth of March, 1716, an expedition 
under Lieutenant Louvigny, left Quebec. His 
arrival at Mackinaw, where he had been long ex- 
pected, gave confidence to the voyageurs, and 
friendly Indians, and with a force of eight hun- 
dred men, he proceeded against the Foxes in 
Wisconsin. He brought with him two pieces of 
cannon and a grenade mortar, and besieged the 
fort of the Foxes, which he stated contained five 
hundred warriors, and three thousand men, a 
declaration which can scarcely be credited. After 



three days of skirmishing, he prepared to mine 
the fort, when the Foxes capitulated. 

The paddles of the hirch bark canoes and the 
gay songs of the voyageurs now began to be heard 
once more on the waters of Lake Superior and its 
tributaries. In 1717, the post erected by Du 
Luth, "on Lake Superior near the northern boun- 
dary of Minnesota, was re-occupied by Lt. Eo- 
bertel de la Noue. 

In view of the troubles among the tribes of the 
northwest, in the month of September, 1718, Cap- 
tain St. Pierre, who had great influence with the 
Indians of Wisconsin and Minnesota, was sent 
with Ensign Linctot and some soldiers to re-oc- 
cupy La Pointe on Lake Superior, now Bayfield, 
in the northwestern part of Wisconsin. The 
chiefs of the band there, and at Keweenaw, 
had threatened war against the Poxes, who had 
kUled some of their number. 

When the Jesuit Charlevoix returned to Prance 
after an examination of the resources of Canada 
and Louisiana, he urged that an attempt should 
be made to reach the Pacific Ocean by an inland 
route, and suggested that an expedition should 
proceed from the mouth of the Missouri and fol- 
low that stream, or that a post should be estab- 
lished among the Sioux which should be the point 
of departure. The latter was accepted, and in 
1722 an allowance was made by the French Gov- 
ernment, of twelve hundred livres, for two Jes- 
uit missionaries to accompany those who should 
establish the new post. D'Avagour, Superin- 
tendent of Missions, in May, 1723, requested the 
authorities to grant a separate canoe for the con- 
veyance of the goods of the proposed mission, 
and as it was netjessary to send a commandant 
to persuade the Indians to receive the mission- 
aries, he reconamended Sieur Pachot, an oflScer of 

A dispatch from Canada to the French govern- 
ment, dated October 14, 1723, announced that 
Father de la Chasse, Superior of the Jesuits, ex- 
pected that, the next spring, Father Guymoneau, 
and another missionary from Paris, would go to 
the Sioux, but that they had been the 
Sioux a few months before killing seven French- 
men, on their way to Louisiana. The aged 
Jesuit, Joseph J. Marest, who had been on Lake 
Pepin in 1689 with Perrot, and was now in .Mon- 
treal, said that it was the wandering Sioux who 

had killed the French, but he thought the sta- 
tionary Sioux would receive Christian instruction. 

The hostility of the Foxes had also prevented 
the establishment of a fort and mission among the 

On the seventh of June, 1726, peace was con- 
cluded by De Lignery with the Sauks, Foxes, and 
Winnebagoes at Green Bay; and Linctot, who 
had succeeded Saint Pierre in command at La 
Pointe, was ordered, by presents and the promise 
of a missionary, to endeavor to detach the Dah- 
kotahs from their alliance with the Foxes. At 
this time Linctot made arrangements for peace 
be^een the Ojibways and Dahkotas, and sent 
two Frenchmen to dwell in the villages of the 
latter, with a promise that, if they ceased to fight 
the Ojibways, they should have regular trade, 
and a " black robe" reside in their country. 

Traders and missionaries now began to prepare 
for visiting the Sioux, and in the spring of 1727 
the Governor of Canada wrote that the fathers, 
appointed for the Sioux mission, desired a case of 
mathematical instruments, a universal astro- 
nomic dial, a spirit level, chain and stakes, and a 
telescope of six or seven feet tube. 

On the sixteenth of June, 1727, the expedition 
for the Sioux country left Montreal in charge of 
the Sieur de la Perriere who was son of the dis- 
tinguished and respected Canadian, Pierre Bou- 
cher, the Governor of Three Rivers. 

La Perriere had served in Newfoundland and 
been associated with Hertel de Rouville in raids 
into ITew England, and gained an unenviable no- 
toriety as the leader of the savages, while Rou- 
ville led the French in attacks upon towns like 
Haverhill, Massachusetts, where the Indians ex- 
ultingly killed the Puritan pastor, scalped his 
loving wife, and dashed out his infant's brains 
against a rock. He was accompanied by his 
brother and other relatives. Two Jesuit fathers, 
De Gonor and Pierre Michel Guignas, were also 
of the party. 

In Shea's " Early French Voyages" there was 
printed, for the first time, a letter from Father 
Guignas, from the Brevoort manuscripts, written 
on May 29, 1728, at Fort Beauharnois, on Lake 
Pepin, which contains facts of much interest. 

He writes: " The Scioux convoy left the end 
of Montreal Island on the 16th of the month of 
June last year, at 11 A. m., and reached Michili- 



mackinac the 22d of the month of July. This 
post is two liundred and fifty-one leagues from 
Montreal, almost due west, at 45 degrees 46 min- 
utes north latitude. 

""We spent the rest of the month at this post, 
in the hope of receiving from day to day some 
news from Montreal, and in the design of 
strengthening ourselves against the alleged ex- 
treme difficulties of getting a free passage through 
the Foxes. At last, seeing nothing, we set out 
on our march, the first of the month of August, 
and. after seventy-three leagues quite pleasant 
sail along the northerly side of Lake Michigan, 
running to the southeast, we reached the Bay 
[Green] on the 8th of the same month, at 5:30 P. 
M. This post is at 44 degrees 43 minutes north 

"We stopped there two days, and on the 11th 
in the morning, we embarked, in a very great 
Impatience to reach the Foxes. On the third day 
after our departure from the bay, quite late in 
the afternoon, in fact somewhat in the night, the 
chiefs of the Puans [Winnebagoes] came out three 
leagues from their village to meet the French, 
with their peace calumets and some bear meat as 
a refreshment, and the next day we were received 
by that small nation, amid several discharges of 
a few guns, and with great demonstrations. 

" They asked us with so good a grace to do 
them the honor to stay some time with them that 
we granted them the rest of the day from noon, 
and the following day. There may be in all the 
village, sixty to eighty men, but all the men and 
women of very tall stature, and well made. They 
are on the bank of a very pretty little lake, in a 
most agreeable spot for its situation and the 
goodness of the soil, nineteen leagues from the 
bay and eight leagues from the Foxes. 

" Early the next morning, the 15th of the month 
of August, the convoy preferred to continue its 
route, with quite pleasant weather, but a storm 
coming on in the afternoon, we arrived quite wet, 
still in the rain, at the cabins of the Foxes, anation 
so much dreaded, and really so little to be dreaded. 
From all that we could see, it is composed of 
two hundred men at most, but there is a perfect 
hive of children, especially boys from ten to 
fourteen years old, well formed. 

'■ They are cabined on a little eminence on the 
bank of a small river that bears their name, ex- 

tremely tortuous or winding, so that you are con- 
stantly boxing the compass. Yet it is apparently 
quite wide, with a chain of hills on both sides, 
but there is only one miserable little channel 
amid this extent of apparent bed, which is a kind 
of marsh full of rushes and wild rice of almost 
impenetrable thickness. They have nothing but 
mere bark cabins, without any kind of palisade or 
other fortification. As soon as the French ca- 
noes touched their shore they ran down with 
their peace calumets, lighted in spite of the rain, 
and all smoked. 

"We stayed among them the rest of this day, 
and all the next, to know what were their designs 
and ideas as to the French post among the Sioux. 
The Sieur Eeaume, interpreter of Indian lan- 
guages at the Bay, acted efficiently there, and 
with devotion to the King's service. Even if my 
testimony. Sir, should be deemed not impartial, I 
must have the honor to tell you that Bev. Father 
Chardon, an old missionary, was of very great as- 
sistance there, and the presence of three mission- 
aries reassured these cut-throats and assassins of 
the French more than aU the speeches of the best 
orators could have done. 

" A general council was convened in one of the 
cabins, they were addressed in decided friendly 
terms, and they replied in the same way. A 
small present was made to them. On their side 
they gave some quite handsome dishes, lined with 
dry meat. 

On the following Sunday, 17th of the month 
of August, very early in the morning, Father 
Chardon set out, with Sieur Keaume, to return 
to the Bay, and the Sioux expedition, greatly re- 
joiced to have so easily got over this difficulty, 
which had everywhere been represented as so in- 
surmountable, got under way to endeavor to 
reach its journey's end. 

" Ifever was navigation more tedious than 
what we subsequently made from uncertainty as 
to our course. No one knew it, and we got 
astray every moment on water and on land for 
want of a guide and pilots. We kept on, as it 
were feeUng our way for eight days, for it was 
only on the ninth, about three o'clock p. m., that 
we arrived, by accident, believing ourselves still 
far off, at the portage of the Ouisconsin, which is 
forty-five leagues from the Foxes, coimting all 
the twists and turns of this abominable river. 



This portage is half a league in length, and half 
of that is a kind of marsh full of mud, 

" The Ouisconsin is quite a handsome river, 
but far belowwhat we had been told, apparently, 
as those who gave the description of it in Canada 
saw it only in the high waters of spring. It is a 
shallow river on a bed of quicksand, which forms 
bars almost everywhere, and these often change 
place. Its shores are either steep, bare mountains 
or low points wi th sandy base . Its course is from 
northeast to southwest. From the portage to its 
mouth in the Mississippi, I estimated thirty-eight 
leagues. The portage is at 43 deg. 2-i min. north 

" The Mississippi from the mouth of the Ouis- 
consin ascending, goes northwest. This beauti- 
ful river extends between two chains of high, 
bare and very sterile mountains, constantly a 
league, three-quarters of a league, or where it is 
narrowest, half a league apart. Its centre is oc- 
cupied by a chain of well wooded islands, so that 
regarding from the heights above, you would 
think you saw an endless valley watered on the 
right and left by two large rivers ; sometimes, too, 
you could discern no river. These islands are 
overflowed every year, and would be adapted to 
raising rice. Fifty-eight leagues from the mouth 
of the Ouisconsin, according to my calculation, 
ascending the Mississippi, is Lake Pepin, which 
is nothing else but the river itself, destitute of 
islands at that point, where it may be half a 
league wide. This river, in what I traversed of 
it, is shallow, and has shoals in several places, be- 
cause its bed is moving sands, like that of the 

" On the 17th of September, 1727, at noon, we 
reached this lake, which had been chosen as the 
bourne of our voyage. We planted ourselves on 
the shore about the middle of the north side, on 
a low point, where the soil is excellent. The 
wood is very dense there, but is already thmned 
in consequence of the rigor and length of the 
winter, which has been severe for the climate, 
for we are here on the parallel of 43 deg. 41 min. 
It is true that the difference of the winter is 
great compared to that of Quebec and Montreal, 
for all that some poor judges say. 

" From the day after our landing we put our 
axes to the wood: on the fourth day following 
the fort was entirely finished. It is a square plat 

of one hundred feet, surrounded by pickets twelve 
feet long, with two good bastions. For so small 
a space there are large buildings quite distinct and 
not huddled together, each thirty, thirty-eight, 
and twenty-flve feet long by sixteen feet wide. 

" All would go well there if the spot were not 
inundated, but this year [1728], on the 15th of 
the month of April, we were obliged to camp out, 
and the water ascended to the height of two feet 
and eight inches in the houses, and it is idle to 
say that it was the quantity of snow that fell 
this year. The snow in the vicinity had melted 
long before, and there was only a foot and a half 
from the 8th of February to the 15th of March; 
you could not use snow-shoes. 

" I have great reason to think that this spot is 
inundated more or less every year; I have always 
thonght so, but they were not obliged to believe 
me, as old people who said that they had lived in 
this region fifteen or twenty years declared that 
it was never overflowed. We could not enter 
our much-devastated houses until the 80th of 
April, and the disorder is even now scarcely re- 

" Before the end of October [1 727] all the houses 
were finished and furnished, and each one found 
himself tranquilly lodged at home. They then 
thought only of going out to explore the hills and 
rivers and to see those herds of all kinds of deer 
of which they tell such stories in Canada. They 
must have retired, or diminished greatly, since 
the time the old voyageurs left the country; they 
are no longer in such great numbers, and are 
killed with difficulty. 

" After beating the field, for some time, all re- 
assembled at the fort, and thought of enjoying a 
little the fruit of their labors. On the 4th of No- 
vember we did not forget it was the General's 
birthday. Mass was said for him [Beauharnois, 
Governor-General of Canada] in the morning, 
and they were well disposed to celebrate the day 
in the evening, but the tardiness of the pyro- 
technists and the inconstancy of the weather 
caused them to postpone the celebration to the 
14th of the same month, when they set off some 
very fine rockets and made the air ring with an 
hundred shouts of Vive le Boy I and Vive Charles 
de Beauharnois! It was on this occasi.on that the 
wine of the Sioux was broached; it was par ex- 



cellence, although there are no wines here finer 
than in Canada. 

■' What contributed much to the amusement, 
was tlie terror of some cabins of Indians, who 
were at the time around the fort. When these 
poor people saw tlie fireworks in the air, and the 
stars fall from heaven, the women and children 
began to take flight, and the most courageous of 
the men to cry mercy, and implore us very earn- 
estly to stop the surprising play of that wonder- 
ful medicine. 

" As soon as we arrived among them, they as- 
sembled, in a few days, around the French fort to 
the number of ninety-five cabins, which might 
make in all one hundred and fifty men; for there 
are at most two men in their portable cabins of 
dressed skins, and in many there is only one_ 
This is all we have seen except a band of about 
sixty men, who came on the 26th of the month of 
February, who were of those nations called Sioux 
of the Prairies. 

" At the end of November, the Indians set out 
for their winter quarters. They do not, indeed, 
go far, and we saw some of them all through the 
winter; but from the second of the month of 
April last, when some cabins repassed here to go 
in search of them, [he] sought them in vain, du- 
ring a week, for more than sixty leagues of the 
Mississippi. He [La Perriere?] arrived yesterday 
without any tidings of them. 
I " Although I said above, that the Sioux were 
alarmed at the rockets, which they took for new 
phenomena, it must not be supposed from that 
they were less intelligent than other Indians we 
know. They seem to me more so ; at least they 
are much gayer and open, apparently, and far 
more dextrous thieves, great dancers, and great 
medicine men. The men are almost all large and 
well made, but the women are very ugly and dis- 
gusting, which does not, however, check debauch- 
ery among them, and is perhaps an effect of it." 

In the summer of 1728 the Jesuit De Gonor 
left the fort on Lake Pepin, and, by way of JNIack- 
inaw, returned to Canada. The Foxes had now 
become very troublesome, and De Lignery and 
Beaujeu marched against their stronghold, to find 
they had retreated to the Mississippi Eiver. ' 

On the 12th of October, Boucherville, his bro- 
ther Montbrun, a young cadet of enterprising 
spirit, the Jesuit Guignas, and other Frenchmen, 

eleven in all, left Fort Pepin to go to Canada, by 
way of the Illinois Eiver. They were captured 
by the Mascoutens and Kickapoos, and detained 
at the river " Au Bceuf ," which stream was prob- 
ably the one mentioned by Le Sueur as twenty- 
two leagues above the Illinois Eiver, although the 
same name was given by Hennepin to the Chip- 
pewa Eiver, just below Lake Pepin. They were 
held as prisoners, with the view of delivering 
them to the Foxes. The night before the deliv- 
ery the Sieur Montbrun and his brother and an- 
other Frenchman escaped. Montbrun, leaving 
his sick brother in the Illinois country, journeyed 
to Canada and informed the authorities. 

Boucherville and Guignas remained prisoners 
for several months, and the former did not reach 
Detroit until June, 1729, The account of expen- 
ditures made during his captivity is interesting as 
showing the value of merchandize at that time. 
It reads as follows: 

" Memorandum of the goods that Monsieur de 
Boucherville was obliged to furnish in the ser- 
vice of the King, from the time of his detention- 
among the Kickapoos, on the 12th of October, 
1728, until his return to Detroit, in the year 1729, 
in the month of June. On arriving at the Kick- 
apoo village, he made a present to the young men 
to secure their opposition to some evil minded 
old warriors — 
Two barrels of powder, each fifty pounds 

at Montreal price, valued at the sum of 150 Uv. 
One hundred pounds of lead and balls 

making the sum of 50 liv. 

Four pounds of vermillion, at 12 francs 

the pound 48 fr. 

Four coats, braided, at twenty francs. . . 80 fr. 
Six dozen knives at four francs the dozen 24 fr. 
Four hundred flints, one hundred gun- 
worms, two hundred ramrods and one 
hundred and fifty files, the total at the 

maker's prices 90 liv. 

After the Kickapoos refused to deliver them to 
the Eenards [Foxes] they wished some favors, and 
1 was obliged to give them the following which 
would allow them to weep over and cover their 

Two braided coats @ 20 fr. each 40fr. 

Two woolen blankets @ 15 fr 30 

One hundred pounds of powder @ 30 sons 75 
One hundred pounds of lead @ 10 sous . . 25 



Two pounds of vermillion @ 12 fr 24fr. 

Moreover, given to the Eenards to cover 
their dead and prepare them for peace, 

fifty pounds of powder, making 75 

One hundred pounds of lead @ 10 sous. 50 

Two pounds of vermillion @ 12 fr 24 

During the winter a considerable party was 
sent to strike hands with the Illinois. Given at 
that time : 

Two blue blankets @ 16 fr 30 

Four men's shirts @ 6 f r 24 

Pour pairs of long-necked bottles @ 6 f r 24 

Four dozen of knives @ 4 f r 16 

Gun-worms, flies, ramrods, and flints, es- 
timated 40 

Given to engage the Kickapoos to establish 
themselves upon a neighboring isle, to protect 
from the treachery of the Renards — 

Four blankets, @ 15f 60f 

Two pairs of bottles, 6f 24 

Two pounds of vermillion, 12f 24 

Four dozen butcher knives, 6f 24 

Two woolen blankets, @ 15f 30 

Four pairs of bottles, @ 6f 24 

Four shirts, @ 6f 24 

Four dozen of knives, @ 4f 16 

The Kenards having betrayed and killed their 
brothers, the Kickapoos, I seized the favorable 
opportunity, and to encourage the latter to avenge 
themselves, I gave — 
Twenty-five poundsof powder, @ 30sous 37f.l0s. 

Twenty-five pounds of lead, @ 10s I2f.lOs. 

Two guns at 30 livres each. 60f 

One half pound of vermillion 6f 

Flints, guns, worms and knives 20f 

The Illinois coming to the Kikapoos vil- 
lage, I supported them at my expense, 
and gave them powder, balls and shirts 

valued at oOf 

In departing from the Kikapoos village, I 
gave them the rest of the goods for 

their good treatment, estimated at 80f 

In a letter, written by a priest, at New Orleans, 
on July 12, 1730, is the following exaggerated ac- 
count of the capture of Father Guignas: " We 
always felt a distrust of the Fox Indians, although 
they did not longer dare to undertake anything, 
since Father Guignas has detached from their al- 
liance the tribes of the Kikapous and Maskoutins. 
You know, my Reverend Father, that, being in 

Canada, he had the courage to penetrate even to 
the Sioux near the sources of the Mississippi, at 
the distance of eight hundred leagues from New 
Orleans and five hundred from Quebec. Obliged 
to abandon this important mission by the unfor- 
tunate result of the enterprise against the Foxes, 
he descended the river to repair to the lULaois. 
On the 15th of October in the year 1728 he was 
arrested when half way by the Kickapous and 
Maskoutins. For four months he was a captive ' 
among the Indians, where he had much to suffer 
and everything to fear. The time at last came 
when he was to be burned alive, when he was 
adopted by an old man whose family saved his 
life and procured his liberty. 

" Our missionaries who are among the Illinois 
were no sooner acquainted with the situation 
than they procured him all the alleviation they 
were able. Everything which he received he em- 
ployed to conciliate the Indians, and succeeded 
to the extent of engaging them to conduct him to 
the Illinois to make peace with the French and 
Indians of this region. Seven or eight months 
after this peace was concluded, the Maskoutins 
and Kikapous returned again to the Illinois coun- 
try, and took back Father Guignas to spend the 
winter, from whence, in all probability, he wiU 
return to Canada." 

In dispatches sent to France, in October, 1729, 
by the Canadian government, the following refer- 
ence is made to Fort Beauharnois : " They agree 
that the fort built among the Soioux, on the bor- 
der of 'Lake Pepin, appears to be badly situated 
on account of the freshets, but the Indians assure 
that the waters rose higher in 1728 than it ever 
did before. When Sieur de Laperriere located it 
at that place it was on the assurance of the In- 
dians that the waters did not rise so high." In 
reference to the absence of Indians, is the fol- 
lowing : 

"It is very true that these Indians did leave 
shortly after on a hunting excursion, as they are 
in the habit of doing, for their own support and 
that of their families, who have only that means 
of livelihood, as they do not cultivate the soil at 
all. M. de Beauharnois has just been informed 
that their absence was occasioned only by having 
fallen in while hunting with a number of prairie 
Scioux, by whom they were invited to occompany 
them on a war expedition against the Mahas, 



which invitation they accepted, and returned 
only in the month of July following. 

" The interests of religion, of the service, and 
of the colony, are involved in the maintenance of 
this establishment, which has been the more nec- 
essary as there is no doubt but the Foxes, when 
routed, would have found an asylum among the 
Scioux had not the French been settled there, 
and the docility and submission manifested by 
the Foxes can not be attributed to any cause ex- 
cept the attention entertained by the Scioux for 
the French, and the offers which the former 
made the latter, of which tie Foxes were fully 

" It is necessary to retain the Scioux in these 
favorable dispositions, in order to keep the Foxes 
in check and counteract the measures they might 
adopt to gain over the Scioux, who will invaria- 
bly reject their propositions so long as the French 
remain in the country, and their trading post 
shall continue there. But, despite all these ad- 
vantages and the importance of preserving that 
establishment, M. de Beauharnois cannot take 
any steps until he has news of the French who 
asked his permission this summer to go up there 
with a canoe load of goods, and until assured that 
those who wintered there have not dismantled 
the fort, and that the Scioux continue in the same 
sentiments. Besides, it does not seem very easy, 
in the present conjuncture, to maintain that post 
unless there is a solid peace with the Foxes; on 
the other hand, the greatest portion of the tra- 
ders, who applied in 1727 for the establishment 
of that post, have withdrawn, and will not send 
thither any more, as the rupture with the Foxes, 
through whose country it is necessary to pass in 
order to reach the Scioux in canoe, has led them 
to abandon the idea. But the one and the other 
Case might be remedied. The Foxes will, in all 
probability, come or send next year to sue for 
peace; therefore, if it be granted to them on ad- 
vantageous conditions, there need be no appre- 
hension when going to the Sioux, and another 
company could be formed, less numerous than 
the first, through whom, or some responsible mer- 
chants able to afford the outfit, a new treaty 
could be made, whereby these difficulties would 
be soon obviated. One only trouble remains, and 
that is, to send a commanding and sub-offlcer, 
and some soldiers, up there, which are absolutely 

necessary for the maintenance of good order at 
that post; the missionaries would not go there 
without a commandant. This article, which re- 
gards the service, and the expense of which must 
be on his majesty's account, obliges them to ap- 
ply for orders. They will, as far as hes in their 
power, induce the traders to meet that expense, 
which will possibly amount to 1000 livres or 
1500 livres a year for the commandant, and in 
proportion for the officer under him; but, as in 
the beginning of an estabUshment the expenses 
exceed the profits, it is improbable that any com- 
pany of merchants will assume the outlay, and 
in this case they demand orders on this point, as 
well as his majesty's opuiion as to the necessity 
of preserving so useful a post, and a nation which 
has already afforded proofs of its fidelity and at- 

" These orders could be sent them by the way 
of He Eoyale, or by the first merchantmen that 
will sail for Quebec. The time required to re- 
ceive intelligence of the occurrences in the Scioux 
country, will admit of their waiting for these 
orders before doing anything." 

Sieur de la Jemeraye, a relative of Sieur de la 
Perriere Boucher, with a few French, during the 
troubles remained in the Sioux country. After 
peace was established with the Foxes, Legardeur 
Saint Pierre was In command at Fort Beauhar- 
nois, and Father Guignas again attempted to es- 
tablish a Sioux mission. In a communication 
dated 12th of October, 1736, by the Canadian au- 
thorities is the following: ''In regard to the 
Scioux, Saint Pierre, who commanded at that 
post, and Father Guignas, the missionary, have 
written to Sieur de Beauharnois on the tenth and 
eleventh of last April, that these Indians ap- 
peared well intentioned toward the French, and 
had no other fear than that of being abandoned 
by them. Sieur de Beauharnois annexes an ex- 
tract of these letters, and although the Scioux 
seem very friendly, the result only can tell whether 
this fidelity is to be absolutely depended upon, 
for the unrestrained andinconsistent spirit which 
composes the Indian character may easily change 
it. They have not come over this summer as yet, 
but M. de la St. Pierre is to get them to do so 
next year, and to have an eye on their proceed- 

The reply to this communication from Louis 



XV. dated Versailles, May 10th, 1737, was in 
tjjese words : " As respects the Scioux, according 
to what the commandant and missionary at that 
post have written to Sieur de Beauhamois rela- 
tive to the disposition of these Indians, nothing 
appears to be wanting on that point. 

" But their delay in coming down to Montreal 
since the time they have promised to do so, must 
render their sentiments somewhat suspected, and 
nothing hut facts can determine whether their 
fidelity can be absolutely relied on. But what 
must still further increase the uneasiness to be 
entertained in their regard is the attack on the 
convoy of M. de Verandrie, especially if this officer 
has adopted the course he had informed the 
Marquis de Beauhamois he should take to have 
revenge therefor." 

The particulars of the attack alluded to will be 
found in the next chapter. Soon after this the 
Foxes again became troublesome, and the post on 
Lake Pepin was for a time abandoned by the 
French. A dispatch in 1741 uses this language : 
" The Marquis de Beauhamois' opinion respect- 
ing the war against the Foxes, has been the more 
readily approved by the Baron de Longeuil, 
Messieurs De la Chassaigne, La Come, de Lig- 
nery, LaNoue, and Duplessis - Fabert, whom he 
had assembled at his house, as it appears from 
all the letters that the Count has written for sev- 
eral years, that he has nothing so much at heart as 
the destruction of that Indian nation, which can 
not be prevailed on by the presents and the good 
treatment of the French, to live in peace, not- 
withstandmg all its promises. 

" Besides, it is notorious that the Foxes have a 
secret understanding with the Iroquois, to secure 
a retreat among the latter, in case they be obliged 
to abandon their villages. They have one already 
secured among the Sioux of the prairies, with 
whom they are allied; so that, should they be 

advised beforehand of the design of the French 
to wage war against them, it would be easy for 
them to retire to the one or the other before their 
passage could be intersected or themselves at- 
tacked in their villages." 

In the summer of 1743, a deputation of the 
Sioux came down to Quebec, to ask that trade 
might be resumed. Three years after this, four 
Sioux chiefs came to Quebec, and asked that a 
commandant might be sent to Fort Beauhamois ; 
which was not granted. 

During the winter of 1745-6, De Lusignan vis- 
ited the Sioux country, ordered by the govern- 
ment to hunt up the "coureurs des hois," and 
withdraw them from the country. They started 
to return with him, but learning that they would 
be arrested at Mackinaw, for violation of law, 
they ran away. While at the villages of the Sioux 
of the lakes and plains, the chiefs brought to 
this officer nineteen of their young men, bound 
with cords, who had killed three Frenchmen, at 
the Illinois. "While he remained with them, they 
made peace with the O jib ways of La Pointe, 
with whom they had been at war for some time. 
On his return, four chiefs accompanied him to 
Montreal, to solicit pardon for their young braves. 

The lessees of the trading-post lost many of 
their peltries that winter in consequence of a fire. 

Reminiscences of St. Pierre's residence at Lake 
Pepin were long preserved. Carver, in 1 766, "ob- 
served the ruins of a French factory, where, it 
is said, Captain St. Pierre resided, and carried on 
a great trade with the Nadouessies before the re- 
duction of Canada." 

Pike, in 1805, wrote in his journal: " Just be- 
low Pt. Le Sable, the French, who had driven the 
Renards [Foxes] from Wisconsin, and chased 
them up the Mississippi, built a stockade on this 
lake, as a barrier against the savages. It became 
a noted factory for the Sioux." 






Conversation of Verendrye with Father De Qonor.— Parentage and Early Life. — 
Old Indian Map Preserved. — Verendrye's Son and Nephew Explore Pijjeon 
River and Reach Rainy hake. — Father Messayer a Companion. — Fort St. Pierre 
Established. — Lake of the Woods Reached and Fort St. Charles Built. — De la 
Jemeraye's Map. — Fort on the Assinaboine River. — Verendrye's Son, Father 
Ouneau and Associates Killed by Sioux, on Ofassacre Isle, in Lake of the Woods 
— Port La Ueine.—Verendrye's Eldest Son, with Others, Reaches the IVIissouii 
River.— Discovers the Rocky Mountains. — Returns to Lake of the Woods. — 
Exploration of Saskatchewan River. — Sieur de la Verendrye Jr. — Verendrye 
the Father, made Captain of the Order of St. Louis. — His Death. — The Swedish 
Traveler, Kalm, Notices Verendrye. — Bouprainville Describes Verendrye's Ex- 
plorations. — Legardeur de St. Pierre at Fort La Reine. — Fort Jonquiere Estab- 
lished. — De la Corne Succeeds St. Pieri'e. — St. Pierre Meets Washington at 
French Greek, in Pennsylvania. — Killed in Battle, near Lake George. 

Early in the year 1728, two travelers met at 
the secluded post of Mackinaw, one was named 
De Gonor, a Jesuit Father, who with Guignas, 
had gone with the expedition, that the September 
before had built Fort Beauharnois on the shores 
of Lake Pepin, the other was Pierre Gualtier Va- 
rennes, the Sieur dela Verendrye the commander 
of the post on Lake Nepigon of the north shore 
of Lake Superior, and a relative of the Sieur de 
la Perriere, the commander at Lake Pepin. 

Verendrye was the son of Eene Gualtier Va- 
rennes who for twenty-two years was the chief 
magistrate at Three Bivers, whose wife was Ma- 
rie Boucher, the daughter of his predecessor 
whom he had married when she was twelve years 
of age. He became a cadet in 1697, and in 1704 
accompanied an expedition to 'New England. 
The next year he was in Newfoundland and the 
year following he went to Prance, joined a regi- 
ment of Brittany and was in the conflict at Mal- 
plaquet when the French troops were defeated 
by the Duke of Marlborough. When he returned 
to Canada he was obliged to accept the position 
of ensign notwithstanding the gallant manner in 
which he had behaved. In time he became iden- 
tified with the Lake Superior region. "While at 
Lake Nepigon the Indians assured him that there 
was a communication largely by water to the 
Pacific Ocean. One, named Ocbagachs, drew a 
rude map of the country, which is still preserved 
among the French archives. Pigeon Eiver is 

marked thereon Mantohavagane, and the River 
St. Louis is marked R. fond du L. Superior, and 
the Indians appear to have passed from its head- 
waters to Rainy Lake. Upon the western ex- 
tremity is marked the Eiver of the West. 

De Gonor conversed much upon the route to 
the Pacific with Verendrye, and promised to use 
his influence with the Canadian authorities to 
advance the project of exploration. 

Charles De Beauharnois, the Governor of Can- 
ada, gave Verendrye a respectful hearing, and 
carefully examined the map of the region west of 
the great lakes, which had been dravm by Ochar 
gachs (Otchaga), the Indian guide. Orders were 
soon given to fit out an expedition of fifty men. 
It left Montreal in 1731, under the conduct of his 
sons and nephew De la Jemeraye, he not joining, 
the party till 1733, in consequence of the deten- 
tions of business. 

Ill the autumn of 1731, the party reached Eainy 
Lake, by the ISTantouagan, or GroseUiers river, 
now called Pigeon. Father Messayer, who had 
been stationed on Lake Superior, at the Grosel- 
liers river, was taken as a spiritual guide. At 
the foot of Eainy Lake a post was erected and 
called Fort St. Pierre, and the next year, having 
crossed Minittie, or Lake of the Woods, they es- 
tablished Fort St. Charles on its southwestern 
bank. Five leagues from Lake Winnipeg they 
established a post on the Assinaboine. An un- 
published map of these discoveries by De la Jem- 
eraye still exists at Paris. The river Winnipeg 
called by them Maurepas, in honor of the minis- 
ter of France in 1734, was protected by a fort of 
the same name. 

About this time their advance was stopped by 
the exhaustion of supplies, but on the 12th of 
April, 1735, an arrangement was made for a sec- 
ond equipment, and a fourth son joined the expe- 

In June, 1736, while twenty-one of the expedi- 



tion were camped upon an isle in the Lake of the 
Woods, they -were surprised by a band of Sioux 
hostile to the French allies, the Cristinaux, and 
all killed. The island, upon this account, is 
called Massacre Island. A few days after, a 
party of five Canadian voyageurs discovered their 
dead bodies and scalped heads. Father Ouneau, 
the missionary, was found upon one knee, an ar- 
row in his head, his breast bare, his left hand 
touching the ground, and the right hand raised. 

Among the slaughtered was also a son of Ver- 
endrye, who had a tomahawk in his back, and his 
body adorned with garters and bracelets of porcu- 
pine. The father was at the foot of the Lake of 
the Woods when he received the news of his son's 
murder, and about the same time heard of the 
death of his enterprising nephew, Dufrost de la 
Jemeraye, the son of his sister Marie Keine de 
Varennes, and brother of Madame Youville, the 
foundress of the Hospitallers at Montreal. 

It was under the guidance of the latter that 
the party had, in 1731, mastered the difficulties 
of the Nantaouagon, or Groselliers river. 

On the 3d of October, 1738, they built an ad- 
vanced post. Fort La Reine, on the river Assini- 
boels, now Assinaboine, which they called St 
Charles, and beyond was a branch called St. 
Pierre. These two rivers received the baptismal 
name of Verendrye, which was Pierre, and Gov- 
ernor Beauharnois, which was Charles. The post 
became the centre of trade and point of departure 
for explorations, either north or south. • 

It was by ascending the Assinaboine, and by 
the present trail from its tributary, Mouse river, 
they reached the country of the Mantanes, and in 
1741, came to the upper Missouri, passed the Yel- 
low Stone, and at length arrived at the Rocky 
Mountains. The party was led by the eldest son 
and his brother, the chevalier. They left the 
Lake of the Woods on the 29th of April, 1742, 
came in sight of the Rocky Mountains on the 1st 
of January, 1743, and on the 12th ascended them. 
On the route they fell in with the Beaux Hom- 
mes, Pioya, Petits Eenards, and Arc tribes, and 
stopped among the Snake tribe, but could go no 
farther in a southerly direction, owing to a war 
between the Arcs and Snakes. 

On the 19th of May, 1744, they had returned to 
the upper Missouri, and, in the country of the 
Petite Cerise tribe, they planted on an eminence 

a leaden plate of the arms of France, and raised 
a monument Of stones, which they called Beau- 
harnois. They returned to the Lake of the Woods 
on the 2d of July. 

North of the Assiniboine they proceeded to 
Lake Dauphin, Swan's Lake, explored the riv- 
er "Des Biches," and ascended even to the 
fork of the Saskatchewan, which they called Pos- 
koiac. Two forts were subsequently established, 
one near Lake Dauphin and the other on the 
river " des Biches," called Fort Bourbon. The 
northern route, by the Saskatchewan, was thought 
to have some advantage over the Missouri, be- 
cause there was no danger of meeting with the 

Governor Beauharnois having been prejudiced 
against Verendrye by envious persons, De Noy- 
elles was appointed to take command of the 
posts. During these difficulties, we find Sieur de 
la Verendrye, Jr., engaged in other duties. In 
August, 1747, he arrives from Mackinaw at Mon- 
treal, and In the autumn of that year he accom- 
panies St. Pierre to Mackinaw, and brings back 
the convoy to Montreal. In February, 1748, with 
five Canadians, five Cristenaux, two Ottawas, and 
one Sauteur, he attacked the Mohawks near 
Schenectady, and returned to Montreal with two 
scalps, one that of a chief. On June 20th, 1748, 
it is recorded that Chevalier de la Verendrye de- 
parted from Montreal for the head of Lake Supe- 
rior. Margry states that he perished at sea in 
November, 1764, by the wreck of the " Auguste." 

Fortunately, Galissioniere the successor of 
Beauharnois, although deformed and insignifi- 
cant in appearance, was fair minded, a lover of 
science, especially botany, and anxious to push 
discoveries toward the Pacific. Verendrye the 
father was restored to favor, and made Captain 
of the Order of St. Louis, and ordered to resume 
explorations, but he died on December 6th, 1749, 
while planning a tour up the Saskatchewan. 

The Swedish Professor, Kalm, met him in Can- 
ada, not long before his decease, and had inter- 
esting conversations with him about the furrows 
on the plains of the Missouri, which he errone- 
ously conjectured indicated the former abode of 
an agricultural people. These ruts are familiar 
to modem travelers, and may be only buffalo 

Father Coquard, wno had been associated with 



Verendrye, says that they first met the Mantanes, 
and next the Brochets. After these were the 
Gros Ventres, the Crows, the Plat Heads, the 
Black Feet, and Dog Feet, who were established 
on the Missouri, even up to the falls, and that 
about thirty leagues beyond they found a narrow 
pass in the mountains. 

Bougainville gives a more full account; he says; 
" He who most advanced this discovery was 
the Sieur de la Veranderie. He went from Fort 
la Reine to the Missouri. He met on the banks 
of this river the Mandans, or White Beards, who 
had seven villages with pine stockades, strength- 
ened by a ditch. Next to these were the Kinon- 
gewiniris. or the Brbchets, in three villages, and 
toward the upper part of the river were three 
villages of the Mahantas. All along the mouth 
of the Wabeik, or Shell Elver, were situated 
twenty-three villages of the Panis. To the south- 
west of this river, on the banks of the Ouanarade- 
ba, or La Graisse, are the Hectanes or Snake 
tribe. They extend to the base of a chain of 
mountains which runs north northeast. South 
of this is the river Karoskiou, or Cerise Pelee, 
which is supposed to flow to California. 

" He found in the immense region watered by 
the Missouri, and in the vicinity of forty leagues, 
the Mahantas, the OwiUniock, or Beaux Hom- 
mes, four villages; opposite the Brochets the Black 
Feet, three villages of a hundred lodges each; op. 
posite the Mandans are the Ospekakaerenousques, 
or Flat Heads, four villages; opposite tha Panis 
are the Arcs of Cristinaux, and Utasibaoutchatas 
of Assiniboel, three villages; following these the 
Makesch, or Little Foxes, two villages; tho Pi- 
wassa, or great talkers, three villages; the Ka- 
kokoschena, or Gens de la Pie, five villages; the 
Kiskipisounouini,, or the Garter tribe, seven vil- 

Galassoniere was succeeded by Jonquiere in 
the governorship of Canada, who proved to be a 
grasping, peevish, and very miserly person. For 
the sons of Verendrye he had no sympathy, and 
forming a clique to profit by their father's toils. 

he determined to send two expeditions toward 
the Pacific Ocean, one by the Missouri and the 
other by the Saskatchewan. 

Father Coquard, one of the companions ©f Ve- 
rendrye, was consulted as to the probability of 
finding a pass in the Kocky Mountains, through 
which they might, in canoes, reach the great 
lake of salt water, perhaps Puget's Sound. 

The enterprise was at length confided to two 
experienced officers, Lamarque de Marin and 
Jacques Legardeur de Saint Pierre. The former 
was assigned the way, by the Missouri, and to 
the latter was given the more northern route; 
but Saint Pierre in some way excited the hostil- 
ity of the Cristinaux, who attempted to kiU him, 
and burned Fort la Eeine. His lieutenant, Bou- 
cher de Niverville, who had been sent to establish 
a post toward the source of the Saskatchewan, 
failed on account of sickness. Some of his men, 
however, pushed on to the Eocky Mountains, 
and in 1753 established Fort Jonquiere. Henry 
says St. Pierre established Fort Bourbon. 

In 1753, Saint Pierre was succeeded in the 
command of the posts of the West, by de la 
Come, and sent to French Creek, in Pennsylva- 
nia. He had been but a few days there when he 
received & visit from Washington, just entering 
upon manhood, bearing a letter from Governor 
Dinwiddle of Virginia, complaining of the en 
croachments of the French. 

Soon the clash of aitos bet^'een France and 
England began, and Saint Pierre, at the head of 
the Indian allies, fell near Lake George, in Sep- 
tember, 1 755 , in a battle with the English. After 
the seven years' war was concluded, by the treaty 
of Paris, the French relinquished all their posts 
in the Xorthwest, and the work begun by Veren- 
drye, was, in 1805, completed by Lewis and 
Clarke ; and the Northern Pacific Eailway is fast 
approaching the passes of the Eocky Mountains, 
through the valley of tlie Yellow Stone, and from 
thence to the great land-locked bay of the ocean, 
Puget's Sound. 





Englbh Influence Increasing. — Le Due Robbed at Lake Superior. — St. Pierre at 
Mackinaw.— Escape ot Indian Prisoners. — LaRonde and Verendrye. — InHueuce 
of Sieur Marin. — St. Pierre Recalled from Winnipeg Region.— Interview with 
Washington. — ^Langlade Urges Attack Upon Troops of Braddock.— Saint Pierre 
Silled in Battle. — Marin's Boldness. — ^Rogers, a Partisan Ranger, Commands at 
Mackinaw. — At Ticonderoga.— French Deliver up the Posts in Canada. —Capt. 
Balfour Takes Possession of Mackinaw and Green Bay. — Lieut. Gorrell in Com. 
mand at Green Bay.— Sioux Visit Green Bay, — Pennensha a French Trader 
Among the Sioux. — Treaty ofParis. 

English influence produced increasing dissatis- 
faction among the Indians that were beyond 
Mackinaw. Not only were the voyageurs robbed 
and maltreated at Sault St. Marie and other points 
on Lake Superior, but even the commandant at 
Mackinaw was exposed to insolence, and there 
was no security anywhere. 

On the twenty-third of August, 1747, Philip Le 
Due arrived at Mackinaw from Lake Superior, 
stating that he had been robbed of his goods at 
Kamanistigoya, and that the Ojibways of the 
lake were favorably disposed toward the English. 
The Dahkotahs were also becoming unruly in the 
absence of French oflicers. 

In a few weeks after Le Due's robbery, St. 
Pierre left Montreal to become commandant at 
Mackinaw^ and Yercheres was appointed for the 
post at Green Bay. In the language of a docu- 
ment of the day, St. Pierre was •' a very good 
officer, much esteemed among all the nations of 
those parts ; none more loved and feared." On 
his arrival, the savages were so cross, that he ad- 
vised that no Frenchman should come to trade. 

By promptness and boldness, he secured the 
Indians who had murdered some Frenchmen, 
and obtained the respect of the tribes. While 
the three murderers were being conveyed in a 
canoe down the St. Lawrence to Quebec, in charge 
of a sergeant and seven soldiers, the savages, with 
characteristic cunning, though manacled, suc- 
ceeded in killing or drowning the guard. Cutting 
their irons with an axe, they sought the woods, 
and escaped to their own country. "Thus," 
writes Galassoniere, in 1748, to Count Maurepas, 

was lost in a great measure the fruit of Sieur St. 
Pierre's good management, and of all the fatigue 
I endured to get the nations who surrendered 
these rascals to listen to reason." 

On the twenty-first Of June of the next year. 
La Eonde started to La Pointe, and Verendrye 
for West Sea, or Fon du Lac, Minnesota. 

Under the influence of Sieur Marin, who was 
in command at Green Bay in 1753, peaceful re- 
lations were in a measure restored between the 
French and Indians. 

As the war between England and France deep- 
ened, the officers of the distant French posts 
were called in and stationed nearer the enemy. 
Legardeur St. Pierre, was brought from the Lake 
Winnipeg region, and, in December, 1753, was in 
command of a rude post near Erie, Pennsylvania. 
Langlade, of Green Bay, Wisconsin, arrived early 
in July, 1755, at Fort Duquesne. With Beauyeu 
and De Lignery, who had been engaged in fight- 
ing the Fox Indians, he left that fort, at nine 
o'clock of the morning of the 9th of July, and, a 
little after noon, came near the English, who had 
halted on the south shore of the Monongahela, 
and were at dinner, with their arms stacked. By 
the urgent entreaty of LanglaJde, the western 
half-breed, Beauyeu, the officer in command or- 
dered an attack, and Braddock was overwhelmed, 
and Washington was obliged to say, " We have 
been beaten, shamefully beaten, by a handful of 

Under Baron Dieskau, St. Pierre commanded 
the Indians, in September, 1755, during the cam- 
paign near Lake George, where he fell gallantly 
fighting the English, as did his commander. 
The Eev. Claude Coquard, alluding to the French 
defeat, in a letter to his brother, remarks: 

" We lost, on that occasion, a brave officer, M, 
de St. Pierre, and had his advice, as weU as that 
of several other Canadian officers, been followed, 
Jonckson [Johnson] was irretrievably destroyed, 



and we should have been spared the trouble we 
have had this year." 

Other officers who had been stationed on the 
borders of Minnesota also distinguished them- 
selves during the French war. The Marquis 
Montcalm, in camp at Ticonderoga, on the twen- 
ty-seventh of July, 1757, writes to Vaudreuil, 
Governor of Canada: 

" Lieutenant Marin, of the Colonial troops, who 
has exliibited a rare audacity, did not consider 
himself bound to halt, although his detachment 
of about four hundred men was reduced to about 
two hundred, the balance having been sent back 
on account of inability to follow. He carried off 
a patrol of ten men, and swept away an ordinary 
guard of fifty like a wafer; went up to the en- 
emy's camp, under Port Lydias (Edward), where 
he was exposed to a severe flre, and retreated like 
a warrior. He was unwilliag to amuse himself 
making prisoners; he brought in only one, and 
thirty-two scalps, and must have kiUed many men 
of the enemy, in the midst of whose ranks it was 
neither wise nor prudent to go in search of scalps. 
The Indians generally all behaved well. * * * 
The Outaouais, who arrived with me, and whom 
I designed to go on a scouting party towards the 
lake, had conceived a project of administering a 
corrective to the English barges. * * * On 
the day before yesterday, your brother formed a 
detachment to accompany them. I arrived at his 
camp on the evening of the same day. Lieuten- 
ant de Corbiere, of the Colonial troops, was re- 
turning, ia consequence of a misunderstanding, 
and as I knew the zeal and intelligence of that 
officer, I made him set out with a new instruc- 
tion to join Messrs de Langlade and Hertel de 
Chantly. They remained in ambush all day and 
night yesterday; at break of day the English ap- 
peared on Lake St. Sacrament, to the number of 
twenty-two barges, under the command of Sieur 
Parker. The whoops of our Indians impressed 
them with such terror that they made but feeble 
resistance, and only two barges escaped." 

After De Corbiere's victory on Lake Cliam- 
plain, a large French army was collected at Ti- 
conderoga, with which there were many Indians 
from the tribes of the Northwest, and the loways 
appeared for the first time in the east. 

It is an interesting fact that the English offi- 
cers who were in frequent engagements with St. 

Pierre, Lusignan, Marin, Langlade, and others, 
became the pioneers of the British, a few year^ 
afterwards, in the occupation of the outposts of 
the lakes, and in the exploration of Minnesota. 

Eogers, the celebrated captain of rangers, sub- 
sequently commander of Mackinaw, and Jona- 
than Carver, the first British explorer of Minne- 
sota, were both on duty near Lake Champlain, the 
latter narrowly escaping at the battle of Fort 

On Christmas eve, 1757, Eogers approached 
Fort Ticonderoga, to fire the outhouses, but was 
prevented by discharge of the cannons of the 

He contented himself with kiUing fifteen beeves, 
on the horns of one of which he left this laconic 
and amusing note, addressed to the commander 
of the post: 

'• I am obliged to you. Sir, for the repose you 
have allowed me to take; I thank you for tke fresh 
meat you have sent me, I request you to present 
my compliments to the Marquis du Montcalm." 

On the thirteenth of March, 1758, Durantaye, 
formerly at Mackinaw, had a skirmish with Eog- 
ers. Both had been trained on the frontier, and 
they met "as Greek met Greek." The conflict 
was fierce, and the French victorious. The In- 
dian allies, finding a scalp of a chief underneath 
an officer's jacket, were furious, and took one 
hundred and fourteen scalps in return. When 
the French returned, they supposed that Captaan 
Eogers was among the killed. 

At Quebec, when Montcalm and Wolfe fell, 
there were O jib ways present assistmg the French 

The Indians, returning from the expeditions 
against the English, were attacked with small- 
pox, and many died at Mackinaw. 

On the eighth of September, 1760, the French 
delivered up all their posts in Canada. A few 
days after the capitidation at Montreal, Major 
Eogers was sent with English troops, to garrison 
the posts of the distant Northwest. 

On the eighth of September, 1761, a year after 
the surrender. Captain Balfour, of the eightieth 
regiment of the British army, left Detroit, with 
a detachment to take possession of the French 
forts at Mackinaw and Green Bay. Twenty-five 
soldiers were left at Mackinaw, in command of 
Lieutenant Leslie, and the rest sailed to Green 
Bay, under Lieutenant Gorrell of the Eoyal 



Americans, where they arrived on the twelfth of 
October. The fort had been abandoned for sev- 
eral years, and was in a dilapidated condition. 
In charge of it there was left a lieutenant, a cor- 
poral, and fifteen soldiers. Two English traders 
arrived at the same time, McKay from Albany, 
and Goddard from Montreal. 

Gorrell in his journal alludes to the Minnesota 
Sioux. He writes — 

" On March 1, 1763, twelve warriors of the Sous 
came here. It is certainly the greatest nation of 
Indians ever yet found. Kot above two thousand 
of them were ever armed with firearms ; the rest 
depending entirely on bows and arrows, which 
they use with more skill than any other Indian 
nation in America. They can shoot the wildest 
and largest beasts in the woods at seventy or one 
hundred yards distant. They are remarkable for 
their danciug, and the other nations take the 
fashions from them. ***** This nation 
is always at war with the Chippewas, those who 
destroyed Mishamakinak. They told me with 
warmth that if ever the Chippewas or any other 
Indians wished to obstruct the passage of the 
traders coming up, to send them word, and they 
would come and cut them oft from the face of 
the earth ; as all Indians were their slaves or dogs. 
I told them I was glad to see them, and hoped to 
have a lasting peace with them. They then gave 
me a letter wrote in French, and two belts of 
wampum from their king, in which he expressed 
great joy on hearing of there being English at 
his post. The letter was written by a French 
trader whom I had allowed to go among them 
last fall, with a promise of his behaving well ; 
which he did, better than any Canadian I ever 
knew. ***** With regard to traders, I 
would not allow any to go amongst them, as I 

then understood they lay out of the government 
of Canada, but made no doubt they would have 
traders from the Mississippi in the spring. They 
went away extremely well pleased. June 14th, 
1763, the traders came down from the Sack coun- 
try, and confirmed the news of Landsiug and his 
son being killed by the French. There came with 
the traders some Puans, and four young men with 
one chief of the Avoy [loway] nation, to demand 
traders. ***** 

" On the nineteenth, a deputation of Winneba- 
goes, Sacs, Foxes and Menominees arrived with 
a Frenchman named Permensha. This Pennen- 
sha is the same man who wrote the letter the 
Sous brought with them iu French, and at the 
same time held council with that great nation in 
favour of the English, by which he much promo- 
ted the iuterest of the latter, as appeared by the 
behaviour of the Sous. He brought with him a 
pipe from the Sous, desiring that as the road is 
now clear, they would by no means allow the 
Chippewas to obstruct it, or give the English any 
disturbance, or prevent the traders from coming 
up to them. If they did so they would send all 
their warriors and cut them off." 

In July, 1763, there arrived at Green Bay, 
Bruce, Fisher; and Roseboom of Albany, to en- 
gage in the Indian trade. 

By the treaty of Paris of 1763, France ceded to 
Great Britain all of the country east of the Mis- 
sissippi, and to Spain the whole of Louisiana, so 
that the latter power for a time held the whole 
region between the Mississippi Eiver and the Pa- 
cific Ocean, and that portion of the city of Min- 
neapolis known as the East Division was then 
governed by the British, while the West Division 
was subject to the Spanish code. 





Carver's Early Life.— In the Battle near Lake George.— Arrives at Mackinaw.— 
Old Fort at Green Bay.— Winnebago Village.— Description of Prairie du Chien. 
Earthworks on Banks of Lake Pepin.— Sioux Bands Described.— Cave and 
Burial Place in Suburbs of St. Paul.— The Palls of Saint Anthony.— Burial 
Rites of tLe Kioux.— Speech of a Sioux Chief.— Schiller's Poein of the Death 
Song. — Sir John Hei-schel's Translation.— Sir E. Buhver Lytton's Version.— 
Correspondence of Sir William Johnson,— Carver's Pi-cgeot for Opening a Route 
to the Pacific— Supposed Origin of the Sioux.— Carver's Claim to Lands Ex- 
amined.— Alleged Deed.— Testimony of Bev. Samuel Peters.— Communication 
from Gen. Leavenworth.— Report of U. S, Senate Committee, 

Jonathan Carver was a native of Connecticut 
His grandfather, William Carver, was a native of 
Wigan, Lancashire, England, and a captain in 
King William's army during the campaign in 
Ireland, and for meritorious services received an 
appointment as an officer of the colony of Con- 

His father was a justice of the peace in the 
new world, and in 1732, the subject of this, sketch 
was bom. At the early age of fifteen he was 
called to mourn the death of his father. He then 
commenced the study of medicine, but his roving 
disposition could not bear the confines of a doc- 
tor's office, and feeling, perhaps, that his genius 
would be cramped by pestle and mortar, at the 
age of eighteen he purchased an ensign's commis- 
sion in one of the regiments raised during the 
French war. He was of medium stature, and of 
strong mind and quick perceptions. 

In the year 1757, he was captain under Colonel 
Williams in the battle near Lake George, where 
Saint Pierre was killed, and narrowly escaped 
with his life. 

After the peace of 1763, between Prance and 
England was declared, Carver conceived the pro- 
ject of exploring the Northwest. Leaving Boston 
in the month of June, 1766, he arrived at Macki- 
naw, then the most distant British post, in the 
month of August. Having obtained a credit on 
some Prench and English traders from Major 
Eogers, the officer in command, lie started with 
them on the third day of September. Pursuing 
the usual route to Green Bay, they arrived there 
on the eighteenth. 

The French fort at that time was standing, 
though much decayed. It was, some years pre- 
vious to his arrival, garrisoned for a short time 
by an officer and thirty English soldiers, but they 
having been captured by the Menominees, it was 

In company with the traders, he left Green 
Bay on the twentieth, and ascending Pox river, 
arrived on the twenty-fifth at an island at the 
east end of Lake Winnebago, containing about 
fifty acres. 

Here he found a Winnebago village of fifty 
houses. He asserts that a woman was in author- 
ity. In the month of October the party was at 
the portage of the Wisconsin, and descending 
that stream, they arrived, on the ninth at a town 
of the Sauks. While here he visited some lead 
mines about fifteen miles distant. An abundance 
of lead was also seen in the village, that had been 
brought from the mines. 

On the tenth they arrived at the first village of 
the " Ottigaumies" [Poxes] about five miles be- 
fore the Wisconsin joins the Mississippi, he per- 
ceived the remnants of another village, and 
learned that it had been deserted about tliirty 
years before, and that the inhabitants soon after 
their removal, built a town on the Mississippi, 
near the mouth of the " Ouisconsin," at a place 
called by the Prench La Prairie les Chiens, which 
signified the Dog Plains. It was a large town, 
and contained about three hundred families. 
The houses were built after the Indian manner, 
and pleasantly situated on a dry rich soil. 

He saw here many houses of a good size and 
shape. This town was the great mart where all 
the adjacent tribes, and where those who inhabit 
the most remote branches of the Mississippi, an- 
nually assemble about the latter end of May, 
bringing with them their furs to dispose of to the 
traders. But it is not always that they conclude 
their sale here. This was determined by a gen 



eral calmcil of the chiefs, who consulted whether 
it would be more conducive to their interest to 
sell their goods at this place, or to carry them 
on to Louisiana or Mackinaw. 

At a small stream called Yellow Eiver, oppo- 
site Prairie du Chien, the traders who had thus 
far accompanied Carver took up their residence 
for the winter. 

From this point he proceeded in a canoe, with 
a Canadian voyageur and a Mohawk Indian as 
companions. Just before reaching Lake Pepin, 
while his attendants were one day preparing din- 
ner, he walked out and was struck with the pecu- 
liar appearance of the surface of the country, and 
thought it was the site of some vast artificial 
earth- work. It is a fact worthy of remembrance, 
that he was the first to call the attention of the 
civilized world to the existence of ancient monu- 
ments in the Mississippi valley. We give his own 
description : 

" On the first of November I reached Lake 
Pepin, a few miles below which I landed, and, 
whilst the servants were preparing my dinner, I 
ascended the bank to view the country. I liad 
not proceeded far before I came to a fine, level, 
open plain, on which I perceived, at a little dis-_ 
tance, a partial elevation that had the appearance 
of entrenchment. On a nearer inspection I had 
greater reason to suppose that it had really been 
intended for this many centuries ago. Notwith- 
standing it was now covered with grass, I could 
plainly see that it had once been a breastwork of 
about four feet In height, extending the best part 
of a mile, and sufficiently capacious to cover five 
thousand men. Its form was somewhat circular 
and its flanks reached to the river. 

" Though much defaced by time, every angle 

was distinguishable, and appeared as regular and 

fashioned with as much military skill as if planned 

by Vauban himself. The ditch was not visible, 

but I thought, on examining more curiously, that 

I could perceive there certainly had been one. 

Prom its situation, also, I am convinced that it 

must have been designed for that purpose. It 

fronted the country, and the rear was covered by 

the river, nor was there any rising ground for a 

considerable way that commanded it; a few 

straggling lakes were alone to be seen near it. 

In many places small tracks were worn across it 

by the feet of the elks or deer, and from the depth 

of the bed of earth by which it was covered, I was 
able to draw certain conclusions of its great anti- 
quity. I examined all the angles, and every part 
with great attention, and have often blamed my- 
self since, for not encamping on the spot, and 
drawing an exact plan of it. To show that this 
description is not the offspring of a heated imag- 
ination, or the chimerical tale of a mistaken trav- 
eler, I find, on inquiry since my return, that 
Mons. St. Pierre, and several traders have at dif- 
ferent times, taken notice of similar appearances, 
upon which they have formed the same conjec- 
tures, but withont examining them so minutely 
as I did. How a work of this kind could exist in 
a country that has hitherto (according to the gen- 
erally received opinion) been the seat of war to 
untutored Indians alone, whose whole stock of 
military knowledge has only, till within two cen- 
turies, amounted to drawing the bow, and whose 
only breastwork even at present is the thicket, I 
know not. I have given as exact an account as 
possible of this singular appearance, and leave to 
future explorers of those distant regions, to dis- 
cover whether it is a production of nature or art. 
Perhaps the hints I have here given might lead 
to a inore perfect investigation of it, and give us 
very different ideas of the ancient state of realms 
that we at present believe to have been, from the 
earliest period, only the habitations of savages." 

Lake Pepin excited his admiration, as it has 
that of every traveler since his day, and here he 
remarks : " I observed the ruirs of a French fac- 
tory, where it is said Captain St. Pierre resided, 
and carried on a very great trade with the Nau- 
dowessies, before the reduction of Canada." 

Carver's first acquaintance with the Dahkotahs 
commenced near the river St. Crouc. It would 
seem that the erection of trading posts on Lake 
Pepin had enticed them from their old residence 
on Bum river and Mille Lacs. 

He says: "Near the river St. Crois reside 
bands of the Naudowessie Indians, called the 
Jliver Bands. This nation is composed at pres- 
ent of eleven bands. They were originally 
twelve, but the Assinipoils, some years ago, re- 
volting and separating themselves from the oth- 
ers, there remain at this time eleven. Those I 
met here are termed the Biver Bands, because 
they chiefly dwell near the banks of this river; 
the other eight are generally distinguished by the 



title of Nadowessies of the Plains, and inhabit a 
country more to the westward. The names of 
the former are Nehogatawonahs, the Mawtaw- 
bauntowahs, and Shashweentowahs. 

Arriving at what is now a suburb of the cap- 
ital of Minnesota, he continues: "About thir- 
teen miles below the Falls of St. Anthony, at 
which I arrived the tenth day after I left Lake 
Pepin, is a remarkable cave, of an amazing depth. 
The Indians term it Wakon-teebe [Wakan-tipi]. 
The entrance into it is about ten feet wide, the 
height of it five feet. The arch within is fifteen 
feet high and about thirty feet broad; the bottom 
consists of fine, clear sand. About thirty feet 
from the entrance begins a lake, the water of 
which is transparent, and extends to an unsearch- 
able distance, for the darkness of the cave pre- 
ents all attempts to acquire a knowledge of it.] 
I threw a small pebble towards the nterior part 
of it with my utmost strength. I could hear that 
it fell into the water, and, notwithstanding it was 
of a small size, it caused an astonishing and ter- 
rible noise, that reverberated through all those 
gloomy regions. I found in this cave many In- 
dian hieroglyphics, Avhich appeared very ancient, 
for time had nearly covered them with moss, so 
that it was with difficulty I could trace them. 
They were cut in a rude manner upon the inside 
of the wall, which was composed of a stone so ex- 
tremely soft that it might be easily penetrated 
with a knife; a stone everywhere to be found 
near the Mississippi. 

" At a little distance from this dreary cavern, 
is the burying-place of several bands of the Nau- 
dowessie Indians. Though these people have no 
fixed residence, being in tents, and seldom but a 
few months in one spot, yet they always bring 
the bones of the dead to this place. 

"Ten miles below the Palls of St. Anthony, 
the river St. Pierre, called by the natives Wada- 
paw Menesotor, falls into the Mississippi from the 
west. It is not mentioned by Father Hennepin, 
though a large, fair river. This omission, I con- 
sider, must have proceeded from a small island 
[Pike's] that is situated exactly in its entrance." 

When he reached the Minnesota river, the ice 
became so troublesome that he left his canoe in 
the neighborhood of what is now St. Anthony, 
and walked to St. Anthony, in company with a 
young Winnebago chief, who had never seen the 

curling waters. The chief, on reaching the emi- 
nence some distance below Cheever's, began to 
invoke his gods, and offer oblations to the spirit 
in the waters. 

"In the middle of the Falls stands a small 
island, about forty feet broad and somewhat lon- 
ger, on which grow a few cragged hemlock and 
spruce trees, and about half way between this 
island and the eastern shore is a rock, lying at 
the very edge of the Falls, in an oblique position, 
that appeared to be about five or six feet broad, 
and thirty or forty long. At a little distance be- 
low the Falls stands a small island of about an 
acre and a half, on which grow a great number of 
oak trees." 

From this description, it would appear that the 
little island, now some distance below the Falls, 
was once in the very midst, and shows that a con- 
stant recession has been going on, and that in 
ages long past they were not far from the Minne- 
sota river. 

No description is more glovsdng than Carver's 
of the country adjacent: 

" The country around them is extremely beau- 
tiful. It is not an uninterrupted plain, where the 
eye finds no relief, but composed of many gentle 
ascents, which in the summer are covered with 
the finest verdure, and interspersed with little 
groves that give a pleasing variety to the pros- 
pect. On the whole, when the Falls are inclu- 
ded, which may be seen at a distance of four 
miles, a more pleasmg and picturesque view, I 
believe, cannot be found throughout the uni- 

" He arrived at the Falls on the seventeenth of 
November, 1766, and appears to have ascended as 
far as Elk river. 

On the twenty-fifth of November, he had re- 
turned to the place opposite tlie Minnesota, where 
he luid left his cimoe, and this stream as yet not 
being obstructed witli ice, he commenced its as- 
cent, witli the colors of Great Britain flying at 
the stern of his canoe. There is no doubt that 
he entered this river, but how far he explored it 
cannot be ascertained. He speaks of the Kapids 
near Shakopay, and asserts that he went as far as 
two hundred miles beyond Mendota. He re- 

" On the seventh of December, I arrived at the 
utmost of my travels towards the West, where I 



met a large party of the Naudowessie Indians, 
among whom I resided some months." 

After speaking of the upper bands of the Dah- 
kotahs and their allies, he adds that he " left the 
habitations of the hospitable Indians the latter 
end of April, 1767, but did not part from them 
for several days, as I was accompanied on my 
journey by near three hundred of them to the 
mouth of the river St. Pierre. At this season 
these bands annually go to the great cave (Day- 
ton's Bluff) before mentioned. 

When he arrived at the great cave, and the In- 
dians had deposited the remains of their deceased 
friends in the burial-place that stands adjacent 
to it, they held their great council to which he 
was admitted. 

When the Naudowessies brought their dead for 
interment to the great cave (St. Paul), I attempted 
to get an insight into the remaining burial rites, 
but whether it was on account of the stench 
which arose from so many dead bodies, or whether 
they chose to keep this part of their custom secret 
from me, I could not discover. I found, however, 
that they considered my curiosity as Ul-timed, 
and therefore I withdrew. * * 

One formality among the Kaudowessies in 
mourning for the dead is very different from any 
mode I observed in the other nations through 
which I passed. The men, to show how great 
their sorrow is, pierce the flesh of their arms 
above the elbows with arrows, and the women 
cut and gash their legs with broken flints till the 
blood flows very plentifully. * * 

After the breath is departed, the body is 
dressed in the same attire it usually wore, his 
face is painted, and he is seated in an erect pos- 
ture on a mat or skin, placed in the middle of the 
hut, with his weapons by his side. His relatives 
seated around, each in turn harangues the de- 
ceased; and if he has been a great warrior, re- 
counts his heroic actions, nearly to the following 
purport, which in the Indian language is extreme- 
ly poetical aud pleasing 

" You still sit among us, brother, your person 
retains its usual resemblance, and continues sim- 
ilar to ours, without any visible deficiency, ex- 
cept it has lost the power of action! But whither 
is that breath flown, which a few hours ago sent 
up smoke to the Great Spirit? Why are those 
lips silent, that lately delivered to us expressions' 

and pleasing language? Why are those feet mo- 
tionless, that a few hours ago were fleeter than 
the deer on yonder mountains? Why useless 
hang those arms, that could climb the tallest tree 
or draw the toughest bow? Alas, every part of 
that frame which we lately beheld with admira- 
tion and wonder has now become as inanimate as 
it was three hundred years ago! We will not, 
however, bemoan thee as if thou wast forever 
lost to us, or that thy name would be buried in 
oblivion; thy soul yet lives in the great country 
of spirits, with those of thy nation that have gone 
before thee; and though we are left behind to 
perpetuate thy fame, we will one day join thee. 

" Actuated by the respect we bore thee whilst 
living, we now come to tender thee the last act of 
kindness in our power; that thy body might not 
lie neglected on the plain, and become a prey to 
the beasts of the fleld or fowls of the air, and we 
will take care to lay it with those of thy predeces- 
sors that have gone before thee; hoping at the 
same time that thy spirit will feed with their 
spirits, and be ready to receive ours when we 
shall also arrive at the great country of souls." 

For this speech Carver is principally indebted 
to his imagination, but it is well conceived, and 
suggested one of Schiller's poems, which Gcethe 
considered one of his best, and wished " he had 
made a dozen such." 

Sir E. Lytton Bulwer the distinguished novelist, 
and Sir John Herschel the eminent astronomer, 
have each given a translation of Schiller's " Song 
of the Nadowessee Chief." 


See on his mat — as if of yore. 

All Ufe-like sits he here I 
With that same aspect which he wore 

When light to him was dear 

But where the right hand's strength ? and where 

The breath that loved to breathe 
To the Great Spirit, aloft in air. 

The peace pipe's lusty wreath ? 

And where the hawk-like eye, alas 1 

That wont the deer pursue. 
Along the waves of rippling grass, 

Or fields that shone with dew ? 



Axe these the limber, bounding feet 
That swept the winter's snows ? 

What stateliest stag so fast and fleet ? 
Their speed outstripped the roe's ! 

These arms, that then the steady bow 

Could supple from it's pride, 
How stark and helpless hang they now 

Adown the stiffened side I 

Yet weal to him — at peace he stays 

' Wherever fall the snows ; 
Wliere o'er the meadows springs the maize 
That mortal never sows. 

Where birds are blithe on every brake — 
Where orests teem with deer — 

Where glide the fish through every lake — 
One chase from year to year ! 

With spirits now he feasts above ; 
All left us to revere 
ofThe deeds we honor with our love, 
The dust we bury here. 

Here bring the last gift ; loud and shrill 
Wail death dirge for the brave ; 

What pleased him most in life, may still 
Give pleasure in the grave. 

We 1 ly the axe beneath his head 
He swung when strength was strong — 

The bear on which his banquets fed. 
The way from earth is long. 

And hsre, new sharpened, place the knife 

That severed from the clay. 
From which the axe had spoiled the life, 

The conquered scalp away. 

The paints that deck the dead, bestow ; 

Yes, place them in his hand, 
That red the kingly shade may glow 

Amid the spirit land. 


See, where upon the mat he sits 

Erect, before his door. 
With just the same majestic air 

That once in life he wore. 

But where is fled his strength of limb. 

The whirlwind of his breath, 
To the Great Spirit, when he sent 

The peace pipe's mounting wreath? 

Where are those falcon eyes, which late 

Along the plain could trace. 
Along the grass's dewy waves 

The reindeer's printed pace? 

Those legs, which once with matchless speed, 

Flew through the drifted snow, 
Surpassed the stag's unwearied course, 

Outran the mountain roe? 

Those arms, once used with might and main^ 

The stubborn bow to twang? 
See, see, their nerves are slack at last, 

All motionless they hang. 

'Tis well with him, for he is gone 

Where snow no more is foimd, 
Where the gay thorn's perpetual bloom 

Decks all the field around. 

Where wild birds sing from every spray, 

Where deer ccme sweeping by, 
Where fish from every lake afford 

A plentiful supply. 

With spirits now he feasts above. 

And leaves us here alone. 
To celebrate his valiant de?ds, 

And round his grave to moan. 

Sound the death song, bring forth the gifts. 

The last gifts of the dead, — 
Let all which yet may yield him joy 

Within his grave be laid. 

The hatchet place beneath his head 

Still red with hostile blood; 
And add, because the way is long. 

The bear's fat limbs for food. 

The scalping-knife beside him lay. 

With paints of gorgeous dye, 
That in the land of souls his form 

May shine triumphantly. 

It appears from other sources that Carver's 
visit to the Dahkotahs was of some effect in bring- 
ing about friendly intercourse between them and 
the commander of the English force at Mackinaw, 



The earliest mention of the Dahkotas, in any 
pubUc British documents that we know of, is in 
the correspondence between Sir William Johnson, 
Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Colony 
of New York, and General Gage, in command of 
the forces. 

On the eleventh of September, less than six 
months after Carver's speech at Dayton's Bluif , 
and the departure of a number of chiefs to the 
English fort at Mackinaw, Johnson writes to 
General Gage: " Though I wrote to you some 
days ago, yet I would not mind saying something 
again on the score of the vast expenses incurred, 
and, as I understand, still incurring at Michil;i- 
mackinac, chiefly on pretence of making a peace 
between the Sioux and Chippeweighs, with which 
I think we have very little to do, in good policy 
or otherwise." 

Sir William Johnson, in a letter to Lord Hills- 
borough, one of his Majesty's mmisters, dated 
August seventeenth, 1768, again refers to the 

" Much greater part of those who go a trading 
are men of such circumstances and disposition as 
to venture their persons everywhere for extrava- 
gant gains, yet the consequences to the pubUc 
are not to be slighted, as we may be led into a 
general quarrel through their means. The In- 
dians in the part adjacent to Michilimackinac 
have been treated with at a very great expense 
for some time previous. 

" Major Rodgers brings a considerable charge 
against the former for mediating a peace between 
some tribes of the Sioux and some of the Chippe- 
weighs, which, had it been attended with success, 
would only have been interesting to a very few 
French, and others, that had goods in that part 
of the Indian country, but the contrary has hap- 
pened, and they are now more violent, and war 
against one another." 

Though a wilderness of over one thousand miles 
intervened between the Falls of St. Anthony and 
the white settlements of the English, Carver was 
fully impressed with the idea that the State now 
organized under the name of Minnesota, on ac- 
count of its beauty and fertility, would attract 

Speaking of the advantages of the country, he 
says that the future population will be "able to 
convey their produce to the seaports with great 

facility, the current of the river from its source 
to its entrance into the Gulf of Mexico being ex- 
tremely favourable for doing this in small craft 
Tliis might also m time he facilitated hy canals or 
shorter cuts, and a com/munication opened hy water 
loith New York by way of tlie LaTces." 

The subject of this sketch was also confident 
that a route would be discovered by way of the 
Minnesota river, which "would open a passage 
to China and the, English settlements in the East 

Carver, having returned to England, interested 
Whitworth, a member of parliament, in the 
northern route. Had not the American Revolu- 
tion commenced, they proposed to have built a 
fort at Lake Pepin, to have proceeded up the 
Minnesota until thoy found, as they supposed 
they could, a branch of the Missouri, and from 
thence, journeying over the summit of lands un- 
til they came to a river which they called Oregon, 
they expected to descend to the Pacific. 

Carver, in common with other travelers, had 
his theory in relation to the origin of the Dahko- 
tahs. He supposed that they came from Asia. 
He remarks: " But this might have been at dif- 
ferent times and from various parts — from Tar- 
tary, China, Japan, for the inhabitants of these 
places resemble each other. * * * 

" It is very evident that some of the names and 
customs of the American Indians resemble those 
of tho Tartars, and I make no doubt but that in 
some future era, and this not far distant, it will 
be reduced to certainty that during some of the 
wars between the Tartars and Chinese a part of 
the inhabitauts of the northern provinces were 
driven from their native country, and took refuge 
in some of the isles before mentioned, and from 
thence found their way into America. * * * 

" Many words are used both by the Chinese and 
the Indians which have a resemblance to each 
other, not only in their sound, but in their signi- 
fication. The Chinese call a slave Shungo; and 
the JSTaudowessie Indians, whose language, from 
their little intercourse with the Europeans, is 
least corrupted, term a dog Shungush [Shoan- 
kah]. The former denominate one species of their 
tea Shoushong; the latter call their tobacco Shou- 
sas-sau [Chanshashaj. Many other of the words 
used by the Indians contain the syllables c/ie, 
chaw, and chu, after the dialect of the Chinese." 



The comparison of languages has become a rich 
source of historical knowledge, yet many of the 
analogies traced are fanciful. The remark of 
Humbolt in " Cosmos" is worthy of remembrance. 
"As the structure of American idioms appears 
remarkably strange to nations speaking the mod- 
ern languages of Western Europe, and who readily 
suffer themselves to be led away by some acci- 
dental analogies of sound, theologians have gen- 
erally believed that they could trace an affinity 
with the Hebrew, Spanish colonists with the 
Basque and the EngUsh, or E/ench settlers with 
Gaelic, Erse, or the Bas Breton. I one day met 
on the coast of Peru, a Spanish naval officer and 
an English whaling captain, the fontier of whom 
declared that he had heard Basque spoken at Ta- 
hiti; the other, Gaelic or Erse at the Sandwich 

Carver became very poor while in England, 
and was a clerk in a lottery-office. He died in 
1780, and left a widow, two sons, and five daught- 
ers, in New England, and also a child by another 
wife that he had married in Great Britain 

After his death a claim was urged for the land 
upon which the capital of Minnesota now stands' 
and for many miles adjacent. As there are still 
many persons who believe that they have some 
right through certain deeds purporting to be from 
the heirs of Carver, it is a matter worthy of an 

Carver says nothing in his book of travels in re- 
lation to a grant from the Dahkotahs, but after 
he was buried, it was asserted that there was a 
deed belonging to him in existence, conveying 
valuable lands, and that said deed was executed 
at the cave now in the eastern suburbs of Saint 


" To Jonathan Carver, a chief under the most 
mighty and potent George the Third, King of tlie 
English and other nations, the fame of whose 
warriors has reached our ears, and has now been 
fully told us by our good brother Jonathan, afore- 
said, whom we rejoice to have come among us, 
and bring us good news from his country. 

"We, chiefs of the Naudowessies, who have 
hereunto set our seals, do by these presents, for 
ourselves and heirs forever, in return for the aid 
and other good services done by the said Jona- 

than to ourselves and allies, give grant and con- 
vey to him, the said Jonathan, and to his heirs 
and assigns forever, the whole of a certain tract 
or territory of land, bounded as follows, viz: from 
the Falls of St. Anthony, running on the east 
bank of the Mississippi, nearly southeast, as far 
as Lake Pepin, where the Chippewa joins the 
Mississippi, and from thence eastward five days 
travel, accounting twenty English miles per day; 
and from thence again to the Falls of St. Anthony, 
on a direct straight line. We do for ourselves, 
heirs, and assigns, forever give unto the said Jo- 
nathan, his heirs and assigns, with all the trees, 
rocks, and rivers therein, reserving the sole lib- 
erty of hunting and fishing on land not planted 
or improved by the said Jonathan, his heirs and 
assigns, to which we have affixed our respective 

" At the Great Cave, May 1st, 1767. 



The original deed was never exhibited by the 
assignees of the heirs. By liis English wife Car- 
ver had one child, a daughter Martha, who was 
cared for by Sir Eichard and Lady Pearson. In 
time she eloped and married a sailor. A mercan- 
tile firm in London, thinking that money could 
be made, induced the newly married couple, the 
day after the wedding, to convey the grant to 
them, with the understanding that they were to 
have a tenth of the profits. 

The merchants despatched an agent by the 
name of Clarke to go to the Dahkotalis, and ob- 
tain a new deed; but on his way he was murdered 
in the state of New York. 

In the year 1794, the heirs of Carver's Ameri- 
can wife, in consideration of fifty thousand pounds 
sterling, conveyed their interest in the Carver 
grant to Edward Houghton of Vermont. In the 
year 1806, Samuel Peters, who had been a tory 
and an Episcopal minister during the Revolu- 
tionary war, alleges, in a petition to Congress, 
that he had also purchased of the heirs of Carver 
their rights to the grant. 

Before the Senate committee, the same year, 
he testified aS follows: 

"In the year 1774, 1 amved there (London), 

and met Captain Carver. In 1775, Carver had a 

hearing before the king, praying his. majesty's 

' approval of a deed of land dated May first, 1767, 



and sold and granted to him by tlie Naudowissies. 
The result was his majesty approved of the exer- 
tions and bravery of Captain Carver among the 
Indian nations, near the Falls of St. Anthony, in 
the Mississippi, gave to said Carver 1371Z. 13s. %d. 
sterling, and ordered a frigate to be prepared, 
and a transport ship to carry one hundred and 
fifty men, under command of Captain Carver, with 
four others as a committee, to sail the next June 
to New Orleans, and then to ascend the Missis- 
sippi, to take possession of said territory conveyed 
to Captain Carver ; but the battle of Bunker Hill 

In 1821, General Leavenworth, having made 
inquiries of the Dahkotahs, in relation to the 
alleged claim, addressed the following to the 
commissioner of the land ofiice : 

" Sir: — Agreeably to your request, I have the 
honour to inform you what I have understood 
from the Indians of the Sioux Nation, as well as 
some facts within my own knowledge, as to what 
is commonly termed Carver's Grant. The grant 
purports to be made by the chiefs of the Sioux 
of the Plains, and one of the chiefs uses the sign 
of a serpent, and the other of a turtle, purport- 
ing that their names are derived from those ani- 

"The land lies on the east side of the Mississ- 
ippi. The Indians do not recognize or acknowl 
edge the grant to be valid, and they among others 
assign the following reasons: 

"1. The Sioux of the Plains never owned a 
foot of land on the east side of the Mississippi. 
The Sioux Nation is divided into two grand di- 
visions, viz: The Sioux of the Lake; or perhaps 
more literally Sioux of the .Kiver, and Sioux of 
the Plain. The former subsists by hunting and 
fishing, and usually move from place to place by 
water, in canoes, during the summer season, and 
travel on the ice in the winter, when not on 
their hunting excursions. The latter subsist en- 
tirely by hunting, and have no canoes, nor do 
they know but little about the use of them. They 
reside in the large prairies west of the Mississippi, 
and follow the buffalo, upon which they entirely 
subsist; these are called Sioux of the Plain, and 
never owned land east of the Mississippi. 

" 2. The Indians say they have no knowledge 
of any such chiefs as those who have signed the 
grant to Carver, either amongst the Sioux of the 

River or the Sioux of the Plain. They say that 
if Captain Carver did ever obtain a deed or 
grant, it was signed by some foolish young men 
who were not chiefs and who were not author- 
ized to make a grant. Among the Sioux of the 
Eiver there are no such names. 

" 3. They say the Indians never received any- 
thing for the land, and they have no intention to 
part with it without a consideration. Prom my 
knowledge of the Indians, I am induced to think 
they would not make so considerable a grant, and 
have it to go into full efdect without receiving a 
substantial consideration. 

'• 4. They have, and ever have had, the pos- 
session of the land, and intend to keep it. I 
know that they are very particular in making 
every person who wishes to cut timber on that 
tract obtain their permission to do so, and to ob- 
tain payment for it. In the month of May last, 
some Frenchmen brought a large raft of red cedar 
timber out of the Chippewa Eiver, which timber 
was cut on the tract before mentioned. The In- 
dians at one of the villages on the Mississippi, 
where the principal chief resided, compelled the 
Frenchmen to land the raft, and would not per- 
mit them to pass until they had received pay for 
the timber, and the Frenchmen were compelled 
to leave their raft with the Indians until they 
went to Prairie du Chien, and obtained the nec- 
essary articles, and made the payment required." 

On the twenty- third of January, 1823, the Com- 
mittee of Public Lands made a report on the 
claim to the Senate, which, to every disinterested 
person, is entirely satisfactory. After stating 
the facts of the petition, the report continues: 

" The Eev. Samuel Peters, in his petition, fur- 
ther states that Lefei, the present Emperor of 
the Sioux and Naudowessies, and Eed Wing, a 
sachem, the heirs and successors of the two grand 
chiefs who signed the said deed to Captain Car- 
ver, have given satisfactory and positive proof 
that they allowed their ancestors' deed to be gen- 
uine, good, and valid, and that Captain Carver's 
heirs and assigns are the owners of said territory, 
and may occupy it free of all molestation. 

The committee have examined and considered 
the claims thus exhibited by the petitioners, and 
remark that the original deed is not produced, nor 
any competent legal evidence offered of its execu- 
tion ; nor is there any proof that the persons, who 



it is alleged made the deed, were the chiefs of 
said tribe, nor that (if chiefs) they had authority 
to grant and give away the land belonging to their 
tribe. The paper annexed to the petition, as a 
copy of said deed, has no "subscribing witnesses ; 
and it would seem impossible, at this remote pe- 
riod, to ascertain the important fact, that the per- 
sons who signed the deed comprehended and 
understood the meaning and effect of their act. 

" The want of proof as to these facts, would 
interpose in the waj of the claimants insuperable 
difHculties. But, in the opinion of the committee, 
the claim is not such as the United States are 
under any obligation to allow, even if the deed 
were proved in legal form. 

" The British government, before the time when 
the alleged deed bears date, had deemed it pru- 
dent and necessary for the preservation of peace 
with the Indian tribes under their sovereignty, 
protection and dominion, to prevent British sub- 
jects from purchasing lands from the Indians, 
and this rule of policy was made known and en- 
forced by the proclamation of the king of Great 
Britain, of seventh October, 1763, which contains 
an express prohibition. 

" Captain Carver, aware of the law, and know- 
ing that such a contract could not vest the legal 
title in him, applied to the British government to 
ratify and confirm the Indian grant, and, though 
it was competent for that government then to 
confirm the grant, and vest the title of said land 

in him, yet, from some cause, that government 
did not think proper to do it. 

" The territory has since become the property 
of the United States, and an Indian grant not 
good against the British government, would ap- 
pear to be not binding unon the United States 

" What benefit the British government derived 
from the services of Captain Carver, by his trav- 
els and residence among the Indians, that gov- 
ernment alone could determine, and alone could 
judge what remuneration those services deserved. 

" One fact appears from the declaration of Mr. 
Peters, in his statement in writing, among the 
papers exhibited, namely, that the British gov- 
ernment did give Captain Carver the sum of one 
thousand three hundred and seventy-five pounds 
six shillings and eight pence sterling. To the 
United States, however. Captain Carver rendered 
no services which could be assumed as any equit- 
able ground for the support of the petitioners' 

" The committee being of opinion that the 
United States are not bound in law and equity to 
confirm the said alleged Indian grant, recom- 
mend the adoption of the resolution: 

" ' Resolved, That the prayer of the petitioners 
ought not to be granted." ' 

Lord Palmerston stated in 1839, that no trace 
could be foimd in the records of the British 
oflSce of state papers, showing any ratification of 
the Carver grant. 





Trading Posts at the beginning of Nineteentli Century. — Sandy Lalce Fort. — 
Leech Lake Fort. — William Morrison, hefore Schoolcraft at Itasca Lake,— Divi- 
sion of Northwest Territory, — Organization of Indiana, Michigan and Upper 
Louisiana. — Notices of Wood, Frazer, Fisher, Cimeron, Faribault.— Early 
Traders. — Pike's Council at Mouth of Minnesota River.— Grant for Military 
Posts. — Encampment at Falls of St. Anthony. — Block House near Swan River. 
— Vibit to Sandy and Leech Lakes.— British Flag Shot at and Lowered. — 
Thompson, Topographer of Northwest Company. — Pike at Dickson's Trading 
Post. — Returns to Mendota.— Pails to find Carver's Cave, — Conierence with 
Little Crow. ~Cameron sells Liquor to Indiana, 

At the beginning of the present century, the 
region now known as Minnesota, contained no 
white men, except a few engaged in the fur trade. 
In the treaty effected by Hon. John Jay, Great 
Britain agreed to withdraw her troops from all 
posts and places within certain boundary lines, 
on or before the first of June, 1796, but all Brit- 
ish settlers and traders might remaiu for one 
year, and enjoy all their former privileges, with- 
out being obliged to be citizens of the United 
States of America. 

In the year 1800, the trading posts of Minnesota 
were chiefly held by the Northwest Company, 
and their chief traders resided at Sandy Lake, 
Leech Lake, and Ton du Lac, on St. Louis Eiver. 
In the year 1794, this company biiilt a stockade 
one hundred feet square, on the southeast end of 
Sandy Lake. There were bastions pierced for 
small arms, in the southeast and ia the northwest 
comer. The pickets which surrounded the post 
were thirteen feet high. On the north side there 
was a gate ten by nine feet ; on the west side, one 
six by five feet, and on the east side a third gate 
six by five feet. Travelers entering the main 
gate, saw on the left a one story building twenty 
feet square, the residence of the superintendent, 
and on the left of the east gate, a building twenty- 
five by fifteen, the quarters of the voyagenrs. 
Entering the western gate, on the left was a stone 
house, twenty by thirty feet, and a house twenty 
by forty feet, used as a store, and a workshop, 
and a residence for clerks. On the south shore 
of Leech Lake there was another establishment, 
a little larger. The stockade was one hundred , 

and fifty feet square. The main building was 
sixty by twenty-five feet, and one and a half story 
in height, where resided the Director of the fur 
trade of the Pond du Lac department of the North- 
west Company. In the centre was a small store, 
twelve and a half feet square, and near the main 
gate was flagstaff fifty feet in height, from 
which used to float the flag of Great Britain. 

"William Morrison was, in 1802, the trader at 
Leech Lake, and in 1804 he was at Elk Lake, the 
source of the Mississippi, thirty-two years after- 
wards named by Schoolcraft, Lake Itasca. 

The entire force of the Northwest Company, 
west of Lake Superior, in 1805, consisted of three 
accountants, nineteen clerks, two interpreters, 
eighty-five canoe men, and with them were 
twenty-nine Indian or half-breed women, and 
about fifty children. 

On the seventh of May, 1800, the Northwest 
Territory, which included all of the western 
country east of the Mississippi, was divided. 
The portion not designated as Ohio, was organ- 
ized as the Territory of Indiana. 

On the twentieth of December, 1803, the 
province of Louisiana, of which that portion of 
Minnesota west of the Mississippi was a part, 
was officially delivered up by the French, who 
had just obtained it from the Spaniards, accord- 
ing to treaty stipulations. 

To the transfer of Louisiana by France, after 
twenty days' possession, Spain at first objected ; 
but in 1804 withdrew all opposition. 

President Jefferson now deemed it an object 
of paramount importance for the United States 
to explore the country so recently acqiiired, and 
make the acquaintance of the tribes residing 
therein ; and steps were taken for an expedition 
to the upper Mississippi. 

Early in March, 1804, Captain Stoddard, of the 
United States army, arrived at St. Louis, the 
agent of the French Kepublic, to receive from 



the Spanish authorities the possession of the 
coimtry, which he immediately transferred to the 
United States. 

As the old settlers, on the tenth of March, saw 
the ancient flag of Spain displaced by that of the 
United States, the tears coursed down their 

On the twentieth of the same month, the terri- 
tory of Upper Louisiana was constituted, com- 
prising the present states of Arkansas, Missouri, 
Iowa, and a large portion of Minnesota. 

On the eleventh of January, 1805, the terri- 
tory of Michigan was organized. 

The first American oiBcer who visited Minne- 
sota, on business of a public nature, was one who 
was an ornament to his profession, and in energy 
and endurance a true representative of the citi- 
zens of the United States. "We refer to the 
gallant Zebulon Montgomery Pike, a native of 
!New Jersey, who afterwards fell in battle at 
York, Upper Canada, and whose loss was justly 
mourned by the whole nation. 

When a young lieutenant, he was ordered by 
General Wilkinson to visit the region now known 
as Minnesota, and expel the British traders who 
were found violating the laws of the United 
States, and form alliances with the Indians. 
With only a few common soldiers, he was obliged 
to do the work of several men. At times he 
would precede his party for miles to reconnoitre, 
and then he would do the duty of hunter. 

During the day he would perform the part of 
surveyor, geologist, and astronomer, and at night, 
though hungry and fatigued, his lofty enthu- 
siasm kept him awake until he copied the notes, 
and plotted the courses of the day. 

On the 4th day of September, 1805, Pike ar- 
rived at Prairie du Chien, from St. Louis, and 
was politely treated by three traders, all born un- 
der the flag of the United States. One was named 
Wood, another Prazer, a nati\e of Vermont, 
who, when a young man became a clerk of one 
Blakely, of Montreal, and thus became ;i fur 
trader. The third was Henry Fisher, a captain 
of the Militia, and Justice of the Peace, whose 
wife was a daughter of Goutier de Verville. 
Fisher was said to have been a nephew of Pres- 
dent Monroe, and later in life traded at the 
sources of the Minnesota. One of his daughters 
was the mother of Joseph Eolette, Jr., a mem- 

ber of the early Minnesota Legislative assem- 
blies. On the eighth of the month Lieutenant 
Pike left Prairie du Chien, in two batteaux, with 
Sergeant Henry Kennerman, Corporals William 
E. Mack and Samuel Bradley, and ten privates. 

At La Crosse, Frazer, of Prairie dii Chien, 
overtook him, and at Sandy point of Lake Pepin 
he found a trader, a Scotchman by the name of 
Murdoch Cameron, with his son, and a young 
man named John Rudsdell. On the twonty- 
flrst he breakfasted with the Kaposia band of 
Sioux, who then dwelt at the marsh below Day- 
ton's Bluff, a few miles below St. Paul. The 
same day he passed three miles from Mendota 
the encampment of J. B. Faribault, a trader and 
native of Lower Canada, then about thirty years 
of age, in which viciaity he continued for more 
than fifty years. He married Pelagie the daugh- 
ter of Francis Kinnie by an Indian woman, 
and ids eldest son, Alexander, bom soon after 
Pike's visit, was the founder of the town of 

Arrivrag at the confluence of the Minnesota 
and the Mississippi Rivers, Pike and his soldiers 
encamped on the Northeast point of the island 
which still bears his name. The next day was 
Sunday, and he visited Cameron, at his trading 
post on the Minnesota Elver, a short distance 
above Mendota. 

On Monday, the 23d of September, at noon, 
he held a Council with the Sioux, under a cover- 
ing made by suspending saUs, and gave an ad- 
mirable talk, a portion of which was as follows : 
* " Brothers, I am happy to meet you here, at 
this council fire which your father has sent me to 
kindle, and to take you by the hands, as our chil- 
dren. We having but lately acquired from the 
Spanish, the extensive territory of Louisiana, our 
general has thought proper to send out a number 
of his warriors to visit all his red children ; to tell 
them his will, and to hear what request they may 
have to make of their father. I am happy the 
choice fell on me to come this road, as I find 
my brothers, the Sioux, ready to listen to my 

" Brothers, it is the wish of our government to 
establish military posts on the Upper Mississippi, 
at such places as might be thought expedient. I 
have, therefore, examined the country, and have 
pitched on the mouth of the river St. Croix, this 



place, and the Falls of St. Anthony ; I therefore 
wish you to grant to the United States, nine 
miles square, at St. Croix, and at this place, from 
a league below the confluence of the St. Peter's 
and Mississippi, to a league above St. Anthony, 
extending three leagues on each side of the river ; 
and as we are a people who are accustomed to 
have all our acts written down, in order to have 
them handed to our children, I have drawn up a 
form of an agreement, which we will both sign, 
in the presence of the traders now present. After 
we know the terms, we will fill it up, and have it 
read and interpreted to you. 

" Brothers, those posts are intended as a bene- 
fit to you. The old chiefs now present miast see 
that their situation improves by a communication 
vith the whites. It is the intention of the United 
States to establish at those posts factories, in 
which the Indians may procure all their things 
at a cheaper and better rate than they do now, or 
than your traders can afford to sell them to you, 
as they aie single men, who come from far in 
small boats ; but your fathers are many and 
strong, and will come with a strong arm, in large 
boats. There will also be chiefs here, who can 
attend to the wants of their brothers, without 
their sending or going all the way to St. Louis, 
and will see the traders that go up your rivers, 
and know that they are good men. * * * * 
"Brothers, I now present you with some of 
your father's tobacco, and some other trifling 
things, as a memorandum of my good will, and 
before my departure I will give you some liquor 
to clear your throats." 

The traders, Cameron and Frazer, sat with 
Pike. His interprnter was Pierre Rosseau. 
Among the Chiefs present were Le Petit Cor- 
beau (Little Crow), and Way-ago Enagee, and 
L'Orignal Leve or Eising Moose. It was with 
difficulty that the chiefs signed the following 
agreement ; not that they objected to the lan- 
guage, but because they thought their word 
should be taken, without any mark ; but Pike 
overcame their objection, by saying that he wished 
them to sign it on his account. 

" Whereas, at a conference held between the 
United States of America and the Sioux na- 
tion of Indians, Lieutenant Z. M. Pike, of the 
army of the United States, and the chiefs and 
warriors of said tribe, have agreed to the follow- 

ing articles, which, when ratified and approved of 
by the proper authority, shall be binding on both 
parties : 

Akt. 1. That the Sioux nation grant unto the 
United States, for the purpose of establishment 
of military posts, nine miles square, at the mouth 
of the St. Croix, also from below the confluence 
of the Mississippi and St. Peter's, up the Missis- 
sippi to include the Falls of St. Anthony, extend- 
ing nine miles on each side of the river ; that the 
Sioux Nation grants to the United States the full 
sovereignty and power over said district forever. 
Abt. 2. That in consideration of the above 
grants, the United States shall pay [filled up by 
the Senate with 2,000 dollars]. 

Art. 3. The United States promise, on their 
part, to permit the Sioux to pass and repass, hunt, 
or make other use of the said districts, as they 
have formerly done, without any other exception 
' than those specified in article first. 

In testimony whereof, we, the undersigned, 
have hereunto set our hands and seals, at the 
mouth of the river St. Peter's, on the 23d day of 
September, 1805. 

Z. M. PIKE, [L. S.] 
1st Lieutenant and agent at the above conference. 

mark " 

The following entries from Pike's Journal, des- 
criptive of the region around the city of Minne- 
apoUs, seventy-five years ago, are worthy of pres- 

"Sept. 26th, Thursday.— 'Embarked at the usual 
hour, and after much labor in passing through 
the rapids, arrived at the foot of the Falls about 
three or four o'clock ; unloaded my boat, and had 
the principal part of her cargo carried over the 
portage. With the other boat, however, full 
loaded, they were not able to get over the last 
shoot, and encamped about six yards below. I 
pitched my tent and encamped above the shoot. 
The rapids mentioned in this day's march, might 
properly be called a continuation of the Falls of 
St. Anthony, for they are equally entitled to this 
appellation, with the Falls of the Delaware and 



Susquehanna. Killed one deer. Distance nine 

Sept. 27tli, Friday. Brought over the residue 
of my loading this morning. Two men arrived 
from Mr. Frazer, on St. Peters, for my dispatches. 
This business, closing and sealing, appeared like 
a last adieu to the civilized world. Sent a large 
packet to the General, and a letter to Mrs. Pike, 
with a short note to Mr. Frazer. Two young 
Indians brought my flag across by land, who ar- 
rived yesterday, just as we came in sight of the 
Pall. I made them a present for their, punctual- 
ity aind expedition, and the danger they were ex- 
posed to from the journey. Carried our boats out 
of the river, as far as the bottom of the hUl. 

Sept. 28th , Saturday. — Brought my barge over, 
and put her in the river above the Falls. While 
we were engaged with her three-fourths miles 
from camp, seven Indians painted black, appeared 
on the heights. We had left our guns at the 
camp and were entirely defenceless. It occurred 
to me that they were the small party of Sioux who 
were obstinate, and would go to war, when the 
other part of the bands came in; these they 
proved to be ; they were better armed than any I 
had ever seen ; having g^uns, bows, arrows, clubs, 
spears, and some of them even a case of pistols. 
I was at that time giving my men a dram ; and 
giving the cup of liquor to the first, he drank it 
off ; but I was more cautious with the remainder. 
I sent my interpreter to camp with them, to wait 
my coming ; wishing to purchase one of their war 
clubs, it being made of elk horn, and decorated 
with inlaid work. This and a set of bows and 
arrows I wished to get as a curiosity. But the 
liquor I had given him began to operate, he came 
back for me, but refusing to go till I brought my 
boat, he returned, and (I suppose being offended) 
borrowed a canoe and crossed the river. In the 
afternoon got the other boat near the top of the 
hUl, when the props gave way, and she slid all the 
way dovm to the bottom, but fortunately without 
injuring any person. It raining very hard, we 
left her. Killed one goose and a racoon. 

Sept. 29th, Sunday. — I killed a remarkably 
large racoon. Got our large boat over the port- 
age, and put her in the river, at the upper land- 
ing ; this night the men gave sufficient proof of 
their fatigue, by all throwing themselves down to 
sleep, preferring rest to supper. This day I had 

but fifteen men out of twenty-two ; the others 
were sick. This voyage could have been per- 
formed with great convenience, if we had taken 
our departure in June. But the proper time 
would be to leave the Illinois as soon as the ice 
would permit, when the river would be of a good 

Sept. 30th, Monday. — Loaded my boat, moved 
over and encamped on the Island. The large boats 
loading likewise, we went over and put on board. 
In the mean time, I took a survey of the Falls, 
Portage, etc. If it be possible to pass the Falls 
in high water, of which I am doubtful, it must 
be on the East side, about thirty yards from 
shore ; as there are three layers of rocks, one. be- 
low the other. The pitch ofE of either, is not 
more than five feet ; but of this I can say more 
on my return. 

On the tenth of October, the expedition 
reached some arge island below Sauk Sapids, 
where in 1797, Porlier and Joseph KenviUe had 
wintered. Six days after this, he reached the 
Rapids in Morrison coimty, which still bears his 
name, and he writes: "When we arose in the 
morning, found that snow had fallen during the 
night, the ground was covered and it contiaued 
to snow. This, indeed, was but poor encourage- 
ment for attacking the Rapids, in which we were 
certain to wade to our necks. I was determined, 
however, if possible to make la riviere de Cor- 
beau, [Crow Wing River], the highest point was 
made by traders in their bark canoes. We em- 
barked, and after four hours work, became so 
benumbed with cold that our limbs were perfectly 
useless. We put to shore on the opposite side of 
the river, about two-thirds of the way up the 
rapids. Built a large fire ; and then discovered 
that our boats were nearly half fuU of water; 
both having sprung large leaks so as to oblige me 
to keep three hands bailing. My sergeant (Ken- 
nerman) one of the stoutest men I ever knew, 
broke a blood-vessel and vomited nearly two 
quarts of blood. One of my corporals (Bradley) 
also evacuated nearly a pint of blood, when he 
attempted to void his urine. These unhappy 
circumstances, in addition to the inability of 
four other men whom we were obliged to leave 
on shore, convinced me, that if I had no regard 
for my own health and constitution, I should 
have some for those poor fellows, who were kill- 



ing themselves to obey my orders. After we had 
breakfast and refreshed ourselves, we went down 
to OTir boats on the rocks, w^ere I was obliged to 
leave them. I then informed my men that we 
would return to the camp and there leave some 
of the party and our large boats. This informa- 
tion was pleasing, and the attempt to reach the 
camp soon accomplished. My reasons for this 
step have partly been already stated. The nec- 
essity of unloading and refitting my boats, the 
beauty and convenience of the spot for building 
huts, the fine pine trees for peroques, and the 
quantity of game, were additional inducements. 
We immediately unloaded our boats and secured 
their cargoes. In the evening I went out upon a 
small, but beautiful creek, which emptied into 
the Falls, for the purpose of selecting pine trees 
to make canoes. Saw five deer, and killed one 
buck weighing one hundred and thirty-seven 
pounds. By my leaving men at this place, and 
from the great quantities of game in its vicinity, 
I was ensured plenty of provision for my return 
voyage. In the party left behind was one hunter, 
to be continually employed, who would keep our 
stock of salt provisions good. Distance two 
hundred and thirty-three and a half mUes above 
the Falls of St. Anthony. 

Having left his large boats and some soldiers 
at this point, he proceeded to the vicinity of 
Swan River where he erected a block house, and 
on the thirty-first of October he writes: "En- 
closed my little work completely with pickets. 
Hauled up my two boats and turned them over 
on each side of the gateways ; by which means 
a defence was made to the river, and had it not 
been for various political reasons, I would have 
laughed at the attack of eight hundred or a 
thousand savages, if all my party were within. 
For, except accidents, it would only have afford- 
ed amusement, the Indians having no idea of 
taking a place by storm. Found myself power- 
fully attacked with the fantastics of the brain, 
called ennui, at the mention of which I had 
hitherto scoffed ; but my books being packed up, 
I was like a person entranced, and could easily 
conceive why so many persons who have been 
confined to remote places, acquire the habit of 
drinking to excess, and many other vicious prac- 
tices, which have been adopted merely to pass 

During the next month he hunted the buffalo 
which were then in that vicinity. On the third 
of December he received a visit from Eobert 
Dickson, afterwards noted in the history of the 
country, who was then trading about sixty mUes 
below, on the Mississippi. 

On the tenth of December with some sleds he 
continued his journey northward, and on the last 
day of the year passed Pine River. On the third 
of January, 1806, he reached the trading post at 
Red Cedar, now Cass Lake, and was quite indig- 
nant at finding the British flag floating from the 
staff. The night after this his tent caught on 
fire, and he lost some valuable and necessary 
clothing. On the evening of the eighth he reach- 
ed Sandy Lake and was hospitably received by 
Grant, the trader in charge. He writes . 

" Jan. 9th, Thursday. — Marched the corporal 
early, in order that our men should receive 
assurance of our safety and success. He carried 
with him a small keg of spirits, a present from 
Mr. Grant. The establishment of this place was 
formed twelve years since, by the North-west 
Company, and was formerly under the charge of 
a Mr: Charles Brusky. It has attained at present 
such regularity, as to permit the superintendent 
to Uve tolerably comfortable. They have horses 
they procured from Red River, of the Indians ; 
raise plenty of Irish potatoes, catch pike, suckers, 
pickerel, and white fish in abundance. They 
have also beaver, deer, and moose ; but the pro- 
vision they chiefly depend upon is wild oats, of 
which they purchase great quantities from the 
savages, giving at the rate of about one dollar 
and a half per bushel. But flDur, pork, and salt, 
are almost interdicted to persons not principals 
in the trade. Flour sells at half a dollar ; salt a 
dollar; pork eighty cents; sugar half a dollar; 
and tea four dollars and fifty cents per pound. 
The sugar is obtained from the Indians, and is 
made from the maple tree." 

He remained at Sandy Lake ten days, and on 
the last day two men of the Northwest Company 
arrived with letters from Fon du Lac Superior, 
one of which was from Athapuscow, and had 
been since May on the route. 

On the twentieth of January began his journey 
to Leech Lake, which he reached on the first of 
February, and was hospitably received by Hugh 



McGillis, the head of the Northwest Company at 
this post. 

A Mr. Anderson, in the employ of Eobert 
Dickson, was residing at the west end of the lake. 
While here he hoisted the American flag in the 
fort. The English yacht still flying at the top of 
the flagstaff, he directed the Indians and his sol- 
diers to shoot at it. They soon broke the iron 
pin to which it was fastened, and it fell to the 
ground. He was informed by a venerable old 
Ojibway chief, called Sweet, that the Sioux dwelt 
there when he was a youth. On the tenth of 
February, at ten o'clock, he left Leech Lake with 
Corporal Bradley, the trader McGillis and two of 
his men, and at sunset arrived at Bed Cedar, now 
Cass Lake. At this place, in 1798, Thompson, 
employed by the Northwest Company for three 
years, in topographical surveys, made some ob- 
servations. He believed that a line from the 
Lake of the Woods would touch the sources of 
the Mississippi. Pike, at this point, was very 
Mndly treated by a Canadian named Boy, and his 
Ojibway squaw. On Ids return home, he reached 
Clear Elver on the seventh of April, where he 
found his canoe and men, and at night was at 
Grand Rapids, Dickson's tradingpost. He talked 
until four o'clock the next morning with this 
person and another trader named Porlier. He 
forbade while there, the traders Greignor [Grig- 
non] and La Jennesse, to sell any more liquor to 
Indians, who had become very drunken and un- 
ruly. On the tenth he again reached the Palls 
of Saint Anthony. He writes in his journal as 
follows : 

April 11th, Friday. — Although it snowed very 
hard we brought over both boats, and descended 
the river to the island at the entrance of the St. 
Peter's. I sent to the chiefs and informed them 
I had something to communicate to them. The 
Pils de Pincho immediately waited on me, and 
informed me that he would provide a place for 
the purpose. About sundown I was sent for and 
introduced into the council-house, where I found 
a great many chiefs of the Sussitongs, Gens de 
Peuilles, and the Gens du Lac. The Yanctongs 
had not yet come down. They were all awaiting 
for my arrival. There were about one hundred 
lodges, or six hundred people; we were saluted 
on our crossing the river with ball as usual. The 
council-house was two large lodges, capable of 

containing three hundred men. In the upper 
were forty chiefs, and as many pipes set against 
the poles, alongside of which I had the Santeur's 
pipes arranged. I then informed them in short 
detail, of my transactions with the Santeurs; but 
my interpreters were not capable of making them- 
selves understood. I was therefore obliged to 
omit mentioning every particular relative to the 
rascal who fired on my sentinel, and of the scoun- 
drel who broke the Pols Avoins' canoes, and 
threatened my life; the interpreters, however, in- 
formed them that I wanted some of their princi- 
pal chiefs to go to St. Louis; and that those who 
thought proper might descend to the prairie, 
where we would give them more explicit infor- 
mation. They all smoked out of the Santeur's 
pipe, excepting three, who were painted black, 
and were some of those who lost their relations 
last winter. I invited the Pils de Pinchow, and 
the son of the Killeur Eouge, to come over and 
sup with me; when Mr. Dickson and myself en- 
deavored to explain what I intended to have said 
to them, could I have made myself understood; 
that at the prairie we would have all things ex- 
plained; that I was desirous of making a better 
report of them than Captain Lewis could do from 
their treatment of him. The former of those 
savages was the person who remained around my 
post all last winter, and treated my men so weU; 
they endeavored to excuse their people. 

"Apkil 12th, Saiwrda?/.— Embarked early. Al- 
though my interpreter had been frequently up the 
river, he could not tell me where the cave (spoken 
of by Carver) could be found ; . we carefully 
sought for it, but in vain. At the Indian viUage, 
a few miles below St. Peter's, we were about to 
pass a few lodges, but on receiving a very partic- 
ular invitation to come on shore, we landed, and 
were received in a lodge kindly; they presented 
us sugar. I gave the proprietor a dram, and was 
about to depart when he demanded a kettle of 
liquor; on being refused, and after I had left the 
shore, he told me he did not like the arrange- 
ments, and that he would go to war this summer. 
I directed the interpreter to tell him that if I 
returned to St. Peter's with the troops, I would 
settle that afEair with him. On our arrival at the 
St. Croix, I found the Pettit Corbeau with his 
people, and Messrs. Prazer and Wood. We had 
a conference, when the Pettit Corbeau made 



many apologies for the misconduct of his people; 
he represented to us the different manners in 
which the young warriors had been inducing him 
to go to war; that he had been much blamed for 
dismissing his party last fall; but that he was de- 
terniined to adhere as far as lay in his power to 
our instructions; that he thought it most prudent 
to remain here and restrain the warriors. He 
then presented me with a beaver robe and pipe, 
and his message to the general. That he was 
determined to preserve peace, and make the road 
clear; also a remembrance of his promised medal. 
I made a reply, calculated to confirm him in his 
good intentions, and assured him that he should 
not be the less remembered by his father, although 
not present. I was informed that, notwithstand- 
ing the instruction of his license, and my par- 
ticular request, Murdoch Cameron had taken 
liquor and sold it to the Indians on the river St. 
Peter's, and that his partner below had been 

equally imprudent. I pledged myself to prose- 
cute them according to law; for they have been 
the occasion of great confusion, and of much 
injury to the other traders. This day met a 
canoe of Mr. Dickson's loaded with provisions, 
under the charge of Mr. Anderson, brother of 
the Mr. Anderson at Leech Lake. He politely 
offered me any provision he had on board (for 
which Mr. Dickson had given me an order), but 
not now being in want, I did not accept of any. 
This day, for the first time, I observed the trees 
beginning to bud, and indeed the climate seemed 
to have changed very materially since we passed 
the Falls of St. Anthony." 

The strife of political parties growing out of 
the French Eevolution, and the declaration of 
war against Great Britain in the year 1812, post- 
poned the military occupation of the Upper 
Mississippi by the United States of America, for 
several years. 





Dickson and other tradors hostilo— Amorican stoolcade at Frairio du Chicn — Fort 
Shelby surrenders to Lt. Col. William McKay — Loyal traders Provenoallo and 
Faribault — Rising Moose or Ono<eyed Sioux — Capt. Bulger evacuates Fort 
McKay — Intelliganoe of Poaco. 

Notwithstanding the professions of friendship 
made to Pike, in the second war with Great Brit- 
ain, Dickson and others were found bearing arms 
against the Republic. 

A year after Pike left Prairie du Chien, it was 
evident, that under some secret influence, the 
Indian tribes were combining against the United 
States. In the year 1809 , Nicholas Jarrot declared 
that the British traders were furnishing the sav- 
ages with guns for hostile purposes. On the first 
of May, 1812, two Indians were apprehended at 
Chicago, who were on their way to meet Dickson 
at Green Bay. They had taken the precaution 
to hide letters in their moccasins, and bury them 
in the ground, and were allowed to proceed after 
a brief detention. Prazer, of Prairie du Chien, 
who had been with Pike at the Council at the 
mouth of the Minnesota Eiver, was at the port- 
age of the Wisconsin when the Indians delivered 
these letters, which stated that the British flag 
would soon be flying again at Mackinaw. At 
Green Bay, the celebrated warrior. Black Hawk, 
was placed in charge of the Indians who were to 
aid the British. The American troops at Macki- 
naw were obUged, on the seventeenth of July, 
1812, to capitulate without firing a single gun. 
One who was made prisoner, writes from Detroit 
to the Secretary of "War : 

" The persons who commanded the Indians are 
Eobert Dickson, Indian trader, and John Askin, 
Jr., Indian agent, and his son. The latter two 
were painted and dressed after the manner 
of the Indians. Those who commanded the 
Canadians are John Johnson, Crawford, Pothier, 
Armitinger, La Croix, Eolette, Pranks, Living- 
ston, and other traders, some of whom were lately 
concerned in smuggling British goods into the 

Indian country, and, in conjunction with others, 
have been using their utmost efforts, several 
months before the declaration of war, to excite 
the Indians to take up arms. The least resist- 
ance from the fort would have been attended 
with the destruction of all the persons who fell 
into the hands of the British, as I have been as- 
sured by some of the British traders." 

Oh the first of May, 1814, Governor Clark, 
with two hundred men, left St. Louis, to bmld a 
fort at the junction of the Wisconsin and Missis- 
sippi. Twenty days before he arrived at Prairie 
du Chien, Dickson had started for Mackinaw 
with a band of Dahkotahs and Winnebagoes. 
The place was left in command of Captain Deace 
and the Mackinaw Pencibles. The Dahkotahs 
refusing to co-operate, when the Americans made 
their appearance they fled. The Americans took 
possession of the old Mackinaw house, in which 
they found nine or ten trunks of papers belong- 
ing to Dickson. Prom one they took the follow- 
ing extract : 

" ' Arrived, from below, a few Winnebagoes 
with scalps. Gave them tobacco, six pounds 
powder and six pounds ball.' " 

A fort was immediately commenced on the 
site of the old residence of the late H. L. Dous- 
man, which was composed of two block-houses 
in the angles, and another on the bank of the 
river, with a subterranean communication. In 
honor of the governor of Kentucky it was named 
" Shelby." 

The fort was in charge of Lieutenant Perkins, 
and sixty rank and file, and two gunboats, each 
of which carried a six-pounder; and several 
howitzers were commanded by Captains Yeiser, 
Sullivan, and Aid-de-camp Kennedy. 

The traders at Mackinaw, learning that the 
Americans had built a fort at the Prairie, and 
knowing that as long as they held possession 
they would be cut oft from the trade with the 



Dahkotahs, immediately raised an expedition to 
capture the garrison. 

The captain was an old trader by the name of 
McKay, and under him was a sergeant of ar- 
tillery, with a brass six-pounder, and three or 
four volunteer companies of Canadian voyageurs, 
oflBcered by Captains Griguon, Rolette and An- 
derson, with Lieutenants Brisbois and Duncan 
Graham, all dressed in red coats, with a number 
of Indians. 

The Americans had scarcely completed their 
rude fortification, before the British force, guid- 
ed by Joseph Eolette, Sr., descended in canoes 
to a point on the Wisconsin, several miles from 
the Prairie, to which they marched in battle 
array. McKay sent a flag to the Fort demanding 
a surrender. Lieutenant Perkins replied that he 
would defend it to the last. 

A fierce encounter took place, in which the 
Americans were worsted. The officer was 
wounded, several men were killed and one of 
their boats captured, so that it became necessary 
to retreat to St. Louis. Port Shelby after its 
capture, was called Port McKay. 

Among the traders a few remained loyal, es- 
pecially Provencalle and J. B. Paribault, traders 
among the Sioux. Paribault was a prisoner 
among the British at the time Lieut. Col. Wm. 
McKay was preparing to attack Port Shelby, and 
he refused to perform any service, Paribault's 
wife, who was at Prairie du Chien, not knowing 
that her husband was a prisoner in the hands of 
the advancing foe, fled with others to the Sioux 
village, where is now the city of Winona. Pari- 
bault was at length released on parole and re- 
turned to his trading post. 

Pike writes of his flag, that "being in doubt 

whether it had been stolen by the Indians, or had 

fallen overboard and floated away, I sent for my 

friend the Orignal Leve." He also calls the 

Chief, Rising Moose, and gives his Sioux name 

Tahamie. He was one of those, who in 1805, 

signed the agreement, to surrender land at the 

junction of the Minnesota and Mississippi Elvers 

to the United States. He had but one eye, 

having lost the other when a boy, belonged to 

the Wapasha band of the Sioux, and proved 

tnie to the flag which had waved on the day he 

sat in council with Pike. 

In the fall of 1814, with another of the same 

nation, he ascended the Missouri tinder the pro- 
tection of the distinguished trader. Manual Lisa, 
as far as the Au Jacques or James River, and 
from thence struck across the country, enUsting 
the Sioux in favour of the United States, and at 
length arrived at Prairie du Chien. On his arri- 
val, Dickson accosted him, and inquired from 
whence he came, and what was his business ; at 
the same time rudely snatching his bundle from 
his shoulder, and searching for letters. The 
" one-eyed warrior " told him that he was from 
St. Louis, and that he had promised the white 
chiefs there that he would go to Prairie du Chien, 
and that he had kept his promise 

Dickson then placed him in confinement in 
Port McKay, as the garrison was called by the 
British, and ordered him to divulge what infor- 
mation he possessed, or he would put him to 
death. But the faithful fellow said he would 
impart nothing, and that he was ready for death 
if he wished to kill him. Pindiug that confine- 
ment had no effect, Dickson at last liberated him. 
He then left, and visited the bands of Sioux on 
the Upper Mississippi, with which he passed the 
winter. When he returned in the spring, Dick- 
son had gone to Mackinaw, and Capt. A. Bulger, 
of the Royal New Poundland Regiment, was in 
command of the fort. 

On the twenty-third ol May, 1815, Capt. Bul- 
ger, wrote from Port McKay to Gov. Clark at St. 
Louis : " Official intelligence of peace reached 
me yesterday. I propose evacuating the fort, 
taking with me the guns captured in the fort. * 
* * * I have not the smallest hesitation in 
declaring my decided opinion, that the presence 
of a detachment of British and United States 
troops at the same time, would be the means of 
embroiling one party or the other in a fresh rup- 
ture with the Indians, which I presume it is the 
wish of both governments to avoid." 

The next month the " One-Eyed Sioux," with 
three other Indians and a squaw, visited St. Louis, 
and he informed Gov. Clark, that the British 
commander left the cannons in the fort when he 
evacuated, but in a day or two came back, took 
the cannons, and fired the fort with the American 
flag flying, but that he rushed in and saved it 
from being burned. Prom this time, the British 
flag ceased to float in the Yalley of the Missis- 





.Carver s Grandsons. — ^Roque, Sioux Interpreter. — Wapashaw's Village and Its 
Vicinity. — A Sacred Dance. — Indian Village Below Dayton's BluiF. — Carver's 
Cave.— Fountain Cave. — Palls of St. Anthony Desoribed. — Site ora Tort. 

Major Stephen H. Long, of the Engineer Corps 
of the United States Army, learning that there 
■was little or no danger to be apprehended from 
the Indians, determined to ascend to the Palls of 
Saint Anthony, in a six-oared skiff presented to 
him by Governor Clark, of Saint Louis. His 
party consisted of a Mr. Hempstead, a native of 
New London, Connecticut, who had been living 
at Prairie du Chi en, seven soldiers, and a half- 
breed interpreter, named Eoque. A bark canoe 
accompanied them, containing Messrs. Gun and 
King, grandsons of the celebrated traveler, Jona- 
than Carver. 

On the ninth ot oUly, 1817, the expedition left 
Prairie du Chien, and on the twelfth arrived at 
" Trempe a I'eau." He -writes : 

" When we stopped for breakfast, Mr. Hemp- 
stead and myself ascended a high peak to take a 
■view of the country. It is kno^wn by the name 
of the Kettle Hill, having obtained this appella- 
tion from the circumstance of its having numer- 
ous piles of stone on its top, most of them 
fragments of the rocky stratifications which 
constitute the principal part of the hill, but some 
of them small piles made by the Indians. These 
at a distance have some similitude of kettles 
arranged along upon the ridge and sides of the 
hill. From this, or almost any other eminence in 
its neighborhood, the beauty and grandeur of the 
prospect would baffle the skill of the most inge- 
nious pencil to depict, and that of the most ac- 
complished pen to describe. Hills marshaled 
into a variety of agreeable shapes, some of them 
towering into lofty peaks, while others present 
broad summits embellished with contours and 
slopes in the most pleasing manner ; champaigns 
and waving valleys; forests, la^wns, and parks 
alternating with each other; the humble Missis- 

sippi meandering far below, and occasionally 
losing itself in numberless islands, give variety 
and beauty to the picture, while rugged clifEs and 
stupendous precipices here and there present 
themselves as if to add boldness and majesty to 
the scene. In the midst of this beautiful scenery 
is situated a village of the Sioux Indians, on an 
extensive la-wn called the Aux Aisle Prairie ; at 
which we lay by for a cliort time. On our arrival 
the Indians hoisted two American flags, and we 
returned the compliment by discharging our 
blunderbuss and pistols. They then fired several 
guns ahead of us by way of a salute, after which 
we landed and were received -with much friend- 
ship. The name of their chief is Wauppaushaw, 
or the Leaf, commonly called by a name of the 
same import in Prench, La Eeuille, or La Pye, 
as it is pronounced in English. He is considered 
one of the most honest and honorable of any of 
the Indians, and endeavors to inculcate into the 
minds of his people the sentiments and principles 
adopted by himself. He was not at home at the 
time I called, and I had no opportunity of seeing 
him. The Indians, as I suppose, 'with the ex- 
pectation that I had something to communicate 
to them, assembled themselves at the place 
where I landed and seated themselves upon the 
grass. I inquired if their chief was at home, 
and was answered in the negative. I then told 
them I should be very glad to see him, but as he 
WIS absent I would call on him again in a few 
days when I should return. I further told them 
that our father, the new President, wished to ob- 
tain some more information relative to his red 
children, and that I was on a tour to acquire any 
intelligence he might stand in need of. With 
this they appeared well satisfied, and permitted 
Mr. Hempstead and myself to go through their 
■village. While I was in the wigwam, one of the 
subordinate chiefs, whose name was Wazzecoota, 
or Shooter from the Pine Tree, volunteered to 



accompany me up the river. I accepted of his 
services, and he was ready to attend me on the 
tonr in a very short time. When we hove in 
sight the Indians were engaged in a ceremony 
called the Bear Dance; a ceremony which they 
are in the habit of performing when any yomig 
man is desirous of bringing himself into particu- 
lar notice, and is considered a kind of initiation 
into the state of manhood. I went on to the 
ground where they had their performances, 
which were ended sooner than usual on account 
of our arrival. There was a kind of flag made 
of favm skin dressed with the hair on, suspended 
on a pole. Upon the flesh side of it were drawn 
certain rude figures indicative of the dream 
which it is necessary the young man should have 
dreamed, before he can be considered a proper 
candidate for this kind of initiation ; with this a 
pipe was suspended by way of sacrifice. Two 
arrows were stuck up at the foot of the pole, 
and fragments of painted feathers, etc., were 
strewed about the ground near to it. These per- 
tained to the religious rites attending the cere- 
mony, which consists in bewailing and self -mor- 
tification, that the Good Spirit may be Induted 
to pity them and succor their undertaking. 

"At the distance of two or three hundred 
yards from the flag, is an excavation which they 
call the bear's hole, prepared for the occasion. 
It is about two feet deep, and has two ditches, 
about one foot deep, leading across it at right an- 
gles. The young hero of the farce places himself 
in this hole, to be hunted by the rest of the young 
men, all of whom on this occasion are dressed m 
their best attire and painted in their neatest style. 
The hunters approach the hole in the direction of 
one of the ditches, and discharge their guns, 
which were previously loaded for the purpose 
with blank cartridges, at the one who acts the 
part of the bear; whereupon he leaps from his 
den, havmg a hoop in each hand, and a wooden 
lance ; the hoops serving as forefeet to aid him 
in characterizing his part, and his lance to defend 
him from his assailants. Thus accoutred he 
dances roimd the place, exhibiting various feats 
of activity, while the other Indians pursue him 
and endeavor to trap him as he attempts to re- 
turn to his den, to effect which he is privileged to 
use any violence he pleases with impimity against 

his assailants, and even to taking the life of any 
of them. 

" This part of the ceremony is performed three 
times, that the bear may escape from his den 
and return to it again through three of the ave- 
nues communicating with it. On being hunted 
from the fourth or last avenue, the bear must 
make his escape through all hiij pursuers, If pos- 
sible, and flee to the woods, whei: ho ij tj remam 
through the day. This, however, is seldom or 
never accomplished, as all the young men exert 
themselves to the utmost In order to trap him. 
"When caught, he must retire to a lodge erected for 
his reception in the field, where he is to be se- 
cluded from all society through the day, except 
one of his particular friends whom he is allowed 
to take vnth him as an attendant. Here he 
smokes and performs various other rites which 
superstition has led the Indians to believe are sa- 
cred. After this ceremon;- is ended, the young 
Indian is considered qualified to act any part as 
an efficient member of their community. The 
Indian who has the good fortune to catch the 
bear and overcome him when endeavoring to 
make his escape to the woods, is considered a 
candidate for preferment, and is on the first suit- 
able occasion appointed the leader of a small war 
party, in order that he may further have an op- 
portunity to test his prowess and perform more 
essential service In behalf of his nation. It is 
accordingly expected that he will kill some of 
their enemies and return with their scalps. I re- 
gretted very much that I had missed the oppor- 
tunity of witnessing this ceremony, which is 
never performed except when prompted by the 
particular dreams of one ot other of the young 
men, who is never complimented twice in the 
same manner on account of his dreams." 

On the sixteenth he approached the vicinity of 
where is now the capital of Minnesota, and 
writes : " Set sail at half past four this morning 
vnth a favorable breeze. Passed an Indian bury- 
ing ground on our left, the first that I have seen 
surrounded by a fence. In the centre a pole is 
erected, at the foot of which religious rites are 
performed at the burial of an Indian, by the 
particular friends and relatives of the deceased. 
Upon the pole a flag is suspended when any per- 
son of extraordinary merit, or one who is very 
much beloved, is buried. In the enclosure were 



two scaffolds erected also, about six feet high 
and six feet square. Upon one of them were two 
coflSns containing dead bodies. Passed a Sioux 
village on our right containing fourteen cabins. 
The name of the chief is the Petit Corbeau, or 
Little Raven. The Indians were all absent on a 
hunting party up the Elver St. Croix, which 
is but a little distance across the country from 
the village. Of this we were very glad, as this 
band are said to be the most notorious beggars 
of all the Sioux on the Mississippi. One of their 
cabins is furnished with loop holes, and is sit- 
uated so near the water that the opposite side 
of the river is within musket-shot range from 
the building. By this means the Petit Corbeau 
is enabled to exercise a command over the pass- 
age of the river and has in some instances com- 
pelled traders to land with their goods, and in- 
duced them, probably through fear of offending 
him, to bestow presents to a considerable amount, 
before he would suffer them to pass. The cabins 
are a kind of stockade buildings, and of a better 
appearance than any Indian dwellings I have 
before met with. 

"Two miles above the village, on the same 
side of the river, is Carver's Cave, at which we 
stopped to breakfast. However interesting it 
may have been, it does not possess that character 
in a very high degree at present. Wo descend- 
ed it with lighted candles to its lower extremity. 
The entrance is very low and about eight feet 
broad, so that a man in order to enter it must be 
completely prostrate. The angle of descent 
within the cave is about 25 deg. The flooring 
is an inclined plane of quicksand, formed of the 
rock in which the cavern is formed. The dist- 
ance from its entrance to its inner extremity is 
twenty-four paces, and the width in the broadest 
part about nine, and its greatest height about 
seven feet. In shape it resembles a bakers 's oven. 
The cavern was once probably much more ex- 
tensive. My interpreter informed me that, since 
his remembrance, the entrance was not less 
than ten feet high and its length far greater than 
at present. The rock in which it is formed is 
a very white sandstone, so friable that the frag- 
ments of it will almost crumble to sand when 
taken into the hand. A few yards below the 
mouth of the cavern is a very copious spring of 
fine water issuing from the bottom of the cliff. 

" rive miles above this is the Fountain Cave, 
on the same side of the river, formed in the same 
kind of sandstone but of a more pure and fine 
quality. It is far more curious and interesting 
than the former. The entrance of the cave is a 
large winding hall about one hundred and fifty 
feet in length, fifteen feet in width, and from 
eight to sixteen feet in height, finely arched 
overhead, and nearly perpendicular. Next suc- 
ceeds a' narrow passage and difiicult of entrance, 
which opens into a most beautiful circular room, 
finely arched above, and about forty feet in di- 
ameter. The cavern then continues a meander- 
ing course, expanding occasionally into smaU 
rooms of a circular form. We penetrated about 
one hundred and fifty yards, till our candles 
began to fail us, when we returned. To beauti- 
fy and embellish the scene, a fine crystal stream 
flows through the cavern, and cheers the lone- 
some dark retreat with its enlivening murmurs. 
The temperature of the water in the cave was 
46 deg., and that of the air 60 deg. Entering 
this cold retreat from an atmosphere of 89 deg., 
I thought it not prudent to remain in it long 
eilough to take its several dimensions and me- 
ander its courses ; particularly as we had to wade 
in water to our knees in many places in order to 
penetrate as far as we went. The fountain sup- 
plies an abimdance of water as fine as I ever 
drank. This cavern I was informed by my 
interpreter, has been discovered but a few years. 
That the Indians formerly living in its neighbor- 
hood knew nothing of it till within six years 
past. That it is not the same as that described 
by Carver is evident, not only from this circum- 
stance, but also from the circumstance that in- 
stead of a stagnant pool, and only one accessible 
room of a very different form, this cavern has 
a brook running through it, and at least four 
rooms in succession, one after the other. Car- 
ver's Cave is fast filling up with sand, so that 
no water is now found in it, whereas this, from 
the very nature of the place, must be enlarging, 
as the fountain will carry along with its current 
all the sand that falls into it from the roof and 
sides of the cavern." 

On the night of the sixteenth, he arrived at the 
Falls of Saint Anthony and encamped on the east 
shore just below the cataract. He writes in his 
journal : 



"The place where we encamped, last night need- 
ed no embellishment to render it romantic in the 
highest degree. The banks on both sides of the 
river are about one hundred feet high, decorated 
with trees and shrubbery of various kinds. The 
post oak, hickory, walnut, linden, sugar tree, 
white birch, and the American box ; also various 
evergreens, such as the pine, cedar, juniper, 
etc., added their embellishments to the scene. 
Amongst the shrubery were the prickly ash, 
plum, and cherry tree, the gooseberry, the black 
and red raspberry, the chokeberry, grape vine, 
etc. There were also various kinds of herbage 
and flowers, among which were the wild parsley, 
rue, spikenard, etc., red and white roses, morning 
glory and various other handsome flowers. A 
few yards below us was a beautiful cascade of 
fine spring water, pouring down from a project- 
ing precipice about one hundred feet hight. On 
our left was the Mississippi hurrying through its 
channel with great velocity, and about three 
quarters of a mile above us, in plain view, was 
the majestic cataract of the Falls of St. Anthony. 
The murmuring of the cascade, the roaring of the 
river, and the thunder of the cataract, all contrib- 
uted to render the scene the most interesting and 
magniflcient of any I ever before witnessed." 

"The perpendicular fall of the water at the 
cataract, was stated by Pike in his journal, as six- 
teen and a half feet, which I found to be true by 
actual measurement. To this height, however, 
four or flve feet may be added for the rapid des- 
cent which immediately succeeds to the perpen- 
dicular fall within a few yards below. Immedi- 
ately at the cataract the river is divided into two 
parts by an island which extends considerably 
above and below the cataract, and is about flve 
hundred yards long. The channel on the right 
side of the Island is about three times the width 
of that on the left. The quanity of water pass- 
ins through them is not, however, in the same 
proportion, as about one- third part of the whole 
passes through the left channel. In the broadest 
channel, just below the cataract, is a small island 
also, about flfty yards in length and thirty in 
breadth. Both of these islands contain the same 
kind of rocky formation as the banks of the river, 
and are nearly as high. Besides these, there are 
immediately at the foot of the cataract, two 
islands of very inconsiderable size, situated in 

the right channel also. The rapids commence 
several hundred yards above the cataract and 
continue about eight miles below. The fall of 
the water, beginning at the head of the rapids, 
and extending two hundred and sixty rods down 
the river to where the portage road commences, 
below the cataract is, according to Pike, flfty- 
eight feet. If this estimate be correct the whole 
fall from the head to the foot of the rapids, is not 
probably much less than one himdred feet. But 
as I had no instrument sufficiently accurate to 
level, where the view must necessarily be pretty 
extensive, I took no pains to ascertain the extent 
of the fall. The mode I adopted to ascertain 
the height of a cataract, was to suspend a line 
and plummet from the table rock on the south 
side of the river, which at the same time had 
very little water passing over it as the river was 
unusually low. The rocky formations at this 
place were arranged in the following order, from 
the surface downward. A coarse kind of lime- 
stone in thin strata containing considerable silex; 
a kind of soft friable stone of a greenish color 
and slaty fracture, probably containing hme, 
aluminum and silex ; a very beautiful satratiflca- 
tion of shell limestone, in thin plates, extremely 
regular in its formation and containing a vast 
number of shells, all apparently of the same 
kind. This formation constitutes the Table Rock 
of the cataract. The next in order is a white or 
yellowish sandstone, so easily crumbled that it 
deserves the name of a sandbank raither than that 
of a rock. It is of various depths, from ten to 
fifty or seventy-flve feet, and is of the same char- 
acter with that found at the caves before des- 
cribed. The next in order is a soft friable sand- 
stone, of a greenish color, similar to that resting 
upon the shell limestone. These stratifications 
occupied the whole space from the low water 
mark nearly to the top of the bluffs. On the east, 
or rather north side of the river, at the Falls, are 
high grounds, at the distance of half a mile from 
the river, considerably more elevated than the 
bluffs, and of a hilly aspect. 

Speaking of the bluff at the confluence o^. uhe 
Mississippi and Minnesota, he writes: "A miUtary 
work of considerable magnitude might be con- 
structed on the point, and might be rendered 
sufficiently secure by occupying the commanding 
height in the rear in a suitable manner, as the 



latter would control not only the point, but all 
the neighboring heights, to the full extent of a 
twelve poimder's range. The work on the point 
would be necessary to control the navigation of 
the two rivers. But without the commanding 
work in the rear, would be liable to be greatly 
annoyed from a height situated directly opposite 

on the other side of the Mississippi, which is 
here no more than about two hundred and fifty 
yards wide. This latter height, however, would 
not be eligible for a permanent post, on account 
of the numerous ridges and ravines situated im- 
mediately in its rear." 





Early travelers to Lake Winuipeg — Earliest Map by the Indian Otchago— Benin's 
allusion to it — Verendryc's Map — De la Jemeraye's Map — Fort La Keine — Fort 
on Red Biver abandoned — Origin of name Rod Lake— Earl of Selkirk— Ossini- 
boia described — Scotch immigrants at Pembina — Strife of trading companies — 
Earl of Selkirk visits America-Governor Semplc KlUed— Romantic life of John 
Tanner, and his son James — Letter relative to Selkirk's tour through Minne- 

The valley of the Eed Kiver of the Iforth is 
not only an important portion of Minnesota, but 
has a most interesting history. 

While there is no evidence that Groselliers, the 
first white man who explored Minnesota, ever 
visited Lake Winnipeg and the Red River, yet he 
met the Assineboines at the head of Lake Supe- 
rior and at Lake Nepigon, while on his way by a 
northeasterly trail to Hudson's Bay, and learned 
something of this region from them. 

The first person, of whom we have an account, 
who visited the region, was an EngUshman, who 
came in 1692, by way of York River, to Winni- 

Ochagachs, or Otchaga, an intelligent Indian, in 
1728, assured Pierre Gualtier de Varenne, known 
in history as the Sieur Verendrye, while he was 
stationed at Lake ISTepigon, that there was a 
communication, largely by water, west of Lake 
Superior, to the Great Sea or Pacific Ocean. The 
rude map, drawn by this Indian, was sent to 
France, and is still preserved. Upon it is marked 
Kamanistigouia, the fort first established by Du 
Luth. Pigeon River is called Mantohavagane. 
Lac Sasakanaga is marked, and Rainy Lake is 
named Tecamemiouen. The river St. Louis, of 
Minnesota, is R. fond du L. Superior. The 
French geographer, Bellln, in his " Remarks 
upon the map of North America," published in 
1755, at Paris, alludes to this sketch of Ochagachs, 
and says it is the earliest drawing of the region 
west of Lake Superior, in the Depot de la Marine. 

After this Verendrye, in 1737, drew a map, 
which remains unpublished, which shows Red 
Lake in Northern Minnesota, and the point of 
the Big Woods in the Red River Valley. There 

is another sketch in the archives of France, 
drawn by De la Jemeraye. He was a nephew of 
Verendrye, and, under his uncle's orders, he was 
in 1731, the first to advance from the Grand 
Portage of Lake Superior, by way of the Nalao- 
uagan or Groselliers, now Pigeon River, to Rainy 
Lake. On this appears Fort Rouge, on the south 
bank of the Assineboine at its junction with the 
Red River, and on the Assineboine, a post estab- 
lished on October 3, 1738, and called Fort La 
Reine. BelUn describes the fort on Red River, 
but asserts that it was abandoned because of its 
vicinity to Fort La Reine, on the north side of 
the Assinneboine, and only about nine mUes by 
a portage, from Swan Lake. Red Lake and Red 
River were so called by the early French explo- 
rers, on account of the reddish tint of the waters 
after a storm. 

Thomas Douglas, Earl of Selkirk, a wealthy, 
kind-hearted but visionary Scotch nobleman, at 
Ijhe commencement of the present century formed 
the design of planting a colony of agriculturists 
west of Lake Superior. In the year 1811 he 
obtained a grant of land from the Hudson Bay 
Company called Ossiniboia, which it seems 
strange has been given up by the people of Man- 
itoba. In the autumn of 1812 a few Scotchmen 
with their families arrived at Pembina, in the 
Red River Valley, by way of Hudson Bay, where 
they passed the winter. In the winter of 1813-14 
they were again at Fort Daer or Pembina. The 
colonists of Red River were rendered very un- 
happy by the strife of rival trading companies. 

In the spring of 1815, McKenzie and Morrison, 
traders of the Northwest company, at Sandy 
Lake, told the Ojibway chief there, that they 
would give him and his band all the goods and 
rum at Leech or Sandy Lakes, if they would an- 
noy the Red River settlers. 

The Earl of Selkirk hearing of the distressed 
condition of his colony, sailed for America, and 


in the fall of 1815, arrived at New York City. 
Proceeding to Montreal he found a messenger 
who had traveled on foot in mid- winter from the 
Eed River by way of Red Lake and Fon du Lac, 
of Lake Superior. He sent back by this man, 
kind messages to the dispirited settlers, but one 
night he was way-laid near Pon du Lac, and 
robbed of his canoe and dispatches. An Ojib- 
way chief at Sandy Lake, afterwards testified 
that a trader named Grant offered him rum and 
tobacco, to send persons to intercept a bearer of 
dispatches to Red River, and soon the messenger 
■was brought in by a negro and some Indians. 

Failing to obtain military aid from the 
British authorities in Canada, Selkirk made an 
engagement with four oflBcers and eighty privates, 
of the discharged Meuron regiment, twenty of 
the De "WatteviQe, and a few of the Glengary 
Fencibles, which had served in the late war with 
the United States, to accompany him to Red 
River. They were to receive monthly wages for 
navigating the boats to Red River, to have lands 
assigned them, and a free passage if they wished 
to return. 

When he reached Sault St. Marie, he received 
the intelligence that the colony had again been 
destroyed, and that Semple, a mild, amiable, but 
not altogether judicious man, the chief governor 
of the factories and territories of the Hudson 
Bay company, residing at Red River, had been 

Schoolcraft, in 1832, says he saw at Leech 
Lake, Majegabowi, the man who had killed Gov. 
Semple, after he fell wonnded from his horse. 

Before he heard of the death of Semple, the 
Earl of Selkirk had made arrangements to visit 
his colony byway of Fon du Lac, on the St. Louis 
River, and Red Lake of Minnesota, but he now 
changed his mind, and proceeded with his force 
to Fort WUliam, the chief trading post of the 
Northwest Company on Lake Superior ; and ap- 
prehending the principal partners, warrants of 
commitment were isshed, and they were forward- 
ed to the Attorney-General of Upper Canada. 

While Selkirk was engaged at Fort William, 
a party of emigrants in charge of Miles McDon- 
nel, Governor, and Captain D'Orsomen, went 
forward to reinforce .the colony. At Rainy 
Lake they obtained the guidance of a man who 
had all the characteristics of an Indian, and yet 

had a bearing which suggested a different origin. 
By his eflSciency and temperate habits, he had se- 
cured the respect of his employers, and on the Earl 
of Selkirk's arrival at Red River, his attention was 
called to him, and in his welfare he became 
deeply interested. By repeated conversations 
with him, memories of a different kind of exist- 
ence were aroused, and the light of other days 
began to brighten. Though he had forgotten his 
father's name, he furnished sufllcient data for 
Selkirk to proceed with a search for his relatives. 
Visiting the United States in 1817, he published 
a circular in the papers of the Western States, 
which led to the identification of the man. 

It appeared from his own statement, and 
those of his friends, that his name was John 
Tanner, the son of a minister of the gospel, whr, 
about the year 1790, Uved on the Ohio river, near 
the Miami. Shortly after his location there, a 
band of roving Indians passed near the house, 
and found John Tanner, then a little boy, filling 
his hat with walnuts from imder a tree. They 
seized him and fled. The party was led by an 
Ottawa whose wife had lost a son. To compen- 
sate for his death, the mother begged that a boy 
of the same age might be captured. 

Adopted by the band. Tanner grew up an 
Indian in his tastes and habits, and was noted 
for bravery. Selkirk was successful in finding 
his relatives. After twenty-eight years of sepa- 
ration, John Tanner in 1818, met his brother 
Edward near Detroit, and went with him to his 
home in Missouri. He soon left his brother, and 
went back to the Indians. For a time he was 
interpreter for Henry R. Schoolcraft, but became 
lazy and ill-natured, and in 1836, skulking behind 
some bushes, he shot and killed Schoolcraft's 
brother, and fled to the wilderness, where, in 
1847, he died. His son, James, was kindly treat- 
ed by the missionaries to the Ojibways of Minne- 
sota; but he walked in the footsteps of his father. 
In the year 1851, he attempted to impose upon 
the Presbyterian minister in Saint Paul, and, 
when detected, called upon the Baptist minister, 
who, believmg him a penitent, cut a hole in the 
ice, and received him into the church by immer- 
sion. In time, the Baptists found him out, when 
he became an Unitarian missionary, and, at last, 
i-t is said, met a death by violence. 

Lord Selkirk was in the Red River Yalley 



during the summer of 1817, and on the eighteenth 
of July concluded a treaty with the Crees and 
Saulteaux, for a tract of land beginnuig at the 
mouth of the Red Eiver, and extending along 
the same as far as the Great Forks (now Grand 
Forks) at the mouth of Red Lake Eiver, and 
along the Assinniboine River as far as Musk Rat 
River, and extending to the distance of six miles 
from Fort Douglas on every side, and likewise 
from Fort Daer (Pembina) and also from the 
Great Forks, and in other parts extending to the 
distance of two miles from the banks of the said 

•Having restored order and confidence, attend- 
ed by three or four persons he crossed the plains 
to the Minnesota River, and from thence pro- 
ceeded to St. Louis. The Indian agent at 
Prairie du Chien was not pleased with Selkirk's 
trip through Minnesota; and on the sixth of 
February, 1818, wrote the Governor of Illinois 
under excitement, some groundless suspicions : 

•' What do you suppose, sir, has been the re- 
sult of the passage through my agency of this 
British noblemanV Two entire bands, and part 
of a third, all Sioux, have deserted us and joined 
Dickson, who has distributed to them large quan- 
tities of Indian presents, together with flags, 
medals, etc. Knowing this, what must have been 
my feelings on hearing that his lordship had met 
with a favourable reception at St. Louis. The 
newspapers announcing his arrival, and general 
Scottish appearance, all tend to discompose me ; 
believing as I do, that he is plotting with his 
friend Dickson our destruction— sharpening the 
savage scalping knife, and colonizing a tract of 
country, so«remote as that of the Red River, for 
the purpose, no doubt, of monopolizing the fur 
and peltry trade of this river, the Missouri and 
their waters ; a trade of the first importance to 
our Western States and Territories. A courier 
who had arrived a few days since, confirms the 
belief that Dickson is endeavouring to undo what 
I have done, and secure to the British govern- 
ment the affections of the Sioux, and subject the 
Northwest Company to his lordship. * * * 

Dickson, as I have before observed, is situated 
near the head of the St. Peter's, to which place 
he transports his goods from Selkirk's Red River 
establishment, iu carts made for the purpose. 
The trip is performed in five days, sometimes 
less. He is directed to build a fort on the high- 
est land between Lac du Traverse and Red River, 
which he supposes will be the established lines 
This fort will be defended by twenty men, with 
two small pieces of artillery." 

In the year 1820, at Berne, Switzerland, a cir- 
cular was issued, signed, R. May D'Uzistorf, 
Captain, in his Britannic Majesty's service, and 
agent Plenipotentiary to Lord Selkirk. Like 
many documents to induce emigration, it was so 
highly colored as to prove a delusion and a 
snare. The cUmate was represented as "mild 
and healthy." " Wood either for building or 
fuel in the greatest plenty," and the country 
supplying "in profusion, whatever can be re- 
quired for the convenience, pleasure or comfort 
of life." Remarkable statements considering 
that every green thing had been devoured the 
year before by grasshoppers. 

Under the influence of these statements, a num- 
ber were induced to embark. In the spring of 
1821, about two hundred persons assembled on 
the banks of the Rhine to proceed to the region 
west of Lake Superior. Having descended the 
Rhine to the vicinity of Rotterdam, they went 
aboard the sliip " Lord Wellington," and after a 
voyage across the Atlantic, and amid the ice- 
floes of Hudson's Bay, they reached York Fort. 
Here they debarked, and entering batteaux, as- 
cended Nelson River for twenty days, when they 
came to Lake Winnipeg, and coasting along the 
west shore they reached the Red River of the 
North, to feel that they had been deluded, and 
to long for a milder clime. If they did not sing 
tlie Switzer's Song of Home, they appreciated its 
sentiments, and gradually these immigrants re- 
moved to the banks of the Mississippi Rivtr. 
Some settled in Minnesota, and were the first to 
raise cattle, and till the soU. 





A. D. 1819, TO A. D. 1827. 

Orders for mUitajy occupatlott of Upper HisalsBippl — ^LQavenwortli and Forsyth 
at Frairie du Ghien — Birth in Camp — Troops arrive at Mcndota — Cantonment 
Established — Wheat carried to Pembina— Notice of Devotion, Prescott, and 
Major Taliaferro— Camp Cold Water Established— Col. Snelling takes command 
—Impressive Scene— Officers in 1820— Condition of the Fort in 1821 — Saint 
Anthony Mill — Alexis Bailly takes cattle to Pembina — Ifotice of Beltrami — 
Arrival of first Steamboat — Major Long's Expedition to Northern Boundary — 
Beltrami visits the northern sources of the Mississippi — First flour mill — First 
Sunday School— Great flood in 1826. African slaves at the Fort — Steamboat 
Arrivals — Duels — Notice ofWilliam Joseph Snelling — Indian fightat the Fort — 
Attack upon keel boats— General Gaines* report — Eemoval of Fifth Regiment — 
Death of Colonel Snelling. 

The rumor that Lord Selkirk was founding a 
colony on the borders of the United States, and 
that the British trading companies -within the 
boundaries of what became the territory of Min- 
nesota, convinced the authorities at Washington 
of the importance of a military occupation of the 
valley of the Upper Mississippi. 

By direction of Major General Brown, the fol- 
lowing order, on the tenth of February, 1819, was 
issued : 

"Major General Macomb, commander of the 
Fifth MiUtary department, will without delay, 
concentrate at Detroit the Fifth Begiment of In- 
fantry, excepting the recruits otherwiso directed 
by the general order herewith transmitted. As 
soon as the navigation of the lakes will admit, he 
win cause the regiment to be transported to Fort 
Howard; from thence, by the way of the Fox 
and "Wisconsin Bivers, to Prairie du Chien, and, 
after detaching a suflScient number of companies 
to garrison Forts Crawford and Armstrong, the 
remainder will proceed to the mouth of the Biver 
St. Peter's, where they will establish a post, at 
which the headquarters of the regiment will be 
located. The regiment, previous to its depar- 
ture, will receive the necessary supplies of cloth- 
ing, provisiojis, arms, and ammunition. Imme- 
diate application will be made to Brigadier Gen- 
eral Jesup, Quartermaster General, for funds 
necessary to execute the movements required by 
this order." 

On the thirteenth of April, this additional order 
was issued, at Detroit : 

"The season having now arrived when the 
lakes may be navigated with safety, a detach- 
ment of the Fifth Begiment, to consist of Major 
Marston's and Captain Fowle's companies, under 
the command of Major Muhlenburg, wiU proceed 
to Green Bay. Surgeon's Mate, B. M. Byrne, of 
the Fifth Begiment, will accompany the detach- 
ment. The Assistant Deputy Quartermaster 
General will furnish the necessary transport, and 
wiU send by the same opportunity two hundred 
barrels of provisions, which he wUl draw from the 
contractor at this post. The provisions must be 
examined and inspected, and properly put up for 
transportation. Colonel Leavenworth wUl, with- 
out delay, prepare his regiment to move to the 
post on the Mississippi, agreeable to the Divi- 
sion order of the tenth of February. The Assist- 
ant Deputy Quartermaster General will furnish 
the necessary transportation, to be ready by the 
first of May next. The Colonel will make requi- 
sition for such stores, ammunition, tools and 
implements as may be required, and he be able to 
take with him on the expedition. Particular in- 
structions will be given to the Colonel, explaining 
the objects of his expedition." 


On Wednesday, the last day of Jime, Col. Leav- 
enworth and troops arrived from Green Bay, at 
Prairie du Chien. Scarcely had they reached 
this point when Charlotte Seymour, the wife of 
Lt. Nathan Clark, a native of Hartford, Ct., 
gave birth to a daughter, whose first baptismal 
name was Charlotte, after her mother, and the 
second Ouisconsin, given by the oflleers in view 
of the fact that she was bom at the junction of 
that stream with the Mississippi. 

In time Charlotte Ouisconsin married a young 
Lieutenant, a native of Princeton, New Jersey, 
and a graduate of West Point, and still resides 
with her husband, General H. P. Van Cleve, in 



the city of Minneapolis, living to do good as she 
has opportunity. 

In June, under instructions from the "War 
Department, Major Thomas Forsyth, connected 
with the office of Indian affairs, left St. Louis 
with two thousand dollars worth of goods to be 
distributed among the Sioux Indians, in accor- 
dance with the agreement of 1805, already re- 
ferred to, by the late General Pike. 

About nine o'clock of the morning of the fifth 
of July, he joined Leavenworth and his command 
at Prairie du Chien. Some time was occupied by 
Leavenworth awaiting the arrival of ordnance, 
provisions and recruits, but on Sunday morning, 
the eighth of August, about eight o'clock, the 
expedition set out for the potat now known as 
Mendota. The flotilla was quite imposing; there 
were the Colonel's barge, fourteen batteaux with 
ninety-eight soldiers and officers, two large canal 
or Mackinaw boats, filled with various stores, and 
Forsyth's keel boat, containing goods and pres- 
ents for the Indians. On the twenty-third of 
August, Forsyth reached the mouth of the Min- 
nesota with his boat, and the next morning Col. 
Leavenworth arrived, and selecting a place at 
Mendota, near the present railroad bridge, he 
ordered the soldiers to cut down trees and make 
a clearing. On the next Saturday Col. Leaven- 
worth, Major Vose, Surgeon Purcell, Lieutenant 
Clark and the wife of Captain Gooding ivited 
the Falls of Saint Anthony vnth Forsyth, in 
his keel boat. 

Early in September two more boats and a bat- 
teaux, with officers and one himdred and twenty 
recruits, arrived. 

During the winter of 1820, Laidlow and others, 
in behalf of Lord Selkirk's Scotch settlers at 
Pembina, whose crops had been destroyed by 
grasshoppers, passed the Cantonment, on their 
way to Prairie du Chien, to purchase wheat. 
Upon the fifteenth of April they began their 
return with their Mackinaw boats, each loaded 
with two hundred bushels of wheat, one hundred 
of oats, and thirty of peas, and reached the mouth 
of the Minnesota early in May. Ascending this 
stream to Big Stone Lake, the boats were drawn 
on rollers a mile and a half to Lake Traverse, 
and on the third of June arrived at Pembina and 
cheered the desponding and needy settlers of the 
Selkirk colony. 

The first sutler of the post was a Mr. Devotion. 
He brought with him a young man named Phi- 
lander Prescott, who was bom in 1801, at Phelps- 
town, Ontario county, New York. At first they 
stopped at Mud Hen Island, in the Mississippi 
below the mouth of the St. Croix River. Coming 
up late in the year 1819, at the site of the pres- 
ent town of Hastings they found a keel-boat 
loaded with suppUes for the cantonment, in charge 
of Lieut. OUver, detained by the ice. 

Amid all the changes of the troops, Mr. Pres- 
cott remained nearly all his hf e in the vicinity of 
the post, to which he came when a mere lad, and 
was at length killed ui the Sioux Massacre. 


In the spring of 1820, Jean Baptiste Faribault 
brought up Leavenworth's horses from Prairie 
du Chien. 

The first Indian Agent at the post was a former 
army officer, Lawrence Taliaferro, pronounced 
Toliver. As he had the confidence of the Gov- 
ernment for twenty-one successive years, he is 
deserving of notice. 

His family was of Italian origin, and among 
the early settlers of Virginia. He was born in 
1794, in King Wilham county in that State, and 
when, in 1812, war was declared against Great 
Britain, with four brothers, he entered the army, 
and was commissioned as Lieutenant of the 
Thirty-fifth Infantry. He behaved gallantly at 
Fort Erie and Sackett's Harbor, and after peace 
was declared, he was retained as a First Lieuten- 
ant of the Third Infantry. In 1816 he was sta- 
tioned at Fort Dearborn, now the site of Chicago. 
While on a furlough, he called one day upon 
President Monroe, who told him that a fort would 
be built near the Falls of Saint Anthony, and an 
Indian Agency established, to which he offered 
to appoint him. His commission was dated 
March 27th, 1819, and he proceeded in due time 
to his post. 

On the fifth day of May, 1820, Leavenworth 
left his winter quarters at Mendota, crossed the 
stream and made a summer camp near the 
present military grave yard, which in consequence 
of a fine spring has been called "Camp Cold 
"Water." The Indian agency, under Taliaferro, 
remained for a time at the old cantonment. 

The commanding officer estabUshed a fine 



garden in the bottom lands of the Minnesota, 
and on the fifteenth of June the earliest garden 
peas were eaten. The first distinguished visitors 
at the new encampment were Governor Lewis 
Cass, of Michigan, and Henry Schoolcraft, who 
arrived in July, by way of Lake Superior and 
Sandy Lake. 

The relations between Col. Leavenworth and 
Indian Agent Taliaferro were not entirely hax- 
monious, growing out of a disagreement of views 
relative to the treatment of the Indians, and on 
the day of the arrival of Governor Cass, Tel- 
iaferro writes to Leavenworth : 

" As it is now understood that I am agent for 
Indian affairs in this country, and you are about 
to leave the upper Mississippi, in all probability 
in the course of a month or two, I beg leave to 
suggest, for the sake of a general imderstanding 
with the Indian tribes in this country, that any 
medals, you may possess, would by being turned 
over to me, cease to be a topic of remark among 
the different Indian tribes under my direction. 
I will pass to you any voucher that may be re- 
quired, and I beg leave to observe that any pro- 
gress in Influence is much impeded in conse- 
quence of this frequent intercourse with the gar- 

In a few days, the disastrous effect of Indians 
mingling with the soldiers was exhibited. On 
the third of August, the agent wrote to Leaven- 

" His Excellency Governor Cass during his 
visit to this post remarked to me that the Indians 
jn this quarter were spoiled, and at the same 
time said they should not be permitted to enter 
the camp. An unpleasant affair has lately taken 
place ; I mean the stabbing of the old chief 
Mahgossau by his comrade. This was caused, 
doubtless, by an anxiety to obtain the chief's 
whiskey. I beg, therefore, that no whiskey 
whatever be given to any Indians, unless it be 
through their proper agent. "While an overplus 
of whiskey thwarts the beniflcent and humane 
policy of the government, it entails misery upon 
the Indians, and endangers their lives." 

A few days after this note was v/ritten Josiah 
Snelling, who had been recently promoted to the 
Colonelcy of the Fifth Eegiment, arrived with 
his family, relieved Leavenworth, and infused 
new life and energy. A little while before hia 

arrival, the daughter of Captain Gooding was 
married to Lieutenant Green, the Adjutant of 
the regiment, the first marriage of white persons 
in Minnesota. Mrs. SnelUng, a few days after 
her arrival, gave birth to a daughter, the first 
white child bom in Minnesota, and after a brief 
existence of thirteen months, she died and was 
the first interred in the military grave yard, and 
for years the stone which marked its resting 
place, was visible. 

The earUest manuscript in Minnesota, written 
at the Cantonment, is dated October 4, 1820, and 
is in the handwriting of Colonel Snelling. It 
reads : " In justice to Lawrence Taliaferro, Esq., 
Indian Agent at this post, we, the imdersigned, 
officers of the Fifth Regiment here stationed, 
have presented him this paper, as a token, not 
only of our individual respect and esteem, but as 
an entire approval of his conduct and deportment 
as a public agent in this quarter. Given at St. 
Peter, this 4th day of October, 1820. 

J. Snellikg, N. Clakk, 

Col. 5th Inf. Lieutenant. 

S. Btjbbank, Jos. Hake, 

Br. Major. Lieutenant. 

David Pbrbt, Ed. PrnECELL, 

Captain. Surgeon, 

D. Gooding, P. R. Geeen, 
Brevet Captain. Lieut, and Adjt. 

J. PLY3iPT0i>r, "W. G. Camp, 

Lieutenant. Lt. and Q. M. 

E. A. McCabb, H. Wilkins, 

Lieutenant. Lieutenant." 

During the summer of 1820, a party of the 
Sisseton Sioux killed on the Missouri, Isadore 
Poupon, a half-breed, and Joseph Andrews, a 
Canadian engaged in the fur trade. The Indian 
Agent, through Colin Campbell, as interpreter, 
notified the Sissetons that trade would cease 
with them, until the murderers were delivered. 
At a council held at Big Stone Lake, one of the 
murderers, and the aged father of another, agreed 
to surrender themselves to the commanding 

On the twelfth of November, accompanied by 
their friends, they approached the encampment 
in solemn procession, and marched to the centre 
of the parade. First appeared a Sisseton bear- 
ing a British flag ; then the murderer and the de- 
voted father of another, their arms pinioned, and 



large wooden splinters thrust through the flesh 
above the elbows indicating their contempt for 
pain and death ; in the rear followed friends and 
relatives, with them chanting the death dirge. 
Having arrived in front of the guard, fire was 
kindled, and the British flag burned ; then the 
murderer delivered up his medal, and both prison- 
ers were surrounded. Col. Snelling detained the 
old chief, while the murderer was sent to St. 
Louis for trial. 


Col. Snelling built the fort in the shape of a 
lozenge, in view of the projection between the 
two rivers. The first row of barracks was of 
hewn logs, obtained from the pine forests of Rum 
River, but the other buildings were of stone. 
Mrs. Van Cleve, the daughter of Lieutenant, 
afterwards Captain Clark, writes : 

" In 1821 the fort, although not complete, was 
fit for occupancy. My father had assigned to 
him the quarters next beyond the steps leading 
to the Commissary's stores, and during the year 
my little sister Juliet was born there. At a later 
period my father and Major Garland obtained 
permission to build more commodious quarters 
outside the walls, and the result was the two 
stone houses afterwards occupied by the Indian 
Agent and interpreter, lately destroyed." 

Early in August, a young and intelligent mixed 
blood, Alexis Bailly, in after years a member of 
the legislature of Minnesota, left the cantonment 
with the first drove of cattle for the Selkirk Set- 
tlement, and the next winter returned with Col. 
Robert Dickson and Messrs. Laidlow and Mac- 

The next month, a party of Sissetons visited 
the Indian Agent, and told him that they had 
started with another of the murderers, to which 
reference has been made, but that on the way he 
had, through fear of being hung, killed himself. 
This fall, a mill was constructed for the use of 
the garrison, on the west side of St. Anthony 
ralls,under the supervision of Lieutenant McCabe . 
During the fall, George Gooding, Captain by 
brevet, resigned, and became Sutler at Prairie du 
Chien. He was a native of Massachusetts, and 
entered the army as ensign in 1808. In 1810 he 
became a Second Lieutenant, and the next year 
was woimded at Tippecanoe. 

In the middle of October, there embarked on 
the keel-boat " Saucy Jack," for Prairie du Chien, 
Col. Snelling, Lieut. Baxley, Major TaUaferro, 
and Mrs. Gooding, 

EVENTS OF 1822 AND 1823. 

Early in January, 1822, there came to the Tort 
from the Red River of the North, Col. Robert 
Dickson, Laidlow, a Scotch farmer, the superin- 
tendent of Lord Selkirk's experimental farm, and 
one Mackenzie, on their way to Prairie du Chien. 
Dickson returned with a drove of cattle, but 
owing to the hostility of the Sioux his cattle were 
scattered, and never reached Pembina. 

During the winter of 1823, Agent Taliaferro 
was in Washington. While returning in March, 
he was at a hotel in Pittsburg, when he received 
a note signed G. C. Beltrami, who was an ItaUan 
exile, asking permission to accompany him to the 
Indian territory. He was tall and commanding 
in appearance, and gentlemanly in bearing, and 
Taliaferro was so forcibly impressed as to accede 
to the request. After reaching St. Louis they 
embarked on the first steamboat for the Upper 

It was named the Virginia, and was built in 
Pittsburg, twenty- two feet in width, and one 
hundred and eighteen feet in length, in charge of 
a Captain Crawford. It reached the Fort on the 
tenth of May, and was saluted by the discharge 
of cannon. Among the passengers, besides the 
Agent and the Italian, were Major Biddle, Lieut. 
Russell, and others. 

The arrival of the Virginia is an era in the 
history of the Dahkotah nation, and will proba- 
bly be transmitted to their posterity as long as 
they exist as a people. They say their sacred 
men, the night before, dreamed of seeing some 
monster of the waters, which frightened them 
very much. 

As the boat neared the shore, men, women, 
and children beheld with silent astonishment, 
supposing that it was some enormous water-spirit, 
coughing, puffing out hot breath, and splashing 
water in every direction. When it touched the 
landing their fears prevailed, and they retreated 
some distance; but when the blowing off of 
steam commenced they were completely un- 
nerved : mothers forgetting their children, with 
streaming hair, sought hiding-places ; chiefs, re- 



nouncing their stoicism, scampered away like 
affrighted animals. 

The peace agreement beteen the Ojibways and 
Dahkotahs, made through the influence of Gov- 
ernor Cass, was of brief duration, the latter be- 
ing the first to violate the provisions. 

Oh the fourth of June, Taliaferro, the Indian 
agent among the Dahkotahs, took advantage of 
the presence of a large number of Ojibways to 
renew the agreement for the cessation of hostili- 
ties. Tlie council hall of the agent was a large 
room of logs, in which waved conspicuously the 
flag of the United States, surrounded by British 
colors and medals that had been delivered up 
from time to time by Indian chiefs. 

Among the Dahkotah chiefs present were 
"Wapashaw, Little Crow, and Penneshaw ; of the 
Ojibways there were Kendouswa, Moshomene, 
and Pasheskonoepe. After mutual accusations 
and excuses concerning the infraction of the pre- 
vious treaty, the Dahkotahs lighted the calumet, 
they having been the first to infringe upon the 
agreement of 1820. After smoking and passing 
the pipe of peace to the Ojibways, who passed 
through the same formalities, they all shook 
hands as a pledge of renewed amity. 

The morning after the council, Flat Mouth, 
the distinguished Ojibway chief, arrived, who 
had left his lodge vowing that he would never be 
at peace with the Dahkotahs. As he stepped from 
his canoe, Penneshaw held out his hand, but was 
repulsed with scorn. The Dahkotah warrior 
immediately gave the alarm, and in a moment 
runners were on their way to the neighboring 
villages to raise a war party. 

On the sixth of June, the Dahkotahs had assem- 
bled, stripped for a fight, and surrounded the 
Ojibways. The latter, fearing the worst, con- 
cealed their women and children behind the old 
barracks which had been used by the troops while 
the fort was being erected. At the solicitation of 
the agent and commander of the fort, the Dahko- 
tahs desisted trom an attack and retired. 

On the seventh, the Ojibways left for their 
homes; but, in a few hours, while they were 
making a portage at Falls of St. Anthony, they 
were again approached by the Dahkotahs, who 
would have attacked them, if a detachment of 
troops had not arrived from the fort. 

A rumor reaching Penneshaw's village that he 

had been killed at the falls, his mother seized an 
Ojibway maiden, who had been a captive from 
infancy, and, with a tomahawk, cut her in two. 
Upon tlie return of the son in safety he was much 
gratified at what he considered the prowess of 
his parent. 

On the third of July, 1823, Major Long, of the 
engineers, arrived at the fort in command of an 
expedition to explore the Minnesota Biver, and 
the region along the northern boundary line of 
the United States. Beltrami, at the request of 
Col. Snelling, was permitted to be of the party, 
and Major Taliaferro kindly gave him a horse 
and equipments. 

The relations of the Italian to Major Long were 
not pleasant, and at Pembina Beltrami left the 
expedition, and with a " bois brule ", and two 
Ojibways proceeded and discovered the northern 
sources of the Mississippi, and suggested where 
the western sources would be found ; which was 
verified by Schoolcraft nine years later. About 
the second week in September Beltrami returned 
to the fort by way of the Mississippi, escorted by 
forty or fifty Ojibways, and on the 25th departed 
for New Orleans, where he published his discov- 
eries in the French language. 

The mill which was constructed in 1821, for 
sawing lumber, at the Falls of St. Anthony, stood 
upon the site of the Holmes and Sidle Mill , in 
Minneapolis, and in 1823 was fitted up for grind- 
ing flour. The following extracts from corres- 
pondence addressed to Lieut. Clark, Commissary 
at Fort SnelUng, will be read with interest. 

Under the date of August 5th, 1823, General 
Gibson writes : " From a letter addressed by 
Col. Snelling to the Quartermaster General, 
dated the 2d of April, I learn that a large quan- 
tity of wheat would be raised this summer. The 
assistant Commissary of Subsistence at St. Louis 
has been instructed to forward sickles and a pair 
of millstones to St. Peters. If any flour is manu- 
factured from the wheat raised, be pleased to let 
me know as early as practicable, that I may deduct 
the quantity manufactured at the post from the 
quantity advertised to be contracted for." 

In another letter. General Gibson writes : 
" Below you will find the amount charged on the 
books against the garrison at Ft. St. Anthony, 
for certain articles, and forwarded for the use of 
the troops at that post, which you will deduct 



from the payments to be made for flour raised 
and turned over to you for issue : 

One pair buhr millstones $250 11 

337 pounds plaster of Paris 20 22 

Two dozen sickles 18 00 

Total $288 33 

Upon the 19th of January, 1824, the General 
writes: " The mode suggested by Col. SnelUng, 
of fixing the price to be paid to the troops for the 
flour furnished by them is deemed equitable and 
just. You will accordingly pay for the flour 
$3.33 per barrel." 

Charlotte Ouisconsin Van Cleve, now the oldest 
person living who was connected with the can- 
tonment in 1819, in a paper read before the De- 
partment of American History of the Minnesota 
Historical Society in January, 1880, wrote : 

"In 1823, Mrs. Snelling and my mother estab- 
lished the first Sunday School in the Northwest. 
It was held in the basement of the commanding 
offtcer's quarters, and was productive of much 
good. Many of the soldiers, with their families, 
attended. Joe. Brown, since so well know in 
this country, then a drummer boy, was one of 
the pupils. A Bible class, for the oflftcers and 
their wives, was formed, and all became so inter- 
ested in the history of the patriarchs, that it fur- 
nished topics of conversation for the week. One 
day after the Sunday School lesson on the death of 
Moses, a member of the class meeting my mother 
on the parade, after exchanging the usual greet- 
ings, said, in saddened tones, ' But don't you feel 
sorry that Moses is dead ¥ ' 

Early in the spring of 1824, the TuUy boys 
were rescued from the Sioux and brought to the 
fort. They were children of one of the settlers 
of Lord Selkirk's colony, and with their parents 
and others, were on their way from Ked River 
Valley to settle near Tort SnelUng. 

The party was attacked by Indians, and the 
parents of these children murdered, and the boys 
captured. Through the influence of Col. Snell- 
ing the children were ransomed and brought 
to the fort. Col. Snelling took John and 
my father Andrew, the younger of the two. 
Everyone became interested in the orphans, and 
we loved Andrew as if he had been our own litr 
tie brother. John died some two years after his 
arrival at the fort, and Mrs. SneUing asked me 

when I last saw her if a tomb stone had been 
placed at his grave, she as requested, during a 
visit to the old home some years ago. She said 
she received a promise that it should be done, 
and seemed quite disappointed when I told her it 
had not been attended to." 

Andrew TuUy, after being educated at an 
Orphan Asylum in New York City, became a 
carriage maker, and died a few years ago in that 


In the year 1824 the Fort was visited by Gen. 
Scott, on a tour of inspection, and at his sug- 
gestion, its name was changed from Fort St. 
Anthony to Fort Snelling. The following is an 
extract from his report to the "War Department : 

" This work, of which the War Department is 
in possession of a plan, reflects the highest credit 
on Col. Snelling, his otficers and men. The de- 
fenses, and for the most part, the public store- 
houses, shops and quarters being constructed of 
stone, the whole is likely to endure as long as the 
post shall remain a frontier one. The cost of 
erection to the government has been the amount 
paid for tools and iron, and the per diem paid 
to soldiers employed as mechanics. I wish to 
suggest to the General in Chief, and through him 
to the War Department, the propriety of calling 
this work Fort Snelling, as a just compliment 
to the meritorious officer under whom it has 
been erected. The present name, (Fort St. An- 
thony), is foreign to all our associations, and is, 
besides, geographically incorrect, as the work 
stands at the junction of the Mississippi and 
St. Peter's [Minnesota] Rivers, eight miles be- 
low the great falls of the Mississippi, called 
after St. Anthony." 

In 1824, Major Taliaferro proceeded to Wash- 
ington with a delegation of Chippeways and Dah- 
kotahs, headed by Little Crow, the grand father 
of the chief of the same name, who was engaged 
in the late horrible massacre of defenceless 
women and children. The obj ect of the visit, was 
to secure a convocation of all the tribes of the 
Upper Mississippi, at Prairie du Chein, to define 
their boundary lines and establish friendly rela- 
tions. When they reached Prairie du Chein, 
Wahnatah, a Yankton chief, and also Wapashaw, 
by the whisperings of mean traders, became dis- 



affected, and wished to turn back. Little Crow, 
perceiving this, stopped all hesitancy by the fol. 
lowing speech: "My friends, you can do as you 
please. I am no coward, nor can my ears be 
pulled about by evil counsels. We are here and 
should go on, and do some good for our nation. 
I have taken our Father here (Taliaferro) by the 
coat tail, and will follow him until I take by the 
hand, our great American Father.'' 

While on board of a steamer on the Ohio 
River, Marcpee or the Cloud, in consequence of a 
bad dream, jumped from tlje stern of the boat, 
and was supposed to be drowned, but he swam 
ashore and made his way to St. Charles, Mo., 
there to be murdered by some Sacs. The re- 
mainder safely arrived in Washington and ac- 
complished the object of the visit. The Dahko- 
tahs returned by way of New York, and while 
there were anxious to pay a visit to certain par- 
ties with Wm. Dickson, a half-breed son of Col 
Robert Dickson, the trader, who in the war of 
1812-15 led the Indians of the Northwest against 
the United States. 

After this visit Little Crow carried a new 
double-barreled gun, and said that a medicine 
man by the liame of Peters gave it to him for 
signing a certain paper, and that he also prom- 
ised he would send a keel-boat full of goods to 
them. The medicine man referred to was the 
Rev. Samuel Peters, an Episcopal clergyman, 
who had made himself obnoxious during tlie 
Revolution by his tory sentiments, and was sub- 
sequently nominated as Bishop of Vermont. 

Peters asserted that in 1806 he had purchased 
of the heirs of Jonathan Carver the right to a 
tract of land on the upper Mississippi, embracing 
St. Paul, alleged to have been given to Carver by 
the Dahkotahs, in 1767. 

The next year there arrived, in one of the keel- 
boats from Prairie du Chien, at Fort Snelling a 
box marked Col. itobert Dickson. On opening, it 
was found to contain a few presents from Peters 
to Dickson's Indian wife, a long letter, and a 
copy of Carver's alleged grant, written on parch- 


On the 30th of October, 1825, seven Indian 
women in canoes, were drawn into the rapids 
above the Falls of St. Anthony. All were saved 

but a lame girl, who was dashed over the cata- 
ract, and a month later her body was found at 
Pike's Island in front of the fort. 

Forty years ago, the means of communication 
between Fort Snelling and the civilized world 
were very limited. The mail in winter was usu- 
ally carried by soldiers to Prairie du Chien. On 
the 26th of January, 1826, there was great joy in 
the fort, caused by the return from furlough of 
Lieutenants Baxley and Russell, who brought 
with them the first mail received for five months. 
About this period there was also another excite- 
ment, cause by the seizure of liquors in the trad" 
ing house of Alexis Bailey, at New Hope, now 

During the months of February and March, in 
this year, snow fell to the depth of two or three 
feet, and there was great suffering among the 
Indians. On one occasion, thirty lodges of Sisse- 
ton and other Sioux were overtaken by a snow 
storm on a large prairie. The storm continued 
for three days, and provisions grew scarce, for 
the party were seventy in number. At last, the 
stronger men, with the few pairs of snow-shoes 
in their possession, started for a tradmg post one 
hundred miles distant. They reached their des- 
tination half alive, and the traders sympathizing 
sent four Canadians with supplies for those left 
behind. After great toil they reached the scene 
of distress, and found many dead, and, what was 
more horrible, the living feeding on the corpses 
of their relatives. A mother had eaten her dead 
child and a portion of her own father's arms. 
The shock to her nervous system was so great 
that she lost her reason. Her name was Pash- 
uno-ta, and she was both young and good look- 
ing. One day in September, while at Fort Snell- 
ing, she asked Captain Jouett if he knew which 
was the best portion of a man to eat, at the same 
time taking him by the collar of his coat. He 
replied with great astonishment, "No !" and she 
then said, "The arms." She then asked for a 
piece of his servant to eat, as she was nice and 
fat. A few days after this she dashed herself 
from the bluffs near Fort Snelling, into the river. 
Her body was found just above the mouth of the 
Minnesota, and decently interred by the agent. 

The spring of 1826 was very backward. On 
the 20th of March snow fell to the depth of one 
or one and a half feet on a level, and drifted in 



heaps from six to fifteen feet in height. On the 
5th of April, early in the day, there was a violent 
storm, and the ice was still thick in the river. 
During the storm flashes of lightniag were seen 
and thunder heard. On the 10th, the thermome- 
ter was four degrees ahove zero. On the 14th 
there was rain, and on the next day the St. Peter 
river broke up, but the ice on the Mississippi re- 
mained firm. On the 21st, at noon, the ice began 
to move, and carried away Mr. Faribault's houses 
on the east side of the river. For several days 
the river was twenty feet above low water mark, 
and all the houses on low lands were swept off. 
On the second of May, the steamboat Lawrence, 
Captain Boeder, arrived. 

Major Taliaferro had inherited several slaves, 
which he used to hire to officers of the garrison. 
On the 31st of March, his negro boy, WilUam, 
was employed by Col. Snelling, the latter agree- 
ing to clothe him. About this time, William at- 
tempted to shoot a hawk, but instead shot a small 
boy, named Henry CuUum, and nearly killed him. 
In May, Captain Plympton, of the Fifth Infantry, 
wished to purchase his negro woman, Eliza, but 
he refused, as it was his intention, ultimately, to 
free his slaves. Another of his negro girls, Har- 
riet, was married at the fort, the Major perform- 
ing the ceremony, to the now historic Dred Scott, 
who was then a slave of Surgeon Emerson. The 
only person that ever purchased a slave, to retain 
in slaviSry, was Alexis BaiUy, who bought a man 
of Major Garland. The Sioux, at first, had no 
prejudices against negroes. They called them 
" Black Frenchmen," and placing their hands on 
their woolly heads would laugh heartily. 

Tte following is a list of the steamboats that 
had arrived at Fort Snelling, up to May 26, 1826 : 

1 Virginia, May 10, 1823 ; 2 Neville ; 3 Put- 
nam, Aprils, 1825 ; 3 Mandan ; 5 Indiana ; 6 Law- 
rence, May 2, 1826 ; 7 Sciota ; 8 Eclipse ; 9 Jo- 
sephine; 10 Fulton; 11 Eed Rover; 12 Black 
Eover ; 13 Warrior ; 14 Enterprise ; 15 Volant. 

Life within the walls of a fort is sometimes the 
exact contrast of a paradise. In the year 1826 a 
Pandora box was opened, among the officers, and 
dissensions began to prevail. One young officer, 
a graduate of West Poiut, whose father had been 
a professor in Princeton College, fought a duel 
with, and slightly wounded, William Joseph, the 
talented son of Colonel Snelling, who was then 

twenty- two years of age, and had been three years 
at West Point. At a Court Martial convened to 
try the officer for violating the Articles of War, 
the accused objected to the testimony of Lieut. 
William Alexander, a Tennesseea,n, not a gradu- 
ate of the Military Academy, on the ground that 
he was an infidel. Alexander, hurt by this allu- 
sion, challenged the objector, and another duel 
was fought, resulting only in slight injuries to 
the clothing of the combatants. Inspector Gen- 
eral E. P. Gaines, after this, visited the fort, and 
in his report of the inspection he wrote: "A 
defect in the discipline of this regiment has ap- 
peared in the character of certain personal con- 
troversies, between the Colonel and several of his 
young officers, the particulars of which I forbear 
to enter into, assured as I am that they will be 
developed in the proceedings of a general court 
martial ordered for the trial of Lieutenant Hun- 
ter and other officers at Jefferson Barracks. 

" From a conversation with the Colonel I can 
have no doubt that he has erred in the course 
pursued by him in reference to some of the con- 
troversies, inasmuch as he has intimated to his 
officers his willingness to sanction in certain cases, 
and even to participate in personal conflicts, con- 
trary to the twenty-fifth. Article of War." 

The Colonel's son, William Joseph, after this 
passed several years among traders and Indians, 
and became distinguished as a poet and brilliant 

His "Tales of the Northwest," published in 
Boston in 1820, by Hilliard, Gray, Little & Wil- 
kins, is a work of great literary ability, and Catlin 
thought the book was the most faithful picture of 
Indian life he had read. Some of his poems were 
also of a high order. One of his pieces, deficient 
in dignity, was a caustic satire upon modem 
American poets, and was published under the 
title of " Truth, a Gift for Scribblers." 

Nathaniel P. WilUs, who had winced under 
the last, wrote the following lampoon : 
" Oh, smelling Joseph ! Thou art like a cur. 

I'm told thou once did Uve by hunting fur : 

Of bigger dogs thou smellest, and, in sooth. 

Of one extreme, perhaps, can tell the truth. 

'Tis a wise shift, and shows thou know'st thy 

To leave the ' North West tales,' and take to 
smelling ours." 



I In 1832 a second edition of " Trutli " appeared 
with additions and emendations. In this ap- 
peared the following pasquinade upon Willis : 

. "I live by hunting fur, thou say'st, so let it be, 
But tell me, Natty 1 Had I hunted thee, 
Had not my time been thrown away, young sir, 
And eke my powder ? Puppies have no fur. 

Our taUs ? Thou ownest thee to a tail, 
I've scanned thee o'er and o'er 
But, though I guessed the species right, 
I was not sure before. , 

Our savages, authentic travelers say, 
To natural fools, religious homage pay, 
Hadst thou been born in wigwam's smoke, and 

died in, 
Nat ! thine apotheosis had been certain." 

' Snelling died at Chelsea, Mass., December six- 
teenth, 1848, a victim to the appetite which en- 
enslaved Robert Burns. 

In the year 1826, a small party, of Ojibways 
(Chippeways) came to see the Indian Agent, 
and three of them ventured to visit the Colum- 
bia Fur Company's trading house, two miles 
from the Fort. While there, they became 
aware of their danger, and desired two of the 
white men attached to tlie establishment to 
accompany them back, thinking that their pres- 
ence might be some protection. They were in 
error. As they passed a little copse, three Dah- 
kotahs sprang from behind a log with the speed of 
light, flred their pieces into the face of the fore- 
most, and then fled. ' The guns must have been 
double loaded, for the man's head was literally 
blown from his shoulders, and his white com- 
panions were spattered with brains and blood. 
The survivors gained the Fort without further 
molestation. Their comrade was buried on the 
spot where he fell. A staff was set up on his 
grave, which became a landmark, and received 
the name of The Murder Pole. The murderers 
boasted of their achievement and with impunity. 
They and their tribe thought that they had struck 
a fair blow on their ancient enemies, in a becom- 
ing manner. It was only said, that Toopunkah 
Zeze of the vUlage of the. Batture aux Fievres, 
and two others, had each acquired a right to 
wear skunk skins on their heels and war-eagles' 
feathers on ^heir heads. 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1827. 

On the twenty-eighth of May, 1827, the Ojib- 
way chief at Sandy Lake, Kee-wee-zais-hish 
called by the EngUsh, Flat Mouth with seven 
warriors and some women and children, in all 
amounting to twenty-four, arrived about sunrise 
at Fort Snelling. Walking to the gates of the 
:: .rison, they asked the protection of Colonel 
Snelling and Taliaferro, the Indian agent. They 
were told, that as long as they remained under 
the United States flag, they were secure, and 
were ordered to encamp within musket shot of 
the high stone walls of the fort. 

Dming the afternoon, a Dahkotah, Toopunkah 
Zeze, from a village near the first rapids of the 
Minnesota, visited the OJibway camp. They 
were cordially received, and a feast of meat and 
com and sugar, was soon made ready. The 
wooden plates emptied of their contents, they 
engaged in conversation, and whiffed the peace 

That night, some officers and their friends were 
spending a pleasant evening at the head-quarters 
of Captain Clark, which was in one of the stone 
houses which used to stand outside of the walls 
of the fort. As Captain Cruger was walking on 
the porch, a bullet whizzed by, and rapid firing 
was heard. 

As the Dahkotahs, or Sioux, left the Ojibway 
camp, notwithstanding their friendly talk, they 
tuHied and discharged their guns with deadly aim 
upon their entertainers, and ran off with a shout 
of satisfaction. The report was heard by the 
sentinel of the fort, and he cried, repeatedly, 
" Corporal of the guard !" and soon at the gates, 
were the Ojibways, with their women and the 
wounded, telling their tale of woe in wild and in- 
coherent language. Two had been killed and six 
wounded. Among others, was a little girl about 
seven years old, who was pierced through both 
thighs with z bullet. Surgeon McMahon made 
every effort to save her life, but without avail. 

Flat Mouth, the chief, reminded Colonel Snel- 
ling that he had been attacked while under the 
protection of the United States flag, and early the 
next morning. Captain Clark, with one hundred 
soldierc, proceeded towards Land's End, a tra- 
ding-post of the Columbia Fur Company, on the 
Minnesota, a mile above the former residence of 



Franklin Steele, where the Dahkotahs were sup- 
posed to be. The soldiers had just left the large 
gate of the fort, when a party of Dahkotahs, in 
battle array, appeared on one of the prairie 
hills. After some parleying they turned their 
backs, and being pursued, thirty-two were cap- 
tured near the trading-post. 

Colonel Snelling ordered the prisoners to be 
brought before the Ojibways, and two being 
pointed out as participants in the slaughter of the 
preceding mght, they were delivered to the 
aggrieved party to deal with in accordance with 
their customs. They were led out to the plain 
in front of the gate of the fort, and when placed 
nearly without the range of the Ojibway guns, 
they were told to run for their lives. With the 
rapidity of deer they bounded away, but the Ojib- 
way bullet flew faster, and after a few steps, they 
fell gasping on the ground, and were soon lifeless. 
Then the savage nature displayed itself in all its 
hideousness. Women and children danced for 
joy, and placing their fingers in the bullet holes, 
from which the blood oozed, they licked them 
with delight. The men tore the scalps from the 
dead, and seemed to luxuriate in the privilege of 
plunging their knives through the corpses. After 
the execution, the Ojibways returned to the fort, 
and were met by the Colonel. He had prevented 
all over whom his authority extended from vrtt- 
nessing the scene, and had done his best to con- 
fine the excitement to the Indians. The same 
day a deputation of Dahkotah warriors received 
audience, regretting the violence that had been 
done by their young men, and agreeing to deliver 
up the ringleaders. 

At the time appointed, a son of Plat Mouth, 
with those of the Ojibwa party that were not 
wounded, escorted by United States troops, 
marched forth to meet the Dahkotah deputation, 
on the prairie just beyond the old residence of 
the Indian agent. With much solemnity two 
more of the guilty were handed over to the 
assaulted. One was fearless, and with firmness 
stripped himself of his clothing and ornaments, 
and distributed them. The other could not face 
death with composure. He was noted for a hid- 
eous hare-lip, and had a bad reputation among 
his fellows. In the spirit of a coward he prayed 
for life, to the mortification of his tribe. The 
same opportunity was presented to them as to the 

first, of running for their lives. At the first fire 
the coward fell a corpse; but his brave compan- 
ion, though wounded, ran on, and had nearly 
reached the goal of safety, when a second bullet 
killed him. The body of the coward now became 
a common object of loathing for both Dahkotahs 
and Ojibways. 

Colonel Snelling told the Ojibways that the 
bodies must be removed, and then they took the 
scalped Dahkotahs, and dragging them by the 
heels, threw them off the blufE into the river, a 
hundred and fifty feet beneath. The dreadful 
scene was now over ; and a detachment of troops 
was sent with the old chief Flat Mouth, to escort 
him out of the reach of Dahkotah vengeance. 

An eyewitness wrote : " After this catastrophe, 
all the Dahkotahs quitted the vicinity of Fort Snel- 
ling, and did not return to it for some months. 
It was said that they formed a conspiracy to de- 
mand a council, and kill the Indian Agent and 
the commanding officer. If this was a fact, they 
had no opportunity, or wanted the spirit, to exe- 
cute their purpose. 

" The Flat Mouth's band lingered in the fort 
till their wounded comrade died. He was sensi- 
ble of his condition, and bore his pains with great 
fortitude. When he felt his end approach, he 
desired that his horse might be gaily caparisoned, 
and brought to the hospital window, so that he 
might touch the animal. He then took from his 
medicine bag a large cake of maple sugar, and held 
it forth. It may seem strange, but it is true, that 
the beast ate it from his hand. His features 
were radiant with delight as he fell back on the 
pillow exhausted. His horse had eaten the sugar, 
he said, and he was sure of a favorable reception 
and comfortable quarters in the other world. 
Half an hour after, he breathed his last. We 
tried to discover the details of his superstition, 
but could not succeed. It is a subject on which 
Indians unwillingly discourse." 

In the fall of 1826, all the troops at Prairie du 
Chien had been removed to Port Snelling, the 
commander taking with him two Winnebagoes 
that had been confined in Fort Crawford. After 
the soldiers left the Prairie, the Indians in the 
vicinity were quite insolent. 

In June, 1827, two keel-boats passed Prairie du 
Chien on the way to Fort Snelling with provis- 
ions. When they reached Wapashaw village, on 



the site of the present town of "Winona, the crew 
were ordered to come ashore by the Dahkotahs. 
Complying, they found themselves surrounded by 
Indians with hostile intentions. The boatmen 
had no fire-arms, but assuming a bold mien and a 
defiant voice, the captain of the keel-boats ordered 
the savages to leave the decks ; which was suc- 
cessful, The boats pushed on, and at Ked Wing 
and Kaposia the Indians showed that they were 
not friendly, though they did not molest the 
boats. Before they started on their return from 
Tort SneUing, the men on board, amounting to 
thirty-two, were aU provided with muskets and a 
barrel of ball cartridges. 

When the descending keel-boats passed Wapa- 
shaw, the Dahkotas were engaged in the war 
dance, and menaced them, but made no attack. 
Below this point one of the boats moved in ad- 
vance of the other, and when near the mouth of 
the Bad Axe, the half-breeds on board descried 
hostile Indians on the banks. As the channel 
neared the shore, the sixteen men on the first 
boat were greeted with the war whoop and a vol- 
ley of rifle balls from the excited Winnebagoes, 
killing two of the crew. Bushing into their car 
noes, the Indians made the attempt to board the 
boat, and two were successful. One of these 
stationed himself at the bow of the boat, and 
fired with killing efEect on the men below deck. 
An old soldier of the last war with Great Britain, 
called Saucy Jack, at last despatched him, and 
began to rally the fainting spirits on board. Du- 
ring the iight the boat had stuck on a sand-bar. 
With four companions, amid a shower of balls 
from the savages, he plunged iato the water and 
pushed ofE the boat, and thus moved out of reach 
of the galUng shots of the Winnebagoes. As 
they floated down the river during the night, 
they heard a wail in a canoe behind them, the 
voice of a father mourning the death of the son 
who had scaled the deck, and was now a corpse 
in possession of the white men. The rear boat 
passed the Bad Axe river late in the night, and 
escaped an attack. 

The first keel-boat arrived at Prairie du Chein, 
with two of their crew dead, four wounded, and 
the Indian that had been killed on the boat. The 
two dead men had been residents of the Prairie, 
and now the panic was increased. On the morn- 
ing of the twenty-eighth of June the second 

keel -boat appeared, and among her passengers 
was Joseph Snelling, the talented son of the 
colonel, who wrote a story of deep interest, based 
on the facts narrated. 

At a meeting of the citizens it was resolved to 
repair old Port Crawford, and Thomas McNair 
was appointed captain. Dirt was thrown around 
the bottem logs of the fortification to prevent its 
being fired, and young Snelling was put in com- 
mand of one of the block-houses. On the next 
day a voyageur named Loyer , and the well-known 
trader Duncan Graham, started through the in- 
terior, west of the Mississippi, with intelligence 
of the murders, to Fort Snelling. Intelligence 
of this attack was received at the fort, on the 
evening of the ninth of July, and Col. SnelUng 
started in keel boats with four companies to Port 
Crawford, and on the seventeenth four more 
companies left under Major Powle. After an 
absence of six weeks, the soldiers, without firing 
a gun at the enemy, returned. 

A few weeks after the attack upon the keel 
boats General Gaines inspected the Port, and, 
subsequently in a communication to the War 
Department wrote as follows ; 

" The main points of defence against an enemy 
appear to have been in some respects sacrificed, 
in the effort to secure the comfort and conven- 
ience of troops in peace. These are important 
considerations, but on an exposed frontier the 
primary object ought to be security against the 
attack of an enemy. 

" The buildings are too large, too numerous, 
and extending over a space entirely too great, 
enclosing a large parade, five times greater than 
is at all desireable in that climate. The build- 
ings for the most part seem well constructed, of 
good stone and other materials, and they contain 
every desirable convenience, comfort and securi- 
ty as barracks and store houses. 

" The work may be rendered very strong and 
adapted to a garrison of two hundred men by re- 
moving one-half the buildings, and with the ma- 
terials of which they axe constructed, building a 
tower sufiBciently high to command the hill be- 
tween the Mississippi and St. Peter's [Minnesota], 
and by a block house on the extreme point, or 
brow of the cUfE, near the commandant's quarters, 
to secure most effectually the banks of the river, 
and the boats at the landing. 



" Much credit is due to Colonel Snelling, Us 
oflScers and men, for their immense labors and 
excellent workmanship exhibited in the construc- 
tion of these barracks and store houses, but this 
has been effected too much at the expense of the 
discipline of the regiment." 

From reports made from 1823 to 1826, the health 
of the troops was good. In the year ending Sep- 
tember thirty, 1823, there were but two deaths ; 
m 1824 only six, and in 1825 but seven. 

In 182rf there were three desertions, in 1824 
twenty-two, and in 1825 twenty-nine. Most of 
the deserters were fresh recruits and natives of 
America, Ten of the deserters were foreigners, 
and five of these were bom in Ireland. In 1826 
there were eight companies numbering two hun- 

dred and fourteen soldiers quartered in the Port- 
During the fall of 1827 the Fifth Eegiment was 
relieved by a part of the First, and the next year 
Colonel Snelling proceeded to Washington on bus- 
iness, where he died with inflammation of the 
brain. Major General Macomb announcing his 
death in an order, wrote : 

" Colonel SnelUng joined the army in early 
youth. In the battle of Tippecanoe, he was 
distinguished for gallantry and good conduct. 
Subsequently and during the whole late war with 
Great Britain, from the battle of Brownstown to 
the termination of the contest, he was actively 
employed in the field, with credit to himself, and 
honor to his country." 





Arrival of J. N. NiooUei— Marriage of James WoUs — Nicollet's letter from Falls- 
of St. Anthony — Perils of Martin McLeod— Chippeway treachery— Sioux Re 
venge — Rum River and Stillwater battles— Grog shops near the Fort. 

On the second of July 1836, the steamboat 
Saint Peter landed supplies, and among its 
passengers was the distinguished Trench as- 
tronomer, Jean N. McoUet (Nicolay). Major 
Taliaferro on the twelfth of July, wrote; 
" Mr. McoUet, on a visit to the post for scientific 
research, and at present in my family, has shown 
me the late work of Henry B. Schoolcraft on the 
discovery of the source of the Mississippi ; which 
claim is ridiculous in the extreme." On the 
twenty-seventh, NicoUet ascended the Mississippi 
on a tour of observation. 

James Wells, a trader, who afterwards was a 
member of the legislature, at the house of Oliver 
Cratte, near the fort, was married on the twelfth 
of September, by Agent Taliaferro, to Jane, a 
daughter of Duncan Graham. "Wells was killed 
in 1862, by the Sioux, at the time of the massacre 
In the Minnesota Valley. 

McoUet in September returned from his trip 
to Leech Lake, and on the twenty-seventh wrote 
the foUowing to Major TaUaferro the Indian 
Agent at the fort, which is supposed to be the 
earUest letter extant written from the site of the 
city of Minneapolis. As the principal hotel and 
one of the finest avenues of that city bears his 
name it is worthy of preservation. He spelled 
his name sometimes Nicoley, and the pronuncia- 
tion in EngUsh, would be Nicolay, the same as 
if written Nicollet in French. The letter shows 
that he had not mastered the English language : 
" St. Aiithony's Palls, 27tli September, 1836, 

Dear Feiend : — I arrived last evening about 
dark; aU weU, nothing lost, nothing broken, 
happy and a very successful journey. But I 
done exhausted, and nothing can reUeve me, taut 
the pleasure of meeting you again under your 
hospitable roof, and to see all the friends of the 
garrison who have been so kind to me. 

" This letter is more particularly to give you 
a very extraordinary tide. Flat Mouth, the chief 
of Leech Lake and suite, ten in number are with 
me. The day before yesterday I met them again 
at Swan river where they detained me one day. 
I had to bear a new harangue and gave answer. 
All terminated by their own resolution that they 
ought to give you the hand, as weU as to the • 
Guiuas of the Fort (Colonel Davenport.) I 
thought it my duty to acquaint you with it be- 
forehand. Peace or war are at stake of the visit 
they pay you. Please give them a good welcome 
until I have reported to you and Colonel Daven- 
port all that has taken place during my stay 
among the PiUagers. But be assured I have not 
trespassed and that I have behaved as would 
have done a good citizen of the U. S. As to 
Schoolcraft's statement alluding to you, you wiU 
have full and complete satisfaction from Flat 
Mouth himself. In haste, your fiiend, J. X. 


EVENTS OF A. D. 1837. 

On the seventeenth of March, 1837, there ar- 
rived Martin McLeod, ^yho became a prominent 
citizen of Minnesota, and the legislature has 
given his name to a county. 

lie left the Red River country on snow shoes, 
with two companions, one a Polander and the 
other an Irishman named Hays, and Pierre Bot- 
tineau as interpreter. Being lost in a violent 
snow storm tlie Pole and Irishman perished. He 
and his guide, Bottineau, lived for a time on the 
flesh of one of their dogs. After being twenty- 
six days ^^ ilhout seeing any one, the survivors 
reached the trading post of Joseph R. Brown, at 
Lake Traverse, and from thence they came to 
the fort. 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1838. 

In the month of April, eleven Sioux were slain 
in a dastardly manner, by a party of Ojibways, 



under the noted and elder Hole-in-the-Day. The 
Chippeways feigned the warmest friendship, and 
at dark lay down in the tents by the side of the 
Sioux, and in the night silently arose and killed 
them. The occurrence took place at the Chippe- 
way River, about thirty miles from Lac qxd Parle, 
and the next day the Rev. G. H. Pond, the Indian 
missionary, accompanied by a Sioux, \.ent out 
and buried the mutilated and scalpless bodies. 

On the second of August old Hole-in-the-Day, 
and some Ojibways, came to the fort. They 
stopped iirst at the cabin of Peter Quinn, whose 
wife was a half-breed Chlppeway, about a mile 
from the fort. 

The missionary, Samuel W. Pond, told the 
agent that the Sioux, Of Lake Calhoun were 
aroused, and on their way to attack the Chippe- 
ways. The agent quieted them for a time, but 
two of the relatives of those slain at Lac qui Parle 
in April, hid themselves near Quian's house, and 
as Hole-in-the-Day and his associates were pass- 
ing, they fired and killed one Chippeway and 
wounded another. Obequette, a Chippeway from 
Red Lake, succeded, however, in shooting a 
Sioux while he was in the act of scalping his 
comrade. The Chippeways were brought within 
the fort as soon as possible, and at nine o'clock 
a Sioux was confined in the guard-house as a 

Notwithstanding the murdered Chippeway had 
been buried in the graveyard of the fort for safety, 
an attempt was made on the part of some of the 
Sioux, to dig it up. On the evening of the sixth. 
Major Plympton sent the Chippeways across the 
river to the east side, and ordered them to go 
home as soon as possible. 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1839. 

On the twentieth day of June the elder Hole- 
in-the-Day arrived from the Upper Mississippi 
with several hundred Chippeways. Upon their 
return homeward the Mississippi and Mille Lacs 
band encamped the first night at the Palls of Samt 
Anthony, and some of the Sioux visited them and 
smoked tiie pipe of peace. 

On the second of July, about sunrise, a son-in- 
law of the chief of the Sioux band, at Lake Cal- 
houn, named Meekaw or Badger, was killed and 
scalped by two Chippeways of the Pillager band, 
relatives of him who lost his life near Patrick 

Quinn's the year before. The excitement was 
intense among the Sioux, and immediately war 
parties started in pursuit. Hole-in-the-Day's 
band was not sought, but the MiUe Lacs and 
Saint Croix Chippeways. The Lake Calhoim 
Sioux, with those from the villages on the 
Minnesota, assembled at the Falls of Saint 
Anthony, and on the morning of the fourth 
of July, came up with the Mille Lacs 
Chippeways on Rum River, before sunrise. Not 
long after the war whoop was raised and the 
Sioux attacked, killing and wounding ninety. 

The Kaposia band of Sioux pursued the Saint 
Croix Chippeways, and on the third of July found 
them in the Penitentiary ravine at StUlwater, 
under the influence of whisky. Aitkin, the old 
trader, was with them. The sight of the 
Sioux tended to make them sober, but in the fight 
twenty-one were killed and twenty-nine were 

Whisky, during the year 1839, was freely in- 
troduced, in the face of the law prohibiting it. 
The first boat of the season, the Ariel, came to 
the fort on the fourteenth of April, and brought 
twenty barrels of whisky for Joseph R. Brown, 
and on the twenty-first of May, the Glaucus 
brought six barrels of liquor for David Paribault. 
On the thirtieth of June, some soldiers went to 
Joseph R. Brown's groggery on the opposite side 
of the Mississippi, and that night forty -seven 
were in the guard-house for drunkenness. The 
demoralization then existing, led to a letter by 
Surgeon Emerson, on duty at the fort, to the Sur- 
geon General of the United States arlny, in which 
he writes : 

" The whisky is brought here by citizens who 
are pouring in upon us and settling themselves 
on the opposite shore of the Mississippi river, 
in defiance of our worthy commanding oflicer. 
Major J. Plympton, whose authority they set 
at naught. At this moment there is a 
citizen named Brown, once a soldier in 
the .Pifth Infantry, who was discharged at 
this post, while Colonel Snelling commanded, 
and who has been since employed by the Ameri- 
can Fur Company, actually building on the land 
marked out by the land officers as the reserve, 
and within gunshot distance of the fort, a very 
expensive whisky shop." 





Sioux or Dahkotah peoplo—MeontngorwordB Sioux and Dahkotah— Early villages 
—Residence of Sioux in 1S1&— The Winnebogoes— The Ojihways or Cliippeways. 

The three Indian nations who dwelt in this 
region after the organization of Minnesota, were 
the Sioux or Dahkotahs ; the Ojibways or Chip- 
peways ; and the Ho-tchun-graws or "Wiuneba- 


They are an entirely diflerent group from the 
Algonquin and Iroquois, who were found by the 
early settlers of the Atlantic States, on the banks 
of the Connecticut, Mohawk, and Susquehanna 

When the Dahkotahs were first noticed by the 
European adventurers, large numbers were occu- 
pyiagthe Mille Lacs region of country, and appro- 
priately called by the voyageur, "People of the 
Lake," "Gens du Lac." And tradition asserts that 
here was the ancient centre of this tribe. Though 
we have traces of their warring and hunting on the 
shores of Lake Superior, there is no satisfactory 
evidence of their residence, east of the MUleLacs 
region, as they have no name for Lake Superior. 

The word Dahkotah, by which they love to be 
designated, signifies allied or joined together in 
friendly compact, and is equivalent to " E pluri- 
bus unum," the motto on the seal of the United 

In the history of the mission at La Pointe, 
Wisconsin, published nearly two centuries ago, a 
a writer, referring to the Dahkotahs, remarks : 

"For sixty leagues from the extremity of the 
Upper Lake, toward sunset ; and, as it were in 
the centre of the western nations, they have all 
united their force by a general league." 

The Dahkotahs in the earliest documents, and 
even until the present day, are called Sioux, Scioux, 
or Soos. The name originated with the early voy- 
ageurs. For centuries the Ojibways of Lake 
Superior waged war against the Dahkotahs ; and. 

whenever they spoke of them, called them Nado- 
waysioux, which signifies enemies. 

The French traders, to avoid exciting the atten- 
tion of Indians, while conversing in their pres- 
ence, were accustomed to designate them by 
names, which would not be recognized. 

The Dahkotahs were nicknamed Sioux, a word 
composed of the two last syllables of the Ojibway 
word for foes 

Under the influence of the French traders, the 
eastern Sioux began to wander from the MUle 
Lacs region. A trading post at 0-ton-we-kpa- 
dan, or Rice Creek, above the Falls of Saint 
Anthony, induced some to erect their summer 
dwellings and plant com there, which took the 
place of wild rice. Those who dwelt here were 
called Wa-kpa-a-ton-we-dan Those who dwell on 
the creek. Another division was known as the 

Less than a hundred years ago, it is said that 
the eastern Sioux, pressed by the Chippeways, 
and influenced by traders, moved seven miles 
above Fort Snelling on the Minnesota River. 


In 1849 there were seven villages of Med-day- 
wah-kawn-twawn Sioux. (1) Below Lake Pepin, 
where the city of Winona is, was the village of 
Wapashaw. This band was called Kee-yu-ksa, 
because with them blood relations intermarried. 
Bounding or Whipping Wind was the chief. (2) 
At the head of Lake Pepin, under a lofty bluff, 
was the Red "Wing village, called Ghay-mni-chan 
Hill, wood and water. Shooter was the name 
of tlie chief. (3) Opposite, and a little below the 
Pig's Eye Marsh, was the Kaposia band. The 
word, Kapoja means light, given because these 
people are quick travelers. His Scarlet People, 
better known as Little Crow, was the chief, and 
isnotorious as the leader in the massacre of 1862. 

On the Minnesota River, on the south side 



a few miles above Fort Snelling, was Black Dog 
village. The inhabitants were called, Ma-ga-yu- 
tay-shnee. People who do not a geese,* be- 
cause they found it profitable to sell game at Port 
Snelling. Grey Iron was the chief, also known 
as Pa-ma-ya-yaw, My head aches.^ 

At Oak Grove, on the north side of the nver, 
eight miles above the fort, was (5) Hay-ya-ta-o- 
ton-wan, or Inland Village, so called because 
they formerly lived at Lake Calkoun. Contigu- 
ous was (6) 0-ya-tay-shee-ka, or Bad People, 
Known as Good Boads Band and (7) the largest 
village was Tin-ta-ton-wan, Prairie Village ; 
Shokpay, or Six, was the chief, and is now the 
site of the town of Shakopee. 
West of this division of the Sioux were— 


The "War-pay-ku-tay, or leaf shooters, who 
occupied the country south of the Minnesota 
aroimd the sources of the Cannon and Blue Earth 
Rivers. / 


North and west of the last were the War-pay- 
twawns, or People of the Leaf, and their princi- 
pal village was Lac qui Parle. They numbered 
about fifteen hundred. 


To the west and southwest of these bands of 
Sioux were the Se-see-twawns (Sissetoans), or 
Swamp Dwellers. This band claimed the land 
west of the Blue Earth to the James River, and 
the guardianship of the Sacred Bed Pipestone 
Quarry. Their principal village was at Traverse, 
and the number of the band was estimated at 
thirty-eight hundred. 


The Ho-tchun-graws, or Winnebagoes, belong 
to the Dahkotah family of aborigines. Cham- 
plain, although he never visited them, mentions 
them. Nicollet, who had been in his employ, 
visited Green Bay about the year 1635, and an 
early Relation mentions that he saw the Ouini- 
pegous, a people called so, because they came 
from a distant sea, which some French erron- 
eously called Puants. Another writer speak- 

iing^of^ these 'people says: "This people are 
called ' Les Puants ' not because of any bad odor 
-peculiar to them, but because they claim to have 
come from the shores of a far distant lake, 
towards the north, whose waters are salt. They 
call themselves the people ' de I'eau puants,' of 
the putrid or bad water." 

By the treaty of 1837 they were removed to 
Iowa, and by another treaty in October, 1846, 
they came to Minnesota in the spring of 1848, 
to the country between the Long Prairie, 
and Crow Wing Rivers. The agency was located 
on Long Prairie River, forty miles from the 
Mississippi, and in 1849 the tribe numbered 
about twenty-five hundred souls. 

In Pebruary 1855, another treaty was made 
with them, and that spring they removed to lands 
on the Blue Earth River. Owing to the panic 
caused by the outbreak of the Sioux in 1862, Con- 
gress, by a special act, without consulting them, 
in 1863, removed them from their fields in Min- 
nesota to the Missouri River, and in the words 
of a missionary, "they were, like the Sioux, 
dumped in the desert, one hundred miles above 
Fort Randall" 


The Ojibways or Leapers, when the French 
came to Lake Superior, had their chief settlement 
at Sault St. Marie, and were called by the French 
Saulteurs, and by the Sioux, Hah-ha-tonwan, 
Dwellers at the Falls or Leaping Waters. 

When Du Luth erected his trading post at the 
western extremity of Lake Superior, they had not 
obtained any foothold in Minnesota, and were 
constantly at war with their hereditary enemes, 
the Nadouaysioux. By the middle of the 
eighteenth century, they had pushed in and occu- 
pied Sandy, Leech, Mille Lacs and other points 
between Lake Superior and the Mississippi, which 
had been dwelling places of the Sioux. In 1820 
the principal villages of Ojibways in Minnesota 
were at Fond du Lac, Leech Lake and Sandy 
Lake. In 1837 they ceded most of their lands. 
Since then, other treaties have been made, until 
in the year 1881, they are confined to a few res- 
ervations, in northern Minnesota and vicinity. 





Jesuit Missions not permanent— Pi'esbyterion Mission at Macliinaw — Visit of Rev. 
A. Coe and J D. Stevens to Fort Snelling— Notice of Ayors, Hall, and Boutwoll 
— Formation of the word Itasca — The Brothers Pond — Arrival of Dr. William- 
son—Presbyterian Church at Fort Snelling — Mission at Lake Harriet — Mourn- 
ing for the Dead — Chui'ob at Lac-qui parle~.;Father Ravoux — Mission at l,alco 
Pokeguma — Attack by the Sioux — Chippeway attack at Pig's Eye — Death of 
Rev. Sherman Hall — Methodist Missions Rev. S. W. Pond prepares a Sioux 
Grammar and Dictionary Swiss Presbyterian Mission. 

Bancroft the distinguished historian, catching 
the enthusiasm of the narratives of the early 
Jesuits, depicts, in language which glows, their 
missions to the Northwest ; yet it is erroneous 
to suppose that the Jesuits exercised any perma- 
nent influence on the Aborigines. 

Shea, a devoted member of the Eoman Catho- 
lic Church, in his History of American Catholic 
Missions writes : " In 1680 Father Engalran was 
apparently alone at Green Bay, and Pierson at 
Mackinaw. Of the other missions neither Le- 
Clerq nor Hennepin, the EecoUect writers of the 
West at this time, make any mention, or in any 
way allude to their existence." He also says 
that "Father Menard had projected a Sioux 
mission ; Marquette, AUouez, Druilletes, all en- 
tertained hopes of realizing it, and had some 
intercourse with that nation, but none of them 
ever succeeded in establishing a mission." 

Father Hennepin wrote: " Can it be possible, 
that, that pretended prodigious amount of savage 
converts could escape the sight of a multitude 
of French Canadians who travel every year? 
* * * * How comes it to pass that these 
churches so devout and so numerous, should be 
invisible, when I passed through so many 
countries and nations ¥ " 

After the American Fur Company was formed, 
the island of Mackinaw became the residence of 
the principal agent for the Northwest, Robert 
Stuart a Scotchman, and devoted Presbyterian. 

In the month of June, 1820, the Rev. Dr. 
Morse, father of the distinguished inventor of 
the telegraph, visited and preached at Mackinaw, 
and in consequence of statements published' by 

him, upon his return, a Presbyterian Missionary 
Society in the state of New York sent a graduate 
of Union College, the Rev. W. M. Ferry, father 
of the present United States Senator from Michi- 
gan, to explore the field. In 1823 he had estab- 
lished a large boarding school composed of 
children of various tribes, and here some were 
educated who became wives of men of intelli- 
gence and influence at the capital of Minnesota. 
After a few years, it was determined by the 
Mission Board to modify its plans, and in the 
place of a great central station, to send mission- 
aries among the several tribes to teach and to 

In pursuance of this policy, the Rev. Alvaa 
Coe, and J. D. Stevens, then a licentiate who 
had been engaged in the Mackinaw Mission, 
made a tour of exploration, and arrived on 
September 1, 1829, at Fort SneUing. In the 
journal of Major Lawrence Taliaferro, which 
is in possession of the Minnesota Historical 
Society, is the following entry : " The Rev. 
Mr. Coe and Stevens reported to be on their way 
to this post, members of the Presbyterian church 
looking out for suitable places to make mission- 
ary establishment for the Sioux and Chippeways, 
found schools, and mstruct in the arts and agri- 

The agent, although not at that time a commu- 
nicant of the Church, welcomed these visitors, 
and afforded them every facility in visiting the 
Indians. On Sunday, the 6th of September, the 
Rov. Mr. Coe preached twice in the fort, and the 
next night hold a prayer meeting at the quarters 
of the commanding officer. On the next Sunday 
he preached again, and on the 14th, with Mr. 
Stevens and a hired guide, returned to Mackinaw 
by way of the St. Croix river. During this visit 
the agent oifered for a Presbyterian mission the 
mill which then stood on the site of Minneapolis, 
and had been erected by the government, as well as 



the farm at Lake Calhoun, which was begun to 
teach the Sioux agriculture. 


In 1830, F. Ayer, one of the teachers at Mack- 
inaw, made an exploration as far as La Pointe, 
and returned. 

Upon the 30th day of August, 1831, a Macki- 
naw boat about forty feet long arrived at La 
Pointe, bringing from Mackinaw the principal 
trader, Mr. Warren, Rev. Sherman Hall and wife, 
and Mr. Frederick Ayer, a eatechist and teacher. 

Mrs. Hall attracted great attention, as she was 
the first white woman who had visited that 
region. Sherman Hall was born on April 30, 
1801, at Wethersfleld, Vermont, and in 1828 
graduated at Dartmouth College, and completed 
his theological studies at Andover, Massachu- 
setts, a few weeks before he journeyed to the 
Indian country. 

His classmate at Dartmouth and Andover, the 
Eev "W. T. Boutwell still living near Stillwater, 
became his yoke-feljow, but remained for a time 
at Mackinaw, which they reached about the mid- 
dle of July. In June, 1832, Henry B. School- 
craft, the head of an exploring expedition, invited 
Mr. Boutwell to accompany him to the sources of 
the Mississippi. 

When the expedition reached Lac la Biche or 
Elk Lake, on July 13, 1832, Mr. Schoolcraft, who 
was not a Latin scholar, asked the Latin word for 
truth, and was told "Veritas." He then wanted 
the word which signified head, and was told 
"caput." To the astonishment of many, School- 
craft struck off the first sylable, of the word 
ver-i-tas and the last sylable of ca-put, and thus 
coined the word Itasca, which he gave to the 
lake, and which some modern writers, with all 
gravity, tell us was the name of a maiden who 
once dwelt on its banks. Upon Mr. Boutwell's 
return from this expedition he was at first asso- 
ciated with Mr. Hall in the mission at La Pointe. 

In 1833 the mission band which had centered 
at La Pointe diffused their influence. In Octo- 
ber Eev. Mr. Boutwell went to Leech Lake, Mr. 
Ayer opened a school at Yellow Lake, Wiscon- 
sin, and Mr. E. F. Ely, now in Calif omia, became 
a teacher at Aitkin's trading post at Sandy Lake. 


Mr. Boutwell, of Leech Lake Station, on the 

sixth of May, 1834, happened to be on a visit to 
Fort Snelling. While there a steamboat arrived, 
and among the passengers were two young men, 
brothers, natives of Washington, Connecticut, 
Samuel W. and Gideon H. Pond, who had come, 
constrained by the love of Christ, and without con- 
ferring with flesh and blood, to try to improve 
the Sioux. 

Samuel, the older brother, the year before, had 
talked with a liquor seller in Galena, IlUnois, who 
had come from the Bed River country, and the 
desire was awakened to help the Sioux ; and he 
wrote to his brother to go with him. 

The Rev. Samuel W. Pond still lives at Shako- 
pee, in. the old mission house, the first building of 
sawed lumber erected in the valley of the Minne- 
sota, above Fort SnelUng. 


About this period, a native of South Carolina, 
a graduate of Jefferson College, Pennsylvania, 
the Rev. T. S. Williamson, M. D., who previous 
to his ordiaation had been a respectable physi- 
cian in Ohio, was appointed by the American 
Board of Foreign Missions to visit the Dahkotahs 
with the view of ascertaining what could be done 
to introduce Christian instruction. Having made 
inquiries at Prairie du Chien and Fort SnelUng, 
he reported the field was favorable. 

The Presbyterian and Congregational Churches, 
through their joint Missionary Society, appointed 
the following persons to labor in Minnesota : 
Rev. Thomas S. Williamson, M. D., missionary 
and physician ; Rev. J. D. Stevens, missionary ; 
Alexander Huggins, farmer; and their ■vWves; 
Miss Sarah Poage, and Lucy Stevens, teachers; 
who were prevented during the year 1834, by the 
state of navigation, from entering upon their 

During the winter of 1834-35, a pious officer 
of the army exercised a good influence on his 
fellow officers and soldiers under his command. 
In the absence of a chaplain of ordained minis- 
ter, he, like General Havelock, of the British 
army in India, was accustomed not only to drill 
the soldiers, hui to meet them in bis own quar- 
ters, and reason with them "of righteousness, 
temperance, and judgment to come." 

In the month of May, 1835, Dr. Williamson 
and mission band arrived at Fort Snelling, and 



were hospitably received by the officers of the 
garrison, the Indian Agent, and Mr. Sibley, Agent 
of the Company at Mendota, who had been in 
the country a few months. 

On the twenty-seventh of this month the Rev. 
Dr. Williamson united in marriage at the Fort 
Lieutenant Edward A. Ogden to Eliza Edna, the 
daughter of Captain G. A. Loomis, the iirst 
marriage service in which a clergyman oflBciated 
in the present State of Minnesota. 

On the eleventh of June a meeting was held 
at the Port to organize a Presbyterian Church, 
sixteen persons who had been communicants, 
and six who made a profession of faith, one of 
whom was Lieutenant Ogden, were enrolled as 

Pour elders were elected, among whom were 
Capt. Gustavus Loomis and Samuel W. Pond. 
The next day a lecture preparatory to administer- 
ing the communion, was delivered, and on Sun- 
day, the 14th, the first organized church in the 
Valley of the Upper Mississippi assembled for 
the first time in one of the Company rooms of the 
Fort. The services in the morning were conducted 
by Dr. "Williamson. The afternoon service com- 
menced at 2 o'clock. The sermon of Mr. Stevens 
was upon a most appropriate text, 1st Peter, ii:25 ; 
" For ye were as sh^eep going astray, but are now 
returned unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your 
souls." After the discourse, the sacrament of the 
Lord's supper was administered. 

At a meeting of the Session on the thirty-first 
of July, Rev. J. D. Stevens, missionary, was in- 
vited to preach to the church, " so long as the 
duties of his mission will permit, and also to pre- 
side at all the meetings of the Session." Captain 
Gustavus Loomis was elected Stated Clerk of the 
Session, and they resolved to observe the monthly 
concert of prayer on the first Monday of each 
month, for the conversion of the world. 

Two points were selected by the missionaries 
as proper spheres of labor. Mr. Stevens and 
family proceeded to Lake Harriet, and Dr. Wil- 
Uamson and family, in June, proceeded to Lac 
qui Parle. 

As there had never been a chaplain at Fort 
Snelling, the Eev. J. D. Stevens, the missionary 
at Lake Harriet, preached on Sundays to the 
Presbyterian church, there, recently organized. 

Writing on January twenty-seventh, 1836, he 
says, in relation to his field of labor : 

" Yesterday a portion of this band of Indians, 
who had been some time absent from this village, 
returned. One of the number (a woman) was 
informed that a brother of hers had died during 
her absence. He was not at this village, but 
with another band, and the information had just 
reached here. In the evening they set up a most 
piteous crying, or rather waDing, which con- 
tinued, with some little cessations, during the 
night. The sister of the deceased brother would 
repeat, times without number, words which may 
be thus translated into EngUsh: 'Come, my 
brother, I shall see you no more for ever.' The 
night was extremely cold, the thermometer 
standing from ten to twenty below zero. About 
sunrise, next morning, preparation was made for 
performing the ceremony of cutting their flesh, 
in order to give relief to their grief of mind. 
The snow was removed from the frozen ground 
over about as large a space as would be required 
to place a small Indian lodge or vrigwam. In the 
centre a very small fire was kindled up, not to 
give warmth, apparently, but to cause a smoke. 
The sister of the deceased, who was the chief 
mourner, came out of her lodge followed by 
three other women, who repaired to the place 
prepared. They were all barefooted, and nearly 
naked. Here they set up a most bitter lamenta- 
tion and crying, mingling their wailings with the 
words before mentioned. The principal mourner 
commenced gashing or cutting her ankles and 
legs up to the knees with a sharp stone, imtil her 
legs were covered with gore and flowing blood ; 
then in like manner her arms, shoulders, and 
breast. The others cut themselves in the same 
way, but not so severely. On this poor infatuated 
woman I presume there were more than a hun- 
dred long deep gashes in the flesh. I saw the 
operation, and the blood instantly followed the 
instrument, and flowed down upon the flesh. She 
appeared frantic with grief. Through the pain 
of her wounds, the loss of blood, exhaustion of 
strength by fasting, loud and long-continued and 
bitter groans, or the extreme cold upon her al- 
most naked and lacerated body, she soon sunk 
upon the frozen ground, shaking as with a violent 
fit of the ague, and writhing in apparent agony. 
' Surely,' I exclaimed, as I beheld the bloody 



scene, 'the tender mercies of the heathen are 
cruelty I' 

" The little chnrch at the fort begins to mani- 
fest something of a missionary spirit Their con- 
tributions are considerable for so small a number. 
I hope they will not only be wiUing to contribute 
liberally of their substance, but will give them- 
selves, at least some of them, to the missionary 

" The surgeon of the military post, Dr. Jarvis, 
has been very assiduous in his attentions to us in 
our sickness, and has very generously made a do- 
nation to our board of twenty-five dollars, being 
the amount of his medical services in our family. 

" On the nineteenth instant we commenced a 
school with six full Indian children, at least so in 
all their habits, dress, etc.; not one could speak a 
word of any language but Sioux. The school has 
since increased to the number of twenty-five. I 
am now collecting and arranging words for a dic- 
tionary. Mr. Pond is assiduously employed in 
preparing a small speUing-book, which we may 
forward next mail for printing. 

On the fifteenth of September, 1836, a Presby- 
terian church was organized at Lac-qui-Parle, a 
branch of that in and near Fort Snelling, and 
Joseph Renville, a mixed blood of great influ- 
ence, became a communicant. He had been 
trained in Canada by a Roman CathoUc priest, 
but claimed the right of private judgment. Mr. 
Renville's wife was the first pure Dahkotah of 
whom we have any record that ever joined the 
Church of Christ. This church has never become 
extinct, although its members have been neces- 
sarily nomadic. After the treaty of Traverse des 
Sioux, it was removed to Hazlewood. Driven 
from thence by the. outbreak of 1862, it has be- 
came the parent of other churches, in the valley 
of the upper Missouri, over one of which John 
Renville, a descendant of the elder at Lac-qul- 
Parle, is the pastor. 


Father Ravoux, recently from France, a sin- 
cere and earnest priest of the Church of Rome, 
came to Mendota in the autumn of 1841, and 
after a brief sojourn with the Rev. L. Galtier, 
who had erected Saint Paul's chapel, which has 
given the name of Saint Paul to the capital of 
Minnesota, he ascended the Minnesota River^ 
and visited Lac-qui-Parle. 

Bishop Loras, of Dubuque, wrote the next year 
of his visit as follows : " Our young missionary, 
M. Ravoux, passed the winter on the banks of 
Lac-qui-Parle, without any other support than 
Providence, without any other means of conver- 
sion than a burning zeal, he has wrought in the 
space of six months, a happy revolution among 
the Sioux. From the time of his arrival he has 
been occupied night and day in the study of their 
language. ***** "VYhen he instructs 
the savages, he speaks to them with so much fire 
whilst showing them a large copper crucifix which 
he carries on his breast, that he makes the strong- 
est impression upon them." 

The impression, however was evanescent, and 
he soon retired from the field, and no more efforts 
were made in this direction by the Church of 
Rome. This young Mr. Ravoux is now the highly 
respected vicar of the Roman Catholic diocese of 
Minnesota, and justly esteemed for his simplicity 
and unobtrusiveness. 


Pokeguma is one of the " Mille Lacs," or thou- 
sand beautiful lakes for which Minnesota is re- 
markable . It is about four or five miles iu extent , 
and a mile or more in width. 

This lake is situated on Snake River, about 
twenty miles above the junction of that stream 
with the St. Croix. 

In the year 1836, missionaries came to reside 
among the Ojibways and Pokeguma, to promote 
their temporal and spiritual welfare. Their mis- 
sion house was built on the east side of the lake ; 
but the Indian village was on an island not far 
from the shore. 

In a letter written in 1837, we find the fol- 
lowing: "The young women and girls now 
make, mend, wash, and iron after our man- 
ner. The men have learned to build log houses, 
drive team, plough, hoe, and handle an American 
axe with some skill in cutting large trees, the 
size of which, two years ago, would have afforded 
them a sufficient reason why they should not med- 
dle with them." 

In May, 1841, Jeremiah Russell, who was In- 
dian farmer, sent two Chippeways, accompanied 
by Elam Greeley, of Stillwater, to the Falls of 
Saint Croix for supplies. On Saturday, the 
fifteenth of the month they arrived there, and 



the next day a steamboat came up with the 
goods. The captam said a war party of Sioux, 
headed by Little Crow, was advancing, and the 
two Chippeways prepared to go back and were 
their friends. 

They had hardly left the Falls, on their re- 
turn, before they saw a party of Dahkotahs. The 
sentinel of the enemy had not noticed the ap- 
proach of the young men. In the twinkling of 
an eye, these two young Ojibways raised their 
guns, lired, and killed two of Little Crow's sons. 
The discharge of the guns revealed to a sentinel, 
that an enemy was near, and as the Ojibways 
were retreating, he fired, and mortally wounded 
one of the two. 

According to custom, the corpses of the chief's 
sons were dressed, and then set up with their 
faces towards the country of their ancient ene- 
mies. The wounded Ojibway was horribly 
mangled by the infuriated party, and his limbs 
strewn about in every direction. His scalped 
head was placed in a kettle, and suspended in 
front of the two Dahkotah corpses. 

Little Crow, disheartened by the loss of his two 
boys, returned with his party to Kaposia. But 
other parties were in the field. 

It was not till Friday ,"the twenty-first of May, 
that the death of one of the young Ojibways 
sent by Mr. Eussell, to the Falls of Saint Croix, 
was known at Pokeguma. 

Mr. Bussell on the next Sunday, accompanied 
by Captain William Holcomb and a half-breed, 
went to the mission station to attend a religious 
service, and while crossing the lake in returning, 
the half-breed said that it was rumored that the 
Sioux were approaching. On Monday, the twen- 
ty-fourth, three young men left in a canoe to go 
to the west shore of the lake, and from thence to 
Mille Lacs, to give intelligence to the Ojibways 
there, of the skirmish that had already occurred. 
They took with them two Indian girls, about 
twelve years, of age, who were pupils of the mis- 
sion school, for the purpose of bringing the canoe 
back to the island. Just as the three were land- 
ing, twenty or thirty Dahkotah warriors, with a 
war whoop emerged from their concealment be- 
hind the trees, and fired into the canoe. The 
young men instantly sprang into the water, which 

was shallow, returned the fire, and ran into the 
woods, escaping without material injury. 

The little girls, in their fright, waded into the 
lake; but were pursued. Their parents upon 
the island, heard the death cries of their children. 
Some of the Indians around the mission-house 
jumped into their canoes and gained the island. 
Others went into some fortified log huts. The 
attack upon the canoe, it was afterwards learned, 
was premature. The party upon that side of the 
lake were ordered not to fire, until the party 
stationed in the woods near the mission began. 

There were in all one hundred and eleven 
Dahkotah warriors, and all the fight was in the 
vicinity of the mission-house, and the Ojibways 
mostly engaged in it were those who had been 
under religious instruction. The rest were upon 
the island. 

The fathers of the murdered girls, burning for 
revenge, left the island in a canoe, and drawing 
it up on the shore, hid behind it, and fired upcjn 
the Dahkotahs and killed one. The Dahkotahs 
advancing upon them, they were obliged to 
escape. The canoe was now launched. On,e Iny 
on his back in the bottom; the other plunged 
into the water, and, holding the canoe witli one 
hand, and swimming with the other, he towed 
his friend out of danger. The Dahkotahs, in- 
furiated at their escape, fired volley after volley 
at the swimmer, but he escaped the balls by 
putting his head under water whenever he saw 
them take aim, and waiting till he heard the 
discharge, he would then look up and breathe. 

After a fight of two hours, the Dahkotahs re- 
treated, with a loss of two men. At the request 
of the parents, Mr. E. F. Ely, from whose 
notes the writer has obtained these facts, be- 
ing at that time a teacher at the mission, 
went across the lake, with two of his friends, to 
gather the remains of his murdered pupils. Ho 
found the corpses on the shore. The heads cut 
oH and scalped, with a tomahawk buried in the 
brains of each, were set up in the sand near the 
bodies. The bodies were pierced in the breast, 
and the right arm of one was taken away. Ee- 
moving the tomahawks, the bodies were brought 
back to the island, and in the afternoon were 
buried in accordance with the simple but solemn 
rites of the Church of Christ, by members of the 



The sequel to this story is soon told. The In- 
dians of Pokeguma, after the fight, deserted their 
village, and went to reside with their countrymen 
near Lake Superior. 

In July of the following year, 1842, a war party 
was formed at Fond du Lac, about forty in num- 
ber, and proceeded towards the Dahkotah country. 
Sneaking, as none but Indians can, they arrived 
unnoticed at the Uttle settlement below Saint 
Paul, commonly called "Pig's Eye," which is 
opposite to what was Kaposia, or Little Crow's 
village. Finding an Indian woman at work in 
the garden of her husband, a Canadian, by the 
name of GameUe, they killed her ; also another 
woman, with her infant, whose head was cut of£. 
The Dahkotahs, on the opposite side, were mostly 
intoxicated ; and, flying across in their canoes but 
half prepared, they were worsted in the en- 
counter. They lost thirteen warriors, and one of 
their number, known as the Dancer, the Ojib- 
ways are said to have skinned. 

Soon after this the Chippeway missions of the 
St. Croix Valley were abandoned. 

In a little while Rev. Mr. Boutwell removed to 
the vicinity of Stillwater, and the missionaries, 
Ayer and Spencer, went to Red Lake and other 
points in Minnesota. 

In 1853 the Kev. Sherman Hall left the Indians 
and became pastor of a Congregational church at 
Sauk Eapids, where he recently died. 


In 1837 the Eev. A. Brunson commenced a 
Methodist mission at Kaposia, about four miles 
below, and opposite Saint Paul. It was afterwards 
removed across the river to Red Rock. He was 
assisted by the Eev. Thomas W. Pope, and the 
latter was succeeded by the Eev. J. Holton. 

The Rev. Mr. Spates and others also labored 
for a brief period among the Ojibways. 


At the stations the Dahkotah language was dil- 
igently studied. Rev. S. "W. Pond had prepared 
a dictionary of three thousand words, and also a 
small grammar. The Eev. S. E. Eiggs, who 
joined the mission in 1837, in a letter dated 
February 24, 1841, writes : " Last summer 
after returning from Fort SneUtng, I spent five 
weeks in copying again the Sioux vocabulary 
which we had collected and arranged at this sta- 

tion. It contained then about 6500 words, not 
\ including the various forms of the verbs. Since 
that time, the words collected by Dr. Williamson 
i^d myself, have, I presume, increased the num- 
ber to six thousand. ***** in this con- 
nection, I may mention that during the Vraiter of 
1839-40, Mrs. Eiggs, with some assistance, wrote 
an English and Sioux vocabulary containing 
about three thousand words. One of Mr. Een- 
ville's sons and three of his daughters are en- 
gaged in copying. In committing the grammati- 
cal prih'eiples of the language to writing, we have 
done sonaething at this station, but more has been 
done by Mr. S. W. Pond." 

Steadily the number of Indiaji missionaries 
increased, and in 1851, before the lands of the 
Dahkotahs west of the Mississippi were ceded to 
the whites, they were disposed as follows by the 
Dahkotah Presbytery, 

Lac-qui-parle, Eev. S. E. Eiggs, Eev. M. N. 
Adams, Missionaries, Jonas Pettijohn, Mrs. 
Fanny Pettijohn, Mrs. Mary Ann Eiggs, Mrs. 
Mary A. M. Adams, Miss Sarah Eankin, As- 

Traverse des Sioux, Eev. Eobert Hopkins, Mis- 
sionary; Mrs. Agnes Hopkins, Alexander G. 
Huggins, Mrs. Lydia P. Huggins, Assistants. 

Shakpay, or Shohpay, Eev. Samuel W. Pond, 
Missionary ; Mrs. Sarah P. Pond, Assistant. 

Oak Cfrove, Eev. Gideon H. Pond and wife. 

Kaposia, Eev. Thomas Williamson, M. D., 
Missionary and Physician; Mrs. Margaret P. 
Williamson, Miss Jane S. Williamson, Assistants. 

Bed Wing, Eev. John F. Alton, Eev. Joseph 
W. Hancock, Missionaries; Mrs. Nancy H. Alton, 
Mrs. Hancock, Assistants. 

The Eev. Daniel Gavin, the Swiss Presbyte- 
rian Missionary, spent the winter of 1839 in Lac- 
qui-Parle and was afterwards married to a niece 
of the Eev. J. D. Stevens, of the Lake Harriet 
Mission. Mr. Stevens became the farmer and 
teacher of the Wapashaw band, and the first 
white man who lived where the city of Winona 
has been built. Another missionary from Switz- 
erland, the Eev. Mr. Denton, married a Miss 
Skinner, formerly of the Mackinaw mission. 
During a portion of the year 1839 these Swiss 
missionaries lived vyith the American mission- 
aries at camp Cold Water near Fort Snelling, 
but their chief field of labor was at Eed Wing. 





Origin of the name Saint Groix — Bu Luth, first Explorer — Frencli Post on the St. 
Craix — Pitt, an early pioneer — Early settlers at Saint Croix Foils — First women 
there — Marine Settlement — Joseph R. BroAvn's town site — Saint Croix County 
organized — Proprietors of Stillwater — A dead Negro woman — ^Pig's Eye, origin 
of name — Rise of Saint Paul — Dr. Williamson secures first school teacher for 
Saint Paul — Description of first school room — Saint Croix County roKirganized 
— Rev. W. T. Boutwell, pioneer clergyman. 

The Saint Croix river, according to Le Sueur, 
named after a Frenchman who was drowned at 
its mouth, was one of the earliest throughfares 
from Lake Superior to the Mississippi. The first 
white man who directed canoes upon its waters 
was Du Luth, who had in 1679 explored Minne- 
sota. He thus describes his tour in a letter, first 
published by Harrisse : " In June, 1680, not be- 
ing satisfied, with having made my discovery by 
land, I took two canoes, with an Indian who was 
my interpreter, and four Frenchmen, to seek 
means to make it by water. With this view I 
entered a river which empties eight leagues from 
the extremity of Lake Superior, on the south 
side, where, after having cut some trees and 
broken about a hundred beaver dams, I reached 
the upper waters of the said river, and then I 
made a portage of half a league to reach a lake, 
the outlet of which fell into a very fine river, 
which took me down into the Mississippi. There 
I learned from eight cabins of Nadouecioux that 
the Eev. Father Louis Hennepin, Recollect, now 
at the convent of Saint Germain, with two other 
Frenchmen had been robbed, and carried ofE as 
slaves for more than three hundred leagues by 
the Nadouecioux themselves." 

He then relates how he left two Frenchmen 
with his goods, and went with his interpreter and 
two Frenchmen in a canoe down the Mississippi, 
and after two days and two nights, found Henne- 
pin, Accault and Augelle. He told Hennepin 
that he must return with him through the country 
of the Fox tribe, and writes : " I preferred to re- 
trace my steps, manifesting to them [the Sioux] 
the just indignation I felt against them, rather 
than to remain after the violence they had done 

to the Eev. Father and the other two Frenchmen 
with him, whom I put in my canoes and brought 
them to Michilimackinack." 

After this, the Saint Croix river became a chan- 
nel for commerce, and BelUn writes, that before 
1755, the French had erected a fort forty leagues 
from its mouth and twenty from Lake Superior. 

The pine forests between the Saint Croix and 
Minnesota had been for several years a tempta- 
tion to energetic men. As early as November, 
1836, a Mr. Pitt went with a boat and a party of 
men to the Falls of Saint Croix to cut pine tim- 
ber, with the consent of the Chippeways but the 
dissent of the United States authorities. 

In 1837 while the treaty was being made by Com- 
missioners Dodge and Smith at Fort Snelling, on 
one Sunday Franklin Steele, Dr. Fitch, Jeremiah 
Russell, and a Mr. Maginnis left Fort SneUing 
for the Falls of Saint Croix in a birch bark canoe 
paddled by eight men, and reached that iwint 
about noon on Monday aud commenced a log 
cabin. Steele and Maginnis remained here, 
while the others, dividing into two parties, one 
under Fitch, and the other under EusseU, search- 
ed for pine land. The first stopped at Sun Else, 
while Eussel went on to the Snake River. About 
the same time Eobbinet and Jesse B. Taylor 
came to the Falls in the interest of B. F. Baker 
who had a stone trading house near Fort Snelling, 
since destroyed by fire. On the fifteenth of July, 
1838, the Palmyra, Capt. Holland, arrived at 
the Fort, with the official notice of the ratifica- 
tion of the treaties ceding the lands between the 
Saint Croix and Mississippi. 

She had on board C. A. Tuttle, L. W. Stratton 
and others, with the machinery for the projected 
mills of the Northwest Lumber Company at the 
Falls of Saint Croix, and reached that point on 
the seventeenth, the first steamboat to disturb the 
waters above Lake Saint Croix. The steamer 
Gypsy came to the fort on the twenty-first of 



October, with goods for the Chippeways, and was 
chartered for four hundred and fifty dollars, to 
carry them up to the Falls of Saint Croix. In 
passing through the lake, the boat grounded near 
a projected town called Stambaughville, after 8. 
C. Stambaugh, the sutler at the fort. On the 
afternoon of the 26th, the goods were landed, as 

The agent of the Improvement Company at the 
falls was Washington Libbey, who left in the fall 
of 1838, and was succeeded by Jeremiah Eussell, 
Stratton acting as millwright in place of Calvin 
Tuttle. On the twelfth of December, Russell and 
Stratton walked down the river, cut the first tree 
and built a cabin at Marine, and sold their claim. 

The first women at the Falls of Saint Croix were 
a Mrs. Orr, Mrs. Sackett, and the daughter of a 
Mr. Young. During the winter of 1838-9, Jere- 
miah Russell married a daughter of a respectable 
and gentlemanly trader, Charles H. Oakes. 

Among the first preachers were the Rev. W. T. 
Boutwell and Mr. Seymour, of the Chippeway 
Mission at Pokeguma. The Rev. A. Branson, of 
Prairie du Chien, who visited this region in 1838, 
wrote that at the mouth of Snake River he f oimd 
Franklin Steele, with twenty-five or thirty men, 
cutting timber for a mill, and when he offered to 
preach Mr. Steele gave a cordial assent. 

On the sixteenth of August, Mr. Steele, Living- 
ston, and others, left the Falls of Saint Croix in a 
barge, and went around to Fort SneUing. 

The steamboat Fayette about the middle of 
May, 1839, landed sutlers' stores at Fort SneU- 
ing and then proceeded with several persons of 
intelligence to the Saint Croix river, who ssttled 
at Marine. 

The place was called after Marine in Madison 
county, Illinois, where the company, consisting 
of Judd, Hone and others, was formed to build 
a saw miU in the Saint Croix Valley. The mill 
at Marine commenced to saw lumber, on August 
24, 1839, the first in Minnesota. 

Joseph E. Brown, who since 1838, had lived at 

Chan Wakan, on the west side of Grey Cloud 

Island, this year made a claim near the upper 

end of the city of Stillwater, which he called 

Dahkotah, and was the first to raft lumber down 

the Saint Croix, as well as the first to represent 

the citizens of the valley in the legislature of 


Until the year 1841, the jurisdiction of Craw- 
ford county, Wisconsin, extended over the delta 
of country between the Sainb Croix and Missis- 
sippi. Joseph R. Brown having been elected as 
representative of the county, in the territorial 
legislature of Wisconsin, succeeded in obtaining 
the passage of an act on November twentieth, 
1841, organizing the county of Saint Croix, with 
Dahkotah designated as the county seat. 

At the time prescribed for holding a court in 
the new county, it is said that the judge of the 
district arrived, and to his surprise, found a 
claim cabin occupied by a Frenchman. Speedily 
retreating, he never came again, .and judicial 
proceedings for Saint Croix county ended for 
several years. Phineas Lawrence was the first 
sheriff of this county. 

On the tenth of October, 1843, was commenced 
a settlement which has become the town of Still- 
water. The names of the proprietors were John 
McKusick from Maine, Calvin Leach from Ver- 
mont, Elam Greeley from Maine, and Elias 
McKean from Pennsylvania. They immediately 
commenced the erection of a sawmill. 

John H. Fonda, elected on the twenty-second 
of September, as coroner of Crawford county, 
Wisconsin, asserts that he was once notified that 
a dead body was lying in the water opposite Pig's 
Eye slough, and immediately proceeded tp the 
spot, and on taking it out, recognized it as the 
body of a negro woman belonging to a certain 
captain of the United States army then at Fort 
Crawford. The body was cruelly cut and bruised, 
but no one appearing to recognise it, a verdict of 
" Found dead," was rendered, and the corpse was 
buried. Soon after, it came to light that the 
woman was whipped to death, and thrown into 
the river during the night. 

The year that the Dahkotahs ceded their lands 
east of the Mississippi, a Canadian Frenchman 
by the name of Parrant, the ideal of an Indian 
whisky seller, erected a shanty in what is now 
the city of Saint Paul. Ignorant and overbear- 
ing he loved money more than his own soul. 
Destitute of one eye, and the other resembling 
that of a pig, he was a good representative of 
Caliban. Some one writing from his groggery 
designated it as " Pig's Eye." The reply to the 
letter was directed in good faith to " Pig's Eye " 



Some years ago the editor of the Saint Paul 
Press described the occasion in these words : 

" Edmund Brisette, a clerkly Frenchman for 
those days, who lives, or did live a little while 
ago, on Lake Harriet, was one day seated at a 
table in Parrant's cabin, with pen and paper 
about to write a letter for Parrant (for Parrant, 
like Charlemagre, could not write) to a friend 
of the latter in Canada. The question of geog- 
raphy puzzled Brissette at the outset of the 
epistle; where should he date a letter from a 
place without a name ?, He looked ' up inquir- 
ingly to Parrant, and met the dead, cold glare of 
the Pig's Eye fixed upon him, with an irresist- 
ible suggestiveness that was inspiration to 

In 1842, the late Henry Jackson, of Mahkahto, 
settled at the same spot, and erected the first 
store on the height just above the lower landing, 
Koherts and Simpson followed, and opened 
small Indian trading shops. In 1846, the site of 
Saint Paul was chiefly occupied by a few shanties 
owned by "certain lewd fellows of the baser 
sort," who sold rum to the soldier and Indian. 
It was despised by all decent white men, and 
known to the Dahkotahs by an expression in 
their tongue which means, the place where they 
sell miane-wakan [supernatural water]. 

The chief of the Kaposia band in 1846, was shot 
by his own brother in a drunken revel, but sur- 
viving the wound, and apparently alarmed at the 
deterioration under the influence of the modem 
harpies at Saint Paul, went to Mr. Bruce, Indian 
Agent, at Port Snelling, and requested a mis- 
sionary. The Indian Agent in his report to gov- 
ernment, says : 

" The chief of the Little Crow's band, who re- 
sides below this place (Fort Snelling) about nine 
miles, in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
whiskey dealers, has requested to have a school 
established at his village. He says they are de- 
termined to reform, and for the future, will try 
to do better. I wrote to Doctor "Williamson soon 
after the request was made, desiring him to take 
charge of the school. He has had charge of the 
mission school at Lac qui Parle for some years ; 
is well qualified, and is an excellent physician." 

In November, 1846, Dr. Williamson came from 
Lac qui Parle, as requested, and became a resi- 
dent of Kaposia. While disapproving Of their 

practices, he felt a kindly interest in the whites 
of Pig's Eye, which place was now beginning to 
be called, after a little log chapel which had been 
erected at the suggestion of Rev. L. Galtier, and 
called Saint Paul's. Though a missionary among 
the Dahkotahs, he was the first to take steps to 
promote the education of the whites and half- 
breeds of Minnesota. In the year 1847, he wrote 
to ex-Governor Slade, President of the National 
Popular Education Society, in relation to the 
condition of what has subsequently become the 
capital of the state. i 

In accordance with his request, Miss H. E. 
Bishop came to his mission-house at Kaposia, 
and, after a short time, was introduced by him 
to the citizens of Saint Paul. The first school- 
house in Minnesota besides those connected with 
the Indian missions, stood near the site of the 
old Brick Presbyterian church, comer of Saint 
Peter and Third street, and is thus described by 
the teacher : 

•'The school was commenced in a little log 
hovel, covered with bark, and chinked with mud, 
previously used as a blacksmith shop. On three 
sides of the interior of this humble log cabin, 
pegs were driven into the logs, upon which boards 
were laid for seats. Another seat was made by 
placing one end of a plank between the cracks 
of the logs, and the other upon a chair. This 
was for visitors. A rickety cross-legged table in 
the centre, and a hen's nest in one comer, com- 
pleted the furniture." 

Saint Croix county, in the year 1847, was de- 
tached from Crawford county, AVisconsin, and 
reorganized for judicial purposes, and Stillwater 
made the county seat. In the month of June 
the United States District Court held its session 
in the store-room of Mr. John McKusick ; Judge 
Charles Dunn presiduig. A large number of 
lumbermen had been attracted by the pineries 
in the upper poi-tion of the valley of Saint Croix, 
and Stillwater was looked upon as the center of 
the lumbering interest. _ 

The Rev. Mr. Boutwell, feeling that he could 
be more useful, left the Ojibways, and took up 
his residence near Stillwater, preaching to the 
lumbermen at the Falls of Saint Croix, Marine 
Mills, Stillwater, and Cottage Grove. In a letter 
speaking of Stillwater, he says, " Here is a little' 
village sprung up like a gourd, but whether it ia' 
to perish as soon, Godjanly knows." 





Wisconsin State Boundaries — First Bill for the Organization of Minnesota Terri- 
tory, A. D. 1846 — Cliauge of Wisconsin Boundary — Memorial of Saint Croix 
Valley citizens — ^Various names proposed for the New Territory — Convention at 
Stillwater — H. H. Sihley elected Delegate to Congress.— Derivation of word 

Three years elapsed from the time that the 
territory of Minnesota was proposed in Congress, 
to the final passage of the organic act. On the 
sixth of August, 1846, an act was passed by Con- 
gress authorizing the citizens of Wisconsin Ter- 
ritory to frame a constitution and form a state 
government. The act fixed the Saint Louis river 
to the rapids, from thence south to the Saint 
Croix, and thence down that river to its junction 
■wi^ih the Mississippi, as the western boundary. 

On the twenty -third of December, 1846, the 
delegate from Wisconsin, Morgan L. Martin, in- 
troduced a bill in Congress for the organization 
of a territory of Minnesota. This bill made its 
western boundary the Sioux and Red River of 
the North. On the* third of March, 1847, per- 
mission was granted to Wisconsin to change her 
boundary, so that the western Umit would pro- 
ceed due south from the first rapids of the Saint 
Louis river, and fifteen miles east of the most 
easterly point of Lake Saint Croix, thence to the 

A number in the constitutional convention of 
Wisconsin, were anxious that Rum river should 
be a part of her western boundary, while citizens 
of the valley of the Saint Croix were desirous 
that the Chippeway river should be the limit of 
Wisconsin. The citizens of Wisconsin Territory, 
in the vaUey of the Saint Croix, and about Fort 
Snelling, wished to be included in the projected 
new territory, and on the twenty-eighth of March, 
1848, a memorial signed by H. H. Sibley, Henry 
M. Rice, Franklin Steele, William R. Marshall, 
and others, was presented to Congress, remon- 
strating against the proposition before the con- 
vention to make Rum river a part of the bound- 
ary line of the contemplated state of Wisconsin. 

On the twenty-ninth of May, 1848, the act to 
admit Wisconsin changed the boundary line to 
the present, and as first defined in the enabling 
act of 1846. After the bill of Mr. Martin was 
introduced into the House of Representatives in 
1846 it was referred to the Committee on Terri- 
tories, of which Mr. Douglas was chairman. On 
the twentieth of January, 1847, he reported in 
favor of the proposed territory with the name 
of Itasca. On the seventeenth of February, be- 
fore the bill passed the House, a discussion arose 
in relation to the proposed name. Mr. Win- 
throp of Massachusetts proposed Chippewa as a 
substitute, alleging that this tribe was the prin- 
cipal in the proposed territory, which was not 
correct. Mr. J. Thompson of Mississippi disliked 
all Indian names, and hoped the territory would 
be called Jackson. Mr. Houston of Delaware 
thought that there ought to be one territory 
named after the "Father of his country," and 
proposed Washington. All of the names pro- 
posed were rejected, and the name in the original 
bill inserted. On the last day of the session, 
March third, the bill was called up in the Senate 
and laid on the table. 

When Wisconsin became a state the query 
arose whether the old territorial government did 
not continue in force west of the Saint Croix 
river. The first meeting on the subject of claim- 
ing territorial privileges was held in the building 
at Saint Paul, known as Jackson's store, near the 
corner of Bench and Jackson streets, on the 
bluff. This meeting was held in July, and a 
convention was proposed to consider their posi- 
tion. The first public meeting was held at Still- 
water on August fourth, and Messrs. Steele and 
Sibley were the only persons present from the 
west side of the Mississippi. This meeting is- 
sued a call for a general convention to take steps 
to secure an early territorial organization, to 
assemble on the twenty-sixth of the month at 



the same place. Sixty-two delegates answered 
the call, and among those present, were W. D. 
Phillips, J. W. Bass, A. Larpenteur, J. M. Boal, 
and others frpm Saint Paul. To the convention 
a letter was presented from Mr, Catlin, who 
claimed to be acting governor, giving his opinion 
that the Wisconsin territorial organization was 
still in force. The meeting also appointed Mr. 
Sibley to visit Washington and represent their 
views; but the lion. John H. Tweedy having 
resigned his office of delegate to Congress on 
September eighteenth,.1848, Mr. Catlin, who had 
made Stillwater a temporary residence, on the 
ninth of October issued a proclamation ordering 
a special election at Stillwater on the thirtieth, 
to fill a vacancy occasioned by the resignation. 
At this election Henry H. Sibley was elected as 
delegate of the citizens of the remaining portion 
of Wisconsin Territory. His credentials were 
presented to the House of Eepresentatives, and 
the committee to whom the matter was referred 
presented a majority and minority report; but 
the resolution introduced by the majority passed 
and Mr. Sibley took his seat as a delegate from 
Wisconsin Territory on the fifteenth of January, 

Mr. H. M. Eice, and other gentlemen, visited 
Washington during the winter, and, uniting with 
Mr. Sibley, used all their energies to obtain the 
organization of a new territory. 

Mr. Sibley, in an interesting communication to 
the Minnesota Historical Society, writes : " When 
my credentials as Delegate, were presented by 
Hon. James Wilson, of New Hampshire, to the 

House of Eepresentatives, there was some curi- 
osity manifested among the members, to see what 
kind of a person had been elected to represent the 
distant and wild territory claiming representation 
in Congress. I was told by a New England mem- 
ber with whom I became subsequently quite inti- 
mate, that there was some disappointment when 
I made my appearance, for it was expected that 
the delegate from this remote region would make 
his debut, if not in full Indian costume, at least, 
with some peculiarities of dress and manners, 
characteristic of the rude and semi-civilized peo- 
ple who had sent him to the Capitol." 

The territory of Minnesota was named after 
the largest tributary of the Mississippi within its 
limits. The Sioux call the Missouri Minnesho- 
shay, muddy water, but the stream after which 
this region is named, Minne-sota. Some say that 
Sota means clear; others, turbid; Schoolcraft, 
bluish green. McoUet wrote. "The adjective 
Sotah is of difficult translation. The Canadians 
translated it by a pretty equivalent word, brouille, 
perhaps more properly rendered into English by 
blear. I have entered upon this explanation be 
cause the word reaUy means neither clear nor 
turbid, as some authors have asserted, its true 
meaniag being found in the Sioux expression 
Ishtah-sotah, blear-eyed." From the fact that the 
word signifies neither blue nor white, but the 
peculiar appearance of the sky at certain times, 
by some, Minnesota has been defined to mean the 
sky tinted water, which is certainly poetic, and the 
late Eev. Gideon H. Pond thought quite correct. 





Appearance of the Country, A. D. 1849 — Arrival of first Editor — Governor 
Ramsey arrives — Guest of H. H. Sibley — Proclamation issued — Governor 
Ramsey and H. M. Rice move to Saint Paul — Fourth of July Celebration — 
First election — Early mewspapers — First Courts— First Legislature — Pioneer 
News Carrier's Address — Wedding at Fort Snelling— Territorial Seal— Scalp 
Dance at Stillwater — First Steamboat at Falls of Saint Anthony — Presbyterian 
Chapel burned— Indian council ut Fort Snelling — First Steamboat above Saint 
Anthony — ^First boat at the Blue Earth River— ConRressional election — Visit.of 
Fredril^a Bremer — Indian newspaper — Other newspapers — Second Legislature 
— ^University of Minnesota — ^Teamster killed by Indians — Sioux Treaties — Third 
Legislature— Land slide at Stillwater — Death of first Editor— Fourth Legislature 
Baldwin School, now Macalester College — Indian fight in Saint Fnul. 

On the third of March, 1849, the bill was passed 
by Congress for organizing the territory of 
Minnesota, whose boundary on the west, extended 
to the Missouri River. At this time, the region was 
little more than a wilderness. The west bank of 
the Mississippi, from the Iowa line to Lake 
Itasca, was unceded by the Indians. 

At Wapashaw, was a trading post in charge of 
Alexis Bailly, and here also resided the ancient 
voyageur, of fourscore years, A. Eocque. 

At the foot of Lake Pepin was a store house 
kept by Mr. F. S. Richards. On the west shore of 
the lake lived the eccentric "Wells, whose wife 
was a bois brule, a daughter of the deceased 
trader, Duncan Graham. 

The two unfinished buildings of stone, on 
the beautiful bank opposite the renowned 
Maiden's Rock, and the surrounding skin lodges 
of his wife's relatives and friends, presented a 
rude but picturesque scene. Above the lake was 
a cluster of bark wigwams, the Dahkotah village 
of Raymneeeha, now Red Wing, at which was a 
Presbyterian mission house. 

The next settlement was Kaposia, also an In- 
dian village, and the residence of a Presbyterian 
missionary, the Rev. T. S. Williamson, M. D. 
On the east side of the Mississippi, the first set- 
tlement, at the mouth of the St. Croix, was Point 
Douglas, then as now, a small hamlet. 

At Red Rock, the site of a former Methodist 
mission station, there were a few farmers. Saint 
Paul was just emerging from a collection of In- 
dian whisky shops and birch roofed cabins of 

half-breed voyageurs. Here and there a frame 
tenement was erected, and, under the auspices of 
the Hon. H. M. Rice, who had obtained an inter- 
est in the town, some warehouses were con- 
structed, and the foundations of the American 
House, a frame hotel, which stood at Third and 
Exchange street, were laid. In 1849, the popu- 
lation had increased to two hundred and fifty 
or three hundred inhabitants, for rumors had 
gone abroad that it might be mentioned in the 
act, creating the territory, as the capital 
of Minnesota. More than a month after 
the adjournment of Congress, just at eve, 
on the ninth of April, amid terrific peals of 
thunder and torrents of rain, the weekly steam 
packet, the first to force its way through the icy 
barrier of Lake Pepin, rounded the rocky point 
whistling loud and long, as if the bearer of glad 
tidings. Before she was safely moored to the 
landing, the shouts of the excited villagers were 
heard announcing that there was a territory of 
Minnesota, and that Saint Paul was the seat of 

Every successive steamboat arrival poured out 
on the landing men big with hope, and anxious 
to do something to mould the future of the new 

Mne days after the news of the existence of the 
territory of Minnesota was received, there arrived 
James M. Goodhue with press, type, and printing 
apparatus. A. graduate of Amherst college, and 
a lawyer by profession, he wielded a sharp pen, 
and wrote editorials, which, more than anything 
else, perhaps, induced immigration. Though a 
man of some faults, one of the counties properly 
bears his name. On the twenty-eighth of April, 
he issued from his press the first number of the 

On the twenty - seventh of May, Alexander 
Ramsey, the Governor, and family, arrived at 
Saint Paul, but owing to the crowded state of pub- 



lie houses, immediately proceeded, in the steamer 
to the establishment of the Tur Company, known 
as Mendota, at the junction of the Minnesota and 
Mississippi, and became the guest of the Hon. H. 
H. Sibley. 

On the first of June, Governor Eamsey, by pro- 
clamation, declared the territory duly organized, 
with the following officers : Alexander Kamsey, 
of Pennsylvania, Governor ; C. K. Smith, of Ohio, 
Secretary ; A. Goodrich, of Tennessee, Chief 
Justice ; D. Cooper, of Pennsylvania, and B. B. 
Meeker, of Kentucky, Associate Judges ; Joshua 
L. Taylor, Marshal ; H. L. Moss, attorney of the 
United States. 

On the eleventh of June, a second proclama- 
tion was issued, dividing the territory into three 
temporary judicial districts. The first comprised 
the county of St. Croix ; the county of La Pointe 
and the region north and west of the Mississippi, 
and north of the Minnesota'and of a Une running 
due west from the headwaters of the Minnesota 
to the Missouri river, constituted the second ; 
and the country west of the Mississippi and south 
of the Minnesota, formed the third district. 
Judge Goodrich was assigned to the first. Meeker 
to the second, and Cooper to the third. A court 
was ordered to be held at Stillwater on the second 
Monday, at the Falls of St. Anthony on the third, 
and at Mendota on the fourth Monday of August. 

Until the twenty -sixth of June, Governor 
Ramsey and family had been guests of Hon. H. 
II. Sibley, at Mendota. On the afternoon of 
that day they arrived at St. Paul, in a birch-bark 
canoe, and became permanent residents at the 
capital. The house first occupied as a guber- 
natorial mansion, was a small frame building that 
stood on Third, between Robert and Jackson 
streets, formerly known as the New England 

A few days after, the Hon. H. M. Rice and 
family moved from Mendota to St. Paul, and oc- 
cupied the house he had erected on St. Anthony 
street, near the corner of Market. 

On the first of July, a land office was estab- 
lished at Stillwater, and A. Van Vorhes, after a 
few weeks, became the register. 

The anniversary of our National Independence 
was celebrated in a becoming manner at the cap- 
ital. The place selected for the address, was a 
"■rove that stood on the sites of the City Hall and 

the Baldwin School building, and the late Trank- 
lin Steele was the marshal of the day. 

On the seventh of July, a proclamation was is- 
sued, dividing the territory into seven council 
districts, and ordering an election to be held on 
the first day of August, for one delegate to rep^ 
resent the people in the House of Representatives 
of the United States, for nine councillors and 
eighteen representatives, to constitute the Legis- 
lative Assembly of Minnesota. 

In this month, the Hon. H. M. Rice despatch- 
ed a boat laded with Indian goods from the 
the Fajls of St. Anthony to Crow Wing, which 
was towed by horses after the manner of a canal 

The election on the first of August, passed off 
with little excitement, Hon. H, H. Sibley being 
elected delegate to Congress without opposition. 
David Lambert, on what might, perhaps, be 
termed the old settlers' ticket, was defeated in 
St. Paul, by James M. Boal. The latter, on the 
night of the election, was honored with a ride 
through town on the axle and fore-wheels of an 
old wagon, which was drawn by his admiring 
but somewhat undisciplined friends. 

J. L. Taylor having declined the office of 
United States Marshal; A. M. Mitchell, of Ohio, 
a graduate of West Point, and colonel of a regi- 
ment of Ohio volimteers in the Mexican war, was 
appointed and arrived at the capital early in 
August. I 

There were three papers published in the ter- 
ritory soon after its organization. The first was 
the Pioneer, issued on April twenty-eighth, 1849, 
under most discouraging circumstances. It was 
at first the intention of the witty and reckless 
editor to have called his paper " The Epistle of 
St. Paul." About the same time there was issued 
in Cmcinnati, under the auspices of the late Dr. 
A. Randtill, of California, the first number of 
the Register. The second number of the paper 
was printed at St. Paul, in July, and the office 
was on St. Anthony, between Washington and 
Market Streets, About the first of June, James 
Hughes, afterward of Hudson, Wisconsin, arrived 
with a press and materials, aind established the 
Minnesota Chronicle. After an existence of a 
few weeks two papers were discontinued ; and, 
in their place, was issued the " Chronicle and 



Kegister," edited by Nathaiel McLean and John 
P. Owens. 

The first courts, pursuant to proclamation of 
the governor, were held in the month of August. 
At Stillwater, the court was organized on the 
thirteenth of the month, Judge Goodrich pre- 
siding, and Judge Cooper by courtesy, sitting on 
the bench. On the twentieth, the second judi- - 
cial district held a court. Tlie room used was 
the old government mill at Mirmeapolis. The 
presiding judge was B. B. Meeker ; the foreman 
of the grand jury, Franklin Steele. On the last 
Monday of the month, the court for the third 
judicial district was organized in the large stone 
warehouse of the fur company at Mendota. The 
presiding judge was David Cooper. Governor 
Ramsey sat on the right, and Judge Goodrich on 
the left. Hon. H. H. Sibley was the foreman of 
the grand jury. As some of the jurors could not 
speak the English language, W. H. Forbes acted 
as interpreter. The charge of Judge Cooper was 
lucid, scholarly, and dignified. At the request 
of the grand jury it was afterwards published. 

On Monday, the third of September, the first 
Legislative Assembly convened in the " Central 
Hou>i,"in Saint Paul, a building at the corner 
of Minnesota and Bench streets, facing the 
Mississippi river which answered the double 
purpose of capitol and hotel. On the first 
floor of the main building was the Secretar 
ry's ofiice and Eepresentative chamber, and in 
the second story was the library and Council 
chamber. As the flag was run up the staff in 
front of the house, a number of Indians sat on a 
rocky bluff m the vicinity, and gazed at what to 
them was a novel and perhaps saddening scene ; 
for if the tide of imimigration sweeps in from the 
Pacific as it has from the Atlantic coast, they 
must soon dwindle. 

The legislature having organized, elected the 
following permanent officers: David Olmsted, 
President of Council ; Joseph R. Brown, Secre- 
ary ; 11. A. Lambert, Assistant. In the House 
of Representatives, Joseph W. Purber was elect- 
ed Speaker; W. D. Phillips, Clerk; L. B. "Wait, 

On Tuesday afternoon, both houses assembled 
in the dining hall of the hotel, and after prayer 
was offered by Rev. E. D. NeUl, Governor Ram- 
sey delivered his message. The message was ably 

written, and its perusal afforded satisfaction at 
home and abroad. 

The first session of the legislature adjourned on 
the first of November. Among other proceed- 
ings of interest, was the creation of the following 
counties: Itasca, Wapashaw, Dahkotah, "Wah- 
nahtah, Mahkahto, Pembina. Washington, Ram- 
sey and Benton. The three latter counties com- 
prised the country that up to that time had been 
ceded by the Indians on the east side of the Mis- 
sissippi, Stillwater was declared the county seat 
of Washington, Saint Paul, of Ramsey, and '• the 
seat of justice of the coimty of Benton was to be 
within one-quarter of a mile of a point on the east 
side of the Mississippi, directly opposite the mouth 
of Sauk river." 

BYENTS OF A. D 1850. 

By the active exertions of the secretary of the 
territory, • C. K. Smith, Esq., the Historical 
Society of Minnesota was incorporated at the 
first session of the legislature. The opening an- 
nual address was delivered in the then Methodist 
(now Swedenborgian) church at Saint Paul, on 
the first of January, 1850. 

The following account of the proceedings is 
from the Chronicle and Register. "The first 
pubUc exercises of the Minnesota Historical 
Society, took place at the Methodist church, Saint 
Paul, on the first inst., and passed off highly 
creditable to all concerned. The day was pleasant 
and the attendance large. At the appointed 
hour, the President and both Vice-Presidents of 
the society being absent; on motion of Hon. C. 
K. Smith, Hon. Chief Justice Goodrich was 
called to the chair. The same gentleman then 
moved that a committee, consisting of Messrs. 
Parsons K. Johnson, John A. Wakefield, and B. 
W. Bnmson, be appointed to wait upon the 
Orator of the day. Rev. Mr. Neill, and inform 
him that the audience was waiting to hear his 

" Mr. Neill was shortly conducted to the pulpit; 
and after an eloquent and approriate prayer by 
the Rev. Mr. Parsons, and music by the band, he 
proceeded to deliver his discourse upon the early 
French missionaries and Voyageurs into Minne- 
sota. We hope the society will provide for its 
publication at an early day. 

"After some brief remarks by Rev, Mr. 



Hobart, upon the objects and ends of history, the 
ceremonies were concluded with a prayer by 
that gentleman. The audience dispersed highly 
deUghted with all that occurred." 

At this eaxly period the Minnesota Pioneer 
issued a Carrier's New Year's Address, which 
was amusing doggerel. The reference to the 
future greatness and ignoble origin of the capital 
of Minnesota was as follows :^- 

The cities on this river must be three, 
Two that are built and one that is to be. 
One, is the mart of all the tropics yield, 
The cane, the orange, and the cotton-fleld, 
And sends her ships abroad and boasts 
Her trade ejftended to a thousand coasts ; 
The other, central for the temperate zone. 
Gamers the stores that on the plains are grown, 
A place where steamboats from all quarters, 

To meet and speculate, as 'twere on 'change. 
The third will he, where rivers confluent flow 
Prom the wide spreading north through plains 

of snow ; 
The mart of all that boundless forests give 
To make mankind more comfortably live, 
The land of manufacturing industry. 
The workshop of the nation it shall be. 
Propelled by this wide stream, you'll see 
A thousand factories at Saiat Anthony : 
And the Saint Croix a hundred mills shall drive. 
And all its smiling villages shall thrive ; 
But then my town — remember that high bench 
With cabins scattered over it, of Prench ? 
A man named Henry Jackson's living there, 
Also a man — why every one knows L. Eobalr, 
Below Port Snelling, seven miles or so. 
And three above the village of Old Crow ? 
Pig's Eye ? Yes ; Pig's Eye 1 That's the spot ! 
A very funny name ; is't not 'i 
Pig's Eye's the spot, to plant my city on, 
To be remembered by, when I am gone. 
Pig's Eye converted thou shalt be, like Saul : 
Thy name henceforth shall be Saint Paul. 

On the evening of New Year's day, at Fort 
SneUing, there was an assemblage which is only 
seen on the outposts of civilization. In one of 
the stone edifices, outside of the wall, belonging 
to the United States, there resided a gentleman 
who had dwelt in Minnesota stace the year 1819, 

and for many years had been in the employ of 
the government, as Indian interpreter. In youth 
he had been a member of the Columbia Pur Com- 
pany, and conforming to the habits of traders, 
had purchased a Dahkotah wife who was wholly 
ignorant of the English language. As a family 
of children gathered aroxmd him he recognised 
the relation of husband and father, and consci- 
entiously discharged his duties as a parent. His 
daughter at a proper age was sent to a boardiag 
school of some celebrity, and on the night re- 
ferred to was married to an inteUigent young 
American farmer. Among the guests present 
were the officers of the garrison in fuU uniform, 
with their wives, the United States Agent for 
the Dahkotahs, and family, the bois brules of 
the neighborhood, and the Indian relatives of the 
mother. The mother did not make her appear- 
ance, but, as the minister proceeded vath the 
ceremony, the Dahkotah relatives, wrapped in 
their blankets, gathered in the hall and looked 
in through the door. 

The marriage feast was worthy of the occar 
sion. In consequence of the numbers, the 
officers and those of European extraction partook 
first ; then the bois brules of Ogibway and Dah- 
kotah descent; and, finally, the native Ameri- 
cans, who did ample justice to the plentiful sup- 
ply spread before them. 

Governor Ramsey, Hon. H. H. Sibley, and the 
delegate to Congress devised at Washington, this 
winter, the territorial seal. The design was Palls 
of St. Anthony in the distance. An immigrant 
ploughing the land on the borders of the Indian 
country, full of hope, and looking forward to the 
possession of the hunting grounds beyond. An 
Indian, amazed at the sight of the plough, and 
fleeing on horseback towards the setting sun. 

The motto of the Earl of Dunraven, "Quae 
sursum volo videre". (I wish to see what is above) 
was most appropriately selected by Mr. Sibley, 
but by the blunder of an engraver it appeared on 
the territorial seal, "Quo sursum velo videre," 
which no scholar could translate. At length was 
substituted, "L' EtoUe du Nord," "Star of the 
North,", while the device of the setting sun 
remained, and this is objectionable, as the State 
of Maine had already placed the North Star on 
her escutcheon, with the motto "Dirigo," "I 
guide." Perhaps some future legislature may 



direct the first motto to be restored and correctly 

In the montn of April, there was a renewal of 
hostilities between the Dahkotahs and Ojibways, 
on lands that had been ceded to the United States. 
A war prophet at Eed Wing, dreamed that he 
ought to raise a war party. Announcing the fact, 
a number expressed their wUUngness to go on such 
an expedition. Several from the Kaposia village 
also joined the party, .under the leadership of a 
worthless Indian, who had been confined in the 
guard-house at Fort Snelling, the year previous, 
for scalping his wife. 

Passing up the valley of the St. Croix, a rew 
miles above StUlwater the party discovered on the 
snow the marks of a keg and footprints. These 
told them that a man and woman of the Ojibways 
had been to some whisky dealer's, and were re- 
tumiag. Following their trail, they found on 
Apple river, about twenty miles from Stillwater, 
a band of Ojibways encamped in one lodge. Wait- 
ing till daybreak of Wednesday, April second, the 
Dahkotahs commenced firing on the unsuspecting 
inmates, some of whom were drinking from the 
contents of the whisky keg. The camp was com- 
posed of fifteen, and all were murdered and scalp- 
ed, with the exception of a lad, who was made a 

On Thursday, the victors came to Stillwater, 
and danced the scalp dance around the captive 
boy, in the heat of excitement, striking him in the 
face with the scarcely cold and bloody scalps of 
his relatives. The child was then taken to Ka- 
posia, and adopted by the chief. Governor Ram- 
sey immediately took measures to send the boy to 
his friends. At a conference held at the Gov- 
ernor's mansion, the boy was delivered up, and, 
on being led out to the kitchen by a Uttle son of 
the Governor, since deceased, to receive refresh- 
ments, he cried bitterly, seemingly more alarmed 
at being left with the whites than he had been 
while a captive at Kaposia. 

From the first of April the waters of the Mis- 
sissippi began to rise, and on the thirteenth, the 
lower floor of the warehouse, then occupied by 
William Constans, at the foot of Jackson street, 
St. Paul, was submerged. Taking advantage of 
the freshet, the steamboat Anthony Wayne, for a 
purse of two hundred dollars, ventured through 
the swift current above Fort Snelling, and reached 

the Falls of St. Anthony. The boat loft the fort 
after dinner, with Governor Eamsey and other 
guests, also the band of the Sixth Eegiment on 
board, and reached the falls between three and 
four o'clock in the afternoon. The whole town, 
men, women and children, lined the shore as the 
boat approached, and welcomed this first arrival, 
with shouts and waving handkerchiefs. 

On the afternoon of May fifteenth, there might 
have been seen, hurrying through the streets of 
Saint Paul, a number of naked and painted braves 
of the Kaposia band of Dahkotahs, ornamented 
with all the attire of war, and panting for the 
scalps of their enemies. A few hours before, the 
warlike head chief of the Ojibways, young Hole- 
in-the-Day , having secreted his canoe in the retired 
gorge which leads to the cave in the upper sub- 
urbs, with two or three associates had crossed the 
river, and, almost in sight of the citizens of the 
town, had attacked a small party of Dahkotahs, 
and murdered and scalped one man. On receipt 
of the news. Governor Eamsey granted a parole 
to the thirteen Dahkotahs confined in Fort Snell- 
ing, for participating in the Apple river massacre. 

On the morning of the sixteenth of May, the 
first Protestant church edifice completed in the 
white settlements, a small frame bnilding, built 
for the Presbyterian church, at Saint Paul, was 
destroyed by fire, it being the first conflagration 
that had occurred since the organization of the 

One of the most interesting events of the year 
1850, was the Indian councU, at Fort Snelling. 
Governor Eamsey had sent runners to the differ- 
ent bands of the Ojibways and Dahkotahs, to 
meet him at the fort, for the purpose of en- 
deavouring to adjust their diflSculties. 

On Wednesday, the twelfth of June, after 
much talking, as is customary at Indian councils, 
the two tribes agreed as they had frequently done 
before, to be friendly, and Governor Eamsey 
presenting to each party an ox. the council was 

On Thursday, the Ojibways visited St. Paul 
for the first time, young Hole-in-the-Day being 
dressed in a coat of a captain of United States 
infantry, which had. been presented to him at the 
fort. On Friday, they left in the steamer Gov- 
ernor Eamsey, which had been buUt at St. An- 
thony, and just commenced rimning between 



that point and Sauk Eapids, for their homes in 
the wilderness of the Upper Mississippi. 

The summer of 1850 was the commencement 
of the navigation of the Minnesota Kiver by 
steamboats. With the exception of a steamer 
that made a pleasure excursion as far as Shokpay, 
in 1841, no large vessels had ever disturbed the 
waters of this stream. In June, the " Anthony 
Wayne," which a few weeks before had ascended 
to the Falls of St. Anthony, made a trip. On 
the eighteenth of July she made a second trip, 
going almost to Mahkahto. 'The " Nominee " 
also navigated the stream for some distance. 

On the twenty-second of July the officers of 
the "Yankee," taking advantage of the high 
water, determined to navigate the stream as far 
as possible. The boat ascended to near the Cot- 
tonwood river. 

As the time for the general election in Septem- 
ber approached, considerable excitement was 
manifested. As there were no political issues 
before the people, parties were formed based on 
personal preferences. Among those nominated 
for delegate to Congress, by various meetings, 
were H. H. Sibley, the former delegate to Con- 
gress, David Olmsted, at that time engaged in 
the Indian trade, and A. M. Mitchell, the United 
States marshal. Mr. Olmsted withdrew his 
name before election day, and the contest was 
between those interested in Sibley and Mitchell. 
The friends of each betrayed the greatest zeal, 
and neither pains nor money were spared to in- 
sure success. Mr. Sibley was elected by a small 
majority. For the first time in the territory, 
soldiers at the garrisons voted at this election, 
and there was considerable discussion as to the 
propriety of such a course. 

Miss Fredrika Bremer, the well known Swedish 
noveUst, visited Minnesota in the month of 
October, and was the guest of Governor Ramsey. 

During November, the Dahkotah Tawaxitku 
Kin, or the Dahkotah Friend, a monthly paper, 
was commenced, one-half iu the Dahkotah and 
one-half in the English language. Its editor was 
the Eev. Gideon H. Pond, a Presbyterian mis- 
sionary, and its place of publication at Saint Paul. 
It was published for nearly two years, and, though 
it failed to attract the attention of the Indian 
mind, it conveyed to the English reader much 

correct information in relation to the habits, the 
belief, and superstitions, of the Dahkotahs. 

On the tenth of December, a new paper, owned 
and edited by Daniel A. Robertson, late United 
States marshal, of Ohio, and called the Minne- 
sota Democrat, made its appearance. 

During the summer there had been changes in 
the editorial supervision of the "Chronicle and 
Register." For a brief period it was edited by 
L. A. Babcock, Esq., who was succeeded by W. 
G. Le Due. 

About the time of the issuing of the Demo- 
crat, C. J. Henniss, formerly reporter for the 
United States Gazette, Philadelphia, became the 
editor of the Chronicle. 

The first proclamation for a thanksgiving day 
was issued in 1850 by the governor, and the 
twenty-sixth of December was the time appointed 
and it was generally observed. 

BVBKTS OF A. D. 1851. 

On Wednesday, January first, 1851, the second 
Legislative Assembly assembled in a three-story 
brick building, since deigtroyed by fire, that stood 
on St. Anthony street, between Washington and 
FrankUn. D. B. Loomis was chosen Speaker of 
the Council, and M. E. Ames Speaker of the 
House. This assembly was characterized bj 
more bitterness of feeUng than any that has 
since convened. The preceding delegate election 
had been based on personal preferences, and 
cliques and factions manifested themselves at an 
early period of the session. 

The locating of the penitentiary at Stillwater, 
and the capitol building at St. Paul gave some 
dissatisfaction. By the efforts of J. W. North, 
Esq., a bill creating the University of Minnesota 
at or near the Falls of St. Anthony, was passed, 
and signed by the Governor. This institution, 
by the State Constitution, is now Uie State Uni- 

During the session of this Legislature, the pub- 
lication of the " Chronicle and Register" ceased. 

About the middle of JNIay, a war party of Dah- 
kotahs discovered near Swan River, an Ojibway 
with a keg of whisky. The latter escaped, with 
tlie loss of his keg. The war party, drinking the 
contents, became intoxicated, and, firing upon 
some teamrters they met driving their wagons 
with goods to the Indian Agency, killed one of 



them, Andrew Swartz, a resident of St. Paul. 
The news was conveyed to Fort Eipley, and a 
party of soldiers, with Hole-in-the-Day as a guide, 
started in pursuit of the murderers, but did not 
succeed in capturing them. Through the influ- 
ence of Little Six the Dahkotah chief, whose vil- 
lage was at (and named after him) Shok- 
pay, five of the oflleiiders were arrested and 
placed in the guard-house at Fort SnelUng. On 
Monday, June ninth, they left the fort in a wagon, 
guarded by twenty-five dragoons, destined for 
Sauk Rapids for trial. As they departed they all 
sang their death song, and the coarse soldiers 
amused themselves by making signs that they 
were going to be hung. On the first evening of 
the journey the five culprits encamped with the 
twenty-five dragoons. Handcuffed, they were 
placed in the tent, and yet at midnight they all 
escaped, only one being wounded by the guard. 
What was more remarkable, the wounded man 
was the first to bring the news to St. Paul. Pro- 
ceeding to Kaposia, his wound was examined by 
the missionary and physician, Dr. WilUamson ; 
and then, fearing an arrest, he took a canoe and 
paddled up the Mmnesota. The excuse ofEered 
by the dragoons was, that all the guard but one 
fell asleep. 

The first paper published in Minnesota, beyond 
the capital, was the St. Anthony Express, which 
made its appearance during the last week of 
April or May. 

The most important event of the year 1851 
was the treaty with the Dahkotahs, by which the 
west side of the Mississippi and the valley of the 
Minnesota Elver were opened to the hardy immi- 
grant. The commissioners on the part of the 
United States were Luke Lea, Commissioner of 
Indian AfEairs, and Governor Eamsey. The 
place of meeting for the upper bands was Trav- 
erse des Sioux. The commission arrived there 
on the last of June, but were obliged to wait 
many days for the assembling of the various bands 
of Dahkotahs. 

On the eighteenth_of July, all those expected 
having arrived, the Sissetoans and Wahpaytoan 
Dahkotahs assembled in grand council with the 
United States commissioners. After the usual 
feastings and speeches, a treaty was concluded 
on Wednesday, July twenty-third. The pipe 
having been smoked by the commissioners, Lea 

and Eamsey, it was passed to the chiefs. The 
paper containing the treaty was then read in 
English and translated into the Dahkotah by the 
Eev. S. E. Eiggs, Presbyterian Missionary among 
this people. This finished, the chiefs came up 
to the secretary's table and touched the pen; the 
white men present then witnessed the document, 
and nothing remained but the ratification of the 
United States Senate to open that vast country 
for the residence of the hardy immigrant. 

During-the first week in August, a treaty was 
also concluded beneath an oak bower, on Pilot 
Knob, Mendota, with the M'dewakantonwan and 
Wahpaykootay bands of Dahkotahs. About sixty 
of the chiefs and principal men touched the pen, 
and Little Crow, who had been in the mission- 
school at Lac qui Parle, signed his own name. 
Before they separated. Colonel Lea and Governor 
Eamsey gave them a few words of advice on 
various subjects connected with their future well- 
being, but particularly on the subject of educa- 
tion and temperance. The treaty was interpret- 
ed to them by the Eev. G. H. Pond, a gentleman 
who was conceded to be a most correct speaker 
of the Dahkotah tongue. 

The day after the treaty these lower bands 
received thirty thousand dollars, which, by the 
treaty of 1837, was set apart for education ; but, 
by the misrepresentations of Interested half- 
breeds, the Indians were made to beUeve that 
it ought to be given to them to be employed as 
they pleased. 

The next week, with their sacks filled with 
money, they thronged the streets of St. Paul, 
purchasing whatever pleased their fancy. 

On the seventeenth of September, a new paper 
was commenced in St. Paul, under* the auspices 
of the "Whigs," and John P. Owens became 
editor, which relation he sustained until the fall 
of 1867. 

The election for members of the legislature 
and county ofllcers occurred on the fourteenth of 
October ; and, for the first time, a regular Demo- 
cratic ticket was placed before the people. The 
parties called themselves Democratic and Anti- 
organization, or Coahtion. 

In the month of 2f ovember Jerome Fuller ar- 
rived, and took the place of Judge Goodrich as 
Chief Justice of Minnesota, who was removed ; 
and, about the same time, Alexander Wilkin was 



appointed secretary of the territory in place of 
C. K. Smith. 

The eighteenth of December, pursuant to 
proclamation, was observed as a day of Thanks- 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1852. 

The third Legislative Assembly commenced its 
sessions in one of the edifices on Third below 
Jackson street, which became a portion of the 
Merchants' Hotel, on the seventh of January, 

This session, compared with the previous, 
formed a contrast as great as that between a 
boisterous day in March and a calm June morn- 
ing. The minds of the population were more 
deeply interested in the ratification of the treaties 
made with the Dahkotahs, than in political dis- 
cussions. Among other legislation of Interest 
was the creation of Hennepin county. 

On Saturday, the fourteenth of February, a 
dog-train arrived at St. Paul from the north, 
with the distinguished Arctic explorer, Dr. Eae. 
He had been in search of the long-missing Sir 
John Pranklin, by way of the Mackenzie river, 
and was now on his way to Europe. 

On the fourteenth of May, an interesting lusus 
natursB occurred at Stillwater. On the prairies, 
beyond the elevated bluffs which encircle the 
business portion of the town, there is a lake which 
discharges its waters through a ravine, and sup- 
plied McKusick's mill. Owing to heavy rains, 
the hills became saturated with water, and the 
lake very full. Before daylight the citizens heard 
the " voice of many waters," and looking out, saw 
rushing down through the ravine, trees, gravel 
and diluvium. Nothing impeded its course, and 
as it issued from the ravine it spread over the 
town site, covering up barns and small tenements, 
and, continuing to the lake shore, it materially 
improved the landing, by a deposit of many tons 
of earth. One of the editors of the day, alluding 
to the fact, quaintly remarked, that "it was a 
very extraordinary movement of real estate." 

During the summer, Elijah Terry, a young 
man who had left St. Paul the previous March, 
and went to Pembina, to act as teacher to the 
mixed bloods in that vicinity, was murdered un- 
der distressing circumstances. With a bois bnile 
he had started to the woods on the morning of 

his death, to hew timber. While there he was 
fired upon by a small party of Dahkotahs ; a ball 
broke his arm, and he was pierced with arrows. 
His Scalp was wrenched from his head, and was 
afterwards seen among Sisseton Dahkotahs, near 
Big Stone Lake. 

About the last of August, the pioneer editor 
of Minnesota, James M. Goodhue, died. 

At the November Term of the United States 
District Court, of Eamsey county, a Dahkotah, 
named Yu-ha-zee, was tried for the murder of a 
German woman. With others she was travel- 
ing above Shokpay, when a party of Indians, of 
whom the prisoner was one, met them; and, 
gathering about the wagon, were much excited. 
The prisoner punched the woman first with his 
gun, and, being threatened by one of the party, 
loaded and fired, killing the woman and wound- 
ing one of the men. 

On the day of his trial he was escorted from 
Fort Snelling by a company of mounted dragoons 
in full dress. It was an impressive scene to 
witness the poor Indian half hid in his blanket, 
in a buggy with the civil officer, surrounded with 
all the pomp and circumstance of war. The jury 
found him guUty. On being asked if he had 
anything to say why sentence of death should 
not be passed, he replied, through the Interpreter, 
that the band to which he belonged would remit 
their annuities if he could be released. To this 
Judge Hayner, the successor of Judge Fuller, 
repUed, that he had no authority to release 
him; and, ordering him to rise, after some 
appropriate and impressive remarks, he pro- 
nounced the first sentence of death ever pro- 
nounced by a judicial officer in Minnesota. The 
prisoner trembled while the judge spoke, and 
was a piteous spectacle. By the statute of Min- 
nesota, then, one convicted of murder could not 
be ex( cuted until twelve months had elapsed, and 
he was confined until the governor of the ter- 
orrity should by warrant order his execution. 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1853. 

The fourth Legislative Assembly convened on 
the fifth of January, 1853, in the two story brick 
edifice at the comer of Third and Minnesota 
streets. The Council chose Martin McLeod as 
presiding officer, and the House Dr. David Day, 



Speaker. Governor Ramsey's message was an 
interesting document. 

The Baldwin school, now known as Macalester 
College, was incorporated at this session of the 
legislature, and was opened the following June. 

On the ninth of April, a party of Ojibways 
killed a Dahkotah, at the village of Shokpay. A 
war party, from Kaposia, then proceeded up the 
valley of the St. Croix, and killed an Ojibway. 
On the morning of the twenty-seventh, a band 
of Ojibway warriors, naked, decked, and fiercely 
gesticulating, might have been seen in the busiest 
street of the capital, in search of their enemies. 
Just at that time a small party of women, and 
one man, who had lost a leg in the battle of StUl- 
water, arrived in a canoe from Kaposia, at the 
Jackson street landing. Perceiving the Ojib- 
ways, they retreated to the building then known 
as the " Pioneer " ofllce, and the Ojibways dis- 
charging a volley through the windows, wotmded 
a Dahkotah woman who soon died. For a short 
time, the infant capital presented a sight 
similar to that witnessed in ancient days in 
Hadley or Deerfield, the then frontier towns of 
Massachusetts. Messengers were despatched to 
Fort Snelling for the dragoons, and a party of 
citizens mounted on horseback, were quickly in 
pursuit of those who with so much boldness had 
sought the streets of St. Paul, as a place to 
avenge their wrongs. The dragoons soon fol- 
lowed, Avith Indian guides scenting the track of 
the Ojibways, Uke bloodhounds. The next day 
they discovered the transgressors, near the Falls 
of St. Croix. The Ojibways manifesting what 
was supposed to be an insolent spirit, the order 
was given by the lieutenant in command, to fire, 
and he whose scalp was afterwards daguerreo 

typed, and which was engraved for Graham's 
Magazine, wallowed in gore. 

During the summer, the passenger, as he stood 
on the hurricane deck of any of the steamboats, 
might have seen, on a scalfold on the bluffs in 
the rear of Kaposia, a square box covered with a 
coarsely fringed red cloth. Above it was sus- 
pended a piece of the Ojibway's scalp, whose 
death had caused the affray in the streets of St. 
Paul. Within, was the body of the woman who 
had been shot in the " Pioneer " building, while 
seeking refuge. A scalp suspended over the 
corpse is supposed to be a consolation to the soul, 
and a great protection In the journey to the spirit 

On the accession of Pierce to the presidency of 
the United States, the officers appointed under 
the Taylor and Fillmore administrations were 
removed, and the following gentlemen substitu- 
ted : Governor, W. A. Gorman, of Indiana ; Sec- 
retary, J. T. Eosser, of Virginia ; Chief Justice, 
W. H. Welch, of Minnesota ; Associates, Moses 
Sherburne, of Maine, and A. G. Chatfield, of 
Wisconsin. One of the first official acts of the 
second Governor, was the making of a treaty 
with the Winnebago Indians at Watab, Benton 
county, for an exchange of country. 

On the twenty-ninth of June, D. A. Eohertson, 
who by his enthusiasm and earnest advocacy of 
its principles had done much to organize the 
Democratic party of Minnesota, retired from the 
editorial chair and was succeeded by David Olm- 

At the election held in October, Henry M. 
Eice and Alexander Wilkin were candidates 
for deligate to Congress. The former was elect- 
ed by a decisive majority. 





Fifth Legislature — Execution ofYuhnzee — Sixth Legislature — First bridge over the 
Mississippi — i^ctio Explorer— Seventh Legislature — Indian girl killed near 
Bloomington Ferry — Eighth Legislature — Attempt to Remove the Capital — 
Special Session of the Legit-lature — Convention to frame a State Constitution — 
Admission of Minnesota to the Union. 

The fifth session of the legislature was com- 
menced in the building just completed as the 
Capitol, on January fourth, 1854. The President 
of the Council was S. B. Olmstead, and the Speak- 
er of the House of Eepresentatives was N. C. D. 

Governor Gorman delivered his first annual 
message on the tenth, and as his predecessor, 
urged the importance of railway communications, 
and dwelt upon the necessity of fostering the in- 
terests of education, and of the lumbermen. 

The exciting bill of the session was the act in- 
corporating the Minnesota and Northwestern 
Railroad Company, introduced by Joseph E. 
Brown. It was passed after the hour of midnight 
on the last day of the session. Contrary to the 
expectation of his friends, the Governor signed 
the biU. 

On the afternoon of December twenty-seventh, 
the first public execution in Minnesota, in accord- 
ance with the forms of law, took place. Yu-ha- 
zee, the Dahkotah who had been convicted in 
November, 1852, for the murder of a German 
woman, above Shokpay, was the individual. 
The scafEold was erected on the open space be- 
tween an inn called the Franklin House and the 
rear of the late Mr. J. W. Selby's enclosure 
in St. Paul. About two o'clock, the prisoner, 
dressed in a white shroud, left the old log pris- 
on, near the court house, and entered a carriage 
with the oflScers of the law. Being assisted up 
the steps that led to the scaffold, he made a few 
remarks in his own language, and was then exe- 
cuted. Numerous ladies sent in a petition to 
the governor, asking the pardon of the Indian, 
to which that officer in declining made an appro- 
priate reply. 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1855. 

The sixth session of the legislature convened 
on the third of January, 1855. W. P. Murray 
was elected President of the CouncU, and James 
S. Norris Speaker of the House. 

About the last of January, the two houses ad- 
journed one day, to attend the exercises occa- 
sioned by the opening of the first bridge of 
any kind, over the mighty Mississippi, from 
Lake Itasca to the Gulf of Mexico. It was at 
Falls of Saint Anthony, and made of wire, and 
at the time of its opening, the patent for the 
land on which the west piers were built, had not 
been issued from the Land Ofiice, a striking evi- 
dence of the rapidity with which the city of 
Minneapolis, which now surroimds the Falls, has 

On the twenty-ninth of March, a convention 
was held at Saint Anthony, which led to the 
formation of the EepubUcan party of Minnesota. 
This body took measures for the holding of a 
territorial convention at St. Paul, which con- 
vened on the twenty-fifth of July, and William 
E. Marshall was nominated as delegate to Con- 
gress. Shortly after the friends of Mr. Sibley 
nominated David Olmsted and Henry M. Eice, 
the former delegate was also a candidate. The 
contest was animated, and resulted in the elec- 
tion of Mr. Eice. 

About noon of December twelfth, 1855, a four- 
horse vehicle was seen driving rapidly through 
St. Paul, and deep was the interest when it was 
announced that one of the Arctic exploring party, 
Mr. James Stewart, was on his way to Canada 
with relics of the world -renowned and world- 
mourned Sir John Frankhn. Gathering together 
the precious fragments found on Montreal Island 
and vicinity, the party had left the region of ice- 
bergs on the ninth of August, and after a con- 
tinued land journey from that time, had reached 



Saint Paul on that day, en mute to the Hudson 
Bay Company's quarters in Canada. 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1856. 

The seventh session of the Legislative Assem- 
bly was begun on the second of January, 1856, 
and again the exciting question was the Minne- 
sota and Northwestern Eailroad Company. 

John B. Brisbin was elected President of the 
Council, and Charles Gardner, Speaker of the 

This year was comparatively devoid of Interest. 
The citizens of the territory were busily engaged 
in making claims in newly organized counties, 
and in enlarging the area of civilization. 

On the twelfth of June, several Ojibways 
entered the farm house of Mr. WhaUon, who re- 
sided in Hennepin county, on the banks of the 
Minnesota, a mUe below the Bloomington ferry. 
The wife of the farmer, a friend, and.tliree child- 
ren, besides a little Dahkotah girl, who had been 
brought up in the mission-house at Kaposia, and 
so changed in manners that her origin was 
scarcely perceptible, were sitting in the room 
when the Indians, came in. Instantly seizing 
the little Indian maiden, they threw her out of 
the door, killed and scalped her, and fled before 
the men who were near by, in the field, could 
reach the house. 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1857. 

The procurement of a state organization, and 
a grant of lands for railroad purposes, were the 
topics of political interest during the year 1857. 

The eighth Legislative Assembly convened at 
the capitol on the seventh of January, and J. B. 
Brisbin was elected President of the Council, and 
J. W. Furber, Speaker of the House. 

A bill changing the seat of government to 
Saint Peter, on the Minnesota Eiver, caused 
much discussion. — .---'"<-'iv- - 

On Saturday, February twenty -eighth, Mr. 
Balcombe offered a resolution to report the bill 
for the removal of the seat of government, and 
should Mr. Eolette, chairman of the committee, 
fail, that W. "W. Wales, of said committee, report 
a copy of said bill. 

Mr. Setzer, after the reading of the resolution, 
moved a call of the Council, and Mr. Eolette was 
found to be absent. The chair ordered the ser- 
geant at arms to report Mr Eolette in his seat. 

Mr. Balcombe moved that fnrther proceedings 
under the call be dispensed with ; which did not 
prevail. From that time until the next Thursday 
afternoon, March the fifth, a period of one hun- 
dred and twenty-three hours, the Council re- 
mained in their chamber without recess. At that 
time a motion to adjourn prevailed. On Friday 
another motion was made to dispense with the 
call of the Council, which did not prevail. On 
Saturday, the Council met, the president declared 
the call still pending. At seven and a half p. m., 
a committee of the House was announced. The 
chair ruled, that no communication from the 
House coTild be received while a call of the Coun- 
cil was pending, and the committee withdrew. 
A motion was again mad^ during the last night 
of the session, to dispense with all further pro- 
ceedings rmder the call, which prevailed, with 
one vote only in the negative. 

Mr. Ludden then moved that a committee be 
appointed to wait on the Governor, and inquire if 
he had any further communication to make to 
the Council. 

Mr. Lowry moved a call of the Council, which 
was ordered, and the roll being called, Messrs. 
Eolette, Thompson and TiUotson were absent. 

At twelve o'clock at night the president re- 
sumed the chair, and annoimced that the time 
limited by law for the continuation of the session 
of the territorial legislature had expired, and he 
therefore declared the Council adjourned and the 
seat of government remained at Saint Paul. 

The excitement on the capital question was in- 
tense, and it was a strange scene to see members 
of the Council, eating and sleeping in the hall of 
legislation for days, waiting for the sergeant-at- 
arms to report an absent member in his seat. 

On the twenty-third of February, 1857, an act 
passed the United States Senate, to authorize 
the people of Minnesota to form a constitution, 
preparatory to their admission into the Union 
on an equal footuig with the original states. 

Governor Gorman called a special session 
of the legislature, to take into consideration 
measures that would give efficiency to the act. 
The extra session convened on April twenty- 
seventh, and a message was transmitted by Sam- 
uel Medary, who had been appointed governor 
in place of W. A. Gorman, whose term of oflSce 



had expired. The extra session adjourned on 
tlie twenty-third of May ; and in accordance 
witli the provisions of tlie enabling act of Con- 
gress, an election was held on the first Monday 
ill June, for delegates to a convention which was 
to assemble at the capitol on the second Monday 
in July. The election resulted, as was thought, 
in giving a majority of delegates to the Kepubli- 
can party. 

At midnight previous to the day fixed for the 
meeting of the convention, the Republicans pro- 
ceeded to the capitol, because the enabling act 
had not fixed at what hour on the second Mon- 
day the convention should assemble, and fear- 
ing that the Democratic delegates might antici- 
pate them, and elect the oflEicers of the body. 
A little before twelve, a. m., on Monday, the 
secretary of the territory entered the speaker's 
rostrum, and began to call the body to order; 
and at the same time a delegate, J. W. North, 
who had in his possession a written request from 
the majority of the delegates present, proceeded 
to do the- same thing. The secretary of the ter- 
ritory put a motion to adjourn, and the Demo- 
cratic members present voting in the affirmative, 
they left the hall. The Republicans, feeling that 
they were in the majority, remained, and in due 
time organized, and proceeded with the business 
specified in the enabling act, to form a constitu- 
tion, and. take all necessary steps for the estab- 
lishment of a state government, in conformity 
with the Federal Constitution, subject to the 
approval and ratification of the people of the 
proposed state. 

After several days the Democratic wing also 
organized in the Senate chamber at the capitol, 
and, claiming to be the true body, also proceeded 
to form a constitution. Both parties were re- 
markably orderly and intelligent, and everything 
was marked by perfect decorum. After they had 
been in session some weeks, moderate counsels 

prevailed, and a committee of conference was 
appointed from each body, which resulted in 
both adopting the constitution framed by the 
Democratic wing, on the twenty-ninth of Aug- 
gust. According to the provision of the consti- 
tution, an election was held for state officers 
and the adoption of the constitution, on the 
second Tuesday, the thirteenth of October. The 
constitution was adopted by almost a unanimous 
vote. It provided that the territorial officers 
should retain their offices until the state was ad- 
mitted into the Union, not anticipating the 
long delay which was experienced. 

The first session of the state legislature com- 
menced on the first Wednesday of December, at 
the capitol, in the city of Saint Paul ; and during 
the month elected Henry M. Rice and James 
Shields as their Representatives in the United 
States Senate. 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1858. 

On the twenty-ninth of January, 1858, Mr. 
Douglas submitted a bill to the United States 
Senate, for the admission of Minnesota into the 
Union. On the first of February, a discussion 
arose on the bill, in which Senators Douglas, 
Wilson, Gwin, Hale, Mason, Green, Brown, and 
Crittenden participated. Brovm, of ISIississippi, 
was opposed to the admission of Minnesota, un- 
til the Kansas question was settled. Mr. Crit- 
tenden, as a Southern man, could not endorse £ill 
that was said by the Senator from Mississippi ; 
and his words of wisdom and moderation during 
this day's discussion, were worthy of remem- 
brance. On April the seventh, the bill passed 
the Senate with only three dissenting votes ; and 
in a short time the House of Representatives 
concurred, and on May the eleventh, the Presi- 
dent approved, and ilinnesota was fully rec- 
ognized as one of the United States of America. 






Admission of the State. — Its want of Kesources.— The Hard Times.— Commence- 
ment of Railroad Building.— The State Railroad Bonds Discredited.— " Wild- 
Cat" Banking Scheme.- The Wright County War.— Failure of the State Loan 
Scheme.— Attempted Adjustment of the Dilemma. — Partial return of Good 
Times.— The Political Campaign of I860.— Secession Movement.— Prospect of 
War, &a., &c. 

On May 11th, 1858, the act of Congress admit- 
ting Minnesota to the Union, became a law, and 
our State took her place among the sisterhood of 
republics, the thirty-second in the order of admis- 
sion, and had thenceforth a voice in the national 
councils. On the 24th of May, the State officers 
elect were quietly sworn in, in the Executive 
Eooms in the Capitol, and the machinery of the 
State government was put in motion. The out- 
look for the little commonwealth at this time, 
was far from propitious. The terrible financial 
revulsion of the previous year had prostrated all 
business, destroyed values, undermined confi- 
dence, depressed the energies and ambition of 
the people, and almost entirely checked immigra- 
tion. There was but limited agriculture (a large 
portion of the bread-stuffs used being imported), 
little accumulated wealth, and that mostly based 
on real estate, now unsaleable, money command- 
ing two per cent, a month; no established indus- 
tries or manufactures, not a mile of railroad, no 
sound banks or currency, no system for raising 
revenue, and not a cent of money in the State 
treasury. In fact the State was considerably in 
debt. The loan of $250,000 authorized by the 
Legislature the winter previous, was not yet real- 
ized on. Meantime, denominational treasury 

warrants, bearmg interest, were used as currency, 
w^hile town and county " scrip " were generally 
circulated among the people as money. It was 
under such gloomy circumstances as these, that 
the State began its career. 

An adjourned session of the Legislature was 
held in July, but little or nothing could be done 
for the relief of the people from the financial strin- 
gency or other troubles surrounding them . Some 
relief was hoped for from the building of the 
land grant railroads, which were generally got 
under way during the summer, but there was not 
as much money disbursed by the companies or 
contractors, as had been anticipated. The direct- 
ors of the roads hurried their first ten mUe sec- 
tions of grading to completion as rapidly as possi- 
ble, and as soon as they were entitled to bonds, 
according to the terms of the constitutional 
amendment, applied to Gov. Sibley for the same. 
He declined to issue them unless the roads would 
give the State first mortgage bonds in equal 
amounts, giving it a priority of lien. This the 
land grant companies refused to accede to, and 
applied to the Supreme Court of the State, for a 
writ of mandamus, to compel Gov. Sibley to issue 
the bonds, as demanded by them. The writ was 
issued on November 12th, and left the Executive 
no alternative in the premises, so the bonds were 
issued. Efforts were at once made to negotiate 
them in the New York market. 

The harvest this year, although a greatly in- 
creased area was sown, was almost a failure, and 
— '- — (129) 



bread-stuffs were still largely imported. Every- 
body was in tbc most desperate straits financially. 
A winter of gloom nnd depression set in, such as 
has never boen experienced in the history of the 
Northwest, and, it is scarcely probable, ever will 
be again. The price of labor, for such as could 
get employment at all, touched an unprecedentedly 
low figure, though, fortunately, the cost of living 
had declined in the same ratio. Meantime, the ne- 
gotiation of the bonds in New York, proceeded 
very slowly. Capitalists were very unwilling to 
invest in them, as already some journals in the 
State had predicted the failure and break-down 
of the whole scheme, added to pretty clearly ex- 
pressed threats that the bonds would be repudi- 
ated. Anxious to save the credit of the State, 
and prevent a disastrous ending of the measure, 
Gov. Sibley went to New York in person, about 
the close of the year (1858) and gave his best en- 
deavors to aid the pending negotiation of the 
bonds ; but the capitalists there, alarmed at the 
hostile tone of newspapers in the State, finally 
refused to touch them at all. The only recourse 
now loft for the holders of the bonds, and those 
interested in the railroad scheme, was to use 
them as a security for the issue of bank notes, 
under the recently enacted general banking law. 
Purported sales at^ninety-five cents on the dollar 
having been certified to the State Auditor, he re- 
ceived a large number at this figure, and procured 
for the owners currency in like amount. Mean- 
time, work was progressing on the four land grant 

No session of the legislature was held in the 
winter of 18S8-'9. The stringency increased 
with each montli. The newspapers of the state 
which survived, were crowded with mortgage 
foreclosure advertisements. Taxes were scarcely 
paid at all, and the warrants, or scrip, of both 
State and counties, depreciated, in some in- 
stances, to forty or fifty cents on the dollar. 
These were soon replaced by the issues of the 
new banks based on the state raih-oad bonds 
which now began to flood the State, until tlie 
names "Glencoe,' " Owatonna,'' " Ln Crosse 
and La Crescent," &c., were fcniliar words. 
These issues were regarded with considerable dis- 
trust from the outset. Bankers in the state re- 
ceived them with much disfeUsh, and generally at 
a discount, while outside the state, they scarcely 

circulated at all. The Chicago papers, and some 
financial journals in New York, classed them as 
"wild-eat." Their issue was pushed for a few 
weeks, however, until in the spring of 1859 over 
$200,000 of the currency was in circulation. 
There were, in addition to these " raUroad banks," 
several based on Minnesota 8 per cents, which 
were actually worth par. 

During the summer of 18o9 the reported discov- 
ery of gold on Frazer River, and other points in 
British North America, called the attention of the 
people of Minnesota to the importance of an over- 
land route to the Pacific, which might ultimately 
lead the way for a northern railroad route. Meet- 
ings were held, and money was subscribed, to 
equip a train to open a wagon road via the north- 
em bend of the Missouri Elver. Col. Wm. II. 
Nobles was placed in command of the expedi- 
tion, which left St. Paul on June 11, and pro- 
ceeded safely through. Another important step 
towards settling the regions beyond us, was the 
successful navigation of Ked River, by a steamer 
launched this season. The Minnesota Stage Com- 
pany also established a line to the Red River. 

The " Wright county war," as it has been far 
cetiously termed, occurred this summer. In the 
fall of 1858, one H. A. "Wallace was murdered in 
"Wright county, and a neighbor, named Oscar F. 
Jackson, was tried for the offense in the spring 
of 1859, and acquitted. On April 25, a crowd of 
men assembled, and hung Jackson to the gable 
end of "Wallace's cabin. Gov. Sibley offered a re- 
ward for the conviction of any of the lynchers. 
Not long afterwards one Emery Moore was ar- 
rested on charge of being concerned in the out- 
rage, and was taken to "Wright County for trial, 
but was rescued by a mob. Go\-. Sibley at once 
decided to take vigorous steps to maintain the 
majesty of the law. A military force was called 
out, and three companies dispatched (Aug. 5) to 
Monticollo to arrest the rioters. The troops pro- 
ceeded to Monticello, reinforced the civil author- 
ities, arrested eleven lynchers and rescuers, and 
turned them over to the civil authorities. Hav- 
ing vindicated the supremacy of law and order, 
the bloodless expedition returned. 

The financial condition had meantime been 
growing worse. Early in June, the brokers of 
the state had combined to depreciate the " Glen 
coe money," as the railroad currency was called, 



and as several sums which, had been presented at 
the banks for redemption, were not redeemed, 
they were protested, and the state auditor was 
compelled to advertise the securities for sale. 
This caused a still further depreciation of the 
money, until shortly it was scarcely current on 
any terms. Meantime all work on the land grant 
lines had been finally and completely suspended, 
and $2,275,000 of the state bonds had been issued. 
In October, it was stated that the bonds had been 
sold as low as ten cents on the dollar. The cou- 
pons due on Dec. 1, 1859, were unpaid, and the 
companies holding the bonds declared in default. 
The whole scheme had thus been brought to a 
complete failure, and was now practically aban- 
doned, while not a mile of road had been com- 

The hard times, and the failure of the real es- 
tate speculative era, had one good result, how- 
ever, which was, to turn increased attention to 
agriculture. A greatly enlarged area was sown, 
and the agricultural resources of the State began 
to be known as the true source of its wealth. 
For the first time, breadstuffs were exported, and 
immigration began again. 

The fall of this year witnessed a bitter political 
fight. Two years before, the parties had been 
pretty evenly divided. This campaign each one 
spent its full force and energy, and had nomina- 
ted for state officers their most popular men. 
The election took place on Oct. 11. Hon. Alex. 
Eamsey was chosen governor, by a vote of 21,335, 
over Hon. George L. Becker, who received 17,532. 
The legislature which met on Dec. 7, was largely 

The most important work which came before 
this session was some adjustment of the dilemma 
into which the state had fallen, through the adop- 
tion of the loan amendment. Nearly the entire 
session was consumed in debating various plans 
of extrication without much fruit. The loan 
amendment was expimged, however, and a new 
amendment was framed for submission to the 
people, providing that there should be no further 
issue of bondn; to the companies; also, that no law 
levying a tax to pay either principal or interest 
on the bonds already issued, should beof any force 
or effect, until ratified by a popular vote. These 
constitutional amendments were adopted by a 
large majority of votes, in the fall of the same 

year. The governor was also directed to foreclose 
the deeds of trust given to secure interest on the 
bonds loaned, and bid oif and purchase the prop- 
erty sold, in the name of the state. This was 
done, the following summer, and the state again 
secured the forfeited rights, franchises and land 

The Federal census taken this year (1860), 
showed that the state had a population of 172,- 
123. The harvest was a good one, and business 
was considerably revived. Immigration was be- 
ginning to become brisk, and building in the 
towns and cities was perceptibly increasing, while 
the tilled area was receiving great additions. 
It seemed that the " hard times " had about 
ceased, and the hope of prosperous days was be- 
ginning to enliven all. But this gleam of sun- 
shine was of short duration. The memora- 
ble presidential contest of that year, the first in 
which Minnesota had a voice, was a period of un- 
precedented heat and excitement. The electoral 
vote of Minnesota was cast for Abraham Lincoln 
by a very large majority, he receiving 22,069, 
Douglas, 11,920, Breckenridge 748, and Bell 62. 
It was not long before the disunion cloud arose 
in the slave states, and the mutterings of rebell- 
ion began to be heard. It was a period of doubt 
and forebodings. The currency used generally in 
the state, being largely based on the bonds of 
seceding states, became greatly depreciated. All 
classes suffered much loss, business became de- 
pressed, real estate unsalable, and soon a condi- 
tion of distress ensued, almost equal to the dark- 
est days of the panic, three years before. 

The iBgislature of 1861 considered the railroad 
question at length, and passed acts designed to 
facilitate the construction of the land grant roads 
by turning over the forfeited franchises of the old 
companies to new organizations, believed to be 
able to complete them. The Lake Superior and 
Mississippi Eailroad Company was also char- 

The secession movement progressed steadily 
during the winter, and it soon became apparent 
to all that war was inevitable. Lincoln was in- 
augurated, but his address promised only coer- 
cion, and coercion war. The feeble and unreal 
movements for compromise and conciliation all 
failed. Meantime business in this state was daily 
growing worse. Large numbers were out of em- 
ployment, and anticipating still further disaster- 





The War Actually Begun. — Excitemeut of the Period. — Minnesota Called on for 
One Regiment.— Iteoruiting Vigorously Begun. — The First Regiment Mus- 
tered in for Three Years.— It is Ordered to Washingtoni— A Second Regiment 
called for and Recruited. — The First Engaged at Bull Run. — Contributions for 
thcRelicf of the Sick and Wounded. — Progress of Railroad Building. — Third, 
Fourth, and Fifth Regiments Called For.— Battle of Mill Springs. — Railroad 
legislation.— Battle of Pittsburg Landing.— A Sixth Regiment Authorized. — 
Currency Trxjubles. — Expeditions to Idaho. — First Railroad Completed.— Gal- 
lantry of Minnesota Troops in the South. —The Seven Days Fight.— Heavy 
Levies of Men Called For, — The Seventh, Eighth, Minth, and Tenth Regiments 

Saturday, April 13, 1861, was a dark day in the 
annals of our state. The telegraph brought the 
unwelcome news of the attack on Fort Sumter, 
and it was seen that war was inevitable. The 
bulletin boards of the newspaper offices were sur- 
rounded all day with an excited and anxious 
crowd, but courage and determination were every- 
where visible. The next day was the Sabbath, 
bright and balmy. The churches had but meagre 
audiences that day. All day knots of angry 
and excited men gathered on the streets, con- 
versing on the startliag events of the time. 

On Monday, the proclamation of President 
Lincoln was received, calling for 75,000 volun- 
teers for three months' service, and assigning to 
Minnesota one regiment. Gov. Ramsey, who was 
in Washington, had already tendered to the Pres- 
ident, in person, a like force. Lt. Gov. Donnelly 
at once issued a proclamation calling on the citi- 
zens of Minnesota to enlist, and Adjt. Gen. 
Acker issued a general order giving the needed 
instructions. In all the principal towns and cities 
of the state, public meetings were at once held, 
and enlistment stations opened. A fervid pat- 
riotism pervaded all ranks. " The war" was the 
sole topic of conversation. Everything else, evt^n 
business, to a large extent, was suspended for the 
time. Never, and in no other state, was a peo- 
ple so imbued with warlike zeal. In four or five 
days ten companies, in various locahties, had 
been raised and accepted by Adjt. General San- 
born (Gen. Acker having resigned to recruit a 
company. ) Fort Snelling having been designated 

by the war department as a school of instruc- 
tion, the companies were rendezvoused there, 
and by the 25th were all in their quarters, and 
busily engaged in drilling. The regimental oflB- 
eers were announced on the 29th, and on that day. 
two weeks from the time when the president's 
call was received, the " Immortal First," over one 
thousand strong, was mustered into service, for 
three months, with Ex-Gov. Gorman as Colonel. 

Scarcely was this accomplished, when the Wax 
Department decided that it could only be received 
as a three years regiment, and it became neces- 
sary to at once renew the enlistments on that 
basis. After a few days delay, enough recruits 
were received, and mustered in, to fiU a three 
years regiment, and it was accepted on that 
basis. The War Department, contrary to the 
hopes of the men, at first ordered the companies 
to garrison the various posts in and near the state, 
relieving the regulars stationed there, and some 
detachments had already left for their posts, 
when the need of more troops for the Virginia 
campaign became imminent, and the order was 
countermanded and the First Regiment directed 
to proceed at once to Washington. The compa- 
nies were quickly reassembled at Fort Snelling, 
and, on June 22d, left that post by boat, arriving 
in Washington on June 26th. In the various cities 
through which the First passed, they were re- 
ceived with patriotic demonstrations of respect, 
and it was noticed by the press as a remarkable 
fact that 11 young commonwealth, unknown and 
almost without population a dozen years before, 
could now send to the defense of the Union a reg- 
iment of such stalwart and brave soldiers. 

Meantime, the war spirit which had been 
aroused in the State, was not content with send- 
ing one regiment. There were numbers, in fact 
several almost full companies, who had tried to 
get admission into the First, but were too late, 
and were anxious to go. This fact being made 



known by Gov. Eamsey on May 3(1, to the Secre- 
tary of War, lie at once authorized the raising of 
a second regiment, and the recruiting for the 
same was proceeded with, with alacrity. The 
regiment was filled to the minimum, and mustered 
in on June 26th, with the gallant Van Cleve as 
Colonel, and rendezvoused at Fort Snelling, for 
the time being, some of the companies, mean- 
time, garrisoning the forts in and near Minnesota. 

The First Regiment on reaching "Washington, 
was, after a few days of camp life at Alexandria, 
pushed to the front, and took an active part with 
Heintzelman's Division, in McDowell's campaign 
against Manassas, acquitting itself well. On 
July 21st, scarcely more than three weeks 
after its arrival in the field, it took part in the 
memorable battle of Bull Bun, in which disastrous 
engagement it lost 174 men, of whom 44 were 
killed, 107 wounded, and 23 taken prisoners. The 
gallantry of the men, and their fine conduct in 
the heat of battle, gained the regiment as well as 
our State, great praise ; but the sad news of the 
loss it suffered, filled our citizens with gloom. 
The magnitude and solemnity of the great strug- 
gle in which the nation had engaged, began to be 
realized, while the sympathy and benevolence of 
the citizens of the State, especially the ladies, 
was aroused by the wants of the wounded and 
sick soldiers in the hospitals, and a general move- 
ment made for such contributions of money and 
clothing and delicacies suitable for invalids. 
Kearly |2,000 In money alone, was promptly con- 
tributed, and sent to the Chaplain of the First. 
This was the commencement of a splendid stream 
of gifts towards the same object, which continued 
to flow during the whole four years of the war, 
the Sanitary and Christian Commissions being 
soon after organized as a means of collecting and 
distributing relief. In no State, during the strug- 
gle for the Union, was found a more patriotic, 
Uberal, actively generous people, than in Minne- 

Not long after the battle of Bull Eun, the First 
Eegiment went into camp between PoolesvUle 
and Edwards Ferry, Maryland, for winter quar- 
ters, remaining there several months. 

While these events were occurring, the mate- 
rial progress of our State was receiving an im- 
pulse. CapitaUsts from Ohio were induced, under 
the legislation of the last winter, to embark In the 

completion of the " Minnesota and Pacific Eail- 
road," from St. Paul to St. Anthony. This line 
had been partially graded three years before, and 
with little labor was made ready for the super- 
structure. Ties and rails for several miles were 
provided, and tracli-laying commenced. A loco- 
motive and cars arrived, and the first wheel 
turned by a locomotive in this State, was on Sep- 
tember 19th. At this juncture, unfortunately, a 
disagreement sprang up between the contractors 
and the officers of the road, and resulted in a sus- 
pension of the work for several months. 

Business remained very much depressed all the 
season, a result, In part, of the miserable cur- 
rency used in trade. 

Eecruiting for the second regiment did not 
cease until September, by which time all the 
companies were filled to the maximum, and the 
battalion was ready for service on southern fields. 
Meantime a company of Sharp-Shooters had been 
recruited by Capt. Peteler, and having been ac- 
cepted (Sept. 3d), left on Oct. 6th for Virginia, 
where they were attached to Berdan's U. S. 

Congress, at its Special session, commencing 
July 4th, had authorized the raising of 500,000 
troops. Under this call Minnesota was called on 
for two more regiments, on Sept 17th. There 
were already some partially completed companies, 
and recruiting commenced vigorously in all parts 
of the state. Up to this time all the troops re- 
cruited had been for the infantry service, but in 
order to give all who wished to enlist, their pref- 
erence for the different arms of service, cavalry, 
and artillery organizations were commenced. 
Three companies of cavalry were authorized, and 
began to receive recruits, while a battery of light 
artillery was gotten under way. 

On Oct. 3d, Capt. N. J. T. Dana, formerly of 
the regular army, was commissioned as Colonel 
of the First, vice Gorman, who-had been pro- 
moted to Brigadier General. 

On Oct. 14, the Second Eegiment left for Vir- 
ginia, but at Pittsburgh was ordered to Louis- 
ville, Ky., and soon after went Into camp at Leb- 
anon Junction, where they remained some 
weeks, guarding bridges. On Oct. 29th, the Third 
Eegiment was announced as organized, and Hen- 
ry C. Lester appointed Colonel. On Nov. 16th the 
Third left for Kentucky, and were employed in 



the same service as the Second, near which they 
were encamped for some weeks. The Fourth 
Regiment was filled nearly at the same time, and 
Adjt. Gen. John B. Sanborn appointed Colonel. 
It was retained in the state, doing garrison duty, 
until spring. 

On Oct. 19th the First Regiment participated in 
the action at Edwards Ferry, suffering small 
loss, but making a noble record for gallantry. 

The state election occurred on Oct. 9th. Parti- 
san politics were not much noticeable in this con- 
test. Alex. Ramsey was te-elected for governor, 
by a vote of 16,274 over E. 0. Hamlin, who had 

The three cavalry companies, commanded re- 
spectively by Capts. Von Minden, Brackett, and 
West, were ordered to Benton Barracks, Mo., in 
December, and incorporated into an Iowa troop 
called Curtis Horse, and subsequently Third Iowa 

The First Battery Light Artillery, Capt.Mrmch, 
also left for St. Louis Dec. 1st, and was soon 
after ordered to Pittsburgh Landing. During 
this month a Fifth Regiment was authorized, and 
considerable progress made in filling it. 

On January 19th, 1862, occurred the memora- 
ble battle of Mill Springs, in which our Second 
Regiment won a national reputation. Early on 
that day, the enemy, under Gen. ZoUlcofEer, at- 
tacked the union forces. Col. Van Cleve says in 
his official report: " After proceeding about half 
a mile, we came iipon the enemy, who were posted 
behind a fence along the road, beyond which was 
an open field, broken by ravines. The enemy, 
opening upon us a galling fire, fought desperate- 
ly, and a hand to hand fight ensued which lasted 
about thirty minutes. * * * The enemy gave 
way, leaving a large number of their dead and 
wounded on the field. * * * We joined in 
the pursuit, which continued till near sunset, 
when we arrived within a mile of their intrench- 
ments, where we rested upon our arms during 
the night. * •■* * Six hinidred of our regi- 
ment were in the engagement, twelve of whom 
were killed and thirty-three; woimded." Gen. 
ZolUcoffer himself was among the enemy slain. 
Private George G. Strong, of Company D, is 
thought to have killed BailUe Peyton, a promi- 
nent rebel oflicer. 
The news of the victory at Mill Springs, oecur- 

ing, as it did, during a period of depression, was 
like a gleam of sunshine, and our Second Regi- 
ment won bright laurels for their gallantry. For 
meritorious service in this engagement. Col. Van 
Cleve was soon after promoted to Brigadier Gen- 

On Feb. 24th Capt. Alfred SuUy was commis- 
sioned colonel of the First Regiment, vice 
Dana, promoted to Brigadier General. 

The legislature of 1862 had many important 
questions under consideration, prominent among 
which were those measures providing for military 
necessities, and putting the state on a " war foot- 
ing." The work of releasing the land grant rail- 
roads from the entanglements resulting from the 
old five-million loan, and bestowing the franchis- 
es on real capitalists, who would undertake to 
build in good faith, was another of the important 
measures of the session. The latter work was 
successfully accomplished in most cases. On the 
line of the Minnesota & Pacific, between St. Paul 
and St. Anthony, work was recommenced and 
pushed vigorously. 

On April 6th the battle of Pittsburg Landing 
occurred. The only Minnesota troops engaged 
in this conflict was the First Battery, which was 
in the heat of the action at several points. Sev- 
eral cannoneers were wounded (Capt. Mimch se- 
verely) two killed, and also a number of horses. 
The battery did splendid service, and " mowed 
the enemy down with cannister.'' Capt. (form- 
erly adjutant general) "VVm. H. Acker, of the 
Sixteenth Regulars, was MUed during this en- 

On March 20th, the Fifth Regiment was de- 
clared organized, and the field ofiicers were com- 
missioned. Rudolph Borgesrode was appointed 
Colonel. The Second Sharpshooters, Captain 
Russell, which had been recruited during the 
whiter, soon after left for "Washington, arriving 
there April 26th. On April 24th, the Fourth 
Regiment, and Second Battery of Light Artillery, 
Ciiptiiia Uoti'hkiss, left for Benton Barracks, and 
were soon pushed to the front in Mississippi. On 
May 13th, the Fifth Regiment also left for the 
same destination, excepting companies B, C, and 
D, who remained behind to garrison forts, and a 
few weeks subsequently took a conspicuous part 
in the Sioux war. 

On May 26th, the call for a sixth regiment was 



made, and recruiting was commenced very act- 
ively, several skeleton companies, partially filled 
for the Fifth Eegiment, being already in the field. 

Congress, at its extra session, commencing 
July 4th, 1861, had authorized the issue of " legal 
tender " notes, -which were by this date, in large 
circulation. The result of this was to greatly 
enliven business and enhance prices. While gov- 
ernment was expending in our State but a small 
fraction of the enormous sums it was paying out 
in. eastern States for materials of war, the results 
were unmistakably felt here. One effect was the 
gradual and almost complete withdrawal of coiu, 
especially small coin, from circulation. This oc- 
casioned greatinconvenience in "making change," 
and various devices were used to overcome the 
trouble. Postage stamps came into general use for 
fractional sums, and soon became a decided nui- 
sance. ■ Then many of the cities and towns, as well 
as business firms and banks, issued fractional 
"shin-plasters" as currency. The country was 
soon flooded with these, and it proved an intolera- 
ble nuisance. The issue by the Treasury Depart- 
ment, soon after, of " postage currency," some- 
what relieved the dearth of small change. A 
steady enhancement in the price of goods, labor, 
the cost of living, &c., commenced from this date, 
an inflation which lasted for two or three years. 

The material development of the State pro- 
gressed during this period, notwithstanding the 
burdens and waste of war, and the fact that over 
six thousand of our young men were withdrawn 
from productive industry. An increased area 
was sown. Immigration was becoming large, 
especially of Scandinavians. Further efforts were 
also made to open and extend our area of trade 
towards the northwest. The reported discovery 
of rich gold fields in the region now known as 
Idaho and Montana, led to the formation of a 
company of citizens to proceed thither overland. 
On May 14th, the expedition left St. Paul, and 
arrived safely at the diggings. Congress had, 
meantime, been appealed to for some protection 
to this emigration movement, and a small appro- 
priation was made for this purpose, and Captain 
James L. Fisk appointed to organize and com- 
mand any party that might wish to go over. An- 
other expedition was organized and equipped, 
leaving on June 16th, and made a successful 
journey to the gold fields. These expeditions 

did much towards preparing the way for the 
opening and settlement of the Northwest, and 
were repeated in 1863 and 1864. 

Another important event was the completion of 
the Minnesota and Pacific Railroad from St. 
Paul to St. Anthony, which was opened for 
traffic on June .28 — the first line operated in our 
state. From that date on, railroad building was 
rapidly carried on, on several of the lines. 

While these cncor.raging events were in prog- 
ress in our state, her brave troops, in Virginia and 
Mississippi, wero contending against great odds. 
The Fourth and Fifth Eegiments and the Second 
Battery, whose departure for "Dixie" was noted 
a few lines back, had been pushed rapidly to the 
front, and, being a part of the " Army of the Mis- 
sissippi," were soon face to face with the enemy, 
in the great Corinth campaign. On May 28th 
the Fifth Eegiment had a sharp action with the 
enemy, in which several were killed, and a num- 
ber wounded, and won much praise for gallantry. 
On July 12th, near Murfreesboro, Tenn., the 
Third Eegiment was attacked by a greatly supe- 
rior force, and after a brave resistance, losing 
twelve men, ita ammunition became exhausted, 
and it was compelled to surrender. The men 
were paroled a few weeks later. 

Meantime the First Eegiment had taken an 
active part in a campaign of great danger and 
hardship. It had remained in its winter quar- 
ters, near Edward's Ferry, until March, when 
(attached to Sedgwick's Division) it proceeded to 
Winchester, from whence they were ordered to 
join the Army of the Potomac near Fortress 
Monroe. In AprU they took part in the siege of 
Yorktown. From thence they participated in 
McClellan's great Eichmond campaign, and the 
" seven days fight." At Seven Pines, or Fair 
Oaks, on May 31st and June 1st; at Peach Orch- 
ard, June 29th; Savage's Station, June 29th; 
Glendale and White Oak Swamp, June 30th; 
Nelson's Farm, June 30th; Malvern HiUs, July 
1st, the brave First took an active part, and suf- 
fered severe losses, with great hardship and con- 
tinual fighting. In all these engagements, it lost 
ninety men. At the Battle of Fair Oaks, the 
Second Sharp-Shooters was united with the First 
Eegiment, and continued with them during the 
rest of the campaign. 
The disastrous termination of the operations 



by McClellan, and the heavy losses of the army, 
produced a feeling of great discouragement and 
doubt throughout the North. On July 2, the pres- 
ident called for 300,000 more troops. Still this 
heavy draft was met cheerfully, and in this State 
vigorous steps were taken to fill our quota. On 
July 24th, a rousing war meeting was held at the 
Capital, which lighted anew the fires of patriot- 
ism, roused the despondent, and infused new 
hopes into all. Recruiting commenced vigor- 
ously. But scarcely was the work under way, 
when the call of August 4th, for 300,000 more 
troops, was issued. It now became evident that 
special exertions would be needed to fill our quo- 
ta by the 18th, at which time the Secretary of 
War had ordered a draft to be made, if not filled. 
Public meetings were held at various places, and 
large sums of money were subscribed by individ- 
uals, in addition to local bounties, to stimulate 
enlistments. Great excitement prevailed through- 
out the State for some days— fully equal to the 
patriotic war spirit following the fall of Sumpter, 
and business seemed to be almost suspended ; in 

fact, in many instances, actually was, as the en- 
tire employees of many establishments enlisted. 
To some extent, martial law was enforced in the 
State. The Adjutant General, in a published 
proclamation, forbade citizens (males of military 
age) from leaving the State without a pass from 
him, nor were they allowed to go from one county 
to another without a permit from the Sheriif. 
The Sixth Regiment, which was partially filled 
when the call of July 2d was issued, was quickly 
filled and organized. A seventh regiment was 
authorized on August 5th. On August 10th the 
eighth was called for ; on August 13th, the ninth; 
and soon after even a tenth. Recruiting for the 
old regiments was also brisk. Four companies 
were received at Fort Snelling in one day. The 
Press of August 19th, says : " On Sunday and 
yesterday, large bodies of men were continually 
pouring in." Over three thousand men were 
then at the fort. The work of receiving, muster- 
ing in, clothing and equipping these troops, laid 
on the authorities a heavy task. 





The Sioux Massacre — The Events Which Probably led to It.— Discontent of the 
Indians. — The Murders at Acton. — Commencement of the Carnage at Red 
. Wood.— Awful Scenes.— Narrow Escape of Wliites. -The Battle of Red Wood 
Ferry.- Fiendish Cruelties of the Savages. — Panic and Flight of the Settlers.— 
Condition of Affairs at Fort Ridgely.— The Alarm Reaches St. Peter.— Rein- 
forcements Set Out from There.— The first Attnek on New Ulni.— The Savages 
Repulsed.- They Besiege Fort Ridgely— But Fail to Capture It— And Again 
Fall on New Ulm. — Desperate Fighting.— The Town Nearly Burned Down — 
The Savages Withdraw, Unsuccessful.— The Town Evacuated.— End of the first 
" Week of Blood."— Its Results to the State. 

While these exciting events were occurring, 
and attracting the attention of our citizens, a 
fearful storm was gathering in an unexpected 
quarter, and soon burst upon our state with ap- 
palling fury. The Sioux Indians, of whom sev- 
eral thousand were living on reservations in the 
western portions of Minnesota, had been for sev- 
eral weeks (i. e. since about June 14th) collected 
at the Yellow Medicine agency, to receive their 
annual payment. This would have been made 
to them by the proper olBcer, at that time and 
place, promptly, had not the necessities of the 
government just at that juncture, prevented the 
prompt transmission of the $70,000 in gold coin, 
which was to pay the Indians their annuities. 
As soon as it could be got ready, it was sent, and 
hurried forward by special messengers, night and 
day, arriving just one day too late. Meantime 
the Indians were waiting impatiently for their 
money, and for the provisions and other supplies 
which were to be given them when the payment 
was made. They were almost destitute of food, 
and some were really suffering from hunger. In 
this discontented condition, they were ready to 
listen to bad counsel. Malicious parties had whis- 
pered to them that the war had destroyed most 
of the young men of the whites; that only old 
men and boys were left; and if so disposed they 
could repossess themselves of the land; that they 
were to be cheated out of their money by the 
traders, whom they had before accused of de- 
frauding them; and other wrongs, real or fan- 
cied, were recited to inflame them. As was 
usual, a small detachment of troops had been 

sent to the agency when the Indians first assem- 
bled, to preserve order. This consisted of fifty 
men from Fort Ridgely, under Capt. Jno. S. 
Marsh, and fifty from Port Ripley, commanded 
by Lieut. T. J. Sheehan. Yet, notwithstanding 
the presence of these soldiers, guarding the ware- 
houses, on Aug. 4th, several hundred Indians 
attacked and broke into one of the buildings, 
and took about one hundred sacks of flour before 
they could be stopped. Tlie missionaries, with 
Major Galbraith, the agent, at length quieted 
this outbreak. The agent issued some ammuni- 
tion and goods to them, and persuaded them to 
disperse, and he would send them word when 
the money was ready for them. To this they 
appeared to agree, and apparently left the agency 
and went to their hunting-grounds. It was now 
supposed that the trouble was over, and the 
troops were allowed, on Aug. 16th, to depart for 
their posts. But it was only the calm before the 
storm. All this time bad blood was brewing, 
and the storm gathering, unnoticed, or at least 
unheeded by the whites. Only a spark was 
needed to explode this magazine of savage fury, 
and that, at length came. There is good evi- 
dence to believe that dui-ing this interval the In- 
dians were holding councils and " soldier's lodg- 
es, " and had concluded that as the forts were 
manned by but a handful of soldiers, it would be 
a good time to rise and sweep away the white 
race from their old hunting-grounds. 

On Sunday, Aug. 17, a party of four Indians, be- 
longing to a band noted for insubordination, were 
in the neighborhood of Acton, Meeker County, 
where they had been for several days hunting. 
They were angry and quarrelsome. They came 
to the house of a Mr. Howard Baker, where they 
found him and his wife, and a Mr. "Webster and 
wife. Mr. Robinson Jones and wife and a Miss 
Wilson, neighbors, came in soon after. The In- 
dians had previously had a quarrel with Jones, 



which was now renewed. They then proposed 
shooting at a mark with Baker and Jones, which 
was done. After discharging their guns, the 
Indians at once reloaded, and commenced firing 
on the whites. Jones and his wife, and Baker 
and Webster were killed, and Miss Wilson, Mrs. 
Baker and child, and Mrs. Webster, were un- 
hurt. The four- Indian murderers then stole 
horses in the neighborhood, and rode rapidly, 
during the night, to the Indian village near the 
agency, where they told what they had done, and 
urged that, as blood had/ been spilt, and they 
would suffer the penalty, they must all unite 
and exterminate the whites. The other Indians 
then armed themselves, and at sunrise, Aug. 18, 
the work of the death commenced, at the Lower 
Sioux Agency, near Red Wood. It is strongly 
asserted by other writers, who give good reasons 
for the belief, that the Indians collected at the 
Agency had all ready demanded on the massacre, 
and commenced it on the 18th, without knowing 
of the events at Acton. 

The first victim to tliis hellish plot was James 
W. Lynde, a clerk in the trading house of Nathan 
Myrick. He was a man of fine attainments, and 
had written a work on the History and Eeligion 
of the Dakotas, which was just ready for publi- 
cation. Three other persons were killed at the 
same store. At Forbes' trading house, near by, 
George H. Spencer, the clerk, was badly wounded, 
when his life was saved by the interposition of a 
friendly Indian, named Chaska, who protected 
him until he recovered. Other white persons in 
and near the houses at the agency, were either 
killed or wounded, within a few minutes. At 
this point the Indians ceased their carnage, in 
order to plunder the stores and government ware- 
houses, and this delay enabled Eev. S. D. Hin- 
man and some other whites, to escape to Fort 
KidKcly, spreading the alarm as they went. 

After a brief time spent by the savages in rob- 
bing the stores, tliey continued their work of car- 
nage in every direction. They were, soon joined 
by the warriors of the other bands, and, to the 
number of two or three hundred, spread through 
the settlements for several miles up and down 
the river, murdering all the whites whom they 
could find, excepting a few young womem, whom 
they took captive, and in many instances burning 
the houses of the settlers. 

Meantime, the whites at the upper, or Yellow 
Medicine Agency, some thirty miles distant, were 
in ignorance of these dreadful scenes, and of the 
danger which threatened them. It was not until 
nearly night when John Other-Day, a Christian 
Indian, brought them the dreadful news, and 
warned them to save their lives. The whites, 
sixty-two in number, at once took refuge in a 
warehouse; but flight seemed the only safe 
course, and before daylight the next morning, 
they were on their way across the prairies to- 
wards Henderson, the men on foot, and the wo- 
men and children, with S. B. Garvie, who had 
escaped from his warehouse, after being badly 
wounded, in wagons. The noble Other-Day 
piloted them truly and skillfully. This party, 
after great hardships, an-ived safely at the settle- 
ments on the Minnesota river, and thence to St. 
Paul, though Mr. Garvie died on the way. The 
two missionaries, Messrs. WilUamson and RiggS, 
also escaped, with their families, after suffering 
much hardship. 

On Monday mornmg, August 18th, about three 
hours after the first outbreak at Red Wood 
agency, a messenger from that place arrived at 
Fort Ridgely, twelve mUes distant, with the 
startling news. Captain Marsh, Company B, 
Fifth Regiment, then in command, at once dis- 
patched a com-ier to Lieutenant Sheehan, Com- 
pany C, Fifth Regiment, who, with his detach- 
ment, had left the post the morning previous on 
his return to Fort Ripley, and also to ilajor Gal- 
braith, who had left at the same time for St. 
Peter, with about fifty recruits, called the "Ren- 
ville Rangers," en-route for Fort Snelling, urging 
them to return at once. Captain Marsh at once 
left for the scene of carnage, with forty-four men 
on foot. After a forced march, he arrived about 
2 o'clock r. Ji. at the ferry opposite the Agency, 
near which place tliey found nine dead bodies. 
They were met here by Rev. Mr. Hinman, on his 
way to the fort, who cautioned Capt. Marsh against 
an ambuscade, and warned him to return, as the 
Indians greatly outnumbered his force. Captain 
Marsh, who was a very brave but very rash man, 
would not listen to the advice, declaring that he 
could "whip all the Indians," or something to 
that effect. Arriving at the ferry, his men were 
drawn up on the bank, in plain sight, when tliree 
or four hundred Indians concealed in the thickets 



neax by, poured a volley into them. Nearly half 
of his men fell dead or mortally woimded at the 
first fire, some of them pierced with twenty bul- 
lets, while several others were wounded, but 
managed ultimately to escape ; some of them not 
reaching the fort for three days. The survivors 
of this sudden attack ( Captain Marsh being himself 
uninjured) fell back from the ferry towards the 
fort, keeping up a running fight amidst the thick 
timber on the river bottom, but against terrible 
odds. '^S«*i«;- V- 

Rushing up to the fallen soldiers, the savages 
tomahawked those still living, and tore the scalps 
from most of them, inflicting also nameless bru- 
talities on their corpses. All the fine Springfield 
muskets carried by the dead, and their ammuni- 
tion, f eU into the hands of the redskins, and were 
subsequently used by them, with deadly effect, at 
the sieges of Fort Ridgely and New Ulm, and the 
battle of Birch Coolie. The remains of the fallen 
heroes were ultimately interred at Fort Eidgely, 
and the legislature, some years subsequently, 
caused a fine monument to be erected there in 
honor of their bravery. 

For some time a hot battle raged in the forest, 
Capt. Marsh and his men retreating towards the 
fort, contesting the ground, inch by inch. Find- 
ing that his men were falling fast, and that the 
enemy was gathering in force ahead of him, so as 
to cut him ofE, he determined to cross the river, 
so as to gain the open prairie on that side, and 
reach the fort, if possible. He had now but thir- 
teen men left. At their head he attempted to 
Wade the river, but was drowned while so doing. 
His men got over in safety, and made their way 
to the fort about dark. Out of the forty-four 
who had left it that morning, twenty-four were 
dead. Thus ended the Battle of Redwood Ferry, 
the first engagement of the war. The Indians, it 
is thought, lost only one or two warriors. 

Flushed with this easy victory in tiieir first 
encounter with our troops, the Indians now con- 
sidered that the way was clear for their bloody 
war of extermination. They scattered in every 
direction, carrying death and torture to the homes 
of all the settlers within reach. For several days 
the work of carnage was awful. No pen can 
describe the horrors of that bloody week. So 
sudden and unexpected was the outbreak, and so 
insidious and skulking the mode of warfare of 

the savages, that the inhabitants were overtaken at 
their various pursuits and butchered in cold blood, 
without any chance of flight or resistance. Most 
of them were European immigrants who had re- 
cently settled on the frontier, and were quite im- 
acqualnted with savage warfare and treachery. 
But few of them possessed effective fire-arms, or 
weapons of any kind, indeed, and even if they 
had these, so sudden and stealthy was the onset, 
that resistance would have been unavaiUng. The 
savages generally went about on these raids in 
squads of eight or ten, well armed. In many 
instances the treacherous devils would advance 
boldly and with friendly- demeanor into houses 
with whose owners they were acquainted, as if 
to ask for food, (as was their custom, for the set- 
tlers had always freely supplied them) ; when all 
at once they would shoot down or tomahawk 
the unsuspecting inmates, perhaps the very per- 
sons who had many times fed them when hun- 
gry. In a few instances children, and sometimes 
adults, fled unobserved while this work of death 
was going on, and escaped a like fate by skulking 
in the grass or bushes, from whence they were 
often compelled to witness the cruel tortures 
practiced on the other members of their family, 
or flee for life with the death shrieks of the suffer- 
ing victims ringing in their ears. Some of those 
who escaped thus, were rescued many days sub- 
sequently, after enduring incredible hardships, 
skulking by day around deserted houses, endeav- 
oring to find food, and wandering by night 
through the trackless waste, towards the settle- 
ments. Delicate women, carrying or leading in- 
fant children, thus traveled scores of miles to 
some place of safety, sometimes wounded and 
sick and almost naked. Many perished from 
hunger, exposure or wounds. Others lived, to 
suffer for years from their injuries. There 
were literally hundreds of such incidents as the 
above, and a full narrative of these adventures 
and escapes would fiU volumes. No record can 
ever be made of them, and the fate of many wiU 
never be known imtil the last day. 

The cruel barbarities practiced by the savages 
on their victims, was another sickening feature 
of the massacre, and its bare recital makes one 
shudder. All the fiendish cruelties that their 
savage nature and pent up hatred of the pale 
faces could suggest, they wreaked on their vio- 



tims, a people who had always been their friends 
and benefactors. The wounded and dying were 
scalped or tomakawked out of all semblance of 
humanity. The bowels of many were gashed 
open, and their hands and feet, or other members, 
cut ofE and thrust into them. Children were 
slashed with knives, eyes gouged out, ears or 
hands cut ofE, or skulls smashed with war clubs. 
Some of these survived even such awful wounds. 
Babes were thrust living into stove ovens, and 
there left, to roast to death. Pregnant women 
were ripped open, and their unborn babes torn 
away, and thrown into their face, 'or nailed to a 
door or tree, for their dying gaze to vrttness. But 
few women, comparatively, were killed outright. 
Instant death would have been a more merciful 
fate than they were reserved for. Frequently 
delicate young maidens were tied, or held by the 
fiends, and repeatedly outraged by the band of 
captors, some actually dying in the hands of their 
tormentors, or if they survived, l^d into a cap- 
tivity of horrors. But let us draw a veil over 
these atrocities. 

After the murder of the inmates of a house, 
pillage was the next step, and the torch was then 
generally applied to it, oftentimes the wounded 
victims, unable to escape, being burned to death. 
Day after day the columns of smoke rising here 
and there showed where the various bands of de- 
mons were plying their work of destruction, while 
night after night the sky along the frontier was 
lurid with the light of burning homes. Two or 
three thousand dwellings were thus destroyed, in 
addition to three entire towns. Cattle were shot 
from mere wantonness, and others left to starve, 
with no one to attend them, Horses were saved 
for the use of the marauders, hundreds of them 
being stolen, and in many instances the savages 
were observed riding to and fro in fine buggies 
and carriages. 

As the houses of the settlers were generally 
isolated from each other, the news of the out- 
break could not reach the more remote and scat- 
tered, in season to save them. Along the main 
roads leading to the settlements, the alarm was 
spread by fugitives, after a day or two, and this 
fact enabled thousands to save their lives who 
would otherwise have fallen. Abandoning houses, 
crops, cattle — everything, hastily seizing some 

food and clothing, and harnessing their teams, 
they fled towards New Ulm, Fort Ridgely, St. 
Peter, Mankato, Henderson, and other towns 
along the river. Some even pressed on to St. 
Paul. Soon the roads were literally crowded 
with a panic-stricken cavalcade, on foot, on 
horseback, in all sorts of vehicles, hurrying along 
with blanched faces and nervous trepidation. 
Many were pursued and shot at (some killed, 
even) while flying, and all had horrid stories to 
relate. Lieut. Gov. Donnelly, on Aug. 26, wrote 
from St. Peter : " You can hardly conceive the 
panic existing along the valley. In Belle Plaine 
I found 600 people crowded in. In this place 
there are between 3,000 and 4,000 refugees. On 
the road between STew Ulm and Marfliato were 
over 2,000. Mankato is also crowded. * * * 
Their property in the mean time abandoned and 
going to ruin." The condition of these throngs 
of fugitives, crowded into the smaU tovras, was 

The handful of men who survived the massa- 
cre at Redowod Ferry, and made their way back 
to Fort Eidgely, found that post already crowded 
with panic-stricken fugitives from the sur- 
rounding country. All night these poor settlers 
arrived from every direction, many of them 
wounded, having left portions of their families 
murdered, and their homes in flames. In every 
direction, all night long, the sky was reddened 
with the light of burning houses. It was a night 
of terror and despondency. About ten o'clock 
on Tuesday morning, the inmates were gladdened 
with the return of Lieutenamt Sheehan and his 
command, who, on being overtaken the evening 
before by the messenger sent out to recall them, 
had made a forced march of sixteen hours. 
Lieutenant Sheehan at once took command of 
the post, and in connection with Sergeant John 
Jones, of the regular army, post ordinance ser- 
geant, took effective measures to put the fort in 
a defensible condition. All the civilians who 
were fit for duty, were armed, or put on guard, 
and even the women were employed making cart- 
ridges, running bullets, &c. No attack was made 
that day, however, although Indians were seen 
watching the fort. [The warriors were busy at- 
tacking New Ulm, as will be seen a little farther 
on.] About noon on Monday, the messengers and 
guard in charge of the $70,000 in gold, reached 



Tort Eidgely, and remained there during tlie 

Let us now follow Mr. J. C. Dickinson, of 
Lower Agency, the messenger sent from Red- 
wood to recall Maj. Galbraith from St. Peter. 
Maj. G., so well satisfied was he with the loyal 
promises of the Indians, had left the agency 
with some volunteers for Fort Snelling. His 
family were at Yellow Medieine, and escaped 
from that place. He, with the " Eenville Ran- 
gers," Lieut. O'Gorman, had arrived at St. Peter 
Monday evening, when Mr. Dickinson reached 
there, with the startling news. It was at first 
discredited, but he at once made preparations to 
return, with the Rangers,. and a company of vol- 
imteer citizens. He immediately dispatched Wm. 
H. Shelley, cf St. Paul, who was with him, with 
a message to Gov. Ramsey, asking military aid. 
Shelley rode at full speed all night, and reached 
St, Paul, nearly one hundred miles distant, at 10 
o'clock p. M. Tuesday, spreading the news as he 
passed down the valley. Gov. Ramsey at once 
took steps to send troops to the scene of blood. 
But of this anon. 

Monday night was spent by the soldiers and 
citizens at St. Peter in organizing companies, 
searching for arms, making cartridges, etc. Early 
on Tuesday morning, the bells were rung and the 
inhabitants called together. Great excitement 
prevailed, but a company was at once organized. 
Hon. Chas. E. Flandrau, associate justice of the 
Supreme Court, was elected captain, and W. B. 
Dodd, first lieutenant. Teams, wagons, camp 
equipage, etc., were hastily collected. 

Major Galbraith, with the Renville Rangers, 
and others who accompanied them, armed as 
well as could be possible, left St. Peter at 6 A. m., 
and after a hard march, reached Port Ridgely 
(Porty-five miles distant) the same evening. Just 
as they arrived at the fort, a furious thunder- 
gust came up. In the darkness and rain they 
got into the fort safely, although hundreds of 
Indians were watching it, and must have seen 
them but for the storm. There were now 250 
fencible men in the fort, and the crowd of fu- 
gitives hourly increasing. These were cared for 
as well as possible, the hospital being full of 

Meantime a company of sixteen horsemen left 
St. Peter (Tuesday) for the aid of Kew Ulm, 

which was reported by fugitives to be in great 
danger. At one o'clock the same day , Hon. Chas. 
E. Plandrau left for the same place with 100 
well armed men, on foot. Let us now give some 
account of the 


This town was on the south bank of the Mume- 
sota River, thirty miles, by land, from St. Peter, 
and eighteen miles below Port Ridgely. It con- 
tained about 1,500 inhabitants, mostly Germans. 
On Monday morning, Aug. 18th, a party of citizens 
left New Ulm to recruit for volunteers. When 
some seven or eight miles west of new Ulm, they 
found several dead bodies lying in the road. Con- 
vinced that the Indians had risen, they retraced 
their steps, but on their way back were fired on, 
and several of the party killed. The rest fled to 
town and gave the alarm. At the same time, 
fugitives came in from other directions, near the 
town, all telhng horrid tales of butcheiy. This 
created a great panic in the town, and many fled 
to St. Peter. All that day and night, and next 
day, fugitives continued pouring into the place. 
The leading men of the town at once took steps 
to organize for defence. Arms were collected, 
barricades erected, sentinels posted, and every- 
thing done which could be, to repel an attack. 
These precautions were taken none too soon. 
About four o'clock on Tuesday, a party of moimt- 
ed Indians appeared on the prairie above the 
town, and dismounting, advanced on the place. 
The few men who had arms, at once attacked 
them, but most of the people gathered into the 
houses in the center of the town, panic stricken. 
Fortunately, soon after the attack commenced, 
the fifteen horsemen from St. Peter arrived, and 
at once began a vigorous defence. The savages 
burned several buildings on the west edge of th 
town, and kept up a hot fire on the people with- 
in the barricade. The St. Peter cavalry soon 
made such a brave advance on the Indians, that 
they were compelled to retire, about dark, sev- 
eral having been killed. During the engagement, 
the whites lost several, killed and wounded, also. 
About nine o'clock, in the midst of a furious 
thunder-storm, Judge Flandrau, with over one 
hundred men, reached the town, and were 
warmly welcomed. Vigorous efforts to organize 
for defence were at once made. Judge Flan- 



drau was chosen commander-in-chief, Capt. Dodd, 
provost marshal, &c. Small reinforcements con- 
tinued to arrive from Mankato and other points, 
and by Thursday, 325 armed men were guarding 
the town. Wednesday passed without any 
alarms, and scouting parties were sent out in va- 
rious directions to bury the dead, of which a 
number were found. Let us now glance at the 
condition of tilings 


About three o'clock on Wednesday, the 20th, 
the first attack was made on this post, probably 
by the same force' who had been at New Ulm the 
evening previous. It is thought five hundred 
Indians were engaged in it. Concealing them- 
selves in the wooded ravines near the post, the 
savages suddenly advanced on it with horrid yells 
and a volley of balls. The suddenness of the on- 
set almost threw the garrison ofl their guard, and 
two of the soldiers were killed at the first fire. 
The men speedily rallied, however, and fought 
bravely. Sergeant Jones was quickly at his guns, 
two 6-pounders and one 24-pounder, but on at- 
tempting to fire, they would not go off. On 
drawing the charges, he found them stuffed with 
rags! Some treacherous half-breeds had done 
this dastardly act, and then deserted to the 
enemy. Assisted by a citizen, J. C. Whipple, 
who had served in the Mexican war, and Sergt. 
McGrew, of Company C, he soon poured several 
rounds of cannister and shell into the thickets, 
amongst the foe, killing and wounding a number. 
The savages then succeeded in crawling up be- 
hind some old outbuildings and hay-stacks, from 
which they poured furious volleys into the fort. 
Sergt. Jones soon set these on fire with shells, 
and drove the savages off. At dusk the light of 
this fire, and the noise of the artillery, impressed 
the people at New Ulm and other places in the 
vicinity with the belief that the fort had fallen. 
But when night closed down, the savages witli- 
drew. The garrison remained on arms all night. 
One great danger was the dryness of the roofs' 
which could have been ignited with "liie-ar- 
rows." A close watch was kept, and Providence 
favored the beleagured force, for late at night a 
heavy rain-storm commenced falling, and contin- 
ued until next day, entirely averting this danger. 
The large stables of the fort, about thirty rods 

distant, were perfectly filled with government 
mules, and horses brought in by the fugitives. 
These the Indians succeeded in getting out and 

The next morning (Thursday) the attack was 
renewed about 9 o'clock, and lasted hotly for an 
hour, when the savages retreated, but again at- 
tacked the fort about 6 p. m., when another en- 
gagement took place, and lasted about an hour. 
But their efforts to capture the fort were useless. 
They found it too well defended. It could have 
been taken by charging into it, but this Indians 
are afraid to do. Meantime the garrison was be- 
coming worn out with loss of sleep and continual 
labor and fighting. Nearly five hundred refugees 
were crowded into its small buildings, where 
they were compelled to lie on the floor to avoid 
the bullets of the foe, which swept like a hail- 
storm through the windows. To add to the trou- 
ble, many were becoming sick, and the stores 
both of ammunition and provisions, and even 
water, were running low. 

That night, as subsequent evidence revealed, 
Little Crow and his forces returned to the Lower 
Agency, where he found the upper Indians, whom 
he had sent for, arrived. This increased his 
force to 450 warriors. Large munbers were also 
marauding among the settlements, as far east as 
Forest City and as far south as Lake Shetek. 
Confident that with this large force he could take 
both Fort Eidgely and New Ulm, he now moved 
on the former post. 

During the night, however, the garrison had 
strengthened its weak points with great skill and 
success. Earthworks had been thrown up, bar- 
ricades erected, out of cordwood, sacks of grain, 
etc., and other defenses provided, while the can- 
non were stationed so as to command the most 
exposed points, and the riflemen posted where 
tliey could do the greatest execution. About 
noon the Indians appeared in greater numbers 
tlian on either previous attack, and commenced 
an assault so determined and furious, it seemed 
as if they were confident that this time the post 
must fall. But as they advanced, yelling like de- 
mons, the gunners sent a storm of grape and can- 
nister amongst them, while the riflemen poured 
volley after volley into them, and the savages re- 
treated from this hot fire. They soon rallied and 
took possession of the stables and other outbuild- 



ings near the fort, and kept up a terrible lire from 
tliem. A perfect storm of balls poured into the 
frame buildings in the fort, sometimes passing 
clear through them. Several soldiers were hit, 
and some civilians (one being killed), though all 
the non-combatants kept vi^ell concealed. Finally 
Sergt. Jones was compelled to fire the outbuild- 
ings with shells, and drive the savages out. 
Soon the flames and black smoke rolled up, and, 
with the yells of the Indians, the rattle of small 
arms, and the thunder of the cannon, made an 
exciting scene. Por five hours the battle raged 
hotly. Little Crow was heard repeatedly order- 
ing his warriors to charge into the fort, and sev- 
eral times they gathered for that purpose and 
started, but Sergt. Jones would send a storm of 
shell or cannister among them, and drive them 
back. It is thought numbers of them were kiUed 
in this attack. 

About dark their fire ceased, and the night was 
passed in. quiet, but there were few slept around 
the post except the non-combatants. All the men 
were under arms all night, being five nights of 
weary vigil and sleeplessness. The garrison were 
well nigh worn out, and expected another day of 
hard fighting. The sun rose, but no signs of In- 
dians. Work was continued on the fortifications, 
which were greatly strengthened. While thus 
engaged, a large body of mounted Indians (said 
by Louis Robert, who counted them, to number 
nearly 1,000) were seen coming down from the 
Lower Agency on the opposite side of the river. 
They did not, however, cross to the Fort Eidgely 
side, but kept on towards New TJhn. It now 
became evident that the latter place was their 
objective point, and the garrison breathed freer. 
Still, they knew not what a day might bring 
forth, and kept up their working and watching. 
Let us now return to 


and see how that beleagured town fared. After 
the battle of Tuesday, before described, no at- 
tack had been made onthotown, though small 
parties of Indians, doubtless scouts, were once 
or twice seen near the place. This interval of 
quiet was spent in erecting barricades, and other 
works of defence, and in taking such steps as 
seemed necessary, in case of another attack. 
About ten o'clock A. m. on Saturday, the 23d, 

the Indians (mounted) appeared in great force on 
the prairie above town, and our forces were at 
once posted on the open ground in that direction. 
The Indians first approached slowly, but when 
about a mile from our line, increased their speed, 
and gradually spread out their front, Uke a fan, 
until it covered our whole line. On they came at 
full speed, yelling like demons. When about 
double rifle-shot off. Col. Flandrau's men, inex- 
perienced in such warfare, fell back on the town, 
the Indians firing on them. The whites com- 
mitted the error of passing the outermost build- 
ings, and not occupying them, an error the sav- 
ages soon took advantage of, as they at once took 
possession of them, and opened a furious Are on 
our men. By the exertions of Col. Plandrau, 
the latter soon rallied, and commenced a vigorous 
fire from every protected spot, each doing duty 
as best he could, '-on laisownhook." They soon 
recovered their coolness, and fought bravely. 
The enemy, from their great numbers, were able 
to surround the town, and soon poured into it a 
fire from every direction. The battle became fu- 
rious and general. 

The Indians also succeeded in getting possess- 
ion of the houses on the bluff, which gave them a 
great advantage, commanding, as it did, the inte- 
rior of the town below, but about twenty men of the 
Le Sueur company had occupied the windmill, a 
high building in that locality, and kept up such a 
hot fire , the Indians could do taut Uttle execution on 
that side. They took possession of the lower end 
of the city, however, and, the wind being from 
that direction, fired the houses one by one, ad- 
vancing thus towards the center of the city, con- 
cealing themselves behind the smoke. The 
greatest danger seemed now to be from this di- 
rection, and a strong force of the best marksmen 
was sent to resist the ad.vance. They fought 
bravely, and checked the enemy considerably. 
The battle here was very hot for several hours. 
About three o'clock the enemy concentrated a 
force on the river side, asifpreparingfor a grand 
assault. A detachment was sent to meet it. The 
Indians came on at full speed, but our men stood 
firm, and sent such volleys among them, that they 
broke and retreated, losing several. Two of our 
best marksmen, however, fell at the same time. 

The battle raged furiously and without inter- 
mission until dark. Many of our men were 



wounded, several killed. All had fought nobly, 
some performing feats of great daring. The en- 
emy had left ten dead on the field, besides many 
killed and wounded carried oU, and had gained, 
so far, no great advantage; but if the attack con- 
tinued much longer, the worst result was feared. 
Night closed on the weary defenders, full of 
doubt and anxiety. 

A consultation was now held among the leading 
men and those in command, as to the " situation.' 
One thing that seemed necessary, was to contract 
the lines of defence toward^the center of the town 
so that a less number could more readily defend 
any point. To do this it was voted that all build- 
ings, except a few in the center of the town, must 
be burned. To this the inhabitants consented, 
and themselves applied the torch to about forty 
buildings. One brick house was left, and loop- 
holed for defence. Including those burned by the 
savages, 190 houses in all were now in ashes. 
Only about twenty-flve were still standing. A 
range of rifle-pits were now dug in front of the 
barricade, and all the defences strengthened. 

When morning dawned (Sunday, August 24th), 
the savages feebly renewed their attack, but they 
soon saw they were foiled. In order to get near 
enough to the barricade or buildings to do any 
execution, they must pass over an open space right 
in the face of the defenders' rifles, where there 
was not even a bunch of grass to skulk behind. 
They kept up a Are at long range for three or four 
hours, but as il made no impression they ceased 
the attack about noon, and left ii the direction of 
Lower Agency They were seen from Fort Kidge- 
ly tha afternoon, passing up the river with a long 
train of wagons, probably loaded with their plun- 
der, and many horses and cattle stolen from the 
settlers. Neither Fort Ridgely nor New Ulm 
were again attacked. The brave resistance of the 
whites had balked the red demons at both places. 
Had either of those posts fallen, hundreds of 
women and children, and even of the armod men, 
would have been massacred. But few would 
have escaped, and there is no doubt but that the 
victorious savages would have pressed on and 
taken both St. Peter and Mankato. 

In the attack on New Ulm, ten whites were 
killed and about fifty woimded. The few build- 
ings left standing in the place, were almost filled 
with the dead and wounded, and with sick people ; 
for disease had by this time commenced to do its 
work. The provisions were nearly exhausted, 
and it seemed impossible to hold the place any 
longer. There were no houses adequate to shel- 
ter the two thousand people now crowded within 
the fortifications. Hundreds had been for several 
days huddled in cellars and other imsuitable pla- 
ces. On Sunday afternoon, one hundred and 
fifty more volimteers from St. Peter and vicinity, 
arrived, in command of E. St. Julien Cox, weU 
armed and equipped. A council of war was held, 
and it was resolved to evacuate the town. Ac- 
cordingly, on Monday, August 25th, every inhab- 
itant, some two thousand in number, with a train 
of one hundred and fifty-three wagons bearing 
the sick, wounded and feeble, commenced the 
march to Mankato. " It was a melancholy spec- 
tacle (says Colonel Flandrau, in his report) to see 
two thousand people, who a week before had been 
prosperous and happy, reduced to utter beggary, 
starting on a journey of thirty miles through a 
hostile country." The volimteer troops guarded 
the train through safely 

One week had now elapsed since the cruel mas- 
sacre began. It was a "week of blood." Over 
seven hundred persons had been murdered (many 
think the number exceeds one thousand); two 
hundred had been taken captive; nearly two 
thousand houses burned; thousands of horses 
and cattle stolen, and a fertile region some two 
hundred miles long and one hundred wide, laid 
waste and depopulated. Eighteen counties were 
ravaged, thirty thousand people (one-tenth of the 
population of the State) homeless, their crops and 
property going to ruin. Claims were subsequently 
filed by nearly three thousand persons, who lost 
property valued at $2,500,000. But this does not 
represent the total loss to our State, while no sum 
ran represent the sorrow and suffering caused by 
the massacre. 





Military Measures to Defend the Frontier.— Want of any Organized Force.— H. H. 
Sibley Appointed to Command an Expedition.— Great Lacit of Anns and Am- 
munition. — Volunteers Hurry to the Rescue in Large Porce.~CoI. Sibley Gath- 
ers a Column at St. Peter— And Relieves Fort Ridgely.— Great Want of Ammu- 
nition, Transportation, and Supplies — Danger of a Cliippewa Outbrealt.— Ac- 
count of Indian Raids in Kandiyohi, Meeker, and other Counties. — Siege of 
Hutchinson. — Siege of Fort Abercrombie. — A Mounted Force Provided — The 
Battle of Birch Coolie. — Relief Measures for tlie Refugees. — The State Apro- 
priates $25,000.— Col. Sibley Opens Negotiations for the Release of Prisoners.— 
They Prove Successful. — Extra Session of the Legislature. — Battle of Wood 
Lake. — The Savages Defeated. — Release of the Captives,— Arrest and Trial of 
the Guilty Murdereis.— Three hundred and Three Convicted and Sentenced to 
be Hung.— Close of the Indian War. — Departure of more Regiments for the 
War.— Hard Fighting by our Troops in the South.— Execution of Thirty-eight 
Indian Murderers at Mankato. 

While these exciting events were occurring 
along the frontier, the State authorities had been 
acting with great energy and promptness in or- 
ganizing and equipping a military force to pro- 
ceed against the savages. The suddenness of the 
outbreak found them totally unprepared for any 
such emergency. The Sixth Eegiment was in 
barracks at Fort SnelUng, nearly full and par- 
tially organized, but its field officers had not yet 
been appointed, nor had the men received their 
arms. The Seventh, Eighth, Ninth and Tenth 
Regiments were also partially recruited but not 
mustered in. Skeleton companies were at Fort 
SneHing, but none had been organized, and 
the men were undisciplined. Large numbers 
had been let off on furlough, to complete 
harvesting their crops. All the arms due the 
State had been drawn and issued to the old regi- 
ments. The general government was so hard 
pushed that even blankets and tents could not be 
furnished to the new troops. 

Immediately on receiving the news. Governor 
Kamsey appointed Hon. H. H. Sibley, of Men- 
dota, to the command of such forces at Fort 
Snelling as the commandant there, Colonel B. F. 
Smith, could organize on the instant. Colonel 
Sibley was admirably qualified for such a respon- 
sible duty. His long and intimate acquaintance 
with the Indian character and habits, and espe- 
cially with the bands now in rebellion, together 
with his knowledge of military matters, and his 

familiarity with the topography of the country, 
enabled him to either meet the savages in the field 
successfully, or to treat with them to advantage. 

Four companies of troops, about three hundred: 
in all, armed with Belgian rifles and 19,000 cart- 
ridges, were furnished to him ; and they at once 
started on a small steamer for Shakopee, arriving 
there on the 20th. From thence they marched to 
St. Peter. On the 21st, the six remaining compa- 
nies of the Sixth Regiment were filled by consol- 
idation and transfers, and sent forward as rapidly 
as possible. On the 21st, Governor Ramsey is- 
sued a proclamation, reciting the news of the out- 
break, and calling on such citizens as had horses 
and arms, to start at once and join the expedition 
moving up the river. Considerable numbers did 
so. Companies of horsemen were formed in St. 
Paul, and several other places, and rode forward 
night and day. Small companies of infantry also 
organized in various towns in the central and east- 
em portion of the State, and made forced marches 
to the relief of the frontier. By the end of the 
first " week of blood " (a very short period, con- 
sidering how unprepared the State was for such ' 
a war) several thousand armed men were pressing 
forward on different routes to meet and drive 
back the savages. These companies were mostly 
distributed at stockades and garrisoned towns 
along the frontier, where they remained for sev- 
eral weeks, until the worst danger was over. On 
September 9th, Governor Ramsey's message re- 
ports, there were twenty-two militia companies, 
with 2800 men under arms, and volunteer troops 
enough to make 5500 men in all. 

On Friday, the 22d, Col. Sibley arrived at St. 
Peter, and remained there some three days, get- 
ting his troops in hand and properly armed. The 
latter was a work of difficulty. Most of the Sixth 
Regiment were armed with Belgian rifles, many of 
them almost worthless, and none of them very 
reliable. But a small part of the cartridges fur- 



nished were of the right cahbre, and much time 
was lost " swedging " bullets. Gov. Eamsey had, 
on the 20th, telegraphed to the governor of "Wis- 
consin to "borrow" 100,000 cartridges. They 
were promptly sent, and reached Col. Sibley at 
Tort Eidgely. Provisions had to be collected, 
and transportation secured. Meantime the peo- 
ple of the State were nervous with anxiety, and 
blamed the commander and State authorities for 
not throwing his half-armed and unorganized 
troops at once on the several hundred well armed 
and desperate savages at New Ulm or Port 
Eidgely. Had this been done, a " Custer massa- 
cre " would have resulted, and another rout and 
panic ensued, many fold worse than that of the 
week previous. 

By the 24th, nine companies of the sixth reg- 
iment (of which Wm. Crooks had just been ap- 
pointed colonel) were concentrated at St. Peter. 
There were also some three hundred mounted 
men, and several companies of militia infantry. 
On the morning of August 26th, Col. Sibley, with 
his entire force, about 1400 men^ commenced the 
march to Fort Eidgely. Col. McPhaili, with one 
hundred and eighty mounted men, was sent on 
in advance. These arrived at the Fort at dark, 
to the great joy of its beleaguered inmates. The 
main force arrived on August 28th. No Indians 
were encountered on the way. The expedition 
was halted at this post for several days, imtil nec- 
essary reinforcements and ammunition (which he 
called for from the executive) should arrive, and 
enable him to pursue and successfully act against 
the Indians, who had retreated some distance 
up the river ,where it was reported they had a 
number of prisoners. 

On August 25th, Col. B. F. Smith was ordered 
to organize a force of 1000 men, out of detach- 
ments of the seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth 
regiments, at Fort Snelling, and dispatch said 
force at once to join Col. Sibley. This force was 
put under command of Lt. Col. Wm. E. Marshall, 
of the seventh regiment, and moved forward as 
soon as it could be properly equipped, reaching 
the expedition on September 1st. 

The difficulty of securing transportation lor 
these expeditions, was a serious drawback to ce- 
lerity of movements. Finally, a general order 
was issued by the adjutant general, authorizing 
the commanding officers of detachments in act- 

ual service, to seize and impress citizens teams 
whenever needed. This was done, and enough 
transportation secured in that way, resulting in 
many cases of individual hardship, but this is 
one of the Inexorable "necessities of war." 
Another great need which bothered the state au- 
thorities, was the scarcity of serviceable arms. 
Good rifles were few. Many of the troops 
were very poorly armed, and even of these inferi- 
or guns, enough could not be had. The general 
government was telegraphed to, but could supply 
none, in season to do any good. The authori- 
ties then seized all the gun-shops in the states 
and confiscated their serviceable rifles and mus- 
kets, and ammimition. AH the powder and lead 
In the hands of dealers everywhere was seized, 
yielding 3,175 pounds of powder and 1,200 pounds 
of lead. Even this was Insufficient. A lead 
pipe, some 3,000 feet long, which had been laid 
in one of the streets oi St. Paul, but was just then 
unused, was dug up and melted Into buUets. A 
force of yoimg women were working day and 
night making cartridges. Finally, however, aU 
the troops were wel supplied and equipped, and 
no further trouble was felt. It must be remem- 
bered that there were then no railroads in the 
state (except one ten-mUe section between St. 
Paul and Minneapolis,) and no telegraph but 
one from St. Paul to La Crosse. All military 
messages and dispatches to the frontier, had to 
be sent by special couriers. 


Meantime, a new danger threatened the people 
of the state. In addition to the powerful Sioux 
nation, there wore in Minnesota the "Winnebagoes, 
with 400 warriors, and in the northern half of the 
state, the Chippewas, wh( could muster 2,500 or 
3,000 warriors. There were good grounds for be- 
lieving that these tribes had been in consultation 
with the Sioux, and that if the latter were suc- 
cessful they would also rise It has-been proved 
that several Winnebagoes participated in the 
earlier murders near the Upper and Lower Agen- 
cies, while on the same day as the outbreak at 
Redwood, the Chippewas commenced plundering 
their agency at Crow Wing on the Upper Miss- 
issippi, and assembling armed warriors. They 
acted very turbulent and defiant, and an out- 
break between them and the whites was immi- 



ment. Indeed, on one occasion, shots were act- 
ually exchanged. The possibility of an outbreak 
by them so weighed on the mind of Maj. L. C. 
Walker, their agent, that he committed suicide 
near Monticello, on Aug. 23d. Companies of 
cavalry were authorized by the state authorities 
to protect the coimtry north of St. Paul, and per- 
formed patrol duty for some days. Had the 
Chippewas risen also, nearly the whole state 
would have been laid waste. Even the cities of St. 
Paul, MinneapoUs, etc. , would have been captured, 
as there were not arms in those places enough to 
have defended them. A company of Home 
Guards was organized in St. Paul as a precau- 
tionary measure. Tor some days the situation 
was very critical, and full of danger. Finally, 
Hon. Wm. P. Dole, the Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs, Hon. H. M. Kice, Major E. A. C. Hatch, 
Clark "W. Thompson, and other men who had 
influence with the Ojibways, calmed them down, 
and averted what might have proved an awful 


The counties along the Minnesota Kiver were 
not the only ones ravaged by the red devils during 
that week of blood. McLeod, MonongaUa, Kandi- 
yohi, Steams, Meeker, Otter Tail, Douglas, Sib- 
ley, etc. , were aU overrun la whole or in part, and 
the inhabitants either butchered or driven away. 
The first blood of the outbreak had been shed at 
Acton, Meeker county. A messenger was sent post 
haste by the citizens there to inform Gov. Bamsey. 
He arrived at the capitol just at the same time 
that the courier from St. Peter bore the news 
from Redwood. The Governor issued to Capt. 
Geo. C. Whitcomb, of Forest City, seventy-five 
guns and a smaU amoimt of ammunition, to en- 
able them to make a stand. Capt. W. returned 
with these at once, via Hutchinson, where he left 
some of the guns. On arriving at Forest City 
he found the whole region in a state of panic, the 
inhabitants fleeing, and the Indians killing and 
ravaging the coimtry. A company was at once 
organized and armed, and marched over into 
Monongalia county (since a part of Kandiyohi), 
where they found the bodies of a number of slain, 
and also of hundreds of cattle kUled in mere wan- 
tonness. They also rescued several persons who 

had been wounded and were hiding. The miUtia, 
aided by citizens at Forest City, at once began 
erecting a large stockade for defence, in the cen- 
ter of town, in which the inhabitants and refugees 
could take shelter. Hearing that a family at 
Green Lake were in great danger, Capt. Whit- 
comb went to their relief. Near that spot his 
men had a hard skirmish with the Indians, in 
which three of the redskins were left dead on the 
ground, and only one of his own men sUghtly 
wounded. He returned to the stockade that 
night, but next day, with a larger party, again 
attempted to reach Green Lake. The Indians 
again attacked him, and after a sharp battle he 
returned without loss to Forest City. That night 
the savages made a fierce attack on the town, 
burned several buildings, and fired on the stock- 
ade, but fortunately hurting no one. The troops 
returned the fire. About daylight the 'Indians 
were seen trying to drive off a number of horses 
and cattle in a corral. The troops saUied out and 
drove them off, killing two, and having two of 
their own number badly wounded. By this time 
Meeker county west of Forest City, and all of 
Kandiyohi and Monongalia counties, were entirely 
deserted by the whites. 

On August 26th, Captain Richard Stroiit of the 
Tenth Regiment, was ordered to proceed to Glen- 
coe and the region adjacent, to protect it. He 
reached that place about September 1st, and 
found the town had been well fortified and de- 
fended by the militia under command of General 
John H. Stevens, of the state militia, and was 
safe from any immediate danger. He therefore 
marched, with about seventy-five men, towards 
Acton. On the morning of September 3d, he was 
attacked near that place by about one hundred 
and fifty Indians, and a sharp battle ensued. 
The troops were driven back towards Hutchinson, 
fighting all the way, until afternoon, -when they 
reached that place. Captain Strout lost three 
men killed and fifteen wounded, all of whom were 
brought off the field, and lost most of their equi- 
page, rations, &c., and several horses and wagons 
abandoned and mired. The Indians must have 
lost several killed. 

At Hutchinson, a large stockade had been bmlt, 
and a company of about sixty militia commanded 
by Captain Harrington, were defending the town. 
About nine the next morning, September 4th, the 



Indians attacked the post. They burned all the 
houses on the edge of the town and one or two 
more centrally located. Our troops sallied out 
and routed them, however, and a succession of 
skirmishes ensued, which lasted all day. 

Meantime, General Stevens had heard of the 
engagement near Acton, and at once sent the 
companies of Captain Davis and Lieutenant 
"VVeinmann to the relief of Hutchinson. They 
arrived about six o'clock on the evening of the 
fight, but the Indians had withdrawn. Several 
persons in the neighborhood' were killed by them, 
and others escaped into the stockade. All the 
signs indicated that the Indians had retreated 
towards the upper Minnesota, taking a large 
drove of stolen horses and cattle with them. The 
Indians were not seen again in this vicinity until 
September 23d, when a band of about fifty inva- 
ded Meeker and Kandiyohi counties. They killed 
two or three settlers who had returned to their 
farms, but seemed more intent on stealing cattle 
than on killing whites. They were pursued by 
the troops, and sixty-five head of cattle rescued 
from them. 

Wright county does not seem to have been in- 
vaded by the Indians. Portifications were erect- 
ed by the inhabitants at various points, but no 
depredations were made in that locality, so far as 

Western and southern Steams county, how- 
ever, suffered severely from the depredations of 
the red foe. About August 23d, they committed 
murders and other crimes near PaynesviUe. The 
people of that town erected a strong stockade, 
and the citizens and refugees from points further 
west, sheltered themselves therein. A part of 
the town was burned, but no attack was made on 
the post. At Maine Prairie, St. Joseph's, Sauk 
Centre, Clear Water, Little Palls, and other pla- 
ces, similar stockades were built, and held by a 
few determined citizens. At St. Cloud, which 
was filled with refugees, strong fortifications M'ore 
built, and preparations made to defend the placo 
to the utmost, but no foe ever appeared, fortu- 
nately. A number of persons were murdered in 
the western and southern part of Steams county, 
and houses burned. 

The southwestern portion of the State was also 
overrun, and a number of murders committed. 
This district was soon after placed in command 

of Colonel Plandrau, and about five hundred 
mUitia garrisoned at different points, who soon 
rid the country of Indians. 

The Third Regiment, which had been paroled, 
after its surrender, at Murfreesboro, was now at 
Benton Barracks, Mo. Gov. Ramsey telegraphed 
on Aug. 22d to have them sent to this state at 
once, for service against the Indians. The re- 
quest was complied with. The regiment received 
its exchange on Aug.24th, and they arrived in 
St. Paul on Sept. 4th. All their officers were 
still prisoners in the hands of the rebels, and the 
companies were commanded by non-commissioned 
officers. Maj. Welch, who was not with the regi- 
ment at its surrender, (having been taken pris- 
oner at Bull Bun) was in command of the regi- 
ment. Three hundred men were at once sent to 
the frontier, where they did good service, being 
the only veteran troops engaged during the war. 

On Aug. 28d, Gov. Ramsey, in response to 
many petitions, called an extra session of the 
legislature, to meet on Sept. 9th. 


On Aug. 23d the Indians commenced hostili- 
ties in the valley of the Red River. Port Aber- 
crombie was then garrisoned by Co. D., Fifth 
Regiment, Capt. J. Van der Horck, but about 
half the company was stationed at Georgetown, 
protecting the Transportation Company's goods 
at that place. Early on the 23d a band of 500 
Sissetons and Yanktons crossed the Otter Tail 
River, with the intention of capturing a train of 
goods and cattle en route for Red Lake, where a 
treaty was to be made with the Cliippewas. The 
train was at once ordered to take refuge in Port 
Abercrombie, and did so. Most of the citizens 
in the surroimding region also repaired to that 
post, for safety, but many were killed, or taken 
prisoners. The town of Dayton was destroyed. 

Reinforcements were ordered to Port Aber- 
crombie as soon as its danger was learned, but 
the troops sent out were detained en route, to 
protect and aid threatened places in Stearns and 
Meeker Counties, and did not reach the fort. 
Meantime it was in great danger, and was quite 
surrounded by the enemy. Skirmishes near by 
had taken place between detachnients of the 
troops and the Indians. On Aug. 80th the latter 
appeared in large niunbers before the fort. A 



large herd of the treaty cattle (172 head) and 
about 100 horses and mules were grazing on the 
prairie near by. The Indians drove these off, 
and the small garrison could make no resistance. 
On Sept. 3d, at daybreak, the Indians attacked 
the post. A fight was kept up for two or three 
hours, but they were repulsed, with some loss on 
both sides. Active measures were then taken 
to strengthen the post by a stockade of timber. 
On Sept. 6th, a second attack was made, and a 
sharp battle raged until nearly noon. A number 
of the Indians were killed and wounded, but only 
one of our force was killed, and one mortally 
wounded. The Indians hung around the fort, 
occasionally attacking a messenger, or a water- 
ing party, until Sept. 23d, when reinforcements 
arrived via St. Cloud to the great joy of the be- 
leaguered garrison, who had now been besieged 
over three weeks. !No farther demonstrations, of 
any force, were made by the Indians. But for 
the brave resistance made by a mere handful of 
soldiers, aided by a few citizens, the post must 
have fallen. 


The want of a mounted force to pursue the In- 
dians was severely felt by Col. Sibley. His small 
number of irregular mounted militiamen were 
leaving for their homes. He several times urged 
Gov. Eamsey to provide cavalry, and that official 
in turn asked of the War Department the proper 
authority. This was granted on Sept. 1st, and 
a regiment of mounted rangers at once called for, 
for three months service, which was subsequently 
changed to one year. The regiment was soon 
recruited, and Col. S. McPhaill appointed colonel. 


While waiting at Fort Eidgely for proper sup- 
plies and equipments, and before undertaking 
any offensive campaign agaujet the Indians, Col. 
Sibley sent out, on August 31st, a detachment to 
bury dead bodies, rescue any fugitives that might 
be found, and make reconnoissances. This de- 
tachment consisted of part of Co. A, sixth regi- 
ment, Capt. H. P. Grant, about seventy mounted 
men under Capt. Jos. Anderson, and a fatigue 
party — about one hundred and fifty men in all, 
accompanied by seventeen teams. The whole 
force was in command of Maj. Joseph K. Brown, 
who was perfectly familiar with the country and 

with Indian warfare. On the first day's march 
sixteen dead bodies were found and buried. The 
next day (Sept. 1) the force separated into two 
detachments. During this day fifty-five mutil- 
ated bodies were buried. In the evening the 
whole force went into camp at Birch Coolie (or 
Coulee) in a spot selected by Maj. Brown. No 
Indians had been seen that day. 

Just before daybreak on the 2d, the camp was 
aroused by a volley of firearms and the yells of 
Indians, who had crawled unperceived within a 
few yards of the encampment. For a few min- 
nutes terrific volleys were poured into the tents, 
cutting them into shreds and wounding or killing 
a number of men and horses. As soon as they 
could seize their arms, tho^e who. were unhurt 
crawled out, and sheltering themselves as well as 
they could behind wagons, dead horses, etc., re- 
turned the fire. Shortly after daylight the men 
began excavating, with such Implements as they 
could get, a line of rifle-pits, and in a short time 
had about two hundred feet dug. 

The firing in the still of the morning was heard 
by the sentinels at Fort Eidgely, fifteen miles 
away, and a detachment of troops uuder Colonel 
McPhaill, at once pushed off to their relief. 
When within three miles of Birch Coolie, they 
were met by such a large force of Indians they 
could not advance, and scLt a courier back for 
reinforcements. Meantime, the troops of Major 
Brown's command lay all day in their rifle pits, 
keeping the savages at bay. The wounded were 
cared for as well as possible, but some died du- 
ring the day. 

As soon as McPhaill's courier reached Fort 
Eidgely, a large force, with some artillery, was 
sent to the relief of his and Brown's troops. 
They came up about daylight, and the whole col- 
umn then pushed on to Birch Coolie, dislodging 
and driving the Indians from their position, after 
keeping our men under Are for thirty hours , with- 
out food or drink. 

The camp was an awful scene, when relieved. 
Twenty-three men had been killed outright or 
mortally wounded^ forty-flve badly wounded, and 
seventy horses killed. The dead were buried on 
the spot, and the wounded carried back to Fort 
Eidgely in wagons. Thus terminated the most 
bloody battle of the war, and one which spread 
gloom over the State. It is not creditable to 



Minnesota that this battle ground should have 
been allowed to pass into private hands, and be 
plowed over. It should have been reserved by the 
State as a historic spot, and marked with a suit- 
able monument. All the bodies, however, were 
subsequently removed, and properly interred else- 


The condition of the poor refugees from the 
ravaged districts, was deplorable in the extreme. 
In St Peter alone, there were in September, as 
many as 6,000 or 7,000 for some days, and at one 
time 8,000. In St. Paul there were 1,000, and at 
Minneapolis an equal number, and all the towns 
had more or less. They were all destitute of 
money, clothing, employment, &c., and many 
were sick, while not a few were actually insane 
from trouble and grief. The active exertions of 
citizens of St. Peter alone prevented great suffer- 
ing there, but their means were soon exhausted. 
They then appealed through the papers for aid, 
and Governor Kainsey appointed commissioners 
to receive and disburse supplies. About $20,000 
in money was contributed, half of which came 
from eastern cities, while large quantities of cloth- 
ing were collected by local relief committees, in 
St. Paul and other places. The Legislature, 
when it met, voted $25,000 more. These amounts 
relieved the worst cases of need. In October, 
most of those whose homes had not been des- 
troyed returned to them, and the number of des- 
titute rapidly decreased. Several hundred, how- 
ever, were supported all winter. Fortunately, 
laborers had now become scarce, and wages en- 
hanced, so that all could get employment. The 
building of railroads went along unchecked in 
the midst of all the panic. The Winona and St. 
Peter EaUroad completed about ten miles of road 
this fall. 


Before leaving the battle-field of Birch Coolie, 
Col. Sibley left the following note attached to a 

" If Little Crow has any proposition to majie to 
me, let him send a half-breed to me, and he shaU 
be protected in and out of camp. 

" Col. Com'g Mil. Exped'n." 

Col. Sibley had reason to believe that their re- 
peated defeats had discouraged the foe, and ne- 
gotiations could be made with the disaffected 
Indians, and those tired of fighting, for the re- 
lease of the prisoners. This note bore good fruit 
very soon. 

It was now evident that all the marauding 
bands from the interior had been called in, and 
that the Indians would oppose the column on its 
march with all their combined forces. 

Col. Sibley ordered the Third regiment, then 
at Glencoe, to join his command, and it reached 
Port Ridgely on Sept. 13th. 

Meantime Col. Sibley's note had been shown 
Little Crow on his return from the, raid on the 
Big Woods settlers, and A. J. Campbell, a half- 
breed who acted as his secretary, read it to him. 
Crow at once dictated a reply, blaming Galbraith 
and ttie traders for wronging them, and enumer- 
ating some grievances which caused the war. 
He requested an answer. This note reached Col. 
Sibley at Port Kidgely on Sept. 7th. Col. S. at 
once repUed demanding that Little Crow should 
release the prisoners, and he would then treat 
with him. On Sept. 12th a reply was received 
from Crow, saying that the Mdewakantons had 
150 prisoners, and other bands some more. He 
said: "I want to know from you, as a friend, 
what way I can make peace for my people. " Col. * 
Sibley at once replied, urging Crow to give up the 
prisoners, and complaining that he had allowed 
his young men to kill nine more whites since he 
sent the first letter. The same courier who 
brought Little Crow's letter also brought one pri- 
vately from the chief Wabasha, and Taopi, a 
Chiistian Indian. They asserted that they were 
forced into the war, and were now anxious to 
make peace, and if a chance ofEered they would 
come in and give themselves up, with all their 
prisoners. Col. Sihley replied^ to this message 
urging them to do so, and promising them pro- 
tection, adding that he was now strong enough 
to crush all the Indians who held out. 

When this letter was received by Wabasha and 
his friends who wished to separate from the other 
Indians, a great dispute arose among all the 
bands. Indeed, disaffection and jealousy had 
been brewing ever since the outbreak. The pris- 
oners were in great peril and might have been 
murdered. But at last all worked out well, and 



the friendly and repentant Indians carried the 

The War Department had meantime created 
Minnesota and Dakota into a military depart- 
ment, and appointed Gen. John Pope to the com- 
mand. He reached St. Paul on Sept. 12th, and 
established his headquarters there. The 


called by the Governor, met on September 9th, 
and adjourned on September 29th. The legisla- 
f on was mostly in regard to matters growing out 
of the Indian war. A Board of Auditors was 
created to adjust claims growing out of the mas- 
sacre, and $75,000 was appropriated to settle 
them. Congress was memorialized to reimburse 
the State for this outlay. A Board of Commis- 
sioners was authorized to coUect names of slain, 
and the facts of their death, &c. [This was never 
done.] The sum of $25,000 was voted for the 
relief of indigent refugees. Congress was also 
memorialized for the removal of the Winneba- 
goes from the State. 


(the 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th) which had been 
hurried ofE to the frontier, half organized, were, 
by this time, completely organized and mustered 
in. The Colonels were appointed as follows: 
Sixth, "Wm. Crooks ; Seventh, Stephen Miller ; 
Eighth, Minor T. Thomas ; Ninth, Alex. Wilkin ; 
Tenth, James H. Baker. 


Col. Sibley, after the arrival of the Third Kegi- 
ment and the suppUes and ammunition he had 
needed, broke camp, on Sept. 18th, and started in 
pursuit of the Indians at or near Yellow Medi- 
cine. On the morning of Sept. 23d, while en- 
camped near Wood Lake, the Indians suddenly 
attacked the force. The Eenville Rangers were 
thrown out, and met the enemy bravely. Maj. 
Welch soon had the Third Eegunent in line, and 
they poured steady volleys into the advancing line 
of Indians, as did also the Sixth Eegiment, under 
Maj. McLaren. The flght then became general. 
Lieutenant Colonel Marshall charged the enemy 
with three Companies of the Seventh and A 
of the Sixth, and put them to rout. The bat- 
tle had lasted an hour and a half. Our loss was 
four killed and fifty wounded; among the latter, 

Maj. Welch. The Indians lost quite a number- 
thirty, it is said — fifteen being found dead on the 
field. After burying the dead, Col. Sibley marched 
toward Lac qui Parle, near which place Wabasha 
had notified him he would meet him and deliver 
up the prisoners. 


On September 26th the column arrived at the 
camp where the friendly Indians had the prison- 
ers, and made their own near by. It was oppo- 
site the mouth of the Chippewa Eiver, and was 
named by our men "Camp Eelease." Col. Sibley 
without delay visited the Indians and demanded 
the captives. They were at once produced, 
nearly two hundred and fifty in number. Many 
wept with joy at their release ; others had grown 
almost indifferent. These poor people — mostly 
women and children — were sent as soon as_possi- 
ble to their friends, if the latter were still living. 

The Indians who had given themselves up were 
at once placed under guard nntil they could be 
examined as to their guilt. During the next few 
days a number came in and gave themselves up, 
and some smaller parties were captured soon 
after by our troops under Lt. Col. Marshall, so 
that soon our force had over 2,000 Indian war- 
riors in their hands. Col. Sibley at once organized 
a military commission, composed of Col. Crooks, 
Lt. Col. Marshall, and Capt. Grant, with I. V. 
D. Heard as judge advocate, to examine all evi- 
dence against the Indians, and Indicate the guilty 
ones. Another commission of five officers was 
appointed to try the accused. 

These commissions continued at work until 
November 5th, by which time they had foimd 
three hundred and twenty-one Indians guilty of 
murder, ravishing, and other crimes, and sen- 
tenced three hundred and three to death. These 
were at once removed to South Bend, there to 
await the orders of the president. The other 
Indians and their famUis were taken to Port 
Snelling and confined all winter in a stockade. 


Meantime Little Crow and the still hostile In- 
dians had retreated into Dakota, and before winr 
ter reached Devil's Lake, where they remained 
until the next season. As the war in this State 
was now practically over, most of the settlers 
whose homes had not been destroyed returned to 



them. The Third Minnesota regiment, and the 
Twenty-flfth Wis. and Twenty-seventh Iowa, 
were sent south before winter, but the Sixth, 
Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, and Tenth Minn., with 
the Mounted Rangers, were retained for liome 
service, and were stationed in detachments in a 
cordon of posts reaching from the south line of 
the State across the frontier to St. Cloud. The 
country between the garrisons was carefully 
scouted and patrolled, so that no hostile Indians 
covUd pass the line. On November 25th, Gen. 
Pope removed his headquartSrs to Milwaukee, and 
Brig. Gen. Sibley (for such he was made after 
the battle of Wood Lake) remained in command 
at St. Paul. The winter passed without any 


had not been idle meantime. On Sept. 4th the 
Fifth Regiment was in the battle at Corinth, and 
tinder fire some time. One account says: " The 
ground in front of us was covered with killed and 
wounded rebels." The Fifth suffered a loss of 
six killed, eighteen wounded and three .missing. 
The Fourth Regiment was also in the same fight, 
and lost, during two days' fighting, three killed 
and nine wounded. The Fourth Regiment was 
also hotly engaged at the battle of luka, on Sept. 
19th. It lost three killed, four wounded, two 

At Corinth, Oct. 3d and 4th, the Fourth also 
bore an active share, losing three killed and five 
wounded. " The regiment bore itself most gal- 
lantly," says an official report. In the same en- 
gagements the Fifth Minnesota also shared, ex- 
pending about fifty rounds of ammunition, with 
which they made deadly work among the enemy, 
losing six killed, sixteen wounded, and four miss- 
ing. The First Battery were also in this en- 

gagement, and did good work, having only one 
man wounded. 


also bore its share during this period. At the 
Battle of Antietam, on Sept. 17th, it was closely 
engaged, and left ninety men dead or mor- 
tally wounded on the field. Their bodies now 
rest in the national cemetery there. 

The First also participated in the battle of 
Fredericksburg, on December 11th, 12th, 13th and 
14th, during which it lost nine wounded and one 


The three hundred and three Indian murderers 
were kept at South Bend a short time and then 
removed to Mankato, where they were confined 
in a stone warehouse strongly guarded. Mean- 
time, some (so called) " philanthropists," princi- 
pally Quakers, at Philadelphia and other eastern 
cities, interfered in the matter, and got up a 
strong pressure on President Lincoln to pardon 
the guilty wretches. This was resisted by the 
prominent men and officials of Minnesota, the 
people of the State almost unanimously demand- 
ing their execution, and threatening, if it were 
not done, to apply lynch law to them. President 
Lincoln selected thirty -nine of the murderers, 
and (on December 6th) ordered General Sibley to 
execute them. This was carried into effect on 
December 26th, at Mankato, (one, meantime, 
dying of disease). Thirty-eight of the savages 
were swung off of one scaffold, in the presence of 
a large concourse of people. The rest of the mur- 
derers were imprisoned until spring, then taken 
to Davenport, Iowa, where they were confined a 
few months, after which they were removed to a 
reservation on the Missouri river, and set at 





Events of the Year 1863.— Scattering Raids on the Frontier.— A Scalp Bounty 
Offered. — Eemoval of the Sioux and Winnebagoes. — Gen. Sibley's Expedition 
of 1363.- Brave Conduct of the Third, Fourth and Fifth Regiments.— The First 
at Gettysburg. — Death of Little Crow.— Gen. Sibley's Column Attacked by the 
Sioux.— BemaTkable Drought in 1803-.64. — ^Thiee More Regiments sent South. 
— ^Return of the Firet Regiment. — Gen. Sibley's Expedition in 186i.— Heavy 
Drafts for Men. — Inflation and High Prices. — Battles in which Minnesota 
Troops Took Port. — Union Victories.— Close of the War. — Return of our 
Troops.— The State's Share in the Confliot.---A new Era of Material Prosperity 

The -winter of 1862-'63 was spent by Gen. Sib- 
ley in making preparations for an expedition to 
the Missouri Eiver, to pursue and punish the 
hostile Sioux. A third battery of light artillery 
was recruited for this purpose, and John Jones, 
the gallant defender of Fort Eidgely, appointed 
captain. At the session of the legislature, Gov. 
Eamsey was elected U. S. Senator, but did not 
vacate the gubernatorial chair imtil June 30th. 

Early in the spring, small parties of Sioux be- 
gan to make predatory incursions into the state, 
and these raids continued all summer. Some 
twenty persons were killed, in all, and a num- 
ber of horses stolen. The Indians were pur- 
sued by troops in every case, and a number of 
them killed. A reward of $25 was offered by 
the Adjutant General for Sioux scalps, and 
afterwards raised to $200. 

In May, the Sioux were removed from the 
state, together with the Winnebagoes, and sent 
to a new reservation on the Missouri Eiver. 
Efforts were made to get rid of the Chippewas, 
but were not successful. 

Gen. Sibley in May concentrated three thous- 
and troops at Camp PopCj on the upper Minnesota 
Eiver, for his expedition. These were: the Sixth, 
Seventh-, and Tenth Infantry, Capt. Jones' Bat- 
tery, and the Mounted Eangers. On June 17th, 
the expedition started on its march. Gen. Ste- 
phen Miller was meantime in command of the 
department here. Gen. Alfred Sully was at the 
same time moving up the Missouri Eiver -with 
another expedition. 

On Jime 22d, the War Department authorized 

the formation of a three years battalion of six 
companies of cavalry, for service against the In- 
dians, to be commanded by Major E. A. C. Hatch. 
This was soon recruited, and in active duty at 
the various posts in this department. 


The suromer of 1863 was one of hard service 
and brilliant renown to our regiments in the 
South. On May 3d, the Fourth Eegiment was in 
hot action in the battle at the crossing of Big 
Black river, with a loss of three killed. One of 
its officers planted the Union flag on the Capitol 
at Jackson. At Champion HUls (May 16th) it 
lost one killed. On May 22d, at Vicksburg, it 
again suffered severely, losing twelve killed and 
forty-two wounded. The Third Eegiment was 
also in the same campaign. On May 19th, the 
Fifth Eegiment near Vicksburg, lost one killed 
and five wounded. 

The severest loss of any of our regiments in 
the war, however, was that suffered by the First 
Eegiment at Gettysbiurg, on July 3d. It took 
part in the hottest of that memorable action, and 
made a movement in the face of an awful fire 
from the rebels. In a few minutes it lost sixty- 
eight killed, 149 wounded, 90 missing, and when 
it emerged from the baptism of fire, had only 87 
men in its ranks. The news of this terrible car- 
nage was received with profound sympathy by 
the people of the State, mingled with thankful- 
ness, however, for the great victory won there, 
and at Vicksburg, on the same day. 


During June, a band of seventeen Indians 
greatly aimoyed the settlers in Meeker and Kandi- 
yohi counties, killing several. On July 3d, a man 
named Nathan Lampson, and his son Chauncy, 
were hunting near Hutchinson, when they espied 
two Sioux. A fight ensued, in which Mr. Lamp- 
son was badly wounded, when his son, by a fortu- 



nate shot, killed one of the Indians. The dead body 
of the latter was taken to Hutchinson. From its 
appearance, and certain marks, it was supposed 
to be Little Crow. It was scalped, and the re- 
mains buried. Not long after, an Indian was 
captured in Dakota, which proved to be Wo-wi- 
na-pe, Little Crow's son. He confessed that the 
Indian kiUed by Lampson was his father, and 
that he was with him at the time. The remains 
of the celebrated chieftain, whose name for 
months was a terror to our people, were then 
exhumed, and the skeleton preserved. The scalp 
and arm bones are in the museum of the Histori- 
cal Society, at St. Paul. 

Gen. Sibley's expedition reached the Coteau of 
the Missouri on July 24, and on that day, at a 
place called "Big Mound," was attacked by 
about one thousand Indians. A sharp engage- 
ment ensued, in which twenty-one Indians were 
killed, and only two of our troops. On July 26, 
at " Dead Buffalo Lake," the Sioux again attacked 
his column, but were repulsed, with a loss on our 
side of one man. On July 28, at " Stony Lake," 
about two thousand Indians again gave battle, 
but were routed, with considerable loss. The 
expedition pursued the savages to the Missouri 
river, across which they escaped. It returned to 
the state about Sept. 1st. Gen. SuUy's colmnn 
had several engagements with the Indians, chas- 
tising them severely. 

The summer of 1863 was memorable for an in- 
tense drouth, which continued until the close of 
1864. During these two seasons almost no rain 
fell, yet the harvests were good. The worst re- 
sult was on the river, which was unprecedently 
low, and business was badly interfered with, and 
the lumbering interest was, for the same reason, 
greatly depressed. 

On Sept. 19 and 20, at Chickamauga, the Second 
Regiment was hotly engaged, and suffered a loss 
of thirty-five killed and one hundred and thirteen 

Early in October, the Seventh, Ninth, and 
Tenth Eegiments were relieved from duty here 
and sent to St. Louis, from whence they went to 
the front. 

On Oct. 12th, the War Department, having 
called for two hundred thousand more troops, 
authorized the Second Regiment of cavalry to 

take the place of the Mounted Rangers, whose 
term of service had expired. 

On Oct. 14 the First Regiment was engaged at 
Bristow's Station, and lost one killed and nine- 
teen wounded, capturing two hundred prisoners 
and several guns. 

At the state election this faU, Gen. Stephen 
Miller was elected governor, by a vote of 19,628 
over Henry T. WeUs, who had 12,739. 

On Nov. 23, the Second Regiment was in the 
action at Mission Ridge, and suffered a loss of 
five killed and thirty-four wounded. 

The provost marshals of the state made an en- 
rollment of all the male citizens this fall, pre- 
paratory to the draft. Resistance was made in 
some cases, but no serious disturbances took 
place, as in other states. 

EABLY IN 1864, 

the regiments which enlisted in 1861, and had re- 
enlisted as " veterans," were allowed to return to 
the . State on furlough. They were received 
in the various towns of the State with the 
most lively demonstrations of pride and grati- 
tude, and banqueted and petted as the brave 
heroes deserved. 

On April 28th the First regiment, whose term 
of service had expired, was mustered out at Fort 
Snelling. Barely one hundred of the 1080 men 
who had stood on the same parade ground three 
years before, were in the ranks. Out of some re- 
enUsted men and recruits a battaUon was formed, 
called the "First Battalion," which did good ser- 
vice during the next year. 

On March 30th tlie Third regiment had a close 
action at a place called Fitzhugh's Woods, near 
Augusta, Ark. Seven were killed and sixteen 
wounded. Gen. Andrews, commanding, had his 
horse shot under him. 

On June 6th an expedition left Fort Ridgely 
in piu-suit of the hostile Sioux on the Missouri 
River, under command of Gen Sully. It con- 
sisted of the Eighth Minn, (mounted), six compa- 
nies of the Second Cavalry, three sections of 
Jones' Battery, and Brackett's Battalj.on of cav- 
alry, which had re-enlisted and was now organ- 
ized as a separate command. 

On June 14, the Sixth Regiment left Fort Snel- 
ling for the south, and was soon after placed in 
the Sixteenth Army Corps, in which was also the 



Fifth, Seventh, Ninth and Tenth Minnesota reg- 
iments. The Fifth had, not long previously, 
taken a part in the disastrous Red Eiver cam- 
' paign, and the Ninth had borne a share in the 
unfortunate Guntown expedition (June 10), where 
it suffered a loss of seven killed, thirty-three 
wounded, and two hundred and forty-six taken 

On Feb. 1 the War Department had made a 
call for two hundred thousand men, and on 
March 14 another call for the same number, fol- 
lowed by one in April for eighty-five thousand. 
The quota of our state under these heavy calls 
was about five thousaiid men, and on May 26 
drafting commenced to fiU the quotas of some 
districts which were delinquent. The desire of 
some towns and districts to escape a draft led to 
the issuing of bonds, with the proceeds of which 
they paid high bounties and procured recruits. 
Subscriptions were raised in some districts for 
the same purpose. A class of middle men, called 
recruit, or bounty, agents, sprang up, who, in 
bidding for recruits, sometimes gave as high as 
$700 or $800 for men to fill quotas. Under this 
stimulus recruiting went on pretty lively, while a 
considerable number of men were drafted and 
sent to fill old regiments. On July 18th came an- 
other call for five hundred thousand, and this 
again produced a new struggle to fill quotas. 
The entire number of men apportioned to our 
state up to this time was 21,442. 

That these frequent and heavy drafts for men 
produced a feeling of doubt and despondency can 
not be denied. It was now the fourth year of the 
war, and its end still seemed far off, while its rapa- 
cious maw appeared to Uterally swallow up the 
enormous levies which the people in their pride 
and patriotism promptly furnished at each call. 
There was mourning in nearly every household 
for some "unreturning brave," and sufEering in 
the families of enlisted men. 

The inflation of the currency also produced 
an unheard-of rise in the price of living. On 
June 1 gold was 150. On July 11th it had reached 
285— the highest point during the war. All other 
values advanced accordingly. There was some 
silver lining to the dark cloud, though. The 
great advance in goods literally made the for- 
tunes of many dealers. Even real estate began 
to show life, while there was an ease in the money 

market which reminded one of 1857. Several of 
our railroads were now in active progress, and 
labor was in great demand. The continued 
drouth and low water was a serious drawback, 
however. Prayers were put up in most of the 
churches for rain. 

Small raids were made by the Sioux several 
times during the summer, and several persons 
killed, but these attacks occasioned but little 

On July 13th, our Fifth, Seventh, Ninth and 
Tenth Regiments were in the Battle of Tupelo, 
and all suffered some loss. The Seventh had 
nine killed and fifty-two wounded. Col. "Wilkin, 
of the Ninth, was killed — one of the bravest and 
finest officers who left our state. 

Under the call of July 23d, an eleventh regi- 
ment of infantry was authorized, and flUed very 
quickly. James GilfiUan, formerly of the Sev- 
enth, was appointed colonel. The Eleventh left 
the state on Sept. 22d, for Tennessee, where it 
performed guard duty for several months. 

A battalion of heavy infantry was also re- 
cruited, which was soon increased to a full regi- 
iment. Wm. Colville , late of the First Eegiment, 
was placed in command. The regiment served 
for several months at Chattanooga, Term. 

The bullets of the enemy were not so disas- 
trous to some of our regiments, as the malaria 
of southern swamps. Our Sixth Eegiment at 
Helena, and the Third at Pine Bluff, Ark., were 
both decimated by disease. Sometimes only a 
handful of men were found well enough for duty. 

On October 5th, the Fourth Eegiment was in a 
heavy action at Altoona, and captured two flags. 
Their loss was killed, 13 ; wounded, 31. 

On December 7th, the Eighth Eegiment took 
part in an engagement near Murfreesboro, Tenn- 
essee, in which it lost 14 killed and 76 wounded, 
in a charge on the enemy's batteries. 

On December 16th, the Fifth, Seventh, Ninth 
and Tenth Eegunents took part in the great bat- 
tle of Nashville, between Thomas's and Hood's 
armies. All suffered loss, though fortunately 
not severe. 

On December 19th, another call was made, for 
300,000 troops, and the recruiting and boimty 
business grew more intense than ever, and con- 
tinued all winter. 

During this time, the patriotic people of our 



State were contributing with generous liberality 
to the Sanitary and Christian Commissions, to 
various relief movements, to special hospital 
funds of our various regiments, for the support 
of destitute soldiers' families, and individual cases 
of distress without number. No State in the 
Union did more, proportioned to their means, in 
these works, than the people of Minnesota. 

THE YEAR 1865 

opened with more encouraging prospects. The 
large forces of the Union army were gaining sub- 
stantial victories. The successes of Sheridan in the 
Shenandoah Valley, Sherman in his historic 
march to the sea, " crushing the confederacy like 
an eggshell," and Grant, doggedly- consuming 
the enemy at Petersburg, were fast shattering 
the rebelUon. In the siege of Spanish Fort, at 
Mobile, in April, the Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, 
Ninth, and Tenth Minnesota Volunteers bore an 
active and honorable part. 

Not unmingled with tears were the rejoicings 
over these victories. Every battle bulletin brought 
sorrow and mourning to many homes in our state 
On April 3d came the great news of the fall of 
Richmond, and on April 8th, while the people 
celebrating this event, the dispatch of General 
Grant announcing the unconditional surrender of 
Lee and his army was received, setting nearly 
everybody crazy with joy. On April 13th the 
provost marshals received an order to cease draft- 
ing and recruiting, and the war was practically 
over. One of its saddest results was yet to come 
— the death of President Lincoln, on April 15th. 
This calamity was duly observed in all the towns 
of the State, on April 19th, by suspension of 
business, and religious services. These gloomy 
feelings were soon dispelled, however, by the 


early in the summer, and their muster out at Fort 
Snelling. As earOi of these bodies of brave men 
returned, they were received with sucli ovations 
and demonstrations of joy as a grateful people 
could devise. Quietly our soldiers " hung up 
their bruised arms," and were soon again ab- 
sorbed into the body of the people. In all, Min- 
nesota had furnished to the armies of the repub- 

lic 25,052 men, or about one-seventh of its entire 
population at the beginning of the war. Of 
these, it is estimated from the best data obtaina- 
ble, that 2500 were killed in battle and died of 
disease during the war, while probably'twice as 
many more received wounds from which they 
will suffer through life. Many died shortly after 
the war, from the effects of disease or imprison- 
ment incurred in service. In her devotion to the 
cause of the Union, our State has a bright record. 

The state was almost free from Indian raids 
during all this year. Only one of any moment 
occurred. On May 2d a family of five persons 
named Jewett, were murdered near Garden 
City. A half breed named Campbell, who aided 
in the raid, was arrested at Mankato several days 
afterward, and hung by a mob. 

The census of 1865, showed a population of 
250,099 — a gratifying increase, considering the 
war of secession and the Indian war as draw- 

With the close of the war a new era of pros- 
perity seemed to have begun in the state. Money 
was abundant, immigration brisk, labor in de- 
mand, and real estate advancing. Our railroads 
were in rapid progress in all directions, and vil- 
lages and towns springing up everywhere. 

On Nov. 11th, at Fort Snelling, Shakopee and 
Medicine Bottle, two Sioux convicted of taking 
part in the massacre of 1862, were hung. They 
had fled to Manitoba, and were not caught until 

This fall much excitement was occasioned by 
the reported discovery of gold quartz at Lake 
Vermillion. Several , mining companies were 
formed, and veins opened and worked, but the 
yield did not pay, and the mines were soon aban- 

The state election this year was very feebly 
contested. Two well-known old settlers were 
nominated for governor, but the vote was light. 
Wm. E. Marshall received 17,318 and Henry 
M. Rice 13,842. At the same election an amend- 
ment to the constitution was voted on, proposing 
to confer the elective franchise on negroes, but 
was defeated. 

PBINCIPAIj events FMOM 1866 TO 1881. 




& Period of Inflation.— Rapid Railroad Construction.— Proposed Removal of the 
Capital.— Attempted Adjustment of the Railroad Bonds.v-Legislative Control 
of Freight Tariifs.— Prairie Fires in 1871.— An Arctic Cyclone.— Impeachment 
of State Treasurer.— The Jay Cooke Panic— Regulating Railroad Tariffs.— 
Grasshopper Ravages.— Suffering on the Frontier.— Relief Measures Adopted 
hy the Legislature.— Murderous Raid by Missouri Outlaws. — Further Attempts 
to Adjust the Railroad Loan Deht.— End of the Grasshopper Scourge.^'Retum 
of " Good Times," and Rapid Growth in Prosperity. 

The year 1866 was one of great financial ease. 
The large expenditure of money by the govern- 
ment, in the pay of discharged troops, bounties, 
and various war claims, made money unusually 

The railroads of the State were pushed this 
year with great vigor. By winter, 315 miles were 
in operation. There was a contiauous Une from 
St. Cloud, via Owatonna, to Winona, a distance 
of 245 miles. These roads were an important 
element in aiding the settlement and business 
of the State. Formerly the sole dependence for 
travel and freight had been on the river, and the 
winter was a season of dullness and depression. 
This was now largely changed. 

At the State election in the faU of 1867, "Wm. 
E. Marshall had 34,874 votes, and Charles E. 
riandrau 29,502. This would indicate a popula- 
tion of about 320,000, showing a heavy immigra- 
tion during the years 1866 and 1867. At this 
election, a negro suffrage amendment was again 
voted on and defeated. The following year [1868] 
the amendment was a third time voted on, and 
adopted; ayes, 39,493; noes, 30,121. 


At the session of the legislature in 1869, a bill 
was introduced to remove the seat of government 
to a spot near Big Kandiyohi Lake. The bUl was 
at first regarded as a joke, and it met with small 
opposition, passing both houses with little delay. 
Gov. Marshall vetoed the measure, and an at- 
tempt to pass the act over his veto, failed. 

At this session, the legislature celebrated the 
completion of an all-rail route to the east by a 

visit to Milwaukee, and to the "Wisconsin legisla- 
ture at Madison. 

At the state election in the fall of 1869, Horace 
Austin (rep.) was elected governor, by a vote of 
27,348, over George L. Otis (dem.), who had 

By the census of 1870, Minnesota was found to 
have 439,706 population. 


At the session of the Legislature in 1870, an 
act was passed submittrag to the people an 
amendment to the constitution, providing for the 
sale of the five hundred thousand acres of what 
was known as the "Internal Improvement 
Lands," and the use of the proceeds in extin- 
guishing the state railroad loan bonds, in the fol- 
lowing manner: Two thousand of the bonds 
were to be deposited with the State Land Commis- 
sioner on or before the day of sale, by the hold- 
ers, they agreeing to purchase with them the 
lands at $8.70 per acre, etc. The amendment 
was adopted by a popular vote, but as only 1,032 
bonds were deposited by the owners, the measure 

The unusual low water of 1863, '64 and '65 had 
now given way to a series of years of the oppo- 
site extreme. In 187G occurred great freshets, 
doing much damage, and the water was reported 
" higher than for twenty years." 

Eaihoad construction had been pushed with 
great vigor for the last year or two. At the close 
of 1870, there were 1,096 miles in operation, 329 
of v/hich were built that year. A road had been 
completed to Lake Superior during the season, 
thus connecting the river and lake systems, while 
the Northern Pacific Eailroad was under full 

During 1869 and '70, much complaint was made 
by shippers, of unjust charges by the railroads of 



the State. Governor Austin, in his message, 
January, 1871, called attention to the subject 
very pointedly. An investigation was made by a 
legislative committee, which resulted in the en- 
actment of a freight and passenger tarifE, and the 
creation of the office of Bailroad Commissioner. 
The tariff so fixed was disregarded by the rail- 
roads, and in 1871, an action, as a sort of test 
case under that statute, was commenced by John 
D. Blake, of Eochester, against the Winona & 
St. Peter Eailroad, for unjust freight charges. 
The presiding judge decided the act unconstitu- 
tional, but the Supreme Court of the State re- 
versed this decision, when the railroad company 
appealed the case to the Supreme Court of the 
United States. It was not until 1876 that a de- 
cision was rendered, sustaining the right of legis- 
lative control over railroad tariffs. 

An act was passed by the legislature of 1871 to 
" Tcsi tho validity and provide for the equitable 
adjuistmcnt" of the State railroad bonds, by the 
erection of a commission, to ascertain and award 
the amount due on each. The act was voted on 
in May following, and rejected by the people. 
Another important measure passed at the same 
sSssion, was an act dividing up the 600,000 acres 
of Internal Improvement Land, among various 
railroad companies. This was vetoed by Gov. 
Austin. Two years later the constitution was 
amended so that no act disposing of these lands, 
should be vaUd, unless approved by a vote of the 

In the fall of 1871, destructive fires, driven by 
high winds, swept over a number of frontier coun- 
ties, lasting several days, and inflicting great 
damage on the settlers. Hundreds lost their 
houses, crops, hay, fences, etc, and several per- 
sona were burned to death. During the summer, 
many had also lost their crops by destructive hail 
storms. Gov. Austin appealed to the people of 
the State, by proclamation, for aid for the suffer- 
ers. Tie received in response, $14,000 in money, 
and clothing, provisions, etc., worth $11,000 more, 
while the next legislature appropriated $20,000 
for the purpose of purchasing seed wheat, for 
those who had lost their crops. 

In November, 1871, Horace, Austin, was re- 
elected Governor, by a vote of 45,833; oveir W. 
Young, who had, 30,092. 

From 1870 to 1873, was a period of great infla- 
tion and speculation. The money market was 
unprecedentedly easy, and real estate partook of 
the same excitement as characterized the flush 
times of 1856 and 1857. Kailroad-building was 
carried on to a remarkable extent, and the entire 
State was enjoying an unusual period of material 
progress and development. 

The winter of 1872-3 was an unusually early 
and severe one. On January 7th, 8th and 9th, 
1873, occurred an " Arctic Cyclone", or "Polar 
"Wave ", of a violence and intensity never before 
experienced in this State. The worst ei^ects were 
felt in the prairie region. Gov. Austin, in a spe- 
cial message to the legislature, reported that sev- 
enty lives were lost, thirty-one persons suffered 
loss of Umbs, and about three hundred cattle and 
horses perished. The legislature voted §5,000 as 
a reUef fund to aid sufferers. 

During the session of 1873, charges of corrupt 
conduct and misdemeanors in ofiice, were made 
against Wm. Seeger, State Treasurer. On March 
5th, the House of Kepresentatives impeached him, 
and the Senate, on being presented with the arti- 
cles, appointed May 20th as the date to sit as a 
Court of Impeachment. Prior to that date, Mr. 
Seeger resigned his office, and Gov. Austin ac- 
cepted the resignation. When the Senate met 
on May 20th, this fact left that body uncertain 
whether to proceed with the trial or not. On 
May 22d, Mr. Seeger sent in a written plea of 
" guilty" to all the charges. A resolution was 
then adopted by the Senate, declaring that the 
judgment of the court was, that he be removed 
from office, and disqualified to hold and enjoy any 
office of honor, trust or profit in this State. 

On September I9th, 1873, the news was circu- 
lated in this State, of the failure of Jay Cooke's 
banking house in Philadelphia, occasioning a 
financial panic. Its effects here were far dif- 
ferent from those of the panic of 1857. There 
was some stringency in the money market, rail- 
road building ceased, and real estate was very 
dull for several years, but not a bank in the State 
closed its doors, and but few mercantile houses 
failed. Immigration was large, good harvests 
added annually to the wealth of the State, and 
it advanced steadily in prosperity. 




During the summer of 1873, a species of grass- 
hopper, called the " Eocky Mountain Locust," 
made its appearance in myriads, in some of the 
south-western counties, ahnost totally destroying 
the crops. Hundreds of families were feft in 
great destitution. These facts being reported by 
the press, an energetic movement was made in 
the towns and cities in the eastern portion of the 
state, to send reUef to the sufferers, and large 
quantities of clothing, provisions, medical sup- 
plies, etc., were collected and distributed to them, 
beside quite an amount of money. 

At the state election this year, Cushman K. 
Davis was elected governor, by a vote of 40,741, 
over Ara Barton, who had 35,245. 

When the Legislature of 1874 assembled, it 
promptly voted $5,000 for the temporary relief of 
the frontier settlers, and on March 2nd, a further 
sum of $25,000 for the purchase of seed grain. 
With the aid thus furnished, the settlers planted 
their crops again, but soon the ground was fairly 
aUve with young grasshoppers, hatched from eggs 
deposited the year previous. As soon as these 
were large enough, they laid bare the region 
about them, then fell on other localities near by, 
and thus destroyed the crops in a number of coun- 
ties again. The people were once more in a 
state of great destitution. 

Gov. Davis addressed a circular to the com- 
missioners of the counties not ravaged by the lo- 
custs, asking them to advance money propor- 
tioned to their property, for a reUef fund. Con- 
tributions were also solicited from the people of 
the state. By the latter, $18,969 was raised, to- 
gether with very large quantities of clothing and 
provisions, and forwarded to the sufferers. Even 
with this aid, there was much suffering the next 

The Legislature of 1875, immediately on as- 
sembling, appropriated $20,000 for immediate 
relief, and later in the session, $75,000 for the 
purchase of seed grain. Only $49,000 of this was 
used. The faimerr again planted their crops, in 
hope, but early in the summer they were, for a 
third time, destroyed. The situation now became 
serious. All the state was beginning to foel the 
effects of this calamity, though the portions yet 
imharmed kept up an active collection and for- 

warding of supplies for the destitute. Without 
this benevolent work, the suffering would have 
been severe. 

By the state census this year, the population 
of Minnesota was found to be 597,407. At the 
state election, John S. Pillsbury was elected Gov- 
ernor, by a vote of 47,073, over D. L. Buell, who 
had 35,275. 

The season of 1876 saw the grasshopper devas- 
tations repeated, and over a larger area than be- 
fore. The crops were more or Ipss a failure, 
and again an appeal was made to the benevolent 
people of the rest of the State for aid, which was 
liberally and cheerfully responded to. 

On September 6th, a daring crime was perpe- 
trated at JTorthfleld. A band of eight outlaws 
from Missouri, attacked the National bank in 
that town, with the intention of robbing it. The 
cashier and another citizen were shot dead, and 
two of the robbers killed by persons who hastily 
armed themselves. The rcsi of the desperadoes 
fled, and, after a chase of several days, four of 
them were surrounded in a thicket in Watonwan 
county, where one was kUled, and three taken 
prisoners. The latter, who were brothers named 
Younger, plead guilty of murder, and were sent 
to the State's Prison for life. 

The legislature of 1877 prepared an amend- 
ment to the constitution, providing for biennial 
sessions of that body, and the amendment was 
adopted by the people at the fall election. 

Five acts were passed at the same session, re- 
lating to the grasshopper scourge. One of these 
appropriated $100,000 for bounties to pay for the 
destruction of grasshoppers and their eggs. [This 
was never put into effect.] A State loan, to raise 
the money therefor, was also authorized. In ad- 
dition, townships or villages were authorized to 
levy a tax to pay similar bounties. The sum of 
$75,000 was also appropriated to purchase seed 
grain for those who had lost their crops, and 
$5,000 was voted for a special relief fund. 

At the same session was passed an act provid- 
ing for the redemption of the State railroad 
bonds, by giving for each outstanding bond sur- 
rendered, a new bond for $1,760, at 6 per cent, 
interest. The amendment was defeated at an 
election held on June 12th. 

Early in the summer [1877] the grasshoppers 
appeared in myriads again, and began devouring 



tie crops. " The farmers endeavored to destroy 
them by fires, ditching, and catching them in 
pans smeared wiih tar. J A day of fasting and 
prayer for riddance from the calamity, was ap- 
pointed by the Governor, and generally observed 
throughout the State. % Soon after this, the grass- 
hoppers disappeared, and a partial harvest was 
secured in the region formerly aflflicted by them. 
For five successive seasons, the farmers in that 
district had lost their crops, more or less entirely. 

In the fall, of 1877, Gov. Pillsbury was re- 
elected Governor, receiving 67,071 votes, over 
Wm. L. Banning, who received 39,147. 

The legislature of 1878, appropriated $150,000 
to purchase seed grain for destitute settlers, the 
amounts issued, to such, to be repaid by them. 
Over six thousand persons, in thirty-four counties, 
received loans imder this act, enough to plant 
223,727 acres. Most of these loans were repaid. 

At the same session an act was passed, propo- 
sing a constitutional amendment, offering to the 
holders of State railroad bonds. Internal Improve- 
ment Lands, in exchange for such bonds. The 

amendment was rejected by the people at the 
next election. 

> During the year 1878, railroad extension, which 
had been almost suspended for four years, was 
renewed again with much vigor, and the mate- 
rial progress of the State was very marked, the 
western counties, especially, developing rapidly. 

At the election in 1879, John S. Pillsbury was 
re-elected Governor for a third term, by a vote of 
57,471, over Edmund Kice, who had 42,444, and 
other candidates, who received 6,401. 

On November 15th, 1880, the Hospital for the 
Insane, at St. Peter, was partially destroyed by 
flre, and twenty-seven of the patients lost their 
lives, by burning, or in consequence of exposure 
and fright. 

The census of 1880, showed a population in 
Minnesota, of 780,082. The assessors' returns 
give a valuation of real and personal property, of 
$268,277,874. These figures show a proud and 
gratifying condition of growth and prosperity in 
the short space of thirty-one years, since Minne- 
sota began its political existence. 




A Plain Post— Its Associations— Situation — Cliannel of Mississipri— Recent Im- 
provements — Department of Dakota — Department Headquarters — Lieut. 
Douglas' Report— .Purchase of Reserve— Purpose of Fort— Building— Hard- 
ships-Saw Mill— Name— Squatters— Pike Island— Reduction of 1853— Sale to 
Mr. Steele— Re-entry by U. S.— Reduction of 1862— Claim of Mr. Steele— Re- 
duction of 1870— New Buildings— General Description. 

If a visitor expects to see a stone fortification, 
bristling with cannon and prepared for defense 
against. , intruders by land or water, he will 
be disappointed in Fort SnelUng. If, on the 
other hand, he anticipates a pile of ruins over- 
grown.with ivy, the remains of former greatness 
and., strength, he will, find himself as much 
deceived in that direction. No mark of cannon- 
ball or even musket shot exists. The fort has 
never sustained an attack. Some old buildings, 
it ip trjie,.. are. disused and look sadly forsaken, 
their places being supplied by new and more 
modern structures, still it would require some 
stretch of the iniaginatioii to construe them in- 
to ruins. One of the officers, however, jokingly 
suggested that iyy be planted around the tower 
that . in old time guarded the main entrance, 
pierced for two tiers of musketry, and a rum 
be made of it. .This was a valuable suggestion, 
as in its present condition it performs no useful 
purpose and. is an eye-sore to the visitor. Thus 
we .see that, the fort fails to attract, either by 
its inilitary freshness or by a ruinous condition. 
It is. simply, a plain military post without dis- 
play.. ..It has, .however, served a purpose, and 
is now the historical landmark for the State and 
the Northwest. Here was the first settlement, 
the first birth, first marriage and first death. 
Here was organized the first church, here was 
the first farming, first, milling and, first enter- 
prise of every kind. Around Fort Snelling clus- 
ter all the early associations of the State. What 
matters it, if it has been a means, of fraud on the 

national resources and a continual charge to the 
11 ' 

government ? Had the paltry dollars been kept 
back, much would have been lost and the country 
made poorer not richer. As the skillful general 
in the hour of battle wastes ammunition, pro- 
perty of all kinds and even lives of men that in 
a less critical hour he would cherish, to accom- 
plish a result superior in importance to money or 
lives, so the government is often compelled to 
submit to much waste to achieve great ends. 
The fort stands on the bluffs of the Mississippi, 
whose pure white sandstone affords a strong con- 
trast to the dark water below, as well as to the 
green banks above. The wide gorge through 
which the Father of "Waters brings down the 
floods of the North is here greatly increased in 
width, after receiving the waters of its confluent 
the Minnesota. Geologists tell us that once the 
Minnesota was the larger river, and that the Mis- 
sissippi was its tributary. They tell us, too, that 
the Mississippi once traversed a different course, 
leaving its present channel at the mouth of Bas- 
sett's Creek and, taking a route through the 
Lakes Calhoun and Harriet, flowed into the Min- 
nesota at some point between Shakopee and the 
fort. No historian, however, can confirm the 
testimony of the rocks, and the old fort cannot 
reach back far enough to aid in the research. 
We are indebted to the' politeness of Colonel 
John Gibbon, the officer in command, and to 
Adjutant Harding for the following history of 
the fort, prepared by S. E. Douglas, 2nd Lieut. 
7th Infantry. This will give the facts of the 
fort as it was, and as it is, except the improve- 
ments of the past year. The improvements con- 
sist of a bakery, a commissary store house and a 
stable, added at a cost of about §9000. It will be 
necessary for us, however, to notice some im- 
provements lately made in the reservation, in 

consequence of the establishment of the head- 




quarters of the " Department of Dakota " at this 

The ' ' Department of Dakota" was created. Aug. 
11th, 1866, out of the departments of tlie Missouri 
and Platte, and Brevet Major General Alfred H. 
Terry assigned to command. May 18th, 1869, 
General Terry was succeeded by Major General 
Winfield S. Hancock. December 3d, 1872, the 
latter was succeeded by Brevet Major General, 
now Brigadier General, Alfred 11. Terry. 

The Department of Dakota now includes the 
Territories of Montana and Dakota, and the State 
of Mimiesota. The object of the department is to 
facilitate the movement of troops, tlie distribution 
of supplies, etc., etc. The troops in this depart- 
ment are the Second and Seventh cavalry. Third, 
Fifth, Seventh, Eleventh, Seventeenth, Eigh- 
teenth and Twenty-fifth infantry. The head- 
quarters have been located at St. Paul since the 
creation of the department, with the exception of 
a short time when they were located at Port 
Snelling, During the year past, extensive build- 
ings have been erected on the Port Snelling res- 
eiTation with a view to the establishment of the 
headquarters of this department there, near the 
military post. These improvements are still in 
progress, and, when complete, will add greatly to 
the beauty and usefulness of the reservation. 
Fourteen buildings built of cream colored brick, 
are nearly complete, and present a fine appear- 
ance. They differ in architecture and are large 
and elaborate. The headquarters building is a 
handsome structure. 

So much has been said and is still to be said in 
this history in reference to Fort Snelling, that it 
has been thought best to insert the following re- 
port of the fort : 

Poet Snelling, Minn., / 
December 4th, 1879. f 

To the Post Adjutant, Fort Snelling, Minn. 

Sib:— Pursuant to instructions from the com- 
manding officer. Port Snelling, Minn., I have the 
honor to submit the following report, viz: In 
1805, Lieutenant Zebulon Montgomery Pike, U. 
S. Army, was sent out to explore the upper Missis- 
sippi river ,/to expel British traders who might be 
found violating United States laws, and to make 
treaties with the Indians. 

On the 21st of September, 180$, he encamped 

on what is now known as Pike Island, at the 
junction of the Mississippi and Minnesota, (then 
St. Peters) rivers. Two days after, he obtained 
by treaty with the Sioux Nation, a tract of land 
for a military reservation, which was described 
as follows : "Prom below the confluence of the 
Mississippi and St. Peter, up the Mississippi to 
include the Palls of St. Anthony, extending nine 
miles on each side of the river." By this treaty, 
as ratified by the Senate, the United States stip- 
ulated to pay two thousand dollars ($2,000) for 
the lands thus ceded. 

The reserve, thus purchased, by Lieutenant 
Pike, was not used for military purposes until 
February 10th, 1819, at which time, to cause the 
power of the United States government to be 
fully acknowledged by the Indians and settlers 
of the Northwest, to prevent Lord Selkirk, the 
Hudson Bay Company and others, from establish- 
ing trading posts on United States territory, to 
better the condition of the Indians, and to de- 
velop the resources of the country, it was thought 
expedient to establish a milita;ry post near the 
junction of the Mississippi and the St. Peters. 
Accordingly part of the 5th U. S. Infantry, com- 
manded by Lieutenant Colonel Henry Leaven- 
worth, was despatched to select a site and erect 
a post. They arrived at the St. Peters in Sep- 
tember (1819) and went into cantonment on the 
south side of it, near where the town of Mendota 
now stands. 

The first monthly report was rendered for Sep- 
tember, 1819. During the ensuing winter (1819-20) 
scurvy raged amongst the troops, referring to 
which. General H. H. Sibley, in his address before 
the Minnesota Historical Society, says : "So sud- 
den was the attack, that soldiers apparently 
in good health when they retired at night, were 
found dead in the morning. One man who was 
relieved from his tour of sentinel duty, and 
stretched himself upon a bench, when he was 
called four hours after, to resume his duties, was 
found lifeless." In May, 1820, the command left 
their cantonment, crossed the St. Peters, and 
went into summer camp at a spring, near the 
old Baker trading house, and about two miles 
above the present site of Fort Snelling. This 
was called " Camp Cold Water." During the 
summer the men were busily engaged in procur- 
ing -logs and other necessary materials for the 



work. All preparations were being made to com- 
mence building the new post, which was called 
"Fort St. Anthony;" the site selected being that 
of the present military cemetery. But in August, 
1820, Colonel Josiah SnelUng, 5th U. S. Infantry, 
having arrived and assumed command, selected 
the site where Fort Snelling now stands. 

Work steadily progressed, the troops perform- 
ing the labor, and on September 10th, 1820, the 
corner stone of Fort St. Anthony was laid with 
due ceremony. 

During the following winter (1820-'21), the 
buildings of the new post not being habitable, 
the troops were quartered in the cantonment of 
the preceding winter. 

The first measured distance between Fort St. 
Anthony and Fort Crawford (Prairie du Chien), 
was taken in February, 1822, and was given as 
two hundred and four miles. 

"Work on the post was pushed forward with ^11 
possible speed. The buildings were made of logs, 
and first occupied in October, 1822. 

The first steamboat, the Virginia, arrived at 
the post in 1823. 

A saw-mill was built, the first in Minnesota, 
by troops from the post, in 1822, and the first 
lumber ever sawed on Eum Elver, was for use in 
the construction of the fort. Minneapolisnow 
includes the mill-site. 

The post continued to be called Fort St. An- 
thony until 1824, when, upon the recommendation 
of General Scott, U. S. A., who inspected the 
fort, it was named Fort Snelling, in honor of its 

In 1830 stone buildings were erected for a four 
company infantry post, also a stone hospital and 
a stone wall nine feet high surrounding the post. 
These buildings were not actually completed, 
however, until after the Mexican War. 

Notwithstanding the treaty made by Lieuten- 
ant Pike, the Indian title to the Fort Snelling 
Reservation, did not cease until the treaty of 1837, 
which was ratified by the Senate in 1838, and by 
which the Indian claim to all lands east of the 
Mississippi, including said reservation, ceased. 

In 1836, before the Indian title ceased, many 
settlers located on the reservation, on the left 
bank of the Mississippi. 

On October 21st, 1839, the President of the 
United States issued an order, by virtue of the 

act of March 3d, 1807, " An act to prevent settle- 
ments being made on lands ceded to the United 
States, until authorized by law," directing the 
United States Marshal to remove squatters from 
the Fort Snelling reserve, and if necessary, to call 
on the commanding oflBcer at Fort Snelling for 
troops to assist him in executing his order. Ac- 
cordingly, on the 6th of May, 1840, a few of these 
settlers, having received the necessary notice, 
were forcibly removed by the Marshal, assisted 
by U. S. troops from the fort, 

In 1837, Mr. Faribault presented a claim for 
Pike Island, part of the reservation purchased by 
Lieutenant Pike, in 1805. This claim was based 
on a treaty made by him with the Dakotas in 

A military reservation of seven thousand acres, 
at Fort SnelUng, Minnesota, was set aside by the 
President, on May 25th, 1853. In November fol- 
lowing, the President amended his act of May 
25th, and reduced the reservation to about six 
thousand acres. 

The first map of the Fort Snelling reserve was 
made by 1st Lieutenant James W. Abert, Corps 
Engineer, in October, 1853. 

Pursuant to the act of March 3d, 1857, which 
extended the provisions of the act of March 19th, 
1819, authorizing the sale of certain military sites, 
the Secretary of War sold the Fort Snelling 
reserve, excepting two small tracts, to Mr. Frank- 
lin Steele. 

The articles of agreement between the board 
appointed for the purpose on the part of the 
United States, and Mr. Steele, were dated June 
6th, 1857, and were approved on the second day 
of July following. The reservation and build- 
ings thereon were sold for ninety thousand dol- 
lars, one-third to be paid on July 10th, 1857, and 
the balance in two equal yearly installments. 
The first payment (f 30,000) was actually made, 
July 25th, 1857, on which date Mr. Steele, in pur- 
suance of military authority, took possession of 
said property. The troops were withdrawn from 
the post previous to Mr. Steele's occupancy there- 
of. Mr. Steele having made default in the two 
remaining payments, the United States entered 
into possession and occupancy of the reservation 
and post, on April 23d, 1861. 

By act of August 26th, 1862, the Fort Snelling 
reservation was reduced and defined as follows : 



" Beginning at tlie middle of the channel of the 
Mississippi Kiver below Pike's Island ; thence . 
ascending along the channel of said river in such 
direction as to include all the islands of the 
river to the mouth of Brown's Creek ; thence up 
said creek to Eice Lake ; thence through the 
middle of Rice Lake to the outlet of Lake Ame- 
lia; thence through said outlet and the middle i 
of Lake Amelia to the outlet of Mother Lake ; : 
thence through said outlet and the middle of 
Mother Lake to the outlet of Duck Lake ; thence 
through said outlet and the middle of Duck Lake 
to the southern extremity of Duck Lake ; thence 
in a line due south to the middle of channel of 
the St. Peter's River ; thence down said- river so 
as to include all the islands to the middle of the ■. 
channel of the Mississippi River ; reserving fur- 
ther,- for military purposes, a quarter section on 
the right hank of the St. Peter's River, at the 
present ferry, and also a quarter section on the , 
left hank of the Mississippi River, at the present 
ferry across that stream.'' 

Mr. Steele presented, on February 6th, 1868, a 

claim against the United States government for 

the possession and occupancy by U. S. troops, of 

said post and reservation ; which claim exceeded 

■ in amount the original purchase with interest. 

By act of May 7th, 1870, the Secretary of War 
was authorized "To select and set apart for a 
permanent military post, so much of the military 
reservation of Port Snelling, not less than one 
thousand acres, as the public interest may require 
for that purpose, and to quiet the title to said 
reservation, and . to settle all claims in relation 
thereto, and for the use and occupation thereof, <. 
upon principles of equity." In pursuance of 
which act, the Secretary of War set apart for a , 
permanent military reservation fifteen hundred > 
and -thirty-one and twenty hundredths acres, de- , 
. fined as follows : 

"Beginning at a point where the south line of 
the northeast quarter of the northeast quarter of 
section thirty-two, township twenty-eight north, ; 
of range twenty-three west of the fourth principal 
meridian, intersects the middle of the main chan- 
nel of the Minnesota River ; thence west to the 
' southwest corner of the northwest quarter of sec- 
tion thirty-two, town and range aforesaid ; thence 
noi-th to the northwest corner of section twenty, 
town-and-range aforesaid ; thence east to middle 

of the main channel of the Mississippi River; 
thence along the main channel of the Mississippi 
Kiver and the confluence -of, the Mississippi and 
Minnesota rivers at the head of Pike Island and 
the middle of the Minnesota River, to the place 
of beginning, including the officers' quarters, bar- 
racks, &c." 

A reserve of ten acres granted by the United 
States to the Catholic Church at Mendota for a 
cemetery, was also reserved.- Mr. Steele executed 
full release of all claim whatsoever to this prop- 
erty, and for the use or occupation of aU property 
sold to him per agreement dated June 6th, 1857; 
in consideration of -which, the. United States re- 
leased Mr. Steele from all indebtedness on the 
purchase made by him, and- granted and con- 
veyed to him the. remainder of the so-called Fort 
Snelling reservation( excepting one small tract), 
which is defined as follows : 

"All of sections nineteen, thirty and thirty- 
one, and all that part of section eighteen lying 
south of Minnehaha Creek, and all that part of 
section ■ seventeen lying south of Minnehaha 
Creek and west of the Mississippi River; all that 
portion of section twenty, lying east of the main 
channel of the Mississippi River, including the 
islands east of said main channel, and the south- 
west quarter of the northwest quarter, and all 
that poi^tion of the southwest quarter and of the 
northwest quarter of the southeast quarter of sec- 
tion twenty-one which Ues east or northeast of 
the main channel of the Mississippi River, and 
all those portions of sections twenty-one, twenty- 
two and twenty-eight lymg on Pike's Island (so- 
called) being the entire island, and all that other 
portion of section twenty-eight which lies east 
and south of the Minnesota River, except twenty 
acres, being the south half of the southeast quar- 
ter of the northeast quarter of said section, the 
same being reserved for a Catholic Church and 
burial ground, where the church and burial 
ground now are ; all that portion of the south 
half and of the south half of the north half 
of section thirty-two which lies west or north- 
west of the Minnesota River; all the above 
described lands being in township twenty-eight 
north, of range twenty-three west of the fourth 
principal meridian. Also all that portion of sec- 
tion thirteen lying south of Minnehaha and Rice 
Lake and east, of the creek running, between said 



Kice Lake and Lake Amelia and east of said 
Lake -Amelia, and all land in section twelve that 
may be included in said boundaries. All of sec- 
tion twenty-four lying east of the western bound- 
ary of said reservation ("reserve selected ") and 
any portion of section twenty-three that lies east 
of the creek joining Mother Lake and Lake Ame- 
lia, and the east half of section twenty-five and 
the east half of section thirty-six, all in town- 
ship twenty-eight north, of range twenty-four 
west of the fourth meridian. Also all that por- 
tion of section five which lies west or northwest 
of the Minnesota Kiver; all of section six; all 
that portion of section seven which lies north of 
the Minnesota Biver, and all those portions of 
section eight and eighteen which lie west and 
north of the Minnesota Biver ; all in township 
twenty-seven north, of range twenty-three west. 

Also the east half of section one, and the east 
half of section twelve, and all that portion of the 
east half of section thirteen which lies north and 
east of the Minnesota River ; all in"; township 
twenty-seven north, of range twenty-four west. 

The action of the Secretary of "War in selecting 
said reservation and buildings and conveying the 
above specified lands to Mr. Steele, was approved 
by the President on January 4th. 1871. 

A stone prison was erected during the war of 
the rebellion, which is now used as a commissary 

The old stone hospital is now used for offices 
and laundress' quarters. The new hospital is 
just completed. 

Tort Snelling is situated on a high bluff on the 
right bank of the Mississippi, in latitude 44 deg. 
52 min. 46 sec. north, and longitude 93 deg. 4 min. 
54 sec. west. It is an irregular shaped bastioned 

A wagon road runs entirely around the post, 
and is eight feet below the parade at the gorge, 
but gradually arrives on the same level at the 
shoulder angle. 

The old post is almost enclosed by five build- 
ings, and in form is nearly a rhombus, with a 
tower at each angle. 

A new two-story barracks for six companies of 
infantry and sixteen sets of officers' quarters, 
was built during 1878. The east tower, stone 
wall, and old guard house, have been torn down. 

The commanding officer's quarters have been re- 
modeled during the current year. 

The water is obtained from a spring about 
three-quarters of a mile from the post, by means 
of water wagons. Water is also obtained. from 
the Minnesota Biver, being forced through pipes 
by an engine, into a large tank on the west side 
of the parade ground, but the water thus obtained 
is unfit for drinking purposes. During extreme 
cold weather the water pipes freeze up, rendering 
it impossible to refill the tank except during the 
open weather. 

There is a post-office, a telegraph office and a 

railroad station at the post. 


The nearest supply depots are at St. Paul, four 
miles distant from the post, by wagon road, and 
six miles by railroad. A bridge is building across 
the Mississippi Biver at the post. 

Porage and fuel are obtained by contract. The 
post and company garden supply vegetables for 
the garrison. 

The armament consists of two three-inch rifled 
cannon, with carriages, model of 1861. The 
present strength of the garrison is sixteen com- 
missioned officers and three hundred and fourteen 
enlisted men. 

It is impossible to obtain from the records of 
the post, the various expenditures for barracks 
and quarters, and repairs of same, for any definite 
period. All that I have been able to obtain is 
that thirty-five thousand dollars ($35,000) was 
appropriated for barracks and quarters in 1878. 
It is presumed, however, that the required in- 
formation can be obtained at the Quartermaster 
General's office. The work, practically, (with 
few exceptions), has been performed by the labor 
of the troops, and the cost to the Government 
cannot be correctly estimated. 

A site has been selected on the Port Snelling 
reservation upon which to erect buildings for the 
Headquarters of the Department. 

The records of the post are very incomplete. 
It seems, from all attainable evidence, that the 
records were removed iii 1857, when the troops 
were withdrawn, and have not been returned. 
It further appears that these records had not been 
received by the Adjutant General of the army 
prior to July 18th, 1866. The last Board of 
Officers appointed to investigate claims on the 



Fort Snelling reservation met pursuant to S. O. 
No. 278 A. G. O. dated October 17th, 1870. I 
have been unable to find any general order re- 
ferring to the reservation of 1853 or 1862, or re- 
ferring to lands sold in 1857 and 1870. 

The reservation of 1870 was announced in 
General Order No. 66, Adjutant General's office 
of that year, and was first surveyed by Captain 
D. P. Heap, Corps of Engineers, on April 13th, 

1871. A new line for the southern boundary was 
run by First Lieutenant Edward Maguire, Corps 
of Engineers, on May 7th, 1877. 

I respectfully submit the foregoing, believing 
it will cover a few of the points required. 

I am. Sir, Very EespectfuUy Your obedient 
Servant, S. R. Dougi-as, 

Second Lieut. 7th Infantry. 






When Livy wrote the history of Rome, he was 
compelled to admit that facts and fiction had 
become so intermingled that it was impossible to 
distinguish the one from the other. The legends 
of the past were such a mixture of facts, mytho- 
logical superstitions and wild fancies that it was 
a relief to reach the restful word "constat" (it is 
admitted), and find that there was some ground 
upon which all agreed and could stand with firm 

Though the settlement of Hennepin county 
was not determined by the flight of birds, and 
thougih there was no barbarous uncle or remark- 
able infants, Eomulus and Remus, still there are 
always, in the growth and settlement of any 
country, fancies and superstitions that take the 
form of traditions and bewilder the wisest heads. 
The machinery of the shrewdest Yankee can 
never so completely separate a mixture of wheat, 
cockle and pigeon grass that it can be said — here 
we have now collected all the wheat, here all the 
cockle and here all the pigeon grass. The histor- 
ian who delays his separating process until after 
harvest, mustliave a like experience and will find 
many a kernel of cockle among his wheat. By 
beginning thus early, before the first settlers have 
passed away, we must have a decided advantage 
over historians who grope among the rubbish of 
the past, sifting and screening to get the grains 
of fact as pure as possible. We can talk to-day 

with eye witnesses of the scenes we describe and 
hope thus to collect and preserve in almost unal- 
loyed purity the treasures of history. 

It must not be supposed, however, that the 
compilation necessary to furnish a history, such 
as is here proposed, is an easy task. Though the 
files of "the Press" afford a valuable thesaurus 
of information, still many choice items have 
never found their way to the columns of the 
newspaper and are accidentally unearthed by the 
historical explorer as he pokes about, as little 
noticed by the busy citizen as the ragpicker, who 
with sack and hook is exploring the ash barrel in 
the rear of the merchants' store. Out of a vast 
amount of material gathered by the persistent 
efforts of these collectors, we purpose to furnish 
to the public such part as ought to be kept in 
mind by the present and future inhabitants of 
this county, and besides furnish entertainment to 
those who would simply while away an hour 
among the interesting things of the past, com- 
paring the old with the new. 


Although we are enabled to furnish facts that 
cannot be questioned in reference to the settle- 
ment of Hennepin county by white men, still 
there are, even in this new country, many old 
things and many mysteries that can never be ex- 
plained—mounds built by a people whom we can 
never know, whose history can never be com- 
mitted to paper. There are many mounds in this 
county and we here give them a passing notice. 

Archseologists have divided mounds into the 
following classes: " Altar or Sacrificial Mounds," 
"Mounds of Sepulture" (or burial), "Temple 

Mounds," and " Mounds of Observation." Be- 




sides these they have found mounds that do not 
admit of classification under any of these heads — 
mounds of curious shapes, having such forms as 
defy conjecture as to their use. 

These wise heads liave spent much time in con- 
jecture, and much in measurement, with mathe- 
matical instruments, to determine data that will 
suit their fanciful theories. 

It is not our purpose in this paper to discuss 
the antiquity of these mounds, or to speculate on 
their character. Little attention has been paid 
to the very numerous mounds found in the 
county. It may he safe, however, to class them 
all, at a venture, under the head of Mounds of 
Sepulture. The investigations made have re- 
vealed little except bones, and the evidence of 
great antiquity is not very clear. 

This method of burial was certainly in use in 
recent times among our Indian tribes. Jonathan 
Carver, in a letter found in this volume, speaks 
of visiting a mound near St. Paul, in 1767, and 
witnessing the Indian burial. The custom of this 
imaginative people was to place the bodies of 
their dead upon high stagings, overlooking lakes, 
rivers or beautiful scenery, which they would 
enjoy if living, and leave them there, until at 
certain intervals, they collected the remains for 
burial in the mounds. Mounds in this county 
are found overlooking the water of all the princi- 
pal lakes and rivers scattered through its various 
townships. As we can never write the history 
of the builders, we will leave the subject to future 
explorers and more fertile imaginations. 


After the Mound Builders come the Indians 
in the occupation of the county. If, as has been 
claimed, the Mound Builders were the Indians, 
they must have been earlier settlers of tribes now 
extinct or driven further south. The present 
tribes of Indians, at least, come after the Mound 
Builders. The fanciful names, wild natures and 
curious legends of this people, will always be 
associated with much that is poetic, grand and 

The early settlers of Minnesota, however, will 
hold the Indian in execration, and so, too, their 
children's children for many generations, in con- 
sequence of the massacre of 1862. We must, 
however, refer the reader to the chapters, " Habits 

of the Tribes " and " Massacre of 1862," found 
earlier in the volume. 


It must be left to the imagination of the reader 
to picture many of the hazardous experiences 
and narrow escapes of the early missionaries, 
which can never be written. Their motto, " Ad 
majorem dei gloriam ", often exposed them to the 
tomahawk and scalping knife of the Indian, or to 
hardships and exposures under which they could 
but die. The indefatigable explorer is still find- 
ing new facts to add to the already rich store. 


Again fancy may run riot among the stories of 
the "Voyageurs" who, making the love of adven- 
ture their highway to happiness, spent weeks and 
months in dalliance with Indian maidens. Facts 
in regard to these adventures are coming to the - 
knowledge ot the explorer among the curious 
things of the past. Fancy need not be very wild 
that discovers, on the streets of our great cities, 
half-breeds, bearing unmistakable marks of noble 
parentage. The fact that Frenchmen, frequently 
descendants from noble families, but of broken 
fortunes, cohabited with the Dakota squaws, rais- 
ing up sometimes large families, is freely admitted. 

These half breeds, while In many instances 
bearing the impress of nobility in countenances, 
having the high cheek bones and coarse hair of 
the natives, were often much more reckless than 
their sires. For, we are assured, that their adven- 
turous sires frequently solemnized by a veritable 
marriage, contracts undertaken at first for the 
diversion of an hour. Their consciences, how- 
ever, were rather elastic, for the existence of such 
marriages in their wanderings, seems not to have 
interfered with others, contracted at home, or 
with new ones entered into for convenience or 
diversion at some new camp. 

The progeny belonged neither to the one race 
nor the other, and since they could not be ac- 
knowledged, cared for and educated by the 
enlightened partner to the contract without ex- 
posing him to shame, were left to become breeders 
of strife and contention among the tribes. This 
is one of the evils that proves that "The effect of 
contact of the simple minded savage with the 
deeper and higher life of the intruder is fraught 
with danger to both." 




Father Louis Hennepin, born in Flanders, in 
1640, became a missionary to Canada, in 1670. He 
accompanied La Salle in his exploration of the 
^reat lakes, the upper Mississippi and its tribu- 
taries. His " Description de la Louisane" pub- 
lished in 1683, and a similar work published in 
1697, are said to do more credit to his imagination 
than to his priestly character. In spite of the 
claim that they contain many falsities, both pub- 
lications are esteemed by his supporters and 
the traducers of his veracity. In 1680, he dis- 
covered the Falls of St. Anthony, but robbed 
them of a beautiful Indian name, "Kakabika 
Irara," (severed rock, curling water) and substi- 
tuted the name of his patron saint. Le Sueur 
and Faribault were also distinguished explorers 
coming soon after Father Hennepin. Next comes 
Captain John Duluth, in 1760, also Nicollet, 
Schoolcraft, Catlin and Featherstonhaugh. Ac- 
counts of these explorers will be found in another 
part of the work. They were valuable contribu- 
tors to the information of their day and also 
contributed to the growth of the territory and 
Subsequently, of the State by their glowing de- 
scriptions of its resources and healthful climate. 

Jonathan Carverj in 1767, exhibited here, what 
many a genuine Yankee has done elsewhere, good 
speculating qualities. He was the first of the 
numerous land speculators. He roamed about 
much with a keen eye to the main chance, while 
he at the same time took in the scenery, the fu- 
ture probabilities, and ventured various prophe- 
cies for the future of the state, predicting that 
what is now St. Paul would soon have eastern 
and western communication. His notes and de- 
scriptions are valuable. 


Passing over the experiences of the earliest 
missionaries, French Jesuits — of whom sufficient 
notice will be found in the preceding early history 
of Minnesota, by Rev. E. D. Neill — we shall no- 
tice briefly the missionaries who, though late, 
compared with Father Hennepin and the Jesuit 
missionaries accompanying the traders and voya- 
geurs, are really early in the progress and settle- 
ment of the county. In a manuscript found at 
Fort Eidgely, and only partially preserved, writ- 
ten by James W. Lynde, one of the first victims 

of the Indian massacre of 1862, are found these 
words in regard to the missionary work; " It has 
been," says Mr. Lynde," " a ceasless and untiring 
effort to promote their welfare "; also, "' The in- 
fluence of the mission among the Dakotas has 
ever been of a direct and energetic character. 
The first efforts of the mission were directed 
more to the christianizing than to the civilizing 
of the Sioux ; but of late the missionaries,- though 
their exertions in the former respect are not at 
all abated, have been more earnest in their en- 
deavors to teach the Indians to plant and till." 
Mr. Eiggs, however, in commenting on this pas- 
sage, claims that the fruits of the teaching began 
to show in later years, but that the Bible car- 
ries with it the plow and the hoe, and that the 
missionaries were continually aiming to introduce 
industrial and mainly agricultural habits among 
the Indians. 

Two brothers, who afterwards were ordained 
clergymen, S. W. and G. H. Pond, were the first 
missionaries to settle in the Territory. They 
came, in 1834, from Connecticut. They threw 
great zeal into their work, laboring equally for 
the good of the white man and the red. Their 
earnest lives, their Christian example and instruc- 
tion came to exercise an important moulding in- 
fluence on the moral and religious, and also on 
the material fortunes of the State. Setting out as 
they did, without the patronage of any mission- 
ary association, theirs may be called a purely 
Christian enterprise. S. "VV. Pond, by corres- 
pondence from Illinois, where he was located, 
with his brother, Gideon H., who still lived in 
the old Connecticut home, planned this private 
missionary work. 

On the east shore of Lake Calhoun they built 
a log house. This was the first house erected by 
a private citizen within the county. They did 
the work with their own hands. 

These men were simply laymen but had been 
well educated. They were soon at work pursu- 
ing acquaintance with the Dakotas, their purpose 
being to secure a thorough knowledge of their 
language and modes of life. Mr. Gideon H. 
Pond was eminently successful in this and ob- 
tained a very complete knowledge of, and was 
regarded as an authority on Dakota habits and 
language. With this in view, he sometimes 



attached himself to their hunting parties, making 
long expeditions with these wild tribes. 

The Dakotas were an association of the fiercest 
tribes of North American Indians. The Jesuit 
missionaries had long before abandoned all 
attempts to tame their wild natures. Mr. Pond 
has given many thrilling accounts of the devilish 
scenes to which he was a witness in the battles 
between the Dakotas and Chippewas. Similar 
scenes, re-enacted in 1862, when white settlers 
were the victims of the tomahawk and scalping 
knife, have given the inhabitants of Minnesota 
a just abhorrence of the Sioux and their savage 
traits. Men are still living who have taken an 
oath, as sacred as the ancient oaths of conspir- 
ators, sealed with blood, to "Hunt and shoot Ind- 
ians wherever they may be found." Though we 
may call such retaliation un-christian and even 
murderous, let each man take home the provoca- 
tion and imagine similar outrages perpetrated on 
his own family, before he passes judgment. 

Here is a scene of August, 1838, which was one 
of the introductory experiences that taught Mr. 
Pond the character of this fierce people. We give 
facts condensed from Neill's account. 

Peace and friendly interchanges had taken 
place between the Chippewas, or Ojibways, of 
Canada, and the Dakotas, or Sioux, of Minnesota, 
only a few months before the bloody acts, here 
reported, were enacted. This fact shows the 
treacherous character of the tribes and how little 
dependence could be placed on the smoking of 
the calumet. Mr. Pond had joined a hunting 
party, consisting, according to Indian custom, of 
braves, squaws and papooses. During the ab- 
sence of Mr. Pond and a large division of the 
Indian party, several Chippewas came to the 
lodges, and were hospitably entertained and treat- 
ed with Indian marks of respect, in accordance 
with the spirit of the existing treaty. During 
the night, the guests arose and scalped the 
Dakotas, even including women and children. 
Among the few to escape was a mother witli her 
papoose. In the flight, the child perhaps saved 
the mother's life, for it received the death missle 
that might have proved fatal to her. She notified 
the other division of the party, and they quickly 
returned to witness a dreadful scene. Several 
had been killed, sleeping, while others had evi- 
dently engaged in the death struggle. Mr. Pond's 

eyes were here opened to the fierce character of 
the people whom he had come to draw by cords 
of love to embrace the " Gospel of peace." . He 
assisted in digging a grave into which they 
gathered the severed limbs, heads and mangled 
bodies of the Dakotas. As he turned away, 
sickened, from the sight, it must have required 
a brave heart to hold him to his work. This act 
of bad faith began a series of similar atrocities, 
undertaken, on the one side or the other, by Chip- 
pewa or Dakota, in retaliation. In some of these 
attacks, the white settlers were also sufferers. 
Could Mr. Pond have looked forward, about 
thirty years, and seen the wholesale slaughter of 
1862, perpetrated by these same savages, who were 
then friendly to him ^ could he have believed 
that, after the labors of many years, both by him, 
Mr. Riggs, Dr. Williamson and a host of others, 
sent here to preach the Gospel — that these tribes 
would, at a later day, break out with greater 
ferocity than ever, it seems almost certain that 
he would have abandoned his work as the Jesuit 
missionaries had done before him. 

It seems as if our government would never 
awake to a realization of the fact that this anom- 
oly of tribes, having governments independent 
of the central government at Washington, can 
never be productive of good, either to the central 
government, or to the wheels within the wheels, 
the tribes themselves. 

Treaties were made with the Ojibwas and with 
the Dakotas in 1837. That with the Ojibwas was 
effected by Gov. Dodge of Wisconsin. Although, 
by the terms of this treaty, the right of the Ind- 
ians to the land ceased, still they continued to 
roam over it or occupy it at will, tminterrupted 
by the government, since they offered no hostility 
to the whites. Their tribal wars, however, con- 
tinued, causing at times great uneasiness and 
alarm to the few settlers. We give here a brief 
account of 


of wliich Mr. Pond speaks, in order to emphasize 
further the ferocity of the tribes, and because 
the scene was laid in this county. The line of 
painted warriors marched over what is now the 
most populous part of the county, holding a war 
comicil within the territory now covered by the 
city of Minneapolis. It happened in July, 1839. 



There was a Sioux village on the west shore of 
Lake Calhoun which, from its lodges, was esti- 
mated to contain about five hundred souls. Their 
old enemies, the Chippewas, were encamped in 
strong force further north, on the Eum Eiver, 
near where Anoka now stands, and so, just out- 
side the limits of the county. The distance be- 
tween the camps was about twenty -five miles. 
The Chippewas were usually the aggressors in the 
tribal wars and were, according to our judgment, 
more tricky and more ready to break the treaties, 
which the whites had induced them to make 
with each other. In the present instance, a party 
of Chippewas, skulking in the vicinity of the 
Sioux village, at Lake Harriet, encountered Eu- 
pa-co-ka-ma-za, son of the chief and nephew of 
Eedbird, killed and scalped him and made good 
their retreat. The murderous act was at once 
reported at the village and the Sioux blood was 
roused to white heat for retaliation. Summon- 
ing their allies from neighboring villages, they 
met for a final council on the east bank of the 
Mississippi just above Nicollet Island. They 
there went through their Indian mummery and, 
before nightfall, set out, four hundred strong, 
to make a night march and fall on their enemies 
at dawn. 

The expedition was successsful. They sur- 
prised and defeated a body of Chippewas, superior 
to them in number of warriors. The Sioux, how- 
ever, lost heavily and Eedbird and his son were 
among the slain. One squaw is reported to have 
attended the march of the avengers, to wreak on 
the enemy vengeance for the death of her hus- 
band. They returned to the village about night, 
the day of the battle. Seventy scalps were dis- 
played on the pole in the centre of the village as 
soon as they returned. Night after night, they 
repeated the scalp dance. Mr. Pond, who lived 
on the other side of the lake, described their 
orgies as the most heathenish and demoniacal 
ceremonies. They made night hideous for the 
few white settlers. 

It is humiliating to admit that this was enacted 
within the territory of the United States and 
under United States jurisdiction, within the 
memory of many men now living. How much 
more humiliating to admit that such scenes are 
repeated to-day among the many tribes whom it 
pleases our government to recognize as independ- 

ent. Tlie solution of the difiicult Indian question 
ought to be, what of late has been offered to the 
Poncas,.viz., the homestead right with an added 
provision, requiring the breaking up of these 
lawless bands, rendering every Indian amenable, 
like other citizens to the laws, whose protection 
he enjoys and whose bounty he receives. 


Eev. Thomas S. Williamson, M.D., a native of 
South Carolina and a graduate of Jefferson Col- 
lege, Pennsylvania, who had been practicing med- 
icine in Ohio previous to liis ordination as a cler- 
gyman, was sent out by the American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions. The Board 
desired to learn through him if they had any call 
for labor here. His report induced them to send 
to his assistance Eev. J. D. Stevens, a native of 
New York, and Alexander Huggins, a farmer, 
with their wives, also, as teachers. Miss Sarah 
Poage and Miss Lucy Stevens. This band of 
recruits arrived at Fort Snelling, in 1835, and 
during that siimmer Dr. Williamson organized a 
Presbyterian church at the fort. Eev. Mr. 
Stevens located and built his house at Lake Har- 
riet, near the property of Eli Pettijohn. The 
rest of the party set out for the post of the trader 
Eenville, and located at Lac qui Parle. The 
Ponds soon joined hands with the newcomers 
and the work went on prosperously, having the 
support of the American Board of Commission- 
ers for Foreign Missions. 

In the summer of 1835, on the second Sabbath 
in June, the organization of the church at Fort 
Snelling took place, the first in Hennepin county. 
The communion was administered on the same 
day, for the first time in Minnesota. Twenty- 
two members recieved the sacred emblems. The 
missionaries from the lake, a few settlers from 
Mendota and some of the garrison of the fort 
made up this number. The elders of the church 
were Col. Gustavus Loomis, Hon. H. H. Sibley, 
then a young man in charge of the trading post 
at Mendota, A. G. Huggins and S. W. Pond. 

The First Presbyterian church in Minneapolis, 
of which D. M. Stewart, D. D., is pastor, is a 
continuation or perpetuation of the old church at 
the fort. It was reorganized in Minneapolis 
May 22d, 1853, but dates its first organization at 
Fort Snelling, June 14th, 1835. In 1837, Eev. 



Stephen E. Riggs, a graduate of the same college 
as Dr. Williamson, Jefferson College, Pennsylva- 
nia, came with his wife to strengthen the mission. 

In the summer of 1885, Eev. J. D, Stevens, with 
the assistance of the Messrs. Pond, built a house 
in the woods on the west shore of Lake Harriet. 
In this house, in the autumn of that year, a daugh- 
ter was horn to Mr. Stevens, the first white child 
born in this vicinity. In the spring of 1836, 
Gideon H. Pond returned to Connecticut, where 
he remained a year, and returned an ordained 
clergyman. He remained at the Lake Harriet 
Mission several years after his return. Rev. Mr. 
Riggs, who joined the mission, as stated, in 1837, 
moved to Lac qui Parle in the autumn of the 
same year. Mr. Stevens remained only to the 
following fall, 1838, when he moved to Wabasha 
Prairie as Indian farmer. 

The subsequent settlement of Hennepin coun- 
ty was principally from the good old New Eng- 
land stock by men who came to establish family 
altars and build churches. 

New Englanders have been called the " Salt 
of the Earth" in whatever state they have located. 
They have given tone to society and modified 
the government, the religion and the politics. 
The men have been men of pluck and spirit, and 
the women strong minded enough to assert their 
position and maintain the right, and the rites 
they brought from the East. They have been 
the salt of Minnesota. In fact, to follow out the 
figure chemically, salts of all kinds, when dif- 
fused, or held in solution, tend to crystalize in 
certain fixed forms. So it is with the New Eng- 
landers. Their enterprise carries them to every 
state. They are found diffused through all 
societies. Wherever they settle, blood tells, prm- 
ciple prevails, they crystallize in New England 
forms. We have New England forms of society, 
education and religion. New England wives, 
mothers and Nevi^ England homes. In the city 
of Minneapolis alone there are fifty-one churches 
and fifty-eight church organizations. 

The ambitious strife for splendor in church 
architecture is as infectious, to say the least, as 
the more homely Good Samaritan doctrines 
which the vaulted roofs were built to disseminate. 
This infection has reached this new country. It 
exhibits itself in models of architecture, already 
completed, and in vast piles now rising to be- 
come rival structures. 



Churches can not grow faster than population 
comes to build and support them. We must 
now see who the settlers were, that came in to 
build up the churches and establish industries to 
sustain them. The foundation of all industries 
is Agriculture. The cultivation of the soil is the 
only employment that is directly creative of 
wealth. The farmer takes a piece of land which 
yielded nothing without care. His care makes it 
productive of hundreds of dollars each year. In 
other words, he creates valve from what was val- 
ue-less,while'every other industry contributes value 
to the country by changes which it effects in the 
material furnished. Minnesota has come to be 
acknovvledged as tlie wheat growing state of the 

It will be interesting to note the growth of 
agriculture in this county, and see who the early 
settlers were, that came to develop it. 

As migratory birds, flying both north and 
south over the State, stop here on their way from 
the north, and again, at the proper season, com- 
ing from the south, give us a call, so it has been 
with the settlers. They have dropped in on us 
both from the north and from the south. Curi- 
ously, the first settlers came, like the fall feath- 
ered visitors, from the north. They, however, 
only stopped to oil their plumage, and moved on 
south. Our subsequent settlers came mainly 
from the east, or farther south, and came to stay. 
We shall see who both classes were as the chapter 
advances. The early attempts at agriculture in 
Hennepin county were not characterized by those 
features that mark the beginnings in countries or 
states, bearing earlier dates of settlement. We 
cannot entertain the reader by descriptions of 
crude implements such as wooden plows, but 
must admit that our pioneers were blessed with 
many of the modern improvements of scientific 



We can only claim for. the first, courage to try the 
experiment of farming- in so inclement a climate, 
duriiig:S.9' short a season as the summer was found 
to continue. 

Lieut,, Gamp was called plucky, for testing it, 
but hi^ flrst.attempt proved successful. He made 
the experiment, in 1823, at Fort Snelling. His 
success was very important to the future of the 
State, for, though several years passed, before the 
example was followed by others. Philander 
Prescottj employed as Indian farmer, undertook 
farming, near Lake Calhoun. This was in 
1830, and the first plowing, outside the fort. 
Soon after, others followed. Tlie settlers from the 
north, came in 1826. A colony, forced from their 
first settlement, near Hudson Bay, by an unusual 
flood, settled under the protecting wing of Fort 
Snelling., -This colony embraced only Swiss. The 
names of afew of them given are Perry, Garvais 
and Massey, Perry is described as a great owner 
of cattle, and was called, in consequence, the 
"Abraham'' of this region.. The purpose of gov- 
ernment Military Posts seems to have been inter- 
preted in one way by these settlers, and in quite 
another by the officers of the government. These 
settlers accused the officers, of the fort, of exerci- 
sing arbitrary and tyrannical power, and thus 
frustrating one purpose of a fort, viz., affording 
protection and encouragement to settlers. This 
view .was sustained by subsequent settlers, who, 
like these Swiss, wished to settle as squatters on 
the reservation. The officers of the fort, how- 
ever, had definite orders from the United States 
Marshal,, to remove squatters from the Fort 
Snelling Reserve. In accordance with this order, 
instead of fostering this colony, they subjected 
them to persecution, even proceeding so far as to 
burn, their buildings. At last, in 1836-7, they 
were compelled to abandon lands where they had 
made their homes for about ten years. . Mr. Perry 
moved to the present site of St. Paul, taking his 
cattle with him, and remained there until his 
death. Some moved to other points in this terri- 
tory, and others to the territory, of Wisconsin. 
Such treatment of emigrants who settled near the 
fort, operated to discourage rapid settlement. 


The arrival of Col. John H. Steyens, with a 
party of settlers, in April, 184Q,,was,an,important 

event. Col. Stevens was the first settler in Minr 
■neapolis. The party, consisting of ten, stopped 
first at St. Paul, but soon set out, on foot, to ex- 
amine the Canaan of their hopes, determined to 
make this their future home. Dr. William Dyer, 
a young physician, who subsequently became dis- 
tinguished in his profession, Alfred Courtwright, 
a successful teacher, and seven farmers, with the 
Colonel, constituted tjie party. 

When they reached Fort Snelling, they, like all 
their predecessors, coveted the forbidden fruit — 
the land in the reservation. They pressed on, 
however, and were fully satisfied to settle at St. 
Anthony, where the land was open for occupancy. 
Only two of this famous party wit- 
ness the subsequent marvellous growth of this 
county, but from them we learn, the country 
charmed them, beyond any thing they had ever 
seen. They forgot their fatigue in admiration of 
the view before them. The inroads of civilization, 
at that time, were too few to change materially 
the primeval character of the scenery. On the 
government reservation, on the west bank, was 
the old mill, and here and there a log house on 
the east 'side. These were the only marks of civ- 
ilization on the scene. The scenery about the 
falls seems to have attracted and delighted the 
visitors as much in its original beauty, as it does 
now, in its practical usefulness. 

The Colonel conld not, however, become satis- 
fied so long as he saw the fair lands on the other 
side of- the river. He and many others were im- 
patient at the restriction on locating upon and 
improving these tempting lands. By some means, 
the restriction was removed in favor of a few, 
among whom was Col. Stevens, who then occupied 
claims within the reservation. The occupancy of 
such settlers, however, was like that of the early 
settlers, the Swiss, from the north, simply that of 
squatters. Col. Stevens built a log house in the 
winter of 1849, and occupied it, with his family, 
as soon as it was completed. He was, as stated 
above, the first settler in Minneapolis. A few 
months later, Calvin A. Tuttle, and soon Mr. 
Miller, leaving the east side, joined Mr. Stevens, 
and built houses near him. 

In the spring of 1850, C. C. Garvey took a claim 
adjoining Col. Stevens on the south. The settle- 
ment soon had added to its numbers, Dr. L. 
Fletcher, John Jackins, Edward Murphy, Judge 



Bassett, Charles Iloag, Joseph H. Canney, and 
others. Their cabins were scattered over what 
is now Minneapolis, at intervals of half a mile or 
more. They had no churches. Their spiritual 
food was furnished by fireside instruction, unless, 
which often happened. Rev. Gideon H. Pond, or 
some one of the missionaries, preached at the 
house of Col. Stevens. Camps of Indians were 
often made in their vicinity, causing interest and 
excitement, even though they created no alarm. 
Still, they were always thievish prowlers, even 
when professing the greatest friendship. A ner- 
vous woman might often be startled by seeing 
the nose of an Indian or squaw flattened against 
the window pane. 


It must be borne in mind, that, at this time, a 
reservation of land for military purposes, made 
by a treaty of the United States government with 
the Indians, in 1805, through Gen. Pike, existed, 
covering all the territory, from the junction of the 
Mississippi and Minnesota rivers, the site of Fort 
Snelling, up to and including the Palls of St. 
Anthony, extending nine miles each side of the 
river. This extensive reservation included many 
thousand acres, much more land than was neces- 
sary for military purposes. It was seen, by ex- 
plorers, to be very valuable, and covetous eyes 
were fixed upon it. Squatters took possession, as 
they have often done of land unsurveyed by gov- 
ernment, trusting that when it came into market, 
their rights, as on lands not: military, would be 
respected. In this, however, they were destined 
to meet disappointment. The government had 
thrown every possible obstacle in the way of their 
obtaining a foothold, from the first, and now pro- 
ceeded with the usual formalities of sale. The 
plats were to be forwarded, on a certain day, from 
"Washington, when the sales, of land therein de- 
scribed, would take place, at public auction, to the 
highest bidder. 

Such sales, however, would have been ruinous 
to those who had occupied claims, and made im- 
provements, in full expectation of the final right 
of pre-emption, and entry at the usual govern- 
ment price. There existed, too, a tacit agreement 
between the squatters and the officers of the fort, 
that, on the one side, there should be no interfer- 
ence with their occupation, and, on the other. 

there should be a division of spoils, in. case the 
final decision should be in their favor. 

Speculators were on the alert. They assembled 
in considerable numbers at St. Paul, intending to 
bid on the claims. This led to the following or- 
ganization among the settlers for mutual protec- 


The settlers on the reservation had no inten- 
tion of sitting idly by and seeing their homes sold 
to intruders ; neither did they purpose to bid on 
them, themselves, above the usual pre-emption 
price, one dollar and twenty -five cents per acre. 
In this dilemma they called a meeting and estab- 
lished this Land League. This was an associa- 
tion of claimants on the reservation, organized to 
protect their interests by force, if need be. In a 
word, they proposed to do all the bidding, on the 
lands put up at auction, themselves, and to make 
it impossible for any venturesome speculator to 
put in a counter bid. The association numbered 
one hundred and twenty-five members. They 
appointed Thomas W. Peirce as bidder for 
all members of the league. The remainder 
were to stand around, to intimidate. If a 
speculator should not be intimidated, but force 
himself in as a bidder, the members were 
to surround him, and hustle him out of range 
of the sales. This plan was fully matured, 
and would doubtless, have been carried out to 
the letter ; for the speculators found the squat- 
ters resolute, and sustained by public opinion, 
and it was more than intimated, that the militia, 
if called on, would, likewise, side with the set- 
tlers. The speculators appealed to Governor 
Willis A. Gorman, for support at the coming sale, 
and asked if the troops could be called out. The 
Governor promised the troops, but intimated that 
he should instruct them how to load. "How 
shall you instruct them to load. Governor?" asked 
a speculator. " Blank, by — -!" replied the Gov- 
ernor. The speculators took the hint and the 
first opportunity to leave. It is probable, that 
this plan of bulldozing would have succeeded, 
had not another escape offered. 

Fortunately, a better method occurred. The 
plats did not arrive from "Washington, in time for 
the advertised sale, and it was, necessarily, post- 



poned. Seizing the opportunity, afforded by this 
delay, a delegation of citizens was sent to Wash- 
ington, to protest against the measure. Dr. A. 
E. Ames, Franklin Steele, Judge Meeker, H. T. 
Welles, and others, were delegates. They left 
home on the 9th of October, 1854. The commis- 
sioner of the general land oflBce informed them, 
on application at his office, in Washington, that 
the lands must be sold to the highest bidder, ac- 
cording to the previous notice, to comply with 
the law. On appealing, however, to the Secretary 
of the Interior, a stay of proceedings was ob- 
tained, until the assembling of Congress. 

Dr. Ames spent most of the winter in Wash- 
ington, and on the 8th of March, 1855, started 
for home. He was successful in his undertaking. 
A bill passed Congress, in consequence of his en- 
deavors, reducing the reservation, and allowing 
settlers the usual privileges of government land 
entries. Commissioner Wilson made Dr. Ames 
the messenger,' to convey to the land office 
in Minnesota, the laws and regulations, 
under which the subsequent entries were 
made. The general government had learned, 
by a painful experience, and under similar cir- 
cumstances, in New York State, where the set- 
tlers on the Holland purchase combined, and in 
Wisconsin, where the Fox River settlers com- 
bined, and in other states, that men united for 
mutual protection, must be respected. 

The poor doctor came near paying dearly for 
his success. An Arctic storm caught him, just 
on the threshold of his home, in southern Minne- 
apolis, and he nearly perished with cold. 

The news of the reduction of the reservation 
had reached home before him, and a general rush 
-for locations followed. In April and May, 1855, 
the settlers were able to " prove up " and obtain 
title to their lands. Thus ended, in a quiet and 
orderly way, what might have proved a danger- 
ous and even bloody disturbance. JS'ow begins 


The lands on the east side of the river, outside 
the reservation, had been taken, and the previ- 
ous settlement was on that side. The rapid im- 
migration, and the prospective value of lands on 
the west side, led to warm contests among the 
-the conflicting claimants. Litigations followed 
.in gcea.t numbers, futnishing to lawyers fat fees, 

their first golden harvest. The rapid influx of 
1855, was the natural consequence of the reduc- 
tion of the reservation. The attractive lands on 
the west side, had long tantalized the immigrants 
as well as the older settlers on the river, 

Before our dates advance further, let us look 
back at a few of the 


Lieut. J. B. F. Russell, acting Q. M. of the 
regular army at Fort Snelling, who built the old 
government mill and the house near by, in 1822. 

B. F. Baker, long the principal fur trader, in 
what is now known as Hennepin county. He 
was a famous man in trade and in the chase. He 
built the stone part of the^St. Louis House, near 
Fort Snelling, which was burned several years 

Peter Quinn located here in 1823, and had su- 
pervision of the Indian farms. He came from 
the fur company of Labrador to Pembina and 
finally, to this county. 

Samuel J. Finley, son-in-law of Quinn, came 
with him. Claims at St. Anthony, occupied by 
Peter Quinn, Finley and one Joseph Reachi, a 
Canadian voyageur, were, subsequently, pur- 
chased by Franklin Steele. 

Next comes an important person, whose name 
has figured in the pubUc affairs of this county, 
J. R. Brown. He took a claim near the mouth of 
Minnehaha Creek, in 1826. His was the first 
claim within the present limits of the county. 
He abandoned it, however, four years later, with- 
out much improvement. 

Leaping over a few years, to 1837, we find two 
very important names, Franklin Steele and Mar- 
tin McLeod. The former made a claim on what 
is now a part of the East Division of MinneapoUs, 
and built a small log house near the corner of 
Second Avenue South and Main street. Two 
other log cabins were built the same year, one 
above and one below. 

Martin McLeod came by the northwest plains, 
from the Hudson Bay colonies of Selkirk, to Lac 
Traverse. In company with him, in this rash 
expedition, were Capt. J. Pays, formerly of the 
Polish army, and Richard Hays, an Irishman. 
The party had, for a guide, Pierre Bottineau, 
whose name has become familiar, as a resident of 
St. Anthony. His two companions perished in 



the snow, near Cheyenne River, but he made his 
way, with the guide, to the house of J. R. Brown, 
having been five days without food, and twenty- 
six days without seeing any one except his party. 
The hospitable reception of Mr. Brown was fully 
appreciated, we may suppose, after the hardships 
of the previous twenty-six days on snow-shoes. 

R. P. Russell arrived at Fort SneUing, in 1839. 
lie made the journey from Lake Pepin, on foot, 
suffering much from want of food. Alexander 
Graham acted as his guide. Mr. Russell is still 
living. His present residence is on Hennepin 
Avenue, near Twenty-eighth street. 

The development of Minnesota began in 18.14. 
During this year, H. H. Sibley, came out as part- 
ner of the American Fur Company, to superin- 
tend their interests, from Lake Pepin to the Can- 
ada line. H. M. Rice, N. W. Kittson, Edmund 
Rice, D. Olmstead, and others, came soon after 
Mr. Sibley, and became identified with the pro- 
gress and growth of the material interests of the 
state. Their names are found on the map of the 
state, attached to counties and townships, that 
have thus attempted to honor their memories. 

The treaty with the Chippewas, which was ef- 
fected by Governor Dodge, of Wisconsm, in 1837, 
ceding the pine valley of the St. Croix and its 
tributaries, to the United States, greatly accele- 
rated the development which began three years 
previous. During the same year, also, a deputa- 
tion of Dakotas,at Washington, ceded all their 
lands lying east of the Mississippi. These things 
opened the way to 


Bloomington was first settled in 1851-2, by 
William Chambers, Joseph Dean and Reuben B. 
Gibson. They settled above Nine Mile Creek. 

Eden Praim was first settled in 1852, by Da- 
vid Livingston, Hiram Abbott, the Mitchells, and 

Richfield was settled in 1852, by Mark Baldwin, 
Samuel Stough, and S. S. Crowell. 

Excelsior was settled in 1868, by a colony 
of about forty families, under the guidance of 
George Bertram. Mr. Bertram selected the site, 
on the south side of Lake Minnetonka, in June 
of the previous year. After the planting of this 
large and prosperous colony, the settlement of the 
country- surrounding went on. rapidly. 

Ea,rly in 1852, Simon Stevens and CaMn Aj 
Tuttle .visited. Minnetonka. , They are supposed 
to be its .first white visitors since 1822. , In that 
year, J. R. Brown, John Snelling, Samuel Wat- 
kins, and Mr. Stewart, discovered the lal^e while 
on an exploring tour through this part. of the 
county. Mr. Stevens made a claim at this time, 
1852, just below the outlet of the lake, and 
built the first saw-mill in Hennepin county west. 
During the year, James Shaver settled on Second 
Lake, and in December following. A: E. Garri- 
son and a Mr. Robinson located a claim at the 
present site of Wayzata. These were the first 
settlers on its north shore. 

In February, 1853, Stephen Hull built the first 
house at the Narrows. In April, 1853, William 
Lithgrow settled near the upper Lake. He was 
drowned in the lake, in February, 1854, 

Near the mouth of the Crow River, a settlement 
was begun in the fall of 1853, by E. H, Robinson 
and Mr. Baxter. 

We have thus marked a few of the nuclei .of 
settlement. Most of these settlers were from 
New England. Their early training and educar 
tion had fitted them for what they were to en- 
counter. Around these centres _ gathered the 
rapidly increasing population. Their sterling 
qualities and patient courage attracted settlers, 
as iron fiUngs are attracted to a. magnet. . Thus 
the county has continued to fill up. In 1853, an 
estimate, probably a generous one, put the popu- 
lation at 2,000. In 1880, the census shows It 
66,590. It is admitted that the growth of the 
State of Minnesota has been more rapid than that 
of any other state, not only in population, but in 
wealth, education, and internal improvements. 
Hennepin county is so situated that it necessa,- 
rily partook largely of this wonderful growth- 
Indeed, the enterprising character of the settlers 
of this county contributed largely to the unex- 
ampled growth on the part of the state. 

Much is often said of the power of that genius 
in certain men, which enables them to foresee 
future cities on barren lands, immense possibili- 
ties in things not yet developed. This power, 
however, must be valueless without the magnetic 
power to attract men, combine forces, and thus 
produce, almost create the result sought. The 
wonderful growth of Minneapolis is proof enough 
of the character of the men \yho. have .settled 



here, and the progress throughout the county has 
been largely due to the progress at Minneapolis. 
The organization of the Hennepin county Ag- 
ricultural Society took place in 1853. Its pur- 
pose was to encourage improvements in agricul- 
ture and stock in the county. The first offlcers, 
appointed September 7th, 1853, were, J. W. Dow, 
President ; J. H. Canney, Secretary ; Col. John 
H. Stevens, Chairman of the Executive Commit- 
tee. Seconding these efforts for improvement. 
Col. Stevens imported some Devonshire cattle, at 
considerable expense, and little ultimate profit to 
himself. These efforts led to and initiated the 
improvements since made in methods of agricul- 
ture and stock-raising in the county. 


The taxable property of Hennepin county, in 
1862, according to Goveronor Ramsey's message, 
was $43,529. In 1880, only twenty-nine years 
later, the official records show the assessed valu- 
ation, 138,183,474. From the records of 1879, are 
taken the foUo.wing statistics : Wild Hay, tons, 
26,168 ; Timothy Seed, bushels,109 ; Apple Trees, 
growing, 127,038 ; Apple Trees, bearing, 20,995 ; 
Apples, bushels, 7,714 ; Grape-vines, bearing, 
p,o85; Grapes, lbs., 15,510; Strawberries, qts., 
29,586; Tobacco, lbs., 913; Maple Sugar, lbs., 
19,723 ; Maple Syrup, gals., 1,306 ; Sheep, num- 
ber sheared, 7,326; Wool, lbs., 496,272 ; Cheese, 
lbs., 4,665 ; Bees, number of hives, 873 ; Honey, 
lbs., 14,233 ; Milch Cows, 6,658 ; other Cattle, 
2,155 ; Hogs, 6,888 ; Horses, 7,717 ; Mules, 211. 



We have thus far named those settlers who 
came to make claims, and have thus become iden- 
tified, more or less,with the agricultural progress 

of the county. Other inducements brought here 
another class of settlers, to build mills and inau- 
gurate manufactories. The Falls of St. Anthony 
affords the greatest and most available water 
power in the United States. Besides, there are 
other minor falls in the county, utilized to some 

The first improvement, of any kind, in Henne- 
pin county, consisted in the building of the old 
government mill and a house near it, in the 
spring of 1822. Lieut. J. B. F. Russell, built 
them, acting in his capacity of Q. M. in the reg- 
ular army. This was the first mill in Minnesota. 

In July, 1847, Wm. A. Cheever bought of Mr. 
Steele, on the east side, nine-tenths of the water- 
power. He made the purchase for Eastern capi- 
talists, among whom were Robert Rantoul and 
Caleb Gushing. 

Ard. Godfrey came from Maine, in the fall of 

1847, to build Mr. Steele's mill. John McDonald 
and Ira Burroughs came at the same time, and 
were engaged in the same enterprise. Robert 
W. Cummings, Henry Angell, Capt. John Tap- 
per, and William Dugas went up the Swan River 
to cut timber for the new mill. Daniel Stanch- 
field took another party and opened another lum- 
bering camp, on Rum River. In the spring of 

1848, the mill was ready, and the sawing began. 
In September, two saws were running. The set- 
tlers now began building frame houses. The 
lumber, from the mills, helped on the settlement 
of the county. 

An unusual freshet occurred in 1849, which 
swept about 6,000,000 feet of logs over the falls. 
Portimately, Mr. Steele had about 2,000,000 feet 
on the upper streams, secure. These were 
brought down, and the mills continued running. 

In 1852, Simon Stevens built the first saw-miU 
in Hennepin county, west, on the claim which he 
took at the outlet of Lake Minnetonka. The 
building of saw-mills was the initial step in the 
great milling interests of this county. In 1848, 
the enterprise of mill building took a start from 
the building of a dam from Hennepin Island to 
the east shore, and locating four saw-mills on it. 
In 1856-7, however, the two great incorporated 
companies, that now control the power, took hold 
of its development. " Tlie St. Anthony Water 
Power Company" took control of the water-power, 
from the centre of the channel, on the west side 



of Hennepin Island, to the east shore. " The 
Minneapolis Mill Company " took control of the 
remainder, viz., from the centre to the west shore. 
The lumbering establishments have done more 
for the growth of Minneapolis, and Hennepin 
county, than any other industry. The future 
development of the county may depend on other 
manufactories, but the past must give the credit 
to lumber. 

In 1860, four years later, the report for the 
whole state gives 562 manufacturing establish- 
ments, with $2,388,310, capital invested. In 
1874, Minneapolis, alone, produced manufactured 
goods to the amount of $15,000,000. The last 
census, 1880, shows that Minneapolis had, in 
1879, 406 manufacturing establishments, employ- 
ing $8,615,250 capital, 7,723 hands, paying, in 
wages, $3,651,668 annually, using 13,972 horse- 
power, water and steam combined. The value 
of manufactured goods produced in 1879, was 

The Falls of St. Anthony furnish a water- 
power with a fall of 82 feet and a width of 1200 
feet. It is capable of driving twenty times the 
present establishments. The companies in con- 
trol, are ready to make liberal arrangements with 
parties bringing capital to develop further the 
capacity of the falls. Full statistics of the man- 
ufactures of Minneapolis will be found in an- 
other chapter. 


For several years after the rapid growth of 
Minneapolis began, the question of transportation 
Was a vital one. Though St. Paul was as high a 
point as the large steamers of the Mississippi 
could reach regularly, through the season, it was 
found that boats could reach Minneapolis or St. 
Anthony, as that part of the city was then called, 
during a part of the season, in high water, and 
that boats of light draft might be depended upon 
for regular transportation, during tlie boating 
season. It will not be possible, in this outline 
history, to enter into the details of the discussion 
which continued so long over the point, whether 
St. Paul or Minneapolis should be regarded as 
the head of navigation on the Mississippi. We 
can only mention the facts in regard to the at- 

tempts to navigate the river to Minneapolis, and 
also, on the upper Mississippi, above the falls. 

The first steamboat that came up as far as 
Fort Snelling, arrived at Mendota in 1823. Du- 
ring the same year. Major Stephen H. Long 
explored the Minnesota River, and the northern 
frontier. Beltrami, an Italian refugee, explored 
the sources of the Mississippi, and made a map of 
the country. 

The first navigation of the river above Fort 
Snelling, must date from the arrival of the La- 
martine, Capt. Marsh, at noon, May 4th, 1850. 
The laud was made at a point opposite what we 
call " Bridal Veil." The Captain attempted to 
force his boat further up the river, but was un- 
able to stem the current. May 7th, three days 
later, the "Antimony Wayne,'' Capt. Rogers, suc- 
ceeded in forcing her way up, in spite of the rapid 
current, and landed at the old rafting place, near 
the present location of the lower or iron bridge. 
The arrival was justly regarded as a great event, 
as the question of transportation to these upper 
regions was beginning to assume a serious nature. ■ 
Speeches were made, by Governor Ramsey and 
other leading citizens. The band played, and the 
occasion was duly honored. Later in the season, 
during the same year, the "Lady FrankUn,' 
Capt. Smith Harris, came up within a few feet of 
Spirit Island, " Turned gracefully about and drop- 
ped down to the landing." 

Business men now determined to secure regular 
communication. They were liberal in furnishing 
means to forward the plan, and the result of their 
labors was the establishment of a line of steamers. 
On the 18th of July, 1853, the " Hindoo," a fine 
steamer from below, landed at Cheever's Flat, and 
afterwards made regular trips to this point. 

The Minnesota River was also navigated by 
smaller craft. Insufticient as this means of com- 
munication would be in the present advanced 
stage of our growth, it performed an important 
part in assisting that growth. 


A steamer bearing the distinguished name, 
" Governor Ramsey," was fitted up by Captain 
John Rollins, in 1850, to navigate the upper 
Mississippi. The trial trip seems to have been 
an eventful day in the colony. It took place 
May 25th, 1850, She ran up to Baufield Island, 



about eight miles, then returned, and freighted 
for Sauk Eapids. Just at dark, she left the land- 
ing for her first trip. She ran about a mile, and 
tied up for the night. The next day, Sunday, she 
ran up to Sauk Rapids, discharged her cargo, and 
returned to St. Anthony on Monday. She made 
the return trip in exactly seven hours. After 
this, Capt. Rollins made regular trips, touching 
at intervening points. 


The year 1862 was the era of railroads. The 
building and management of the railroads of a 
new country, is a very important matter, and one 
fraught with great danger to the interests of the 
country. The method used in constructing roads, 
is by furnishing private citizens or corporate 
bodies, capital obtained by bonding towns; or 
some method by which the country through which 
the road passes, is put under contribution to de- 
fray the expense. This puts the capital of many 
into the hands of a few. In case the trustees 
prove reckless or unprincipled, the country at 
large must become the sufferer. Minnesota has 
suffered greatly through railroad mismanage- 
ment. This has been true, not simply in build- 
ing and equipping the roads, but in exorbitant 
tariffs. She has b^en loaded with debt, and her 
attempts at adjustment have loaded her witli 
odium. This county has suffered greatly from 
this cause. Such evils are, however, self -correct- 
ing and Time, the great healer, will remedy all 
evils of the' past, when such prosperity follows as 
has followed their construction here. 

In 1862, the railroad from St. Paul to St. An- 
thony opened the county to railroad communica- 
tion. To the making of railroads there is no end. 
We shall not attempt to enumerate, in this brief 
article, all the roads and the history of their con- 
struction. A simple statement of the receipts 
and shipments of the principal commodities, by 
the various railroads to and from Minneapolis, 
during the year ending May 31st, 1880, will show 
the importance of the roads to this county, and 
will further indicate the extent of the busmess 
of the county. 


Lumber, 1,467,700,000 feet; Flour, 1,650,630 
bbls.; Mill Stuffs, 55,746 tons ; Wheat, 76,000 bu.; 
Com, 113,850 bu.; Merchandise, 10,166 care; 

Oats, 57,200 bu.; Machinery, 743 cars; Live 
Stock, 774 cars ; other articles, 1,623 cars. Total 
shipments of all kinds, 48,447 cars. 


Wheat, 8,103,708 bu.; Corn, 392,200 bu.; Oats, 
262,100 bu.; Barley, 70,700 bu.; Flaxseed, 124,900 
bu.; Mill Feed, 9,176 tons ; Lumber, 22,770,000 ft.; 
Flour, 110,700 bbls.; Merchandise, 12,643 cars; 
Live Stock, 929 cars ; Machinery, 730 cars ; Bar- 
rel Stock, 1 ,229 cars ; Coal, 2,713 cars; all other 
articles, 4,265 cars. Total of all kinds of freight, 
47,307 cars. 


Hennepin county, as originally organized, had 
for its eastern boundary, the Mississippi River, 
and was held in the embrace of three rivers, the 
Mississippi, Minnesota, and Crow. These rivers 
formed almost the entire boundary. Carver and 
Wright coimties, on the west, completed its 
boundaries. By a subsequent act of legislature, 
St. Anthony was attached. The length of the 
county, north and south, is about thirty -two 
miles. Its greatest breadth is about twenty-eight 
miles. Its area is 354,904.96 acres. The forty- 
fifth parallel of latitude passes through the mid- 
dle. The summers are very warm, and hasten 
vegetation to maturity. The winters are very 
cold. It may serve to assist the mind, to com- 
pare it with other localities of the country, in re- 
ference to latitude and temperature. Tlie forty- 
fifth parallel, which passes through the middle of 
this county, passes through Green Bay, Wiscon- 
sin, touches the extreme, northern limit of j^ew 
York, and forms the northern boundary of Ver- 
mont. The winter isothermal line, however, 
strikes considerably north of New York and Ver- 
mont. The snow-fall is light, but as thaws are 
infrequent, enough usually accumulates to insure 
sleighing through the winter. The same is true 
of this as of all northern climates ; the winter is 
made jolly by extra sociabiUty. 

The surface of the country is undulating, 
though in no part mountainous or hilly. The 
county belongs to the southern slope of the state, 
and to the Mississippi valley. The elevation above 
the level of the sea varies from 663 feet at the 
crossing of the C. M. & St. P. R. R. on the 
Minnesota River, to 940 feet at Long Lake sta- 
tion. The elevation of the Mississippi River at 



Nicollet Island is 791 feet, and half a mile below 
the Falls of St. Anthony 71H feet. 


This county is favored with abundance of 
water to supply all the functions that water ever 

First, for Navigation. The Mississippi has 
afEorded navigation both above and below the 
Falls. The Minnesota permits navigation along 
the southern boundary of the county. 

Second, Water Power. The immense power 
of the Falls of St. Anthony, alone, gives this 
county greater facilities for manufacture, than 
can be found elsewhere in the United States. 
There are minor water powers on the smaller 
streams and lakes. 

The largest flouring establishments in the 
world, and other branches of manufacture, de- 
rive their power from these great falls. In 
early times travellers have expended their 
eloquence in descriptions of their beauty, but to- 
day, if we describe the features correctly, we 
must admit that the picturesque scenery has 
largely disappeared and given place to practical 
business. If we echo the sentiments of this am- 
bitious people, we must dwell on the wealth in 
machinery and manufactures that now environs 
the falls, and not lament over the beauty that 
has gone. The description of these vast estab- 
lishments is reserved for a subsequent chapter. 

Third, Running logs to the numerous saw-mills. 

Fourth, Beauty of Scenei-y. On the map we 
can count over two hundred lakes in Henne- 
pin county. As we ride through the country, 
they seem innumerable. They are mostly clear 
and deep, with gravelly margins, and discharge 
their waters into the large boundary rivers, 
through numerous beautiful creeks and rivulets. 
The largest is Lake Minnetonka. Many of the 
lakes, on account of their great beauty, are places 
of summer resort. 

Fifth, Health. The healthfuliiesH of the state 
is thought to be due, to some extent to its large 
amount of water surface. Doubtless this, taken 
with its great distance inland, is a very healthful 
"feature for Hennepin county, 

The Crow is not regarded as a navigable river, 
though, at one time, Capt. Kollins made a run, 
with the " Gov. Ramsey," twenty miles up the 

stream. Its banks are low and wooded, present- 
ing no marked features. The fine river scenery 
is on the Mississippi from the falls to Fort 
Snelling. Throughout this distance, of nine 
miles, the river runs through a gorge about 
eighty rods vride, with high, bare, rocky 
bluffs on each side. This is the grandest 
scenery of the Northwest. After the great tribu- 
tary, the Minnesota, forms its junction, at Fort 
Snelling, the gorge widens to about a mile. The 
same rock - ribbed walls are, however, continued. 
If we pass up the Minnesota, we And the banks 
changed in their character. The bluffs, instead 
of being bare and rocky, are turfed and grown up 
to small wood. At the early settlement of the 
county, these banks were described as simply 
grassy, but the absence of wood was, probably, 
due to fires sweeping over them. 

Geologists interpret the clayey deposit, west of 
the river, and other debris moved by the icebergs 
of the glacial period, as indicating great surface 
changes in the county, as well as in the volume 
and course of its rivers. The Minnesota was 
once the largest river, and the Mississippi flowed 
into it. 


The general contour of the county is nearly 
level, with an undulating drift surface. In a 
belt varying from six miles to less than one mile 
in width along the Mississippi, the narrowest 
point of which is in North Minneapolis, the drift 
has been modified by the river, and presents 
almost a level surface, with a soil lighter and 
more sandy than in parts more remote from the 
river. Co-existent with the line which marks the 
limit of this drift, is that of the supposed line be- 
tween the St. Peter sandstone and the Shakopee 
limestone of the Lower ^Magnesian formation. 
The belt included in this line has, a nearly uni- 
form flat surface, occasionally diversified by a 
knoll of hard-pan drift. Excavations made at 
dilierent points included in this belt, never fail 
to reveal this hard-pan. Underlying this tract, 
is a laminated or flaky clay, which, when burned, 
yields an excellent quality of brick of that creamy 
color known as " Milwaukee brick," 

The principal out-cropping rocks are the Tren- 
ton limestone and St. Peter sandstone. The 
Shakopee limestone crops out at Shakopee, on 



the opposite side of the Minnesota Eiver, and is 
believed to exist, covered by the drift, through- 
out Hennepin county. It is known among build- 
ers as " Kasota Stone," named from the town 
where it is extensively quarried. It was called 
Shakopee limestone from its being first noticed 
and classified at the out-crop in Shakopee. 

The Trenton Limestone is composed of three 
distinct layers — Upper Trenton, Green Shale and 
Lower Trenton. The Lower is the only out- 
cropping stratum in the county. The Green 
Shales are only found on excavating the drift. 
It is quite fossiUferous, and sometimes called, 
incorrectly, soap-stone. The Lower Trenton oc- 
curs along the bluffs of the Mississippi, at and 
below the falls. It is plainly seen in the quarry 
below the University. The upper stratum, eight 
feet, is impure limestone. Under this is a more 
impure stratum, though of similar character. 
Third, four feet eight inches Green Shales. 
Fourth, a little more than two feet of stone used 
for the roughest building. Underlying, the fifth 
layer, is the building stone, fifteen feet in thick- 
ness, xised so extensively in the construction of 
the best walls in this and adjoining covmties. 
This stone is too argillaceous (clayey) to be are- 
liable building material. Its weakness consists 
in the shales interlarded between layers of the 
limestone. This cavises, also, a mottled appear- 
ance on the surface of the stone. The dark spots 
are shale, and the lighter colored, limestone. 
Sixth, two feet of blue shale is found. This last 
layer rests upon the St. Peter sandstone. 

The fact that the harder limestone of the lower 
Trenton is super-imposed on the softer St. Peter 
sandstone gives rise to our water falls. The 
action of the water cuts away the underlying St. 
Peter, thus producing after many years' erosion, 
a great fall. The position of the layers also 
threatened at one time the destruction of the 
falls which they had previously produced. Little 
streams had so percolated the sandstone as to 
render it more than probable that the overlying 
limestone would soon be undermined, and the 
the magnificent fall be change into a simple rapid. 
Prompt and efficient measures on the part of 
capitalists, assisted by the general government, 
arrested the danger, and rescued the fall. 


The soil of the county may be distinguished 
as of two classes ; sandy soil, occupying the belt 
before described, near the river, and the grayish 
clay. The changes noticed in the vegetation, 
as one passes through, will indicate the change 
in the soil beneath. Copses of oak and aspen 
show the soil to be sandy, while the large sugar 
maples, American elms, bass and red oak point 
out the clayey soil. On the clay also grow the 
butternut, soft maple, bitternut, black ash, white 
ash, poplar, white birch and white oak. 

The principal shrubs are hazel, smooth sumac, 
wolf-berry, thorn, elder, honey-suckle, kinnikin- 
nick, wild rose, prickly ash, and speckled elder. 
Many water-loving plants abound along the 
numerous lakes. 

Frost grapes, wild plums, American or native 
crab-apples, black and red cherries, june-berries, 
choke-cherries, prickly and smooth wild goose- 
berries, high bush cranberries, high blackberries, 
black and red raspberries, strawberries and cran- 
berries are the principal wild fruits. 

From the middle of the county westward the 
soil is clay, rolUng and heavily timbered. East of 
this is the belt containing the small, sparse tim- 
ber, covering the eastern part of Maple Grove 
and Plymouth, the western part of Minneapolis 
and the central portions of Richfield and Bloom- 
ington, with occasional tracts in Minnetonka and 
Eden Prairie. 

The soil and climate favor the production of 
spring-wheat. This is grown to the exclusion of 
winter-wheat which winter-kills. The hardness- 
of the kernel of Minnesota spring-wheat gives a 
superior quality to the flour of our mills. Other 
small grains, of ordinary farming, are readily 
produced. Sorghum has recently become an im- 
portant article of production. The cultivation 
of fruits has been i)roved practicable although it 
was long supposed impossible to mature choice 
varieties. Peter M. Gideon, of Excelsior, has 
done more than any other man for the improve- 
ment of varieties of fruits. It can almost be 
said that he has done all in this county. He 
struggled for a long time unaided, but now has 
charge of a " State Experimental Farm." Trees 
were set out on this farm in the spring of 1878. 
There, with the patronage of the state, Mr. Gid- 



eon will continue his experiments. His purpose 
is to produce an apple that is a long keeper, 'and 
grown on a hardy stock. It is impossible in this 
article to describe his methods. For hardiness, 
necessarily the first requsite in this climate, he 
depends on the crab stock. Some valuable va- 
rieties have already been obtained. 


On the same grounds that Minnesota has been 
called the sportsman's state, this county might be 
called the sportsman's county. Its lakes, prairies 
and forests are the natural haunts of the many 
varieties of game with which the state abounds. 
Gray and prairie wolves, bears, wild cats, rac- 
coons, foxes, deer, rabbits, squirrels, gophers 
(found in such abundance throughout the state, 
as to cause it to be called the " Gopher State ") 
and wood chucks, were all found in abundance, 
within a few years, and many of them abound 
now. Some water animals, sought for their furs, 
are trapped. The otter, mink, beaver and musk- 
rat furnish the most valuable pelts. Grouse 
(prairie-hens), partridges, and pigeons, are the 
principal feathered game, except in the season 
when ducks, brant and wild geese abound. 

This county shares with the state in a multi- 
tude of small birds of brilliant plumage. Some 
varieties are pecuUar to this vicinity. They de- 
light the eye and ear of the tourists, who frequent 
the charming lakes, woods and streams. The 
lakes abound in the usual varieties of fish. Some 
interest , has been shown in adding new and im- 
proved kinds. 


The climate of this county and those imme- 
diately adjoining, gave to Minnesota at an early 
day, its reputation for health and made it the 
asylum for invalids. No other county in the 
state is better situated or more favorably known 
for health. It is very beneficial to invalids suf- 
fering from pulmonary diseases. Instances where 
this climate does not effect a cure for such in- 
valids, can usually be explained by the fact that 
the disease was allowed to progress too far before 
trying the remedy, or some other circumstance, 
peculiar to the patient and not chargeable to the 
climate, interfered. 


The first settlers of this county brought with 
them from New England, not only the fear of 
God, which lead them to build churches, but, as 
the natural concomitant of the Bible is education, 
they brought in their hearts the desire for schools 
and at once set about educational work. 

Keflnement and social culture were as essential 
to them as the vital air. It has been said, and 
truthfully, that the tendency of western life is 
verging toward barbarism. Here, however, cul- 
ture and refinement followed closely on the heels 
of settlement. It is already abreast of the 
boasted East in public education. 

It can be safely said, that the whole state, but 
pre-eminently Hennepin county has made greater 
progress in education during the last twenty-two 
years than any other state or county in the 
United States. The first school taught was by 
Miss Electa Bachus, in the summer of 1849, in a 
small shanty on the east side. This was under 
territorial jurisdiction. In the faU of that year, 
the first school house was built in the county. 

The next teacher, was Miss Nancy E. Miller. 
The first teacher on the west side, was Miss 
Mary A. Scofield. The first male teacher, was 
Reuben Clark. Thirty years only have passed 
since one little school was all and sufficient for 
the wants of the community. 

The following is extracted from the official re- 
port of 1879, for the sake of contrast. School 
districts, 110 ; school houses, 130 ; graded schools 
outside of Minneapolis, 5 ; scholai-s enrolled, 
10,245. A larger proportion of children of 
school age attend school in this than in any 
other state. 



The bill which fixed the boundaries of this 
county, passed the Territorial Legislature in 1852, 
and was approved March 6th, of the same year. 
It originally formed a part of Dakota county. 


. 183 

The bill provided that "So much of Dakota 
county as lies north of the Minnesota River, west 
of the Mississippi, and east of a line commencing 
at a place known as the Little Eapids, on said 
Minnesota River ; thence in a direct line north by 
west, to the forks of Crow River ; thence down 
said river to its junction with the Mississippi." 
The bill further provided that Hennepin county 
be attached to Ramsey, for judicial purposes, 
"Until further provided for." Tor elective pur- 
poses it was to remain, as then, in conjunctjlon 
with Dakota county, so far as related to the elec- 
tion of a councillor and two representatives, un- 
til the next apportionment. 

Section 3 of the bill provided that, " When the 
treaty of Mendota, concluded with the Dakota 
Indians, should be ratified by the United States 
Senate, the county of Hennepin shall be entitled 
to elect, at the next general election, such county 
and other officials as the organized counties were 
entitled to." Section 4 provided that the county 
commissioners elected, should be authorized to 
establish the county seat temporarily, " Until the 
same is permanently established by the legisla- 
ture, or authorized votes of the qualified voters of 
said county." 

The county was formally organized on the 21st 
day of October, 1852. Eleven days previous, an 
election was held at the house of Col. John H. Ste- 
vens, at which 73 votes were polled, representing 
about one-half of the voters residing in the coun- 
ty. Another voting place was fixed at Mendota, 
for the accommodation of those living along the 
ISJinnesota River. Previous to the election, a 
mass-meeting was held, at which the following 
ticket was nominated, irrespective of party: 

Representative, Dr. A. E. Ames ; County Com- 
missioners, Alex. Moore, John Jackins, Joseph 
Dean ; County Treasurer, John T, Mann ; Reg- 
ister of Deeds, John H. Stevens ; District Attor- 
ney, Warren Bristol ; Sheriff, Isaac Brown ; Cor- 
oner, David Gorham ; Judge of Probate, Joel B. 
Bassett; County Surveyor, Charles W. Christ- 
mas ; Assessors, Edwin Hedderly, Eli Pettijohn, 
S. A. Goodrich; Road Commissioner, George 
Parks. The entire ticket was elected without 
opposition, and the parties named became the 
first officers of Hennepin county. They were 
nominated and elected without effort on their 
part, and in many instances, against their ex- 

pressed wish. The first meeting of the Board of 
County Commissioners was held on the 21st of 
October, 1862, Alexander Moore being chosen 
chairman. Dr. H. Fletcher was the first Justice 
of the Peace before the county organization, and 
Edwin Hedderly the first Justice after the county 
organization. Politically, little need be said of 
Hennepin comity. In its earUer days, and until 
the organization of the Republican party, the 
contest for political preferment, was between the 
old Whig and Democratic parties, the latter 
usually being in the ascendency. Now, in con- 
sequence of the death of some of the giants in 
the land, the masses could no longer be held to 
the old lines. The Whig party died with Clay. 
Political chaos throughout the country followed. 
Down went Whig and Know-Nothing, and out of 
the ruins was built the Republican party It is 
not important to give the position of politicians 
in this state during the political chaos. Since, the 
Republican element has, with a few exceptions in 
local politicsi been the ruling factor. In State 
and National politics the county is largely Re- 


of state. Judicial and Legislative officers of Hen- 
nepin county. The first Territorial Legislature 
convened September 3d, 1849, and adjourned 
the first of the following November. The county 
was represented in the Council by John Rollins 
and Martin McLeod, and in the House, by Wm. 
R. Marshall, Wm. Dugas, Eifth District ; Alexis 
Bailey and Gideon H. Pond, Seventh District. 

Second Legislature, Jan. \st to March 31si, 1851 . 
—John Rollins, Martin McLeod, Council ; John 
W. North, E. Patchen, House, Fifth District; 
Benjamin H. Randall, Seventh District. 

Third Legislature, Jan. 7th to March 6th, 1852. — 
Wm. L. Larned, Martin McLeod, Council ; Sum- 
ner W. Earnham, John H. Murphy, and Benj. H. 
Randall, House. 

Fourth Legislature, Jan. 5th to March 5th, 1853. 
— Wm. L. Larned, Martin McLeod, Council ; R. 
P. Bassett, G. B. Dutton, A. E. Ames, B. H. 
Randall, House. 

Fifth Legislature, Jan. ith to March ith, 1854.— 
Chas. T. Stevens, Council; Cephas Gardner, 
Henry S. Plummer, Hezekiah Fletcher, House, 



Sixth Legislature, Jan. 3d to March Sd, 1855. — 
Chas. T. Stevens, Council ; A. M. Fridley, Dan- 
iel Stanclifleld, D. M. Hanson, House. 

By the apportionment of 1855, the precinct of 
St. Anthony was designated as the Third District, 
and Hennepin, (west,) Carver and Davis, as the 
Eleventh, an,d remained so until the adoption of 
the state constitution. 

Seventh Legislature, Jan. 2d to March 1st, 1856. 
— J. Eollins, D. M. Hanson, Council, Third Dist., 
Sumner W. Farnham, C. W. Le Boutillier, James 
r. Bradley, Thomas W. Peirce, Arba Cleveland, 
Thomas B. Hunt, Francis Thorndike, House, 
Eleventh Dist. 


Pursuant to an act of the territorial legislature, 
approved March 3d, 1857, an election was held on 
the first Monday in June, to elect delegates to 
the convention, called for the purpose of framing 
a state constitution. The following are the names 
of Hennepin county delegates : 

Bepublican wing, 3d IHst — D. A. Secomhe, P. 
Winell,L. C. Walker, J. H. Murphy ; Uth Dist.— 
Cyrus Aldrich, Wentworth Hay den, R. L. Bar- 
tholomew, W. F. Kussell,' Charles B. Sheldon, 
David Morgan, E. N. Bates, D. P. Smith. 

Democratic wing, 3d Dist. — B. B. Meeker, Wm. 
M. Lashells, Calvin A. Tuttle,C. L. Chase ; ll«/i 
Dist. — Alfred E. Ames. 

With the adoption of the state constitution, a 
new apportionment named as the Fourth District, 
" So much of Hennepin as lies west of the Missis- 
sippi River "; that portion east of the river, as 
the Twenty-third District. The result of the 
first fall election, rmder the new constitution, 
was. Senate — 4th Dist., Erastus N. Bates, Delano 
T. Smith ; 23d Dist., Jonathan Chase. House — 
4th Dist., R. B. Gibson, George II. Keith, AVm. 
S. Chowen ; 23d Dist., Wm. 11. Townsend, L. C. 

No session of the legislature was held during 
the winter of 1858-9, owing to the extra session 
just preceding. At the October election, how- 
ever, the following officers were elected from 
Hennepin county, though they never took their 
seats : House— W. D. Washburn, A. C. Austin, 
R. B. McGrath, and A. Gould ; Senate— 23d Dist., 
David Heaton. 

Second Legislature, 1859-60.— Senate, 4th Dist., 
Jesse Bishop, R. L. Bartholomew ; 23d Dist., D. 
A. Heaton ; House, 4th Dist., J. P. Abraham, 
Henry B. Mann, A. C. Austin, Irwin Shrewsbury ; 
23d Dist., D. A. Secombe, G. P. Baldwin. 

In 1860, another apportionment occurred, nam- 
ing Hennepin East as the Fourth District, and 
Hennepin West as the Fifth. 

Third Legislature, 1861. — Senate, 4th Dist., Da- 
vid Heaton ; 5th Dist., R. J. Baldwin ; House, 
4th Dist., Jared Benson, G. V. Mayhew ; 5th Dist. 
F. R. E. Cornell, Wentworth Hayden. 

Fourth Legislature, 1862. — Senate, 4th Dist., 
David Heaton ; 5th Dist., R. J. Baldwin ; House, 
4th Dist., J. H. Allen, Jared Benson ; 5th Dist., 
F. R. E. Cornell, John C. Past. 

Fifth Legislature, 1863. — Senate, 4th Dist., Da- 
vid Heaton ; 5th Dist., R. J. Baldwin ; House, 
4th Dist., Dwight Woodbury, H. J. Croswell ; 
5th Dist., A. C. Austin, R. B. McGrath. 

Sixth Legislature, 1864. — Senate, 4th Dist., John 
S. Pillsbury ; 5th Dist., DorUus Morrison ; House, 
4th Dist., Jared Benson, Jonathan Firren; 5th 
Dist., John A. Coleman, Gilbei-t Graham. 

Seventh Legislature, 1865. — Senate, 4th Dist., 
John S. Pillsbury, Dorilus Morrison; House, 
4th Dist., F. M. Stowell, Stephen Hewson ; 5th 
Dist., Cyrus Aldrich, F. R. E. Cornell. 

Eighth Legislature, 1866. — (The apportionment 
this year did not affect Hennepin, east or west.) 
—Senate, 4th Dist., John S. Pillsbm-y ; 5th Dist., 
C. H. Pettit ; House, 4th Dist., E. W. Cutler, A. 
R. Hayden ; oth Dist., Aaron Gould, Jonas H. 

Ninth Legislature, 1867.— Senate, 4th Dist., J. 
S. Pillsbury; 5th Dist., J. C. '^Miitney ; House, 
4th Dist., H. F. Blodgett ; 5th Dist., A. E. Ames, 
Aaron Gould, John Seboski. 

Tenth Lrghlatuvc, 1868— Senate, 4th Dist., Jolrn 
S. Pillsbury ; 5th Dist., C. H. Pettit; House, 4th 
Dist., Samuel Ross; 5th Dist., C. D. Davison, 
Chas. n. Clark, John H. Hechtman. 

Eleventh Legislature, 1869. — Senate, 4th Dist., 
William Lochren ; 5th Dist., C. H. Pettit ; House, 
4th Dist., A. M. Fridley ; 5th Dist., C. D. Davi- 
son, A. R. Hall, Chas. H. Clark. 

Twelfth Legislature, 1870.— Senate, 4th Dist., 
William Lochren; 5th Dist., C. H. Pettit. 



House, 4th Dist., A. M. Fridley, A. E. Hall, E. 
A. Rice, J. H. Pond. 

Thirteenth Legislature, 1871. — Senate, 4th Dist., 
John S. Pillsbury; 5th Dist.', C. H. Pettit; 
House, A. M. Fridley ; oth Dist., W. D. Wash- 
burn, A. R. Hall, A. J. Underwood. 

Apportionment of 1871. — Under this apportion- 
ment, Hennepip East became a part of the 25th 
District, and Hennepin West formed the 26th 
and 27th Districts. The 25th District was given 
one senator and two representatives, the 26th a 
senator and four representatives, and the 27th a 
senator and three representatives. 

Fourteenth Legislature, 1872— Senate , 25th Dist. , 
A. C.Morrell; 26th Dist., Levi Butler; 27th 
Dist. , Wm. P. Ankeny ; House, 25th Dist. , Frank- 
lin Whitney, John H. Strong ; 26th Dist., A. J. 
Underwood, C. H. Clark, C. F. Adams, Loren 
Fletcher; 27th Dist., A. R.Hall, Z. Demeules, 
F. L. Morse. 

Fifteenth Legislature, 1873.— Senate, 25th Dist., 
John S. Pillsbury ; 26th Dist., Levi Butler; 27th 
Dist., R. B. Langdon; House, 25th Dist., James 
McCann, Daniel Anderson; 26th Dist., C. B. 
Tirrell, Loren Fletcher, Chas. H. Clark, C. F. 
Adams; 27th Dist., A.R.Hall, Z. Demeules, 
M. C. Comerford. * 

Sixteenth Legislature, 1874. — Senate, 25th Dist., 
John S. Pillsbury; 26th Dist., Levi Butler; 27th 
Dist., R. B. Langdon; House, 25th Dist., C. F. 
Woodbury, Lyman Brown ; 26th Dist., C. B. Tir- 
rell, Loren Fletcher, C. F. Adams, C. H. Pettit ; 
27th Dist., A. R. Hall, F. L. Morse, John Hecht- 

Seventeenth Legislature, 1875. — Senate, 25th 
Dist., John S. Pillsbury ; 26th Dist., Levi Butler ; 
27th Dist., R. B. Langdon ; House, 25th Dist., C. 
T. Woodbury, Daniel Anderson; 26th Dist., C. 
H. Pettit, C. H. Drake, Loren Fletcher, A. In- 
gerson; 27th Dist., Geo. A. Camp, Frank L. 
Morse, Daniel Bassett. 

Eighteenth Legislature, 1876.— Senate, 25th Dist., 
J. B. Gilfillan; 26th Dist., Levi Butler; 27th 
Dist., R. B. Langdon; House, 25th Dist., F. 
Whitney, Daniel Anderson; 26th Dist., C. H. 
Pettit, Leander Gorton, John H. Stevens, C. B. 
Ttrrell; 27th Dist., A. M. Reid, Daniel Bassett, 
Frank L. Morse. 

Nineteenth Legislature, 1877.— Senate, 25th Dist,, 

JohnB. Gilfillan; 26th Dist., Levi Butler; 27th 
Dist., R. B. Langdon; Plouse, 25th Dist., D. 
Anderson, G. W. Putnam ; 26th Dist., Geo. H. 
Johnson, L. Fletcher, W. H. Rouse, J. H. 
Clark; 27th Dist., A. R. Hall, Andrew J. Smith, 
Peter Weinant. 

Twentieth Legislature, 1878.— Senate, 25th Dist., 
JohnB. Gilfillan; 26th Dist., Charles A. Pills- 
bury; 27th Dist., R. B. Langdon; House, 25th 
Dist., Geo. W. Putnam, Baldwin Brown; 26th 
Dist., W. II. Johnson, H. G. Hicks, J. H. Clark, 
Ed. McDermott; 27th Dist., Frank L. Morse, 
Peter Weinant, Harry Ghostly. This Legisla- 
ture adopted bi-ennial sessions. 

Twenty-first Legislature, 1879. — (No session, 
official Roster as follows:) Senate, 25th Dist., 
J. B. Gilfillan; 2Hth Dist., C. A. Pillsbury; 27th 
Dist., E. M. Wilson; House, 25th Dist., Jared 
Benson, Daniel Anderson ; 26th Dist., H. G. 
Hicks, W. H. Johnson, A. Tharalson, J. Thomp- 
son, Jr. ; 27th Dist., John Baxter, Geo. Huhn, 
A. J. Smith. 

Twenty-first Legislature, Election of 1880. — 
Senate, 27th Dist., R. B. Langdon; House, 27th 
Dist., John Baxter, Geo. Huhn, A. Roberts. 


The scales of justice were first poised in the old 
government mill, on the second Monday in July, 
1849, by Hon. Bradley B. Meeker, Circuit Judge 
by appointment of Gov. Ramsey ; Tayl&r Dudley, 
clerk of the court, Franklin Steele, foreman of 
the grand jury. The session lasted one week. 
The first session after the organization of the 
county, was held in a small house afterwards oc- 
cupied by Anson Northup. This was in 1852. 
Sweet W. Case was clerk of the court. Dr. Alfred 
E. Ames, foreman of the grand jury. The ses- 
sion was short, only two or three indictments 
being found, and these quashed by the judge. 
Following this, in the order given, were Judges 
A. G. Chatfleld, M. Sherburne, Chas. E. Flan- 
drau, James Hall, Edward O. Hamlin, Chas. E. 
Vanderburgh, and A. H. Young. Judge Van- 
derburgh was elected in 1859, and has since filled 
the office. Should he continue until the expira- 
tion of his present term, it would make for him 
twenty-eight consecutive years. Judge Young 
was appointed Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas for Hennepin county, in May, 1872, by Gov. 



Austin. At the fall election following, he was 
elected to the office for the term of five years. 
In 1877, was elected Judge of the Fourth Judicial 
District, under an act of the legislature allowing 
two or more judges in one district. 


County Auditors — [Until 1859, the duties now- 
allotted to this office were performed by the Eeg- 
ister of Deeds.] Ilobart O. Hamlin, Harlow A. 
Gale, Anton Grethen, Jacob Schaefer, Mahlon 
Black, Francis S. McDonald. 

Registers of Deeds — John H. Stevens, Geo. E. 
Huy, Chas. G. Ames, Geo. "W. Chowen, Robert 
R. Bryant, James Bryant, L. P. Plummer. Chas. 

Clerks of Court — Sweet "W". Case, Henry A. 
Partridge, Hobart O. Hamlin, John W. Plum- 
mer, George W. Chowen, John P. Plummer, D. 
W. Albaugh, Albert M. Jerome, Jacob A. Wol- 
verton, E. J. Davenport. 

County Attorneys — Warren Bristol, D. M. Han- 
son, Isaac Atwater, Geo. A. Nourse, James R. 
Lawrence, Jr., Ashley C. Morrill, Wm. W. Mc- 
Nair, John B. Gilflllan, George R. Robinson, 
John B. GilfiUan, David A. Secombe, John B. 
GilfiUan, Jas. W. Lawrence, Wm. E. Hale. 

Sheriffs — Isaac Brown, Benjamin E. Messer, 
Benjamin F. Baker, Edward Lippincott, Richard 
Strout, John A. Armstrong, Wm. Byrnes, Henry 
G. Hicks, Geo. H. Johnson, Nathaniel R. 
Thompson, J. M. Eustis. 

County Treasurers — John T. Mann, Allen Har- 
mon, John L. Tenny, David Morgan, Joseph 
Dean, John S. Walker, O. B. King, Jesse G. 
Jones, L. R. Palmer, W. W. Huntington, Frank 

County Surveyors— Charles W. Christmas, Lewis 
Harrington, David Charlton, Franklin Cook, C. 
W. Christmas, C. B. Cliapman, V. W. Christmas, 
(i. W. Cooley, S. H. Baker, Frank Plummer. 

Coroners — David Gorham, Henry Menninger, 
J. C. Williams, F. A. Conwell, C. II. Bleckeii, 
P. O. Chilstrom, Petrus Nelson, A. C. Fairbairn. 

Court Commissioners — [Office created in 1868.]— 

N. H. Miner, Lardner Bostwick, N. II. Miner, 
Samuel R. Thayer, Albee Smith, Freeman P. 

County Superintendents of Schools — Until 1864, 

the examination of teachers was conducted by 
commissioners. At a meeting of the County 
Commissioners, September 7th, 1864, a resolution 
was passed authorizing the employment of a Su- 
perintendent of Schools for Hennepin county. 
At an adjourned meeting, held September 19th, 
J. T. Fribble was appointed, with a salary of $600 
per year. In 1865 re-appointed ; again in 1866, 
with salary raised to $900 per year. September 
8th, 1869, Rev. C. B. Sheldon was appointed from 
January to April, 1870. At a subsequent meeting 
the County Commissioners resolved to authorize 
Commissioner Bartow to employ an examiner of 
applicants for School Superintendent. Prof. O. 
V. Tousley was selected, and conducted the ex- 
amination in presence of the commissioners, on 
the 5th of January, 1870. On the following day, 
January 6th, a ballot was taken by the commis- 
sioners, resulting in a tie vote between Charles 
Hoag and Rev. C. B. Sheldon. On the 4th of 
April another ballot was taken, resulting in the 
election of Charles Hoag for a term of two years, 
from April 5th, 1870 ; salary §850. At a meet- 
ing of the commissioners in 1872, Mr. Hoag was 
re-elected, and salary increased to 31,000, At a 
meetmg, January 6th, 1874, four candidates pre- 
sented themselves — B. B. Barnard, C. Allen, I. 
S. Rankin, and M. Cochran. Mr. Rankin was 
elected on the third ballot. On the fSth of Jan- 
uary, 1876, C. W. Smith was unanimously elect- 
ed, and has been continued in the office on an 
increased salary, up to the present time. 

Judges of Probate — Joel B. Bassett, Dr. A. E. 
Ames, E. S. Jones, Lardner Bostwick, N. H. 
Hemiup, Franklin Beebe, E. A. Go\e, P. :m. 
Babcock, John P. Rea. 

County Cdmniinsioncrs, 1852 to 1858. — [First 
three elected at time of county organization, 
others at subsequent elections.] — Joseph Dean, 
Ale.xander Moore, John Jackins, W. Getchell, 
Henry Townsend, Alexander Gould, G. G. Loo- 
mis, David A. Secombe, G. W. Chowen, Nathan- 
iel Kellogg. 

1858— [County Board composed of chairmen 
of the several Town Boards and Wards of St. An- 
thony.] Some strife arose at this meeting over 
credentials. S. L. Merriman, of Minnetrista, 
was refused a seat, for want of evidence either 
of election or appointment. James Crowe was 
admitted from the Second Ward of St. Anthony. 



The chairman admitted to seats, with the Towns 
and "Wards represented, are liere given : Brook- 
lyn, E. T. Ailing; Bloomingt'on, Martin Mc 
Leod; Corcoran, Israel Dorman; Dayton, A. C. 
Kimball ; Excelsior, R. B. McGrath ; Eden Prai- 
rie, Aaron Gould ; Hamburg, Val. Chilson ; 
Hassan, Samuel Einieal; Independence, Irwin 
Shrewsbury ; Maple Grove, A. C. Austin ; Min- 
neapolis, R. P. Russell; Minnetonka, Pred Bas- 
sett; Plymouth, Francis Hunt; Greenwood, N. 
D. Perrill; Richland, Joel Brewster; St. An- 
thony, First Ward, D. Knobloch ; Second Ward, 
Jas. Crowe; Third Ward, W. M. Herron; Fourth 
Ward, J. C. Johnson ; Town of St. Anthony, J. 

B. Gilbert. 

1S59 — Brooklyn, D. C. Smith; Bloomington, 
Martin McLeod; Champlin, W. Hayden"; Cor- 
coran, P. B. Corcoran; Dayton, W. W. Cate ; 
Eden Prairie, Aaron Gould; Excelsior, George 
Galpin ; Greenwood, N. D. Ferrill ; Hassan, 
John Mitchell; Independence, Irwin Shrewbury; 
Minnetonka, Fred. Bassett ; Minneapolis, H. C. 
Keith, Cyrus Aldrich, J. S. Malbon; Maple Plain, 

C. W. Blowers; Medina, J. A. Coleman; Plym- 
outh, J. M. Parker; Richfield, Geo. Odell; St. 
Anthony, G. W. Thurber, R. W. Cummings, J. 
B. Gilbert. At a meeting of the Board, June 
5th, 1860, the county was divided into Commis- 
sioners Districts as follows : 

District No. 1 — Second, Third and Fourth 
Wards of St. Anthony. 

District No. 2 — Brooklyn, Crystal Lake, St. 
Anthony town, and First Ward of city. 

District No. 3 — Minneapolis. 

District No. 4 — Minnetrista, Minnetonka, Ply- 
mouth, pxcelsior, Eden Prairie, Bloomington 
and Richfield. 

District No. 5— Champlin, Dayton, Hassan, 
Corcoran, Maple Grove, Independence, Green- 
wood, Medina. 

Commissioners, 1860 — R. W. Cummings, 11. 
Fletcher, D. Schmitz, J. B. Hinkley, Wm. Finch. 

1861— A. B. Blakeman, James Sully, Ezra 
Hanscomb, J. B. Hinkley, William Finch. 

1862-3— A. B. Blakeman, H. S. Plummer, 
James Sully, Wm. Finch, J. B. Hinkley. 

1864— James Sulley, Sewell Phelps, E. W. 
Grindall, J. B. Hinkley. 

1865— James Sully, Sewell Phelps, H. S. Plum- 

mer, H. H. Hopkins, A. B. Blakeman, J. A. 
Coleman, J. B. Hinkley. 

1866— James Sully, E. W. Grindall, J. A. 
Coleman, Sewell Phelps, H. H. Hopkins. • 

1867-8— Sewell Phelps, J. A. Coleman, J. 
Sully, J. P. Plummer. 

1869— James Sully, A. H. Benson, Wm. E. 
Evans, Samuel Bartow, David Edwards. 

1870— Wm. E. Evans, David Edwards, Samuel 
Bartow, Ezra Hanscomb, W. E. Jones. 

1871— Wm. E. Jones, David Edwards, Ezra 
Hanscomb, J. G. McFarlane, James A. Ball. 

1872 — Wm. E. Jones, Ezra Hanscomb, David 
Edwards, J. G. McFarlane, Benj. Parker. 

1873-4-5— J. G. McFarlane, Wm.Pettit, Benj. 
Parker, David Edwards, Wm. Finch, R. S. 
Stevens, J. E. Mitchell. 

1876— D. Edwards, J. G. McFarlane, L. R. 
Palmer, Horace Wilson, Chas. H. Ward, Stiles 
Gray, Wm. Pettit. 

1877— D. Edwards, Edwin Hedderly, Chas. H. 
Ward, L. R. Palmer, Horace Wilson. • 

1878- L. R. Palmer, J^se Jones, Charles H. 
Ward, Horace Wilson, M. W. Glenn. 

1879— Horace Wilson, M. W. Glenn, L.R. Pal- 
mer, Chas. H. Ward, Jacob Schaefer. 

November, 1880 — The following officers were 
elected : Auditor, F. S. McDonald ; Register of 
Deeds, Chas. Robinson ; Clerk of Court, E. J. 
Davenport ; County Attorney, W. E. Hale ; 
Sheriff, J. M. Eustis ; Surveyor, Frank Plummer ; 
Coroner, Dr. A. C. Fairbairn; Senate, 27th Dist., 
R. B. Langdon ; House, 27th Dist., John Baxter, 
Geo. Huhn, A. Roberts ; County Commissioner, 
[east side], Baldwin Brown. 

The following official record of Presidential 
Electors will show the general political bias, as 
well as the rapid advance in population as indi- 
cated by the increased vote for each term. 

Vote of 1860, Lincoln, 1,770, Douglas, 705, 
Breckenridge, 44. Vote of 1864, Lincoln, 1,711, 
McClellen, 1,221. Vote of 1868, Grant, 3,128, 
Seymour, 1,984. Vote of 1872, Grant, 4,075, 
Greeley, 2,986. Vote of 1876, Hayes, 6,641, 
Tilden, 4,871. Vote of 1880, Garfield, 8,036, 
Hancock, 4,104. At this election the vote for 
member of Congress was, W. D. Washburn, 
8,134, H. H. Sibley, 3,991. 





The date of the organization of the First Reg- 
iment of Minnesota Volunteers, April, 1861, 
will indicate the enthusiasm of the state in re- 
sponding to the call of the country for defenders. 
April 12th had heard the first gun at Port Sum- 
ter ; April 13th had witnessed the surrender of 
the fort ; April 14th, Abraham Lincoln had issued 
his famous proclamation calling for 75,000 men, 
more than enough, we all felt sure, to wipe out 
every vestige of rebellion. 

Minnesota, one of the youngest daughters in 
the family of states, comes to the front in April, 
and organizes her first regiment. Indeed, this 
regiment did not furnish places enough for men, 
wishing to enlist as privates, to show their patri- 
otism. The country was electrified by seeing 
this regiment of stalwart men, moving to the front 
in June, coming from a state of which many citi- 
zens had not even heard, whose record was yet to 
be made. This young state was not only quick 
to respond to the demand for men, under tlie en- 
thusiasm that pervaded the country during the 
earlier stages of the war, but she held out to the 
last with her quota, through all the dark days 
that followed. 

When it was ascertained that 76,000 nien would 
not accomplish it, successive calls were made — 
300,000, 300,000, 500,000, etc., until, at last, a 
grand total of nearly 3,500,000 had been furnished 
to do what it was anticipated a handful of men 
could accomplish in a few weeks. 

Minnesota followed up these successive de- 
mands, until the very Indians thought her terri- 
tory was nearly depleted of fighting men, and 
assailed her unprotected settlers. War was thus 
brought to her own doors, in forms more dreadful 
than Antietam or Gettysburg. The records will 
show how well the state behaved under the fiery 
ordeal of war. It belongs to us only to transcribe 
to these pages the roll of honor of the county, 
hoping to assist in immortalizing the names of 

the patriotic and brave defenders of our flag. 
Here they are, rank and file. Honor them all. 


Adjt Adjutant 

Art Artillery 

Bat Battle or Battalion 

Col Colonel 

Capt Captain 

Corp Corporal 

Comsy Commisary 

Cav Cavalry 

captd captured 

destd deserted 

dis discharged 

disabl disability 

inf infantry 

M. V. I Minnesota Volunteer Infantry 

Lieut Lieutenant 

Maj Major 

mus musicians 

pro promoted 

Regt ■ Regiment 

re-en re-enlisted 

reg regular 

res resigned 

sergt sergeant 

transf d transferred 

vet veteran 

V. R. C Veteran Reserve Corps 

wd wounded 

wag wagoner 


Originally commanded by Colonel W. A. Gor- 

Field and Staff Officers— Geo. N. Morgan, Col- 
onel, com. Sept. 26, 1862, pro. from Co. E, res. 
May 5, 1863. 

John N. Chase, Adjutant, com. Oct. 22, 1861, 
pro. Capt. Co. H, Sept. 26. 1862, dis. with Regt. 
May 4, 1864. 

Chas. ^\'. Le Boutillier, Asst. Surgeon, com. 
April 29. 1861, transfd. to Minn. Skeleton Regt. 

E. D. Neill, Chaplain, com. April 29, 1861, res. 
July 13, 1862. 

John W. Pride, Sergt. Major, com. Mar. 5, 
1864, pro. from Co. E, dis. with regt. May 4, 1864. 

Company J.— John Blesse, priv. en. April 29, 
1861, transfd. to V. R. C. Nov. 16, 63. 



John McEwen, Corp. en. April 29, 1861, pro. 
Sergt. ; killed at Antietam, Sept. 17, 1862. 

Company O— Chesley B. Tirrell, priv. May 22, 
1861 , transfd. to bat. 

Recruits — Chas. C. Blanchard, no record. 

Wm. Coombs, re-en transfd. to First Battalion. 

Henry Ghostly, no record. 

Andrew McCausland dis. for disab. Jan. 8, 1863. 

Turner Fribble, dis. to enlist in reg. service 
Oct. 28, 1861. 


Henry R. Putnam, Capt., en. April 29, '61, 
trans, to 12th U. S. inf. Geo. H. Woods, 1st 
Lieut, en. April 29, '61, pro. Capt. Nov. 28, '61, 
A. Q. M. Dewitt C. Smith, 2d Lieut., en. April 
29, '61, pro. Capt. August 8, '61, trans, to Com- 
pany G, Aug., 1863, resigned for disabl. October, 
1863. Seth L. Hammond, 1st Sergt., en. April 
29, '61, pro. 2d and 1st Lieut., resigned Sept., '62. 
Christ. B. Heffelfinger, Sergt., en. April, 29, '61, 
pro. 1st Sergt., 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut., Capt., Aug. 
8, 1863, dis. with regt.. May 4, '64. Wm. Har- 
mon, Sergt., en. April 29, '61, pro. 2d Lieut. 
Company D, 1st Lieut. Company C, dis. with 
regt. Henry W. Longfellow, Sergt., en. April 
29, '61, dis for disab., May 11, '62. Joseph Young, 
Corp., en. April 29, '61, dis, for disab., Jan. 3, '63. 
EUet P. Perldns, Corp. en, April 29, '61, pro. 
Sergt., color Sergt., 1st Lieut., dis. with regt.. May 
4, '64, re-en. First bat. Isaac N. Hoblitt, Corp., 
en. April 29, '61, died Nov. 26, '61, of disease. 
Hanford L. Gordon, Corp., en. May 21, '61, dis, 
for disab. Dec. 1, '61. Calvin D. Eobinson, Corp., 
en. April 29, '61, pro. Sergt., dis. with regt. Ed- 
ward S. Past, Corp., en. April 29, '61, pro. Sergt. 
Major, dis. for wds. at battle Antietam, Sept. 17, 
'62. Orange S. King, Corp., en. April 29, '61, 
wounded at Bull Run, and left on the field. Mor- 
ton Robinson, mus., en. June 6, '61, pro. Corp., 
dis. with regt. Wm. A. Lancaster, wag. en. May 
22, '61, dis.with regt. 

Privates— William R. Allen, en. May 16, '61, 
died, July '63, of wds. received at Gettysburg. 
Chas. E. Baker, en. May 29, '61, killed July 2d, '63, 
in battle at Gettysburg. Horace K. Blake, en. May 
22, '61, dis. with regt. James Bryant, eh. May 
29, '61, re-en. in First Bat. March 31, '64, pro. 1st 
Lieut, and Captain Company C, dis. with bat. 
Geo. W. Bartlett, en. May 29, '61, dis. with regt. 

John Brown, en. May 16, '61, dis. with regt- 
Henry Bingenheimer, en. May 16, '61, dis. with 
regt. Jacob W. Chaffee, en. April 29, '61, no 
record. Enoch H. Chandler, en. April 29, '61, 
dis. with regt. John Clator, en. May 22, '61, dis. 
for disab. Feb. 7, ^oi. Henry W. Crown, en. May 
17, '61, trans, to invalid corps, March, '64. Francis 

1. Curtis, en. May 26, '61, dis. for disab. Dec, 29, 
'61. Henry A. Dean, en. May 16, '61, killed July 
21, '61, in battle Bull Run. Stephen Donnelly, 
en. May 20, '61, dis. for disab. January 7, '62. 
James F. Dunsmoor, en. May 23, '61, dis. for 
disab. Aug. 1, '61. Cyrus E. Eddy, en. May 17, 
'61. Ami R. Fogerson, en. April29, '61,dis. with 
regt. John O. French, en. April 29, "61, pro. 
Corp., dis. with regt., May 5, '64. August A. 
Goeppinger, en. April 29, '61, dis. with regt. 
William H. Garvey, en. May 16, '61, no record. 
Alonzo C. Hayden, en. April 29, '61, killed July 

2, '63, in battle at Gettysburg. Elmsley I. Ham- 
ilton, en. April 29, '61, dis. for disab., November 
27, '61. John T. Hoblitt, en. April 29, '61, no 
record. Charles W. Hughes, en. April 29,' 61, 
dis. with regt. Archibald E. Howe, en. April 29, 
'61, dis. witli regt. William H. Howe, en. April 
29, '61, dis. with regt. Charles A. Hutehins, en. 
April 29, '61, dis. for disab. February 20, '63. 
Cyrus M. Hatch, en. April 29, '61, dis. for disab. 
Decembers, '62. JohnH. Haner, en. May 21, '61, 
dis. for disab, December 2, '62. Amos C. Jordan, 
en. April 29, '61, tranp. to signal corps, August, 
1, '63. James W. Kendall, en. April 29, '61, dis. 
with regt. Irving Lawrence, en. April 29, '61. 
died July 7, '63, of wds. at bat. of Gettysburg- 
George A. Laflin, en. May 17, '61, dis. for disab. 
March 25, '63. Adin A. Laflin, en. May 17, '61, 
dis. with reg. May 5, '64. Charles H. Mason, en. 
April 29,'61, pro. Sergt., dis. forpro. December 27, 
'62. Henry A. McAllister, en. April 29, '61, died' 
Aug. '63, of wds. rec. in battle at, Gettysburg. 
Horace M. Martin, en. April 29, '61 , pro. Corp. and 
Sergt., dis. with regt. Lewis Meeker, en. April 
29, '61, dis. with regt. George Maddock, en. 
April 29, '61, wounded at Bull Run, and left on 
field, dis. with regt. William J. Newton, en. 
May 22, '61, dis. for disab. April 2, '62. Francis 
H. Newton, en. May 22, '61, absent sick, on dis. 
of regt. Thomas B. Nason,en. May Corp., 
dis. with regt. John W. Plummer, en. April 29, 
'61, pro. Corp. Sergt., di;< with regt. Robert A. 



Plummer, en. April 29, '61, dis. with regt. Henry 
C. Plummer, en. May 20, '61, dis. for disab. May 
14, '62. Joseph Smithyman, en. April 29, '61, 
pro. Corp., dis. with regt. Leroy F. Sampson, 
en. May 17, '61, dis. for disab. February 2, '63. 
Matthew M. Standish, en. May 21, '61, pro. Sergt. 
transf'd to N. C. S. as Com. Sergt. Feb. 16,' 63. 
Charles "W. Smith, en. April 27, '61, dis. with 
regt. Alvin B. Taunt, en. April 20, '61, dis. for 
disab. Feb. 8, '62. Piatt S. Titus, en. May 21 , '61 , 
dis. with regt. David G. Wetmur, en. April 29, 
'61, dis. with regt. Henry Wilgus, en. April 29, 
'61, dis. per order Nov. 16, '63. James Walsh, 
en. April 29, '61 dis. with regt. John D. Whitte- 
more en. May 23, '61, died of wd.rec.inbat. near 
Vienna, Va. 

Recruits — Thomas Hughes, dis. for disab. Dec. 
20, '61. Edward D. Messer, dis. for disab. Dec. 
29, '61. Henry B. Chase, dis. for disab. Feb. 2, 
'63. Geo. H. Smith, dis. for disab. Feb. 13, '63. 
David Jenkins, dis. for disab. Aug, 20, '63. Ran- 
som A. Bartlett, dis. for disab. Oct. 7, '62. Eben 
S. ISTasson, dis. for disab. Feb. 15, '63. David M. 
Howe, dis. for disab. Jan. 6, '63. Joseph B. Holt, 
dis. for disab. Jan. 9, '62. Frank Rollins, died, 
Aug. 2, '63, of wds. rec. at battle of Gettysburg. 
George Grandy, died July 4, '63, of wds. rec. in 
bat. at Gettysburg. Marcus A. Past died July 5,'6.'?, 
of wds. at bat, Gettysburg. S. Densmore, transfd. 
to First Bat. E. J. Hamilton, transfd. to First 
Bat. J. Pratt, transfd. to First Bat. G. S. Sly, 
transfd. to First Bat. O. Ames, transfd. to First 
Bat. J. Hawkes, transfd. to First Bat. W. T. Abra- 
ham, transfd. to First Bat. D. L. Morgan, transfd. 
to First Bat. M. G. Pratt, died April, '64. E. 
Hamilton, no record. Artis Curtis, no record. 
Edwin Lambdin, dis. for disab. December 2, '62. 


George N. Morgan, Capt., en. April 29, '61, 
pro. Maj., October 22, Lieut. Col., August 28, '62, 
Col., September 26,'62, res. May 5, '63. James IIol- 
ister, 1st Lieut., en. April 29, '61, res. November 
11, '61. George Pomeroy, 2d Lieut., en. April 
29, '61, pro. Capt., October 22, '61, res. for pro. 
September 22, '62, Lieut. Col. ] 46 N. Y. V. John 
N. Chase, 1st Sergt., en. April 29, '61, pro. Capt. 
Company G, September 26, '62. James M. Shep- 
ley, Sergt., en. April 29, '61, pro. 2d Lieut. Octo- 
ber 22, '61, 1st Lieut. Company G, July 19, '62, 

res. Jan. 13, '63. George Boyd, Sergt. en. April 29, 
'61, pro. 2d Lieut, and 1st Lieut. Company I., 
April 15, '63, dis. with regt. May 4, '64. Hugh 
G. Cassedy, Sergt. en. May 23, '61, no record. 
William Lochren, Sergt., en. April 29, '61, pro. 
2d Lieut. Company K, September 22, '62, 1st Lieut. 
Company E, July 3, '63, res. December 30, '63. 
Francis Kittel, Corp. en. April 29, '61, pro. Sergt. 
dis. for disab. December 21. '63. Orville D. That- 
cher, Corp. en. April 29, '61, dis. with regt., May, 
'64. Albion Hobson, Corp., en. April 29, '61, no 
record. Booth C. Mulvey, Corp., en. April 29, '61, 
no record. William W. Smiley, Corp., en. May 
23, '61 trans, to gunboat service, November 16, '63. 
William W. Wilson, Corp., en. April 29, '61, dis. 
for disab. July 23, '62. William H. Davenport, 
Mus., en. April 29, '61, dis. per order, September 
26, '61. Charles Northrup, wag., en. April29, '61, 
dis. with regt.. May, '64. 

Privates — Asa T. Abbott, en. April 29, '61, no 
record. John F. Barnard, en. April 29, '61, dis. 
for disab. July 31, '61. William H. Bassett, en. 
April 29, '61, pro. Corp. dis. with regt. Albert 
B. Coombs, en. May 20, '61, transfd. to U. S. En- 
gineers, October 24, '62. Henry M. Day, en. 
April 29, '61, no record. Amos O. Berry, en. 
April 29. '51, dis. with regt. Charles A. Berry, 
en. April 29, '61, no record. William E. Candy, 
en. May 23, 61 , dis. with regt. Lloyd U. Dow, en 
April 29, '61, dis. for disab. '63. Benj. Fenton, en. 
April 29, '61, dis. with regt. William Fullerton, 
en. May 20, '61, transfd. to gunboat service, Nov. 
16, '63. John Fleetham, en. May 23, "61, dis. for 
disab. March 25, '63. George N. Hollister, en. 
April 29, 61, transfd. to 4th U. S. Cav. Oct., '62. 
James Hanscome, en. May 23, '61, no record. 
John Harrington, en. May 23, "61, trans, to 4th 
U. S. Cav., October, "62. Israel Jaekins, en. 
April 29, T-l, killed July 2, '63, at Gettysburg. 
Ernest Jefferson, en. May 23, '61, no record. 
William R. Johnson, en. May 23, '61, dis. for 
disabl. Mai-ch 25, '63. Edwin Keen, en. April 
20, "61, trans, to gunboat service, November," '63. 
Edwin B. Lowell, en. May 23, '61, dis. with 
regt. Samuel F. Leyde, en. May 28, '61, trans, 
to gunboat service. Charles McDonald, en. 
April 29, '61, no record. Charles McDonald Jr., 
en. May 23, '61, trans, to 4th U. S. Cav. October, 
'62. Reuben M. Mayo, en. May 23, '61, no 
record. George W. Northrup, en. April 29, '61, 



trans, to 4th U. S. Cav. October '62. James Pat- 
terson, en. May 28, '61, destd. March, '64. John 
W. Pride, en. April 29, '61, pro. Sergt. Major, 
trans, to N. C. S. March *21, '64, dis. with regt. 
Obed Eussell, en. April 29, 61. dis. for disabl. 
December 31, '62. TrancisEay, en. May 24, '01, 
dis. with regt. Oscar W. Sears, en. April 29, '61, 
trans, to invalid corps. October, '63. Samuel B. 
Stites, en. April 29, '61, pro. Corp, Sergt., dis, 
with regt. Stephen B. Sutton, en. April 29, '61, 
dis. with regt. Harvey E. Scott, en. May 20, '61, 
wd. and taken prisoner at Savage Station, trans, 
to V. li. C. George H. Winants, en. April 29, 
'61, dis. for disabl. December 25, '61, Peter 
Welin, en. May 23, '61, died July 29, '68, of wds. 
rec'd. in battle of Gettysburg. William L. 
Wakefield, en. May 23, '61, dis. for disabl. Janu- 
ary 4, '64. John D. \Yhite, en. May 26, '61, dis. 
for disabl. January 9^ '62. 

Recruits — Kufus H. Jefferson, no date, tran. to 
4th TJ. S. Cav. October, '62. C. G. Sherbrook, no 
record. Adam C. Stites, no record. H. B. 
O'Brien, no record. E. E. Leighton, no record. 
W. Bofferding, no record. James D. Weaver, re- 
en. March 24, '64, trans, to First Battalion. 
William W. Holden, no record. 


Becruits — H. Blackwell, en. March 28, '64, no 
record. Peter J. Bofferding, en. February 18, 
'64, no record. E. Jenkins, en. March 28, '64, 
no record. A. Stanberry, en. March 29, '64, no 


Becruits— Hi. Shook, en. March 80, 1864, no 
record. Wm. Schmeigart, en. March 23, '64, no 


Becruits — Samuel M. Burgess, en. November 
11, '64, dis. for disabl. February 8, '63. Alfred 
Colbum, en. November 4, '61, dis. for disab. 
August 23, '62. Lewis Hanson, en. December 
16, '61, deserted October 24, '62. John W. Sul- 
ly, en. November 20, '61, deserted October 24, "62. 
Augustus H. Smith, en. November 26, '61, killed 
July 2, '63, at Gettysburg. 

The First Eegiment Infantry was organized 
April, '61, ordered to Washington, D. C, June 
14, '61. Engaged in the following battles, sieges 

and skirmishes: First Bull Eun, July 21, '61; 
Edward's Ferry, October 22, '61 ; Yorktown, 
May 7, '62; Fair Oaks, June 1, '62; Peach 
Orchard, June 29, '62 ; Savage Station, June 29, 
"62 ; Glendale, June 30 ; Nelson's Farm, June 
30, '62; Malvern Hill, July 1, '62; Vienna, Sep- 
tember 2, '62 ; Antietam, September 17, '62 ; 
First Fredericksburg, December 11, 12 and 13, 
'62 ; Second Fredericksburg, May 3, '63 ; Gettys- 
burg, July 2 and 3, '63, and Bristow Station, Oc- 
tober 14, '63. Discharged at Fort Snelling, Min- 
nesota, May 5, 1864. 


Originally commanded by Colonel Horatio P. 

Horatio P. Van Cleve, Col., com. July 22, '61, 
pro. Brig. Gen. March 21, '62. 


Privates — James Hamilton, en. June 26, '61, 
re-en. December 28, '63, dis. with regt. James 
Eourke, drftd. September 26, '64, dis, by order, 
June 11, '65. George W. Stewart, en. Febru- 
ary 18, '64, dis with regt. Josiah Weaver, drftd. 
January 28, '65, dis. with regt. 


Privates — Daniel Black, drftd May 28, '64, dis. 
with regt., July 11, '65. Stephen Grover, drftd, 
November 1, '64, dis. from hosp, August 2, '65. 


Alden Kimball, Sergt. en. July 5, '61, dis. for 
disab. October, '62. Edward B, Perkins, Corp., 
en. July 5, '61, dis. for disab. October 16, '62. 
James N. Dudley, mus., en. July 5, '61, dis. for 
disab. April 19, '62. 

Privates — Lyman Brewster, en. July 5, '61, dis. 
on expiration of term, July 4, '63. Albert E. 
Hall,, en. July 5, '61, pro. Corp. Sergt., wounded 
at Chickamauga, dis. on expiration of term, July 

4, '64. Fred. A. Jennings, en. July 5, '61, dis. for 
disab. March 9, '68. Alexander Landril, en. July 

5, '61, re-en. December 29, '63, pro. Corp. Sergt. 
dis. July 11, '65. Eugene B. Nettleton, en. July 
5, '61, pro. Coi-p., dis. July 4, '64, expiration of 
term. Henry Stoakes, en. July 5, '61, dis. on ex- 
piration of term, July 4, '64. Allen Sexton, en. 
July 5, '61, dis. for disab. November 10, '62. 
George W. Towle, en. July 6, '61, re-en. Dec. 29, 



'63, wounded at Chickamauga, dis. July 11, '65. 
Leonard Town, en. July 5, '61, died at Tuscum- 
bia, Ala., August 2, '62. George A. Wheaton, 
en. July 5, '61, dis. on expr. of term, July 4th, 
'64. James Maxwell, drafted May 28, '64, pro. 
Corp., dis. with regt. John B. I'aro, sub. May 30, 
'64, dis. with regt. 


J?ecrmts— John Adelberger, en. September 
26, '64, dis. by order, June 11, '65. James R. 
Brown, en. September 26, '61, died in Chicago of 
a knife wd. rec'd. in a row May 18, '64. Joseph 
Ebert en. October 26, '64, dis. by order June 11, 
'65, Anthony Ebert, en. October 26, '64, dis. by 
order, June 12, '65. John Salenting, en. May 26, 
'64, died at Savannah, Ga., December 28, '64. 
John Thur, en. October 8, '64, dis. by order, May 

26, '65. Henry* Truxes, en. September 26, '64, 
dis. by order war dept., June 11, '65. 


Charles H. Friend, Corp., en. July 8, '61, re-en. 
December 29, '63, pro. 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut, and 
dis. with regt. William Blake, mus., en. July 8, 
'61 , threw away his drum and took a gun at Mill 
Spring, dis. for disabl. August 9, '62. 

Privates — Charles J. Atwater, en. July 8, '61, 
dis. for disabl. June 9, '62. Louis AUers, en. 
July 8, '61, dis. expir. of term, July 7, '64. Perd 
Birck, en. July ,8, '61, re-en. December 23, '63, 
dis. with regt. Conrad Lutz, drftd. November 

27, '64, dis, with regt. Joseph Pohl, sub. May 30, 
'64, dis. by order, June 9, '65. Christian Rankin, 
drftd. May 28, '64, dis. from hospital, July 14, '65. 
Henry Astrope, en. September 27, '61, re-en. 
December 23, '63, dis. for disabl., January 17, 
'6o. William Mattin, en. July 8, '61, re-en. De- 
cember 29, '63, pro: Corp. and dis. with regt. 
Joseph McAlpin, en. July 8, '61, dis. for disabl. 
June 25, '62. Joseph Molan, en. July 8, '61, destd. 
October 10, '61. George Rutherfoi-d, en. July 8, 
'61, re-en. December 23, '68, wounded at Kene- 
saw Mt., discharged for disabl. January 17, '65. 


Privates~¥. Bhomback, en. July 8, '61, killed 
at Mill Spring, January 19, '62. L.- Hoffman en. 
July 8, '61, dis. on exp. of term. July 7, 1864. 
Charles Orth, en. July 8, '61, dis. for disab. May 
3, '62. Charles Rorhback, en. July 8, '61, dis. 

for disab. November 20, '61. Nicholas Rossbach, 
en July 8, '61, re-en. December 26, '64, pro. Corp. 
Sergt. dis. with regt. Bateus Webber, en. July 
8, '61, wd. at Chickamauga, dis. June 11, 1864. 
Jacob Wohlers, en. July 8, 61, deserted at Louis- 
ville, October 1. '62. 

Becruits— Joseph Hoffman, en. July 15, '61, 
dis. with regt. John Igel, drafted May 30 '64, 
dis with regt. John Miller, drafted September 
26, '64, dis. by order June 10, '65. Nicholas 
Rossback, en. Feb 27, '64. Pro. Corp. dis. with 
regt. Reinhardt Riebeth, sub. February 15th, 
'65, dis. with regt. Herman Radentz, en. Sep- 
tember 21, '61, killed at Chickamauga, Septem- 
ber, 20 1863. Henry Strohback, eu. February 
26, '64, dis. with regt. Peter Schumacker, drafted 
May 27, '64, dis. with regt. WilUam Schiltz, 
drafted September 26, "64, dis. by order June 10, 
'66. Wm. Schuler, drafted September 26, '64, 
dis. by order, June 10, '65. Christian H. Sander, 
en. March 6, '62, re-en. December '26, 64, pro. 
Corp. Sgt. dis. with regt. Balthaser Tsehudy en. 
December 15, '63, pro. Coi-p. dis. with regiment. 
John W. Tsehudy, en. September 5, '64, dis. by 
order June 10, '65. 


Joseph Burgher, en. July 15, '61, re-en. Dec. 
18, '63, dis. for disabl. June 17, '62. E. T. Cressy, 
drftd. September 30, '61, destd. May, '62, retd. 
March 28, '63, dis. on expr. of term, June 15, '65. 


Fred'k. C. Shepherd, Sergt. en. July 30, "61, 
dis. on expr. of term, July 11, "65. William 
Bending, Corp., en. August V2. '61, re-en. Dec, 
'63, pro. Sergt., 2d Lieut., dis. July 11, '65. 

Privates— John S. Bertraiid, en. July 30, '61, 
captd. by enemy at Chickamauga, died in Ander- 
sonville prison. Hiram Haskell, en. July 30, '61, 
trans, to '\^. R. C., April 28, '64. Charles B. Lay- 
man, en. September 8, '61, re-en. December, '63, 
dis. with regt. Isaac Layman, en. September 8, 
'61, wd. at Chickamauga, dis. on expr. of term, 
September 5, '64. Albert Parker, en. Septem- 
ber 5, '61, wd. at Chickamauga, dis. on expr. of 
term, September 12, '64. Roderick Parker, en. 
September 11. "61, died at Lebanon, Ky., March 
1, '62. John Wheeler, en. July 30, '61, re-en. 
December, '63, dis. July 11, '6o. 



Beeruits — George Burton, drftd. March 8, '65, 
dis. with regt. James Crammond, en. February 
24, '64, dis. with regt. Washington Eader, en. 
February 25, '64, dis with r6gt. Geo. W. Stone, 
en. September 23, '61, re-en. December, '63, pro. 
Corp. Sergt., dis. with regt. Jonathans. Serrel, 
en. February 27, '64, pro. Corp., dis. with regt. 
John W. Tewall, en. February 8, '65, dis. with 


William W. Woodbury, 1st Lieut., en. August 
23, '61, pro. Capt. resigned July, '64. 

Privates — WilUam Hamilton, en. August 26, 
'61, wd. Chickamauga, dis. on expr. of term 
Lyman 8. Martin, en. August 30, '61, dis. on 
expr. of term August 30, '64. Chas. W. Strong, 
en. August 26, '61, re-en. December, '64, dis. for 
disabl. November, 10, '63. Lewis Wakefield, en. 
August 21, '61, dis. for disabl. March, '62. Wil- 
liam Wilson, en. August 26, '61, dis. by reason 
of wds. rec'd. at Mill Spring. Godfleld Dien, 
drftd. May 26, '64, dis. from hospital, '65. John 
Kiser, drftd. May 28, '64, dis. from hospital, '66. 
Warren Merriman, en. May 28, '64, dis. from 
hospital, '65. 


organized July, '61, ordered to Louisville, Ky., 
October, '61, and assigned to the army of the 
Ohio. Engaged in the following marches, bat- 
tles, skirmishes and sieges, viz: Mill Spring, 
January 19, '62; Siege of Corinth, April, '62; 
transferred to the army of the Tennessee, Bragg's 
Eaid, Perryville, October 8, '62; skirmishes of 
the Tullahoma compaign, Chickamauga, Septem- 
ber 19 and 20, '63 ; Mission Kidge, November 25, 
'63 ; Veteranized January, '64. Battles and 
skirmishes of the Atlanta campaign, viz : 
Eesaca, June 14, 15, and 16, '64 ; Jonesboro, 
Sherman's march through Georgia and the Caro- 
linas, Bentonville, March 19, '65. Discharged at 
Fort Snelling, July 11, '65. 


originally commanded by Col. Henry C. Lester. 
Levi Butler, Surgeon, en. November 11, '61, 
resnd. September, '63. Moses R. Greeley, Asst. 
Surgeon, September 5, '62, dis. with regt. 


James P. Howlett, 1st Lieut., ap. regt. Q. M., 

res. March 2r'64. Adolphus Elliott, 2d Lieut, 
pro. 1st Lieut., dismissed December 1, '62. E. E. 
Jaques, Sergt., re-en. December '64, dis. Septem- 
ber 2, '65. Joseph H. Smith, Sergt., dis. for 
disabl. April 10, '62. Jesse G. Jones, Corp., 
pro. Com. Sergt. October 5, '63. Alfred B. Rob- 
inson, Mus., dis. for disab., June, '62. H. F. 
Thompson,, Wag., dis. on expr. of term, Sep- 
tember 30, '64. 

Privates— 'William Atkinson, dis. for disabl. 
March 10, '62. Irenus Atkinson, re-en. Decem- 
ber 23, '63, dis. With regt. William Bisko, died 
at Duvall's Bluff, Ark., September 11, '63. A. B. 
Carson, re-en. December 23, '63, dis. with regt. 
Seldon Coleman, dis. on expr. of term November 
14, '64. M. N. Coleman, dis. on expr. of term 
November 14, '64. A. N. Coleman, dis. on expr. 
of term, November 14, '64. John A. Coleman, 
dis. for disabl. July, '62. H. L. Councilman dis. 
for disabl., March 29, '62. A. N. Doyle, dis. on 
expr. of term, November 14, '64. L. E. Dudley, 
dis. for disabl., February 5, '63. William Foster, 
re-en. December 23, '63, trans, to V. E. C, Jan- 
uary 13, '65. Cornelius Frederick, re-en. Decem- 
ber 23, '63, pro. Corp. and discharged with regt. 
Dudley Green, dis. for disab., October, '62. 
Thomas H. Green, pro. 1st Lieut, in the 57 U. S. 
Col. Inf., September 28, '64. M. P. Hamilton 
re-en. December 23, '63, dis. with regt. Ezra M. 
Heald, re-en. December 23, '63, dis. with regt. 
Samuel W. Heald, died at Columbus, Ky., Sep- 
tember 10, '63. Daniel H. Hunt, trans, to V. E. 
C, ^November 18, '63. Abner Hough, pro. 1st 
Sergt., dis. for disabl., February 16, '64. John 
Jones, dis. on expr. of term, November 14, '64. 
W. A. Kemp, re-en. December 23, '63, destd. 
February 3, '65. George S. Maxfield, re-en. 
December 23, '63, pro. Corp., dis. with regt. 
Jos. B. McCaslin, died at Little Rock, Ark., 
August 8, '64. Patrick McDonald, dis. for disabl. 
April 10, '62. George W. Moor, pro. Corp., dis. 
on expr. of term, November 14, '64. J. V. Mont- 
gomery, died at Little Rock, Ark., August 16, '64. 
George Nott, dis. for disabl., July, '62. Josiah 
Oathoudt, no record. Charles W. A. Nudd, pro 
Sergt., 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut, and Capt., res. 
August, '64. Ezra F. Peabody, no record. Jay 
Pratt, dis. on expr. of term, November 14, '64. 
James C. Price, re-en. December 23, '63, dis. for 
disabl., July 21, '65. • James R. Putnam, pro. 2d 



Lieut. Company K, January 9, '62, res. Septem- 
ber 18, '64. S. J. Raymond, died en route from 
Louisville to Nashville, March 31, '62. Edwin 
E. Ross, killed at Wood Lake, Minn., September 
23, '62. Peter Rosskop, dis. on expr. of term, 
November 14, "64. William M. Stiles, re-en. 
•December 23, '63, dis. with regt. Charles M. 
Sydlinker, dis. on expr. of term, Nov. 14, '64. 

Secruits— Joseph Brasch, en. August 29, '64, 
dis. by order July 23, '65. C. H. McCausland, 
en. February, 29, '64, dis. with regt. John S. 
Millett, en. Mar. 22, '64, dis. by order June 20, '65. 

Drafted — Henry Dryer, en. June 25, '64, dis. 
with regt. Adam Hohenstein, en. June 25, '64, 
dis. with regt. Frederick Shulte, en. June 25, 
'64, dis. with regt. Anthony Trump, en. June 
25, '64, dis. by order June 20, '65. Joseph Palm, 
en. June 25, '64, died at Pine Bluff, Ark., Sep- 
tember 23, '64. 


Private — George Selon, en. November 7, '61, 
re-en. February 2,, '64, dis. by order April 29, '65. 


Privates— Jsiiaes H. Deremer, en. November 8, 
'61, re-en. Dec. 20, '63, dis. with regt. Baaron 
Fowley, en. November 8, '61, dis. for disab. Feb- 
ruary 5, '63. Neamiah Warts, en. November 8, 
'61, dis. on exp. of term, November 14, '64. 


Privates— Stephen Rhodes, en. November 6, 
'61, pro. Sergt., 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut., dismissed 
from service. James W. Kelsey, drftd. June 27, 
'64, dis. for disab. September 23, '64. Frank 
Hatcher, drftd. June 26, '64, dis. with regt. 


Private — Peter Meurer, recruit, en. September 
1, '64, dis. by order July 28, '6.'5. Henry Fane, 
en. '64, dis. with regt. 


Privates — David Blackburn, en. November 6, 
'61, died at Snyder's Bluff, Miss., July 19, '63. 
Philander Chamberlain, en. Nov. 6, '61, trans, to 
Co. A, re-en. December '63, dis. with regt. Chas. 
A. Hale, en. November 6, '61, dis. for disabl. 
Fredk. Redlon, en. November 6,' 61, dis, for 
disabl. November 7, '63. Peter Va'dner, recruit, 
en. February 11, '64, dis. with regt. Augustin 

Shoret, drftd. June 25, '64, died at Memphis, 
Tenn., November 29, '64. 


Organized October, 1861, ordered to Nashville, 
Tenn., March, 1862, captured and paroled at 
Murfreesboro, Tenn., July, 1862, ordered to St. 
Louis, Mo., thence to Minnesota. Participated 
in the battle of Wood Lake, September, 1862, 
ordered to Little Rock, Ark., November, 1863. 
Veteranized January 1864. Engaged in the bat- 
tle of Fitzhugh's Woods, March 30, 1864 ; order- 
ed to Pine Bluff, Ark., April 1864; thence to 
Duvall's Bluff October 1864; mustered out at 
Duvall's Bluff, September 2, 1865; discharged 
at Fort Snelling. 


originally commanded by Col. John B. Sanborn. 


Privates. — Thomas Craig, wounded, re-en. De- 
cember 30, '63, pro. Corp., dis. July 19, '65. Thom- 
as Small, pro. Corp., killed by acdl. dis. of gun, 
October 12, '62. Rufus P. Wells, pro. Corp., 1st 
Lt. Capt. Co. C, January 7, 64, dis. with regt. 
Chas. Barkow, recruit, en. "64, dis. with regt. 


WilUam Enable, Corp., pro. Sergt., dis. at ex. 
of term, Oct. 11, '64. 

Privates — Martin Luther, died September 23, 
'63. Edward Ziebarth, dis. at exp. of term, Oc- 
tober 11, '64. Charles Ziebarth, re-en. January 
1, '64, pro. Corp., dis. July 18, '65- 


Privates — Andrew J. Brown, died Jan. 14, '63. 
Otis B. Bailey, dis. for disab. Oct. 2, "62. Moody 
A. Bailey, dis. for disab., March 25, '63. Joseph 
Goyette, re-en., dis. June 28, '65, for disab. John 
N. Morrell, dis. for disab., September 12, '62. 
]?eniamin A. Kice, re-en. Jan. 1, '64, pro. Corp,, 
dis. with regt. Dow Rosenburg, dis. for disab., 
December 9, "62. Benjamin Robinson, dis. on 
exp. of term, October 11, '64, John R. Rich, dis., 
for disab., October 23, '62. Thomas H. Reeves, 
re-en., January 1, '64, pro. Corp. Sergt., dis. with 
regt. Morris Woesner, re-en., January 1, '64, 
dis. with regt. O. N. Washburn, died at Farm- 
ington. Miss., August 15, '62. Carroll Wilkins, 
dis. exp. term, October 11, '64. 




Privates — John Maltcan, en. Aug. 30, '64, dis. 
with regt. Walter L. Winter, drafted May 27, 
'64, pro. Corp. dis. with regiment. 


, Privates — James Billings, en. October 10, '61, 
re-en. January 1, '64, dis. with regt. Ezra M. 
Timson, en, October 10, '61, re-en. January 1, 
'64, dis. with regiment Emil Candeaux, sub. 
January 6, '65, dis. with regt. Michael Hizer, 
drafted December 14, '64, dis. with regt. Leonard 
Lenzen, en. '64, dis. April 23, '65. 


Privates — Eichard F. Reeves en. November 
16, '61, re-en. January 1, '64, pro. Corp. dis. with 
regt. K. B. Langdon, en. September 2, '64, dis. 
by order June 12, '65. 


Joseph Meyer, Corp. dis. August 16, '63 for 
pro. in 12th La. Vol's. 

Privates — Conrad Brustle, dis. for disab. Sep- 
tember 8, '62. J. F. Grepe, re-en. January 1, '64 
pro. Corp. Sergt. dis. with regt. Wm. F. Holtz, 
dis. for disab. July 29, '62. Clement Lovely, 
dis. for disab. August 11, '62. Lott Palmer, 
transferred to V. R. C. 


W. J. Maxfleld, wag. en. December 20, '61, 
re-en. January 1, '64, dis. July 19, '65. A. L. 
Cummings, priv. en. December 20, '61, dis. for 
disab. August 22, '63. 


Private — Ephriam Dudley, recruit, en. Septem- 
ber 2, '64, died October 7, '64, of wds. rec'd. at 
Altoona, Ga. 


S. M. MilhoUin, Corp., en. Dec. 23, '61, died 
December 16, '62, at Quincy, 111. 

Private — Christian Brezett, drftd. May 28, '64, 
dis. with regt. 


organized December 23, '61 ; ordered to Benton 
Barracks, Mo., April 19, '62; assigned to the 
army of the Mississippi, May 4, '62 ; participated 
in the following battles, skirmishes, seiges, and 
marches : Seige of Corinth, April, ^62 ; luka, 
September 19, '62 ; Corinth, October 3 and 4, '62 ; 

seige of Vicksburg, Forty Hills, Raymond, Jack- 
son, Champion Hills. Assault of Vicksburg, cap- 
ture of Vicksburg, July 4, '63 ; transferred from 
Seventeenth to Sixteenth Corps, Mission Ridge, 
November 25, '63 ; Veteranized, January, '64 ; 
Altoona, July, '64; Sherman's march through 
Georgia and the Carolinas, Bentonville, March 
20, '65 ; Mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 19, 
'65 ; discharged at Fort Snelling, Minnesota. 


originally commanded by Colonel Rudolph Bor- 

Field and Staff Officers — William H. Leonard, 
Surgeon, jSrovember22, '62, pro. from Aspt. Sur., 
dis. with regt., September 6, '65. James F. 
Chaffee, Chaplain, May 17, '62, res. June, 23, '62. 


Louis Carle, Corp., destd., January 30, '64. 
Pierre Dupre, Wag., destd., July 22, '62. 

Privates — Michael Brouillette, dis. for disab., 
February 5, '63. Clement Dubay, re-en., March 
11, '64, dis. with regt. Baptiste Joinville, re-en., 
February 19, '64, pro. Corp. dis. with regt. Henry 
Kocher, re-en. February 19, '64, pro. Corp. dis. 
with regt. 


Privates — John Barbalin, re-en. February 28, 
'64, dis. with regt. KiJlian Barberich, mortally 
wd. bat. of Nashville, Tenn., December 16, '64, 
died December 21 . '64. Jacob Dill, dis. on exp. of 
term. 'Michael Fenerker, killed in bat. October 
4, '62. Joseph Herman , dis. for disab. , September 
18, '62. Ferdinand Kern, died at Memphis, Tenn. , 
September 22, '63. Mathias Logley, wd. October 
'62, dis. for disab., March 31, '63. Julius Motz, 
destd., January 2, '63, Alton prison, dis. on exp. 
of term. Anton Marthei', re-en. March 12, '64, 
pro. Corp. wd., December 16, '64. dis. vrtth regt. 
Thomas Reilly, transfd. to Co. K., May 1, '62, 
dis. with regt. 


Privates — Peter Bottineau, re -en. February 
13, '64, pro. Corp dis. with regt. Andrew Israel- 
son, re-en. March 20, 1864, died August 24, '64, 
at Abbey ville. Miss., by wounds. Alfred Jar- 
vis, wounded in battle Corinth, dis. for disab. 
September 30, '62. Simon Paul, re-en. February 



13, '64, pro. Corp. dis. with regt. Severe Reach, 
dis. exp, of term March 23, '6d. 


James Beaupre, priv. en. April 24, '62, re-en. 
February 26, '64, dis with regt. 


Timothy O'Leary, Sergt., dis. for disab. De- 
cember 8, '62. Henry B. Dike, mus., re-en. 
Febrviary 27, '64, dis. with regt. Thomas Quig- 
ley, wag., transferred to V. E. C. October 17, 

Privates — N. J. Burns, pro. hosp. steward, 
trajasferred to N. C. S. Geo. W. Calvert, pro. 
Corp. Sergt. re-en. March 31, '64, dis with regt. 
John Daly, dis for disab. March 5, '63. Daniel 
Leo, destd. March 14, '63, at Memphis. — Mc- 
STame, pro. Coi-p., died July 11, '63. John Mc- 
Laughlin, dested. March 14, '63, at Memphis. 
Patrick Noon, dis. for disab. Hugh Weir, pris. 
paroled dis. by order June 14, '65. 


Privates — Thomas Reilly, en. March 4, '62, 
transferred to Company r, Mar- 31, '64. Thos. 
Walsh, en. January 7, '62, dis. for disab. October 
4, '62. 


Organized May '62; ordered to Pittsburg 
Landing, May 9, '62, a detachment of three com- 
panies remaining in Minnesota guarding frontier 
posts. Participated in the following marches, 
battles, sieges, and skirmishes : Siege of Corinth, 
April and May, '62. The detachment in Minne- 
sota engaged in battle with Indians at Eedwood, 
Minn., Aug. 18, '62 ; siege of Port Ridgely, Aug. 
20, 21, 22, '62 ; Fort Abercrombie, D. T., August 
'62. Regiment assigned to 16th Army Corps. 
Engaged in the battles of luka, Sept. 18, '62 ; 
Corinth, Oct. 3 and 4, '62 ; Jackson, Tenn., May 
14, "63 ; siege of Vicksburg, assault of Vicksbuig, 
May 22, '63; Mechanicsburg, June 3, '63; Rich- 
mond, June 15, '63; Fort de Russy, La., March 
14, '64; Red River Expedition, March, April and 
May, '64; Lake Chicat, June 6, '64; Tupelo, 
June, '64; veteranized, July, '64; Abbeyville, 
August 23, '64 ; marched in September, '64, from 
Brownsville , Ark. , to Cape Giradeau , Mo . ; thence 
by boat to Jefferson City; thence to Kansas 

state line; thence to St. Louis, Mo.; ordered to 
Nashville, Tenn., Nov., '64; engaged in battles 
at Nashville, Dec. 15 and 16, '64 ; Spanish Fort 
and Fort Blakely, April, '66. Mustered out at 
Demopolis, Ala, Sept. 6, '65. Discharged at Fort 


originally commanded by Col. William Crooks. 


Privates — John Wright, en. October 1, '62. 
trans, to Third Minnesota Battery, May 1, '63. 
John Chalmers, en. October 1, '62, pro, Corp., 
dis. with regt. 


Orlando- C. Meniman, Capt., res. June 6, "64. 
William Grant, 1st Lieut., pro. Capt., June 6, '64, 
dis. with regt. August 19, '65. Henry A. Par- 
tridge, 2d Lieut., pro. 1st Lieut. June 6, '64, dis 
on expr. of term, July, '65. T. H. Wheeler, 1st 
Sergt., pro. 2d Lieut. June 6, '64, died December 
30, '64, at St. Louis. William Moore, Sergt., 
pro. 2d Lieut., January 1, '65, dis. -nith regt. 
F. N. Fleming, Sergt., pro. 1st Sergt., February 
14, '65, dis with regt. L. P. Plummer, Sergt., 
trans, to 72d colored regt., as 2d Lieut. P. 
Benjamin, Sergt., dis. with regt. William P. C. 
Hawk, Corp., dis. for disabl. August 16, "65 
Edward R. Norris, Corp., pro. Sergt., dis. for 
disabl. September 17, "64. Bela F. Burrill, Coi-p., 
dis. with regt. Leonard T. Young, Corp., pro. 
Sergt., dis. July 28, '65. Thomas Hanney, Corp., 
pro. Sergt., dis. with regt. James Lafans, Corp., 
dis. with regt. Marcus Brownell, Corp., dis. for 
disabl., October 11, '64. A. B. Robinson, Mus., 
dis. with regt. James II. Jones, Mus., dis. with 
regt. F. S. Mitchell, Wag., dis. by order. 
May 3, '65. 

Pi/roYcs— JMiles Allen, died August 6, '64, at 
Helena, Ark. Simeon Auer, transfd. to V. R. C, 
October 1, '63. David Angus, dis. with regt. 
Eben J. Bragdon, died, January 3, '65, at Jef- 
ferson Barracks, St. Louis, Missouri. Henry 
Brewer, died, November 1, '63, at Fort Snelling. 
L. M. Bartlow, transfd to V. R. C, October 1, 
'63. William H. Bartlow, pro. Corp., dis. with 
regt. William W. Birch, died November 1, '64, at 
Jefferson Barracks. Merrill A. Bailey, transfd to 
V. R. C, October 1, '63. Alonzo Birch, died at 



Port Snelling, December 5, '62. James C. Bran- 
den, died July 5, '65, at Montgomery, Alabama. 
William Batdorf, died September 3, '64, at Hele- 
na, Ark. Benjamin Colburn, sick in hospital at 
dis. of regt., September 7, '65. Francis A. Clay, 
dis. with regt. John Chalmers, transf d. to Com- 
pany A, November 1 , '62. Edwin Cooley, transf d 
to 3d Minn. Batt. Robert Dike, transf d to Y. E. 
C, October 1, '63. George H.Day, dis.fordisab., 
May 23, 65. Simeon Farrington, dis. for disab., 
February, '65. George A. Forbes, transfd. to 3d 
Minn. Batt. George Forsyth, dis. June 2, '62. 
J. L. Flemming, dis. per order, July 24, '65. 
M. A. Getchell, dis. for disab. ISTovember 26, '62. 
John Galbraith, dis. for disab. May 31 , '65. Jona- 
than L. Grave, dis. with regt. Charles T. Grave, 
dis. with regt. Eben Howe, dis. for disab. , March 
2, '63. Samuel Howe, dis. with regt. Joel P. 
Howe, transfd. to V. R. C, October 1, '63. An- 
drew Huff, pro. Corp. dis. with regt. Charles 
H. Hopper, dis. with regt. Peter "W. Howe, dis. 
for disab. March 28, '63. Levi T. Hanson, dis. 
October 11, '64, at Jefferson Bks. L. C. John- 
son dis. for disab. March 21, '64. Charles E. 
Jenkinson, transferred to V. R. C. October 1, 
'63. Levi Longfellow, transfd. to X. C. S. as prin- 
cipal musician, dis. with regt. March 1, '65. Chas. 
H. Libby, dis. for disab. February 17, '65. A. 
S. Lane, dis. with regt. August 19, '65. Wesley 
Lambert, dis. with regt. August 19, "65. S. C. 
Miller, transfd. to 7th regt. October 14, 1862. 
Ennis McGary, pro. Corp., dis. with regt. Sam- 
uel McLean, dis. for disab. May 9, '63. P. Mc- 
Farland, dis. with regt. Robert McLeod, dis. 
for disab. May 9, '63. E. M. Munch, dis. for disab. 
March 8, '64. Hiram Millet dis. for disab. March 
20, '63. Lewis Miller, dis. with regt. transfd, 
to N. C. S. as principal musician, October 10, 64. 
James McManus, dis. at Montgomery, Ala. July 
10, 65. Augustus Miller, dis. for disab. May 8, 
'63. Thos. O. Nevens, dis. with regt. David 
Perkins, died in hospital January 26, '63, at Ft. 
Snelling. Samuel N. Pavitt, dis. for disab. No- 
vember 9, '64. John Rank, dis. with regt. An- 
drew Ramsey, dis. for disab. March 20, '63. Da- 
vid Ramsey, dis. with regt. August 19, 1865. 
Daniel S. Styner, pro. Sergt. dis. with regt. 
Enos P. Stubbs, died October 21, '64, at Helena, 
Arkansas. William R. Shepard, discharged by 
order May 3, '65. John D. Stafford dis, with regt. 

Richard F. Smith, des. Feb. 9, 63, at Camp Pope. 
Silas Somers, died November 9, '64, at Jefferson 
Barracks. Andrew Thompson, pro. Corp., dis. 
with regt. Stephen Talbert, destd. June 2, '63, 
at Camp Pope. Samuel D. Thompson, dis. with 
regt. Darius E. Tidd, destd. January 28, '63, at 
Fort Snelling. John C. "Vast, dis. with regt. 
Ephriam Whitney, dis. for disabl. February 1. '63. 
Franklin Whitney, destd. January 15, '63, at 
Fort Snelling. Alexander Wood, trans, to Third 
Minnesota Battery. Urich H. Wilson, dis. for 
disabl.. May 3, '65. Herman Wolf, destd. Dec- 
cember 15, '62, while on leave of absence. 
II. M. Young, dis. with regt. Jesse B. Young, 
dis. for disabl., March 19, '65. 

Becruits — Darius A. Keyes, en, March 2, '64, 
dis. with regt. Henry A. Kenneston, en. March 
2, '64, dis. with regt. Robert Munn, en. March 
2, '64, dis. with regt. Theo. A. Norris, en. March 
2, '64, dis. with regt. Jas. H. Shimin, en. March 
2, '64, dis. with regt. John Smithson, en. March 

28, '64, dis. with regt. George Stout, en. March 
2, '64, dis. per order,' August 3, '65. C. O. 
Thomas, en. April 2, '64, dis. with regt. C. E. 
Thomas, en. February 24, '64, dis. with regt. 
J. L. Wakefield, en. February 24, '64, dis. with 
regt. William R. Champlin, en. February 27, '64, 
dis. for disabl., June 12, '65. James Holloran, 
en. February 25, '64, trans, to Company F., dis. 
with regt. Luther Huff, en. February 27, '64, 
died October 10, '64, at Jefferson Barracks, Mo. 
George D. Ingraham, en. February 6, '64, dis. 
for disabl., May 18, '65. Peter Jenson, en. Feb- 
ruary 29, '64, dis. for disabl., December 8, '64. 
Selah Label, Jr., en. February 16, '64, trans, to 
V. R. C, January 10, '65. George E. Longfellow, 
en. March 30, '64, died June 29, '65, at St. Louis. 
Isaac Mendenhall, en. February 27, '64, dis. for 
disabl., October 24, '64. John B. Robinson, en. 
February 29, '64, died August 30, '64, at Helena, 
Ark. Eben M. Rathbone, en. February 26, '64, 
dis. per order, August 2, '65. William B. Pal- 
mer, en. February 26, '64, dis. for disabl., Febru- 
ary, '65. William C. Flemming, en. February 

29, '64, died December 23, '64, while. on sick 
leave. D. B. Champlin, en. February 26, '64, 
died, August 12, '64, at Helena, Ark. 


Privates — John Barron, dis. for disab. Decem- 



ber 9, '64. Samuel Clark, pro. coi-p., dis. with 
regt. Thomas Hughes, transfd. to invalid corps, 
January 28, '65. John H. Kelley, dis. with regt. 
John Logan, dis. with regt. Alex Leighton, dis. 
for disab. April 22, '63. Samuel McClay, pro. 
Corp., 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut., dis. with regt. 

Recruits — John Starrett, en. Feb. 27, '64, pro. 
Corp., dis. with regt. Clinton L. Babcock, en. 
Feb. 29, '64, died August 16, 1864, at Helena, 


Joseph C. Whitney, Capt., com. Capt. and A. 
Q. M., Vols. , Feb. 23, '65. Shepherd H. King, 1st 
Lt. , resigned August 6, '64. Daniel W. Albaugh, 
2d Lt., pro. 1st Lt., October 7, '64, dis. by order 
December 27, '64. Wm. F. Atkinson, 1st Sergt., 
dis. for disab. October 12, '64. Geo. E. Adams, 
Sergt., died October 12, '64, at Jefferson Barracks, 
Mo. Geo. E. Case, Sergt., pro. 2d Lt., October 
7, '64, 1st Lt. January 21, '65, dis. with regt. 
Ehjah Farrington, Sergt., dis. for disab. Feb. 25, 
'65. Henry Snyder, Corp., dis. by order. May 24, 
'65. Isaac D. Carr, Corp., transfd. to V. B. C. 
Nov. 20, '63. Reuben Robinson, pro. Sergt., dis. 
with regt. Washington Pierce, dis. with regt. 
Henry E. Selder, dis. with regt. Elias G. Brown, 
pro. Sergt., dis. with. regt. John Wait, dis. with 
regt. John S. Day, dis. with regt. Geo. A. 
Cressey, Mus., dis. with regt. Hannibal Hodson , 
absent, sick at New Orleans when regiment was 
discharged. John F. Bell, Wag., absent, sick at 
Memphis, Tenn., when regt. was discharged. 

Privates — James Allen, dis. with regt. George 
Ames, pro. corp., dis. with regt., October 15, '64. 
William C. Brown, dis. per order, June 27, '65. 
James W. Baird, dis. with regt. Charles T. 
Beedy, dis. with regt. Asa D. Brown, dis. with 
regt. John O, Beden, dis. with regt. Frank 8. 
Coffin, dis. with regt. F. M. Carman, absent 
sick on dis. of regt. Edgar B. Comstock, dis. 
with regt. Robert B. Coffin, dis. with regt. S. 
W. Costellow, died October 23, 18(>4, at Memphis. 
George E. Collins, died Muy 14, '65, at New Or- 
leans. Henry Curtis, dis. with regt. M. W. 
Cotes, died July 31, '64, at Helena, Ark. Rufus 
E. Draper, dis. for disab., April 25, '65. Thomas 
D. Dudley, dis. with regt. Nelson Dubuque, 
dis. with regt. Edwin Edgerly, discharged with 
regiment. Enos W. Ellman, died September 

13, '64, at Jefferson Barracks. C. P. Fletcher, 
dis. with regt. Julius Farrington, dis. for disab. 
June 23, '65. William B. Franklin, dis. with 
regt. James S. Foster, dis. for disab., October 
24, '64. Austin L. Fenlason, dis. with regt. 
Allen L. Goodrich, on detached service when 
regt. was dis. Charles E. Galpin, died Septem- 
ber 13, '64, at Memphis. Joseph Goyette, dis. per 
order. May 19, '65. Albert F. Grove, dis. with regt. 
Wm. A. Hawkins, dis. with regt. Franz T. 
Heiss, dis. with regt. E. T. Hamilton, dis. for 
disab. March 20, '63. Geo. A. Hills, dis. per 
order February 16, '65. James H. Harmon, dis. 
per order May 25, '65. Edwin Jackson, dis. with 
regt. Chas. W. Johnson, dis. with regt. Jos. 
A. James, dis. with regt. Thos. P. James, trans- 
ferred to 8d Minn. Battery, May 1, '63. Henry 
Jackson, dis. June, 5, '63. Silas Livingston, dis. 
with regt. pro. Corp. Charles Lansing, dis. with 
regt. Levi L. Leathers; dis. with regt. Alfred 
Lof tus, absent sick on dis. of regt. Andrew Lay- 
man, dis. with regt. James McConnell, dis. with 
regt. Wm. W. Mills, dis. with regt. John ]Mc- 
Kimball, dis. with regt. Chas. H. Moore, dis. 
with regt. Wesley Neill, dis. with regt. Levi 
Neill died November 11, '62, at Mankato. James 
Pratt, dis. per order. May 16, '65. Ezra Paine, 
dis. per order, May 17, '65. Eddie Powers, dis. 
with regt. Dean R. Richardson, dis. with regt. 
Theodore Ray, dis. with regt. John R. Richard- 
son, dis. per order. May 3, "65. Russell W. Rock 
dis. for disab. January 14. 65. Wm. H. Suther- 
land, transferred to Y. R. C. November 20, 1863. 
Aretas Smith, dis. with regt. Albion Stimson, 
dis. with regt. George Storrs, transfd to V. R. 
C. November 20, '63. William R. Stimson, sick 
at Prairie du Chien at dis. of regt. Oscar H. 
Shepley, dis. per order, June 22, '6.5. Christo- 
pher Swagert, dis. for disab. from wds. reed, at 
Birch Coolie, date unknown. John S. Stoops, 
dis. for disab., October 17, "64. Darius D. Suth- 
erland, transfd. to Invalid Corps, Nov. 20, '63. 
John C. Shrewsberry, died December 9, '62, at 
Forest City, Minn. Sylvanus Stinson, sick at 
Prairie du Chien on dis. of regt. Isaiah Thomp- 
son, died November 17, '64, at Jefferson Barracks, 
Mo. Willard S. Whitmore, dis. per order. May 
16, '65. William H. H. Williams, transfd. to 3d 
Minn. Batt., May 1, '63. 
Recruits — William H. Bush, en. March 8, '64, 



died May 7, '65, at St. Louis Hosp.,New Orleans, 
La. David C. Brown, en. February 3, '64, dis. 
with regt. John W. Brown, en. February 27, '64, 
dis. for disab. , October 21 , '64. Charles A. Gates, 
en. February 9, '64, died October 16, '64, at Jef- 
ferson Barracks, St. Louis. Nelson T. Derby, 
en. February 27, '64, dis. with regt. Thomas A. 
Fisher, en. October 7, '63, dis. with regt. Peter 
Filbert, en. February 24, '64, dis. for disab., 
March 9, '65. Charles H. Jordan, en. March 30, 
'64, died November 14, '64, at Chicago. Samuel 
Layman, en. February 9, '64, dis. for disab. Dec. 
20, '64. Charles H. MuUiner, en. February 24, 
'64, dis. for disab., June 11, '65. Josiah Richard- 
son, en. April 15, '63, died October 17, 64, at Jef- 
ferson Barracks. John Both, en. February 24, 
'64, dis. with regt. Ira Sanford, en. February 24, 
'64, transf d. to V. E. C. , January 16, '65. Michael 
Wolf, en. February 26, '64, died January 18, '65, 
at St. Louis, Mo. 


Privates. — Joseph Burchfield, dis. with regt. 
Nickolas Mauren, pro. Corp., dis. with regt. 


Privates. — Theo. D. Miller, transfd. to 3d Minn. 
March 17, '64. George Thomas, transfd. to V. 
R. C. Jan. 21, '65. Wm. T. Wier, died July 30, 
'64, at Helena, Ark. 

Secruits. — Michael Purcell, en. Jan. 4, '64, dis. 
with regiment. 

Sixth Regiment was organized August, '62 ; 
ordered upon Indian expedition of '62. Detach- 
ment of 200 engaged in battle at Birch Coolie 
Sept. 2, '62. Regiment participated in battle 
of "Wood Lake, Sept. 22, '62. Regiment garri- 
soning frontier posts from Nov. '62, until May '63, 
when ordered upon Indian expedition. Engaged 
with Indians July 24, 26 and 28, '63, stationed 
at frontier posts from Sept. 18, '63, to June 5, 
'64, when ordered to Helena, Ark. Ordered to 
St. Louis, Mo., Nov. '64, then to New Orleans 
January '65. Assigned to 16th Army Corps. 
Participated in engagements of Spanish Fort and 
Fort Blakely, April '65. Discharged at Fort 
Snelling August 19, '65. 


organized August, '62, and originally commanded 
by Colonel Stephen A. Miller. 

Albert A. Ames, asst. Surgeon, en. August 28, 
'62, pro. Surgeon, July 23, '64, dis. with regt. 


A. A. Thayer, priv., en. February 11, '66, dis. 
with regt. 


Private. — Caleb Hosford, en. August 9, '62, dis. 
for disab., September 17, '64. 

The Seventh regiment was organized, August, 
1862 ; ordered upon Indian Expedition of 1862 ; 
engaged in battle of Wood Lake, Minnesota, 
September 22, '62 ; stationed at frontier posts 
until May, '62, when ordered upon Indian Expe- 
dition; engaged with Indians, July 24, 26 and 
28, '63 ; ordered to St. Louis, Mo., October 7, '63 ; 
thence to Paducah, Ky., April, '64; thence to 
Memphis, Tenn-^and assigned to Sixteenth Army 
Corps, June, '64 ; participated in the following 
battles, marches, sieges and skirmishes : Tupelo, 
July, '64 ; Tallahatchie, August 7th and 8th, 64 ; 
march in pursuit of Price, from Brownsville, 
Ark. , to Cape Girardeau ; thence by boat to Jef- 
ferson City ; thence to Kansas line ; thence to 
St. Louis, Mo.; battles of Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 
15th and 16th, '64 ; Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, 
April, '65. Discharged at Fort Snelling, Minn., 
August 16, '65. 


Originally commanded by Colonel Minor T. 
Thomas. Major, Geo. A. Camp; Nov. 20, 1862; 
resigned May 21, 1865. Assistant Surgeon, Wm. 
II. Rause ; September 12, 1862 ; Discharged July 
11, 1865. 


William P. Ives, Sergt., pro. First Sergt. Aug- 
ust 1, '63, dis. with regt. Wm. H. Edwards, 
Sergt., killed by Indians in Meeker county, Minn., 
September 11, '68. 

Privates — Frederick T. Bird, dis. in hospital 
June 23, 65. Albert B. Damon, dis. with regt. 
Joseph Downs, dis. per order Jaine 3, '66. Chris- 
tian Johnson, dis. in hospital August 27, 1865 
Warren T. Sevey, dis. with regt. Chas. Shea, 
dis. with regt. Thomas S. Walker, dis. with 


James F. Bradley, Sergt., dis. November 16, 
'63, for pro. in Company I. Emerson J. Wood- 



ward, Corp. dis. January 19, '64 for pro. in U. S. 
col'd. Infantry. "Wm. D. Lane, mus. dis. with 

Privates. — Wm. F. Bagley, dis. in hosp. June 
12, '65. Micliael Batterburg, dis. with regiment. 
Joseph Vadner, Jr., dis. with regt. J. L. Jelli- 
son, dis. with regt. 


Michael Mil, priv. en. October 30, '62, dis with 


Hubert Weber, Sergt., dis. with regt. 

Privates — David Birt, pro. Corp. dis. with 
regt. Theo. Goris, dis. with regt. Chas. Henry, 
pro. Corp. dis. with regt. John Kreamer, dis. 
with regt. John Kunz, dis. with regt. Xavier 
Kohler, dis. with regt. Theodore Rosch, killed 
by Indians on rear guard to Capt. risk's expedi- 
tion September 2, 1864. John Schemlein, dis. 
with regt. Mikel Schmitz, dis. with regt. John 
"Wetzel, dis. with regt. Henry Yentsch, dis. 
with regt. 


Organized August 1, '62 ; stationed at frontier 
posts until May, '64, when ordered upon Indian 
Expedition; engaged in the following battles, 
marches, sieges and skirmishes : Tah-cha-o-kurtu, 
July 28, '64; battles of the Cedars, Overall's 
Creek ; ordered to Clifton, Tennessee ; thence to 
Cincinnati ; thence to Washington ; thence to 
Wilmington; thence to Newbern, N. C; battle 
of Kingston, March 8, 9, 10, '65 ; mustered out at 
Charlotte, N. C, July 11, '65 . dis. at Fort Snel- 


originally commanded by Col. Alexander Wilkin. 

Charles W. Le BoutilUer, Surgeon, en. October 
10, '62, died April 3, '63, at St. Peter, Minn. 

Joel Handy, Prin. mus. en. November 10, '62, 
died a prisoner at Anderson ville, Ga., August 22, 


George A. Camp, Capt., pro. Maj. Eighth Regt., 
November 20, '62, res. May 2, '65. Jonathan 
Chase 1st Lieut, pro. Capt., res. October 5, '63. 
Harrison Jones, 2d Lieut., pro. 1st Lieut, and 
Capt., dis. with regt. Benjamin P. Schuler, 1st 
Sergt., pro. 2d Lieut. 1st Lieut, Capt. Co. H., 

December 16, '64, dis. with regt. Leonidas M. 
Lane, Sergt., pro. 2d Lieut., dis. per order May 16, 
'65. Henry A. C. Thompson, Sergt., pris. at Ander- 
sonville 7 mos., dis. with regt. David B. Ellis, 
Sergt., dis. for disab. Nov. 22, '64. Beverly C. Bon- 
ham, Sergt., pris. at Andersonville 7 mos., dis. 
with regt. Abner A. Spencer, Corp., dis. for disab.. 
May 30, '65. Alfred G. Snow, Corp., pro. Sergt., 
dis. in hospital, '65. Charles Ester, Corp., pro. 
Sergt., dis. with regt. Charles Schorrod, Corp., 
died October 29, '64, at Savannah, Ga. Louis C. 
Tenison, Corp., died, date not on record. Daniel 
Hutchins, Corp., killed June 10, '64, at Brice 
Cross Roads, Miss. James A. Lennon, Corp., 
transfd. to V. R. C, November 20, '63. James 
A. Woodcock, Corp. died December 6, '64, at Cairo, 
Ills. William S. O'Brien, Mus. dis. with regt. Ed- 
mundP. Warren, mus., dis. withregt. George W. 
White, Wag., died September 14, '64, at Ander- 
sonville, Ga. 

Privates — Geo. P. Baldwin, pro. Q,. M. Sergt., 
transfd. to N. C. S. November 17, 1863, dis. for 
disab. November 20, '64. Hiram A. Barnard, 
died September 10, '64, at Andersonville, Ga. 
Miron W. Bartlett, died December 14, '62, at Port 
Ridgely, Minn. Richmond H. Barrows, died 
February 15, '65, at Memphis, Tenn. Alonzo 
Bragdon, dis. per order. May 13, '65. Chas. E. 
Burrell, dis. in hospital, '65. Daniel Cameron, 
dis. for disab. April 3, "64. T. Campbell, dis. for 
wound reed, at Brice Cross Roads. John B. 
Chase, died at Vicksburg, date not given. Berton 
F. Cooley, dis. with regt. John M. Cormack,dis. 
for disab. April 1, '63. Amos Day, died Oct. 14, 
'64, at Savannah, Ga. Chas. A. Delvin, dis. for 
disab. March 23, '64. Jeremiah Desmon, dis. 
withregt. Geo. A. Doman, dis. withregt. Jerome 
Dumas, died at Savanah, Ga., date not given. 
Charles Parron, dis. for disab. Charles T. Ful- 
lerton, dis. with regt. Lewis Gormoch, dis. for 
disab. March 25, '64. George Goodwin, died 
October 3, '04, at Andersonville, Ga. Ripley 
(ioodwin, dis. with regt. Frank Goodwin, de- 
serted November 7, '63, at Port Snelling, Minn. 
Simon Goodwin, dis. for disab. Aprils, '63. Joseph 
R. Gould, captured at Brice Cross Roads, June 
10, '64, dis. with regt. Joseph Gray, dis. for disab., 
date not given. Geo. W. Hall, dis. with regt. 
Chas. R. Haven, dis. for disab., June 28, '65. 
Tiliston Heath, transfd. to V. R. C. October 1, 



'63. David L. Hewitt, dis. witli regt. Burdet 
Humphrey, dis. for disab. October 9, ?62. Geo. 
A. Kenedy, captured at Brice Cross Koads, pris- 
oner 7 mos., dis. with regt. Joseph Kelene, died 
Sept. 8, '62, of wound received at Birch Coolie. 
James H. Leighton, dis. per order July 10, '65. 
Samuel K. Lewis, dis. for disab. May 8, '63. Wm. 
R. Mangdon, dis. for disab. May 3, '63. Samuel 
M. Macomber, died at Louisville, Ky., date un- 
known. Thomas Mavy, killed March 31, '65, in 
battle at Spanish Fort, Ala. Patrick McBride, 
captd. at Brice Cross Eoads, prisoner 7 mos., dis. 
With regt. John McCrimmon, dis. with regt. 
James MoCost, captd. at Brice Cross Roads, pris- 
oner 7 mos. Lewis McDonald, dis. for disab. 
April 3, '63. John McDougal, died August 28, 
'64, at Anderson ville, Ga.- Alonzo D. Meads, 
died January 22, '63, at Fort Ridgely, Minn. 
Samuel W. Merrill, dis. for disability, date 
unknown. James W. Marden, died August 
28th, 1864, at Andersonville Prison, Ga. 
Carlostin Morton, dis. for disabl., April 4, '64 
James Peaver, destd. March 10, '63, while on 
furlough. Samuel Peaver, destd. March 20, '63, 
while on furlough. John W. Pell, dis. with regt. 
John T. Pomeroy, dis. per order, May 23, 65. 
George W. Pomeroy, captd. at Brice Cross Roads, 
pris. 7 mos., dis. with regt. Joseph M. Prescott, 
dis. for disabl., May 24, '64. Joseph Richards, 
died in prison at Savannah, Ga., date unknown. 
Charles H. Ricker, dis. per order. May 19, '65. 
Stephen Rogerson, pro. corp. dis. with regt., 
Henry E. Seelye, dis. per order. May 29, '65. 
George P. Shoppe, died August 5, '64, Memphis, 
Tenn. Paul T. Shoppe, died at Annapolis, Md., 
date not given. James H. Sinclair, dis. with 
regt. Hugh Slaith, died October 10, '64, prisoner 
at Savannah, Ga. Charles H. Spencer, captd. at 
Brice Cross Roads, pris. 7 mos., dis. with regt. 
Warren C. Stetson, pro. corp., dis. with regt. Wm. 
J. Stockton, dis. with regt. Mortimer M. Swin- 
gler, dis. with regt. James E. Styles, pro. Corp. 
dis. with regt. William F. Todd, dis. per order, 
June 5, '65. Sylvanus Weeks, dis. for disabl.. 
May 12, '63- George Wethern, dis. per order, 
July 11, 65.' 


Richard Strout, Capt., dis. per order, March 9, 
'64. William A. Clark, 1st Lieut., pro. Capt. 

April 17, '64, died Aug. 21, '65, at Minneapolis. 
Curtis McCane, 2d Lieut., pro. 1st Lieut, dis. per 
order. May 15, '65. Ezra T. Carr, 1st Sergt. wd. 
by Indians at Acton, Minn., dis. for disabl. June 
19, '63. L. A. Babcock, Sergt. died September 
1 8, '64, while in Andersonville pris. C. J, At- 
water, Sergt., dis. for disabl., February 10, '64. 
Jaques Winter, Corp., pro. Sergt. March 1, '65. 
Austin Knight, Corp., dis. per order, June 14, 
'65. Seneca M. Tarvin, Corp., trans, to V. R. C. 
George Herrick, Corp., pro. 1st Sergt., dis. v(dth 
regt. Samuel Gowell, Corp., pro. Sergt., dis. 
with regt. Henry T. Minton, Corp., dis. for 
disabl.. May 23, '64. James A. Ames, Mus., dis. 
per order, July 27, '65. S. L. Fillmore, Wag., 
died September 29, '64, at Memphis. 

Privates. — James Adcock, died August 22, '64 
at Andersonville Ga. William B. Atwater, dis. 
while absent from regt. August 1, '65. Wm. H. 
Brown, dis. per order July 10, '65. George W. 
Baldwin, pro. Corp. December 31, '64. Abner C. 
Bennett, died March 17, '63 at Hutchinson, Minn. 
Alex. J. Bothwick, dis. for disab. August 23, '63 
Frank J. Beedle, died September, '63 of wound 
in battle of Acton, Minn. Benedict Brooks, dis. 
per order June 5, '65. Lewis L. Crane, dis. with 
regt. George S. Cyphers, dis. per order August 
16, '65. James H. Crandall pro. Corp. dis. with 
with regt. E. J. Deerow, died Nov. 1, '64, in 
Milan, Ga. prison. Geo. E. Day, captd. at Brice 
Cross Eoads, pris. in Andersonvile, dis. with 
regt. Charles A. Esterly, dis. per order June 
12, '65. Volney A. Edgerly, transfd. to V. R. C. 
(no date.) Geo. W. Gideon, killed Sept. 3, '66, in 
battle with Indians at Acton, Minn. Alva Getch- 
ell, killed Sept. 3, '62 at Acton. Geo. Goodsell, 
dis. with. regt. Henry Goodale, dis. per order 
May 18, '65. D. C. Handy, dis.per order August 
18, '65. Jasper S. Hawkins, dis. while on detached 
duty 1865. A. H. Hawkins, dis. with regt. C. G. 
Halgren, dis. with regt. E. D. Kirst, dis. with regt. 
Samuel A. Lindley, died July 9, '64 in prison at 
Andersonville, Ga. Wm. Lovelle, dis. per order 
July 19^ '65. Levi W. Merritt, wounded Sep- 
tember 3, '62, in battle at Acton, Minn., dis. for 
disab. May 23, '63. Charles Midgely, dis. per 
order May 31, '65. William Mogle, dis. per order 
June 22, '65. Robert E. McKenney, transfd. to 
y. R. C. Nov. 1, '63. Alex. McCormick, dis.per 
order June 7, '65. Thomas Pounder, no record. 



John Parslow, pro. Corp. (lis. with regt. Jas. 
H. Kickerson, dis. with regt. Milton A. Stubbs, 
pro. Corp. dis. with regt. Charles Smith died 
March 13, '63 at Watertown, Minn. Kathan Til- 
ton, died September 28, '64, at Andersonville 
prison. Hiram W. Valentine, dis. with regt. 
N. E. Weeks, died November 6, '62, at Hutchin- 
son, Minn. John K. Weaver, died June 25, '65, 
at RoUa, Miss. John B. Wakeheld, died Aug- 
ust 13, \i4, at Memphis, Tenn. Kee Wakefield 
pro. Corp. dis. per order July 17, '65. Silas A. 
Seamans, dis. with regt. 


L.M. Caswell, Corp., dis. for disab. March 23, '63. 

Privates. — William Breckon, captd. at Brice 
Cross Eoads, dis. July 31, '65. Pliny S. Conkey, 
captd. at Brice's Cross Eoads, June 10, '64. Sam- 
uel W. Rice, dis. for disab., September 3, '64. 


Peter Lus, priv., en. October 12, '62, pro. Corp. 
dis. with regt. 


W. O. Curtis, Mus., en. October 16, '62, dis. in 
hospital at Memphis, '65. Edward Brunell, priv. 
en. October 16. '62, dis. for disab. May 27, '64. 


organized August, '62 ; stationed at frontier posts 
until September, '63, when ordered to St. Louis, 
Mo.; ordered to Jefferson City, Mo., and distribut- 
ed among several posts in the interior of the state ; 
ordered to St. Louis, May, '64 ; engaged in the 
following battles, marches, sieges and skirmishes: 
Guntown expedition, June, '64 ; assigned to 16th 
Army Corps, June. '64 ; Tupelo, July, '64 ; Oxford 
expedition, August, '64 ; Tallahatchie, August, 
'64 ; marched in pursuit of Price from Browns- 
ville, Ark., to Cape Girardeau, Mo.; thence, by 
boat, to Jefferson CUty ; thence to Kansas state 
line ; thence to St. Louis. Battles ; Nashville, 
Tenn., December 15 and 16, '64; Spanish Fort 
and Port Blakely, April, '65 ; discharged at Port 
Snelling, Minn., August 24, '65. 


Originally commanded by Col. James H. Baker. 


Wm. Byrnes, 1st Lt., dis. with regt. Michael 
Hoy, 2d Lt., dis. per order April 13, '65. Wm. 

Dunn, Sergt., dis. with regt. Owen Keegan, 
Sergt., dis. with regt. Thomas McCarron, Corp., 
pro. Sergt., dis. with regt. David Shaw, Corp.. 
dis. with regt. Dennis Sheehey, Corp., captd. Jan. 
10, '65, dis. July 25, '65, absent. 

Privates.— Wm. Broderick, dis. for disab. July 
26, '64. Alfred Brezett, dis. with regt. Andrew 
[ Candron, dis. with regt., pro. Corp. Patrick 
Corney, dis. with regt. Thomas Clifford, dis. 
' with regt. Joseph P. Cobb, dis. per order May 
I 18, '65. James Connelly, dis. with regt. James 
Coyle, dis. for disab. April 3, '63. William Daly, 
I dis. with regt. David Desjarlugh, dis. per order 
I August 31 , '64. Richard Fewer, pro. Q. M. Sergt. 
■ 1st Lt. Co. I, June 2, '65. Patrick Gleeson, pro. 
corp. dis. with regt. Thomas Gaffney, dis. with 
regt. William Grace, deserted April 25 '63, at 
Le Sueur, Minn. Joseph Gaunia, dis. per order 
March 30, '65. Cornelius Hays, destd. May 10, 
I '63, at Le Sueur, Minn. James Hays, dis. with 
I. regt. Thomas Hawkins, destd. September 7, '63, 
j at Port Ridgely. William Hoy, destd. November 
; 12, '62, at St. Peter. Peter Hannon, destd. Sep- 
j tember 7, '63, at Fort Snelling. John Killila, dis. 
with regt. Thos. McDonough, dis. August 19, 
'65, absent. Daniel Molan, dis. with regt. Dan- 
iel Murphy, dis. per order June 5, '65. Michael 
Mohan, died March 6, "63, ait St. Anthony. 
Michael Moore, dis. per order March 5, '64. Ed- 
ward Moran, destd. May 20, '63, at Le Sueur, 
Minn. Robert McCue, dis. for disab. Jan. 4 '64. 
James Nash, wounded at Nashville, dis. '65, ab- 
sent. Edward Nary, dis. with regt. Wm. 
O'Bryan, dis. with regt. Patrick O'Conner, destd. 
June 21, '64, at Memphis, Tenn. Daniel Page, 
dis. with regt. Patrick Quinn, destd. September 
7, '63, at Fort Snelling. James Riley, dis. with 
regt. Luke Roche, died in Minnesota while on 
sick furlough. John Keudy, dis. with regt. 
Pat'k. Sheehan, dis. with regt. Wm. Sheehan, 
dis. with regt. JSIich. Summers, dis. per order 
Maich 10, '64. John Sebevry, dis. with regt. 
Dion Swift, pro. Corp. dis. with regt. Patrick 
White, dis. with regt. 

Eevrults. — F. B. O'Brien, en. April 1, '64, dis. 
with regt.. Daniel Shea, en. Dec. 26, '63, dis. 
with regt. 


was organized August '62. Stationed at frontier 



posts until June '63 , when ordered upon Indian ex- 
pedition. Engaged with Indians July 24, 26 and 28, 
'63. Ordered to St. Louis, Mo., October '63. 
Thence to Columbus, Ky., Aprir64. Thence to 
.Memphis, Tenn., June '64, and assigned to 16th 
Army Corps. Participated in the following battles, 
marches, sieges and skirmishes : Battle of Tupelo, 
July 13, '65, Oxford expedition, August '64. 
Marched in pursuit of Price from Brownsville, 
Ark., to Cape Girardeau, thence by boat to Jeff- 
erson City, thence to Kansas line, thence to St. 
Louis, Mo. Battles of Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 15 
and 16, '64, Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, April 
'65. Discharged at Fort Snelling Aug. 19, '65. 


originally commanded by Col. James B. Gilflllan. 


John W. Plummer, Capt., dis. with regt. Jas. 
Shaver, 1st Lieut., dis. with regt. William S. 
Chowen, Sergt., dis. with regt. John W. East- 
man, Sergt., dis. with regt. Jonas H. Howe, 
Sergt., dis. with regt. Gilbert J. Merritt, Sergt., 
George A. Plummer, Sergt., dis. with regt. Sol- 
omon Churchill, Corp., dis. with regt. Chester 
E. Evans, Corp., dis. with regt. Frank L. IIol- 
way, Corp., dis. with regt, J. C. Jaques. Corp., 
dis. with regt. Danford Bedding, Corp., dis. 
with regt. John J. Spurzeum, Corp., dis. with 
regt. Adolph Weidenbach, Corp., dis. with regt. 

Privates — James W. Austin, dis. with regt. 
Horace W. Bohanon, dis. with regt. Clark 
S. Bemis, dis. with regt. Martin Biske, dis. 
with regt. Frederick Biske, dis. with regt. 
Charles M. Bickford, dis. with regt. Eben- 
ezer Brandon, dis. with regt. Robert Cham- 
bers, dis. with regt. Geo. G. Drew, dis. with regt. 
Henry Doyle, dis. with regt. J. W. DeLamater, 
dis. with regt. Wm. A. Fisher, dis. with regt. 
Edward Fairfield, died January 28, '65, at Gal- 
latin, Tenn. John Gerber, dis. with regiment. 
Gottleib Geiger, dis. with regt. Daniel Glatz, dis. 
with regt. L. Gee, dis. with regt. Chas. W. 
Gordon, dis. with regt. Alonzo Green, dis. with 
regt. Joshua Howe, dis. with regt. Nelson 
Herrick, dis. with regt. Ephriam Harrington, 
dis. with regt. Wm. H. Harrington, dis. with 
regt. Geo. Hoisington, dis. with regt. E. M. 
Hoisington, dis. per order May 31, 65. John M. 

Hamilton, dis. with regt. Alfred G. Jaques, 
dis. .with regt. David W. Jones, dis. April 22, 
'65, at Fort SneUing. Thomas Kirkwood, dis. 
with regt. Michael Larkin, dis. with regiment. 
Morris H. Lamb, dis. with regt. Nathan Long- 
fellow, dis. with regt. Wml McKinley, dis. with 
regt. Phillip Matter, dis. with regt. John Mat- 
ter, dis. with regt. Ichabod Murphy, dis. with 
regt. John H. McGary, dis. with regt. Chas. 
D. Miller, dis. with regt. Mason Murch, dis. 
with regt. David E. Malbon, dis. with regt. 
Harvey S. Norton, dis. with regt. Joseph W. 
Norris, dis. with regt. Thomas Ohn, dis. with 
regt. Geo. A. Plummer, dis. with regt. Mitch- 
ell Pelky, dis. with regt. Seth Pribhle, dis. with 
regt. Geo. C. Phillips, dis. with regt. A. D. 
Pinkerton, dis. with regt. Daniel Palmer, dis. 
with regt. James Quinn, dis. with regt. Amasa 
Richards, dis. with regt. Nicholas Rifenberger, 
dis. with Regiment. John Rifenberger, dis. with 
regt. J. P. Shumway, dis. with regt. Z. A. 
Smith, dis. with regt. H. R. Stillman, dis. with 
regt. Chas. R. Stimson, dis. vvith regt. H. Schu- 
macker, dis. with regt. Timothy Shaw, dis. with 
regt. Daniel Terrell, dis. with regt. Clark A. 
Wright, dis. with regt. W. A. Willey, dis. with 
regt. Lorenzo P. Warren, dis. April 1865, at 
Fort Snelling. Geo. S. Woolsey, dis. with regt. 
Wm. Allison, dis. with regt. Bernard Gasper, 
dis. with regt. Hollis Hall, dis. with regt. Carl 
A. Hamisch, dis. with regt. Chas. C. Midwood, 
dis. with regiment. Frank J. Stickney, dis. with 
regiment. Buford Tourman, discharged with 
regiment. John Lyons, discharged with regt. 


Albert R. Hall, 1st Lieut., dis. with regt. Wm. 
T. Bowen, 2d Lieut., dis. with regt. 

Privates. — Arthur B. Chase, dis. with regt. 
Thomas Cunningham, dis. with regt. Horatio 
Hawkins, dis. with regt. Benjamin Keesling, 
dis. with regt. Amasa D. King, dis. with regt. 
John H. Mitchell, dis. for commission, February 
19, '65. C. Plant, dis. with regt. 


was organized, August, '64, ordered to Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, and engaged in guarding rail- 
road between Nashville and Louisville, until 
muster out of regiment, June, '65. 




originally commanded by Col. Mark W. Downie. 


Cliarles H. Spear, Asst. Surgeon, en. July 1, 
'65, dis. with regt. John W. Pride, Sergt. Major, 
en. March 24, '64, pro. 2d Lieut. Co. A and Q. 
M., prisoner at Andersonville 8 mos., dis. with 
regt. David L. Morgan, Q. M. Sergt., en. April 
1, '64, dis. witli regt. 


Chesley B. Tirrell, 1st Lieut^ en. May 12, '64, 
dis. for disabl. December 14, '64, for wds. reed, 
at Petersburg, June 18, 64. Henry Ghostly, 
Sergt., en. December 30, '61, dis. on expr. of term, 
December 29, '64. William A. Joy, Corp., en. 
March 24, '64, vet. vol., pro. Sergt., 2d Lieut. Co. 
C, March 16, '65, dis. with Battalion. 

Prirafes— Charles C. Blanchard, en. November 
25, '61, dis. on expr. of term, November 26, '64. 
Peter G. Boffering, en. Pebruary 18, '64, dis. per 
per order, June 28, '65. Jeremiah Collins, en. 
January 1, '64, dis. per order, June 27, '65. Wm. 
Coombs, en. January 1, '64, dis. with Co. Chas. 
A. Coombs, en. September 16, '61, dis. on expr. of 
term. May 20, '65. Turner Pribble, en. Novem- 
ber 25, '61, captd. June 22, '64, dis. per order, 
July 24, '65. George Sias, en. March 14, '64, 
prisoner at Andersonville, dis. with Co. 

Becruit — Aaron Gould, en. February 28, '65, 
dis. with Co. 


Ellet P. Perkins, Capt., en. May 5, '64, dis. per 
order, October l.S, '64. Henry D. O'Brien, 2d 
Lieut, en. May 12, '64, pro. Capt. Co. A, April 10, 
"65, dis. with regt., July 14, '65. James Bryant, 
1st Sergt., en. March 31, '64, pro. 1st Lieut., March 
16, '65, Capt. Co. 0, dis. with regt. Adam C. 
Stites, Sergt., en. September 28, '61, dis. on exp. 
of term, September 28, 1864. W. V,'. Holdeu, 
Corp., en. February 26, '63, pro. 2d Lieut., 1st 
Lieut., dis. with comp. Archibald Curtis, Corp., 
en. March 24, 'i)4, dis. with comp. William E. 
Schumacher, Corp., eh. March 31, '64, pro. Sergt., 
dis. with comp. George W. F. Abraham, Mns. 
en. March 30, '64, died November 12, '64, in An- 
dersonville pris. 

Privates— Ovville Ames, en. February 25, '64, 
supposed to have died July, '64. William Boffer- 

ding, en. February 18, '64, dis. with comp. Da- 
vid Carlton, en. February 26, '63, dis. with comp. 
Sylvester Densmore, en. February 27, '64, died 
November 26, '64, at City Point, Va. E. M. C. 
Hamilton, en. March 31, '64, dis. in hosp., June 
19, '65. Elmsly J. Hamilton, en. February 27, '64, 
pris. at Andersonville, 8 mos., dis. June 28, '66, 
absent sick. James Hawks, en. February 29, '64, 
dis. with comp. F. W. Hohage, en. February 26, 
'64, dis. with comp. David L. Morgan, en. March 
30, '64, pro. Q. M. Sergt. April 1, '65, dis. with regt. 
Job Pratt, March 1, '64, dis. July 13, '65, absent 
sick. Daniel Sullivan, en. November 1 , '61, Vet 
Vol., dis. on exp. of term. May 18, '65. Gilbert 
E. Sly, en. March 1, '64, died September 21, '64, 
in pris. at Richmond, Va. George G. Sunbey , en . 
February 27, '64, died December 7, '64, at Anna- 
polis, Md., of disease contracted in rebel prison. 
Peter Shultz, en. February 20, "64, dis. July 21, 
'65, absent. Harmon Stackloffe, en. Mar. 28, '64, 
pris. at Andersonville 6 mos.,- dis. '65, absent. 
William Swager, en. March 24, '64, Vet. Vol. dis. 
with comp. Norman Shook, en. April 1, '64, dis. 
with company. James E. Weaver, en. Marcfi 24. 
'64, Vet. Vol., dis. with comp. Theodore Brown, 
en. July 20, '61, dis. on exp. of term, July 20, '64. 

Becruit— Joseph Halleck, en. February 14, "65. 
dis. per order April 4, '65. 

First BattalUon Infantry, Minn. "S^ols., origi- 
nally consisted of two compnies, organized from 
the re-enlisted veterans, stay-over men and re- 
cruits of the First Eegiment, Minnesota Infantry 
Volunteers. Ordered to Washington, D. C. . May 
'64. Joined the Army of the Potomac June 10, 
'64. Participated in the following battles, marches, 
sieges and skirmishes : Petersburg, Va., June 18, 
'64, Jerusalem Plank Eoads, Va., June 22 and 23, 
'64, Deep Bottom, Va., August 14, '64, Hatcher's 
Run, Xa., October, 27, "(i4, Hatcher's Run, Feb- 
ruary 5, '65. Company C. joined March 27, "65. 
Took active part in campaign commencing March 
28, "(io, and resulting in the capture of Peters- 
burg, Va., April 2, '65, and the surrender of 
Lee's Army, April 9, '65. Four new companies 
joined at Berksville, Va., April "6.5; marched 
from Berksville, Va., to Washington, D. C, 
May '65. Two new companies joined at Wash- 
ington. Ordered to Louisville, Ky., June '65. 
Mustered out at Jeffersonville, Ind., July 14, '65. 
Discharged at Fort Snelling July 25, '66. 




originally commanded by Col. Wm. Colville. 
Christ. B. Heffelfinger, Major, com. April 25, '65, 
dis. with regt. 


Privates.— Wm. H. Bartlett, en. September 19, 
'64, dis. with company. John Gotwold, en. Sep- 
tember 19, '64, dis. June 2, '65, at St. Paul. Richard 
Hooper, en. September 19, '64, dis. with company. 
Peter Hoppe, en. September 19, '64, dis. with com- 
pany. Gordon Jackins, en. September 23, '64, dis. 
with company. Michael Smith, en. September 
29, '64, dis. with company. John S. Wales, en. 
September 21, '64, dis. '65, absent. 


Privates. — James M. Gillaspie, en. September 
19, '64, dis. with company. Henry Miller, en. 
September 19, '64, dis. with company. Henry C. 
Miller, September 22, '64, transfd to Co. E July 
7, '65. dis. per order August 28, '65, Geo. B. 
Schaffer, en. September 14, '64, dis. with company. 
Wm. B. Shaffel, en. September 22, '64, dis. with 
company. Norman Ward, en. September 14, 
pro. Corp. Sergt., dis. with company. 


Irving A. Dunsmoor, en. Oct. 15, '64, Sergt., 
dis. with company. E. H. Ogburn, en. Septem- 
ber 2, '64, Ser^t., dis. with company. 


John Hussey, Jr., 2d Lieut, en. February 17, 
'65, resigned June 26, '65. L. F. Sampson, 1st 
Sergt., en. March, '65, dis. with regt. Remain 
PouUot, priv., dis. with regt. 

The First Regiment Heavy Artillery, organized 
April '65. Ordered to Chattanooga, Tenn., and 
stationed at post until muster out of regiment, 
September '65. 

- MARCH, 1862, 

originally commanded by Capt. Francis Peteler. 
Benedict Hipler, First Lieutenant, pro. Capt. 
February 10, '62, resigned July 28, '62. Dudley 
P. Chase, Second Lieutenant, pro. First Lieu- 
tenant February 10, '62, Capt. July 18, '62, died 
of wounds reed, in battle at Chancellorville Va. 
Jackson Steward, Sergt. died June 28, '62, at 
Alexandria, Ya. Uriah E. Penny, Corp. dis. 

for disab. April 1, '63. Wm. P. Collins, Corp. 
no record. 

Privates — Lucius Bell, died January 12, 1862. 
Jno. W. Babcock, died May 12, '62, at Washing- 
ton. Preston Cooper, deserted April 17, '63. 
Daniel W. Jones, dis. per order May 1862. Jas. 
Kerr, re-en; transferred to 1st Bat. January 1, 
'65. Wm. T. Kerr, dis. on exp. of term, Septem- 
ber 22, '64. Henry McGafEery, re-en. transfd. to 
1st Bat. January 30, '65. Eugene Moriarty, dis. 
for disab. February 4, '63. Abraham Maricle, 
dropped from rolls Aug. 1, '63. Wm. E. Mason, 
re-en. transfd. to 1st Bat. January 30, 65. Jas. 
M. Powers, dis. for disab. Jan. 14, '63. Dyer 
Pettijohn, re-en, transfd. to 1st Bat. January 
30, '65. Lawrence. T. Prescott, no record. Silas 
S. Parmeter, no record. Henry W. Sampson, 
dis. for disab. March 5, '63. Dudley A. Boan, 
recruit, transfd. to 1st Bat. Eugene Swartout, 
transfd. to 1st Bat. January 30; '65. 

MARCH, 1862. 

originally commanded by Capt. Wm. F. Russell. 

A. J. Underwood, Sergt., dis. for disabl., Nov- 
ember 1, '62. J. B. Chaney, Corp., dis. for disabl. 
October 18, '62. 

Privates — Samuel B. Beach, veteran. Charles 
H. Spear, C. F. Widstrand, S. R. Churchill. 

The company left St. Paul, Minn., April 21, 
'62, reported by order of Maj. Gen. McClellan to 
the first regiment U. S. S. S., at Yorktown, Va., 
May 6, '62. May 22, '62, by special order No. 
153, issued by Maj. Gen. McClellan, the company 
was assigned for duty with the First Minnesota 
Volunteers, and on duty with that regiment from 
June 1, '62, and participating in all the engage- 
ments and battles of said regiment, until its 
muster out of the U. S. Service. All the enUsted 
men of the company whose terms had not ex- 
pired, were transferred to Companies A and B, 
of the First Minnesota Infantry, in pursuance of 
special order No. 102, Headquarters Army of 
the Potomac, dated April 22, '65. 


originally commanded by Col. Samuel McPhaill. 

George E. DuToit, Hospital Steward, en. De- 
cember 1, '62, dis. with regt. 




Eugene M. Wilson, Capt., en. October 9, '62, 
dis. with comp., October 20, '63. James M. 
Paine, 2d Lieut., en. October 9, '62, dis. with 
comp. Elisha Cowan, Sergt., en. October 9, '62., 
dis. with comp. James R. Wilson, Sergt., en. 
October 9, '62, dis. with comp. Stephen Pratt, 
Corp., en. October 9, '62, dis. with comp. Ed- 
ward Morse, Corp., en. October 9, '62, reduced 
November 10, '62, dis. with comp. Archibald 
McGill, Corp., en. Oct. 9, '62, dis. with comp. 
James Sweeny, Wag. en, October 9, '62, dis. with 

Privates— 3o\m B. Boseman, en. October 1, '62, 
dis. with comp. David Christlieb, en. September 
20, '62, dis. with comp. Charles Duprey, en. 
September 20, '62, dis. with comp. Livingston 
Estes, en. Sept. 23, '62, dis. with comp. Wilson 
Gray, en. September 20, '62, dis. with comp. Ed- 
ward Hughes, en. September 20, '62, dis. with 
comp. Joshua Harris, en. September 27, '62, died 
at Fort Snelling, November 12, '62. Robert II. 
Jefferson, en. September 22, '62, dis. with comp. 
Jasper N. Johnson, en. September 27, '62 desrtd. 
March, '68. Emanuel Lavelly, en. September 20, 
'62 dis. with comp. Thomas Otterman, en. Sep- 
tember 24, '62, dis. with comp. Charles Pope, en. 
September 27, died at Fort Ripley, Minn., Sep- 
tember 80, '63. Isaac N. Russell, Jr., en. Sep- 
tember 27, '62, dis. with comp. Frederick Ray- 
mond, en. September 20, '62,dis. with comp. Wil- 
liam E. Roth, en. September 29, '62, dis. with comp. 
Mathew Sullivan, en. September 28, '62, dis. with 
comp. Albert Simon, en. September 27, '62, dis. 
with comp. Charles S. Plummer, en. September 
25, '62, dis. with comp. Robert W. Sanborn, en. 
September 26, '62, pro. Corp. Sergt., dis. with 
comp. Andrew L. Tennison, en. September 27, 
'62, dis. with comp. George H. Wiants, en. Sep- 
tember 20, '62, dis. with comp. Michael Wolf, 
en. September 20, '62, dis. with comp. 

JJecrwiis— Alpheus Angell, en. June 19, '63, dis. 
with comp. James Parker, en. October 17, '68, 
dis. with comp. 


James Patten, Corp., en. October 17, '62, dis. 
with company. John McCormick, teamster, en. 
October 17, '62, dis. with company. Clark 
Ellsworth, blacksmith, en. October 17, '62, dis. 
with company. 

Privates.— TSiZTa B. Ames, en. September, 23, 
'62, dis. with company. Wm. P. Burnett, en. 
September 19, '62, dis. with company. Ed. C. Coun- 
tryman, en. September 26, '62, dis. with company. 
John Droddy, en. October 15, '62, dis. with com- 
pany. Hiram W. Dorman, en. September 23, '62, 
dis. with company. Thomas E. Ellsworth, en. 
September 23, '62, died October 21, '62, at Fort 
Snelling. P. P. Farrington, en. September 26, '62, 
dis. with company. Henry Kelly, en. September 
27, '62, dis. with company. E. Lenneman, en. Sep- 
tember 28, '62, dis. with company. Sanford Red- 
ding, en. October 15, '62, dis. with company. Adol- 
phus Schenck, en. October 14, '62, dis. with com- 
pany. Wm. II. Tilton, en. September 25, '62, dis; 
with company. John Wyman, en. September 23, 
'62, dis. with company. Samuel Wilson, en. Sep- 
tember 28, '62, dis. with company. 

.Becruits. — Harvey Bowen, en. March 14, '63, 
dis. with company. Andrew J. Cates, en. Feb- 
ruary 14, '63, dis. with company. Samuel Mur- 
phy, en. January 80, '63, dis. with company. 


Becruits — Horace M. Avery, en. December 23, 
'62, dis. with company. Job Brown, en. May 22, 
'63, dis. with company. Levi Ilaviland, en, 
March 22, '63, dis. with company. 


Privates — Alex. Burnell, en. November 21, '62. 
dis. for disabl., March 1, '63. Samuel Layman, 
en. November 22, '62, dis. with Co. William H. 
Lampman, en. October 28, '62, dis. with Co. 
George Lampman, en. November 22, '62, dis. 
with Co. George Palmer, en. November 22, '62, 
dis. with Co. Charles M. Stinson, en. Novem- 
ber 22, '62, dis. with Co. 


Private — James F. Ilyland, en. December 10, 
'62, dis.^ with Co. : 


Prirates — John Bruth, en. December 5, '62, dis. 
with Co. Peter Langle, en. November 25, '62, 
dis. with Co. Peter Leonard, en. November 20, 
'62, dis. with Co. 


organized March, '63. Stationed at frontier posts 
until May, '63, when ordered upon Indian expedi- 



tion. Engaged with Indians, July 24, 26, and 28, 
'63. On return of expedition, stationed at frontier 
posts until mustered out. Mustered out by 
companies, between October 1, '63 and December 
30, '63. 

bkackett's battalion cavalry, 

originally commanded by Major A. B. Brackett. 
C. O. Johnson, Surgeon, en. Tebruary 1, '62. res. 

company a. 

Nicholas Bode, mus. en. October 7, '61. 

Privates — Henry Moore, en. October 19, '61, 
dis. August 27, '62, for wds. reed, in battle May 
5, '62. Martin V. Pratt, en. October 11, '61, dis. 
on exp. of term, October 28, '64. Simon Kiesgraf , 
en. September 25, '61, dis. on exp. of term, Sep- 
tember 25, '64. Becruits. — Chas. A. Hutchings, en. 
March 5, '65, Vet. Pro. Corp. dis. with company. 
Isaac ]Sr. Hoblitt, en. February 13, '65, dis. on exp. 
of term, February 13, '66. Wm. Kissinger, en. 
February 11, '65, dis. on exp. of term, February, 
11, '66. Chas. F. Longfellow, en. February 14, 
'65, dis. on exp. of term February 14, '66. John 
F. Smith, en. February 11, '65, dis. on exp .of 
term, February 11, '66. 


Privates— Geo. S. Brown, en. March 64, dis. 
with company. Henry S. Chase, en. March 22, '64, 
dis. with company. William Finley, en. March 
24, '64, dis. with company. Amos B. Hurley, en. 
March 23, '64, pro. wagoner, dis. with company. 
John H. Haughley, March 26,'64, dis. with com- 
pany. Walter Keough, en. March 30, '64, dis. with 
company. Columbus Myers, en. March SO, '64, 
dis. with company, James H. Pottle, en. March 
30, '64, dis. with company. Samuel J. Peel, en. 
March 26, '64, dis. with company. Chas. H. 
Waters, en. March 25, '64, dis. with company, 
Samuel A. Wilson, en. April 5, '64, vet, dis. with 
company. Dominick Grutch, en. February 13, 65 
dis. with company. Peter Miller en. February 
13, '65, dis. on exp. of term, February 28, '66. 
John Bust, en. February 13,'65, dis. February 
28, '66. Nicholas Thilleau, en. February 11, '65, 
, dis. February 11. 66. Archibald E. Howe, en. 
February 14, '65, dis. February 27, '66. Peter 
, C. Howe, en February 14, '65, dis. per order June 
• 2. 1865. 


Henry S. Lindsay, Mus., en. November 28, '61. 
died January 26, '62, in hospital at Camp Benton, 
Mo. John Finnegan, Wag., en. November 20, 
'61, re-en. Dec. 31, '63, dis. per order. 

Privates. — Francis W. Carlton, en. November 
1, '61, dis. on exp. of term December 19, '64. 
Wallace E. Lashell, en. November 14, '61, re-en. 
Dec. 31, '63, dis. with company. Oren J. Swan, 
en. Nov. 1, '61, dis. on exp. of term, December 
19, '64. John B. Thompson, en. November 18, 
'61, re-en. December 31, '63, pro. Corp., dis. with 

Becruits.— Wm. Van Eman, en. February 29, 
'64, dis. with company. Ephriam Whitney, en. 
February 29, '64, dis. with company. Geo. B. 
Allen, en. February 13, '65, one year, dis. on exp. 
Bernard Cloutier, one year, dis. on exp. 


Becruits.— Jas. E. Brownell, en. February 10, 
'64, dis. with company. John Connor, en. De- 
cember 15, '63, dis. with company. 


originally 1st, 2d and 3d Companies of this cavalry 
organized October and November '61. Ordered 
to Benton BarrackSjMo., December '61. Assigned 
to a regiment called Curtis' Horse. Ordered to 
Fort Henry, Tenn., February '62. Name of 
regiment changed to Fifth Iowa Cavalry, April 
'62, as Companies G, D and K. Engaged in siege 
of Corinth April '62. Ordered to Fort Herman, 
Tenn., August '62. Veteranized February '64. 
Ordered to Department of Northwest, '64. Or- 
dered upon Indian expedition. Engaged with 
Indians July 28, and August '64. Mustered out 
by companies between May '66, and June '66. 


originally commanded by Col. E. N. McLaren. 


Pmofes— Frank Brabic, dis. on expr. of term, 
Feb. 13, '65. Charles Stien, dis. on expr. of term, 
'65. Louis Stein, dis. per order, July 11, '65. 


James M. Payne, Capt., en. October 23, '63, 
dis. with Co., December 2, '65. Eobert Wood, 
2d Lieut., en. October 24, '63, died November 25, 
'64, at Fort Wadsworth. Archibald McGill, 1st 



Sergt., en. jSTovember 20, pro. 2d Lieut., 1st 
Lieut. Co. H., June 6, '65, dis. with Co., April 
28, '66. Kobert McGrath, Q. M. Sergt. en. 
November 7, '63, dis. witli Co. Robert W. San- 
born, Sergt., en. October 23, '63, pro. 2d Lieut., 
dis. witli Co. Andrew J. Cates, Sergt., en. Nov- 
ember 2, '63, dis. with Co. Geo. C. .Ticknor, 
Corp., en. December 3, '63, dis. with Co. David 
N. Jenkins, Corp., en. October 28, '63, reduced, 
dis. with Co. Levi W. Merritt, Corp., en Decem- 
ber 12, '63, dis. for disabl., June, '65. Ancel 
Ticknor, Wag., en. December 3, '63, reduced, 
dis. with Co. Geo. C. Mafshall, Blk smth., en. 
December 7, '63, reduced, dis. with Co. 

Privates — William Armstrong, en. November 
7, '63, dis. with oomp. Charles S. Bardwell, en. 
November 13, '63, pro. Corp., dis. with comp. 
Joshua S. Bryant, en. December 7, '63, dis. with 
comp. A. P. Beeman, en. Nov., '63, dis. with 
comp. Bichard Clayton, en. December 22, '63, 
dis. with comp. Thomas Cardman, en. Novem- 
ber 2, '63, dis. for disab., September 1, '65. Car- 
los Douglas, en. December 1, '63, dis. with comp. 
John M. Eddy, en. November 7, '63, appointed 
blacksmith, dis. with comp. Llewellyn Goodale, 
en. December 26, '63, dis. with regt. John 
Larington, en. December 2, '63, destd. May 4, '64, 
at Fort SnellLag. Patrick McKinney , en. Novem- 
ber 10, '63, dis. for disab., July 25, '65. Roderick 
McLennan, en. November 28, '63, dis. with comp. 
Moses r. OUiver, en. November 21, '63, appointed 
trumpeter, dis. with regt. Samuel S. Paine, en. 
November 6, '63, pro. Chaplain, dis. with regt. 
Edmond Phinney, en. December 4, '63, dis. with 
comp. Joseph Sharr, en. November 24, '63, dis. 
with comp. Charles H. Sumner, en. December 
13, '63, dis. with comp. James P. Ticknor, en. 
December 3, '63, pro. Corp., dis. with regt. Ben- 
jamin Wallace, en. October 28, '63, dis, with comp. 
George II. Wymants, en. December 15, '68, dis. 
with comp. Henry C. Williams, en. December 
16, '63, dis. with comp. Matthias Weidenbach, 
en. November 24, '63, died March 17, '65, at Fort 
Wadsworth. Chester C. Ward, en. November 16, 
'63, dis. with comp. 

Becruits — (Enrolled February 14, '05.) — Horatio 
Beeman, dis., no record. Mark M. Bridges, dis., 
no record. Samuel M.Haws, dis., no record. 
Joseph Naramore, dis., no record. Edward 
Stoddard, dis., no record. 


JJecrMi«s.— Leander V. Allen, en. February 14, 
'65, dis. with company. Oscar R. Champlin, en. 
March 30, '64, dis. with company. Geo. B. Whid- 
din, en. February 15, '65, dis. with company. 


Price B. Ourcus, recruit, en. March 29, '64, 
dis. with company. 


Romain A. Streeter, private, en. February 16, 
'64, dis. with company. 

Second Minnesota Cavalry, organized December 
'68, and January '64. Ordered upon Indian ex- 
pedition May '64. Engaged with Indians July 
28 and August '64. Stationed at frontier posts , 
until muster out of regiment by companies be- 
tween November '65 and June '66. 


originally commanded by Major E. A. C. Hatch. 


Wm. W. Wilson, Sergt., en. July 6, '63, dis. for 
disab. James N. Dudley, Sergt., June 30, '63, 
reduced, dis. with company. Edward G. Libby, 
Sergt., en. July 15, '63, reded, dis. with company. 
St. Don Palmer, Corp., en. Jime 30, .'63, pro. 
Sergt., dis. with comp. John M. Burgan, Corp., 
en. July 15, '63, reduced, dis. with comp. Nich- 
olas Am, Trumpeter, June 27, '63, dis. with comp. 

Privates. — Miles J. Haver, en. July 17, '63, dis. 
for disab. Edwin Brewster, en. July 15, '63, dis. 
with comp. Nathaniel Chantler, en. July 15, '63, 
dis. with comp. And. Cruickshanks, en. June 
30, '63, dis. with comp. Ronald Cruickshanks, en. 
June 30, '63, dis. with comp. John A. Coleman, en. 
June 30, '63, no record given. Chas. H. Cook, en. 
July 15, '68, dis. with comp. Sam'l P. Hall, en. 
June 30, '63, died Oct. 15, '63, at Minnetonka, 
Minn. Joseph Hankerson, en. July 6, '63, died 
September 19, '63, at Minneapolis. Charles 
Ogburn, en. July 6, '63, dis. with comp. Thos. 
C. Wakefield, en. June 30, '63, dis. with company. 
Christian Wolter, en. July, '63, dis. with comp. 

Becruits— AlireA Gervais, en. July 28, '63, dis. 
for disab. March 14, '65. Edwin M. Snow, en. 
February 22, '64, dis. per order, April 6, '66. 
Chas. H. Parrish, en. Feb. 22, '64, dis. for disabl. 
Frederic Bowers, en. February 23, '64, dis. with 



company. Abe Zimmerman, en. February 23, 
'64, dis. per order March 29, '66. 


Geo. C. Whitcomb, capt., en. July 7, '63, dis. 
with comp. Thomas R. Briggs, Q. M. Sergt., 
en. July 4, '63, pro. 1st Sergt. dis. with comp. 
James W. Hankinson, Corp. en. August 7, '63, 
reduced December 1, '63, dischd. for promotion 
February 25, '65. Yolney E. Walters, Corp. en. 
July 16, '63, reduced December 1, 63, re-appoint- 
ed Corp. July 17, '64, dis. for disab. February 
14, '65. Moses H. Ripley, blksmth. en. August 
4, '63, dis. per order January 27, '66. 

Privates — Robert Archibald, en. August 10, '63 
dis. with comp. Joseph Bouldice, en. July 14, 
'63. dis. with comp. Octave Boucher, en. July 
31, '63, dis with comp. Chas. Bohanon, en. Aug- 
ust 7, '63, dis. with comp. Joseph Burnell, en. 
August 3, '63, dis. with comp. Beleana Burnell, 
en. August 3, '63, dis. with comp. Justin A. 
Dayton, en. July 2, '63, dis. with comp. Joseph 
Desjardins, en. July, 29, '63, dis. with company. 
Samuel Helthy, en. August 8, '63, deserted Sep- 
tember 15, '65. Wm. McKenzie, en. July 1, '63, 
dis. for disab. September 15, '65. Charles Mid- 
wood, en. July 8, '63, deserted August 63. Lud- 
wig Netzbone, en. July 16, '63, dis. with comp. 
Leroy B. Newton, en. August 7, '63, pro. Sergt. 
dis. with comp. Luman Putnam, en. July 1, '63 
died October 3, '63, at Minneapolis. Michael 
Patnode, en. August 3, '63 dis. with comp. Moses 
Patnode, en. August 3, '68, dis. with company. 
Thomas Peisen, en. July 16, '63, dis. with comp. 
Lewis Riley, en. July 11, '63, dis. with company. 
Albert Roth, en. July 15, '63, dis. with with comp. 
Adolph Roberts, en. August 3, '63, dis. per order 
May 7, '66. Leon Richards, en. August 7, '63, 
dis. with comp. John C. Saddler, en. July 1, '63. 
dis. for disab. July 8, '65. Joseph Scott, en. 
August 3, '63, dis. with comp. Oliver Van- 
Bunker, en. July 1, '63, dis. with comp. Edgar 
Nott, en. July 13, 63, dis. with comp. 

Becruits— John Donlon,en. August 15, '63, dis. 
with comp. James Scully, en. September 22, '63, 
dis. with comp. Albert C. Fletcher, en. March 
30, '64, dis. with comp. William E. Roth, en. 
March 26, '64, dis. with comp. La Salle Roth, en. 
March 26, '64, dis. with comp. Isaiah Dougherty, 
en. March 28, '64, dis. per order, March 11, '66. 

Joseph. Brunell, Jr., en. September 21, '63, dis. 
with comp. 


Daniel W. Getchell, Sergt., en. August 22, '63, 
dis. with comp. 

Privates — Frederick H. Chilson, en. August 31, 
'63, dis. with comp. John Flam, en. August 24, 
'63, dis. with comp. Jos. Gagne, Jr., en. Sep- 
tember 9, '63. dis. with comp. John Hollander, 
en. September 8, '63, dis. with comp. Peter 
Eoshen, en. September 9, '63, dis. with comp. 
Ernest Smith, en. September 11, '63, dis. with 

Becruits — Philo S. Thayer, en. March 25, '64, 
dis. with comp. William Bushnel, en. March 28, 
'64, dis. per order, March 22, '65. Amos Hoyt, 
en. March 28, '64, dis. per order, March 10, '66. 
Fred'k. Miller, en. April 1, '64, died November 
5, '65. Edward Morse, en. April 1, '64, dis. with 
comp. Charles Eggert, en. April 1, '64, dis. with 
comp. George Slater, en. April 1, '64, dis. for 
disabl. July 3, '65. 


Privates — Byron E. Bushnell, en. November 19, 
'63, dis. for disab., March 29, '64. George God- 
frey, en. February 27, '64, dis. with comp. Chris- 
tian Keller, en. March 28, '64, dis. with comp. 
Frederick Biers, en. April 1, '64, dis. with comp. 
Mahlon Cooper, en. April 13, '64, dis. with comp. 


George Boyd, Jr., Capt., en. August 31, '64, dis. 
with comp. , May 1 , '66. Mark T. Berry, 1st Lieut. , 
en. August 31, '64, dis. with comp. Alden M. 
Kimball, 2d Lieut., en. August 31, '64, dis. per 
order. John M. McKeen, Q. M. Sergt., en. Au- 
gust 8, '64, dis. with comp. Nelson H. Miner, 
Com. Sergt., en. August 29, '64, dis. with comp. 
George H. Stetson, Sergt., en. August 4, '64. re- 
duced, dis. with comp. Leonard H. Dodge, Corp. , 
en. August 18, '64, pro. Sergt., dis. with comp. 
Francis Day, Corp., en. August 8, '64, pro. Sergt. 
dis. with comp. And. McCausland, Corp., en. 
August 29, '64, dis. with comp. Israel S. Parker, 
Corp., en. August 8, '64, dis. with comp. George 
A. Hall, Corp., en. August 4, '64, dis with comp. 
Asa Gould, Corp., en. August 29, '64, dis. with 
comp. Gideon B. Stetson, Mus., en. August 4, 
'64, dis. with comp. Israel G. Stetson, Mus., en. 



August 4, '64, dis. for disab, March 13, '66. Da- 
vid P. Palmer, Farrier, en. August 29, '64, dis. 
witli comp. 

Privates — Thomas Armstrong, en. August 4, 
'64, dis. with comp. Cyrus J. Braman, en. Aug. 
10, '64, dis. per order, October 26, '65. Francis 
Bren, en. August 22, '64, dis. with comp. John 
Chastek, en. August 22, '64, dis. with comp. 
John H. Crate, en. August 12, '64, dis. with comp. 
John Droddy, en. August 22, '64, dis. with comp. 
Jolm Gleeson, en. August 3, '64, dis. with comp. 
Harrison Goodale, en. August 9, '64, dis. with 
comp. Patrick B'. Larkin, en. August 9, '64, dis. 
with comp. Isaac Lloyd, en. August 9, '64, dis. 
with comp. Cassius H. Lobdel, en. August 4, 
'64, dis. with comp. Nathaniel G. Leighton, en. 
August 8, '64, dis. with comp. Peter Miller, en. 
August 10, '64, dis. with comp. Benjamin Max- 
on, en. August 24, '64, dis. with comp. Peter 
Eaymond, en. August 27, '64, dis. with comp. 
Lawrence Biley, en. August 4, '64, dis. with comp. 
Peter Rusch, en. August 4, '64, dis. with comp. 
John Smitana, en. August 22, '64, sent to Insane 
Asylum, January 23, '66. William Sturman, en. 
Aug. 23, '64, dis. for disabl. Nov. 8, '65. Geo. D. 
Tuttle, en. August 4, '64, dis with comp. Daniel 
T. Thompson, en. August 25, '64, dis. with comp. 
Charles Wolsfield, en. August 9, '64, pro. Corp., 
dis. with comp. George Young, en. August 29, 
'64, dis. with comp. 

Becruits — [Enrolled February 17, '65 ; dis. on 
exp. of term, February 17, '66.]— Samuel H. Bo- 
hanon, Charles E. Carlton, Charles S. Plummer, 
William Stanchfleld, Justus H. Wylie, Daniel L. 
Carlton. S. L. Bohanon. 


Private — Antoine Pantel, en. August 8, '64, 
dis. with comp. 

Independent Battalion Minnesota Cavalry, or- 
ganized July, '63. Ordered to Pembina, D. 
T., October, '63; ordered to Fort Abercvombie, 
D. T., May. '64; stationed at I'ort Abercrombic- 
until mustered out. Mustered otit by ('(inipanics 
from April to June, '66. 


originally commanded by Capt. Emil Munch. 

C. C. Cogswell, 1st Sergt., en. October 28, '61, 

dis. for disabl. July 10, '62. Anthony Grethen, 

Q. M. Sergt., en. November 11, '61, dis. for 

disabl. August 5, '62. F. L. Haywood, Sergt., 
en. October 28, '61, re-en. pro. 2d Lieut., dis. with 
battery. N. K. Hanks, Corp., en. October 28, '61, 
died June 19, '62, at Corinth, Miss. C. S. Davis, 
Corp., en. November 11, '61, died by wds. rec'd. 
in battle, April 27, '63. Henry Rippe, Bugler, 
en. October 9, '61, destd. January 11, '62, at St. 
Louis. Peter Germain, Artificer, en. October 21, 
'61, dis. March 1, 62, (mustered wrong). John 
Boflerding, jVrtificer, en. October 25, '61, dis. 
March 1, '62, (mustered wrong). C. D. Brown, 
Artificer, en. October 28, '61, dis. for disabl. 
July 7, 62. 

Privates — Adolph Butz, en. October 10, '61, 
re. en. December 1, '63, dis. with battery. Jos. 
Coleman, en. November 15, '61, re-en. Decem- 
ber 1, '63, discharged with battery. James 
Fall, en. October 28, '61, pro. 2d Lieut., dis. with 
battery. Darwin Gates, en. October 28, '61, dis. 
for disabl. May 1, '62. Charles Hasselmann, en. 
October 29, '61, died July 8, '62, at St. Louis. 
Renselaer Nevers, en. October 28, '61, re-en. 
January 1, '64, dis. with battery. Charles Pierce, 
en. October 11, '61 , dis. for disabl. July 21, '62. 
Royal Plummer, en. October 30, "61, re-en. Janu- 
ary 1, '64, dis. with battery. Russell Pease, en. 
October 8, '61, destd. July 3, "62. apprehended 
April 21, '64, dis. June 30, '65. Howard Robin- 
son, en. October 26, '61, dis. for disabl. July 19, 
'62. Joseph Sparks, en. October 28, '61, dis, for 
disabl. '62. Tracy Wilson, en. August 16, '63, 
dis. with battery. 


organized October "61. Ordered to St. Louis, 
December '61, thence to Pittsburg Landing Feb- 
ruary '62. Engaged in the following battles, 
marches, sieges and skirmishes: Shiloh, April 5 
and 6, '62, siege of Corinth, April '62, Corinth 
October 3 and 4, "62. :Marched from Corinth to 
Oxford, j\Iiss., and thence to Memphis, Tenn. 
Assigned to 17th Army Corps, November '62. 
Veteranized Jan>iary '64. Ordered to Cairo, 111., 
thence to Iluntsville, Ala., thence to Ackworth, 
(ia. Battle of Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta, July 
22 and 28. Sherman's campaign through Georgia 
and the Carolinas. Discharged at Fort Snelling 
June 30, '65. 


Wm. A. Ilotchkiss, Capt., en. as private, com. 



Capt. pro. Brevet Major at Stone river, Veteran- 
ized and discharged with battery, September, '65. 
Henry W. Harder, 1st Sergt. en. December 7, '61, 
pro. 2d Lieut. July '62, 1st Lieut. January, '64, 
dis. with battery. John McCausland, Com. Sergt. 
en. December 4, '61, died January 22 '65 at Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn. Henry W. Towle, Corp. en. 
December 21, '61, re-en. March 21, '64, dis. with 
battery. Wilber Nickols, Corp. en. October 30, 
'61, dis. for disab. February 15, '63. Edward 
Rogers, Artificer,, en. February 14, '62, dis. for 
disab. April 2, '63. John T. Arnell, Artificer, 
en. March 6, '62, re-en. March 24, '64, dis. for 
disab. February 16, '65. 

Privates. — Mcliolas Arn, en. January 6, '62, 
dis. for disab. October 31, '62. Melchor Blesi, en. 
January 17, '62, died December 6, '62, at Nash- 
ville, Tenn. Christopher Blake, en. February 
12, '62, dis. for disab. October 3, '62. Gustav 
Darcachy, en. January 20, '62, died January 31, 
'63 ia the field. John Gibson, en. January 28, '62 
dis. on exp. of term March 28, '65. Martin Hosli, 
en. January 11, '62, re-en. March 22, '64, dis. 
with battery. Jolm Kennedy, en. January 4, '62 
dis. for disab. April 21 , '63. John L. Kimball, en. 
January 25, '62, dis. for disab. May 22, '63. Alden 
C. Meed, en. December 9, '61, dis. for disab. No- 
vember 15, '62. Geo. F. Murphy, en. January 
16, '62, died June 27, '62 at Camp Clear Creek, 
Miss. John Soper, en. December 12, '61, re-en. 
March 21, '64, dis. with battery. John C. Stock- 
ton, en. January 25, '62, died '62 at Juka, Miss. 
Peter Streiclier, en. January 28, '62, died Aug- 
ust 21, '64 in the field. Hilarious Schmidt, en. 
February 5, '62, dis. for disab. January 3, '63. 
John B. Talcott, en. December 12, '61, re-en. 
March 21, '64, pro. Corp. discharged with battery. 
Mathew Taisey, en. January 4, '62, dis. for disab. 
October 29, '63. Bethuel Then, eja. February 
12, '62, died July 30, '62, at Keokuk, la. David 
Vanderen, en. October 28, '62, dis. on exp. of 
term, Marcli 28, '65. Chas.'S. Waldron, en. Jan- 
uary 10, '62, re-en. March 22, 64, dis. with battery. 


organized December '61, and commanded by 
Captain Hotchkiss. April '62, reported at Saint 
Louis, Mo., for equipment. Ordered to Corinth 
May '62, arriving there at close of Shiloh battle. 
Participated in siege of Corinth. Marched with 

division commanded by Gen. JefE. C. Davis, as 
re-enforcement to Buell's army in Tennessee. 
Battles of Buell's campaign against Bragg. Per- 
ryville, October 8 and 9, '62, Lancaster, October 
12, '62. Knob Gap, December 20, '62. Stone 
Elver, five day's battle, commencing December 
31, '62. During this battle the horses of the bat- 
tery were not unhitched excepting for water at 
night. Capt. Hotchkiss was promoted. Brevet 
Major by general field order, and assigned to 
duty as Chief of Artillery of General Davis' 
Division, with a command of three batteries. 
Battle of TuUahoma. Marched in pursuit 
of enemy towards Eome, Ga., via Stephen- 
son, Ala., crossed Tennessee river at Caperton's 
Ferry, marched across Sand and Racoon Moun- 
tains and reached Lookout Mountain at Yalley 
Head. Crossed Lookout Mountain in the direc- 
tion of Rome, in pursuit of the enemy ; returned 
and descended into McLamore's Cove. En- 
gaged in battle of Chickamauga Septem- 
ber 19 and 20, '63, Mission Ridge, subsequent 
marches and skirmishes to Ringgold. Marched 
with Sherman to relief of Knoxville September 
'63. Spring of '64, battles of Ringgold, Tunnel 
Hill and Buzzard's Roost. Battery veteranized 
March '64. Battle of Nashville December 15 and 
16, '64. Stationed at Chattanooga and Philadel- 
phia, East Tennessee. Discharged at Fort Snel- 
ling September '65. 


Recruits — John E. Brawley, en. February 24, 
'64, dis. witli battery. David X. Carr, en. March 
30, '64, dis. with battery. Samuel H. Clark, en. 
March 31, '64, pro. Corp., dis. with battery. "Wil- 
liam H. Garvey, en. February 29. '64, dis. with 
battery. Charles Pratt, en. March 31, '64, dis. 
with battery. George M. "Wright, en. March 31, 
'64, dis. with battery. 

Third Battery Minnesota Light Artillery, or- 
ganized February, 1863 ; ordered upon Indian 
Expedition of 1863 ; participated in engagements 
with Indians, July 24, 26 and 28, 1863 ; stationed 
at frontier posts until May, 1864, when entered 
upon Indian Expedition of 1864 ; engaged with 
Indians, July 28 and August, 1864 ; upon return 
of expedition, stationed at frontier posts until 
muster out of battery, February 27, 1866. 






This township is situated in the south-eastern 
part of tlie county, and borders on the east on 
botli the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers. The 
northern and central portions of the town are 
rolling, and the southwestern undulating. The 
central portion of the town is traversed by the 
sandy belt, which produces copses of small oaks 
and aspens. The remainder of the rolling land 
is well timbered with elm, bass, maple, etc., trees 
of a larger growth. The south-eastern part, 
bordering on the Port Snelling Reservation, and 
extending west as far as Wood Lake, is a beauti- 
ful prairie. The town contains nearly thirty 
lakes, many of them of great beauty. Most 
prominent among them, for size and scenery, are 
Amelia and Wood Lakes. Aside from the Mis- 
sissippi and Minnesota Rivers on the east, there 
are two beautiful streams, Minnehaha and Nine 
Mile creeks which flow through the town. Minne- 
haha Creek, taking its rise in Lake Minnetonka, 
flows easterly through the towns of Minnetonka, 
Minneapolis, and Richfield receiving the tributary 
waters of lakes Mother, Amelia and Rice, thence 
south-easterly, tumbling all its laughing waters 
over a precipice, forming Minnehaha Falls, and 
flows into the Mississippi River, above Fort 
Snelling. These waters, but especially Minne- 
haha Creek, are very beautiful, and a great 
attraction to tourists. Nine Mile Creek flows 
across the south-western part of tlie town into 
the Minnesota. 

The Northern Boundary of the township was 
originally two miles north of the present line, 
running in a straight line from Minnetonka to 
the Mississippi. This line was altered by act of 

legislature in 1867-8. A narrow strip was taken 
from its entire northern boundary and attached 
to the township of Minneapolis. It was two miles 
wide at the west and so continued until it inter- 
sected Minnehaha Creek at the outlet of Rice 
Lake, and followed the course of that stream to 
its junction with the Mississippi. 

On the east, the Military Reservation, by 
its original boundaries, included more than 
half of this township. The dividing line ex- 
tended west of Lake Harriet. By the first re- 
duction, November, 1853, the lines were so con- 
tracted that the western line passed through lakes 
Mother and Amelia. It includes by its present 
boundaries only about one thousand acres, and 
allows the town several miles on the great rivers. 


In consequence of its intimate relations to the 
fort and its once forming part of the reservation, 
the history of Richfield must begin from the ear- 
liest records of explorers, before the settlement of 
the state. We refer to previous chapters in the 
work for this part of the history, simply remind- 
ing the reader here, that a few of the Swiss set- 
tlers, from the Hudson Bay territory of Lord 
Selkirk, under the leadership of Loips Massey, 
settled here in June, 1S:27, but were forcibly re- 
moved by orders from the government. No relic 
now indicates their occupancy. The leader of 
the party, Loiiis Massey, is still livmg at Hudson, 
Wisconsin, at an advanced age. The first claim 
in the town was that made on Minnehaha Creek 
by Hon. J. R. Brown. Louis Godfrey was the 
first settler after the territorial organization. He 
was a Frenchman and his wife a Chippewa. 
He lived on section five, where widow Darcy now 
resides. During the Sioux massacre he fled to 
Mendota, and died there in 1878. The date of 
his settlement is uncertain, but it is known to 
have been prior to 1852. Samuel Stough made a 



claim in 1852, and resided here until his death, 
in 1875. William Finch settled here in 1853, and 
in 1878 removed to California. He lived where 
Mr. Place now resides. James A. Dunsmoor 
settled in 1853, removed to California, and died in 
187 1. Philander Prescott, who has been men- 
tioned as arriving at Fort Snelling in 1819, and as 
Indian farmer in 1830, settled in Kichfield, near 
where the Richfield Mills now are, about 1852. 
He was interested in the building of the mills, 
and prominent in public affairs until his death. 
He was killed, in the massacre of 1862, by Little 
Six and Medicine Bottle. He ,was running his 
horse for life, hoping to reach Fort Eidgely. The 
murderers were afterwards hung. 

Many other settlers arrived in 1853. C. W. 
Harris, who died in 1868 at Minneapolis ; Henry 
Townsend and his two sons, Henry and Robert ; 
Mr. Oraper, John McCabe, Mr. Duggan, and 
others. From this date on, settlers arrived very 
rapidly, until now it is one of the most populous 
and prosperous towns in the county. The pres- 
ent population is 1505. The town has 22,988 
acres of land. The assessed valuation of the 
same for the year 1869, was $150,104; 1875, 
1532,530; 1880, $702,670. Personal property, 
1869, $49,336; 187o, $98,329; 1880, $119,614. 
Total taxes in 1869, $3,988,- 1875, $8,497 ; 1880, 
$7,818, Horses over two years old, 1869, 333 ; 
1875, 491 ; 1880, 493. Cattle over two years old, 
1869, 666 ; 1875, 866 ; 1880, 790. Sheep, 1869, 
493; 1876, 851; 1880, 1816. Hogs, 1869, 184; 
1875, 265; 1880, 646. Bushels of wheat, 1869, 
49,124; 1875, 43,425 ; 1880, Acreage, 5,698. 


The annual Town meetings were held at the 
school house, near Richfield Mills, until 1874. 
A. Keith was moderator at the first meeting held 
May 11th, '58, with Alonzo Sawtelle, Clerk. In the 
first call for a meeting the name of "Richland" did 
not seem to please the people, and the first vote 
taken was for the new name of Richfield. The 
Post OfHce had been called Harmony until Rich- 
field was adopted. The Supervisors elected were 
Joel Brewster Chairman, Richard Strout, and 
Jesse Richardson ; Town Clerk, Alonzo Sawtelle ; 
Assessor, George Odell ; Overseer of the Poor, 
James A. Dunsmoor; Justices, K. L. Rar- 
tholomew, Geo. W. Irwin ; Constables, Geo. AV. 

Townsend and "Wm. R. Moffatt ; Collector, Geo. 
"W. Townsend ; Overseer of Roads, A. Keith. The 
first Supervisors meeting was held June 3, 1858, 
and the town divided into road districts. June 
14th, 1858, $400 was voted for town expenses. 
September 30th, 1858, Wm. Finch elected county 
Supervisor. April 5th, 1859, voted $100 for 
town expenses. Supervisors elected, Geo. Odell, 
C. I. W. Maynard, W. W. Woodward. April 3, 
1860, voted $400 for town expenses and author- 
ized the building of Pounds. Supervisors, Geo. 
Odell, 6. W. Irwin, J. N. Richardson. 

April 2, 1861, voted $160 for town expenses 
and $600 for schools. Supervisors, Geo. Odell, 
R. R. Bryant, T. W. Peirce. -W. W. Woodward 
appointed Superintendent of Schools. 

April 1, 1862, levied IJ mills per dollar for town 
expenses. Supervisors, Geo. Odell, W. W. Wood- 
ward, R. Robinson. 

April 7, 1863, levied 2J mills per dollar for 
town expenses. Supervisors, W. W. Woodward, 
A. H. Baston, G. W. Brown. 
January 30th, 1864, call for a special meeting, 
which was held February 10th, and by a vote of 
64 to 59 raised $8000 to pay soldiers' bounties 
.and that each one should receive $160, but at 
a special meeting March 23, the amount was 
reduced to $126. 

April 6th, 1864, levied l^mills for town expenses, 
and 16 mills to pay interest on bounty bonds, and 
raised the per diem of town officers from $1,00 
to $1,50. Supervisors, A. H. Baston, G. W. 
Townsend, W. G. Moffatt. 

August 9th, measures were taken to respond to 
the President's call for 500,000 men. 

January 28th, 1866, it was voted to take no 
action in response to the Presidents' call for 300- 
000 men. 

February 8th, voted to raise, not to exceed 
$8,000, for soldier's bounties, and authorized the 
Supervisors to issue town bonds for that purpose. 

April 4, 1865, levied one mill per dollar for 
town expenses and three cents per dollar to apply 
on town bonds. Supervisors, A. H. Baston, G. W. 
Townsend, E. Groesbeck. 

April 3, 1866, levied one mill per dollar for 
town expenses, and three cents for Bounty bonds, 
and to remit county tax of all soldiers who did 
not receive a local bounty. Supervisors, G. W. 
Townsend, E. J. Woodward, E. Groesbeck. 



April 2, 1867, raised the salary of town officers 
50 per cent above the sum fixed by statute, for as- 
certaining the names of all the soldiers credited to 
the town who had not received bounties and to pay 
them $100 each, and to pay a like sum to Wm. 
Garvey, W. Wilson, E. F. Hall, Richard Neill 
and John Dague, they having enlisted prior to 
any provision for bounties. One mill per dollar 
levied for town and road expenses. Supervisors 

D. W. Albaugh, J. A. Bull, J. N. Richardson. 
July 11, $2,000 town bonds were issued to pay 

for damages on bridges, andmake other repairs 
occasioned by a heavy freshet. 

April 7, 1868, IJ per cent was levied for town 
and road expenses. Supervisors, J. N. Richard- 
son, J. A. Bull, R. Townsend. 

April 6, 1869, levied 3 mills per dollar for town 
expenses ; voted that Frank M. Thornton, an ex- 
soldier, be paid $100, he having received no local 
bounty. Supervisors, J. A. Bull, Aaron Hoover, 
Horace Wilson. 

April 5, 1870, three mills per dollar was levied 
for town expenses. Supervisors, C. H. Clark, 
Aaron Hoover, E. F. Irwin. 

March 14, 1871, elected C. H. Clark, E. F. 
Irwin and Aaron Hoover, Supervisors. No 
tax for town expenses. 

March 12, 1872, levied 3 mills per dollar for 
town expenses. A majority vote against grant- 
ing a liquor license. Supervisors, C. H. Clark, 

E. F. Irwin, B. P. Schuler. 

March 11, 1873, voted 5 mills per dollar for 
town and road expenses. Supervisors, E. F. 
Irwin, J. H. Bull, Michael Gleeson.. 

March 10, 1874. This, and all other meetings 
were held in Richardson's Hall, until 1880. 
Supervisors, C. H. Clark, Michael Gleeson, James 
L. Garvey. Levied four mills for town and road 
expenses. It not being enough, a special meeting 
was called September 1st, and $725 raised for 
town and road fund. 

March 9, 1875. Supervisors, C. II. Clark, Jas. 
L. Garvey. Voted to grant license, 63 to .«. 
Raised $2,000 for all town expenses. The statute 
of limitation being two mills on the assessed 
valuation, the amount raised did not reach ttiat 


March 14, 1876, raised the per diem of town 
officers to two dollars. Sixty votes cast against 
liquor license with none for it. Supervisors, 

B. F. Hanscom, Stephen L. Witbeck, John Craik. 
At a special meeting 69 votes were cast for, and 
18 against paying the State R. R. Bonds by selling 
the internal improvement lands. 

March 12, 1878, levied one mill per dollar for 
the erection of a Town Hall. Supervisors, Wm. 
Finch, Thos. Richardson, Chas. Hohag. 

March 11. 1879, levied 2 J mills for building 
Town Hall, care of poor and town expenses. 
Supervisors, E. F. Irwin, James Garvey, Chas. 
A. Hohag. The Town Hall was conipleted this 

March 9, 1880, levied 2J mills for all town ex- 
penses. Supervisors, E. F. Irwin, Jas. L. Gar- 
vey, Chas. A. Hohag. 


The first school in the town was taught, during 
the vsdnter of 1854-5, by Miss Mary Towjisend, 
in a log school house. It was built near Wood 
Lake, by five men, R. L. Bartholomew, C. 
Gregory, George Gilmore, C. CouiUard and 
William Finch. Miss Townsend afterwards mar- 
ried Mr. Getchell, and resides in Los Angeles, 
California. • Miss Craik, now Mrs. Frank Hans- 
comb, of Minneapolis, taught, in the summer of 
1855, in a school house near Richfield Mills. This 
school house became a residence, and is now oc- 
cupied by Mr. Schafner. 

There are now six full and one joint districts 
in town, with seven school houses. District J^'o. 
11, house built in 1859, on section 28 ; District 
No. 17, house moved on section 18, 1871 ; District 
No. 16, house built on section 8 in 1872 ; District 
No. 6, house built in 1875 ; District No. 8, house 
built on section 14 in 1872 ; District No. 109, 
house built in section 2o, in 1875. District No. 
88 is a joint district, lying in Richfield and Bloom- 
ington townships ; house built on section 35, in 


The town has four church organizations ; Meth- 
odist Episcopal, Baptist, Episcopal and Catholic. 

The Alethodist denomination began its existence 
under the guidance of Rev. Mills, who held the 
first services in a granary, owned by Henry 
Townsend. Services were next held in the school 
house near Wood Lake, about a quarter of a mile 
south of where the Baptist church now stands. 
It was called "Harmony Mission" until 1864, 



when it was included in the " Minneapolis Cir- 
cuit." In the fall of 1865, a change was made, 
and a new circuit formed, consisting of appoint- 
ments at Excelsior, Eden Prairie, Cha.nhassen, 
and Harmony, or Wood Lake, as it was some- 
times called. In 1869, the neat wooden church 
was built on section 22. A parsonage and ceme- 
tery were also located on the church grounds. 

The cemetery is neatly kept and beautifully or- 
namented with evergreen and forest trees. The 
following clergymen have succeeded each other 
in the charge : Revs. Mills, John Hooper, Elliott, 
George Galpin, Levi Gleason, J. D. Rich, D. W. 
Berlin, John Stafford, C. T. Garvin, W. D. Ben- 
nett, J. H. Macomber, Farber, F. H. Tubbs, 

Henry Brooks, and J. M. Marsh. 


of Richfield was organized by ReV. Amory Gale, 
and began its existence by meetings in the school- 
house near Richfield Mills, where Mr. Schafner 
now Uves. The church, capable of seating two 
hundred people, was built in 1869. Rev. J. R. 
Manton has been pastor since. He was born in 
Providence, Rhode Island, September 28th, 1821, 
graduated at Brown University, in his native city, 
in 1848, and first engaged in the ministry at Glou- 
cester, Mass. Three years after he removed to 
Tennessee, and labored there until 1857. He 
then returned north and had charge of a church 
at Quincy, Illinois, until 1860, when he came to 
Minneapolis and was pastor of the " First 
Baptist Church " of that city until -1864. He 
then went to St. Joseph, Missouri, and remained 
until 1868, when he returned to Minnesota on 
account of ill health, and has since been pastor 
of the church in Richfield. He owns a small 
farm and has a very pleasant home on the banks 
of "Wood Lake. 


In March, 1869, Rev. Knickerbacker began 
holding services, assisted by S. B. Cowdrey as lay 
reader, in the school-house of district 17. As a 
result of those services, a church building was 
commenced May 20th, 1872, on an acre lot 
donated by James A. Bull. The opening ser- 
vices were held August 11th, 1872, by Rev. 
McMasters and Rev. Knickerbacker. The 
church was dedicated as Trinity Chapel by 
Bishop Whipple, September 12th, same year. 

The congregation numbered about twenty-five 
families — the Sabbath-school forty-two chil- 
dren. The latter has been held regularly from 
1869. The Brotherhood of Gethsemane had 
charge of the church until 1877, since which 
time Rev. Charles RoUit has been in charge. 
Services are now held once each month. 


This is a Catholic Mission Church and is located 
on the south line of the town on section 34. It is 
under the auspices of St. Joseph's Church, O. 
S. B. of Minneapolis and is visited twice a month 
by Father Salzeder or his assistant. The church 
was built in 1874, and is about 28x70 feet. 


This society was organized in 1874, by Deputy 
Chowen of Minnetonka. There were twenty-four 
charter members. The first Master was J. A. Bull 
and the first Secretary, Joseph Hamilton who is 
now master. The regular meetings are held once 
a month during summer and once in two weeks in 
the whiter. A fine hall was erected in the win- 
ter of 1879 and '80, near the Waterville Mills. 
It is 26x50 feet, with fourteen feet ceiling, and is 
used for meetings of the Grange, lyceums, 
festivals, parties and for instructive and enter- 
taining occasions. 


The only manufacturing establishments are the 
Flouring Mills. These are the "Richfield Mills" 
and the "Edina Mills." The former was built 
in 1854, by Philander Prescott, Judge Moffatt 
and Eli Pettijohn. The whole property soon 
came into the possession of Mr. Prescott, and he 
remained sole owner until his tragic death in 
1862. It is situated on Minnehaha Creek, at the 
crossing of the Bloomington road. The property 
has passed through the hands of various owners 
to the present proprietors, Pratt & Baird. The 
mill is now operated by W. J. Baird & Co. It is 
a turbine wheel mill with four runs of stone and 
a capacity of twenty barrels in ten hours. 


This is commonly called the "Waterville Mill," 
and is situated on section eighteen. It was built 
in 1857. The present owners, Andrew and 
John Craik took the property about 1869, 
and added two runs of stone and other 



improvements. The company manufacture oat 
meal and pearl barley. They are at pres- 
ent the only manufacturers of these articles in 
the county. These Mills are both located on 
Minnehaha Creek and derive their power from 
that stream. The Creek at the Edina Mills has 
a fall of fifteen feet, affording a valuable power. 
This mill has three turbine wheels, two of thirty 
inches in diameter, and one of thirty-six inches 
furnishing a fifty horse power. 


Thomas Page has a blacksmith shop on section 
twenty-two. William Ewing has a carriage and 
blacksmith shop combined, near the Edina Mills. 


John S. Mann opened the first store in the 
town. This was a small concern located near 
Prescott's Mill, opened at the first settlement of 
the town. Mr. Mann, however, failed in business, 
and Mr. Prescott kept a store for several years. 
Only one store remains to be named, that on the 
lull near the mill, kept by J. N. Richardson. 
Irvin Dunsmoor opened it in 1859. He was suc- 
ceeded by Dnnsmoor Bros., and they, by Mr. 
■Richardson, in 1872. This is a well-stocked 
country store. 


Minnehaha Hotel is a popular summer resort 
at Minnehaha Falls, kept by J. E. Booth. The 
house is quite large and the rooms well furnished. 
It accommodates fifty guests comfortably. The 
bams, sheds and out-buildings are ample. It is 
at present under good management. It is a part 
of the estate of the late Franklin Steele, obtained 
by him under his purchase of the Military Reser- 
vation, in 1857. 

The house was begun in 1873, by Mr. Shaw. 
When he abandoned it, Mr. Steele carried out 
the plan and completed tlie work. The pretty 
new Minnehaha depot on the Milwaukee and St. 
Paul Railroad is located just opposite the hotel, to 
accommodate its guests and visitors to the falls. 

Minnehaha Spring Hotel. This house is about 
eighty rods below the depot. Its noticeable fea- 
tures are a fine dancing hall and large stables. 
Isidore Henry is the proprietor. 

The Town Hall was built in 1879. It is about 
eighty rods north of the Baptist Church. The 

building cost $1500. It is 32x45 feet on the 
ground. In front of the audience room is an 
entrance hall and cloak room, with a large and 
convenient gallery. In the rear are two rooms 
sixteen feet square, used for public business. 

Pleasure Garden and Green House. J. E. Booth, 
who has been previously mentioned as proprietor 
of the Minnehaha House, has established a green- 
house near the hotel. He bought and inclosed 
three acres of land here in 1877. He has since 
laid it out tastefully with walks, arbors, etc., etc. 
Flowers and plants fringe the walks on every 
side. It is called the best landscape garden in the 
State. A drive- way, starting from the main en- 
trance, follows around near the sides in a circu- 
lar form. The plat inclosed by the road- way is 
cultivated with beautiful flowers and foliage 
plants in beds, with serpentine walks. In this 
inclosure is a large arbor with seats and a booth, 
where refreshments may be obtained. The space 
outside the drive is also laid out with handsome 
plants. Opposite the entrance and outside the 
inclosure are the private residence and green- 

Nursery. In the north middle of the town, on 
section sixteen, Mr. A. Stewart has a nursery, 
principally devoted to tree-culture. 


George W. Baird, is a native of Pennsylvania, 
born April 16th, 1835. In 1857 he removed to 
Minnesota and purchased the farm of 120 acres 
which he now occupies, located on section 18. 
In the spring of 1860 he imported the first Spanish 
Merino sheep brought into the State. He sold 
the first fleece of fine wool in ^Minneapolis receiv- 
ing 95' cents per pound for the same. He is at 
present giving his ^^■llole attention to fine Cots- 
\^•old and Lincoln grades, and received first prizes 
at the Minneapolis Exposition of 1880. He was 
married October llth, lK(io, to Miss Sarah G. 
Gates, a native of Vermont. 

John E. Booth was born in llnddersfield, York- 
shire, England, May 12th, 1832. He remained 
in England, engaged in the manufacture of fancy 
woolen goods, until 1854, when he came to the 
United States and located in Xew Jersey. He 
remained in that State about six months and 
removed to Albany, N. Y. . Thence, in March, 
1855, to Brooklyn, and from there to Toronto, 



Canada. In 1856 he removed, to Boston, thence 
to Philadelphia where he was married to Mary 
Beaumont, who died in the fall of the same year. 

In 1858, his health failing, he returned to 
England, where he was engaged as florist for 
eleven years. In 1859 he was married to Mary 
Morrell, and in 1870 he returned to America, and 
came directly to Minneapolis, engaging as florist 
and gardener for Wyman Elliott. After remain- 
ing with him eighteen months, he leased the 
grounds and hot houses for five years and carried 
on the business for himself. In 1877 he pur- 
chased three acres of ground at Minnehaha, 
which he laid out and improved as a landscape 
garden. This garden is valued at f 10,000. In 
1880 he l^sed the Minnehaha hotel and grounds, 
and is now conducting the same. The children 
are, Herbert M., Annie J., Frederic E., and 
Arthur C. 

James A. Bull, was born in Jefferson county, 
New York, February, 1834. He remained there 
with his parents, until 1859 when he came to Min- 
nesota, and settled on the farm he now occupies. 
He owns 158 acres of fertile land and has im- 
proved it, until it now ranks among the best 
farms in this town. Mr. Bull was married in 
1856, to Mary E. Comstock, who bore him one 
child, Mary L. Mrs. Bull died in the winter of 
1865. He was married again in '67, to Miss Amy 
L. Cooper ; has four children, James H. Alvah M. 
Coates P. and Anna B. 

Frederick Bush, was born in Stockhausen, 
Prussia, December 12th, 1849. He remained in 
his native country until 1869 when he emigrated 
to America. He came to Minnesota, and settled 
in Richfield, Hennepin county, December, 1869, 
owns 15 acres on section 15, Township 28, Eange 
24, where he has a pleasant home. 

John Carey, is the owner of 93| acres of 
land on sections 8 and 9, Eichfleld Township, 45 
acres being under cultivation. He was born in 
Tipperary, Ireland, June 14, 1826, and remained 
there until nearly 20 years of age, when he came 
to America. Eesided in New Jersey one year, 
thence removing to Maryland, where he remained 
until 1855,when he came to Minnesota and pur- 
chased the farm he has since occupifed. Was 
married to Ann Eegan, a native of Ireland, in 
1854. They have had twelve children, ten now 

living. Lizzie, James, Mary, Maggie, John, 
Nora, Jeremiah, William, Patrick, Agnes. 

C. C. Chase was born in Haverhill, Mass., May 
16th, 1844. Eesided in his native State until 
1874, when he came to Hennepin county, pur- 
ceased twenty acres of land on section 15, town 
of Eichfield, where he conducts a market garden. 
Mr. Chase is a practical gardener, and has been 
quite successful in the business. 

George Code owns 200 acres of land, of which 
fifty acres are cultivated, the balance meadow 
and woodland. He was born in Carlow county, 
Ireland, October 29th, 1824. Was engaged in 
farming in his native country until 1849, when 
he emigrated to Canada, locating at Ottawa, 
where he engaged in farming and lumbering . for 
seven years. In 1856 he came to the United 
States, coming directly to Minneapolis, where he 
resided until 1863, when he purchased the land 
he now owns in Eichfleld, and has since been en- 
gaged in farming. Was married October 27th, 
1859, to Grace Watt, a native of Ontario, Canada. 
She was born May 15th, 1836. They are the par- 
ents of six children: Robert F., George A., Mary, 
William, Elizabeth, and Joseph W. 

Mary Copley is the owner of eighty-two acres 
of land, forty acres under cultivation. Was born 
in Ireland, March 21st, 1837. Eemained in her 
native country until 1860, when she came to New 
York City, and thence to Boston, where she re- 
mained three years. In 1863, removed to St. Paul, 
where she resided until 1868, when she married 
Mr. Copley, and has since resided on the farm she 
now occupies. 

Cornelius Couillard, one of the old settlers of 
Eichfleld, was born at Frankfort, Maine, October 
31st, 1813. At the age of seventeen, learned the 
trade of tanner and currier, following it eight 
years ; then worked in a ship yard. In April, 1854, 
came to St. Anthony, and engaged in carpenter 
work, and on the old suspension bridge. In 
August, 1854, he made a claim of 160 acres, in 
Eichfleld ; 1855, removed with his family, and 
has since resided there. The whole quarter sec- 
tion has been brought under cultivation. He was 
Married, Sept. 11th, 1834, to Nancy J. Couillard, 
of Maine, who died October 6th, 1875. They had 
nine children : Ellen M., Ellery A., Amanda M. 
died August, 1839 ; Annie A., died August 17th, 



1877 ; Malonah, died March, 1849 ; Adelbert H., 
Emma D., Charles A., Fred. L. 

George W. Cummings, a native of Maine, was 
born April 8th, 1853. Engaged in farming until 
1867, when he came with his parents to Bloom- 
ington, Hennepin county. At the age of twenty- 
one, he embarked in dairy business. In 1878 he 
bought the land he now occupies. His dairy 
business has been quite successful. Was married 
to Miss Alice Gilchrist, Dec. 25th, 1875. They 
have three children: Arthur A., George H., and 
Ruth W. 

William J. Duggan is the owner of 245 acres 
of land, 130 is plow land, the balance woodland 
and pasture. He was born in Tipperary, Ireland, 
in 1838 ; came to America, with his parents, in 
1847, residing in Illinois until 1853, when he came 
to Hennepin county, and has since resided on the 
farm he now occupies. This farm was pre-empt- 
ed by his father in 1853. In 1862 he was one of 
Capt. Northup's company who went to the relief 
of Fort Ridgely. Was married January 21st, 
1871, to Cordelia Kyte, by whom he has four chil- 
dren; Mary, Katie, Maggie, John. 

William M. Ewing was born in Canada in 1816. 
Learned the trade of wagon maker, and served 
the government during the rebellion in Canada. 
In 1848, removed to New York ; remained one 
year ; thence to Michigan. In 1851 he came to 
Minnesota, assisted in the survey of Maple Grove 
township, and in naming it. In 1S57 he removed 
to Osseo, and was the first secretary of the 
corporation. In 1862 he removed to a farm 
in the town of Brooklyn, and resided there 
eight years. He enlisted in Company C of the 
Mounted Rangers, serving as clerk in the Quar- 
termaster's department, until the company was 
disbanded. Was married in 1 840, to Myra Rogers ; 
by her he liad five children, two of whom are now 
hving. He has been married three times ; has 
four children living, Charles Arkland, Alice 
Myra, Francis Cordelia and Mary Adelma. 

Patrick Fogarty was born in Ireland in 1K40; 
came to this country in 1857, and settled in Rich- 
field township. He was four years in the emplo> 
of the government, driving team. In 1862 was 
with General Sibley on his Indian Expedition. 
Purchased the farm on which he has since re- 
sided, in 1865. He now has thirty acres under 
cultivation. Was married in January, 1869, to 

Bridget Carrol, by whom he has had seven chil- 
dren, Mary, Maggie, Ellen, Bridget, Willie, An- 
nie and Denis. 

George Fortwingler, a native of Germany, was 
born November 23d, 1823. He came to this coun- 
try in 1854, resided in Ohio one year, and in 1855 
removed to St. Paul where he remained till 1866, 
when he removed to Bloomington, Hennepin 
county. Kept a hotel at Nine-Mile Creek for two 
years, then purchased the farm he now resides on, 
Was married in 1855, to Miss A. Reisslei a native 
of Germany, by her he had four children, George 
and Caroline, twins, Julius and Julien, twins. 
His wife died and he again married; his second 
wife was Miss A. Renz, by whom he has three 
children, Amelia, Mary, OlilUa. 

John F. Gilmore was born in Ohio, Decem- 
ber 2nd, 1816. While young he accompanied 
his parents to Illinois and resided in that 
state, occupied in teaching school until 1839, 
when he went to Mississippi and engaged in the 
same vocation. In 1845 he removed to Newport, 
Kentucky, where he was engaged in the nursery 
business for six years. In 1871 he came to Min- 
nesota, residing at Faribault two years, engaged 
in the nursery business. He came to Hennepin 
county in 1873 and has since resided in Richfield. 
Was married Dec. 3d, 1872, to ^Sliss Belle Mc- 
Clure. Their children are Molly and William. 

Herman J. Gjertsen is a native of Norway, 
born October 29th, 1826. He followed farming 
and fishing in his native country until 1868 when 
he emigrated to America, settUng in Isanti coun- 
ty, Minnesota. Came to Richfield in 1870 and 
in 1878 he bought HI acres wliere he now resides. 
Married Albertina Olson of Norway in 1851. 
Family record is — Nels P., John C. Ole J., 
Henry J., Louis C. Assoria M., Eunice T., So- 
pliia J.. George 11. Three children have died. 

Michael Gleeson was born in Ireland in 1810, 
and came to tliis countr)- in 1846. Landed in 
New York and \\ ent to Massachusetts where he 
resided until isoo, wlien lie came west and set- 
tled in Heiuiepin county. He made a claim of 
160 acres, which he has since increased by pur- 
chase to 273 acres. He was married in 1852 to 
Mary Bolden, of Ireland. They have had nine 
children; Michael, James and John, twins, 
Thomas, Mary Ann, Daniel, Bridget, Cornelius, 



Charles Haeg was born in Germany, July 13, 
1819. He learned the trade of cabinet maker, 
served three years in the German army, and in 
1844, emigrated to the United States. Enlisted 
at Milwaukee, Wis., in September, 1845. , Mr. 
Haeg enjoys the distinction of being a veteran of 
the Mexican war, serving under General Scott 
during the continuance of the war. In 1848 he 
was stationed at Fort Snelling, and, after a stay 
of six months was removed to Fort Bidgely. In 
1851 he received his discharge, and in September 
of that year made a claim about five miles north 
of St. Anthony, living there until 1853, when he 
came to Richfield. In 1865 he purchased the 
farm on which he has since resided. Was mar- 
ried in 1856, to Mary Walter, who died in 1866, 
leaving five children. Married for his second 
wife Albertina L. Adleman, by whom he has 
seven children all living. 

Andrew N. Hall was born in Maine November 
1st, 1835. Remained with his parents until 1855 
when he come west and located at Minneapolis, 
residing there until 1862, when he returned to 
Maine and enlisted in Company B, of the 28th 
regiment Maine Infantry, serving one year. In 
1866 he returned to Minneapolis, and purchased 
a farm of 72 acres in the town of Richfield. Re- 
sided in the city until 1872, since which time he 
has lived on his farm. Was married iii' 1875, to 
Eliza Caley. Their children are Albion and Wil- 

James Ilawkes (deceased) was born in York- 
shire, England, May 6th, 1820. In 1844 he came 
to America. In 1854 he came to Minnesota and 
pre-empted a farm of 120 acres in Richfield, where 
he resided until his death. Mr. Hawkes formed 
one of the Company who in '62 marched to the re- 
lief of Fort Ridgely under Capt. Northup. In 1863 
he enlisted in the First Minnesota Infantry, and 
served in the First Battalion until discharged in 
1865. He was with his company in several of 
most severe engagements of the war, and was 
wounded June 1864, for which he received a pen- 
sion. He was married in 1839 to Mary Ann 
Holdsworths. The family record is Harriet, 
Henry Thomas, David H., John W., Emma J. 
Alfred, Charles Lincoln. Five children have 
died. Mr. Hawkes came to his death in Minne- 
apolis Sept. 29th, 1880, by a fall from his wagon. 

He was one of the pioneers of Richfield, and was 
respected by all who knew him. 

Jesse Haywood is a native of England, born 
May 10th, 1840. Remained in England, engaged 
in the Manufacture of woolen Goods until 1872, 
when he came to America, landed at Quebec, 
thence by lake to Duluth, going from there to 
Clay county, Minnesota, where he purchased a 
half section of land. In 1874 he came to Henne- 
pin county, and has since been engaged as florist 
with Mr. Booth, at Minnehaha. 

Franz J. Heiss was born in Germany, October 
19th, 1835, and there learned the trade of carpen- 
ter. Emigrated to this country in 1855, and to 
Minnesota in 1859, locating on a farm in Brown 
county. In 1861 he enlisted in the Sixth Minne- 
sota, and served until the discharge of the regi- 
ment, in 1865. He purchased eighty acres of 
land in Richfield, in 1875, and has since resided 
there, in the pursuit of farming. In 1871 he was 
married to Salomey Souder, a native of Germany. 
Their children are Frank D., Amelia, Charlie, 
Katie, and Willheim. Frank D. died in 1875. 

Charles Hoag, one of Richfleld's representative 
men, and a pioneer of Hennepin county, was born 
June 29, 1808, in New Hampshire. After re- 
ceiving such education as the common schools of 
his native town afforded, he attended the Wolf- 
boro Academy and Friends' Boarding School, at 
Providence, R. I. At the age of sixteen he be- 
gan teaching, and followed that profession for 
twenty-seven years, thirteen of which he was en- 
gaged as Principal of a Grammar School in Phil- 
adelphia. In 1852 he came to Minnesota ; taught 
school in St. Anthony two terms. In May, 1852, 
he made a claim of 160 acres of land, in what is 
now the city of Minneapolis ; was a member of 
the first town council, and to hun is due the 
honor of giving to the city its beautiful and ap- 
propriate name, Minneapolis. He was the second 
treasui-er of Hennepin county, and has held many 
positions of public trust. Is an ardent Odd Fel- 
low, and served one term as Grand Master of the 
Minnesota Grand Lodge. He claims to be the 
oldest Odd Fellow in the state. Has also occu- 
pied the position of President of the Agricultural 
and Horticultural Societies. In 1857 he pur- 
chased the farm he now occupies, which is known 
as the •' Diamond Lake Farm," and removed to 
it in 1865. Mr. Hoag was County Superintend- 



ent of Schools from 1870 to 1874. Has one daugh- 
ter by his first wife, married to Charles H. Clark, 
who is in the revenue service. Mr. Hoag's first 
wife died in 1871, and in March, 1873, he was 
married to Susan F. Jewett, of Solon, Maine. 

Laura Ilolman was born in the State of Ver- 
mont in 1817. In 1855 she came to Minnesota. 
In 1848 she was married to N. Butterfleld who 
was drowned in Lake Minnetonka in 1859. She 
settled with her husband in Minnetonka in 1855 
and remained there until 1861 when she removed 
to the farm in Richfield where she has since re- 
sided. In 1860, was married to L. Holman. He 
was killed in 1871, being run over by a heavy 
load of wood. Mrs. Holman has one son by her 
first husband, Frank J. Butterfleld. 

Orrin Hubbard was born in the State of New 
York, April 5th, 18.35. In 1854, moved to Janes- 
ville, Wisconsin, where he remained for eleven 
years, eight of which he passed in the employ of 
the American Express Company. Enlisted in 
1862 in the 12th Wisconsin Battery and served 
until his discharge in 1865 ; participating in many 
of the hardest fought battles of the Rebellion. 
In 1865 he accepted a position as conductor for 
the C. M. & St. P. Ry. Co., and has since been en- 
gaged in that vocation. In 1877 he bought a 
farm in the town of Richfield and has improved 
it until it is now one of' the finest farms in this 
part of the county. He was married in January, 
1866, to Harriet E. Beaumont. They have had 
four children, Mary C, Nellie B., Sarah R., de- 
ceased, Hattie, died February, 1877. He resides 
in Minneapolis at 916 Sixth Avenue South. 

E. F. Irwin is a native of New York, born in 
Erie county February 2d, 1840. In 1855 he came 
with his parents to Minnesota, settling in the 
town of Richfield. AVas occupied in various piu-- 
suits until 1862 when he Joined the company 
commanded by Captain Northup for the relief 
of Fort Ridgely. In 1865 he bought the farm he 
has since occupied, and has improved it until it 
ranks among the finest farms of the town. Was 
married October 1st, 1867, ;it Iowa City, Iowa, 
to Martha J. Bortland. They have one son. John 
Bortland, born February 16th, 1874. 

Leopold Kiesel was born in Baden, Germany, 
December 12th, 1825. He came to the United 
States in 1852, and to Minnesota in 1856. Enter- 
ed a claim near Chaska, and after living there 

three years removed to Bloomington. In 1864 
he bought a part of the farm he now occupies in 
Richfield. Now owns 220 acres, 150 acres being 
cultivated. Was married in 1856 to Madeline 
Leppet, who has borne him five children. 

Edward E. King was born at Peabody, Mass., 
August, 1st, 1836. Came to Minnesota in 1857 
and purchased the farm he now occupies. At 
the time he came to Richfield there was but little 
improvement and few settlers. He has since built 
a substantial barn and fine dwelling house at a 
cost of $5,000. Married in Nov. 1863., Annie N. 
Couillard, who died August 17th, 1877. His 
second wife was Miss Katie R. Woodman who 
was born December 22d, 1857. 

John Kyte is the owner of 316 acres of land, 75 
acres under cultivation. He was born in Ireland 
in 1817 and came to this country in 1845. After 
residing in various places in the Eastern States, 
he came to Minneapolis in 1855. Pre-empted a 
quarter section of land, bought as much more, 
and has since been engaged in farming. Has 
five children, all of whom are married. 

Michael Maloney was born in the County of 
Galway, Ireland, November 20th, 1845 ; came to 
New York in 1852. and two years later removed 
to Wisconsin, where he resided for fifteen years. 
August, 1862, enlisted in a Wisconsin regiment, 
and served three years imder Generals Sherman 
and McPherson. He was discharged August, 
1865, and four years later removed to ilinnesota. 
and has since resided in Richfield, where he owns 
160 acres of land. He was married November, 
1877, to Albertina Erickson. They have one 
daughter, born December 31st, 1878. 

Merriman McCabe was born in the state of 
New York, December 12lh. 1843; came with his 
parents to Minnesota in 1853, and has since resided 
in the town of Richlield. In 1862 he was with 
(laptain Northnp on the Fort Ridgely expedition. 
John McCabe, his father, was born in Ireland in 
1808 ; came to America, and resided in the state 
of New York until 1853. when he came west 
and jire-empted a farm in Riclifield, where he re- 
mained until his death, which occurred in May, 
1878 ; he was married to Harriet Toles, who bore 
him six children, Mercy, Merriman, Emily, Mary, 
Amelia and Elnoria. 

George Millam was born in Scotland August, 
1849. He came to this country in 1859 and ten 



years later to Hennepin county. He has, since 
coming to Eichfleld been engaged as miller in 
the Edina Mills. In 1872 was married to Miss 
Margaret Jibb, a native of Scotland. Following 
is the family record: Charles A., born August, 
1873; Lily P., born April, 1875, died at the age 
of three years; Annabella, born May, 1877; and 
Rosella, born April, 1879. 

Howard C. Odell was born at Monticello, Indi- 
ana, October 17th, 1853, and came with his par- 
ents to Minnesota in the fall of 1856 and located 
in the town of Richfield. He is the son of George 
Odell who has a farm on section 27. Howard is 
employed during the winter in Minneapolis and 
in the summer season turns his attention to 
farming. Was married October 14th, 1880, to 
Miss Fannie Stanchfleld, of Tama City, Iowa. 

Thomas Peters was bom in England, October 
7th, 1848. His father being a shoemaker, Thomas 
engaged in tlie same business while in England. 
In 1873 he emigrated to this country, coming di- 
rectly to St. Paul. Engaged in farming in Ram- 
sey and Dakota counties until 1876, when he 
came to Minnehaha, and was employed at the 
hotel two years ; thence to Hudson, Wisconsin, 
where he was engaged in a hotel for one year ; 
then returned to Minnehaha, and has since been 
employed at the hotel. In Oct., 1871, was married 
to Kate Weaver. Their residence is near the junc- 
tion of Minnehaha Creek with the Mississippi. 

D. 2Sr. Place was born in New York city, Jan- 
uary 18th, 1844. At the age of fourteen he ship- 
ped as seaman, and followed that vocation for 
eighteen years ; came to Minnesota in 1869, and 
for three years was engaged in the real estate 
business ; then returned to the pursuit of sailing, 
and served as mate on a voyage to Japan ; then 
served four years as Purser and one year as Cap- 
tain of the schooner Leader, trading on the Pacific 
coast ; was married April 15, 1874, to Frances M. 
BeBJamin. They have had two children, one 
now living, Charles E. L. 

Patrick A. Ryan, a native of Ireland, was bom 
in 1831, and came to this country in 1847. Re- 
sided in Pennsylvania and Ohio until 1854 when 
he came to Minnesota, first settling on a home- 
stead in the town of Hassan, Hennepin county. 
In 1868 he sold his farm and removed to Saint 
Anthony where he resided until 1874 when he 
purchased the farm he has since occupied in the 

town of Richfield. Married Julia Quinn in 1867. 

Edward A. Scales was born in Townsend, 
Massachusetts, April 13th, 1853, and remained in 
his native town engaged in coopering until 1874 
when he came to Minnesota and engaged in farm- 
ing at Minnehaha. In 1876 he purchased five 
acres of land and has since given his attention to 
market gardening. 

Gilbert Sly was born in the State of Kew York 
November 4th, 1798, and remained in his native 
state engaged in farming until 1866 when he 
came west and purchased of James Davis the 
farm he now occupies in the town of Richfield. 
Was married in 1822, to Sarah Crane a native of 
Massachusetts. They have had twelve children, 
five of whom are now living, Mary E., Fidelia, 
Elisha, Paulina and W. H. 

J. L. Smiht was bom in Holstein, Denmark, 
July 28th, 1850. In 1873 he emigrated to this 
country and came directly to Minnesota, locating 
on section 14, Richfield, where he has since been 
engaged in farming. 

Freeman B. Smith was born in Vermont, July 
15th, 1822. He removed to Champlain, N. Y., 
where he resided until 1852. For four years he 
held the office of postmaster. In 1852 he went 
to California and ■ was engaged in gold mining 
for one year. From 1860 till 1867, he was in the 
revenue service at Virginia City, Nevada. In 
April, 1878, he came to Minnesota and has since 
been engaged in conducting the farm of his 
brother-in-law, Orrin Hubbard, in the town of 
Richfield. In 1846 married to Sarah E. Beau- 
mont. She was born in New York, Sept. 24, 1824, 

James Stansfield was bom in the State of New 
York, September 3d, 1828. At the age of fifteen 
he went to sea and followed that occupation until 
1849, when he passed one year as steward on the 
Hudson River steamboats. In 1850 went to Cal- 
ifornia, and remained five years. Came to St. 
Anthony in 1855 and engaged in furnishing 
supplies to steamboats until 1862, when he en- 
gaged in the restaurant business, which he con- 
tinued in Minneapolis until 1859, when he 
engaged in real estate business, and has followed 
the same extensively. In 1872 he purchased the 
farm in Richfield which he has since occupied. 
In 1856 he married Susan Wagner. They have 
three children living: Frank H., Charles L., and 
Ella B. 






The town of Bloomington occupies the souths 
eastern part of the county, lying on the Minne- 
sota Eiver, which forms its entire eastern and 
southern boundary. A strip of meadow, varying 
from twenty rods to a mile in width, skirts the 
river the whole length of the town. The bluffs 
are, therefore, back from the river, but here and 
there stretch out bare, sandy points to the meadow 
below. Beautiful rolling prairies extend back 
from the bluils over the whole township. The 
bluils are not usually bare, but are covered with 
turf and timber, while the bottom lands, at the 
foot, have in some parts large areas of water. 
The sand belt passes through the middle of the 
town, exhibiting its usual characteristics, viz., 
less productive soil, and timber of smaller or 
lighter growth. Heavier timber is found in the 
northwest. Nine Mile Creek has high, sandy 
bluffs covered with brush or timber. The small 
lakes on the prairie east of Nine Mile Creek are 
now very shallow, without outlet, and appear to 
diminish year by year. They will doubtless 
wholly disappear. Lakes Ryland and Bush bet- 
ter deserve to be classed among the beautiful 
lakes of the town. The only stream of any size 
within the limits of the town is Nine Mile Creek, 
which enters the town near the northwest cornev, 
takes a southeasterly direction, and flows into the 
Minnesota Eiver. 


Peter Quinn was the first white man to settle 
and cultivate the soil of this town. He was ap- 
pointed Indian farmer, in accordance with a 
treaty with the Indians, and began his work, ill 

1843, on land now owned and occupied by James 
Davis, on section 14. He remained here until 
18.54. Rev. Gideon H. Pond, the missionary 
among the Dakotas, moved here in 1843, and he 
and his Indian bands pitched their tents on the 
banks of the Minnesota River, where Mrs. Pond 
now lives. He lived here until his death, which 
occurred in 1878. Martin McLeod settled here in 
1849, where his son, Walter S. McLeod, now re- 
sides, at the mouth of Nine Mile Creek. Joseph 
Dean came next. He arrived in the winter of 
1851-2. He had obtained a charter for a ferry 
which he proceeded to establish in company with 
William Chambers. He built the log house which 
still stands near the ferry. 

William Chambers also came in 1851-2 ; made 
a claim, now the farm of WilUam Chadwick, and 
joined Mr. Dean in the ferry enterprise. He died 
here in 1868. 

In 1852, the following party came from Illinois 
and made claims near the river, on the western 
prairie. S. A. Goodrich, A. L. Goodrich, Orville 
Ames, Henry and Martin S. Whalon, and Edwin 
Ames Sr. Not one of those men is now living 
in Bloomington. 

We are indebted to Mrs. Rebecca Goodrich for 
the following information in regard to these 
worthy pioneers : S. A. tioodrich died in Bloom- 
ington, in 1865. A. L. Goodrich sold his farm 
in 1879, and now resides hi Minneapolis. Orville 
Ames and M. Whalon died in the service of their 
country, the former in hospital and the latter, it 
is supposed, in rebel prison. Henry Whalon 
moved to Princeton, Minnesota, soon after his 
settlement, but returned a few years later and 
(lied at Fort Snelling. Edwin Ames died on his 
claim soon after his arrival, and his widow per- 
fected the title. Quite a number settled on the 
prairie east of the creek in 1 853. From this time 
on the town was rapidly settled. 

The following statistics will show the popula- 



tion of the town and the rapidity with which it 
has advanced in wealth. 

The population, by census of 1880, was 820. 
The town has 23,205 acres of land ; the assessed 
valuation of the same for the year 1869, was $103,- 
693 ; for the year 1875, $298,163 ; and for the 
year 1880, $460,538. The assessed valuation of 
personal property for the year 1869 was $41,068 ; 
1875, $47,775 ; 1880, $52,320. The total amount 
of taxes raised in 1869 was $8,574 ; in 1875, $4,- 
245; in 1880, $3,718. Number of horses over 
two years old, in 1869, 287 ; in 1875, 353 ; in 1880, 
403. Cattle over two years old, in 1869, 581 ; in 
1875, 752 ; in 1880, 592. Sheep in 1869, 309 ; in 
1875, 300 ; in 1880, 363. Hogs in 1869, 150 ; in 
1875, 159 ; in 1880, 401. Bushels of wheat in 
1869, 47,884; in 1875, 48,055; in 1880, acreage 


The first town meeting was held at the house 
of E. B. Gibson, on section 19, May 11th, 1858, 
at which E. B. Stanley was Secretary and Elijah 
Rich, Clerk. Whole number of votes cast was 
twenty-five, and the following officers were elect- 
ed: Supervisors, Martin McLeod, A. P. Thomp- 
son, E. B. Gibson. The latter refused to qualify, 
and Allen G. Goodrich was appointed. Town 
Clerk, Elijah Eich; Assessor, EUsha Smith; Col- 
lector and Constable, Orville Ames; Overseer of 
the Poor, Joseph Kunison; Justices of the Peace, 
George Cook, E. B. Stanley; Eoad Overseers, 
Martin S. Whalon, Thomas T. Bazley, Wm. 
Chadwick. Voted $100 for town expenses for 
the current year. Eesolutions were passed regu- 
lating, the licensing of dogs, hogs xunning at 
large, height and strength of fences, &c. The 
first Supervisors' meeting was held at the house 
of Elijah Eich, May 23d, 1858. Chairman absent, 
and adjourned to the 28th when the full board 
met and transacted its first regular business. 

April, 1859. Town meeting at the house of E. 
B. Gibson, 34 votes cast. Voted $150 for town 
expenses. Supervisors: Martin McLeod, A. P. 
Thompson, D. McCullum. 

April 3d, 1860. Town meeting at R. B. Gib- 
son's. Mrs. Gibson objecting to the racket, 
adjourned to the school house. Thirty-nine votes 
cast. Levied $50 for town expenses and $75 to 
build a bridge across the slough near Bradbury's, 
and the Supervisors authorized to purchase a 

road-scraper. Supervisors: Samuel Goodrich, 
A. P. Thompson, W. M. Chadwick. At the gen- 
eral election, November 6th, 94 votes registered, 
only 68 cast. 

April 2d, 1861. Annual meeting at school 
house No. 13. Thirty-two votes cast. $100 
voted for town expenses. Voted to build a 
pound and to let horses, cattle, etc., run at large 
during the summer months. Supervisors: Sam- 
uel Goodrich, W. M. Chadwick, John Miller. 

April 1, 1862, annual meeting at school house 
No. 13, levied $100 for town expenses. Super- 
visors, John Miller, W. M. Chadwick, D. McCul- 

April 7, 1863, voted $50 for a Pound, and $50 
for town expenses. Voted to change the height 
of fences from four feet six inches to four feet 
three inches. Supervisors John Miller, W. M. 
Chadwick, James Dean. 

April 5, 1864, voted $100 for town expenses. 
Voted to pay a reasonable sum for the use of the 
school house in District 13, for election purposes. 
Voted to change the day for annual meetings, 
from the first Tuesday in April to the second 
Tuesday in March ; which could not be done till 
the passage of a legislative act in later years. 

Special meeting, June 5, 1864, voted to obtain 
a plat, and record a piece of ground for a ceme- 
tery, to be the property of the town ; also to raise 
money to pay the wife of each soldier who had 
not received a local bounty, $2.00, and each child 
of the same $1.50 per month, from July 1st, and 
continuing during term of service. 

Special meeting, August 1 , 1864. A resolution 
was lost by 23 to 9, providing for the raising of 
money by town bonds to pay soldiers' bounties to 
fill the Bloomington quota under the President's 
call for 500,000 men. Owing to the action of the 
electors, the town officers were powerless to act, 
and a number of citizens, among whom were 
Wm. Chadwick, John Layman and T. Peteler, 
gave their individual notes to the First National 
Bank of Minneapolis, as security for money ad- 
vanced to pay the bounties of soldiers to fill the 

Special meeting, January 3, 1865, at the house 
of A. G. Gillet, voted to issue town bonds to pay 
bounties to soldiers to fill the quota under the 
President's call for 300,000 men, the tax for the 
payment not to be levied on the property of those 



who were or had been in the service witliout re- 
ceiving local bounty. 

Annual meeting, April 4, at the school house, 
voted $150 for town expenses. Voted to procure 
a bier and pall for the use of the town, and raise 
the per diem of some of the town officers. Su- 
pervisors Sam'l. Goodrich, Wm. Kell, James E. 

April 3, '66, levied one mill per dollar for town 
expenses, and voted that the cemetery be legal- 
ized by filing the plat, recording, &c. Supervisors: 
Wm. Chadwick, Joseph Harrigon, Abram Palmer. 

April 2, 1867, levied one mill per dollar for 
town expenses, seventeen mills for the payment 
of interest on the bounty bonds, one-half mill to 
improve the town cemetery and providing that it 
be free for the inhabitants of the town and $5 
per lot for non-residents. Supervisors: Samuel 
Goodrich, John Layman, "Wm. Kell. 

April 7, 1868, levied one mill per dollar for 
town expenses. Supervisors: Wm. Kell, E. 
Parker, Wm. Chadwick. 

March 30, 1869. Supervisors' meeting. • The 
Treasurers' report showed that the amount of 
money realized- from the sale of bounty bonds 
amounted to $1,364.96, and that bonds had been 
canceled which, including interest, amounted to 
$1,394.17. And, as the seventeen-mills tax 
amounted to considerable, there was still some 
bounty money in the treasury. An attempt was 
made in 1870 to use this surplus money to build a 
town house ; this was found to be illegal, and the 
money was distributed among the soldiers of the 
town who had not received a full bounty. The 
date of the annual meeting for 1869 does not ap- 
pear, but it was held at " Gate's School House." 
Levied one mill per dollar for town expenses. 
The building of a town haU was agitated. Su- 
pervisors: Wm. Kell, E. A. Parker, Wm. Chad- 

A special meeting was held during the summer 
for the purpose of purchasing a lot for the town 
hall and to entertain N. (t. Northrup's proposi- 
tion, to donate land for a town house. 

April 5, 1870. Meeting held at Cate's School 
House. Voted to use the surplus bounty money 
for the purpose of building a town hall, but as 
the bounty money could not be used legally ex- 
cept for the payment of bounties, the matter was 
dropped. Voted a tax of one mill per dollar for 

town expenses. Supervisors elected were Henry 
Harmon, John M. Cummings, A. P. Thompson. 

An election was held May 31st of this year to 
decide for or against the payment of state R. B. 
bonds by the sale of internal improvement lands, 
and 75 votes were cast; all in favor of such method 
of payment. 

March 14, 1871, meeting held at district school- 
house No. 13. Voted $7.5 to build a pound, aijd 
one mill per dollar for town expenses. Super- 
visors, Henry Harmon, A. P. Thompson, J. D. 

March 12, 1872, meeting held at school-house 
No. 13. Levied one mill per dollar for town ex- 
penses. Supervisors — Henry Harmon, J. D. Sco- 
fleld, Abram Palmer. 

March 11, 1873, town meeting held at Gates' 
school-house. Forty-eight votes cast. Supervis- 
ors — Hemry Harmon, Abram Palmer, Phillip 
Hynes. Voted a tax of one-half mill per dollar 
for town expenses. 

March 10, 1874, meeting at school-house district 
No. 13. Levied two mills per dollar for town ex- 
penses. Supervisors^Henry Harmon, Abram 
Palmer, J. D. Scofleld. 

March 9, 1875, town meeting held at Oak Grove 
Hall. $150 voted for town expenses. Supervis- 
ors—Henry Harmon, J. D. Scofleld, Abram 

March 14, 1876, meeting at Oak Grove Hall. 
$150 was voted for town expenses. Supervisors — 
Henry Harmon, Abram Palmer, H. D. Cunning- 

March 13, 1877, levied $200 for town expenses. 
Supervisors — Henry Harmon, Abram Palmer, H. 
D. Cunningham. 

March 12, 1878, meeting held at Oak Grove 
Hall. Voted S200 for town expenses. 107 votes 
cast. Supervisors— Henry Harmon, Walter S. 
McLeod, 11. D. Cunningham. 

March 11, 1879, meeting at Oak Grove Hall. 
$200 voted for town expenses. 105 votes cast. 
Supervisors— Henry Harmon, W. S. McLeod, J. 

March 9, 1880, meeting held at Oak Grove Hall. 
Ninety-nine votes cast. Changed the cemetery 
name from "Presbyterian" to "Bloomington." 
Voted $25 for a pound, and $200 for town ex- 
penses; also special tax to improve the cemetery. 
Supervisors— Walter S. McLeod, Samuel McGlay, 



Wm. Chadwick. The subject of building a town 
house and pound has from time to time been 
agitated, but neither of them has been built. 


The Bloomington Presbyterian Church is at 
present the only organization in existence in the 
town. Rev. Mr. Pond took measures for its es- 
tablishment immediately after the removal of the 
Indians and the consequent termination of his 
missionary work. In 1855, the organization was 
completed with thirteen members, and services 
were held in the new church. The church was first 
located at the Bloomington Cemetery, on section 
21, but in the spring of 1864, it was removed to 
its present location near the post office, and en- 
larged. Three members of the original thirteen 
still survive, Mrs. G. II. Pond, Mary P. Pond and 
Mrs. Chadwick. Mr. Pond continued the charge 
until 1873, when he resigned on account of ill 
health, and was succeeded in turn by Rev. M. 
Howell, Rev. Van Emmon, and the present in- 
cumbent. Rev. J. de Bruyn Kops. The latter 
took charge in 1877. 

The First Baptist Church was organized Janu- 
ary 22d, 1861, with nine members. The church 
flourished for a time, but, in 1872, only half a 
dozen remained, and those voted to disband. The 
pastors during its continuance were Revs. S. S. 
Utter, A. J. Davis, and Cressy. 


The first school held in the township was at the 
Dakota mission, by Rev. Mr. Pond and his assist- 
ants. Though organized for the Indians, some 
white children of early settlers attended. The 
first public school was taught in a private house 
by Miss Harrison, in 1855, since which time pub- 
lic schools have been regularly kept. The town 
is divided in four school districts, and has two 
joint districts with Richfield; the school house 
of the latter located in Richfield. That of Dis- 
trict E"o. 13, known as the Gibson school house, 
on Section 20, finished in 1859, was the first school 
house built. That of district No. 10, long known 
as the Gates school house, was first located on 
section 15, but in 1874 the location was changed 
to section 16, and the present house built. That 
of district No. 11 is in section 10, and was built 
in 1869. That of district No. 14 is on section 32, 

and was built in 1866. 

GRANGE NO. 482. 

This Grange was organized March, 1874, by 
Deputy "W. S. Chowen, of Minnetonka, in 
the school-house, district No. 10, with twenty 
charter members. The first master was J. D. 
Layman, and the first secretary V. Bailey. 
The first meetings were held at the house of 
James Davis and at Pease's Hall. During the, 
first winter a stock company, under the title of 
the "Oak Grove Hall Association," was organ- 
ized, composed only of memers of the Grange, 
for the purpose of building a hall. Shares were 
issued at $10 each, the money was raised, and the 
hall completed during the summer. It stands 
near the postofflce. A Library Association was 
formed March 19th, 1874, called the " Blooming- 
ton Grange Library Association," to consist only 
of members of the Grange in good standing. 
Thirty dollars was invested in books at the out- 
set, and new books have since been added. The 
membership of the Grange is now forty-eight. 


The first hotel in the town was built in 1854, at 
the crossing of Nine Mile Creek, by a Mr. Baillif, 
who kept it a number of years. Next, Albee 
Smith built the hotel and store at the ferry. In 
1858 Mr. "Whitney built a hotel near the creek, 
which was the stopping place for the stage and 
passengers for a long time. It was subsequently 
purchased by N. G. Northrup, who opened a store 
in connection with the hotel. After two years he 
sold to Mr. Moir, the present owner. Owen R. 
Dunbar opened a store in 1876, where the Bloom- 
ington postofflce now is. He was also postmas- 
ter. In 1878 he sold to Mr. Cumming, who 
keeps a small general store and is postmaster. 


The ferry was established in 1862 by Joseph 
Dean and William Chambers. They continued 
it in company until 1855, when Mr. Dean sold his 
interest to A. C. and S. A. Goodrich. In 1868 
Mr. Chambers sold his interest to James Brown, 
who, in 1872, sold to John Cameron. Mr. Cam- 
eron was accidentally killed at the ferry a few 
years later. His widow and Mrs. Rebecca Good- 
rich are now the owners. In 1855 Mr. Dean sold 
to Albee Smith and others, from St. Paul, his in- 
terest in lands at the ferry, but not including the 
ferry itself, for a town site. The purchasers sur- 



veyed, platted it and built a hotel, but the town 
refused to grow. 


" The Bloomington Flouring Mill " is located 
on Nine Mile Creek, section 21. M. J. McAfee, 
the present owner, built the dam and mill in 
1876-7. It is a wooden building 30x40 feet, three 
stories high. It has three runs of stone and one 
set of rollers, and is operated by a twenty-inch 
turbine wheel of the Leffel pattern, with thirty 
or forty horse power. It has a capacity of twenty 
barrels per day. The water power is good. Nu- 
merous springs feed the pond, and keep up the 
supply of water, enabling the mill to run steadily 
during the summer months. 

Three blacksmith shops are located and owned 
as follows : one near Bloomington Ferry, by Hec- 
tor Chadwick ; one on section twenty, by Joseph 
Pepin, and one at Bloomington post office, by A. 

Mrs. Cameron keeps a hotel and store near the 
ferry, in a building built by parties from St. Paul. 


Mrs. Mary Louisa Quinn is the oldest living set- 
tler in Bloomington, and also probably the old- 
est settler in the State. She now lives with her 
daughter, Mrs. Margaret Brosseau. Mrs. Quinn 
was born in the Kocky Mountains, in the fall of 
1800, and is the daughter of a Scotchman, named 
Findley and a Rocky Mountain Indian woman, 
who died giving her birth. On the death of the 
mother, Mr. Findley was left with a family of 
four children. He, therefore, left the Mountains 
and came to Fort Garry, where he left the infant 
in the charge of a family imtil his return from 
Lachine, Canada. He took the other children 
with him, but never returned. At Fort Garry 
the baby grew to womanhood. Peter Quinn, 
who subsequently became her husband, was one 
of the earliest settlers in this county, with a 
career even more eventful than that of his wife. 
He was born in Dublin, Ireland, about 1789, was 
carried off by a party of English sailors wlien a 
school boy, and taken to York Factory, an Esqui- 
maux trading post, on the coast of Labrador. 
Making his escape, he lived three years with the 
Esquimaux, without seeing a white man during 
the time. He was ransomed by a party of Hud- 
son Bay trappers in charge of Mr. Graham. 

Graham was the father of Mrs. Alexander Fari- 
bault of this State. He brought yoimg Quinn to 
Fort Garry where he married as stated above. 
He remained in the employ of the Hudson Bay 
Company a number of years but was in constant 
dread of being caught and returned to his origi- 
nal captors. In 1824, he was sent to the trading 
post of the xlmerican Fur Company, at Lac qui 
Parle to rescue a white woman, that had been cap- 
tured by the Sioux, and there made arrangements 
to join the American company. He left his wife 
and family for the time at Fort Garry and accept- 
ed the appointment as their agent at Fort Snell- 
ing. He arrived at his new post in 1824. Du- 
ring his absence his wife suffered many hard- 
ships. While her protectors were on a hunting 
excursion, ■ her eldest child died, and, though 
obliged to carry an infant two months old, she 
determined to set out alone to find them. A 
heavy snow storm overtook her on the way, and 
the baby perished, while she vdth difficulty made 
her way to her friends, who kindly received her. 
She now persuaded her friends to go with her 
to join her husband in Minnesota, and settle 
there. Several set out with her for Fort Snel- 
ling, in the winter of 1825. They traveled on 
snow shoes all the way. Mr. Quinn hearing of 
their coming, met the party at Crow Wing, and 
conducted his wife safely to Fort Snelling. He 
was soon appointed to a trading post at Leech 
Lake, Minnesota, whither he went with his fami- 
ly and remained till the spring of 1827. Mrs. 
Quinn at that time returned with her husband to 
Fort Snelling, near where she has since lived, and 
is now over eighty. From 1827, Mr. Quinn 
was constantly in the employ of the government, 
until his death. He carried the mail, for a time, 
from Fort Snellmg to Prairie du Chien. He was 
often employed as interpreter and in making 
treaties on account of his familiarity with the 
Sioux aaid Chippewa languages. In 1837 he went 
to Washington in charge of a delegation of 
Indian chiefs. In 1843, he was appointed Indian 
farmer, and opened the farm for instructing the 
Indians near where his widow, daughter and 
grand-daughter now live. In 1854 he was sent 
to Fort Ridgely as interpreter for the soldiers. 
At the opening of the Sioux war, in 1862, he was 
sent by Capt. Marsh to Eedwood Ferry to recon- 
noitre, and pacify the Indians. He was there 



maliciously shot by an Indian named White Dog, 
who imagined himself injured by Quinn and 
committed the act in retaliation. Mrs. Quinn 
who was at the time visiting her daughter in 
Bloomington, did not return to Port Eidgely. 
Mrs. Quinn is familiar with Indian dialects and 
the French language but cannot talk EngUsh. 
She receives a pension from the Government. 

Kev. Gideon H. Pond came to Bloomington, in 
1843. Mr. Pond was born in Washington, Litch- 
field county, Connecticut, June 30th 1810. He 
lived on the home farm until 1834, when he re- 
ceived a letter from his brother, Samuel W. 
Pond, a school teacher at Galena, Illinois, pro- 
posing a missionary enterprise to the Dakota In- 
dians. The proposition was accepted and, in 
1834, provided with neither brass, scrip nor purse, 
he joined his brother at Galena, where they em- 
barked on a steamer and arrived at Fort Snell- 
ing in May. They began their labors among the 
small bands of Dahkotas around lakes Calhoun 
and Harriet. They built a rude cabin on the east 
shore of Lake Calhoun, and labored together 
three years, when Gideon H., the subject of this 
sketch, leaving his brother in charge of the mis- 
sion school, went to. Lac qui Parle, where a Pres- 
byterian church had been organized, and offered 
his services as Indian farmer and teacher. He 
remained there a few years and returned to Lake 
Harriet. As previously stated, the Ponds under- 
took this missionary labor unaided, but, soon 
after, on the arrival of missionaries sustained by 
the A. B. C. F. M., they joined with them and 
labored under the patronage of that society. 
They began as laymen but, in 1836, Gideon H. 
Pond returned to Connecticut, and, during a 
short absence was ordained, when he returned 
to his labors. In 1843, owing to the repeated 
disturbances between the Chippewas and Dah- 
kotas, the latter changed their location to the 
banks of the Minnesota river. Mr Pond fol- 
lowed their fortunes and located in Blooming- 
ton, where his family now lives. He erected 
a residence for his own family and a school- 
house for the Indians. Services were held every 
Sabbath, and schools were sustained during the 
week, for the red children, by Mr. Pond and his 
assistants. Several of these assistants were wo- 
men. In 1852, in accordance with a treaty, the 
Indians were removed from the vicinity but Mr. 

Pond had now become attached to this place as 
a home and remained here until his death. Mr. 
Pond was married November 2d, 1837, at Lac 
qui Parle, to Miss Sarah Poage, who was his 
faithful assistant until her death, which occurred 
in 1853. In 1854 he married Mrs. Sarah Hopkins, 
widow of a missionary, who was drowned in the 
Minnesota river at Saint Peter, July 4th, 1851. 
As the settlers arrived in Bloomington very 
rapidly after the departure of the Indians, Mr. 
Pond devoted himself to religious, social and po- 
litical progress among the new settlers. He or- 
ganized a church and was its pastor for many 
years; he represented the 7th district in the 
first territorial legislature, and otherwise took 
an active part in progressive, political affairs. 
He died, January 20th, 1878. 

Hon. Martin McLeod was born in Montreal, 
Canada, August 1812. During early years he 
was engaged as a clerk in a wholesale house in 
his native city. He had a liberal education, but 
was imbued with a strong desire to explore the 
West. In 1836, at Buffalo, he met General 
Dickinson, a British officer, who was organizing 
a party of young men to explore the western 
country. McLeod joined the expedition and went 
to the Hudson Bay Company territory of Lord 
Selkirk. The company was disbanded, and 
McLeod found himself, in the winter of 1836-7. 
cast on his own resources. He, with Capt. J. 
Pays, a Polish exile, and Richard Hays, an Irish- 
man, hired Pierre Bottineau, as guide to conduct 
them to Fort Snelling. Hays was lost in a snow 
storm, and perished. Pays was so badly frozen 
that they were compelled to build a shanty for 
him and leave him behind. On returning for 
him a few days later, they found him frozen to 
death. Mr. McLeod arrived with his guide at 
Lake Traverse, and during the same spring, 
(1837), proceeded to Fort Snelling. There he 
became clerk and book-keeper for H. H. Sibley. 
He afterward became a partner with a Mr. Baker, 
in a trading post at the fort. After the death of 
Mr. Baker, he went up the St. Croix River and 
traded with the Chippewas, during the winter of 
1839-40, and afterward up the Minnesota River 
to Traverse de Sioux, and opened a trading post 
there, another in 1843, at Big Stone Lake, and 
still another at Lac qui Parle, in 1846. He 
took his family with him to the two places last 



mentioned. In 1849 he removed them to where 
his son now resides. He continued the trading 
posts already mentioned, and established others 
at Eedwood and Yellow Medicine, after the 
Indians were removed to these points. In 1858 
he sold out his trading posts and engaged in real 
estate business until his deatli. He was a mem- 
ber of the territorial legislature and council, and 
took a great interest in the affairs of the country. 
His death occurred in 1860. His son Walter S. 
McLeod, who lives on the old homestead, was 
boVn near Fort Snelling, ApriLlGth, 1841, and has 
always been a resident of the county. He has 
filled a number of town offices, and is a public 
spirited and enterprising citizen. 

Mrs. Margaret Brosseau was born at Leech 
Lake, Minnesota, October 15th, 1826, and is the 
daughter of iPeter and Louisa Quinn. Her whole 
life has been passed in the vicinity of Port Snelling. 
Her early life was spent among the Indians and 
traders who frequented the fort. She, by this 
association, became familiar with the- Sioux, 
Chippewa and French languages in addition to 
English. She attended school at the fort and at 
Mr. Pond's missionary school. Inl846 she was 
married to S. J. Findley, of Prairie du Chien, 
a clerk in the sutler's store at Fort Snelling. 
Mr. Findley kept the ferry and Uved in a house, 
still standing, on the east bank of the Mississippi 
River, near the new bridge at the fort. There he 
died November 8th, 1855, leaving his wife and 
three children. Two of these children are now 
dead, and the third, the only survivor, is Mrs. A. 
E. Scofleld of this town. Mrs. Findley remained 
at Fort Snelling until 1857 when she married F. 
X. Brosseau and settled on her farm in Blooming- 
ton where she now resides. From 1862-'72 they 
lived in St. Paul, but returned at the latter date 
and have since lived in their old home. There 
were two children by the last marriage, James L. 
and Francis X. ; both are dead. 

Samuel Augustin Goodrich was horn in Ben- 
son, Vermont, September 19th, 1827. In 1832 
his parents moved to Du Page county, Illinois. 
He there attended school, and in due time entered 
Knox College, Galesburg. His health would not 
permit him to complete his course and he left 
college. In 1852, in company with others, he 
came to this town and made a claim where his 
family now resides. In 1854, and again in 1856, he 

visited Illinois. During the last visit he married, 
at Chicago. . His wife was a Miss Adams, a na- 
tive of Enosburgh, Vermont, born March 18th, 
1830. She came to Chicago, in 1854. Mr. Good- 
rich was the first assessor for Hennepin county, 
and held the office of Justice of the Peace. He 
died Nov. 21st, 1865. There were six children. 
Mrs. Goodrich still resides on the old homestead. 
William Chad wick was bom in England, Nov. 
11th, 1824. He came to America with his parents 
in 1829, and settled in Quebec, where they re- 
mained until 1832. They then removed to Kings- 
ton, where William attended school until fifteen. 
He was employed afterwards on the steamboats 
of the St. Lawrence, and canal boats on the Ei- 
deau canal, until twenty-two, when he married, 
bought a farm, and lived on it seven years. He 
then lived one year in Kingston before coming to 
Minnesota. He came here in 1854, and settled on 
his present farm in 1869. He married Miss Eliza- 
beth Morris in 1845. She was bom in England, 
January 15th, 1827, and ten children, of whom 
eight are living, followed the marriage. Robert, 
Mary A., Hector, Emma J., Clara J., George F., 
William A., and Eddie. 


J. L. Ancel was born in France, January 22d, 
1822 ; served as a soldier seven years in France ; 
married to Miss Zelie Genevry in 1850 ; emigrated 
to America in '52 ; remained a short time in New 
York; removed to Connecticut, and staid four 
years ; returned to New York, where they re- 
mained until 1857, when they removed to Minne- 
sota, and located in Bloomington. In 1874, pur- 
chased a farm on section 17 ; sold, 1878 ; rented 
the farm on which he now lives the same year ; 
has purchased 160 acres in section 19. They have 
five children. 

T. T. Bazley was born in England, November 
28th, 182H; settled in Canada, 1842; moved to 
Minnesota, 1852; on his present farm in 1853; 
married, September 8, 1857, to Miss Catherine 
Miller, from Ireland, who died, November 10th, 
1859 ; married again, September, 1862, to Miss 
Nancy Stinson. He tried to enlist as a soldier, 
but was rejected. Children are, Phebe, Kate, 
Jennette, Tom, Josephine, Lillie J. 

John Brown was born in. England, September 
21,1838; came to America in 1847. His father 



enlisted in the 3d Inft. of XJ. g. Regs., and went 
to Mexico, his family accompanying him. In 
1849, the regiment was ordered to Fort Snelling, 
where Mr. Brown remained until 1853, when 
they settled on a farm in this town. John, in 
1861 , enlisted in Company D, 1st Minnesota reg- 
iment ; was in the first Bull Eun battle ; mus- 
tered out in 1864. The same summer he was 
sent as a scout to Dakota. Part of '1865 in the 
Quartermaster's department in Virginia. In the 
fall of 1866, married Anna M. Ames, of Bloom- 
ington, and settled on his present farm. They 
have three children, John A., Cora N., and Wal- 
ter J. Mr. Brown has a good farm valued at 

H. D. Cunningham, one of the early settlers of 
the state, was born in Augusta county, Virginia, 
December 13th, 1822. Came to Minnesota in 
1856. Settled in Nicollet county and followed 
farming. Married Miss Mary Ellison in 1857. In 
1858 went to Yellow Medicine and took charge 
of the schools of the Dakota Mission, where he 
remained iintU the spring of 1865, when he 
moved to Minneapolis and engaged in the flour 
and feed business. Located on his present farm 
in 1874. Held the office of town supervisor three 
years, school director and treasurer for two years, 
and is now in the employ of the American Tract 
Society as colporteur. 

Joseph Harrison was born in Ireland, 1815. 
Emigrated to Canada m 1818. Settled in Kings- 
ton. Married in 1840 to Miss H. Cook, of Kings- 
ton. Had thirteen children, nine of whom are 
living: Cecilia, Amelia, Elizabeth A., Martha J., 
Frances May, Charlotte, William A., Harriet M., 
Clement D., Hulda C, Abbie, Eva, Edith Hope. 
Came to Minnesota in 1854, and moved to his 
present home in 1874. Has held the office of 
town supervisor and school director for several 
years. Has land valued at $7,000. 

J. W. Kelley was born in Williamsburg, N. Y., 
June 4th, 1836. Eemoved to Oneida county in 
1866. Married in 1859 to Miss C. Joice. EnUsted 
in 1862 in Co. A, 117 N. Y. Regt, 2d division, and 
was engaged in many hard-fought battles under 
Generals Butler, Gilmore, and Terry. Mustered 
out in 1865. Returned to Oneida same year. 
Moved to Iowa in 1869, and to Minnesota and 
his present farm in 1874. They have four 
children. Mr. Kelley is mail carrier from Minne- 

apolis to Richfield, Bloomington, and Blooming- 
ton Ferry. 

J. H. Kirk was born in Maryland, September 
28th, 1827. Went to Ohio in 1834. Moved to 
Sargents Bluff, loWa, 1849; to Anoka county, 
Minnesota, May, 1851. Married in 1859 to Miss 
Mary G. Smith, who was born in Vermont, May 
28th, 1834. They settled on their present farm 
in 1866. Have no children, but have given homes 
to three friendless girls and one boy. His land is 
valued at $3,200. 

John Le Borius was born in Germany in 1844. 
Came to America and settled in St. Paul in 1854. 
Spent most of his time until 1861 traveling as 
cook and waiter with parties looking for and lo- 
cating claims. Employed by the government as 
wagon-master and blacksmith. Was with Gen. 
Sibley's expedition against the Indians in 1863. 
On his return was employed at Fort Snelling. In 
1868 made another trip with Gen. Mercy into Da- 
kota and the British possessions, inspecting the 
forts. In 1869 made a trip with Gen. Hancock, 
inspecting forts and locating new ones. 1870 
took the Fort Snelling ferry and run it four sea- 
sons. 1877 took charge of a large farm in Mower 
county. . Married, Dec. 1879, Miss L. M. Frank. 

Jeremiah Mahoney, born in Ireland in 1818. 
Came to America in 1839. Enlisted in 1840 in 
the U. S. army, as Quartermaster Sergeant, and 
was ordered to Florida under Genl. W. S. Harney, 
to gather the Seminole Indians and take them' to 
the reservation in Arkansas. Stationed at Fort 
Gibson four years. Ordered to Mexico in 1846. 
Was through all the battles of the Mexican war 
under Gen. Scott. Ordered to Fort Snelling, and 
appointed Ordnance Sergeant, where he remained 
until the post was sold to Franklin Steele. Mar- 
ried in 1853 to xVnna Nevin. Moved to his pres- 
ent farm in 1858. In 1861 enlisted in the First 
Minnesota Regiment as Commissary Sergeant. 
Received the appointment of Head Clerk and 
Cashier in Quartermaster's Department, Alexan- 
dria, Va. In 1864 returned to his home. They 
have one child living, Martha A. Town Super- 
visor one year, and Justice of the Peace two years. 

W. J. McAfee, proprietor of Bloomington Flour 
Mills, was born in Ireland May 8, 1840. Came to 
St. Johns, X. B., 1843. Learned of his father 
the millwright and machinist trades. Engaged 
in the manufacture of lumber, ten years. In 1868