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Full text of "The tragedy of the Lusitania ; embracing authentic stories by the survivors and eye-witnesses of the disaster, including atrocities on land and sea, in the air, etc."

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UNIVERSITY 

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3 1924 006 692 796 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924006692796 



THE 

TRAGEDY OF THE LUSITANIA 



A VIVID AND GRAPHIC DESCRIPTION OF THE TORPE- 
DOING OF THE LUSITANIA, THE "QUEEN OF THE 
SEAS," AND THE HEARTRENDING ACCOUNT OF THE 
PANIC-STRICKEN MEN, WOMEN AND CHILDREN, WHO 
WERE SEPARATED FROM THEIR LOVED ONES TO 
FACE DEATH, AND WERE HURLED INTO ETERNITY 
WITHOUT WARNING. 



EMBRACING 

Authentic Stories by the Survivors and Eye- 
witnesses of the Disaster 

INCI<UDING 

Atrocities bn Land and Sea, in the Air, Etc. 

By CAPTAIN FREDERICK D. ELLIS 



ILLUSTRATED WITH PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES AND PENCIL DRAWINGS "'""/ 




ENTERED ACCORDING TO ACT OF CONQ- 
RE83, IN THE YEAR 1B16 BY QEORQE W. 
BERTRON, IN THE OFFICE OF THE LIBHAHIAN 
OF CONORE88, AT WASHINGTON, O. C. 



PREFACE. 



TO AL,L, human beings of normal mentality it must have 
seemed that the destruction of the L,usitania marked 
the apex of horror. There is, indeed nothing in modern 
history — nothing, at least, since the Black Hole of Calcutta, 
and some of the indescribable atrocities of Kurdish fanatics — 
to supply the mind with a vantage ground from which to meas- 
ure the causeless and profitless savagery of this black deed of 
murder. 

It is to be conceded that during war stern measures are jus- 
tified against an enemy's forces; that this ship, carrying con- 
traband, was subject to capture, and, in certain contingencies, 
to destruction. 

Yet the facts remain untouched in all their diabolical bar- 
barity — that an unarmed vessel laden with nearly 2,000 non- 
combatants was attacked without an instant's warning; that 
not even a minute's grace was allowed for the removal of the 
passengers or crew ; that the murderous thrust was given with 
full knowledge that it meant the slaughter of hundreds of 
women and children, and that this butchery was the deliberately 
planned act of a government which but recently was accepted 
as an exemplar of national sanity and humane civilization. 

The world was soon to learn, however, that the premeditat- 
ed act did not sound the depths of soulless ferocity of which the 
dehumanized mind of man is capable. There has been manifes- 
ted something more revolting than the sickening murder' of 
1,150 helpless men and women and children, and that is the 
frightful chorus of jubilation which burst from German throats 
to greet the flews of massacre. 

Ill 



IV PREFACE. 

The newspapers of the empire " hail the act as a new. 
triumph for Germany's naval policy." The announcement was 
received " with enthusiasm." " The news," says the Cologne 
Gazette, " will be welcomed by the German people with unani- 
mous satisfaction." 

A German- American editor printed the list of dead — in- 
cluding women and babes by the score from the country of his 
adoption — and accompanied it with the declaration that the 
wholesale slaughter was " justifiable." Another commented 
upon the grisly list by boasting that it shows " Germany is not 
bluffing; she means business." A German military attache said 
the " crime " of carrying passengers on the ship was justly pun- 
ished. A German- American leader flings in the faces of griev- 
ing men and motherless children the sneer that " nothing is to 
be gained by Americans shooting off their mouths ; war is war." 

It is such demonstrations as these that reveal the real hor- 
ror of the thing that humanity faces — a passion so perverted 
that even the blood of children will not sate it, nor still the fury 
of its exultation. 

To realize the unique infamy of the act, one must try to 
imagine its being perpetrated by any other nation existing in 
this age. Let the most daring poet of hate in the German em- 
pire attempt to picture a German passenger vessel torpedoed by 
a British or French or Russian or Japanese submarine, and its 
defenseless occupants flung in dreadful heaps into the sea — ^he 
could not pen the words to describe a scene so unthinkable. And 
he would know in his heart that, if, by some incredible madness, 
men of those nations were to commit such a monstrous crime, 
they would be hanged by their own governments for the mis- 
creants they were. 

But the Germans proudest boast is that their deed was 



PREFACE. V 

unique — a supreme demonstration of naval efficiency and in- 
dividual daring. Far from deploring it, they glory in it, and 
declare that it marks but the beginning of " frightfulness." 

Germany had the audacity to proclaim that the wholesale 
murder of Americans was not a crime because " warning " was 
given through an insolent advertisement of the embassy. This 
warning was an aggravation, not a palliation, of the offense, 
since it showed foreknowledge and premeditation of the act. 
But for adequate comment upon this infamous plea turn to the 
New York Evening Post, which says : 

" There is, indeed, puerile talk of ' warning ' having been 
given on the day the Lusitania sailed. But so does the Black 
Hand send its warnings. So does Jack the Ripper write his 
defiant letters to the police. Nothing of this prevents us from 
regarding such miscreants as wild beasts, against whom society 
has to defend itself at all hazards." 

Why, then, has Germany resorted to a policy of insensate 
butchery? The answer is plain. In the ordinary methods of 
warfare she is beaten, and knows it. Those of her warships 
that were at sea when the war began have been destroyed, while 
the bulk of her fleet she keeps in safe seclusion. The invin- 
cibility of her armies has been proved a myth,_ for, while they 
have won against Russia, they have suffered defeats again and 
again from Belgian, French and British troops, and are no 
nearer Paris or Calais than they were in the beginning. 

Politics demands, therefore, some proof of military su- 
premacy ; and it is the governmental idea that that can be sup- 
plied by indiscriminate shedding of blood, even though it be of 
women and children. Nothing can be clearer than that the 
sinking of the lyusitania was the act of men infuriated by des- 
pair. 



VI PREFACE. 

Next to the naked horror of the deed, its most striking 
phase is its psychological testimony regarding the German mind. 
Months ago, leading newspapers discussed the probable effect 
of the teachings that for the last half century have been instilled 
into the German people, and gave warning that the poisonous 
philosophy must eventually produce wholesale savagery. 

Now, it is possible to survey in retrospect the steps in the 
reversion. The government which violated Belgium could not 
consistently stay its hand from the destruction of Louvain, Ma- 
lines and Aerschot. Extorting huge levies from helpless cities 
was but a preliminary to the hurling of bombs upon the sleeping 
homes of Antwerp, and the defenseless watering places of Eng- 
land. , 

The use of machines to pour deadly gases into the trenches 
of an enemy, dooming men to a death of torture, or a life of in- 
validism, smote the world with horror; but the adoption of a 
device had been preceded by the spraying of opponents with 
streams of burning oil. Truly, the real " warning " of syste- 
matic murder by submarine attacks on passenger ships was not 
given by advertisement, but by the grisly record of the German 
strategists in Belgium and France. 

But there is an incident more eloquent of psychological per- 
version than any of these. There were towns in Germany where 
the Lusitania massacre was celebrated with public rejoicing, 
and where the very school children received a holiday in order 
that they might lisp their innocent exultation over the drown- 
ing of mothers and babes, hailed throughout the empire as a 
" lesson " to the enemy and to neutrals alike. 

Yet the most convincing evidence of distorted judgment is 
found in the German belief that the sinking of the Lusitania em- 
bodied a military victory. The advantage won consisted solely 



PREFACE. VII 

in the destruction of a ship and cargo valued at some millions 
of dollars ; but no military purpose whatever was served. 

The act did not shorten the war by a single hour ; it did not 
weaken to the extent of a man or a gun, the relentless forces that 
mock at the fury of a maddened militarism ; though a score of 
Lusitanias and their human freight were to be treacherously 
destroyed, it could not affect the ultimate outcome of the con- 
flict. 

The outstanding result was simply to load upon Germany 
a burden of infamy, to wring from neutral nations around the 
globe one universal cry of execration which is a sentence of 
outlawry. 

She boasted that she had taught England and America and 
all other nations a " lesson," Truly, she did. She taught the 
world that a nation drugged with the spirit of militarism is a 
menace not alone to its neight)ors, but to all humanity, and that 
until that mad delusion is swept away there will be no peace or 
security on this earth. 

Germany, by her acts, proclaimed herself a nation urged 
by blind savagery. She put herself beyond the pale of civiliza- 
tion. And the most dreadful prospect to contemplate is that 
even war may not expiate her blood-guiltiness, but that for a 
generation the races of men will shrink from her name as at the 
cry " Unclean !" 

No discussion can! add to or detract from the dreadful 
record as it is written, but Americans owe it to themselves to 
study the new testimony of what the German attitude is toward 
this unforgivable act of calculated malignity. 

In nowise as an excuse, but as an absolute justification, 
which is presumed to enfold the wholesale assassination with 
the mantle of virtue and tender mercy, German spokesmen de- 



VIII PREFACE. 

clare that the stealthy, instant destruction of the passenger- 
laden ship was an act of war, a legal and perfectly correct meas- 
ure of reprisal, against which Americans not only have no right 
to complain, but which as humane persons they should applaud. 

The reason most emphasized is that it was right to murder 
these hundreds of civilians because England has stopped food 
imports into Germany, and therefore is " starving " the people 
of that country. 

No bloody-handed slayer ever offered a more bare-faced 
falsehood in extenuation of his crime. Not only is there no 
starvation in Germany, but there is no hunger, no lack of food 
whatever, nor any chance of there being any. The witnesses 
to this are the ofificials and newspapers of the country, and all 
travelers who have visited it since the war began; for their 
unanimous testimony is that there is no scarcity, and restau- 
rant menus showing an increase of only lo or 15 per cent, in 
prices are proudly exhibited as evidence of Germany's ability 
to sustain herself indefinitely. 

It is averred, next, that the Lusitania was armed. This 
flagrant invention was put forth by the German government 
and repeated by every newspaper defending the attack. The 
answer is that the United States authorities in New York saw 
to it that the ship carried no guns, mounted or unmounted. The 
submarines that launched their torpedoes against her and 
drowned 1 1 50 of her defenseless company sank a vessel that was 
no more armed than a river ferryboat. 

Then there is the fact that the Lusitania carried contra- 
band of war — some tons of copper and about 2000 cases of small 
arms ammunition. This, say the Germans, justified blowing 
the ship to pieces without giving the passengers the smallest 
chance to escape. 



INTRODUCTION. 

THE flash of lightning, the anger of the waves, the burst of 
the tornado, the swirling of the water spout, and the 
silent movement of the lurking iceberg, have for ages 
brought terror and destruction to men of the seas, and to those 
who have put their faith in the great hulks and vessels designed 
to carry human cargoes across the waters of the universe ; but 
it has remained for a device of men to show the weakness of 
men-made things and precipitate another sea disaster approxi- 
mated in its awfulness only by the destruction of the great 
transatlantic steamship. Titanic, on April 12, 191 2, when 1600 
souls out of 2300 on board the palace vessel went to death in the 
waters of the North Atlantic Ocean. 

Shocking as was that terrible disaster to the entire world, 
it offers no parallel to the destruction of the beautiful Cunard 
Line Steamship Lusitania, which was ruthlessly plunged to the 
bottom of the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Ireland and with- 
in sight of Queenstown, on the aftenoon of May 7, 191 5, with 
19 1 7 men, women and children on board. 

A man-made torpedo was the destroying agent. Whereas 
the broad bond of sympathy welded all human hearts in one 
great expression of grief and regret at the Titanic disaster, in 
the swift destruction of the Lusitania contradictory vibra- 
tions have been aroused in the breasts of men, which cannot be 
reconciled with the one great fact that innocent lives have been 
sacrificed to the insatiate Gods of War. 

The lessons which the tragedy teaches are in the main as 
old as humanity itself. Above everything hovers the horror, 
the awfulness and the desolation, but out of the gloom there 

IX 



X INTRODUCTION. 

seems to shine the one gloriously clear beacon of hope to human- 
ity, that in the great future there will be no wars or rumors of 
wars, and that in the coming age such calamities will not be 
credited to the deliberate intent of man. 

When the fateful hour arose and the Queen of the S?as 
went to her destruction in the broad light of a Spring day, the 
class lines which sometimes separate men disappeared on board 
the craft. All were human beings, victims of the same circum- 
stances, for the War Gods are no respecters of persons. The 
grimy stoker and the millionaire occupied comparatively relat- 
ive positions, and together they sacrificed their lives, as did 
the martyrs of old, that innocent women and children might be 
saved. Heroism is not a matter of nationality or of geographi- 
cal location. The conduct of those strong men of many nations 
in the face of death is but an added evidence that the human im- 
pulse is for justice and protection to the weak, and that wanton 
destruction shall not be permitted. 



CONTENTS. 



PREFACE , . . . iii 

INTRODUCTION ix 

CHAPTER I. 

A STEALTHY ASSASSIN. 

Friday, May 7- 1915, Marks the Climax of Savagery in Warfare— The Ska's 
Greatest Vessel a Victim— A Crime Against Humanity 17 

CHAPTER II. 

A WORLD AROUSED. 

Sorrow and Anguish Mark Receipt of First News of Disaster— Germany 
Gloats in Contrast— Anxious Relatives and Friends of Passengers 
Besiege Steamship and Telegraph Offices 45 

CHAPTER in. 

A NATION ACCUSED. 

Jury Accounts Emperor William Guilty of Wholesale Murder— Queens- 
town A Charnel House -Thrilling Stories of Heroism and Suffering 
Intensify Feeling of Sorrow 64 

CHAPTER IV. 

A DAY OF MOURNING. 

The Unknown Dead — Nations Join in Tribute to Memory of Submarine's 
Victims — Graves Receive 140 Bodies at Mammoth Funeral— Impressive 
AND Sorrowful Ceremony 78 

CHAPTER V. 

THOSE WHO WENT DOWN TO DEATH. 

Leaders in World Lost to World -Slinking Torpedo No Respecter of 
Nations- Sketches of Some Prominent Victims— Their Taking was 
Wanton Slaughter . 94 

CHAPTER VI. 

STRANGE FATE OF ELBERT HUBBARD. 

Scored German Emperor with Vitriolic Pen — Wrote Beautiful Tributes 
to Heroes of Titanic— Laughed at Fear— Other Writers Who Sailed 
TO Death . • . . 103 

CHAPTER VII. 

THE BLACK CRIME OF THE SEAS. 

The World in Judgment Convicts Germany — Would Make Nation an 

Outcast— Torpedoing of Fair Lusitania an Outlaw Act — The Climax 

' OF Crjkss ApAiNST Humanity , • • • 114 



xii CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

HEROES IN THE FACE OF DEATH. 

Stories that Reflect the Bravery and Suffering of Passengers — The 
Sunshine Boy an Orphan— Whole Family Wiped Out of Existence- 
Floated to Safety on PtANO 126 

CHAPTER IX. 

AN INDIGNANT PRESS. 

Scathing Denunciation by World-Famous Editors — The Voice of a 
United People in Protest— Americans as One in Expressing Opinion . 138 

CHAPTER X. 
BUFFETED BY THE SEA. 
Strange Experiences and Impressions of Survivors — One Family Bound 
for Europe to Hunt Mother Lost in Another Disaster — Say Sub- 
marines Came Up to View Wreck 149 

CHAPTER XI. 
UNCLE SAM'S DECLARATION. 
Clear and Unmistakable was United States' Call to Germany — Demanded 
Recognition of America's Rights at Sea and Observance of Rules of 
Civilized Warfare — Protest Against Submarine Campaign 157 

CHAPTER XII 
WARNINGS AND PREMONITIONS. 
Germany's Insolent Warning — Was Regarded as Bluff— Thought Torpe- 
doing of Boat Impossible — Strange Premonitions — Fear Saved Many — 
Strange Story of a Black Cat 165 

CHAPTER XIII. 
LITTLE STORIES OF HEROES. 
A Girl Who Rowed a Life-Boat — Famous Chaplain a Victim — Steward 
Assured Passengers there was No Need for Life-Belts — Newspaper 
Man Rescued Little Girl 177 

CHAPTER XIV. 
THE LURKING SUBMARINE. 
Awaited Prey at Bottom of the Sea — Sneaked Up to Deliver Cowardly 
Blow — New Terrors of the Deep — Germany's Submarine Policy— The 
Terrible Torpedo 187 

CHAPTER XV. 
THE RIGHTS OF THE INNOCENT. 
Why Germany's Conduct Aroused the World — The Law on Land and 
Sea — Submarine an Outlaw Weapon — Classed with Burglar, Felon 
AND Outlaw 200 

CHAPTER XVI. 
THE SUBMARINE'S DEADLY WORK. 
A Naval Policy that Made Possible the Destruction of the Lusitania — 
The German War Zone Defined — The First American Torpedo Victim 
— Sinking of Steamer Falaba 207 



CONTENTS. xiii 

CHAPTER XVII. 

EUROPE SHAKEN BY CONFLICT. 
Brief Outline of the War— Events Preceding Lusitania's Disaster — 
Germany's Drive on Paris— Nations Locked in Death Struggle— Enter 
Outlaw Practices 219 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
WAR'S NEW TERRORS. 
The Destruction op Louvain and Rheims— Firebrand and Dynamite Bombs 
Showered Upon Defenceless Cities— Poisonous Gases New Destroying 
Agents— Airships Battle in Skies 230 

CHAPTER XIX. 
THE SHIP THAT WENT DOWN. 
Prey of .German Submarine was Queen op Seas — Floating Palace that 
Cost Millions and Carried a Cargo Worth Millions More — Repeated 
Escape prom Deadly Foes 239 

CHAPTER XX. 
CAMPAIGN OF MURDER ON LAND AND SEA. 
Committee Formally Charges Germany with Waging Murderous War — 
Investigated Stories of Cruelty — The German Harvest of the Seas — 
A Resume op Comparative Sea Disasters 252 

CHAPTER XXL 
ECHOES OF THE LUSITANIA. 
Stories that Shed Light on Germany's Submarine Warfare — Underwater 
Craft Prevented Saving of Passengers — American Steamer Attacked 
with Bombs 265 

CHAPTER XXII. 
SUBMARINES BORN IN SECRECY, 
While Belittling Death-Dealing Craft Germany Silently Developed 
Them— The Strenuous Life of the Submarine Crews— The Torpedo- 
BoAT Destroyer — Nemesis of the Submarine 278 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
SUBMARINE'S HAVOC AMONG TRAWLERS. 
Picturesque Fishing-Boats German Prey — Saved Lives of Lusitania Pas- 
sengers—Armed Trawler Fights Torpedo-Boat— Rouse German Ire by 

Dragging Seas for Mines 290 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
GERMANY'S EVASIVE ANSWER. 
Attempted to Justify Cowardly Submarine Policy — Sorrow for American 
Losses and said Gulelighx Attack was Mistake — Begged Important 
Question — Meantime Proceeded to Destroy another American Vessel 302 

CHAPTER XXV. 
PAYING THE COSTS. 
Lusitania with Her Toll of Lives an Incident of World's War Costs- 
More Money Spent than Actually Exists — Germany's Irreparable Loss 

in Reputation 309 

LESSONS OF THE WAR 317 

THE SECOND NOTE TO GERMANY 321 



ESSENCE OF PRESIDENT WILSON'S 
NOTE INSISTING ON U. S. RIGHTS. 



The sinking of the British passenger steamship Falaba and other 
German acts constitute a series of events which the Government 
of the United States has observed with growing concern, distress 
and amazement. 

This Government * * * cannot admit the adoption of such 
measures or such a warning of danger {war zone) as in any degree 
an abbreviation of the rights of American shipmasters or of Ameri- 
can citizens hound on lawful errands as passengers on merchant 
ships of belligerent nationality. It must hold the Imperial German 
Government to a strict accountability for any infringement of those 
rights, intentional or incidental. 

The objection to their present method of attack * * * lies 
in the practical impossibility of employing submarines in the des- 
truction of commerce without disregarding those rule^ of fairness 
reason, justice and humanity which all modern opinions regard as 
imperative. 

American citizens act within their indisputable rights in taking 
their ships and in traveling wherever their legitimate business calls 
them upon the high seas. 

No warning that an unlawful and inhumane act will be com- 
mitted can possibly be accepted as an excuse or palliation for that 
act, or as an abatement of the responsibility for its commission.. 

It confidently expects, therefore, that the Imperial German 
Government will disavow the acts of which the Government of the 
United States complains; that they will make reparation so far as 
reparation is possible for injuries which are without measure, and 
that they will take immediate steps to prevent the recurrence of any- 
thing so obviously subversive of the principles of warfare. 

The Government and the people of the United States look to the 
Imperial German Government for just, prompt and enlightened 
action in this vital matter with the greater confidence because tha 
United States and Germany are bound together not only by special 
ties of friendship, but also by the explicit stipulations of the treaty of 
1828 between the United States and the Kingdom of Prussia. 

The Imperial German Government will not expect the Govern- 
ment of the United States to omit any word or any act necessary 
to the performance of its sacred duty of maintaining the rights of the 
United States and its citizens and of safeguarding their free exer- 
cise and enjoyment. 



xrv 



TEXT OF VERDICT BRANDING KAISER AS 
GUILTY OF "WHOLESALE MURDER." 



KiNSAi<E, Ir^IvANd, May lo. 

The Coroner's jury which investigated deaths 
resulting from the torpedoing of the Lusitania 
to-day returned the following verdict: 

" T T 7 E FIND that the deceased met death from 

Y y prolonged immersion and exhaustion in 

the sea eight miles south-southwest of 

Old Head of Kinsale, Friday, May 7, 191 5, owing to 

the sinking of the Lusitania by torpedoes fired by a 

German submarine. 

" We find that this appalling crime was committed 
contrary to international law and the conventions of 
all civilized nations. 

" We also charge the officers of said submarine and 
the Emperor and Government of Germany, under 
whose orders they acted, with the crime of whole- 
sale murder before the tribunal of the civilized world. 

" We desire to express sincere condolences and 
sympathy with the relatives of the deceased, the 
Cunard Company and the United States, many of 
whose citizens perished in this murderous attack on 
an unarmed liner," 



XV 




I'rom Philadelphia North American 



XVI 



■UNCI,EAN" 




MRS. PAUL CROMPTON AND SIX CHILDREN 

Mrs. Crompton is in the centre holding the baby. Surrounding her, left to 
right, are Alberta, Romelly, Stephen, Catherine and John. Lost when the 
Lusitania sunk. 




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IN MEMORIAM-OUR COUNTRY IN SORROW 




COPYRIGHT HARRIS AND EWINQ 



PRESIDENT WILSON 




International News Service * * 

CHARLES KLEIN 
One of America's most noted playwrights, who met death on the Lusitania 




Copyright, by Wm. Shewell BUis 



ELBERT HUBBARD 

His latest photograph 




International News Service 

JUSTIN MILES FORMAN 
Noted author and playwright. A victim of the disaster 




CHARLES FROHMAN 

Mr. Frohman played a most important part in the advancement of theatricals in 
this country by producing some of the best plays and most artistic players. 




Copyright, by Underwood & Underwood 

ALFRED GWYNNE VANDERBILT, JR. 
Heir to the great fortune left by his father, who went down with the Lusitania 




Copyright, by Underwood & Underwood, N. Y. 

ALFRED GWYNNE VANDERBILT 

Heir to one of America's greatest fortunes. When last seen was giving his life 
belt to a woman passenger on board the Lusitania. 



CHAPTER I. 

A STEALTHY ASSASSIN. 

Friday, May 7, 191 5, Marks the CivImax op Savagery in 
WarfariS — The Sea's Greatest Yessei, a Victim— A 
Crime against Humanity. 

LIKE an assassin in the night who steals silently upon his 
unsuspecting victim and plunges a knife into his vitals, a 
great submarine torpedo sped unheralded through the 
waters of the Atlantic Ocean just off the fair coast of Ireland, 
on the afternoon of Friday, May 7, 191 5, and plunging into the 
vitals of the proudest ship in all the world, brought death or woe 
or desolation to 191 7 helpless men, women and children, out of 
which number actually 11 50 were lost to the world. 

The proud Cunard L,ine Steamship lyusitania, breasting the 
ocean waves almost within sight of Queenstown and the his- 
toric City of Cork, received the cowardly blow directed by 
German fighting men lurking in the bottom of the sea, and 
quivering from the thrust turned upon her side and plunged into 
the depths of the water. 

Men, women and children have died before in terrible sea 
catastrophies and the world has been shocked by the calamities 
which befell staunch craft on the ocean wave, but history offers 
no parallel for the wanton destruction of the fair Lusitania, 
Queen of the Seas, that the anger of a nation might be appeas- 
ed, regardless of the fact that helpless men of every rank and 
station, beautiful women and comely girls, sturdy boys and 
dainty girls, and innocent babes in arms, must end their lives in 
the waters of the deep. 

Never has the single act of one nation against the property 

2-T h 17 



18 A STEALTHY ASSASSIN. 

of another aroused such a universal storm of protest as that of 
the Germans in destroying the Lusitania, not because the emis- 
saries of Emperor WilHam sent to the bottom of the sea a vessel 
that cost more than ten millions of dollars and carried several 
millions of dollars' worth of merchandise, nor yet because the 
wonderful boat was laden with humanity, but because in the 
attack on the " Queen of the Seas " Germany assumed a bar- 
baric attitude not countenanced by civilized nations, in failing 
to save or provide means of escape for innocent women and 
children and non-combatants. 

NOT A BATTLE, IT WAS A MASSACRE. 

The judgment of the world left no room for doubt as to the 
culpability of Germany. Without vindictiveness, conservative 
leaders in civilized centres rebuked the fighting Teutons in burn- 
ing words. In the terms of the Boston Transcript, " The tor- 
pedoing of the Lusitania was not battle — it was massacre. To 
destroy an enemy ship, an unarmed merchant vessel of great 
value and power, is an act of war ; to sink her in such a manner 
as to send hundreds of passengers, among them many neutrals, 
to their deaths, is merely murder, and no technical military plea 
will avail to procure any other verdict at the bar of civilized 
public opinion. 

" Had the German submarine allowed the Lusitania's cap- 
tain time enough to get his crew and passengers into the boats he 
would have been acting within the rules of international law, 
and under the dictates of that law of humanity which Germany 
has so frequently violated in the course of this contest which has 
added new terrors to law. In all the annals of modern war 
there is no other occurrence so closely answering the definition 
of atrocity on the sea." 

Down the pages of time will echo the explosion of the tor- 



A STEAI.THY ASSASSIN. 19 

pedo which sent to death 1 150 souls on that bright May day and 
left its imprint upon the minds of 767 more fortunate beings who 
struggled or were borne to goals of safety from the doomed 
vessel by heroic men. And there was need for heroism. 

The stately boat, carrying men and women whose names and 
works are known around the world, swept over a calm sea 
through the golden sun, skirting the rocky coast of Ireland just 
outside the famed St. George's Channel. A refreshing breeze 
was stirring and from the decks passengers viewed with delight 
that point on the picturesque Irish coast marked by Old Head of 
Kinsale, scarcely ten miles away. They were anticipating the 
completion of a pleasant voyage, happy in the thought that early 
warnings of danger from slinking under-water craft need 
no longer be a matter of grave concern. 

DEATH DEALING TORPEDO. 

The hour of two had struck and most of the first cabin pas- 
sengers were just finishing luncheon. Suddenly at an estimated 
distance of about 1000 yards from the ship there shone against 
the bright sea the conning tower of a submarine torpedo boat. 
Almost immediately there appeared a churning streak in the 
water and the trail of a death dealing torpedo was marked. 
Passengers who saw the onrushing engine of destruction found 
no time for deep reflection. Instantly there was an explosion. 
Portions of the splintered hull of the steel vessel mounted up- 
ward over the waves to mark the stroke of the torpedo and fell 
again to mingle with still more debris sent aloft by the explo- 
sion of a second torpedo. 

That flash of the submarine conning tower against the sur- 
face of the ocean and a glimpse of the torpedo as it shot through 
the ocean were the only notes of warning. There was no time 
for preparation, no craft at hand to render service to the inno- 



20 A STEAIvTHY ASSASSIN. 

cent and helpless. Barely fifteen minutes elapsed between the 
time the first torpedo penetrated the hull of the beautiful vessel 
and the sinking of the hull forever into the depths of the sea. 
The first deadly missile of destruction sent by the submarine had 
entered the engine room of the great boat and rendered her 
impotent, and while she quivered helpless the second torpedo 
pierced the hull forward, rending the massive steel structure and 
permitting an inflow of water which sucked the bow downward 
into the brine. 

Recalling the heroism of those great men who stood aside 
on the ill-fated Titanic that innocent women and children might 
live, brave Americans whose individuality has stamped their 
names on every mind, calmly faced the waters and rendered as- 
sistance to women, children and aged men. Alfred Gwynne 
Vanderbilt, Charles Frohman — such are the men who forgot 
self and all the world might hold for them that others might live. 

IMPOSSIBLE TO USE ALL THE LIFEBOATS. 

Half a score of life boats were all that offered service to 
nearly two thousand souls on board the vessel. The listing of 
the boat to the starboard, which turned the decks into inclined 
planes down which the terrorized passengers slid to the water's 
edge, made impossible the use of more of the lifeboats and pre- 
vented the launching of all the deck rafts. 

The rule of the sea says " Women and children first." And 
so the men of many nations without regard to caste or station, 
stood by and helped those whom the law says have a prior right 
into the available craft. Just how far the lyusitania struggled 
forward after being struck and precisely how many minutes she 
held her proud head above the water, are points upon which the 
harrowed passengers who survived the ordeal cannot agree. 
All know that but two of the life boats on the port side could be 



A STEALTHY ASSASSIN. 21 

launched. The first of these, filled with women and children, 
struck the water unevenly, and capsizing threw its 60 occupants 
into the sea. The Lusitania even then was making considerable 
headway and the women and little children were swept to death 
in spite of the attempt of two stokers to rescue them. These 
heroic men gave their lives in the effort. 

After that several boats were launched successfully, but 




SINKINQ OF THE LUSITANIA-WOMEN AND CHILDREN HAD NO CHANCE TO LIVE. 

the steamer's list grew more perilous, the decks slanting to such 
an angle that it was imperative for all to cling to the starboard 
rail. Many, by this time, had donned lifebelts and jumped for 
it. Several lifeboats broke adrift unoccupied, and the sea be- 
came a froth of oars, chairs, debris and human bodies. 

Women and children, under the protection of men, had clus- 
tered in lines on the port side, and as the ship made her plunge, 



22 A STEALTHY ASSASSIN. 

down a little by the head and heeling at an angle of nearly ninety 
degrees, this little army slid down toward the starboard side, 
dashing themselves against each other as they went until they 
were engulfed. 

After the submarine fired the death-dealing torpedoes it 
dived out of sight. Like a coward it went off after accomplish- 
ing its work and made no attempt to save men, women or chil- 
dren, but let them drown like rats in a trap when the great ship 
sank like a stone. 

FUMES OVERCAME PASSENGERS. 

When the torpedoes hurled from the underwater craft 
entered the hull of the big Lusitania and exploded, they sent 
forth fumes which had the effect of causing some of the passen- 
gers to lose consciousness. The explosion drove many frantic. 
They rushed on deck to discover the reason for the explosion, 
only to find the vessel doomed. Panic prevailed and orders to 
launch the boats were being given. Some of the passengers, 
equipped with life belts, jumped into the sea and were rescued ; 
others, though sustained by the belts, drifted until the vessel 
plunged beneath the waves and were drawn to death by the 
suction. 

The gangways vomited white-faced passengers. Hatless 
they rushed on deck, terrified, uncertain. As rapidly as the 
women and children could be loaded into the boats, the small 
craft were dropped to the sea. 

Through the confusion. Captain Turner gave orders calmly 
from the bridge. There was scant time in which to work. 
Stewards and stewardesses hurriedly went among the passen- 
gers, passing life belts among them. Some life rafts were heav- 
ed overboard. There were tearful scenes of parting as the 
women and children clambered into the boats, their husbands 



A STEALTHY ASSASSIN. 23 

and fathers helpless, grim-faced, appalled, perhaps, by the dan- 
ger of which they were not yet fully aware; but for the greater 
part, playing the game with courage and heroism. 

Many of those tossed into the water had no chance for life 
even though rescuing craft came within their reach. They 
had been torn or stunned by the explosion of the torpedo, scald- 
ed by escaping steam or cut and marred by flying debris. Shock 
also robbed many of life, and out of the hundreds rescued from 
the waters and hurried to the not far distant land, a great num- 
ber perished fi-om injuries sustained as a direct result of the 
explosion. 

The liner's nose had turned toward the shore, ten miles 
away, and as she took more and more water, the boats on the 
port side fouled their davits. 

PASSENGERS MAINTAINED COMPOSURE. 

Even in the face of this condition the saloon passengers 
maintained their composure. They had been at luncheon when 
the first torpedo came, and when they reached the decks they 
found them strewn with coal, flung upward from the bunkers. 
They still believed that the steamer would keep afloat until all 
were taken off, and so stood back while others took advantage 
of the life saving facilities that remained. 

There was little panic so far as could be seen; every one 
being too dazed to realize just what actually was happening. 
For a few minutes it was believed that the stories of the safety 
of the big liner would prove true, and that she would stay afloat, 
but the constantly increasing list showed that this hope was 
vain. 

Many of the passengers ran here and there about the decks, 
although Captain Turner and his officers tried their best to 
pacify them. Most of the women, however, were hysterical 



24 A STEAIvTHY ASSASSIN. 

and some of them, with infants in their arms, caught at the 
fastenings of the boats and hampered the launching. 

It was 2.12 o'clock, according to most authentic reports, 
when the first explosion was felt, and twenty-one short minutes 
after when the survivors saw the last of her — twenty-one min- 
utes only in which to save the approximately 2,000 persons who 
were on board. 

As the time of the liner became shorter the efforts of crew 
and passengers became more frantic. Heroic efforts were made 
to get as many as possible from the ship. Then the bow began 
to go downward. The boats that already were launched pushed 
out from the side of the huge vessel to avoid the suction when 
she should go down. The stern rose higher and higher until 
those left on deck began to slide down, unable longer to retain 
their footing. 

BRAVERY OF HIGHBRED MEN. 

There were many passengers from the first-class cabins on 
the deck when the boat went under. Actuated by a less acute 
fear or by a higher degree of bravery which the highbred man 
seems to feel in moments of danger, the men of wealth and pos- 
ition for the most part hung back while others rushed for the 
boats. The Admiralty's report that few of these men were 
saved is evidence of their behavior in that crucial moment. 

At last the nose of the Lusitania was under. The stern 
rose higher like the flukes of a whale as it takes a dive. There 
was a downward rush, a swirl of water, and the lyUsitania dis- 
appeared into the ocean depths. 

The shrieks of the people as they were drawn down by the 
whirlpool suction was appalling. Nearby boats had to pull away 
as hard as they could to escape being drawn under. The ship 
simply sank like a stone at the finish, her entire bottom being 
literally torn out by the various explosions. 



The scene at the end was terri- 
fying. Although many of the pas- 
sengers had adjusted Hfe belts they 
were drawn down to death by the 
terrible suction of so large a 
Steamer. 

Mothers with their babies 
clasped in their arms in death were 
found by the fishing fleet. They 
had been unable to get on board the 
boats in time and they drowned > 
when drawn under the surface by i 
the underdrag of the vessel. 

Captain Turner remained on 
the bridge until the structure was 
submerged. He first used an oar 
as a boat, then a chair, to which he 
clung. Battling for life, the pas- 
sengers called to relatives and 
friends or bade each other good- 
bye. 

Survivors in the surrounding | 
boats saw from the maelstrom i* 
which marked the spot where the 
giant liner had been, heads bobbing 
up in scores. Some of those who 
went down with the ship had life 
belts on, and these were taken into 
the already crowded boats. Others 
after filling their limgs with air, 
struck out strongly and swam to 
the boats, where eager hands drag- 
ged them in. Others — and these 



3 1 




26 



26 A STEALTHY ASSASSIN. 

numbered hundreds — struck out wildly in a vain endeavor to 
keep afloat, and finally disappeared. 

Twenty-three miles from the port of Queenstown, as the 
crow flies an irregular smear of floatsam on a calm sea marked 
the grave of the swift and luxurious Lusitania, the first trans- 
atlantic steamship to be sunk by a German submarine. 

BOATS SOON CROWDED. 

The small boats which had got away from the side of the 
liner picked up a good many survivors, who, with life belts or 
clinging to wreckage, were floating on the surface of the water, 
but soon the boats were crowded. Slowly, reluctantly, the oars- 
men in the small boats — many of them passengers, and a few 
women. — ^began pulling toward the low-lying coast of Ireland, 
looming in the north. The sea was smooth and to that is due the 
fact that any one was saved. Had the water been rough or had 
it been night every one would have been lost. 

From the shore of Ireland a coastguard witnessed the ter- 
rible tragedy of the sea, as did a farmer who was working near 
Old Head Kinsale. But the world's first word of the catas- 
trophe was snapped by a wireless operator on the doomed vessel 
who flashed the dramatic S. O. S., " Come at once. Big list. 
Position ten miles South of Kinsale." Land's End caught 
the message, which was followed almost immediately with a 
second call, " Want assistance. Listing badly.'' 

Along the coast and inland flew the message. Queenstown 
the Admiralty port, thirteen miles from Kinsale heard the news 
and Admiral Cocks, the naval ofiicer in charge ordered all avail- 
able vessels to the scene of the disaster. Half a dozen tugs 
steamed forth, followed by torpedo boats and a fleet of trawlers, 
to render assistance and pick up struggling humanity from the 
water. 



A STEAI^THY ASSASSIN. 27 

The coast guard who witnessed the catastrophe from the 
shore said he had been observing the Hner, when suddenly he 
saw an explosion, and a great volume of smoke and steam shot 
up in the air, shutting out all view of the vessel. 

Later, when the smoke cleared away he saw the liner's 
boats on the scene laden with passengers, but the ship had dis- 
appeared. A fishing boat was the first to reach the scene and 
took some boats in tow. An eastbound cargo boat next arrived. 

This boat saved a great many. Later other vessels arrived 
to assist in the rescue work, and when darkness closed over the 
scene a number of destroyers were in the vicinity. One des- 
troyer, which arrived early, lowered boats and picked up a num- 
ber from a raft. 

MOST PATHETIC SCENE. 

The trawler Daniel O'Connell, while fishing came upon two 
of the Lusitania's boats containing sixty-five passengers, mostly 
women and children, in a deplorable plight. The trawler took 
the boats in tow, and was proceeding with them to Kinsale, 
when intercepted by Government tugs which took the survivors 
to Queenstown. In all 600 persons of many nationalities were 
landed at Queenstown, where more than 100 bodies were re- 
ceived. 

There was a great rush to the Cunard wharf as the first 
boat conveying rescued berthed. Stringent rules were enforced 
by the authorities to prevent any congestion that might hinder 
the facilities for removal of the rescued to the hotels. 

As the survivors were landed the scene was most pathetic. 
Many were borne on stretchers. Some were dead. Others 
limped between naval men, and still more walked between lines 
of people who cheered them as they passed along, without coats 
or any comfortable apparel. 



28 A STEAIvTHY ASSASSIN. 

Most of the passengers presented a very sad sight. Not 
one of them had substantial.garments on them, and the majority 
of the men were without their coats and carried Uf ebelts. Their 
appearance was dejected, but this was nothing compared to 
the women, who were without hats, cloaks, or wraps. 

Practically all of the survivors were landed in Queenstown. 
The Admiralty tug Stormcock took i6o of them there within 
a few hours after the sinking of the ship. The Cock and the 
Indian Empire, armed trawlers, carried 200 more; the Flying 
Fish conveyed 100; the three torpedo boats 45, and steamers, 
fishermen, motor boats and tugs accounted for the others, some 
of whom went to the concentration point by way of Kinsale 
and the other Irish ports. 

SURVIVORS ALMOST NAKED. 

The Irish seaport opened its heart to the sufferers by the 
appalling calamity. Not only all the hotels turned over quarters 
to whomsoever asked, but private citizens, from fishermen to 
gentry were quick to respond. Surgeons and physicians were 
summoned from as far as Dublin authorized to commandeer 
any residence for a hospital, and they had a hundred volunteer 
nurses to aid them. The clothing establishments generously 
turned over any article of clothing needed and the private citi- 
zens did the same. 

The hysterical, shivering, stunned men and women who 
came in during the fateful night were in sore need of all this. 
Many had been hours in the water when they were picked up. 
Nearly all of them had discarded everything possible to keep 
them afloat. Women came wrapped in blankets, several wore 
mens' clothing, nearly all were shoeless, and a great many with- 
out stockings. Such of these as were not sent to the hospitals 
were at once clothed. 



A STEALTHY ASSASSIN. 29 

The Admiralty, the Cunard Line and all authorities put 
forth every effort in behalf of the sufferers. Admiral Cocks, in 
charge of the department of the navy for the district, ordered 
every available craft under his command to search for bodies or 
to locate survivors. 

An uncounted number of those landed by rescue craft died 
afterward from their hurts or from exposure, so that there were 
lying in temporary morgues, hotels, and even private houses in 
Queenstown many bodies of victims, a large number of these 
being women and children. 

Most of the survivors were bewildered from their terrible 
experience, and their early accounts of the sinking of the Lusi- 
tania were not entirely clear. 

Shivering, exhausted, clutching one another's hands for 
support, their scanty garments clinging drippingly to their 
bodies, more than 600 survivors stumbled ashore from boats at 
Queenstown, to be met by the hastily organized relief corps and 
distributed among the hotels, boarding houses and private homes 
which had been thrown open to receive them as soon as the news 
of the disaster had been received. 

LOOKING FOR HER HUSBAND. 

There were many pitiful sights. In one case a woman 
with a baby in her arms, a blanket given by some sailor around 
her shoulders, refused to leave the spot, but waited until the last 
survivor had passed, searching each face as it went by, in the 
vain hope of finding her husband, from whom she had been sep- 
arated in the last terrible scene on the liner's deck. 

From another boat came a woman of seventy-five, who had 
been picked from the water, clinging to a piece of wreckage, 
fully an hour after the Lusitania had disappeared, and who had 
yet survived, although so exhausted that she had to be carried 
ashore. 



30 A STEALTHY ASSASSIN. 

Morbid crowds surrounded the temporary morgues where 
the bodies awaited identification. In striking contrast to most 
historic sea disasters, the rate of mortality among the first class 
passengers was heavier than among any other class on board. 
A large proportion of those saved were members of the crew ; 
but this did not evidence lack of discipline, as most of them were 
picked up in the water. 

The captain of a trawler who arrived in the harbor soon 
after the accident with 146 survivors, mostly women and chil- 
dren, when reproached for not staying longer on the chance of 
picking up more survivors, said : 

MANY LEFT IN THE AVATER. 

" There were many left in the water, but they were all dead 
and many so horribly mangled I thought better to bring ashore 
my boatload of suffering women as they could not have stood 
much more." 

These women presented a pitiful sight as they wandered 
aimlessly about searching without hope for loved ones who must 
have gone down with the ship. 

There was indescribable confusion in the face of the great 
tragedy, and the compilation of the list of the rescued proceeded 
very slowly. 

It was known that the passenger list contained the names of 
Alfred G. Vanderbilt, the New York millionaire ; Charles Froh- 
man, Charles Klein, of theatrical fame ; Justus Miles Forman, 
Mr. and Mrs. Elbert Hubbard, Harry J. Keser, vice president of 
the Philadelphia National Bank, and Mrs. Keser ; W. Sterling 
Hodges, of the Baldwin lyocomotive Works, Mrs. Hodges and 
their two sons; Paul Crompton and family, of Philadelphia, 
and S. M. Knox, of the New York Shipbuilding Company ; Sir. 
Hugh Lane, of England ; Commander J. Foster Stackhouse, of 



A STEALTHY ASSASSIN. 31 

the Royal Navy; David Thomas, a Welsh coal magnate; Major 
and Mrs. T. Warren Pearl and the Rev. Basil W. Maturin, 
Julian de Avala, Cuban Consul General at Liverpool, and Fred- 
erico G. Padilla, Mexican Consul General at Liverpool. 

When the rescued ones began landing in Queenstown, 
friends of these notable people began a frantic search for them. 

PROMINENT PEOPLE ON BOARD. 

Representatives of Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt of New 
York arranged for a fleet of tugs to search for his body, while 
their agents ashore began visiting every point where he possibly 
might have been taken. Friends and relatives of other men, 
Mrs. Klein, wife of the playwright, friends of Mr. Forman and 
of the Hubbards, sent cablegrams urging individuals to spare no 
expense to ascertain the truth. From Cape Clear to Waterford 
on the north every inlet, bay, fishing village, little port or large 
port was searched and every foot of the beaches scanned to find 
bodies of the dead. 

In their efforts to secure identification the officials found 
great difficulty because the survivors could render little assis' 
tance. Most of the identifications had to be made by jewelry 
or papers found on the bodies. Families and groups of friends 
seemed to have been saved in their entirety as other parties were 
lost in their entirety. 

Above the general storm of execration evoked by the tor- 
pedoing of the magnificent Lusitania, there seemed to rise a cry 
of children that will never be forgotten. More than a hundred 
of them perished that a German boast might be made good. 
The innocents were on the boat by reason of the fact that wives 
of Canadian officers and soldiers were going to England to be 
near their husbands. 

So while the mighty steamship, stricken and in her death 



32 A STEALTHY ASSASSIN. 

throes, settled in fifty fathoms of the water that shielded the 
lurking craft that stabbed her, tiny hands clutched helplessly at 
bosoms of women whose overwhelming mother love was power- 
less to prevail in the face of such odds. Sobs were choked alike 
from the throats of the mothers and their little ones, even as a 
German submarine commander was in the act of preparing his 
report of the " victory." 

Impartial as it was ruthless, the slaughter claimed babe of 
the wealthy and babe of the poor. The child that reposed in 
the handsomely appointed suite of the first cabin and the little 
fellow who romped in the steerage became martyrs together. 
They were all tiny human atoms taken as part of the inexorable 
toll demanded by Germany. Not heroes, merely inarticulate 
innocents, snatched from their play. 

FEW^ CHILDREN SAVED. 

In the long list of passengers there appear the names of 
many women, followed by the two words " and infant." In the 
second cabin alone there were twenty such, besides otl\er chil- 
dren of tender years yet old enough to be outside the infant clas- 
sification. Of the children on board few were saved. 

With the children who were of an age that made it possible 
for them to play with their comrades, the chances of rescue was 
small indeed. Play places for the youngsters are many on board 
such ships as the Lusitania, and the time permitted to their par- 
ents to seek out and find places in the boats for the little ones, 
was all too brief. Many went to their death in the rooms where 
but a few moments before they had galloped in gleeful play, 
while their distraught mothers died in the act of trying to save 
them. 

One woman lost all three of her children in the disaster, and 
gave the bodies of two of them to the sea herself, says a story in 




Copyright, by Underwood & Underwood 

THE LUSITANIA LIFEBOAT DRILL 

Showing the crew being instructed to man lifeboats in case of emergency. These' 
craft played an important part in rescuing passengers on the ill-fated liner. 




Copyright, by Underwood & Underwood 

CAPTAIN W. T. TURNER, R. N. R. 

Who was in command of the Lusitania when she was sunk by a torpedo from 
a German submarine. 




Double Bottom. 



Deck A,— Pi'ODianades, Lounge a-nd Music Room, 

B.— Pfomenades, Regal Suites .and Dome of 

Saloon 
C. Promenades and Grand Dining Saloon 



Deck D. -Grand Dinin,'; Saloon 

E. — State Rooms. 

F. Bunkers and Engines. 



TRANSVERSE SECTION OF THE LUSITANIA 




ENCOUNTER BETWEEN A TORPEDO BOAT AND' A MAN-OF-WAR 




NAVAL MANCEUVRES— TORPEDO PRACTICE 

1. In the sea-boats, lying by the target: the torpedo finishes its run by leaping 
into the air. 2. The middy and coxwain in the sea-boat. 3. Bringing the tor- 
pedo alongside. 




READY TO FIRE A TORPEDO 
A torpedo-boat attacking the enemy 




. „■ 4 



A SECTIONAL VIEW OF A MODERN SUBMARINE 
This illustrates the interior and under-water view of a submarine 




Q 

hJ 
O 
? 

<J 
O 

PQ 

O 
Q 
W 

« 
O 

w 
« 



p 

« 
o 

K 
K 




THE HORNET OF THE SEA 
A French submarine lying in wait for the enemy 




PROTECTION FOR UNDER-WATER FIGHTERS 

The crews of the latest submarines are provided with safety helmets as shown 
in this picture. These helmets are capable of maintaining a supply of pure air 
for several hours. 




S-TI, 



34 A STEAI.THY ASSASSIN. 

the Cork Herald. When the ship went down she held up the 
three children in the water, shrieking for help. When rescued 
two were dead. Their room was required and the mother was 
brave enough to realize it. 

" Give them to me !"she shrieked, '' Give them to me, my 
bonnie wee things. I will bury them. They are mine to bury 
as they were mine to keep." 

With her form shaking with sorrow she took hold of each 
little one from the rescuers and reverently placed it in the water 
again, and people in the boat wept with her as she murmured a 
little sobbing prayer. Just as the rescuers were landing her 
third and only remaining child died. 

STORIES OF HEROISM, 

In the rush and turmoil which marked the rescue and car- 
ing for those whose lives were saved and the proper housing 
and preparation of the bodies which lay awaiting identification, 
stories of heroism, hardship, sentiment, pathos and distress that 
stirred the hearts of the world began to be related. There were 
tributes to the dead and to the living; to the coal covered stokers 
and the sturdy sailors; to brave mothers and men of finance, 
soldiers and men of letters. And there were many stories con- 
cerning children. 

One of the happiest survivors of the Lusitania, according 
to a correspondent of the New York American, was Miss Millie 
Docherty, two months old, of Westbury, Long Island, daughter 
of Mr. and Mrs. William Docherty. 

Miss Millie and her mother were picked up in one of the 
lifeboats. Mr. Docherty's home is in Westbury. His wife 
and child were bound for England for a visit. This is the ex- 
perience of Millie and her mother in the latter's words : 

" I took the baby down to lunch with me Friday. Why, 



A STEAI.THY ASSASSIN. 35 

I don't know, as I had not taken her into the dining saloon be- 
fore. This day, though, I instinctively took her with me. We 
were eating when the terrible explosion came. With others I 
rushed to the deck. There were hundreds there, but little 
panic. Only a few were trying to get away in the lifeboats, 
because nobody seemed to think the great vessel would sink. 

" But soon the Lusitania listed so far that it was difficult 
to stand on the slanting deck, and I scrambled to a safer position 
between the two forward funnels. By this time scores were at 
the boats and a few jumping into the sea. 

AFRAID TO CROSS THE DECK. 

" I didn't know what to do and could just keep my balance 
with one hand and hold Millie with the other. I stood there 
afraid to attempt to cross the deck until the last lifeboat was 
being prepared to lower. Then a man, I don't know who he 
was, spied me and helped me across the deck into the boat which 
had been freed, but by the time our boat was on the surface of 
the sea, only the great funnels of the lyusitania appeared above 
the water. 

" Suddenly two of these towering stacks collapsed and fell 
— one forward, one aft on either side of us. One we thought 
was going to fall directly into our boat, and I was horrified, but 
it just missed us. It came so close though, that the sharp gust 
of air took off Millie's loosely tied bonnet and covered her hair 
with soot. 

" Two hours later we were picked up. Millie didn't cry 
a tear during all the awful time. Her good cheer gave us all 
heart." 

Everywhere and all the time on the Lusitania after she re- 
ceived her heart stab there was heroism and bravery. From 
Captain Turner, who stood on the bridge, coolly directing his 



36 A STEALTHY ASSASSIN. 

men, till waves closed over him, to the lowly seamen they were 
brave men. 

No more pathetic loss is recorded than that of T. G. Web' 
ster, a Toronto contractor, who travelled second class with his 
wife, six-year-old son Frederick, and year-old twin sons William 
and Henry. They reached the deck with the others who were 
dining when the torpedo struck. Webster took his son 

by the hand and darted away to bring lifebelts. When he re- 
turned his wife and babies were not to be seen, nor have they 
since been seen. 

Assistant Purser W. Harkless busied himself helping 
others until the lyUsitania was about to settle beneath the water. 
Then, seeing a lifeboat striking the water, one that was not 
overcrowded, he made a rush for it. The only person he en- 
countered was little Barbara Anderson standing alone and cling- 
ing to the rail. Gathering her up in his arms, he leaped over 
the rail into the boat and this without injuring the child. 

GOING HOME TO ENLIST. 

Francis J. Luker, a British subject who worked six years 
in the United States as a postal clerk, and was coming home to 
enlist, saved two babies he found. The little passengers, bereft 
of whosoever they belonged to, snuggled in the shelter of a deck 
house. The Lusitania was nearing her last plunge and a life- 
boat was swaying to the water below. 

Grabbing the babies he ran to the rail and took a flying leap 
into the craft and these babies didn't leave his arms till they were 
set safely down ashore an hour later. 

There are people who to the end of their days will keep in 
their minds the picture and revere the memory of " Bosun " Joe 
Davis. Of all the Lusitania's crew, " Bosun Joe " was the man 
who realized, the instant the ship was struck, what was likely 



A STEAI.THY ASSASSIN. 37 

to happen and acted with the object of saving all the lives pos- 
sible. And " Bosun Joe " knew the lifeboats, knew what knot 
was untied and what block kicked out would release the craft 
and send her away. 

In fifteen minutes " Bosun Joe " sent five of the boats 
away. Puffing a stub pipe he went about the work as if he had 
been practising with the passengers. Many passengers who 
were sufficiently calmed by his behavior to watch his efforts, now 
owe their lives to him. 

When the lifeboats were rieady '* Bosun Joe " began chuck- 
ing the now willing passengers into them, ladies first and a few 
men to each boat to help them. The craft dropped to the water 
with amazing rapidity. " Good luck to you, lads, and take care 
of the ladies," was Joe's farewell as he went on to the next boat. 

A PROVIDENTIAL RESCUE. 

For " Bosun Joe " there was a providential rescue. He 
went down as did his captain, but was picked up by one of the 
boats he cut away. 

Among the stories of those who went to the bottom there 
are few more beautiful than that of Mr. Vianderbilt and Charles 
Frohman, who stood side by side while the great steamship sank 
into the water. Alfred G. Vanderbilt was standing on the star- 
board deck five minutes before the ship went down," said Wal- 
lace B. Phillips, a New York newspaper man. " He was with 
Charles Frohman and Miss Rita Jolivet, the actress, who has 
been saved. 

" Mr. Vanderbilt's calmness was heroic even in that mo- 
ment of crushing disaster. Mr. Frohman was also quite calm 
and collected. Miss Jolivet's narrative is of absorbing interest. 
She said : 

" During the voyage I was one of a party constantly as- 



38 A STEALTHY ASSASSIN. 

sociated, including Alfred Vanderbilt and Charles Frohman. 
We often discussed the chances of a submarine attacking us and 
all laughed at the idea, believing that with the L,usitania's speed 
no submarine could even threaten us. 

" On Thursday night, I sat next to Mr, Vanderbilt and 
Mr. Frohman and all were in high spirits. When we rushed to 
the deck after the torpedo hit, Mr. Frohman, myself, my broth- 
er-in-law and Mr. Scott were standing together. Mr. Vanderbilt 
was also near. None of us had any fear. 

MR. FROHMAN CALM AND COURAGEOUS. 

" Mr. Frohman was especially calm and magnificently 
courageous. He told all to keep still and when the second ex- 
plosion came and the ship listed and everyone rushed to the deck 
when the first boat was being launched, he said to us : ' Stay 
where you are. This is going to be a close call. We shall have 
more chances here than by rushing for the boats.' And then he 
went on just as calmly as though he were discussing some small 
after-dinner question. 

'' ' You know I have never feared death,' Mr. Frohman 
continued. ' To my mind death is the most beautiful adventure 
which life can offer. The test for us at all times is to meet it 
as such.' '' 

Miss Jolivet, Mr. Vanderbilt and Mr. Frohman, the three 
of them, together with G. D. S. Vernon, Miss Jolivet's brother- 
in-law, and Mr. Scott, who had come all the way from Japan to 
enlist, joined hands and stood waiting to face death together. 

" We stood," said Miss Jolivet, " talking about the Germans 
and the rumor which had gained currency to the effect that a 
man obviously of German origin had been arrested for tamper- 
ing with the wireless. We determined not to enter the boats. 
Just a minute or two before the end Mr. Frohman said with a 



A STEALTHY ASSASSIN. 39 

smile : ' Why fear death ? It is the most beautiful adventure 
that life gives us.' 

" Mr. Scott fetched three lifebelts — one for Mr. Vander- 
bilt, one for Mr. Frohman and one for me. Mr. Scott said he 
was not going to wear one himself and my brother-in-law also 
refused to put one on. I hear that Mr. Vanderbilt gave his to 
a lady. Mr. Scott and I helpedto put the lifebelt on Mr. Froh- 
man. 

" He knew that his beautiful adventure was about to begin. 
He had hardly spoken when with a tremendous roar a great 
wave swept along the deck. We were all divided in a moment, 
and I have not seen any of those brave men alive since. When 
Mr. Frohman's body was recovered there was a most beautiful 
peaceful smile upon his lips." 

KNEW THE SHIP WAS DOOMED. 

Mr. Frohman unselfishly handed his lifebelt to a woman 
passenger. Although he knew the ship was doomed, Mr. Froh 
man elected to remain aboard and went down into the vortex 
when the Lusitania took her last plunge. 

Dr. F. Warren Pearl bore witness to Charles Frohman's 
quiet heroism : " I saw him distributing life belts. He evi- 
dently did not expect to escape nor did he fear death." 

Mrs. Lines, of Canada, a survivor, paid a glowing tribute 
to the gallantry of Alfred G. Vanderbilt and his valet, Ronald- 
Denyer. 

"People," she said, "will not talk of Mr. Vanderbilt 
in future as a millionaire sportsman and man of pleasure. 
He will be remembered as the children's hero, and men and 
women will honor his name. When death was nearing him he 
showed gallantry which no words of mine can adequately des" 
cribe. 



40 A STEAI.THY ASSASSIN. 

" I saw him standing outside the Palm Saloon with Denyer. 
He looked upon the scene of horror and despair with pitying 
eyes. 

" * Find all the kiddies you can, boy,' he said to his valet. 
The man rushed off immediately, collecting children. As he 
brought them to Mr. Vanderbilt, the millionaire dashed to 
the boats with two little ones in his arms at a time. When 
he could no longer find any more children, he went to the assis- 
tance of the women and placed as many as he could in 
safety. 

" In all his work he was gallantly assisted by Denyer and 
the two continued their efforts until the very end.' 

GALLANTRY OF MR. VANDERBILT. 

Mr. Vanderbilt, who could not swim, was equipped with 
a lifebelt, but he gallantly took it off, said Mr. Thomas Sidell, 
and placed it around the body of a young woman. Then he 
went off to seek another lifebelt. The ship sank in a few 
seconds later. 

Dr. Owen Kenan, of Wilmington, North Carolina, who is 
in a hospital at Queenstown, added to the eulogy of Mr. Vander- 
bilt. He saw him at the rescue work. Then, when nothing 
more could be done, Vanderbilt buckled a lifebelt over the 
heavy overcoat he wore. He was leaning against a gateway 
when Dr. Kenan last saw him. 

" They've got us now," said the millionaire as Dr. Kenan 
passed. 

Dr. James T. Houghton, of Troy, N. Y., made every 
effort to save the life of Mme. Marie de Page, wife of Dr. An- 
toine de Page, physician to King Albert and head of the Bel- 
gian Red Cross. Mme. de Page was returning from America 
after a campaign in the interest of the hospital she established 



A STEALTHY ASSASSIN. 41 

at La Panne, and Dr. Houghton was returning with her to 
take charge of the hospital. 

" I want to see my boy again before he goes into battle," 
she said before sailing. " It may be the last opportunity." 

" Some day we want to visit you once more in your beau- 
tiful home in Brussels," said Dr. Lewis L. McArthur, as Mme. 
de Page was leaving Chicago. 

" Kind friends," was the reply, " I don't know whether 
we will ever have a home again." There were tears in her eyes 
as she spoke. 

" When we were torpedoed," Dr. Houghton said to-day, 
" I went on deck immediately. Even then the ship was listing 
badly. I met Mme. de Page, and as she had no lifebelt, I 
gave her mine. 

SUCKED DOWN BY THE WHIRLPOOL. 

' When the deck on which we stood was about twenty- 
five feet above the water I advised that we jump together, and 
we did. I told her to cling to me, but I was stunned by a blow 
from the wreckage and was sucked down by the whirlpool. I 
never saw Mme. de Page again. 

" Mme. de Page was a heroine even before we went into 
the water. She bound up the hand of a. man named Freeman, 
who was injured while helping to lower the lifeboats. She 
al^o calmed the fears of the women and children, bearing her- 
self with superb coolness." 

Mrs. Henry Adams, wife of a London merchant told one of 
the most graphic tales of the disaster. 

She had just finished examining the unidentified dead in 
the coffins on the Cunard pier and had given up as hopeless her 
search for her husband when approached. In the succeeding 
ten minutes she poured forth a tale in which romance, happi- 



42 A STEALTHY ASSASSIN. 

ness, terror and tragedy were interwoven in a fashion no 
creator of fiction could conceive. 

" My husband and I were married in Washington on April 
5," she said. " We were coming to London to make it our 
home. He did not wish to sail on the Lusitania because of 
the threats of the German Embassy, but some of my relatives 
are Cunard officials and I have always been a confirmed 
Cunarder, so I insisted on the Lusitania. 

" On the night before we were torpedoed, something 
prompted my husband to try on the lifebelts. We got them 
down from the top of the wardrobe, and after putting them 
on left them under the berths. 

THOUGHT THE SHIP COULD NOT SINK. 

" When the shock came we were both in the writing room 
on the top deck. I knew the ship was doomed, but my husband 
was just as sure she could not sink. 

" However, we went down to the stateroom, got our life- 
belts and ran back to the top deck, preservers in hand. The 
ship was listing so that it was very difficult to walk. On two 
occasions while ascending the stairs my husband was struck 
and knocked down. On deck he wanted to stand and listen, 
but I kept in the lead and helped him climb the sloping deck and 
reach the rail on the higher side. 

" Here we saw a boat ready to be lowered. Some ojie 
shouted, ' Women first,' but I refused to get in, insisting on 
staying with my husband. He seemed dazed and almost un- 
conscious. I put a life preserver on him and then put on my 
own. In the meantime the captain had ordered the boats not to 
be lowered. A bo'sun, standing beside me on the deck, said, 
' We're resting on the bottom. We cannot sink.' This state- 
ment calmed most of those about us. 



A STEALTHY ASSASSIN. 43 

" My husband sat down on a collapsible boat. He seemed 
unable to stand. There we remained for several minutes, hold- 
ing on to the rail in order to keep from sliding down the in- 
clined deck. Suddenly I saw a great wave come over the bow, 
and instantly my husband and all of us were engulfed. 

" As the ship sank, I found I was being carried down 
under a life-boat. 

" It got pitch black. Then suddenly it became lighter. 
The dark blue turned to light blue and then I was in the sun- 
shine — afloat, though I could not swim. Finally I caught hold 
of a piece of wood and held on. 

" After a time, a raft carrying twenty men and one woman 
floated by. I begged the men to help me aboard, but they did 
not want to, and it was only when the woman upbraided them 
that one of the men dragged me on the raft. 

RAFT KEPT OVERTURNING. 

" There was something wrong with the raft, as it kept 
capsizing time and time again. Each time it was less buoy- 
ant and almost every time it overturned one or more of the 
poor wretches would disappear. Finally the other woman went 
down. 

" I made use of my gymnastic knowledge, and as the raft 
turned I crawled hand over hand, always managing to stay on 
it. Finally only six of us were left and then the raft sank 
from under us and we were left alone in the water. Altogether 
it was three hours and a half before a torpedo boat came. I 
saw it in the distance, but was so exhausted and numb with the 
cold by then that I lost consciousness and knew no more until 
I recovered aboard the torpedo boat. 

" One of the heroes whose name has not been mentioned 
was aboard that boat. He was Second Officer Burrowes. After 



44 A STEALTHY ASSASSIN. 

the doctor had given me up for dead he continued to work on 
me, and finally succeeded in reviving me. He did as much for 
others as well, but he refused to accept even thanks." 

At the conclusion of her description of her experiences, 
Mrs. Adams made a startling statement regarding the conduct 
of the ship's officers and men. 

" Although I am closely identified with the Cunard Line 
and would wish to do nothing that might minimize the hideous 
crime of the Germans, I feel it my duty to humanity to say 
something that may prevent a repetition of this needless loss 
of life. 

" Not only were the boats undermanned before being 
lowered, but the equipment itself was faulty. The raft I was 
on leaked and the collapsible boats had rusty, unworkable 
hinges, a matter that could have been remedied by oiling once 
in a fortnight. 

" If the members of the crew got their deserts the stewards 
would be praised to Heaven and the stokers would be damned 
to hell. The former behaved magnificently. Of all that great 
number of men charged with our safety only the stewards 
showed any appreciation of their responsibility. The behavior 
of the stokers was too terrible for words. I myself saw many 
instances of their bestiality. 

" As for the conduct of the officers, I have to say that they 
were conspicuous by their absence throughout the whole twenty 
minutes. There surely must be an investigation that will place 
the blame for this unnecessary adding to the number murdered." 



CHAPTER II. 

A WORLD AROUSED. 

Sorrow and Anguish Mark Receipt of First News op 
Disaste;r — Germany Gi^oats in Contrast — Anxious 
RijivATivES AND Frii;nds op Passengers Besiege Steam- 
ship AND TEI/EGRAPH OEEICES. 

SUCH a wave of anger and sorrow as swept over London, 
when the news passed through the city that the Lusitania 
had been sunk, has not been exceeded by any event of 
recent years. 

The news of the loss of the great liner was slow in making 
its way. The first to learn the truth were the members of 
Lloyd's, as a bulletin was posted on the exchange there shortly 
before 5 o'clock in the afternoon. From this point word passed 
from mouth to mouth throughout the city, gaining in horrible 
details as it went, until before the official announcement was 
given out at the Foreign Office, at 5.15, it was being every- 
where repeated that the Lusitania was lost with all on board. 

A tragic scene ensued before the company's doors, weep- 
ing women imploring clerks and other officials for word as to 
their dear ones, and men, far back in the crowd, calling the 
names of friends and relatives in the hope that some of the 
office staff could hear and reply. 

Many of the crowd before the Cunard building were of- 
ficers and men of the Canadian forces who were expecting 
friends on board the Lusitania, and there were numerous in- 
quiries as to the safety of Charles Frohman, Sir Hugh Lane 
and Alfred Vanderbilt. 

As hours passed, and the crowd still waited for news, the 

45 



46 A WORLD AROUSED. 

temper of the men grew more and more ugly. " What will 
the United States do ?" was a question that was repeated over 
and over again. The warning notice of the German Embassy 
sent out to vessels before the boat sailed was referred to many 
times, and always with the implication that it demonstrated 
the justice of proclaiming Count von Bernstorffa party to a 
conspiracy of murder. 

Another opinion repeated in many quarters, and always 
greeted with demonstrations of approval, was that the sinking 
of the Lusitania, with so many Americans on board, must have 
been intended as a deliberate act of reprisal on the American 
people at large because of their refusal to stop the trade of some 
firms in arms and ammunition for the allies. The first feeling 
among those receiving the news at large in the city was invar- 
iably one of incredulity. 

DASTARDLY CRIME AGAINST HUMANITY. 

A pall of gloom settled over the United States when cabled 
reports brought the news of the dastardly crime against hu- 
manity. Young and old, rich and poor, felt the force of the 
calamity. In the minds of sympathetic millions were thoughts 
of the innocent women and children who died a terrible death 
after the torpedoes from the German submarine sank the liner. 

The terrible mental picture especially haunted the minds of 
persons who were relatives or friends of the reported missing. 
Anxious relatives spent a heartbreaking vigil, waiting for news 
of loved ones. Hundreds of thousands of inquiries poured into 
the newspaper offices and the offices of the Cunard Line. People 
everywhere besieged the newspaper offices for information from 
the moment the first word of the disaster to the Eusitania 
reached this country in the meagre cable messages that early 
in the afternoon conveyed only the laconic report that the larg- 



A WORLD AROUSED. 47 

est steamship in service had been blown up. Every large city 
was jammed with constantly increasing crowds that scanned 
the bulletin boards and fought eagerly to purchase the rapidly 
published editions of the newspapers. 

During all of the afternoon and night and even well into 
this morning's earlier hours the telephones of the newspaper 
offices were swamped with inquiries by relatives and friends 
of persons who were passengers on board the ill fated steamship. 
At midnight the crowds in front of the bulletin boards showed 
no sings of dwindling. Even then the full extent of the disaster 
had not been established. 

NO DISORDER AT BULLETIN BOARDS. 

So great did the bulletin reading throngs become during 
the evening that policemen were required to keep traffic moving 
up and down the main and side streets. Although almost every 
nationality was represented in the crowd, there was no disorder, 
and no matter in what direction sympathy ran every one in the 
throng appeared to be overcome by the seriousness of the situa- 
tion, and no one appeared anxious to applaud the destruction of 
the ship and the supposed great loss of life. 

Scenes as tragic as those which occured after the Titanic 
disaster were reproduced, when with mingled fear and hope, 
wives and relatives waited for definite word of the fate of their 
loved ones who were on the Lusitania, and collapsed pitifully 
when " lost " was the tidings. Even those who recived word 
that relatives were safe were quiet in their joy and relief for 
the fear that had been hanging over them was too deep to be 
dissipated quickly at receipt of good news. 

As one bulletin after another on the Lusitania disaster was 
posted, and cries of pity were uttered, and after reading the 
notice that one hundred dripping bodies had been laid on the 



48 A WORLD AROUSED. 

wharf at Queenstown, a man with wet eyes and a shaking 
voice cried : " Its murder ! Plain murder !" 

It was characteristic of nearly all the crowds which drifted 
and centered at the sources of information that a person with 
an accent made in Germany tried to explain against hostile 
voices that the sinking of the Lusitania was not the Kaiser's 
fault. 

Every new edition of the papers that verified the large 
death list left the fate of the Americans as glaring and ines- 
timable a fact as the ruins of Belgium and raised the feeling 
to fever pitch. 

STEADY SHOWER OF TELEGRAMS. 

Tense anxiety prevailed among the swarms of people in 
and around the Cunard Line offices after the catastrophe. 
When each office opened Saturday, following the disaster, there 
was a group of anxious persons standing outside the doors. 
A continual stream of persons called, all with inquiries about 
the Lusitania's passengers and crew. These inquiries were 
supplemented by a steady shower of telegrams from all over 
the country. Some were sent from Canada. While the em- 
ployes were busy revising lists and answering questions, the 
jingle of telephone bells played an accompaniment. 

Before the clerks could give any definite replies as to who 
had been saved they had to go and examine carefully the cable- 
grams which had arrived after midnight. These continued 
at intervals all day, each giving a fragment of information as to 
the whereabouts of passengers. 

The first message received at the line and made public 
was from the head office at Liverpool. It read : " A telegram 
to the following effect has been received from the Admiral 
at Queenstown : Torpedo boats, tugs, and armed trawlers from 



A WORIvD AROUSED. 49 

Queenstown are all in except the Heron, Landed from these 
were 595 survivors and 40 dead. Landed from steamers, 52 
survivors. Landed at Kinsale, 11 survivors; 5 dead. Total 
survivors, 658 ; dead, 45. Numbers will be verified later. Pos- 
sibly Kinsale fishing boat may have a few more. 

" Only a few first cabin passengers saved. It is understood 
they thought the ship would float. She sank in from fifteen to 
twenty-five minutes, and it was reported she was struck by two 
torpedoes. In addition to the foregoing it is just signaled that 
one armed trawler, probably the Heron, and two fishing traw- 
lers are bringing in 100 bodies." 

SEEKERS AFTER LATE NEWS. 

Later, the second cablegram received from Liverpool was 
posted. This was at once surrounded by the seekers after late 
news. It read : " Queenstown wires all passengers for Liverpool 
are now at station waiting for three o'clock connection for 
Holyhead. Will send you complete list as soon as we can get 
it ready." 

This promise of the latest list of survivors kept many 
about the office nearly all day, for it was not until late that the 
company gave out revised lists of the survivors among the pas- 
sengers and crew. As fast as information arrived from Liver- 
pool, clerks gave every one the benefit of the lastest information. 
The Queenstown message would indicate, the clerks pointed out, 
that the first passengers landed on the Irish coast were in the 
station at Queenstown and were ready to leave for England 
and would arrive in London about 8 o'clock in the morning. 

By this time the crowd surged in both the first cabin, sec- 
ond cabin and steerage offices. Most of the men and women 
who made inquiries for relatives or friends were very quiet, 
but a few manifested outward signs of grief. One woman 

4-TI, 



50 A WORLD AROUSED. 

fainted. Another became almost hysterical, and several asked 
questions with tears streaming down their faces. Some sobbed 
with relief when they heard the names of loved ones read off in 
the list of those saved. 

" You will have to wait for further news," was the often 
spoken advice, and frequently the persons spoken to retired to 
the row of benches along the wall to sit in dejection waiting, 
waiting for the news that in many cases never came. " Your 
friend is not on the list of those saved," a clerk would say, and 
always as the inquirer turned away there would be a word of 
comfort in " no news is good news." 

LIST OF SURVIVORS. 

In the afternoon following the awful event the Cunard 
Line gave out a second list of the numbers they believed to be 
saved and revised figures as to those on the Lusitania. At that 
time they reported the list of survivors contained the names of 
87 first cabin, 72 second cabin, 33 third class, 52 of the crew, 
and 6 unclassified. This number, they announced, was not to 
be taken as complete. The revised list of those on board was 
given out thus : Saloon, 290; second cabin, 599; third class, 361 ; 
crew, 667. 

Rumors were circulated that the American liner New York 
had been torpedoed off the Irish coast. This caused consider- 
able excitement among the seething multitudes. 

As the clerks at the Cunard offices announced that they had 
additional names of the rescued, the waiting crowd massed to- 
gether, and with a wild rush, women and men fought their way 
to the counters in a fit of hysteria to learn whether their loved 
ones were in the lifeboats that had been towed to villages along 
the Irish coast. 

As they shouted the names and heard the ominous reply, 



A WORLD AROUSED. 51 

" Not received yet," they begged the clerks to go through the 
Hsts again. 

"It must be there. Have you got the speUing right?" 
they pleaded. And when they were told the name they were 
looking for was missing, some broke into tears, others strug- 
gled to prevent exhibiting their emotion and some of the women 
slid unconscious to the tiled floor. 

ENTHUSIASM IN GERMANY. 

In contrast to the exhibitions of sorrow and anguish which 
marked the receipt of the first news of the crime, and the frag- 
mentary stories of survivors at Queenstown, London, Paris, 
New York — in fact throughout the greater portion of the world 
— Germany brazenly and without shame, gloated over the 
achievement of its submarine. Through its representatives 
it assumed full responsibility for the slaughter of innocents 
and justified it on the ground that ithad given tentative warn- 
ing. But the warning was a mere caution that carried with it 
not the slightest inference that innocents would be made to 
suffer or that Germany would forget the rules of civilized war- 
fare. 

So while flags hung at half mast in America and women 
were weeping and children crying, and the rest of the world ' 
stood aghast, there was enthusiasm among the militant 
Germans in Berlin over the sinking of the Lusitania, demonstra- 
tions being held before the Government Building.^ ''The sink- 
ing of the Lusitania had made the Germans forget Italy," Ger- 
mans declared enthusiastically. 

The Central News correspondent at Amsterdam quoted 
Cologne Gazette as depreciating the drowning of non-com- 
batants, and saying further : " The news will be received by; 
the German people with unanimous satisfaction, since it proves 



52 



A WORLD AROUSED. 



to England and the whole world that Germany is quite in earnest 
in regard to her submarine warfare. This weapon of ours may- 
hit the enemy as terribly and as painfully as the 42-centimetre 
guns. Indeed, it is a more terrible menace. 

" England now knows that our submarines will not allow 
the best and most valuable prizes escape their attacks, but will 
continue to destroy them wherever they meet them." 




WOMEN AND CHILDRBN FIRST. Fromyorll,Am,riam, 

Scenes such as this occurred in the various German Con- 
sulates throughout our country . Unrestrained joy at the news 
of the sinking of the Lusitania by a German submarine was 
manifested by Dr. George Stobbe, German Consul in Philadel- 
phia, and by the attaches at the consulate. 



A WORLD AROUSED. 53 

" Ach! Is it true? Is it true?" he questioned eagerly, his 
face lit up by a radiant smile of pleasure, when told of the event 
at his office Clerks dropped their pens and gathered 

about their chief in breathless anticipation of hearing the news 
verified. 

At the nod of the newspaper reporter, almost before he had 
time to translate the nod into speech, deafening cheers broke 
forth and question after question was plied to make sure that 
the longed-for report was true. A busy hum of conversation, 
carried on in German, flowed among the group. Not the least 
happy was the Consul himself, too much carried away by en- 
thusiasm to preserve official dignity. When he was asked for 
a statement for publication, Doctor Stobbe reassumed his ac- 
customed imperturbality and refused, saying he must have time 
to think the matter over. 

HALF HOLIDAY IN HONOR OF THE EVENT. 

There were great rejoicings in southern Germany. Towns 
were beflagged, especially along the Rhine, and the children 
had a half holiday in honor of the event. The rejoicings are 
said to have spread even to Vienna and Budapest. 

The German Ambassador, Count Von Bernstorflf, blanched 
when somebody said that it was he who was thought to have 
provoked the torpedoing of the Lusitania by the warning an- 
nouncements printed in the newspapers when the Cunard Line 
steamship left New York on her fatal trip. He refused to com- 
ment. By this time there were many persons at the Pennsyl- 
vania Terminal in Washington who were interested in the 
throng of reporters and the Ambassador. 

Count Von Bernstorflf walked to the telephone booths and 
called up somebody, H§ w^g ^h^r^ for ^ couple of minutes 



54 A WORLD AROUSED. 

and walked away without paying for the call. A uniformed 
boy ran after him, crying out : 

"Hey, there! Charge?'' 

The boy touched the arm of the Ambassador, who turned 
around with his fist out. After paying for the call he walked 
down to the platform in an extremely nervous condition. He 
walked through the train and somebody banged on the windows 
and shouted : " The German Ambassador, ladies and gentle- 
men!" 

Through three cars went Count Von Bernstorff, and he 
only stopped when he arrived at the chair car. He discovered 
he would have to wait before he got a seat and then concealed 
himself behind a door in the smoking rocm. 

GRAVE CONCERN AT WASHINGTON. 

The capital at Washington viewed with grave concern the 
news of the Lusitania's loss, and the slaying of American men, 
women and children. 

A violent break in the Stock Exchanges occurred. Prices 
of " war stocks " fell in an avalanche from 1 5 to 30 points ; while 
the standard issues lost 5 to 10 points in less than an hour. 

Speakers in American Universities were bitter in their 
denunciation of the brutal outrage. 

The Brunswick Lion, which stands in front of the German 
Museum at Harvard and is a gift from the Kaiser to the uni- 
versity, was draped with a mourning shroud. A large sheet, 
the edges of which were black, hung about the statue, and two 
inscriptions were printed on it in large letters. One inscription 
read: " One hundred and forty-seven corpses, another gift 
from the Kaiser," and on another portion was written : " In 
memory of the Lusitania massacre," which was signed " Hu- 



A WORLD AROUSED. 55 

manity." It was the work of a large group of students, who 
draped the lion the morning after the ship went down. 

The Harvard Prize Poet wrote the following eloquent 
Lusitania Poem for the World: 

FINIS. 
By C. Huntinoton Jacobs. 

Ye have not scorned to cry to us for aid ; 

Ye have not scorned to cling about our knees 
When to our gracious havens, sore afraid, 

Ye bore our victims from your piracies. 
Nor have ye scorned upon the open seas — 

So well by such as ye is ruth repaid — 
To wreck with slinking death our argocies, 

To treat as vile our ensign, full displayed ! 

In the pride of utter insolence. 

Your coiled water-snakes, athwart our path, 

Fasten their fangs upon onr innocents — 

Yea, with a hundred murders mock our wrath ! 

Oh, if our spirit liveth, ye shall feel 

What might our vengeance hath in flame and steel ! 

In British Columbia, Canada, Victoria was put under 
martial law as a result of renewed attacks on German establish- 
ments by mobs bent on avenging the sinking of the Lusitania. 

After a mob of several thousand nien and boys had smash- 
ed windows of a brewery, a hotel, a jewelry store, a cleaning 
establishment and a plumbing shop, the Mayor read the riot act 
at a downtown street corner, and 800 soldiers began policing 
the city. A detachment of troops was called upon from Van- 
couver to reinforce the local garrison. 

London joined its sister cities in anti-German demonstra- 
tions. Buildings were wrecked, persons of German name re- 



56 A WORLD AROUSED. 

fused business accommodations and Teutonic aliens taken under 
police protection. British wrath, proverbially slow to rise, 
quickly mounted to flood tide at the stupendous Lusitania trag- 
edy, and quickly manifested its bitter anti-German feeling in 
scores of cities, in some of them culminating in riots. 

Shops and homes of Germans by the hundreds were wreck- 
ed in Liverpool, Birkenhead, Bootle ,and other places. Violent 
disorder was reported from Manchester, Cardiff, Lancaster, 
Carlisle and other cities. In many places saloons were closed 
and the authorities placed naturalized Germans and Austrians 
under police protection. The authorities threatened to put 
Liverpool under martial law. 

INTERNMENT OF ALL GERMANS. 

Demanding the immediate internment of all residents of 
Teutonic blood, the London press declared the torpedoing of 
the Lusitania strained the temper of the British people to the 
breaking point. " National safety necessitates the end of es- 
pionage," declared the principal papers, which also urged con- 
scription. Petitions clamoring for Teuton internment were 
signed by hundreds of thousands of Englishmen. 

Never since the war between Germany and England began 
did such a wave of anti-German feeling surge through England 
as at this time. It was due entirely to the sinking of the Lusi- 
tania. Workmen in the industrial district refused to labor 
alongside men of German birth, whether they were naturalized 
or not. 

In Liverpool the Germans were interned and those who 
were naturalized subjects of Great Britain were advised to go to 
interior towns to seek internment. Many of them decided upon 
the latter course. 

A demand was made by the newspapers that all the twenty- 



A WORLD AROUSED. 57 

five thousand Germans still at large should be similarly treated. 
Deputations from the Stock Exchange, the Baltic Exchange, 
Ivloyds and the Corn Exchange, following a meeting on the 
steps of the Royal Exchange, marched to the House of Com- 
mons and presented a petition to the Attorney General which 
invited attention to the ' grave danger that existed by allowing 
alien enemies to remain at large in the country." 

A public meeting was held at the Mansion House on the 
subject of alien enemies as the forerunner of meetings of pro- 
test held all over the country. 

Notwithstanding the warning from the London Stock Ex- 
change committee not to enter the house, about fifty German 
members appeared at the doors, demanding admittance, but a 
strong guard of English members dared them to enter. The 
Germans were told that if they had not sense enough to keep 
away they would be forcibly removed. 

GERMANS ROUGHLY HANDLED. 

The Germans were stubborn and tried to force their en- 
trance, but the Englishmen, whose anger had been increased 
by the news of the air raid over Southend, turned on them. 
In the fight which ensued the Germans were roughly handled 
and driven off by the Englishmen, who were more determined 
than ever that the Germans should not be allowed to enter the 
house. 

Between 200 and 300 British members of the Stock Ex- 
change mobilized to prevent the entrance of the Germans who 
might be brave enough to attempt to make their way into the 
house in disregard of the warning issued by the Stock Exchange 
Committee on the day following the sinking of the Lusitania. 

Excitement ran high around the Exchange and a huge 
crowd collected in the vicinity in the expectation of disgrders, 



58 A WORLD AROUSED. 

The authorities of the Baltic Exchange and of the Mark Lane 
wheat market suspended until further notice all Germans, Aus- 




From Philadelphia Record. 



STAND PAST, UNCLE. 

trians, and Turks up to the age of sixty, with the exception of 
those having sons at the front in the British ranks. 

At Liverpool the Board of Directors of the Cotton Asso- 
ciation passed a resolution setting forth that no naturalized 



A WORLD AROUSED. 59 

German or Austrian should henceforth be permitted to enter 
the Cotton Exchange. 

In the East End the German and Austrian residents form- 
ed a defense battaUon and defied the poHce and the crowds. A 
free-for-all street battle followed that extended for many blocks. 
Cart stakes, chairs, stones and other weapons were used, and 
there were dozens of broken heads. 

The scenes of rioting in London extended particularly over 
the Bowend, Bromley, Stepney, Mile End, Lime House, North 
Kensington, Walthamstow, Poplar, Actno, Camdentown and 
Bethnal Green districts. 

GERMAN RESTAURANTS WRECKED. 

All of the German-owned restaurants on the Strand were 
closed, and the police called out to protect them, because of the 
threatening attitude of the crowds. By the afternoon of May 
12, more than loo shops owned by persons of Austro-German 
extraction had been demolished and looted. Petitions bearing 
500,000 names demanded of the Government that it intern all 
Germans and Austrians of military age, at liberty. 

The municipal authorities of Liverpool ordered that all 
saloons be closed in consequence of the anti-German riots 
there. The ringleaders of those disorders were let off 
leniently in court, but were warned that further outbreaks 
would be punished rigorously. 

In dealing with the rioters the magistrate remarked : " It 
might be easily understood that in the first flush of the excite- 
ment following the torpedoing of the Lusitania, the people, par- 
ticularly those who had relatives on the ship, might have been 
besides themselves. It could not be stated too emphatically, 
however, that the interests of the country demanded that such 
riots should not take place," 



60 A WORLD AROUSED. 

The sinking of the Lusitania and the manner in which the 
deed was hailed in Germany aroused strong feeUng against 
Germans being allowed to continue doing business in Newcastle 
A big crowd composed mainly of women paraded the streets, 
smashing windows in the establishments of German pork 
butchers. 

In Washington considerable of a demonstration developed 
at the opening of the National Capital horse show over the 
selling by a group of young women of the kaiserbloom, the 
national flower of Germany. Patrons of the show trampled 
the flowers on the ground and several young women who were 
selling them for charity were ejected from the exhibition 
grounds. 

FLOWERS OF A MURDERER. 

" We won't wear the flowers of a murderer !" the people 
shouted. " It's a disgrace to try and sell them to us." 

So indignant were some of the patrons of the show that 
they hurriedly left the grounds. Among those who are said to 
have gone away because of the situation are Mme. George Bak- 
hmeteff, wife of the Ambassador of Russia, and members 
of the Russian Embassy staff, who gave up a box engaged for 
the show. 

Similar protests occurred throughout the business sec- 
tion of the city, where young women were stationed at every 
crossing offering the flowers for sale. Some persons bought 
the flowers without knowing what they were — others sharply 
criticised the young women, some of whom were of the best 
known families and undertook the work to gather funds for 
the Washington diet kitchen. 

The flowers sold were artificial, made from starched cam- 
bric built arpvind a wir? lik§ thos? worn on women's hats, They 



A WORLD AROUSED. 61 

were fac-similes of what is commonly known in America as the 
cornflower, and also as the kaiserbloom, the German national 
flower. 

It seems that the women who wished to obtain funds for 
the diet kitchen bought the flowers without realizing the com- 
motion that would arise. Then, too, they did not know that 
so bitter a feeling against Germany had come about because of 
the sinking of the Lusitania. 

Girls were stationed throughout the city in the morning, 
and in the afternoon they prepared to reap a great harvest from 
the sale of the flowers at the Horse Show. They were on hand 
when the crowd began to arrive and disposed of many of the 
flowers before the time for the exhibitoin to commence. 

TRAMPLED THE FLOWERS IN THE DIRT. 

Word began to be passed around finally that the flowers 
really were the kaiserbloom, and that to wear them would be to 
wear the national flower of Germany. So the feeling grew 
to such an extent that some of the men and women tore the 
flowers from their buttonholes and trampled them in the dirt. 

Protests were made to the managers of the show, and the 
girls who were selling the flowers were directed to leave the 
grounds immediately. This they did. 

Some of the visitors obtained red and white artificial 
flowers, which they put beside the blue flowers in their button- 
holes to represent the national colors of the United States. 
Aniong them was Perry Belmont, who had in his box the Am- 
bassador of Italy. "I think this a very good solution of an 
embarrassing incident," Mr. Belmont said. " I'm an Ameri- 
can." The largest New York crowds since the war began stood 
around the bulletins. Between i,ooo and 1,500 people on the 
average occupied the space in front of newspaper offices. 



62 A WORLD AROUSED. 

I Many were there to urge that the only course for America 
was to declare war against Germany. The pro-German ora- 
tors, a number of whom have not missed a day in front of the 
bulletin boards since the war began, held, on the contrary, that 
the sinking of the Lusitania was justified, and that the warning '' 
advertisement by the German Embassy relieved the German 
Government of all responsibility. These conflicting views led 
to a great many more fist fights than usually occur ; but none of 
the clashes were serious. 

CROWD AGAINST GERMANY. 

It was probably the first day since the war began that the 
majority of the crowd was against Germany. Throughout 
the preceding months a number of Germans and Austrians of 
means and prominence made a regular practice of a!rguing the 
Teutonic cause. Under normal conditions the crowd was 
made up largely of debaters having a German accent. This 
was all changed. The prevailing opinion among the various 
groups of arguers remained the same, though their personnel 
changed as some left and others came, and the German sympa- 
thizers seldom had control of a single group. 

The anti-Germans sometimes took the position that the 
United States should declare war on Germany at once, and 
sometimes that the country could not do any more than protest 
and that that would not make much impression on Germany. 
After the bulletin had gone up quoting Mr. Bryan to the effect 
that Americans at the time need not be advised not to " rock 
the boat,'' the Secretary's phrase was made much of by the ad- 
vocates of peace. 

" Don't rock the boat," was interjected frequently as a 
speaker demanded that we should go to war with Germany, but 
still more common even than this were the answering taunts : . 



A WORLD AROUSED. 63 

" If you say your are an American and talk like that, you're a 
mighty poor one/' or " If you go on like that you may find your- 
self in a detention camp before long." 

Extra policeman were stationed before the bulletin boards. 
There were more challenges than fights. Even when the will 
to fight was there, the jam was so tight that it was impossible 
to draw back an arm for a blow, and hostilities seldom got 
beyond light slaps, which proved nothing. In the evening, a 
score or more of women joined the debating groups, and some 
had their say quite freely. Occasionly, however, they fled be- 
fore the uncensored language of a few of the debaters. 

Everywhere the scenes were the same. There were tear- 
ful stories of friends who had gone abroad to give aid to suffer- 
ers in the hospitals and soldiers' camps; of men on business 
bent; wives and children gone to meet husbands; writers who 
hoped to give to posterity enlightening tales of the terrible war, 
and babes who prattled on an ill-timed voyage. Eulogies were 
their fists. Many of these were not against war — but they were 
pronounced and stern men gritted their teeth and oftimes 
against murder — and they deemed this murder. 



CHAPTER III. 
A NATION ACCUSED. 

Jury Accuses Emperor Wii,i<iam Guii^ty of Whoi^esale 
Murder — Queenstown a Charnei. House — Thrilling 
Stories op Heroism and Sufeering Intensify Feeeing 
of Sorrow. 

SHOCKING as was the first news of the destruction of the 
brave Lusitania with its cargo of human freight, to men 
of the strongest minds and hearts, the fragmentary 
stories of survivors which flashed over telegraph wires; the 
incomplete picture of the horrors that confronted innocents 
thrown into the sea; the passing glimpses that were conveyed 
through words of the scenes in the hospitals, hotels and houses 
turned into morgues in the city of Queenstown — intensified the 
anguish, and oftimes the anger, that was felt by those who had 
heard or read of the awful havoc. 

The vision of those helpless, half clad, water soaked, shiv- 
ering women, struggling over the piers at Queenstown from 
boats, sometimes holding a precious babe in arms, but more 
often moaning and calling for some lost soul; the pictures of 
men, white faced, disheveled and without clothes, giving help 
with little thought of self; the knowledge that rows of bodies 
of innocent babes and children lay calm-faced like dolls in 
strange houses of death — all these things added to the poignant 
grief which men with the spark of compassion in their souls 
exhibited. 

And with it all, by some strange turn of fate, came the 
knowledge that those men best fitted to chronicle the last mo- 
ment of the Lusitania — Elbert Hubbard, famed editor of the 

64 



A NATION ACCUSED. 65 

Philistine, Justus Miles Forman, the short story writer, Chas. 
Frohman, theatrical magnate, Charles Klein, dramatist, Al- 
fred Gwynne Vanderbilt and others — went to their graves. 

But it required little art to impress the heinous crime upon 
the human mind, and out of the terrors through which they 
passed men and women were given the power to unfold tales 
of vivid truth. Not the least of these was the uncolored story 
as given by Captain W. T. Turner, of the ill-fated vessel, before 
the Coroner at Kinsale, Ireland, at the inquest held to fix the 
responsibility for the deaths of the innocent victims of the 
German submarine. 

In a dramatic situation, not paralleled in the history of 
the world, a grave- faced jury heard the Captain's recital and 
in solemn deliberation adjudged a nation and His Imperial 
Majesty, Emperor William of Germany, guilty of murder. 
So judged the deliberators. 

CORONER'S VERDICT. 

" We find that the deceased met death from pro- 
longed immersion and exhaustion in the sea, eight 
miles south-southwest of Old Head, Kinsale, on Fri- 
day, May 7, 191 5, owing to the sinking of the Lusi- 
tania by torpedoes fired by a German submarine. 

" We find that this appalling crime was committed 
contrary to international law and the conventions of 
all civilized nations. 

" We also charge the officers of said submarine and 
the Emperor and government of Germany, under 
whose orders they acted, with the crime of wholesale 
murder before the tribunal of the civilized world. 

" We desire to express sincere condolences and sym- 
pathy with the relatives of the deceased, the Cunard 

6-T I. 



66 A NATION ACCUSED. 

Company and the United States, many of whose citi- 
zens perished in this murderous attack on an unarmed 
Uner." 

Coroner Horgan, who conducted the inquiry, said the first 
torpedo fired by the submarine did serious damage to the L,us- 
itania, but that, not satisfied with this, the Germans had dis- 
charged another torpedo. The second torpedo, he said, must 
have been more deadly, because it went right through the ship, 
hastening the work of destruction. 

The characteristic courage of the Irish and British people 
was manifested at the time of this terrible disaster, the Coroner 
continued, and there was no panic. He charged that the re- 
sponsibility " lay on the German government and the whole 
people of Germany who collaborated in the terrible crime." 

WILFUL MURDER. 

" I propose to ask the jury," he continued, " to return the 
only verdict possible for a self-respecting jury, that the men in 
charge of the German submarine were guilty of wilful murder." 

Livermore, the ship's bugler, testified that the watertight 
compartments were closed, but that the explosion and the force 
of the water must have burst them open. He said all the officers 
were at their posts and that earlier arrivals of the rescue craft 
would not have saved the situation. 

Captain Turner then testified. The Coroner asked him: 
" You were aware that threats had been made that the ship 
would be torpedoed ?" 

" We were,'' the Captain replied. 

" Was she armed ?" 

" No sir." 

"What precautions did you take?" 



A NATION ACCUSED. 67 

" We had all the boats swung when we came within the 
danger zone, between the passing of Fastnet and the time of 
the accident." 

" Did you receive any special instructions as to the voy- 
age?" 

" Yes sir." 

" Are you at liberty to tell us what they were ?" 

" No, sir." 

" Did you carry them out?'' 

" Yes, to the best of my ability." 

" Tell us in your own words what happened after passing 
Fastnet." 

SPEED OF EIGHTEEN KNOTS. 

" The weather was clear," Captain Turner answered. 
" We were going at a speed of eighteen knots. I was on the 
port side and heard Second Officer Hefford call out, ' Here's 
a torpedo.' 

" I ran to the other side and saw clearly the wake of a tor- 
pedo. Smoke and steam came up between the last two funnels. 
There was a slight shock. Immediately after the first explo- 
sion there was another report, but that may possibly have been 
internal. 

" I at once gave the order to lower the boats down to the 
rails, and I directed that women and children should get into 
them. I also had all the bulkheads closed," Captain Turner 
continued. " Between the time of passing Fastnet, at about 
eleven o'clock, and the torpedoing, I saw no sign whatever of 
any submarines. There was some haze along the Irish coast, 
and when we were near Fastnet I slowed down to fifteen knots. 
I was in wireless communication with shore all the way across." 

Captain Turner was asked whether he had received any 



68 A NATION ACCUSED. 

message in regard to the presence of submarines off the Irish 
coast. He repHed in the affirmative. Questioned regarding 
the nature of the message, he rephed: " I respectfully refer you 
to the Admiralty for an answer. 

" I also gave orders to stop the ship," Captain Turner con- 
tinued, " but we could not stop. We found that the engines 
were out of commission. It was not safe to lower boats until 
the speed was off the vessel. As a matter of fact, there was 
a perceptible headway on her up to the time she went down. 

" When she was struck she listed to starboard. I stood on 
the bridge when she sank, and the Lusitania went down under 
me. She floated about eighteen minutes after the torpedo 
struck her. My watch stopped at 2.36. I was picked up from 
among the wreckage and afterward was brought aboard a 
trawler. 

NO WAR SHIP IN SIGHT. 

" No war ship was convoying us. I saw no war ship, and 
none was reported to me as having been seen. At the time I 
was picked up I noticed bodies floating on the surface, but saw 
no living persons.' 

" Eighteen knots was not the normal speed of the Eusi- 
tania, was it?" 

" At ordinary times," answered Captain Turner, " she 
could make twenty-five knots, but in war times her speed was 
reduced to twenty-one knots. My reason for going eighteen 
knots was that I wanted to arrive at Liverpool without stopping, 
and within two or three hours of high water." 

" Was there a lookout kept for submarines, having regard 
to previous warnings ?" 

" Yes, we had double lookouts." 

" Were you going a zizag course at the moment the torpe- 
doing took place ?" 



A NATION ACCUSED. 69 

" No. It was bright weather and land was nearly visible." 

" Was it possible for a submarine to approach without 
being seen?" 

" Oh, yes : quite possible." 

" Something has been said regarding the impossibility of 
launching the boats on the port side ?' 

" Yes," said Captain Turner, " owing to the listing of the 
ship." 

" How many boats were launched safely ?" 

" I cannot say." 

" Were any launched safely?" 

" Yes, one or two on the port side." 

NO PANIC ON BOARD. 

" Were your orders promptly carried out ?" 

" Yes." 

"Was there any panic on board?" 

" No. There was no panic at all. It was ahtiost calm.'' 

" How many persons were on board?" 

" There were one thousand five hundred passengers and 
about six hundred crew." 

By the foreman of the jury : " In the face of the warnings 
at New York that the Lusitania would be torpedoed, did you 
make any application to the Admiralty for an escort?" 

" No ; I left that to them. It is their business, not mine. 
I simply had to carry out my orders to go, and I would do it 
again." Captain Turner uttered the last words of this reply 
with great emphasis. 

By the coroner : " I am very glad to hear you say so. Cap- 
tain." 

By a juryman : " Did you get a wireless to steer your ves- 
sel in a northern direction?" 



70 A NATION ACCUSED. 

" No." replied Captain Turner. 

" Was the course of the vessel altered after the torpedoes 
struck her?" 

" I headed straight for land, but it was useless. Previous 
to this the watertight bulkheads were closed. I suppose the 
explosion forced them open. I don't know the exact extent to 
which the Lusitania was damaged.'' 

" There must have been serious damage done to the water- 
tight bulkheads ?" 

" There certainly was, without doubt." 

" Were the passengers supplied with lifebelts ?" 

" Yes." 

" Were any special orders given that morning that life- 
belts be put on ?" 

" No." 

NO WARNING GIVEN. 

" Was any warning given to you before you were torpe- 
doed?" 

" None whatever. It was suddenly done and finished." 

" If there had been a patrol boat about, might it have been 
of assistance?'' 

" It might, but it is one of those things one never knows." 

With regard to the threats against his ship. Captain Tur- 
ner said he saw nothing except what appeared in the New York 
papers on the day before the Lusitania steamecf. He nevei 
had heard the passengers talking about the threats, he said. 

" Was a warning given to the lower decks after the ship 
had been struck?" Captain Turner was asked. 

" All the passengers must have heard the explosion," Cap- 
tain Turner replied. 

Captain Turner in answer to another question said he re- 



A NATION ACCUSED. 71 

ceived no report from the lookout before the torpedo struck the 
Lusitania. 

After physicians had testified that the victims met death 
through prolonged immersion and exhaustion, the Coroner sum- 
med up the case and the jury brought in its verdict. 

With such evidences, corroborated by that of surviving 
passengers, there can be raised no question of doubt that the 
liner was struck without warning, that the captain stood by 
his bridge and his traditions to the last, that the crew gallantly 
upheld the honor of seafaring England, and that the passengers, 
from saloon to steerage, faced their peril with coolness remark- 
able in the circumstances. 

LARGE NUMBER OF HEROES AND HEROINES. 

In the composite, the survivors' stories picture a ship's 
company of close to 2,000 persons, which under the supreme 
test assayed a high percentage of heroes and heroines. Once 
the doomed vessel, listing far to its torpedoed starboard, had 
begun noticeably to settle, the incipient panic that followed 
alarm, impact and explosion was over. 

No band was playing as the Lusitania yawed, pitched, and 
started for the bottom. In the narrative which has been pieced 
together many acts of individual bravery stand out. 

There is a story of a surgeon who climbed aboard a crowd- 
ed life raft and found there a boy with a broken thigh. The sur- 
geon set to work methodically to improvise splints, while the 
boy, wishing to match the pluck of his elders, said he felt all 
right and wanted a " funny paper " more than anything else in 
the world. 

On another raft was a stoker, one of his arms nearly torn 
oflf. A young Chilean physician finished the job and roughly 



72 A NATION ACCUSED. 

bandaged the crushed shoulder to the tune of Tipperary, sung 
by the Spartan out of the stoke hole. 

One of the most complete stories comes from Dr. Daniel 
Moore of Yankton, S. D., the surgeon who set the leg of the 
boy who wanted a " funny paper." 

" We had been in sight of land for three hours," Dr. Moore 
said. " About one o'clock, when we were still some twelve 
miles off the coast, I noticed the Lusitania was steering a zig- 
zag course. I went below and got my glasses. Through them, 
off the port beam, I could make out an oblong black object with 
four domelike projections. I thought it was about two miles 
away. 

" Except for those domes it might have been a whale. At 
times the thing would race along above the surface, then it would 
dive and disappear. Other passengers had noticed the object. 
We took it for a friendly submarine. There were no other 
vessels in sight except a couple of fishing boats. 

HEARD NO SECOND EXPLOSION. 

"At 1.40 o'clock, still mildly interested in our convoy, I 
sat down to luncheon in the second saloon. Twenty minutes 
later there was a muffled, drum-like noise forward and almost 
immediately the Lusitania began to list to the starboard. 

" We had' been torpedoed, but most certainly, unless the 
submarine we saw had been speedy enough to run rings around 
us, the torpedo must have come from yet another vessel. I 
heard no second explosion. 

" Of course, there was great excitement among the passen- 
gers. The women were soon quieted, however, by assurances 
that the Lusitania had probably struck a small mine. We all 
left the saloon in good order. On deck I had difficulty in walk- 
ine owing to the list. 



A NATION ACCUSED. 73 

" With most of the other passengers I ran to the promen- 
ade deck, which was crowded. Looking over the side, I could 
see no evidence of damage. I started to return to my cabin, but 
the Hst was so marked I gave up the idea and remained on deck. 
Later, looking over the starboard rail, I saw the water had 
climbed to within twelve feet of the deck at one point. 

" I went to look for a lifebelt and ran across k stewardess 
struggling with a pile of them in a rack. I helped her to put one 
on and took one for myself. 

" By this time the ship was almost on its side and sinking 
by the bow. I saw a woman clinging to the rail near where 
a boat was being lowered. I rushed her into the boat and 
jumped after her. It was a twelve foot drop. The boat was 
heavily loaded, and when it dropped into the water we were al- 
most swamped. Although we kept an even keel water came 
over the gunwales faster than we could bail it out with our hats. 

BOY ASKED FOR FUNNY PAPER. 

" I realized that we would sink soon, so I threw a keg over- 
board and sprang after it. A young steward named Freeman 
also used the keg for a support. A few minutes later we saw 
the boat swamped. After an hour and a half Freeman and I 
were picked up by a raft. There was a small boy aboard it 
with a broken thigh, and I did what I could for him. He kept 
asking if some one hadn't thought to bring a funny paper." 

H. W. Taylor and his bride were on their honeymoon. Mrs. 
Taylor, hardly more than a girl, cried she would not be sepa- 
rated from her husband. The two were standing at the rail, 
near a lifeboat loaded with women. The Lusitania was set- 
tling. 

" I won't go, I won't !" Mrs. Taylor was screaming. Her 
husband extricated himself from her desperate embrace, kissed 



74 A NATION ACCUSED. 

her, and dropped her into the boat. Before she could dimb 
back to him he had cut the boat away. Something had happen- 
ed in the engine room which made it impossible to reverse the 
propellers and check the liner's impetus. The boat fell astern, 
the bride hysterical. 

Taylor tells the rest of the story himself — a story with a big 
surprise : " I stood at the rail waiting for the end," he said. 
" I knew it was no use to jump. I can't swim a stroke, and I 
had no lifebelt. So I went down with the ship. I died a dozen 
times before I came up out of the vortex. There was still 
enough life in me to be worth taking a chance. I got hold of 
a bit of wreckage. It went down with me. We came up again, 
went down again. 

" Then somebody grabbed me by the hair. Other hands 
slipped under my arms and I was dragged into a boat. When 
I opened my eyes a woman's arms were around my neck. I 
looked up. It was my wife, sitting in the seat on to which I 
had thrown her." 

WAITED FOR A LIFEBOAT. 

Mrs. Martha Whyatt, 60 years old, recently widowed in 
New Bedford, Mass., and going to England to live, had a sim- 
ilar experience. " I couldn't reach a lifeboat, so I just waited," 
said Mrs. Whyatt. " It seemed I was drawn to the bottom of 
the sea when the ship went down. I don't want to remember 
the hideous things I saw under the water. I was pulled into a 
boat when I got to the surface — and after what I had been 
through I felt safer in comparison than I had felt on the Lusi- 
tania herself.'' 

The Misses Agnes and Evelyn Wild, of Pater son, N. J., 
sisters, were at luncheon when the torpedo struck. They clung 
to each other, determined that nothing but death should sepa- 



A NATION ACCUSED. 75 

rate them. Together they were tossed into a boat containing 
thirty-six others. Agnes' arm was injured in the tumble. 

" We saw some terrible sights after the Lusitania went 
down," she said. " They made me forget my own pain. After 
several hours we were met by a fishing boat with four men 
aboard. They towed us shoreward, intending to take us to Kin- 
sale. A government boat picked us up later and took us to 
Queenstown. We were penniless, cold, and drenched to the 
skin. In shops here we were fitted out with hats and shoes with- 
out charge." 

George A. Kessler, of New York, said : " Friday, about 
two hours before the Lusitania was attacked, we were about 
390 miles from Liverpool. We were in the war zone, and were 
running at only eighteen miles at the critical moment. For the 
two days previous, as well as I remember, the mileage was 506 
and 501, and on Thursday the mileage was 488. Friday I was 
playing bridge when a pool was put up on the day's run, and I 
heard twenty numbers go from 480 to 499. 

SA^W THE WASH OF A TORPEDO. 

" Shortly afterward I was on the upper deck. Looking out 
to sea, I saw all at once the wash of a torpedo, indicated by the 
snakelike churn on the surface of the water. It was about 
thirty feet away. Then came the thud as it struck the ship. 

" Mr. Berth and his wife, of New York, first class passen- 
gers, were the last persons I spoke to on the ship. About this 
time all the passengers in the dining saloon had come up on deck. 
The upper deck was crowded, and the passengers were wonder- 
ing what was the matter, few really believing that the ship had 
been torpedoed. They began to lower the boats. I saw Berth 
help his wife into a boat. I fell into the same boat and we were 
slipped down into the water. 



76 



A NATION ACCUSED. 



" About a minute after the boat struck the water, I looked 
up and cried out, ' My God! the Lusitania is gone!' We saw 
her entire hulk, which had been almost upright just a few sec- 
onds before, suddenly lurch over away from us. Then she 




THE MOURNER. from Chicago Utrald. 

seemed to stand upright in the water and the next instant the 
keel of the vessel caught the keel of our boat and we were thrown 
into the water. There were only about thirty people in the boat 
and I should say that all were stokers or third class passengers. 



A NATION ACCUSED. 77 

" When the boat was overturned, I sank fifteen or twenty 
feet and I thought I was a goner. However, I had my lifebelt 
around me and I managed to rise again to the surface. There 
I floated for possibly ten or fifteen minutes, when I made a grab 
at a collapsible lifeboat to which other passengers were clinging. 

" We managed to get it shipshape and clamber in. There 
were eight or nine in the boat, six of them stokers. It was 
partly filled with water, and in the scramble which occurred, I 
should say, eight times, the boat righting itself each time. 

" The boat was half filled with water. Although we baled 
feverishly we could not get the water out, and in addition the 
boat upset, throwing all of us into the water. Out we would ^o 
into the chilling water, only to right the craft, get a little water 
out of it, when it would capsize again. 

" It may seem incredible, but it is absolutely true, that the 
little boat upset eight times before we were picked up. Long be- 
fore this I had ceased to comprehend anything and acted me- 
chanically. 

" I have spoken of the six stokers. They were big, husky 
young fellows — strong as lions apparently. Those men were 
lying dead in the bottom of the boat when we were picked up, 
either through exhaustion or drowned, and only three of us were" 
alive. One of these, like myself, was a pretty old man. I do 
not know how I stood those three hours — I will never know." 



CHAPTER IV. 

A DAY OF MOURNING. 

The Unknown Dead — Nations Join in Tribute to Memory 
OE Submarine's Victims — Graves Receive 140 Bodies at 
Mammoth Funerai. — Impressive and SorroweuIv Cere- 
mony. 

FAIR Queenstown, her eyes bedewed with tears, ministered 
indefatigably to the wants of the sad unfortunates she 
had taken in. With ever-ready sympathy, she toiled 
early and late to alleviate suffering among the living guests 
come so unexpectedly and to administer proper rites to those 
whom violent death had claimed. 

Her rescue boats, manned by willing hands, sped to and fro 
on their errands of mercy — darting here, there, everywhere, 
that another human being might be snatched from the maw of 
the deep, or another poor, mutilated body — victim of the grim 
destroyer — ^might be restored to loved ones who were watching 
and waiting, hoping against hope. 

And out of the chaos there gradually came the semblance of 
order and a realization that a strange people must assume the 
guardianship of what constituted a small village of the dead. Of 
these nearly one-half were unknown. On Monday, May 10, 
three days after the sinking of the ship, the dastardly crime 
against humanity was marked by the passage of a funeral cor- 
tege through the streets of Queenstown, such as has never be- 
fore been witnessed in any community. 

Reverently and mournfully Queenstown paid the honors of 
the nation to 140 bodies of the 11 50 men, women and children 

78 



A DAY 01? MOURNING. 79 

who lost their lives when the lyusitania was shattered and sunk 
by the German submarine. 

The city did not sense the full horror of the Lusitania dis- 
aster until the funeral. Up to the time that the long stream of 
coffins began to disappear over the hill behind the town, there 
was about the affair, what with continued search for survivors 
and bustle about the morgue, something of the unusual and 
theatric. But when the funeral started, the realization came 
that each of these cheap coffins held a body and that in the At- 
lantic, less than twenty miles away, there were more than i,ooo 
more — all victims of a German submarine. 

OVER THE HILLS TO THE CEMETERY. 

With all shops and business suspended and only the tolling 
of bells and the dirges of bands to break the stillness of a per- 
fect day, the cities of well-nigh south and east Ireland; their 
citizens private or official; their soldiers and their sailors, es- 
corted plain brown coffins over the hills to the Sailors' Cemetery, 
in the peaceful valley just outside. But one had to know before- 
hand that those coffins were plain or brown, for they were 
draped in flags and hidden by masses of flowers, the gifts of 
officials and sorrowing private citizens. 

Of those buried y^ bodies had been identified and 64 v/ere 
unknown. Every effort had been made to learn who all had 
been in life, but that was impossible. Every train was met at 
the station, every one of the delegations arrived from every cor- 
poration of the country was asked to help if they could, but there 
was no result. 

The 76 lie near the graves of the French sailors who perish- 
ed off the coast in the sea battle with the fleet of Napoleon — the 
others share common graves, the little children together, except 
where mother and child were united in death, the women in 



80 A DAY OF MOURNING. 

another, and the men still another. A whole company of Brit- 
ish soldiers had dug three huge graves, each thirty by twenty 
feet, in which the unidentified dead were buried. 

The dawn came cloudless and the sun rose on a city of grief. 
All night long preparations had been continued to make ready 
for the last event. The municipal officials, the representatives 
of the Admiralty, the military and officers of the Cunard Line, 
had exhausted every possible means to ascertain names for those 
dead, and to discover, if possible, more bodies along the coast 
near the scene of the wreck. A storm and a rising sea, how- 
ever, had made this work fruitless. 

UNABLE TO MAKE IDENTIFICATION. 

The coffins of the 64 unidentified dead were filed passed by 
weeping men, women and children, who sought the last oppor- 
tunity to see if there were among the dead those for whom they 
were searching. This delayed the funeral procession, the en- 
tire forenoon being devoted to last efforts to make identifica- 
tions. As soon as the light permitted, officials of the Cunard 
Line sent photographers to take photographs of the unidentified 
dead in the morgue. All the known American dead had been 
embalmed. The bodies of these Americans and a number of 
British first cabin passengers were not included in the funeral. 
Arrangements were made to have the bodies of Americans 
transported to the United States. Sixteen members of the crew 
of the Lusitania were buried in a common grave with the un- 
known dead. 

United States Consul Frost had labored without sleep for 
many hours, and, co-operating with the military attaches of 
Ambassador Page, had never ceased to try to find more Ameri- 
cans living or find names for more Americans dead. Lest 
some might possibly be overlooked. Ambassador Page took 



A DAY OF MOURNING. 81 

twenty-five of the dead under his protection. They might not 
all be American citizens, but they either wore American-made 
clothing or some other mark ; and it was conceded that the sister 
nation might claim them. 

Therefore, these twenty-five coffins had thrown around 
them the American flag; and shortly before noon squads of 
British tars collected them from the mortuaries and carried 
them through the streets to the Cunard offices on the water 
front, where they remained until the last journey began. 

TRAFFIC STOPPED ON STREET. 

The scene was most impressive as the bluejackets appeared 
in the streets. The thoroughfares were all crowded at the time. 
Although there was quiet, yet there had been some hurrying, 
some jostling, as men and women sought vantage points. But 
at the sight of the first flag-draped coffin, the multitudes stopped 
still. The men, as if at a signal, removed their hats and the 
women devoutly muttered prayers. The automobiles and the 
other vehicles in the street were checked, and it was in this al- 
most deathlike silence that the American dead were passed 
along. 

Not all of the American dead were in the little procession, 
however; a dozen or more were to be returned to the United 
States. Charles Frohman's secretary arrived from London 
to take charge of the body of his late employer. The bodies 
of Isaac F. Trumbull, of Bridgeport, Conn.; of Mrs. Henry 
MacDonald, of New York; of Charles H. Stevens, and Doctor 
F. S. Pearson; of Dr. Walker, Doctor Pearson's secretary; of 
Hugh Crompton, the 17-year-old son of the Booth I^ine's Pres- 
ident; of the younger Pearl; C. T. Broderick, of Boston; Mrs. 
Spillman, of Detroit, were to be returned to the United States 

also. With them was to go the body of Mrs. R. D. Shymer, 
e-Ti, 



82 A DAY OF MOURNING. 

once the wife of a British nobleman, but later married to an 
American. 

The funeral services began at lo o'clock in reality, al- 
though the burials were not completed until 3 in the afternoon. 
Then at St. Coleman's Cathedral, Bishop Browne, of Cork, cele- 
brated a solemn high requiem mass in the presence of Admiral 
Coke, representing the Admiralty ; General Hill, for the Army, 
and official representatives of the cities and towns of the district. 

ALL BUSINESS SUSPENDED. 

After the celebration of the mass, the funeral procession 
began with the British army band playing Chopin's funeral 
march, and marching through the crooked streets, past the 
Cathedral, which stands on the highest point in the town, 
and then took its course along an undulating country road, ris- 
ing and sinking between green hills. Then it was that the shut- 
ters of all the shops were up, the curtains of all houses drawn, 
the wheels of all factories stilled and traffic suspended. Along 
the road country folk were clustered for the most part, perched 
on stone fences behind the soldiers who guarded the road the 
two miles to the cemetery. 

Those waiting in the graveyard first heard the notes of the 
funeral march and then the sound of the muffied drums. A 
moment later the sun flashed on the band instruments, and the 
cortege took form in the distance. Not for more than an hour 
did it reach the lane bordering the cemetery, which it entered 
in the following order : 

A major of the Royal Irish Infantry on horse, five members 
of the Irish constabulary and a group of Protestant churchmen. 
Then in black robes came thirteen priests and behind them were 
the hearses, draped with British flags, to the rear of which 
trudged the mourners, among them several American survivors. 



A DAY OF MOURNING. 83 

The sailors from the steamship Wayfarer, which recently 
was torpedoed but made port, came next, and behind them mem- 
bers of the Corporation of Cork, headed by the Lord Mayor. A 
company of marines followed and then came sailors of British 
ships in harbor. Next were Captains Miller and Castle, at- 
taches of the American Embassy in London, both dressed in 
khaki uniforms. 

A party of British naval officers and Admiral Sir Charies 
Coke, of Queenstown, followed them. The Most Rev. Robert 
Browne, Bishop of Cloyne, rode in a carriage. 

VARIOUS RELIGIOUS SERVICES HELD. 

Conducted by Bishop Browne, the Catholic services were 
held first, the choir boys, bearing incense, appearing from a clus- 
ter of elms and going to the graveside. The Church of Ireland 
service, that is, the Episcopalian, followed, a participant being 
the Rev. Mr. Swan-Mason, chaplain of the battleship Oceanic, 
which was sunk recently in the Dardanelles, and finally the Non- 
Conformist rites were performed. As the last words of this 
service were spoken, the muffled drums rolled, and the familiar 
hymn " Abide With Me " swelled forth. 

Sailors who had replaced the soldier pallbearers, lowered 
the coffins into the graves, and simultaneously the earth began to 
thud on the coffins. 

These services in each case were concluded by a firing 
squad of soldiers or sailors, which fired a volley over the graves 
of those who perished — innocent victims of an act which has 
been denounced not as war, but as piracy. 

Thus ends one unforgettable episode in the story of the 
slain. But the tale weaves on and on, borrowing detail linked to 
harrowing detail. No wonder that the heart of true civilized 
mankind swelled nigh to breaking with the sorrow and pity and 



84 A DAY OF MOURNING. 

righteous indignation of a crime that reached to the nethermost 
corners of ocean-divided continents ! 

On May 12, twenty-nine additional bodies of those who 
lost their lives in the Lusitania disaster were found. 

Undoubtedly the vigorous protest put up by Americans, 
among them F. J. Gauntlett, of New York, was responsible for 
the collection of many bodies, the added efforts bringing the 
number then recovered to 173. Mr. Gauntlett, Webb Ware, 
secretary to Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt ; Lindell Bates, brother 
of Lindon Bates , Jr., and others insisted that authorities make 
a systematic search for bodies. 

BODIES PICKED UP FROM COVES AND INLETS. 

As a result a tug sent out by the Admiralty returned bring- 
ing sixteen bodies picked up here and there afloat, ashore in 
the coves and inlets, and also brought word of ten bodies being 
at Baltimore and two at Queen's End Land. 

In addition Mr. Bates obtained consent to have the thirty 
miles between Queenstown harbor and Kinsale divided into 
districts of five miles which were patrolled at least once a 
day. 

The tug Polzee took the bodies to Queenstown, and a great 
crowd greeted them. Of the sixteen, three were babies, and 
instead of bringing them ashore wrapped and on stretchers, 
sailors carried them in their arms. The dispatches say the little 
ones retained the freshness and suppleness of life, as if death 
had not been painful. 

As they came ashore the officers on the pier saluted, civil- 
ians lifted their hats and women wept. It didn't take long for 
nine of the sixteen to be identified. Little Betty Bretherton 
was turned over to her mother, who survived. She is the niece 



A DAY OF MOURNING. 85 

of the Bishop of Cloyne, who heads the Roman Catholic diocese 
of Cork. 

Mrs. Stewart Mason, of Boston, was speedily picked out, a 
bride • of three weeks on her honeymoon. Mrs. Willey, of 
Chicago, who is the mother of Mrs. Robert Thorn, was iden- 
tified by E. Johnston Preston. Mr. Preston was unable to dis- 
cover about the neck of Mrs. Willey a pearl necklace she wore 
which was valued at $30,000. Mrs. Condon was identified by 
papers found in her pocket. 

BRAVERY OF AMERICAN MEN, 

There were indications that the heavy death toll among the 
American men in the first cabin was due to a scarcity of life- 
belts, many of them having given the life preservers they had 
obtained to helpless women. There is a preponderance of tes- 
timony that no American man got into a boat until after he had 
been thrown into the water. 

Among the earliest arrivals at the offices of the Cunard 
lyine was one of two surviving sons of an American family 
named Gardner, consisting of father, mother and two sons. 
They were on their way to New Zealand to engage in farming. 

Young Gardner, sixteen years old, said that when the Lus- 
itania was struck by the torpedo his mother fainted. In spite 
of all efforts to restore her, she did not revive and she sank with 
the steamship. The youth also went under, but came to the 
surface, and, seeing an upturned lifeboat, swam for it. He 
failed to get hold on this boat, but, seeing a boatload of sur- 
vivors nearby, he swam to it and was taken on board. In this 
boat the youth found his father lying prostrate in the bottom in 
a collapse. Efforts to revive the elder Gardner were unavailing 
and he died. 

The younger Gardner boy had disappeared when the vessel 



86 A DAY OF MOURNING. 

sank, and the elder had no hope of ever seeing him again, but 
when he landed in Queehstown, he was overjoyed to find his 
brother. The two boys went to London together, where the 
younger was put to bed in an exhausted condition in a hotel 
near Euston. 

The Cunard offices were besieged night and day by survi- 
vors and by anxious inquirers who arrived from London, Liver- 
pool, Dublin, and other cities, where they had been expecting 
to meet friends and relatives arriving by the Lusitania. The 
only answers they got from the Cunard officials were to the 
effect that any whose names did not appear among the published 
lists of survivors must be assumed to have been drowned. 

NEARLY ALL LACKED MONEY. 

The telegraph offices were crowded also, and the clerks kept 
busy every minute sending messages or receiving telegraphic 
inquiries. The lack of money among virtually all of the sur- 
vivors — many of whom had entrusted their valuables to the 
purser of the Lusitania, in whose safe these valuables still rest — 
was overcome by the Cunard officials, who undertook to send 
messages at their own expense. 

Consul Miller had to make complete provision for most of 
the Americans. They not only lacked money, but the clothing 
with which they escaped was little better than rags. Captain 
A. M. Miller and Captain W. A. Castle, of the American Em- 
bassy at London, joined the Consul, and such Americans as were 
willing to leave started for London by the boats and trains at 
' once. 

Ambassador Page dispatched Captains Miller and Castle 
to Queenstown, with orders to aid American survivors. Mr. 
Page gave them blank checks signed by himself, in which to 
write any amounts needed to supply cash to Americans ; also 



A DAY OF MOURNING. 87 

to look after their wants even to purchasing clothes and paying 
hotel bills. 

The Ambassador also instructed them to see that the bodies 
of Americans that reached Queenstown or any other point in 
Ireland were cared for until finally disposed of. The attaches 
of the Embassy were kept busy answering telephone calls of 
anxious Americans with friends or relatives kboard the L,usi- 
tania. American Consul Frost, at Queenstown, kept Mr. Page 
informed of the facts as fast as he got them. Mr. Page in turn 
advised the Washington Government. 

The two embassy army Captains at Queenstown were in- 
structed to gather every detail of the facts for the further en- 
lightenment of Washington. 

SYMPATHY OF THE LORD MAYOR OF CORK. 

The Lord Mayor of Cork called Saturday after the dis- 
aster on the United States Consul at Queenstown, and tendered 
his own sympathy and that of the citizens of the city to the fam- 
ilies and relatives of Americans drowned. 

A special train left Queenstown Saturday night for Dublin, 
carrying many of the survivors who were able to travel. Many 
pathetic scenes were enacted at the railroad station, when per- 
sons who had lost relatives or friends went on board the train. 
Some of the survivors appeared still obsessed by the terrifying 
ordeal through which they had passed. Everything possible 
was done for their comfort by the people of Cork. 

Every train for Kingstown and Rosslare carried comple- 
ments of second and third class passengers and men of the crew. 
Most of the first cabin survivors, sadly few in number, remained 
in Queenstown temporarily, awaiting the arrival of friends and 
relatives in England and Ireland. 

One of the first trains to arrive at Queenstown carried 



88 A DAY OF MOURNING. 

attaches of the main Cunard hne offices at Liverpool, including 
Captain William Dodd, the marine superintendent, and Dr. 
Duncan Morgan, the medical superintendent. The former bus- 
ied himself with relieving the material wants of the surviving 
passengers and crew, and the identification of the dead, while 
the latter attended the injured, several of whom were suffering 
from severe wounds and shock. 

The survivors were dispatched to their destinations as 
quickly as possible. The second and third cabin passengers who 
wished to go to London were sent by way of Rosslare and Fish- 
guard, while those whose destination was Dublin or Liverpool, 
were sent by way of Kingstown ; the Cunard Company sparing 
nothing to make these survivors comfortable. Several trains 
carrying survivors arriving in London were met at the railroad 
station by Walter Hines Page, the American Ambassador, and 
J. R. Carter and I. B. Laughlin, of the Embassy. 

MANY WATCHERS DISAPPOINTED. 

Among the anxious watchers destined to be sadly disap- 
pointed, at the London station, was Manuel Klein, the composer, 
brother of Charles Klein, the American playwright. 

The trains which had arrived carried those who were vir- 
tually uninjured. They were clad in borrowed clothes and 
many carried lifebelts. One steerage passenger had a parrot 
which had perched on his shoulder when he climbed into a life- 
boat. 

Reports show that many of the Lusitania's lifeboats were 
picked up by rescuing steamers, coming at full speed from shore 
points, but in many cases, four and more hours elapsed before 
the rescuers reached the scene. In many cases the only work 
left for the rescue workers to do was to collect from the water 
the floating bodies of the dead. 



A DAY OF MOURNING. 89 

A number of passengers were taken aboard trawlers, so 
much injured that they died before they could reach shore. 

A consideraible proportion of those received into Queens- 
town were members of the crew. These included Captain Tur- 
ner, with the first and second officers. One hundred and seven- 
teen stewards and stewardesses of the ship's complement were 
saved. 

The loss of life caused by the torpedoes themselves and the 
explosions they caused was very heavy. The number of bodies 
taken into Queenstown afterward bore evidence of the havoc 
wrought by the submarine's missiles. 

FIRST AT SCENE OF WRECK. 

Captain David Murphy, of the trawler Stormcock, was 
first on the scene with a rescue boat. His story follows : " First 
of all I gathered in a lifeboat fifty-two persons, most of them 
women and children, and before I completed my load, I had 
twenty blessed youngsters aboard the old Stormcock. Several 
of them were without their mothers, but all were taken in 
charge before we reached harbor." 

The little Stormcock brought in 150 persons. 

The steamship Heron and two trawlers were assigned to 
gather up the dead. They returned to Queenstown with more 
than 100 bodies, of whom the majority were women. All were 
taken to the temporary morgue in the Town Hall as fast as 
recovered, and the Admiralty ordered that every effort be made 
to secure all victims. 

The scenes on the quay as the survivors arrived were pit- 
iful in the extreme. Women, wet and bedraggled, their faces 
lined with terror from the experience that they had been 
through, were clinging to men, many of whom wore only shirts 
and trousers. Nearly all were without shoes. lyittle children 



90 A DAY OF MOURNING. 

clung to their parents and cried bitterly. Two little tots helped 
ashore an elderly lady who had been a long time in the water, 
and who collapsed on the pier. 

Many women fainted on reaching the decks and when re- 
vived begged pitifully to be allowed to retain their lifebelts, as 
they were overmastered by the fear that the submarine would 
return to complete its work of destruction. A number died 
aboard the boat, and the scenes of grief and suffering became 
almost unbearable. 

The first of the survivors to reach land arrived in Queens- 
town about lo o'clock at night, and were immediately taken to 
hospitals. Two children were brought ashore clasped in each 
others arms. Among the dead were a number of American 
girls. Wrist watches worn by some of them had stopped at 
3 o'clock, which indicates that death came soon after the sinking. 

FLOATED FOR HOURS. 

The body of Charles Frohman lay in a morgue, together 
with 50 other bodies of men, women and children. The face 
of the dead theatrical manager was placid and showed that he 
had been floating for hours before the body was picked 
up. 

A pathetic sight was the body of Richard Matthews, of 
New York. Beside him was the body of Mrs. Matthews, a 
beautiful woman. She was placed beside him by chance, and 
it was only when the Cunard attendants who were sorting the 
bodies and ticketing their belongings and searching for possible 
clues of identification found cards and papers on both bodies, 
which made it certain that they were man and wife. 

The bodies of Charles Frohman, Mrs. Henry D. MacDon- 
ald and Mrs. May Brown were taken in charge by the American 
Consulate. 



A DAY OF MOURNING. 91 

The police took possession of $50,000 in cash, many drafts 
and a considerable amount of jewelry found on the dead. 

All day Saturday, in hotel corridors, halls and reception 
rooms, survivors sat listlessly still, too dazed to discuss what 
had occurred. They were dressed in a variety of garments. 
Some were crying softly ; some were trying to force down beef 
tea and other nourishment. In front of the small Ctmard line 
offices on the water front, a crowd surged, clamoring for news 
of father, mother, brother, or sister. 

Further down the street, a crowd jammed the small tele- 
graph office where three clerks and three operators strove des- 
perately to kee abreast of the ever-growing stream of messages. 
Queenstown was almost as much dazed by the tragedy as those 
aboard the Lusitania. 

EXPLOSION ALMOST DENUDED THEM 

Many of the survivors were still dressed as they would 
have been if the disaster had occurred at night, for the explosion 
and the long struggle in the water virtually denuded 
them. 

Captain Turner, of the Lusitania, appeared Saturday 
morning in civilian clothing donated by a local banker, who 
had extended the hospitality of his home to the commander. 
Later in the day he dressed in his water stained uniform, which 
had been dried, and walked with bowed head down the street, 
recognized by few among the crowds. 

He was terribly broken down when he landed at Queens- 
town, Friday evening, but his first remark as he went ashore 
was one of quiet irony. " Well," he said, " it is the fortunes of 
. war." 

After a strong cup of tea and a short rest, he seemed to re- 
cover from his depression. He secluded himself during the 



92 A DAY OF MOURNING. 

night in apartments over the Town Bank— but was able to be 
about Saturday. He displayed great grief. 

Relatives and friends of passengers who had gone in high 
spirits to Liverpool to meet the incoming ship began to arrive 
at Queenstown Saturday to search for the missing, but the small 
roll of survivors meant heart-breaking disappointment for most 
of them. Many of the injured survivors were able to walk 
around the park fronting the harbor, clothed in borrowed gar- 
ments, and with bandages on their heads or limbs. They talk- 
ed little, but seemed stunned by the horror of the disaster. When 
they did speak to any one, it was to denounce the Germans for 
the attack upon the Lusitania. 

IN THE WATER THREE HOURS. 

Among the volunteer doctors, none was more busy than 
Dr. Howard Fisher, of New York, who was rescued after being 
in the water three hours. 

Dr. Fisher numbered among his patients Lady Mackworth, 
of Cardiff, who suffered from, the result of being a long time 
in the water ; Lady Allan, of Montreal, who had a broken collar- 
bone, and Dr. Fisher's sister-in-law. Miss Dorothy Conner, who 
also is a cousin of Henry L. Stimson, ex-secretary of war of the 
United States. 

Dr. Fisher, who is a brother of Walter L. Fisher, formerly 
Secretary of the Interior of the United States, was on his way to 
Belgium for Red Cross duty. He described his experiences: 
" When I heard the crash, I rushed to the port side. No officer 
was in sight. An effort was being made to lower the boat swing- 
ing just opposite the grand entrance. Women, children and men 
made a mad scramble about this boat, which was smashed 
against the side, throwing all the occupants into the sea. 

" Then two big men, one a sailor and the other a passenger, 



A DAY OF MOURNING. 93 

succeeded in launching a second boat. Much to my surprise, 
this amateur effort was successful. This boat got away and 
carried chiefly women and children. 

" We then saw our first glimpse of an officer, who came 
along the deck and spoke to Lady Mackworth, Miss Conner, 
and myself, who were standing in a group. He said ' Don't 
worry, the ship will right itself.' He had hardly moved on be- 
fore the ship turned sideways and then seemed to plunge head- 
foremost into the sea. 

" I came up after what seemed to be an interminable time, 
and found myself surrounded by swimmers, bodies and wreck- 
age. I got on an upturned yawl, where I found thirty other 
persons, among them Lady Allan, whose collarbone was broken,, 
while she was in the water. 

" Another passenger on the yawl, a man whose name I did 
not learn, had his arm hanging by the skin. His injury prob- 
ably was due to the explosion which followed. This arm was 
amputated successfully with a butcher knife by a little Italian 
surgeon aboard a tramp steamer which picked me up." 



CHAPTER V. 
THOSE WHO WENT DOWN TO DEATH. 

IvEADKRS IN WORI,D lyOST TO WORI^D — SlINKING ToRPieDO No 

Respbicter of Nations — Ske;tches op Soms Prominent 
Victims — Thi;ir Taking was Wanton Slaughter. 

THE mere mention of some of those who sacrificed their 
Uves that a Nation might satisfy its ambitions is not 
sufficient to givie the world a vision of the loss it has sus- 
tained in the snuffing out of beings who have given much and 
had more to give to humanity. 

Tributes have been paid to the bravery of Alfred Gwynne 
Vanderbilt and the fortitude shown by Charles Frohman, the 
theatrical magnate. But who were they? 

Mr. Vanderbilt was the head of the great family which 
bears his name, and it is a matter of strange coincidence that 
Mr. Vanderbilt, when lost by the sinking of the Eusitania, was 
the holder of the largest share of the Vanderbilt millions, and 
that Col. John Jacob Astor, drowned when the Titanic struck 
an iceberg and went to the bottom of the Atlantic, held title to 
the bulk of the wealth of the Astor family. 

Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt was the second son of Cornel- 
ius and Alice Gwynne Vanderbilt. He was a grandson of Wil- 
liam Henry Vanderbilt and a great-grandson of Commodore 
Cornelius Vanderbilt. He was born in New York October 20, 
1877, and was graduated from Yale in 1899. 

He came into his fortune by the terms of the will of his 
father, because of the breach which the marriage of Cornelius 
Vanderbilt, his elder brother, with Grace Wilson caused be- 
tween father and son. To Cornelius were left $500,000 abso- 

94 



THOSE WHO WENT DOWN TO DEATH. 95 

lutely and $1,000,000 in trust, and to Alfred Gwynne was be- 
queathed the bulk of the estate, which at that time (1899) was 
estimated at $70,000,000. 

, He took possession of the second half of the great fortune 
in 1912, on the occasion of his thirty-fifth birthday. Prior to 
this, however, Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt voluntarily gave to 
his brother Cornelius, for whom he had a great affection, the 
sum of $6,000,000, in order that his share of the estate might be 
the same as was received under the will by their other brothers 
and. sisters. 

Mr. Vanderbilt was twice married. His first wife was 
Miss Elsie French, daughter of Francis Ormond French. They 
were wedded on January 14, 1901, in the Zabriske Memorial 
Church, New York, which they had attended together as chil- 
dren, and the match was considered one of the heart. Mrs. 
Vanderbilt obtained a divorce in 1908, the court awarding her 
the custody of their only son, William H. 

MR. VANDERBILT'S SECOND MARRIAGE. 

Mr. Vanderbilt's second wife, who survives him, was 
Mrs. Margaret Emerson McKim, daughter of Capt. Isaac E. 
Emerson, a wealthy drug manufacturer of Baltimore. She 
had obtained a divorce from Smith HoUins McKim, of Balti- 
more, in 1910. 

The wedding took place at the Registrar's office in Reigate, 
a Surrey town twenty miles from London, on December 17, 
191 1. There are two sons by this union, Alfred Gwynne, Jr., 
born on September 22, 1912, and George, now about 9 months 
old. 

As a student in college, Mr. Vanderbilt was popular, not 
because he was wealthy, but in spite of his wealth. One of his 
hobbies was coaching. Although he became an enthusiastic 



96 THOSE WHO WENT DOWN TO DEATH. 

automobilist as soon as automobiles were introduced in this 
country, he never gave up his great Hking for coaching and 
he developed the sport until it became an art. 

At his country place, Oakland Farm, Newport, R. I., one 
of the show places of that resort, Mr. Vanderbilt had the larg- 
est private riding ring in the world, and it was there that his 
horses were trained for public road coaching, as well as for 
private horse shows, amateur circuses and country fairs. 

FOND OF COACHING. 

Back in 1906, his coaches, Valiant and Volunteer, gained 
much fame in New York and at Newport. When he drove his 
coach Meteor from the Berkeley Hotel, Brighton, for his first 
trial run along the Brighton road in 1908, his party received 
an ovation along the entire route, and Mr. Vanderbilt said that 
the day had been the greatest day of his life. He later estab- 
lished regular daily runs out of London with his famous coach 
Venture, and people of society much enjoyed them. He won 
second prize in the park and tooling class at the coaching Mara- 
thon from Hyde Park to Richmond in 19 12. He had an En- 
glish home at Cseser's Camp, near Aldershot, in Surrey. 

Mr. Vanderbilt was always intensely interested in horse 
shows and was a director of the International Horse Show As- 
sociation. Prior to his first marriage, he took his place at a 
desk in the office of the treasurer of the New York Central and 
started on a campaign to master the intricacies of practical rail- 
roading. This was preliminary to entering into the councils 
of the road as one of its principal owners. 

It was Mr. Vanderbilt who received a mysterious telegram 
just before the sailing of the ill-fated Eusitania, in which he was 
warned that the ship would be blown up. He laughed the mat- 
ter off and sailed away to death. 



THOSE WHO WENT DOWN TO DEATH. 97 

Mr. and Mrs. Vanderbilt had one great bond in common— 
their fondness for horses. Horse shows always appealed to 
Mrs. Vanderbilt, and through them in days past young Vander- 
bilt managed to see much of her while the horses were on par- 
ade. She had a daringly original way of entertaining that 
fascinated him. Like him, too, she was not especially in love 
with formal society. Those who know the couple well say their 
marriage was ideally happy. 

Mrs. Vanderbilt's greatest regret is that she laughed with 
Mr. Vanderbilt over the warning telegrams he received just 
prior to sailing, Mr. Crocker said. Neither of them appreciat- 
ed the seriousness of the danger of the high seas, but Mrs. Van- 
derbilt blames herself for consenting to her husband's sailing at 
this time. Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt is now the head 
of the family. 

MANAGER AND PRODUCER OF PLAYS. 

Charles Frohman, who went into the sea with Mr. Vander- 
bilt, to never return alive, was alone in his field as a theatrical 
magnate, manager and producer of plays. It was said of him 
that he did more for the upbuilding of the stage than any other 
man in America, and his story reads like a romance. 

Producer of plays, manager of famous artists, business 
associate of the noted dramatists of two continents, potent force 
in the field of American and English theatricals, Mr. Frohman 
occupied for more than a score of years the leading place in the 
theatre, for his activities embraced two continents and indirectly 
afifected the whole theatrical world. 

No more splendid example of his devotion to his business 
and his enthusiasm to fulfil engagements already entered into 
could be found than that Mr. Frohman, when the Lusitania 
went down, was on his way to London to look after his inter- 

7-TI, 



98 . THOSE WHO WENT DOWN TO DEATH. 

ests. It was typical of him that he declined all words of warn- 
ing in his resolution that his numerous affairs demanded his 
presence in London at this particular time. 

In addition to theatres in this city and London, he was the 
manager of many prominent stars, including Maude Adams, 
John Drew, William Gillette, Marie Doro and many others. 

Born in Sandusky, Ohio, about 1868, he moved to New 
York when fourteen years old, having followed his elder broth- 
ers, Daniel and Gustave, both famous later in the theatrical 
world. 

He secured a place as night clerk in the office of the New 
York Tribune, and later he was day clerk, and selling tickets 
at night in Holley's Theatre, Brooklyn. At seventeen he went 
into the theatrical business for himself, taking a company pre- 
senting " Our Boys " to Chicago. 

BEGINNING OF SUCCESS. 

On November 18, 1888, he was in Boston with 50 cents in 
his pocket. He spent it to see the opening of " Shenandoah " 
Before he went to bed that night, and without a single penny, he 
had bought the road rights for the play. That was the begin- 
ning of his success. 

Afterward he joined forces with David Belasco, and still 
later with Al. Hayman, and the business arrangements entered 
into with Mr. Hayman in the early days of their struggles exist- 
ed until Mr. Frohman sailed on the Lusitania. He made great 
sums of money on most of his productions, but, in later years, 
his greatest aim had been to secure artistic rather than financial 
successes. 

During his career, Mr. Frohman produced more than 600 
plays, and this world's record won for him the title of " The 



THOSE WHO WENT DOWN TO DEATH. 99 

Colossus of the Theatre," with one foot in London and the other 
in New York." 

Always doing something different from what other people 
would do, Charles Frohman was never understood either by the 
public or the members of his own family. When he made his 
annual trips to Europe, he would wander down to the steamship 
pier just before sailing time, usually without baggage of any 
kind, but almost always with the manuscript of a play in his in- 
side pocket. 

Once when a friend asked him why he never carried a 
watch, he looked amazed at the question, for a moment, and 
then answered : " Everbody else carries a watch." It was typi- 
cal of the man who always did things different. 

OVER TWENTY-FIVE PRODUCTIONS IN ONE YEAR. 

One season — and it was by no means his most active — he 
made twenty-five stage productions, employed 792 actors and 
actresses during a period of from thirty to forty weeks and was 
liable for salaries amounting to more than $25,000 a week. Up 
to the close of the season of 1912, he had produced more than 
600 plays altogether. 

David Belasco, in association with whom Mr. Frohman 
made one of his last productions, wrote the following apprecia- 
tion when it became certain Mr. Frohman's life was one of those 
sacrificed : 

" I am heartbroken ! My dear, dear old friend ! My nearest 
and dearest friend ! It is horrible to think that a man who was 
held in universal esteem and affection, who had the warm, open 
heart of a child, who gave employment to hundreds should have 
been done to death by such sheer brutality. There was and is 
only one Charles Frohman. He did more for the theatre than 
any other man. He was in touch with the authors of the uni- 



100 THOSE WHO WENT DOWN TO DEATH. 

verse. He took America over to England and brought England 
back to us. He filled a unique position in all countries and be- 
longed to the whole world which will grieve for him as I do 
now. 

" If a long night's vigil and tears could bring him back, 
Charlie would be with us now. 

" n this be war, to needlessly take a life so useful and so 
precious, then I would like the chance to put a musket to my 
shoulder and shoot down the mad fiend who conceived the vile 
idea" 

As though she had not already suffered enough in the des- 
truction of her beautiful cities and the devastation of her homes, 
Belgium was compelled to sustain an almost irreparable loss 
in the death of Madame Marie de Page, wife of Dr. Antione 
de Page, Surgeon General of the Belgian army, 

SPECIAL KNVOY TO THE UNITED STATES. 

She was special envoy in the United States of the beloved 
King Albert and Queen Elizabeth of Belgium, and was instru- 
mental in raising in America $100,000 for the Belgian Red 
Cross. Her mission accomplished, she was returning home, 
choosing as the vessel of passage the ill-fated Eusitania. It 
was maternal love that led Mme. Marie de Page of Belgium to 
take passage on the doomed boat. 

A few days before sailing she received a message that her 
17-year old son would soon enter the Belgian army, and take his 
place in the trenches. For this reason she started homeward 
somewhat earlier than she orginally expected. 

In her ministrations to the sufferers in Belgium, those who 
came in contact with Madame Depage pronounced her the 
sweetest, most lovable woman they ever met. In the Belgian 



THOSE WHO WENT DOWN TO DEATH. 101 



hospitals near La Panne she performed those little kindnesses 
for the dying — Belgians and Germans- alike. 

She would write letters for stricken soldiers to their moth- 
ers. One day a German asked her, " Why do you do this for 
me? I am an enemy." "No," she replied; "to me you are 




MAP SHOWING APPROACH TO THE IRISH SEA AND THE ENGLISH 
CHANNEL. SHADED PORTION INDICATES DANGER ZONE, STAR 
SHOWS WHERE LUSITANIA WAS SUNK. 

just a wounded man who needs help." That typifies her whole 
spirit. Her mission was one of mercy, and she made no dis- 
crimination as to nationality. 

In the death of Dr. Frederick Stark Pearson, of New York, 
who with his wife sacrificed to Germany militarism, the world 



102 THOSE WHO WENT DOWN TO DEATH. 

lost one of its greatest engineers. He was an authority on rail- 
roading and had handled, projects in Europe as well as North 
and South America. He was born in Lowell, Mass., July 3, 
1 86 1. Mr. Pearson had residences in Great Barrington, Mass., 
Surrey, England, and Barcelona, Spain, 

In 1894, Mr. Pearson became chief engineer of the Metro- 
politan Street Railway Company of New York, several new lines 
having been constructed under his direction. He designed the 
underground conduit construction necessitated by the city's traf- 
fic. He became consulting engineer of some of the largest street 
railway and power companies in this country, Canada, Great 
Britain and Cuba, and was president of rapid transit and power 
companies in Spain, South America and Mexico. 

Another engineer sacrificed was Linden Bates, Jr., of New 
York, who was known in connection with the construction of the 
Galveston, Texas, embankment and an advocate of the sea level 
plan for the Panama Canal. After the disaster his father, Lin- 
den W. Bates, of New York, vice chairman of the Commission 
for Relief in Belgium, received the following message from the 
King of the Belgians : 

" I learn with deep affliction of the death of your son, trav- 
elling to aid our distressful people, and express to you my most 
sincere sympathy. 

" ALBERT." 

What justification, what right had Germany to destroy 
such as these? What offense had they committed against hu- 
manity? Thus inquires the world and proclaims them taking 
murder? 



CHAPTER VI. 
STRANGE FATE Of: ELBERT HUBBARD. 

Scored German Emperor with Vitroi^ic Pen — Wrote 
Beautipui, Tributes to Heroes oe Titanic — Laughed at 
Fear — Other Writers Who SaieEd to Death. 

IN the cowardly attack upon the fair Lusitania, the Kaiser's 
fighting men robbed the world of Elbert Hubbard, author, 

publisher and lecturer; but they could not rob it of the 
incomparable word pictures, gems of literature and wealth of 
treasures he left — nor the fame which he brought to East Au- 
rora, New York, where his colony of Roycrof ters have won fame 
for their work and their craftsmanship. 

There, as a supplement to his magazine, " The Philistine," 
Elbert Hubbard issued a scathing indictment of Emperor Wil- 
liam of Germany and his policy of militarism which permitted 
the devastation 'of Belgium, and which was destined to bring 
death to the writer and his wife. He said under the title of 
"Who Lifted the Lid off Hell?"— 

If any one asks. Who lifted the lid off Hell? let the truth- 
ful answer be: William Hohenzollern. 

" Bill Kaiser " has a withered hand and a running ear. 
Also he has a shrunken soul, and a mind that reeks with ego- 
mania. He is a mastoid degenerate of a noble grandmother. 
In degree he has her power, but not her love. He has her per- 
sistence, but not her prescience. He is swollen, like a drowned 
pup, with a pride that stinks. 

He never wrote a letter nor a message wherein he did not 
speak of God as if the Creator was waiting to see him in the 
lobby. " God is with us " — " God is destroying our enemies " 

103 



104 STRANGE FATE OF ELBERT HUBBARD. 

— " I am praying our God to be with you " — " God is giving us 
victories " — " I am accountable only to my conscience and to 
God." 

This belief that the Maker of the Universe takes a special 
interest in him marks the man as a megalomaniac ; and the idea 
that the nations were " laying for him," is the true symptom 
of paranoia. 

His talk of a Slav invasion is stale stuff, subtle and sly, to 
divert attention from his own crafty designs. His interest 
in farming was a pose — his encouragement of business a subter- 
fuge. 

Every farmer between 14 and 60 years of age has been 
drafted into the ranks to be food for vultures. Every farm 
horse that could carry a man or draw a load has been seized. 
All beef-cattle have been appropriated. 

SAVINGS OF PEOPLE LEVIED UPON. 

Every penny in every savings bank in Germany has been 
levied upon, and a " receipt " given to the starving holder. 
This loss of a lifetime's savings means death to multitudes of 
old people, to widows, children, invalids and cripples. 

The money a man might have left to care for his widow, 
orphans, aged parents, is swept away in the maelstrom of blood. 
Old age pensions, sick benefits, and life insurance are only 
dreams. 

We are told that the Kaiser kept the peace for forty-three 
years. True, just waiting for this stroke at world dominion. 

Every male child born in that forty-three years who can 
now carry a gun, is taken from useful work, and made to do the 
obscene bidding of this sad, mad, bad, bloody monster. 

In Germany no private individual can operate an auto- 
mobile. All the oil and" petrol "have been seized to incinerate 



STRANGE FATE OF ELBERT HUBBARD. 105 

the dead. No slab marks their resting place; no records of the 
slain are kept. 

In Germany to-day, no bands play in the public parks; 
all savings banks are closed; commercial banks pay or not, as 




HITHERTO NEGLECTED STtlDY. From puiadapua Mccord. 

the war minister orders; all insurance companies — both life 
and fire — are bankrupt; colleges are turned into hospitals — all 
students are at the front; factories are closed; laboratories are 
memories. 



106 STRANGE FATE OF ELBERT HUBBARD. 

All the progress of the last forty-three years lies a jumbled, 
tumbled mass of fears and tears in the dust and dirt of the glad- 
iatorial arena. All the wealth gained in that forty-three years 
is already lost, dissolved in a mulch of festering human flesh. 

Caligula, the royal pagan pervert, was kind compared with 
the kaiser. Nero, the fiddling fiend, with his carelessness in 
the use of fire, never burned property in all his pestilential 
career worth one-half that destroyed when the kaiser's troops 
applied the torch to storied Louvain. 

What has been done before may be done again. The 
" Thirty Years' War " reduced Germany to cannabalism. The 
old and crippled were knocked on the head and eaten. 

WOMEN DISTRIBUTED LIKE CATTLE. 

The nunneries were turned into communes. Nuns, wid- 
ows, girls were seized and distributed like cattle. Every sol- 
dier was ordered to take two wives, because the country must 
be re-populated. Women and children toiled in the fields like 
beasts, of burden to raise crops to feed the people. Family 
names were lost, destroyed, forgotten. A new order prevailed. 
To commemorate the dead was a crime. 

Why do the German people stand by the war lord? The 
answer is easy. It is a matter of the hypnotic spell of patriot- 
ism and the lure of the crowd, combined with coercion. We 
make a virtue of the thing we are compelled to do. 

The marvelous recuperative power of the Teutonic people 
is proved by the fact that the German race was not wiped out 
of existence long ago, like the Incas of the Aztecs. The will 
to live was strong, and a new race was ours. Are we to go back 
to that black night of bloody medievalism? 

Surely not ! Our hearts are with Germany — the Germany 
of invention, science, music, education, skill — but not with the 



STRANGE FATE OF ELBERT HUBBARD. 107 

war lord. The emperor does not represent the true Germany. 
He symbols the lust of power, the thirst for blood. 

The crazy kaiser will not win. The wisdom of the world 
backs the Allies, and St. Helena awaits. It must be so. Ger- 
many will not be subjugated, but she will be relieved of a suc- 
cubus that has threatened her very existence. 

Oddly enough, Fra Elbertus, as he was familiarly known, 
was compelled to take unusual steps to begin his trip of death. 
A short time before he sailed it developed that he had tried to 
secure the pardon of the President of the United States, in order 
to have his civil rights as a citizen restored, and secure an 
American passport. 

DEPRIVED OF CITIZENSHIP. 

Mr. Hubbard, it was announced, had pleaded guilty in 
Buffalo, N. Y., to a charge of misuse of the mails in 191 3, and 
was sentenced to pay a fine of $100. The matter objected to 
to appeared in his magazine. The conviction automatically 
deprived him of the rights of citizenship, and President Taft 
denied a pardon the same year on the ground that his petition 
was premature. 

In April Mr. Hubbard called at the White House and told 
Secretary Tumulty that he wanted to go to Europe to write 
about the war, and pointed out that he could not obtain an 
American passport because of the conviction hanging over him. 
The matter was immediately taken up with Attorney General 
Giregory, and the pardon signed by the President. 

His voyage was attended by a most singular prophecy. 
Standing on the deck, speaking to newspaper men, he said: 
" Speaking from a strictly personal point of view, I would not 
mind if they did sink the ship. It might be a good thing for 
me. I would drown with her, and that's about the only way I 



108 STRANGE FATE OF ELBERT HUBBARD. 

could succeed in my ambition to get into the Hall of Fame. I'd 
be a regular hero and go right to the bottom." 

Born in Bloomington, 111., on June 19, 1859, Mr. Hubbard 
received only an elementary school education. His work was 
first printed and published by his own hands, because, he once 
explained, he could get no one else to do it. In later years his 




A MODERN LIFEBOAT HURRYING TO THE RESCUE. 

essays and sketches under the pen name of Era Elbertus be- 
came widely known. Many of them appeared in his famous 
" Philistine," a small magazine, printed in an unconventional 
fashion, and containing chiefly bits of his own philosophy. 

Later Mr. Hubbard founded the Roycroft Shop, at East 
Aurora, and for years published limp leather editions of the 
classics. These de luxe volumes soon became fashionable, and 



STRANGE I^ATE OF ELBERT HUBBARD. 109 

built up for him a lucrative business. " The Fra " was a later 
publication, somewhat on the style of " The Philistine." 

Strangely related to his death at sea and the destruction of 
the Ivusitaniaarehis tributes to the heroes of the Titanic dis- 
aster which appeared in " The Fra " in May, 1912: 

" Words unkind, all-considered, were sometimes flung at 
you. Colonel Astor, in your lifetime. We admit your handicap 
of weaLth — pity you for your accident of birth — ^but we congrat- 
ulate you, that as your mouth was stopped by the brine of the 
sea, so you stopped the carping critics with the dust of the tomb. 

" If any writes unkindly of you now, be he priest or pleb- 
ian, let it be with finger to his lips, and a look of shame into 
his own dark breast." 

" HERE COMES A MAN." 

So wrote Mr. Hubbard of John Jacob Astor, and so wrote 
he of William T. Stead, the man of letters who went down on 
the Titanic : " William T. Stead, you were a writer, a thinker, 
a speaker, a doer of the word. You proved your case ; sealed the 
brief with your heart's blood, and as your bearded face looked 
in admiration for the last time up at the twinkling shining stars, 
God in pardonable pride said to Gabriel ' Here comes a Man!' " 

That he died as he might have wished is manifest in this 
strange, almost prophetic concluding comment on the Titanic 
disaster : 

" Happily, the world has passed forever from a time when 
it feels a sorrow for the dead. The dead are at rest, their work 
is ended, they have drunk of the waters of Lethe — these are 
rocked in the cradle of the deep. We kiss our hands to them 
and cry ' Hail and farewell — until we meet again !' But for 
the living who wait for a footstep that will never come, and all 
those who listen for a voice that will never more be heard, our 



110 STRANGE FATE OF ELBERT HUBBARD. 

hearts go out in tenderness, love and sympathy. These dead 
have not Uved in vain. They have brought us all a little nearer 
together — ^we think better of our kind. 

" One thing sure, there are just two respectable ways to 
live. One is of old age, and the other is by accident. All dis- 
ease is indecent. Suicide is atrocious." 

That the writer had little fear of death is indicated by one 
of his last letters to a friend in East Aurora in which he said : 
" The foreign authorities have been very kind to me. I will be 
given an opportunity to observe conditions as they are. 

" Abroad I will represent myself, and I will edit my ' copy.' 
I intend to store it in my ' bean,' and in that way elude the cen- 
sor. When I get back (if I do) I will give it to the readers of 
The Fra and The Philistine straight. 

TO WRITE ABOUT WHAT HE SAW. 

" I aim to be a reporter — ^not a war correspondent (raus 
mit der puttees). I will write about what I see; only that. I 
will return June 20 (perhaps). Before I go I want you to write 
me something — something more than ' bon voyage.' I want 
to hear from you. 

" I may meet a mine or a submarine over there. Or I may 
hold friendly converse with a stray bullet in the trenches. But 
in that event Felix agrees to take care of matters." 

Mrs. Hubbard who was lost with her husband, was a Miss 
Alice Moore, of Concord, Mass. She was also a writer and 
advocate of advanced thought. 

A singularly dramatic incident in the tragedy is the death 
of another writer, Justus Miles Forman, because of his connec- 
tion in the past two months with the present struggle in Europe, 
although he was all the time in this country. 

Mr. Forman was so much impressed by the activities of 



STRANGE FATE OF EI.BERT HUBBARD. Ill 



the hyphenated Germans in America in the early days of the 
war, that he decided to put them into a novel. Then it appeared 
to him that there would be no time to publish such a work before 
it might be stale. So he decided to make his first effort as a 
playwright in utilizing the material for the stage. He outlined 
the play, known as " The Hyphen," and read it to his friend, 
Edward Sheldon, who sent it to Charles Frohman in New York. 




• x/x^...^ 




-«"" 



f J, t I : — f 



I i" 



WAS ftUMH NI*B 



MAP SHOWING VARIOUS DEPTHS NEAR POINT WHERE LUSITANIA 

WAS SUNK, SHOWING HOW GERMAN SUBMARINES CAN LIE 

IN WAIT ON THE BOTTOM. 

Mr. Frohman read the play one Friday, accepted it the next day, 
and on the day after he was engaging actors for the perfor- 
mance. Never before had any unknown playwright found such 
a ready market for his work. 

The character of the work became in some way known to 
Hermann Ridder, editor of the Staats Zeitung, who sent Mr. 
Frohman a violent protest against its production. He demand- 
ed a copy of the scenario, which was sent to him. Then he de- 
sired a more detailed account of the contents of the work. After 



112 STRANGE FATE OF ELBERT HUBBARD. 

learning its character he protested against the performances, 
said that the German American Societies were united to a man 
in opposition to the use of the activities of Germans in this coun- 
try in fiction or on the stage, and declared that he would not in 
any way be responsible if the first night performance was inter- 
rupted by the expression of their disapproval. 

A few plain clothes men were in the theatre when the piece 
was acted. There were some signs of displeasure, but there 
was no need of police interference. The play proved a finely 
written, but altogether undramatic work. After a few per- 
formances it was taken to Boston, but was acted there for only 
one week. 

INTENDED TO BE A WAR CORRESPONDENT. 

It was the failure of this play which decided Mr. Forman 
to go to Europe. He at first intended to be a war correspondent, 
but his arrangenments to that effect were not carried out. But 
he had already made his plans to sail and when he learned that 
Mr. Frohman was going on the Lusitania, he took passage and 
thus it came about that he was' lost through the activity of the 
country which he had shown in such an unflattering light in his 
play. 

Charles Klein, whose life was also sacrificed to the German 
Gods of War, was the most successful of American dramatists. 
He wrote a dozen plays, any one of which would make a play- 
wright famous. His other plays, written to suit particular 
actors, to meet a particular situation, or even written around a 
lithograph, numbers scores. 

In the list are " The Music Master," " The Lion and the 
Mouse," " The Third Degree," " The Money Makers," " The 
Gamblers " and " The District Attorney." 

Klein was born in London in 1867, and came to America 



STRANGE FATE OF ELBERT HUBBARD. 113 

in 1883. His brother Alfred was an actor and preceded him. 
The brother got him a chance as a character actor — he never 
then thought of playwriting. 

Being short, active, quick of motion and nervous, Klein 
could not get anything but character parts, but he succeeded 
fairly well in " Romany Rye," " A Messenger from Jarvis Sec- 
tion," " Little Lord Fauntleroy " and " The Schatchen." 

The last — " The Schatchen," — was brought out at the old 
Star Theatre, in New York in 1890 and 1891. It is of interest 
because Klein for the first time was set to work to doctor it up 
before it went on the road. It failed despite his eflForts. It en- 
couraged him, however, to try play-writing, and his effort was 
" A-Mile-a-Minute," a play for Minnie Palmer. This play 
went to England. 

His next play was " A Paltry Million," followed by " El 
Capitan," for De Wolfe Hopper, and " By Proxy," for Al. 
Lipman. 

In those early days Klein read plays for Charles Frohman, 
and he examined over a thousand plays and passed along ten 
or twelve for Mr. Frohman to read. Of these, three were pre- 
sented — and not one scored a success. 

Klein lived in New York for a long time, later moved to 
South Norwalk. He then went, in the days of his success, to 
England, and was there for years. One of his exploits that 
attracted much attention in 1909, was taking a taxicab from the 
Strand, London, for Edinburgh, then to Glasgow, by steamer, 
to Londonderry, and then through Ireland. He called the taxi- 
ride " an ideal vacation." 



8-Tli 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE BLACK CRIME OF THE SEAS. 

The World in Judgment Convicts Germany — Would 
Make Nation an Outcast — Torpedoing oe Fair Lusitan- 
lA an Outlaw Act — The Climax of Crimes against Hu- 
manity. 

ALL, the world stood appalled when an iceberg sent the 
Titanic to the bottom. That was the littleness of men in 
conflict with the prodigious forces of nature. But — 

When human beings, intent on destruction, premeditatedly 
sent another giant of the sea into the depths, and with it hun- 
dreds of innocent men, women and children into untimely and 
terrible graves — all the civilized world stood aghast at the 
crowning horror of horrors. 

Characterized as plain, deliberate murder, racial and poli- 
tical differences alike were forgotten in expressions of condem- 
nation and detestation. 

Nations, rulers, statesmen, the worlds most prominent 
newspapers, noted men whom nations delight to honor — all 
united in a sweeping denunciation of the massacre and of those 
lords reeking with the blood of innocents. To find a parallel 
to the torpedoing of the Lusitania we must go back to those dark 
ages when the garrison and inhabitants of a captured city were 
indiscriminately put to the sword. Even after the sack of Lou- 
vain, the world was not prepared for the Lusitania tragedy. 

The foreign press was bitter in its indignation, and in a 
scathing arraignment branded Germany guilty forever of an 
unspeakable crime. The Tribune de Geneve said : " How can 
our opinion remain neutral before such an abominable crime. 

114 



THE BLACK CRIME OF THE SEAS. 115 

Precisely because we are neutral we protest with all our force 
against this premeditated act of piracy. The cup has over- 
flowed." 

" The mad and reckless actions of German submarines," 
said the ' Aftenposen,' of Christiana, editorally, " now has 
reached the culminating point. The whole world looks with 
horror and detestation on the event." 

The " Morgenbladet " said : " The sinking.of the Lusitania 
puts for the time being all other events in the backgi-ound and 
arouses the whole world to a feeling of horror. The Germans 
have meant to terrify; they have terrified their friends and ter- 
ror breeds hate." 

The " Ekstrabladet " of Copenhagen, declared : " The cat- 
astrophe must fill the whole civilized world with horror. It is 
the ugliest, the most cruel result the war has yet reported." 

PREMEDITATED CRIME. 

" The torpedoing of the Lusitania," says the Amsterdam 
' Telegraaf ' in an editorial, " was a deliberately staged repro- 
duction of the Titanic disaster. It was a premeditated crime 
against a passenger ship on which were 1,917 non-combatants. 
It is no longer outrageous ; it has become fiendish. 

" Does there still exist something like conscience among the 
neutrals? The neutral powers remained silent when Belgium's 
neutrality was trampled upon, when the Germans carried out 
practices profaning international law, and when submarine 
assassins took their first victims. Will they now look on in- 
actively ? Only the spontaneous joint protest of the entire civi- 
lized world from which Germany has separated herself can be 
an answer to the latest provocation." 

Pope Benedict was deeply impressed by the sinking of the 
lyUsitania, and requested Cardinal Gasparri, the Papal Secretary 



1 16 THE BLACK CRIME OF THE SEAS. 

of State, to let him have all the particulars incident to the dis- 
aster. The Pontiff expressed horror at the destruction of the 




NO USB. 



^^om PMladelphia Ledger, 



vessel and sympathy with the victims. He said he hoped the 
American Government would be able to make future disasters 
of the kind impossible. 



THE BLACK CRIME OF THE SEAS. 1 17 

The newspapers, without distinction as to politics, strongly 
criticised German methods in the sinking of the Eusitania. Even 
the " Observatore Romano," a Vatican organ, joined in the uni- 
versal protest of the Italian newspapers over the destruction of 
the vessel. The " Messagero " declared that the sinking of the 
Eusitania was worse than a battle lost for Germany. 

Gabriele d'Annunzio of Italy, the poet and author, expres- 
sed horror and indignation when informed of the torpedoing of 
the Eusitania. " Germany," said d'Annunzio, " is doing her 
best to array against her all the vital, healthy and youthful forces 
of the civilized world, which would rather perish than allow 
brute force and barbarism to triumph. 

LAW, JUSTICE AND LOVE WILL REIGN. 

" From this baptismal of blood, of which the travelers on 
the Eusitania were most innocent — but perhaps fruitful victims, 
as it may provoke the participation of America in the war — will 
reign law, justice and love on an indestructible basis, formed by 
the enlightened consciences of three continents." 

The Eusitania " murder " was the sole topic in Paris, where 
deepest indignation was expressed. The general tone of the 
press is thus summed up by the " Temps:" " Eet us have the 
courage to admit that from Germany's inhuman standpoint this 
crime is not useless. It may make some timid neutrals hesitate ; 
it may strike the imagination of the feeble-hearted. But it only 
strengthens us in the sacred mission to save the world from the 
most relentless scourge that has ever devastated it." 

The " Journal Des Debats," said : " The moment will come 
when the protestations of the human conscience will have their 
effect. Justice moves with heavy feet, but it manages neverthe- 
less to find its hour. 



118 THE BLACK CRIME OF THE SEAS. 

" One is compelled to-day to ask the question whether Ger- 
many is not seeking to antagonize all the world in order to have 
an excuse in the eyes of its people for the inevitable capitula- 
tion. The torpedoing of the Eusitania is a military exploit of 
the same quality as the burning of Louvain, and the destruction 
of the Rheims Cathedral." 

" The deep indignation felt throughout Australia at the 
sinking of the Eusitania should find immediate expression in in- 
creased participation in the war," was a statement contained 
in a resolution adopted at the conference of Australian premiers. 

MURDER ON THE HIGH SEAS. 

The conference also agreed to the suggestion of Premier 
Holman, of New South Wales, that a recommendation be made 
to the Imperial Government that Great Britain should not agree 
to any peace terms which do not guarantee that officers of the 
German admiralty responsible for the orders given submarines 
be handed over for trial before British juries, charged with 
murder on the high seas. 

Canadian editors called eloquently upon the United States 
to avenge the massacre of American men, women and children. 
Many noted Britons denounced the sinking in terms that showed 
a depth of righteous wrath. " This colossal crime will stain 
forever the reputation of its perpetrators," said the Bishop of 
Eondon. 

The Chairman of the Cunard Company cabled his sym- 
pathy and his loathing of the " murder." " I desire to send my 
heartfelt sympathy, in which all Cunard directors and managers 
join, to relatives and friends of the American passengers mur- 
dered by the German submarine. I am certain the whole civil- 
ized world is as one in its grief for the sorrow and suffering 
caused and in loathing for this treacherous attack on innocent 



THE BLACK CRIME OF THE SEAS. 119 

lives, so many of whom were women and children. Every pos- 
sible step is being taken to relieve the immediate wants of the 
survivors at Queenstown after their terrible experience." 

(Signed) A. A. BOOTH. 

" What shall it profit a nation to gain the whole world and 
lose her own soul ?" asked Israel Zangwell. " Germany by 
poisoning the air and water and destroying non-combatants has 
committed suicide as a great Power and become only a great 
scourge." 

Cabled Commander Carlyn Bellairs, M. P. : " Countless 
tides will ebb and flow over the Lusitania before America and 
England will forget their dead, or forgive the authors of their 
sorrow, and the cry ' Remember the Lusitania ' will ring from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific coast. If so, once again good will 
come from evil." 

WHAT HAS AMERICA TO SAY OF IT? 

The following message was received from the noted author, 
Hall Caine : " When, three years ago, the Titanic was sunk by 
an iceberg, and many hundreds of precious lives were lost, a 
great cry from the heart of humanity went up to God asking 
why the blind and merciless powers of nature had been permit- 
ted to overwhelm His children. Yesterday, of malice afore- 
thought, deliberately, wantonly, the Lusitania was sunk by a 
submarine, many hundreds of innocent lives lost, and the crime 
which man committed against man was wilful murder. What 
Great Britain and the allies have to say of this murder is being 
said to-day in shot and shell. What has America to say of it — 
America as a nation ? American widows and orphans are weep- 
ing, the world is waiting — and listening." 

Alfred Noyes, the English poet, said : " The nation that can 



120 THE BLACK CRIME OF THE SEAS. 

murder women or children without aid of military Jpurpose, 
is beyond the pale. It is the most inhuman crime committed 
by an inhuman nation," added Sir Gilbert Parker, the author 
and member of Parliament. 

" International law has been, within the last ten months, 
more completly disregarded, cast down and trampled under foot 
than I think it ever was within the last four or five centuries." 
said Viscount Bryce, formerly British Ambassador at Wash- 
ington, while presiding at a lecture on international law in Lon- 
don, 

" Apart from the cruelties to the innocent population of 
Belgium, which has been subjected to worse treatment than 
that which befell combatants," he continued, " ships not engaged 
in warlike operations have suddenly been sunk and their crews 
drowned. 

ENEMIES OF THE HUMAN RACE. 

" The technical legal description of pirates was that they 
were enemies of the human race. They are everybody's enemies 
alike. They are wild beasts on the sea and a danger, not to 
one particular nation, but to all mankind, and neutrals will be 
just as much ultimately involved as are the nations at war." 

Viscount Bryce added that the German idea that they could 
terrify nations was another of the numerous mistakes the Ger- 
mans had made. 

Many outbursts of applause marked one of the most ring- 
ing speeches David Lloyd George made in his whole career in 
which he referred to the infamies perpetrated by Germany in the 
course of the war, for the sinking of the Lusitania was felt to 
be perhaps the most wanton and inexcusable of all. 

Although he made no direct reference to the United States, 
the Chancellor gave an American flavor to his speech, by ref- 



THE BLACK CRIME OF THE SEAS. 121 

erence to Dr. Dernburg's explanations to the American people 
and by the following parallel : 

" In this war it is the nation that endureth to the end that 
will win. How long will the war last? That is a question 
asked of me repeatedly. That question was put to Abraham 
Lincoln, in another war, full of triumph, full of vicissitudes, full 
of moments of depression. ' When will this war end ?' said 
some one to him, and his answer was, ' we accepted this war 
for an object, a worthy object, and the war will end when it is 
attained.' 

" That must be the sentiment of every true-hearted Brit- 
isher to-day. Under God, I hope it will never end until that 
time comes." 

COMMENTS OF FAMOUS LONDON NEWSPAPERS. 

The following comments on the torpedoing of the Lusitania 
were printed in famous London newspapers : " It is not for 
Great Britain to speculate upon the course to be adopted by the 
United States Government, now that they are confronted with 
a situation which concerns that country as closely as it does 
Great Britain," said the London Times. 

" The members of Mr. Wilson's ministry are the guardians 
of their national honor and the lives of their own people. Upon 
them rests a heavy responsibility, which we shall not seek to 
accentuate. 

" If no life had been lost, the character of the sinking of the 
Lusitania, and the intentions which prompted it, would have 
remained unaltered." 

" We find it difficult to understand how, with such warn- 
ings and such ample opportunities to take all precautions, the 
Lusitania was caught. The conclusion that the vessel's exact 
course must have been known to the captain of the submarine 



122 THE BLACK CRIME OF THE SEAS. 

is difficult to avoid, but uncomfortable to accept," declared The 
Post. 

" Nothing the Germans have done will send so fierce a 
feeling of horror and indignation throughout the world," is the 
way the Daily News expressed it. " The sinking of the Lusi- 
tania raises for neutrals in its sharpest form the question of 
first importance, that they, and in particular the United States, 
are bound to defend the lives of their own subjects. 

BRINGING THE MURDERERS TO JUSTICE. 

" It is doubtless the hope of the enemy to convert the im- 
portance of their blockade into a reality by terror, but they have 
mistaken the temper of the people of these islands, and all men, 
whatever their nationality, for whom civilization has a meaning. 
Traffic of the seas will continue as though no Germans lurked 
beneath the waters to commit murder, and the task of bringing 
the murderers to justice and ridding the world of this horror of 
brutality will be carried on with sterner and fiercer energy." 

" To destroy by deliberate aim one of the great floating 
towns which never cross the Atlantic without something like 
2,000 lives in their keeping is to attempt in cold blood such a 
massacre of non-combatants as even the most ferocious con- 
querors have seldom perpetrated, save in heat," was the com- 
ment of the London Chronicle. " When Germans began sow- 
ing the long-lived floating mines in the Atlantic a shudder went 
through the civilized world on its realizing that the Olympic has 
come near to striking one. But nobody at that time in Germany 
or elsewhere ventured to suggest that the sailors of any civilized 
power would actually aim a torpedo to bring about such a catas- 
trophe. Step by step since then the German Admiralty, like 
the General Staff, have progressed from infamy to infamy. 
From the notice circulated last week by the Gen.ian Embassy 



THE BLACK CRIME OF THE SEAS. 123 

in the United States it is plain that this final crime was not the 
work of a particular submarine officer overtempted by an oppor- 
tunity, but was done on express orders from Berlin." 




From the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 



THE LIGHT IN THE WINDOW. 



" The sowing of illegal mines, the submarining of mer- 
chantmen, the butchery of fishermen, the Falaba case, the 
Lusitania case! It is a long and terrible list; on land 
the sacking of towns, the massacres of non-combatants, the use 



124 THE BLACK CRIME OF THE SEAS. 

of explosive bullets and of asphyxiating gas, the poisoning of 
wells with arsenic and with ' disease ' develop a hideous parallel. 
A more drastic surgeiy will be needed for the cancer of Ger- 
man militarism than any wise prophet could have predicted." 
The London Graphic said : " The exact details of the Eusi- 
tania incident in one sense are unimportant, but the broad fact 
is that a ship containing 2,000 non-combatants and neutrals was 
sent to her destruction with every prospect of an appalling loss 
of life. The real significance of this news is that such a deliber- 
ate affront to neutrals is the weapon of a nation that knows it- 
self defeated." 

PIRACY ON THE HIGH SEAS. 

The Daily Telegraph made this comment : " Grand Admiral 
von Tirpitz will be a proud man — until he learns what 100,000,- 
000 inhabitants of the United States think of his latest act of 
piracy on the high seas. What is our mental attitude to this 
latest tragedy of war ? We are becoming benumbed to the sen- 
sation of horror. One incident of barbarism follows another 
in such quick succession that our minds have hardly time to 
take in the significance of all of the calculated crimes; we are 
filling so many thousands of homes with mourners, or to vis- 
ualize the wholesale tragedy which is being enacted of the sink- 
ing of the Eusitania. 

" They have sinned before, but they have now attempted an 
act of wholesale murder that affects not only ourselves, but the 
great English-speaking and live English-thinking people on the 
other side of the Atlantic. The sinking of the Eusitania is the 
crowning outrage. It is an act directed, not against us as bel- 
ligerents, but at humanity." 

The London Star tersely says : " In Dante's Inferno, there 
are nine circles, in the Kaiser's there are many circles. The 



THE BLACK CRIME OF THE SEAS. 125 

Belgian crime is a central circle ; around it as the war went on, 
red circle after red circle was spread in awful waves. The 
world knows them all by heart. The lyusitania crime is only 
a new circle. It is no redder than the others. It is merely 
wider. It embraces the great free Republic of the United 
States, which has pledged itself to hold the red Kaiser to strict 
accountability. America is the best judge of her own honor. 
She has striven nobly to preserve her neutrality, and the red 
Kaiser has rained blows upon its fragile fabric. Will it bear 
this blow of blows ? We shall see, but we are sure that the Ger- 
mans have misread the American character, as fatally as they 
have misread the British character." 



CHAPTER VIII. 

HEROES IN THE FACE OF DEATH. 
Stories that Repi/Ect thk Bravery and Sui'fering op Pas- 
sengers — The Sunshine Boy an Orphan — Whole 
FamiIvY Wiped out oe Existence — Floated to Safety on 
Piano. 

THE terror of violent death such as that which marked the 
tragic passing of the Tusitania, freighted with human 
souls, can never be expunged from the public mind. But 
out of the gloom of horror, comes rifts of light glorified by the 
heroism of those who went to a martyr's grave without a fear 
and without a quiver, or who escaped their threatened doom by 
an eyelash. 

Each day following upon the heels of the disaster brought 
new and inspiring tales of unselfish heroism, valiant efforts and 
daring deeds to save others, and in the face of death a stoicism 
which all the world must applaud. 

One survivor. Lady Mackworth, daughter of D. A. 
Thomas, the Welsh coal magnate, declared that when she re- 
turned from her cabin with a lifebelt the deck was inclined at a 
fearful angle, making it impossible to get about. She still was 
on deck when the vessel sank and was drawn down with it, but 
came to the surface and seized a board which was floating past. 

She offered a corner of her frail support to a man who was 
struggling in the water, but he soon relinguished his hold. Lady 
Mackworth said she began to feel the effects of her immersion 
and must have lost consciousness, for the next she remembered 
she was floating with a deck chair under her. After another 
long interval, she again became unconscious and had no idea how 

126 



HEROES IN THE FACE OF DEATH. 127 

she got aboard the trawler Bluebell, which brought her to 
Queenstown. She had been in the water three and a half hours. 
Lady Mackworth said that while there certainly was some con- 
fusion aboard the I^usitania she thought the officers and crew 
acted very bravely. 

Mr. Thomas, who was rescued with his daughter, told the 
following story: " As soon as the explosion occurred," said Mr. 
Thomas, " and the officers learned what had happened, the ship's 
course was directed toward the shore, with the idea of beaching 
her. There is a difference of opinion as to the number of tor- 
pedoes fired. Some say there were two, but my belief is that 
only one was launched. 

PANIC-STRICKEN PASSENGERS. 

" During the last few minutes' life of the Lusitania she 
was a ship of panic and tumult. Excited men and terrified 
women ran shouting about the decks. Lost children cried shril- 
ly. Officers and seamen rushed among the panic-stricken pas- 
sengers, shouting orders and helping the women and children 
into lifeboats. Women clung desperately to their husbands 
or knelt on the deck and prayed. Life preservers were dis- 
tributed among the passengers, who hastily donned them and 
flung themselves into the water. 

" In their haste and excitement, the seamen overloaded 
one lifeboat and the davit ropes broke while it was being lower- 
ed, the occupants being thrown into the water. The screams 
of these terrified women and men intensified the fright of those 
still on the ship. Altogether I counted ten lifeboats launched." 

Both Lady Allen, of Canada, and her daughters Gwen and 
Anna were saved; Lady Allen sustaining only a slight injury 
to her back. Her daughter Martha spent an anxious vigil dur- 



128 HEROES IN THE FACE OF DEATH. 

ing the entire night following the disaster, awaiting news of 
mother and sisters. 

Commander J. Foster Stackhouse, bound for London, to 
join his wife and daughter, met death without a tremor. He 
was one of the world's leading oceanographers, explorer and 
head of the proposed British Anar'ctic Oceanographicia expedi- 
tion, which contemplated a seven-year trip to chart the southern 
seas. Commander Stackhouse came to America in the Summer 
of 1 914, to seek assistance in the enterprise, and purchased the 
exploring ship Discovery for the purpose. The fruition of the 
expedition was delayed by the war. 

ENTIRE FAMILY LOST. 

The deaths of the entire Crompton family, of Philadelphia, 
were reported by Father Cowley Clark, of London, who was a 
colleague of the late Cardinal Newman : " I saw the Crompton 
family, of Philadelphia, all lost, including the father and mother 
and six children, ranging from six months to twelve years of 
age." 

Paul Crompton spent a considerable part of his life in 
various corners of the world. He spent some time in the Orient 
and there learned the Chinese language. The extent of his 
travels are illustrated by the birthplaces of his children. Ste- 
phen, the eldest son, whose body was found, was born in Vlad- 
ivostock. Eastern Russia; Catherine, 12 years old, was born in 
London; Alberta, 13 years old, was born in South America, and 
the other children, Romley 9 , John 5 and Peter 9 months old, 
in Philadelphia. 

One member of the Hodges family, of Philadelphia, little 
Dean, was at first thought to have been among those saved, al- 
though later advices included his name among the lost. His 
father, William S. Hodges, of the Baldwin Locomotive Works, 



HEROES IN THE FACE OF DEATH. 129 

with all his family perished when the ocean flyer was torpedoed. 
The grandmother's life has been despaired of since the news of 
the loss of her son and his family. 

Mrs. Craft told how devoted Hodges was to his family. 
After his return from China and Japan, he spent three months 
at home, and then left for Paris. He returned to take his 
family to the French capital and a business engagement he had 
made for May lo, forced him to take passage on the Lusitania. 

No more lucid account of the sinking was given than that 
of Samuel M. Knox, President of the New York Shipbuilding 
Company, of Camden, N. J. : " Shortly after two, while we were 
finishing luncheon in a calm sea, a heavy concussion was felt on 
the starboard side, throwing the vessel to port. She immedia- 
tely swung back and proceeded to take on a list to starboard, 
which rapidly increased. 

ORDER WELL MAINTAINED. 

" The passengers rapidly, but in good form, left the dining 
room, proceeding mostly to the A or boat deck. There, were 
preparations being made to launch the boats. Order among the 
passengers was well maintained, there being nothing approach- 
ing a panic. Many of the passengers had gone to their state- 
rooms and provided themselves with life belts. 

" The vessel reached an angle of about 24 degrees, and at 
this point there seemed to be a cessation in the listing, the vessel 
maintaining this position for four or five minutes, when some- 
thing apparently gave way, and the list started anew and in- 
creased rapidly until the end. The greater number of passen- 
gers were congregated on the high side of the ship, and when it 
became apparent that she was going to sink, I made my way to 
the lower or port side, where there appeared to be several boats 
only partly filled and no passengers on that deck. At this junc- 

9-TI, 



130 HEROES IN THE FACE OF DEATH. 

ture I found the outside of the boat deck practically even with 
the water, and the ship was even further down by the head. 

" I stepped into a boat, and a sailor in charge then attemp- 
ted to cast her off, but it was found that the boatfalls had 
fouled the boat, and she could not be released in the limited time 
available. I went overboard at once, and attempted to get clear 
of the ship, which was coming over slowly. I was caught by 
one of the smokestacks and carried down a considerable dis- 
tance before being released. 

PICKED UP BY A LIFE RAFT. 

" On coming to the surface, I floated about for a consider- 
able time, when I was picked up by a life raft. This raft, with 
others, had floated free when the vessel sank, and had been pick- 
ed up and taken in charge of by Mr. Gauntlett, of Washington, 
and Mr. Lauriat. 

" It was equipped with oars, and we made our way to a 
fishing smack, about five miles distant, which took us on board, 
although it was already overloaded. We were finally taken 
off this boat by the Cunard tender Flying Fish, and brought 
to Queenstown, at 9.30." 

F. J. Gauntlett, traveling in company with A. L. Hopkins, 
president of the Newport News Shipbuilding Company, and 
Mr. Knox, said : " I was lingering in the dining saloon, chat- 
ting with friends when the first explosion occurred. Some of 
us went to our staterooms and put on lifebelts. Going on deck 
we were informed that there was no danger, but the bow of Ihe 
vessel was gradually sinking. The work of launching the boats 
was done in a few minutes. Fifty or sixty people entered 
the first boat. As it swung from the davits, it fell suddenly, 
and I think most of the occupants perished. The other boats 
were launched with the greatest difficultv. 



HEROES IN THE FACE OF DEATH. 131 

" Swinging free from one of these as it descended, I grab- 
bed what I supposed was a piece of wreckage, I found it to be 
a collapsible boat, however. I had great difficulty in getting it 



CONTRABAND OP WAR! Promir.T.JhmlngSnn. 

open, finally having to rip the canvas with my knife. Soon an- 
other passenger came alongside, and entered the collapsible 
with me. 

" While we were thus engaged, I noticed that the Lusitania 



132 HEROES IN THE FACE OF DEATH. 

was gradually disappearing. Many women and children under 
the protection of men, were clustered along the lines of the port 
side. As the ship plunged, heeling to an angle of nearly 90 
degrees, these people slid toward the starboard side, dashing 
against each other as they went, until finally the entire vessel 
was engulfed." 

Charles E. Lauriat, Jr., a publisher of Boston, and Mr. 
Gauntlett succeeded in picking up thirty-two persons on their 
collapsible raft. Said Mr. Lauriat : " I saved the baby's pic- 
tures. They were my mascot. I also saved my passport and 
all drafts." 

ON W^AY TO LEARN FATE OF RELATIVES. 

A party of Persians was on its way to the scenes of recent 
Turkish massacres to learn the fate of relatives. In the party 
were John Jacob Baba, Ala Vard Yohan, Envin Yohan, Aziz 
Ohanis, Nikola Waperalia, Stephen Ohan, Pera Saejis and 
George, Frank and Abraham Baba. Johan Jacob and Frank 
Baba alone were saved. 

" It is a terrible blow to the Persians in Chicago," said 
Malik Hatam, of Chicago, " for on those lost we depended for 
news of the wives, mothers and sweethearts imperiled at home." 

F. M. Lassetter, an officer of a Scottish regiment who was 
wounded early in the war, and had been on a voyage of three 
months to recover his health, was saved, together with his moth- 
er, by the saloon grand piano of the Lusitania, on which they 
floated for three hours. 

Mr. Lassetter says that he came up near his mother after 
the ship went down, and sighted the piano floating with its legs 
up. He lifted his mother onto the piano, and then climbed 
aboard himself. They found the unique craft well above the 
waves, and perfectly seaworthy. The Lassetters were less ex- 



HEROES IN THE FACE OF DEATH. 133 

hausted when taken aboard a trawler than most of those persons 
who had been in lifeboats, 

" I was standing with T. B. King, a director of Brokaw 
Brothers, whose body I have just identified," said Mr. James J. 
Leary, " when I felt the shock from the first torpedo. The cap- 
tain ordered an examination. Qn receiving the report he said 
in our hearing that he had closed certain bulkheads, which 
would render the ship seaworthy long enough to reach an Irish 
port. 

" Captain Turner had barely finished speaking when a sec- 
ond explosion was heard. Within five minutes I was in the sea> 
fighting to keep my head above the water." 

MANY LIVES MIGHT HAVE BEEN SAVED. 

R. J. Timmis, a Gainesville, Texas, cotton buyer, who was 
brought to Queenstown, declared that he believed a great deal 
of the loss of life could have been avoided had the stewards not 
gone about among the passengers assuring them that all was 
well and that there need be no fear of the ship sinking. Mr. Tim- 
mis said : 

" I was dining on D deck when the Lusitania was struck. 
I rushed to my cabin for my lifebelt. Before I could adjust 
it, I gave it to a panic-stricken woman, a steerage passenger 
who had none of her own. I went to the port side, where I saw 
one of the lifeboats get away. I assisted the crew in lowering 
the next one, but it turned over and threw the sixty occupants 
into the water. 

" At this time the stewards began rushing around the deck, 
crying : ' She's all right ! She isn't going to sink ! Get out of 
the boats !' Many of the people complied, and returned to the 
decks. Before they could get back into the boats the Lusitania 
was awash. 




LIFE-SAVING APPARATUS AT WORK. 



134 



HEROES IN THE FACE OF DEATH. 135 

" I was submerged when she plunged under, but I am a 
fairly good swimmer, and was able to keep afloat. I swam for 
two hours, finally drifting near my friend, James Baker, from 
London, who shared a plank with me, on which he was floating. 

" We were finally taken on board a damaged canvas life- 
boat, which was in a sinking condition, but we managed to keep 
it afloat for another hour, when we were picked up by the traw- 
ler Indian Empire. It had eight other passengers on board, 
among them the woman to whom I gave my lifebelt." 

EXCITING EXPERIENCE. 

Clinton Bernard, a New York merchant, had an exciting 
experience, climbing into one of the Lusitania's overturned 
boats. He said : " Although it was a tremendous shock to 
everybody, there was not as much excitement as one would ex- 
pect in such a catastrophe. It occurred so suddenly we had 
not much time to realize what was happening. When I saw the 
ship was sinking, I jumped overboard, just as I was. I had no 
lifebelt, but I picked up a bit of floatsam. Finally I got to an 
upturned boat and clung to that. Later, with some others who 
had swam to this boat, we managed to right it. Then we climb- 
ed in and started to rescue as many people as we could reach. 

" The German submarine made no attempt to save anybody. 
We saw it for a moment just before it was submerged. 

" The first torpedo struck us between the first and second 
funnels. The Lusitania shook, and settled down a bit. Two 
other torpedoes quickly followed and soon finished the ship. 
Four or five of our lifeboats went down with her, and the trem- 
endous suction as the liner was engulfed, dragged many people 
down also. 

" The noise of the explosion was not very great. The 
first torpedo burst with a big thud, and we knew that we were 



136 HEROES IN THE FACE OF DEATH. 

doomed. We had floated about two hours in a small boat be- 
fore the first rescue steamer arrived. Previous to this time 
some small shore boats and fishing smacks came along and help- 
ed us in." 

H. M. Simpson was with Bernard and helped him to right 
the overturned boat, into which they climbed. He said that 
everything possible was done by himself and companions to 
save the drowning passengers, who were all about them, dotting 
the sea, like seagulls. 

" I saw an object in the distance, and, thinking it was a ves- 
sel, hoisted a pair of trousers on an oar. But the vessel or 
whatever it was passed on. Finally a big trawler came and took 
us on board. Before I went overboard I handed lifebelts 
around in the saloon, but many of the people did not want to 
put them on, but ran on deck just as they were." 

ON WAY TO JOIN BRITISH NAVY. 

W. G. E. Meyers, of Stratford, Ont., a lad of i6 years, 
who was on his way to join the British navy, as a cadet, told 
this story : " I had just gone to the upper deck after lunch to 
play a game of quoits with two other boys. One of them, look- 
ing over the side, saw a white streak in the water and shouted : 
' There's a torpedo coming straight at us.' We watched it un- 
til it struck with an awful explosion. Then we rushed to the 
boat deck. Just as we got there a huge quantity of wood splin- 
ters and great masses of water flew all around us. 

" A second torpedo struck us about four minutes after the 
first. I went below to get a lifebelt, and met a woman who was 
frenzied with fear. I tried to calm her, and helped her into a 
boat. Then I saw a boat which was nearly swamped. I got 
into it with other men and baled it out. Then a crowd of men 
clambered into it arid nearly swamped it. 



HEROES IN THE FACE OF DEATH. 137 

" We had got only 200 yards away when the Lusitania 
sank, bow first. Many persons sank with her, drawn down by 
the suction. Their shrieks were appalling. We had to pull 
hard to get away, and as it was, we were almost dragged down. 
We saved all the women and children we could but a great many 
of them went down." 

William Brown, of Alaska, another survivor, said he 
quickly decided not to join the rush for the boats. " I came 
to the conclusion that a lifebelt was the thing for me," he said, 
" so I went to my cabin and secured one. With it on I slid down 
a long rope into the water. Subsequently I got into a boat." 

H. Smethhurst, a steerage passenger, was saved in the 
same way. He had put his wife into a lifeboat, and in spite of 
her urging refused to accompany her, saying the women and 
children must go first. After the boat with his wife in it had 
pulled away, Smethhurst put on a lifebelt, slipped into the water, 
and floated until he was picked up. 



CHAPTER IX. 
AN INDIGNANT PRESS. 

Scathing Denunciation by World Famous Editors — The; 
Voice oe a United PeopIvE in Protest — Americans as 
One in Expressing Opinion. 

THERE was no need of Kinsale's inquest and an official 
verdict of " Guilty !" in designating Germany an assasin 
and perpetrator of one of the foulest crimes on the seas. 
World-wide public opinion — that human tribunal of judgment 
before which each nation must stand — already had denounced 
the murder in unequivocal terms, and had proclaimed the most 
unparalleled atrocity ever committed by a civilized country. 

Every patriot in the broad land of America lifted his voice 
in grief for those of her people who had perished, and in right- 
eous anger condemned the cowardly slayer who had wrought 
the base deed. 

Nowhere is the temper and judgment of the American 
people reflected more clearly than in the opinions of their press : 

New Orleans Times Picayune : " Slaughter of American 
citizens in contravention of all laws of warfare has placed the 
United States in a position that is intolerable. 

" We are not at war with Germany. Our people who em- 
barked upon the passenger steamship Eusitania were going 
about their business, the business of neutrals. They were upon 
an unarmed vessel. They were wantonly done to death upon the 
excuse, it would seem, that the ship was carrying provisions to 
England. Germany even went to the sarcastic length of warn- 
ing Americans not to travel on the ship, as if she expected a 
sovereign State of the first class to be terrified into abandoning 

138 



AN INDIGNANT PRESS. 139 

its plain rights under the laws of nations, because Germany, in 
her blood hate of England, had flung humanity overboard and 
had raised the black flag above the eagle. Americans were not 
turned back by the Kaiser's threats, and the same spirit should 
now actuate the government at Washington in insisting upon a 
rectification of such horrors in such a way that their repetition 
will be impossible." 

New York Evening Post : " Germany ought not to be left 
in a moment's doubt how the civilized world regards her latest 
display of ' f rightfulness.' It is a deed for which a Hun would 
blush, a Turk be ashamed and a Barbary pirate apologize. To 
speak of technicalities and the rules of war, in the face of such 
wholesale murder on the high seas, is a waste of time. The law 
of nations and the law of God have been alike trampled upon. 

WARNINGS BEFORE SHIP SAILED. 

" There is, indeed, puerile talk of ' warning ' having been 
given before the Lusitania sailed. But so does the Black Hand 
send its warnings. So does Jack the Ripper write his defiant 
letters to the police. Nothing of this prevents us from regard- 
ing such miscreants as wild beasts, against whom society has to 
defend itself at all hazards. 

" And so must the German Government be given to under- 
stand that no plea of military necessity will now avail it before 
the tribunal on which sits as judge the humane conscience of the 
world. As was declared by Germany's own representative at 
The Hague Congress, the late Marschall von Bieberstein, there 
are some atrocieties which international law does not need to 
legislate against, since they fall under the instant and universal 
condemnation of mankind." 

New York Tribune : " Every shred of international law, 
practice, tradition demands that the German Government 



140 AN INDIGNANT PRESS. 

should disavow the act, punish the murderers, make such apol- 
ogy as can be made for what passes palliation. Questions of 
pecuniary damage, direct and indirect, should wait until the 
larger issue is settled." 

Boston Transcript : " The torpedoing of the Lusitania was 
not battle — it was massacre. To destroy an enemy ship, an un- 
armed merchant vessel of great value and power, is an act of 
war ; to sink her in such a manner as to send hundreds of her 
passengers, among them many neutrals, to their deaths, is mor- 
ally murder, and no technical military plea will avail to procure 
any other verdict at the bar of civilized public opinion." 

DELIBERATELY PLANNED MURDER. 

Providence Journal : " Scores of Americans were murder- 
ed on the high seas by order of the German Government. Men 
and women, citizens of the United States, traveling peaceably 
on a merchant steamer, have been sent to their death by the 
deliberately planned act of Emperor William and his advisers." 

Minneapolis Journal : " Germany intends to become the 
outlaw of nations. Perhaps we are yet to witness savagery 
carried to its ultimate perfection." 

Denver Rocky Mountain News : " Mankind will hang its 
head in shame. It was not war. It is not England that suffers ; 
it is not the relatives and friends of the dead that suffer only; 
the people of Germany will suffer for the deed." 

Charleston News and Courier : " The destruction of the 
Lusitania has been accomplished, it now appears, with the most 
diabolically cruel deliberation. If this shall be established as a 
fact, there can be no question that the wrath of the American 
people will flame — and should flame." 

St. Louis Republic : " A peaceful passenger ship carrying 
no freight, and going on her way crowded with human beings, 



AN INDIGNANT PRESS. 141 

bent on errands of peace, has been destroyed on the high seas 
by the submarine of a nation at war with the nation whose flag 
she flew. The edifice of international law, that fabric reared 
by the efl^orts of statesmen through the centuries of war and 
peace, lies in ruins. For the moment there is no law of nations. 
Brute force rules. 




THE NEW DRIBBUND. From PhUadclphitt North American. 

The edifice of international law will be re-erected; new 
sanctions will be provided ; the excesses of the very madness of 
world strife will be reprobated by the common conscience of 
the race. The more inexcusable the outrages of the present 
hour, the surer the reaction. 



142 



AN INDIGNANT PRESS. 




"GOD 13 WITH US" From PMUdelpMa North imcHam 



The New York Herald : " The civiHzed world stands appal- 
led at the torpedoing of the Lusitania, with terrible loss of life — 
non-combatants, many of them citizens of neutral countries. 



AN INDIGNANT PRESS. 143 

" In deciding the degree of guilt in murder, the first de- 
gree is the verdict if motive, malice and premeditation are 
proved. In this case Germany furnished the proof in advance 
of the crime. If ever wholesale murder was premeditated this 
slaughter on the high seas was. By official proclamation of 
an intention to disregard all rules of blockade and all inter- 
national law, Germany declared that her submarines would sink 
every ship that sought to enter or leave the ports of the United 
Kingdom and of France. 

" By official advertisement signed by the Imperial German 
Embassy at Washington, all passengers were warned not 
to take passage on British ships from the United States for. 
England. By letter and telegram passengers were warned not 
to go by the L,usitania. The ship had been marked for the 
slaughter. The warnings were disregarded, but she was doom- 
ed from the minute she passed out of the three mile limit. 

WANTON MURDER OF NEUTRALS. 

" Henceforth is international anarchy to be the controlling 
factor in marine warfare? Henceforth is piracy on the high 
seas to be recognized and go unprotested and unpunished? 
Henceforth is the wanton murder of neutrals and non-com- 
batant passengers to be treated as regrettable incidents and go at 
!that?" 

Philadelphia Public Ledger : " Only one word characterizes 
iadequately the policy of Germany in this matter. That word is 
piracy. There is no shadow of excuse for it in military neces- 
sity. All the submarines in the German navy are not enough 
to cut Great Britain off from sea-borne supplies. The number 
of ships already sunk is a very small percentage of the total of 
British commerce. Even with the Lusitania a total loss, there 
is absolutely no justification for the attack. For the spirit that 



144 



AN INDIGNANT PRESS. 



dictated the attempt there can be only horror and contempt." 
Many prominent Americans expressed their opinions. 
Authorities on intei-national law, statesmen, politicians, 




"WE GAVE PAIR WARNING." 



fFroni New York Herald. 



Governmental officials, naval and military officers, students of 
economy, writers and authors and diplomats who ordinarily 
are loth to express opinions in matters affecting nations, did 



AN INDIGNANT PRESS. 145 

not hestitate to flay Germany and its policy of militarism, which 
reached a climax in the attack upon the Lusitania. 

Prof. George Trumbull Ladd, Yale's expert on Japanese 
affairs, who had been also an adviser to the Japanese govern- 
ment on matters of international importance, said it was time 
for the United States to order Germany to quit her policy of 
wholesale murder. 

" There can be no doubt in the mind of any one who looks 
at this affair not simply from the moral point of view," declar- 
ed Prof. L,add, " but also from that agreed upon by civilized 
nations for the conduct of modern warfare. It is no different 
from or better than a deliberate act of wholesale murder, and 
every person who knowingly aided or abetted it, from the em- 
peror downward, is, from both of these points of view, guilty as 
participant in the crime of wholesale murder. 

CONTRARY TO INTERNATIONAL LAW. 

L/Orenzo Nlio, of New York, a specialist in international 
law, said : " The sinking of the Lusitania was entirely contrary 
to international law. A war zone, such as the ship is supposed 
to have been within when sunk, is a new invention for new con- 
ditions, and it is also outside the rules of international law." 

Hannis Taylor, former Minister to Spain, and also an ex- 
pert on international law, expressed the same opinion, in these 
words : " The destruction of such lives by the torpedoing of an 
enemy merchant ship on the high seas, without notice, or oppor- 
tunity for the escape or removal of the passengers, is just as 
illegal under existing international law as the shooting of in- 
nocent citizens from ambush is illegal under municipal law. 
The giving of notice beforehand only aggravates the offense, 
as the fact of premeditation is thus put beyond all doubt. 

" An attempt to enclose a part of the high seas, the common 

lO-TL 




146 



. AN INDIGNANT PRESS. 



147 



property of all nations, for war purposes, is also an aggrava- 
tion, because an open defiance of international law." 

James E. Shields, of the United States Senate, and for- 
mely Justice of the Supreme Court of Tennessee, thus convicted 
Germany : " The sinking of the I^usitania goes beyond piracy, 
and is equivalent to deliberate murder. It has no justification 
in international or natural law. If submarines change the con- 













AS THE WORLD SEES IT. 



From Philadelphia Ledger, 



ditions of warfare they do not change the rules of warfare, or 
the laws of war among civilized nations. 

" The sinking of the Lusitania was equivalent to assas- 
sination from ambush. A submarine is a concealed engine of 
war and without notice it deals death to innocents and non-com- 
batants, and makes no effort to spare the lives of the innocent 
or to help to rescue non-combatants who are perishing. By the 



148 AN INDIGNANT PRESS. 

highest laws of humanity, and of nations, the crew of the sub- 
marine which sank the Ivusitania could be tried for murder ih 
any court of the world." 

David J. Hill, former Ambassador to Germany, sa,id: 
" When an appeal to the human conscience proves a vain ex- 
pedient, it is necessary to resort to other means to preserve the 
rights of citizens and the honor of a nation. Failure to do so 
would be an act of self-debasement, too ignoble to consider for 
a moment. 

" There are extremities of endurance that are revolting to 
our own better natures. The situation by which we are con- 
fronted is not chiefly one of legality, it is a question of the 
future of civilization." 

The Rev. Dr. Leighton Parks, rector of St. Bartholomew's 
Episcopal Church of New York, of which Alfred G. Vanderbilt 
was a member, denounced the sinking of the Lusitania to his 
congregation as " one of the blackest acts that has been perpe- 
trated by human beings." For such an act, the retribution met- 
ed out by this country should not be war, he said, but the ostra- 
cism of Germany as a nation — the severing of diplomatic rela- 
tions with her, the abandonment of her interests in foreign 
countries, the marking of her as a pariah among the nations. 

" Germany has committed an act which cannot be condon- 
ed," he declared, " and her attitude is such that there is little 
likelihood of her admitting the wrong she has done. Rather 
will she seek to justify it. Shall we, in that case, go to war? 
No ; let our brother Germany be unto us as a heathen, one who 
has cut himself off from the congregation of Israel, and a pub- 
lican." 



CHAPTER X. 

BUFFETED BY THE SEA. 

Strange Experiences and Impressions of Survivors — One 
Famii^y Bound for Europe to Hunt Mother Lost in An- 
other Disaster — Say Submarines Came up to View 
Wreck. 

DEATH, even in its most terrifying form, delights to 
flaunt its grotesquesness in the face of man. It wreaks 
grim pranks upon its victims — toying with them as a cat 
would with a mouse — sometimes ending the terrible suspense 
with a mortal blow; sometimes relenting and presenting the 
victim with his life at apparently the very moment of doom. 

The sinking of the Lusitania occasioned many of these odd, 
even freakish incidents in the struggle for life and safety. 

Mrs. Guyer, wife of a Canadian clergyman, is alive after 
a most spectacular and horrifying experience. She had failed 
in getting into a boat and was on the deck when the sea covered 
the Lusitania. She struck out as soon as she touched the water. 
A moment later she was caught by an inrush of water into the 
top of one of the fallen funnels and into the funnel she went 
head first. 

Occupants of a boat that was nearly hit by the funnel were 
horrified by the strange fate of the woman. In another instant 
they were amazed to see her shoot from the top of the funnel 
just before it went under. She was picked up and on shore 
restored to her husband who had been saved. 

A remarkable case of aphasia — temporary lapse of memory 
— is noted in that of E. M. Collins, a Chicago business man. Ac- 
cording to Mr. Collins, many passengers saw the torpedo coming 

149 



150 BUFFETED BY THE SEA. 

for the ship. Even when it struck nobody seemed worried. 
None of the passengers imagined that the explosion meant death 
for the ship and for a majority of the persons on board, for the 
shock was hardly perceptible. The effect was realized, however, 
when the great vessel began to keel over at an alarming rate. 
Mr. Collins said his own escape was almost miraculous, for he 
didn't know anything about it until he found himself in a boat 
on the way to Queenstown. 

A PAIR OF TROUSERS FOR A SIGNAL. 

The Rev. H. W. Simpson, a passenger in the second cabin, 
summoned assistance by the aid of a pair of trousers. He saved 
himself by clinging to an upturned boat. " After a struggle we 
filled this boat with all we could rescue," Dr. Simpson said. 
" We tied a pair of trousers to an oar and hoisted it as a signal 
of distress. A big trawler came along and took us aboard. 
When we were struck I was in the saloon. Lifebelts were hand- 
ed around, but the people did not want to put them on, and they 
rushed off to the deck just as they were." 

The Empress of Ireland tragedy was recalled by the Mo.un- 
sey story: 

Aboard the Lusitania were William Mounsey, his daughter 
and son-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. C. L. Lunn. Mrs. Mounsey was 
among those reported lost when the Empress of Ireland went 
down in the St. Lawrence River a year ago, but her body never 
was found. Surprising messages came recently from Liver- 
pool. They told of a strange woman in an almshouse, who, in 
moments of rational thought, claimed to be a Mrs. Mounsey, 
of Chicago. She had a terrible dread of water. Mr. Mounsey 
and his daughter and son-in-law started for Liverpool in the 
hope of identifying and reclaiming their wife and mother.. 

Julian de Ayala, Consul General for Cuba; 'at^ Liverpodl, 



BUFFETED BY THE SEA. 151 

came ashore with a blanket and no trousers. He went down 
three times and was picked up by three different boats before 
being landed. While being interviewed he recognized a man 
named Currie, who waited at his table. Sitting beside him was a 
Greek lady dressed in a sweater and sailor's trousers. She was 
afraid her husband, who was unable to swim, had drowned. 
The woman referred to was Mrs. M. N. Pappadopoulo, wife of 
a weathy Athenian. She saved herself by swimming a long 
distance. 

The Consul-General said he was ill in his berth when the 
Lusitania was torpedoed. He was thrown against the partition 
of his berth by the explosion, and suffered an injury to his head 
and had flesh torn off one of his legs. 

TRUSTED IN THE LORD. 

The Lusitania, Mr. de Ayala said, had a heavy list to port 
before she sank, and great difficulty was expected in getting out 
the lifeboats. Captain Turner thought he could bring the crip- 
pled vessel to Queenstown, but she rapidly commenced to sink 
by the head. " Her stern went up so high," Mr. de Ayala 
added, " that we could see her propellers, and she went down 
with a headlong plunge, volumes of steam hissing from her 
funnels. 

" I boarded three boats before I finally got off in safety," 
he said. " The only reason that I was saved was that I remain- 
ed quiet and trusted in the Lord. I prayed that I might be 
spared for the sake of my three children, who are in the convent 
in Liverpool. I believe there were many on board who made no 
effort to get into the boats, believing that the steamship could not 
sink." 

Neither Mrs. C. Murray, of New York, nor her brother was 
aware that the other had been saved until they met in a Queens- 



152 BUFFETED BY THE SEA. 

town shop. Mrs. C. Murray said that she and her brother 
dived from the steamship when it sank, both being good swim- 
mers. They lost each other after the boat went down. 

Explaining how so many passengers were lost, Mrs. Mur- 
ray said that the second sitting of the luncheon was in progress 
when the torpedo struck. The people could not believe there 
was any danger. Though some of them put on lifebelts, a 
majority of them remained in the saloon until it was too late 
to make their escape. Others were in the cabins, packing their 
baggage, when the end came.. 

"LET ME BURY MY BABY." 

Mrs. Rose Lohden and her daughter, of Toronto, survivors 
of the disaster, told a pathetic story corncerning two English 
women who were rescued by the boat in which the Eohdens left 
the steamer. One woman had buried her baby at sea. The 
other with an infant held tightly to her breast on being taken 
from the sea into the boat looked for a moment at the child's face 
and then said : " Let me bury my baby," at the same time placing 
the body in the water. 

When the torpedo struck, said H. Smethhurst, a steerage 
passenger, a number of passengers on deck were talking in 
groups. Immediately some became frantic. Others tried to 
calm them, stating that the ship couldn't sink. Smethhurst 
put his wife into a lifeboat, and in spite of her urging refused 
to accompany her, saying that the women and children must go 
first. After the boat with his wife in it had pulled away, the 
husband put on a lifebelt, slipped into the water, and went down 
alongside the boat, floating there some time before he was res- 
cued. 

The hand of fate seemed to have especially planned the 
death of Harry B. Baldwin, president of the Austin, Baldwin 



BUFFETED BY THE SEA. 153 

Co., fi eight contractors, and his wife, both of whom were 
among those lost. Four times in the three months preceding 
the disaster Mr. Baldwin and his wife prepared for a trip to 
Europe, and on every occasion an unforseen chance made a 
postponement of the voyage necessary. Finally, when the 
Lusitania was announced to sail, Mr. Baldwin and Mrs. Bald- 
win found no obstacle in their path and sailed to their death. 
" Yes, I'll take a chance," were the last words of Baldwin, as 
he left his apartment at No. 1 1 East Sixty-eighth Street, when 
an elevator boy asked if he would risk the voyage. 

ONLY ONE OF FAMILY SAVED. 

Edith Williams, ii years old, who went over with her 
mother, Mrs. Anne Williams, of Plainfield, N. J., and her five 
sisters, all ranging between 3 and 1 1 years, was the only one of 
her family saved. They were going over to join the father, 
Charles Williams, a machinist, who left Plainfield on the Lus- 
itania's last trip east to accept a position in one of the munition 
factories in England. Miss Rose Howley, a Yorkshire girl, 
who had seized a rope attached to some wreckage, saw little 
Edith being swept by her and caught hold of the child's dress. 
A little later both of them were dragged into a lifeboat and 
Edith was cared for by several of the women survivors. 

These experiences were described by Dr. Foss, of Mon- 
tana : " With the exception of two British ships, which we 
sighted outside New York harbor, we saw no warships at any 
time during the voyage of the Lusitania. Some of my fellow- 
passengers told me that the officers received a number of aero- 
grams on Friday morning, the day of the attack. I noticed an 
hour before the disaster occurred that the ship was taking a 
snakelike course; but she made only three or four turns and was 




m 



HERE I TAKE MY STAND. 



From ^6w York ner<il4 



BUFFETED BY THE SEA. 155 

going quite slowly, probably little more than half her usual 
speed. The rear funnel was not smoking." 

Doctor Foss saw what he believed was a boat about a mile 
away toward the land. This object took a parallel course with 
the ship for a while, and finally disappeared. Describing his 
experience in the water after the ship had been attacked, Doctor 
Foss said: " I swam for loo yards; but feared that I would be 
drawn down by the suction, and was glad when I reached a boat. 
It was filled with women. 

BOAT CAPSIZED SEVERAL TIMES. 

" The boat was leaking badly, and I urged the women to 
help me bale her out ; but we had nothing to bale with except our 
hands. Before long the boat capsized. Most of the women 
grasped the upturned boat, and as we were nearly all on the same 
side, our weight turned it up. In trying to clamber in, the wo- 
men capsized the boat again. Only after the boat had revolved 
in this way half a dozen times were the women who were left 
able to climb in again. They were splendid. I did not hear a 
cry from one of them." 

Accounts differ as to the behavior of the German submar- 
ine after it struck its deadly blow. The statements of these 
eye-witnesses, therefore, gain additional interest : Mrs. R. Hill, 
of New York, said that after the second explosion a mass of 
wreckage came crashing on deck, crushing a crowd of men, 
women and children. The work of extricating these people 
from the debris was in progress when the women and children 
were called to enter the boats. The submarine came to the sur- 
face, the German flag was run up, and the vessel remained above 
water for ten minutes. 

" A submarine rose to the surface and came to within 300 
yards of the scene," asserted the Rev. Mr. Guvier, of the Church 



156 BUFFETED BY THE SEA. 

of England's Canadian Railway Mission. " The crew stood 
stolidly on the deck and surveyed their handiwork. I could dis- 
tinguish the German flag but it was impossible to see the number 
of the submarine, which disappeared after a few minutes." The 
Rev. Mr. Guvier believed that three torpedoes were fired at 
the Lusitania, the third finding its mark while the last boat was 
being lowered. 

" Although it was a tremendous shock to everybody," said 
Clinton Bernard, of New York, one of the few first cabin sur- 
vivors, " there was not so much excitement as one would ex- 
pect in such a catastrophe. It occurred so suddenly we had not 
much time to realize what was happening. When I saw the 
ship sinking, I jumped overboard, just as I was. I had no life- 
belt, but picked up a bit of floatsam. Finally I got to an up- 
turned boat and clung to that. Later I and others who had 
swum to this boat managed to right it. Then we climbed in 
and started to rescue as many people as we could reach. 

" The German submarine made no attempt to save any; 
body. We saw it for a moment just before it dived. The first 
torpedo struck us between the first and second funnels. The 
Lusitania shook and settled down a bit, and two other torpedoes 
quickly followed. 

" Four or five of our life boats went down with her, and 
the tremendous suction as the liner was engulfed^ dragged many 
people down also. 

" The noise of the explosion was not very great. The first 
torpedo burst with a big thud, and we knew instantly what had 
happened. We floated about two hours in our small boat be- 
fore the first rescue steamers arrived. Previous to this time 
some small shore boats and fishing smacks came along and help- 
ed us." 



CHAPTER XI. 
UNCLE SAM'S DECLARATION. 

CivEAR AND Unmistakable was United States Call to Ger- 
many — Demanded Recognition op America's Rights at 
Sea and Observance oe Rules op Civilized Warfare — 
Protest against Submarine Campaign. 

WITH a firmness which left no room for doubt as to its 
attitude in the matter of the unwarranted slaughter 
of innocent Americans by the German naval forces, 
President Wilson dispatched to Germany through Secretary 
Bryan, of the State Department, on May 13 (six days after the 
destruction of the Lusitania), a note of protest and warning, 
such as has probably not been issued by the United States since 
the formulating of the Declaration of Rights which brought 
freedom to this country. 

With force and dignity, yet firmness that aroused _every 
American's patriotic instinct and met with the approval of the 
most conservative and won the praise of statesmen in all coun- 
tries, the Government uttered words that were heard around the 
world. The message which must for all time remain an in- 
tegral part of American history was as follows : 

" Department of State, Washington, May 13, 1915. 

" The Secretary of State to the American Ambassador, at 
Berlin : 

" Please call on the minister of foreign affairs, and, after 
reading to him this communication, leave with him a copy. 

" In view of recent acts of the German authorities, in vio- 
lation of American rights on the high seas, which culminated in 
the torpedoing and sinking of the British steamship Lusitania, 

157 



158 UNCLE SAM'S DECLARATION. 

on May 7, 191 5, by which more than 100 American citizens lost 
their Hves, it is clearly wise and desirable that the government of 
the United States and the imperial German government should 
come to a clear and full understanding as to the grave situa- 
tion which has resulted. 

" The sinking of the British passenger steamer Ealaba 
by a German submarine, on March 28, through which Leon C. 
Thrasher, an American citizen, was drowned; the attack, on 
April 28, on the American vessel Gushing, by a German aero- 
plane; the torpedoing on May i of the American vessel Gul- 
flight by a German submarine, as a result of which two or more 
American citizens met their death; and finally, the torpedoing 
and sinking of the steamship Lusitania, constitute a series of 
events which the government of the United States has observed 
with growing concern, distress and amazement. 

FREEDOM OF THE SEAS. 

" Recalling the humane and enlightened attitude hitherto 
assumed by the imperial German government in matters of in- 
ternational right, and particularly with regard to the freedom 
of the seas ; having learned to recognize the German views and 
the German influence in the field of international obligation as 
always engaged upon the side of justice and humanity, and hav- 
ing understood the instructions of the imperial German govern- 
ment to its naval commanders to be upon the same plane of 
humane action prescribed by the naval codes of other nations, 
the government of the United States was loath to believe — it 
cannot now bring itself to believe — that these acts, so absolutely 
contrary to the rules, the practices and the spirit of modern 
warfare, could have the countenance or sanction of that great 
government. It feels it to be its duty, therefore, to address the 
imperial German government concerning them with the utmost 



UNCLE SAM'S DECLARATION. 159 

frankness and in the earnest hope that it is not mistaken 
in expecting action on the part o£ the imperial German 




From Philadrlptiia liecord. 

" A LETTER FROM THE PRESIDENT OP THE UNITED STATES." 

government which will correct the unfortnnate impressions 
which have been created, and vindicate once more the 



160 UNCI.E SAM'S DECLARATION. 

position of that government with regard to the sacred free- 
dom of the seas. 

" The government of the United States has been apprised 
that the imperial German government considered itself to be 
obliged by the extraordinary circumstances of the present war 
and the measures adopted by its adversaries in seeking to cut 
Germany off from all commerce, to adopt methods of retaliation 
which go much beyond the ordinary methods of warfare at sea, 
in the proclamation of a war zone from which it has warned 
neutral ships to keep away. 

RIGHTS OF AMERICAN SHIPMASTERS. 

" This government has already taken occasion to inform 
the imperial German government that it cannot admit the adop- 
tion of such measures or such a warning of danger to operate as 
in any degree an abbreviation of the rights of American ship- 
masters or of American citizens bound on lawful errands as 
passengers on merchant ships of belligerent nationality; and 
that it must hold the imperial German government to a strict 
accountability for any infringement of those rights, intentional 
or incidental. 

" It does not understand the imperial German government 
to question those rights. It assumes, on the contrary, that the 
imperial government accept, as of course, the rule that the lives 
of non-combatants, whether they be of neutral citizenship or 
citizens of one of the nations at war, cannot lawfully or right- 
fully be put in jeopardy by the capture or destruction of an un- 
armed merchantman, and recognize, also, as all other nations 
do, the obligation to take the usual precaution of visit and search 
to ascertain whether a suspected merchantman is in fact of 
belligerent nationality or is in fact carrying contraband of war 
under a neutral flag. 



UNCIvE SAM'S DECLARATION. 161 

" The government of the United States, therefore, desires 
to call the attention of the imperial German government with 
the utmost earnestness to the fact that the objection to their 
present method of attack against the trade of their enemies lies 
in the practical impossibility of employing submarines in the des- 
truction of commerce without disregarding 'those rules of fair- 
ness, reason, justice and humanity, which all modern opinion 
regards as imperative. It is virtually impossible for the officers 
of a submarine to visit a merchantman at sea and examine her 
papers and cargo. It is virtually impossible for them to make 
a prize of her; and, if they cannot put a prize crew on board 
of her, they cannot sink her without leaving her crew and all on 
board of her to the mercy of the sea in her small boats. 

NO WARNING GIVEN. 

" These facts it is understood the imperial German govern- 
ment frankly admit. We are informed that in the instances 
of which we have spoken, time enough for even that poor meas- 
ure of safety was not given, and in at least two of the cases cited 
not so much as a warning was received. Manifestly, submarines 
cannot be used against merchantmen, as the last few weeks have 
shown, without an inevitable violation of many sacred principles 
of justice and humanity. 

" American citizens act within their indisputable rights in 
taking their ships and in traveling wherever their legitimate 
business calls them upon the high seas, and exercise those rights 
in what should be the well-justified confidence that their lives 
will" not be endangered by acts done in clear violation of univer- 
sally acknowledged international obligations, and certainly in 
the confidence that their own government will sustain them in 
the exercise of their rights. 

" There was recently published in the newspapers of the 



162 



UNCLE SAM'S DECIvARATlON. 



United States, I regret to inform the imperial German govern- 
ment, a formal warning, purporting to come from the imperial 
German embassy at Washington, addressed to the people of the 
United States, and stating in effect that any citizen of the 
United States who exercised his right of free travel upon the 
seas would do so at his peril if his journey should take him with- 




From PuJilic Ledger. 



I'M NOT ARGUING WITH YOU, WILLIAM, I'M JUST TELLING YOU. 

in the zone of waters within which the imperial German navy 
was using submarines against the commerce of Great Britain 
and France, notwithstanding the respectful but very earnest 
protest of his government, the government of the United States. 
" I do not refer to this for the purpose of calling the atten- 
tion of the imperial German government at this time to the sur- 
prising irregularity of a communication from the imperial Ger- 



UNCLE SAM'S DECLARATION. 163 

man embassy at Washington, addressed to the people of the 
United States, through the newspapers, but only for the purpose 
of pointing out that no warning that an unlawful and inhumane 
act will be committed can possibly be accepted as an excuse or 
palliation for that act or as an abatement of the responsibility 
for its commission. 

"Long acquainted as this government has been with the 
character of the imperial German government and with the high 
principles of equity by which they have in the past been actuated 
and guided, the government of the United States cannot believe 
that the commanders of the vessels which committed these acts 
of lawlessness did so except under a misapprehension of the 
orders issued by the imperial German naval authorities. 

DISAVOW UNLAWFUL ACTS. 

" It takes it for granted, at least within the practical pos- 
sibilities of every such case, the commanders even of submarines 
were expected to do nothing that would involve the lives of non- 
combatants or the safety of neutral ships, even at the cost of 
failing of their object of capture or destruction. It confidently 
expects, therefore, that the imperial German government will 
disavow the acts of which the government of the,. United States 
complains, that they will make reparation so far as reparation 
is possible for injuries which are without measure, and that 
they will take immediate steps to prevent the recurrence of any- 
thing so obviously subversive of the principles of warfare for 
which the imperial German government have in the past so 
wisely and so firmly contended. 

" The government and people of the United States look to 
the imperial German government for just, prompt and enlight- 
ened action in this vital matter with the greater confidence be- 
cause the United States and Germany are bound together not 



164 UNCLE SAM'S DECLARATION. 

only by special ties of friendship, but also by the explicit stipu- 
lations of the treaty of 1828 between the United States and the 
kingdom of Prussia. 

" Expressions of regret and offers of reparation in case of 
the destruction of neutral ships sunk by mistake, while they may 
satisfy international obligations, if no loss of life results, can- 
not justify or excuse a practice, the natural and necessary effect 
of which is to subject neutral nations and neutral persons to 
new and immeasurable risks. 

" The imperial German government will not expect the 
government of the United States to omit any word or act neces- 
sary to the performance of its sacred duty of maintaining the 
rights of the United States and its citizens and of safeguarding 
their free exercise and enjoyment. 

" BRYAN." 

This note marked what was regarded as a crucial period 
in the history of the country, and for several days America and 
the world powers waited with tense anxiety for Germany's reply 
and the ultimate outcome of the international passage at arms. 

The note was particular in keeping with the utterances 
of President Wilson, who in an address to 4,000 newly natural- 
ized citizens in Philadelphia, on May 10, following the destruc- 
tion of the Eusitania, said : 

" The example of America must be an example, not of 
peace because it will not fight, but of peace because peace is the 
healing and elevating influence of the world, and strife is not." 

Germany's recognition of Uncle Sam's aggressive demands 
that brooked no denial or evasion, was indicated by the fact that 
all submarine operations which could in anyway affect United 
States citizens were suspended the moment that Uncle Sam 
evinced his disapproval. 



CHAPTER XII. 

WARNINGS AND PREMONITIONS. 

Gjjrmany's Insolent Warning — Was Regarded as Bluff — 
Thought Torpedoing of Boat Impossible — Strange Pre- 
monitions — Fear Saved Many — Strange Story of a 
Black Cat. 

WHAT was Germany's defence for this outrage commit- 
ted against America and human decency ? What ex- 
cuse had she for this reckless, brutal taking of inno- 
cent non-combatants' lives. Always the Germans' smug reply 
was, " We warned you — we gave you full warning." That, in 
their estimation, condoned all. Now, what was this warning; 
and what did it mean ? 

During the afternoon on which the Cunard Line steamship 
Lusitania steamed from New York, Saturday, May i, 1915, 
carrying 1,400 passengers, many of whom were Americans, the 
following startling advertisement appeared in all New York 
newspapers : 

Notice : Travellers intending to embark on the 
Atlantic voyage are reminded that a state of war 
exists between Germany and her allies and Great Brit- 
ain and her allies; that the zone of war includes the 
waters adjacenet to the British Isles; that in accord- 
ance with formal notice given by the Imperial German 
Government, vessels flying the flag of Great Britain 
or of any of her allies are liable to destruction in those 
waters, and that travellers sailing in the war zone on 
ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own 
risk. 

165 



166 WARNINGS AND PREMONITIONS- 

Diplomatic circles in Washington were shocked to behold 
the official German signature. 

Count von Bernstorff, German Ambassador to the United 
States, defied diplomatic convention by inserting in the news- 
papers this paid advertisement. Inasmuch as Count von Bern- 
storff had already made known the naval policy of his govern- 
ment through official communications to this government, 
Washington considered his direct warning to the people through 
the newspapers as a breach of diplomatic etiquette. The ex- 
planation later offered for the " Imperial German Embassy's" 
first warning created another sensation, and there were whis- 
pered mutterings of a well laid plot to torpedo the lyUsitania 
before she reached her destination. 

WARNED THE PUBLIC. 

" We did it to ease our conscience — lest harm should come 
to persons uninformed," was the only statement forthcoming 
from the office of the German Embassy, when asked to explain 
the meaning of the public warning. " Another German attempt 
at bluff !" was the natural response to this " warning." To 
Americans it seemed unbelieveable that any civilized nation 
would put into execution any threat directed at the lives of neu- 
tral citizens. 

This view of the matter apparently was confirmed by a 
number of anonymous or " fake " warnings, addressed to Lus- 
itania passengers. Americahs — consistently above board in 
their dealings — attach no importance to anonymous communica- 
tions. Only cowards, persons unworthy of notice, refuse to 
affix their signatures to what they have written, is the Ameri- 
can opinion. Certainlv the German Government, or any per- 
son affiliated therewith could not stoop to so low and unworthy 
a practice ! 



WARNINGS AND PREMONITIONS. 167 

Just before the Lusitania left her dock, having taken on 
additional passengers ordered transferred from the Cameronia, 
several of the prominent persons aboard received telegrams at 
the pier signed by names unknown to them, and supposed to be 
fictitious, advising them not to sail, as the liner was to be tor- 
pedoed by German submarines. Among the persons who re- 
ceived telegrams was Alfred G. Vanderbilt. He destroyed the 
message without comment. 

Charles Frohman recived an anonymous warning prior to 
February 24, that the Lusitania would be destroyed on her fatal 
trip across the Atlantic. Friends urged the manager to take 
an American vessel, but he pooh-poohed their alarm. Even 
half a dozen later letters failed to stop him. 

SHOWED NO CONCERN. 

It was on February 24, the third straight night of a new 
production of his at the Garrick, Philadelphia, " A Girl of To- 
day," with Ann Murdock, which he had gone to inspect after its 
opening. Mr. Frohman, talking to some close personal friends, 
mentioned his contemplated trip on the Lusitania. They showed 
alarm for his safety and urged him to take an American boat. 
Mr. Frohman, however, showed no concern, even though, as he 
admitted, he had received a letter of warning. This he display- 
ed. It was typewritten on fine stationery and mailed in Wash- 
ington. It warned him of the destruction of the Lusitania, but 
was unsigned. Mr. Frohman put the letter back in his pocket, 
and brushed aside his friends' fears. 

These warnings and the notice published, over the signa- 
ture of the German Embassy, had little effect on the traveling 
public. Of these warnings, Charles P. Sumner, general agent 
of the Cunard Line, said at the tirjie : " The Germans have been 
trying to spoil our trade for some time, but never until to-day 



168 WARNINGS AND PREMONITIONS. 

have they manifested such an actively friendly desire to put us 
out of business. I anticipate that from this time on every Ger- 
man method that can be devised will be used to keep people from 
traveling on our ships. 

" The fact is that the Lusitania was the safest boat on the 
sea. The liner had a speed of 25 1-2 knots, and was provided 
with usual watertight bulkheads. The boilers of the vessel 
are in the middle of the ship, and next to these are the coal bunk- 
ers, thirty feet deep. She is too fast for any submarine. No 
German vessel of war can get near her. She will reach Liver- 
pool on schedule time, and come back here on schedule time, just 
as long as we care to run her in the transatlantic trade." 

CONSIDERED IT A JOKE. 

" Its the best joke I've heard in many days this talk of tor- 
pedoing the Lusitania." So said Captain W. T. Turner, com- 
mander of the Lusitania, and member of the British Royal 
Naval Reserve, as he joined the throng centered around Mr. A. 
G. Vanderbilt, just before the vessel was ready to cast off her 
lines. Mr. Vanderbilt had been in conversation with a reporter 
and Captain Turner, on recognizing him, came up to shake 
hands. As he did so the question came up about the warn- 
ing which had appeared in the morning newspapers that day, 
signed by the Imperial German Embassy, and thought by many 
to be directed particularly against the Lusitania. 

Captain Turner's eye swept the trim deck lines of his vessel 
and then over the animated scene on the pier, where thousands 
of persons had gathered to bid goodby to the immense crowd 
which had booked passage on the pride of the Cunard line fleet. 
His face wreathed in smiles. With one hand on Mr. Vander- 
bilt's shoulder, and the other waving in the direction of the 
crowd, he said ; 



WARNINGS AND PREMONITIONS. 169 

" Do you think all these people would be booking passage 
on board the Lusitania if they thought she could be caught by 
a German submarine?" Both laughed heartily, then Captain 
Turner continued : " Germany can concentrate her entire fleet 
of submarines on our track and we would elude them. I have 
never heard of one that could make twenty-seven knots. We 
can do that, and we are willing to show them when the oppor- 
tunity arrives." 

" The Lusitania is a big target, though," said Mr. Vander- 
bilt. 

" Yes, and a fast one, as we shall show if they desire to 
attack us," replied Captain Turner. 

Mr. Vanderbilt's eyes lost their twinkle as he said : " Your 
speed would not amount to much, however, if they managed 
to sneak up on you." 

GO FASTER THAN A SUBMARINE. 

Still Captain Turner laughed: " Except when we are enter- 
ing port," he rejoined, " we shall be going faster than any sub- 
marine can travel ; therefore they are not likely to sneak up on 
us." He exchanged a few pleasantries and moved away in the 
direction of the bridge, showing in his jaunty stride and erect 
shoulders that he believed all he had said — ^^that the Ivusitania 
although liable to the perils of the sea like any other craft, was 
practically immune to the danger of submarines. 

In the main saloon was a group of persons distinctly thea- 
trical. Chief among their number were Charles Frohman 
and Charles Klein, theatrical producers, and Mr. Justus Miles 
Forman, the playwright. Many persons prominent on the 
stage and its allied industries were on hand to bid them goodby. 

Here too, as in many other groups both on the pier and on 
board the vessel, the probability of an attack by a submarine 



170 WARNINGS AND PREMONITIONS. 

was the main topic of conversation. Mr. Frohman and Mr. 
Klein were laughing about it when they were asked if they had 
received any of the anonymous telegrams. They said they 
would post odds of one thousand to one that the Lusitania 
would come out best. 

A few feet distant was Lady Mackworth and her father, 
Mr. D. A. Thomas, the Welsh coal mine owner, and said to be 
one of the wealthiest men in Great Britain. They had been in 
America several weeks, and more than a score of friends had 
come aboard the vessel to see them before they left. 

BALMY MID-JULY WEATHER. 

It was an ideal day. The air was balmy and the sun shone 
with mid- July warmness as preparations were made to back the 
Lusitania out into the stream. So clear was the atmosphere 
that the ensigns floating on the German vessels interned at Ho- 
boken could be distinctly made out. The contrast was marked 
in the animated scene on the Cunard pier and the death like pall 
which hung over the German piers on the opposite side of the 
river. 

It was reminiscent of the days before the war on the Cun- 
ard pier. With 1,400 passengers on board the vessel and more 
than 3,000 on the pier, one would not have thought that a world 
war was taking place in Europe, or that there was any menace 
to the big dull gray craft. 

One of the Cunard ofificers explained the unusual precau- 
tions taken for safety, upon entering the war zone : " We re- 
ceived a warning by wireless from one of the warships stating 
that mines had been laid 40 miles south of the Old Head of 
Kinsale, and advising a strict lookout. Captain Turner is one 
of the best shipmasters I have ever known. He is courageous 
to the extreme, always at his post, calm and confident in himself 



WARNINGS AND PREMONITIONS. 171 

and his crew. We passed lo miles west of the Fastnet and 
about seven miles southwest of Kinsale, which lies about 47 
miles east-northeast of the Fastnet. Every precaution was tak- 
en by the Captain when we neared the danger zone. All the 
boats were swung out ready to lower, and the life rafts and col- 
lapsible boats were uncovered and made ready for launching. 

" Two lookout men were posted on the foc'sle head, two 
more in the crow's nest and two officers on the bridge. In ad- 
dition, either Captain Turner or J. C. Anderson, the staff cap- 
tain, was on the bridge, when land was sighted, until we reached 
Liverpool." 

EXPECTED DUE WARNING. 

" With precautions such as these, the rule on the Lusitania, 
what if the Germans do torpedo us ?" quizzically laughed some 
of the more adventurous among the passengers. " We'll re- 
ceive due warning — as is the international law in warfare ; then 
we'll take to the life-boats and comfortably watch one of the 
nicest bit of fire-works display ever given for our benefit." 
What had they to fear ! — with 22 life-boats carrying 68 each ; 
20 Chambers' collapsible boats, carrying 64 each; 12 McLean- 
Chamber's collapsible boats with a capacity of 49 each; two 
Henderson collapsible boats, collapsible 43 each, and 14 life 
rafts, with capacities varying from 20 to 40 each ; not counting 
the 3,000 life preservers on board. 

Yet always are there presentments of good and evil events . 
One of the passengers lost in the Titanic disaster was a woman 
who had left her home in Wisconsin to visit relatives in Nor- 
way, and had kissed her husband and children goodby with the 
declaration that she would never see them again. 

The fearless Wolfe, who wrested Quebec from Montcalm 
on the Plains of Abraham, is said to have had a presentment that 
he would meet his death in the morrow's battle.. 



172 WARNINGS AND PREMONITIONS. 

And such a premonition came to several who had booked 
passage on the Lusitania. Al. Woods, the theatrical manager, 
and Walter Moore, president of the Miner Lithographing Co., 
of New York, were congratulated by their friends for having 
cancelled their passage on the Lusitania. Mr. Woods had the 
stateroom adjoining that of Charles Klein, who had come to 
this country with a new play for him, but the morning the ship 
sailed gave it up. 

Mr. Moore said that both he and Mr. Woods had become 
nervous over the reports of a submarine attack and on the ad- 
vice of friends had abandoned their trip abroad. Messrs. Wooda 
and Moore had a narrow escape when the Titanic sailed on her 
maiden trip. A. Selwyn had offered them tickets for a return 
passage on the ill-fated liner, but business matters in London 
prevented them from leaving London at that time. 

A LUCKY MISTAKE. 

William F*. Carnes, chief engineer of the Harlan and Hol- 
lingsworth Corporation, and Porter H. Feree, an official of the 
duPont Powder Company, failed to sail on the Lusitania, owing 
to a mixup at the last moment. Mr. Carnes had engaged pas- 
sage on the doomed ship. When he arrived at the dock in New 
York, he found, through a mistake, his berth had been given 
another man. He protested, but in vain. His only alternative 
was to sail the same day on the American liner New York and 
this he did. Mr. Peree did not like the of things when he 
heard German threats of blowing up the Cunarder. He cancel- 
led his passage on the Lusitania and engaged a berth on the 
New York. 

It was generally believed that the Rev. W. M. Warlow, 
rector of St. James Episcopal Church in the adjoining town of 
Arlington, was among those who had sailed on the Lusitania, 



WARNINGS AND PREMONITIONS. 173 

He had gone to New York last week with the intention of tak- 
ing passage on the Lusitania, but when he read the warnings 
in the newspapers, he changed his booking to the New York on 
the American Line. 

Before leaving for New York, the rector told several of his 
parishioners that he dreaded the trip. He is a native of Eng- 
land, and his only son, an officer in the British army, is now sta- 
tioned in Ireland. In order that he might see the young man be- 
fore he was ordered to the Continent, he took a two months' va- 
cation. 

Frank Partridge, an art dealer of New York, was fearful 
that the ship would be torpedoed the night before he sailed. Mr. 
Partridge in talking to Henry Duveen, senior member of the 
art firm of Duveen Brothers,' said he was. going to sit on deck 
each night with a life preserver around his waist. 

HARD TO CHANGE HIS MIND. 

Says Daniel Frohman : " I pleaded with Charles to sail on 
the New York, the ship on which Ellen Terry and other friends 
of Charley's left. But — well, even when we were small boys 
together at home, nobody could argue Charley into doing a 
thing once he made up his mind to do something else. The Eus- 
itania torpedoed ?' he said to me with a laugh. ' It couldn't 
be done — she's too fast?' " 

Mr. Hayman, John Williams and others had pleaded with 
him to take some other boat. And it was learned also that Mr. 
Drew, Miss Adams, Miss Barrymore and others had urged him 
by telegraph not to go on the Lusitania. 

Philip Dahilof, of Stockholm, Sweden, deferred sailing 
when he received a cablegram from London saying : " Do not 
take the English steamer; it is not safe; take later American 
boat." 



174 WARNINGS AND PREMONITIONS. 

H. Vyth, of Vyth Brothers, woollen manufacturers, of 
London and New York, had intended sailing with Mr. Dahilof, 
but on information received from the latter's home in Stockholm 
a cable was sent to London, with the result that they were advis- 
ed not to take the English boat. Vyth of London was born in 
Germany, and his brother here believed in the light of future 
developments that his information was more than mere guess- 
work.- 

Several members of the Lusitania's crew were confined to 
the hospital in New York, and thus were unable to sail. 

That the Lusitania never would reach her destination was 
a prediction made by Dr. John Braum, of the University of Ber- 
lin, who formerly taught chemistry and other subjects in the 
Duquesne University, and who later was in charge of a lab- 
oratory in a local manufacturing concern. 

INSIDE INFORMATION. 

Dr. Braum's connection with this company gave to him 
the information on which was based his prediction. The com- 
pany manufactured tetrachloride of tin, which has come into 
use in the European war in the making of asphyxiating bombs. 
Dr. Braum learned of a big shipment of this material for the 
French government being sent aboard the Lusitania. 

John H. McFadden, the millionaire cotton broker, of Phila- 
delphia, had engaged passage on the Lusitania for this trip, but 
cancelled it because he had a premonition that the vessel would 
be the victim of an accident. Mr. McFadden had arranged pas- 
sage for himself and his family early in March. 

And, above all, there was the strange omen of the black cat ! 
This soapy-black feline, Dowie, the mascot of the men who toil- 
ed in the coal bunkers, had attempted on three of the Lusitania's 
last voyages to desert the ship, after a four year s residence — 



WARNINGS AND PREMONITIONS. 175 

and the time before last was barely rescued from the water into 
which it twice had leaped. On the eve before the departure 
of the Lusitania, on May 1st, the Black Cat made a frantic 
escape down a big hawser, firemen and stokers accepted the 
incident as a solemn warning, and deserted in a body. 

Yes, there were some anxious white faces looking over 
the railing of the big lyUsitania when she set sail Saturday from 
the Cunard Line pier. 

These passengers knew all about the warning advertise- 
ments published by the German Embassy in Washington, telling 
Americans not to sail under the British flag or any of the flags 
of the allied nations. They knew also of mysterious strangers 
who had appeared at the piers before sailing time and warned 
passengers of their danger. Many of these men spoke with de- 
cided German accents, and while no one knew from whom they 
had come, it was accepted generally that they were agents for 
the German Government. 

\A^ARNING THE PASSENGERS. 

News that the Germans were whispering frightening 
warnings to the passengers reached Edward Mullen, chief of the 
steamship company's detective force. He rounded up his men, 
and strangers were driven from the pier and the vicinity of the 
docks. 

Although the Cunard L,ine Officials scofifed at German 
warnings it was remarked that never was a ship more carefully 
inspected before setting sail. Private detectives were all about 
the ship to make sure that no explosives were smuggled aboard. 
In warding off suspicious strangers only persons identified by 
passengers were allowed on the ship. 

Tickets presented by passengers were carefully scrutinized 
and then verified by slips of paper taken from a cubby hole. 



176 WARNINGS AND PREMONITIONS. 

A uniformed purser, assisted by the passenger manager, re- 
ceived the passengers as they came forward in line. 

After satisfying the purser and passenger manager that 
all was right, the passenger accompanied by a uniformed clerk, 
was escorted to his baggage, and the baggage was chalked with 
a secret mark and carried aboard ship by a longshoreman. 

Reassuring remarks were made among the passengers 
and they had the effect of quieting the fears of some. But there 
were many timid persons whose fears could not be allayed by 
optimistic speeches or cheering prophecies. They were the ones 
who looked over the ship's railings with anxiety pictured on 
their faces. 

Many, it is true, laughed at the German advertisement, and 
the mysterious warnings from the mysterious men. Among 
the latter was Elbert Hubbard. Referring to himself as " the 
Lusitania of Literature," he said : " The Kaiser's warnings may 
be directed at both the Lusitania and me. To be torpedoed 
would be a glorious way to peter out, but it would be a good ad- 
vertisement." 

Mr. Hubbard then expressed the opinion that possibly the 
Kaiser was peeved because he wrote " Who lifted the Lid Off 
Hell." "After the war is over, I expect to call on the Kaiser at 
St. Helena," concluded Mr. Hubbard. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

LITTLE STORIES OF HEROES. 

A GiRiv Who Rowed a Life Boat — Famous Chapi^ain a Vic- 
tim — Steward Assured Passengers there was No Need 
EOR !LiEE Belts — Newspaper Man Rescued I^ittee Gire. 

THE history of so sudden, so big and so calamitoiis a catas- 
trophe as the Lusitania's distruction is not at once de- 
fined clearly in all its details. It is true that the world 
speedily knew of many heroes and heroines, and how they met 
a terrible crisis. Where the crowd was densest in the struggle 
— where many eyes were there to observe — acts of sublime cour- 
age received the heartfelt praise and afterwards the publicity 
they deserved. 

But many others were to enter the heroes' hall of fame. 
Little by little come stories of quiet bravery and heroism. In- 
cidents of absorbing interest, heretofore untouched upon, found 
their narrators. 

Nor the least inspiring of these is the tale of a little heroine 
of fourteen. The brief time elapsing between the torpedoing 
and sinking of the Lusitania was long enough to develop a hero- 
ine in the person of Miss Kathleen Kaye, fourteen years old, 
returning from New York, where she had been visiting relat- 
ives. With smiling words of reassurance she aided stewards in 
filling a boat with women and children. When all were in she 
climbed aboard the lifeboat as coolly as an able seaman. 

One sailor fainted at his oar as the result of a hard race to 
escape swamping. The girl took his place and rowed until the 
boat was out of danger. None among the survivors bore as 
little sign of her terrible experience as Miss Kaye, who spent 

12-T I, 177 



178 LITTLE STORIES OF HEROES. 

most of her time comforting and assisting her sitsers in misfor- 
tune. 

" I was lunching with Herbert Stone, Linden Bates, Jr., 
Madame Anton Depage and Dr. J. T. Houghton, when I felt 
the shock," said Dr. F. Warren Pearl, of New York, Surgeon 
Major of the United States Army during the Spanish- American 
War. 

" When I reached the deck I found that one nurse and two 
of my children were missing. I discovered later that they got 
into a boat, which was launched safely on the starboard side. 
I returned to the port side and jumped overboard, just before 
the ship went down. 

EVERY EFFORT MADE TO SAVE PEOPLE, 

" I saw no signs of panic. Officers and crew apparently 
were doing everything possible to save the passengers, but the 
explosion rendered the engines useless and it was impossible to 
slow down the ship. I did not know whether any of my family 
was safe until I got ashore, after three hours in the water, in 
which I floated with the greatest ease on my lifebelt. 

" When I reached the land I found my wife at Admiralty 
House, suffering with a broken arm. I soon brought two of 
our children to her. Two are gone, but, I thank God, that so 
many of my family were saved, especially when I recall that 
whole families have perished. I saw a father, mother and three 
daughters, all dead, clasped in each others arms." 

Among those who went bravely to their death was the Rev. 
Basil W. Maturin, who was Roman Catholic Chaplain at Oxford 
University, England, and who came to America especially to be 
the Lenten preacher at the Church of Our Lady of Lourdes, 
New York. In 1876, Dr. Maturin was sent on behalf of the 
Cowley Fathers, a High Anglican Order, to take charge of St. 



LITTLE STORIES OF HEROES. 179 

Clement's Parish, Philadelphia, where he rivalled the late Phil- 
lips Brooks in popularity as a preacher. Among the books he 
wrote are " Discourses on the Parables of Our Lord," " Prac- 
tices of the Spiritual Life," " Self -Knowledge and Self-Disci- 
pline," " Laws of the Spiritual Life" and " The Price of Unity." 

SECOND CABIN ALMOST A NURSERY. 

G. D. Lane, a youthful but cool-headed second cabin pas- 
senger, who was returning to Wales from New York, was in a 
lifeboat which capsized by the davits as the Lusitania heeled 
over. " I was on the B deck," he said " when I saw the wake 
of a torpedo. I hardly realized what it meant when the big 
ship seemed to stagger and almost immediately listed to star- 
board. I rushed to get a life belt, but stopped to help get chil- 
dren on the boat deck. The second cabin was a veritable nur- 
sery. Many youngsters must have drowned, but I had the sat- 
isfaction of seeing one boat get away filled with women and 
children. When the water reached the deck I saw another life- 
boat with a vacant seat, which I took, as no one else was in sight, 
but we were too late. The Lusitania heeled so suddenly our 
boat was swamped. We righted her again, however. 

" We witnessed the most horrible scene of human futility 
it is possible to imagine. When the Lusitania had turned al- 
most over she suddenly plunged bow foremost into the water, 
leaving her stern high in the air. People on the aft deck were 
fighting with wild desperation to retain a footing on the almost 
perpendicular deck, while they fell over the slippery stern like 
crippled flies. Their cries and shrieks could be heard above 
the hiss of escaping steam and the crash of bursting boilers. 
Then the water mercifully closed over them, and the big steam- 
ship disappeared, leaving scarcely a ripple behind her. 

" Twelve lifeboats were all that were left of our floating 



180 UTTI.E STORIES OF HEROES. 

home. In a time which could be measured by seconds, swim 
mers, bodies and wreckage appeared in the space where she went 
down. We were almost exhausted by the work of rescue when 
taken aboard a trawler. It all seems like a horrible dream 
now." 

Referring to Alexander Campbell, London manger of John 
Dewar & Sons, and who perished, the local manager of the firm 
said : " I spoke to him just before the Lusitania sailed about the 
chances of her being overtaken by a submarine and torpedoed. 
He treated my remark in a humorous manner by turning to the 
bedroom steward with the remark, ' Have you got plenty of 
lifeboats here?' The steward laughed and replied, 'You don't 
want any lifebelts on this ship, Sir. We can run away from 
anything the Germans have afloat.' On his journey through 
India, Mr. Campbell contracted jungle fever, and this was fol- 
lowed by a mild attack of typhoid in China. He was not very 
robust physically and could not swim." 

SHARP LOOKOUT KEPT BY THE OFFICERS. 

One of the few persons who say they saw the under-water 
boat is Ernest Cowper, a newspaperman, of Toronto, Canada, 
a passenger. 

" A sharp lookout had been kept by the officers on the ship 
as we neared the Irish coast," said Cowper, " but despite this 
vigilance, the submarine got within i,ooo yards of us without 
being sighted. 

" It was about 2 o'clock in the afternoon, and I was on deck 
chatting with a friend, when I saw the conning tower of the 
submarine. I had just started to say, ' There is a submarine,' 
when I saw the white wake of a torpedo speeding towards the 
liner. Almost immediately there was a loud explosion, as the 



LITTLE STORIES OF HEROES. 181 

torpedo, true to its mark, struck the Lusitania amidships. Por- 
tions of the spUntered hull filled the air. 

" Immediately, tremendous excitement spread throughout 
the ship, andjn a moment there was another explosion as the 
second torpedo crashed into the hull and exploded. Water 
poured through the holes, and the ship began to list heavily to 
port. The crew began to lower the boats, and the work of get- 
ting passengers into them went forward as rapidly as the terror, 
excitement and condition of the ship permitted. 

" A little girl, whose name I later learned was Helen Smith, 
and who was only six years old, had become separated from her 
parents in the rush, and appealed to me to save her. I put her 
in a lifeboat and looked for her parents, but could not find them. 
Whether they were saved I do not know. 

CUT BOATS AWAY WHILE BOAT WAS SINKING. 

" I got into the last boat I saw go over the ship's side. 
Some of the boats could not be launched, and had to be cut away 
while the liner was sinking. There were many women among 
the second-class passengers, and about forty children that I 
judged to be less than a year old." 

Helen Smith, only seven years old, was brought ashore in 
one of the lifeboats. She seemed utterly unable to comprehend 
the tragedy that had befallen her, for her father, mother and 
brother were lost. The child chatted gaily about, submarines, 
declaring that she had often seen them in moving pictures. 

Mrs. Jessie Taft Smith, of Braceville, O., who, unaccom- 
panied, was making the trip from New York was one of the cool- 
est survivors of the disaster. Recounting her experiences, she 
said : " I was in my room writing when the torpedo hit the ship. 
I am satisfied that no warning was given. I have testified to this 
in an affidavit which I have supplied to the State Department. 



182 LITTLE STORIES OF HEROES. 

" It is a surprising fact how many people were caught in 
their staterooms. Evidently they shared my feelings that if 
struck, the ship would stay up a long time. This probably ac- 
counts for the heavy losses among the first cabin passengers, 
many of whom went below to get their belongings. I had prac- 
ticed putting on my life belt, and by the time I reached the deck 
I had adjusted it. 

PICKED UP BY A FISHING BOAT. 

" Two-thirds of the people in my boat, the only one launch- 
ed on the port side, were women. A fearful time was taken in 
lowering the boat, which was only about thirty feet away when 
the Lusitania disappeared beneath the waves, leaving a mass of 
wreckage, swimmers and dead bodies. After rowing for three 
hours, we were picked up by a fishing boat. Later we were 
taken aboard a trawler and landed here." 

George Nicoll, of Philadelphia, was one of those that went 
down with the Lusitania, because he thought it was " worth 
while to take a chance," to go to Scotland to marry Miss Mar- 
garet Todd, and see his parents at the same time, instead of 
bringing his fiancee to this country. Nicoll was a physical train- 
er at the Central Y. M. C. A., Arch Street above Broad. He 
sailed on the Lusitania despite the warnings of Mrs. James 
Smith, his sister. She told him he would be in danger. 

" Perhaps I will," he replied, " but I think it's worth while 
to take a chance, for I can see our parents, who are getting along 
in years, and marry Margaret at the same time." Miss Todd 
lives in Dundee, Scotland. 

Another survivor, Frederick S. Judson, was on the way to 
Paris to join the staff of the American ambulance there. Mr. 
Judson said that a few minutes before the Lusitania sank a 
woman asked him to save her boy. He took the boy in his arms 



LITTI.E STORIES OF HEROES. 183 

and jumped from the top railing. Both he and the youngster 
wore life belts. Mr. Judson placed the boy on a raft and assist- 
ed into the boat a woman who was floating along. Eventually 
he reached a half-broken boat in which were the second officer 
and Hennessy, a seaman. " Between them these two men saved 
at least a dozen lives," said Mr. Judson. " Hennessy dived re- 
peatedly and brought women up." 

Although the passengers discussed submarines all the way 
over, few, if any, believed that the Lusitania would be struck. 
They referred to the possibility almost with levity. Mr. Tim- 
mis, the Texan, who talked with Captain Turner after landing, 
stated that the captain said bitterly : " We didn't have a chance 
I knew that when I felt the torpedo's impact." 

CAPTAIN REMAINED AT HIS POST. 

Mr. Timmis added that the captain told the helmsman and 
staff captain on the bridge to save themselves, but Captain Tur- 
ner remained at his post. The staff captain was lost, but the 
helmsman was saved. 

Mr. H. C. Hoover, chairman of the executive committee 
of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, praised Carlton Thay- 
er Brodrick, who was lost. Mr. Hoover's message to Mr. Brod- 
rick's father read : 

" Please accept from the Executive Committee of the Com- 
mission for the Relief in Belgium our heartfelt sympathy. 
Early in the year your son unselfishly devoted his time and en- 
ergies to this work and won the regard of all who became asso- 
ciated with him. Rest assured that many friends are prepared 
to do everything necessary. 

" Scott Turner, who survived was with him several hours 
after the ship sunk, and last saw him supported by two oars 
and with every possibility of being rescued. He was probably 



184 LITTLE STORIES OF HEROES. 

the last passenger to leave the ship and was brave and cheerful 
throughout." 

H. C. HOOVER, Chairman. 

J. P. Gray, of Oliver Crescent, Edinburgh, who was a pas- 
senger, said he didn't remember how he was rescued. " I fell 
thirty feet from the ship," he said. " The fall left me uncon- 
scious. I was picked up by a boat. When we were leaving 
New York we gave preference to the Eusitania, thinking it ' it ' 
as Americans say, but it was not what we thought it was." 

William Brown, of Alaska, another of the survivors, de- 
cided not to join the rush for the boats : " I came to the conclu- 
sion that a life belt was the thing for me," he said, " so I went 
to my cabin and secured one. With it on I slid down a long rope 
into the water. Subsequently I got into a boat." 

WAS TO BE HIS LAST TRIP. 

Hilda Spong, the actress, knew for many years James Mc- 
Cubbin, the purser of the Eusitania, who went down with his 
ship. She observed: " He had spent all his life at sea working 
hard, and this was to have been his last voyage. Two days 
before the Eusitania sailed, he told me, with great joy, that he 
had purchased a small farm near Golders Green, about twenty 
miles from London. There he intended to spend the remainder 
of his days in peace." 

One of the most connected and thrilling stories of the Eus- 
itania tragedy was related by young W. G. E. Meyers, of Strat- 
ford, Ontario, who was en route to join the British navy as a 
cadet. 

" I had just gone to the upper deck with two friends for a 
game of quoits," he said, " when one of them looked over the 
side. He cried as he saw a streak : ' There's a torpedo coming 



LITTLE STORIES OF HEROES. . 185 

right at us.' We watched until it struck, then we rushed to the 
boat deck as a huge quantity of sphnters and debris fell round 
us. The second torpedo struck the liner just four minutes later 
and simply shattered the entire hull. The first torpedo was 
enough to have sunk the Lusitania, but the second completed 
the task. 

" Many of the women were panic-stricken. I met one al- 
most frenzied with fear and tried to calm her. I helped her 
into a boat. I then saw another boat that was nearly swamped. 
I got on board. Others followed me. We baled for all we 
were worth. A crowd of men clambered in, nearly swamping 
it again. Nobody had a knife, but I found a hatchet and cut 
the boat clear. 

SANK LIKE A STONE. 

" We were about 200 yards away when the Lusitania sank. 
The shrieks of the people as they were drawn down by the suc- 
tion was appalling. We had to pull away hard as we could to 
get away and not be drawn under. We saved as many as we 
could, our boat being crowded to capacity. The ship simply 
sank like a stone at the finish, her entire bottom being literally 
torn out by the various explosions. The scene at the end was 
terrifying. 

" Although many of the passengers had adjusted their life 
belts, they were drawn down like stones by the terrible suction 
of so large a steamship. Mothers with their babies still clasped 
in their arms in death were found by the fishing fleet which res- 
cued us. They had been unable to get on board the boats in 
time, and they drowned when drawn under the surface by the 
underdrag of the vessel." 

Here is a cabin steward's graphic account of the disaster : 
" The passengers were at lunch, the weather was beautifully 



186 UTTLE STORIES OF HEROES. 

clear and calm. We were going about i6 knots an hour, and 
were seven or eight miles south of Galley Head when struck 
by the torpedo. A minute or two afterward we were hit by 
two more. The first staggered us. The others finished us, 
shattering the gigantic ship into fragments. 

" The mighty Lusitania just disappeared in twenty min- 
utes. After the first torpedo struck it was a terrible sight, but 
the passengers were surprisingly cool. Nearly all of the first- 
class passengers were drowned. At the most but 500 or 600 
were saved of the third and second-class passengers." 

When asked if the submarine gave any warning before 
sinking the liner, the steward looked astonished at the sugges- 
tion. " We didn't get a moment's notice. The submarine sud- 
denly appeared above the surface on the starboard bow, then 
as suddenly dived down to discharge her torpedo at us. We 
saw the track that the torpedo made in the water. It got us 
fair amidships. The Lusitania listed forward and started to 
settle when the submerged submarine discharged two more tor- 
pedoes, which also struck us. 

" From the moment she sighted us and dived, the sbumarine 
was not seen again. It went off after accomplishing its dirty 
work, and never attempted to save man, woman or child, but 
left them to drown like rats in a trap." 



CHAPTER XIV. 

THE LURKING SUBMARINE. 
Awaite;d Prey at Bottom of the; Sea — Sneaked up to De- 

1,1 VER COWARDI^Y Bl,OW — NEW TERRORS OF THE DEEP — GER- 
MANY'S Submarine Poi,icy — The Terribi,e Torpedo. 

ASIDE from the terror and suffering immediately occa- 
sioned by the sinking of the beautiful Lusitania, the 
unexpected and terrific blow delivered by the German 
torpedo caused the world to view with alarm the war policy 
which gave birth to the use of such death-dealing engines of 
destruction against merchant ships. 

It is believed that the Lusitania was sunk by one of the 
terrible German U boats, presumably, U-39, that had been lurk- 
ing for several days off the coast of Ireland. These vessels 
are larger and much swifter than the ordinary type of sub- 
marines and can keep at sea for three months without having 
to take in supplies of any kind. Their effective radius is about 
4,000 miles. 

In other words, the modern German submarine could go 
from Liverpool to Newfoundland and back or an equal distance 
from a German naval base, such as Zeebrugge. Their surface 
speed is supposed to be from 18 to 20 knots an hour, and when 
submerged, considerably less, probably about 10 or 12 knots. 
As the Lusitania, when off Kinsale Head would be doing about 
25 knots, it might seem difficult for an enemy moving at only 
two-fifths that speed to hit her. On the other hand, it should be 
remembered that the German skipper had the advantage of 
knowing to half an hour when and where his prey would be at a 

187 



188 THE LURKING SUBMARINE. 

given moment and could be waiting for her. He then could 
move athwart the liner's path and meet her. 

According to the German naval press, the U boats are fitted 
with double-acting Diesel oil engines of looo horse-power or 
more. These engines are as simple and run as smoothly as the 
marine steam engine, and are easily controlled. So strongly 
built are these craft that they can plunge to a depth of 150 feet, 
at which the water pressure is enormous. A security weight 
as it is called, of about five tons, is carried, and this can be re- 
leased from the inside of the vessel at a moment's notice. The 
effect is like that of dropping ballast from an airship. When in 
diving trim, that is to say when she is awash, an up-to-date U 
boat can disappear under the water in 15 seconds and re-emerge 
in 20 seconds. She can remain under water for a whole day 
and night, or even longer. 

POWERFUL GUNS ON A SUBMARINE. 

A boat of the U-36 type is described by the captain of the 
collier Fulgent, which was sunk by her. He said she was of the 
latest type, painted gray, more than 400 feet long, carried six 
torpedo tubes, showed no number and had powerful guns on 
the deck. Such a vessel is as long as a modern destroyer and 
must displace about 1000 tons. In effect she is a sort of sub- 
marine cruiser. The Falaba was sunk in Bristol Channel by 
one of these submarines. 

The German terrors spend their nights " sleeping " at the 
bottom of the sea, off the coast of Ireland and Scotland, or else- 
where, rising to the surface each morning. Their eyes — that is, 
their periscopes — become useless at night. The case of the 
Snapper, which " slept " on the sea bottom under the Boston 
light vessel for twelve and a half hours in a hurricane in 1910, 
shows how a submarine can meet heavy weather. 



THE IvURKING SUBMARINE. 189 

When a boat dives to " sleep " on the bottom it will add a 
little water in its tanks at a certain depth. This causes it to 




INTERIOR OF A SUBMARINE BOAT 



hang a moment. The addition of more water will cause it to 
sink until it meets the lower temperatures of deeper waters. It 



190 THE LURKING SUBMARINE. 

will then hang again until the hull adjusts itself to the coolness 
of the water. In this way it settles gently to the bottom. When 
the vessel is to arise from the floor of the sea, the tanks are 
pumped out and it comes up. Submarine men say there is not 
the slightest sensation of unpleasantness — or any other sensa- 
tion, for that matter — in Hving aboard a " sleeping " vessel. 
The unpleasantness, doubtless, is reserved for those aboard an 
enemy ship when the submarine " wakes up." 

GERMANY'S SUBMARINES SUPERIOR. 

It is Germany's submarines on which the eyes of the world 
have been focused. At the outbreak of the war, England had 
84 of this type of war craft, and Germany 30 or more. It would 
seem, though, that in the relatively small German under-sea 
fleet were included boats superior to anything of their kind 
extant. And from the outbreak of the war Germany began 
herculean efforts to increase the number of these terrible craft, 
which spell the last word in death-dealing abilities. 

All signs pointed to preparations by Germany for submar- 
ine warfare on a much larger scale than had previously been 
attempted. A dispatch from Copenhagen announced that 15 
submarines were being built at Kiel for use in the Baltic. Neu- 
trals arriving at Geneva from Pola on the Adriatic noted that 
three German under-sea boats arrived there. 

Germany had been specializing in submarines, but not dur- 
ing so long a period as their last spectacular success would lead 
a forgetful reader of news to suppose. She was one of the 
last of the great nations to view this type of fighting craft with 
favor, and indeed, the growth of the submarine fleet did not 
become rapid until after the revelations of the naval maneuvers 
in the autumn of 19 12. Germany, however, enjoys a certain 
advantage in this particular field of construction. She has two 



THE LURKING SUBMARINE. 191 

shipyards, one the State estabHshment at Danzig, and the other 
the Krupp plant at Kiel, known as the Germania works. 

For several years the Imperial Danzig dockyard specialized 
in the building of stibmarines, and in fact built no other type 
of war craft for some time. At that plant there are at least 
12 slips for the building of submarines, and it is said that nearly 
the same facilities exist at Kiel. These arrangements not only 
make for quick construction, but also contribute to the perfec- 
tion of the product, because the art calls for expert knowledge 
and special facilities. The submarine in its getup bears about 
the same relation to a battleship in mechanical nicety that a high 
priced chronometer does to an ordinary 50-cent alarm clock. 

SIGHT ENEMY SEVERAL MILES. 

The German submarine can sight the huge bulk of her 
enemy at a distance of several miles, drop below the surface 
until within striking distance, and then, rising until her peris- 
cope, a steel tube only 4 inches in diameter and painted a dull 
gray, is above the surface for only a moment, obtain the angle at 
which her torpedo is to be discharged. She is then ready to fire 
torpedoes containing three or four hundred pounds of high ex- 
plosives. In only one instance prior to the outbreak of the 
European war did an underwater vessel ever succeed in sink- 
ing a hostile craft in actual warfare, and even then it was being 
navigated in the awash condition and not completely submerged. 
This occurred on February 17, 1864, when the Confederate 
diving boat David, armed with a spar torpedo, sank the Federal 
frigate Housatonic off Charleston. 

The submarine has been used in some of the third-rate 
South American wars. In the war between Chili and Peru, a 
torpedo was launched from a submarine, only to back through 
the water and nearly destroy the vessel from which it was pro- 



192 



THE LURKING SUBMARINE. 



jected, this back firing being due to the unimproved state o£ the 
gyroscope, or balance control, within the destructive missile. 

About the year 1900 a distinguished American rear-ad- 
miral thus dismissed the subject of submarines : " By the Eter- 
nal, swimming was intended for fishes, and flying for birds.". 



h^?- 



•*"<?«»«-,. 




LAUNCHING OP THE FIRST BRITISH SUBMARINE, AT BARROW, ENGLAND 

It is pretty plain, however, that the American public to- 
day regards submarines in an altogether different way than did 
the rear-admiral. 

When just about the time of the sinking of the Eusitania, 
the Atlantic fleet assembled in the Hudson River, at New York, 
to be reviewed by the President, no type of war craft attracted 
more attention than the little under-water fighters of the At- 



THE LURKING SUBMARINE. 193 

lantic submarine flotilla, under Commander Yates Stirling, Jr. 
Some of these little battleship wreckers had come more than 
1,200 miles under their own power in order to appear in the 
Presidential review — a feat that is in itself a record breaker 
for vessels of their type. 

In the First Submarine Division were the three submarines 
of the D and the two of the E class. The D vessels cost $360,- 
000 each, and those of the E class $375,000 each. 

In the Third Division were the three submarines of the G 
class. G-i cost $450,000, G-2 cost $410,000, and G-3 cost 
$437,000. 

The K vessels represented the newest and most powerful 
of the underwater craft in the United States navy. Of the four 
vessels included in this division, K-i and K-2 each cost $469,- 
000, and K-5 and K-6 cost $478,000 each. 

A MIRACLE OF INGENUITY. 

A British naval writer long ago expressed the feeling which 
seems to reflect the modern attitude. " The submarine craft 
is a miracle of ingenuity, though Nelson and his hearts of oak, 
fighting only on deck, in God's free air and with the meteor flag 
of England fluttering overhead, would have loathed and scorned 
her burglarious, area-sneak dodges down below." 

In the development of the submarine, there is the same ro- 
mance which is to be found in the other stories of scientific in- 
vention, but the romance, from the very first, has been well mix- 
ed with execration. In England, France and America, the pros- 
pective mode of warfare which should utilize the diving boat 
was stigmatized as " revolting to every noble principle,""das- 
tardly," " dishonest and cowardly." 

The long opposition to the submarine on moral grounds 
is an interesting fact to consider in connection with military 

13-Tl, 



194 THE LURKING SUBMARINE. 

and naval sportsmanship. There have been other objections, 
of course. In 1802, M. St. Aubin asked: " What will become 
of navies, and where will sailors be found to man ships of war, 
when it is a physical certainty that they may at any moment 
be blown into the air, by means of diving boats, against which 
no human foresight can guard them?" 

David Bushnell, an American, was the first inventor to 
combine his design submarine navigation with torpedo warfare, 
and his invention, crude though it was, was the embryo of the 
modern diving torpedoboat. It has been mistakenly said that 
the submarine is the child of the surface torpedoboat. 

A VS^OODEN SUBMARINE. 

In 1776, Bushnell attempted to attach a mine to the British 
sloop of war Eagle, lying at anchor off Staten Island, and blow 
her out of the water. Through his inability to securely fasten 
the mine to the vessel, the explosion occurred at a distance of 
several feet from the stern of the Eagle, and did not damage her. 
It did, however result in the hurried removal of the vessel,which 
sailed up the Hudson River at onc'e. 

This submarine of Bushnell's invention was of wood, shap- 
ed like the shell of a tortoise, and could hold but one man. It 
had a submerging tank, which could be emptied by a hand pump, 
and had attached to it a 200-pound detachable weight for use in 
case of sudden emergency. The boat could stay under water 
thirty minutes, and had air pipes, which, upon rising to the sur- 
face, automatically renewed the supply of air. It was propelled 
by hand, with an oar for sculling. Another oar, shaped like 
a screw and fastened to the top of the boat, could be used to 
force its descent. It also had a horizontal rudder. 

Behind this contrivance it towed a mine in which was 150 
pounds of gunpowder, to be exploded by a time device. In the 



THE LURKING SUBMARINE. 195 

crown of the boat was a big wooden screw which was to be driv- 
en from within the boat into the bottom of the vessel attacked. 
A rope fastened the mine to the screw. 

After Bushnell came Robert Fulton. It was shown that 
his torepdoes could sink ships, but in actual warfare his diving 
torpedoboats accomplished nothing. After an unsuccessful at- 
tack by one of Fulton's underwater craft on the British warship 
Ramillies, Sir Thomas Hardy, commander of the North Ameri- 
can station, notified the President that he had ordered on board 
the Ramillies a hundred prisoners of war, who, in the event of 
the effort to destroy the ship by torpedoes or other infernal in- 
ventions being successful, would share the fate of himself and 
crew. 

SUBMARINES " SLEEP " AT NIGHT. 

When the German submarine, after it's night's " sleep " at 
the bottom of the sea, rises to the surface of a morning, it has 
some very efficient, very terrible tools with which to go about its 
work. 

Torpedoes, larger and more powerful than American naval 
officers have knowledge of, were used in the destruction of the 
Lusitania, if stories of survivors of that disaster can be consid- 
ered accurate. 

The most powerful single torpedo in use in 191 5, by the 
United States submarines, could not have done sufficient damage 
to injure fatally the Lusitania unless assisted by some interior 
explosion, according to naval experts. They were not familiar 
with any type of torpedo which could have caused the giant liner 
visibly to " stagger, shiver, tremble," as survivors describe the 
impact of the first missile, and then " almost immediately list to 
starboard." 

The naval officers agreed that more than one torpedo of a 



196 THE LURKING SUBMARINE. 

most powerful type must have been discharged into the Lusi- 
tania, and even then, as the liner sank within twenty minutes, 
some great interior explosion must have hastened its destruc- 
tion. The explosion of the torpedoes themselves naval men 
said would only be sufficient to injure persons in the immediate 
vicinity, which in this case only could have been members of 
the crew. Passengers who were injured and mangled, as res- 
cue boats found, it was argued, must have sustained their in- 
juries from an explosion other than torpedo explosions or from 
some other source. 

The existing battleship would offer no more resistance to 
torpedoes than did the Lusitania, except in that the battleship 
was provided with more and smaller watertight compartments. 
Battleships are armored only above the waterline; below the 
waterline the construction is the same as is that of the big ocean 
passenger liners. 

CAUSES THE PLATES OF THE HULL TO SPREAD. 

The torpedo does not pierce the side of a ship like a cannon 
ball or a bullet going through a board. It merely " butts " into 
the side, causing the plates of the hull to spread in long jagged 
lines, thus giving the water an opportunity to force a weak spot 
and cause a list. The impact with the vessel causes an explosive 
with which the torpedo is loaded, to be discharged, thus spread- 
ing the seams. 

Some of the torpedoes used by the American submarines 
are twenty-one feet in length. The " 1 8-inch " torpedo is a 
common type. This missile is eighteen inches in diameter, six- 
teen feet and i 1-2 inches in length, and weighs 11 50 pounds. 
It carries a charge of 133 pounds of wet guncotton. Its cost 
averages about $5000. A speed of thirty knots, or 1000 yards 
in one minute, can be attained by the latest type. 



THE LURKING SUBMARINE. 
Modern torpedoes are of the " locomotive " 



197 



type, which 

means they are in themselves a perfect, mechanically controlled, 
miniature submarine. The torpedo resembles a long, pointed 
cigar. Its " nose " is metal-capped, and its shell is of steel. 
The guncotton explosive occupies about two feet of space in the 
front of the torpedo. Beneath the metal-capped " nose " is a 




A SUBMARINE BOAT FOULING A FISHING SMACK. 

cleverly devised wire trigger, which sets off the charge when the 
missile hits another object, presumably the ship's side. 

This charge can be timed up to two seconds by use of a gun- 
powder fuse extending from the trigger to the guncotton. This 
timing device enables the officers in charge of the submarine 
or topedo boat to control the explosion. It may be set to ex- 



198 THE LURKING SUBMARINE. 

plode on the first impact or as far as ten feet back in the great 
dent which the torpedo rams into the ship. The size of the dent, 
of course, and the timing, therefore, depend largely on the dis- 
tance over which the torpedo is discharged. 

The greater part of the inside of the torpedo is occupied 
by compartments, into which compressed air is forced up to 2000 
pounds pressure per square inch of surface. In the " tail " is 
the engine by which the torpedo is propelled, and this engine or 
motor, which now is of the four-cylinder type, is operated by 
the compressed air. The gyroscope principle is used in direct- 
ing the course of the torpedo and keeping it in the direction in 
which it was aimed ; in just what manner this is done has been 
kept secret by the governments. The torpedo carries also a 
device to keep it at the same depth, as the tendency is to return 
to the surface as the compressed air becomes exhausted. 

DISCHARGING A TORPEDO VERY IMPORTANT. 

Discharging the torpedo from the submarine, or torpedo 
boat, is a highly important feature of its effectiveness. Up 
until a few years ago the torpedo was not effective because prop- 
er devices for releasing it could not be obtained. It is now re- 
leased through a specially constructed tube on a carefully devis- 
ed carriage. It is forced into the water by a charge of compres- 
sed air, but on entering the water generates its own power and 
makes its speed entirely from the power of its compressed air 
propelled engines. So delicate is the mechanical construction 
of the torpedo that it is ruined by rough handling, and cannot 
be discharged effectively from the surface owing to the drop to 
the water. 

This fact has caused the surface-discharging torpedo boat 
to become practically obsolete. Torpedo boats now use the un- 
der-water discharge, though they do not submerge like the sub- 



THE IvURKING SUBMARINE. 199 

marines. Their usefulness lies in the fact that they carry guns 
in addition to torpedo equipment. There are no boats which can 
be termed " submarine destroyers," and torpedo-boat destroyers 
have become nothing more than torpedo boats. 

Virtually the only protection against the submarine is su- 
perior speed, which enables a vessel to keep out of the torpedo 
range. This is not considered to be more than 2000 yards when 
operating against a single vessel. 

Eight years ago, the famous inventor, John P. Holland, 
noted the great difficulty bound to be encountered in fighting the 
submarine. The inventor's observation holds as good to-day 
as it did then. He said : " It is safe to say that when the first 
submarine torpedoboat goes into action she will bring us face 
to face with the most puzzling problem ever met in warfare. 
She will present the unique spectacle, when used in attack, of a 
weapon against which there is no defense. 

" You can pit sword against sword, rifle against rifle, can- 
non against cannon, ironclad against ironclad. You can send 
torpedoboats against torpedoboats and destroyers against des- 
troyers. But you can send nothing against the submarine boat, 
not even yourself. You cannot fight submarines with submar- 
ines." 

Regardless of the exact manner in which the Lusitania was 
sunk, it seems conclusively proven that in her undersea craft, 
Germany has some very terrible instruments of war which must 
be reckoned with. 



CHAPTER XV 

THE RIGHTS OF THE INNOCENT. 

Why Ge;rmany's Conduct Arousj;d the; Wori^d — The IvAw 
ON Land and Sea — Submarines an Outi^aw Weapon f — 
Ci^ASSED WITH Burglar^ FeIvOn and Outi^aw. 

WHEN men go forth to fight for their country, they ex- 
pect to shoot and be shot; to kill or to be killed is 
part of the national war game. Those who oppose 
war and advocate the adjustment of all international differences 
by arbitration may term the slaughter of men who have com- 
mited no greater crime than to battle for their country, foul 
murder, and perhaps they may be right ; but even those murders 
are committed according to rules. And it is the rules of civ- 
ilized warfare which Germany violated in the destruction of the 
Lusitania, and the killing of more than a thousand innocent 
people. 

For that reason, it is important that in passing judgment 
on Emperor William and his military advisors, some considera- 
tion be given to the questions of international laws as affecting 
nations at war, and particularly that phase which relates to the 
struggles on the water. 

The whole question of responsibility of Germany in the 
Lusitania episode hinges upon this question of international 
law, which is broadly defined as crystallized public opinion, for 
as a matter of fact, there never was any real international law — 
written law, that is — and whatever there was of it has been 
thrown to the winds by both sides in the war which brought 
about the loss of the Lusitania. 

Primeval man, when he fought, bit and gouged, and used 

200 



THE RIGHTS OF THE INNOCENT. 201 

whatever weapons he was able to use against his adversary. 
As man developed there came into use certain laws. If the 
primitive man had been alive and had modern weapons, he would 
have used them as did the Germans. Germany returned to 
savagery. The Germans had dealt with their enemies as do 
the Hottentots, or as the Indians do who scalp their foes, or 
tie them to the stake. 

No question could have arisen had the Lusitania been an 
armed vessel of war, but she was a merchantman, and it was 
clearly established that the boat carried no measures or instru- 
ments of defense. When such vessels are captured, they may 
be taken to the nearest port. Should the military necessity 
arise to destroy such a merchantman, all human beings must be 
removed and all the papers identifying her must be taken off. 

IMPOSSIBLE TO GIVE WARNINGS. 

The Germans say that when they use submarines it is im- 
possible to give warnings, as the craft they attack are likely to 
carry guns, and the submarines themeslves are vulnerable to 
small shot and might be rammed by other vessels. Hence they 
maintain, that they had no alternative except to destroy the 
Eusitania. That does not authorize Germans to kill men, 
women and children. If war cannot be waged without that, 
it is the contention of men of justice, that the submarine should 
be classed with .the " Maxim Silencer." 

This strange device, which stilled the report of firearms, 
has been put under the ban of civilization, as a matter of public 
policy, and for the protection of mankind. The use of the 
silencer made it possible for vengeful men and criminals, to 
sneak upon their foes or prey, and shoot them down without 
attracting attention. 

Justice says that when men fight, they must fight openly, 



202 THE RIGHTS OF THE INNOCENT. 

and according to rules — that to stab in the back, or wait until 
nightfall, is cowardly. Even the man who breaks into your home 
in the daytime, with robbery in his heart, is regarded before the 
Courts as better than he who sneaks into your home at night, 
when you are asleep, and unprepared, or unable to defend your- 
self. 

If then, the use of the submarine, as contended by Germany, 
makes it impossible to give proper warning of attack, and to 
protect innocent people, it is contended that the nation who uses 
the submarine against vessels, other than war craft, must be 
classed with the night-raider, the burgler and the coward. 

So far as the discussion as to the use of the submarine is 
concerned, it affects all nations, and the Lusitariia disaster has 
served as but an incident, however monstrous, to make apparent 
the necessity for enforcing the observance of laws affecting 
human rights at all times. 

THE LAW OF NATIONS. 

The law of nations if not given by an appointed legis- 
lative body does not affect its legal quality. It is as much a dev- 
elopment out of custom and precedent as, for example, the Brit- 
ish Constitution. That there are no administrative agents to 
compel attention to its principles says nothing as to the exis- 
tence of principles, which for long have been defined and clearly 
stated, and which have served as indispensable guides in chan- 
celleries, embassies, government offices, parliaments and courts 
throughout centuries of time. 

It is not unjust to assert that ignorance of this great body 
of knowledge brings upon a public man contempt, and wilful 
disregard of it marks him and his government as outlaws be- 
yond the pale of civilized relationships. 

It has been one of the purposes, if not the sole purpose of 



THE RIGHTS OF THE INNOCENT. 203 

international law, as it relates to war to mitigate the severities 
of armed conflict. It is no longer permissible to use poisoned 
weapons. It is not lawful to poison water wells, or springs, or 
food, in order to kill an enemy, to fill a gun with scraps of glass, 
langrel (buttons, bolts, nails, etc.), or since the St. Petersburg 
Convention of 1868, to use explosive bullets under 400 grammes- 
(13 1-2 ounces) in weight. 

A large projectile by bursting may kill many of the enemy's 
soldiers ; on this ground it may be employed. But a small one, 
though it explode, can disable but one man, and he can be put 
out of action as well by a clean shot, as by one that causes him 
fearful suffering. For it is not now the object to do more than 
to render the enemy soldier ineffective. More than this would 
serve no purpose, and is incompatible with humane considera- 
tions. 

BOTH SIDES TAKE CARE OF 'WOUNDED. 

No longer civilized pe9ples arrest and imprison citizens of 
the enemy State found within the national borders at the out- 
break of war, hang or enslave the inhabitants of invaded ter- 
ritory, sack and ravish captured cities, kill the wounded or re- 
fuse quarter to prisoners. Doctors, nurses and chaplains are 
under protection. One side will minister to the wounded of the 
other. 

Captives are not starved or reduced to slavery. Unae- 
fended places have been thought secure from attack except when 
they stood in the way of the accomplishment of some military 
object, in which event non-combatants were allowed an oppor- 
tunity to move beyond the range of the guns. 

In a half hundred ways the sentiment of the world had de- 
veloped the law of affecting warfare in the interest of humanity, 
and in The Hague Conference, it was eagerly seeking to enforce 
other guarantees upon the Powers. 



204 THE RIGHTS OF THE INNOCENT. 

The gain in two or three centuries had been immense ; the 
hope of further progress had been widespread and seemed on 
the point of being reahzed,when suddenly work was arrested by 
the conflict in Europe. 

International law, as it concerns the movement of ships 
at sea in wartime, has many peculiarities. In antiquity, not 
only the vessels afloat, but also their cargoes were just so many 
valuables in " No Man's Land " to be picked up by him who 
could do so. Rules to govern this subject were drawn up at 
Barcelona, in the fourteenth century in the Consolato del Mare, 
a code of maritime law, which became operative in the Medit- 
erranean. 

FREE FROM CAPTURE. 

In general terms, it proclaimed the principle that enemy 
property, whether ship or cargo, a ship or merchandise belong- 
ing to a citizen of a belligerent State, was capturable; further, 
that neutral property, whether ship or cargo — a ship or mer- 
chandise belonging to a citizen of a State not at war, was free 
from capture. 

In the 1 6th century, France attempted the establishment 
of a new rule. She insisted that a ship, though itself neutral, 
if it were laden with enemy goods might be confiscated. The 
neutral ships carrying enemy cargo were infected by this cargo, 
and, conversely, neutral goods in an enemy ship lost their pro- 
tection from capture on the seas. But this unjust rule was abol- 
ished by the Parliament of Paris in 1592. 

Then followed the rule which the Dutch aimed to set up in 
the 17th century, when they were the world's ocean carriers. 
It involved the principle that English or German goods con- 
veyed in American bottoms would be safe. Reversely that 
goods owned by Americans if sent to sea in the ships of England 
or of any other belligerent Power might be confiscated. 



THE RIGHTS OF THE INNOCENT. 205 

These are the principles incorporated in the Declaration of 
Paris, of 1856, which no nation up to the year 1914 had depart- 
ed from, though the United States never formally acceeded to 
its terms, that the neutral flag covers both neutral and enemy 
goods with the exception of contraband of war, and that neutral 
goods not contraband are not confiscable, even if carried under 
an enemy flag.. 

The United States' refusal to become a party to this system 
of practice was in pursuance of her traditional design to secure 
the exemption of the capture of any property, except contra- 
band, however conveyed at sea. The contention of America 
has been that the owner's rights to his property in time of war 
should be as inviolate upon the water as well as upon the land. 

PRIVATEERING ABOLISHED. 

In the same Declaration of Paris, of 1856, privateering 
was abolished. No great Power since that ?time has issued 
letters of marque, which would correspond in warfare on land 
to roving commissions to private gangs of freebooters to ravage 
the country for the booty they could take. At no future time 
would we expect warfare at sea to be waged by licensed buc- 
caneers. 

There are in international law two kinds of contraband — 
" absolute," such as arms and ammunition, and " conditional," 
such as clothing and foodstuffs. Both England and Germany 
have made out long lists of goods and materials which they de- 
clare to be contraband, which may be taken if the naval vessels 
of either find it afloat upon the seas, consigned to the ports or 
for the use of the other country. 

The basis of reason for the rule as to contraband is that a 
belligerent should not receive supplies calculated to aid it in pros- 
ecuting war, if the other belligerent can prevent it. 



206 THE RIGHTS OF THE INNOCENT. 

In the British and French naval regulations, made by inter- 
national convention to cover some 19'th century wars, these 
words of instruction to commanders are found: " You are not 
to consider prisoners of war and you will allow freely to land 
all women, children and persons not belonging to the military 
or maritime professions who shall be found on board the cap- 
tured vessels." In pursuance of the same line of thought it was 
stated in the Declaration of London, in giving the right to des- 
troy prizes, in case of dire need, that the captor " must take 
care first to transship the men, and, so far as possible, the 
cargo." 

Summed up, the rights of man are based on a very common 
principle which has been very plainly set forth by one writer in 
the following illustration: "If I am lawfully going down a 
street and a man at the corner, as I approach a certain point, 
tells me that if I proceed on that way I shall be shot, I may be 
deterred from continuing on this course if I think that my in- 
formant is credible, and that he states a probability or even a 
possibility. It is no excuse for and does not justify the man who 
shoots me, if he does shoot mc, to say that he sent out an agent 
to inform me of his diabolical design. It is not necessary to 
open any book upon international law to learn what is so fim- 
damental to every notion of civilization." 

It is the disregard of this principle on land and sea which 
has been responsible for the unanimous criticism of Germany — 
or the German policy — not the Germans as a people. 



CHAPTER XVI 
THE SUBMARINE'S DEADLY WORK. 

A Navai, Policy that Made Possible the Destruction of 

THE lyUSlTANIA — ThE GERMAN WaR ZoNE DEFINED ThE 

First American Torpedo Victim — Sinking of Steamer 
Falaba. 

IN the present war international law on land and sea has been 
torn to shreds. Who is to blame — Great Britain and her 

Allies, or Germany and her Allies? While there is a 
minority who hold the opposite view, it is the general consensus 
of opinion of the neutral world that Germany first began tear- 
ing International Law to tatters by violating Belgium. 

The v/orld, previously, never had known so flagrant a 
breaking of the most solemnly-given pledges as Germany was 
guilty of in this instance. Belgium's territory was overrun by 
vast armies, her lands completely devastated, her civilian pop- 
ulation killed, or left homeless without any means of supporting 
life. The heart of the neutral world goes out to this brave, un- 
fortunate little people — a people menaced by death in the shape 
of bullet, bomb, and starvation. All brave men the world over 
— even those fighting Belgium — feel the utmost admiration, the 
fullest measure of sympathetic pride, that as a matter of prin- 
ciple King Albert and his little people should make such a sub- 
limely heroic resistance. 

In view of so flagrant a violation of international law as 
Germany has thus been guilty of — of such utter disregard for 
the death and suflferings entailed upon an innocent people — who 
could blame England for her subsequent action ? She declared 
her intention to seize any ships bearing foodstuffs destined for 

207 



208 THE SUBMARINE'S DEADLY WORK. 

the use of the German Government. Germany " came back " at 
England at once. 

The following is the official proclamation issued by the Ger- 
man Admiralty, on February 4, 1915, establishing a ' war zone ' 
around the coasts of Great Britain and Ireland : 

" The waters around Great Britain and Ireland, in- 
cluding the whole English Channel, are declared a war 
zone from and after February 18, 191 5. 

" Every enemy ship found in this war zone will be 
destroyed, even if it is impossible to avert dangers 
which threaten the crew and passengers. 

MISUSE OF NEUTRAL FLAGS. 

" Also, neutral ships in the war zone are in danger, 
as in consequence of the misuse of neutral flags or- 
dered by the British Government on January 31, and 
in view of the hazards of naval warfare, it cannot al- 
ways be avoided that attacks meant for enemy ships 
shall endanger neutral ships. 

" Shipping northward, around the Shetland Islands, 
in the eastern basin of the North Sea, and in a strip of 
at least 30 nautical miles in breadth along the Dutch 
coast is endangered in the same way." 

England replied to this proclamtion by declaring all food- 
stuflfs for Germany contraband of war — whether intended for 
Government or civilian use. And on March ist, Premier As- 
quith declared in the British House of Commons that it is the 
Allies' intention " to prevent commodities of any kind from 
reaching or leaving Germany." 

The official text of the German proclamation was conveyed 
to the United States on February 6, in a communication from 



THE SUBMARINE'S DEADLY WORK. 209 

Ambassador Gerard, and laid stress on the fact that Germany 
had prescribed a ckar route for neutral commerce around the 
north of the British Isles to Norway, Sweden, Denmark arid 
Holland. The communication drew attention of neutrals to 
the fact " that it is advisable for their ships to avoid entering 
this area, for even though the German naval forces have in- 
structions to avoid violence to neutral ships, in so far as they are 
recognizable * * *their becoming victims of torpedoes directed 
against enemy ships cannot always be avoided." 

VIOLATION OF NEUTRAL RIGHTS. 

The United States sent a note to Germany on February lo, 
warning against the danger of firing on neutral flags without in- 
vestigation, and pointed out the " critical situation " which 
might arise " were the German naval forces * * * to des- 
troy any merchant vessel of the United States, or cause the 
death of American citizens." To this the American note added 
that " if the commanders of German vessels of war should act 
upon the presumption that the flag of the United States was not 
being used in good faith, and should destroy on the high seas 
an American, or the lives of American citizens, it would be 
difficult for the United States to view the act in any other light 
than as an indefensible violation of neutral rights." 

On February 15, Germany announced it would be willing 
to recede from its war zone attack on British merchant shipping 
if Great Britain would permit food to enter Germany for its 
civilian population. In all their subsequent communications, 
Germany hinted plainly that the submarine warfare was in re- 
taliation for the Allies' " blockade " to starve Germany. Ger- 
many's reply on February 18, to the American note of Feb- 
ruary 10, declared that the war zone decree would be enforced, 

14-TI, 



210 THE SUBMARINE'S DEADLY WORK. 

and that neutral ships entering the threatened area did so at 
their own responsibility. 

On February 20, Secretary Bryan sent to London and Ber- 
lin a note containing the following proposals : 

1. Regulation of use of floating and anchored 
mines. 

2. Limiting of submarine activity to attacks on 
warships. 

3. Discontinuance of the practice of using neutral 
flags for disguise. 

4. Germany to allow United States Governmental 
supervision of distribution of food from America to 
civilian population. 

5. Great Britain not to interfere with or detain 
foodstuffs thus consigned. 

CAMPAIGN OF STARVATION. 

At neither London or Berlin did these proposals find ac- 
ceptance without important qualifications. 

Germany made good her threat to attack neutral vessels 
in the " war zone " on February 19, the day after the order 
became effective. The Norwegian tank steamship Belridge 
was torpedoed in the English Channel five miles from Dover. 
The French steamship Dinorah was torpedoed later in the day. 
Germany thus began her campaign of " starving " England, 
which has continued relentlessly. 

The first American victim was the steamship Evelyn, for- 
merly of Philadelphia, which was blown up by a mine near Bor- 
kum Island in the North Sea, on February 20. No lives were 
lost. In the first week of the submarine warfare, 11 vessels 
were sunk or damaged by torpedo attack. 



THE SUBMARINE'S DEADLY WORK. 211 

Within 24 hours on March. 14, the U-ag, was reported to 
have sunk five merchant vessels. 

The first American to die as a result of Germany's sub- 
marine war was Leon Chester Thrasher, an engineer, who was 
a passenger on the British steamship Falaba. Upward of 140 
lives were lost in the sinking by German submarines, on 
March 29, of the African liner Falaba, and the British steam- 
ship Aguila, bound from Liverpool to Lisbon. 

The Falaba, which was torpedoed in St. George's Channel, 
carried a crew of 90, and about 160 passengers, and of this total 




SUBMARINE BOAT WORKING BY ELECTRIC POWER. 

only about 140 were rescued. Of those rescued, eight died 
later from exposure. The Aguila had a crew of forty-two 
and three passengers, and of these twenty-three of the crew 
and all the passengers were lost. 

In both cases, on sighting the submarine, the captains 
tried to escape by putting on all speed possible, but the 
iinderwater craft overtook the steamships, showing that Ger- 
many was using some of her most modern submarines engag- 
ed in the blockade operations against England. 

The captain of the Falaba, who was one of those lost, was 
given five minutes to get his passengers and crew into the boats, 
but according to suvivors, before this was possible a torpedo 
was fired, striking the engine room and causing a terrible 



212 THE SUBMARINE'S DEADLY WORK: 

explosion. Many persons were killed and the steamship sank 
in ten minutes. 

Trawlers which happened to be in the vicinity rescued 
most of those who were saved ; others got away in the boats 
which were ready for launching when the order was given to 
abandon the ship. 

Those still on the steamship when the explosion occurred 
were thrown into the sea, and it took the fishermen an hour 
or more to pick up the persons in the water who managed to 
keep themselves afloat. 

NO EFFORT IN RESCUE WORK. 

The skipper of the fishing boat Eileen Emma, which par- 
ticipated in the rescue work, reported that no efforts were made 
by the crew of the submarine to assist the persons who were 
struggling in the water. The Eileen Emma sighted the sub- 
marine shortly after noon, the skipper said, and followed the 
craft for more than an hour. 

The Falaba was considerably larger than most of the Brit- 
ish merchantmen which have been sunk by German submar- 
ines. It was 380 feet long and its net tonnage was 301 1. 
The Aguila's net tonnage was 1004. 

One of the Falaba's passengers, in telling of their exper- 
iences, said that when the submarine ordered the passengers 
to take to the boats, the boats were lowered immediately and 
the passengers were served with lifebelts, but no one was 
allowed to take any personal effects. 

" Then followed the horrible scene," said the passenger. 
" Some of the boats were swamped and the occupants were 
thrown into the sea. Several were drowned almost immed- 
iately. 

" Barely ten minutes after we received the order to leave 



THE SUBMARINE'S DEADLY WORK. 213 

the ship, I heard a report and saw the vessel keel over. The Ger- 
mans had actually fired a torpedo at her at a range of about loo 
yards, when a large number of passengers, the captain and other 
officers were still distinctly to be seen aboard." 

All the passengers and officers say that the submarine fired 
the torpedo before all the boats were lowered and while many 
persons were still aboard the steamship. One officer said : " I 
was sitting in a boat which was suspended from the (fevits, and 
was waiting for two women passengers, when another officer 
shouted : ' Look out !' and then I saw the bubbles marking the 
track of a torpedo. 

MANY DIED FROM EXPOSURE. 

" There was a tremendous crash and the boat fell from the 
davits and turned over, throwing the passengers and crew into 
the water. The water was frightfully cold and there were 
many who died from exposure." 

Survivors who arrived at Fishguard, Wales, say the Aguila 
was sunk at a point fifty miles northwest of The Smalls, a group 
of rocks on the southeast coast of Ireland. 

The crew was given four minutes to leave the ship, but, sur- 
vivors say, the steamship was fired upon while the men were 
getting into the boats. The chief engineer and two others were 
killed by shell fire, and the lives of ten other men were lost. The 
captain of the submarine hailed another steamship, the Ottilie, 
and told her captain of the sinking of the Aguila. 

The captain of the Ottilie went to the rescue and picked up 
three boats containing nineteen of the crew. The fourth boat, 
which contained the other members of the crew, could not be 
found, and it was presumed that she foundered. On their ar- 
rival at Fishguard, several of the crew wore bandages, having 
been wounded by the fire from the submarine. 



214 THE SUBMARINE'S DEADLY WORK. 

Captain Bannerman, of the Aguila, said the submarine fired 
across the bows of the steamship, but he speeded up to fourteen 
knots to clear the undersea vessel. The submarine was making 
eighteen knots, however, and quickly overtook them. 

Attempt of the Aguila to escape seemed to arouse the anger 
of the Germans, for they gave the crew and passengers only four 
minutes to leave the ship. But before this the submarine open- 
ed fire, which was kept up rapidly while the crew was launching 
the boats, killing the chief engineer and two of the crew and 
wounding several others. 

BOAT CAPSIZED AND SANK, 

One member of the crew rescued said that a boat in which 
were teii sailors, a woman passenger and a stewardess, was fired 
on, and the passenger was killed while the stewardess was 
thrown into the water and drowned. Finally the boat capsized 
and sank. The captain of the Ottilie which picked up the re- 
maining boat said the submarine was the U-28 and apparently 
a new craft. 

There may be some question as to the right of the Unifed 
States to intervene in the European quarrel for the enforcement 
of an abstract principle of international law in the name of hu- 
manity, but there is no room for questioning, and there ought 
to be no time wasted in hesitation, when an American life has 
been forfeited. 

The German submarine campaign took on renewed activity 
on May i, the day warnings were sent to Americans not to sail 
on the Lusitania. This was followed next day by news of the 
torpedoing of the American steamship Gulflight, off the Scilly 
Islands. The Philadelphia oil ship Gushing had been attacked 
a few days before in the North Sea by German airmen. 

The Gulflight was struck by a torpedo at noon, Saturday 



THE SUBMARINE'S DEADLY WORK. 215 

May I, off the Scilly Islands. Her captain, Alfred Gunter, of 
Bayonne, N. J., died from a heart attack when the explosive hit 
his ship. Two other members of the crew jumped overboard 




HOLLAND SUBMARINE BOAT IN HARBOR. 

apparently fearful thatthe cargo of gasoline would explode, and 
were drowned. 

Other members of the creW were taken off by a patrol boat 



216 THE SUBMARINE'S DEADLY WORK. 

and landed at Penzance. The Gulfliglit was towed into Crow 
Sound, in the Scilly Islands, and beached, but the naval author- 
ities planned to have her towed to a safe harbor. Two of her 
officers remained aboard her. 

Eighty-two merchant vessels of the Allies and neutral na- 
tions were torpedoed or mined in the " war zone " about the 
British Isles from the time Germany's submarine blockade be- 
came effective on February i8, to the date of the Lusitania's 
sinking. About two-thirds of them were sunk, the remainder 
limping to port. According to press tabulations 570 lives were 
lost on these eighty- two vessels. 

WHAT IS LIABLE TO CAPTURE. 

This German submarine campaign (was directed iagainst 
British merchantmen, and even neutral ships which dared to 
enter the forbidden zone, in the most ruthless fashion. It had 
always, previously, been accepted as a principle of international 
law, that a merchant ship of the enemy was liable to capture, or 
even to destruction under certain conditions. A neutral ship 
carrying contraband was also liable to capture. But in both 
cases it was provided that the lives of innocent non-combatants 
should be properly safeguarded. 

The German submarine, in many cases, not only did not 
even allow non-combatants to escape as best they could, but in 
several instances actually opened fire on them as they attempted 
to leave the doomed ship in lifeboats. Her policy no longer 
was civilized warfare — it became plain murder. 

It was this policy of actual murder that caused authorities 
of the United States navy to make the statement that the powers 
would be compelled to come to some clear agreement rgarding 
the use of the submarine. 

" It has never been a part of our naval policy," said one 



THE SUBMARINE'S DEADLY WORK. 217 

authority, " to use the submarine in the way that is being now 
employed by Germany. Our official definition of the function 
of the submarine has always been connected with the national 
defense. We have discussed their use in protecting our ports, 
from naval attacks by an enemy's ships, and we have considered 
the use of large, powerful submarines able to go far out to sea 
with the first line of defense, and there operate against the en- 
emy's war vessels. 

PURPOSE OF FIRST SUBMARINES. 

" The first submarines we built, however, were intended 
solely for use at short ranges in co-operation with our seacoast 
defenses in and just outside our harbors. I have never seen in 
any technical military paper or in any discussion of the submar- 
ines at the Navy War College or in hearings before the commit- 
tees of Congress, a plan of using submarines for the purpose 
of maintaing a blockade, or for preying on an enemy's com- 
merce. In the present war Germany is a law unto herself in 
this respect, and it must be admitted that, if her claim that the 
submarine may be used to maintain a general blockade is admit- 
ted, there is force in the plea that the old rule as to giving notice 
must necessarily be broken. 

" When during the civil war, we maintained a blockade of 
the entire seacoast of the Southern States, we did so at the great 
cost of buying more than 700 vessels to be used as warships on 
blockade duty. Thousands of miles of coast line was patrolled, 
and the blockade was maintained effectively and contributed to 
the final result in a most powerful way. 

" But we never attacked a merchant vessel in the manner 
in which the German submarines have been doing. The vessel 
that attempted to run the blockade was hailed in the usual man- 
ner, and if no satisfactory explanation of her voyage was forth- 



218 THE SUBMARINE'S DEADLY WORK. 

coming, she was taken in charge and her passengers and crew 
were dealt with according to the rules and usages of civilized 
warfare. No menace was ever offered to the lives of innocent 
passengers on even the worst blockade runners known. 

" But it must be remembered that our war vessel was al- 
ways in a position of superior strength, and ran no great risk 
in hailing a vessel suspected of a contraband purpose. The 
little German submarine, on the other hand, takes great risk 
in hailing a merchant vessel and probably in such a situation as 
that in the case of the Lusitania, it was even more dangerous. 
In fact the captain of the liner sailing recently, announced that 
he would like to see not one submarine, but a flotilla of them, and 
that if he did, he would ram them and send them to the bottom. 
It is possible that this fact may have had an important effect on 
subsequent events. 

" But the circumstance emphasizes that for the future con- 
duct of war on sane and civilized lines of action, there must be 
an international agreement as to the submarine and the waters 
and conditions under which it may be used, together with very 
definite rules as to notification if the submarine is to be used as 
a commerce destroyer. All the interests of this country are 
against using the submarine in this way. It is practically im- 
possible to preserve the rights of neutrals if the claim of Ger- 
many is conceded." 



CHAPTER XVII. 
EUROPE SHAKEN BY CONFLICT. 

Brief Outi^ink op thi^ War — Evejnts Pre;ce;ding Lusi- 
tania's Disaster — Germany's Drive on Paris — Nations 
IvOCKED IN Death Struggi,e — Enter Outlaw Practices. 

WHIIvE this is not a history of the great European war, 
yet as a phase of that struggle between nations which 
must go down to the end of time as the most far- 
reaching that has ever been known, it is necessary that some of 
the events which have marked the bitter struggle should be re- 
ferred to briefly. 

It is particularly significant that the sinking of the Lusitan- 
ia came as the culmination of a series of acts, and as the part of 
a war policy adopted by Germany in the devastation of Bel- 
gium — the sacking of Louvain, the wrecking of Rheims, the raz- 
ing of the town of Termonde; the dropping of bombs on Ant- 
werp, on English coast towns — which had indicated to the civil- 
ized world that the military policy of Emperor William was such 
as to justify the fear for the innocents that was realized in the 
torpedoing of the Eusitania. 

It was in the little town of Battice in Belgium, where Ger- 
many's forces are said to have first inaugurated their ruthless 
system of reprisal on houses and people alike. Here they des- 
troyed the town because it was said Belgium civilians fired upon 
the Kaiser's soldiers. This is denied, but has been consistent- 
ly offered as an excuse and in justification for the acts of the 
German soldiers, and so, where sturdy, cement-covered stone 
houses stood, there remained after the German siege guns had 

219 



220 EUROPE SHAKEN BY CONFLICT. 

done their work, rows of stone walls— roofless houses with black- 
ened interiors — even the church was not spared. And amid 
these ruins few people lingered. It was and has been since a 
graveyard. And then the little town of Dinant, which was de- 
stroyed, almost simultaneously with the burning of Louvain. 
Something under ten thousand people inhabited Dinant-before 
the war-after it had been swept by the Germans there was not 
half that number — and these were not the able-bodied fighting 
Belgians. It was the cruel onslaught of the armed soldiers 
against the civilians, followed by the wholesale executions and 
the capture of belligerents. 

INNOCENT FELL WITH THE GUILTY. 

Men who have ridden through those towns will tell you that 
the German officers vowed that the Belgian citizens must be 
taught that they could not fire upon German soldiers without 
having their lives taken and their homes destroyed — and the 
Germans were not particular. as to whether the women fell, or 
whether in the hail of bullets which were showered upon houses, 
the innocent fell with the guilty. The mere presence in a house 
that was judged to have been the scene of an action against the 
Kaiser's men, was sufficient to justify the destruction of that 
house and all within its portals. 

Before many days of August, 1914, had passed, every 
great European power was at war. On August 23 Japan de- 
clared war on Germany, and several months later Turkey join- 
ed forces with Germany. 

The most dramatic ; the most spectacular even of the first 
nine months of the war, was the German drive on Paris. When 
the German army had been completely mobilized, it brushed 
aside the Belgian resistance, and extending its front east and 
west, began its advance, a million strong, towards Paris. The 



EUROPE SHAKEN BY CONFUCT. 221 

aim of Germany was to dispose of France with one swift, trem- 
ei^dous blow, and then turn and attend to the Russian hordes 
gathering on her eastern frontier. 

The German advance began on August 17, and during the 
next three weeks the German mass dealt one tremendous blow 
after another in an attempt either to crush the centre of the 
Anglo-French army or to turn its left flank. But it succeeded 
m neither of these attempts, although the Anglo-French force 
was compelled to retreat on Paris. Although outnumbered 
three to one, the retreating army offered the most desperate 
courage. The small British expeditionary force especially dis- 
tinguished itself. On August 26 it was singled out for attack. 
Its two corps were pitted against five German corps, and, al- 
though for a time threatened with annihilation, fought with the 
same obstinacy and imperturbability they displayed at Waterloo. 
There they saved not only themselves from total destruction, but 
probably the whole northern army. 

HIGH WATER-MARK OF GERMAN INVASION. 

The high water-mark of German invasion was Laguy, 17 
miles from Paris, and five from the outer ring of forts. Von 
Kluck reached it on September 6, thirteen days earlier than Von 
Moltke in the war of 1870. 

Having raced from the frontier to Paris to get on the al- 
lied flanks, the Germans now raced from Paris towards the 
frontier to save their own flank. Weary, hungry, lacking am- 
munition, the German army toiled back, evacuating town after 
town, whose capture had been a famous victory in Berlin bul- 
letins. But assailed furiously by fresh troops, the retiring Ger- 
mans resisted with equal fury. At no time did their retreat 
become a rout. By October 4, they had been pushed back until 
the nearest of them were seventy miles from the French capi- 



222 EUROPE SHAKEN BY CONFLICT. 

tal. Here, along the river Aisne, they fortified and entrenched 
themselves. Thus ended the great German drive on Paris. 

After the Germans had established (their line along the 
River Aisne, they were forced to wage a different sort of battle 
— " the parallel " battle — which they dreaded. They no longer 
were able to find a flank to envelop, and so were forced to rely 
on front attacks, which almost invariably were unsuccessful. 

CRITICAL SITUATION. 

After they took Antwerp, it was a race to see whether they 
would succeed in reaching the coast of the channel before the 
gap between the extreme left of <he French and the Belgian 
army could be filled. This was one of the most critical situa- 
tions of the war. • The Seventh Division was sent from Eng- 
land to gain time by a diversion in Western Belgium. The En- 
glish army on the Aisne was with great dispatch brought up 
and with greater dispatch thrown into the gap around Ypres. 
The heroic resistance of the Belgian army on the Nieuport- 
Dixmude line gave still further delay. Still, throughout the 
great struggle around Ypres, the issue was often in doubt. The 
British line was terribly thin and often without reserves. 

But once again the immense advantages which the defense 
offered were manifested. Great masses of Germans were hurl- 
ed in vain against the British trenches, only to break and fall 
back terribly decimated. Even when the Germans pierced the 
British line, at some points, they spent themselves in the attack, 
and could not withstand the counter-attack of the British re- 
serves. 

So the Germans were foiled in the second great movement 
— their attempt to insert themselves between the allied forces 
and the coast of the English Channel. The Allies succeeded in 
establishing a line which stood like a great, impregnable wall — 



EUROPE SHAKEN BY CONFLICT. 



223 



300 miles long, stretching from the Channel south to Belf ort, in 
Alsace. Such remained the situation of the war in the west 
well into the month of May, 191 5. 

And while the Germans were thus engaged, first in trying 




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"BUT WHY DID YOU KILL US?" 



FromN. Y. World. 



to capture Paris, and crush France, and later in attemptmg to 
gain a foothold on the northern coast, what was happening in 
the eastern theatre of the war ? From the reports offered up to 



224 EUROPE SHAKEN BY CONFLICT. 

the middle of May, 191 5, one could have the Germans winning, 
or the Russians, or the Austrians — according to which way his 
sympathies inclined. Almost any day, according to reports, 
more men were slaughtered, than could possibly have been en- 
gaged. 

The truth of the matter was, that the fortunes of war alter- 
nately rose and ebbed. Neither side could gain a decisive 
advantage. The Russians would succeed in getting into East 
Prussia, and then would be chased out of it as speedily as they 
came. The Germans would advance into Russian Poland until 
they had come almost to the gates of Warsaw, and then they 
would be forced to turn and make as good time retreating as 
they had made advancing. 

ABANDONED ALL RULES OF WARFARE. 

One day, according to news dispatches from Petrograd, 
the Russians would be well over the Carpathians on their way 
to the coveted Hungarian plains. The next day, Berlin or 
Vienna would report the ubiquitous Russians still on the safe 
side of the Carpathians, far away from the Hungarian plains 
they coveted. 

The German general, Von Hindenburg, however, achieved 
a very definite success in this eastern theatre of the war. He 
met the Russians in East Prussia, cut them to pieces, and left 
of a large, splendid army, only a disorganized, terrified rabble. 

As this book goes to press in May, 1915, we find the Anglo- 
French fleet, cooperated with by land forces, still forging ahead, 
slowly, but steadily, to their goal at Constantinople. But not 
without very considerable losses. On May 12, a Turkish sub- 
marine torpedoed the British battleship Goliath, and sank with 
her 500 of the crew. 

During the course of the great war, Germany abandoned 



EUROPE SHAKEN BY CONFUCT. 225 

all rules of civilized warfare — not to speak of humanitarian 
principle — in the operation work of her submarines and air- 
ships. She equipped some of her troops with an apparatus for 
spraying the Allies' trenches with a blazing liquid, and also 
used asphyxiating gases. 

On the night of August 25, a German Zeppelin passed over 
the famous old city of Antwerp, and dropped bombs in the heart 
of the city. Ten non-combatants were killed, and much prop- 
erty was destroyed. One victim was an old woman. Her only 
crime was that she was in a city against which Germany had 
for the moment directed attack. 

VIOLATION OF RULES. 

Here, then, Germany violated the rules of civilized warfare 
in that she failed to give notice of the bombardment of a city, 
in which there were non-combatants, allowing them opportunity 
to seek places of safety. Yet on September 2, a German air-- 
ship dropped eight more bombs, injuring nine persons. 

On December 16, a fleet of six or more German cruisers 
issued forth from their base at Heligoland, and traveling some 
350 miles, bombarded the towns of Scarborough, Hartlepool and 
Whitby, towns on the east coast of England. 

More than a hundred persons were killed, and many others 
injured. The cruisers soon withdrew, and eluding the British 
ships pursuing, returned to home waters. 

The attack was barren of any advantageous results as far 
as the Germans were concerned — if indeed they expected any 
results outside of terrorizing non-combatants. The attack 
caused no diversion of British warships from assigned posts. 
Neither did the British dreadnoughts come out from behind 
Scotland and string themselves out as marks for submarines. 

The raid did have the effect, however, of setting the people 



226 EUROPE SHAKEN BY CONEUCT. 

along the east coast to building private bombproof vaults fof 
themselves. It also resulted in greater stimulating enlistment 
for the war throughout all England. 

During the month of January, 191 5, German aeroplanes 
attacked Dunkirk many times. They inflicted considerable 
damage on the town and fortress, although the loss of life was 
small. In the aerial raid of January 21, a dozen bombs were 
dropped, one of which smashed the windows and furniture of 
the American Consulate, at Dunkirk, and slightly wounded the 
American Consular agent. One of the German aeroplanes was 
brought down, and the two aviators were killed. On the night 
of January 19, German airships made their long-heralded raid 
on the coast of England. 

" NAVAL AIRSHIPS." 

It is not yet known exactly what they were or whence they 
came. The German account alludes to them as " naval air- 
ships " and states that they returned to their home port undam- 
aged. This port is possibly Cuxhaven or some other German 
station and not the Belgian coast, for it is said that they passed 
over Holland on their way. This raised the question, which has 
been frequently discussed of late years, whether passage through 
the air is a violation of the neutrality of a country. The air- 
ships were thought not to have been Zeppelins, but smaller 
dirigibles, perhaps of the non-rigid Parseval type. 

The night was still and clear, but the airships were not vis- 
ible except when they used their searchlights, although the noise 
of the motors was heard when flying low. Their presence was 
first indicated by the explosion of a bomb in Yarmouth. Eight 
bombs were dropped here, apparently with the object of des- 
troying the shipping and barracks. Some of them failed to ex- 
plode, and only one did any serious damage. This struck and 



EUROPE SHAKEN BY CONFUCT. 227 

completely demolished the house where a cobbler, Samuel Smith, 
was working at his bench. Part of his head was blown off by a 
fragment of the shell and Martha Taylor, seventy years old, 
who was going by in the street, was horribly mutilated and kill- 
ed. The bomb buried itself in a hole six feet deep. One of the 
unexploded bombs was forty inches around the base, twenty- 
three inches high, and weighed sixty pounds. 

This airship or another one passed inland to King's Lynn, 
sixty miles west of Yarmouth. Here also two persons were 
killed, a boy and the widow of a soldier who had recently fallen 
at the front. Apparently the airships were searching for the 
King's residence, Sandringham Hall, about ten miles north of 
King's Lynn, on the supposition that the royal family was there. 
But the King and Queen had left previously for London, and 
owing to the extinction of all lights, the Hall was not discern- 
able. 

GERMAN NEWSPAPERS JUBILANT. 

Cromer and Sheringham on the north coast and half a 
dozen other towns were struck by bombs before the airships de- 
parted at midnight, but little damage was done. Many win- 
dows were smashed, but the total destruction of property caused 
by the raid was said not to be more than $15,000. 

The Kaiser sent a message of congratulation to Count Zep- 
pelin, commodore of German aerial fleet. The German news- 
papers were jubilant over this demonstration and proclaimed 
that against these new weapons, the isolated position of England 
afforded her no protection. 

It is truly said that when modern Germany goes to war she 
casts sentimentality and chivalry and humanity to the winds. 
Her sole object is to terrorize. Belgian women were compelled 
to watch their husbands executed before their very eyes.. Moth- 



228 EUROPE SHAKEN BY CONFLICT. 

ers with infants on their breasts were forced to trudge along 
weary roads, without food for days. 

A favorite German pastime, during the early stages of the 
war, was to choose the Sabbath — when old men, women and 
children left behind by the French soldiers were gathered to- 
gether at worship in the churches of Paris — and hover over the 
city, dropping bombs on the inoffensive people. It is said that 
in a small village near Rheims as many women and children as 
men were among the slain. 

Albert, King of the Belgians, in an interview, had words to 
the following effect to say concerning the German treatment of 
his people. They are the words of a great man, a man who, 
together with his people, were wronged beyond all measure ; but 
yet a man striving to express himself without predjudice, in all 
fairness. No words could more soberly or more tragically 
express the indictment of outraged Belgium against Germany. 

BEHAVED MORE LIKE BEASTS THAN MEN. 

" Awful things were done, especially during the invasion," 
the King said, " but it would not be just to condemn the whole 
German army. Some regiments behaved in a most human man- 
ner ; but others behaved more like beasts than men. 

" The government report was based on an investigation 
conducted in the most impartial, truth-seeking manner. No 
statement was accepted — no matter how reputable its source — 
until it was absolutely verified. 

" There is a limit to the cruelty which the human body can 
bear up under — often the lips of the victim are sealed forever. 
But we have many hundreds of diaries taken from the dead or 
imprisoned German soldiers. These diaries describe, in minute 
detail, the ingenious forms of diabolical cruelty which were prac- 
tised upon many of my innocent, non-combatant subjects. The 



EUROPE SHAKEN BY CONFLICT. 229 

government kept these diaries. They furnish positive, ir- 
refutable testimony of what actually happened when a brutal 
army swept over Belgium." 

The King had spoken with restraint, but there could be 
detected in his manner of speaking the strain under which he 
was laboring. Not only did he feel the horror of the inevi- 
table tragedies of war, but even more keenly did he feel the hor- 
ror of the torture and death visited upon innocent non-cotobat- 
ants. 

To the suggestion that townspeople fired on the Germans, 
the answer was : " The town authorities had taken charge of all 
weapons. No organized attack could have been made by civil- 
ians. There may have been an individual case here and there, 
in which a civilian fired on the Germans, but who will say that 
the provocation was not of the greatest ? In occupied territory, 
no excuse could be offered, of course, for such actions." 

Many Belgian officers, the King advised, have said that 
in some cases crowds of women and children were driven ahead 
of the German army, as a shield for the troops. 

" It is all too true ! This inhuman practice has been a 
common one with the Germans. When Belgian soldiers fired 
on the advancing enemy, they often fired on their own people — 
perhaps slaughtered their own sisters, their own mothers, their 
own children. Mon dieu, how horrible !" 

The King made no effort to conceal his measureless grief, 
his measureless indignation. He said nothing more. What 
more was there to say? 



CHAPTER XVIII. 
WARS NEW TERRORS. 

The; Destruction of Louvain and Rh^ims — Firebrand 
AND Dynamite Bombs Showered upon Defencei^Ess 
Cities — Poisonous Gases New Destroying Agents — Air- 
ships Batti,e in Skies. 

THE one greatest barbaric act of vandalism committed by 
Germany in its war on land, was one which might have 
shamed Attila and Huns in the days gone by. Every- 
where the crime against Louvain has been cited as the most dia- 
bolical act of the Kaiser's forces. The world has deplored the 
outrage and pointed to the burning and dynamiting of the city 
as barbaric. 

Neither time nor money can restore Eouvain, nor can any 
act of humanity undo the work of the Germans. A city made 
beautiful and world famous by great architects, sculptors and 
artists was laid waste. 

With torch and dynamite the masterpieces of artisans dead 
hundreds of years were turned into ashes and debris. Deliber- 
ate intent marked the efforts of the German soldiers. From 
floor to floor through shop, chapel or private home they went 
carrying fire brands and weapons of destruction. 

The people were given barely time to put a few of their per- 
sonal belongings into bags or pillow cases and flee. Thousands 
were rounded up and marched through the night to concentra- 
Lion camps. 

It was war upon Louvain — the strong, the weak, the young, 
the old, and all the beloved city contained — but it was more than 

230 



WARS NEW TERRORS. 231 

that: it was robbery; it was the destruction of priceless works 
of art which belonged to all the world. 

The soldiers piled chairs, tables and household furniture 
together and plied the torch, and as the flames mounted upward 
they drove the owners before them. 

Such are the tactics adopted by the stealthy American sav- 
ages, in the French and Indian War, and which marked them 
for all time without the pale of civilization. 

Hardly had the world recovered from the shock it exper- 
ienced in reading about the destruction of Louvain, when on 
September 12, Termonde, Belgium, a town of 10,000 people was 
burned and sacked by the German soldiers. Then came the 
onslaught on Rheims which brought down upon the Kaiser's 
army the execration of the earth. 

THREATENED TO DESTROY CITY. 

For more than a week the Germans had occupied Rheims, 
when they were driven out by the French. Then the German 
military authorities warned the people of the city that if they 
made attacks on the German soldiers or harassed them, the city 
would be destroyed, and that those who had been seized when 
the soldiers took possession of the city would be put to death. 

Reinforced by the arrival of troops, the Germans on Sep- 
tember 18 again assumed an offensive attitude and began bom- 
barding the city. They operated from the dismantled forts on 
a hill three miles north and poured a rain of shell into the city 
which soon fired the buildings. The famous cathedral was de- 
molished, and the inhabitants sought refuge in cellar and cham- 
ber vault. 

One of the most vivid pictures of the bombardment which 
has been given to the world was that presented by a correspon- 



232 WARS NEW TERRORS. 

dent of the London Evening News, who witnessed the attack 
from a tower of the Cathedral : 

" Directly the shells began to hit the cathedral in the morn- 
ing, some German wounded were brought in from the hospital 
near by, and laid on straw in the nave, while Abbe Andrieux 
and a Red Cross soldier pluckily went up to the tower and hung 
out two Geneva flags. 

" I believe a shell which hit the building while I was there 
was a stray shot, for the German gunners could hardly miss so 
huge a mass, towering as it does above the town, if they really 
wished to reach it. 

SURPRISE AND INDIGNATION. 

" Once, one of them, screaming abominably, crashed 
through the transept roof of the other end of the cathedral. I 
shall never forget the note of horrified surprise and indignation 
that burst from the old sacristan, as a shell smashed a hole in a 
tall house before our eyes. ' That's my house,' he shouted, as 
if for the German gunners three miles away to hear his protest. 
Then his voice dropt to a key of bitter grief. ' Ah, the misery 
of it !' was all he said, and his face remained unmoved, for none 
of the little group of priests and cathedral officials showed either 
fear or emotion. ' You must remember we have had three 
days of this,' said one of them. 

"Meanwhile, the courtesy and good nature shown to the Ger- 
man wounded left in the city was astonishing. While shells 
were falling around the temporary hospital in the nave, I found 
French officers talking to them, bringing wine and giving them 
every consideration. There was only one subject the Germans 
wanted to talk about. Was it not possible, they asked, to get a 
bigger Red Cross flag to put on the tower ?" 

The bombardment was continued for several days after 



WAR'S NEW TERRORS. 233 

this. One of the towers of the cathedral was struck, the rose 
window broken and all the woodwork burnt. President Poin- 
care and the Pope have published protests against such an act 
of vandalism. Few of the German transgressions, however, 
compare with the enormity of the offense charged against Ger- 
many in using bombs laden with poisonous fumes. 

Four American correspondents and two from other neutral 
nations — Holland and Switzerland — in the month of May, at 
the instance of the French government, inspected the hospitals 
where lay victims of these German asphyxiating gases. The 
Kaiser's forces, it appeared, had used bombs, which when ex- 
ploding near the trenches in which the soldiers of the Allies 
were fighting, emitted poisonous gases and fumes which hung 
over the earth and brought death or insensibility to thousands 
of the fighters. The investigation by the correspondents was re- 
ported to have fully confirmed the allegation that the Germans 
were using such death-dealing devices in violation of all rules 
of civilized warfare. 

SUFFERED FROM EFFECTS OF THE GAS. 

The invitation was extended as soon as the official English 
and French investigators had concluded their examination of 
the soldiers who had been subjected to the gas. Some of the men 
survived and were still suffering from the effects of the gas. 
Many, however, were dead. Physicians at the hospitals vis- 
ited were instructed to give the fullest information regarding 
the history of each patient examined, so that the results obtain- 
ed by the correspondents were complete and from thoroughly 
scientific sources. 

The first hospital visited was at Zuydcoote, on the coast, a 
few miles north of Dunkirk. Out of seventy-five victims of 



234 WAR'S NEW TERRORS. 

German gas, who were sent to this institution, three died, and 
fifteen were convalescent. 

Twenty of the remainder were examined by the corres- 
pondents. Some had arrived a few hours after being poisoned. 
Professor Ratheray, one of the most eminent physicians of 
Paris, described the cases. It was he who had performed the 
autopsy over those who had died. The first one to arrive at 
the hospital had turned a violet tinge. He died the next day, 
and an autopsy showed that he formerly had tuberculosis. 

Another victim died two days after his arrival at the hos- 
pital. He, too, once had tuberculosis, and the immediate cause 
of death was tubercular pneumonia. Another subject, who had 
been in perfect health, died from pulmonary congestion, caused 
by the gas. 

MANY DEATHS CAUSED BY GAS. 

Professor Ratheray estimates that among the French 
troops alone, between 3000 and 3500 men were affected, and of 
this number it is no exaggeration to say that ten per cent, died 
on the field of battle, and that six per cent, died in hospitals. 

Experiments were made with various gases on the men who 
recovered, and all of them agreed in saying that chlorine had the 
same taste as the gas used by the Germans. 

Several of the victims were interviewed. All said that 
the effect of the gas had been terrible and instantaneous. Many 
men, they said, were overcome while stooping to pick up their 
haversacks before running from the poisonous cloud. Most of 
them were unable to rise again, but some were able to stagger a 
few yards before succumbing entirely. A few of these were 
dragged from the poisoned zone by their stronger comrades. 

Those who escaped arrived at the hospitals expectorating 
blood. They had collapsed utterly in most cases, and for days 



WAR'S NEW TERRORS. 235 

after were racked by terrible coughing. It was a curious fact 
that in many cases fever developed four to five days later. Then 
pneumonia developed. The men who bore the brunt of the at- 
tack of the gas bombs were pathetic sights. Those who did not 




BRITISH SOLDIER WEARING RESPIRATOR WITH AIB VALVE ON TOP. 

die were little better than confirmed invalids, their vitality low, 
and their usefulness as soldiers destroyed. 

The poisoned arrow has long since been placed under the 
ban of civilized nations. How, then, shall intelligent human 



236 WAR'S NEW TERRORS. 

beings in this enlightened century view the use of such poison- 
ous gases in warfare? 

The burning of houses by the German soldiers, according to 
most reliable correspondents and others, was of no desultory 
character. The firebrand — ^at least its modern equivalent — was 
methodically used in Belgium and on the French frontier, where 
buildings were razed which stood in the path of advancing sol- 
diers. 

Motor tank cars filled with gasoline were run through the 
streets of a town, sprinkling the outsides of the houses, which 
were fired in turn by means of hand greanades. It has also been 
asserted that many German regiments had an incendiary corps, 
the members of which were equipped with gasoline cans strap- 
ped to their bodies. These men entered the house to be burned 
and sprinkled the liquid through the rooms. 

THE FIREBRAND METHODICALLY USED. 

Firebrand disks were carried by many German soldiers in 
Belgium. These disks were small wads about the size of a five 
cent piece, and closely resembling charcoal, and were composed 
of a nitrocellulose material. These disks were carried in small 
bags, which were ignited and thrown through the windows of 
the houses to be burned. Each disk burned violently and jump- 
ed about like a firecracker, although the combustion caused no 
noise and left no trace of what caused the fire. 

Perhaps the most picturesque incident of the war is that 
described in the battle between monster Zeppelin airships and 
aeroplanes of the English Allies in which one of the big dirig- 
ibles, as the Zeppelins are designated, was rendered helpless, and 
fell into the sea, where its crew of sixty men perished. All told 
four Zeppelins were destroyed after they had succeeded in 
killing one woman and three innocent children. 



WAR'S NEW TERRORS. 237 

The first Zeppelin to be brought down on French soil fell 
in an engagement at Calais, where the airship had attacked the 
city. The Zeppelin and two Taubes came in over the sea. 
Scarcely had they begun to drop bombs when they were located 
in the skies by searchlights and were subjected to a violent can- 
nonading. 

The aerial invaders made a desperate attack, but were driv- 
en off. Later they returned and were fired at with shrapnel, 
and were obliged to seek a great height. For a time they es- 
caped damage, but when flying in the direction of Bologne, 
followed by two Taubes, one of the big Zeppelins was shot at by 
a battery at Cape Griz Nez, as it was passing Marguaise and 
was hit with a shell. 

WRECKING A ZEPPELIN. 

The invaders turned back at once and passed once more 
near Calais. The winged Zeppelin was unable to reach the Ger- 
man lines, and fell on the beach at Fort Mandick, about two 
miles from Dunkirk. Forty men on board of the craft were 
taken prisoners, among them being seven officers. The machine 
was wrecked. 

One woman and three children were killed, but little mater- 
ial damage was done, considering the scale of attack. Railway 
communications, which seem to be the object of attack, were not 
affected. 

Just after dawn another Zeppelin flying from the direction 
of the English coast was sighted over the Channel by the crew 
of a French torpedo patrol boat. The airship was flying slowly 
at no great height, and thus offered a good mark for the gun- 
ners on board the destroyer. 

They fired several shots at her, and one took effect, for im- 
mediately afterward the huge craft was observed to have a very 



238 WAR'S NEW TERRORS. 

decided list. This increased momentarily until presently the 
whole ship appeared to crumple up, made one or two frantip 
dives, and fell into the sea, a few miles from Graveline, within 
sight of Grisnez Light. The Zeppelin and crew disappeared 
totally in the sea and the bodies were afterward seen floating 
about in the vicinity. 

German airships had attacked the French port of Calais and 
Ramsgate on the British coast, twenty miles north of Dover, 
England, when they were engaged by shore batteries, torpedo 
boats, and on their return toward Germany by an aeroplane 
squadron in Belgium. 

The Zeppelin that attacked Ramsgate was chased off by 
Eastchurch and Westgate machines as far as the West Hinder 
lightship. When off Nieuport, Belgium, she was attacked by 
eight naval machines from Dunkirk. Three machines were 
able to attack her at close range fire. 

Flight Commander Bigsworth dropped four bombs when 
200 feet above the airship. A large column of smoke was seen 
to come out of one of her compartments. The Zeppelin then 
rose to a great height — 11,000 feet — with her tail down and 
was severely damaged. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

THE SHIP THAT WENT DOWN. 

Prey op Ge;rman Submarine; was Quei^n op Seas — A Float- 
ing Palace that Cost Millions and Carried a Cargo 
Worth Millions More — Repeated Escape erom Deadly 
Foes. 

SHE cannot sink. That was the thought which had given 
confidence to thousands of human beings who were for- 
unate enough to journey across the seas in the wonderful 
Tusitania. Men who have made a Ufe study of building great 
vessels conceived in the ill-fated Cunard Liner, a craft that 
would weather the most violent storm ; withstand the buffeting 
of the angry waves, and ride in triumph to her destination. 

Vain were the boastings that she could not sink. A long 
steel missile, conicle shaped, and laden with a high explosive, 
designed by other men to make futile efforts of the ship builders 
to produce a craft of safety, plunged through the metal side of 
the giant passenger boat, and destroyed in a few short minutes 
the work which it had taken a thousand men months to complete. 

The world will never forget the hundreds who went to their 
death on the Lusitania, through the diabolical efforts of the Ger- 
man submarine, and they will remember the wonderful boat in 
which they perished, for at her destruction she was the greatest 
ship afloat. 

The Lusitania was built in the yards of the British ship- 
building firm of John Brown & Co., at Clyde Bank, on June 7, 
1906. She was the largest and most palatial steamer ever con- 
structed, and proved to be the fastest, breaking the world's 
record for speed on her maiden voyage. She was the first of 

239 



240 THE SHIP THAT WENT DOWN. 

the transatlantic palaces to cross the ocean and land passengers 
four days from departure from port. 

The Lusitania, with her sister ship, the Mauretania, rep- 
resented the final achievement of the Cunard Steamship Com- 
pany in the construction of transatlantic liners. Limit of lan- 
guage makes adequate description of the mammoth vessel al- 
most impossible. The boat was 790 feet long, had a breadth 
of 88 feet ; depth to boat deck, 80 feet ; draught, fully loaded,37 
feet, 6 inches ; displacement on load line, 45,000 tons ; height to 
top of funnels, 155 feet; height to masthead, 216 feet. The hull 
below draught line was divided into 175 water tight compart- 
ments, which made the vessel as nearly proof to accidents of 
nature as human agency could make it. 

QUEEN OF THE SEA. 

This monster of the deep was propelled by four screws ro- 
tated by turbine engines of 68,000 horse-power, capable of de- 
veloping sea speed of more than twenty-five knots an hour, 
regardless of weather conditions, enabling her to maintain 
with ease a schedule with the regularity of a railroad train. 

The passenger accommodation throughout, for 550 first 
class; 500 second class; and 1300 third class, was wonderful, 
and in magnificence and comfort was unapproached. 

Size and height of saloons and private staterooms, com- 
bined with exquisiteness of design, sumptuousness of decora- 
tion, and fitted with every modern electrical device tending to 
comfort, including telephonic communication with every part of 
the vessel, made it impossible to realize that they were rooms 
aboard ship. 

Regal suites, consisting of two bedrooms, private dining 
room and butler's pantry, reception room and bath room, were 
adorned with delicate tapestries, furnished with Sheraton dress- 



THE SHIP THAT WENT DOWN. " 241 

ing tables, brocaded settees, bedsteads of brass, and fitted with 
the best of bedding, blankets and Unen — the whole cared for by 
skilled fingers. 

There were open fireplaces ; window shaped and curtained ; 
nooks and cozy corners and even elevator service conveniently 
located to make inter-deck communication a pleasure. Sani- 
tary lavatories, bath rooms and showers, in white tile and en- 
amel, were numerous, conveniently distributed and amply sup- 
plied with hot and cold water. 

Cusine, famous for excellence, was enjoyed by the Lusi- 
tania passengers, special attention being paid to the a la carte 
service, where one might dine at any desired hour or give pri- 
vate dinners without extra charge. No great metropolitan 
hotel offered more in the way of service and facilities for enjoy- 
ment and comfort than this palace of the deep. 

EVERY LUXURY DESIRED. 

It was the luxuriousness of the Lusitania's accommoda- 
tions which, together with her unfailing swiftness, made her 
the favorite of many of the most noted transatlantic travelers. 
Her nearly two thousand passengers were enjoying every com- 
fort and luxury that modern science could provide — every lux- 
ury that the heart could desire or the imagination conjure up. 
The sun shone brightly and the Irish shore appeared beautiful 
in the near distance — when suddenly the German submarine 
appeared; there was the great crash of the torpedo, and the 
palatial ship, with nearly two-thirds of its gallant company, 
sank almost instantly to its watery grave. 

On the day of the launching, the Lusitania received her 

name from the lips of Dowager I^ady Iverclyde, her sponsor. 

She was the newest and greatest maritime wonder. It was 

said at the time that she would smash the speed records, and she 

16-Ti; 



242 THE SHIP THAT WENT DOWN. 

did — even her own. For years the New York papers awaited 
her arrival in port as an event equal almost to a championship 
polo tournament on Long Island, or a bitterly fought middle 
season baseball series at Coogan's Bluff. With 3000 passen- 
gers, she made her maiden voyage on September 7, 1907, and 
reached New York in five days and 54 minutes, a record at that 
time. But the captain said, " I'll beat this," and thereafter 
that record was lowered and lowered, until the four-day trip 
was a reality. 

Although German steamship men said that the vessels out 
of Hamburg made better time to New York than did the Lusi- 
tania from Liverpool, no one ever disputed her mastery of the 
sea, so far as speed was concerned, and the reputation she ac- 
quired at the outset of her career lived on, despite the birth of 
liners such as the Imperator, Olympic and Vaterland. 

SPEEDIEST SHIP ON THE OCEAN. 

The zenith of her speed was reached on a western voyage 
when she still was a youngster. It was four days, 11 hours 
and 42 minutes. 

The Lusitania's first trip after the war began was made on 
August 4, when she slipped out of New York shrouded in dark- 
ness, save for her port and starboard lights. But 212 passen- 
gers were aboard, and as it was known that the Lusitania was 
the biggest sea-going prize that could fall into the hands of 
German war craft, even they expressed their fears. But the 
trip was made in safety. 

According to William Marconi, the inventor of wireless 
telegraphy, the Lusitania was chased by a submarine off Fast- 
net on her return voyage, when he was a passenger, but it was 
kept secret from the passengers and the newspaper reporters 
on arrival in New York. 



THE SHIP THAT WENT DOWN. 243 

" I think it is a terrible thing to have happened," Mr. Mar- 
coni continued, " and should teach the steamship companies 
two things at least — first, that it is not wise to boast too much of 
the speed of a ship in time of war, and also that secrecy regard- 
ing the incidents which happen on a voyage can be carried too 
far. 

" Only a few persons were informed on Sunday, April i8, 
that the periscope of a German submarine had been sighted off 
the Rocky Island, called the Fastnet, by Cape Clear, and that 
the Lusitania, with her 22-knot speed, had got clear away be- 
fore the dread commerce destroyer could get near enough to 
launch a torpedo. I was surprised to hear that Captain Turner 
came so close to the Irish coast again on the present eastward 
voyage," was Mr. Marconi's comment, " but I presume he relied 
upon the speed of his turbines to elude the submarines." 

AN INTREPID SAILOR. 

But Captain W. T. Turner, of The Royal Naval Reserves, 
in command of the Lusitania when she went to her watery 
grave, was an intrepid sailor. He is said to be one of the most 
daring seamen who ever led a liner across the ocean, and has 
braved mines, torpedoes and submarines on several occasions 
since the war began. 

On one of her runs the big ship hoisted the stars and stripes 
to deceive the enemy lurking at Queenstown. This gave cause 
for grave concern in Washington, and it was said that Captain 
Turner made use of the American flag on his own initiative. 
Later, however, it was declared that the move was ordered by 
the British Admiralty, and that the captain had nothing more 
to do than obey orders. 

Captain Turner is the son of a sea captain, born in Liver- 
pool, in the year 1856. He began his own career as a sailor 



244 THE SHIP THAT WENT DOWN. 

with a voyage as a deck boy in the sailing ship White Star, from 
the Mersey to Aden, around the Cape of Good Hope, at the age 
of thirteen. 

The Queen of the Nations was at that time lying at the 
Guanape Islands, under command of his father, and there the 
boy was transferred and came on his first voyage under his 
parent's training. Since that time his Hfe has been entirely 
given to the following of the sea. 

In April, 1903, Commander Turner received his first com- 
mand in the Cunard Line, when he was appointed to the charge 
of the steamer Aleppo, engaged in the Mediterranean trade. 
During the last ten years he has commanded most of the princi- 
pal steamers of the fleet, among which may be mentioned the 
Carpathia, Ivernia, Umbria, Caronia, Carmania, Lusitania and 
Mauretania. 

COMMANDER IN THE ROYAL NAVY RESERVE. 

He holds the South African transport medal for services 
rendered while on the Cunard Liner Umbria, and also the Ship- 
wreck and Humane Society's medal for saving a boy. Captain 
Turner holds the rank of Commander in the Royal Naval Re- 
serve. He is a member of the executive council of the Mercan- 
tile Marine Service Association. 

While in command of the Mauretania, in 1912, Captain 
Turner rescued from the lifeboats, in which they had taken ref- 
uge, a part of the crew of the British steamship West Point, 
who had abandoned their ship and taken to the boats when the 
West Point was afire from end to end. For his services on 
this occasion he received an illuminated testimonial from the 
Shipwreck and Humane Society. 

Captain Turner is married and is the father of several 
children. One of his sons is now fighting in France. 



THE SHIP THAT WENT DOWN. 245 

While in command of the steamer Transylvania, in Jan- 
uary, 191 5, Captain Turner ran away from a submarine. 

When he heard that submarines were looking for his ship 
he gave orders to the engine room to put on all steam possible. 
Within an hour the Translyvania was going at a clip of 18 knots 
an hour, which Turner had thought entirely too much to expect 
of her. The whole ship throbbed as the engines worked desper- 
ately for a maximum speed. 

Along toward dusk came a British cruiser. Flash signals 
were used and the passengers who knew something was up, 
gathered on deck to watch the interchange of words. The 
cruiser urged Turner to get along as fast as he could and hug 
the Irish shore. 

" LIGHTS DOUSED." 

She also ordered " lights doused." Down went all the 
outside lights, while inside only such lights as were needed for 
the passengers to make their way were allowed. 

That time Captain Turner beat the submarines, getting 
the Transylvania into Queenstown 2 o'clock the next morning, 
all safe. Passengers were kept aboard the ship for five days 
after which they had to debark, going to London by way of 
Dublin and Holyhead. 

On her fatal voyage, the Lusitania carried besides her 
precious human freight, a cargo worth $735,579, according to 
announcement of Hendon Chubb, of Chubb & Son, marine un- 
derwriters. The principal items in her manifest, making about 
two-thirds of its value, were means for military use and were 
contraband of war. The list includes: Sheet brass valued at 
$50,000; copper and copper wire, $32,000; beef, $31,000; furs, 
$119,000; copper manufactured, $21,000; military goods, $66,- 
000, and ammunition, $200,000. 



246 THE SHIP THAT WENT DOWN. 

The mammoth Hner's hull was valued at $6,500,000, and 
the fittings increased her cost to nearly $10,000,000, so that 
the ship and cargo sunk off the coast of Ireland, represented 
about $10,735,000. In addition to her usual insurance on a 
value of $7,500,000 at 3 per cent., the Lusitania carried an ad- 
ditional war risk at i 1-4 per cent., for each round voyage. It 
is understood that the Cunard Line itself carried one-third of 
the insurance on the ship, the rest being divided among Lloyd's 
and other underwriters. 

About half the insurance written on the cargo was taken by 
local companies, the rest being carried by Lloyd's. The rate 
was low, I per cent., which was based on the theory that the 
Lusitania was too fast to be caught by a submarine. It was 
thought by Mr. Chubb that developments would show the at- 
tack was made by more than one submarine, a contingency 
which the insurance men apparently had not taken into consid- 
eration. 

On the slower steamships under the British flag, a rate as 
high as I 1-2 per cent, has been charged. On American ves- 
sels bound through the war zone, the rate has been one-quarter 
to one-half of i per cent, for war risks. 

The first risk accepted after the news of the Lusitania 
disaster was on a slower English vessel, and the insurance was 
taken at 2 per cent. It was said that rates were not being quot- 
ed, but would be made to fit the individual shipments, regardless 
of possible further success by the German submarines. 

This is the manifest of the Lusitania's cargo : 

FOR LIVERPOOL. LBS. VALUE 

Sheet brass 100,000 $ 49,565 

Copper 111,762 20,955 

Copper wire 58,465 11,000 

Cheese . 217,157 33,334 



THE SHIP THAT WENT DOWN. 247 

FOR LIVERPOOL. LBS. VALUE 

Beef 342,165 30,995 

Butter 43,684 8,730 

Lard 40,003 4,000 

Bacon 185,040 18,502 

Casings 10 pkgs. 150 

Canned meat 485 cases. 1,173 

Canned vegetables 248 cases. 744 

Cutlery 63 pkgs. 10,492 

Shoes 10 pkgs. 726 

Tongues 10 pkgs. 224 

Oysters 205 bbls. 1,025 

Lubricating oil 25 bbls. 1,129 

Hardware 31 pkgs. 742 

Leather 30 pkgs. 16,870 

Furs 349 pkgs. 119,220 

Notions 2 pkgs. 974 

Confectionery 655 pkgs. 2,823 

Silverware 8 pkgs. 700 

Precious stones 32 pkgs. 13,350 

Jewelry 2 pkgs. 251 

Belting = 2 pkgs. 1,123 

Auto vehicles and parts 5 pkgs. 616 

Electrical material 8 pkgs. 2,464 

Machinery 2 pkgs. 1,386 

Steel and manufactures 8 pkgs. 354 

Copper manufactures 138 pkgs. 21,000 

Aluminum 144 pkgs. 6,000 

Brass manufactures 95 pkgs. 6,303 

Iron manufactures 33 pkgs. 3,381 

Old rubber 7 pkgs. 341 

Military goods 189 pkgs. 66,221 

Dry goods 238 pkgs. 19,036 

I. R. goods 1 pkg. 131 

Wire goods 16 pkgs. 771 

Reclaimed rubber 10 pkgs. 347 



248 THE SHIP THAT WENT DOWN. 

FOR LIVERPOOL. PKGS. VALUE 

Staves 2,351 pkgs. 200 

Brushes 4 pkgs. 342 

Ammunition 1,271 cases. 47,624 

Salt 100 pkgs. 125' 

Bronze powder 50 cases 1,000 

FOR BRISTOL. 

Dental goods 7 pkgs. 2,319 

Steel and manufactures 4 pkgs. 331 

FOR DUBLIN. 

Engines and material 2 pkgs. 140 

FOR GLASGOW. 

Notions 1 pkg. 479 

FOR KOBE. 

Liquid glue 2 pkgs. 124 

FOR LONDON. 

Books 9 pkgs. 845 

Drugs ... 8 pkgs. 458 

Wool yarn 1 pkg. 105 

The vessel carried an unusually small quantity of mail for 
a large transatlantic liner. There were only eighty-six mail 
bags on board. The bags were made up as follows: Forty- 
seven bags of ordinary letters from New York City, twenty- 
seven bags of registered letters from New York City, six bags 
of newspapers from New York City, and two bags of ordinary 
letters from Baltimore. 

The mail was directed to places in England, Scotland, Ire- 
land, France, Bombay, Switzerland, Spain, Norway, Russia and 
South Africa. 

The average cargo of mail carried by transatlantic liners 
is about i,ooo sacks. 

In the strong box of the Lusitania at the bottom of the sea, 
off the Irish coast, is approximately $5,000,000 of money, for- 
eign exchange, and other valuables belonging to Chicago people. 



THE SHIP THAT WENT DOWN. 249 

Of this treasure $3,000,000 consists of foreign exchange 
belonging to the First National Bank of Chicago, This paper 
was largely duplicated before it left the local bank and the actual 
loss will not be great. 

Had the Post Office Department not prescribed shortly 
before the Lusitania's departure that mails intended for her 
be specifically directed to the ship, the amount of Chicago trea- 
sure aboard her would have been much greater. The lUinois 
Trust and Savings Bank and the Continental and Commercial 
National Bank are congratulating themselves that the bulk of 
their mails missed the liner. 

INSURANCE POLICIES TAKEN OUT. 

Because of the danger from mines and submarines in for- 
eign waters many of the I^usitania's passengers took out insur- 
ance policies before the boat left New York. It was estimated by 
insurance authorities that the life, accident and industrial pol- 
icies held by the victims represented a sum of more than $6,000,- 
000. A few days before the Lusitania left port, Alfred 
Gwynne Vanderbilt took out an accident policy for $100,000. 
Several large insurance policies he originally carried matured 
and the money was collected a couple of years ago, and at the 
time of his sailing he had practically no other insurance save 
the accident policy. 

When the craft went to the bottom of the ocean, it carried 
with it Henry Pollard, and with him a formula for the manu- 
facture of poisonous gases which he intended to offer to the 
British Government. 

Pollard hoped that the gases would be effective as a retal- 
iatory measure against the Germans in the trenches. He had 
given much time and infinite study to working out the formula^ 



250 THE SHIP THAT WENT DOWN. 

and was convinced that in operation the gases would prove more 
destructive than anything invented by German scientists. 

The Lusitiana is the third big trans- Atlantic liner lost since 
the war started. The others were the White Star Liner 
Oceanic, wrecked off the north coast of Scotland, September 8 
last, and the North German-Lloyd steamer Kaiser Wilhelm 
der Grosse, converted into a German auxiliary cruiser, sunk 
by the British cruiser Highflyer, August 27. 

A fourth big steamer, the mammoth Cunarder Aquitania, 
was severely damaged in a collision with the Leyand Liner Cana- 
dian off the Irish coast in the latter part of August. 

THE OCEANIC MADE AN ARMED CRUISER. 

The Oceanic was taken over by the British Government 
and made an armed cruiser upon her arrival at Southampton, 
August 8, from New York. She ran ashore on the coast of 
Scotland and was a total loss. All her officers and crew were 
saved. 

The destruction of the Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse was an- 
nounced by Winston Churchill in the House of Commons. The 
steamer, a vessel of 14,000 tons, had been fitted out with ten 
four-inch guns. Her survivors were saved before the vessel 
sank. The Highflyer had one killed and five wounded. 

The Aquitania collided with the Canadian, also fitted out as 
an auxiliary cruiser, while both were patroling the coast of 
Ireland. So severe were the Aquitania's injuries that she was 
laid up undergoing repairs all winter. 

The career of the Lusitania was comparatively unevent- 
ful up to the time of the war. Owing to an accident to her 
machinery she was laid up for six months in 1913. One of her 
most eventful voyages was completed on her arrival in New 
York on September 16, 191 1, having crossed the Atlantic three 



THE SHIP THAT WENT DOWN. 251 

times in less than three weeks. In January, 1914, the Lusitania 
rescued the crew of the Uttle Canadian brigantine May Flower, 
which was wrecked 1,000 miles from the Canadian shore. 

The Navy Department charts in Washington show that the 
waters off Kinsale, where the Lusitania is reported to have sunk, 
are comparatively shallow, ranging from 120 to 200 feet in 
depth at a distance of nine or ten miles from shore. This, 
naval officers said, should make possible the recovery of valuable 
property aboard the ship. 

The Lusitania sank in sixty fathoms of water, and will 
never be raised, according to statements of the Cunard Com- 
pany. 



CHAPTER XX. 

CAMPAIGN OF MURDER ON LAND AND SEA. 

Committed Formally Chargers Germany with Waging 
Murderous War — Investigated Stories of Cruelty — 
The German Harvest oe the Seas — A Resume oe Com- 
parative Sea Disasters. 

THAT the world might know precisely what justification 
there might be for the charge made that Germany on 
land and sea was waging a campaign of deliberate mur- 
der, a " British Committee on Alleged Atrocities " made an 
investigation during a period prior to the sinking of the Lusi- 
tania, which resulted in the compiling of a report which proved 
to be one of the most extraordinary documents ever laid before 
the public. 

The word "atrocity" long ago became one of the most 
overworked terms in the vocabulary of the war. During the 
early days of the conflict, after it had found its first application 
in the rape of Belgium, it appeared in news dispatches with 
such frequency that its effect was greatly weakened. 

Charges of diabolical cruelty were made by the Germans, 
the Belgians, the British, the French, the Russians, the Aus- 
trians and the Servians against the forces they were respectively 
fighting. Because of their access to the cables the Allies suc- 
ceeded in giving their accusation overshadowing emphasis in 
America and other neutral countries; and there was created 
finally a widespread belief that the Germans had actually prac- 
ticed in Belgium that system of " frightfulness " which had 
seemed a mere theatrical pretense invented to terrify. 

In time, however, this opinion lost vigor. German count- 

252 



CAMPAIGN OF MURDER. 253 

er-charges against the Belgians diverted attention. Some cor- 
respondents, after touring selected districts under the guidance 
of solicitous German staff officers, and finding no heinous 
crimes brought to their notice, blithely testified that the viola- 
tion of Belgium had been accomplished with no more than or- 
dinary hardship to the inhabitants, and devoted themselves to 
praising the humanity and gentleness of the invaders, as con- 
trasted to the sullen vindictiveness of the native people. 

But discredit in the greatest manner came to attach to the 
charges against the German forces because so many tales of 
horror seemed upon investigation to be mythical. One story 
in particular — that of Belgian children whose hands had been 
lopped off — ^became almost an obsession among the credulous. 
Every publication had the experience of receiving the most ex- 
plicit information concerning victims of this kind, some of them 
alleged to be sequestered in this country. 

BLACK RECORD OF CRUELTY. 

But the case was re-opened and retried in a manner that 
canceled the too-ready acquittal pronounced by Americans. The 
character of the commissioners, their methods of procedure, and 
the cumulative effect of the heaped-up evidence they presented, 
left no room for doubt that their findings were essentially true, 
and that Germany had been responsible for a black record of 
cruelty. 

As to the personnel of the investigators: James Viscount 
Bryce practiced law for fifteen years and taught it at Oxford 
for nearly a quarter of a century ; moreover, as a historian he 
has won world-wide renown for accuracy and impartiality. 

His colleagues were Sir Frederick Pollock, judge of the 
admiralty court, and a noted legal expert ; Sir Edward Clarke, 
formerly solicitor general and the most eminent of British law- 



254 CAMPAIGN OF MURDER. 

yers ; Sir Alfred Hopkinson, famous as a barrister and writer 
upon law ; Herbert A. L. Fisher, economist and historian-; Har- 
old Cox, editor of the Edinburgh Review, and Kenelm E. Digby, 
permanent under secretary of state. 

Their report, to be sure, is an ex parte statement, except 
that it is based in some measure upon the diaries of German sol- 
diers ; but its weight could hardly be overestimated. It is doubt- 
ful whether there is an intelligent American — or even an intel- 
ligent German — who would hesitate to intrust his property or 
even his life or his honor to the judgment of these seven men. 

Their function was in its nature judicial, ii'or foui months 
the British authorities had been collecting sworn testimony upon 
the military acts of Germany in Belgium — and for four addi- 
tional months the commissioners examined the records so ob- 
tained, comparing, dissecting and relentlessly judging every de- 
tail in the mass of 1200 affidavits, and putting to each statement 
the acid test of their experience and legal penetration, 

SIFTED EVERY STORY. 

And it must be remembered that identical methods were 
pursued, upon official direction, in gathering the affidavits. 
Witnesses were cross-examined and subjected to rigorous tests 
as to the credibility and mental poise. Realizing that the ter- 
rors they had endured had produced in many Belgians a condi- 
tion of hysteria, the most minute care was taken to sift every 
story, and those recitals which were not fully corroborated were 
rejected. 

With these facts in mind, it is impossible not to be convinc- 
ed that the almost incredible ferocity revealed in such records 
as the following really were practiced : 

" We find many well-established cases of the slaughter of 
whole families, including not infrequently that of quite small 



CAMPAIGN OF MURDER. 255 

children. On August 24, men, women and children were push- 
ed into the front of the German position outside Mons * * * * 
At Tournai, 400 Belgian civilians, men, women and children, 
were placed in front of the Germans, who then engaged the 
French. Two children in Weerde were killed with the bayonet 
as they were standing in the road with their mother. 

At Gelrode, twenty-five civilians were imprisoned in the 
church; seven were taken out by fifteen German soldiers in 
charge of an ofiicer. One of the seven tried to run away, where- 
upon the other six were shot. 

KILLED IN MASSES. 

Unarmed civilians were killed in masses at Dinant. About 
ninety bodies were seen lying in a single square. The town was 
systematically set on fire by hand grenades. The village of 
Vise was completely destroyed. Officers directed the incendiar- 
ies, who worked methodically with benzine. 

At Tamines a large number of civilians, among them 
aged people, women and children, were deliberately killed. A 
witness describes he saw the public square littered with corpses, 
and found there the bodies of his wife and child, a seven-year 
old girl. 

There are 30,000 words in the report, and instances like 
these might be multiplied scores of times. There is no need to 
quote more or to cite the most shocking examples of cruelty. 
" Murder, rape, arson and pillage," declare the investigators, 
"began from the moment when the German army crossed the 
frontier." 

But, it will be said, outrages of this character are to be ex- 
pected in the wake of such huge forces during a bitter war ; the 
best-disciplined army will contain a proportion of criminals. 



256 CAMPAIGN OF MURDER. 

whose instincts cannot be fully controlled in such times of ex- 
citement. As to this the report says : 

" In this present war, however — and this is the gravest 
charge — the evidence shows that the killing of non-combatants 
was carried out to an extent for which no previous war between 
nations claiming to be civilized furnishes any precedent. - That 
this killing was done as part of a deliberate plan is clear from 
the facts. It was done under orders in each place ; it began at a 
certain fixed date. That non-combatants in large numbers were 
systematically killed during the first weeks of the invasion has 
never, so far as we know, been officially denied. If it were, the 
flight and continued voluntary exile of Belgian refugees would 
go far to contradict a denial, for there is no historical parallel 
in modern times for the flight of so large a part of a nation." 

TESTIMONY BECAME IRRESISTIBLE. 

These revelations, the commission admitted, would excite 
amazement even incredulity. The investigators themselves be- 
gan their work filled with skepticism, but they declare that " the, 
concurrent testimony became irresistible." These are their 
findings : 

" It is proved ( i ) that there were in many parts of Belgium 
deliberate and systematically organized massacres of the civil 
population; (2) that innocent civilians, both men and women, 
were murdered in large numbers, women violated and children 
murdered; (3) that looting, houseburning and wanton destruc- 
tion were ordered and countenanced by German officers, and (4) 
that the usages of war were frequently broken, by the using of 
civilians as a shield for troops, by the killing of wounded and 
prisoners and the frequent abuse of the Red Cross and the white 
flag." 

How can such manifestations of organized barbarity be 



CAMPAIGN OF MURDER. 257 

believed of the armed forces of a civilized nation ? The com- 
mission " finds " that the frightful record is due not to lack of 
discipline, but to " a system and in pursuance of a set purpose — 
to strike terror into the civil population and dishearten the op- 
posing troops, so as to crush down resistance and extinguish the 
very spirit of self-defense." And the report searches still deep- 
er into the cause : 

" In the minds of Prussian officers, war seems to have be- 
come a sort of a sacred mission — one of the highest functions 
of the omnipotent State. Ordinary morality and the ordinary 
sentiment of pity vanish, superceded by a new standard which 
justifies to the soldier every means that can conduce to success, 
however shocking to a natural sense of justice and humanity, 
however revolting to his own feelings. The spirit of war is 
defied. Cruelty becomes legitimate when it promises victory." 

SUNK WITHOUT WARNING. 

Let those who think this judgment harsh read the record 
of Belgium's anguish. If they are still inclined to doubt, let 
them remember that the Lusitania, a passenger vessel, was sunk 
without warning by a German torpedo, and 1150 defenseless 
men, women and children were slain. 

Is the Lusitania's massacre more credible than the slaugh- 
ter of Belgian peasants ? Is it to be conceived that " military 
necessity " dictates the murder of non-combatants at sea, and 
would hesitate to reduce obscure villages to heaps of ruins and 
corpses ? 

The scope of Germany's torpedo campaign is plainly made 
manifest by the following list of vessels either torpedoed or 
mined in the " war zone " about the British Isles, between the 
time that the German blockade was made effective on February 

17-TI, 



258 CAMPAIGN OF MURDER. 

1 8 and May 7, when the Lusitania was sent to the bottom of the 
ocean : 

Dinorah, French, torpedoed, February 19. All saved. 

Belridge, Norwegian, torpedoed, February 19. All saved. 

Evelyn, American, sunk by mine explosion, February 20, 
One dead. 

Bjarka, Norwegian, mine, February 20. All saved. . 

Cambank, British, torpedoed, February 20, Four dead. 

Downshire, British, torpedoed, February 20. All saved 

Regin, Norwegian, torpedoed, February 22. Two lost. 

Carib, American, mine, February 22. Two lost. 

Branesome Chine, British, toi'pedoed, February 22. All 
saved. 

Oakby, British, torpedoed, February 23. All saved. 

Royperana, British,torpedoed, February 23. All saved. 

Harpalion, British, torpedoed, February 23. All saved. 

Rio Parana, British, torpedoed, February 23. All saved. 

Deptford, British, mine, February 23. One dead. 

Clan McNaughton, British, torpedoed, February 24. Two 
hundred and eighty lost. 

Western Coast, British mine, February 24. All saved. 

Svarton, Swedish, torpedoed, February 26. All saved. 

Noorsedyk, Dutch, torpedoed, March 5. Not known. 

Tangistan, British, torpedoed, March 9. Thirty-seven 



lost. 



Blackwood, British, torpedoed, March 9,. All saved. 
Bengrove, British, torpedoed, March 9. All saved. 
Princess Victoria, British, torpedoed, March 9. All saved. 
Beethoven, British, torpedoed, March 10. Two lost. 
Indian City, British, torpedoed, March 11. All saved. 
Headlands, British, torpedoed, March 11. All saved. 
Adenwen, British, torpedoed, March 11. All saved. 
Andalusian, British, torpedoed, March 11. All saved. 
Auguste Conseil, British, torpedoed, March 11. All saved. 
Florizan, British, torpedoed, March 11. One dead. 
Hartdale, British, torpedoed, March 13. All saved. 



CAMPAIGN OF MURDER. 259 

Invergil, British, torpedoed, March 13. All saved. 

Haana, Swedish, torpedoed, March 12. Six dead. 

Atlanta, British, torpedoed, March 14. All saved. 

Fingal, British, torpedoed, March 15, Six dead. 

Leeuwarden, British, torpedoed, March 17. All saved . 

Glenartney, British, torpedoed, March 18. One dead. 

Bluejacket, British, torpedoed, March 19. All saved. 

Cairntoor, British, torpedoed, March 21. All saved. 

Concord, British, torpedoed, March 22. All saved. 

Medea, Dutch, torpedoed, March 24. All saved. 

Hyndford, British, torpedoed, March 19. One dead. 

Vosges, French, torpedoed, March 27, One dead. 

Delmira, British, torpedoed, March 25. All saved. 

Falaba, British, torpedoed, March 28. One hundred and 
eleven lost. 

Aguilla, British, torpedoed, March 28. Thirty-three lost. 

Amstel, Dutch, mine, March 29. All saved. 

, Flaminian, British, torpedoed, March 29. All saved. 

Crown of Castile, British, torpedoed, March 29. All saved. 

Seven Seas, British, torpedoed, April i. Thirty lost. 

Emma, French, torpedoed, April i. Nineteen lost. 

Southpoint, British, torpedoed, April 2. All saved. 

Schieland, Dutch, torpedoed, April i. One lost. 

Nor, Norwegian, torpedoed, April 2. All saved. 

City of Bremen, English, torpedoed, April 4. Four lost. 

Northlands, British, torpedoed, April 5. All saved. 

Chateau-Briand, French, torpedoed, April 8. All saved. 

Harpolyce, British, torpedoed, April 10. Seven lost. 

Wayfarer, English, torpedoed, April 11. All saved. 

Guernsey, English, smashed on rocks seeking to escape sub- 
marine, April II. Seven lost. 

Katwijik; Dutch, torpedoed, April 14. All saved. 

Ptarmigan, English, torpedoed, April 14. Eight lost. 

Ellispontos, Greek, torpedoed, April 17. All saved. 

Eva, Norwegian, burned, April 22. All saved. 

Oscar, Norwegian, burned, April 22. All saved. 

Ruth, English, torpedoed, April 22. All saved. 



260 CAMPAIGN OF MURDER. 

Caprvi, Norwegian, mine, April 23. All saved, 

Edale, English, torpedoed, April 30. All saved. 

Svorono, Russian, torpedoed, April 30. All saved. 

Gulflight, American, torpedoed. May i. Three lost. 

Fulgent, English, torpedoed, May 2. One killed, number 
missing. 

Europe, French, torpedoed. May 2. All saved. 

America, Norwegian, torpedoed May i. All saved. 

Laila, Norwegian, torpedoed May i. All saved. 

Baldwin, Norwegian, torpedoed. May 2. All saved. 

Eclida, Swedith, torpedoed. May 3. All saved. 

Elsa, Swedish, torpedoed. May 3. All saved. 

Minterne, English, torpedoed. May 3. Two lost. 

Centurion, English, torpedoed. May 4. All saved. 

Cathay, Danish, torpedoed. May 5. AH saved. 

Earl of Latham, British, shelled and sunk. May 5. All 
saved. 

Candidate, English, torpedoed, May 7. All saved. 

And then on May 7, 1915, the brave Lusitania with its bur- 
den of 1917 human beings, 1 150 of whom perished. 

With recurring frequency, there come to the ears of men 
stories of great ships that go out to sea never to return. The 
horror of the Titanic disaster is recalled by the wanton destruc- 
tion of the Lusitania, and memory goes back to the burning of 
the General Slocum in East River, New York, with its 1000 vic- 
tims, most of them women and children. 

Almost every child remembers the story of Theodosia 
Burr, who sailed from her home in the South to join Aaron Burr 
in New York, and was never heard of afterwards. No one 
knows whether she fell into the hands of pirates "or was simply 
swallowed up by the sea. 

This is but one of the mysteries that are chronicled in the 
annals of marine disasters. There was that steamship Pres- 
ident, the biggest vessel of her time, which steamed from New 



CAMPAIGN OF MURDER 261 

York, for Liverpool, on March ii, 1841, with 136 passengers 
on board. The days passed and there came no word concerning 
her, until finally a bottle was picked up containing a note written 
by Tyrone Power, an actor of the time, in which he said that the 
vessel was sinking. 

Half a score of years later, the steamer City of Glasgow, 
bound for Philadelphia, left Mersey with 1 1 1 saloon passengers, 
293 steerage passengers and a crew of y(y men. The days passed 
with no news of the boat. There were reports that she had been 
seen making for the Azores apparently in a crippled condition, 
but that was all. The vessel never returned. 

MYSTERIOUS DISAPPEARANCE. 

Again on January 23, 1856, the Collins liner Pacific, sailed 
from Liverpool for New York with 245 persons on board. She 
was one of the fast vessels of her time — then regarded as an 
ocean greyhound. No one knows what became of the boat with 
all those human souls. The fate of the Pacific was preceded by 
the destruction of the Arctic, which was plainly sunk in a col- 
lision with a collier oflf Cape Race, when 332 persons went to 
a watery grave. While the sinking of the latter vessel was in no 
way a mystery, it related to the loss of the Pacific, in that both 
boats were owned by the Collins line, and the two catastrophies 
were responsible for driving the Collins line out of existence. 

In the year 1870, the world again was aroused to the horror 
of wholesale deaths when the steamer City of Boston sailed 
to Halifax, left there on January 28, and was never again re- 
ported on the breast of the ocean. 

As a matter of deep significance, in view of the question of 
caring for innocent persons on board war vessels and the ships 
of enemies, a case in point is the wrecking of the British troop 
ship Birkenhead, in Algoa Bay, Cape Colony, South Africa, on 



262 CAMPAIGN OF MURDER. 

February 26, 1852. The boat, carrying British soldiers and 
their families, struck a reef and went down with six hundred 
men, but all the women and children were saved. It was this 
event which made the order of " women and children first " 
stand forth in the regulations relating to the conduct of vessels 
at sea, and gave birth to the " Birkenhead drill " through which 
the weaker are sent to safety. 

The largest loss of life recorded in a ship disaster, was on 
December 21, 181 1, when the British ships St. George, Defense 
and Hero, were stranded during a hurricane near Jutland, and 
2000 lost their lives. Next in order are ranged the Titanic 
with 1635 ; Sultana, with 11 00; General Slocum, and the Japan- 
ese steamship Kikemara, with 1000 each; Princess Alice sunk in 
a collision in the River Thames, 700;Norge, stranded, with 700. 

The Sultana horror was one of the greatest in inland ship- 
ping history. It was obscured by the assassination of Presi- 
dent lyincoln, and the public, aside from those immediately in- 
terested, paid little attention to the catastrophe, in which 11 00 
lost their lives. 

The principal marine disasters which have startled the 
modern world are recorded as follows : 

1 749. Man-of-war Pembroke, sunk near Porto Novo ; 330 
of her crew perished. 

17^18. Man-of-war Prince George, burnt ; 400 perished. 

1782. Man-of-war Prince George, was sunk; 600 per- 
ished. 

1786. The Flalsewell, East Indian, was sunk; 386 perish- 
ed. 

1797. The warship Ea Tribune, sank off Halifax; 300 
souls perished. 

1800. The transport Queen, wrecked on Trefusis Point; 
291 of crew perished. 

1800. The Queen Charlotte, man-of-war, burnt by an ac- 



CAMPAIGN OF MURDER. 263 

cidental fire off the coast of Leghorn; more than 700 seamen out 
of a crew of 850 perished by fire or drowning. 

1854. U. S. mail steamer Arctic, wrecked by a collision 
in a fog with the Vesta, a French steamer, off Newfoundland ; 
300 lost, 

1858. The Austria, a steam emigrant' ship, burnt by fire 
due to carelessness. Of 538 on board only 67 were saved. 

1873. The steamer Atlantic of the White Star Company, 
struck on Meagher Rock, west of Sambro ; 560 lost. 

1874. The emigrant vessel Cospatrick, on her way to 
Auckland, New Zealand, took fire; only five or six out of 476 
escaped, 

1875. l^he Schiller, a Hamburg mail steamer, wrecked in 
a, fog on the rocks off the Scilly Islands; 331 drowned. 

1878. Grosser Kurfurst, the German ironclad, sunk by a 
collision with the Konig Wilhelm ; 300 lost. 

1878. The Princess Alice was run into by the screw steam- 
er By well Castle, in the Thames, near Woolwich, and sunk; 
between 600 and 700 lost. 

1883. The Cimbria, a Hamburg steamer, sunk by collision 
with the English steamer, Sultan, off the coast of Holland; 454 
perished, 

1890. The Turkish frigate Ertugrul foundered on the 
south coast of Japan during a gale ; 584 perished. 

1 89 1. The steamer Utopia, conveying;, 830 Italian emi- 
grants from Naples to New York, was sunk during a gale by 
collision with H. M. S. the ironclad Anson, at anchor in the Bay 
of Gibraltar ; 564 of the passengers and crew were drowned. 

1892. The steamer Namchow, foundered off Cupchi 
Point, China ; 509 lives lost. 

1895. Regente, Spanish cruiser, sank off Cape Trafal- 
gar ; 400 lives lost. 

1896, The North German Lloyd steamer Elbe, from Bre- 
men to New York, sunk in collision with the Crathie of Aber- 
deen ; 334 lives lost, including the Captain. 

1898. The La Bourgogne, a French liner bound from 
New York to Havre (160 miles north of her true course and 



264 CAMPAIGN OF MURDER. 

going at full speed), sunk in collision, during a dense fog, with 
the Cromartyshire, off Sable Island, Nova Scotia ; 545 drowned, 
165 saved. 

1902. The steamer Camorta, lost in a cyclone in the Bay 
of Bengal ; 740 lost. 

1904. The General Slocum, an American excursion 
steamer, caught fire on the East River; 1000 lives lost. 

1912. The Royal Mail steamship Titanic of the White 
Star Line, sailing on her maiden voyage from Southampton to 
New York, with 2223 passengers and crew, was lost at sea by 
collision with an iceberg on the night of Sunday, April 14, 1912, 
and 832 passengers and 685 of the crew perished. The remain- 
der were rescued from lifeboats by the Cunard steamship Car- 
pathia. The Titanic was the largest vessel in the world at the 
time of the disaster. 

1914. The year 1914 had its most disastrous maritime ca- 
tastrophe in the sinking of the Canadian Pacific Steamship, 
Empress of Ireland, in the lower St. Lawrence, about 200 miles 
from Quebec, on May 29, when it was struck by the collier 
Storstad. This collision occurred at 2.12 A. M., in a dense fog. 
The total loss of life was 1027 out of the 1479 passengers and 
crew. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

ECHOES OF THE LUSITANIA. 

Storieis That She;d Light on Germany's Submarine; War- 
fare — Underwater Craft Prevented Saving of Passen- 
gers — American Steamer Cushing Attacked with 
Bombs. 

WHILE America received semi-official assurance that 
there would be a modification of the German submar- 
ine policy, following the receipt at Berlin of Presi- 
dent Wilson's note of protest against the attacks upon neutral 
vessels, and those not carrying contraband goods, there was no 
diminution of stories reflecting on the conduct of the German 
fighting men during the period preceding and following the des- 
truction of the Lusitania. 

One of the stories directly relating to the sinking of the 
Lusitania, and the killing of 1150 innocent persons, was that 
related by Captain William F. Wood, of the steamship Etonian, 
which reached Boston on May 18, eleven days after the terrible 
ocean tragedy. 

It remained for the captain of the Etonian to add the 
.crowning touch to the tragedy that brought the United States 
and Germany to a more strained diplomatic situation than had 
iever existed between the two countries. 

Captain Wood charged that two German submarines de- 
liberately warned him away from the scene of the Lusitania 
disaster, after he had received the liner's wireless S. O. S. call, 
and when he was but forty miles or so away, and might have 
rendered great assistance to the hundreds of victims. 

265 



266 ECHOES OF THE LUSITANIA. 

Captain Wood charged further that two other ships, both 
within the same distance of the Lusitania, when she sank, were 
warned off by submarines, and that when the nearest one, the 
Narraganestt, bound for New York, and the Exeter City persist- 
ed in the attempt to proceed to the rescue of the Lusitania's 
passengers, a submarine fired a torpedo at her, which missed the 
Narragansett by only a few feet. 

THREATENED IF THEY OFFERED ASSISTANCE. 

The Etonian is a freight-carrying steamship, owned by the 
Wilson-Furness-Leyland Eines, and at the time under charter 
to the Cunard Eine. She sailed from Liverpool on May 6, 
and should have left again for Liverpool on May 15. But ow- 
ing to delays she did not reach Boston until May 18. Captain 
Wood's story, without embellishment and in the most positive 
terms, was as follows : 

" We had left Liverpool without unusual incident, and it 
was 2 in the afternoon of Friday, May 7, that we received the 
' S. O. S.' call from the Lusitania. Her wireless operator sent 
this message : ' We are ten miles south of Kinsale. Come at 
once.' 

" I was then about 42 miles distant from the position he 
gave me. Two other steamships were ahead of me, going in 
the same direction. They were the Narragansett and the Exe- 
ter City. The Narragansett was closer to the Lusitania and ' 
she answered the ' S. O. S.' call. At 5 P. M., the Exeter City, 
signaled, ' Had we heard anything of the disaster ?' 

" At that very moment, I saw the periscope of a submarine 
between the Etonian and the Exeter City. The submarine was 
about a quarter of a mile directly ahead of us. She immediately 
dived as soon as she saw us coming toward her. I distinctly 
saw the splash in the water caused by her submerging. 



ECHOES OF THE LUSITANIA. 267 

" I signaled to the engine room for every available inch 
of speed and there was a prompt response. Then we saw the 
submarine come up astern of us with the periscope in line. I 
kept on at full speed ahead, and we left the submarine slowly be- 
hind. The periscope remained in sight about twenty minutes. 
Our speed was perhaps two miles an hour better than the sub- 
marine could do. 

" No sooner had we left this submarine astern than I made 
out another on the starboard bow, and on the surface, not sub- 
merged. I starboarded hard away from it and it swung around 
as we did. About eight minutes later it submerged. I con- 
tinued at top speed for four hours and saw no more of the sub- 
marines. My ship's speed saved her, that's all. 

SUBMARINES ACTING IN CONCERT. 

" Both these submarines were longish craft, and the second 
one had wireless masts. There is no question in my mind that 
two submarines were acting in concert, and were so placed as to 
torpedo any ship that might attempt to go to the rescue of the 
passengers of the Lusitania." 

Another thrilling story is that which was unfolded on May 
1 8 in Philadelphia by the Captain and crew of the American 
tank steamer Cushing, which was attacked and riddled by a 
German bomb, on April 28, while about twenty-five miles from 
Antwerp. The attack, according to a report submitted by Cap- 
tain Lars lyarsen Herland, occurred about seven o'clock in the 
evening, when it was yet light enough for the crew to observe 
the maneuvers of the German biplane which dropped the bombs, 
and at a time when the vessel was plainly flying the American 
flag. 

In an official report given to the American Consul in Rot- 



268 ECHOES OF THE EUSITANIA. 

terdam, the captain refers to bomb-dropping as a " dastardly act, 
a deliberate attempt to sink an unarmed vessel and murder the 
members of the crew." A copy of this report was forwarded to 
the State Department at Washington. 

Two of the bombs which were cast at the Cushing missed 
the vessel entirely. The German airmen swept in narrow 
circles over the tanker, trying to get directly over the funnel, 
with the idea, apparently, of dropping a Isomb down it, and 
wrecking the engine room. The crew, at first swarming to the 
deck, quickly beat a retreat to the forecastle, and no one was 
hurt by the explosion of the bomb which did strike the Cushing. 

BIPLANE ATTACKED THE CUSHING. 

The attack occurred while the Cushing was about twenty- 
five miles from Antwerp and eight miles from the North Hinder 
Light Ship. It was near seven o'clock in the evening, but the 
sun had barely touched the horizon, and there was ample light 
for the officers and crew to see every detail of the attack, and 
also for the pilot of the biplane to see the words, " Cushing, New 
York, United States of America," painted on each side of the 
vessel in letters six feet high, and to note the Stars and Stripes 
at the masthead and the taffrail. Also the flag was painted on 
the canvas covering the hatchways. 

The Cushing was in danger a second time. On the way 
home, on May 4, two days out from Rotterdam, off the Dutch 
coast, a German submarine was sighted laying mines. Mem- 
bers of the crew said that the submarine, while only 100 feet 
away, placed a mine in the water directly in the path of the Cush- 
ing. The mine had an iron bar which protruded above the 
surface. One of the crew, Antonio Martinez, a Spaniard, lost 
his nerve in Rotterdam, and deserted. 



ECHOES OF THE I.USITANIA. 269 

Clever seamanship by the first mate, Charles Christopher, 
who was at the wheel, enabled the Cushing to avoid this mine, 
but by such a narrow margin, that, though the stern of the ves- 
sel touched the mine, it struck so gently that no explosion fol- 
lowed. 

Word of the attack on the Cushing, which at the time was 
bound for Rotterdam with 9,000 tons of crude oil, consigned 
to the government of Holland, was cabled to this country two 
days later and the attack was referred to by President Wilson 
in his note of protest to the German government. 

Members of the crew of the Cushing kept as souvenirs doz- 
ens of jagged pieces of iron, found on the decks of the vessel. 
Though, admitting frankly that they were " scared to death," 
at the time of the attack, their anger was greater because of 
the riddling of the flag than because of their own danger. 

ENGINEER STUCK TO HIS POST. 

When the airship, which bombarded the Cushing was first 
noted by the lookout, it was several thousand feet in the air, and 
was coming, apparently, from the coast of England. The crew 
all piled out on deck, as did also all the officers, save the first 
engineer, who stuck to his post in the engine room. 

The airship began to drop down as it approached the ship, 
and soon was only about 500 feet in the air. Everybody watched 
with interest the skillful way in which the lone pilot of the bi- 
plane handled his machine. An attack was not even considered 
a possibility, for up to that time all thought the flying machine 
an English craft. 

Suddenly the biplane swooped down until it was only 300 
or 400 feet above the Cushing, barely high enough to escape the 
rush of gas and superheated vapor from the smoke stack. 
Sharp-eared members of the crew, clustered in the stern, heard 



270 ECHOES OF THE LUSITANIA. 

a hissing sound and something plunked into the water just off 
the taffrail. 

A second later, there was, a tremendous explosion, and a 
solid wave of water flooded the stern deck. The crew fled for 
the nearest hatchways, and dived down just as a second bomb 
fell, missed the port quarter by a foot or so, and dropped into 
the sea. Another explosion sent another wave cascading over 
the lower deck. 

THIRD BOMB DROPPED. 

The biplane swung up into the wind, hung motionless for a 
second or so, then came the third bomb, which just grazed the 
starboard rail and shot into the sea. Part of the explosion of 
this third bomb took place after it struck the ocean and more 
water poured aboard the tanker. The airship hung around for 
a few minutes, then headed for the Dutch coast, and soon dis- 
appeared. 

While the bombs were dropping. Captain Herland, Chris- 
topher, and the pilot taken aboard off Deal, stuck to their posts 
on the bridge. 

According to W. S. Alexander, second engineer :" The Ger- 
mans realize they are beaten, and in sheer desperation are at- 
tempting to destroy every ship, whether belonging to the Allies 
or to neutral Powers, that they can reach by airship, submarine 
or mine. Supplies of all sorts consigned to Holland are finding 
their way to Germany, and the Germans are really taking 
chances on blowing up cargoes meant for their own use. The 
Germans have recently planted a number of mines in the 
North Sea which had previously been cleared by British 
trawlers." 

When the biplane that attacked the Cushing dropped down 
so close to the ship, it was seen that she was flying a white flag 



ECHOES OF THE LUSiTANIA. 271 

with a black cross in the centre, the admitted pennant of the 
German air fleet. 

Captain Herland was the only one aboard the Cushing who 
was reluctant to speak publicly about the attack of the airship.. 
He said he had made a report to the American Consul at Rot- 
terdam, and that he was under explicit instructions not to dis- 
cuss the case outside. Captain Herland, however, corroborated 
the salient features of the attack as they were detailed by his 
men. 

" The danger in the German war zone is great," he said. 
" Ships of the enemies are in constant peril." 

OFFICERS OF THE CUSHING. 

The officers of the Cushing, besides those already mention- 
ed, were : F. K. Tyler, second mate ; Axel Eriksson, third mate ; 
William Allen, chief engineer, and Robert F. Phenny, third en- 
gineer. 

" The act of the men on the German aeroplane was inde- 
fensible and inexcusable," said Captain Herald. " They could 
see our flag and the letters on the sides of the ship, six feet in 
height. As soon as the bombs fell, I ordered the whistles blown 
for help and the lifeboats prepared in case we began to sink, 
for we could not tell how badly we were damaged. Part of the 
rail on the starboard side near the stern was broken, but was re- 
paired before we started home." 

One man had a narrow escape from death, the steward, who 
was standing near the spot where the bomb hit the rail. 

" The first bomb exploded in the water with the sound made 
by a broadside from a battleship," said William S. Alexander, 
assistant engineer of the Cushing. "The crew scuttled below 
decks. The aeroplane was so close that we could hear plainly 
the whirr of her motor. 



272 ECHOES OE THE I.USITANIA. 

" The Germans could not help but have seen the American 
flag, an exceptionally large flag, and our name in big white let^ 
ters on a black background. It was a beautiful clear night and 
there was lots of light. 

" It was only the poor marksmanship of the Germans that 
saved us. If they had sent one of those bombs down the smoke- 
stack it would have blown up the ship by getting into the boilers 
or steam pipes. The bomb that exploded behind the ship made 
me think the whole stern had been blown away, so great was 
the concussion. 

" We saw on the underside of the Taube, a large black 
cross, which indicated that she was a German aeroplane. It 
was evidently a deliberately done, dastardly act, and everybody 
on board calls it that. We made Rotterdam six hours later, 
at 1.30 o'clock, on the morning of April 29, unloaded our cargo 
of kerosene (you can imagine what would have happened if a 
bomb had set off the kerosene) and started for home. 

UNEASY IN THE WAR ZONE. 

" Everybody on board was nervous about aeroplanes on 
the way from Rotterdam, I can tell you, and we did not feel easy 
until we were well out of the war zone. Many of us did not 
know whether the vessel had been vitally struck or not, when 
those bombs fell." 

Lying beside the Gushing, when she reached Philadelphia, 
was the Wico, a sister ship. She had just arrived from Stock- 
holm and her commander. Captain Gibson, believed the Wico, 
on her last voyage from Philadelphia to Sweden, sank a German 
submarine in the North Sea. 

Still another contribution to the literature bearing upon 
Germany's diabolical submarine and torpedo policy is found in a 
letter written by Mrs. B. M. L,arsen, of Philadelphia, who with 



ECHOES OF THE LUSITANIA. 273 

her husband, a retired sea captain, was on board the Norwegian 
steamship America, which was torpedoed on May 3, by a Ger- 
man submarine. 

TORPEDOED WITHOUT WARNING. 

In her letter to her mother, Mrs. Barbara Amonson, of 
Newtown, Pa., Mrs. L,arsen says that the America was torpedo- 
ed without warning at night, and sank in a few minutes. Every- 
body on board escaped, but she and her husband were left in a 
small boat for twelve hours in the North Sea, before they were 
picked up by a little Norwegian ship. Subsequently Captain 
Earsen and his wife were on the steamship Sterling, when it was 
halted by a German submarine, but when the officers of the Ger- 
man war craft were advised by Captain Endresen, that his crew 
of the sunken America were on board the Sterling, the vessel 
was permitted to continue without being bombarded. Captain 
Earsen was at one time British Consul-General at Porto Cortez, 
Honduras. Captain and Mrs. Earsen went on the America 
bound for Bergen, as guests of Captain Endresen, because they 
thought they would be safe on the vessel of a country not engag- 
ed in war and not carrying supplies to belligerents. Included in 
her cargo were 9000 sacks of flour, valued at $53,000; some 
7000 barrels of lubricating oil, valued at $69,000, as well as 
canned beef, lard, pork and other general merchandise, valued 
at $120,000. Expert testimony was taken at Christiana, Norway, 
on May 20, into the sinking of the America to prove that she 
was destroyed by a torpedo. 

An incidental story of heroism is that relating to the des- 
truction of the British steamship Drumcree, which was torpe- 
doed in the English Channel on May 19. The entire crew and 
all of the passengers were saved through the efforts of the crew 
of a Norwegian vessel. 

18-TI, 



274 ECHOES OF THE LUSITANIA. 

The Drumcree left Barry on Tuesday, May i8, and on the 
following day was torpedoed off the Cornish coast, on Wednes- 
day. The projectile failed to sink her and the boat was taken in 
tow by the Norwegian steamship. The submarine started in 
pursuit and the Norwegian was forced to cast off. A second 
torpedo finished the Drumcree. She was sinking rapidly when 
the Norwegian vessel, perceiving her peril, returned and took 
off the passengers and crew. The Drumcree was built in Sun- 
derland in 1905. She is of 41 21 tons gross register, and 374 
feet long. 

CAPTAIN ONLY SURVIVOR. 

Some of the minor losses caused by the German torpedoes 
included the French steam trawler St. Just, of Arcachon, which 
was torpedoed and literally smashed to pieces near Dartmouth, 
on May 20, when thirteen of her crew were drowned. The 
captain was the only survivor. It is said no warning was given 
the vessel before she was torpedoed. 

Also on that date, the Norwegian tank steamship Maricopa, 
bound from Port Arthur to Holland, struck a mine head on in 
the North Sea. 

The crew of the trawler Crimond, which was sunk by a 
German submarine on May ig, was landed at Wick, England. 
The chief engineer of the Crimond said a German officer com- 
pelled him, at the point of a revolver, to cut the pipes on the 
trawler, to facilitate the flooding of the vessel. The engineer 
said also that before the trawler was captured, he had seen the 
same submarine blow up a steamship, the name of which he 
could not ascertain. 

A despatch from Scotland said that the British trawler 
Chrysolite was sunk by a German submarine, thirty miles off 
Kinnaird's Head, in the North Sea, May 19. The crew took to 
the boats, and were landed by a Norwegian steamship. 



ECHOES OF THE LUSITANIA. 275 

The British Admiralty reported that the British, steamship 
Dumfries was torpedoed on the morning of May 19. All hands 
were saved. 

An Aberdeen despatch said that the trawler Lucerne was 
sunk by a German submarine forty miles off Rattray Head the 
same day. The crew was saved. 

The Queen Wilhelmina was torpedoed off the Irish coast 
bound from Philadelphia for L,eith, Scotland. She was owned by 
Furness, Whity & Co., of London, and was in command of 
Captain Dickinson,. who was saved with the rest of the crew. 
Included in her cargo, valued ot $230,000, were 5400 sacks of 
flour, worth $34,000; more than 130,000 bushels of grain worth 
$137,000, and lubricating oil, nails, wire, oak lumber, soap and 
other merchandise worth more than $57,000. 

LOSS OF LIFE AND VESSELS. 

While naval annals credited Germany with less than thirty 
submarines at the beginning of the war, the fact is that ten or a 
dozen more were nearing completion for the naval budget for 
1914, covered a g'rant of $4,750,000 for this type of torpedo 
craft. The Parliamentary Secretary of the British Admiralty 
gave out these figures on May 11:" The cost of the war in Brit- 
ish ships, not including warships, thus far has been 201 vessels, 
and 1,556 lives have been lost." 

It is important to consider what happened within the span 
of eight days just prior to the sinking of the Lusitania. It will 
be clear to any one how thoroughly the Germans had spread 
their net to catch that steamer. In connection with this point 
it should be recalled that the First Lord of the Admiralty de- 
clared that the British navy spare destroyers to convoy mer- 
chant shipping. The seagoing torpedo boat has proved to be 
the submarine's most effective enemy. 



276 ECHOES OF THE LUSITANIA. 

With the following list, a graphic conception can be had 
of what had gone on in the relatively confined waters of the 
Irish Sea and the English Channel, and what logically was plan- 
ned to take place by General Von Tirpitz through the mainten- 
ance of the submarine blockade. 



)ATE. 


NAME OF SHIP. 


POINT OF ATTACK. 


April 29 . 


. Cherbury . 


. West coast of Ireland, 


April 30 . 


. Svorono . . 


. Blasket Islands. 


May 1 . 


. Edale . . . 


. Scilly Islands. 


« 


. Fulgent . . 


. Skellig Rocks. 


(( 


. Europe . . 


. Bishops Rocks. 


(( 


. Gulfiight . 


. Scilly Islands. 


May 2 . 


. America . . 


. Southernmost point of Ireland 


May 3 . 


. Minterne . 


. Scilly Islands. 


May 6 . 


. Earl of lyatham Off Kinsale. 


u 


. Candidate . 


. Off Waterford, Ireland. 


(1 


. Centurion. . 


. Near Waterford. 


May T . 


. Lusitania . . 


.OffOld Head of Kinsale. 



From the Scilly Islands, south of England, across to the 
Blasket Islands, on the Irish coast, is a stretch of 217 miles, and 
from the entrance of St. George's Channel to the Scilly Islands 
is a span of 118 miles, and this makes it clear that a group of 
submarines based along both sides of the approaches to the Irish 
Sea from the south. It was into this trap that the Lusitania 
was permitted to run despite what the U-boats had been doing 
the day before. 

It may be asked how the German boats managed to reach 
these points on the coast of the British Isles, and to maintain 
themselves when there without discovery. In all probability 
they made their way to these positions from Zeebrugge, the 
nearest known submarine supply base. Admiral Von Tirpitz 
had said that the biggest of the boats could carry food and fuel 



ECHOES OF THE LUSITANIA. 277 

enough for fourteen days. Even so, how did they manage to 
reach their several strategic stations without being caught en 
route ? 

In all probability the German submarines travelled from 
Zeebrugge by night and possibly in the awash condition with 
their decks level with the sea. In this state it was feasible for 
them to use their oil motors and to jog along at a good cruising 
gait. When making part of the journey in the daytime and of 
necessity on the surface they may have resorted to a clever ruse. 
With only their ventilators above water and nestling in the lee 
of a fishing boat, they may have managed to drift down the 
Channel undetected and unsuspected. 

They took desperate chances no doubt, but the German com- 
manders familiarized themselves with the waters chosen for 
their respective tasks, and in the daytime sought cover in un- 
frequented bays or possibly in waters sufficiently shallow to 
make this safe. Grand Admiral Von Tirpitz had said his U- 
boats were handled in just this way. 

The southern coast of Ireland, where the German under- 
water craft were so active, was an ideal place for these boats to 
hide and to lie in. 



CHAPTER XXII. 
SUBMARINES BORN IN SECRECY. 

Whii^e; BelittivIng De:ath-D^ai,ing Craft Ge:rmany Sil- 
ElNTiyY Devb;i.ope;d Them — The Strenuous Liee oe the 
Submarine Crews — The Torpedo-Boat Destroyer — 
Nemesis oe the Submarine. 

THAT Germany planned years ahead for its submarine war 
campaign — with its attending diaboUcal savagery such 
as was demonstrated in the Lusitania sinking — yet all 
the while pretended to belittle the use of undersea craft, has been 
definitely established. She labored with all possible secrecy, 
designing deadly submarines and perfecting their operation so 
as to work with the greatest havoc and horror when the time 
became ripe. In the year 1902, the late Rear Admiral George 
W. Melville, U. S. N., recorded the following significant con- 
versation held with Admiral Von Tirpitz, now central figure 
in Germany's naval warfare : 

" In discussing the submarine question with one of the staff 
of Prince Henry in New York, this official informed me that the 
Americans had done very well in going slowly in building such 
boats. He further remarked that the German Admiralty had 
done better, for they had refused to build any. 

" A little later Admiral Von Tirpitz declared : ' It is true 
that submarine boats have improved, but they are as useless as 
ever. Nevertheless, ,the German navy is carefully watching 
their progress, though it has no reason to make experiments 
itself.' 

" Obviously, Admiral Von Tirpitz spoke more as a diplo- 
mat than as technician. 

278 



SUBMARINES BORN IN SECRECY. 279 

" In 1900, copying England, Admiral Von Tirpitz organ- 
ized the German Navy League. He did so to drive home to 
the inland peoples of the empire the nation's need of an ample 
battle fleet. The first need was battleships, and Admiral Von 
Tirpitz was shrewd enough to keep the inexpensive marine in 
the background." 

When Admiral Von Tirpitz was sure that the navy was to 
have all of the heavy fighting ships and destroyers he deemed 
necessary, then and then only did he publicly recognize the sub- 
marine, and by that time Germany was in a position to profit by 
the outlay of France, America and England. Here, in brief, 
is the story of the Kaiser's undersea flotilla : 

RANKED WITH THE BEST. 

A number of private German citizens undertook experi- 
mental work with submarines before the German Government 
made any movement in that direction, but those boats really 
meant nothing to the official efforts that started later. On 
August 3, 1906, the German Government launched the U-i, the 
first of the present flotilla. That craft ranked at once by reason 
of her performances with the very best then extant in rival ser- 
vices. Of 240 tons submerged displacement, she was able to • 
make eleven knots on the surface and nine knots submerged, 
while the best that American boats of the same date could do 
was ten and one-half knots on the surface, and eight and one- 
half submerged, the underwater displacement being thirty-three 
tons greater than that of the U-i. 

The French authorities for some years previously had been, 
laboring with a variety of designs for submarine boats, unwisely 
scattering their efforts, and the Ministry of Marine was any- 
thing but kindly disposed toward foreign or outside plans. 
Raoul d'Equevilley, a Spanish subject of French extraction and 



280 SUBMARINES BORN IN SECRECY. 

engineering training, offered a design for submarines to the 
French Government, early in 1905, after he had previously built 
a small but promising craft, the Florelle, for the Russian Gov- 
ernment. His offer was rejected by the French Ministry of 
Marine, and the inventor turned his attention to a more promis- 
ing market. That he found in Germany and at the Krupp 
Works. 

GREAT EXCITEMENT IN FRANCE. 

When it was learned that the U-i was in the course of con- 
struction great excitement was aroused in France, because it 
was rumored that the boat building at Kiel was a duplicate of 
the Aigrette, the first successful French submersible. The 
charge was unjustified. Almost contemporaneously with the 
launching of the U-i, the Germans had in hand the first of their 
heavy oil engines, designed to supplant the usual motors using 
the more dangerous fuel, explosive gasoline. This shows how 
energetically the Kaiser's navy moved ahead when once Admiral 
Von Tirpitz was satisfied that it was time to begin the building 
of undersea boats. From U-i as a start, the rest of the flotilla 
was developed. 

The German U-boats show few classes or different sizes. 
This means that the imperial Admiralty has advanced by pos- 
itive steps so graded that a measure of success has been obtained 
with each group. Thus from an initial craft of 240 tons sub- 
merged displacement, the German submarines have grown to be 
vessels close on to 1,000 tons under water. 

The German shipyards began turning out between two and 
three submarines every month, and these of the largest and best 
type. The famous Augsburg Maschlenanfabrik, which spec- 
ializes in Diesel engines for submarines, in May, 191 5, ran day 
and night in an effort to supply these motors as fast as the U- 
boats were built. 



SUBMARINES BORN IN SECRECY. 281 

When the submarine blockade of England was announced, 
on December 2, last, the Grand Admiral said the biggest of his 
submarines could circumnavigate the British Isles, and their 
performances proved that he was undoubtedly right. On Feb- 
ruary 5, 191 5, the German Foreign Office promulgated its dec- 
laration announcing the submarine blockade that would go into 
effect thirteen days later for the purpose of starving England 
into a change of policy. Just twenty-four hours later the first 
ship, a Norwegian vessel, the Beldridge, was sent to the bottom, 
and the same day saw the sinking of the French steamer Di- 
norah. 

MISINTERPRETED THE INTERVAL OF CALM. 

In this fashion the work continued with a period of more 
than a week at one time when the U boats had seemingly given 
up the task of striking terror in England. The truth was that 
Von Tirpitz was feeling his way and likewise waiting for addi- 
tions to his flotilla of boats nearly ready. But the British mis- 
interpreted the interval of calm, and the desultory attacks of the 
U boats, and it is worth while here to quote the naval expert of 
the London Daily Telegraph of April i : 

" Since the sinking of the Formidable on New Year's Day, 
submarines have had no success against men-of-war. The sub- 
marine has lost its novelty, and therefore its moral menace and 
has become almost a commonplace." 

Immediately abreast of the Old Head of Kinsale, near 
where the Lusitania sank, the 240 line of depth is not reached 
until a distance of four miles has been travelled. Ordinarily 
submarines are not expected deliberately to seek the bottom at 
a depth of more than 150 feet, but it is known that some Ameri- 
can boats have gone a good deal deeper and have risen unharm- 
ed to the surface. One of them sank to a depth of 256 feet. 



282 SUBMARINES BORN IN SECRECY. 

and another went down to 274 feet. There is no reason to sup- 
pose that the German boats are any less structurally sturdy. 

Indeed, knowing the care with which everything is done in 
the engineering line in Germany, it is probable that all of the 
U craft can withstand hydrostatic pressure with a margin of 
safety when submerged 300 feet, without fear of the sea crush- 
ing them. 

The Lusitania was steaming eastward when she was struck 
and the attack was made upon her starboard or right side. The 
boat that launched the destroying torpedoes was pointed shore- 
ward, and after she had made her hits she kept on in that direc- 
tion, probably diving to the bottom to hide, and rest. Such a 
maneuver was the natural one under the circumstances, be- 
cause the boat had probably been running submerged for some 
time and had drawn heavily upon the motive energy stored away 
in her electric accumulative or batteries. 

SAVED THEIR MOTIVE ENERGY. 

The Germans have consistently done everything they could 
to consei-ve their stored-up electricity. From Kriegs-Bcho we 
get a glimpse of just how far the personnel of the German sub- 
marines go to save their motive energy for underwater work : 

" Submerged propulsion is reserved for an attack. There- 
fore the commanders of our U boats are veritable misers with 
it. They and their men freeze and deny themselves so that they 
can deal the blows to our enemy that will help our cause. 

" For weeks the submarines have been under way in the 
bitterest winter weather. The electric heaters provided for 
their comfort were never used. The crews have watched and 
slept in cold and damp chambers in order that every drop of the 
precious current may be directed against the foe. 

" Often their bodies were chilled to the marrow and their 



SUBMARINES BORN IN SECRECY. 283 

teeth chattered so that they could hardly talk, but bodily com- 
fort was not their prime desideratum; no, the fatherland ever 
first ! Again they contented themselves M^ith cold food so that 
the electricity which would otherwise have been consumed by 
the stove might serve a nobler purpose." 

In order to recharge her batteries, a submarine must come 
to the surface, where she can use her oil motors to turn the dy- 
namos which drive back into the accumulators a store of elec- 
tricity. Because the electric motors move or turn much faster 
than the oil engines, when actuating the propellers, underwater 
propulsion drains the batteries much faster than they can be 
charged. In other words the current that would be drained 
from the accumulators in three hours of active work would take 
twice if not nearly three times as long to restore through the 
medium of the slower functioning oil engines. 

RESORT TO EVERY EXPEDIENT. 

It might be impracticable if not dangerous to hold a sub- 
niarine at the surface for this interval. Therefore in order 
to cut down this time of possible exposure, the Germans resort 
to every expedient to save their electricity. Now, it is apparent 
why they go to the bottom, not only to rest, but also to limit their 
mobility submerged that they may have just so much more to 
draw on when advancing toward their target. 

Why can't England " get " the German submarine? 

That seems to be a fair enough question. England is the 
world's greatest naval Power, the undoubted mistress of the 
seas. Germany, though she has been spurting prodigiously in 
recent years, has never been able to get abreast of England in 
the race for naval supremacy. Yet the German submarine, far 
from a friendly port, in the midst of enemies whose business is 



284 SUBMARINES BORN IN SECRECY. 

to destroy her, has been able to strike down a ship like the Lus- 
itania and scuttle off safely to her lurking place in the depths. 

The answer seems to be that you can't fight submarines 
with submarines. If you could, England's greater total fleet 
of this class of craft would give her an advantage. But it is an 
impossible task. A submarine is blind once the waves close over 
the periscope, the " eye " of the submarine. The officer in com- 
mand cannot see through the waters around his little boat. The 
submarine is built for one single purpose — to fight craft on the 
surface. Two submarines of rival Powers attacking each other 
in the depths of the ocean, would be like two blind men trying 
to come to grips in a ten acre lot. 

CANNOT SEE UNDER WATER. 

In the eternal twilight below the surface of the ocean, the 
submarines as at present constructed, might grope around for 
hours, each looking for the other, and pass each other by time 
after time unwittingly. It would be a game of blind man's buff, 
with all the players blindfolded. If two rival submarines hap- 
pened to meet on the surface they might fight a battle by means 
of the small rapid-fire guns that many of them carry in a con- 
cealed hatch near the bow, or they might launch torpedoes at 
each other from their bow or side tubes. But under such cir- 
cumstances the smallest torpedo boat would be far more effec- 
tive against a submarine than would another submarine. This 
because the torpedo boat is more mobile. 

The torpedo boat and her big sister, the torpedo boat des- 
troyer, are the natural enemies of the submarine. Submarines 
won't go where there are torpedo-boat destroyers. That is why 
the first question asked after the Lusitania was sunk by the Ger- 
mans was, " Had she a convoy?" The submarine which sent 
the Lusitania to the bottom probably would have slunk away in 



SUBMARINES BORN IN SECRECY. 285 

fear, had the big Cunarder been guarded by one or two swift 
destroyers. 

The destroyer is the only craft that need not be afraid of 
submarine. The submarine is slow, the destroyer as swift as an 
express train. That is the reason. It takes time to manipulate 
a submarine. It takes time to bring her round to firing position. 
It takes time, if she is steaming on the surface, to submerge her 
to a safe distance beneath the crests of the waves. Because 
she cannot aim and fire quickly, she is no match for the speeding 
destroyer. Before the submarine fires her torpedo the destroy- 
er is out of range. Because the submarine must run on the 
surface to get a fair amount of speed, and requires several 
minutes' grace to fill her tanks and sink out of sight, she must 
be in perpetual fear of the swift destroyer. 

EITHER MODE OF ATTACK IS FATAL. 

The torpedo-boat destroyer attacks the submarine either 
with her rapid-fire guns or with her knife-sharp steel prow. 
Either mode of attack is equally fatal to the submarine. Her 
skin is thin. It is built to resist water pressure, not bullets 
or tons of rending steel. A torpedo-boat destroyer makes a 
speed of 30 miles or more an hour. She swoops down with the 
impetus of her weight and the drive of her powerful engines 
upon the eggshell craft opposed to her. Unless the submarine 
sees the torpedo boat in ample time to fill her tanks and creep to 
safety under the sea, she is almost sure to be ground to pieces. 
There is no escape except downwards, and the destroyer is 
capable of covering a mile and a half in the three minutes the 
submarine needs to submerge. 

It is not hard to imagine circumstances under which the 
submarine would fall a ready prey to the destroyer. Picture a 
German raider lurking ofif the coast of Ireland, lying in wait for 



286 SUBMARINES BORN IN SECRECY. 

a British merchant ship. The submarine is moving just suffi- 
ciently for her sea planes to keep her pretty well under water. 
Her twin periscopes are showing. One of them is fixed straight 
ahead. The other is arranged that it can be swung in a circle, 
and all the horizon watched by the young lieutenant who is nav- 
igating the little craft from the conning tower. 

Under the best of conditions, he can see for a distance of 
seven or eight miles. It is a bit foggy, however, and the sea 
sufficiently choppy to dash spray from time to time over the 
lenses of the periscopes. Out of the fog on the horizon appears 
an English destroyer. She is only a few miles away, and going 
at express train speed, with thick clouds of smoke pouring from 
her four stumpy funnels, when the officer of the submarine dis- 
cerns her. Will he stay and fight? Or sink and run? He 
must act swiftly. 

NO CHANCE TO FIGHT. 

The lookout on the destroyer has glimpsed his periscope, 
and, under forced draught, as fast as the churning turbines can 
drive her through the water, the long craft with the knife-edge 
prow is bearing down upon him. He has no chance to fight. 
Before he can aim a torpedo from his bow tubes the destroyer 
will have sliced his thin-skinned craft in two as easily as a sailor 
would cut a quid from a plug of tobacco. 

He chooses the safer alternative, and his hands grasp the 
gear by which the planes are manipulated. His men sense the 
danger that is tearing down upon them. A brief order and the 
submarine dips beneath the waves in the nick of time. Swirl- 
ing over the spot where the periscope showed a moment before, 
the wicked knife-edge with the speed and strength of an express 
train behind it, cleaves the waters harmlessly. 

But some day the submarine will be caught riding awash. 



SUBMARINES BORN IN SECRECY. 287 

or in cruising trim, with her whole superstructure showing, 
when the destroyer is sighted. Then it will be a different story. 
The smoke of the four squat funnels will signal disaster to the 
crew of the undersea raider. The order to fill the ballast tanks 
will be obeyed with desperate celerity only less swift than the 
ominious approach of the destroyer. There will be no running 
away, no safety in the depths of the sea. Dodging offers the 
only chance of escape. But the destroyer is as mobile as she 
is swift. No submarine afloat can dodge a destroyer at close 
quarters. 

MUST BE CUT DOWN OR SURRENDER. 

The little craft with her conning tower awash may twist 
and turn and avoid the first rush of the charging destroyer, per- 
haps even launch a torpedo from one of her broadside tubes as 
the enemy dashes by. But the destroyer returns to the attack, 
this time vomiting steel from her forward rapid-fire guns. It's 
an unequal fight and the submarine must be cut down or sur- 
render. 

Nor is this sort of contest between submarine and destroyer 
a mere imaginary picture. Submarines have been run down, 
and not only by torpedo boats. Swift merchant ships have tried 
it with success. 

In the Spring of 191 5, a whole flotilla of British torpedo 
boats and destroyers caught a German submarine and surround- 
ed her. Her captain surrendered after the speedy little craft had 
run circles around him and filled the skin of his boat with solid 
shot. 

There is no doubt about it — the destroyer is the submar- 
ine's nemesis. That suggests the question : When the war be- 
gan the British Jack floated over 202 destroyers and torpedo 
boats. France had 80 of them ; Russia, 95 ; Germany and Aus- 



288 SUBMARINES BORN IN SECRECY. 

tria together had about 45, most of which were bottled up in the 
German North Sea havens. Why couldn't England, with the 
total of nearly 400 of these swift boats at her command, pro- 
tect the commerce of herself and her allies against the German 
submarine raiders? Where were the British and French and 
Russian torpedo craft? 

The torpedo employed by the German submarine to send 
the Lusitania to the bottom, it is stated to a certainty, was a 
Schwartzkopff, since that is the standard type of torpedo used in 
the German navy. The Japanese use the Schwartzkopff, and 
there are a few Schwartzkopff s in the British navy. The United 
States employs the Whitehead, and the British depend largely 
also on the Whitehead. 

DIFFERENCE IN SUBMARINES. 

The Schwartzkopff differs principally from the Whitehead 
in being constructed of phosphor-bronze, whereas the White- 
head is built of steel. The Schwartzkopffs shops are located in 
Berlin. The Schwartzkopffs, like the Whiteheads, carry gun- 
cotton charges, and in the 17.2-inch Schwartzkopffs the weight 
of guncotton is approximately two hundred pounds. 

The German torpedo may be fired from above water or 
through an under water tube. In submarines, the torpedo tubes 
are all under water, whereas in the case of torpedo boat destroy- 
ers the discharge is from tubes located upon decks or above 
water. 

In general appearance the torpedo resembles a fish. It is 
propelled through the water by a self-contained engine, and in 
later built torpedoes the power development is considerably in 
excess of thirty horse power. A speed as high as forty knots 
is credited to the recently built Schwartzkopffs with a radius of 
action of approximately three miles. 



SUBMARINES BORN IN SECRECY. 289 

Ship construction has not yet reached a stage where the 
under water plates of a vessel can withstand the effect of a 200 
pound charge of guncotton exploding alongside with a fifteen 
foot head or tank of water over the burst. Before such an ex- 
plosion, the hull plates of a merchant steamship will probably 
be blown in for a distance of thirty feet fore and aft, and fifteen 
feet vertically. 

The effect is not only to blow inward the hull plates, but to 
tear loose the fastenings of bulkheads, and all longitudinal and 
athwartships beams ; in other words, create in the wake of the 
explosion a fearful mass of tangled and torn hull construction 
through which the water will flow in an overpouring flood. 
Neither the Lusitania nor any other vessel afloat could hope 
to withstand the effect of a 200 pound Schwartzkopff and the 
speed of the ship had nothing to do with the result. It was only 
necessary for the torpedo to strike and the question of striking 
was one of accurate shooting. 



19-TI, 



CHAPTER XXin. 

SUBMARINE'S HAVOC AMONG TRAWLERS. 
Picturesque; Fishing Boats German Prey — Saved Lives op 
LusiTANiA Passengers — Armed Trawler Fights Torpedo 
Boat — Rouse German Ire by Dragging Seas for Mines. 

IT is the incidents of life which reflect the greater things and 
it seems fitting that in discussing the operations of the ter- 
rible German submarine some light should be thrown on 
the struggling little English " trawler " — those small boats that 
have been wrecked, torn asunder and sunk by the ruthless Ger- 
man underwater fighting machines. 

It was through the efforts of the brave men on these boats 
that many passengers were saved from the Eusitania. The 
hardiness of the crews on these fishing boats, which ply their 
trade around the British Isles, has been the theme of many a 
thrilling story in history and romance. 

In one concerted attack by the submarines, prior to the 
sinking of the Eusitania, seven defenseless trawlers, (five from 
Hull and two from Grimsby) were sent to the bottom of the 
North Sea at one time. These are attacks upon harmless 
fisherman that constitute the acme of Hunnish bravery! 

The men of the Hull trawlers stated that the German sub- 
marine was of quite a modern pattern, with an Iron Cross paint- 
ed on its conning tower. Her number was painted out. The 
crew of one of the trawlers spent some time on board the sub- 
marine, and a German officer said to one of them, " I wish you 
had Grey with you." He meant, of course, the British Secre- 
tary of State for Foreign Affairs. 

The destroyed ships were the lolanthe. Hero and Hector, 

290 



SUBMARINE'S HAVOC. 291 

Coquet, Progress, Northward Ho!, and Bob Wight. Fortu- 
nately none of the seventy men who manned the seven vessels 
lost their lives. Indeed, with the exception of the Bob Wight's, 
none of the crews complained of the German's conduct towards 
them personally. They were given sufficient time to leave their 
trawlers, and the German officers saw to it that they were pro- 
vided with compasses iri their boats, and also gave them sup- 
plies of brown bread. This does not apply to the Bob Wight, 
She was the last vessel to be destroyed. Night was coming on, 
but the men were peremptorily told to get into their boat, and as 
soon as they did so the submarine opened fire with her gun, and 
thus sunk the trawler, leaving the crew without food or compass 
to face the darkness, and all it might bring. The other six 
trawlers were sunk by bombs. 

THE FIRST VICTIM. 

The lolanthe was the first victim, and her story was that 
of the remaining five. Although fishing in same locality about 
150 miles from Spurn, the vessels were not working together 
as fleeters do, but were some distance apart and too far from 
each other to see what was happening and to make their escape. 
" About one o'clock," said a member of the lolanthe's crew, 
" we were fishing, when a submarine arose close to us. Having 
our gear down, we had no chance of escape, and when a German 
officer told us to leave the trawler we had to do so. He had 
previously fired a rifle at us, and to hurry us up he fired another. 
Our chief engineer, in jumping for the boat, fell into the sea, 
but we hauled him in. We were rowing away from the sub- 
marine, when they hailed us, and made us understand they want- 
ed us to go on board, 

" We soon understood the reason why. They wanted our 
boat to carry explosives to the trawler. It was a strange ex- 



292 SUBMARINE'S HAVOC. 

perience being on a German submarine, but they did not let us 
see much. We were not allowed to go below, but had to stand 
aft with the water washing over our boots. One of the officers 
told us not to be scared, for there was no reason for that. An- 
other told us he wished we had ' Grey ' with us, meaning Sir 
Edward Grey, but he left us to imagine what they wanted to do 
if they caught the British Foreign Minister on a trawler. 

PAPERS OF VALUE DESTROYED. 

" When the boat's crew returned from the trawler, leaving 
bombs behind them, they brought a compass, some sea boots, 
which they gave to us, and also a basket of fish — prime turbot — 
for their own consumption. They had been rummaging for 
papers, but any which might have been of use to them had been 
burnt by us before we left. We were now told to get into our 
boat, and as we did so they handed us the compass they had 
brought from the lolanthe and a loaf of bread. The bread was 
not very appetizing, and I don't think any of us ate it, but we 
kept it as a memento. Soon after we had pushed ofif from the 
submarine the bomb on board the lolanthe exploded, and she 
sank." 

Having accounted for their first victim, the submarine went 
ofif in search of others. Their experiences were a repetition of 
the lolanthe's, and their treatment on the submarine was the 
same. 

The trawlers did not give in without a run, when they 
had a chance of making one, and one, the Portia, succeeded in 
getting clear away, and returned to Hull on Tuesday night. 
The Hero was chased for an hour before she had to capitulate. 
" I thought," said Skipper Noble, " I might have roused 'em 
on board the submarine, but when I went on board the submar- 
ine, the commander was afifable, and said : ' You made a good 



SUBMARINE'S HAVOC. 293 

run of it, but we beat you.' " By seven o'clock six Hull 
trawlers had been sunk. 

At that time, Skipper F. G. Foot, of the trawler Bob Wight, 
saw two boats full of men some distance away. " A trawler," 
he said, " picked up one, and I was making for the other when 
a submarine appeared ahead of us. He got on our port side, 
and hailing me, said : ' Father, leave your ship.' We launched 
a boat, and as soon as we got away they commenced to fire at 
our trawler. Two of my men counted i8 shots before she sank, 
and another placed it at 24. We rested on our oars to see the 
last of the ship, which was a perfectly new one, that being her 
second voyage. By the time she sank it was dark. 

ALL NIGHT WITHOUT FOOD OR COMPASS. 

" We heard the submarine move away, but could not see 
her. We had to face the night without food or compass. At 
8.40 in tha morning, having rowed 20 miles in a westerly direc- 
tion from where the trawler was sunk, we were seen by the 
trawler Ely and brought to Hull. The men from the lolanthe, 
Hero and Northward Ho ! were picked up by the Hull trawler, 
Leonita. All the men say the submarine did not bear any num- 
ber, but had a representation of an Iron Cross painted on her." 

The British steam trawler Daisy gallantly went to the res- 
cue of the crew of the destroyer Recruit, when that vessel, while 
cruising on patrol duty, was sunk by a German submarine. 
Thirty men out of a complement of sixty-five in the Recruit's 
crew were saved by boats of the Daisy, which then was hotly 
pursued by two German submarines. The submarines fired on 
the Daisy and wounded four of her men. 

Later in the same day the British trawler Colombia was 
attacked by two German torpedo boats, who approached her 
from the westward, and began the action without hoisting their 



294 SUBMARINE'S HAVOC. 

colors. The Colombia was sunk by a torpedo, only one deck- 
hand being saved by other trawlers. 

Germans taken prisoners from a torpedo boat captured by 
a British destroyer stated that they had sunk a British traw- 
ler before being sighted by the Laforey, and that they picked 
up a " two-striped officer " — a lieutenant — and two men. 
When asked what became of them they stated that their prison- 
ers were below and time was short. Obviously, therefore, the 
officer and two men were left to perish. 

Another trawler, the Don, was blown up in the North Sea, 
seven men of the crew of nine being killed. The two survivors, 
the skipper, William Corrick, and a deck-hand, Stanley Har- 
greaves, were landed at Grimsby by a naval vessel and removed 
to the hospital. Their story gives further testimony to the 
remarkable efficiency of the floating mines which the Germans 
are employing in their campaign of frightfulness. 

MINE SUDDENLY EXPLODED. 

The Don had finished a tow, and at seven o'clock the gear 
was hauled when the net became awash. A mine was seen to 
be enmeshed. The skipper gave orders for the gear to be slack- 
ed away, hoping to ease the mine. Five of the crew were at the 
ship's side assisting in the operation when suddenly the mine ex- 
ploded. " Next thing I remember (said the skipper) was that 
I was chocking in the sea, and had a frightful pain in my head. 
When I looked about me the ship was gone, and the sea strewn 
with wreckage. I caught a piece and supported myself with it. 
My head was cut open. What had happened, I think, was this. 
When the explosion occurred, I was standing behind the winch. 
A splinter must have struck me on the head and rendered me un- 
conscious at the same moment as the shock threw me over- 
board." 



SUBMARINE'S HAVOC. 295 

Three Aberdeen trawlers had exciting experiences in the 
North Sea. The crews gave particulars of having been chased 
by a German submarine, which sank three other trawlers. The 
trawlers were the Bennington, Endocia, and Aries. The En- 
docia was fishing 45 miles to the north and east of Aberdeen, 
about 11.30 o'clock in the morning, when the submarine rose 
to the surface between three and four miles off, and opened fire 
on another trawler, between which and the Endocia the hostile 
craft had appeared. The Endocia hauled up her trawl and 
made off. The captain heard four shots before he ordered 
the trawl to be hauled, and four others later. 

LONG CHASE BY A SUBMARINE. 

In the excitement of the moment, and being intent on haul- 
ing the gear, none of the crew of the Endocia saw the other 
trawler sink, but when the Endocia made off on seeing the sub- 
marine giving chase, the other trawler had disappeared. A long 
chase of twenty miles ensued, but the Endocia's crew worked 
so well that the enemy never got nearer than three to four miles.' 
The chase brought the trawler in the vicinity of the Bennington, 
and the Endocia hoisted the danger signal to warn her. 

Another trawler, belonging to Aberdeen, whose number 
and name were not known, was also warned, but before she 
could get away, the submarine was upon her, and sank her with 
a shell which appeared to strike the boat on the water-line. This 
occurred about twenty miles east of Aberdeen. The submarine 
then resumed the chase of the Bennington until the Aries came 
in sight, and then she made for the latter vessel, which was a 
faster type of trawler than the Bennington. The enemy chased 
the Aries until the trawler sighted a patrol boat and signalled 
her " danger." Directly the submarine saw the patrol boat 
she submerged, and the Aries, like the Endocia and Bennington, 



296 SUBMARINE'S HAVOC. 

made the port without mishap. The crews of the trawlers are 
certain that the other two fishing boats were sunk. The small 
boat of one of them was ready to be launched, but the vessel 
went down so quickly that the crew had not time to escape. 

The statement that trawlers were sunk was confirmed by 
the arrival at Aberdeen of the crew of the Hull trawler Mer- 
cury, on board the Japonica, the arrival at Stonehaven of the 
crew of the Aberdeen trawler Mataban, and the arrival at North 
Shields of the trawler Prince with the crew of the sunken traw- 
ler Sunray, of Shields. The crew of the Mercury stated that 
when fourteen miles east of North Aberdeen, a big German sub- 
marine appeared, and, without warning, struck the Mercury 
twice by gun-fire. The crew in a small boat left the trawler, 
and after four other shots had been fired, the Mercury sank. 
The submarine then made off to the north in the track of the 
fishing vessels. The rescued crew were in sight of land all the 
time. 

GOT FIVE MINUTES TO CLEAR OUT. 

The crew of the Mataban stated that their vessel was sunk 
twenty-two miles off Aberdeen. They got five minutes to clear 
out, and two shots afterwards sunk the trawler. The crew state 
that they warned another trawler of the submarine, but that 
they saw a third, belonging to Hull or Grimsby, sunk by the 
Germans. The crew of the Sunray stated that they were given 
time to escape in their small boat, and later were picked up by 
the Prince. 

The Granton trawler Cruiser was bombarded with ten 
shells fifty miles southeast of Aberdeen, whither she was return- 
ing with a cargo of fish. The captain and one of the men were 
killed aboard and two others died in the boat. Four were wound- 
ed, and only one was uninjured. The survivors spent two 



SUBMARINE'S HAVOC. 297 

nights in the open boat, and suffered terrible hardships. They 
were picked up by a steamer and landed at Aberdeen. Before 
sinking the Aberdeen trawler Scottish Queen the submarine 
commander gave the crew fifteen minutes' grace. 

The attack on the Cruiser was one of the most dastardly 
in the whole record of the war on fishing vessels. Mr. Alex- 
ander Robbie, chief engineer, said the Cruiser was trawling 
about fifty miles off the coast on Sunday. About half-past 
twelve o'clock, just as they had finished dinner, a vessel, which 
they took to be a destroyer, was observed bearing down on them 
at full speed. It was belching thick smoke and had dummy 
funnels rigged, as well as being painted to resemble a British 
destroyer. When it had drawn within a hundred yards from 
the trawler, the vessel revealed itself to be a big submarine of 
the latest class. 

GERMANS LAUGHED AT THE PLIGHT. 

William Arthur Harwood, mate of the trawler, who was 
wounded in the leg, said : " Not one minute's grace was allowed. 
The Germans immediately began firing shrapnel, and the skip- 
per, who was in the wheelhouse, was struck by the second shot. 
I rushed into the wheelhouse and found him on his knees. He 
managed to struggle out to the deck, where he received a fatal 
shot in the face. The cook was killed outright by the third 
or fourth shot, while helping to get out the boat, and all the rest 
of us, except the engineer, were wounded by splinters of the 
same shell. We managed at last to get the boat into the water, 
and scrambled in. We saw the Germans laughing at our plight. 
They sank the Cruiser, and then steamed towards another traw- 
ler. Two of the party died within an hour." 

Most of the trawlers in English waters were used purely as 
fishing boats — the same types as those which labored so effec- 



298 SUBMARINE'S HAVOC. 

tively in recovering living and dead victims of the L,usitania 
disaster; and the determined German onslaught upon these 
defenseless little craft was nothing short of barbarity. 

The merciless cruelty which characterized the German sub- 
marine campaign extended throughout the waters of all war 
zones. The British legation at Athens went so far as to offer 
$10,000 reward for the destruction of German submarines in 
the Mediterranean. 

" Destroy every vessel at any cost," obviously was Ger- 
many's order to her naval commanders ; and the order was car- 
ried out literally, without regard for violation of the laws of civ- 
ilized warfare, or the endangering and sacrifice of innocent 
lives. 

MANY OF THE CREW^ HALF NAKED. 

Two Liverpool vessels, in addition to the Lusitania, were 
sunk oif the Irish coast, probably by the same submarine. They 
were the Candidate and the Centurion, both cargo steamers be- 
longing to the Harrison Line, and both of 5,800 gross tonnage., 
Happily the crews were saved. 

The crew of the Candidate were landed at Milford Haven, 
many of them half naked. Their story was that the Candidate 
was 45 miles southwest of Connibeg lightship, when a large 
submarine rose on the starboard quarter about fifty yards dis- 
tant. 

Without warning of any kind she commenced shelling the 
Candidate, which was going about nine knots. The vessel was 
kept going and the submarine followed, shelling all the time. 
She smashed two boats, blew away the funnel and bridge, and 
one shell passed through the cabin. The boats were ordered 
away and the Germans deliberately shelled the men while 
launching them and whenever the men got into a group. They 



SUBMARINE'S HAVOC. 299 

escaped death only by the faulty aim of the German gunners. 
Thirty or more shells were directed upon the ship, and finally a 
torpedo finished her. One hour and twenty minutes elapsed 
from the time of sighting the submarine to the Candidate going 
down. The crew of 43 were in the boat six hours before being, 
picked up by the drifter lyord Allendale. 

On the afternoon of the same day, the steamer Centurion, 
bound for Durban, with a general cargo, was torpedoed thirty 
miles off the Tuskar lighthouse. The crew of forty-five hands 
were picked up by the Fishguard- Rosslare mail-boat and landed 
at Wexford. 

NO CONSIDERATION SHOWN NEUTRAL NATIONS. 

The ships of neutral nations received but little more consid- 
eration from the Germans than did those of her enemies. Be- 
sides destroying the Norwegian steamship America, already des- 
cribed, submarines during the same period sank also two other 
Norwegian steamships — the Baldwin and the Laila — together 
with the Swedish steamer Elida. 

The Norwegian steamer Baldwin was sunk by a German 
submarine in the North Sea. She was bound from Drammen 
for London, with paper pulp and wood. Between six and seven 
o'clock the submarine was observed between the Naze of Nor- 
way and Longstone. The crew of seventeen hands were allow- 
ed time to leave, after which the submarine fired nine shots at 
the steamer, which eventually sank. The men were picked up 
, by a steamer and landed at Leith. 

The Swedish steamer Sernebo landed at Leith the crew of 
the Swedish schooner Elsa (121 tons). They reported that 
while the Elsa was bound from Holstadt to Granton, she was at- 
tacked by the U-39 about a hundred miles east of May Island. 



300 SUBMARINE'S HAVOC. 

The crew of five men were compelled to leave the ship, which 
was then set on fire. 

The Swedish steamer Elida, of Karlshamni, was torpe- 
doed in the North Sea. She sank in less than three minutes. 
Sixteen men and two women who were on board only just had 
time to get into an open boat before the ship went down. After 
cruising about for two hours the Danish mail steamer Jens res- 
cued the crew, who were landed at Lemvig, Denmark. 

The spleen of the Germans was vented against the trawlers 
primarily because the small boats were pressed into service 
in many instances to drag the seas for hidden mines, which 
might blow up the British boats or other vessels which braved 
the forbidden war zone as fixed by Germany. 

NOT AL"WAYS UNPREPARED. 

The intrepid captains and men of the trawlers were there- 
fore not always unprepared for attack, and in a number of in- 
stances the small fishing boats took part in lively scrimmages. 

One of these thrilling " small affairs " was an encounter 
between the armed mine-sweeping trawler Mauri, of Cardiff, 
and a German destroyer, The trawler charged the submarine 
as it drew alongside. The latter was struck exactly amidships 
by the Mauri. The bridge of the destroyer crashed overboard, 
five officers and men falling into the sea. The destroyer num- 
bered A6 was so badly damaged by the attack that she at once 
made about, and raced away as fast as her disabled condition 
would allow. Her would-be victim who had so cleverly turned 
the tables, was apparently undamaged. 

Of the five men thrown into the sea, one, a sailor, was pick- 
e,d up by the Mauri ; another, an officer, was rescued by a boat 
from the Norwegian steamer Varild, which was in the vicinity. 
The other three perished. This duel was one feature of a thril- 



SUBMARINE'S HAVOC. 301 

ling war spectacle. The crew of the Varild saw at first three 
British trawlers engaged in mine-sweeping. Then two German 
destroyers came in view and went after the trawlers. Two of 
these were of excellent speed, and the destroyer which chased 
them did not even get within range. The other destroyer, 
meanwhile, devoted its attention to the Mauri. 

The duel lasted 20 minutes, during which there was a con- 
stant exchange of shots between the destroyer and the mine- 
sweeper. It was a running fight, the destroyer giving chase 
to the mine-sweeper when it saw it in company with two others. 
It commenced firing. There was an immediate reply from the 
gun on the deck of the trawler. The latter was gradually over- 
hauled, and it looked as if she was doomed, in view of the two 
opponents. Then it was that the captain of the trawler played 
his trump. As the German warship drew level, and was pre- 
paring to fire a torpedo, the trawler's helm was put hard over. 

The first two sweepers were still being pursued, when there 
appeared on the horizon five British destroyers. Thereupon 
the German destroyer broke oflf the chase of the trawlers, went 
about, and headed away at full speed, in the wake of his crippled 
sister. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

GERMANY'S EVASIVE ANSWER. 
Attempted to Justify Cowardi^y Submarine Poi,icy — Ex- 
pre;ssed Sorrow i^or American Losses and Said Gul- 
FLIGHT Attack was Mistake — Begged Important Ques- 
TiON — Meantime Proceeded to Destroy another Amer- 
ican VESSEI/. 

ENTIRELY ignoring the broad humanitarian plea made 
by President Wilson in his message of protest against 
the German policy, which resulted in attacks on the 
American steamships Gulflight and Gushing, and the torpedoing 
of the Ivusitania, Germany, on May 29, sent a reply to the United 
States, in which it absolutely attempted to justify its naval sub- 
marine policy, and plainly sought to mark time, in giving any 
definite decision as to its intentions in the Lusitania matter. 

The note sent by Germany was delivered by Herr Von 
Jagow, the German Foreign Minister, to Ambassador Gerard 
at Berlin, and created intense interest, because it plainly indicat- 
ed Germany's intent to delay making any definite answer, by 
raising " questions of facts " in the Lusitania disaster. 

The German war heads made the plea that the course 
adopted was made imperative by the action of England, but ex- 
pressed regret that America suffered as a result of the policy, 
and disavowed any intention on the part of Germany to 
destroy the Gulflight and Gushing. These attacks were de- 
clared to have been unintentional. 

Nevertheless, the reply made it plain that Germany has 
no intention of discontinuing its submarine policy, and attempt- 
ed to put the responsibility for the loss of Americans on the 

302 



GERMANY'S EVASIVE ANSWER. 303 

lyusitania up tp England, for conveying Americans as neutral 
passengers on a boat, alleged to be carrying ammunition or 
other contraband goods, intended for the use of the AUies. It 
was on this point that Germany raised the " question " as to 
whether or not such contraband goods were not on board the 
Lusitania, and whether she was not armed, thus hoping to put 
the burden of proof on England and America. 

That there might be no misunderstanding as to her at- 
titude, apparently, Germany preceded her note with another 
warning to America, cautioning against traversing its war zone 
outlined in February, 191 5. 

The warning was issued by the German Foreign Office, 
on May 28, and was summarized by Secretary Bryan, in Wash- 
ington, as follows: 

INADEQUATE ILLUMINATION. 

" The American Ambassador at Berlin has been informed 
by the German Foreign Office that in view of the fact that dur- 
ing the past few weeks it has repeatedly occurred that neutral 
ships have been sunk in waters designated as an area of mari- 
time war by the German Admiralty, on February 4, 1915, and 
especially in one case where it was established that the sinking 
was traceable to an attack by a German submarine, which took 
the neutral ship for an English vessel in the darkness on account 
of the inadequate illumination of its neutral, distinctive mark- 
ings, it recommended that American shipping traverse the 
area of maritime war cautiously, and also be urged to mak<; 
the neutral markings as plain as possible, and especially to have 
them illuminated promptly and sufficiently at night" 

This note of warning followed the startling news that the 
American steamship Nebraskan, of New York, in command of 
Captain Green, was torpedoed on Tuesday, May 25, off the 



304 GERMANY'S EVASIVE ANSWER. 

coast of Ireland, while bound from Liverpool to New York. 
The forward part of the ship was destroyed and her machiner]^ 
was damaged, and she was compelled to return to Liverpool. 
Only her strong bulkheads saved her from destruction, and 
Captain Green reported emphatically that the boat was struck 
by a torpedo, although no submarine was seen and the boat was 
flying the American flag. In this case it was necessary for the 
time to give Germany the benefit of the doubt as to whether one 
of her torpedoes was responsible, since she made no admission 
as to the attack, and the cause of the explosion may never be 
determined. 

The Nebraskan incident, however, intensified the feeling 
against Germany, which was made manifest by the dissatis- 
faction expressed on the subsequent receipt of Germany's an- 
swer to President Wilson's letter of protest. 

TEXT OF THE GERMAN NOTE. 

The text of the German note, which was made public in 
Washington, on Sunday, May 30, just twenty-three days after 
the sinking of the Lusitania, and fifteen days after the issuing 
of President Wilson's letter of demand, is as follows : 

" The undersigned has the honor to submit to Ambassador 
Gerard the following answer to the communication of May 15, 
regarding the injury to American interests through German 
submarine warfare. 

" The Imperial Government has subjected the communica- 
tion of the American Government to a thorough investigation. 
It entertains also a keen wish to co-operate in a frank and 
friendly way in clearing up a possible misunderstanding which 
may have arisen in the relations between the two Governments 
through the events mentioned by the American Government. 

" Regarding, firstly, the cases of the American steamers 



GERMANY'S EVASIVE ANSWER. 305 

Gushing and Gulflight. The American Embassy has already 
been informed that the German Government has no intention 
of submitting neutral ships in the war zone, which are guilty 
of no hostile acts, to attacks by a submarine or submarines or 
aviators. On the contrary, the German forces have repeatedly 
been instructed most specifically to avoid attacks on such ships. 
" If neutral ships in recent months have suffered through 
the German submarine warfare, owing to mistakes in identifi- 
cation, it is a question only of quite isolated and exceptional 
cases, which can be attributed to the British Government's 
abuse of flags, together with the suspicious or culpable behavior 
of the masters of the ships. 

GERMAN GOVERNMENT EXPRESS REGRET. 

" The German Government, in all cases in which it has 
been shown by its investigations that a neutral ship, not iself 
at fault, was damaged by German submarines or aviators, has 
expressed regret over the unfortunate accident, and, if justified 
by conditions, has offered indemnification. 

" The cases of the Gushing and the Gulflight will be treated 
on the same principles. An investigation of both cases is in 
progress, the result of which will presently be communicated 
to the Embassy. The investigation can, if necessary, be sup- 
plemented by an international call on the International Commis- 
sion of Inquiry, as provided by Article III of The Hague 
agreement of October i8, 1907. 

" When sinking the British steamer Ealaba, the comman- 
der of the German submarine had the intention of allowing the 
passengers and crew a full opportunity for a safe escape. Only 
when the master did not obey the order to heave-to, but fled 
and summoned help by rocket signals, did the German comman- 
der order the crew and passengers by signals and megaphone 

20-Tf I, 



306 GERMANY'S EVASiVE ANSWER. 

to leave the ship within ten minutes. He actually allowed them 
twenty-three minutes time, and fired the torpedo only when sus- 
picious craft were hastening to the assistance of the Falaba. 

" Regarding the loss of life by the sinking of the British 
passenger steamer Lusitania, the German Government has al- 
ready expressed to the neutral governments concerned its keen 
regret that citizens of their states lost their lives. 

" On this occasion the Imperial Government, however, can- 
not escape the impression that certain important facts having a 
direct bearing on the sinking of the Lusitania may have escap- 
ed the attention of the American Government. 

CLEAR AND COMPLETE UNDERSTANDING. 

" In the interest of a clear and complete understanding, 
which is the aim of both governments, the Imperial Government 
considers it first necessary to convince itself that the informa- 
tion accessible to both governments about the facts of the case 
is complete and in accord. 

" The Government of the United States proceeds on the 
assumption that the Lusitania could be regarded as an ordin- 
ary unarmed merchantman. The Imperial Government allows 
itself in this connection to point out that the Lusitania was one 
of the largest and fastest British merchant ships built with 
Government funds as an auxiliary cruiser and carried expressly 
as such in the ' navy list ' issued by the British Admiralty. 

" It is further known to the Imperial Government, from 
trustworthy reports from ,its agents and neutral passengers, 
that for a considerable time practically all the more valuable 
British merchantmen have been equipped with cannon and am- 
munition and other weapons, and manned with persons who have 
been specially trained serving guns. The Lusitania, too, 



GERMANY'S EVASIVE ANSWER. 307 

accoi-ding to information received here, had cannon aboard, 
which were mounted and concealed below decks. 

" The Imperial Government, further, has the honor to 
direct the particular attention of the American Government 
to the fact that the British Admiralty, in a confidential in- 
striiction issued in February, 191 5, recommended its mercan- 
tile shipping not only to seek protection under neutral flags, 
and distinguishing marks, but, also, while thus disguised, to 
attack German submarines by ramming. As a special incita- 
tion to merchantmen to destroy submarines, the British Govern- 
ment also offered high prizes and has already paid such re- 
wards. 

PRIZE LAW REGULATIONS. 

" The Imperial Government, in view of these facts indub- 
itably known to it, is unable to regard British merchantmen 
in the zone of naval operations specified by the Admiralty Staff 
of the German Navy as ' undefended.' German commanders 
consequently are no longer able to observe the customary re- 
gulations of the prize law, which they before always followed. 

" Finally, the Imperial Government must point out par- 
ticularly that the Lusitania on its last trip, as on earlier occa- 
sions, carried Canadian troops and war material including no 
less than 5400 cases of ammunition intended for the destruction 
of the brave German soldiers who are fulfilling their duty with 
self-sacrifice and devotion in the Fatherland's service. 

" The German Government believes that it was acting in 
justified self-defense in seeking with all the means of warfare 
at its disposition to protect the lives of its soldiers by destroying 
ammunition intended for the enemy. 

" The British shipping company must have been aware of 
the danger to which the passengers aboard the Lusitania were 



308 GERMANY'S EVASIVE ANSWER. 

exposed under these conditions. The company in embarking 
them, notwithstanding this, attempted deUberately to use the 
Uves of American citizens as protection for the ammunition 
aboard, and acted against the clear provisions of the American 
law, which expressly prohibits the forwarding of passengers 
on ships carrying ammunition, and provides a penalty therefor. 
The company, therefore, is wantonly guilty of the death of so 
many passengers. 

" There can be no doubt, according to the definite report 
of the submarine's commander, which is further confirmed by 
all other information, that the quick sinking of the Lusitania 
is primarily attributable to the explosion of the ammunition 
shipment, caused by a torpedo. The Lusitania's passengers 
would otherwise, in all human probability, have been saved. 

" The Imperial Government considers the above-mentioned 
facts important enough to recommend them to the attentive ex- 
amination of the American Government. 

" The Imperial Government, while withholding its final de- 
cision on the demands advanced in connection with the sinking 
of the Lusitania until receipt of an answer from the American 
Government, feels impelled, in conclusion, to recall here and 
now that it took cognizance with satisfaction of the mediatory 
proposals submitted by the United States Government to Berlin 
and London as a basis for a modus vivendi for conducting the 
maritime warfare between Germany and Great Britain. 

" The Imperial Government, by its readiness to enter upon 
a discussion of these proposals, then demonstrated its good in- 
tentions in ample fashion. The realization of these proposals 
was defeated, as is well known, by the declinatory attitude of the 
British Government. 

" The undersigned takes occasion, etc. " JAGOW." 



CHAPTER XXV. 
PAYING THE COSTS. 

LUSITANIA WITH HeR Toi,L OF lylVE^S AN INCIDENT 01^ WoRI^d's 

War Costs — More; Mone;y Spent than Actuai,i,y Exists 
— Germany's Irreparabi,e Loss in Reputation. 

THERE can be no return of those brave souls who went to 
death on the Eusitania, nor yet of those who have been 

. slaughtered on land — Germans, Austrians, French, 
English, Belgians, Russians, Servians, Italians ; and we cannot 
compute the value of their services to the world, or what their 
loss may mean. 

Never has the world been brought to such a realization of 
the extravagance of war. The loss of the Lusitania is but an 
item to be charged into the great book of civilization's accounts. 

What the world's great war is actually costing in dollars 
and cents is worth touching briefly, as a matter of general in- 
formation, because you, dear reader, no matter where you are, 
or to what nation you belong, must help pay the costs; must 
help bear the burden of expense put upon mankind. Hear then 
what the authorities have to say on the general subject of war 
costs : 

The widely known economist, Captain Edmond Thery, 
writing under date of May, 191 5, estimated that the total mili- 
tary expenditures for the first year of the war would be 50,- 
000,000,000 francs ($10,000,000,000) for the Allies and 2)7 r 
000,000,000 francs ($7,400,000,000) for Germany, Austria and 
Turkey. This makes an average of 7,250,000,000 francS ($1,- 
400,000,000) a month, 242,000,000 francs ($48,400,000) a day, 
10,000,000 francs ($2,000,000) an hour. He believed that the 

309 



310 PAYING THE COSTS. 

economic powers of Great Britain, France and Russia could sup- 
port the strain much more easily than their opponents. 

On about the same date, the Philadelphia Evening Ledger, 
commenting upon the stupendous sums expended during the 
war, stated editorially : 

" It will take more actual money than there is in the world 
to pay the bills if the war lasts for four months more. The 
total world stock of gold money is about $7,000,000,000 ; there 
is about $2,650,000,000 of silver money, and $3,560,000,000 
of paper money including banknotes. This amounts to 4 little 
more than $13,000,000,000. 

SPENDING ONE BILLION DOLLARS A MONTH. 

" The warring countries have already borrowed $9,613,- 
400,000, and the fighting has lasted about nine months. They 
are spending about a billion dollars a month. In four months 
the enormous sum of $13,600,000,000 will be reached. This 
is more than half as much as all the wars fought in the world 
from 1793 to 1 913 have cost, even when there is included 
the economic loss due to the decrease in production occasioned 
by the use of men for fighting instead of for creating wealth. 

"As much has been borrowed already as all the wars cost 
between 1793 and i860. The total number of men engaged in 
fighting in the last century amounted to only 18,000,000, or a 
number little in excess of the number now actively engaged on 
the continent or soon to be engaged. It is as if all the fighting 
for a hundred years had been concentrated in nine months and 
as if about all the money that it had taken to pay for the past 
wars had been gathered together and thrown into the trenches 
to be burned by powder and blasted by dynamite and melted 
by the fierce explosions of bombs. 

" The sum is so vast it is incomprehensible. But it is less 



PAYING THE COSTS. 311 

than the warring nations have spent in maintaining their armies 
and navies for the last thirteen years, while they were getting 
ready for the conflict. Great Britain alone spent half a billion 
dollars in the fiscal year of 1913-14, and Russia had to use 
$440,000,000, and the amount spent by France, Germany and 
Austria-Hungary brings the total for a single twelvemonth up 
to $1,500,000,000. 

" Europe was staggering under the burden of preparation. 
Germany has already borrowed nearly five per cent, of her total 
wealth, and the whole group of nations have borrowed about 
four per cent, of the' value of all their property of all kinds, 
included within their boundaries. 

BANKRUPTING THE TREASURIES. 

" The fearful drain on the resources of the nations cannot 
continue without bankrupting the treasuries and piling up bur- 
dens of debt which will weigh upon the shoulders of the people 
for generations to come. The economic argument for peace is 
as strong as the economic argument for temperance." 

In Great Britain for instance, Mr. Lloyd George's seventh 
Budget and his second war Budget, submitted in May, 191 5, 
dealt with figures of such colossal magnitude as a Chancellor 
of the Exchequer had never before presented to the House of 
Commons or to any other Parliament. These gigantic sums 
marked perhaps better than anything else the end of one era 
and the inauguration of another. 

Reduced to its simplest, apart from advances to Dominions 
and Allies, the war was costing Great Britain $10,100,000 a day, 
or $115 a second. Viewing the figures for longer periods they 
assume such gigantic proportions that imagination fails to grasp 
their full import. Thus, if the war lasted a twelvemonth, the cost 
would be $3,650,100,000. 



312 PAYING THE COSTS. 

Notwithstanding this stupendous financial burden, Mr. 
L/loyd George imposed no new taxation; but he stated that if the 
war was prolonged, he would have to come forward with pro- 
posals, and hinted that the changes would affect the income tax. 

Where all this money goes is indicated by Mr, L,loyd 
George's report, which says : " Our imports have increased. 
We are not merely paying for the purchase of war munitions. 
Four millions of our men have been taken from industry. Two 
millions or more are engaged in the army, either at the front, or 
in training to go there, and you have another consideration — the 
millions who are engaged in doing nothing but turning out mun- 
itions of war. We have not merely to buy munitions of war, 
but materials for munitions of war, abroad, and also food. We 
have got to buy things which in the ordinary course, we would 
have bought at home. 

NO PURCHASES FROM ABROAD. 

" Our imports have increased enormously. Our exports 
have gone down very considerably. It is inevitable. How is it 
affecting Germany ? In Germany practically both imports and 
exports have been cut off by the Navy. She has got to depend 
entirely upon what she can produce at home and upon accumu- 
lated reserves of material — copper, iron, and everything. From 
the point of view of a War Minister, Britain is better off ; from 
the point of view of a Finance Minister, our difficulties are 
greater for the time being. In a protracted war a British War 
Minister has a great and increasing advantage over his Ger- 
man rival, but has not the same difficulty in financing purchases 
from abroad. Because there are no purchases from abroad." 

A significant factor affecting the attitude of Germany to- 
ward the United States at the time of and subsequent to the 
sinking of the lyusitania, and one which deals directly with the 



PAYING THE COSTS. 313 

question of finances, was the presence of German merchant ves- 
sels, valued at something like $100,000,000 in American ports. 

These ships included the flower of Germany's transatlantic 
liners, the floating hotels that a year before were carrying the 
cream of European traffic. A dozen of them were first-class 
passenger liners, and all except a few of those of Austrian reg- 
ister were in comparatively good condition. 

The finest of these vessels, at the time this book went to 
press, were in the port of New York and at Boston. 

LARGEST VESSEL IN THE WORLD. 

The Vaterland, of the Hamburg- American Line, the larg- 
est vessel in the world, lay at the Hamburg- American docks in 
Hoboken, having made only two and a half trips across the 
Atlantic. She was on her second visit to this country, when the 
war interrupted her career. This giant of the seas headed the 
list of marine war prizes to which Uncle Sam could fall heir. 
She is 950 feet long, registers 50,000 tons, and is valued by her 
owners at $12,000,000. 

According to one of the crew, the Vaterland burned 50 tons 
of coal a day during the time of her being interned, and was in 
fine condition, notwithstanding her long period of idleness. It 
has been estimated the Vaterland could carry 10,000 troops. 

Besides the Vaterland, there was at Boston the Kronprin- 
zessin Cecilie, queen of the North German lyloyd fleet. Her 
chief asset is speed. Just before the outbreak of war she es- 
tablished a new transatlantic record for German ships. She is 
capable of doing 24 knots. According to a North German Lloyd 
official, the Cecilie could have been put in service almost imme- 
diately. Her owners value the ship at more than $5,000,000. 

The Kaiser Wilhelm II, at the Lloyd docks in Hoboken, is 
a sister ship to the Kronprinzessin and one of the famous Ger- 



314 PAYING THE COSTS. 

man express steamers. While not quite as fast as the Cecilie, 
the Kaiser was averaging better than 22 knots for the trans- 
atlantic voyage just before she was laid up. It was rumored 
for several months that she was preparing to clear port and 
become a sea raider. 

The Hamburg-American Line had thirteen vessels tied up, 
one being in Boston and twelve in New York. Next to the 
Vaterland, the Amerika, lying at Boston, was the most valuable, 
the rest of the fleet being first and second-class passenger car- 
riers and freighters. Among the freighters were some of the 
greatest cargo carriers in the world. 

GERMAN LINERS IN AMERICAN PORTS. 

The North German Lloyd had six liners in American ports 
all but one of them having been used as first-class passenger 
ships. At Hoboken piers with the Kaiser Wilhelm II were 
the following Lloyd ships: Friedrich der Grosse, Konig Wil- 
helm II, the Prinzess Irene and the Grosser Kurfurst. 

The total number of interned vessels in the port of New 
York included four Austrian and twenty-six German steamers 
and one German motor ship, one German ship and one German 
bark. 

But even if Germany save these vessels, what ? 

In reflecting on the terrible loss sustained through the des- 
truction of the Lusitania, one big fact stands out, and that is — 
that of all those 11 50 souls who perished, not one was a Ger- 
man, according to the record of nationalities kept by the Cunard 
Line of its passengers. The greatest body of those on board 
the ill-fated ship were Americans and British — of the 191 7 
passengers and crew 1092 were of these two nationalities — 
and with them were Greeks, Swedes. Mexicans, Belgians, Hoi- 



PAYING THE COSTS. 315 

landers, French, Italian, Russian, Persians, Scandanavians, 
Scotch and Irish. 

And yet the greatest loss suffered by any nation in the Lus- 
itania disaster is that which was sustained by Germany. It is 
true that nothing can bring back the dead of other nations lost 
on the great boat, nor can England quickly recover from the des- 
truction of a vessel, which with its cargo is estimated to have 
been worth more than $10,000,000. But Germany's loss can- 
not be reckoned in dollars and cents, nor yet in the cost of hu- 
man lives, since the records do not indicate that a single Ger- 
man was on board. 

A DEPLORABLE AND PITIABLE LOSS. 

Yet, to quote an English writer, there was a German loss 
on the Lusitania — a very great loss — a tremendous loss — a most 
deplorable and pitiable loss — a loss really greater, more vital, 
harder to recover and repair than any other nation or race suf- 
fered in that appalling catastrophe. 

The thoughtful mind — the foresighted imagination — per- 
ceived what this truly appalling German loss is and will be — 
how it will extend and grow through the years and over the 
earth — how hard it will be to wipe away the effects of it, and 
persuade humanity to forget it — the mind with vision and the 
prescient soul perceived this German loss when its eyes beheld 
soread before them the report of the commission headed by 
James Bryce that has inquired into " the outrages alleged to 
have been committed by German troops during the war " in Bel- 
gium and northern France. 

And what a horrible record it all is, of unarmed men 
slaughtered, of women most brutally violated, of even little 
children tortured and murdered, and that not merely in the heat 
and rage of battle, nor by isolated criminals, but apparently in 



316 PAYING THE COSTS. 

pursuit of deliberately given orders, as a matter of " state 
policy," by governmental decree ! 

Yet would the human mind recoil from this tissue of hor- 
rors — yet would the normal American mind refuse to believe 
a tithe of them real and true — were it not for one deed done on 
May 7, by Germans and by order of the German government. 

The Lusitania ! 

The Lusitania, fight against it as you may, makes credible 
what would have been largely incredible — forces a belief in 
these tales of horror from the striken fields of Flanders which 
nothing else could have compelled. Millions now believe, from 
end to end of the earth, what they never would have believed 
against Germans and their government — because of the Lusi- 
tania. 

Of all the losses on the Lusitania — of all the destruction 
it has brought to hearts and hearths — the greatest, the most ir- 
reparable, the longest to endure, and the hardest to live down 
and persuade mankind to forget — is the loss suffered by the 
German name, the German character, the German people. 

How much or little they may have deserved it, no people 
ever needed pity and compassion as do the German people, be- 
cause of this act. The greatness of that need is the greatness 
of the German loss on the Lusitania, 



THE LESSONS OF THE WAR. 

EVERY reader of history and every person who had fol- 
lowed the destinies of the men at arms in the arena 
abroad, must be impressed with the force of that pictur- 
esque and historic utterance of our own great Sherman : " War 
is Hell!" 

England, France, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Russia, 
Turkey, Servia, Japan, sacrificing the flower of manhood in a 
sea of conflict; innocent men, women and children ruthlessly 
destroyed ; their houses leveled and their fields laid waste ; fac- 
tories demolished and houses of worship desecrated; bypaths 
strewn with dead and dying, thoroughfares steeped in blood; 
treasures and works of art destroyed by acts of vandalism, and 
ships blown up by mines or torpedoes. Such is the picture which 
visualizes the words of the immortal Sherman. 

And the methods by which devastation has been wrought. 
The Indians have gone down in history as savages because they 
used the poisoned arrow and the fire brand; scalped innocent 
women and children and carried oflf maidens as trophies of war. 
And yet, that seething arena in which the men of Nations have 
been struggling at each others throats has been the scene of acts 
which are no whit less barbarous than those of our own abor- 
igines. 

What difference whether the red man touched the seeth- 
ing pine torch to the log cabin of our forefather, and drove him 
and his family into the wilderness ; or whether the German sol- 
dier poured oil upon the wood work and furniture of a peace- 
ful Belgian home, and set the humble dwelling ablaze with p^as, 
electric or chemical torch. What greater crime did the Indian 
commit in scalping the aged man or woman or the innocent 

S17 



318 THE LESSONS OE THE WAR. 

maiden, than did the Germans who shot down innocent men — 
and sometimes women — because a stray bullet alleged to have 
been fired from some modest cottage found a place in the breast 
of a gray uniformed warrior. 

It is possible in the light of such things to reconcile the 
placing of the Indian without the pale of civilization, and the 
holding of the Germans within the bounds of decency. Such is 
the situation which lovers of peace have been forced to contem- 
plate. 

For years men of peace have been advocating the settle- 
ment of all differences between nations by arbitration ; by such 
adjustments as would work no hardship on innocent individuals ; 
by such agreements as would enable nations and men to main- 
tain their dignity and positions without sacrifice of honor, and 
without causing wanton destruction and waste and thus bring- 
ing hardship and woe upon those who were unable to prevent it. 

THE GOLDEN RULE. 

The Golden Rule of men was to be applied to nations, and 
the world was hailing with delight the approach of an era when 
the great guns would be silenced; the huge battleships turned 
into peace convoys, and the threatening airships assigned to duty 
as peaceful carriers of passengers. 

And Germany and the German Emperor were parties to an 
agreement which before all mankind was heralded as the fore- 
runner of universal peace. The agreement made at the Hague 
when the representatives of all nations gathered to discuss and 
take steps to prevent wanton shedding of blood, has been shat- 
tered by shot and shell, and fire and explosive;cut into shreds 
by sword and bayonet ; discolored by poisonous fumes; drenched 
with oil, and blown to atoms by bombs and torpedoes. 

The labor of years has gone for nought, and the same sav- 



THE LESSONS OE THE WAR. 319 

age instincts which inspired the warriors of the barbaric age 
have manifested themselves in the hearts of the Germans. Here 
and there, perhaps, the soldiers of other nations may have com- 
mitted acts which are not countenanced in modern warfare, but 
the burden of proof that they are not violating every rule of 
civilization rests upon the Germans. 

History, if it be history, can be but a recital of facts. Not 
one word may be injected which is not born of the truth, and 
in this presentation no reference has been made to the outrages 
which have been charged against the German soldiers in their 
attacks upon women — the allegations that although they did not 
always destroy like the Herod of old, but satisfied themselves 
by cutting off the right hands of innocent boys that they might 
grow into men and raise a strong arm against the German 
Empire. 

DISREGARD OF PRINCIPLE. 

The cry of civilized nations has been raised, not against 
the Germans as a people, but against those policies which have 
permitted the disregard of principle ; and America, in its policy 
as outlined by President Wilson — the avowed advocate of peace 
— " asks nothing for itself, except what it has to ask for hu- 
manity itself." 

For this attitude in a trying situation, the President receiv- 
ed the praise of leaders and men in all walks of life, for unques- 
tionably America does not want war, and the one great hope 
which rests in the hearts of men, is that the cruel struggle which 
will probably go down in history as the greatest war of all time, 
will ultimately teach the utter futility of it all. 

Even now, the horror of it all is impressed upon the minds 
of thinking men and women the world over, and the record of 
events will leave an impress on the minds of future generations 



320 THE LESSONS OF THE WAR. 

which can never be effaced. The wickedness, the awfulness, the 
terror and the brutahty which the war has pictured for human- 
ity, have been brought home to the individual by the far-reach- 
ing effects of the struggle. Nations will carry burdens of debt 
for centuries to come, and though every man and every woman 
now living has passed away, there is no escaping the burdens 
which the war has brought and will bring. The innocents of 
the future must pay for the savagery of the past, just as the 
Bible says that the " sins of the father shall be visited unto the 
third and fourth generations," for Nations are but collections of 
individuals, and that which applies to the individuals must apply 
to the individuals collectively. 



THE SECOND NOTE TO GERMANY. 

PRESIDENT WILSON'S second note asking assurances 
that Germany adopt measures for observing the prin- 
ciples of International law in safeguarding American 
lives and American ships was given out for publication on 
June lo. Qualifying as spokesman for the American people, 
the President sent to Germany a paper that in every sentence 
teemed with the lofty spirit of service to humanity and self- 
respecting firmness which the nation had demanded should 
characterize the next communication to the Government 
guilty _ of violating the rights of our citizens and sacrificing 
their lives. 

The President repeated in condensed and felicitous phrase 
the position taken in the first note. He shows that the Ger- 
man Government was " misinformed " as to the armed nature 
of the Lusitania. The point as to a cargo of contraband he 
declares to be irrelevant. The text of the note follows : 

Department of State, Washington, June 9, 1915. 
American Ambassador, Berlin: 

You are instructed to deliver textually the following note to the Minister 
of Foreign Affairs : 

In compliance with Your Excellency's request, I did not fail to transmit 
to my government immediately upon their receipt your note of May 28, in 
reply to my note of May 15, and your supplementary note of June 1, setting 
forth the conclusions so far reached by the Imperial German Government 
concerning the attacks on the American steamers Gushing and Gulflight. I 
am now instructed by my government to communicate the following in reply: 

The Government of the United States notes with gratification the full 
recognition by the Imperial German Government, in discussing the cases of 
the Gushing and the Gulflight, of the principle of freedom of all parts of 
the open sea to neutral iships and the frank willingness of the Imperial German 
Government to acknowledge and meet its liability where rtie fact of attack 
upon neutral ships " which have not been guilty of any hostile act " by German 
aircraft or vessels of war is satisfactorily established; and the Government 
of the United States will in due course lay before the Imperial German Govern- 
ment at its request full information concerning the attack on the steamer 
Gushing. 

With regard to the sinking of the steamer Falaba, by which an American 
citizen lost his life, the Government of the United States is surprised to find 

321 



'322 THE SECOND NOTE TO GERMANY. 

the Imperial German Govemment contending that an effort on the part of q. 
merchantman to escape capture and secure assistance alters the obligation of 
the officer seeking to make the capture in respect of the safety of the lives of 
those on board the merchantman, although the vessel has ceased her attempt to 
escape when torpedoed. 

These are not nev? circumstances. They have been in the minds of states- 
men and of international jurists throughout the development of naval vyarfare, 
and the Government of the United States does not understand that they have 
ever been held to alter the principles of humanity upon which it has insisted. 

Nothing but actual forcible resistance or continued efforts to escape by 
flight when ordered to stop for the purpose of visit on the part of the merchant- 
man has ever been held to forfeit the lives of her passengers or crew. 

The Government of the United States, however, does not understand that 
the Imperial German Government is seeking in this case to relieve itself of 
liability, but only intends to set forth the circumstances which led the comman- 
der of the submarine to allow himself to be hurried into the course which he 
took. 

Your Excellency's note, in discussing the loss of American lives resulting 
from the sinking of the steamship Lusitania, adverts at some length to cer- 
tain information which the Imperial German Government has received with 
regard to the character and outfit of that vessel, and Your Excellency expresses 
the fear that this information may not have been brought to the attention 
of the Government of the United States. It is stated in the note that the 
Lusitania was undoubtedly equipped with masked guns, supplied with trained 
gunners and special ammunition, transporting troops from Canada, carrying 
a cargo not permitted under the laws of the United States to a vessel also carry- 
ing passengers and serving, in virtual effect, as an auxiliary to the naval 
forces of Great Britain. 

Fortunately these are matters concerning which the Government of the 
United States is in a position to give the Imperial German Government ofSoial 
information. 

Of the facts alleged in Your Excellency's note, if true, the Government of 
the United States would have been bound to ^take official cognizance in perform- 
ing its recognized duty as a neutral power and in enforcing its national laws. 
It was its duty to see to it that the Lusitania was not armed for offensive 
action, that she did not carry a cargo prohibited by the statutes of the United 
States, and that if in fact she was a naval vessel of Great Britain, she should 
not receive clearance as a merchantman ; and it performed that duty and en- 
forced its statutes with scrupulous vigilance through its regularly constituted 
officials. It is able, therefore, to assure the Imperial German Government 
that it has been misinformed. If the Imperial German Government should 
deem itself to be in possession of convincing evidence that the officials of the 
Government of the United States did not perforni these duties with thorough- 



THK SECOND NOTE TO GERMANY. 323 

ness, the Government of the United States sincerely hopes that it will submit 
that evidence for consideration. 

Whatever may be the contentions of the Imperial German Government re- 
garding the carriage of contraband of war on board the Lusitania or regarding 
the explosion of that material by the torpedo, it need only be said that in the 
view of this government these contentions are irrelevant to the question of the 
legality of the methods used by the German naval authorities in sinking the 
vessel. 

But the sinking of passenger ships involves principles of humanity which 
throw into the background any special circumstances of detail that may be 
thought to affect the cases, principles which lift it, as the Imperial German 
Government will no doubt be quick to recognize and acknowledge, out of the 
class of ordinary subjects of diplomatic discussion or of international con- 
troversy. 

Whatever be the other facts regarding the Lusitania, the principal fact 
is that a great steamer, primarily and chiefly a conveyance for passengers, and 
carrying more than a thousand souls who had no part or lot in the conduct of 
the war, was torpedoed and sunk without so much as a challenge or a warning, 
and that men, women and ohildren were sent to their death in circumstances 
unparalleled in modern warfare. 

The fact that more than one hundred American citizens ■vvere among those 
who perished made it the duty of the Government of the United States to 
speak of these things, and once more, with solemn emphasis, to call the atten- 
tion of the Imperial German Government to the grave responsibility which the 
Government of the United States conceives that it has incurred in this tragic 
occurrence, and to the indisputable principle upon which that responsibility 
rests. 

The Government of the United States is contending for something much 
greater than mere rights of property or privileges of commerce. 

It is contending for nothing less high and sacred than the rights of human- 
ity, which every government honors itself in respecting and which no govern- 
ment is justified in resigning on behalf of those under its care and authority. 

Only her actual resistance to capture or refusal to stop When ordered to 
do so for the purpose of visit could have afforded the commander of the sub- 
marine any justification for so much as putting the lives of Those on board the 
ship in jeopardy. This principle the Government of the United States under- 
stands the explicit instructions issued on August 3, 1914, by the Imperial 
German Admiralty to its commanders at sea to have recognized and embodied, 
as do the naval codes of all other nations, and upon it every traveler and seaman 
had a right to depend. 

It is upon this principle of humanity, as well as upon the law founded 
upon this principle, that the United States must stand. 

The Government of the United States is happy to observe that Your Excel- 



324* THE SECOND NOTE TO GERMANY. 

lency's note closes with the intimation tihat the Imperial German Government 
Is willing, now as before, to accept the good ofBoes of the United States in an 
attempt to come to an understanding with the Government of Great Britain 
by which the character and conditions of the war upon the sea may be changed. 
The Government of the United States would consider it a privilege thus to serve 
its friends and the world. It stands ready at any time to convey to either 
government any intimation or suggestion the other may be willing to have 
it convey and cordially invites the Imperial German Government to make use 
of its services in this way at its convenience. The whole world is concerned 
in anything that may bring about even a partial accommodation of interests or 
in any way mitigate the terrors of the present distressing conflict. 

In the meantime, whatever arrangement may happily be made between the 
parties to the war, and Whatever may in the opinion of the Imperial German 
Government have been the provocation or the circumstantial justification 
for the past acts of its commanders at sea. the Government of the United 
States confidently looks to see the justice and humanity of the Government of 
Germany vindicated in all eases where Americans have been wronged or their 
rights as neutrals invaded. 

The Government of the United States, therefore, very earnestly and very 
solemnly renews the representations of its note, transmitted to the Imperial 
German Government on the 15th of May, and relies in these representations upon 
the principles of humanity, the universally recognized understandings of inter- 
national law and the ancient friendship of the German nation. 

The Government of the United States cannot admit that the proclamation 
of a war zone from which neutral ships have been warned to keep away may 
be made to operate as in any degree an abbreviation of the rights either of 
American shipmasters or of American citizens bound on la\vful errands as 
passengers on merchant ships of belligerent nationality. It does not understand 
the Imperial German Government to question those rights. It understands it, 
also, to accept as established beyond question the principle that the lives of 
non-combatants cannot lawfully or rightfully be put in jeopardy by the capture 
or destruction of an unresisting merchantman, and to recognize the obligation 
to take sufBcient precaution to ascertain whether a suspected merchantman 
is in fact of belligerent nationality or is in fact carrying contraband of war 
under a neutral flag. 

The Government of the United States, therefore, deems it reasonable to 
expect that the Imperial German Government will adopt the measures necessary 
to put these principles into practice in respect of the safeguarding of American 
lives and American ships, and asks for assurances that this will be done. 

EGBERT LANSING, Secretary of State, ad interim. 



*The 32 pages of illustrations in this book are not included in the paginn-. 
Adding these 32 pages to the 324 pages of text makes a total of 356 pages.