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LIBRARIAN 1915-1919 

Cornell University Library 
ND 1337.I8SC64 

The life and works of Giorgio Giulio Clo 

3 1924 008 727 020 

Cornell University 

The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 


[This Edition consists or 250 Copies on Demy Paeek, 
AND 50 Copies on Eoyal Papek.] 


(From a cast, in the British Museum 
never before published). 









Author of " A Dictionary of Miniaturists," 









I HAVE been told — for my possible consolation — by 
a long-established bookseller of the class formerly 
more common than at present, and of whom the 
Alduses, Stephenses, and Plantins are the elder 
examples, that he has often been astounded at the 
extent of popular ignorance respecting Cellini and 
his autobiography. If this be so, what can be 
expected, with regard to his now obscure, but 
once at least equally celebrated, contemporary 
GiuUo Clovio ? Nevertheless the subject is one 
which, if not well known, ought to become so. 
The importance of Miniature Art to the proper 
understanding of the general question of artistic 
culture and the progress of the Arts of Painting 
and of Book illustration is no longer a matter of 
special knowledge. For many years past it has 
been steadily growing, and it only requires that 
the Lives of its professors in various ages shall 
be studiously set forth wherever materials can 
be found, to put the Miniaturists on their true 
ground and so give them that relative importance 
to which they are entitled by virtue of their 
labours, and by right of the inestimable services 

ii Preface. 

which in their somewhat humbler way they have 
rendered to the great jurisdiction of human culture, 
known comprehensively by the brief but most 
significant name of Art. 

We have book after book placed upon our shelves 
dealing with the well-known themes of Schools of 
Painting. We have Lives without number of the 
well-known masters of those schools. It is time 
that a new track should be cut and some of the 
yet unknown or less known ones brought beneath 
our purview. In the following Life, as will be seen, 
I have chiefly made use of foreign authorities ; and 
especially, though not by any means blindly, of 
Sakcinski. I have ventured to make a beginning 
in a new line, and for its admitted imperfections and 
errors I must, as in the case of my Dictionary, or as 
it should be called. Materials towards a Dictionary, 
of Miniaturists, throw myself upon the indulgence 
and candour of my readers. I have other candi- 
dates for notice behind, but until this coryphaeus 
of his art has found his place, the rest nmst remain 
in their present obscurity, among the long-forgotten 
tenants of the under- world. 

John W. Bradley. 


Christmas, 1890. 



Preface . i 

Chronological Account, &c xi 

Introduction I 

Chapter I. — Introductory notes on Clovio's family and 
birthplace — Clovio born 1498 — State of afEairs in 
Croatia — His first tutors and work — At eighteen 
years of age is invited to Rome — Precocity of 
Italian artists — Clovio's earliest patrons — The 
Grimani family . ..... 17-27 

Chapter II. — Clovio's first visit to Italy, 1516 — Proba- 
ble character of his earliest commissions — Meets 
Grinlio Romano — Advised to keep to miniature — 
Studies in the Thermae of Titus — RafEaello and 
his drawings from the grottesche — Position of 
Raffaello as commissioner for ancient buildings 
— Clovio's first coloured miniature — A copy from 
Diirer — Other works — Goes to Buda^His ac- 
quaintance with Francisco de Holanda and 
Michelangelo — Conversations .... 28-41 

Chapter III. — Francisco de Holanda and his Recol- 
lections — Their somewhat mythical character — 
Francisco's object in Rome — Interviews with 

iv Contents. 


Michelangelo— The Marchesa Vittoria Colonna 
— Opinions of Michelangelo on painters and 
styles of painting — Yisit to Clovio — The inven- 
tion of working in points — Dispute . . . 42-71 

Chaptee IV. — The state of Miniature Art in Italy — 
The immediate predecessors and contemporaries 
of Clovio — The art in other parts of Europe — 
Distinguished miniaturists in the Netherlands, 
France, Germany, Spain, and Italy . . . 72-124i 

Chapter V. — Clovio's various styles— His qualities as 
an artist — The Sack of Rome — Sufferings of 
artists — Clovio at Mantua — San, and 
Candiana — ^Works at this time — The House of 
Farnese — Works executed for them — Romantic 
Episode — Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici and Giulia 
di Gonzaga — The Devises of Ippolito — Clovio at 
Florence — Works executed for the Grand Duke, 
and for Margaret of Parma — The Devises of the 
Farnese princes — Clovio's declining health — His 
troubles — His last works — His death and public 
funeral 126-187 

Chapter VI. — Clovio's work under Farnese patronage 
— The supposed commissions for Philip II. — 
The Bonde Psalter, and the copy of it at 
Naples— The Vatican MSS. — Dante — Lives of 
the Dukes of Urbino, Muzio, Tullia d'Aragona, 
Monterchi — The Stuart de Rothesay Hours — 
Stanze di Eurialo d'Ascoli — The Gonzaga Hours 
^Other works 188-207 

Contents. v 


Chapter VII. — The Disputed Works — The Granville 
Victories — The Strawberry Hill Psalter — The 
Ravenna MSS.— The Munich Offices— The 
Naples Flora— The Paris Psalter . . . 208-243 

Appendix I. — The Soane Commentary, &o. . . 244-253 

Appendix II. — The Towneley Lectionary . . . 254-260 

Appendix III.— The Trivulzio Petrarch . . . 261-262 

Appendix IV.— The Psalter of Paul III. . . . 262-270 

Appendix V.— The Naples " Offices " . . . . 270-274 

Appendix VI. — The Grenville "Victories of Charles V.," 

called " L'Aguila Triumphante "... 275-289 

Appendix VII. — Sonde's account of the MS. executed 

for John III. King of Portugal .... 290-304 

Appendix VIII.— The Stuart de Rothesay MS. . . 304-311 

Appendix IX. — Stanze of Eurialo d'Ascoli . . . 312-315 

Appendix X. — The Gonzaga or Bodley Offices . . 316-323 

Appendix XI. — The Silius ItaUcus of the Marcian 

Library, Venice 323-328 

Appendix XII. — A Missal in the Museo Borbonico at 
Naples — ^A Small Book of Hours — ^Various works 
attributed to Clovio 328-336 

Appendix XIII. — Richardson's Notes. Extracts from 
" An Account of the Statues, Bas-reliefs, 
Drawings, and Pictures in Italy and France, 
&o." With remarks. By Mr. Richardson. 
(Land. 1754. Small octavo.) .... 337-343 

vi Contents. 


Appendix XIV. — A List of Glovio's "Works, given by 
Vasari — A List of Works attributed by various 
Authors to Clovio — Inventory .... 343-358 

Appendix XV. — Engravings on Copper from Pictures 

by Clovio 369-367 

Appendix XVI.— Pupils of Clovio— Portraits of Clovio 367-371 

Appendix XVII.— Clovio's Will 371-376 

Appendix XVIII. — Documents. The Will and Letters 

of Julio Clovio 376-392 

Index 393-400 



1. — ^Medallion Portrait from Cast in British Museum 


2. — Autographs op Artists 29 

3. — Ditto . . ...... 64 

4. — Farnese Palace, Rome .... . 148 

5. — The " Sakcinski " Portrait . . . . 154 

6.— The "Vasari" Portrait . ... 166 

7. — Medal and Portrait of Cardinal . . 182 

8.— The " Corzon " Portrait 186 

9, 10. — Tvfo pages from the Stanzb d'Eurialo d'Ascoli, 

Imperial Library, Vienna .... 198 

11, 12. — Two pages from the " Soane " Clovio, London 248 

13. — Miniature from the Victories of Charles V., 

British Museum ... . . 286 

14. — Cartel from same MS 288 


Offices, British Museum .... 308 

17. — Death of St. Bartholomew, from a Drawing 

attributed to Clovio, British Museum . . 358 

18. — Adoration of Magi, from an Engraving after 

Clovio, British Museum .... 364 


192, , 


194, , 


201, , 


202, , 


206, , 


207, , 


262, , 


Page 30, line 3 (note), f&r 1575 read 1515. 

18, fofr sometimes read sometime, 
were read was. 
Monsercbi read Monterchl. 
d^na read d^no. 
guache read gonache. 
not only means read means not only. 
Zeus read Zeno. 

The reader is requested kindly to correct other errors which have escaped 
notice during printing. 

The following note was accidentally omitted from p. 135 : — 
" Le Uosde de Br^ 4 Milan possMe une Miniature representant la scfene 
de la femme adultere, que fit Glovio d'apres on tableau de Falma le Vleux." 
— Labarte, J. : Hist, des Arts Industriels au Moyen Age, &c, II. 276. (Paris, 
1872-5.) This is probably the miniature or picture supposed, by Sakcinski 
and others, to be a copy of Titian. It should have appeared in the b'st on 
p. 350. 

A Chronology 


Principal Events in the Life and Times of Clovio. 

1498 Glovio horn at Grizane, in 'Croatia. Domenico Grrimani 

(Cardinal in 1493;), now residing in Rome, is made 
Patriarch, of Aqtiileia, in his thirty-eighth year. 

This year is the twenty-fifth of Ferdinand and 
Isabella of Spain, the thirteenth of Henry VII. of 
England, tbe seventh of Pope Alexander VI., the 
sixth of Maximilian T. Emperor of Germany, the 
fourth of Manuel of Portugal, and the first of 
Louis XII. of France. Caasar Borgia created Duke 
of Valentinois. Attavante, miniaturist of Florence, 
forty-three years of age. Savonarola burnt in Florence. 
Sandro Botticelli and Lorenzo di Credi are among his 

Michelangelo in Rome, whither he came in 1496, 
in his twenty-first year. Amico Aspertini, painter 
and miniaturist of Bologna, twenty-three years of age. 
"Amico da due penelle." 

1499 The Turks ravage Friuli in the Venetian States, and 
(1) Antonio Grimani, father of Cardinal Domenico, is 

general of the Christian army. Amerigo Vespucci 
and Ojeda, employed by Manuel of Portugal in ex- 
ploring the New World, discover Brazil. Expulsion 
of Moors from Spain. Marsilio Ficino, the Platonist, 
dies. Jakoh von Olmiitz completes the large Gradual in 
2 vols., now in the Amhras Museum, Vienna. 

xii A Chronology. 

1500 The year of Jubilee. Birtli of Charles V. 

1501 Csesar Borgia, made Duke of Romagna, becomes Master 

(3) of Urbino. Monte di Qiovanni illuminates an 
Epistolariwm for the " Opera " of the Cathedral of 

Frederic III. of Naples dethroned by Ferdinand the 
Catholic. End of the Aragonese dynasty in Naples. 
Death of Gentile Bellini, aged eighty. 

1502 Lucrezia Borgia marries her fourth husband, Alfonso of 

(4) Este, afteerwards Duke of Ferrara. Henry VII.'s 
Chapel at Westminster begun (1602-19). Pius III. is 
Pope for twenty-two days. Fra Eustachio worhing at 

1503 Julius II., Pope (1503-13), deprives Ceesar Borgia of 

(5) Urbino and imprisons him. All Naples becomes 
subject to Spaih. by the victory of Gonsalvo di 
Cordova over the French at the Garigliano. Godinho 
worhs at Torre do Tombo on the Book of Armorials. 

1504 Death of Isabella of Castile ; she is succeeded by Philip 

(6) the Fair and Joanna. Columbus returns from his 
fourth (last) voyage. Death of Csesar Borgia in Spain. 
Raffaello at Florence. 

1505 Naples ceded to Ferdinand of Aragon : the Two Sicilies 

(7) become Spanish until 1760. Louis XII. lays claim to 
Milan. Michelangelo malces a design for the tomb of 
JuUo II. (a pen drawing now in the Uffizi), with forty 
statues, the chief of which was the celebrated Moses. 
Monte di Giovanni adjudged to execute the mosaic head 
of San Zenobio at Florence. Fra Eustachio worhing 
there. Albert Altdorfer at Ratisbon. 

A Chronology. xiii 

1506 Death of Philip the Fair, aged twenty-eight, at Burgos ; 

(8) insanity of his widow. Two devotional hoohs formerly 
belonging to Tier are preserved in the British Museum. 
Their son Charles, aged six, is declared heir of Spain 
and the Netherlands, and Ferdinand, aged three, of 
Austria. Bramante, of TJrbino, begins St. Peter's at 
Rome, and Julius II. lays the first stone, April 18th. 

1507 Ximenes, Archbishop of Toledo, made Cardinal. Albert 

(9) Diirer at Bologna. Itlichelangelo in Rome, now 
working as a painter on the ceiling of the Sistine 
Chapel, without assistance. (It was begun on May 
10th, 1507, and finished in 1512.) 

1508 Luther, professor of Philosophy at Wittemberg. Bologna 

(10) in the hands of the Bentivogli, besieged by the Pope. 
Monte di CHovanni executed a Manualefor the Cathedral 
of Florence. Simon Bynnynch worlcing at Bruges. 

1509 Erasmus at Oxford : is made Greek professor at Cam ■ 

(11) bridge. Henry YIII. of England (1509-1647), aged 

1510 Ximenes founds the University of Alcala de Henarez, 

(12) the birthplace of Catherine of Aragon (Latin Complu- 
tum) ; and of Santiago di Compostella. RafEaelle 
painting the " Stanze " of the Vatican. Luther visits 
Rome, "built over hell." Monte di Giovanni hegins 
a Missal for the Chu/rch of San Giovanni at Florence. 
Ostendorffer worlcing at Munich on the " Turnier- 
Buch," now at Munich, is made Court Painter to 
William TV., Duke of Bavaria. Cardinal Georges 
d'Amboise rebuilds the Chateau de Gaillon, and 
employs several illuminators and copyists for his 

xiv A Chronology. 

1511 Nicolo Macchiavelli Secretary of State at Florence. 

(13) RafEaelle finishes the frescoes in the Stanze della 
Segnatura. Death of Giorgione at Venice. Boccardini 
worJcing at Florence. 

Flonrishing period of Italian and German schools of 

1512 Gaston de Foix, aged twenty-four, killed at Ravenna. 

(14) Raffaelle finishes the Galatea, &c. in the Farnesina. 
Fray Gonstancio de Monte Olivas executes a missal for 
the Cathedral of Toledo, now in the Museum at Madrid. 
Giovanni Fregoso Doge of Genoa. Albert of Bran- 
denburg, Teutonic Grand Master, swears allegiance 
to the Emperor. Raffaelle designs "Arazzi" for the 

1513 Battle of the Spurs and of Flodden. Death of Julius II. 

(15) Leo X. elected Pope. (Giovanni de' Medici, 1513-1522, 
Cardinal Pietro Bembo, and Jacopo Sadoleti, secre- 
taries.) Palermo made seat of Spanish Viceroy. 
George Qlockendon, worlting at Nuremberg for Albert of 
Brandenbv/rg , dies this year. 

1514 Death of Anne of Brittany. The Portuguese Ambassadors 
(16) present to Leo X. an elephant, a panther, and other 
animals and products of their newly-acquired territory 
in the East. These animals figure in some of the 
illuminated boohs of the time. Death of Bramante. 
Raffaelle, aged thirty-one, continues the building 
of St. Peter's. Fray Felipe, miniaturist at Toledo. 
B. Ganderroa and Alonzo Vasqueg work on the Missal 
of Cardinal Gisneros. Glovio still at home; learns 

A Chronology. xv 

1515 Francis I. becomes King of France (1515-47). Leo X. 
(7) confers Urbino on bis nephew, Lorenzo de' Medici. 

Francis I. defeats tbe Italians, Swiss, and otbers at 
Marignano, gaining thereby the Milanese and Genoa. 
Scipione Oavaletti works at Bologna. Birth of Hans 
Mielich at Augshurg, and of Francisco de Rolanda at 

1516 Death of Giuliano de' Medici, Duke of Nemours (author 

(18) of the curious device " Glovis " occurring in his hoolcs, 
mistalcen by Bandini for the name of Olovio) .'' Spring- 
inJclee mahes designs for the Hortulus Animce. Simon 
Bynnynch worhs at Bruges. Luis Sanchez, miniaturist, 
works at Seville. 

Clovio comes to Italy for the first time; and is employed 
by the Qriinani family. Domenico Qrimani resides in 
Bome, and is now fifty-five years old. 

1517 Rome again the chief seat of the Arts and Learning, 

(19) which are munificently supported by Leo X. and 
other Italian princes. Charles I. now becomes King 
of Spain and the Netherlands, aged sixteen (1516-1555). 
The Reformation in Germany begins. Thirty new 
Cardinals created at once. This creation brought 
200,000 golden ducats into the Papal Treasury. 
Death of Cardinal Ximenes, who had printed the 
" Complutensian Polyglott Bible " at his own cost, 
aged eighty years. The library of the Duke of 
Urbino transferred to Mantua. Birth of the Cardinal 
de Granvelle. Jacques Plastel works at Amiens. 
Hans Schdufellein works on the " Temrdannckh" at 
Nuremberg. > 

1518 Birth of Palladio. Clovio makes drawings from medals, 

(20) ^c.for Cardinal Grimani from 1518 to 1520. 

xvi A Chronology. 

1519 Death of tte Emperor Maximilian, aged sixty. Com- 

(21) petition for the Imperial Crown between the Kings 
of England, France, and Spain. Charles I. of Spain 
is elected, becoming Charles V. of Germany, at the age 
of nineteen (1519-58). Birth of Katharine de' Medici 
at Urbino. The Genevan Reformers form an " Bidge- 
nossen '' (oath-knot or bond), which the Ei'ench trans- 
form into Huguenots. Death of Leonardo da Yinci in 
the arms of Francis I., aged 75. Boccardino works at 
Florence. Matteo da Terranova worhs on the service hooks 
at Monte Gassino (1519-24). Monte di Giovanni com- 
pletes the last of five Antiphonaries for the Cathedral of 
Florence. Finishes also the missals for the Church of 
San Giovanni. Godefroi executes a " Ccesar's Com- 
mentaries " for Francis I. 

1520 Henry VIII. and Francis I. meet on the " Field of the 

(22) Cloth of Gold." Soliman the Magnificent Sultan 
(1520-66). Death of Raffaello at Rome, aged thirty- 
seven. Michelangelo at Florence. Geoffrey Tory works 
at Paris ; executes the famous " JDiodorus." The 
" Complutensian Polyglott " published. Wolsey builds 
Hampton Court. Francisco de Villadiego works at Toledo. 
Sis miniatures ' ' exact in drawing and brilliant in colowr." 

Clovio, at the persuasion of Giulio Bomano, his senior 
hy six years, decides on following miniature painting 
as a profession. 

1521 War between France and the Empire (1521-6). Title of 
(2.3) " Defender of the Faith " given to Henry VIII. for his 

tract, " De septem sacramentis,'' against Luther. Diet 
of Worms . Luther, under the ban of the Empire, 
is concealed at the Wartburg. Hans Sebald Beham 
illuminates the Brandenburg Missal, now at Aschaffen- 
burg. Hans ImJtoff and Albert Aldegraver execute a 
MS., now-at Nuremberg. Death pf Leo X. Adrian VI. 
elected Pope (1522-8). Death of Emanuel, King of 
Portugal, aged fifty two. John III. 

A Chronology. xvii 

1522 The Duke of Urbino recovers his States. 

1523 Death of Adrian YI. Clement VII. Pope (1523-34). 

(25) Death of Cardinal Grimani, aged sixty-two. Marino 
Grimani (afterwards Cardinal) becomes Clovio's patron. 
The Constable de Bourbon enters the service of the 
Emperor, and succeeds to Prospero Colonna's command 
in Italy. 

Clovio invited hy Louis II. of Hungary to Buda, and 
executes for Mm a " Judgment of Paris," "Death of 
Lucretia, 8fc." 

1524 Death of Bayard : " Sans peur et sans reproche." The 

(26) Milanese again French. Death" Of P. Perugino. . Card. 
Campeggio influential in Germany. Order of Theatines 
sanctioned by the Pope. The Hows of Francis de 

■ Dinteville, Bishop of Auxerre (now in British Museum). 
Callisto da Lodi works on Antiphonaries, Sfc. for the 
Church of the Jncoronata at Lodi. 

1525 Pavia defended by Antonio de Leyra. Bourbon, Pescara, 

(27) and Lannoy all attempt its relief. Battle of Pavia and 
capture of Francis I.: "Tout est perdu fors I'honneur." 
Death of Bonnivet. The Milanese become Spanish. 
Order of Capuchins founded. 

Antonio da Girolamo worJes at Florence. Boceardino 
still there. 

] 526 Francis I. prisoner at Madrid. Cedes Burgundy, Flanders, 

(28) and Milan to the Emperor, and is released. Constable 
de Bourbon made Dake of Milan and Imperial Vicar. 
Battle of Mohacz and death of Louis II. of Hungary, 
aged twenty. Dispersion of the Gorvinq, Library. 

Clovio escapes from Buda and goes home into Croatiq,, 
thence returns to Borne, and employs himself in copying 
Michelangelo at the Sistine Chapel. Enters the service of 
Cardinal L. Campeggio. 

xviii A Chronology. 

1527 Eome stormed and sacked by the Grermans and Spanish. 

(29) Bourbon killed. Cellini employed by the Pope to 
direct the artillery at St. Angelo. Matteo da Terranova 
works at Perugia. The Medici expelled from Florence 
and their museum and library ransacked. Alvarez works 
at Lisbon. Francisco de Holanda employed by John III. 
of Portugal. Glovio with difficulty escapes from, Pome 
to Mantua. 

1528 The Venetians under the Duke of Urbino retake Pavia, 

(30) and the Genoese under Andrea Doria expel the 
French from Genoa. Death of Albert Diirer, aged fifty- 
seven. Birth of Federigo Barocoio at Urbino. Monte di 
Giovanni finishes the second of two Antiphonaries for 
Cathedral of Florence. This is the last of Ms recorded 
works. Jean E. Guety employed as miniaturist and 
decorator at the French Court. 

Clovio, whilst at the monastery of 8. Puffino, near 
Mantua, becomes a Scopeiine monk, calling himself 
Brother Julius, in gratitude to Giulio Pomano, whom 
he knew in Pome, and now again mst at Mantua. 
The apocryphal portrait at Vienna inscribed " Julius 
Clovius Croatus, sui ipsius officialor an. oetat. 30, salut. 
1528." Before leaving Pome he appears to have been 
engaged upon the Missal for Cardinal Grimani, " with 
most masterly miniatures." Once in the collection of the 
Duchess of Portland. A similar MS., or rather a Papal 
Lectionary, came into the possession of Mr. Wehbe, 
and afterwards of Mr. Towneley, and hence called 
" the Tovmeley Clovio." It contains six large illwmi- 
nations. (See Appendix.') 

1529 Diet of Speyers. Reformers protest against its decrees. 

(31) Solyman besieges Vienna in September, but returns 
in October. Clement V. and the Emperor meet at 
Bologna. Great festivities, and artists employed on 
the decorations, triumphal arches, &c. 

Clovio still at Mantua. Geoffrey Tory works at Paris. 

A Chronology. xix 

1530 Charles V. crowned at Bologna — the last Imperial Coro- 

(32) nation in Italy. Restores the Medici. Confession of 

Renaissance of the. arts in France. Louvre begun. 
Death of Andrea del Sarto, aged forty-two, and of the 
poet Sannazzaro. Simon Bynnynck executes the famous 
"Portuguese Genealogies" for the Infant of Spain. 
Perino di Perugia, " Perusinus" (Pietro Oesarei). Albert 
Olochendon horn at Nuremberg. The beautiful Mou/rs 
of Granvelle, now in British Museum, executed for the 
minister of Charles V., Nicolas Perrenot. Francisco de 
Holanda goes to Italy about this time. 

1531 League of Protestant princes at Schmalkald. Death of 

(33) Louise of Savoye, mother of Francis I. Glovio goes to 
Gandiana, near Padua, and receives instructions from 
Girola/mo dai Libri. 

Cardinal Grimani, Papal legate at Perugia, obtains a 
papal dispensation for Glovio and invites him to Perugia. 

1532 Alessandro de' Medici, Podesta of Florence, made Grand 

(34) Duke by Charles V. 

Glovio busily engaged at Perugia for Cardinal Marino 
Grimani. Bon Ambrogio da Cremona works at Ferrara 
and Bart. Neroni at Genoa. 

1533 Death of Ludo^v. Ariosto, aged fifty-nine. Katharine de' 

(35) Medici becomes Duchess of Orleans. Marguerite of 
Navarre publishes her Heptameron and Rabelais his 
Gargantua. Glovio still at Perugia. 

1534 Death of Clement YII. Cardinal Aless. Farnese the elder 

(36) made Pope as Paul III. (1534-1550). Luther's Ger- 
man Bible published by Hans LufEt, of Wittemberg. 
Eroole II. Duke of Ferrara (1508-59). Aless. Farnese 
the youjiger made Cardinal, aged fourteen (1520-1589). 
Death of Correggio, aged forty. Barbarossa captures 
Tunis. The Portuguese genealogies left unfinished 
owing to the death of Prince Ferdinand. Glovio 
at Perugia. 


A Clironology. 

1535 Charles V. and Andrea Doria retake Tunis. Twenty 

(37) thousand captives released. Antonio de Leyva holds 
Milan for the Emperor — it is claimed by Francis I. 

Glovio illuminates the poem of Uiirialo d'Ascoli on 
the subject of the capture of Tunis. The MS. is now in 
the Imperial Library at Vienna. Sigismunda Fiessa 
ceases to worh on choral books at Ferrara. Albert 
Glockendon the Elder illuminates the Booh of Hours 
now at Vienna. 

1536 Papal Bull " In Csena Domini." War between Francis I. 

(38) and Charles V. Death of Erasmus and of Garcilasso 
de la Vega. Execution of John of Leyden. J. 
Sadoleto, Eeginald de la Pole and P. Caraffa created 
cardinals. Francis de Buytrago works at Toledo. Death 
of Liberale da Verona, aged eighty-five. Glovio still 
at Perugia. 

1537 Aless. de' Medici assassinated. 

(39) Cosimo I. succeeds as Grand Duke (1537-74). 
Eleanora of Este born (died 1581). 

Jean van Battel works on the MS. of the Toison d' Or 
at Malines. Splendid Carnival at Rome in honour of 
Marguerite of Austria. Marriage of Ottavio Farnese 
to Marguerite of Austria, widow of Aless. de' Medici 
(died 1586). Francisco de Holanda describes the 
festivities, and tells us that it was on this Sunday- 
night that he first went to Vittoria Colonna's with 
Clovio and met Michelangelo. Vittoria Colonna's poems 
published. Clovio and Holanda, with Michelangelo, 
visit Vittoria Golonna. 

1538 Pietro Bembo (1470-1547) made Cardinal. 

1539 Revolt at Ghent. Glovio still working for Cardinal 
(41) Grimani. 

A Chronology. . xxi 

154>0 Death of Gnicciardini, aged fifty-eiglit. Glovio leaves 

(42) Cardinal Ghimani who very unwillingly parts with him, 
and goes to live with Cardinal Farnese, then twenty 
years of age, in Rome. A young German lady, named 
Clavio, comes to Some to learn miniature painting 
under Clovio. Bernardo de Orta, miniaturist at Seville, 
father of Biego di Orta. Albert Qloohendon worhs at 

1541 Solyman, master of Hangary, makes Buda a pashalik. 

(43) Aless. Cartara worhs at Padua. Yittoria Colonna goes 
to Viterbo to visit Cardinal de la Pole. 

1542 Portugal at the zenith of prosperity. Eourth war 

(44) between Francis I. and Charles V. Christopher di 
Madruccio made Cardinal of Trent. Clovio executes a 
Latin Psalter for Pope Paul III. which combines the 
styles of his two great models, Baffaelle and Michel- 
angelo.* Yincenzo Paimondi worhs on choir-boohs of 
the Vatican chapel till 1552. Vittoria Colonna and 
Cardinal Pole under surveillance of the Inquisition, 
by order of Cardinal Caraffa (afterwards Paul IV.). 
Vittoria corresponds with Michelangelo — letter in 
British Museum. 

1543 Vesalius of Brussels published his " Anatomy," with plates 

(45) by Titian. Campaign of Charles V. against the Buhe 
of Cleves (see the Heemskerck victories of Charles V.) . 
Philip, son of Charles V., and Duke of Milan, marries 
Maria of Portugal. Pederigo Zuccaro born at Urbino. 
Death of Hans Holbein in London, aged forty-six. 

1544 French -^acate Italy. Peace with Germany. Birth of 

(46) Tasso. Jean Cousin works at Paris. 

* Now in the National Library, Paris. 

xxii A Chronology. 

1545 Council of Trent formally opened in December. Birth 

(47) of tte ill-fated Don Carlos, son of Philip of Spain, and 
of Lucrezia de' Medici, afterwards Duchess of Ferrara 
(1558-61). Death of Albert of Brandenburg, patron 
of Diirer and the Glockendons. Qeorg Eoefnagel born 
at Antwerp. 

1546 Charles V. and Maurice of Saxony defeat the Protestant 

(48) princes at Miihlberg (one of the Eeemskerck victories). 
Death of Francis I., aged fifty-three, succeeded by 
Henry II., husband of Katharine de' Medici. Death of 
Cardinal Marino Grimani, Clovio's former patron. Pier 
Luigi Famese made Duke of Parma and Piacenza. Clovio 
illuminates a Latin Missal for Cardinal Famese, dated, 
once in the Royal Library at Naples, and a choir-hoolc, 
said to be at Gapo di Monte. Sdkcinslci thinks the 
latter very doubtful (p. 40), but see Voyage d'wn 
Amateur, III. 36. 

1547 Death of Henry VIII. Pier Luigi of Parma assassiaated. 

(49) Ottavio Famese Duke of Parma (1547-86). About 
these years since 1542 Clovio executes certain miniatures 
for the Cardinal of Trent. Battista Oastello and Nicolas 
Milliard born. 

1548 Jeanne d'Albret marries Anthoine de Bourbon. Diet of 

(50) Augsburg and second " Interim." Clovio paints a Pieta 
with five figu/res and another Madonna for Aless. Famese 
as a present to his grandfather, Paul III. It is now at 
Florence. Alfonso of Bste married to Giulia della 
Eovere (she died 1563). Baroecio studies in Borne. 
Jean Hubert works at Paris. 

1549 Death of Paul III., aged eighty -two. Julius III. succeeds 

(51) after three months (1550-6). Gerard Horenbout still 
working at Ghent. The MS. of Francisco de Holanda 
dates from this year. 

A Chronology. xxiii 

1550 Vasari publishes Ms "Lives of the Painters." Olovio 

(52) paints a Madonna for Julius III. mth the pope's portrait 
hneeling at her feet.* F, Zuccaro goes to study at Borne. 
Baroccio returns to Urbino. Anna Seghers works at 
Antwerp. F. di Gastello works probably at Paris. 

1551 Ottavio Famese seeks the aid of Henry II. of France 

(53) against his father-in-law about Piaoenza. Clovio 
remains at Rome. Diego de Arroijo works at Toledo and 
Madrid. Godfrey Lugel works at Wittemburg. 

1552 Landgrave of Hesse liberated and the " Interim " revoked. 

(54) Death of Paolo Jovio and of Francis Xavier. Uxpleta 
works at Saragossa. 

1553 Death of Edward VI. and accession of Mary I. (1553-8). 

(55) Death of Maurice of Saxony and of Rabelais, also^ of 
Georg Glockendon the younger. Glovio is invited to 
Florence and works therefor Cosimo I. painting a'Stabat 
Mater inscribed "Julius Macedo fee. a. 1553." On his 
return to Borne he receives a request from Philip of 
Spain to execute a series of miniatures, supposed by 
some authors to be the scenes from the victories of his 

father, already engraved by Meemsherck. (Sakcinski, 
p. 26.) Birth of Henry of Navarre (afterwards Henry 
IV.) and of Edmund Spenser. 

1554 Philip of Spain marries Mary of England and becomes 

(56) King of Naples and Sicily, but not of England. About 
this time, if at all, Clovio paints the additional minia- 
tures to the Vatican Dante (Sakcinski, p. 33) and executes 
those of the Lives of the Dukes of Urbino, also in the 
Vatican. Also an alleged copy of the Stanze di Furialo 
d'Ascoli, probably that other poem now in the Industrial 
Museum at Munich. 

* If only painted at this time, this cannot be the picture, as 
stated by Sakcinski, which was sent by Paul III. (1534-49) as a 
present to the Emperor Charles V. on his return from Tunis. 
(Sakcinski, p. 22.) 

xxiv A Chronology. 

1555 Philip leaves England and by Charles's abdication re- 

(57) ceives the Netherlands. The Duke of Savoy appointed 
viceroy. The Diet of Augsburg confirms religious free- 
dom of Protestants. Death of Julius IH. Marcellus 
n. succeeds, and after a brief space Paul IV. (Giov. 
Pietro Caraffa, an ascetic, founder of the Theatines, 
aged eighty). The Colonna Family despoiled by the 
Pope, for his own relations. (1555-9.) 

Glovio paints a choir-hook for 8. Salvatore, Borne 
(Lecomte II. 1.) Fra Hustachio dies at Florence, aged 
eighty-three, and Qirolamo dai Libri at Verona, aged 
eighty-one (Bernasconi). Andres EiO/mirez and Padilla 
work at Seville. 

1556 Truce for five years between France and Germany. 

(58) Charles "V". abdicates Spain, &c., to his son, and the 
Imperial dignity to his brother Ferdinand. He retires 
to the Monastery of St. Tnste, near Placencia, in 
Spain. Paul IV. interferes. Philip II, cedes Piacenza 
to the Duke of Parma. Death of Ignatius Loyola, 
aged sixty-five, and of Joh. Sleidan the historian of the 
Reformation. Glovio paints another choir-book, or com- 
pletes the one begun in 1546; also sev,eral others said to be 
at Seville, probably mainly the work of his assistants. 
(" Conca : Viaggio di Spagna, III. 234.") Mercator 
publishes his chart of the world. Albert Glockendon 
works at Nuremberg. Isaac Oliver horn {d. 1617). 

1557 Battle of St. Quentin. Philip vows the Monastery of 

(59) S. Lorenzo of the Escorial in honour of the Saint 
on whose festival the battle was fought. Valetta, in 
Malta, founded by the Grand Master Jean de Valette. 

* Glovio faints a choir-book once in church of St. 
Salvatore at Venice ; also a small hook of Prayers for 

* Sakcinski, p. 41, note. Biblioteoa degli Uom. lUustri della 
Congregaz. dei Canonioi Eegolari del S.S. Salvatore Lateran- 
ense, &o., da Prospero Cavaliere, ed arriochita da D. Vincenzio 
Garofali. Velletri, 1836, I. 14-22, nota. 2. 

A Chronology. xxv 

Cai-dinal Farnese, called the "Flora," and now at 
Naples. {This MS. is rather doubtful, its character 
being decidedly more Netherlandish than Italian. See, 
however, Giustiniani : Guida pel Beale Museo Borbonico. 
Nap. 1824, 338.) Also a lovely MS. kept in the 
Monastery of S. Groce in Gerusalemme, Borne, and 
seen by Richardson in the possession of Marc Antonio 
Sabatini (Appendix). Birth of Bernardo Castello, the 
illustrator of Tasso's " Gerusalemme Liherata." Death 
of Vincenzo Saimondi. 

1558 Death of Charles V. at St. Tuste, aged fifty-nine. 

(60) Ferdinand Emperor (1558-64i). Hungary and Bohemia 
added to the Empire. Glovio at Fiaoenza with bad eyes. 

1559 Death of Ercole, Duke of Ferrara. Spanish Inquisition. 

(61) Reign of terror at Toledo. End of French wars 
in Italy. Hans Mielich completes the magnificent 
Penitential Psalms arid Motets at Munich. 

Francis II., husband of Mary Queen of Scots, 
becomes E!!ing of Prance, aged sixteen (1559-60). 
Glovio cured of his blindness. 

Pius IV. (Giovanni Angelo Medici) Pope (1559-6). 

Glovio said to have painted a Psalter for John III. 

of Portugal. 
Bonde : — see Appendix. He goes to Gorreggio. 

1560 Death of Andrea Doria, aged ninety-four ; also of 

(62) Melanchthon, aged sixty-three, and of Francis II., 
who is succeeded by Charles IX., another son of 
Katharine de' Medici, aged ten (1560-74). 

Glovio finishes the little Booh of Prayers which Vasari 
says tooJe nine years to paint {Sake. 43). He works for 
Gardinal della Bovere perhaps on one of the MSS. now 
kept at Bavenna. He remains at Gorreggio until June 
at least. Begins to fail through broken health and tries 
the baths at Lucca. 


xxvi A Chronology. 

1561 Antonio Perrenot becomes Cardinal Archbp. of Malines. 

(63) Great prosperity of England under Elizabetli. Ascen- 
dancy of the House of Guise in France. Birth of 
Annib. Carracci. Clovio 'paints a " Judith" for Mar- 
guerite of Parma. Me returns to Borne, writes to Duke 
Gosimo thanking him for the invitation to Florence and . 
alludes to Vasari. 

1562 Maximilian, son of Ferdinand and cousin of Philip II., 

(64) made King of the Romans. Birth of Lopez de Vega. 
Paulus Manutius, printer at Rome. Caspar Harteli 
paints the Antiphonary now at St. Qall (Exhibited 
in London in 1885.) 

1563 Assassination of Duke of Guise. Death of Giulia, Duchess 

(65) of Ferrara. Francisco de Solanda, the Portuguese 
architect and miniaturist, works in Castille. 

1564 Maximilian II. becomes Emperor of Germany (1564-76). 
{66) Intolerance of Granvelle in the Netherlands, which is 

protested against by Marguerite of Parma, the Regent. 
Death of Michelangelo, aged ninety. Birth of Shake- 
speare. Pedro de Ohregon works at Toledo. Clovio's 
health begins to fail seriously. 

1565 Philip II. marries Maria of Portugal, and Alfonso II. 

(67) of Bste marries Barbara of Austria (d. 1572). 
Petruccio VhaldiAi works in England. 

1566 Pius V. Pope (Ghislieri, 1566-1672). Persecution in the 

(68) Netherlands continues. The compromise of Breda 
presented by three hundred nobles, obtains for them 
the name of " Gueux " — beggars — from the Regent. 
Greatest splendour of Turkish Empire. Cristobal 
Bamireg of Valencia works at the Escorial till 1572. 
Clovio complains that he cannot work as usual because 
of the excessive heat and of weakness in his head. 

A Chronology. xxvii 

1567 Alva appointed to tte Netlierlaiids. Counts Bgmont and 

(69) Hoorn arrested. Marguerite of Parma resigns the 

1568 Escape of Mary Queen of Scots from LooHeven Castle 

(70) and defeat at Langside. Imprisoned in England. 
Death of Don Carlos. Flemings migrate to England 
by thousands. Ferrante Pasta works at Verona. 

1569 Assassination of Conde. His nephew, Henry of Navarre, 

(71) becomes leader of the Catholics. Defeat of Coligny at 
Montcontour. The Pope crowns Cosimo de' Medici 
Grand Duke of Tuscany, and offends the Emperor, 
the King of Spain, and the Duke of Savoy. 

1570 Philip II. marries his fourth queen, Anne, daughter of 

(72) the Emperor Maximilian. At the same time Charles IX. 
of France marries her sister Isabella. Death of Cellini, 
aged seventy. Nicholas Milliard worJcs in London. 
Paris Nogari at Borne. 

1571 Battle of Lepanto gained by John of Austria. Berretta 

(73) worJcs on the Pavia Graduals, now at Milan. 

1572 Henry of Navarre marries Marguerite of Valois, a week 

(74) before the Massacre of St. Bartholomew. Accession 
of Pope Gregoiy XIII., 1572. Rejoicings in Rome 
and Madrid over the Massacre of the Huguenots. 
Death of Hans Mielich at Muhich. Fray Martino de 
Paleneia worJes at the Escorial. Olovio invited to the 
EsGorial but declines. 

1573 Don John of Austria captures Tunis. Alva's cruelty at 

(75) Haarlem. He is recalled. Cristobal Samirez of Valencia 
works at the Fscorial. 

1574 Death of Charles IX. Henry III. (who had been elected 

(76) King of Poland) succeeds. Siege of Leyden. 

F. Zwcoaro conies to England. Hans Lenher, of 
Munich, probably 'paints the beautiful Booh of Hours, 
attributed to Glovio, for Albert V. 

xxviii A CJironology. 

1575 Henry of Navarre leaves the Court and puts himself at 

(77) the head of the Protestants. Jubilee at Rome. Tasso, 
at Ferrara, publishes his " Gerusalemme Liberata." 
Francesco de' Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany. Vray 
Mariino de Palencia, Nicolas de la Torre de Dalinacia, 
worh on the choir-boohs of San Lorenzo of the TUscorial. 
These volumes, 216 in numher, occupy seventeen years 
to complete (1572-1589). Fray Diego de Ortaand Fray 
Diego del Salto, Agustiniano, worh on the choir-hoohs at 
Seville. Bernard Oastello, in Italy, designs engravings 
for Tasso's " Gerusalemme." 

1576 The troops of Don John of Austria, vsrho is made Gover- 

(78) nor of the Netherlands, not getting their pay, plunder 
Antwerp. Hoefnagel, the goldsmith, robbed and ruined. 
Pacification of Ghent. 

Sudden death of Maximilian II. at Ratisbon, aged 

Fray D. del Salto worhs at the Cathedral of Seville. 
Titian dies of plague at Venice, age ninety-nine. 
Seventy thousand persons perish during the epidemic. 
Death of Hans Sachs, the " cobbler poet " of Niiremberg. 
Death of Sir Antonio More. The portrait of a lady in 
fur at Vienna, said to be by Glovio. 

1577 Great fire at Venice, many of Titian's paintings destroyed. 

(79) The church of the Redentore built to commemorate 
the staying of the plague. 

Francisco Hernandez worhs at the Escorial. Glovio 
very infirm and incapable of worh. 

1578 Death of Don John of Austria. The Duke of Parma 

(80) becomes Regent. G. Hoefnagel visits Glovio at Rome, 
and is so attracted by his worh that he resolves to imitate 
his manner. Glaudio Massarelli and Apollonio Buon- 
fratelli, miniaturists at Rome, also follow Glovio's style, 
but with marhed inferiority. Death of Glovio, aged 




''T may seem curious in the present age 
of literary activity of every kind, that 
so little reliable material for biography 
has accompanied the marvellous handi- 
work of Mediaeval Illuminators, and 
the earlier practitioners of the art of 
Miniature Painting whose admirable 
productions have reached us, or whose names have 
been handed down with repeated echoes of astonish- 
ment and praise. Though well known to their con- 
temporaries, and indeed often so famous as to be 
spoken of in all cultivated society, it has mostly 
been their fate to be finally chronicled in the well- 
worn words of the poet : 

Pulvis et Timbra sumus. 

Of those who lived in prse-Christian times, only 
a bare record of names — so few that they can 
be cpunted on the fingers — has found its way into 


2 Uife of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

literature. Pliny seems to be really the only Latin 
author extant, who has made any mention of the 
art or told us the least fragment respecting those 
who practised it. From Lala of Cyzicus to Gode- 
schalk, from Augustus to Charlemagne, their 
biography is all but an absolute blank. And until 
the middle of the sixteenth century the biography 
of art of any kind is chiefly confined to brief and 
inflated eulogies, in which the writer paid infinitely 
greater attention to the balance of his periods, or 
the jingling barbarism of his own rhythms, than to 
truthful criticism of the artist, or the facts concern- 
ing his performances. In the age when a man of 
letters and one possessed of no small literary culture, 
who could discourse so learnedly on music as to be 
almost incomprehensible to the modern musician, 
could devote his- energies to the composition of a 
poem in praise of baldness, the supreme embellish- 
ment of which consisted in using no word that did 
not begin with the letter C, because written in 
honour of Carolus Calvus, what possible shadow of 
veracity could be expected, had this representative 
litterateur happened to think of conferring im- 
mortality on the painter of the Golden Gospels 
of Epternach or the Sacramentary of Metz ? If 
Hucbald be considered, however, as really not 
the sort of man for our purpose, let us select a 
greater. Let us ask Rhabanus Maurus, and we 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 3 

might be fortunate enough to possess a treatise 
in which the Gospel book of Charlemagne would 
figure in twenty or thirty wonderfully constructed 
anagrams like those of the famous composition 
" In laudem crucis," compared with which the 
atrocities of modern society journals are simply 
amusement for uncropped babes. Yet, with all 
this marvellous ingenuity, mediseval biographies are 
mostly dry and windy wastes. Artists are, indeed, 
recognized and praised, but the story of their lives 
is often vexatiously thin and evasive. Of many but 
a little earlier than Vasari we know next to nothing. 
Even of those whom he personally knew, and with 
whom he, a professed biographer, had conversed, 
he says but provokingly little, and that little mostly 
from hearsay. It was not because he thought them 
beneath his notice, for what he has recorded is 
unstinted in terms of honest admiration. But it 
seems to have been a case which Nature felt to 
be appropriate, that they whose works are hidden 
from the public eyes, should themselves be dropped 
out of public recollection. Notwithstanding that 
the same kind of unmeasured panegyric has 
been lavished on the art and on those who have 
engaged in it, from immemorial time, and during 
every period of its existence, it has been the fate 
of almost everything beyond the names of these 

accomplished persons, constantly to be forgotten. 

1 * 

4 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

In every ag-e there has been some name that has 
transcended the horizon of contemporary renown, 
and has been transcribed into the roll of the im- 
mortals. Extraordinary manual skill, which to our 
modem and saturated criticism is simply the out- 
come of patient and persevering assiduity, was to 
the eyes of our remote ancestors a something 
marvellous if not miraculous, and was accepted 
with an easy credulity as the prseternatural or 
supernatural result of angelic collaboration. The 
faultless penmanship of the Book of Kells and the 
Gospels of Majel Brigid, the magnificent initials 
drawn by Sintramn of the Wondrous Hand, the 
masterly designs of the monk Silvestro, and a score 
of other equally famous achievements, have resulted 
down to the present moment in the empty shadow 
of a name and the mere echo of a reputation. 
To this reputation belongs scarcely a single throb 
of true human sympathy, there is no living utterance 
that brings us a hair's-breadth nearer to the actual 
lives of these wan toilers of the past, unless it 
be, here and there, the plaint of the copyist himself 
who, wearied in his work, speaks sometimes sadly of 
his palsied fingers or the failing keenness of his tired 
eyes. Usually it is not a man or woman that we 
know, but merely a hand. Rich it may be, with 
sacred or historic allusion, but calm as the hoary 
hieroglyphs on the syenite tablets of Gizeh, or the 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 5 

tantalizing graffiti of Abu Simbel. And the pity of 
it is that the neglect and oblivion which have over- 
taken these famous draughtsmen has been brought 
upon them partly, it is true, by their own unselfish 
modesty, but chiefly by the nature and circum- 
stances of the art itself. It was never produced in 
a manner calculated to catch the eye of the passing 
crowd, or to advertise the artist's name or kindred 
to an admiring and grateful posterity. Their most 
precious work was always intended to be enclosed 
in books. It was always practically inaccessible to 
the multitude.* 

The generations to whom the contents of some of 
these volumes were known or not yet obsolete, at 
length passed away, and with them the knowledge 
which at one time was too common to require a 
record, and authentic enough to demand no docu- 
mentary attestation. Occasionally the pious routine 
of a monastic register has placed the performance 
of the scriptor or miniator among the virtuous deeds 

* II n'en est pas des MSS. comme des tableaux, la curiosite 
legitime du public n'a pour se satisfaire, que la complaisance des 
conservateurs ; sans doute nn grand nombre d'entr'eux com- 
prennent leur mission at donnent aux gens serieux toutes les 
facilites desirables, mais elles sont loin d'avoir le caractere 
general des exhibitions qui se font dans les musees. Le nombre 
est immense des voyageurs qui ont passe dans les capitales sans 
•powooir contempler les merveilles de I'art des miniaturistes et des 
oalligraphes. — Les Evcmgiles des Bimanches, 8fC: Ptie. III. Notices 
du Breviaire du Cardinal Grimani, I. 

6 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

of a fraternity. Hence it sometimes happens that 
the notices which have descended from these far-off 
centuries are either, on the one hand, the partial 
laudations of loyal friendship, or, on the other, the 
flatulent memoranda of ordinary conventual annals. 
The works, then, of the master-miniaturists, unlike 
those of the master-painters, are not reached by the 
general public. It cannot be expected that an artist 
whose noblest efforts are hidden away between the 
bossy and ponderous covers of a choir-book, or kept 
jealously protected under lock and key, should enjoy 
the popularity of one whose masterly achievements 
are accessible to every visitor, over the high altar 
of a cathedral, or on the inviting wall-screens of a 
public gallery. 

For this very reason, whilst all varieties and forms 
of art, savage or polite, when every scrap of a 
sketch-book and every fragment of a legend is 
greedily picked up concerning artists who are already 
known, it seems only reasonable that some effort 
should at length be made to bring into more general 
notice the labours of the less known, or it may be 
unknown artists who, earlier in the long career of 
• art, were nevertheless co-workers with their later 
and perhaps abler brethren, and, in their humbler 
way, have contributed to its advancement and 
perfection. But as to their inferiority as artists, 
in point of fact the best miniaturists were seldom 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. ^ 

far behind the best painters of their own time, and 
in certain definite localities and periods were dis- 
tinctly in advance of them. The time has been 
when the miniaturist was the only artist who prac- 
tised painting. He is therefore for such a time an 
invaluable link in its chain of history. At no time 
very far behind the best of painters, even in the 
golden age of the Italian Renascence, the best 
miniaturist has always been notably ahead of the 
maestri dozzinali with whom Italy has abounded 
at every epoch. Not a few great and well-known 
painters have also practised miniature, but, as a 
rule, the professions have remained distinct. If by 
occasion Raffaello, or Da Vinci, or Tiziano accepted 
an influential commission for a Royal service-book, 
or a ducal biography or diploma, the fact is usually 
visible in the document itself It is sure to be 
masterly, but it may fail in the qualities for which 
miniature art is famous. Indeed, it may be a little 
picture ; but it will not strictly be a miniature. For 
the miniaturist possesses a code of rules and precepts 
quite peculiar to himself, and which the ordinary 
painter must study and observe as carefully as he 
observes those suited to his larger work, or he must 
take a secondary place. The stroke of his brush 
will betray him. His very skill will render him 
impatient. His impetuosity will demolish his claims 
to delicate and exquisite polish. The rapid execution 

8 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

of his larger manner, will impede his progress, and 
the masterly sweep of the pencil with which a Paolo 
Veronese or a Tintoretto would complete at once 
and for ever a tress of hair, would probably sweep 
the whole miniature into irrecoverable limbo. Hence 
the painter has usually kept to his easel, the 
miniaturist to his pad, or his folio. 

Miniature art was the only form of Art permitted 
to survive the wasting inroads of barbarism, and to 
hand down the pictorial traditions of antiquity to the 
epoch of the Revival. But it not only survived, it 
grew and strengthened, and even when Painting 
was again at its climax, Miniature was a valued, 
and in a certain sense, popular profession. Valued 
inasmuch as it was held in the highest esteem by 
the wealthiest patrons, and popular among those 
whose means enabled them to encourage it by their 

With regard to the growing interest of the public 
in this class of work, we need only point to the 
trouble which is now taken in all our museums and 
public collections to render examples accessible, 
and even to make the study of them educational. 
Within the last few years show-cases have been 
provided, in which are placed carefully-selected 
examples of illuminated books, arranged in geogra- 
phical or chronological order. Ordinary sight-seers 
ai'e thus enabled easily to make the acquaintance of 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 9 

the illuminators, and an opportunity is afforded for 
the historic study of an important section of Early 
Christian Art — not the least among the advantages 
offered by the display. The facilities, too, of 
improved methods of reproduction are constantly 
bringing forward examples of ancient documents, 
and, as in the case of the Palseographical Society, 
laying accurate and excellent facsimiles on the tables 
of those who can afford the luxury. To the earnest 
student of Art the great museums in every city here 
and on the continent are practically free of access, 
and knowledge on the subject is becoming every day 
easier of acquisition. The sales of great Collections 
of MSS. have not only contributed to the spread 
of this kind of knowledge, but in so doing have 
awakened an interest in the works of these long- 
forgotten workmen. Then, to strengthen this inte- 
rest, writers on art have repeatedly called attention 
to the important place occupied by Miniature art in 
the general history of Painting. In the History 
of the Formative Arts, by Schnaase,* a work which 

* Schnaase (0. /. F.) Geschichte der hildenden Kiinste, 2iid Ed. 
Diisseldorf, 1866, &c. 8 vols. 8vo. Lecoy de la Marche (^A.) Les 
Manuscrits et la Miniature (Bibliotheque de VEnseignement des 
Beaux- Arts) . WoUmann Sp Woermann : History of Painting, Engl. 
Translation. Edited by S. Colvin, and translated by A. H. Keane 
and Clara Bell. But the list is inexhaustible. The reader 
must search the Indexes of French, German, and Italian 
periodical literature to find how extensive it really is. Among 

10 lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

it would be superfluous to praise notwithstanding its 
defects, for its philosophic spirit and masterly grasp 
of general truths, a passage of considerable length 
is devoted to this very discussion, while monographs 
and magazine articles crowd the pages of foreign 
bibliography, expressly dealing with the rich stores 
of material hoarded within the splendid fohos of 
Mediaeval books. Not to go very far afield, an 
excellent and popular art history by Woltmann and 
Woermann is now accessible to English readers, and 
presents a full and very accurate resume of the 
means by which a knowledge of the subject may be 
acquired. Many large and costly publications have 
aimed at facsimile reproduction, and magnificent 
examples are to be found in our great Public 

Art is proverbially a wide subject, for the prac- 
tical working out of scientific knowledge into material 
form takes a long time. But it is only when we get 
beyond the range and reach of our ordinary guides 
that we seriously realize the truth of the old adage 
of the physician, Ars longa, vita brevis, in the bound- 

Englisli examples may be named Humphreys : The Boohs of the 
Middle Ages, and Westieood : Palceographia Sacra Pictoria and 
Anglo-Saxon Illuminated MSS. But the reader of the first 
named of these splendid works should he warned not to place 
too much reliance upon the printed text, for it is inaccurate in 
the extreme. He will have also to beware of the attributions 
in Dr. Waagen's interesting Art Treasures in England. 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 1 1 

less prospect before us. One palpable evidence of 
the existence even yet of unexplored territory is the 
fact that, notwithstanding the unwearied diligence 
of many generations of writers, there still remain in 
civilized Europe outlying nooks possessing curious 
lists of native artists, whose very names are unknown 
beyond their own contracted frontier. One such 
locality, for the most part unexplored, is that narrow 
strip of sea-board which lies along the North-Eastern 
shore of the Adriatic. In its wider ancient and 
mediaeval history, and under the illustrious name of 
lUyria, the territory of which it formed a part was 
the home of art-culture as it was of heroism. In 
the sixteenth century South Slavonia could boast 
a succession of sculptors, painters, and architects, 
some of whom were sufficiently famous to find 
employment in the embellishment of Italian cities.* 
Others found their way to the courts of Prague, 
Budapest, Vienna and Rome. Several acquired a 
European reputation. Of those employed in Italy, 
as their works consist usually of architecture or 
decoration, the English reader seldom learns more 
than the names — a poor and barren satisfaction, and 

* Th.e arcHtect of the Palace of Urbino was Laca Schiavone 
(the Slavonian) of Lowrana. Matthias of Spalatro, George of 
Sebenico, Matthias Gojkovio, Nicolaus Tverdoj, Wenceslaus 
Bojaar, were architects whose works were known in Italy. 
Among painters we find Bernard of Parenzo, Benedict and 
Victor Garpaccio of Capo D'Istria, and many others. 


Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

one for which, considering their uncouthness, he has 
but little gratitude. The habit of calling them by 
their baptismal rather than by their gentile names, 
with perhaps the general appellation of Schiavone, 
is moreover a constant source of mystification ; and 
unless the reader possesses not only a fair knowledge 
of Italian nomenclature, but also some idea of 
lUyrian, he will encounter the risk of many a fruit- 
less chase.* 

The present biographical sketch is founded on 
materials never before presented in English. It 
confines itself to such facts as are confirmed either 
by original documents still extant, or by the testi- 
mony of reliable contemporaries. It does not 
pretend to discuss all the wild and improbable and 
ill-founded traditions that are in existence with 
regard to the illustrious miniaturist. With regard, 
however, to one or two important questions which 
are still matters of dispute, an attempt is made to 
ascertain the truth, as nearly as may be possible, in 
the absence of direct evidence. For such as may be 
termed the critical and descriptive portion, I'eliance 

* Among the sctolars and miniaturists employed by the great 
Matthias Corvinus, of Hungary, was Felix of Ragusa (Felice 
Ragusino). In the Lexicon of South Slavonic artists, by Sak- 
cinski, he is given as Felix Dubrovohanin. Naturally, at first 
glance, we should suppose that we had found the real family 
name of the Ragusan. But it is no such thing. Dubrovchanin 
is simply " native of Dubrova," and Dubrova is Ragusa. 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 13 

has been placed only upon the opinions of the best 
and most competent eye-witnesses ; or, where it has 
been possible, upon the writer's own personal know- 
ledge obtained from the frequent examination of 
well-authenticated examples in various European 
libraries. The writer, therefore, has refrained from 
repeating many random and un authenticated state- 
ments which have hitherto passed current as bio- 
graphical facts. Nor has he thought it necessary 
merely to re-echo uncritical and sometimes unde- 
served eulogiums. With such material as he has 
been able to collect, he has endeavoured to make 
out at least a truthful story, and to place his subject 
in such a light that his readers may gain a fair 
understanding of it without exaggeration and 
without romance. The memoir takes up the period 
and career of an artist of undoubted ability, if not 
genius, heretofore for the most part erroneously 
dealt with, and concerns itself with an art usually 
passed over as not quite worth the trouble of 

"We shall have to follow neglected or forgotten 
byways, and shall ramble at leisure along paths now 

* I regret to say that even in so beautiful and conscientious 
a work as that of Dr.Profert, many of the old exploded doctrines 
with regard to certain miniatures and miniaturists remain 
uncontradicted. On the later portrait-miniaturists his authority 
is excellent ; on the subject-miniaturists of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries he has been misled more than once. 

1 4 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

quite forsaken, but once busy with the tread of 
many feet. Our road will not be the beaten high- 
way of Art History. Had it been so probably it 
need not have been followed. The guide at least 
would have found the landmarks more reliable. 
But what can a traveller learn about a country 
which he visits only at the same familiar points, 
and traverses by the same familiar routes ? They 
may be entirely worth his attention, but they have 
been seen and celebrated by a well-known succession 
of visitors such as himself What can he know of 
the secluded valleys — of the lonely uplands — of the 
swarming villages ? He has passed them by. The 
necessity for following the regulation route forbids 
byways and discourages individual exploration. It 
is sufficiently uncomfortable for the ordinary tourist 
to find himself where roads are few and rugged 
and hostelries unknown. It is uncomfortable for a 
writer to find himself, after considerable progress, 
committed to a subject where recorded facts are. 
few and indistinct, and where almost all chance 
of finding the way depends on the persevering 
determination to pry into every literary corner, 
overturn every stone of document, and prowl 
about every mouldering ruin of a memorandum. 
But as the circumstances of travel are changing, 
and a new and vigorous curiosity seizes the public 
mind for scenes about which the ordinary traveller 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 1 5 

has nothing to relate, so there is a corresponding 
curiosity setting in towards the exploration and 
unearthing of even the humblest creation that has 
served as a way-mark in the history of by-gone art. 
Here, then, is offered a glimpse into a scene, that in 
its far-off perspective now seems only a sequestered 
vale in the Art world of the sixteenth century. 
Yet it is a scene full of life and activity — of just 
such human interest and movement and passion as 
exist in our very midst. It presents men whose 
names in the cultured days of the Emperor Charles 
the Fifth, of the Medici Princes, of the Farnese 
and Delia Rovere Popes, and during the exciting 
time of the great Tridentine Council, rang through- 
out artistic Eiu"ope. As to Clovio himself, if we 
omit the five foremost masters of the Renascence, 
Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raffaello, Correggio, 
Tiziano, no one in his own time stood higher in 
reputation. The lavish epithets of eulogy employed 
by every writer who has mentioned his name may 
be taken for what they are worth — mostly echoes. 
Yet they imply an importance and character which 
is worth examination. To those who have not seen 
with their own eyes the productions of the artist's 
hand, and who do not care simply to pass on the 
parrot-like phraseology of mere compilation, there 
seems nothing but gross and ignorant panegyric. 
Vasari as the mouthpiece of contemporary opinion 


Life ofirioiyiu Giidio Clovio. 

calls him : " il maraviglioso," " il piccolo Micliel- 
agnolo," " il principe dei miniatori ;" and this is the 
tone of all after-comers. Lomazzo speaks of him 
as "il mirabile," "I'unico." Lanzi, even: "il restaura- 
tore delle arti." Zani : "il Raffaello dei Miniatori." 
Rosini : " insuperato miraculoso." And so on. Nagler 
referring to his productions says, " Alles hat ein 
rafaelisches geprage." In short the universal 
testimony is that he was the most famous minia- 
turist of his own time, and his time was that of the 
most famous artists of the modern world. 


Introductory notes on Olovio's family and birthplace — Cloyio 
born 1498 — State of affairs in Croatia — His first tutors 
and work — At eighteen years of age is invited to Rome 
— Precocity of Italian artists — Clovio's earliest patrons 
— The Grimani family. 

/:i lORGIO CLOVIO, in his native language 
Juraj Glovichsich (Glovichic), was by birth a 
Croatian. He was a native of Grizane,* a village 
near the Adriatic Sea, and within the territory of 
the town of Modrush.t The town is not easy to 
find in modern maps ; but in the careful atlas of 
Ortelius it is given near the extremity of the 
little river Mrenitza — a confluent of the Save — as 
Modrusch. It was only a small town lying among 
the hills which skirted this rugged coast, but as the 

* The "z" is pronounced like the French "j." Grizane is 
in the diocese of Modrush, as before stated. In documents of 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries it is called Krizane, and 
lies in the district of Vinodol, between Bakarac and Bribir. 
Formerly it had appertained to the family of the Frangipani, 
but in 1474 Count Martino Frangipani made it over by will to 
the Franciscan monastery of Tersat which he had founded. In 
this, will he states that he bought the village of his niece 
Margaretha, sister of Count Bartolommeo Frangipani. In a 
Glagolitic document of 1596 there comes under the seal a 
signature of one Bemac Glovichic of Grizane. The name occurs 
repeatedly on similar documents. 

t Or Modrus. 


1 8 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

chief place of the district, gave its name to the 
lordship, once in possession of a branch of the great 
lUjnrian family of Frangipani.* At the close of the 
fifteenth century, the Ban or ruler of Croatia was 
John Corvinus, son of the Great Matthias of 
Hungary.t He held his viceroyalty under Ladislas, 
and administered the province with prudence and 
ability. After a brief resignation in 1499, he 
resumed it until 1504, when he died. His illegiti- 
macy, though it may have deprived him of his 
father's crown, did not deny him the compensation 
of a marked share of his father's genius, nor of his 
natural capacity as a ruler of men. His infant son 

* In dissentione ilia quaa erat inter Fridericum Imperatorem 
et Regem Matthiam plurimi Oroatise procerum Friderico adliffire- 
bant, cum primis vero Frangepani, ut ideo a Mathia Rege 
privati ecutique castris plurimis fuerint. Anno 1464, Martinns 
Frangepanus gratiam meruit, at cesaa Regi Castro Krupa, quod 
a Teutonicis redemerat castra Regia Kostanicza, Sztenichniak. 
Lipovoh. cum liorum pertinentibus lege ea accepit ut a morte 
sua continuo ad Regem devolvantur. — Balthasar Adam Kereselieh 
de Gorbavia ; de Regnis Dalmatice Groatice SclavonicB. Notitim 
Prodiminares, 290. Fol. Zagrah. n. d. And for other services 
of the said Martin, other properties were bestowed on him, 
which were held by successive counts Frangipani, especially the 
Castle- of Bachar.— 16. 291. 

t Croatiam, si non totam, maiorem profectb ejus partem, 
Matthias Rex, ob bella cum Turcis aliisque habita, militaris 
jurisdictionis jurisque tenuit et gubemavit. 1496. Mandat 
Vladislaus Joanne Corvino Sclavonise, Dalmatiae et Croatise 
Bano, ut, &c. — lb. 301. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 19 

Christopher died the following year, and thus the 
race of the magnificent King Matthias became 
extinct within seven years of his own death. 

In the early days of the sixteenth century the 
territory was claimed by Venice, but it was soon 
fated to relapse into a debatable land. Giorgio was 
born in the year 1498. The exact name of his 
family is difl&eult to make out ; but as a fellow- 
countryman seems to have the best right to an 
opinion on this point, I have followed the state- 
ment of Sakcinski, the learned compiler of the 
Lexicon of South Slavonic Artists, who decides 
on the one I have already given. To the rest of 
Europe the artist has always been known by his 
Italianized name of Clovio. The name Giulio or 
Julius signed to many of his pictures, and by which 
in later life he was universally known, was not 
baptismal, as assumed by Vasari, but was taken up 
under peculiar circumstances out of respect and 
gratitude to one of his earliest and sincerest friends. 
It is almost needless to say that the supposed family 
name of Grovato or Grovata is simply a misreading 
of his customary signature Crovato or Crovata,* a 
term applied to him according to sixteenth century 
usage, and adopted by himself as a native of Croatia. 
Nothing in those days was commoner than this 

* As to the " o " or "a" of the termination, that is according 
to its Italian or Croatian spelling. 


20 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

usage. Pietro Vanueei was Pietro Perugino. Paolo 
Cagliari was Paolo Veronese. Antonio AUegri was 
always better known as Correggio. The custom 
was universal, and accordingly Giulio Clovio became 
known as Julio Crovato. 

With regard to his childhood, we have no precise 
information. It is most probable that until about 
his eighteenth year he lived with his parents at 
Grizane. The family seemed to have been tolerably 
well-to-do, for a Macedonian ancestry is alluded to 
as denoting a position of some consideration, possibly 
as nobles — at least as substantial cultivators of the 
soil. " Macedo " is one of the names by which 
Clovio's signature is frequently accompanied, and 
there is a certain Captain Guido Clovio related to 
our artist, who is assumed to be a man of respectable 
social position in those military times. According to 
the custom of the age, Giorgio would receive the rudi- 
ments of education from some neighbouring monastic 
school ; and whilst thus engaged was doubtless 
encouraged to follow his natural gift for drawing, 
since almost all the cloisters of Southern Slavonia 
could then boast their calligraphers and illuminators 
of books.* 

When about eighteen years of age he is mentioned 

or the first time by his contemporary, Giorgio 

Vasari, as being already in the employment of one 

* SakcinsM. Leben, Sfo. German translation. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovib. 21 

of the most distinguished families in Venice. How 
one so young should come to be favoured with any 
important commission may be the more easily 
accounted for if we pay attention for a moment to 
the political history of the time. For even in those 
days of artistic precocity, and in that supremely 
favoured land of artistic culture, it was not every 
promising youth of eighteen who slipped easily into 
a valuable appointment. At the same time, youth- 
fulness was no drawback to the chance of very 
important commissions. The miniaturist Liberale, 
when invited to illuminate the choir books of Monte 
Oliveto Maggiore of Siena, was only sixteen.* 
Pierino del Vaga, who painted the Old Testament 
subjects in the Loggie of the Vatican — known as 
RafFael's Bible — was no older when he executed 
the frescoes from his master's sketches.! Raffaello 
himself was eighteen when he went to assist 
Pinturicchio at Siena. When he painted the 
" Sposalizio," he was twenty-one. As to Clovio, it 
is not difficult to imagine how he became known 
to the great family of Grimani. About the time of 
his birth it happened that the renowned Venetian 
Admiral, Antonio Grimani, was employed by the 

* Vasari: Vite, 8fo. Ed. Lemonnier, Firenze. Vol. ix. p. 170, 
note 4. Bernasconi : Shidij sopra la Storia della Pittura Italiana 
dei Secoli XIV. ed XV. ^c. Verona, 1865. 8vo. p. 244, ^c. 

t Wilson (G. H.) Life of Michelangelo, p. 9. 

22 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Italian League as captain-general of the combined 
forces of Christendom against the Turks, who were 
then striving to force their way across Europe. 
They had already obtained a footing in Croatia, 
whose last monarch, to save his country, had made 
over his rights to the kings of Hungary. The 
Magyar claims, however, were vigorously disputed 
both by the Turks and Venetians, and in the 
last decade of the fifteenth century, each power 
had seized various districts, and by sheer force 
exercised a variable and precarious military autho- 
rity in them. The natural result was an incessant 
petty warfare, in the course of which Grimani was 
drawn towards the neighbourhood of Modrush. At 
such a time it is impossible that Clovio's family 
could have escaped their share of requisitioning and 
other incidental discomforts inseparable from a 
theatre of war, and the more substantial the home- 
stead, the more likely it was to come under the 
notice of the noble and honourable Commander. 
From the respectful way in which the young artist 
was afterwards treated by every member of the 
Grimani family it seems natural to believe that 
valuable service had been rendered to the admiral 
during the campaign of 1499. It is equally natural 
to conclude that as the boy grew in skill beneath 
the fostering care of the good fathers of the monas- 
tery he would be brought by them, according to a 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 23 

common practice, under the notice of the territorial 
nobles of the district. Not long before his birth 
the immediate lords of Grizane had been the Fran- 
gipani, and their influence as patrons was still 
powerful in the neighbourhood. They then — by a 
courteous usage frequent among the cultivated nobi- 
lity of Italy, and of which we meet with numerous 
instances in the familiar letters of Cardinal Farnese* 
— would pass the artist's name with their recom- 
mendation to those of their correspondents whom 
they knew to be interested in such matters. In 
this manner without any departure from the 
ordinary course of events the Clovios might have 
been brought back to the recollection of the 
Grimani, and the youth introduced to the service 
in which we find him when first he comes personally 
beneath our notice. But whatever may have been 
the actual course of his education or experience, or 
of his introduction to his earhest patron, it is 
asserted as a fact that within twenty years of the 
time when the now aged admiral visited his birth- 
place, Clovio was established in the employment 
of one of the admiral's sons. Vasari, as already 
mentioned, says that at the age of eighteen he 
came into Italy and placed himself in the service of 
Marino, Cardinal Grimani, with whom in the space 
of three years he attained such skill in drawing, as 
* Brit. Mus. Add. M8S. 

24 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

far as to exceed what was expected of him, as 
might be seen in several drawings of medals which 
he made for that nobleman. They are, indeed, 
most minutely executed with the pen, and with 
extreme and, so to speak, incredible diligence.* It 
is well to bear in mind that Vasari is the father of 
Art-biography, so as to make due allowance for the 
pioneer in a new field. The labour of producing a 
work of the magnitude of his " Lives " must have 
been enormous, and the difficulty of obtaining 
accurate information on every point, at times very 
great indeed. I have, myself, no sympathy with 
the growing practice of decrying this most useful 
and interesting writer. Everybody knows his in- 
accuracy in points of detail. If, therefore, I venture 
to correct any little error that falls in my way, I do 
so with a most sincere respect on the whole for his 
invaluable work. It is devoutly to be wished that 
we had more of it, and that the volume of letters, 
the contents of which are on record, might still be 
found, together with those portfolios and books 
of drawings to which he occasionally refers, t In his 
mention of Clovio's, just quoted, there is a slight 
confusion. Marino Grimani was not created car- 
dinal till 1526, while Clovio's introduction must 
have occurred in 1516. The fact that Marino 

* Vite, Sfc. Ed. Sansoni. 

t These to some extent are certainly dispersed. 

lAfe of Giorgio Gfiulio Clovio. 25 

Grimani was afterwards, for many years, the patron 
and sincere friend of Clovio, was well known, hence 
Vasari's mistake. But in 1516 it was Cardinal 
Domenico Grimani who was the great art-patron 
and book-collector of the family. It was he who 
bought of one Antonio, of Sicily — a dealer in MSS., 
not an artist, as the anonimo of Morelli mistakenly 
imagined — ^the celebrated Franciscan Breviaiy which 
bears the Grimani name, and is still jealously 
preserved as the greatest treasure in the Marcian 
Library at Venice.* 

At the time of Clovio's engagement, Domenico 
was residing in Rome, where he possessed one of 
the best libraries in Europe, a library afterwards 
transferred to Venice, and spoken of by Erasmus 
with unqualified enthusiasm.! With him, under 
the character of an exile, resided his venerable 
father, the once popular admiral, consigned to per- 

* Speaking of inaccuracies, in a notice of Clovio by A. Ron- 
chini, in Atti e Memorie, 8fc. iii.* 269-270, several very needless 
errors are committed. For example, Ronchini calls Clovio's 
birthplace Grtfowe. This is a misprint copied from Baglione. 
Then " S'acconcio a servizio del Veneto patrizio Marino Gri- 
mani poi Cardinale " copied withont examination from Vasari. 
Vasari indeed, by a simple error, says Cardinal Marino : Ron- 
chini emphasizes the error itself by adding " poi," whereas 
Marino, as stated in the text, was not made a cardinal until 

t It was to Cardinal Domenico Marini that Erasmus dedi- 
cated his Paraphrase on the Epistle to the Romans. 

26 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

petual banishment for having, whilst in command 
of the fleet in 1499, been guilty of permitting the 
Turks to capture Lepanto. Antonio's original sen- 
tence had been one of imprisonment for life, but the 
dread of a punishment so severe and so undeserved 
had brought Domenico to Venice with a petition 
that his father might be permitted to retire from 
Cherso to Rome, and thus it came to pass that 
when the young Croatian artist was brought to 
work for the cardinal, it was to Rome, and not to 
Venice, or Mantua, or Aquileia, the other cities in 
which Cardinal Grimani had resided. It was in 
Rome that he first made the acquaintance of Giulio 
Romano. Rome was the artistic starting-point of 
his career, and always looked forward to as the goal. 
Rome was the place in which, notwithstanding 
many enforced and painful wanderings, he laboured 
longest, and achieved his greatest successes, in 
which he formed his life-long friendships, and in 
which he finished his exceedingly long and laborious 
career. Soon after his arrival in Rome, the turn of 
events in Venice led to the recall of the aged father 
of his patron. Antonio Grimani was restored to all 
his forfeited honours, and, although in his ninety- 
seventh year, elected to the Dogeship. His election 
took place in 1521. In 1523 he died. Domenico 
died in the same year, but the death of the noble- 
hearted cardinal did not compel Clovio to seek a 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 27 

new employment. He passed, bequeathed, as it 
were, by his master's will, into the service of Marino 
Grimani. This distinguished churchman was at 
that time patriarch of Aquileia, and had become the 
fortunate inheritor of the priceless treasures of 
literature and art collected by his uncle Domenico. 

"•% -^'''^-*^^S£^'' 



Clovio's first visit to Italy, 1516^Probable character of his 
earliest commissions— Meets Giulio Romano — Advised to 
keep to miniatare — Studies in the Thermae of Titus — 
Raffaello and his drawings from the grottesche — Position 
of Raifaello as commissioner for ancient hnildings — 
Clovio's first coloured miniature — A copy from Uiirer — 
Other works — Goes to Buda— His acquaintance with 
Francisco de Holanda and Michelangelo — Conver- 

r I THE pen-drawings which formed Clovio's in- 
troduction to Itahan patronage were of a very 
small size, worked, says Vasari, "con extrema e 
quasi incredibile diligenza." It is not impossible 
that the long attention which he gave to this work 
in reality developed out of his general ability as an 
artist — that special turn for minute finish which 
so powerfully attracted the admiration of his con- 
temporaries. We may form some idea of the 
performance, in looking at the beautiful but far less 
famous pen-drawings of Enea Vico and Ottavio 
Strada, several volumes of which, precisely similar 
in character, are preserved in the British Museum.* 

* X.II. GcBsarum, manu ^nem Yici. 8qu. 8°- Harl. M8S. 
6381. Octavius de Strada, Simhola Bomanor. Imperatonom, Sec, 
sm. fol. 1597. Addl. MS8. 30065. 


From existing documents. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 29 

These very neat and clever drawings also represent 
medals, or devices intended for them, and it is 
scarcely likely that the work of a mere boy, however 
promising, would surpass very greatly that of a 
veteran artist and engraver like Vico, or a practised 
draughtsman like Strada.* The decided success of 
the young artist in the little drawings executed for 
Domenico Grimani, led his friend and adviser Giulio 
Romano to urge his entire devotion to miniature. 
Every one who saw them gave him the same advice. 
Indeed, when with the love of change incident to 
youth, being inspired by the sight of Romano's own 
work, he thought of dropping his present occupation 
and applying himself to fresco or oil-painting, Giulio, 
who seems ever to have been his sincere and faithful 
friend, earnestly begged him by all means not to 
think of relinquishing what was so manifestly his 
true vocation, and the one in which he would by-and- 
by inevitably acquire distinction. Romano himself, 
moreover, taught the youthful draughtsman his own 
method of mixing and applying colours, together 
with the use of gum-water in place of the older 
vehicles as a medium for water-colours. To this 
extent Clovio may be said to have been the pupil of 

* Vico was one of the best penmen as well as engravers of his 
time. A letter reproduced by Milanesi shows him to have been 
quite the equal of such professional copyists as Verrazano or 
Vespasiano Amfiareo. 

30 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Giulio Romano. It will be remembered that Giulio 
Pippi, called " II Romano," was one of, if not the 
ablest of that skilful band of artists whom Raffaello 
chose to assist him in the decorations of the Vatican 
" Loggie," or open galleries of the Papal Palace in 
Rome. Three years before that which brought 
Clovio to Rome, Raffaello had been appointed 
inspector of public edifices and antiquities in Rome 
and its neighbourhood, an office which involved the 
duty of examining ruins, and all discoveries of stones 
and marbles within a radius of ten miles. It also 
gave him a comjnission to collect sculptures, inscrip- 
tions, and any other relics he might meet with, to 
be preserved for the advancement of letters, and for 
the elegance of the Latin tongue.* Hence his official 

* The Brief of Leo X. appointing Raffaello to the post of 
Superintendent of Antiquities is dated : — Rome, 27th August, 
1575. As the document is interesting I translate it from 
Gruyer: MaphaM et V Antiquite, I. 435 : — 

To Raffaello of Uebino. 
" It is of the greatest importance, for the works of the Roman 
Temple of the Prince of Apostles, that the stone and marbles, of 
which a great quantity is of necessity required, should be readily 
obtained in the localities brought together by us. And since 
we know that Roman remains should furnish an abundance of 
them, that almost everybody takes the marbles of all kinds for 
building purposes in and about Rome, and that it is the same 
with the materials found in turning up the soil, we name you, 
seeing that you have received from us the superintendence of 
the works, Inspector-in-Chief of all the marbles and stones which 
shall be exhumed from this day forth, in Rome, and within a 

Ufe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 31 

position gave him the right to be among the first to 
examine the newly-discovered paintings in the Baths 
of Titus, then being exhumed on the Esquihne, an 
opportunity which he seized for the purpose of 
making careful and detailed copies of those eminently 
beautiful examples of ancient art. Some of the 
drawings he made with his own hand. Others he 
entrusted to his assistants, and there can be no 
doubt that Clovio acquired some of his earliest and 
most permanent characteristics and principles of 
colouring from these very studies, if not indeed from 

distance of ten miles therefrom, that yon may pnrcliase them 
should they prove of service for the construction of the Temple. 
We, therefore, admonish all persons, of whatever condition, 
whether of nohle family and high in dignity, or of lower, or even 
of the lowest rank, that before all, they shall assist you in your 
quality of Superintendent, with all the marbles and stones, of all 
kinds, which shall be discovered within the circumference which 
we have indicated. Whoever shall not obey this admonition, 
after a delay of three days, shall be subject to a fine of 100 to 
300 ducats of gold, according to your will. Besides, inasmuch 
as it has been reported that persons have inconsiderately pos- 
sessed themselves (or made use) of antique fragments of marble, 
on which are found inscriptions which often contain memorable 
things, and which ought to be preserved for the advancement of 
letters and for the elegance of the Latin tongue, but which in 
such wise are lost, we enjoin upon all such as carry on the pro- 
fession of stone-cutters in Rome, not to break nor chip stones 
bearing inscriptions, without your consent, under pain of the 
same fine, should they disobey our commands. 

" Given at Rome, this 27th day of August, in the Third 
Tear of our Pontificate " (i.e. 1515). 

32 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

working with the rest among" the actual frescoes of 
the Thermse. We know that from this time even 
RaflPaello himself somewhat modified his system of 
colouring, and that the decorations executed under 
his direction and from his designs in the Loggia of 
the Vatican and elsewhere, are the direct outcome 
of the enthusiasm created by the grottesche as 
they were called, of the old Imperial Baths. The 
most striking peculiarity of this ancient colouring, 
apart from its somewhat singular gamut, consists in 
the delicate and dainty introduction of colour into 
the folds and recesses only of the draperies, and the 
shaded sides of the figure, and its almost entire 
exclusion from the highest lights, except that, at 
times, the latter are tinted with a faint and tender 
nuance of the complimentary hue. This system of 
colouring, more or less pronounced, is observable 
in all the decorations carried out by the artists 
who made the aforesaid studies. Of this char- 
acter are the so-called arabesques or grottesche 
of the Farnesina,* of the Villa di Madama near 

* The villa called the Farnesina, or " little Farnese," to dis- 
tinguish it from the Palace begun by Cardinal Alessandro 
Farnese the elder, afterwards Pope Paul III., is situate on the 
right bank of the Tiber, near the end of the long narrow street 
called the Lungara. It was built by Baldassare Peruzzi at 
the expense of the great Roman Banker Agostino Chigi, to 
rival the palace of the Riarii (now called the Corsini), which 
stood oji the other side of the same street. The decorations 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 33 

Rome,* and of the Palazzo del "T." at Mantua,t and 
in short of every piece of decoration from the 
sixteenth century to the present time over which 
these masters in ornament have had any influence, 

were executed partly from the designs of RafEaello, by Giulio 
Romano [this has been recently disputed, and the decoration 
designs accorded to Peruzzi, while the plan of the whole is given 
to Rafiaello], Francesco Penni, and Giovanni da Udine — the 
three greatest decorators of the age. There were also important 
paintings by Sebastiano del Piombo. But its great attraction 
is the series of twelve pictures containing the story of Psyche 
from Apuleius, after the designs of Raffaello. 

* The Villa Madama (which must not be confounded with the 
Palazzo di Madama in the city) is a mansion built by G. Romano 
from Raffaello's plans, for Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, afterwards 
Clem^ent VII. Like the Palazzo, it obtained its name from 
having been, when in the possession of the Farnese family, the 
residence of Margaret the celebrated daughter of Charles V., 
who, first married to Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Florence, 
became, after his assassination, the wife of Ottavio Farnese 
Duke of Parma, then some years her junior. It was built on 
a spur of Monte Mario, on the road to the Ponte Molle. Its 
decorations were executed by G. Romano and Giovanni da 
Udine. Like the rest of the Farnese possessions, it became 
eventually the property of the Bourbon Kings of iiTapIes. 

t The celebrated Palazzo del T., so called, it is said, from the 
resemblance of its plan to the letter X, was designed by G. Romano, 
for the Duke of Mantua. The original intention of the Duke had 
been to alter certain stables into a residence of very modest pro- 
portions, but Giulio's plans were so beautiful, and displayed such 
manifest ability, that the Duke was induced to have them put 
into tangible shape. The decorations have been repeatedly 


34 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

or in which the principles of ancient Roman painting 
have survived. * It is indeed so decidedly a Cloviesca 
peculiarity, and one so slavishly imitated by his 
copyists, that many works have been hastily attri- 
buted to him simply on the strength of it alone. 

It does not seem unlikely that Clovio, on his 
engagement by Cardinal Grimani, had already found 
his way to Venice. In fact, coming by the usual 
route from the Istrian side of the gulf, he could 
scarcely avoid making Venice his first important 
resting place. Besides, it was the home of his 
patron's family. At that time, too, the fame of 
Albrecht Diirer, who had recently visited the island- 
city, was in everybody's mouth. Quite a furore of 
admiration had set in, and Italian artists, engravers 
especially, were already busy copying the quaint 
but vigorous productions of the great Nuremberg 

Vasari relates that the first piece of miniature 
painting in which Clovio attempted colour, was a 
Madonna, from an engraving by Albrecht Diirer. 
Clearly the young Croatian stranger was smitten 
with the prevalent momentary frenzy, but whether 
at Venice or Rome is of no consequence. The 
engraving in question forms the frontispiece of one 

* The ceilings and pilasters of the Pamfili-Doria Palace in 
Rome, painted by Gennazini, are, as to colouring, executed 
precisely in the same manner. 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 35 

of Diirer's largest books of engravings, called 
" Epitome in Divse parthenices Marise historiam,"* 
which had been published at Nuremberg in 1511, 
and was already, doubtless, in Domenico Grimani's 
library in Rome. It is a large folio — ^the largest 
and most important of the three "great books" — 
and had only appeared in a complete form in the 
above-named year, the beautiful frontispiece being 
then issued for the first time. The three books were 
the " Apocalypse," the " Great Passion," and this 
" Marienleben," or life of the Virgin. They con- 
sisted respectively of sixteen, twelve, and twenty 
sheets of wood-engravings, of the finest and most 
elaborate work perhaps ever produced on wood. Of 
course, in 1519 the woodcuts of the great German 
masters were not merely a novelty, but a marvel of 
technical skill. They took the school of Raffaello 
by storm. Among those who strove to imitate 
both the wood and copper plates. Marc Antonio 
Raimondi even went so far as to copy, not only 
Diirer's designs, but also his well-known monogram 
upon them, and to sell the copies as Diirer's 
own work. This was carrying the flattery of 

* A very fine copy of the volume is to be seen in tlie British. 
Museum Library. It is one of the first edition, and the 
impressions exceedingly choice and brilliant. There is also a 
reproduction of its beautiful title-page, in L'Art pratique, 1879. 
No. 77. Leipzig : 0. Mirth. 


36 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

imitation beyond all reasonable bounds, and Diirer 
was put to considerable trouble and expense, including 
one or two journeys into Italy, before the fraud was 
effectually exposed, and his own rights vindicated. 

The great title-page copied by Clovio and turned 
by his skill into a charming miniature painting, was 
one truly worthy of all the loving labour he bestowed 
upon it. The Virgin mother is represented as 
holding the infant Christ to her bosom. She is 
seated on a rich cushion placed on a crescent moon 
— a starry crown hangs over her head while a dense 
and powerful radiance flashes from her person on 
every side. Diirer probably never designed a nobler 
or more graceful figure. 

Besides this Madonna, Clovio now began to paint 
many other miniatures, in some of which he at- 
tempted original composition, and being astonish- 
ingly successful, obtained so widespread a reputation 
that within a very few years he was invited to one 
of the most splendid Courts in Europe. In 1524, 
at the request of the celebrated Alberto Pio. da 
Carpi, he accompanied that nobleman to Buda, the 
famous royal city of Hungary, and was introduced 
to the young King, Louis II., the luxurious, chival- 
rous, ill-starred successor of great Matthias Corvinus, 
who had been the most magnificent of book-collectors. 
No more congenial field for the exercise of Clovio's 
special talents could have been imagined. The 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 37 

Corvina Library still existed in almost its original 
completeness and splendour, containing the master- 
pieces in book decoration of all Clovio's greatest 
predecessors and contemporaries. What a banquet 
for the enthusiastic illuminator ! Those truly regal 
presses, so gorgeously described by Schier* after 
Naldi's panegyric, held the finest works of Gherardo, 
Monte di Giovanni, Fra Eustachio, and Attavante; 
and numerous other masterpieces of the miniaturists 
of Verona, Siena, Milan, Florence, and Rome. To 
these fascinating volumes there can be no doubt 
Clovio would at once have ready access, for he 
obtained an immediate commission from the King 
to add to the collection something from his own 
excellent though still quite youthful hand. Un- 
happily for himself, his stay in this artistic paradise 
was but of short duration. He reached Buda, as 
stated above, in 1524. In 1526 was fought the rash 
and disastrous battle of Mohacz, in fleeing from 
which the over-hasty Louis lost his life, and the 
issue of which threw the royal city with all its 
treasures into the hands of the Turkish soldiery. 
There is no need to enlarge upon the excesses of 
that terrible capture. City and fortress were 
sacked, and most of the contents of the royal 
palace and library stolen, or mutilated, or reduced 

* Xystus Schier : Be Eegia Budensi Bill. Matthice Gorvini. 
Naldus Naldius : Be Laudib. augustce bibliothecce. 

38 lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

to ashes. The mischief was not so complete as has 
often been asserted, but quite sufficient to destroy 
its prestige, for the vast hoards of the Corvina were 
speedily dispersed. It is nevertheless sadly true 
that rich bindings were ruthlessly torn to pieces 
for the sake of the gems, or precious metals with 
which they were adorned, and priceless miniatures 
cut roughly from the once cherished volumes and 
bartered for draughts of wine or trifling sums of 
money among other loot of the hapless city. The 
copyists and illuminators, of whom Corvinus had 
maintained a regular well-organized staff, and who, 
in part, had been retained by Louis, fled for their 
lives. Clovio did not return direct to Italy, but 
made his way hurriedly to his native village. Here 
he was still pursued by misfortune, for the town of 
Modrush was immediately captured and destroyed 
by the merciless conquerors of Mohacz. 

During his brief stay at Buda, Clovio painted for 
the King a " chiaroscuro " — as the Italians call a 
monochrome modelled in brown or grey — of the 
Judgment of Paris; and for the Queen Maria 
(several extracts from whose memorandum books 
have recently been brought to light), a classical 
composition relating to the story of the Roman 
Lucretia, together with a number of other subjects, 
many of which are no doubt still in existence and 
carefully preserved, though possibly not identified 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 39 

as the work of Clovio. Later in the same year in 
which he and his fellow-artists fled from Buda, we 
find him again in Rome, only, however, to fall into 
still deeper and more overwhelming misfortunes. 
At this time he is mentioned as being, though only 
for a brief period, in the service of the well-kno\^n 
diplomatist. Cardinal Campeggio. During this 
engagement he painted a Madonna and other im- 
portant miniatures, and was already recognized as 
an experienced and most accomplished artist. But 
being anxious to acquire a nobler and more masterly 
style, as he thought — ^having fallen evidently under 
the irresistible influence of Michelangelo — he dili- 
gently applied himself to copy the works of that 
great master. The task he performed most slavishly. 
Michelangelo had completed the ceiling of the 
Sistine Chapel in 1512, and for fourteen, years that 
marvellous tour de force of the painter's art had 
been the admiration of every visitor. Not obscure 
and honeycombed' then as it is now, but in all the 
vigour and freshness of perfect finish and unrivalled 
chiaroscuro; no wonder that Clovio, coming again 
to it fresh from far-off scenes and other styles, should 
feel anew all the masterfulness of its force — all the 
learning and nobility of its design, and so yield to a 
desire for a more dignified and masterly style himself 
In 1526 Raffaello had been dead six years, and Michel- 
angelo for the last seven years living in Florence, 

40 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

nor did the stern old man return to Rome until 
1534, when he began his Last Judgment. But 
from this time till his death in 1564, Michelangelo 
became the personal friend and sage counsellor of his 
illustrious imitator, who eventually so mastered his 
characteristics in another manner of painting as to 
win the soubriquet of the " Michelangelo in little." 
The habit of copying or imitating that energetic and 
most sculpturesque of painters was by no means a 
transient fancy, for if in 1526, or soon after, we find 
Clovio studying and copying the Sistine ceiling, 
twenty years afterwards we again find him executing 
a Last Judgment which seemed to differ only in 
dimensions from the colossal fresco of the Sistine 

A singularly interesting memento of these studies 
occurs in a little book of offices belonging to the 
British Museum Library.* At the foot of fol. 91 &, 
beneath the miniature of David's penitence, and 
forming the centre of the lower border, is a David 
and Goliath, frankly and directly copied from the 
same subject in the corner of the Sistine ceiling 
between Zacharias and the Erythraean Sibyl. The 
only alteration made by the miniaturist has been 
to adapt a background. As yet Clovio may not 
have been personally acquainted with the sensitive 

* Additl. M8S. No. 20927. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 41 

and taciturn Florentine, who was still and had been 
for many years a wilful absentee from Rome. But 
we learn from the curious — if genuine — ^memoirs of 
Francesco de Holanda, the Portuguese miniaturist 
and architect, that in their later years the two quiet 
and religious-minded artists lived in sincere mutual 
respect and affection, and that they were accustomed 
to meet from time to time, either in the little convent 
of San Silvestro on the Quirinale, as the guests of 
the grave and learned Vittoria Colonna, or in her 
palace down by the Piazza of the SS. Apostoli, 
where overlooking, or it may be strolling in the 
garden which is now a wilderness, amid a select circle 
of artists, scholars, and distinguished visitors, they 
would hold friendly converse and lengthy argument 
on questions of art, literature, or theology. On these 
occasions it would be the object of listeners to draw 
the usually silent Michelangelo into some impas- 
sioned explanation or defence, or to engage Clovio 
or Valerio Bello, or Francisco de Holanda, or it 
might be the passing visitor, in some warm yet 
friendly discussion of the painter's art. 


Francisco de Holanda and his Recollections — Their somewhat 
mythical character — Francisco's object in Rome — Inter- 
views with Michelangelo — The Marchesa VittoriaColonna 
— Opinions of Michelangelo on painters and styles of 
painting — ^Visit to Clovio — The invention of working in 
points — Dispute. 

As the MS. of Francisco de Holanda, according to 
the statement of a recent traveller in Portugal, has 
disappeared from the place where it was formerly 
preserved, and therefore the only accessible notice of 
it is to be found in the pages of Count Racsynski's 
Letters from Portugal, the reader will perhaps 
pardon a digression — relating as much to Michel- 
angelo almost as to Clovio. Not finding it possible 
to meet with the original text for the reason just 
given, I have made extracts from the French version 
published by Racsynski, and which seems to be 
sufficiently reliable,* on matters relating to the 

* The translation from Holanda's MS. into French was made 
in 1843 by M. Roquemont, portrait painter. The MS. was found 
by Racsynski in the Library of Jesus at Lisbon, and published 
by him in his " Letters" addressed to the Artistic and Scientific 
Society of Berlin. Mr. Charles Clement has noted the person- 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 43 

present topic' The thoroughly garrulous and 
gossiping character of the memoranda made by the 
worthy Portuguese will be seen at once from the 
way in which he introduces himself and his object 
in visiting Rome. 

" My intention," he says, "'in going into Italy, 
whither I had been sent by my King, was not to 
seek any greater honour or emolument than the 
fulfilment of my duty. I had no ambition to get 
near the Pope and the Cardinals. The Almighty 
and the city of Rome itself are my witnesses of 
this truth. If I had wanted to establish myself in 
that city, perhaps it would not have been difficult, 
either by the means at my own disposal or by 
favour of the distinguished personages belonging to 
the Papal Court, for me to have done so ; but this 
thought was far from me. . . . The constant object 
of my preoccupations was to seek how I might be 
able by my art to make myself useful to the King 
my master who had sent me into Italy. . . . Thus 
I never find any object of painting, sculpture, or 
architecture, ancient or modern, without at least 
taking some souvenir of what is most curious about 
it. . . . Such were my aspirations, my actions, and 
my duties. No one saw me run after the great 

ality of F. de Holanda; and the late Librarian of the Sorbonne, 
who died in 1882, at the age of thirty, had intended to publish 
Holanda's Album, now in the Library of the Escorial. 

44 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Cardinal Farnese, or curry favour with any other 
powerful datario. My sole care was to call one 
day upon Don Julio Clovio, another upon Messer 
Michelangelo ; now upon Baccio Bandinelli, the 
noble sculptor ; now upon Messer Perino del Vaga, 
or Sebastiano del Piombo, the Venetian ; or upon 
Valerio Vicentino, the medallist; Jaeopo Mellequino, 
the architect ; Lattanzio Tolomei — all men whose 
acquaintance and friendship I am proud of, and 
esteem above anyone else of loftier rank or greater 
distinction — if, indeed, it be possible to find such in 
the world. And Rome herself holds them in the 
same estimation that I do. In cultivating their 
society I gathered for my art some fruit and some 
teaching from their works. I recreated my mind 
whilst conversing on illustrious and noble things of 
ancient and modern times. Messer Michelangelo 
especially inspired me with such an esteem that if I 
met him in the Pope's Palace or in the street, I 
always had to drag myself away only when the 
stars compelled me to withdraw ; and Dom Pedro 
Mascarenhas, the ambassador, could bear witness of 
the importance and difficulty of this, just as he 
could say how one evening on going to vespers 
Messer Michel rallied me on certain profit I was 
making drawing the notable works of Rome, and 
Italy generally, for the Cardinal S. Quattro, and 
for himself Michelangelo. My palace, my tribunal 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 45 

delta rota, was the grave temple of the Pantheon ; 
around which I prowled, taking note of every 
member of its architecture and of each of its 
venerable columns. The mausoleum of Adrian also, 
and that of Augustus; the Coliseum, the Thermae 
of Antonius and of Dioclesian ; the Arch of Titus, 
and that of Severus ; the Capitol ; the Theatre of 
Marcellus, and all the rest of the wonders of this 
city — ^the names of which will never be effaced from 
my memory. And if at times I happened to pene- 
trate within the magnificent chambers of the Pope, 
I was only led there by my admiration for Raffaello 
of Urbino, who has decorated them with his noble 
hand ;* for I used to prefer much those ancient 
masters, those men of marble, immovable on the 
arches and columns of the ancient edifices, to the 
more fluctuating people who surrounded us. I 
found in their grave silence quite loftier lessons 
than in the useless talk with which the living 
wearied us. Among the number of days which I 
thus spent in this capital, was one — it was a Sunday 
— ^when I went to see, as usual, my friend Messer 
Lattanzio Tolomeo who had procured me the friend- 
ship of Michelangelo, by the intervention of Messer 

* If these Memoirs are genuine, and not a clever concoction 
in the manner of Mill's Travels of Theodore Ducas, Holanda's 
visit is roughly dated by remarks like the above. Raffaello's 
" Stanze " were finished in 1520. 

46 lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Blosio, the Pope's Secretary, This Messer Lattanzio 
was a grave personage, respectable as well from the 
nobility of his lineage (for he was nephew to the 
Cardinal of Siena), as from his sentiments, age, and 
manners.* I was told at his house that he had lefb 
orders to inform me that I should find him at 
Monte Cavallo, in the Church of San Silvestro, 
with Madame the Marchesa di Peseara, to hear a 
lecture on St. Paul's Epistles. 

"Away therefore I went to Monte Cavallo and to 
San Silvestro. Now Madame Vittoria Colonna, the 
Marchesa and the sister of Signer Ascanio Colonna, 
is one of the most illustrious and celebrated ladies 
living either in Italy or indeed in Europe ; that 
is, in the world. Chaste and beautiful, learned in 
Latinity and brilliant in wit ; possessing moreover 
every virtue and quality that is praised in woman. 
Since the death of her illustrious husband she leads 
a modest and retired life, more than contented 
with the glory and splendour of her past years ; she 
now cherishes only Jesus Christ and pious studies, 
and in her charity to the poor of her own sex sets 

* Grimm thinks that Francisco's memory was somewhat 
treacherous as to names, especially as he wrote this account 
twelve years after, and suggests that he meant Claudio, not 
Lattanzio. But Lattanzio was then in Rome, as appears 
from other evidence. — Grimm: Life of Michelangelo, II. 262. 
(Bunnett's translation.) 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 4:7 

an example of true Catholic piety. I was also 
indebted for my acquaintance with the lady to the 
friendship of Messer Lattanzio, her most intimate 
friend. Having caused me to be seated and the 
lecture and so forth being concluded, she turned to 
us and said : ' If I am not mistaken I believe that 
Francisco de Holanda would rather hear Messire 
Michelangelo discourse on painting than listen to 
this lecture of Fra Ambrogio.'* With which, 
somewhat piqued, I replied, ' Madame, it seems 
then to your Excellency, that I understand and 
know nothing except about painting. To be sure it 
would always be agreeable to me to listen to 
Michelangelo, but I would rather hear Brother 
Ajnbrose when he deals with the Epistles of St. 
Paul.' ' Do not trouble yourself, Messer Francisco,' 
then said Messer Lattanzio; ' Madame la Marchesa 
never imagines that the person capable of painting 
is not capable of everything ; we have in Italy a 
very lofty idea of painting. But perhaps we should 
see in the words of M. la Marchesa that she intends 

* Fra Ambrogio is supposed to be another slip of memory, 
but as the exact record of Vittoria Colonna's " at homes " has 
not been kept, it is hopeless to think of tracing every casual 
visitor. It has been suggested that this distinguished preacher 
was perhaps mistaken for Fra Bernardino, called Ochino, the 
celebrated Franciscan, -whose portrait with his symbol, the 
tablet of I. H. S., occurs so often in devotional works. Ochino 
afterwards adopted the Reformed Faith. 

48 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

to add to the pleasure you have just received, that 
of hearing Michelangelo.' I replied, ' In that 
case her Excellency will do for me nothing fresh 
or unusual — viz, the bestowal, purely of her own 
accord, of much more than any one would venture 
to ask of her.' The Marchesa, preceiving my 
inclination, called one of her servants and said, 
smiling : ' One should know how to give to those 
who can be grateful, and all the more readily since 
I should have as great a share left after having 
given, and Messer Francisco de Holanda after 
having received.' Then turning to an attendant : 
' Hi ! you there, get away at once to the house of 
Michelangelo. Tell him that Messer Lattanzio 
and I are in this chapel quite fresh, and that the 
church is closed and pleasant, and ask him if he 
will come and lose part of the day with us, so that 
we may gain it with him ; but don't tell him that 
Francisco de Holanda, the Spaniard, is here.' As 
I was whispering to Lattanzio about the circum- 
spection and delicacy which the Marchesa threw 
into the smallest trifles she asked us what our 
whispering was about. 

" ' He was saying to me,' replied Lattanzio, ' how 
well your Excellency knew the use of prudence in 
everything, even in sending a message, for Messer 
Michel being already more to him than to me 
before his meeting with Messer Francisco, he will 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 49 

do his utmost to avoid him, for when once they 
come together they know not how to separate.' 

" ' It is because I know Messer Michelangelo,' 
says the Marchesa, ' that I am aware of that. 
Meantime, I hardly know how to get him to talk 
about painting.' " 

After a little more talk in which Messer Fran- 
cisco shows something of the honourable variety of 
genius so conspicuous in the Memoirs of Cellini, 
and a few moments of silence, there comes a knock 
at the door. " Everybody feared they would not 
see Michelangelo who lived at the foot of Monte 
Cavallo, but to my great satisfaction, as luck would 
have it, the messenger met him close by San 
Silvestro, going towards the Baths. He was 
coming along the Via Esquilina chatting with his 
colour-grinder Orbino ; he therefore* found himself 
so properly caught that he could not escape, and it 
was in fact himself who now knocked at the door." 

The Portuguese painter goes on to relate with 
great liveliness the manner in which Michelangelo 
was at length drawn into a discussion on art, 
the conversation being full of sparkle, and good- 

* This (says Grimm : Life of Michelangelo, II. 266. Note 
liii. 457) could not be the case, as it would have been in the 
neighbourhood of San Silvestro. M. Angelo lived at the foot 
of the Capitoline, on the Macello de' Corvi. Possibly Francisco 
wrote Capitolino — the contraction of which the transcriber 
mistook for Cavallo. 


50 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

humoured badinage. After some remarks on the 
character of the painter as a member of society, 
the Marchesa, smiling, continued : — 

" Since we are on this subject, I wish very much 
to know what you think of Flemish painting, for it 
seems to me more devout than the Italian manner." 

" Flemish painting," replied Michelangelo slowly, 
"generally pleases the devout better than that 
of Italy. The latter never caused such a one to 
shed a tear : that of Flanders always causes them 
to flow abundantly, and this result must be due, 
not to the vigour and merit of the painting, but 
altogether to the sensibility of the devotee. 

" Flemish painting always seems beautiful to 
women, especially to the elderly sort, or indeed, to 
the very young, as also to monks and nuns, and to 
certain nobles, who are deaf to true harmony. In 
Flanders, they prefer to paint so as to deceive the 
external sight, either objects which charm the spec- 
tator, or such as you cannot object to, as saints and 
prophets. Ordinarily they are rubbish — tumbledown 
houses, fields extremely green, shadowed with trees, 
traversed by streams and hedges, the like of which 
are called landscapes, with multitudes of figures 
scattered about. Now although this makes a good 
effect to many eyes, in reality there is neither truth 
nor art in it : no symmetry, no proportions, no care 
of selection, no grandeur. Lastly, this painting is 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 5 1 

without body and without vigour, and yet, for all 
this, they paint much worse elsewhere than in 
Flanders. If I speak so unfavourably of Flemish 
painting, it is not that it is altogether bad, but it 
aims at rendering with perfection so many things, 
a single one of which would be sufficient, that it 
does not accomplish any one thing in a satisfactory 
manner. It is only to works executed in Italy that 
we can give the name of true painting. And it is 
for this reason that good painting is called Italian. 
If they did it thus in any other country it would 
take the name of that country. Good painting is 
noble and devout in itself, for, among the wise, 
nothing elevates the soul more, nor carries it more 
towards devotion, than the difficulty of that per- 
fection which approaches God and unites with Him. 
Now good painting is only a copy of His perfections 
— a shadow of His pencil; in fine, a music, a melody. 
It is only a most vivid intelligence which can per- 
ceive its great difficulty, hence it is so rare that few 
people obtain or know how to produce it. I will 
add further (which you will find very important), 
that of all climates or regions which the sun and 
moon shine upon, it is only in that of Italy that 
any one can paint well, and it will be next to 
impossible to do it anywhere else, even when other 
places produce geniuses equally great, if this be 

4 * 

52 lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

He goes on to show that no foreign artist could 
quite perfectly imitate the Italian manner, which, 
he says, is that of ancient Greece. " That is so 
true," he continues, " that if even Albert Durer, a 
man delicate and skilful in his manner wishing to 
deceive me or Francisco de Holanda, essayed to 
counterfeit a work of Italy, I should recognize at 
once that the work had not been done in Italy nor 
by an Italian." 

If these can be looked upon as the genuine 
utterances of the great Italian to whom they are 
attributed, they show, at least, that he was not 
exempt from the national pride with which the 
Italian painters regarded their art, knowing that 
Italy was looked up to by the rest of Europe as 
the very home of true artistic genius, and the Holy 
Land to which all who desired to gain genuine 
inspiration must bend their steps. 

But we must pass on to the portions of this 
remarkable diary which more particularly relate to 
our special subject. 

In commencing the next division of his work 
Francisco says :— " I passed the night trying to 
recall the day which had just passed, and to prepare 
myself for the one about to follow." But it so hap- 
pened — he is very circumstantial in his story — that 
he did not see Michelangelo again for another 
week. " These eight days seemed to me very long, 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 53 

but Sunday came at length, and the time seemed 
too short, for I had wanted to be better armed 
with argument to speak in this noble company. 
When I arrived at San Silvestro, already had Fra 
Ambrogio finished his lecture on the Epistles, and 
had retired, and they were beginning to murmur 
at my delay. After acknowledging my indolence 
and receiving their forgiveness, and after the Mar- 
chesa had rallied me a little, and I had similarly 
rallied Michelangelo, we had permission to resume 
our discourse, and so I began." 

What follows is a rapid but tolerably complete 
account of the various works scattered throughout 
Italy which Holanda represents Michelangelo as 
considering masterpieces. 

Michelangelo, in these pages, exhibits an acquain- 
tance with what had been done throughout the 
length and breadth of Italy, and especially in Rome 
itself, at which we cannot but wonder, considering 
the absorbing nature of his own artistic labours. 

He shows an amount also of literary culture as 
regards ancient art which at once explains and 
accounts for his position as the greatest and most 
learned of the great masters in art in his own day. 
He speaks as a scholar, an antiquary, and a poet, 
and yet remains no less the master of technical 
detail of every kind in the matter of painting. The 
second part of Holanda's manuscript possesses the 

54 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

very greatest interest for all those who admire 
Michelangelo, or care for even a doubtfully- 
authenticated transcript of his conversation. But 
the part which concerns us in this place is Holanda's 
meeting with Clovio. The latter it appears had 
made a drawing for Holanda which introduces the 
following passage from the diary : 

" As I found it was still early when I arrived at 
the mansion of Cardinal Grrimaldi,* I was anxious 
to see Don Julio di Macedonia, his gentleman, and 
the most famous of illuminators, about a work he 
was doing for me. Don Julio was delighted with 
my visit, for it was a good while since we had seen 
one another. After looking at our work (I say our 
work, because I had given him the drawing for it 
and he only added the colours), I wanted to bid him 
farewell. He wanted to know what I had got to 
do to rush off so suddenly. 1 told him I was going 
to the church of San Silvestro to meet Michel- 
angelo, Donna Vittoria Colonna, and Messer 
Lattanzio Tolommei, a gentleman of Siena. Don 
Julio then said to me, ' Oh, Messer Francisco, what 
can I give you to get for me the favour of a share 
in so noble a society, so that Signor Michelangelo 

* Qu. Grimani ? There is constant uncertainty in this matter 
of personal names in this alleged diary. Cardinal Domenico 
Grimani died, as we have seen, in 1523. Marino Grimani was 
elected cardinal in 1527, the year after the disastrous sack of 

Life of Griorgio Giulio Clovio. 55 

will consent by your intercession to count me among 
the number of his servants V 

" ' Is it possible,' said I, laughing, ' that you 
would do me, a stranger, so great an honour — I 
who am only in this city one year whilst you are a 
Patrician of Rome and one of the most distin- 
guished artists here ! Speak yourself to Michel- 
angelo ; he will be dehghted to know you, for really 
he is a most honourable and prudent man apart, 
from his skill. You don't find him, when you come 
to know him, the bad character that you suppose 
him to be. However, as I owe to the favour of 
Madama la Marchesa the permission to enter this 
society, and as Michelangelo might feel a little put 
out, as not yet knowing you, pardon me for not 
taking the liberty of taking you with me without 
having first mentioned you. I will speak of you to 
them, Don Julio, and I am quitq certain that from 
the information they will have about you, they 
will esteem you well worthy of their acquaintance. 
Allow me then to hasten away, for it is high time I 
was there." 1 was about to leave Don Julio, but 
fate intended otherwise. I saw enter the room, 
Valerio di Vicenza* with three Roman gentlemen, 

* Valerio Bello (or Belli) was a native of Vicenza, and one 
of the most famous medallists of the Renascence. (Born about 
1468. Died 1546.) He was celebrated for his cameos in rock- 
crystal, the most famous one being the cavetta given by 

56 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

one of whom went away immediately. Valerio 
clasped me in his arms, making a great fuss of me, 
for he had not seen me since his return from 
Venice. He was a man of middle-age, still robust, 
and a gentleman of very pleasant bearing, and 
besides, one of those who in these latter times most 
nearly approached the ancients in the art of en- 
graving medals in low relief — whether in gold, 
crystal, or steel. He had a great friendship for me, 
which I owed to his own excellent disposition and 
to Don Julio of Macedonia in whose house we now 
met. After our mutual salutations were over and 
he had learned from Don Julio how anxious I was 
to be gone, Valerio said :- — 

" ' Talk about something else, Messer Francisco 
di Holanda, for I shall not let you go out of this 
door until "the star of Hesperus shuts in the 
night ! " I ask pardon very much of Madama la 
Marchesa and of Messer Michelangelo for the 
violence that I use — the motive will be a sufficient 
excuse. Stay here. I hope these gentlemen will 
not deprive us of their society.' The gentlemen at 
once said they could not wish for anything more 
agreeable, and together with Don Julio begged me 
to remain. I was vexed not to be able to resume 

P. Clement VII. to Francis I. on tbe marriage of Oath, de' Medici 
in 1533. See Les Medailleurs Italiens des XV. et XVI. siecles, 
par Alf. Armatid. 2nd Edit. 2 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1883. 

lAfe of Qiorgio Giulio Clovio. 57 

my journey, but it seemed to me that I could not 
possibly do otherwise than stay where I was, be- 
sides I had not absolutely promised that I would 
accept the invitation of the Marchesa. I had only 
said that I would do my best to obey her Excel- 
lency, which indeed I had done up to that moment, 
having even set aside matters which were important 
to me. So I replied : ' I swear to you, by Father 
Tiber, Signor Valerio, that I would not have 
changed the destination of my journey for any 
interest in the world, other than the great pleasure 
which you desire to afford me, but since God has 
granted me the favour of meeting you, and as if I 
lose much on the One hand I gain more on the 
other, I am at your service and at the service of 
these gentlemen.' 

" Everybody seemed glad for me to stay. Then 
Valerio, to let me see that I should not want for 
subjects as interesting as those I should have had 
elsewhere, pulled out of the pocket of his velvet 
jerkin about fifty golden medals, executed by his 
own hand, looking like antiques, so admirably en- 
graved and so perfectly struck that they made me 
lose much of the opinion which I had of antiquity. 
Among these medals, he showed me one of 
Artemisia, in the Greek manner, with the mau- 
soleum on the reverse ; then one of Virgil in the 
Roman style, having on the reverse some pastoral 

5^ Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

subject. These two medals pleased me beyond 
everything, and since then I have considered 
Messer Valerio as a greater artist than ever I did 

" ' Well then,' said he, ' Messer Francisco, what 
did you talk about at the party with Signora 
Vittoria and Michelangelo ? ' 

" ' The noblest subject of our conversation was 
painting.' 'You could not find a nobler or grander 
topic,' said Valerio ; ' for it takes its origin in the 
sovereign painter of all who created, after having 
painted us, — us as well as all the world besides, and 
she leads us all back to Him. This is the summit 
of all wisdom and all grandeur.' ' But,' asked 
Don Julio, ' what did they say about painting V 

" 'You would do better, Don Julio,' I replied, ' to 
show me and these gentlemen the excellent pro- 
ductions of your pencil, than to make us waste our 
time talking about the art.' ' What !' interrupted 
Don Julio, ' do you find it less agreeable to talk 
about our art, which is so admirable, than to look at 
pictures ? I don't think, Messer Francisco, that 
you attach less value to talking of these beauties 
than to looking at them.' However, yielding to my 
solicitations, Don Julio showed us a ' Ganymede,' 
illuminated by him after a design by Michelangelo. 

" It was painted with extreme sweetness,* and 

* A drawing of this subject is named among those left at 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 59 

was the first thing that brought him into repute at 
Rome. Afterwards came a ' Venus ' very finely 
executed. But in the last place he showed us two 
grand leaves of a book, on the first of which was 
painted St. Paul giving sight to a blind man before 
the Roman Consul ; on the other were depicted 
Charity and other figures in the midst of Corinthian 
columns and buildings. 

" This was in my opinion the most superb work in 
illumination that could possibly be met with, and 
to which the illuminators of Flanders could not be 
compared, not even the best I had seen, and I think 
I have seen a good many. I have noticed in the 
works of Don Julio a manner of working with 
certain points or dots, which I call ' atoms,' like 
the tissue of a veil, and which cover the painting 
like a light mist. I venture to affirm pace Solomon, 
who pretends that everything has been already said 
and done, that until our own days this manner has 
not been known,* except by Don Julio of Macedonia; 

Clovio's death (see Irwentario in Appendix), and there noted as 
being a copy after Michelangelo. The original design is in the 
Uffizi at Florence. Ewrford: Life, Sfo. 220. 

* Tet rainiatures exist in which the mode of finishing alluded 
to (called by English painters " stippling ") has been employed, 
executed probably in Flanders before the time of Clovio. It is 
most likely that it was discovered separately by different 
miniaturists, as a means of producing at the same time 
both brilliancy, softness, and the utmost delicacy of finish. A 

60 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

nor have I known this manner to have been used by 
anybody either in Italy or Flanders, although there 
are some who pretend to imitate it. Perhaps in 
this place I may be allowed a digression in favour 
of the truth. When I was still young, before the 
King my master sent me into Italy, happening to 
be at Evora, busy painting two pictures in black 
and white — the one of the Salutation, the other of 
the Descent of the Holy Ghost, for a very beautiful 
Breviary belonging to his Holiness — I found out 
by myself this manner of miniature painting by 
means of dots, and this mistiness, as Don Julio does 
it at Rome. My father found it very good; he 
had himself used this kind of working. When I 
came to Rome, as I say, I only met Don Julio who 
worked in the manner which I had found out in 
Portugal ; and what surprised me above all was, 
that this happened at a distance of five hundred 
leagues apart, he being at Rome, I at Evora, and 
exactly at the same period we had discovered this 
method of finish in the use of these points or atoms 
of colour. It should be known that this method 
of working is difficult to understand, and still 
more difficult to execute, so I accord the palm to 

fifteentli century MS. in the Brit. Mus. (Harl. 2897), shows 
decidedly that the French miniatarists of that time were 
acquainted with the method of shading by means of points 
or dots. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 61 

Don Julio over all the illuminators of Europe, 
but after him it would perhaps be myself who 
deserved it. 

"After a little further conversation with those 
present on the appreciation of art by various 
nations, ' I like to see,' said I, ' that . . . you show 
yourself a defender of painting, yet do not say any 
ill of Spain because we may have room to repent of 
having done so. For the rest I have nothing to 
say about Spain. But in Portugal I know that 
there are princes who value the arts and who pay 
for them. However, since this gentleman accuses 
the Spanish of paying badly for the works, I shall 
proj&t by this opportunity, and you will permit me, 
Don Julio, to pay for the colours of the picture 
which you have illuminated for me, for I am not in 
a condition to do more, and I have need of the good 
offices of Signor Valerio and of these gentlemen to 
make you accept a sum proportionate to the merit 
of the work. I came out this morning without a 
very great sum, and I am going to give you I don't 
know how many vintini, before somebody robs me 
of them.' Saying this, I drew forth the twenty 
cruzados of gold which I carried in my pocket, and 
placed them before Don Julio; but you should have 
seen the great illuminator shrink, as if he had seen 
a serpent, and swear that he would not take them. 
It seemed to me that I acted like a gentleman in 

62 Ijife of Gior<jio (Jiulio Clovlo. 

offering these twenty cruzados for a quarter sheet of 
vellum, which I had designed myself and to which 
he had only added the labour of the illumination ; 
so I said, ' Signer Don Julio, I do not pay you for 
the merit, which is worth more than a hundred 
crowns ; I know that better than anybody else ; but 
you are rich ; accept this feeble tribute from a man 
who is far from being so. Besides, these gentlemen, 
and Messer Valerio, who are here present, shall 
judge if I act honourably, seeing the nature of the 
work. Perhaps he may think ill of me for showing 
such liberality towards you ; at the same time, if 
you will come to my house you shall have five 
cruzados more, and if you press me I will make it 
thirty for nothing but the resistance which you 
have offered me.' ' Twenty-five cruzados,' said the 
Romans and Signor Valerio, 'that is very liberal; 
Messer Francisco acts like a Roman gentleman, 
and acquits himself towards you, Signor Don Julio ; 
do not demand more of him, we beseech you ; and 
we agree at the same time that we should have 
been delighted had he given you the five cruzados 
which he speaks o£" 

"I pulled out of my pocket a golden cruzado, and 
gave it for an earnest, with which Don Julio had to 
content himself ' Messer Francisco,' then said 
Don Julio, ' the recompense is feeble, as I promise 
you that to-day there will be no question of any- 

Life of Giorgio Gfiulio Clovio. 63 

tiling but the price the ancients put upon painting.' 
' Give me,' said I, ' the riches of your Roman 
L. Crassus, and if I don't make you think the 
ancients have returned from Portugal to Rome, I 
"will lose both the cruzados and the work. But 
at this moment one must go with the times, and 
you must recollect that in paying twenty-five 
cruzados for the pleasure of carrying to the nuns of 
Barcelona a work which I might have completed 
like you, I make, for me, a greater effort than did 
Attains when he gave one hundred talents as the 
price of a single picture. For Attalus was a powerful 
king, and the work he bought might have been ten 
or twelve palms, whilst I am poor, and what I pay 
you consists of a palm of work, of which I myself 
made the design. Pardon me, Don Julio, for 
replying thus to you, for I am sure that nobody in 
Italy holds higher than I, a Portuguese, do the 
value of painting. Now you may tell me what 
prices the ancients paid, and I shall be glad to listen 
to you.' I ceased speaking, and Signor Valerio, 
of Vicenza, added, 'It is time to stop this pretty 
question between these gentlemen and change the 
subject. ' 

" One of the Roman gentlemen replied, ' No con- 
versation and no good understanding is so inter- 
esting as this quarrel : let us haggle about it.' " On 
this he called a page, and ordered him to fetch 

64 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Pliny's Natural History. And then the conver- 
sation turns on the well-known chapters of that 
' History ' which relate to ancient art. In a 
note subjoined by Holanda to this part of the 
MS. he says : ' I finished this writing to-day, being 
the day of St. Luke the Evangelist, at Lisbon, 

To revert for a moment to the characteristics of 
manner alluded to in the preceding remarks, and 
which conferred on Clovio the byname of " Michel- 
angelo in little," it would be difficult to point to a 
more characteristic example than the great Ponti- 

* In the Life of Michelangelo, by Hermann Grimm, trans- 
lated by Mrs. Fanny Elizabeth Bunnett, Vol. II., ch. xiv., 
p. 261 (second ed., 1865), and previously referred to, frequent 
mention is made of Francisco de Holanda and his journey to 
Italy. " The little church of San Silvestro on Monte Oavallo, 
opposite the Quirinal Palace, where they met, still stands, no 
longer, indeed, as at that time, for it is full of ornaments of 
a later date ; the small comfortable sacristy behind the altar 
is painted with Domenichino's frescoes, the carved choir 
stools are no longer the old ones ; at that time the monastery 
to which the church belonged was a nunnery, at the present 
day it is tenanted by monks, but the small dim space is 
as it was then ; the convent yard, which I found filled with 
flourishing lemon-trees ; and behind it the Colonna gardens, 
rising from the palace standing at the foot of the hill up the 
Quirinal and along the paths of which Vittoria ascended to the 
convent, not situated then as now on a square surrounded 
by palaces, but lying alone on the height, amid gardens and 
small houses." 

From Qaye. 

[15 1 9.] 

From a miniature by Qirolama dai Ubri. 

From Qaye. 


From QennistounA 


Life of Griorgio Griulio Clovio. 65 

fical Leetionary, so long known as the Towneley 

Very nearly approaching it in excellence are the 
Soane Commentary of Marino Grimani on the 
Epistle to the Rom,ans,^ and the so-called Psalter 
of Paul III.\ in the Nat. Libr at Paris — though 
in the latter MS. he attempted to combine what he 
had learned of the styles both of Michelangelo and 
Raffaello. But whatever Clovio might have re- 
tained or remembered of his early studies in the 
Baths of Titus, or among the decorative designs of 
RaffaeUo and his able assistants in the Vatican 
corridors, it is manifest from such works as those 
mentioned above, that his principal studio was the 
Sistine Chapel. 

The miniature of the Last Judgment in the 
Pontifical Leetionary is a real masterpiece not only 
of vigorous drawing, but of the utmost delicacy of 
colouring and finish — the former characteristic was 
undoubtedly derived from Michelangelo, the latter 
is all his own, the distinguishing mark of his 
supremacy as a miniaturist and the one which called 
forth so loudly the admiration of his contemporaries 

* This magnificent MS., of which a description will be found 
in Appendix, was sold with the Towneley Library at Sotheby's 
in 1884, and purchased by Mr. Bernard Qnaritch of Piccadilly 
for £2050. It has since found its way to America. 

t Described in Appendix. 



66 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

— among whom were not only connoisseurs and 
patrons like Marino Grimani and Alessandro 
Farnese, but such excellent judges of the higher 
qualities of art as Giorgio Vasari, Francisco de 
Holanda, and Georg Hoefnagel — the latter two, at 
least, themselves no mean practitioners in the very- 
same style of painting. As to the objections of 
those who have decided these masterpieces as 
probably, after all, not the work of the miniaturist 
himself, they have but little if any force, as 
against the experience of those who have carefully 
examined every example in every possible way. And 
it may easily be understood that it was not the 
custom, nor was it indeed possible, for the busy 
miniaturist himself to paint, or even to finish, every 
picture contained in each MS. which may contain 
his work. 

It is seldom, in fact, that he puts in more than 
one or two pictures entirely finished by his own 
hand. And we know from multitudes of instances 
that this has always been a practice with all the 
most famous illuminators. Hence we find, that in 
the Towneley MS. several of the miniatures, whilst 
following the master's style and manner, are 
very unmistakably the work of mere imitators or 

These inferior performances may indeed have 
been the work of Bernardo Buontalenti or Claudio 

Lift' of Giorgio Gialio GJovio. (57 

Massarolo, or even of Francesco Salviati, who all 
worked for Clovio in Rome — Massarolo being 
actually in his service at the time of his death. 
Some writers have hastily asserted that he had 
many pupils, calling all such who seem to have 
imitated his manner ; but Salviati and Massarolo 
are the only names that I find in documents bearing 
the stamp of Clovio's personal authority. Partly, 
then, because of the extreme labour and conse- 
quent great consumption of time required for his 
own actual handwork, partly from the necessity of 
attending to and executing the numerous- commis- 
sions with which he was constantly overwhelmed, 
very few even of his acknowledged works can be 
pointed out as consisting entirely, in the pictorial 
part, of his own work. The Soane MS. is entirely 
his own, but then it is only a fragment, consisting 
of two pictures with their borders and an ornamental 
bracket. The little book of Devotions in the 
British Museum* is not. On the other hand, the 
little volume of poems in the Imperial Library at 
Viennat which contains only three illuminated 
pages is apparently all his own work, being exe- 
cuted as a tribute of personal regard and friend- 
ship for the author. It belongs to the same style 
and period as the little book in the British 

* Additional MS8. No. 20927. 

t Imp. Libr. Vienna. No. 2660. Poems of Eurialo d'Ascoli. 


68 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Museum. The flesh tints are strengthened with 
brown shading, and the features and expressions of 
the two examples point clearly to the same hand. 
As to the Munich and Naples MSS. the " manner " 
and mode of execution are very different indeed. 
The tones of the flesh are warmer and more delicate 
and the colouring generally much softer, and more 
in the glowing and lucid style of Rubens or some of 
the later Urbinese or Genoese painters than of 
Clovio. But granting that they are the produc- 
tions of Clovio at all, the execution is not so 
uniform as to justify the belief that they were 
entirely the master's work. I carefully examined 
the Munich MS. in October, 1884, and was strongly 
tempted notwithstanding its exquisite beauty of 
execution to deny its genuineness as the work of 
Clovio. But this temptation arose, 1 think, from 
a momentary forgetfulness of the fact that Clovio 
was instinctively a copyist, and as such, the reflector 
for the time being of what he might have placed 
before him. This is where most persons mistake in 
respect of his work generally. They look for more 
originality than he was capable of His works all 
show influence. Now it is that of Raffaello — now 
that of Michelangelo. But between these comes 
the period when he studied the works and received 
the instructions of Girolamo dei Libri. And there 
is nothing to disprove that when in Florence or 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 69 

Venice he did not sinailarly and as strikingly fall 
under the influence of the Flemish school which 
shows so plainly in the Naples " Hours " and in the 
Prayer Book of Albert of Bavaria. Among his 
various other gifts we must not forget his extra- 
ordinary versatility. 

The Naples MS. has disappeared. It was 
Bourbon property, of priceless value, and therefore 
probably retained by the family on their retirement 
from Naples.* It is perhaps on the whole the 
most famous of all the smaller works through the 
description of it left by Vasari. And if one may 
judge of it from the similar volume preserved at 
Munich,t it fully deserved the encomiums bestowed 
upon it. But while the manifest distance between 
his own power of execution and that of most of his 
imitators, in work of which the pedigree is ascer- 
tained, proves at times a source of perplexity ; with 
regard to others in which the skill is very little if 
at all inferior, the difficulty is increased. Thus the 
so-called Grenville Clovio in the British Museum 
has produced a schism among the cognoscenti as 

* It was seen at Naples by Labarte (Mist, des Arts Indus- 
triels, Sj-o., 2nd Ed. II. 276) and is described by SakcinsM, 
Lexicon of 8. Slavonic Artists, Sfc. Art. Klovio, p. 172, after the 
description by Quaranta in his Mystagogue to the Ifaples 
Museum. See Appendix. 

t Description in Appendix. 

70 Life of Gioryio Giuliu Cluvio. 

sharp as that between Itacists and Etacists in the 
Hellenism of the Renascence. 

By-and-by I intend to devote a chapter to this 
controversy on the Victories of Charles the Fifth. 
At present it will be desirable to enter a little more 
fully into the subject of the miniature art of the 
sixteenth century, so far at least as concerns those 
contemporaries or immediate followers of Clovio, 
among whom might be found the possible producers 
of work that has passed for his own. 

Among the scraps of book-ornament in a choice 
volume of cuttings in the British Museum known 
as the " Rogers " Book* are several pages in the 
style usually attributed to Clovio. They are, how- 
ever, by a contrivance which has doubtless con- 
vinced many who have seen them, assigned to 
Apollonio de Bonfratelli, Who, in the seemingly 
contemporary signature, is styled " Miniaturist to 
the Apostolic Sacristy." But these signatures are 
in fact forgeries. For while purporting to be of 
the same date as the rest of the work, and possibly 
intended to be taken as put in by the hand of the 
miniaturist himself, they are really modern imita- 
tions neatly let into the spaces they occupy and 
apparently forming part of the design. It may be 
and probably is true that the boi'ders in question 
were the work of Apollonio, but these inserted 
* Additional MSS. 21412. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 7 1 

tablets do not prove the fact. Let it be assumed 
that they are so, as their execution is in places 
unmistakably inferior to that of the master, yet I 
am strongly of opinion that some of the pages 
hitherto indiscriminately assigned, for want of a 
name, to the same artist, are either really the work 
of Clovio himself or of an abler contemporary than 

My reasons cannot easily be set forth, but they 
are grounded on many comparisons that I have 
made of the borders to which I refer with others in 
different MSS., some of which are known to be 
Clovio's work, others not yet so determined, but 
possessing features which should entitle them to 
unqualified recognition. 

* I bave since found the signature S. L. upon one of them, 
but whether this means Sebastiano Luciani (del Piombo) or not 
I cannot ajGBrm. He was Keeper of the Papal Seal at the time 
of their execution, and they would probably pass through his 
hands for aatheutication, and so as to be registered for payment. 
See his letter to Michelangelo on his appointment to this office. 
Appendix. It is given also by Grimm : Life of Michelangelo, 
ii. 4.^2. The original, from which I quote, is in the British 


The state of Miniature Art in Italy. — The immediate predeces- 
sors and contemporaries of Clovio. — The art in other 
parts of Europe. — Distinguished miniaturists in the 
Netherlands, France, Germany, Spain, and Italy. 

TN the earlier years of Clovio's life, and whilst he 
was still practising as a boy in his native 
village or in the monastic school of Modrush, most 
of the famous Italian cities, such as Florence, Siena, 
Mantua, Bologna, Ferrara, Verona, and Naples, 
possessed well-defined schools of manuscript decora- 
tioi^; and various transalpine cities from Bruges 
to Seville could boast of miniaturists universally 
acknowledged to belong to the highest rank of their 
art. Crowds of names attach themselves to Bologna, 
Florence, and Verona; while Paris and Bruges, 
Dijon, and Nuremberg, Toledo, Madrid, Saragossa, 
and Seville, can also show distinguished lists, some- 
times including whole families of artists, thus 
attesting the popularity of their craft, and in many 
cases proving their title to the praise which has 
been lavished on the more fortunate few whose 
names happen to be found in the pages of Vasari. 

The Dei Libri, of Verona, aie by no means 
singular in their family connection with the art. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 73 

Bruges, Gand, Maestricht, Nuremberg; and Genoa, 
could show similar family groups. The Glocken- 
dons of Nuremberg, and the Castelli of Genoa, to 
mention only two, are entitled to quite as much 
of our attention as the Dei Libri of Verona, or the 
Boccardini, or the Favelle of Florence. But the 
latter are better known. And besides all these 
there are the many who still remain anonymous, 
but whose works exist in the choir-books of a 
hundred diflFerent libraries. One artist only is 
recorded for the colossal graduals of Pavia now 
kept in the Brera. But the different styles attest 
four or five at least. Some half-dozen names 
account for all the vast collection of the Escorial, 
and so we find here and there a name perhaps tra- 
ditionally attached to other important collections. 
Of course the expense of works so large and costly 
would be carefully put down somewhere ; and it is 
not assuming too much to believe that many of 
these valuable documentary records are still in 
existence, and will some day be brought to light. 
But research is needed, and research requires endow- 
ment. Many of the illuminators who laboured 
in Spain and Italy, during and even previous 
to the lifetime of Clovio, have been seriously 
considered to rival him in the perfection and 
delicacy of their work. Foremost among these, 
in the opinion of some, stands Hieronymo or 

74 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Girolanio dei Libri. There can be no question that 
he was entitled to his celebrity ; but it is not an 
easy matter to fix upon his work, or to distinguish 
it without his signature from that of his brother 
Callisto, or his father Francesco. He was born in 
1474, twenty-four years before Clovio. The Census 
of 1492, now in the Municipal Archives of Verona, 
thus records his family : " Franciscus, Miniator, fil. 
Stephani k Libris, 40 : Groma uxor, 40 : Laurentia, 
20: Hieronimus, 1 8 : Bartholomea, 14: Jacobus, 12: 
Calistus, 9: Pelegrinus, 4." Another in 1529: 
" Hieronimo dai Libri, depentor, 54: Maestro 
Calisto suo fradello, 46: Cecilia Dona de Hieron. 
36: Bartolomea s. sorella, 51: Chiara, 22: Fran- 
cesco, 29 : Zuan Paolo, 9 : Agnese, 3." ' 

As nothing is known of the work of Callisto, it is 
probable that he assisted his elder brother, and that 
as usual the better known man has obtained the 
credit of all. Numerous collections claim to pos- 
sess examples of Girolamo dai Libri, but very few 
can show any adequate attestation. Neither the 
" Hours " in the Soane collection in London, nor 
those in the Douce collection in the Bodley Library 
at Oxford, can offer any proof whatever, notwith- 
standing the confidence of the attributions which are 
simply guesses. There is a fine initial M. formerly 
belonging to Mr. J. T. Payne, and now in the 
possession of Mr. Quaritch, which is verified by 

Uife of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 75 

the artist's signature " Hieronymus f." on the base of 
the central pillar in the composition. The subject 
of the miniature is the trial of St. Catherine before 
the doctors of Alexandria, a subject frequently 
occurring in illuminated books, and very notably 
in the Grimani Breviary. The scene takes place 
within a hall supported by richly decorated pillars, 
and before a crowd of persons. Other spectators 
are seen in a sort of loft or gallery at the farther 
end of the building, the whole forming a vivid 
picture of Italian life and costume in the fifteenth 
century. Under thechapter entitled " Fra Giocondo e 
Liberale ed altri Veronesi " in Vasari, we learn that 
he illuminated many books for the monks of Monte- 
scaglioso in Naples ; some for those of Sta. Justina 
of Padua, others for the Abbey of Praia " sul 
Padoano," and others again for that of Candiana, a 
rich foundation belonging to the Canons Regular of 
S. Salvatore. He was working on the choir-books 
at Candiana, when Clovio came there to be ad- 
mitted as a frate of the order. This was their first 
meeting, and at this time Clovio was already known 
as an able master of his art. It accounts, however, 
for the possibility, in some respects, of confounding 
Clovio with his predecessor, who, on the strength of 
this meeting, is claimed as his master. It is quite 
credible that, as Vasari says, he learned from 
Girolamo all that the latter could teach him, and 

76 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

we know from examples that lie could work in 
Girolamo's manner as regards technic so excellently 
that the same description which applies to the one, 
will exactly fit the other. But there the likeness 
ends. Girolamo was a skilful artist, but he lacked 
Clovio's astonishing versatility. Hence while certain 
parts of Clovio's work may be mistaken for that of 
Girolamo, the work of the Veronese master is too 
peculiarly local in treatment to be reasonably 
assigned to any other school than his own. Never- 
theless, within its narrower limits it is unsurpassed 
for delicacy and truth. The miniature of the 
Expulsion described by Vasari was a typical example 
of his manner. It was painted for the Prior of San 
Giorgio in Verona, and afterwards given to "a 
cardinal protector of that order " residing in Rome 
and shown to many of the cardinal's friends who 
all, as usual, declared it to be the finest piece of 
miniature painting that had ever been seen. What 
became of it is now quite unknown. A signed 
example of Girolamo's work is indeed of the utmost 
rarity, and is really quite as precious in its way 
as anything from the hand of Clovio. Girolamo 
excelled not only in ornament and figures, but also 
in flowers ; painting them with such diligence, and 
so true to Nature, that they appear to the spectator 
to be absolutely real. He also imitated cameos and 
other jewels " that no one ever saw anything like 

lAfe, of Criorgio Giulio Clovio. 77 

them for perfection and delicacy." Perhaps Vasari 
himself might think so, but not only did Clovio rival 
him in this particular, but several Lombard, Floren- 
tine, Netherlandish, and even Spanish miniaturists 
could be mentioned whose painting of jewels and 
cameos is quite equal, and even superior. But 
society in Rome in the middle of the sixteenth 
century perhaps had not seen much of Florentine 
work, as the best of it was then at Buda, and as to 
Flemish, which had given an impulse to both Floren- 
tine and Venetian, if other connoisseurs were as 
prejudiced against it as Michelangelo, they would 
not think of placing it in rivalry with that of Italy. 
It would afford a curious, not to say startling 
case of criticism if we could collect the opinions 
of artists, even of the highest rank, about each other. 
Of Albert Dlirer's Book of Proportion, Michel- 
angelo observed that it was " poca e debole cosa, 
questo libro." Da Vinci's estimate of Angelo's 
own work both in sculpture and painting was, that 
it was extravagant and grossly exaggerated, for the 
muscles of his children were as numerous and strongly 
marked as those of his adults. It is true that a 
jealousy existed, if not more, between these great 
masters, but their mutual criticisms are not without 
truth. So Girolamo's work must have been remark- 
able, for his celebrity was such that curators of 
libraries are still found anxious to attribute some 

78 Life (*/' (I'iorgio (riuIiO Clavio. 

of their richest masterpieces to his hand. The 
argument is this: these miniatures are extremely 
fine, they are like life, they are of the most miracu- 
lous minuteness: therefore they are the work of 
Girolamo dai Libri. It generally happens when 
probed to the bottom that the attribution of an 
unsigned work does not rest even on congruity of 
place or time or style of technic similarity of 
pencilling, or choice of peculiar colour or medium, or 
any other reasonable evidence; but simply on the 
detailed description of Vasari, which, most likely, 
was gathered by him from the ante-chamber gossip 
of Roman and other palaces, or from gaiTulous old 
padroni, who might have had a momentary glimpse 
of some wondrous piece of work over somebody's 
shoulder at a levee. Or, if more precise, the good- 
natured biogi'apher probably got it from the pocket- 
book of an artist friend on whose taste and judgment, 
and of course veracity, he could entirely rely, and 
did so. 

If we set aside the fact that Vasari's descriptions 
would usually fit any really good piece of miniature 
painting of the time, and accept them as both well- 
chosen and appropriate to some capital work, we 
are met by a further diflSculty, perhaps still more 
damaging, that, as in the case of the MS. presented 
by Cellini to the Emperor, they do not apply to the 
object in question : or if the description applies, that 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 79 

the work is not by the artist to whom he assigns it, 
as when he describes the Silius Italicus in the 
Marcian Library at Venice.* This ought to satisfy 
us that in case of serious doubt or difficulty, Vasari 
is not the authority to help us. It is shown by 
Pacheco in his elaborate treatise on Paintingt, that 
there are two quite distinct styles of Illumination, 
both used by the best masters, which he calls the 
first and the second methods. They differ in the 
manner of painting the flesh-tints, and draperies. 
The former makes use of the tint of the vellum 
itself for the lights, and with middle tints, con- 
venientes y suaves, touches in the shading or 
modelling sweetly, deepening and strengthening by 
means of fine points until the artist has obtained 
the requisite force. Such is the method followed 
by Clovio and those of his Spanish imitators men- 
tioned hereafter. " Others," continues Pacheco, 
" following the method of ancient tempera, lay in 
the carnations, and in their natural colours, and 
vary their tones as is done in good oil-painting, 
covering the vellum, although with colours possess- 
ing but little body, and do not strengthen by means 

* See this very elaborate description, in Le Monnier's Vasari, 
with the note upon it, and compare Morelli, Notizie, &c. 

t Pacheco Fr. Arte de la Pintura. Ed. by G. C. Villa-amil, 
Madrid, 1866. 8vo. Pacheco was the master and father-in-law of 
Velasquez, and a celebrated writer on art. 

80 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

of points, but by washes or layers of colour. The 
former mode of working, by making use of the 
colour of the vellum, claims great and frequent 
authority from those who have employed it, and 
from the evidence of some very important illumina- 
tions. Those, for example, of Fray Andres de Leon 
and Fray Julian his scholar, both brothers of the 
order of San Ger6nimo, who enriched the choir-books 
of San Lorenzo of the Escorial with this kind of 
painting.* If Fray Julian's power of drawing had 
been equal to his skill in colour, in Siglienza's 
opinion, he would have been one of the foremost 
illuminators in the world. The writer adds that he 
had seen four of Clovio's illuminations in the Escorial, 
so that he does not speak from hearsay.! 

Fray Diego del Salto, of the Order of S. Augustine, 
followed also the same method with better drawing, 
but fell short in respect of colour, as might be seen 
in a " Descent from the Cross," then in possession 
of the Duke of Alcald. As to the comparison of 
these Spaniards with Clovio, it probably originated 
in the observation of Sigtienza, " Nuestro fray 

* Pacheco liere quotes from Fray Josef de Sigiienza, the 
historian of the Order of San G-eronimo, where he describes the 
choir-books of the Escorial (Bk. iv. discurso xiii.). Sigiienza's 
Spanish is quaint and rugged, but graphic. Pacheco, or his 
editor, modernizes at times without improving. 

t /. de Sigiienza : Historia de la Orden de 8. Geronimo. Madrid, 
1605. Pol. iii. bk. iv. disc. xiii. p. 796, &c. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Glovio. 81 

Andrds de Leon, que fu otro don Julio en el arte." 
A word like this easily grows; and thus we meet 
with unqualified assertions that some of the 
Spanish miniaturists were quite the equals of Clovio, 
Most of the work really worth putting alongside 
that of the Italian Master is to be found in the 
Escorial choir-books, or in those of Thomar, and 
these are still accessible to the tourist. Those at 
Thomar were the work of Clovio's friend, Francisco 
de.Holanda, and are therefore interesting in them- 
selves. But alas ! travel means money, and as the 
poet says: — 

Non cuivis homini contingit adire Corinthum. 

They who can afford care little about these things, 
they who care and know, and could compare, have 
to stay at home. The two hundred and sixteen or 
eighteen choir-books still preserved in the choir of 
the Monastery of San Lorenzo in the Escorial, were 
projected by Philip II., who, whatever he may have 
been from other points of view, was undoubtedly a 
zealous and most liberal patron of the arts. In 
order to cany out his gigantic scheme of producing 
the largest and most magnificent collection of Music- 
books in the world, he sent his royal mandate or 
at least a gracious invitation to every artist of 
repute in Europe, but especially in Italy. It was 
no doubt from some such command that the story 


82 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

of Clovio's working for him arose, and became 
attached to the commission for colouring the en- 
graved victories of Charles the Fifth. Among the 
distinguished foreigners who did accept the King's 
flattering and well-paid commissions were the 
Castelli and Scorzas of Genoa, Luca Cambiasi, 
Francisco de Holanda of Lisbon, and others of whom 
we shall speak by-and-by. 

The peculiar distinction between the two methods 
described by Pacheco as employed in illumination 
is mainly the distinction between the work of Clovio 
and that of Girolamo dai Libri. It is true that 
Clovio did gain new ideas from his intercourse with 
Girolamo. But, as a rule, his method was that of 
thin delicate washes of colour heightened by stip- 
pling, as the working in dots or points is now called, 
while Girolamo preferred body-colour and the older 
method of gouache or tempera, with rich and brilliant 
arrangements of colour quite distinct from the early 
Roman manner adopted by his younger rival. A 
comparison of any authentic work of Clovio — such, 
for example, as the Soane " Conversion of St. Paul," 
— with a similarly authentic work of Girolamo as may 
be found in the Astle-Esdaile Missal so minutely 
described by Dibdin, would show the distinction at 
once. Twenty of the miniatures of this Missal are 
by Girolamo, the remainder by his father. They 
were probably executed for the nephew of Sixtus 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 83 

IV., Giuliano della Rovere, who is better known as 
Pope Julius II., and the patron of Michelangelo.* 
The work which, according to Vasari, most advanced 
Girolamo's reputation, was the already mentioned 
miniature of the Terrestrial Paradise, with the 
Expulsion of Adam and Eve, painted for the Prior 
of San Giorgio in Verona. In this work, which 
possibly Vasari may have seen in Rome, is shown 
the miraculous minute perfection of trees, fruits, 
flowers, birds and animals, in which Girolamo 
excelled. Thinking of this work, Vasari goes on 
to speak generally of the marvellous way in which 
the Veronese master painted such things, and 
imitated gems and jewels, and drew figures in 
cameos, " che non sono piti grande che una piccola 
formica, e si vede nondimeno in loro tutte le membra 
e tutti i muscoli tanto bene, che appena si pub 
credee da chi gli vede." Girolamo lived until 1555.t 
Among other artists whose celebrity was more 
than local was Naldo or Rinaldo Piramo of Naples, 
the painter of the richly ornamented but quaint 
and intensely realistic miniatures of the Ethics of 
Aristotle, now at Vienna. From the character of 
this work, which, though exceedingly elaborate and 
skilful, is antiquated in style, it cannot have been 
begun much later than 1490. It may, however, 

* Dibdin : Bibliographical Decameron, I. cxlii.-cliv. 
t Vasari : Le Vite, Ac, ix. 212-14. 


84 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

have been carried out in this antique spirit even as 
late as 1525, for the ancient methods are often found 
prevailing, especially in the remoter districts or 
in solitary monasteries, beside much more modern 
work elsewhere. This MS. was probably executed 
in Naples, or by the artist, who was a Neapolitan, 
at the residence of the distinguished Andrea Matteo 
Aqua viva, Duke of Atri, at Conversano. With the 
work of the Veronese and Bolognese masters, this 
splendid manuscript may form a sort of older limit 
to the style of architectural decoration, which is on 
the whole the prevailing taste in Italian illumination 
during the whole period of the Renascence. Foliages 
of acanthus treated sculpturesquely as on the friezes 
and pillars of Vitruvian or Palladian edifices, but 
executed in modelled gold or colours, and flowers of 
exquisite beauty at first architectural, and then 
simply as in nature, form, after the human figure, the 
chief features of Italian miniature ornament. These 
of course are combined with forms of men and 
women, winged children, and grotesque compositions 
of imaginary animals in the prevailing taste of the 
period. This taste was the natural outcome of the 
classical studies which formed the chief basis of the 
Revival of Learning, and of the researches among 
ancient remains which were so actively carried on 
under several of the Popes of the XVIth century. 
In architecture, examples are endless. Not a city 

Life of Giorgio Oiulio Clovio. 85 

in Italy but still bears some token of that art-laden 
time. The most striking examples scarcely need 
pointing out. The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel 
and the Banqueting Hall of the Farnese Palace 
in Rome are prominent among them ; but Venice, 
Florence, Naples, Genoa, Milan, and many other 
cities can show their rich historic treasures of the 
same kind. The addition in book-work, of coins 
and medallions, cameos, jewels and bronzes is also 
a reflection from the collector's zeal. The Museums 
in the course of formation were ransacked for their 
most curious or beautiful relics, faithful representa- 
tions of which were transferred to the margins of 
the books intended to enrich the patron's library. 
The fashion begun by Sixtus IV. or Nicholas V. of 
selecting from the Museum objects to decorate the 
Library, zealously imitated by Cosimo de' Medici 
and his successors, and by the magnificent King 
Matthias of Hungary^ soon overwhelmed the pre- 
ceding taste for twisting vine stems and enamelled 
backgrounds, and rendered it distinctly old and 
bygone. Perhaps if we were to trace rigorously 
this passion for the antique in its bearing upon 
artistic studies, we should go back to the early 
years of the fourteenth century and to the studio 
of Francesco Squarcione at Padua. Through his 
pupils, dispersed throughout the length and breadth 
of the land, the culture derived from marbles, 

86 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

bronzes and cameos became the taste of the best 
society. But the special promoter of it in the North 
was undoubtedly Andrea Mantegna, Squarcione's 
greatest scholar. The "scuola Mantegnesca" is the 
very soul of the miniature art of Milan under the 
Sforzas, though then perfected through the influence 
of that marvel of versatility, Leonardo da Vinci. 
To see the earliest impress of this new spirit of 
classicism, the student should consult the great 
Antiphonary kept in the church of the Misericordia 
at Padua, long attributed to Mantegna, but now 
considered to be the work of the numerous pupils 
of Squarcione. 

But undoubtedly the principal school of miniature 
before 1500, and after the rise of the Medici, was 
that of Florence. From the time when Palla 
Strozzi and Cosimo di Medici founded the chair of 
Greek and the Museum of Archaeology in Florence, 
that city took the lead in every branch of human 
culture, and among the rest of the production of 
books. Its copyists and illuminators were sought 
from all the rest of Italy and of Europe, and its 
productions were the models for those of every other 
centre where similar work was carried on. In the 
famous studio of Domenico Ghirlandaio the lessons 
of Squarcione were combined with those of Masaccio. 
Antiquity and Nature were harmonized, and a system 
of decoration evolved which most keenly gratified 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 87 

the most cultivated judges. Hence those of its 
scholars who devoted themselves to miniature were 
employed by the noblest princes of the time. Their 
productions are now among the most precious 
treasures that period has bequeathed to us. Just 
as cleverly, as it seemed, but really because of their 
enthusiastic devotion to study, these patrons and 
these artists produced the best of their treasures. 
The best art in Greek portrait coinage and engraved 
gems dates about the time from Alexander to 
Ptolemy Soter. The best Roman coins are those 
from Augustus to the Antonines. Accordingly, 
the magnificent heads of Alexander, Lysimachus, 
Augustus, Nero, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, the 
Faustinas, are selected favourites with Corvinus. 
The emblems which occupy the reverses of the finest 
medals reappear in the MSS. And thus we find 
that the middle of the fifteenth century becomes 
the climax — ^the golden age of Italian miniature art. 
Some of the MSS. which contain these reproductions 
bear dates and devices, and especially arms, showing 
them to have been executed during the lifetime of 
Cosimo, the addition of the lilies of France only 
appearing in the shield for the first time in 1465, a 
year after Cosimo's death, and when his grandson 
Lorenzo was seventeen years of age. 

Two or three of the Medici gems are often repro- 
duced in the manuscripts. The favourite seems to 

88 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

have been the Apollo and Marsyas, of Lorenzo's 
seal. It had been the seal of the Emperor Nero, and 
when Piero II., Lorenzo's son, fled from his native 
city, leaving his vast collections to be plundered by 
the mob, it was one of three cameos which he took 
with him. It is curious that this, the car of Phoebus 
and the Diomed carrying ofl" the Palladium — thus 
considered to be the most precious of the whole 
collection of gems — should happen to be the very 
gems which reappear most frequently in Florentine 
miniature work. 

Such was the condition of things when Clovio 
turned his attention to the copying of medals for the 
Cardinal Grimani, by which his almost unrecognized 
versatility was stimulated and nourished. He natu- 
rally became to miniature what the Carracci became 
to painting. His predecessors belonged to schools 
or to local usages. He came when the new taste 
was at its zenith, and its immense range made him 
capable of producing work differing in some respects 
from any of his models. While he adhered to the 
minute fidelity of Girolamo, he could adopt the 
freedom in design of Gherardo and the classic 
elegance of Fra Eustachio ; he could take hints from 
the Thermae of Titus and lessons from the Sistine 
Chapel and the Loggie of the Vatican. He could 
follow the rich colouring of Giulio Romano, while 
he did not forget the vigorous drawing of Michel- 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 89 

angelo ; and he could appreciate and imitate the 
fine sweet tenderness of the Venetian colourists, so 
as to lead men to doubt not the excellence but the 
authoi'ship of his work. This versatility is, in fact, 
the cause of much of. the dispute about his still 
existing productions. Let those which are doubtful 
be compared with those that are known, and we soon 
see what ground there may be for doubt. 

We have seen what to some extent were the 
elements of Clovio's artistic training, let us now see 
what was the influence of the same elements upon 
his contemporaries. Of those quite outside the pale 
who still continued apart from the great classical or, 
as they considered it, pagan Revival, we have not 
to speak.. The old-fashioned Gothic workers, still 
Mediaeval in everything, were by no means extinct, 
but their influence seemed dying out, they did not 
belong to the prevailing taste. In France, Germany, 
Spain, and even the Netherlands, the Renascence 
was universally felt and acknowledged. Of course, 
therefore, it can only be the Renascence miniaturists 
who can be put into comparison with Clovio. The 
painters of Nuremberg or Bruges, however excellent, 
belong to another and quite different order. It is no 
question of comparing Clovio with the Glockendons 
or Bennyncks, and only in some points of detail 
with Hans Mielich of Munich, and Geoffrey Tory 
of Paris. But with Francisco de Holanda, Georg 

90 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Hoefnagel, Baroceio, Zuecaro, the Scorzas, and 
Castelli of Genoa, and their imitators, the Spanish 
miniaturists of Seville, Toledo, and the Escorial, 
there is a question of comparison as there is a like- 
ness of method, taste, manner, and effect. 

Of Francisco de Holanda, much has already been 
said. He was seventeen years younger than Clovio, 
and made his acquaintance some time about 1540 
when he was residing in Rome. He was a good 
draughtsman, an architect, and a skilful miniature 
painter. Indeed he claimed to be able to work 
pretty nearly as well as Clovio himself, and declared 
that his father had invented the method which 
Clovio followed. The proof of Francisco's ability is 
to be found in the choir and other books illuminated 
by him for the Royal Monastery of Thomar. He 
also executed those for the Monastery of Belem, 
afterwards lost or destroyed. 

Other work said to be comparable with that of 
Clovio is, the ornamentation of the 216 magnificent 
choir-books, executed by order of Philip II., during 
the seventeen years between 1572 and 1589.* They 
are bound in wood covered with leather, enriched 
with fine gilt brass ornaments. 5500 lbs. of bronze 
and forty lbs. of pure gold were used to make these 
ornaments. The books measure one metre fifteen 
centimetres by eighty-four centimetres. Each 

* Biiano : Notes on Early Spanish Music, 137. 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 91 

volume consists of seventy leaves, every one of 
which is splendidly illuminated, thus giving over 
30,000 pages full of ornamented letters, miniatures, 
and borders. The artists and scribes who wrote and 
illuminated these volumes were Cristobal Ramirez, 
Fray Andres de Leon, Fray Julian de Fuente de 
el Saz, Ambrosio Salazar, Fray Martin de Palencia, 
Francisco Hernandez, Pedro Salavarte, and Pedro 
Gomez. Cristobal Ramirez worked at the Escorial 
from 1566 to 1572. He planned the work, fixed the 
size and order of the volumes, and decided the 
character of the writing. Having presented the 
king with several specimens of his skill, he was 
appointed, in 1566, to execute a choir-book, projected 
for the Chapel Royal of San Lorenzo, of the Escorial, 
at an annual salary of fifty ducats. In 1572 he 
presented a musical Breviary to the king, and was 
charged with the superintendence of the work. 
Andres Cristobal was also an illuminator of celebrity 
at Seville, where he was working from 1555 to 1559. 
Andres de Leon worked at the Escorial in 1568, and 
is especially spoken of by Los Santos in his descrip- 
tion of the monastery of San Lorenzo. He was 
famous for his skill in the manner of Clovio. " Son 
de gran numero y excelencia las iluminaciones que 
tienen de mano nuestro Fray Andres de Leon, que 
fue otro Don Julio en el Arte."* Fray Julian 

* Fray Fr. de los Santos : Deseripeion breve del Monasterio de 
S. Lorenzo el Eeal del Escorial, 24. 

92 Life of Giorgio Gitdio Clovio. 

shared in the commendation, especially as regards a 
Capitulario for the principal festivals of the year, 
much esteemed for the size of the illuminations, the 
like of which, the good monk declares, had never 
been seen, either in Spain or Italy. Andres de Leon 
died at the Escorial in 1580. Ambrosio de Salazar, 
after working at San Lorenzo until the choir-books 
were finished, went in 1590 to execute a pair of 
missals for the Cathedral of Toledo, which had been 
begun by Juan Martinez de los Corrales. He con- 
tinued working on the remaining volumes until his 
death in 1604. He was noted for the accuracy of 
his drawing, and the beauty and clearness of his 
colouring, and for his excellent taste in ornament. 
Est^ban de Salazar was also employed on the Escorial 
choir-books in 1585, and Juan de Salazar about the 
same time. Fray Martin de Palencia was able, 
like Ramirez, to assist in the copying, but for some 
reason he left in 1 574. Bermudez mentions a volume 
executed by him for the monastery of Saso, written 
in a fine hand, and adorned with elegant miniatures.* 
F. Hernandez of Segovia was so much esteemed by 
the king for his work, that in 1578, when he fell 
sick, Philip ordered an addition of fifty ducats to his 
salary. Pedro Gomez de Cuenga was employed in 
1584 as an occasional assistant. 

It was not until 1583 that Giovanni Battista 

* Bermudez : Biccion., iv. 24. 

Life cf Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 93 

Scorza of Genoa, the clever pupil of Luca Cambiaso, 
was set to work on the Escorial books. He was 
especially skilful in depicting animals and insects. 
His brother, Sinibaldo Scorza, was even still more 
noted for similar performances, and for small scenes 
from history. His skill in pen-drawing was won- 
derful — and, like Giovanni, he figui-ed prominently 
in the Galleria of the then popular Cavaliero Marini. 
He died in 1631. Giovanni survivedhim until 1637, 
when he died at the extreme age of ninety. Both 
were compared with Clovio as his successful rivals. 
The similarity of their tastes may be accounted for 
from the circumstances of their education. Clovio 
had studied among the scholars of Raffaello at the 
Thermae of Titus, and had made drawings from the 
designs of the master. One of the most distinguished 
of his feUow-students was an old pupil of Ghirlandaio, 
and now the ablest among those who assisted Raf- 
faello. This was Perino del Vaga. He was two 
years younger than Clovio, and was chiefly engaged 
on the decorations in the Loggie of the Vatican. 
Perino, after Raffaello's death, or rather after the 
sack of Rome in 1527, fled to Genoa. Here he 
instructed Luca Cambiaso and Giov. BattistaCastelli 
in the style acquired at Rome. When, therefore, 
these artists and their pupil Scorza went to Madrid 
and applied themselves to miniature, their work 
naturally betrayed a strong resemblance to that of 

94 Life, of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Clovio, who had been taught in the same school. 
Pierino died in 1547. 

A later imitator of Clovio is found in Georg 
Hoefnagel of Antwerp, who in company with 
Abraham Oertel or Ortelius, the cartographer, 
happened to visit Rome in 1579 or 1580, when 
Clovio was quite old and nearly worn out. On the 
occasion of his presentation to Cardinal Farnese he 
made the acquaintance of the great miniaturist, and 
became so much attracted by his work that he 
resolved to devote himself to the same style. He 
speedily acquired a similar delicacy of touch and 
extreme neatness of finish, but he never attained 
Clovio's power in colouring. His great work, the 
Missal, executed for the Archduke Ferdinand of 
Tyrol, and now in the Imperial Library at Vienna, 
is an example of his best qualities, and of his very 
evident defects. Nevertheless, he is justly con- 
sidered a close imitator of Clovio, and worthy of a 
certain comparison with him. A contemporary of 
Hoefnagel, and also a close imitator of the manner 
of Clovio, was, during Clovio's last years, and for 
many years afterwards, diligently acquiring a dis- 
tinguished reputation at Friuli. This was Giovanni 
Maria Boduino, of Friuli. He is vaguely stated 
to have been born about 1503, and died at a great 
age, apparently about 1600. The account of him 
says that he " excelled all the ancients in painting 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 95 

and invention and design, in power of drawing even 
Paolo Veronese and Tiziano." Assuredly the world 
at large is by no means persuaded that so notable a 
superior to those well-known artists was actually their 
contemporary. " He was the inventor of miniatura 
granita (already twice invented by Antonio de 
Holanda and Clovio), that is, pointed with a small 
pencil which, while it reached a degree of execution 
truly exquisite, delicate, and, as it were, divine, yet 
required a long time and great patience, and may 
be called the quintessence of painting. People 
came from all parts to see his works, and were 
astonished. His miniatiu"es are to be seen in the 
library of St. Mark in a breviary bound in pigskin, 
executed for the patriarch Grimani, who afterwards 
gave it to the library as a jewel of priceless value. 
Boduino had one pupil called Valerie Mariani, of 
Urbino, whose works are in the hands of the 
greatest princes in the world. These artists pos- 
sessed the secret of employing gold in the Persian 
manner both for miniatures and writings, a secret 
which, not being communicated to anyone, is now 
lost. I must not omit to say that the said Giovanni 
Maria having no son, left two thousand crowns' 
worth of miniatures to the Fraternity of the Poveri 
governed by the Venetian Senate. He was a 
learned and pious man."* 

* Zani : Enciclopedia delle B. Arti, IV. 283. 8vo. Parma, 

96 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Another miniaturist, sometimes ignorantly com- 
pared with Clovio, is Benedetto Bordone of Padua, 
of whose work executed for the Benedictine monas- 
tery Sta. Justina, at Padua, two examples are in the 
British Museum (Add. MSS. 15813, 15815), and 
another, signed, in possession of Mr. Holford. 
Bordone was a man of genius and a marvel of versa- 
tility. Indeed it is difficult to say in what particular 
line his abilities were most conspicuous. As a 
cosmogi-apher, as an astrologer, as a miniaturist, he 
has almost equal claims. In his own day he was 
chiefly distinguished as a Jurisconsult and a 
writer on geography. The grand Missal which 
is thought to be a sample of his work, cannot 
be accepted as fairly meriting the eulogy expended 
upon his performances. Written about 1525 — 
five years before his death — by a monk of Monte 
Cassino, it is nevertheless a very fine example 
of mature Renaissance design. Bordone's manner 
of painting is that of the second type mentioned by 
Pacheco. It is a kind of gouache or tempera, some- 
what heavy , and quite Venetian in character, although 
the artist is generally assigned to the school of 
Padua. His ornament varies, from fanciful but 

1820. Lancellotti : L'toggidi, ovvero gV ingegni non inferiori 
a passati; Disinganno xv. 242 (Ed. 1646, ii. 369). Venezia, 
1662. Mardago: Delle Arti Triulane. Venezia, 1819, 266. 
Bradley : Diet, of Miniaturists, I. 141. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 97 

correct and vigorous arabesque, to natural flowers 
and foliages on coloured or darkened grounds, 
including gold and even black. He paints with a 
full pencil and a bold touch as if accustomed to 
larger work. His figures are only of secondary 
excellence either in drawing or finish, but are never- 
theless far from being feeble or amateurish. It has 
been suggested that he was, however, only an 
amateur painter, his designation being " Juris- 
consultus et cosmographus insignis." The initial 
letters of the Missal contain several excellent minia- 
tures, but so entirely different in manner, feeling, 
colour, and treatment from those of Clovio that 
one would think there could not in any respect be 
any comparison between them. Yet the historian 
of the monastery says under date 1523, " Commen- 
dantur apud pictores maximas diligentise opera Julii 
Clovii, quorum multa a nobis hactenus inspecta 
sunt, neque tamen prsestantiora operibus Bordoni."* 
As for the miniatures of Federigo Zuccaro or 
Valeriano Mariano of Urbino, or those of Baroccio, 
their maniera can be accounted for without recourse 
to any particular study of that of Clovio, notwith- 
standing a certain degree of similarity. Zuccaro 
was Hilliard's tutor, so far as Hilliard adopted the 

* D. Jacobus Cavaccius : Historia Coenobii D. Justinse Patav. 
Lib. VI. 267— Atti dell' Imp. Reg. Accad. di Belle Arti in Ven. 
1857, 142. Morelli, Notizie, &o. 195, 6. 


98 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Roman method of miniature, but while Zuccaro had 
studied in Rome, and must have seen Clovio's work, 
his own method is less forcible in design, and feebler 
in colouring. Baroccio is still weaker in colour, or 
perhaps seems so, compared with the earliest master, 
because he sought rather to imitate the gradation 
of Correggio, which gives his work the appearance 
of being stippled or granulated to excess. This 
quality becomes painfully prominent in later work as 
in the miniatures of Estevam Gongales de Neto, the 
Portuguese, who was taught by a pupil of Carlo 
Maratti. In later work generally the method seems 
to have quite run away with the picture, and to have 
been employed by the artist in utter forgetfulness 
of its original and legitimate purpose. The result, 
especially in the colouring, is a wretched effeminacy 
and want of vigour, utterly unworthy of serious notice. 
When Philip II. was organizing his scheme for 
the San Lorenzo choir-books he sent a pressing 
invitation to Clovio to undertake a portion of the 
work. But this, for various reasons, Clovio could 
not accept. It has been said, perhaps in order to 
enhance the value of the famous Escorial miniatures 
of the victories of Charles V., that as an alternative 
commission he should paint a series of pictures in 
commemoration of the chief events in the life of 
the German Emperor, and that this commission he 
accepted. The question will be more fully discussed 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 99 

in another chapter, but it is by no means certain 
that he did not accept an order of some form for the 
zealous, and in this case liberal, Spanish King. The 
bulk of the Eseorial work, however, was done by the 
Spanish miniaturists themselves, assisted later by 
the Scorzas and Castelli of Genoa. Giovanni Battista 
Castello had made a great reputation in Upper Italy 
for his cabinet pictures and miniatures, " with which 
were enriched the galleries and cabinets of various 
prelates and princes in Rome and other cities." 
Soprani says that he began life as a goldsmith, 
but with little progress or profit, and as soon as he 
was free to do as he pleased he devoted himself to 
miniature.* Using his skill as a goldsmith he made 
little reliquaries, which he not only adorned with 
goldsmith work but also enriched with miniature 
paintings of sacred subjects, all finished with the 
greatest delicacy. He then studied under Luca 
Cambiasi, who also was afterwards employed by 
Philip on the frescoes of the choir of San Lorenzo. 
After or during his studies with Cambiasi, Castello 
invented the most elegant designs in miniature, 
excellent in colour, and of the most exquisite finish, 
and obtained great praise from his contemporaries, 
especially from the Cavaliere Marino. Probably the 
praise meant very little more than the hope of a 

* Soprani, B. : Vite di Tittori Oenovesi. Edit. C. G. Ratti, 

Genoa, 1768, 4to. I. 105. 

>j * 

loo Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

present for the poet's private gallery; but it helped 
to make the artist's fortune. In the prolific collec- 
tion of sonnets which the then fashionable versifier 
calls his " galleria," Marino praises " la pecchia, la 
formica, il segno, la zanzanza, la mosca, la farfalla, 
animali expressi tutti con vivissime miniature del 
nostro Castello." Similarly, Soranzo, at the sight of 
a Madonna, painted with rare delicacy by Castello, 
wrote the noble canzone, beginning : 

" L' altera Immago di colei che Dio 
Destina Madre del unico Figliuolo." 

At length his fame reached the ears of the most 
importunate and irresistible patron of the day, and 
Castello found himself installed at San Lorenzo of 
the Escorial, and busy on the choir-books so often 
referred to. Here he finished everything with such 
exactness and success as to give his royal employer 
complete satisfaction. He does not appear to have 
remained very long, but having finished his com- 
mission and received suitable recompense he re- 
turned home to Genoa. Somehow or other the 
biographers have got hopelessly confused with 
regard to Gian Battista Castello, several of them 
confounding him with Gian Battista Scorza, and 
even with Sinibaldo, in the most circumstantial 
manner. Soprani accuses Orlandi of making this 
confusion, but the Abecedario Pittorico affirms that 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 101 

its author got his notice from Baldinucci, whom one 
would have expected to know better. Baldinucci 
certainly repeats the story of Castello, word for 
word, in his account of Gian Battista Scorza. The 
story really seems to belong to Scorza, and, if not 
strictly true, it is at least sufficiently hen trovato* 

Sinibaldo Scorza, another of these Genoese minia- 
turists, having been noticed by Gian Battista Paggi, 
who was employed on the Escorial frescoes, was 
introduced to the king as one who, from a boy, had 
been a skilled painter of animals and flowers. Like 
Clovio, he had assiduously applied himself, whilst 
very young, to the copying of Albert Dtirer's 
engravings. The general story seems to be a kind 
of solar myth in which Clovio and Castello and the 
Scorzas become successively the heroes. After the 
engravings, Sinibaldo betook himself to the painting 
of Vascelli, after the manner of Serrani, a Milanese 
painter, and eventually to landscape and miniature, 
and in all attained a great reputation. In conse- 
quence of the laudation of the Cavalier Marini he 
was invited to the Court of Savoy. According to 
the dates, however, we find this occurring as late as 
1619. After some years of wandering in various 
parts of Italy, he returned to Genoa, and practised 
engraving, dying of fever in 1631. He had a 

* Baldinucci : Vol. IV. 453 (Ed. Tirenze, 1846, 8 vols. 8vo.). 

102 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

brother called Gian Battista, who, says Baldinucci, 
practised a long time as a goldsmith, and so forth, 
the story merging into that of Castello, even to the 
incident of being invited in 1599 by the Princess 
Margherita of Austria to copy the picture of the 
" Sudarium." This great subject was apparently a 
familiar one to his contemporaries, being in the 
church of S. Bartolommeo degli Armeni belonging 
to the " padri Bernabiti." Baldinucci did not know 
where this church was, but Soprani continuing the 
story of Castello from this point, gives the impression 
that it was the one in Genoa, " formerly that of the 
Basilian monks called Armeni, and now of the padri 
Bernabiti." The painting was given to the afore- 
said monks in 1384 by Leonardo Montaldo, Duke 
of Genoa, who had received it as a reward of valour 
from the Greek Emperor, John Palseologus.* 

To return for a moment to Gian Battista Castello, 
Soprani cites a public document in which he is 
recognized as the most distinguished of living 
artists : " eundem Johannem Baptistam, a capitulis, 
ordinibus, ac legibus artis pictorum eorumque 
observantia exemptum, ac solutum declaramus." 
It is dated July 7t'h, 1606, and is signed by the 
Doge Luca Grimaldi, twelve senators, and twelve 

* Soprani Vite de' Pitfcojn &c. Genovesi I. 105, &c. 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 108 

There are other Castelli, famous, though in a lesser 
degree, as miniaturists, and the endeavour to avoid 
confounding this Gian Battista with his namesake, 
also a resident in Genoa, and called " il Bergamasco," 
endangers a further confusion with the Spanish 
miniaturists of the same name. 

There is, however, one Castello who cannot be 
passed over here. This is Bernardo, though his 
fame mainly belongs to the last few years of the 
sixteenth century. He was born at Albaro, a 
suburb of Genoa, in 1557, and, as a child, amused 
himself with painting animali e paesetti. His 
parents, proud of this skill, after giving him some 
instruction in Latin, put him under good masters, 
such as Luca Cambiasi. By-and-by he travelled, 
and, whilst at Ferrara, made the acquaintance of 
Torquato Tasso and other literary men, including 
Don Angelo Grillo, Ansaldi Ceba, Lorenzo Cat- 
taneo, Gabriello Chiabrera, and the ubiquitous 
Cavaliere Marino. He painted much both in oil 
and fresco. But the work by which he is best 
known to posterity is the superb edition of the 
" Gerusalemme Liberata," published in 1586-90 by 
Girolamo Bartoli, of Genoa, which Castello illus- 
trated with copperplate engravings, and republished 
with another set of plates in 1617. Soprani men- 
tions a letter in his own possession which had been 
written by the poet to the artist on the occasion of 

104 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

this important publication. To several editions of 
the work are prefixed a number of sonnets and 
canzoni in praise of the Apollo who wrote and the 
Apelles who adorned the sumptuous volume. To 
that of 1617, printed by the Genoese printer Pa voni, 
Castello himself prefixes an address to Carlo 
Emanuele, Duke of Savoy, whose portrait he gives 
in the title-page. In this address he says : " and I 
seeing that so many musicians sing it, and so many 
literati comment upon it, have taken pains to depict 
the incidents represented in the text, so that, 
placing before the eyes what the poet lays before 
the ears, men of gentle culture might have a double 
pleasure in its perusal." Then follows a sonnet by 
Tasso himself, which, for epigrammatic tinsel, is 
quite characteristic both of the age and of the 
writer : 

Fiumi, e mari, e montagne, e piaggie apricbe, 
E vele, e naui, e Oavalieri, et armi 
Fingi Bernardo in carte, e i bianchi marini 

Han minor pregio da le Muse amicbe. 
Pero cbe Livia d'Arianna e Psicbe 

Legger men brama, e pno beato farmi, 

Se r imagini tue co' nostri carmi 

Impresse mira, e le memorie anticbe 
E mentre pasce le serene luci 

Di quel lume, desian farsi piu belle, 

E r orse, e le corone, e '1 Cigno, e '1 Toro. 
Ma le riuolgi a gloriosi Duci, 

Et a miei versi tu da 1' auree stelle, 

Muto Poeta di Pittor canoro. 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 105 

As a specimen of the sort of immortality con- 
ferred on the CastelH and Scorzas by the popular 
writer of society verses — an immortality which 
Albano declared he could not endure, and therefore 
declined to oblige the prolific versifier with an 
example of his own pencil — -I quote the accom- 
panying sonnet by Marini. Concetti, flattery and 
tinsel, here reach their climax : 

Movon qui duo gran fabri Arte contr' Arte 

Emale h lite oue 1' tm. 1' altro agguaglia 
Si, che di lor qual perda, o qual piu vaglia 
Pende incerto il giudicio in doppia parte. 
L' Tin cantando d'Amor 1' armi, e di Marte, 

Gl'orrecchi appaga, e gl' intelletti abbaglia : 

L' altro, mentre del canto i sensi intaglia, 

Pa stupir gl' occH, e fa spirar le carte. 
Scerner non ben si puo, c[ual piu viuace 

Esprima, imprima illustri forme, e belle 

O la muta pittnra, 6 la loquace. 
Intente a queste merauiglia, e quelle 

Dabbioso arbitro il mondo, ammira, e tace 

La le glorie d' Apollo, e qui d'Apelle. 

Several of the other writers catch at Tasso's idea 
" Muto poeta di pittor canoro ;" others are taken 
with Marini's Apollo and Apelles. One speaks of 
the Ligurian Apelles and the Tuscan Homer, who 
" give food to the senses, nourishment to thought," 
and applaud each as equally deserving of immor- 
tality. "Mirabil opra," says another, 

" Bcco il gran Tasso pinge : 
E '1 gran Castello finge." 

106 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 


" Onde grande Pittor pingendo cante 
Cio, che cantando ha pinto, 
Poeta altier, ch' ogni Poeta ha vinto." 

Lastly let us add a couplet which condenses all 
the preceding. 

" Tassius heec canit, effigiat Castellus, uterque 
Tam docte, ut canere et pingere utrumque putes." 

These extracts may not convince us of the poetic 
genius of their authors, nor, perhaps, leave any very 
distinct impression of anything but a straining after 
epigram and smartness, yet they show very clearly 
that Bernardo Castello must have been a man of 
some consequence to stand in such a parallel as he 
does in this famous book. 

The very manifest influence which these Genoese 
artists exerted over the character of Spanish minia- 
ture and decorative art, gives them an importance 
which their being simply contemporaries of Clovio 
would not have given. Most of them worked in 
his manner. The later Spanish miniaturists, indeed, 
have puzzled some writers on art as differing so 
decidedly from their Netherlandish predecessors, to 
whom the position of founders or preceptors, had 
been summarily assigned, and who were looked 
upon as the legitimate authors of a style which 
suddenly began to differ in many important charac- 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 107 

teristics, and apparently with no sufficient cause. 
But the cause really was not far to seek. The 
appointment of a band of artists selected from the 
foremost studios of Italy, to work in concert on an 
undertaking so important as the formation of two 
hundred folio volumes, to be filled with the richest 
productions of their art, was the founding of a 
school which would necessarily influence all after 
comers. .Whatever, then, may have been the 
individual tastes or proclivities of the handful of 
Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese artists who worked 
on these choir-books, their united effort, executed 
under mutual influence, and as the result of freely 
interchanged opinion, did, in fact, produce the 
school of the Escorial. This school, as we have 
seen, owes its chief inspiration to Genoa, which in 
turn was an outcome of that of Raffaello in Rome. 
What wonder that later Spanish art should remind 
us rather of Italy than of Flanders. What more 
natural than this constant claim of similarity to the 
style and manner of Clovio. In fact, it may be 
recognized in the numerous Cartas de Hidalguia, 
Exemptions, Grants of Arms, and Patents of 
Nobility executed during the reigns of Philip II. 
and III.* Whoever will take the trouble to com- 
pare a good example of these Cartas with the 

* As for example Claud. B. X., &c. British Museum. 

108 Life of Gridrgio Gfiulio Clovio. 

engravings of the Castello Tasso of the edition of 
1617; will be convinced that it was less the influence 
of Clovio than of a system of working necessarily- 
similar to his, but followed independently by the 
Spanish miniaturists of the Escorial. 

Perino del Vaga, Raffaello's chief assistant at the 
Vatican, carried the principles of the old Roman or 
antique school from the Baths of Titus to the 
Palazzo Doria at Genoa. Clovio studied the same 
principles, under Pafiaello, in Rome. It might well 
happen, consequently, that intelligent judges of art 
would speak of the similarity of the Castilian and 
other miniaturists of Spain to the great Italian 
master. But that persons with any claim to dis- 
cernment could see any such rivalry in the masters 
of Tours or Bruges, or Munich or Nuremberg, is 
incredible. Yet even Fouquet, Simon Bynnynck, and 
the Glockendons have not escaped the foolish and 
derogatory flattery of comparison with the well- 
known Italian. 

It has been mentioned that Clovio began his 
career with making a careful copy of one of Diirer's 
best engravings. The fervent " Evangelist of Art" 
seems to have strongly fascinated the attention of 
Germans and Italians alike. Even those who 
eventually became enamoured of the softer graces of 
the Italian schools made their earliest efibrts, either 
actually in his own house or under his immediate 

Life of Giorgio Griulio Clovio. 109 

teaching. Hans Sebald Beham, the miniaturist of 
the charming Prayer Book at Aschaffenburg* — 
better known as one of the "Little Masters" of the 
graver — passed from Nuremberg to Rome. Albert 
Altdorfer followed his example. Altdorfer was the 
boy-apprentice whom Dlirer took as servant in his 
shop and household when he began his married life 
at three-and-twenty with the beautiful Agnes Frey, 
not yet sixteen. Altdorfer was the inventor of the 
style of work which gave the now familiar name 
to the seven satellites of Durer of the " Little 
Masters." Georg Pencz left Dlirer and Nuremberg 
for Italy. Virgil Solis and Jacob Binck did the 
same. All these men were " illuminists " as well 
as engravers. Indeed, the limning of engravings 
formed a usual part of their occupation. Printed 
books thus illuminated are common in continental 
libraries, and the practice was continued in Germany 
and the Netherlands down to the times of the 
Plantins. The Antwerp, Frankfort, and Nuremberg 
presses were rich in the production of books thus en- 
riched. The Nuremberg Bible of Hanns Lufft, with 
its splendid portrait of August, Duke of Saxony, 
and its richly coloured miniatures, may be taken as 
a fair specimen of the work of such practised 

* Merkel, Jos. : Die Miniatiireii und Manuscripte der Kbnigl. 
Bayerischen Hof'bibl. in Aschaffenburg, 4", 1836 : 10. 

110 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clooio. 

illuminists as Georg and Albert Glockendon, Hans 
Springinklee, and Jakob Elszner — all scholars of 
Dlirer and famous for their skill in this spiritless 
kind of trade-work. But however secondary might 
be the performances of men who merely worked for 
the publishers, when they did so, sometimes they 
rose into quite another class. The Aschaffenburg 
Missal, by the hand of Nicolas Glockendon, son of 
Georg, was painted for one of the most fastidious 
patrons of the age — the Elector Prelate Albert of 
Brandenburg. It is a masterpiece of Nuremberg 
art. Its counterpart may be seen in another MS. 
by Albert Glockendon, now at Vienna. These 
works, if they bore the least resemblance to that 
of Clovio, might fairly be entitled to comparison, 
as they are unquestionably deserving of first-class 
honours in many respects. But there is no question 
of rivalry. No one with the slightest pretension to 
criticism could put Nicolas Glockendon into com- 
parison with any Italian artist whatever, unless, 
perhaps, one of those who worked on the Grimani 
Breviary, if, indeed, any of them were Italian, much 
less with Clovio. The Vienna MS. attests the 
marvellous dexterity and delicacy of Albert Gloek- 
endon's pencil, and of his fine faculty for rich 
colouring and tasteful ornament. But here, again, 
even in the midst of Renaissance designs, is no 
question of resemblance to Clovio. Both are fond 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. Ill 

of colour, but the German feeling for it and the 
Italian feeling for it are utterly distinct. Many 
who truly appreciate rich colour, would consider 
this German art too gaudy. Again, the Italian 
schools themselves differ so widely that no standard 
can be safely set up for comparison. The school of 
Rome differs more from the Venetian than the 
latter does from the Flemish. As a rule, the 
German miniaturists fail somewhat in figure drawing. 
They are greater in ornament, in scroll-work and 
flowers, and all manner of fanciful conceits and 
unexpected symbohsms. As figure painters the 
earlier masters lack softness and grace of outline. 
They lack not merely freedom but correctness in 
the comparative dimensions of the head and limbs. 
Though laboui'ed, they are inaccurate and squat ; 
and, like those of the old Siennese masters, as if 
looked on from above. The later, on the other 
hand, have all , the apparent dash and facility, 
together with the attenuated disproportion, of 
the school of Fontainebleau. To this class belongs 
Hans Mielich of Munich, whose colossal MSS of 
the Penitential Psalms, crowded with illustration 
and ornament, now lie in the Cimeliensaal of the 
Royal Library. To the inexperienced eye, the 
miniatures and ornaments of these gorgeous volumes 
— especially the larger one — are full of magnificence 
and charm, of which a closer inspection and judg- 

112 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

ment by the stricter rules of criticism will reluctantly 
dispossess them. Their coup-d'ceil is certainly 
effective and even powerful. The softness and sweet 
harmony of the colouring is often truly delicious. 
But the high finish and more patient qualities of 
detail, in which miniaturists generally are most 
proficient, are here totally wanting. Of course, it 
is no explanation to say that the painter was not 
really a miniaturist, and only worked as a painter is 
able to work. The work is miniature, and must 
be judged as such. That Mielich could put in 
patient detail and microscopic finish when he 
thought fit to do so, is amply shown in the exquisite 
designs for jewellery preserved in the same library. 
In the Psalms, on the other hand, he is more like a 
learned, prolific, and dexterous fan-painter, compar- 
able, it may be, with the fan-painters of Francis I. 
or Louis XIV., but not with Petitot or Clovio. 

There is, however, one contemporary of Clovio's 
who may be said to have possessed all the patience 
and minute, polished elaboration of detail calculated 
to put even Clovio himself into the shade. But 
unfortunately in this case, the artist is too learned, 
too full of pedantic conceits to be a painter of the 
highest type. This is Hoefnagel. Both his name 
and his greatest work have been already mentioned 
earlier in this chapter, and perhaps enough has been 
said to show his character as an artist. The story 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 113 

of his life is full of interest and shows him to have 
been a man entirely worthy of the friendship of 
those who employed him, whether Archdukes or 
Emperors. His Missal, too, is worth careful and 
loving examination. It is a volume of extra- 
ordinary bulk. Its scale may be imagined from 
the fact that the text is copied in a large hand 
from that published by Christopher Plantin at 
Antwerp in 1570. This adoption of Plantin's text 
was undoubtedly a compliment both to the artist 
and to the printer; for until 1568 the Pope's 
printer, Paolo Aldo Manuzio, of Rome, had the sole 
right to publish the Breviary and Missal authorized 
by the Council of Trent. In that year Plantin 
made a contract with him by which he was to cede 
to the Italian the tenth copy of all Breviaries, &c., 
printed by him in order to enjoy in the Nether- 
lands the privilege enjoyed by Manuzio in Italy. 
In 1570, Philip I. charged Plantin with the printing 
of liturgical books for Spain, and thus discharged 
him from the necessity of paying the tithe due to 
Manuzio. Philip had already spent 21,200 florins 
towards the enormous expenses of the great Poly- 
glott Bible edited by Arias Montanus, and on 
which that scholar was working from 1568 to 1572. 
And this order for the 1570 Missal laid the founda- 
tion of the future prosperity of the Plantin-Moretus 

114 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

family. After 15T2, Missals, Breviaries, Diurnals, 
Psalters, Antiphonaries, and Offices, in every form, 
issued in hundreds from the famous Antwerp 
printing-office. The text, then, of this Vienna MS. 
is comparatively rare. It is composed of bold 
Roman lettering, never less than a quarter of an 
inch in height, and every page is more or less 
richly embellished with drawings of human figures, 
animals, scenes from Scripture, and scrolls of 
elaborate ornament, all completed with the most 
microscopic elaboration. 

The unwieldy volume measures 16 inches by 11, 
and is at least 7 inches in thickness. 

The first word of the title is in large red 
letters dotted with gold ; the next line is blue, 
somewhat smaller. Then follow three lines of 
gold dotted with red and in Roman minuscules 
about a quarter of an inch. The colours alternate 
to the end, the last word being in red capitals. 
It runs thus : " Missale. Romanum ex decreto. 
sacrosancti Concilii. Tridentini resti. tutum: Pii 
V. Pont. Max. iussu editum. Cum privilegio. 
Oenoponti." The ornaments consist of a scroll- 
work of a mixed kind, with some suggestions 
of architectural effect. In a gold frame at top are 
the words " Potentia patris." The beginning of 
the Preface is surrounded by very fanciful but not 

Life of Griorgio Giulio Clovio. 115 

artistic borders, executed in a somewhat amateurish 
manner. The whole conception, indeed, is destitute 
of any idea of unity. The motive is chiefly 
Pompeian, freely mingled with modern conceits 
and paraphernalia, such as fishing-nets and lines 
with fishes hanging to them, the fishes evidently 
painted from life ; lambs frisking on perilous 
Pompeian cornices, and money-bags, or hunting- 
pouches, gracing the wonderful trophies of which 
the borders are composed. At top is the papal 
tiara within a wreath of laurel, very finely drawn 
and carefully finished. The tiara is admirably 
executed, but the colouring of the design is, on the 
whole, timid and unsatisfactory. Keys and other 
insignia hang about amid vine leaves, palm branches, 
pandean pipes and other emblems of pagan and 
papal Rome, with the sublimest disregard of con- 
gruity and the most liberal conception of the 
function of symbolic ornament. As page after 
page of the book is turned over, we find Hoefnagel 
to improve vastly, both in taste and skill, but we 
are bound to say that his sense of ornamental 
design or his power as a colourist never reaches 
that of Clovio. The decorations are often very 
pretty and extremely dehcate in finish, but so 
utterly incongruous that sympathy is frequently 
rendered impossible. On the whole, perhaps, the 

116 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

ornaments may be best described as based on 
Pompeian but composed of all kinds of objects 
belonging to modern life, cups, platters, books, 
lamps, censers, musical instruments, banners, 
smoke or incense, arms, branches of laurel, jewels, 
bunches of vegetables and dishes of meats, or 
groups of birds and game, guns, traps, in short 
every conceivable implement or object that life in 
an Alpine castle in the sixteenth century could 
present to the unwearied and uncritical accept- 
ance of the complaisant artist. Hoefnagel's boyish 
taste for painting familiar objects is encouraged 
to the full. Thus the work grows and improves at 
every step. The fruits are exquisitely finished, 
and every object calling for delicate mechanical 
drawing is finely and perfectly executed. Ovals are 
made accurate in line and contour, and are smooth 
and neat in every touch. Lettering and inks are 
good, clear, and masterly. With the rubrics begin 
groups of insects and animals, literally studies in 
natural history. To the calendar are pendants and 
festoons of various seasonable delicacies, interspersed 
with culinary implements. In one place is a fowl 
trussed and bound for roasting, and a bunch of 
really lovely onions tied with a knot of violet silk. 
The pink and green of the onions, pale and tender, 
are succeeded by the more brilliant colouring of a 

Life of Giorgio Griulio Clovio. 117 

glittering jewel. Then comes a cosy domestic cat 
with her back to us, but looking round over her 
shoulder ; then toys and tennis, and, of a surpris- 
ingly polished execution, a bright steel gridiron 
with golden handle. The next border has a back- 
gammon board, a string of beads, a violin, and a 
dancing monkey in the costume of punchinello. 
Passing by the close and patient fidelity of likeness 
Hoe&agel's master-quality as to mere manipulation 
is neatness, but his greatest gift is in symbolism. 
Now and then his classical acquirements are seen in 
the Latin couplets, or in the turn of the allegory. 
Among other objects decorating the calendar for 
March is a most beautiful peacock, finished with 
marvellous skill. Indeed in work like this Hoef- 
nagel is a perfect contrast to Mielich — the latter 
being as rapid and sketchy as the former is 
scrupulous and minute. It is true that his 
primary qualification is neatness. But in addition 
as the work proceeds, the colouring becomes sweeter 
and richer. Around the title of the Proprium de 
Tempore are painted large insects and various fruits. 
The first miniature occurs at the Dominica de 
Adventu, on an oval within an oblong black frame. 
Here the draperies are weak, but the colouring 
tolerably good and the hints gained on the visit to 
Clovio, noticeably put into practice in the stippling 

118 Life of Giorgio Giulio Cloviu. 

of the depths and shadows. On fol. 213 is the 
" Lion of the tribe of Judah," and two figures— a 
man and a woman — very sweetly painted. Fol. 329 
presents one of the finest pages in the volume. It 
has a pendant formed of a jewelled cross and 
cameos, violet grey in black and gold frames. On 
each side is a peacock, one standing on a castle, 
from the windows of which issues smoke. On a 
banner which floats above is the word "vanitas." 
On the other is a beautiful woman with a quiver 
containing fruits, and inscribed " vanitatum." She 
proceeds, from the waist upwards, out of a shell 
painted to represent the world. The wings of the 
peacock are curiously eyed at the tips. All kinds of 
vanities, — masks, jewels, necklaces, bubbles, pearls, — 
are tumbling out of the two worlds. Fol. 538 v. is 
occupied by a large miniature of the Crucifixion, 
below which is this inscription : 

" Aspice coelorum Dominum et crucis aspice formam 
Et die jam meus est hie homo et ille deus. 
Crimina persolvit patiens mea fecit et alta. 
Verus homo atqne Deus, rursus ad astra viam.." 

Texts of Scripture on oval tablets with black 
grounds and gold frames, are placed on each 
side the miniature, such as " Foderunt manus 
meas, et pedes meos " (Ps. xxi.). Over the 
picture is a blue tablet with the words : "Sic 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 119 

Deus dilexit mundum." The picture itself seems 
to have been inspired by Clovio. It is not merely- 
conceived in his style, but is executed in his manner. 
In expression it is even superior. One catches the 
blood from the Saviour's side in a golden cup (the 
Saint Graal, sang real, or whatever it was, of the 
Mediseval romances) ; another prays. An angel 
floating in the air, on each side, ministers comfort 
to the sufi'erer. St. John supports the fainting 
mother, while Mary Magdalene behind, with right 
hand on her bosom, clasps the cross with the left. 
Draperies are finely stippled, and here the folds are 

To the " Missa contra paganos," fol. 136 v., is a 
fine marble statuette of Apollo with lyre in left 
hand, and other of Diana with arrow in right, 
faultlessly perfect and graceful. In mental gifts 
Hoefnagel is superior to Clovio ; in the tasteful 
use of architecture he is inferior, and inferior to 
Mielich in design, but as I have said, surpasses 
him in careful manipulation. Occasionally a gro- 
tesqueness or sensuality of conception makes the 
subject repulsive, as in the symbol of St. Agatha, 
where the careful execution and the horrible 
realism of the breasts and knife betray the Nether- 
lander. So in the St. Agnes — the refined purity 
of the ideal sainted maiden is outraged to the 
spectator by the gross unhesitating fidelity of the 

120 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

representation. On fol. 27 of the fourth part is a 
design of a slain lamb. At foot, in rather small 
ornamental capitals, " Georgius Hoefnaglius Ant- 
werpien. Libri huius exornat pricipio sine principio 
Hieroglyphicus, favet opus inceptu. Inventor et 
factor. Ann. XXCII fine sine fine. Genio magis- 
tro iuvant. felic. absolvit. Ann. XC." Like most 
of Hoefnagel's inscriptions, this contains a certain 
amount of enigma. On the front of the slab is a 
couplet, apparently of his own composition : 

" Ex nostris aliquid spirat vocale sepnlcliris, 
Prsestita perpetuo quod benefacta canat." 

This date of 1590 occurs a little later in the 
volume, showing tliat the work, which is pro- 
gressively dated in several other places, really 
occupied the eight years from 1582 to 1590. It 
now forms one of the many precious treasures of 
the Imperial Library at Vienna. On its completion, 
besides the annual salary of eight hundred florins, 
the Archduke gave him two thousand golden 
crowns, and presented him with a golden chain 
worth a hundred more. Seldom did Clovio receive 
such substantial marks of satisfaction from any of 
the Farnese. Hoefnagel was next employed by the 
Emperor Rodolph II., who, like himself, was a 
zealous student of natural history, and few occupa- 
tions could be imagined more congenial than that of 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 121 

the now skilful artist to -whom technical manipula- 
tion had become a second nature, than the one upon 
which he was engaged. It was to form a systematic 
collection of drawings of all kinds of animals, birds, 
insects, &c., in every department of natural history. 
This was accomplished in four large volumes, which 
are now preserved in the public library at Prag. 
The very liberal remuneration received by Hoef- 
nagel for this work enabled him to buy a property 
in or near Vienna, to which he retired, and where it 
appears he spent the remainder of his life in the 
cultivation of Latin poetry. He died in 1600. As 
a rival of Clovio he cannot hold more than a 
momentary position. He is too fanciful, too full of 
allegorical conceits, too much bent on the spiritual 
significance of his designs. His imperfect knowledge 
of classic architecture is marred by importations 
in the worst possible taste of the Renaissance. 
His scrolls are often less endurable than the im- 
possible structures of Pompeian grotesque, and the 
third-rate designs of Cinquecento modellers. But, 
as far as possible, all is redeemed by the patient, 
faithful, faultless sweep of the pencil, and the tender 
delicacy and scrupulous neatness of his colouring. 
It is not always sweet, but it is never slovenly. 
Hoefiiagel can rest very well on his own merits 
without being drawn into needless and unprofitable 
rivalry with any other miniaturist. 

122 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Claudio Massarelli or Massarolo — Clovio's assis- 
tant — died the same year as his master. His will is 
dated October 26th, 1578. From this document it 
appears that he was a native of Caravaggio, and, 
like Clovio, became miniator to Cardinal Alessandro 
Farnese. He had two scholars — Maximilien de 
Monceau, a Fleming, and Aless^lndro di Como — and 
to them he bequeathed his drawings. 

Of the later miniaturists of Italy may be men- 
tioned Cesare PoUini, and Pietro Cesarei of Perugia. 
PoUini is often referred to by writers on Art. 
Orlando says he made most beautiful miniatures 
on vellum, and designed boldly in the manner of 
Michelangelo. Pascoli tells us that he was born 
about 1560, and designed, painted, and illuminated 
a maraviglia. He goes on to say that some of his 
miniatures were (1732) to be seen in the Congrega- 
tion de' Nobili, in the Jesuits' College at Perugia, 
that others may be found in Rome, and that he 
worked for many princes and cardinals, and for 
several popes, who treated him with distinction; 
lastly, that he left many beautiful miniatures to his 
heirs on his death in 1630 at Perugia. He is some- 
times spoken of as Cesare del Francia. Nagler calls 
him a scholar of Federigo Baroecio, and follows 
Pascoli in the date of his death.* 

* Orlandi: Abeced. Pittor. s. v. — Leoni Pascoli: Vite de 
Pittori, Scultori ed Architetti Perugini. — Nagler, Kunstler lex. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 123 

Pascoli also gives an account of Cesarei. Born 
about 1530, of unknown parents, but supposed to be 
the son of a gentleman, he became an imitator of 
Stefano of Verona, the famous illuminator, copying 
most of his works. He soon became known as an 
able miniaturist, all over Italy. He was also a 
painter in fresco. To his works he usually puts the 
signature Perinus Perusinus pinxit, or pingebat. 
Many works still in the library of the Piccolomini at 
Siena were painted by him. Nagler, probably on 
this authority, says the "choir-books," but Pascoli 
only says "moltissimi libri." Cesarei also worked in 
Spoleto, and good judges were often deceived by the 
similarity of his work to that of Pietro Perugino, the 
master of Raffaello, and have mistaken one for the 
other. But as Cesar ei's work dates as late as 1595, 
while that of Pietro never reaches later than 1524, 
there is plenty of room for discrimination. Besides, 
Perugino's signature is "Petrus Peruginus," and 
Pascoli himself declares that anyone who knows 
Cesarei's manner could easily recognize his work. 
Others have mistaken him for Perino (del Vaga). 
He died at Spoleto in 1602. 

In Venice, during the latter half of the sixteenth 
century, worked several miniaturists of repute, the 
most noted being Giorgio Colonna, who, in 1576-8, 
painted the Mariegola or Matricola of the Arte dei 
Calafati on vellum, in large quarto, with margins 

124 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

of arabesques and miniatures. The volume was 
bound in rich silver-gilt covers and is still to be 
seen, preserved with great care, in the Library of 
the Arsenal.* 

* Atti deir Imp. Reg. Accademia di Belle Arti in Venezia, 
&c. Yen. 1857, 98. 


Clovio's various styles — His qualities as an artist — The Sack of 
Rome — SufEerings of artists — Clovio at Mantua — San 
RuflBno, and Candiana — Works at this time — The House 
of Famese — Works executed for them — Romantic 
Episode — Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici and Giulia di 
Gonzaga — The Devices of Ippolito — Clovio at Florence 
— ^Works executed for the Grand Duke, and for Margaret 
of Parma — The Devices of the Farnese princes — 
Clovio's declining health — His troubles — His last works 
— His death and public funeral. 

"T EAVING now the subject of Clovio's contem- 
poi-aries and perhaps rivals, let us return to 
Clovio himself. We were discussing the question of 
his style. In point of fact, like most human affairs 
this matter is somewhat complicated, for he had two 
or even three styles, quite distinguishable and, what 
is more important, apparently incompatible. We 
must remember his natural versatility and the vast 
variety of his commissions. Down to the time of 
his second visit to Rome, before the awful calamities 
of 1526-7, his practice had been almost entirely in 
the school of Raffaello and much under the guidance 
of his friend Giulio Romano. This is why he is 
sometimes called the Raffaello of Miniature. It was 

126 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

an influence that, except when he attempted mono- 
chrome or simple chiaroscm'o, as in imitating medals 
and statuary, never quite lost its hold of him. It is 
seen in his most usual principles of colouring, and in 
the technic of his processes, in working delicately 
from the shades and folds of the draperies and in 
what is now called stippling, then painting in points. 
The stippling was known to painters much earlier 
than himself, and was probably hit upon indepen- 
dently in many different localities, as we have found 
the discovery claimed by Antonio de Holanda in 
Lisbon, by Clovio in Rome, and by Boduino in 
Venice. I have seen it myself in Netherlandish and 
French work of the fifteenth century. After 1526 
Clovio began to aim at greater energy. It is easy 
to trace in this change the influence of Michelangelo. 
The example of Raffaello and of the old grottesche 
in the days of the excavations at the Thermae, was 
giving way to that of a new acquaintance of no 
ordinary type. He now becomes careful of the 
anatomical distinctness and even exaggeration dis- 
played in the designs of the great Florentine ; for 
the latter in his lesser occupation of painting never 
ceased from thinking and designing as a sculptor, so 
that his Sistine ceiling, in perfect harmony, with the 
statued corridors of the Vatican, is even more 
sculpturesque than the painted walls of the Farnese 
Gallery, of which it was the immediate antitype. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 127 

The irresistible personality of Miclielangelo forced 

its way through all gentler natures, and Clovio, 

though rugged and ascetic from religious motives, 

was one of these. His less creative faculties found 

congenial succour in the example of his friend and 

master, and the severer taste and greater experience 

of his riper years inclined him towards a style which 

seemed to him the perfection of design. As a youth 

he had thoroughly admired the graceful contours 

and softer execution of the Roman School ; and 

being a true artist, and amazingly skilful with his 

pencil, had succeeded in an extraordinary degree in 

acquiring the manner of Raffaello. Now he devoted 

himself to the study of the Sistine Chapel, and with 

such masterly effect that he seemed fairly to have 

combined the spiritual elegance of one master with 

the physical energy of the other. To have succeeded 

in any degree in this combination, when we consider 

the dimensions of his work, is sufficient praise, and 

goes far to justify the lavish epithets of eulogy 

bestowed upon him by his contemporaries. 

The impression which his best work — such as the 
Last Judgment of the Towneley Lectionary — leaves 
upon, the mind of the spectator is not merely one of 
incredibly patient execution. This is felt, but it 
gives way to a sense of grandeur in the conception 
in which the dimensions of the picture are entirely 
overlooked. The work is less remarkable for the 

128 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

qualities so loudly praised by Vasari in his famous 
passage about the size of ants, re-echoed by innumer- 
able copyists, than for those spoken of by Bonde, 
the unexpected qualities of grandeur of design and 
fertility of imagination. Yet we must not forget 
that Clovio was chiefly, if not essentially, a copyist, 
so that these qualities as forming part of his 
own artistic character are indeed unexpected and 
amazing. That they are really original, and not 
transferred as part and parcel of his copies from 
confessedly abler contemporaries, shows itself in the 
very selection of his models. For unless he had in 
himself the perception, the taste, the longing for 
these characteristics, he would have been content to 
copy slavishly, and might or might not have caught 
the indications of the noblest elements of the artist's 
mind. It is true that at times, and in insignificant 
situations, he does not scruple to transfer, almost 
bodily, figures and even scenes from known works 
into the cameo-like pictures in his exquisite pages, 
as for instance in that scene of the death of Goliath, 
of the Stuart-Rothesay MS. in the British Museum. 
The great argument for the fact of his originality as 
an artist, is that he succeeded in retaining his best 
patrons, who had ample means of comparing him 
with all his ablest contemporaries. His choice of 
the highest and noblest in his art made him prized 
by Emperor and Pope, by Prince and Cardinal, and 

Life of Giorgio Gfiulio Clovio. 129 

eventually brought him to be the guest of his great 
patron and the table companion of scholars like 
Pietro Bembo and Claudio Tolomei. 

The sack of Rome, of which we have so vivid 
a picture in the autobiography of Cellini, who, 
together with several of the most famous artists 
of the time, was an eye-witness of and an actor in 
its ghastly scenes, is familiar to all readers of Italian 
history. The details are horrible in the extreme. 
As might be expected when a rich and splendid 
city was captured by a vindictive, greedy, and 
hereditary enemy, the loot was enormous. Churches, 
palaces, whole streets even of private houses were 
piUaged, and their beautiful and costly decorations 
and magnificent furniture defaced or burnt. But 
the worst did not end there. Every form of cruelty 
and lust was exhausted on the unhappy people. 
Old men and children of every rank were recklessly 
butchered unless promptly ransomed from the 
rapacity of the German and Spanish thieves. The 
fate of women was still more terrible. Neither 
rank nor refinement saved them from ill-usage ; 
and beauty, for which the city was famous, was 
only a too certain signal for the most indecent 
and repeated violence, that not content with the 
last insult to feminine honour, left its torn and 
bleeding victims to perish in lingering agony 
amid the reeking filth upon which their poor 


130 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

tortured bodies were flung. Some of the wealthiest 
citizens were stripped of all their possessions and 
themselves, if spared, driven naked and helpless 
from the city. Others only saved themselves by 
the most cruel sacrifices. Of property, the most 
valuable books, pictures and sculptures were ruth- 
lessly destroyed, and their unhappy owners sub- 
jected to atrocities frightful to imagine, but then 
considered as usual occurrences on the capture of 
a populous city. "Already during 1522 to 1524," 
says A. von Reumont, "it had suifered greatly 
through sickness, and the constant emeutes of 1526 
brought with them surfeit of riot and disorder. 
Its measure of suffering was now filled to the brim. 
The destruction of all prosperity, and the fearful 
impression of acute suffering of every kind, the 
forcible privation of goods from men, and of honour 
from women, the wholesale loss of human life put 
it for years to come out of the possibility of anyone 
to resume any occupation except what was forced 
upon him by sheer necessity. Many artists were 
involved in this terrible distress. The school of 
Raffaello," himself happily dead before this calamity 
occurred, "was completely broken up and dispersed." 
Its head and director Giulio Romano, Clovio's 
closest friend, had been since 1524 engaged in his 
native city of Mantua, and destined for the next 
twenty years of his life to remain there, developing 

Life of Giorgio Oiulio Clovio. 131 

a successful and many-sided career, and combining 
the ideas of his gifted master with those of the 
decorators of Upper Italy. Perino del Vaga 
whilst wandering destitute in the streets, with his 
wife and child, was captured by the soldiery, 
and only liberated after the greatest difficulty. 
Half distracted with suffering and anxiety, he 
must have sorely envied his former workman 
Baviera, who now as a dealer in Marc Antonio's 
engravings, employed him as a journeyman to 
colour drawings for sale. These drawings were 
afterwards engraved by Gian Jacopo Caragli, 
a clever imitator of Raimondi. Truly glad was 
Perino when the opportunity arrived to get away 
to the great work at Genoa, the decoration of 
the Doria Palace: there to remain busily and 
creditably employed. Vincenzo da San Gemignano 
fled with all speed to his sleepy little native town 
among the hills. But he never recovered the merry 
disposition for which, when in Rome, he had gained 
so pleasant a reputation, and what he now painted 
was so little akin to his former work, that Vasari was 
led to moralize on what he considered the influence 
of locality on artistic production, and to think that 
there was something in the air of Rome that favoured 
the development of important works.* Giovanni 

* Vasari : Vita di Vincenzo Tamagni, viii. 147. Le Monnier, ed. 


132 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

da Udine amid the general wreck quitted Rome 
for Friuli, nor did he see the city in which he had 
laboured so happily, for more than twenty years. 
Marc Antonio Raimondi, captured by the Spaniards 
and plundered of all he possessed, managed to escape 
and never saw Rome again. Francesco Mazzuoli, il 
Parmegianino, who was said to have inherited the 
spirit-mantle of Raffaello, alone of all the artists in 
Rome, escaped without loss or injury; for the lanz- 
Jcnechts finding him heedless of the uproar of voices 
and the thunder of the guns, absorbed in putting 
the last touches to a figure of the Madonna, were 
so struck with the gentle loveliness of the picture, 
that at the cost of a few drawings they unanimously 
left him unmolested. Afterwards he retired to 
Bologna.* PoUdoro fled first to Naples, then to 
Messina, where he laboured for many years. " I 
can imagine," he writes from the latter city, " with- 
out your telling me, how you are going on. In such 
universal misfortunes I can be no other than sad." 
The letter was written two years after the calamity 
to Giovanni Antonio Milesi, whose mansion he had 
decorated with the Niobe scenes. Much worse 
befel Polidoro's friend, Maturino, who, weakened 
by want and misery, fell an easy victim to the plague 
which followed the storming of the city. Such was 
the disastrous end of the famous school of Raffaello. 

* Nagler: Kunstler, lex. viii. 511. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 133 

Nor had other artists any better luck. Baldassare 
Peruzzi, the decorator if not the designer of the 
Palace of Agostino Chigi, afterwards called the 
Farnesina, fell into the merciless clutches of the 
Spaniards, and, because he disappointed them in 
the amount of ransom he could afford, was bar- 
barously ill-treated. They had mistaken him for a 
wealthy gentleman, and were disgusted to find that 
he was only an artist. Eventually he obtained his 
liberty by painting the portrait of one of his captors, 
and at once made off into Tuscany. But he had 
the further misfortune to be so villainously robbed 
on his way to Siena, that when he reached his 
native city he had nothing on but his shirt.* 

Giorgio Clovio was taken whilst in the house of 
his employer. Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggio. One 
would have thought that a quiet and inoffensive 
young man of no particular distinction would have 
escaped unnoticed. But not so. He was beaten, 
starved almost to death, and rendered so completely 
miserable that he solemnly vowed, if ever he 
recovered his liberty, to devote himself to a religious 
life. This vow he afterwards faithfully kept, though 
obliged to modify the form of its fulfilment. The 
Florentine painter 11 Rosso, and his friend Lappoli 
of Arezzo, were taken and put to the torture — only 
escaping with their bare lives, and fleeing from the 
* Nagler vii. 309. 

134 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

city litei'ally naked. Jacopo Sansavino, sick and 
destitute, escaped painfully to Venice. Cellini and 
Montelupo managed to get into the Castle of 
St. Angelo, and were there impressed to serve the 
guns. The lively goldsmith gives a stirring account 
of this extraordinary episode in his career, boldly 
affirming that his own hand deliberately directed 
the fatal shot which terminated the eventful life of 
the great Constable de Bourbon.* 

After such a turmoil of war, terror and misery, 
it was long before anyone felt really secure. 
Clovio was by nature a man of a peaceable 
temperament, and of an eminently religious spirit. 
Accordingly he seems to have borne his suffering 
with much greater equanimity than Cellini. After 
long and bitter imprisonment, with a broken 
and still unhealed limb, he was carried off to the 
monastery of San Ruffino at Mantua, where he 
met once more with his old friend Pippi. The 
curing of his broken leg was a tedious business, 
owing to the neglect from which he had suffered 
during his imprisonment. Meantime, in fulfilment 
of his vow, he assumed the garb of a Scopetine 
monk, and out of respect to his friend, adopted the 
monastic name of brother Julio. This name was 

* A counterpart to Cellini's narrative is that published under 
the nom-de-pluvie of Jacopo Buonaparte, but generally attributed 
to Guicciardini, who was then in Rome. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 135 

destined almost to supplant his own, for lie always 
kept it, and when in after years he rose to the 
highest distinction in the service of the Grimani 
and the Farnese, he is always spoken of as Don 
Julio Clovio. 

After 1527 his works are almost always signed 
Don Giulio Crovato, or Julius Crovatus. As has 
been explained, Crovato or Croatian is the 
customary designation of his time, like Perugino, 
Veneziano and Veronese.* During his residence 
at San Ruffino, he completed a choir-book for the 
House, "adorned with the most skilful miniatures 
and noble ornaments," and painted a " Christ 
appearing to the Magdalene in the Garden," a 
work prized by all who saw it, as of the most 
extraordinary merit. He also painted, but on a 
much larger scale, the story of the Woman taken in 
Adultery, after a drawing by Titian. It would be 
interesting to know what became of that " portfolio 
of drawings, not by his own hand," mentioned in 
the inventory left at his death, as probably this 
drawing of Titian's was among them. 

After a short stay at San Ruffino Clovio passed 
on to the monastery of Candiana, near Padua, 
beside the little River Berbegara in the Padovan 

* The portrait of Clovio at Vienna, wtich. is that of a young 
man in a suit of black, is inscribed : "Julius Clovius Crovatus, 
Bui ipsius effigiator. Ao. Etat 30 — salut. 1528." 

136 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

marshes, and situate on one of the eyots formed 
by the many mouths of the Po. On his way he 
seems to have again hurt his broken leg, or as it 
is asserted, got a fresh fractui-e from a fall. So, 
again he was laid up, and this time with a still 
more serious illness, through unskilful treatment. 
Through this weary time his favourite occupation 
had to be laid aside, and his desire to devote himself 
entirely to a religious life, was greatly strengthened 
by his sufferings. But as he regained his health he 
could not forego the earnest longing of his heart 
after his own innocent and fascinating occupation, 
nor withstand the equally earnest solicitations of 
his friends. He found, residing at Candiana, and 
busy with work for the brethren of the monastery, 
another votary of his charming art. This was no 
other than the celebrated Girolamo dei Libri of 
Verona, whose reputation was then second to no 
other in Italy. Once more, therefore, he was 
induced to apply himself assiduously to his pro- 
fession, learning of Girolamo all that the veteran 
illuminator was able to teach him. This may, in a 
measure, account for the ordinaiy story of his being 
the pupil of Girolamo, as it may account also for 
so much similarity as did exist between the works 
of the two masters. But it scarcely explains why 
the work of the younger man should be so frequently 
confounded with that of the elder. It may have 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 137 

been that Italian writers and painters, being accus- 
tomed to the larger and broader effects of fresco, 
were more struck by the delicacy and minuteness 
of the. miniature than by any other quality, and 
hence their notion of special similarity, a character- 
istic which in fact does not exist. But this mode 
of assigning work which happens to be exceed- 
ingly clever to a famous name, is particularly 
valueless and unsatisfactory, inasmuch as it always 
suggests a temptation to give the preference to 
that excellent miniaturist whose name the critic 
happens to know. No reliance, therefore, can be 
placed on mere tradition. It must always be taken 
in connection with other evidence, and especially 
in the case of local attributions, where usually there 
exists a prejudice in favour of some well-known 
name. The choir-books at Ferrara have been for 
ages, and probably are still exhibited as the work of 
Cosimo Tura, and praised as fine examples of his 
skill. But it has been proved that they are all the 
work of other men whose names have only transpired 
through documentary evidence.* 

The " Raffaello " Missal in the Corsini Library 
is an example of an anonymous MS. of great 
beauty, assigned, in consequence, to a great name. 

* Gualandi : Memorie Originali Italiane risgfuardanti le Belle 
arti. Dooumenti risg. i Libri Corali del Duomo de Ferrara. Serie 
vi. 153. (Bologna, 1846, 8vo.) 

138 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

It is attributed to Raffaello because it shows 
evidence of his manner or his taste. But it is 
known that Perino del Vaga and Giovanni da 
Udine were the actual executors of the works 
commonly called the decorations of Raffaello in 
the Loggie of the Vatican ; and in ornament 
merely Perino considerably surpassed his master. 
But to return to Clovio. Profiting by his ac- 
quaintance with the skilful Veronese master, he 
speedily reached what were considered his charac- 
teristic excellencies, including his excessive and 
laborious finish, while he surpassed him in the 
grander qualities of design and power of drawing. 
The purpose which he had formed of remaining 
permanently at Candiana was soon broken through. 
His former patron, Marino Grimani, whom he had 
left to go into Hungary, having discovered his 
retreat would take no refusal, but insisted on his 
return to Rome. His plea of wanting to shut 
himself from the world in this obscure and in- 
accessible corner was of no avail. Such abilities 
as his were not to be wasted on the choir-books 
of a country monastery. Marino, now a Cardinal, 
wrote a most urgent and authoritative letter to 
the would-be recluse, pointing out that it was the 
duty of every man to employ the gifts bestowed 
by Providence in the best and fullest manner for 
the benefit of his fellow-creatures, and this he 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 139 

could not do amid the occupations and observances 
of a monastic life. The argument, if specious, was 
forcible enough to the simple nature of the artist, 
and convinced him that he had really no alternative 
but to do the bidding of his spiritual superior. As 
to his vows, the wealthy Cardinal promised whatever 
dispensation was needful, from the Pope himself. 
And so it came about that in 1531 Clovio became 
an inmate of the Grimani Palace, at Perugia, 
where the Cardinal was residing as Papal Legate. 
He appears to have been engaged, before or during 
his employment under Cardinal Campeggio, on a 
Missal for Grimani, who was occupied probably 
with provincial duties wtiich took him away from 
the capital. This he was now able to resume, and 
he completed it " with most masterly miniatures."* 
Another MS., assigned by Rosini to the first 
period of his service with Cardinal Marino 
Grimani, is the Trivulzi Petrarch. In 1850 it 
was in the library of the Casa Trivulzi at Milan. 
The diligence and minuteness of the work apart 
from tradition leave no doubt that it was executed 
in the prime of the artist's youth. But it was 
during this second period of his service of 

* This beautiful mantiscript is said to have found its way 
to England and to have passed through the hands of several 
distinguished collectors. The common statement that it is in 
the library of Mr. Holford is not true. 

140 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Cardinal Grimani that the grand MS. of the 
Commentaries on St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans 
was executed and obtained the reputation which 
reached the youthful Cardinal Alessandro Farnese. 
His works at Perugia include a Prayer Book or 
Office of the Virgin with four miniatures ; a Pietk; 
a Crucifixion ; the above-named Commentary on 
the Romans ; a second copy of the same ; and 
perhaps, Rosini's statement notwithstanding, the 
Trivulzi Petrarch, as it is apparently the same 
MS. seen by Cicogna in the library of Apostolo 
Zeno and named in the Catalogue of the Zeniani 
MSS. in the Marcian Library at Venice ;* and the 
exquisite little volume containing the Poem of 
Eurialo d' Ascoli on the capture of Tunis, now in the 
Imperial Library at Vienna. During his residence 
in the Apennine city many stirring events were 
configuring the history of the outer world. 
Catharine de' Medici became Duchess of Orleans 
in 1533, and in the same year Marguerite of 
Navarre published her "Heptameron," Rabelais 
his " Gargantua " and the Earl of Surrey, then 
sixteen years of age, his first sonnets. In the 
same year Ariosto died and the Princess Elizabeth 
of England, daughter of Henry VIII., was born. 

* Cicogna, E. A. : Delle Inscrizioni Veneziane J. 173. 
Sakcinski : Leben. 17. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 141 

In 1534 Alessandro Farnese, grandfather of 
the Cardinal who afterwards became Clovio's 
staunchest supporter, became Pope Paul III., 
and the boy-churchman at fourteen years of 
age was created Cardinal. In this year Luther 
published his German Bible at Wittemberg, in 
three folio volumes. The year following the 
German Emperor and the great Genoese admiral, 
Andrea Doria, took Tunis and released twenty 
thousand Christian captives, and Milan, to which 
claim was laid by Francis I., was held by the 
celebrated Antonio de Leyva for the Emperor. 
A busy year, too, was 1536. It saw the issuing of 
the bull " In Coena Domini," the death of Erasmus, 
who had been in his time a protege of Domenico 
Grimani, and the execution of John of Ley den ; 
while the accomplished poet and humanist 
Sadolet, the amiable Reginald de la Pole, and 
the ascetic Pietro Caraffa were created Car- 
dinals. In 1537 among other notable events, 
including in England the Pilgrimage of Grace, 
occurred that well-merited though treacherous 
and unlawful assassination of Alessandro de' 
Medici at Florence. The following year his 
widow was married to Ottavio Farnese, the younger 
brother of the Cardinal. She afterwards, as 
Duchess of Parma, became one of Clovio's, as 
she was one of Cellini's, most appreciative patrons. 

142 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Daughter of Charles V. by his first mistress, and 
possessed of considerable personal attractions, she 
had been made at twelve years of age Duchess of 
Florence by a political mariage de convenance, and 
now by a similar movement, in which the some- 
what easy -tempered youth of thirteen, six years her 
junior, is perhaps, rather than herself, to be con- 
sidered the victim, she becomes Duchess of Parma 
and Piacenza. As the family of Farnese shortly 
became the permanent patrons of Clovio it will be 
interesting to enter a little more closely into their 

The House of Farnese traced its origin to the 
tenth century, and to a castle and estate called 
Farneto in the neighbourhood of Orvieto. Several 
members of it had attained considerable military 
distinction under the Popes and other princes of 
Italy, and a number had been successive Consuls 
of Orvieto, but the individual who raised it to 
the highest point of its greatness was an eccle- 
siastic, Alessandro, who from being a soldier became 
a Cardinal and eventually attained the Papacy as 
Paul III. This Alessandro, whom we may call 
the elder to distinguish him from his grandson, 
was the second son of Pier Luigi or Pietro 
Aloysio, for the names are synonymous. Lord of 
Montalto ; and of Gianella, daughter of Jacopo, 
Lord of Simoneta. In 1500, when he had reached 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 143 

his thirty-second year, the family was branching 
widely, by intermarriages, over various lordships 
of Italy. A sister Julia wedded the Lord of 
Bracciano, another sister Hieronyma the Count 
of Anguillara, while his two brothers were both 
distinguished generals, and his cousins Ranuzio 
and Pietro both men of renown — the former as 
Captain-General of the army of Siena and the 
latter as papal secretary. When he became 
Cardinal in 1493 he was already the father of 
four children, three sons and a daughter. In 
1528 his eldest son Pier Luigi had been created 
Duke of Casti'o and Count of Ronciglione. On 
his becoming Pope in 1534, he first gave this son 
the lordships of Nepi and Frascati for eleven years, 
and afterwards exchanged them for the towns of 
Parma and Piacenza which he erected into duchies, 
the former possessions of Castro and Ronciglione 
reverting, like Nepi and Frascati, to the Roman 
Chui'ch. Thus in 1545 Pier Luigi received the 
investiture of the states of Parma and Piacenza 
in perpetuity. But unhappily the young Duke 
could not obtain a similar and necessary investiture 
from the Emperor Charles V. who, as Sovereign of 
the Milanese, possessed the feudal right of inves- 
titure over these ancient dependencies. Notwith- 
standing this, all might have been well had - he 
acted with ordinary prudence or even decency. 

144 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

But his licentious conduct speedily became unbear- 
able, and excesses of every kind outraged the 
fidelity of the best and noblest of his subjects. 
For to gratify his unmeasured lusts he spared 
neither rank nor virtue, but, as if his aim were 
nothing less than to exterminate or degrade every 
noble family submitted to his authority, had recourse 
to the most reckless cruelty and perfidy. A con- 
spiracy secretly encouraged, if not fomented, by the 
Emperor was the natural result of this state of 
things, and at length the infamous profligate 
perished by the daggers of four nobles whose families 
had suffered his intolerable violence. His widow, 
Hieronyma Orsini, was left with three sons and a 
daughter. Of his brothers, Ranuzio was General 
to the Venetians, Alessandro the Pope's Chancellor. 
His sister Constantia was Princess of Palestrina. 
Alessandro, the eldest son of Pier Luigi, seems to 
have been his grandfather's favourite from early 
childhood, and to have been of a courteous and 
affectionate nature. He certainly was a very great 
contrast to his father, and is constantly spoken of 
by those who experienced his assistance as kind 
and considerate in his behaviour to his inferiors, 
and conciliatory in matters of religious or political 
dispute. From a child he was dedicated to the 
Church, and his grave and gentle manners made 
his admission to the dignity of Cardinal, at the 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 145 

surprisingly early age of fourteen, less objectionable 
than otherwise it might have been. He was born 
in 1520, so that when Clovio returned to the 
service of Cardinal Marino Grimani at Perugia, he 
was barely eleven years of age. Nevertheless he 
was already noted for his love of literature and 
the arts. And when the beautiful little Petrarch, 
which Clovio finished soon after his return to 
Grimani, came to the hands of the Pope, it was 
the means not only of introducing the artist to the 
notice and patronage of the Holy Father himself, 
who was a passionate admirer of works of art, but 
also to the enthusiastic admiration of the young- 
Cardinal, who besought his grandfather that the 
artist might be sent for at once to the Papal Court; 
and even wrote to him earnestly inviting him to 
Rome on his own account. Clovio was not fond of 
change, and he certainly at that moment had no 
just reason for desiring it, nor had he perhaps 
quite recovered from the horror of his last experi- 
ence of the capital ; so for a time, at least, he 
declined the proffered honour. But he did not 
forget it. And as work after work, or the fame 
of them, reached the enthusiastic young prince, 
invitations still more urgent were pressed upon him. 
Among the works executed by him during the nine 
years of his sojourn at Perugia, the most notable 
was the illuminated copy of the Commentary of 


146 Life of Giorgio Griulio Clovio. 

Grimani on St Paul's Epistle to the Romans. 
This grand work originally contained at least 
three large miniatures, besides other ornaments, 
but one of them was sent into Spain. It is said 
to have been afterwards returned to the Cardinal, 
and the work to have passed out of his library 
into the Grimani collection at Venice. There it 
remained until 1738, when it was bequeathed by 
Victor Calergi to Vincenzo Grimani, son of Gio- 
vanni Carlo. Shortly after this transfer, it was 
shown during a visit to the Duke of Buckingham, 
and was purchased by him, together with two 
MSS., for a thousand guineas, and was brought 
to England. On the Duke's death it came into 
the possession of Sir John Soane, the architect, 
and still remains one of the principal treasures of 
the Soane Museum. It has been said that Marino 
Grimani, who was named Patriarch of Aquileia in 
the year of the sack of Rome, was made a Cardinal 
in 1528. He was appointed by Clement VII. 
Papal Legate at Perugia, where he chiefly resided 
from 1531 to his death in 1546. During most 
of this latter time, Clovio was in his service, and 
of course mainly occupied with his commissions. 
Nevertheless, as we have seen, he occasionally 
illuminated something for other patrons, as the 
poem of Eurialo d'Ascoli on the capture of Tunis 
to be presented to the Emperor. In 1537 we find 

Life of Criorgio Giulio Clomo. 147 

him engaged on another large Missal. In 1540 
Cardinal Alessandro Farnese gained his point of 
getting the artist to Rome. There is a hint that 
either owing to the constant moving about of 
the Legate or inattention to the due administration 
of his exchequer, Clovio's salary was not always 
promptly forthcoming, and hence he began to 
think of the possible improvement to be gained 
by acceding to the oft-repeated requests of the 
wealthy grandson of the Pope. Clearly it was 
under some extraordinary pressure, for Grimani 
strenuously objected to the transfer, and yet Clovio, 
apparently forgetting all his earlier benefits, decided 
to return once more to Rome, and to enter the 
service of Cardinal Farnese. The young prince- 
prelate received him with open arms, and at once 
set him to work on a Lectionary, or Psalter, 
which he intended presenting to his grandfather. 
If, as was probably the fact, the Psalter now in 
the National Library at Paris* be the work in 
question, he was engaged upon it, though not 
continuously, for about two years, as it bears the 
date of 1542. Unfortunately, no such date appears 
upon the more famous Towneley-Kennedy Lec- 
tionary, but it may very well have formed part 
of the Cardinal's original intention of having a 

* Anc. fds. lat. No. 702 (Reserve 8880, fds. lat.). The MS. 
is described in Appendix. 


148 Life of Giorgio Griulio Clovio.. 

complete set of Liturgical books executed as a 
present to his beloved and indulgent relative. 
The removal was an epoch in Clovio's life. It 
introduced him to the best artistic and literary 
society of the time. In a very short time he 
gained the rare distinction of intimacy with the 
proud and reserved Michelangelo Buonarroti, and 
admission to the select conversazioni of the 
Marchesa Vittoria Colonna, widow of the great 
general Pescara, which we have spoken of in a 
former chapter. Again he was fortunate, as he 
had been in his visits to Buda and Florence, in 
having access to rich collections of coins, bronzes, 
and marbles, both in the palace of his immediate 
patron and in the galleries of the Capitol and the 
Vatican. In the beautiful volumes executed for 
Cardinal Parnese, he makes masterly use of these 
exceptional opportunities, combining their wealth 
of symbolism and classic elegance of form with 
most skilful and effective design and perfection of 
colouring. The improvement upon his Grimani 
Commentaries is manifest. If in his previous 
works the counsels and example of Giulio Romano 
and Girolamo dai Libri are more observable, in 
these we cannot fail to trace the renewed influence 
of Michelangelo. In the Paris Psalter the minia- 
tures worked in several styles, but chiefly in 
tempera, were thought by Waagen to combine the 

3 2 

< S 

Q. q 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 149 

characteristics both of Michelangelo and Raffaello. 
Neither of these masters was specially remarkable 
as a colourist, nor is this faculty very specially 
exhibited by Clovio. But there is both a vigour 
and a grace in his drawing shown in his later 
works which might very well claim inheritance 
from both his models. The style of colouring 
adopted by Raffaello in some of his paintings from 
the Thermae of Titus, and therefore from Roman 
classic art, and afterwards disseminated throughout 
Italy by the dispersion of his school in 1527, is 
the style mostly chosen by the miniaturist. But 
not exclusively. We shall have more to say about 
this choice of methods later on. Here the question 
is that of motive or theme in decoration. Clovio 
avails himself of every resource now made popular 
by the Roman, Milanese, and Florentine decorators 
and by the sculptors and architects of Genoa, 
Vicenza, and Venice. In the Psalter of Paul III. 
he makes use of ancient Egyptian symbolism, of 
genii, termini, masks, cameos, medallions, bronzes, 
and especially of Imperial Roman coins. Of the 
last of these embellishments, most of the great 
sixteenth-century amateurs seem to have been 
especially proud. They form striking features in 
the ornamentation of the Attavante and other 
MSS., executed for Matthias Corvinus ; for Piero 
" II Gottoso " de' Medici ; for Leo X. ; for Clement 

150 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

VII. ; for the Elector of Bavaria ; and for several 
German Emperors, particularly Rodolph II. But 
all manner of utensils and anticagli gathered from 
the treasuries of antiquity — all manner of symbols, 
even down to the hieroglyphic cartels of the 
Pharaohs and the statues of Egyptian deities, are 
found among the ornaments invented by Clovio for 
the decoration of the Farnese volumes. 

Four years later than the Paris Psalter, he is just 
completing another Latin Service Book for this 
series. " Here," says a German traveller of the last 
century,* "he has given pictures in such profusion 
that you would think he had spent all his life on 
this one book, nor could you ever see anything more 
beautiful. The drawing is correct — the colouring 
lovely. The artist has not stippled these miniatures 
but executed them with strokes of the brush, in 
consequence of which they now appear somewhat 
faded." Richardson, in his Italian journey, met 
with this same MS. in the Ducal Gallery at Parma. 
He says in one place : " it is much finer than that 
in the Vatican (i.e. the Dante). It is well designed, 
masterly drawn, and beautifully coloured. Indeed, 
the figures have the style of Michelangelo, without 
his hardness and eccentricity. At the end of the 
volume, on an altar, occurs the inscription : ' IvLivs 

* Volkmann, Dr. J. J. . Historische, Kritische Naclirichten 
von Ifcalien, iii. 64. Leipzig, 1771. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 151 

Clovivs monvmenta haec AlexandeoFaenesio Domino 

When the Farnese properties became Bourbon by 
the accession, in 1736, of Don Carlos, eldest son of 
Philip V. of Spain and Elisabetta Farnese, to the 
crown of the Two Sicilies, the collection of coins, 
books, &c., which had been seen by Richardson at 
Parma, were removed to Naples, and for some time 
this Clovio gem was kept there, but since the 
departure of the last Bourbon king it has not been 
seen. The rest of the Farnese collection is still at 
Capo di Monte. It might be well if some competent 
person would examine the MSS. now in the Public 
Library at Ferrara for traces of authentic work. 
There is one which Rosini attributes to some 
ignoto Fen-arese, but which, from the outlines 
given by him, certainly was the work of some artist 
too clever to be quite unknown.* The jewels, broken 
flowers, birds, &c., are quite in the manner of the 
painter of the Berlin Missal of Clement VII. ; a leaf 
of which, or like which, is among the cuttings in 
the Rogers MS. Additional, 21412, in the British 
Museum. It is also the counterpart of another 
Clement VII. Service Book in the Chigi Library 
at Rome.t In other words, it is more or less in the 

* Rosini : Storia, &c. Suppl. pi. ccvi. 

t Sebastiano del Piombo in a New Light : Acad, xiviii. 295, 
329, 362, 433. 

152 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

manner of the Naples Flora. It would be interesting 
to compare these examples by means of photo- 
graphy, which will at least record faithfully the 
artist's touch, if not his colour. Some may possibly 
turn out to be the work of Clovio. Rosini's 
example, just referred to, contains the armorials of 
Alfonso III. Duke of Ferrara, in the lower border. 
It does not seem to be the work of Clovio, but 
it is the work of a contemporary. In the same 
year that this MS. was finished, or according 
to one account in 1540, a young German lady of 
good family, and bearing a similar name to the 
artist, came to Rome to study miniature painting 
under his guidance. From the correspondence which 
ensued between them, and a brief notice in a letter 
written by Annibale Caro, the Cardinal's Secre- 
tary, it is probably her portrait which appears 
beside Clovio's in the frame which formerly 
hung in the Ambras Gallery at Vienna. The date 
there given to the head of Clovio is 1528, but no 
mention of a wife, or any hint of such a relationship, 
is made in any account of this period of his residence 
at San Ruffino. It is incredible that the fact of his 
becoming a monk should not have suggested some 
allusion to his marriage if the event had already 
taken place, and during his first residence in Rome 
he is always spoken of as living with his patron. 
This visit, and the interchange of portraits which 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 153 

took place when they parted, seems to be the only- 
foundation of the guess making the Ambras portrait 
to be that of his wife. She was a native of Bam- 
berg, and the daughter, it would appear, of the 
musical writer and composer Clavio who resided 
there. Writing to her during her stay in Rome, he 
says : " I have felt for many days a wish to speak 
of your virtue and beauty, and was much impressed 
by the fame of both, when your portrait, painted by 
yourself, was shown to me by M., and in such a 
way, that I noticed in it the grace of your counte- 
nance, the liveliness of your disposition, and your 
excellence in that art of which I am a professor. 
Now think you, if first I loved you through having 
heard your commendations, how I love and honour 
you since I have seen, as it were yourself, and 
known you to be such a woman, that besides being 
so beautiftd and so young, you are also so excellent 
in an art that is rare even among men, not to speak 
of women. Love and admiration together have 
made me keep your portrait near me, and I count it 
every hour more precious, and by far the most 
admirable thing I have to look at. In return, I 
have ventured to send you my own, painted by my 
own hand, more in order that you may know what 
I am like, who love you, than for its intrinsic value, 
or because I think it worthy of you." The letter 
finishes by requesting that she will send him some- 

154 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

thing else of her own doing, and he will send her 
something in return. "And for the rest. ... I 
kiss your delicate and skilful hands. Farewell !"* 
If this were not a real love-letter and intended to 
lead to a closer relationship, it is at least a very- 
warm sample of polite and complimentary corre- 
spondence. It is only fair to add that the letter to 
her was written by Annibale Caro, who may have 
added some of the embellishments from his own 
imagination. We have no direct proof of any 
marriage, and possibly the Ambras portraits may 
have been forgeries or copies of separate miniatures. 
Yet it is not absolutely certain that Clovio, although 
forty-eight years of age, living, as he did, in the 
midst of the most brilliant and least prudish 
society in Rome, was in reality the recluse he 
is usually supposed to be. He was, it is true, 
noniinally a monk, and is represented in several of 
his portraits as wearing the monk's frock, yet so 
was Sebastiano del Piombo, whose wife resided 
with him in Rome. Clovio was now known not only 
to every artist of eminence in Rome, but also by 
repute to all the artistic world of Europe. Every 
foreigner of distinction gratified or worried him with 
a call, and by his fellow-residents he is always 
spoken of with profound respect. He did not form 

* For original see Appendix. 

Jtilli) (vloviji 


(From Sakcinskl's S. Slauonic Lexicon of Biography). 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 155 

a school, but just kept one or two assistants to 
forward the rougher portion of his work and 
occasionally to assist him by working on miniatures 
which he designed and completed, or by putting in 
such as were of minor importance in the works he 
undertook. In this way probably his name got 
attached, at least traditionally, to much that he had 
little or nothing to do with. We do not find 
mention of more than three actual scholars or 
permanent assistants, but he is said to have had a 
numerous band of imitators, who were glad of his 
patronage and help in their work.* By the aid of 
one or other of these he was enabled to undertake 
many commissions that otherwise would have been 
impossible. This practice accounts for the fact that 
scarcely a single work which goes under his name 
was altogether executed by his own hand. His 
usual custom was first to make the design or to 
adopt such as he approved from those handed to 
him by other artists, and to finish one or two 
miniatures as patterns, then to hand over the work 
to his assistants who did the rest, to which, perhaps, 
he would add a few finishing touches. Even his 
most finished performances and his most noted 
works betray unquestionable proofs of collaboration 
— as, for example, the Towneley Lectionary, where 

* Zcmi : Enoiclopedda Metodioa. Art. Clovio. 

156 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio, 

it has been thought that not more than one of the 
six miniatures — namely, the Last Judgment — was 
purely and entirely the work of his own pencil.* 
So in other well-known so-called Clovios, even 
with the best authentication, we have probably 
a good deal of the work of Claudio Massarelli, 
or of Buonfratelli, Bartolommeo Torre, Bernardo 
Buontalenti, Francesco Salviati, or even of Sebas- 
tiano del Piombo. 

The Piet^, containing five figures, so frequently 
repeated by the engraver,! and a Madonna, now in 
the Pitti Gallery at Florence, are assigned to the 
year 1548 ; and two miniatures, a Madonna, and 
another subject containing many figures belonging 
to the same year or a little earlier, were executed 
for Cristoforo Madruzzo, or Madruccio, Cardinal 
of Trento (b. 1512, d. 1578). In 1548, the Urbinese 
artist, Federigo Baroocio, whose miniatures have 
sometimes been mistaken for those of Clovio, visited 
Rome, and acquainted himself with the methods of 
the now famous master. Two years afterwards, 
Paul III., who had become suspicious of his own 
family, quarrelled with his favourite grandson, the 
Cardinal, and, it is said, died in a fit of anger 

* See the description of this magnificent MS. in the Appendix. 

t Rosini : v. 112 (Ed. 1851). There is a copy of the print by 
Cort in the Print Room of the British Musenm and a variation 
of it in the Grenville copy of Bonde. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 157 

whilst charging him with treason. He was succeeded 
by Cardinal Giovanni Maria de' Monti, who assumed 
the title of Julius III. For him Clovio is said by 
Vasari to have painted the Madonna surrounded by 
angels, with the figure of the Pope, according to 
the fashion of the time, kneeling before her. This 
picture, it is said, was the one which, being after- 
wards presented to the Emperor Charles V., was 
the occasion of much flattery to the artist and 
of further commissions. The polite and smooth- 
tongued monarch had always a good word for 
artists. When his portrait in miniature was painted 
for him by Antonio de Holanda, the Emperor 
declared it to be not only the most beautiful he had 
ever seen, but not to be surpassed by Titian himself, 
whose equestrian portrait of the august flatterer 
was then considered the finest in his collection, and 
is still one of the gems of the Royal Gallery. 

Another Madonna, referred to by Vasari as a 
separate work, may have formed part of the 
precious little Prayer Book executed for the young 
Ippolito de' Medici during Clovio's residence at 
Perugia sometime about 1530. The Prayer Book, 
which cost Ippolito two thousand crowns, was in- 
tended as a present to Giulia Colonna, with whom 
he had fallen deeply in love, notwithstanding 
her widowhood, for young as she then was, she 
had been the wife of the Duke of Trajetto, and 

158 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

was living in great state at her castle of Fondi, 
But the wilful lady, whose firmness of character 
was equal to her personal beauty, refused the gift. 
The name of Giulia di Gonzaga is a celebrated one 
in the social and religious history of the sixteenth 
century. She was the daughter of Luigi Count 
or Duke of Sabionetta, and was born about 1510, 
one of a numerous and gifted family. As a child she 
fascinated all hearts, and the graces of her budding 
womanhood are sung by all the famous poets of her 
time. Bernardo Tasso, Ariosto, Molza, Claudio 
Tolomei, and others vie with each other in cele- 
brating her charms. She was beautiful, highly 
accomplished, and unspoiled by praise. More 
majestic in her dark beauty than even her cousin 
and intimate friend Yittoria, whose blue eyes and 
fair tresses betokened a character of a far softer if 
still stately type, she had never been moved to the 
intensity of passion which made the brief wifehood 
of Vittoria such a glorious romance, and gave such 
terrible and tragic force to the seriousness of her 
after life. Whilst still a mere girl Giulia had been 
wedded to Vespasiano Colonna, Duke of Trajetto, 
an amiable and learned man, but crippled ' with 
rheumatism and forty years of age. She married 
him to oblige her parents, and found him kind, 
good-tempered, and as indulgent to his little bride 
as if he had been her grandfather. She soon learned 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 159 

to like his conversation, and before long to love him 
with a true wifely love. His daughter by a former 
marriage was almost her own age, but though also a 
handsome girl, Isabella Colonna possessed much of 
the family ritrosia and reticence. According to the 
custom of the age she was destined to be the wife of 
the young nephew of Clement VII., the Ippolito de' 
Medici above mentioned, when the poor infirm Duke 
of Trajetto died, leaving his widow immensely rich, 
and guardian to his daughter. A serious lawsuit, 
however, interfered with her immediate possession 
of her rights, and it was some time before matters 
were safely adjusted on her behalf Both Pope and 
Emperor took her side of the suit, and commissioned 
her younger brother Don Luigi Rodomonte, as the 
poets call him, to look after her affairs. When he 
arrived — a young, gay, and good-looking soldier — 
he more than accomplished his mission, for Isabella, 
who knew nothing of the Medici, and cared less, 
fell straightway in love with him and he with her. 
It is a curious story. By-and-by the duly 
appointed lover appeared upon the scene, being 
sent by his uncle the Pope to woo the fair Isabella. 
He was young, handsome, accomplished, and a man 
of a princely carriage, but Isabella had no eyes for 
him. Nor had he for her ; for as soon as he was 
introduced to her stepmother he cared for no 
other suit. Giulia took his heart by storm, and 

160 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

notwithstanding her anger at his confession and 
the trouble she imagined it would cause, he per- 
sisted in his open admiration. But she was, and 
continued to be, obdurate. In due time Luigi and 
Isabella were married. Within two years he lost 
his life in battle, and his little son and still girlish 
widow became the charge of his prudent and practical 
sister. This child also grew up to distinguish him- 
self like his father and the great Marchese del 
Vasto, in the wars, being known as Vespasiano 
Gonzaga, Duke of Sabionetta. Ruscelli in his 
" Imprese " commemorates his virtues and his 
singular devise. It is worthy of remark that several 
of the great soldiers of this time were as children 
left to the care of accomplished and beautiful widows ; 
and it is notable how thoroughly the young savages 
were metamorphosed into polished and chivalrous 
gentlemen. Vittoria Colonna had the bringing up 
of the young Marchese del Vasto — a beautiful child, 
but a very Turk when he came to her. He too 
married a beautiful woman, the fairest of her time 
in Italy, and he too came to an untimely end. The 
little Prayer Book was not the only gift which the 
unfortunate Cardinal de' Medici endeavoured to 
press upon the woman he loved. Nor was she, 
although unyielding on the principal and vital 
question, altogether careless of his devotion. That 
she liked him, especially after his becoming a 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 161 

Cardinal released her from the fear of his repeating 
any ojffer of marriage, is evident from the fact that 
she permitted Sebastiano del Piombo to paint her 
portrait for him. It was given in token of her 
gratitude for a singularly important service. Whilst 
Sebastiano was painting it she obtained a promise 
from the artist that he would give her his own 
likeness — a promise which he more than fulfilled, 
for when Ippolito looked upon the portrait which 
she sent him and the painter was relating to him 
how pleasantly the month had passed, he observed 
sadly how he wished he could have exchanged places 
with him : and as Sebastiano went on to say that 
she had asked him for his own portrait, the Cardinal 
begged to be included in the canvass, so that he 
might share the happiness of thus being occasionally 
brought to her recollection. And so it happens that 
in the well-known picture the Cardinal is not the 
principal figure.* How the Prayer Book afterwards 
came into the hands of Paul III. is not recorded, 
but one may easily imagine that, with all its beauty, 
it became hateful to the Cardinal. He died, whilst 
still young, in 1535, as it is said, by poison, at 
Giulia's castle of Itri, on his way to visit her at 
Fondi. The secret instigator of the act was alleged 
to have been Alessan.di'o Duke of Florence, who 

* It is now, together with Sebastiano's portrait of Giulia, in 
our own National Gallery. 


162 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

had obtained the dignity which rightfully belonged to 
the Cardinal ; and who thus characteristically anti- 
cipated the treachery which he perhaps justly feared 
from his kinsman. A similar fate, however, awaited 
him. He was assassinated under circumstances of 
more than ordinary barbarity, by another member 
of the family of Medici. 

The devotion of Ippolito for Giulia Colonna is 
attested by his devises. The blazing star, called by 
Ruscelli and Giovio the Star of Venus, with its 
brief motto, " Inter omnes," taken from the words 
of Horace, Inter omnes micat Julium sidus, "the 
Julian star," in allusion to her name, is com- 
memorated as having been suggested by the poet, 
Molza, to accompany his various presents, and 
probably appeared in the pages of the little volume 
so often referred to. The book itself is now lost or 
destroyed. But it was said by Vasari to have been 
the identical one for which the Pope commissioned 
Cellini to make the rich silver covers, in which to 
present it to the Emperor on his return from Tunis 
in the year of Ippolito's death. The goldsmith, 
unhappily, had not finished them when he received 
the order for their presentation. Doubtless the 
Pope was annoyed at this circumstance, and when 
afterwards Cellini requested permission to carry it 
again to Charles V., he was told that his part of the 
business was over, and his Holiness would see to the 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 163 

rest. Whether the present ever reached the Emperor 
after all is doubtful. Cellini gives an account of its 
first presentation, but in his description of the gift 
he differs from Vasari ; and M. Plon, in his mono- 
graph on Cellini, denies the identity of the cover 
traditionally assigned to this famous volume ; but 
thinks it possible that the true cover may be the 
one now kept in the Friedenstein Collection at 
Gotha. But what has become of the book? Can 
the story of its being offered to Giulia Gonzaga be 
untrue ? It seems the most probable explanation 
that the work was actually in progress at the time 
of Ippolito's untimely death, and that, although 
paid for, was never actually presented, but obtained 
from the artist by Paul III. Every consideration 
has its difficulties. The supposition that by Paul, 
Vasari meant Julius, is no advantage, for it is 
certain that it could not have been Julius who 
presented the MS. to the Emperor in 1535. 

For the magnificent Cardinal of Trent, Cristoforo 
Madruzzi, the intimate friend of Alessandro and 
Ottavio Farnese and a viceroy of Milan, Clovio 
painted a portrait of Philip II. of Spain, which 
was sent through the Flemish envoy, Ruy Gomez, 
as a present to the King. But we must guard 
against the repetition of these Madonnas and 
Pietks, there has been such confusion of different 
accounts of the same transaction that it is now 


164 Life of Giorgio Giulid Clovio. 

quite impossible to verify the statements or to ascer- 
tain the facts. 

By this time, so great was Clovio's reputation that 
his time became crowded with occupations of the 
most varied character, necessitating more than ever 
the aid of his scholars, and giving rise to the host of 
traditions which has so beset his name as to make 
even his greatest admirers doubtful of the authen- 
ticity of pieces said to be his work. Even his 
signature is not always a guarantee, as it is by 
no means difficult to imitate. The only reliable 
evidence after the work itself, is the undoubted 
testimony of documentary record, as otherwise 
even the best of judges may be deceived. It is 
more than doubtful whether, by mere inspection, 
Mr. Ottley was " able to trace his hand " in work 
done as late as 1573, when he was seventy-five 
years of age. 

During the many years of labour which the much- 
sought and industrious miniaturist was bestowing on 
his admirable works, the fortunes of the princely 
house to which he had last attached himself were 
subject to much painful fluctuation. Family feuds 
and political jealousies rendered intercourse between 
the Medici, the Farnese, the Monti and the Caraffas, 
not to speak of the deeper rivalries of Colonna, 
Orsini, Malatesta, and Montefeltri, or of the Visconti 
and Venice, often extremely constrained and difiicult. 

Life of Giorgio Oiulio Clovio. 165 

The parties and factions always hoping for a turn in 
the papal elections, kept intrigue always alive, and 
selfishness always on the alert. Simulation, dis- 
simulation, diplomacy, deceit, conspiracy, secret 
assassination were in constant exercise, and now it 
was one family, now another that became fuorusciti. 
CeUini, we know, was not an admirer of the Farnese, 
even before he owed to them the two most painful 
passages of his life. But the outspoken and 
choleric goldsmith was of another mould entirely 
fi'om the quiet, peace-loving miniaturist. Those 
whom Cellini brands as intolerably deceitful, greedy 
and cruel, Clovio may have known to be pleasant, 
courteous, and even generous patrons. Liberal in 
its best sense, they seldom were, and Clovio was 
often in want of ready money. Alessandro, it is 
true, like Ippolito de' Medici, could at times be 
liberal enough, with the revenues of the Church. 
They could gain for themselves a resounding name 
as patrons of literature and art. But it was out of 
funds that came easily when prosperity smiled and 
ceased entirely when things went ill. Probably 
Paul III. and Pier Luigi of Parma, felt the force of 
these conditions, and Cellini's talk about the avarice 
of the Farnese may have been one reason why he 
suffered so smartly at their hands. After the death 
of Paul III., his successor Julius III. (1550-1555), 
otherwise Cardinal Giovanni da Monte, immediately 

166 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

betrayed the usual sentiment of rivalry by proposing 
the re-incorporation of the Duchy of Parma with 
the temporal domains of the Popedom. An offer 
of compensation was politely tendered to the young 
Duke Ottavio, who, however, stedfastly refused to 
relinquish his possessions until absolutely compelled. 
With all his easy temper and general mildness of 
disposition, on this point he was inflexible. After 
vainly appealing to his Imperial father-in-law, from 
whom he got vague promises but no real help, he 
turned to the French, with the natural result of 
finding his little patrimony the bone of contention 
between three armies. For years the revenues and 
even the titles of his territories were lost to him; 
and in 1550 his family had to leave Rome. The 
Cardinal retired to Florence, and was accompanied 
or followed by Clovio, for Cosmo I., the Grand 
Duke, had invited him to that artistic city. Nor 
was Clovio loth to avail himself of the opportunity, 
as Florence was rich in the works of some of the 
greatest masters of miniature art. During his stay 
he painted, or rather copied, a head of Christ from an 
ancient panel reputed to have once been the property 
of Godfrey of Bouillon, King of Jerusalem ; also a 
" Stabat lyEater," or Crucifixion, and other works. 
The Crucifixion is signed " ivlivs macedo, a. 1553." 
In the Inventory of all the " figure quadri et altri 
cose della Tribuna," made in 1589, and now pre- 


(From Bottafis Vasafi). 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 167 

served in the Archives of the Florentine Gallery, 
are registered the following paintings by Clovio, 
A.C. fol. 4, " quadro " of the Rape of Ganymede in 
miniature ; 5, Piet^ with many figures, in miniature; 
9, St. John in the Wilderness with many animals ; 
9, Portrait of the Grand Duchess Elionora di Toledo, 
wife of the Grand Duke Cosimo I. ; 9, Head of a 
woman; 10, A Pietk ; 12, "Salvator Mundi"; 
13, " Stabat Mater" ; 28, A portrait of Juho Clovio 
himself in a frame. Across the shoulders is written 
in golden Roman capitals : D. Giulio miniatorb. 
This is the portrait used in all Italian Editions of 
Vasari, after the Giunta.* To complete these works 
Clovio was still remaining in Florence in 1553, 
although the Cardinal had returned to Rome, 
Rosini says that during this visit he instructed 
Bernardo Buontalenti in miniature.t In 1556 the 
friendly relations with Philip II. were renewed, 
while those between the Empire and the Court of 
Rome were again broken off. This circumstance 
arising out of the jealousy between the Caraffas and 
the Farnese compelled the Cardinal again to consult 
his personal safety by flight, this time to Parma, 
and Clovio again was among his retinue. Whilst 
there he painted the Madonna that went as a 
present to Ruy Gomez da Silva, and afterwards to 

* Vasari, G. Vite &c. (Sansoni), vii. 567. 
t V. 112. 

1G8 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

the Catholic King. The miniature was intrusted 
for transmission to the CavaHer Giuhano Ardinghelh, 
resident ambassador from the Duke of Parma, 
at the vice-regal Court of Brussels. A letter is 
still extant written by Ardinghelli to Cardinal 
Farnese — that is to Cardinal Alessandro ; for 
now his younger brother Ranuccio was also 
a Cardinal — in which the writer informs the 
Cardinal that he has presented the little picture 
to Senor Ruy Gomez, who had expressed great 
admiration of it. The date of the letter is December 
4th, 1556.* 

The concluding words seem to imply that the 
count would be glad of some further example of 
the artist's skill. Then come other important 
commissions from other members of the Imperial 
or of the Ducal family. 

At this time Ottavio Farnese, though nominally 
Duke of Parma, was in the midst of difficulty 
and peril. From 1550 to 1553 he was in almost 
equal danger from friends and foes, for to prevent 
his capital from falling into the hands of the Pope 
or being surreptitiously got hold of by his father- 
in-law, it was occupied by a French garrison. And 
in 1553 his half-brother Orazio, who had entered 
the service of Henry II. of France, and married 

* Delle Lettere del Caro II. 327-336, Letter 194. 3 vols. 
Padova, 1734, 12mo. 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 169 

this French. King's daughter, was accidentally 
killed, and Ottavio's interests at the Court of 
Fontainebleau no longer kept in view. It therefore 
became the object of the ill-used Duke of Parma 
once more to cultivate the good- will of the Emperor, 
which he had been obliged to incur the risk of 
losing, and hence the embassy to Brussels and the 
timely present to the favourite minister. But he 
was not successful. The Emperor died without 
restoring his independence, nor did he obtain posses- 
sion of Piacenza until thirty years afterwards. Soon 
after the death of Charles, Philip II. appointed his 
sister Margaret, Duchess of Parma, to the govern- 
ment of the Low Countries, where everything had 
become thrown into confusion through the civil and 
religious tyranny that Philip and his ministers had 
been endeavouring to introduce. As a further 
pledge of mutual good understanding and con- 
fidence 'Ottavio placed in Philip's hands his 
son and heir, Alessandro, to be brought up at 
the Spanish Court. This Alessandro afterwards 
became a celebrated general and governor of the 

Margaret of Parma forms a sort of link between 
the Medici, the Famese, and the Court of Spain. 
Clovio executes several commissions for her that 
only recently have been verified from her papers. 
From a document brought to light at Piacenza 

170 Life ofCriorgio Giulio Clovio. 

relating to the year 1557; it appears that Margaret 
of Parma had desired Clovio to colour certain 
imprese relating to her above-mentioned son 
Alessandro. From the document it does not 
appear what these imprese were, but they are 
named in a letter which I shall here make use of, 
because it speaks authoritatively concerning the 
devises of the various members of the Farnese 
family. It was written by Annibal Caro, one of 
the three Secretaries, — the other two were Filarete 
and Monterchi,^ — of Pier Luigi Farnese, afterwards 
of Cardinal Alessandro. It is addressed to the 
Duchess of Urbino, the Cardinal's sister, and is 
written from Rome, January 15th, 1543. 

" With this you will find those imprese of the 
House that I have been able to discover down to 
the present time. 1. The Virgin with the Unicorn 
seems to me to be the most ancient. The motto 
with it is viRTVs secvritatem parit. My translation 
of this is that Innocence or Modesty secures the 
maiden from the ferocity of that beast, as purity 
and sincerity of life secures the bearer of this 
impresa from every adversity. The Duke Pier 
Luigi bore this without the Virgin, using the 
Unicorn alone, who buries his horn in a bank 

* Tlie arms of Farnese are or, six fleur-de-lis azure, 3, 2, 
and 1. 

life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 171 

from which issue serpents, and of this impresa 
Cardinal Crispo still makes use." The emblem of 
the Virgin and Unicorn is very ancient. An old 
tradition, of which the origin must be sought in 
the antique religion of Persia, makes the unicorn 
the emblein of purity, as contrasted with the 
mai"tichoras or serpent, a type of the demon. 
When this animal is pursued, he goes to take refuge 
in the lap of a virgin. In ancient paintings the 
Annunciation and the Conception are figured alle- 
gorically by the Unicorn throwing itself into the lap 
of the Virgin Mary. The Stag and the Unicorn have 
served from time immemorial as the emblems of 
purity.* In the sculptures which may be called the 
Strasburg Bestiary, there occurs the scene of the 
Unicorn taking refuge in the lap of a Virgin from a 
hunter who pierces it with his spear. This alludes 
to another form of the legend common in the Middle 
Ages. But the scene is common enough. It is 
given sometimes in Books of Hoiu's, for the illustra- 
tion of the zodiacal sign of the Virgin. What Pier 
Luigi Farnese could claim in common with this 
character in his devise of the Unicorn and the 
serpents is not very clear. But perhaps he may 
not in his own esteem at least have been as black as 

* Maury, L. F. : Egsai sur les legendes pieuses du Moyen 
Age, 177. 

172 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

he is painted. Caro resumes : " Pope Paul III. 
bore two impresa — 1. That of a Lily, which is 
the armorial of the House, and of an arco haleno, 
or rainbow which stands over it, with the motto, 
AIKHS HPION meaning the lily of justice, but I do 
not know what mystery may be concealed under 
it."* Here it maybe remarked that the fashionable 
folly of the sixteenth century of pressing the most 
frivolous conceits and jeux de mot, led sometimes 
to very extraordinary results, so that even contem- 
poraries, as Caro in this instance, were at a loss for 
an explanation. Cardinal Galeotto della Rovere, for 
example, had a ceiling ornamented with " galee 
otto "^eight galleys — as a play upon his own name. 
At first he had had eight large helmets — -otto celatoni 
— of gilded stucco, suspended from branches of oak, 
the oak Rovere being the family bearings. But 
this being considered too obscure was altered to 
the eight galleys. ' In a similar taste a Messer 
Agostino Forco, of Pavia, being enamoured of 
Madonna Bianea Patiniera, to show himself her 
faithful servant, wore a small candle of white wax, 
candela di cera bianea inserted in the front of his 
scarlet berretta to signify can (dog, i.e. faithful 
servant ;) de la Bianea (of the fair, i.e. of Bianea). 

* HPION is evidently a mistake for AEIPION, but it is usually 
giveu KPINON. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 173 

Some were even still more vulgar in their literalness. 
The fiery soldier, or ruffian, as Giovio calls him — 
Bastiano del Mancino — used to wear on his berretta 
a small shoe-sole with the letter T on the middle of 
it, and a pearl on the point of the sole, wishing 
to imply that he loved a lady named Margaret 
te Margherita sola di cor amo. The play on 
cuore and cuojo, in popular pronunciation made 
nearly alike, shows the exquisite pinguidity of the 
bravo's sense of delicacy, not to speak of the 
suola and sola. The pearl and margarita are of 
course quite legitimate and graceful. But the 
masterpiece of such vulgarity, not to say profanity, 
was the devise of Mastro Giovanni da Castel 
Bolognese, of the descent of the Sacred Dove 
over the twelve Apostles. One day Pope Clement 
VII. with whom this gentleman was on most 
intimate terms, asked him why he wore this 
emblem of the Holy Dove and the burning tongues 
on the heads of the Apostles. Giovio says he was 
present and heard the reply. " Not as a mark of 
devotion, Holy Father, but to express my conceit 
of Love. I had been for a long time enamoured of 
and very ungratefully treated by a lady, and forced 
to give her up as I could not stand the banter, the 
putting off, and the cost of the presents I used to 
make her. So I figured the Feast of the Pentecoste 
to show that I repented of the affair because it was 

174 Life of Giorgio Gtulio Clovio. 

too costly." " On which exposition," adds Giovio, 
" the Pope laughed so immoderately that he had 
to leave the supper table before the meal was half 

To go back to Caro and the Farnese. The 
explanation of the AIKHS KPINON is not far to seek. 
It alludes to the myth of Iris and the substitution of 
the word " iris," which meant both " rainbow " and 
" lily." Hence the bow of justice or rainbow, the 
pledge of God's justice, became the lily of justice. 
The real mystery concealed under it is what it had 
to do with the character or conduct of Paul III. 
" But so," continues Caro, " this blue lily (xeipiov is 
a white lily, by the way), like the storm bow, is 
called Iris. This conjunction of one with the other 
I can only suppose to signify justice." 2. The next 
device of the Pope was that of a Dolphin conjoined 
with a Chameleon. It is taken from one borne by 
the Emperor Augustus, who placed a Dolphin 
round an anchor, wishing to infer that he was 
swift to execute, but slow to decide, the one by the 
swiftness of the dolphin, the other by the tenacity 
of the anchor. 

The Pope took the chameleon, a most slowly 
moving animal, in exchange for the anchor, 
but did not add the motto. But he meant it 
to express the same as that of Augustus, which 
in Greek was SITETAE BPAAEflS and in Latin 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 175 

Festina lente, meaning that he was anxious to do 

This devise of the Lightning was borne by the 
Cardinal whilst still a youth. I do not know what 
the motto was that went with it. It appears as a 
devise on some Roman medals, especially on those 
of Augustus. It may signify many things, but 
meant, when his Excellency bore it, the power 
conferred on him by the Pope as having the 
thunderbolts of Jove. 

Another Farnese impresa is the Pegasus, who 
appears to issue from the sun as feigned to be borne 
of Aurora, and is striking Mount Parnassus with 
his hoof, whence issues the fountain of Helicon. 
This wingied horse signifies Eloquence and Poetry, 
and I think it is meant to represent the protection 
and aid which the Cardinal gave to learning and the 
learned. The motto with it says: HMEPAS AfiPON, 
i.e. the gift of Day. It was the invention of the poet 
Molza (a Modenese gentleman, who was invited 
by Vittoria Farnese to become the tutor of her 
son, Francesco Maria della Rovere, afterwards 
Duke of Urbino). 

The third devise was the invention of the Cai-- 
dinal himself — not, as Caro thought, of Molza. 

* "On slow" or "tasten slowly." "Festina lente" is a 
common motto in modern heraldry. It is borne by several 
noble families in England. 

176 lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Giovio also attributes it to Molza, but Caro pro- 
bably got his opinion from Giovio. Ruscelli is at 
some pains to contradict this idea. It is that of an 
arrow sticking in a target or butt, with the words 
from Homer, BAA A' OTTXiS, i.e. shoot thus, viz. 
at the bull's-eye.* 

" The last impresa of Cardinal Farnese was 
made by myself in the time when Pope Julius III. 
was making war on Parma. The figure is the ship 
of Jason, and the Argonauts who went to Colchis to 
seek the Golden Fleece. The two rocks (monti) 
are the famous Symplegades which threatened, by 
clashing together, to destroy the ship. Applied to 
the Cardinal, the Argo signified the House of 
Farnese, the two rocks the House of Monti (the 
family of Julius III.), who were trying to oppress 
the former. The motto says HAPA nAflSOMEN 
' we shall sail past,' ' gli passeremo una volta questi 
monti,' as indeed they have done safely. The 
Cardinal of St. Angelo (Ranuccio Farnese) at first 

* The words occur at line 282 of the Eighth Book, where 
Atreides is giving advice to the young Teucer. 

TeuKpE, ipiki] Ke<paX^, TeXafiiivie, Koipavs XatDi', 
BaW ourwe, aixev re ipoue Aavaoicrt yiyriai. 

Teucer, my hero beloved, my Telamon, lord of the people, 
Keep on shooting like this, if joy thou wouldst bear to the 

Or more literally, perhaps : — 

Shoot (ever) thus, so shalt thou bring glory to the Greeks. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 177 

bore this impresa: Two temples — one of Honour, 
the other of Virtue, which the ancient Romans 
built attached to each other, thereby meaning' 
that whoever would be honoured must be virtuous. 
It was the invention of M. Claudio Tolomei. 
But I do not find any motto with it. The 
Duchess, your mother, had another made from it, 
by me, for the same Cardinal, but I don't think 
he ever wore it, so I need not send it. One 
of Duke Ottavio, which I made and which his 
Excellency bore in Flanders in a joust with many 
Burgundian Barons against the Count of Agamonte. 
It was the club, the rope, and the pellets of pitch by 
means of which Theseus vanquished the Minotaur 
and escaped out of the Labyrinth; wishing to 
imply that with these same things which signify 
strength, prudence, astuteness, and other military 
arts, he also would conquer his adversary and issue 
honourably from this danger. 

"Of this same Duke Ottavio, is one also made by 
me and borne by his Excellency at the same time in a 
Jiournament which followed the joust: it is a fire on 
which blow two winds to blow it out, but only 
inflame it the more. The motto is from Virgil — 
vivida hella virtus — signifying that the more they 
try to ruin him the stronger they make him. Duke 
Ottavio bore also this other devise in the war 
against the Duke of Ferrara. The invention was 


178 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

his Excellency's own — the motto he asked me to 
find. It arose out of a passion he had at that time 
for a lady named Olympia; and as Mount Olympus 
surpasses the clouds, so the motto says, Nuhes 
excedit. He wished to imply that her exaltation 
was such that he lost all hope of reaching it. On 
which occasion I also wrote a sonnet, a copy of 
which I enclose. 

"This one (the di'awing of which accompanied the 
description) I made at the request of Duke Orazio,* 
and he bore it when, as a youth, he was sent for a 
holiday into France. The centaur is intended for 
Chiron, the tutor of Achilles, and to represent 
King Francis I. of France, under whose care he 
was placed. Hence, he wears a crown, and has 
in one hand a bow, in the other a lyre, which the 
poets say Chiron taught Achilles, to signify the 
military arts and civil sciences. The motto 
XEIPI2N0S AIAASKAAOT — Chirone Magistro— 
meant that under such a master he hoped to become 
as famous as Achilles became under Chiron. The last 
two — of the little horse going to take wing, and of 
the egg and two stars — Madamat ordered me to make 

* Orazio, natural son of Pier Luigi, called by eonrtesy Duke 
of Castro. He was deeply attached to his brother Ottavio, and 
always anxious for the welfare of his family. In 1552, he 
married Diana, natural daughter of Henry II. of Prance. 

t Margaret of Parma. 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 179 

for the Prinee of Parma,* and the interpretation of 
the letter which I wrote over it when the imprese 
were sent to Court. And I know of no other 
imprese belonging to the House, either ancient or 
modern." The letter finishes with a request that 
the Duchess wiU grant him a favour, namely, to 
send for the "Credenza" now completed by a 
painter in Rome : — " II Signor Duca suo eonsorte 
fece fare qui molti disegni di varie storiette per 
dipingere una credenza, di majoliche in Urbino. La 
quale e stata finita, e gli disegni sono testati in 
mano di quel maestri i quah ordinariamente non gli 
hanno ad avere." Dated Roma, xv. Jan. 1563. 

As Annibale Caro was resident in the Palace of 
Cardinal Farnese in Rome, when he wrote this 
letter, it is improbable that any devise used by 
the family would be unknown to him. But the 
devise borne by Alessandro Prince of Parma, in his 
campaign against the Protestant Princes of Ger- 
many — namely, the thunderbolt with the motto. Hoc 
uno Jupiter ultor — was naturally not mentioned in 
a -letter written twenty years before. There were, 
however, other members of the family whose imprese 
are omitted by Caro. For example, Bertaldo Far- 
nese in 1554 fitted out at his private expense a 
galley for the Imperial service. Both himself and 

* These were the two executed by Clovio for Prince Ales- 


180 Life of Giorgio GivJio Clovio. 

his galley were captured, and he only regained his 
personal liberty by paying a ruinously heavy ransom. 
To show that he was unshaken by this calamity, he 
adopted the device of a tower with the motto, 
Nomen Domini, alluding to Proverbs xviii. 10. 

We have traced hitherto the personal career of 
Clovio as definitely as our materials would allow. 
We must now glance rapidly over the final years 
of anxiety and suffering in which his labours are 
necessarily few and often interrupted, to gather 
what hints we may of such work as he was still 
able to produce. 

In the midst of his work at Piacenza, there 
happened to him another unexpected and more than 
ordinarily severe misfortune. His health was pro- 
bably permanently injured by his sufierings thirty 
years before in Rome. Now his left eye became so 
seriously diseased as to threaten loss of sight. In 
January, 1558, he was compelled to undergo 
an operation which fortunately proved successful. 
Possibly with a view to the complete restoration of 
his strength he seems to have accepted an invitation 
to Correggio,the lord of which seigniory — Hieronimo 
— was a personal friend of Cardinal Farnese. In a 
letter still extant, written from Piacenza to the 
Cardinal who was then at Parma, he mentions this 
misfortune as to his sight, saying that it has increased 
so seriously that he can scarcely see at all. He names 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 181 

a certain clever surgeon-oculist who had cured a 
Count Antonio Scoti in a fortnight, and he wishes 
to know if his Excellency will allow him to try the 
remedy, as it is attended with no risks, and he is 
anxious to regain his ability to continue his labours 
for his patron. He hopes that in a week he will be 
all right and able to go about as he pleases; though 
it cannot be done without an operation, which some- 
what frightens him. The next letter tells us that 
this Maestro Batisto, the Florentine oculist, had 
skilfully performed the operation which he minutely 
describes, and he is thankful to say that his sight 
is quite restored. The next letter is from Correggio 
and is dated July, 1559. In it he speaks of his 
anxieties and troubles, and how he has been obliged 
to stay at Correggio, but seems to want help of some 
kind from the Cardinal. In 1560 he is still at 
Correggio, apparently residing with his old friend 
Julio Bemieri, whose brother Antonio was one of 
the pupils of Antonio AUegri, better known as 
Correggio. Julio Bernieri was a miniature painter 
and had visited Rome, carrying with him Clovio's 
letter to the Cardinal. During this year a Bull of 
Pius IV. was issued to moderate the severity of a 
regulation made by his predecessor, towards such 
persons, as having joined a religious body or regular 
order, had left their place of residence and gone 
forth again into the world. The Bull was intended 

182 Life of Giorgio Gfiulio Clovio. 

to absolve from the threatened penalties those who 
formerly had had the privilege of the Holy See 
itself to leave the Cloister (as we know was the case 
with Don Julio), only enjoining upon them that they 
should present themselves within six months to the 
Ordinaries and Priors of the Houses where they 
had professed in order to obtain due recognition of 
their title to the dispensation. Clovio's next letter 
refers to this requirement, in order to fulfil which he 
had to proceed to Candiana, and in order to accom- 
plish this journey he was obliged to have recourse 
to the Cardinal. One month of the six, he says, has 
already passed, and he begs the Cardinal to write for 
him a letter of introduction either to the Bishop of 
Padua, in whose diocese lay the monastery of 
Candiana, or to any other person to whom the 
Cardinal might think it better to apply, and give 
orders for the supply of the necessary funds for the 
journey, after which he hopes to be able" to return 
direct to his patron's service for the rest of his life. 
The letter is addressed to Rome, the Cardinal having 
returned thither on the death of Paul IV. The next 
letter shows some depression and uncertainty about 
the future; the result, no doubt, of fresh sickness and 
perhaps disappointment. He says that when he 
was a younger man and in better health he never 
despaired of the favour and kindness of his 
Excellency, but now, growing old and infirm, he 


From Zuccaro'-s Picture 
at Caprarola. 





Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 183 

trusted in him more firmly than ever, feeUng sure 
that he would never forsake him now that he needed 
rest, and help to pay for his restoration to health. 
He has been taking the Baths at Lucca, whither he 
had gone at the expense of "Signor Hieronimo." 
He has heard of a clever doctor in Venice that he 
thinks would cure him, and he intends to put himself 
in that doctor's hands for a month in order to try, and 
again begs the favour of a letter of introduction to 
the Governor of San Giovanni di Furlani, to obtain 
the accommodation of being lodged for that time. The 
Bull of Pius IV. was published on the 3rd of April.* 
On the 29th he wrote for his introduction to the 
Bishop of Padua. On the 13th June he writes as 
above about Lucca and the Venetian physician, and 
he goes on to express his gratitude to the Lord of 
Correggio — "II Sr. Hieronimo che per certo non mi 
lasciar manear" — as regards his living, but still he 
requires a little cash for medicines and other small 
expenditures, and begs the Cardinal will send him 
some to be going on with. How like our own times 
is this sixteenth-century story of domestic worries 
and constant struggle with bad health and want 
of funds. The wonder is that with such feeble 
health all his life almost, he should have been able 
to produce so much of the highest class of work and 

* Coqnetines: BuUarnm Eomanor. Pontiff, amplissinia Col- 
lectio IV. par. 2, pp. 10-12. 

184 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

of a kind calculated above every other to be most 
trying to his injured sight and broken constitution — 
moreover, that he should have survived to such an 
unusual age. He now says that he hopes to be in 
Rome during the following month of July. He is 
rather anxious about the money he writes about, as 
he has not, he says, received a soldo of the sum 
granted by his Excellency, for five months.* Not 
so much the major-domo of the Palazzo Farnese as 
the Cardinal's own ill-fortune was probably answer- 
able for this falling off of Clovio's salary. July, 
however, was passed in Venice. In August he is 
moving towards Rome. By the 23rd of that month 
he has reached Caprarola. Here Taddeo Zuccaro 
and his brothers had been long engaged in the 
grand series of paintings and decorations which were 
and are the great glory and attraction of this 
magnificent palace. A letter from Annibal Caro 
proves Clovio's presence at this time. But neither 
the care he had received in Venice nor such as he 
obtained in Rome on his return proved of much 
permanent good. He is compelled to relinquish his 
occupation for many days together, and to decline 
one commission after another, for want of health to 
apply himself as he ought. Then, added to this, 
his advancing age tells powerfully against complete 
recovery. It is, therefore, not likely that many 
* Appendix, Letter IV. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 185 

works can be assigned to this period of his life. 
Nevertheless, amid his weakness he forces himself to 
complete the picture ordered by Madama* repre- 
senting "Judith and Holof ernes." On the 11th of 
September the miniature is despatched to the 
princess with a letter from Caro. Six years after- 
wards, on September 5th, we have a letter from 
Clovio in Rome to the Cardinal at Caprarola, men- 
tioning the death of Zuccaro and his own grief for 
this loss of a dear friend, and also speaking of the 
abilities of Taddeo's brother and his fitness to 
succeed him. He also names a quadretta, which, 
he says, would have been finished but the heat in 
Rome had been too great to permit him to work as 
he was accustomed, besides he had suffered from 
headache. The Curzon portrait shows this tired 
look in the eyes which indicates a habit of suffering. 
The weary six years to the poor invalid is without 
other record. 

Three years later comes a letter to the Duke of 
Parma, who wished for a portrait of himself, and 
Clovio is anxious to do it. The letter shows that 
he has other work in hand, which he immediately 
throws aside in order to devote all his powers to 
this portrait, which he copies from a figure of the 
Duke that he had preserved in a little book. The 
Cardinal's major-domo, Count Lodovico Tedeschi, 
* Margaret of Parma. 

186 lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

brings him the order ; he at once begins the work, 
and speedily finishes it. In sending it to the Duke 
he begs him to excuse his age and the weakness of 
his eyes and hands, adding that he has laid aside the 
Cardinal's work in order to complete this. The letter 
is dated October, 1569.* Two or three more letters 
are given by Ronchini, the last referring to the price 
to be asked for a picture of St. Francis and others. 
Its date is 1 573. As I have said above, it is extremely 
unlikely that, considering his infirmities, any work 
can be found which can, on internal evidence alone, 
be traced to his hand. The probability is that 
everything now, and until his death in 1578, was 
actually executed by his pupil Massarelli, or the 
rest. If the work of ApoUonio Buonfratelli and of 
Baroccio can be mistaken for Clovio's we need feel 
no surprise that his resident scholars — themselves 
styled miniaturists to the Cardinal — should so 
catch his manner as to deceive a modern observer. 
The story of the artist's life is now told. He died, 
as already mentioned, on January 5th, 1578, and 
had the honour of a public funeral. He was buried 
in the tribune of S. Pietro, in Vincoli. At the 
back of the grand altar is the choir, and above the 
choir the wall between the windows is decorated 
with frescoes by G. Coppi, of Florence, from the 
life of St. Peter. On the pillar of the arch to our 

* Appendix, Letter VI. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 187 

right are fixed the marble profile and monumental 
inscription put up in 1632. The words are : — 

D. o. M. 













Clovio's work under Farnese patronage. — The supposed com- 
missions for Philip II. — The Bonde Psalter, and the 
copy of it at Naples. — The Vatican MSS. — Dante. — ■ 
Lives of the Dukes of Urbino, Muzio, Tullia d'Aragona, 
Monterchi. — The Stuart de Rothesay Hours. — Staiize di 
Eurialo d'Ascoli. — The Gonzaga Hours. — Other works. 

TN the year 1572 Cardinal Buoncampagni became 
Gregory XIII., succeeding, with a far more 
liberal disposition, to the narrow and bigoted policy 
of Pius Y., and inheriting the infamy, in Protestant 
minds, of the measures which pressed with such 
horrible cruelty upon the Reforming section of the 
Church. In this same year, which witnessed public 
thanksgivings for the Massacre of St. Bartholomew 
in Rome and Madrid, Philip II. initiated his scheme 
for the embellishment of the Choir of San Lorenzo 
of the Escorial with a set of Service-books magni- 
ficent enough to perpetuate the profound intensity 
of his gratitude. The scheme was in every way 
worthy of its author's well-known liberality in 
matters pertaining to art. Invitations, not to say 
commands, were sent to all the most distinguished 
miniaturists in Spain, Italy, and the Netherlands. 
Clovio was above all the man whom Philip had 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 189 

long marked for his service, and whose assistance he 
was now especially anxious to secure. But at 
seventy-four years of age Clovio was reluctant, 
indeed unable, to comply with an invitation which 
other artists found it impossible to decline. His 
advanced age and feeble health combined to form a 
plausible excuse for his want of compliance, even 
had there been no additional reasons. A sort of 
polite and external cordiality had, it is true, arisen 
between Ottavio Farnese and his Imperial relatives, 
but it was only by accident, if it went any further 
than suited the convenience of either party. Since 
the death of Paul III. the httle duchy of Parma 
found itself in the midst of enemies of all degrees. 
Its twin dependency of Piacenza had long been a 
mere political phrase, the State itself yielding its 
substantial revenue to the Imperial coffers, notwith- 
standing all the efforts of Ottavio and Orazio and 
the young Alessandro. Margaret seems to have 
been consoled for her husband's enforced resigna- 
tion to this indignity, by the Governorship of the 
Netherlands, in which she speedily won a reputation 
that gained her universal praise. But the policy of 
her father towards her husband was perpetuated by 
her brother, and hitherto, notwithstanding the most 
courteous professions on the part of Philip, the 
Duke of Parma had no substantial ground for any 
reliance upon his august brother-in-law. He might 

190 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

send him miniatures and other trifles, which put 
no one to very serious inconvenience. But what 
might be the result of permitting an almost intimate 
dependent of his house to go and reside in the 
household of the King of Spain, needed some con- 
sideration. Besides, the Cardinal would not give 
up his valued protege. All things considered, there- 
fore, Clovio's age and infirmities were accepted as a 
sufficient reason for his remaining where he was. 
Philip was proud, we know, and sometimes im- 
placable. But so were the Farnese. From Cardinal 
Alessandro the elder to Elisabetta, wife of , King 
Philip V. of Spain, the pride and imperiousness of 
the family were never disputed even by their 
friends. It is, however, asserted by some writers, 
on what authority is not clear, that certain com- 
missions were undertaken for the" Spanish King as 
a sort of compensation for his disappointment about 
the choir-books. It ia even attempted to name the 
very works themselves. They were, it is boldly 
stated, those twelve paintings now preserved in the 
Grenville Library, and known as the " Victories of 
Charles Y." 

The question as regards Clovio is not without 
interest, and cannot properly be disposed of in a 
few hasty remarks. We must therefore reserve 
its fuller consideration to a later chapter, taking 
note here only of the broad and general outline 

Life of GHorgio GiuUo Olovio. 191 

of the alleged story. The legendary account 
of this precious volume is that until 1814 it 
had been kept at Madrid, but in that year was 
carried off by Joseph Bonaparte to Paris, where 
a short time afterwards it was purchased by 
Mr. Woodburn, the proprietor and exhibitor of the 
Ijawrence drawings. Woodburn having a vivid 
imagination, some experience in the qualities of the 
better class of pictures, and a keen appreciation of 
the value of a good advertisement, connected the 
story of the commission given to Clovio with these 
clever miniatures. There is no intrinsic improba- 
bility in such a connection, for some of the technical 
work and minor details are not out of keeping with 
work of the same level in the miniatures of acknow- 
ledged authenticity ; but neither is there a scrap of 
evidence in its favour outside what various critics 
may have advanced on their personal judgment. 
No documentary proof is forthcoming older than 
the date of Woodburn's purchase. It was then 
alleged that Philip selected the Heemskerck engrav- 
ings which were published in 1556, as the basis of 
the work to be done by Clovio, because the late 
Emperor had frequently expressed his admiration of 
them. This explanation of course was needed to 
account for the extraordinary circumstance that the 
miniatures were not required to be original designs, 
although entrusted to the greatest living master of 

192 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

his art. For it certainly could not be considered a 
compliment to Clovio, that he should be asked 
merely to undertake the office of a German illumi- 
nist, common as it was, when he was acknowledged 
to be capable of such a work as the Grimani Com- 
mentary and the Farnese Psalter. Neither is it 
likely that Philip would have been satisfied with so 
secondary a kind of performance. It would have 
been unworthy of his rank as the first prince in 
Christendom. And from what we know of the 
character of Clovio, there is every probability that 
he would have declined such a commission. On the 
other hand, to please the King's whim about the 
engravings he may have consented to direct his 
pupils to undertake the work, and even to assist 
them with occasional touches of his own pencil. 
These, however, are merely suggestions. We now 
pass on to other work. Sometimes during his resi- 
dence with Cardinal Farnese and previous to 1557, 
Clovio painted the famous Psalter commemorated 
by Bonde. This Psalter, so called, was a commission 
from the gloomy yet magnificent John III. of 
Portugal, the patron of Francisco de Holanda. 
The latter, as we have seen, was intimately 
acquainted with Clovio, and through him perhaps 
the commission was obtained. Though called a 
Psalter, it was really a Book of Offices. Its 
splendour was such as to be considered worthy of an 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 1.93 

elaborate Latin dissertation, unrivalled for its bom- 
bastic and inflated language, by an English physician, 
who, sometime in the reign of John V., discovered 
the MS. which had been lost, and wrote partly to 
express his unbounded admiration of it, and partly 
with a view to promote its sale. 

The immediate object indeed of the eulogy was 
to induce the King to redeem the precious volume 
and restore it to its place in the Royal Library. 
No evidence is given of the success of the appeal. 
Its gorgeous diction may have fallen on deaf or 
inattentive ears, for John V. was paralytic and 
imbecile for several years before his death, and his 
ministers had more absorbing business oh their hands 
than the purchase of a high-priced religious picture- 
book. But the dissertation itself is a curiosity. It 
is printed in tall quarto, and on one side only of the 
paper. As a work of literary merit, it ranks not so 
much with books as with those funeral orations 
which in the sixteenth century were delivered over 
the biers of distinguished scholars and heroes. But 
as a piece of special pleading it is unsurpassed, and 
may be taken as the most prodigal example of 
descriptive writing ever penned. Its ornate phraseo- 
logy is much more redolent of the flowery oratory 
of the Renaissance than mindful of the force and per- 
spicuity of TuUy. Possibly in the doctor's opinion it 
was more suitable to the comprehension of royalty. 


194 Lifi of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

In the mind of a suspicious minister of finance, it 
may have lacked veracity. The precious volume 
was somewhere not in Portugal, and to be had for 
a sum the precise statement of which is beneath 
the dignity of the writer's style to mention, but 
which no doubt were given in the invoice which 
would accompany the volume. The author entitles 
his book : " Gulielmi Bonde Thesaurus Artis Pic- 
torise ex unius Julii Clovii clari admodum pictoris 
operibus depromptus. Libri sive Sermones tres : 
Idea: Index; Deliberationes. 1733." This volume 
is now so rare that the German translator of 
Sakcinski's Life of Clovio, written originally in 
lUyrian, could find only two copies in England.* 
A note by Mr. Hamilton, inserted in the Grenville 
copy (No. 5860. G. L. Brit. Museum), states with- 
out naming any authority : " Emanuel King of 
Portugal had given a commission, and John III. 
had paid the sum of two thousand aurei for a 
Psalter illustrated by Julio Clovio. Another copy 
of it was in the Vatican, and another in the posses- 
sion of the Grand Duke of Florence. My brother 
saw one at Naples." Mr. Grenville in a further note 
adds that this copy of Bonde had belonged to 
Mr. Towneley. The only other copy he had traced 

* There are two copies in the British Museum, one of them 
belonging to the Grenville Library and containing Mr. Gren- 
ville's notes in MS. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 195 

belonged to Mr. Jennings, from whom it was bought 
by Triphook. At that time the above two gentle- 
men were the only proprietors in England of any 
work of Julio Clovio. This note is probably the 
source of the statement made by Sakcinski's trans- 
lator.* It should not be difficult to any one living 
or travelling in Portugal to ascertain whether this 
MS. of Clovio is still existing in any Royal or other 
collection. But, if not, from Bonde's description 
and Mr. Hamilton's note about two other copies, it 
may be possible that after all it was a Netherlandish 
production and not a Clovio. For certainly the 
Gothic character of the borders, and, as far as can be 
made out, the peculiar features of the landscapes, 
point rather to a MS. like the Grimani Breviary — 
the Isabella Missal (Brit. Museum), or the Hours 
of Albert of Brandenburg — than to any authentic 
work of Clovio. The Naples Flora, which might 
be cited in its favour, as probably one of the copies 
of it referred to by Mr. Hamilton, is itself of ques- 
tionable authenticity. 

It must have been about 1554-5 that Clovio 
painted the miniatures of the lives of the Dukes of 
Urbino, and of several other MSS. in the Vatican. 
Among the probably correct attributions are several 
miniatures in a copy of the Divina Commedia, 

* A full account of Bonde's book and copious extracts from 
its description are given in the Appendix. 


196 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

which is the more interesting as containing minia- 
tures from three artists of different periods. The 
first belongs to the time of Giotto, the second was 
a monk of the fifteenth century. The last, according 
to a tradition which is fully confirmed by the 
miniatures themselves, is said to have been Clovio. 
His name alone occurs in the last volume, though 
several miniatures by the same hand are found 
towards the end of the second. These allegorical 
pictures possess the usual excellence and delicacy 
of his finest work. In the grouping and composi- 
tion are seen the grace of Rafiaello. Certain 
German writers have affected to observe in the 
earlier miniatures a higher devotional feeling than 
is found in those of Clovio, but there is really little 
to find fault with either in feeling or design. The 
one where Beatrice appears to the poet in the 
circle of the sun has been reproduced by Silvestre. 
On a faintly bright disk, and- in a tender sky-blue 
air, stands the sainted figure of Beatrice wearing 
a radiant crown, and surrounded by other holy 
women, Dante himself in a blue robe, and a lady 
beside him in draperies of rose and green. Outside 
the sun are borders rich with lovely arabesques, 
and at foot is the title to the Paradiso. The same 
delicacy of handling and exquisite finish is character- 
istic of the other miniatures, which, if not the 
actual work of Clovio, have every mark of his 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovlo. 197 

influence and supervision. In the Life of Francesco 
Maria della Revere, Duke of Urbino, are five paint- 
ings by Clovio ; but the notable feature of the 
volume is a portrait at the beginning of Book III., 
of Clovio himself by his own hand. It represents 
him as an elderly man — he would be about fifty- 
seven years of age — wearing spectacles, and in a sort 
of cassock, as seen in the accompanying engraving. 
In the Life of Federigo di Montefeltro, Duke of 
Urbino, the miniatures are not so distinctly in the 
artist's style as to escape criticism, and even doubt. 
The two works were the composition of the poet 
Girolamo Muzio, one of the poetical admirers of 
the celebrated TuUia d'Aragona. He was a native 
of Capo d'Istria, and wrote the Lives for Guido- 
baldo II., the last Duke, about 1554-7.* 

* Girolamo Muzio, of Capo d'Istria, called it Duellista, il Bat- 
tiglione, and il Martello degli Eretici was a celebrated poet, 
tteologian, controversialist, moralist and courtier, and one of 
the most laborious authors of his time. This is Tiraboschi'a 
description of him, which is very remarkable, considering that 
most of Muzio's life was taken up in moving from place to 
place. He was bom on March 12th, 1496. In 1550 he married 
Adriana, a maid of honour to the Duchess of Urbino, Vittoria 
Tarnese. His wife died in Rome in 1668. In 1583 Muzio was 
invited to the court of Urbino by Duke Guidobaldo II., husband 
of Yittoria, and became tutor to the youthful Francesco Maria 
(II.) for whom he wrote the treatise called "Principe Gio- 
vanetto." During this service he resided chiefly at Pesaro, and 
gave his leisure to the writings of theological tracts, and to the 
two Biographies called the "Lives of the Dukes of Urbino," now 

198 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

The penmanship was the work of Monterehi,* 
the copyist of the poems of Eurialo d'Ascoli and 
of the Office of the Virgin, illuminated by Clovio 
for which Cellini made the famous covers. Some 
very acute critic of this Life of Federigo, affirms 
its miniatures to be the work of Clovio's pupils, 
but it is now difficult to determine what they 
originally were, as they were restored in the seven- 
teenth century by the well-known miniaturist, 
Padre Ramelli. The Stanzas of Eurialo d'Ascoli, 
another work executed about this time, and now 
in the Imperial Library at Vienna (No. 2660), must 
unquestionably be assigned to Clovio himself Its 

in tlie Vatican Library. One of these was published after his 
death, but in a very mutilated form. In the notice of his works 
given in " Biografia degli uomini distinti dell' Istria, del 
canonico Pietro Stanesvich II. 131, &c. (Trieste, 1829), the 
biography referred to is called " Historia di Gironimo Mutio 
giustinopolitano, de' Patti di Federigo di Montefeltro, duca di 
Urbino II.," 2 vols. In the same volume are given a portrait 
and menaoir of Muzio. The splendid quarto volumes, bound 
with golden clasps, which are kept in the Vatican, and have been 
several times referred to, are among the most perfect examples 
of MSS. with miniatures. They are adorned with the Ducal 
Arms and portrait of the Duke Frederic and nine miniature- 
scenes most elaborately painted by a miniaturist of the highest 
rank, but unfortunately not named. They have, however, been 
almost universally attributed to Clovio. Five of these pictures 
are contained in one volume and four in the other. 

* Francesco Monterehi was secretary to Pier Luigi Famese, 
Duke of Parma. Atti e Documenti, &c. III. 264. 


(Painted by Clouio). 


(Painted by Clouio). 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 199 

miniatures in treatment and effect are the exact 
counterpart of those in the Uttle Stuart de Rothesay 
Offices now in the British Museum. The author 
of this poem on the exploits of Charles V. was 
a contemporary of the artist, and the friend of 
Claudio Tolomei and Pietro Aretino. The tran- 
scriber was, as already stated, the most noted 
copyist of his time. In this charming little volume 
the first miniature contains a representation of Dido 
on the funeral pyre which stamps the authenticity of 
the work. On her body sits a grey Imperial eagle 
with extended wings, while round the pile stand 
several men and women gazing on the scene with 
astonishment. At the head of the group stands a 
warrior apparently explaining the mode of cremating 
the body. In the foreground lies an elderly woman 
with two lovely children, one held to her bosom. 
Not far from these kneel two other children. In 
the distance are the towers of a city before the 
gate of which stands a woman, and over it in the 
air are three eagles fighting. The picture is 
surrounded by most exquisite foliages and figures, 
quite in the manner of the Offices in the British 
Museum.* The work has suffered from too much 
handling, which has rubbed off some portions, 
especially of the gilding. Still, the master's hand 
is everywhere visible in what is left. Opposite this 
* 20927 Add. MSS. 

200 life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

miniature is the title-page, also surrounded with 
a beautiful border of a similar character to the 
other. In the upper portion is placed a tiny 
vignette containing a church and two female 
figures and a child running. The first stanza of the 
poem then follows: — 

" Gia ministrai I'alte saete a Giove 
E 'n ciel portai uolando — Ganimede 
Feci le altre cose inuitate e nuove 
Di cut resta nel mondo eterno fede 
Ma fei di mia virtu I'ultinia prove 
Sol per costei che qui meco si vede 
Et morir uolli nel medesimo ardore 
Che bel fin fa, chi bene amando more." 

In the middle of the MS. begins the second 
poem, under the title of " Stanze d'Evrialo d'Ascoli. 
Al invitiss. Carlo Quinto sempre Aug." Then 
follows, on the next page, " Al gran Marchese 
d'Anghillara " (the Emperor's ambassador in 
Florence). Arabesque borders surround these pages, 
though somewhat inferior in colouring to the 
former. The verses are written on fine vellum, 
mostly in black but occasionally in golden ink. The 
binding is of stamped and gilded leather, and the 
device of the Emperor is placed on the middle of the 
first cover. It is not unlikely that the precious little 
volume was presented to the ambassador by the 
author himself, and afterwards (for both Charles 
and Maximilian were exceedingly fond of pocket 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 201 

volumes) found its way into the Imperial Library. 
Inside the first cover is written, " Le miniature di 
Don Giulio Clovio. Li carateri sono scritti di 
Lettera formata del Monserchi, che como dice 
Vasari, fol. 261, nella vita di Giu. Clovio, h d' un 
genere raro et meraviglioso." 

There is an exquisite little Book of Hours, 
executed for Francesco Maria of Urbino, or rather 
for his second wife, the Duchess Leonora, in the 
Douce Collection of the Bodley Library at Oxford, 
usually attributed to Girolamo dai Libri, but which 
seems in every particular to belong to a somewhat 
later manner, and to contain some of the same 
ornaments as the Berlin Missal of Clement VII. ; 
the Corsini Missal executed for the same Pope ; 
the Albani or Ashburnham Missal ; and two or 
three pages in MS., No. 21412, in the British 
Museum. All these, if any, should be assigned to 
Clovio.* The Gonzaga Offices, as this beautiful 
volume may be called, certainly answers to the 
catalogue as to its being written on vellum, belonging 
to the sixteenth century, and containing 136 folios, 
&c., but it cannot be assigned to Girolamo dai Libri. 
There is nothing to show that it was a wedding gift, 
as suggested by Dr. Waagen ;t certainly nothing to 
prove it the work of Girolamo, who died at the age 

* The Bodley MS. is described in the Appendix. 

t The date he found in it of 1510, is in reality the word ist-o. 

202 Life of Criorgio Giulio Clovio. 

of eighty-one, in 1555. The major part of it is of a 
later manner than that in which the Veronese artist 
is known to have worked down to the end of his long 
life. Nor is there any touch in it usually attributed 
to him which might not with equal or greater pro- 
priety be attributed to his younger rival ; besides 
the fact already alluded to, that the motives and 
ideas in the ornaments are repeated again and again 
in works that can only have been the work of 
Clovio. Baglione mentions a Farnese Missal, or 
rather Lectionary, which had two miniatures like 
two of the six in the Towneley Lectionary, and 
states it to be in the Vatican. " Messale oltre ogni 
maraviglia bello si, che hora per la sua incomparabile 
esquisitezza con degna riguardo ha meritato da esser 
riposto nella sagrestia de' Sommi Pontefici."* But 
it is not impossible that this is no other than the 
Towneley Lectionary itself, as it is not likely that 
any other Last Judgment by Clovio exists of suffi- 
cient beauty or importance to call forth the words 
of Vasari: "Tanto bello anzi ammirabile e stupendo, 
ch' mi confondo a pensarlo, e tengo per fermo che 
non si possa non dico fare, ma vedere, nh imma- 
ginarsi, per minio, cosa piti bella." Indeed, the 
Lectionary miniature holds the same unique position 
among works of its class that its great prototype in 

* Baglione, Giov. (Vasari, G.), Vite de' Pittori, Scultori et 
Architetti, 15. Roma, 1642. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 203 

the Sistine Chapel holds beside all other representa- 
tions of the subject. 

The choir-book said to belong to S. Salvatore, 
in Rome, is assigned to 1555, or thereabout. 
Several choir-books seen by Conea in the Cathedral 
at Seville, and attributed to Clovio, are possibly 
the actual woi'k of Ramirez or Padilla,* who were 
working at Seville at this time.t 

A choir-book with many fine paintings, said to 
have once been in the Monastery of San Salvatore, 
Venice. J To about 1557, perhaps, may be assigned 
the small quarto Prayers or Offices executed for 
Cardinal Farnese, and now known as the " Flora " 
of the Reale Biblioteca Borbonica at Naples. 
About 1558, Clovio painted a beautiful little MS., 
recently kept in the Monastery of Santa Croce in 
Gerusalemme, described by Richardson, who saw it 
in the possession of Marc Antonio Sabatini. In 
1560 were undertaken certain works for the Cardinal 
della Rovere, afterwards Pope Julius II. ; and in 
the same year was completed the marvellous little 

* Conca : Yiaggio de Spagna, III. 234. 

t Fra Enstachio, the able rival of Attavanti and the brothers 
Gherardo and Monte di Giovanni, died at Florence, aged eighty- 
eight, in the same year that Girolamo dai Libri died at Verona. 

X Sakcinski, Ivan Kuknljevich : Leben des G. J. Clovio, 41. 
"Biblioteca degli uomini illustri della Congregazioni dei 
Canonici Regolari del S. S. Salvatore Lateranense, &c. Scritta 
da Prospero Cavaliere ed arricchita da D. Vincenzo Garofali, 
I. 14-22 ; note 2. Velletri, 1836. 

204 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

volume considered by Vasari and others to be the 
richest of all the artist's works. It was a Book of 
Offices of the Virgin, executed by Clovio as a special 
thank-offering to his patron. Rosini speaks of it* 
as "uno dei piil preziosi monumenti delle Arti chesi 
ammirino in Europa." The wonderful performance 
is selected by Vasari for a detailed description,t as 
being, perhaps, the most remarkable example of the 
painter's skill. Its miniatures, of which it contains 
twenty-six pairs, set opposite to each other, as the 
type and antitype, "figura e figurato," are set in the 
most profusely decorated borders, composed of little 
angels, genii, birds, beasts, flowers, gems, cameos 
and other conceits, exactly corresponding in character 
to those of the Bodley Offices of the Virgin, presented 
(perhaps by Cardinal Farnese) to Leonora Gonzaga. 

Whilst Clovio was busy with these memorable 
examples of his charming art, Spain, France, the 
Netherlands, England and Germany, and indeed 
other parts of Italy, were not without distinguished 
professors of the same, and, if his biographer had 
known it, very little his inferiors. But to return to 
the " Flora." 

If we may judge from the similarity of Bonde's 
description of the Psalter of John III. of Portugal 
to this exquisite MS., and may assume the truth of 

* Storia della Pittura Italiana, &o., V. cap. vii. 113. Pisa,' 
1839-47. t Appendix. Vasari : Vite, &o., XIII. 132. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 205 

Mr. Hamilton's statement about there being two 
copies of it extant — one at Florence and the other 
at Naples — ^w^e shall not find it difficult to conclude 
the "Flora" to be the latter copy. When I saw 
the book myself, I at once set it down as extremely 
fine Netherlandish work, somewhat later in date 
than the Grimani Breviary. I then knew nothing 
about the Bonde Psalter. If the Bonde Psalter be 
authentic, as Bonde firmly assumes it to be, and if 
the " Flora " be a copy of it, quite possibly it may 
contain occasional touches of the master's pencil. 
The extreme likeness of the Naples flower-paintings 
to those of the Munich Prayer Book of Albert V. 
will very well excuse the attribution of that lovely 
MS. to Clovio. It is much more likely that neither 
of them is his work. No one could examine the 
pages of either, as I have done, and not feel 
differences more palpable than any rare touches of 
resemblance. The prevailing and final impression 
would be that both are masterpieces, not of Italian 
but of Teutonic art. The only evidence that would 
induce me now to accept them as Italian, and parti- 
cularly of Clovio, would be his own word for it, or 
the word of some reliable contemporary who knew 
it for a fact.* 

* A description of the " Flora " is given in a little book by 
Giustiniani, called " Guida del , Reale Museo Borbonico," 238. 
Napoli, 1824. 

206 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

The Paris Psalter of Paul III. has a better 
show of authenticity. It is dated in 1542, when 
Clovio was living in Rome, and actually engaged in 
the service of Cardinal Farnese. It is the date 
usually assigned, there or thereabouts, to the Bonde 
Psalter, but it is quite a different kind of book. Its 
style of ornament is in Clovio's usual taste. It has 
trophies and cameos, termes, birds, children, masks, 
and such like ornaments well known to be charac- 
teristic of true Clovio work. But many parts of it 
are executed in guache, whereas Clovio mostly 
worked in aquarelle and stipple. It is also plainly 
stated in the book itself to be the work of Federicus 
Perusinus. These are two difficulties it is true, and 
a sceptical person might make much of them. But 
they are not insurmountable. We know from the 
Spanish monk who wrote on illumination, that 
Clovio had two modes of working, and that some of 
his gouache existed in Spain. And as nothing 
further is known of Federicus Perusinus as a 
painter or miniaturist — and yet he is spoken of as 
eminent in his art — we may set him down as the 
copyist or transcriber — the penman, not the painter, 
of the manuscript. Had Federicus Urbinus stood 
instead of Federicus Perusinus he might unwarily 
have been assumed to be Baroccio, who in some- 
what later years actually did such work, and was 
especially famous as the decorator of the Farnese 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 207 

Palace at Caprarolo. But Baroccio, in 1542, was 
but fourteen years of age, and only reached Rome 
when he was twenty. There need, however, be no 
hesitation about the meaning of " dextera " in the 
inscription. Universal experience of such a reference 
from the twelfth century downwards is to penman- 
ship, and " autor " in late Latin not only means 
author, but one who actually executes the writing 
of the work.* The Psalter was finished by this 
Federigo da Perugia in the eighth year of Paul III., 
further exphcitly given as 1542, when Clovio was 
in the zenith of his powers and full of work. 

* See Appendix. Descriptions of MSS. 


The Disputed Works— The Grenville Victories— The Strawberry 
Hill Psalter— The Ravenna MSS.— The Munich Offices— 
The Naples Flora- The Paris Psalter. 

The prices reached by examples of Clovio's work at 
recent sales is very practical evidence of the value 
attached to these precious relics, and of the real 
interest taken in the question of their authenticity 
by those who can afford to buy them. But this is 
not all. Many who can never hope to contest their 
possession at auction take a genuine interest in their 
study as works of art, and as the productions of one 
who has been usually held forward as the greatest 
artist in this kind of work who ever lived. That this 
idea of his supremacy is erroneous has been already 
shown, but that he was unquestionably a great 
master and his works possessed of the highest merit 
can always be accepted as true. The business 
before us now is to inquire into the grounds of those 
opinions which are held by some respecting the 
authenticity of certain works alleged to be his. In 
the preceding part of this volume, the extent to 
which authenticity may be affirmed of his work at 
all has been pointed out. In reality it seldom 
extended to the whole of any MS. whatever, unless 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 209 

very small or very special. Two or three of these 
special examples are known, but the majority of the 
so-called Clovios are mainly or largely the work of 
his assistants. Far too much importance has been 
given by librarians, custodes, and others to the 
miniatures under their charge. Usually they have 
no further guaranty than either some vague tra- 
dition, or the general excellence of the work, or the 
opinion of some amateur as to the touch or the 
style or the colouring, formed on the recollection of 
other works possessing a similar degree of authen- 
ticity. It is almost always a shifty and unreliable 
tissue of alternative guesses. Now the only safe 
way of ascertaining the truth is to take for study 
some work about the authenticity of which docu- 
mentary evidence leaves no room for dispute, and 
when a fresh piece arises, to examine it first as to 
its external history and the probabilities or possi- 
bilities of its being what it pretends to be ; and then 
when these are shown to be satisfactory, to examine 
the evidence afforded by the work itself A mere 
signature is only of value when all the other 
evidence is satisfactory, as it is obvious that such 
an addition could give no trouble whatever to an 
intentional forger, or to one who was so convinced 
of the evidence that only a signature was wanting 
to render it complete, and who accordingly could 
not refuse to add so slight a proof of his conviction. 


210 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Many miniatures have been thus attributed without 
at first any evil intention. But it is a serious 
wrong all the same when it becomes likely to be 
mistaken for the painter's autograph. Few persons 
are so conversant with the penmanship of the six- 
teenth century as to say with certainty that the 
printing initials formed by the pen of one scribe 
were not formed by another. The handwriting of 
Eneas Vico is precisely like that of a professional 
copyist. But to a certain extent an engraver is a 
copyist. The handwritings of RafFaello, of Michel- 
angelo, of Sebastiano, of Clovio, and of course of 
most other people of their time, were sufficiently 
distinctive and characteristic. But not so the mere 
capital initials or printing texts employed to denote 
their works. These could easily be imitated. In 
fact the copyist of the manuscript did usually insert 
them himself as part of his work. So it is with the 
"Attavantes pinsit" of the Brussels, the Paris, 
the Florence and the Venice MSS. So with the 
Glockendon Offices at Vienna, and many others. 
Frequently the artist's name is prominent in the 
title or dedication, just as frequently in the colophon. 
But they were not put there by the artist himself, 
or, if they were, it was after a copy or model 
afforded by the penman for the artist's guidance. 
It was not what we understand by his autograph, for 
the proof that he actually wrote it lies in the work 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 211 

itself, which follows or precedes ; and the proof of the 
right connection of the two with the artist himself lies 
in the accouht books of the palace, or the chapter, 
or the monastery, for which the work was done. 
The Soane " Clovio" is an instance of this practice, 
verified, however, by Vasari. Under the title of 
the " Chief Victories of Charles V." the late Sir W. 
Stirling-Maxwell printed a very exhaustive account 
of a set of engravings designed by Martin Heems- 
kerck. The work, though now well known, was 
not published, but privately distributed among the 
author's friends and the great libraries. It was got 
up with his usual fondness for lavish ornament and 
profuse illustration, and is characterized by his 
fastidiously exact taste and exceptional learning. 
In July of the same year 1870, in which this curious 
work saw the light, an article also appeared in the 
Edinburgh Review dealing chiefly with the artist, 
Martin Heemskerck. The review article fails to 
do justice to Heemskerck, as if the writer's entire 
knowledge of the artist's work had been confined to 
the rough and even wretched reproductions to be 
found in Stirling-Maxwell's volume, which are too 
black and coarse to convey any really correct idea 
of the tenderness and delicacy of the original 
engravings. The finest set known to myself happens 
to be the one in my own possession. I have 
examined others, including those in the British 


212 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Museum, but fine as they are in some respects, they 
are, as a whole, wanting in brilhancy. The designs 
in question represent the chief military events in 
the life of the Emperor of Germany, the contem- 
porary and rival of Francis I. The title-page of 
the first edition bears the date of 1556. But as 
some of the plates bear the date of 1555, it is 
possible that they were intended for publication in 
the October of that year when Charles resigned 
the sovereignty of the Netherlands. They seem 
to have been a speculation of the prolific print- 
publisher, Hieronymus Cock, or Cook, of Antwerp. 
He and his brother Matthias were natives and 
citizens of Antwerp, and began life as artists, the 
latter obtaining some distinction in landscape paint- 
ing. Hieronymus or Jerome also practised the 
same art, but carried on with it the further arts of 
copperplate engraving and etching, and reproduced 
on metal various of his brother's pictures. His few 
spare moments were employed in instructing pupils. 
Among these was a skilful engraver and a man of 
original genius named Cornells Cort. Cock, how- 
ever, soon abandoned both pencil and graver for the 
less toilsome and more lucrative occupation of a 
dealer in works of art and a publisher of books and 
prints. In this pursuit he eventually realized a 
very considerable fortune, which he prudently 
invested in the purchase of house property, and 

Life, of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 213 

thus became a person of substance and importance 
in his native city. Being fond of a jest he placed 
over his door as his devise : " Let the Cook 
cook for the public good." The words H. Cock 
excudebat are usually found upon the engravings 
which he offered for sale, especially upon those 
which were expressly executed to his order. It 
is necessary to notice this fact or it might be 
concluded that he engraved them himself. As to 
Martin Heemskerck, he was both painter and 
engraver. He was born at the village of Heems- 
kerck, near Haarlem, in North Holland, in 1498, 
his family name being Van Veen. After a boyhood 
of hardship on his father's farm he obtained ele- 
mentary instruction in drawing, and when Jan 
Schoreel returned from Italy he went to Haarlem 
and put himself under the then celebrated master of 
the Italian style. But his application was such that 
he soon became skilful enough to imitate Schoreel 
more closely than was agreeable, and they parted 
company in consequence. Heemskerck then set 
up a studio of his own, and rapidly acquired an 
extensive practice. About two years after leaving 
Schoreel he found the means to gratify a wish he 
had long entertained of visiting Italy, and accord- 
ingly, after bestowing upon the Guild of St. Luke 
a painting of the Madonna and St. Luke, he set out 
for Rome. The painting, bearing the date May 23rd, 

214 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

1532, is now one of the treasures of the Haarlem 
Town Hall Museum. In Italy he remained three 
years, "not spending his time," says Van Mander, 
" in drinking with his fellow-countrymen in Rome, 
but in copying the works of Michelangelo and the 
old masters." He also made sketches of the ruins. 
In 1536 the Emperor Charles V. made a triumphal 
progress through Italy in honour of the capture of 
Tunis. And as was then the fashion certain dis- 
tinguished artists were employed in constructing 
triumphal arches and inventing devices. It fell to 
the lot of Heemskerck to paint the ornaments of 
San Gallo's Arch in the Square of St. Mark, to 
which he added ten paintings of scenes in the African 
expedition.* He was then personally acquainted 
with Vasari. His biographers tell us he was in- 
dustrious, penurious, and timid. He was twice 
married — the first time to a young and pretty girl 
of Haarlem, who died within two years of their 
marriage ; the next to a foolish and even dishonest 
old spinster, whose only recommendation was her 
wealth. She irritated his nervous temperament, 
and so wasted their means, that he was obliged 
to work hard every day. He thus " managed to 
execute a vast number of beautiful pictures." Of 
these numerous pictures very few are now known. 
One in the Dusseldorf Gallery shows his Italian 

* Vasari, xiii. 149. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clpvio. 215 

manner to perfection. There is also a fine Cruci- 
fixion at St. Petersburg, and a small mythological 
subject in the Berlin Museum. A votive altar-piece 
exists in the Moritz-Kapelle at Nuremberg, and one 
or two others in public galleries. The majority, 
however, remain as altar-pieces, but far from the 
vast number spoken of by Van Mander and Michiels. 
Prints after his works are veiy much more common. 
Sometimes his drawings were made on purpose to be 
engraved. Van Mander thought he never actually 
used the graver himself ; but more recent writers 
think otherwise. 

During his later years at Haarlem he executed a 
considerable number of subjects, sometimes in sets 
called Triumphs — as the Triumph of Christianity, 
the Eight Triumphs of Patience, the Six Triumphs 
of Petrarch, the Vicissitudes of Humain Affairs. 
These Triumphs were much more significant in the 
days of Alva and Requescens than they are now. 
They are very remarkable engravings, notable for 
elaborate detail and minute repletion of incident. 
But the Vicissitudes are still more remarkable, 
possessing at times a realism quite shocking to 
behold, and a stern directness of symbolism verging 
on indecency. But as Kerrick says,* the number 

* A Catalogue of the Prints whicii h^iye beep, engraved affer 
Martin Heemskerck, 12. 

216 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clomo. 

of prints after Heemskerck is almost infinite. Most 
of them seem to have been the work of Dietrich 
Volkertsz Cuerenhert, though many others are due 
to Hermann Mliller, Jerome Cock, and Philip Galle, 
A small number bear the names of Cristofiel van 
Sichem and Theodore de Bry. After the Triumphs 
and a crowd of scriptural subjects, comes a series of 
elaborate, and mostly equestrian, figures of the Nine 
Worthies. There need be no hesitation in saying 
that the exaggerations of drawing, in all these 
examples where the artist is fairly represented, are 
mainly due to Heemskerck's studies in Rome. They 
are not simply Dutch or Flemish exaggerations like 
those of Martin de Vos, or mannerisms like those of 
Theodore de Bry. And it is only natural to conclude 
that this diligent student of Michelangelo was 
personally acquainted with other artists then resident 
in Rome. The capture of Tunis and the pageants in 
honour of it were in 1536 the special subject of talk 
in the recently restored city. Scarcely ten years 
before, the troops of this very Charles the Fifth, now 
being lauded to the skies for his Christian courage, 
had sacked and ravaged beyond credibility this 
sacred capital of Christendom. Artists especially 
were talking about the decorations and the subjects 
of them. Heemskerck, as we have seen, obtained a 
share in their execution. And Clovio was at the 
same time engaged on the illumination of the charm- 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 217 

ing little copy of verses on the great event of the 
time by Eurialo d'Ascoli. Clovio must have seen 
the paintings of Heemskerck and the rest ; and 
Heemskerck would doubtless be among the privi- 
leged few admitted to the conversazioni of the 
distinguished miniaturist, and would be shown the 
precious little volume now kept in the Imperial 
Library at Vienna. A conversation on the subject 
of the " Victories " would naturally arise, and it is 
highly probable that the suggestion to produce such 
a set of subjects as Heemskerck afterwards did 
produce, would then form itself in his mind. At 
any rate he would be prepared, supposing he after- 
wards received an order for such a work. 

Knowing that no one then living was better able 
to assist in making the designs truly fit to be a royal 
present, there is no reason why Heemskerck should 
not, like Francisco de Holanda and others, have 
requested or commissioned Clovio to have made 
copies of, or coloured, his outline drawings. Clovio 
was accustomed to do this very thing. And if any- 
one can show that any of these twelve drawings 
contain work similar to his and worthy of him, there 
is a good primd facie case of circumstantial possi- 
bility. But is there such work in them ? In one 
or two it can be truly said there is. As to the 
portraiture in any of them — the likenesses for 
example of Duke John Frederic of Saxony, the 

218 Ufe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Duke of Cleves, and others, and the elaboration of 
detail — several other miniaturists could do all this 
quite as well as Clovio, so that these circumstances 
do not materially affect the question. Very good 
critics and experienced students of miniatures have 
considered them to be the work of Clovio. Mr. Ottley, 
a man of wide and careful study in such matters ; 
Mr. Douce, who always maintained the right and 
duty of thinking for himself; and Mr. Payne Knight, 
a man accustomed to critical research — all held this 
series to be among the most eminent of Clovio's 
productions. Mr. Knight, indeed, asserted its supe- 
riority to the Vatican Dante which he had seen and 
examined. I have seen the Vatican Dante, and I 
can easily concede this opinion to be correct, for the 
retouching of the Dante miniatures puts them hors 
de concours. The precious volume containing these 
so-called Victories or Triumphs of Charles V., now 
preserved in the Grenville Library, consists of 
thirteen leaves 8 in. high by about 1 1 in. wide (more 
exactly 8 in. by 11-3). The drawings themselves are 
each 7*1 by 10 "3 inclusive of a gold frame identical 
throughout. This frame is "7 of an inch broad on 
the back of the first leaf As there is no evidence 
that the drawings are subsequent to the engravings, 
but in point of fact differ considerably from them in 
matters of detail, we are at liberty to suppose that 
the vellum drawings were really copies of the pen- 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 219 

and-ink designs made by Heemskerck for the 
engraver. We assume that such careful and highly 
finished work would not be submitted to the risk of 
injury by being used as working copies for the 
engraver. We can see that they are not themselves 
printed copies, but really drawings. To the more 
detailed notice of some of theln we shall return when 
we have briefly explained what the engravings them- 
selves consist of They are a set of twelve subjects, 
illustrating, as has been already mentioned, certain 
incidents in the military career of Charles V., and 
were first published by Jerome Cock in 1556, just 
twenty years after Heemskerck had been employed 
to decorate the triumphal arch of San Gallo in 
Rome. They went through five editions and it is 
said were admired, according to one account, by 
Charles V. himself — according to another by Philip, 
who ordered the vellum copies to be made because 
his father had admired the engravings, and who 
fui'thermore had them copied and worked in tapestry. 
The engraving of the " Victories " was the work of 
Cuerenhert, the master of Goltzius and Philip Galle. 
Of Cuerenhert, who is deserving of a biography 
entirely to himself, we can only say that he was not 
only an excellent engraver, but also a very remark- 
able man — one of the most original spirits of his 

The Second Edition of the Victories is dated 

220 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

1558. Its title begins thus : "Divi Caroli V. imp. 
Opt. Max. Victoriae. ex multis prsecipuae," &c. In 
this title Hieronymus Cock calls himself typo- 
graphus, and pictor, with royal privilege for six 
years. The edition is dedicated to Philip II. In 
the three later editions of uncertain date the pub- 
lisher's name was altered, the . publishers of these 
editions being Philip Galle, Charles de Mallery, and 
Joan or Jan Boll. Galle was a printseller and 
publisher like Cock, but did not usually engrave 
the prints which he sold. His edition of these 
plates, which were perhaps bought from Cuerenhert, 
is probably the third. The rest are irreclaimably 

The first subject is the Imperial Sovereignty of 
Charles V. The Emperor, seated on a high marble 
seat placed on a pedestal flanked by the two columns 
as in his device, holds a sword in his right hand, an 
orb surmounted by a cross. He wears a cuirass of 
leather with epaulettes and a plate helmet in the 
fashion of the figures in some of the Petrarch 
Triumphs, intended to be Roman. The figure of 
Julius Csesar in the Triumph of Fame wears a 

* Ph. Galle was a Haarlem man, bom 1537, died (probably 
at Antwerp) 1612. Cli. de Mallery was a printseller at Ant- 
werp, 1576-1630. Boel, or Boll, is not known, unless he were 
the Hans Bol of Antwerp who practised painting, and was 
the master of G. Hoefnagel. Some of the name were engravers. 

Life, of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 221 

similar suit, not quite so simple. Between the 
Emperor's feet is the Imperial Eagle holding in his 
beak a ring to which is attached a cord that passes 
round the figures of five out of six persons who 
stand on either side. In the engraving there is no 
attempt at portraiture, even in the figure of the 
Emperor. On his immediate right stands Francis I., 
as proved by the lilies on his shields and pennon, 
wearing a plumed helmet and a Roman suit of 
armour or leather body-piece, close-fitting, and bear- 
ing over his left shoulder a military cloak. 

In the engraving the hose are plain. Next to him 
stands the Pope, Clement VII., with a shield bear- 
ing the Medici arms and an archiepiscopal cross. 
Next again is the Sultan Solyman, who turns away 
with what seems a haughty gesture, but is meant 
to exhibit fear. On the other side are three other 
vanquished personages, — one a young man bare- 
headed and in an attitude of submission ; then a 
tall stout warrior in German plate armour carrying 
a broken lance over his right shoulder and resting 
his left hand on a short mace or war-hammer. 
Lastly, an elderly man in ducal robes in a somewhat 
crouching attitude. A sword and shield lie on the 
floor beside him. 

In front of the pedestal are the words Cock excud. 
1556, on either side of an armorial enclosed within 
a wreath. Before this, three flat shallow steps. 

222 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Beneath the engraving are the following verses : — 


These are in Roman capitals ; below in Italics : — 

L'Aguila muy triumphante y no vencida 
Be Carlos Quinto Emperador Bomano, 
Nos muestra que esta gente fue rendida 
Y eomo huyo sus wnas Solimano. 

Alongside these four lines are four others in 
Roman type : — 

Cy fut le Pape, aussy le Roy de France, 
Le Due de Saxe, et du Cleuois la suyte, 

Aussy d'Hessen, vaincuz par la puissance 
Dn hault Cesar, dont le Turcq print la fuyte. 

In the lower margin, HeemshercTc Inuetor, and 
the numeral I., and near the upper left corner, 
D. V. c. 55, as a monogram. 

2. The second engraving represents the capture 
of Francis I. at Pavia. His horse and himself are 
both heavily laden with armour of a most elaborate 
kind, but quite fanciful ; for instance, there is a small 
spade-shaped shield on his gorget containing the 
three lilies, a lion's head on his breastplate, and a 
scorpion or lobster on his bodyplate, beneath which 
he wears a briganture of mail. Mask-formed 
epaulettes and knee-pieces, and skirt covered with 
thongs in the Roman fashion, and embroidered or 
rather embossed greaves, complete his lower outfit. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 223 

His helm, open at the visor, is surrounded by a rayed 
crown, and surmounted by a salamander crest and a 
horse-hair plume. The caparison of his charger is 
correspondingly rich. His captors are clad in heavy 
German, mostly plate, armour. A dead warrior 
pierced with the broken end of a lance lies beneath 
the horse's feet. On the brim of a morion are the 
words MHeemskerck. invent., the M and H forming 
a monogram, and near the left corner the numeral 
II. Beneath is the date 1525 and the lines — 



Glaramente se muestra aqui pmiado 

Gomo en Paui fresco por hazaiia 
Francisco Bey de Francia fue llevado 

Alas mas hondas partes de la EspaMa. 

Cy clerement (amy) tu aper^ois 
Que du puissant Emperear en campaigns 

Fut connaincu & prins le Roy Pranfois 
Qui puis apres fut mene en Espaigne. 

3. The third scene is the death of the Constable 
de Bourbon. He is falling off a ladder placed beside 
a tall tower overlooking the Tiber. In the distance 
two parties of soldiers are charging at each other on 
the bridge of St. Angelo, and great wreathing clouds 
of smoke and flame are springing from various 
buildings. On the right are crowds of men with 
spears and scaling ladders. It is dated 1527, and 
has the words M Heemsher Inve. on a stone, and 

224 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

the numerals iij in left corner. Verses below as 
before relating to the scene, and similarly below all 
the rest. 

4. The summons to the Pope in the Castle of 
St. Angelo. The herald on horseback on the bridge is 
delivering his message. The Pope and two cardinals 
appear at a balcony. Two statues — one of Peter, 
the other of Paul— stand on pedestals on either side 
the bridge. Two light field-pieces are pointed to 
the castle, and soldiers stand about. M Heemskerck. 
Inventor, appears near the lower edge, and Cock 
cum priuilegio in the upper left corner, the numeral 
iiij below. The date is 1527. 

5. Next is Raising the Siege of Vienna in 1529, 
and the Emperor in armour on a war-horse, as usual 
heavily caparisoned. The dead and wounded lying 
under foot. M H Inventor. DVC. Sc. The dvc 
combined into a monogram. Numbered V. 

6. The Spaniards in America, natives cutting up 
and cooking the bodies and limbs of the Spanish 
prisoners. This plate seems to have been considered 
specially important. It is marked Heemsk. In- 
ventor. DV Cuerenhert, fecit 1555. Cock cum 
priuilegio. It is numbered VI. 

7. The capture of Tunis in 1535 The scene 
represents the Emperor and Andrea Doria of 
Genoa, and another horseman who has just unhorsed 
an enemy, all standing under a gateway of the city. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 225 

from which is seen a long line of cavalry galloping 
into the city. It bears the names of Heemskerck 
and Cuerenhert given as before, initials in monogram. 

8. The eighth picture is one of the most elaborate 
of the series, and among the paintings one of the 
most carefully painted. The Emperor is seated on 
a raised seat under a tent. Behind him stands an 
officer bearing his Imperial crown. He is himself 
bareheaded but wearing armour, holding a sceptre 
in his left hand, and resting his right on a great 
two-handed sword. His helmet rests between his 
feet. In the left corner is a tall warrior in full 
armour of the Roman fanciful type, very highly 
elaborated. Another, resting a mace on his right 
thigh, stands on the Emperor's left. All are 
looking at a kneeling figure in the right corner 
of the picture who, from the small shield he bears in 
his hands, bearing the arms of Gueldres, appears to 
be the Duke of Cleves. It is in fact William II., 
the brother of the Anne of Cleves who became wife 
to Henry VIII. of England. He wears his Ducal 
robes and coronet. Warriors and tents cover the 
background as in a battle-field. It is the camp 
before Ruremond. The words M Heemskerck. 
Inven. appear on the carpet. The date is 1543. 

9. The Imperial Camp at Ingoldstadt, and the 
arrival of the Count von Buren with auxiliaries. A 
tented field full of armed men. The Emperor on 


226 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

horseback on right of picture is talking to his troops 
and pointing to a tent before the door of which a 
soldier has dismounted, and is making his obeisance 
to another, intended for the Emperor again. 
M Heemsherck, Inventor. Date 1546. Hanging over 
the horse's breast is a cloth embroidered with the two- 
headed Imperial (Austrian) Eagle. Numbered ix. 

10. Surrender of the Duke of Saxony. This is 
another most elaborate picture. Under a tree on 
the left stand three horsemen gorgeously apparelled, 
the centre figure being that of the Emperor. On 
the right, as coming from the battle-field behind, 
a bulky figure, bare-headed, with a sword-cut across 
across his face, and bearing his helmet in his hand. 
It is the Duke John Frederic. This scene is some- 
times called the Battle of Muhlberg, 1547. It bears 
the names of Heemskerck and H. Cock, and the 
numeral x. 

11. The Magistrates and Deputies of various 
cities surrender their keys to the Emperor, who is 
seated on a raised seat on the right of the picture, 
wearing armour, a crowned helmet, and an Imperial 
ermine robe. Five suppliants offer their keys as 
they kneel before him. Heemskerck's name is given 
with the numeral xi and the date 1547. Probably 
the picture represents various events in one. 

12. The last of the set. The Landgrave of 
Hesse offers his entire submission to the Emperor, 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 227 

who is seated on. a throne beneath a canopy. Two 
bishops and a cardinal stand on his right ; four 
crowned personages on his left. This also appears 
to be an allegorical picture, for De Thou, who 
describes the scene and names the personages present, 
enumerates many others.* The name of Heems- 
kerck appears with the numeral xii at foot. 

Such are the engravings themselves. The edition 
by Jerome Cock is the best. The rest by Ph. 
Galle, Charles de Mallery, and Joan Boel are later 
and inferior. Good impressions are rarely met 
with, even of the best edition ; all being somewhat 
pale and many of them very imperfectly printed. 
The best impressions have the inscriptions and dates 
added beneath in letterpress, with sometimes copies 
of verses in Spanish and French. Afterwards the 
inscription and date were engraved upon the plates 
themselves. It seems certain that Cock's edition 
was engraved by Cuerenhert and not by Heemskerck 
himself, as asserted by Descamps, who must have 
mistaken Van Mander's meaning. But the ques- 
tion is not so much what these engravings may be, 
as whether their subjects ever formed the ground- 
work of Clovio's work. 

The attribution of the Grenville miniatures to 
him has been denied on such irrelevant grounds 
that it is necessary to show to what extent the 
* Hist. TJniverselle, I. 264-5. 


228 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

ground for such attribution is possible, and also 
wliether, being quite possible, it is in any degree 
reliable. The objection that it would have been 
beneath the dignity of a man in Clovio's position 
to undertake the colouring of another man's designs 
is of no value whatever, for it is known that he did 
this very thing and that it was quite a usual thing 
for artists to be employed in this way. And why 
not ? If one man could draw well and another 
could paint well what in the world should prevent 
co-operation ? Especially when the facility and the 
preference went together, and the time of each 
artist was precious. Again the objection that the 
work itself is unlike and inferior is equally unten- 
able, for it is not true. The work is like, and in 
two of the miniatures so very like, that Ottley 
and Douce, who had his work in their own pos- 
session and could study it and analyze it at their 
leisure, declared these miniatures to be not only 
his work, but some of the best of it. That it is not 
inferior may be tested by comparing it with the 
little Prayer Book Additl. 2096/, which is un- 
questionably a Clovio, or with the large MS. in 
the Soane Museum, which is even better authen- 
ticated. Surely the submission of the Duke of 
Cleves in this Grenville MS. is as well painted 
as the by no means astoundingly clever copy of 
Raftaello's Vatican tapestry of the Conversion of 

Life of Giorgio Griulio Clovio. 229 

St. Paul which serves as a frontispiece to the Soane 
fragment. The first of the Grenville " Triumphs " 
is a most masterly painting whoever did it — and it 
was certainly not Heemskerck himself; as any, even 
the shallowest of judges, could see who had ever 
seen a Heemskerck. If the rest are not equal to 
these two, that is nothing unusual, for as we see 
constantly in Clovio's works, it is really the excep- 
tion for him to have done the whole himself And 
where he has done so some inequality may be 
detected. It has been objected that the ornaments 
are Flemish — that they are specially indicative of 
the Antwerp school. So they are in design, but it 
need not occupy a moment to show that this again 
can form no objection since it may have been part 
of Heemskerck's own share of the work. And yet 
its treatment is very similar to that of the Towneley 
Lectionary^the colour-gamut is identical. Taking 
all these things into consideration we can truly say 
that whatever objections may be brought against 
the authenticity of these miniatures, none are in- 
trinsic ; the great objection of all is want of evidence. 
No proof lies either way. The only means of 
proving that they are not the work of Clovio would 
be to prove that they are by somebody else. And 
the only absolute proof that they are his, would be 
a reliable contemporary statement to that effect, 

230 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

until the appearance of which the case must remain 
Ml statu quo ante erat* 

Another of the controverted volumes is the one 
called at one time the Strawberiy Hill Clovio. 
This is an example of the finest miniature art 
possible. It could not be disputed on the ground 
of inferior work, for it is undeniably and entirely 
excellent. The book is a Psalter and Canticles 
with Antiphons, for the use of Sta. Maria delle 
Virgine at Venice. An inscription on a pedestal in 
one of the miniatures reads S. C. principi And. 
G. MDXXXVii., and on the first illuminated page 
are the arms of the Canale family, showing it 
to have been probably executed for the Abbess 
Pellegrina de' Canali. Whether afterwards pre- 
sented to the famous art-lover, the Doge Andrea 
Gritti, we cannot affirm. We can only say that it 
came to this country in the possession of Thomas 
Howard, Earl of Arundel and Surrey, and from 
him it passed to Henry Earl of Stafford, and after 
that to Lord Harley, the donor of the Harleian 
Collection of the British Museum, and was be- 
queathed to his daughter Margaret, Duchess of 
Portland, at the sale of whose library in 1786 it 

* A very elaborate description of the Grenville MS. is given 
by Dibdin in tlie first volnme of the Bibliographical Decameron, 
of which further notice will be taten in the Appendix. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 231 

was bought by Horace Walpole. It is recorded 
that he gave £169 for it, and at the Strawberry 
Hill sale it was bought by Earl Waldegrave for 
£441. It was among the treasures of the South 
Kensington Loan Collection in 1862, and in 1886 
came into the hands of Mr. EUis, of New Bond 
Street, for whom Mr. Weale wrote an appre- 
ciative notice. Mr. Ellis kindly permitted me to 
examine the volume, alongside Mr. Weale's descrip-^ 
tion. The MS. measures 132 millimetres in height 
by ninety-six in breadth, and consists of 294 leaves, 
exceedingly fine vellum. It is written in a fine 
Bolognese-Gothic hand, fifteen lines to the page. 
In the Psalms and other portions where similar 
divisions are necessary, every verse begins with 
a small gold initial on a coloured panel. The 
initial of each Psalm is larger and sometimes gold 
on a coloured panel, sometimes coloured and on 
gold. The larger sections begin with grander 
initials, elaborately drawn and painted. The 
volume contains miniatures, each of them placed 
in a rich border, and accompanied by a beautiful 
initial. The first miniature represents David in a 
delightful landscape, playing an instrument like 
a guitar, but with a bow. The costume and style 
of colouring are entirely foreign to Clovio, while 
.the landscape is like those of the Grimani Breviary, 

232 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

full of aerial perspective, and quite different from 
the dry artificial naanner of naost Italian minia- 
turists. In the border are foliages and flowers, 
winged children, and vases of fruit-trees, mask and 
birds executed in tender grey heightened with 
gold, on a rich blue ground. The opposite page 
begins the first Psalm. It consists, in the Venetian 
manner, of a fine blue tablet or panel on the middle 
of which is placed a gold-brown label or smaller 
panel containing the beginning of the Psalm in 
golden capitals. Over this is a golden eagle 
displayed seated on a garland of fruits, hanging 
from the usual profile — rams' heads — so common in 
Florentine and Roman illumination of the. Renas- 
cence. Underneath the tablet is a medallion 
containing a bearded half-length figure, and beside 
this two festoons of flowers and two storks treading 
on serpents all in a similar grey to that of the 
opposite border. Surrounding this is a border of 
deep crimson with a rich jewel at each corner as 
in the Grimani Breviary and other contemporary 
work. In the middle of each side is a sphynx 
resting on a pedestal, and carrying a vase of fruits. 
In the centre of the lower border is a circlet 
containing the Pisani or Canali arms, arg. a 
chevron az. Initial of Psalm xxi : with crimson letter 
on blue ground. The border has foliages, flowers. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 233 

birds, one of them an owl, in gold on green ground. 
In centre of foot is a jewel made up of a ruby 
surrounded by eight pearls. 

The second miniature is the coronation of the 
Virgin. Border : at sides vases of fruits with 
leaves, at foot two dolphins and a basket of fruit, 
at top a jewel between branches of foliage and 
fruit, all on a bright blue ground. Again, the 
work altogether is of the Venetian school. Next 
comes the large initial of Psalm xxvi., Dominus 
illuminatio Tuiea, pink on deep blue. Then the third 
miniature, and so on. This miniature contains the 
prophet Daniel with a scroll on which is written 
IN TE SPERANTES NON DBSERis. The border is of the 
kind so often seen in the work of Boccardino il 
Vecchio and other Florentine illuminators. In the 
centre at foot is a beautiful white a,nd black cameo 
of a young man seated beneath a tree. Three 
wheat-ears in a vase in front and a goat behind 
show that it is intended for Triptolemus. The 
circlet is upheld by two graceful Tritons. At top 
and sides are garlands of fruit and flowers, cornu- 
copias, &c., in gold on crimson, with children and 
pearls in grey. The fourth initial is a fine D to 
Dixi Gustodiami, in bright blue on crimson ground, 
within a blue border with figures, &c., in brown- 
gold. The fifth should be D, but is put A by 
mistake, for Dixit insipiens in corde suo. It is a 

234 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

purplish crimson letter on deep blue, within a 
crimson border bearing golden ornaments. The 
sixth initial belongs to Psalm Ixviii., being the 
first Psalm for Matins on Thursday, Salvum me 
fac Deus, bright blue on gold, with a border of 
light blue ornaments, pearly grey and gold. The 
fourth miniature, representing St. Andrew, contains 
the inscription written on the pedestal of a pillar. 
This may have been added after the completion of the 
book. It seems to say, Sumptu communi 
pRiNci principi Andrece Gritti — that the book was 


c executed at the common expense of the 

convent for presentation to the Doge, 
Andrea Gritti, in 1537. Of several conjectural in- 
terpretations none seems to suit the form of the 
inscription so well as this. But, of course, it is 
merely a guess. A beautiful landscape completes 
the picture, surrounded by a similar border to the rest. 
The seventh initial is that of Psalm Ixxx., Exultate 
Deo adiutori nostro : the Psalm for Matins on 
Friday. The letter and portion of text is enclosed 
in a border. The fifth miniature represents Christ 
standing, in the act of blessing, within a border on 
a blue ground opposite to the eighth initial, which 
begiijs the ninety-seventh Psalm — Cantate Domino 
canticum, novum : the first Psalm for Matins on 
Saturday. This is followed by the sixth miniature 
representing St. Jerome with the lion, within a 

Life of Giorgio Criulio Clovio. 235 

crimson border containing the usual sort of orna- 
ments. There are six more initials, one for each of 
the first Vesper Psalms for the week, but no more 
miniatures. The most striking pages are those 
containing the sixth initial, and the miniatures of 
St. Andrew, Christ, and St. Jerome. The sweet 
aerial perspective points to a Netherlandish rather 
than to an Italian ai'tist, but one probably resident 
in Venice, and who had been trained in the practice 
of the artists of the Grimani Breviary, which most 
likely he had had the opportunity of studying. 
There are, however, certain individual differences 
which prove him to have been an artist of the 
highest rank. He may, perhaps, have been that 
famous Boduino of Friuli, one of the most noted of 
Clovio's contemporaries, but certainly not Clovio. 

We now have to notice a supposed discovery 
related by M. Ch. Diehl, in UArt for 1883. The 
article speaks of three in edited miniatures which, 
on seemingly good historical grounds, he assigns to 
Clovio. The evidence as to the patronage of the 
Missal or Canon which contains them is perfectly 
satisfactory and conclusive. It was clearly executed 
for Cardinal Giulio della Rovere. Its date fixes it 
to the time when Clovio was in the service of 
Cardinal Alessandro Farnese. Vittoria Farnese, 
the cardinal's sister, as we already know, was 
married to Guidobaldo II., fifth Duke of Urbino, in 

236 Life of Giorgio Griulio Clovio. 

1548. Gruidobaldo was the elder brother of GiuHo 
della Eovere, Archbishop of Eavenna. The con- 
nection, therefore, between the famiHes is sufficient 
to make the employment of Clovio upon the manu- 
script a possible occurrence. But the same argu- 
ment would apply to the beautiful Este MSS. at 
Ferrara, the artists of which are still unknown ; for 
in 1548 also Giulia della Rovere, the Duke of 
Urbino's sister, was married to the youthful 
Alfonso of Este, Marquis of Montechio, son of the 
Duke of Ferrara. But an examination of the 
miniatures themselves shows that two out of 
three are precisely like the leaves of the Missal of 
Clement VII. among the Rogers cuttings in Addl. 
21412, Brit. Mus., like two pages in the Albani 
Missal, now at Berlin, and the Clement YII. 
Missal also at Berlin. That is, the office headings 
are surrounded by borders composed of groups of 
pansies and other flowers interspersed among gems 
and jewels, and having medallions in the corners 
or centres of the frames containing either cameos or 
texts of Scripture. At foot of each page in the 
Ravenna MS. are the arms of Cardinal della 
Rovere. Somewhere in the Rogers' examples are 
those of Clement YII. Elsewhere I have offered a 
suggestion that the initials S. L. found on one of 
the medallions might be those of the painter : and 
that Sebastiano (Luciani) del Piombo,^ at that time 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 237 

Keeper of the Papal Seal, might have been thus 
employed during those years of which we have no 
record of other work. The two illuminated pages 
may then have been the work of Clovio, as the 
work shows great similarity to his authentic pro- 
ductions ; but the third page, with its antiques and 
Florentine foliages, is distinctly in the manner of 
Boccardino and his coUaborateurs in the studio of 
Gherardo at Florence. But all this is reasoning 
somewhat in a circle. If the work were done in 
Rome, there is no reason why Florentine minia- 
turists should not have worked there. If in Florence, 
the usual emporium for such work, it would be 
commissioned to various artists; if not in Florence 
at the time, then wherever they might be. But we 
cannot get any further in this instance than the 
probability derived from the name of the patron 
and the similarity of the work to other work about 
which there is a similar probability, as in the case 
of the Missals of Clement VII., and the Offices of 
Leonora, Duchess of Urbino, the mother of the 
Giulio and Giulia della Rovere who have just been 
mentioned. Of course, although Giulio did not 
become Archbishop of Ravenna until 1565, seven- 
teen years after his brother's and sister's marriages, 
the MS. might have been executed before and 
afterwards bequeathed to the cathedral of his 
favourite diocess. Besides, as the work seems to 

238 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

be not at all inferior in firmness and finish to the 
Urbino Offices executed early in the sixteenth 
century, it could hardly have been done after 1565, 
for in 1565 Clovio was sixty-seven years of age and 
in very bad health, which gradually got worse until 
his death in 1578. He is noted as working for 
Cardinal della Rovere in 1560, about the time that 
he finished the Prayer Book described byVasari, 
which had taken him nine years. After this date 
we know of little that can with certainty be 
attributed to his hand. Of the three miniatures 
assigned by M. Diehl, the one containing the 
Descent of the Holy Ghost is precisely paralleled 
by those of a MS. in the Imperial Library at 
Vienna, No. 1849, erroneously conjectured by Dr. 
Waagen to be a Spanish MS., because at the end it 
contains a note in Spanish respecting its safe arrival 
and approval. But apart from the fact that it is 
most conspicuously Tlorentine work of the Gherardo 
school, and especially of the Boccardino type, it is 
also a known fact that towards the end of the 
fifteenth, and for some years of the sixteenth, it 
was a common practice for MSS. to be ordered in 
Florence by commission from Spain, Hungary, and 
France, as for example the MSS. executed by 
Attavante. In comparing, however, these minia- 
tures with those of the Vatican, and finding them 
different in quality, our wonder is, not that they 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 239 

were so, but that it did not strike M. Diehl as an 
evidence of their being the work of different 

Another MS. often confidently affirmed to be a 
"Clovio" is the Munich MS. entitled "Officium 
Beatse Marise Virginis," and which begins with the 
"Officium Defunctor. Psalmi Graduales & Peniten- 
tiales." The miniatures are indeed of a type which 
might, by a free use of the imagination, be attributed 
to Clovio, but scarcely by anyone who carried with 
him a very vivid recollection of Clovio's authentic 

- work. Nevertheless as we have said, Clovio had 
many styles and was excellent in them all. These 
miniatures are more German or Netherlandish in 
their colour-gamut than the usual work of the 
Italian master. In point of execution they are 
equal to anything in miniature art. The borders 
are adorned with flowers — cut flowers in the Flemish 
taste, scattered upon a golden ground together 
with mice, birds, insects, &c., like the Naples 
" Flora." The miniatures are 1. The Annunciation, 
2. The Visitation, 3. The Circumcision, 4. The 
Repose, in the Flight to Egypt, 5. The Assumption, 
6. The Christ-child with the cross, standing on the 
world-angels above, and men below. This picture is 
suggestive rather of Rubens than of Raphael. The 
angel-figures and draperies are most exquisitely 
lovely, the figure of Christ supremely beautiful, 

240 Life of Gim^gio Giulio Clovio. 

the lights very pale and the tints most delicately 
pencilled and stippled. 7. The Resurrection, 8. A 
Priest blessing a girl, 9. The Prodigal Son,— a most 
perfect and charming design. Musicians sit on 
a gallery or terrace behind, the mother stands 
with her hands raised in thankfulness, the valet 
with a robe, a dog, an open landscape. All is 
most lovely and perfectly finished even to the 
veins on the father's hand, though the hand is 
not the eighth of an inch in length. The initial 
letters are placed in panels usually about one 
and a quarter inches square, with a neat gold 
rim, on various grounds of colour worked over 
with gold embroidery of ornament or foliages. 
The text is an upright Roman minuscule by an 
Italian copyist or one practised in Italian penman- 
ship. The smaller capitals are in plain gold. Among 
the flowers in the borders are convolvulus, rose, 
clove-pink, fox-glove, snap-dragon, canterbury-bell, 
violet, pimpernel, primrose, and forget-me-not. 
Among the insects are butterflies, moths, bees, 
dragon-flies, caterpillars, red and yellow ladybirds, 
house-flies, locusts, and beetles. Among the fruits 
are white and red currants, nuts, acorns, and various 
kinds of berries. These are placed somewhat as in 
the Hours of Anne of Brittany. The title is placed 
on a finely stippled blue panel in gold letters like 
those of the Bartoli facsimile Virgil in the Briti^ 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 241 

Museum. Below are two lovely children supporting 
the Electoral arms of Bavaria, quarterly 1 and 4 
lozengy a. and az., 2 and 3 sa., a lion rampant 
or, crowned gu. On the centre is placed an 
inescutcheon, a mound or, surmounted by a cross 
gu. The shield is surmounted by an Electoral cap 
ermine, thus showing that these arms were inserted 
after the change from the Ducal to the Electoral 
dignity, which took place in 1596. The children 
stand on a stone step and the shield is placed on a 
cartel of gold shaded with brown and surrounded 
by the chain or collar and devise of the golden 
fleece. The blue panel has a brown gold frame with 
a pendant of flowers at either side. If this be a 
Clovio, we should not hesitate to call either the 
Strawberry Hill MS. or the Naples Flora genuine 
Clovios. There is reason to believe, however, that 
the person named as the binder, or at least as the 
jeweller who adorned the covers, was also the minia- 
turist and even the penman of the volume. Such 
was, the reputation of Hans Lenker who in 1574 
wrote this lovely MS. It is of a fresh roseate kind of 
miniature painting quite distinct from the brownish 
flesh tints of Clovio and the firmer workings of his 
muscular forms. Besides, Clovio in 1574 was already 
too infirm to do any painting so perfect as this. 

From the long lists of works given in the inven- 
tories left by Clovio at his death, it is certain that 


242 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

many are, if existing, still without identification, and- 
possibly some so-called Clovios may thus be fully 
entitled to the name. But to identify them simply 
on their intrinsic quahties and features would require 
much care and a very extensive acquaintance with 
his authentic works. On the other hand to accept 
them on the mere dictum of a custode, or on the 
vague authority of a tradition, is most absurd. 
We constantly see in museums miniatures attributed 
to Clovio, of the most unlikely kind both from the 
character of the work and from the date or other 
circumstance attaching to it. Yet from time to time 
his true works are being restored to their rightful 
place. The latter is especially the case with his 
drawings; many were mere chalk sketches, others 
finished works in pen and ink, others still more 
highly finished miniature paintings. 

That he was a most accomplished miniaturist is 
allowed by everyone, but that he was what Vasari 
and others have echoed and re-echoed from his own 
time to the present — the greatest miniaturist. who 
ever lived — is far from the truth. In masterly vigour 
of colouring he is inferior to Monte di Giovanni, and 
in decorative skill to Fra Eustachio and other artists 
of the Florentine school. In minuteness of finish he 
was not superior to Girolamo dai Libri, Rinaldo 
Piramo, or Albert Glockendon. In variety of 
realistic portraiture he is at least equalled by 

Life- of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 243 

Gerard David, and in atmosphere and aerial perspec- 
tive by the other painters of the Grimani Breviary. 
In art-knowledge he is no greater than Geoffrey Tory, 
while in book-learning and knowledge of symbolism 
he is surpassed by Georg Hoefnagel. Neverthe- 
less, taking altogether his vast range of work, his 
versatility, his patient and persevering execution and 
his occasional grandeur of conception, the works of 
Clovio are deservedly estimated at a very high price. 
Whoever possesses a page of his execution possesses 
a masterpiece of art, and, when every fault has 
been found and criticized, there remains a work that 
must always have a reputation of the highest class 
wherever good art is appreciated, or the name of the 
artist remembered. 




At Perugia Clovio painted — 

1. An office of the Virgin, with many illumina- 

Perhaps the Stuart de Rothesay MS. 
now in the British Museum. 

2. A Pieta. 

3. A Crucifixion. 

On the death of Cardinal Grimani in 1546, 
2 and 3 came into the possession of the papal 
notary, Giovanni Gaddi, who was himself an illu- 
minator and calligrapher of some reputation. He 
seems to be identical with the Gaddi, who though 
a great friend of Cellini's, used to annoy him 
considerably whilst he lay ill, by calling to see what 
he could pick up. A Giovanni Gaddi is also men- 
tioned as a patron of Annibale Caro, but this seems 
to have been another personage of greater im- 

4. A finely written copy of the Com/mentary 

of Marino Grimani on St. Paul's 
Epistle to the Romans. Now in the 
Soane Museum. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 245 

The following is a detailed description of this 
precious volume : — 

The Soane MSS. 

This splendid fragment consists of about 130 
leaves of vellum, now inlaid in smooth paper, and 
contains the Commentary of Cardinal Marino 
Grimani on St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans. 
With two large miniatures enclosed in rich borders 
of ornament, and one border surrounding the begin- 
ning of the text. The size of each leaf is 17 by 
13 inches. 

Fol. 1. Blank. 

Fol. 2 (inlaid) contains on a panel the title : 
Marini Grimani Yeneti s.e.e. Cardinalis ac patriarchse 
Aquileise. Epistola in commentaries epistolarum 

The text begins with an initial " I " in gold 
chiaroscuro, composed of a, standing figure of a 
man in old Roman costume. " Inter omnia libera- 
lium artium," &c. The borders to this page are 
based on the decorations of the Baths of Titus, and 
are like those of certain pages in the little book of 
Offices in the British Museum. Among the orna- 
ments here is a cameo of Minerva copied from the 
one given by Maifei, and entitled " Minerva col 
tritone, e Serpente suU' elmo." No. 65. From an 
agate. Clovio has replaced the triton with a 
centaur, added colour according to his own fancy. 

24 G Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

and considerably altered the expression of the face. 
The rest of the ornaments, being derived from the 
same source, are of course very like some of the 
pilasters in the Loggie of the Vatican, or the wall 
paintings of the houses at Pompeii. The mask in 
centre of upper border is precisely in the manner of 
those already alluded to in the British Museum 
Hours. The doves, fowls, &c. on the left narrow 
border recall those of the Hoefnagel Missal at 
Vienna. Hoefnagel was a close copyist of Clovio. 
The panel in which the next title is placed is of 
grey veined marble, with a gold frame and Roman 
capital letters. It reads as follows : — Marini 
Grimani Veneti | S R E Cardinalis | et Patriarchse 
Aquileise | in Epistolam Pauli | Ad Romanes 
Commen | tariorum cap. primum. The ordinary text 
is a good half-Italic character, as if placed on a leaf 
of vellum, the corners of which are represented as 
curling over at top — the ground behind being black. 
This is a common device at the time of its execution, 
occurring both in the Attavante MSS. and else- 
where, as in the splendid Missal of Cardinal 
Cornaro attributed t(5 Raffaello in the Minerva 
Library in Rome. Then a bead frame of gold 
forms a finishing edge to the work. 

A figure of an elderly woman with a distaff 
in the lower left side, who is perhaps intended 
for Ceres, or simply a spinster. A cusped panel 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 247 

in centre contains the three Graces from a cameo. 
A well-painted barn-door cock stands immediately 
below and a dove immediately above the woman. 

The other upright border, on the right hand, 
begins at top with a lion's head and ring of the 
door-knocker sort, in brown and gold : then ribbons 
and the circular cameo head in colours, already 
referred to, of Minerva. Then a pair of small swans 
as supporters standing on brackets on either side a 
mask ; and another cusped cameo in a gold frame 
containing a white figure, on black ground, of a 
woman with a vase. On each side are small golden 
lamps and pendant ornaments. A semi-circular 
landscape stands below, then termini, &c., resting 
on a polished marble pillar having cupids and 
vases beside in the usual Pompeian taste. 

Fol. 2 V. Plain text continued. 

Pol. 3 V. Has a half or bracket border of golden 
renascence foliages and another cusped cameo in 
black and white. Title, Eiusdem in Epistolam Pauli 
ad Romanos Prafatio. In Roman capitals as 

Text begins Cum varias nationes, with initial C, 
formed of two Michelangelesca figures wreathed 
about the slender letter, all in gold, and an interior 
scroll of foliages. The foliages are partly outlined 
in black, which makes them distinct and forcible. 

Fol. 4. Text continued. 

248 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Fol. 8 is blank. 

Fol. 8 V. The first large illumination or minia- 
ture with borders. 

Fol. 9. The second large illuminated borders. The 
first represents the Conversion of St. Paul, the 
idea of which is taken from the tapestry of the 
same subject by Raffaello, now in the Vatican, the 
cartoon of which formerly belonged to the Hampton 
Court series. And the idea is ill, for both the 
composition is altered for the worse, crowded 
out of due shape, and the figures themselves are 
exaggerated in their proportions, distorted in form, 
and far from pleasant in colour. Indeed it is a 
picture that, except for technical skill, might have 
been done by any copyist. In fact, it is utterly 
spoilt by being drawn in the exaggerated manner of 
Michelangelo, on a Raifaellesca design, and coloured 
without the chiaroscuro or force of either master. 
It is really a very feeble work, and by no means to 
be compared with the powerful Last Judgment of 
the Towneley Lectionary. The figure of St. Paul is 
much beneath the- reputation of the artist and very 
much below that of Raffaello. The two lads with the 
runaway horse are almost literally copied from the 
tapestry, the attendant soldiers maintain almost 
the same attitudes; the distance only is Clovio's own 
invention, but in this instance is a questionable 
improvement on the nearer city walls and towers of 

■■'/r^*Si : 






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pTHHfTt |iiifpo|i„', , ^uoifiCiri rrftrn* ali|j /hi/ Xy\jht\s . |'i'.nrrip in I 
Jiira.jMam ex A'"i-f>i-' a,f Hftrw .f.-)1iri".Uii1, mfw fj] olifiTii.lni) j 
iif. ^uij>ifl« Pauliini iipfifliiitiir. riiiii iiiiir* ill'iii.'* ciMiiict(iitrin?i 
■SaMlMJ npwd li^f»tci)< ih-innuirnm iii ijui ijinnum i lii,i J^rr 
■prcrccpiDr tn/litwUij, nomun-'nism nirmii M"ltritiu- iil tiini itpM 
Isntn/nuMcr'^iifn , lunto ,|twi]? iioiium'apptllaum) ml iii) I'nttii 
ISfyuiin CypnPri>ii>nfiil,-ni .iko lomur/nm iiniti himiuii ii.) 
Wyn.<:^^mj^^\^m po/1 iflmy i-oiiHi-rfioium ^iMon .inl.a in .u'lii ^[n 
■ |louirum omitf nonimij ,ipi'i'||,iiioiu .um nin- ' '^ ' ^ 



(Page ffom " Soane" Clouio). 


(Page from " Soane " C/ouio). 

Life of Giorgio Griulio Clovio. 249 

the tapestry. The figure of the heavenly vision 
which in Raffaello's picture is placed in the centre 
is here made much smaller and pushed aside to the 
right-hand corner. The closer imitations of that 
picture published by Vaccaro and others from 1576 
to 1589 are far superior to this feeble production. 

Having pointed out the defects of this splendid 
page, it is only due to it to say that the borders in 
point of decoration are as rich and exquisitely 
finished as anything in miniature art. It would 
be useless to attempt a verbal description. The 
delicacy of the pencilling, the sweetness of the 
colour, the grace, brilliancy and appropriateness 
of the design, are beyond the reach of words. 
The only drawback is a little overcrowding, as if 
the fertility of the artist's imagination were too 
much for his space, and exceeded his own power of 
restraint. On the whole, and especially in the naked 
athletes at top, it is decidedly under the influence of 
Michelangelo and the Sistine ceilings, which Clovio 
seemed unable sufficiently to admire and imitate. 
I have already mentioned the David and Goliath 
copied immediately from the same subject on the 
ceiling, into the little Book of Offices in the 
British Museum. The Towneley Lectionary still 
more emphatically makes use of the same materials, 
and the Paris Psalter almost equally so. The 
contorted athletes of the Sistine, or the muscular 

250 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

women of the San Lorenzo chapel, are Clovio's 
grand ideals. 

But when this is said we must add that he did 
not confine himself to these agonized tours de force 
of draughtmanship. He can at times, as in this 
very border in the Soane Commentaries, condescend 
to extreme feminine grace. An almost nude figure 
of Venus as Peace, with an inverted torch in her 
hand, is as beautifully drawn and as delicately 
coloured as anything the spectator could wish to 
see. In the centre of each border is a cameo ; that 
at top, a mystic representation of the Trinity 
surrounded by angel trumpeters, in brown-gold 
chiaroscuro. That in the narrow border on the 
left contains the upright figure of St. Paul, also in 
gold chiaroscuro. The one in the outer border is a 
coloured miniature of St. Paul preaching at Athens, 
with the circular temple very conspicuous. At foot 
the large circlet contains a coloured miniature of the 
stoning of St. Stephen, full of action and composed 
so as to bring the figures of the martyr and of the 
youthful apostle prominently to the front. The 
rest of the border is filled with armour, weapons 
and accoutrements, and at foot are several chubby 
children variously engaged. 

On a bronze tablet placed somewhat obliquely in 
the lower right corner, beside the charming figure — a 
fair-haired child — is the inscription in thin Roman 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 251 

capitals in gold : marino | grima | no car | et lega | 


The opposite page contains the title and com- 
mencement of the Commentary, surrounded by a 
similar border to that of the miniature. Four 
cameos as before occupy the central points of the 
four sides. At top, an oblong oval containing a con- 
sultation between a legal personage seated at a desk 
and two gentlemen who stand before him. On a 
form or bench which extends along two sides of the 
room is seated an attendant in a most natural 
attitude of rest, and two others stand beside a table 
piled with books. On either side of this cameo is a 
white dove — over one a branch of olive, over the 
other a palm — and winding about a green artificial 
scroll of foliage is a label bearing the word simp| 
LiCBS. In the left narrow side border an upright 
oval corresponding with the one containing the 
figure of St. Paul, like the upper one, in gold- 
chiaroscuro. It contains a figure somewhat like the 
initial I of the Dedicatory Epistle. He holds in his 
left hand a vase, a staff in the right. Over his head 
are the words pastoris mvnvs. At foot, in a large 
circlet like the corresponding one on the other p&.ge, 
is a group of naked children supporting a shield 
bearing the Grimani arms. A winged child hover- 
ing above holds over it a cardinal's hat. The back- 
ground consists of an open landscape, showing a 

252 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

castle on an eminence, and a town on the plain built 
on the banks of a winding river. This circlet is 
supported by two dragons of most elaborate con- 
struction and finish among whose feet winds the 
label with : prv | de | n | tes. This of course with 
the label at top is the direction given for a becoming 
Christian life. " Wise as serpents (or clear-sighted 
as dragons), harmless (simple) as doves." The 
draco of the ancients was so called for his keenness 
of sight, and the word " prudent" comes very near 
its literal meaning in this text. The text from 
Matt. X. 16 was used as a motto by Cardinals 
Domenico and Marino Grrimani. Iii the part of the 
outer border answering to the position of Peace in 
the opposite page, stands the figure of Mars as War, 
accoutred as a Roman Legionary officer, in helm, 
cuirass and buskins. A large oval portrait of the 
Cardinal Patron occupies the centre of the side 
border painted with extreme care and evident 
fidelity to nature. The rest of the border is filled to 
excess with shields, corslets and other warlike para- 
phernalia. It must be understood that the naked 
athletes who support the suspended ornaments which 
fill the borders, occupy the upper corners of each 
page. As to the interior of this one the upper half 
is occupied by an open landscape in the foreground 
of which stand two tastefully draped women and 
two naked children, the women to represent Faith 
and Piety. The boys hold up a comparatively 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 253 

immense tablet in a heavy gold, frame containing 
the title in golden capitals : marini grimani vbneti | 


Under this picture, in large Roman capitals almost 
an inch high, the word pavlvs. Of this word the 
letters are alternately gold and lake ; gold and blue. 
Then comes the ordinary text : Scripturus with a 
golden initial, heatus Paulus Romanis, &c., in a 
kind of engrossing hand, and so on to the end of the 
book through its hundred and thirty-one or two 

On fol. 131, near the top, the text ends, and just 
beneath the words in the handwriting of a revisor : 
Librum hunc post eius primam scriptiones castiga- 
tione reddidimus. The last words are cum laude, 
totis viribus referamus. 

Of the same work Clovio executed another copy 
with four large paintings, in which he made the 
principal picture, the Conversion of St. Paul, a 
closer imitation of Raffaello's. After this miniature, 
in 1576, C. Cort produced, a copper-plate engraving 
which bears the name of Lorenzo Vaccaro,* and it 
may possibly be the one afterwards brought to 
England, and purchased by Mr. Strange at Nowell 
Jennings's sale. (Strange Sale Catal. No. 735.) 

* See Appendix : List of Engravings. 


The Towneley Lectionary. 

Fol. 1. Heading : " Initium sancti Evang. se- 
cundum Johannem " in a rich frame of brown-gold. 
The inscription in gold capitals on a blue ground. 
The frame has natural figures at each end, and 
heads at top and bottom. Pendants of fruit and a 
jewel at side. Little spaces of inner grounds in 
frame picked out with pink and green, finely shaded 
in stipple. The upper head has pink drapery shaded 
with violet and heightened with fine touches of 
pencil gold. The lower head has the drapery pink 
shaded with bl^e. Then a figure of St. John stand- 
ing ready to write on a rock in Patmos ; with rich 
brown-gold frame and foliages, festoons and figures. 
The text is a very large, bold and elegant Roman 
character, three-eighths of an inch high, with plain 
gold and blue capitals. 

Fol. 2, text. Fol. 3. A most magnificent border, 
" Sequentise Scti. Evang. secund. Lucam." Large 
figures at sides on black ground, finely modelled 
in style of Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. They are 
painted to represent marble statues. The heading is 
placed on a panel of which the upper frame is pink, 
shaded with violet, the ground on right has scroll- 
work like the Urbino "Lives," but larger, consisting 
of richly coloured and much varied leafages of 

Life cf Criorgio Giulio Clovio. 255 

Roman acanthus, &c., the interspaces picked out 
with pink, green, and nasturtium. Ornaments vari- 
coloured and gold. Two lionesses modelled in grey. 
A large miniature of the Nativity — -Mary kneeling 
beside the babe, and Joseph seated behind her. 
Behind him again are the cattle, and around are 
numerous figures of spectators. Shepherds enter 
from the open country on the right. Mary's drapery 
is crimson and blue as usual ; Joseph's, orange. The 
subject is full of life and action — some of the 
figures in the air. The border, a fine architectural 
Bramantesca design in brown-gold, with an outer 
panel of smooth green. Miniature medallions in 
the architecture at foot in chiaroscuro brown-gold 
with festoons of fruits, &c. The subjects are the 
Circumcision ; Adoration of the' Magi ; and the 
Presentation in the Temple. The painting is good — 
the Head of Christ in particular. At top, a similar 
treatment. The figure of a child finished to extreme 
fineness, in the style of Michelangelo. The borders 
are 1^ in. wide. In the centre of the lower one 
are the arms of Cardinal Farnese, rather rubbed. 

2. The next large picture is the Calling of the 
Apostles, in a brown-gold chiaroscuro border with 
colossal caryatids in coloured draperies, and natural 
flesh, on blue ground. They hold lilies. In the 
picture Christ is seated somewhat to the spectator's 
left in the foreground. In front of him are Andrew 

256 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

and Peter, then Jude, James and John. The 
rest are behind. It is apparently not Clovio's own 

On the opposite page are the next sequences, 
" Dominus vobiscum Sequentiee Matth." with a 
panel title. A large figure of the Evangelist in 
brown-gold frame with border of fair sculpture. 
Caryatids and figures of children leaning upon a 
sort of altar at foot. 

3. The third large miniature is Christ's Charge 
to Peter. A coarse and gaudy composition — 
certainly not by Clovio, and in a very unfinished 
state. To the extreme right is Christ standing in 
the midst. Peter kneels in front — his head bearing 
a very clearly defined tonsure, the keys hang- 
ing from one of his clasped hands. The rest 
stand behind. Seen under Peter's upraised hands 
is a flock of sheep to which Christ is pointing. 
The border is unfinished— not having received all 
the gold or final shading. A deep brown archi- 
tectural design of a doorway in brown-gold with 
sculptured terminals at side and miniatures at 
bottom. The next page has the words " In iUo 
tempore " in a very handsome title-panel, with 
figures of prophets below — the colouring of which 
is very attractive. 

4. The fourth miniature represents the Resurrec- 
tion, and is a magnificent piece of work. In the 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 257 

centre is an open tomb, around which soldiers are 
grouped in various attitudes of surprise and terror. 
The expression and the draperies are well rendered, 
but the figures of the soldiers are especially to be 
noted for the direct manner in which their attitudes 
and attention point the spectator to the figure of 
Christ floating upwards with a white flowing 
drapery falling from the body. Around him are 
angels, above him a perfect sea of cherubs' heads. 
The face and figure of Christ are grandly 
executed. The attitude gives an instantaneous 
conviction of its upward movement. The border is 
in brown-gold including the sculptures. Below are 
two medallions — one containing the three Maries 
at the Sepulchre, — ^the other, Christ appearing to 
Mary Magdalene in the garden. 

The next title has a blue panel with gold frame . 
supported at each end by the graceful, almost nude 
figure of a girl. The ornamental scrollwork is 
immensely varied in colour, and numerous elegant 
pendants add to the richness of the design, recalling 
somewhat the cartel-work of the school of Antwerp, 
conspicuous in theGrenville "Victories of Charles V." 

The accompanying sequences are those of St. 
Mark. In technic the girl-figures are painted in 
the earlier Raffaellesca manner, as in the Thermae of 
Titus — and as in the Soane Clovio. That is, the 
colour is added only tenderly and delicately in the 


258 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

shades and depths — the lights left almost untouched 
— and with a fine brown stipple. The pendants are 
similarly treated in sweetly varied colours. A 
brown hatching outside the frame and ornaments 
serves to throw up the work and give it force. 

5. The fifth large picture gives the Descent of 
the Holy Ghost at Pentecost. It is not by Clovio 
— either having been originally placed here, and 
like several others, the work of assistants, or sub- 
stituted since for the original. In the centre 
below is Mary in blue robe and white linen 
head dress, with upraised face and clasped hands ; 
grouped around her are the apostles — John some- 
what in front. Upon all rest the symbolical 
tongues of fire. Above them is the Dove, descend- 
ing in a radiant nimbus — innumerable cherubs 
fluttering around it. The face and attitude of 
Mary differ considerably from the usual type, 
being less idealized. The picture is accompanied 
by a magnificent pilaster frame of rich ornament 
— partly blue relieved with gold. A profile of 
architectural and sculptured figures, foliages and 
pendants, adorns the sides, accompanying a handsome 
prophet-like figure, draped in yellow and violet, with 
a blue head dress. The next title is most gorgeous 
and elaborate. A gold chiaroscuro frame, with 
panels containing blue grounds within gold rims, 
and gold letters. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 259 

6. The last miniature is the celebrated Last Judg- 
ment, considered by most judges to be not only 
the finest miniature in this volume, but Clpvio's 
Masterpiece, — the most remarkable and by far the 
most masterly of all his extant works. In all the 
higher qualities of design and beauty of workman- 
ship I know of nothing to compare with it. For, 
notwithstanding its limited dimensions, it contains 
all the materials of a colossal wall-painting, and gives 
rather the impression of a great work diminished 
artificially than of a miniature of its actual size. 
Remembering that it is merely a page in a book, we 
begin to comprehend the language of Yasari in his 
descriptions of other examples of Clovio's work ; 
we understand the praises lavished during three 
centuries upon this very picture. 

High up in the centre is the Saviour himself, 
seated as Judge and clothed in Imperial robes. In 
one hand he holds not a sceptre but a cross, in the 
other the mound or orb of sovereignty. Around 
him are crowded countless hosts of cherubs, ren- 
dered technically by a few masterly touches of the 
pencil dipped in gold, but all varying in individual 
expression. Below are summoning angels in varied 
attitudes, giving the trumpet calls to the dead, who 
are rising to the awful reveille like soldiers to the 
battle-call, with only one thought, of prompt and 
instantaneous obedience. Before them stand an 


260 Life of Gioi'gio Giulio Clovio. 

innumerable company of saints, martyrs, and con- 
fessors, in attitudes of happy thankfulness or peace- 
ful expectation, their gaze fixed upon the Judge. 
The moment chosen by the artist is that solemn 
description of the Apocalypse, " And I saw the 
dead, small and great, standing before God. And 
books were opened . . . And the sea gave up the 
dead which were in it, and Death and Hades gave 
up the dead which were in them" (Rev. xx. 12, 13). 
Below this multitude is a division occupied with 
angels, and on the ground of the picture the sinners. 
Being nearer, these are on. a larger scale, and the 
expression more vivid. Here is every aspect of 
doubt, fear, or despair, or of shrinking and un- 
mingled terror. This portion of the picture 
demands and deserves deep and careful examination. 
In the borders are the figures of Adam and Eve in 
attitudes of remorse and shame. Such is a vague 
and imperfect verbal outline of this marvellous 
composition, but no mere description could convey 
the complicated variety of expression, pose, colour, 
and incident with which it abounds. The frame is 
of a golden ochre tone, richly relieved with gold. 
Sculpturesque figures of different sizes are placed 
upon it, and in finish and care it is worthy of the 
miniature which it encloses. The ground of the 
outer portion is dull blue carrying a pencilled orna- 
ment in gold. 


The Trivulzio Petrarch. 

This MS., though stated by Rosini* to be the 
work of Clovio, certainly does not seem proved from 
the specimen he gives. Rosini says, " The diligence 
and delicacy of the work (apart from the tradition) 
leave no doubt that this was one of the works 
executed by him in early youth." The mistake of 
assuming fineness or minute labour to be sufficient 
proof of authenticity is the common mistake of 
almost every writer who has not carefully compared 
various examples. There is no doubt that this 
work is executed in the earlier Italian manner — a 
better argument than either its diligence or its 

The volume in question is a small octavo, like 
most of its contemporary books of poetry, and rather 
narrow for the length. Further description is not 
given by Rosini, but the outline added by him 
presents a picture, about 4 in. by 1-g in., of a 
panelled chamber with an open window at the end. 
In front sits the poet at a desk, in an attitude of 
deep cogitation, his head resting on his left hand. 
His right holding a book rests on the desk. On the 
further end of the desk is an armillary sphere. 
Nearer are several books and an inkstand. Reared 

* Ed. Pisa. V. iii. 

262 Life of Giorgio Griulio Clovio. 

in the corner of the foreground is a lute, and beside 
Petrarch's feet sits a cat. Blue mountains are seen 
through the window. 

It was this little volume, or one exactly like it, 
that Apostolo Zeus gave to the Marciana at Venice, 
as mentioned by Cigogna. Sakcinski* gives its 
number as Cod. DXVI., but he adds, "Kako je 
kasnije dospio isti rukopis u sbirku Trivulza u Milan 
nije poznato." " Whether indeed this be the same 
MS. now long remaining in the Trivulzio Collection 
in Milan I do not know." 


The Psalter of Paul HI. 

This splendid but hitherto somewhat neglected 
MS. was superficially examined and described by 
Dr. Waagen in his " Kunstwerke und Kiinstler," in 
Paris, published at Berlin in 1839. To the descrip- 
tion given by him I have now to add the sub- 
stance of an analysis of its contents most courte- 
ously furnished to me by M. Leopold Delisle, the 
Chief Librarian of the Bihliotheque Rationale, Paris. 

Waagen says, p. 394 : — " In the arabesques of 
its borders we may recognize the influence of 
the Loggie of the Vatican; in the historical 

* Dictionary of S. Slavonian Biography, Art. II. 161. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 263 

pictures a mistaken imitation of Michelangelo. 
In the softness, delicacy and finish in gouache, 
the miniatures are truly wonderful, and fully 
justify the European reputation which Clovio 
enjoyed in his own time. A graceful golden foliage, 
picked out with colours, and enriched with garlands, 
birds, &c., in the style of Giovanni da Udine, sur- 
rounds the title-page, while in the lower border is 
an oblong medallion supported by two angels con- 
taining a profile portrait of Paul III. and the 
legend and date Paulus III. Pont. M. MD.XLII. 
The MS. which was formerly numbered Supplem. 
Lat. 702 is now "MS. Latin 8880 Bihl. Nationale." 
M. Delisle gives the following account of folio 1, 
Rubric : "1 n nomine dni | nostri Jesu Christi | 
Amen. | Ordo psalterii secundum morem | et con- 
suetudines | Romanse curiae | foeliciter Incipit. 
Invitatoria sub | scripta dicuntur | singula singulis | 
dominicis diebus | a secunda dnica post Epiphanias | 
usq. ad septuages j imam et a Kale | dis Octobris 
us I 9 : ad Adventum. || Invitatorum I. | Venite 
exul I temus .... The last folio contains the 
following colophon ccxiiiv : — 

Silvester ad Lectorem 
Octavum explerat jam patjlus tertius annum 

Hoc Federicus cum Penisinus opus 
Ne merita autoris fraudetur dextera laude 
Et patria et nomen sint tibi nota . tale . 

264 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

The volume has 213 folios, 374 millim. high by 260 
broad. It is written in two columns, in a large 
Roman hand, exactly similar to the handsome 
characters of the XVI. Century printers. The 
volume was presented to Pope Paul III. by Antonius 
S. R. E. Cardinalis Casalius. The arms of Pius VI. 
(Braschi, 1774-1799) are embroidered on thecovering, 
a pretty clear evidence, by the way, that the volume 
was part of the Bonaparte plunder from that unfor- 
tunate pontiff after the Bologna decree of 1796. 
The Psalter properly so called occupies ff. i-clxxxi. 
The Hymns ff. clxxxiii-ccvii. The Litany ff. cc8 
(stc)-ccx. Prayers ccx. 

The ornamentation comprises : — 

I. The first page with a frame-border of rich 
ornaments, architectural motives and garlands of 
flowers and fruits, interspersed with birds, &c., as 
already mentioned. 

II. Fol. clxxxii, V. A grand full-page picture in 
gouache representing the Almighty floating in the 
air above the world. The border of the kind 
already described, consisting of cameos, terminals, 
and garlands. At the top is a cameo containing the 
bust of the Pope with the legend pavlvs hi. pont max. 
At foot the arms of this Pope : six fleurs-de-lis on 
an azure field. The miniature precedes the office 
of the First Sunday in Advent. Waagen thus 
describes it : " Before the First Sunday in Advent, 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 265 

on a picture which occupies the whole of the page, is 
God the Father represented in the act of creating 
the sun and moon. The deep yellow with purple 
shadows of his under garment has too glaring an 
effect, and the muscles of the limbs, as seen, are 
much exaggerated through the drapery. The head 
too is spiritless, though the technical execution is 
most masterly and highly finished. On the other 
hand, the borders are extremely beautiful, especially 
those of the opposite page, including twelve angels 
and four genii placed in symmetrical arabesques, the 
flesh tones of which are as it were breathed on them, 
and give them ah infinite charm. At the same time 
the heads are meaningless and the forms occasionally 
too attenuated. But incomparable imitations of 
onyx, cameos, masks, termini, and precious stones 
intensify the impression of the general loveliness of 
the work. On the lower border are the arms of 
Paul III." 

III. The first page of the Hymns (fol. clxxxiii) 
surrounded by an appropriate frame-border, like that 
one opposite (fol. clxxxii v.). At foot, a medallion 
in which are painted a violet flower (in fact a lily), 
a sort of rainbow, and the devise on a ribbon, 
AIKHS KPINON. This emblematic devise is the 
impresa of Paul III. as has been explained already. 

IV. Eleven large painted initials, 7 centimetres 
in height, on gold grounds, on which are sometimes 

266 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

placed small compartments, at times in the form of 
cameos, on which are depicted little subjects in 

V. Thirty-three painted initials, 4 centim. high, 
in the interior of which are depicted small subjects, 
similarly to the larger ones. All these initials are 
of a fine Roman type, and in a very pure taste. 
Besides these, there is at the begirming of every 
psalm, a large capital in gold on a ground half red, 
half blue. The initials of the verses are smaller 
capitals in gold on grounds of red or blue hatching. 

Details as to the situation of initials, &c. : — 

Initials of 7 centimetres (about 2f in.) on gold 
grounds, with flowers, fruits, insects, pearls, emeralds 
or rubies on them. 

Fol. ii, V. The subject in this initial is a king 
kneeling, his arms extended in prayer, his crown on 
the ground. Text, Beatus vir qui ... (in colours). 
Ps. i. (Vulgate.) This is the usual picture in this 

£ xl, V. Same subject, a blue cameo. Text, 
" Dominus illuminatio mea." Ps. xxvi. 

f. Ix. A king standing and playing a psaltery, 
" Dixi custodiam vias meas . ." Ps. xxxviii. A 
white cameo on deep purple. 

£ Ixxv. A king standing and touching a key- 
board with two plectra. Dixit insipiens in corde 
suo . . Ps. lii. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 267 

f. Ixxxviii. Two subjects painted in the initial, 
Salvum me fac Deus . . . Ps. Ixviii. 

1. A man on his knees before an altar on 
which is a chalice: green cameo. 2. King 
on his knees in prayer, his arms extended, 
his crown on the ground. Purple cameo. 

f. cvii, V. King kneeling between two trees. 
Purple cameo. Exultate Deo. Ps. Ixxx. 

f. cxxiii. King standing, playing a long flute, 
red ground. Cantate Domino. Ps. xcvii. 

f. cxliii. King kneeling in prayer. Green cameo. 
Legem pone mihi . . . Ps. cxviii. 33. 

f. cliii. King playing the harp. Green cameo. 
Dixit Dominus domino meo . . . Ps. cix. 

f. clxxiii. The Last Judgment. 

£ cxcvi. The Conversion of St. Paul. Gold- 
bronze. Sky blue. Our Lord in a red drapery. 
A miniature, 60 millim. by 77 (rather more than 
2i in. by 3). 

Initials of 4 centimetres (about 1|- in.) high. 

f. xix. A figure standing and bearing a column. 

f. XXV. Jesus Christ bearing His cross. 

f. Ix, V. A man kneeling in prayer. 

f. cl. A figure standing. 

£ clvii. Death with his scythe. A black cameo. 

£ clix, V. A king standing. Green cameo. 

£ clxii. Two figures : one in the air, the other 
praying. Nisi Dominus sedificaverit . . . Ps. cxxvi. 

268 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

f. clxiiii. Small figure standing, and holding a 
violin and bow. Green cameo. Memento Domine 
David ... Ps. cxxxi. 

f. clxviii. Christ risen holding the cross with an 
air of triumph. Purple cameo. Confitebor tibi 
Domine . . . Ps. cxxxvii. 

f. clxxii. Two subjects. In the upper compart- 
ment Christ triumphant — in the lower, the open 
tomb, surrounded by sleeping guards. Benedictus 
Dominus Deus mens . . . Ps. cxliii. 

£ clxxxiiii. The Nativity. 

f. clxxxv. Two small cameos. 1. The Adoration 
of the Magi. 2. The Magi on their journey. 

£ clxxxv, V. A figure praying. 

£ clxxxvii. The instruments of the Passion. 

£ clxxxix. Figure kneeling. 

£ cxci. Two female figures standing, one of whom 
holds a sword and scales (Justice), the other a 

£ cxci, V. The Holy Spirit. 

£ cxciii. Two small compartments on red grounds. 

1. Figure of a Pope in prayer, in white 

detached from the grounds — above the 

words : Pavlvs hi. 2. The figure of the 


£ cxciiii, v. The Eucharist, figured by a chalice 
and a " hostia." 

£ cxcvi. St. Peter holding the keys and a book. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 269 

f. cxcvi, V. St. John Baptist. 

f. cxcviii. SS. Peter and Paul. 

f. do. The Magdalene. 

£ cxcviii, V. The Transfiguration. 

f. cc. The Annunciation. 

f. cc, V. St. Michael. 

f. cci, V. All Saints. 

f. ccii, V. SS. Peter and Paul (or SS. Cosma 
and Damian). 

f. cciii. A martyr. 

f. cciii, V. Martyrs. 

f. ccv. Confessors (figures of Popes and bishops). 

f. ccvii. A Temple (In dedicatione templi). 

As I have not myself seen this MS. I cannot 
affirm it to be the work of Clovio. From its 
manner of execution in some parts, the evidence 
seems rather negative— ^.e. in the gouaches. The 
cameos and borders, on the other hand, seem quite 
in Clovio's manner. 

There is a very remote possibility that it is 
altogether the work of the Federicus Perusinus 
named in the colophon. It is almost certain, that 
he was the Federicus Marius Perusinus who was 
attached to the pontifical chapel about 1549, as 
" scriptor." Twenty years before, he was working 
for the convent of S. Agostino in Rome, where 
there still exists an antiphonary, dated 1541, which 
is described by Msgr. Barbier de Montault: des 

270 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Livres de Chceur des Eglises de Rome, 9. arras, 18 7 4. 
Under April 1542, Muntz quotes the following 
entry : "A Federico Perosino schritore della capella 
del papa per scrittura et notatura del sopraditto 
libro, due. 41. bai. 25. Item per miniatura del 
sopra detto libro, per mano del detto Pederigo, 
due. 3. bai. 25." The price is against the suppo- 
sition that the miniature here means more than 
rubrication. And there is certainly more than a 
month's labour in the Psalter of Paul III, while 
the scriptor's salary was 4 ducats 50 b. per month. 
See my Dictionary of Miniaturists, II, 262, and 
Muntz : La Bihliothbque du Vatican au XV le sihcle, 
100. Paris, 1886. 

The Naples "Offices:' 

Translated from Bernard Quaranta. Le Mysta- 
gogue: Guide General du Musee Roy. 
Bourhon. Naples, 1844. 
" Officium B. M. Virginis ; painted by Julio 
Clovio for the use of the Farnese Princes. 

This office is one of the most unique in the world, 
and therefore we shall devote to it a detailed 

The Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, protector of 

lAfe ofCriorgio Giulio Clovio. 271 

letters and the arts, had it painted in miniature by 
Julio Clovio, a distinguished artist in this kind of 
work, as we are told by George Vasari in his "Lives 
of Painters." 

Clovio, on being honoured with this order, wished 
to show how divine his art can become when it is 
encouraged and protected. 

It is impossible to believe that any pencil could 
have traced what the eye can scarcely perceive. 

The artist has divided the work into twenty-six 
little stories — one opposite another, i.e. on one side 
the history, on the other the figure of this same 
history, taken from Holy Scripture. Each story 
or miniature has smaller border pictures and figures 
bizarres which relate to the subject of the history 
represented by the painter. 

He begins with Matins : 

The story is the Annunciation by the Angel 
Gabriel to the Virgin Mary, with a vignette (border) 
of little loves of unequalled beauty. 

Facing this is Isaiah before Ahab. 

At Lauds. The Visitation ; and opposite Peace 
and Justice embracing each other, with border and 
ornaments in gold (chiaroscuro). 

At Prime. The Nativity of our Saviour ; and 
opposite the terrestrial Paradise with Adam and 
Eve eating the apple, the borders contain men and 
women naked, with animals of different species. 

272 Life of Cfiorgio Giulio Clovio. 

At Tierce. The appearance of the Angel to the 
Shepherds. Opposite, the Tiburtine Sibyl showing 
to Augustus the Virgin and her son in the sky. 
The border with tiny miniatures in colours and a 
portrait of Alessandro Farnese. 

At Sexts. The Circumcision. In Simeon we 
have a portrait of Pope Paul III. On the other 
side are the portraits of Marciana and Septimia, 
two Roman ladies of extraordinary beauty. In the 
borders are miniatures of the Baptism of Christ, 
with other naked figures. 

At Nones. The Adoration of the Magi. Opposite 
is Solomon adored by the Queen of Sheba. The 
lower border miniature, of which the entire figures 
are not greater than ants, represents the F^te of 
the Monte Testaccio. 

It is marvellous to see how, with the mere point 
of the pencil, he has traced such wonders. He 
represents all the liveries worn by the servants of 
the Cardinal.* 

At Vespers. The Flight into Egypt. Vis-^-vis, 
Pharaoh submerged in the Red Sea. With other 
" vignettesl" 

At Complines. The Coronation of the Virgin. 
In the sky an infinite multitude of angels. On the 
other side is the Coronation of Queen Esther by 
King Ahasuerus, with corresponding borders. 

* See Vasari's description of this MS. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 273 

The Mass. The painter first of all in the border 
here has a cameo representing the Annunciation. 
The two histories are The Holy Virgin and child, 
and The Almighty creating Heaven and Earth. 

Before the "Penitential Psalms" is the battle 
in which David commands the death of Uriah. An 
infinity of horses, of armed men, of womided, dead, 
are the miracle and marvel of this picture. On the 
other side is David in penitence, and in the borders 
are grotesque and other superb ornaments. But 
what was never seen before and what one cannot 
even imagine, is given in the Litanies of the Saints. 
In the margin there are, first, the Holy Trinity, the 
Angels, Apostles, and other saints, then the Virgin 
Mary and all the virgin saints : at foot the pro- 
cession of the Holy Sacrament borne by the Pope, 
as it takes place at Rome ; the F6te-Dieu in which 
all the Ofiicers, Bishops, Cardinals, the guards of 
lancers, with tapers in their hands, appear together 
with the rest of the papal court, and in the distance 
the Castle of St. Angelo firing a salute. All these 
figures are painted with such grace, precision, and 
art, that this MS. is the wonder of all who see it. 
Permission for its inspection can only be had 
expressly from the Minister of the Interior. 

The office of the Dead begins with two pictures : 
Death triumphant over grandees and potentates, as 
well as over the poor and feeble. On the other side the 


274 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

resurrection of Lazarus, and behind — the same Power, 
who fights against the horsemen. Jesus crucified 
forms one side, for the Office of the Cross; on the other 
is Moses and the miracle of the serpents. The Descent 
of the Holy Ghost precedes the Office, and opposite is 
the Tower of Babel surrounded with walls by Nimrod. 

All this prodigy — for it is truly a rare one — was 
completed by Clovio within a space of nine years. 
Invaluable monument ! Where could one find 
greater profusion of ornaments. The multiplicity 
of the accessories, the elegance of the pose of the 
naked figures, the correctness of the perspective, 
the beauty of the trees, everything that drawing 
requires or colouring demands, serves to render this 
MS. a monument unique in the world. 

The cover of this Office is worthy of the work, 
for it is of wrought silver, in bas-relief On one 
side is the Holy Virgin in a full-length figure, and 
on the other the Angel Gabriel bearing in his hand 
a lily. These principal figures, together with four 
other smaller ones and other ornaments, are gilt. 
All about are engraved the armorials of Cardinal 
Alexander and of Edward Farnesq. The cover is 
attributed to B. Cellini. Two missals belonging to 
the Farnese family are found in this museum, 
besides another Office of the Virgin called the Flora, 
executed by order, and for the use, of the same 
family, and which is not less precious than the first." 


The Grenville " Victories of Charles V." called 
" L'Aguila Triumphante," 

Dibdin's description of these famous paintings 
was taken chiefly from the notes appended to them 
by Mr. Grenville. I have gone over all those notes, 
which are rendered faithfully by Dibdin, but his 
quotation from De Thou is neither complete nor 
accurate. In the following account, therefore, I 
give the result of an entirely fresh and independent 
examination of the series. 

In one of the notes Mr. Grenville says that 
the drawings were bought by Mr. Woodburn of 
M. Trochon, of Paris, who had bought them of a 
French officer who got them from the Escorial. 
He adds : "There had been a written note in the 
first leaf of the book, which has been since erased ; 
that note purported that it belonged to the Escurial." 
It is a great pity that such a memorandum should 
have been destroyed, and that no documentary 
evidence appears to exist in confirmation of the 
story, and of the commission alleged to have been 
given to Clovio concerning the Heemskerck draw- 
ings ; as evidence of this kind might go far in 
confirming the opinion of their genuineness derived 
from their manner of execution. 

The volume is a thin oblong folio, bound in blue- 


276 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

violet velvet, and kept in a dark blue leather case ; 
but the drawings themselves are much smaller than 
the book itself, inserted between sheets of stout 

Fol. 1. Contains the Title in later Roman 
capitals, half an inch high : Giulio Clovio | L'Aguila 
Triumphante I DE Carlos Quinto. 

These letters are in gold, on the plain vellum. 

Fol. 2. The notes of Mr. Grenville, mounted on 
the guard-paper. 

Fol. 2 V. Table of Contents (MS.). 

Fol. 3. Twelve slips pasted on the leaf, con- 
taining brief descriptions of the subjects of the 
drawings. These are copied or used by Dibdin in 
his account. 

Fol. 4. The first sheet of vellum, containing 
on the back the first quatrain referred to in chapter 

" L'Aguila muy triumphante y no vencida" &g. 

These lines, which are written in black ink, now 
faded to brown, and in a poor, non-professional 
Roman character, are enclosed in a handsome 
cartouche or cartel, which Dibdin calls "an arabesque 
border of consummate taste." It is, in fact, a really 
tasteful frame of the Antwerp school of ornament, 
such as may be seen in the works of Crispin de 
Passe the elder, the Lmprese of Pittoni and Battini, 
or among the engravings of the younger Hoefnagel. 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 277 

Its being of a Flemish character has been brought 

to bear against the genuineness of the drawings as 

works of Clovio. But the same argument might 

be brought against the Italians named above, and 

against the Towneley Lectionary itself It might 

with equal force be objected to many of the borders 

which are known to be the genuine work of Clovio, 

that they cannot be so, because they are precisely 

in the manner of certain ornamental panels designed 

by Andi'ouet de Cerceau. One page in the Stuart 

de Rothesay Offices, painted in the finest and most 

characteristic Cloviesca manner, is similar d merveille 

to some of the Renaissance ornament of the great 

French architect. The colouring is somewhat gaudy, 

but not gaudier than similar work in the Lectionary. 

The masks introduced are finished with the utmost 

care, and, it must be admitted, are painted after the 

same method as those of Clovio. That is : the first 

hatching or shade is of a brown tone, and the 

finishing of tender local colour. This method is 

different from that of Buonfratelli and Baroccio, 

whose hatching is less vigorous and more iridescent. 

Those who have made a study of the various 

methods employed by the great miniaturists, will 

bear me out in these remarks. 

Fol. 5. The first picture within a frame painted 
to imitate an ordinary gold picture-frame, in red 
ochre heightened with gold. This first subject 

278 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

represents Charles V. seated between two pillars — 
the symbols used in his devises, of stability, and 
suggestive of his rule beyond the Pillars of Hercules, 
over Transatlantic regions ; round them winding the 
two labels with his well-known motto, "plus ultra." 
In his right hand he holds the sword — the mound 
and cross in his left. He wears a steel-grey helmet 
without plume, but surrounded by a rayed crown 
of gold. Beneath him crouches the black Imperial 
Austrian Eagle, as if about to strike, holding in his 
beak a ring to which is attached a golden cord that 
passes round five of the six personages who stand 
around. This is significant of their having been 
subjected to Imperial authority. The Emperor 
wears a corslet of fine blue, modelled and shaded 
with great delicacy. His cloak or robe, which 
hangs across his breast from shoulder to shoulder, 
and, passing behind him, hangs over his arms and 
across his lap, is of a deep pink or crimson. His 
knees are bare and of a warm healthy tint. His 
greaves, the top of the left one having lappels of 
Orange yellow, are fine violet enriched with gold 
embroidery. The lofty throne on which he is seated 
is of grey marble. On the front of it is a green 
wreath encircling the arms of the Duchy of Austria 
emblazoned gu. a fesse arg. The pillars on each 
side on the arms of the throne are of gold. 

The figures standing beside represent the Sultan, 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 279 

the Pope, the King of France, the Duke of 
Cleves, the Duke of Saxony, and the Landgrave of 

The Sultan, Soliman the Magnificent, stands in 
the left of the immediate foreground, outside the 
cord, and looks round significantly at the Emperor 
— the verse says in fear, but, both in the engraving 
and the painting, the expression is one of haughty 
defiance. He wears a tm'ban consisting of white 
band and scarlet cap, surrounded by the golden 
rayed crown. His tunic or corslet is of blue damask, 
and his cloak, cloth-of-gold lined with ermine. 
Hose of greenish yellow and soft buff leather boots 
complete his costume. Clement VII., who stands 
next, in an attitude of sorrowful dignity, is clothed 
in full pontificals, with lofty tiara, rich with gems, 
upon his head, and the archiepiscopal staff in his 
left hand. His right rests upon a large shield 
decorated with the insignia of the Medici. His 
robe is of stiff brocade, with figures of saints upon 
the hem, here quite different from the engraving. 
He wears scarlet gloves having a gem on the back 
of the hand. Francis I. has a helmet of steel bearing 
a rayed crown of gold, and a plume of yellow and 
blue ostrich feathers. Over the right shoulder 
chiefly, he wears a rich blue cloak. His corslet is 
violet. For cuisses he carries two small grey shields 
charged with the golden lilies of France. His knee- 

280 Life of Griorgio Griulio Clovio. 

caps, instead of the simple drapery of the engraving, 
are covered with golden masks.* His hose, or 
greaves, are blue-grey with golden embroidery. In 
his right hand he holds a pennon bearing the lilies. 
His left hand rests upon his large shield. On the 
other side of the picture nearest the throne stands 
the youthful Duke of Cleves with crossed hands. 
He is bareheaded, but wears steel armour. Next 
comes the tall and burly figure of John Frederic 
Duke of Saxony in complete armour. The plume 
of his helmet, with its ostrich feathers of black and 
yellow, slightly relieves the heavy appearance of 
the steel plates, which, however, are rendered in a 
masterly and perfect manner. Lastly, the rather 
crouching figure of the Landgrave of Hesse in a 
black furred cloak. The orange sleeves and yellow 
hose afford the proper contrast to the sombre tints 
above, and save the picture from losing its balance 
as to colour. In accordance with the custom of the 
time, every personage bears his family insignia on a 
shield. That of the Sultan is black inlaid with a 
filigree of gold. The Pope's is violet, on which are 
mounted the bearings of the well-known palle on a 
golden plate. 

Francis I. bears azure, three fleurs-de-lis, or. 

The shield of the Duke of Cleves, which is plain 

* " With libbard's head on knee." — Love's Labours Lost, Act 
IV. sc. 3. 

Life of Giorgio Qiulio Clovio. 281 

in the engraving, here bears or, two lions rampant, 
accosted, sa, which are the arms of Guelderland, a 
part of his patrimony. 

That of John Frederic is as usually given, and 
that of the Landgrave lies on the ground without 
due blazon. 

The background of the miniature is green, hatched 
or stippled to a full rich tone, which admirably 
supports the colouring of the figures. 

Fol. 5 V. The cartel on the back of Fol. 5 
contains the verses referring to the second drawing, 
" Claramente, &c." It is very carefully painted, 
the masks being quite as good as in the Towneley 
MS., and the work, allowing for difference of 
dimensions, precisely in the manner of the Stuart 
de Rothesay Offices.' 

Fol. 6. The second picture : Pa via. The plate- 
armour of Francis I. of excellent and exquisite 
finish, and the draperies rich and finely executed. 
The corslet is violet, with scales upon it drawn in 
gold. The knee-masks of gold, and the greaves 
steel-grey and gold. His saddle-cloth is cloth-of- 
gold with blue bordering, relieved with pink and 
gold. The soldiers who capture the king are in 
complete armour, bright colour appearing in the 
housings of the horses. 

Fol. 6 V. The cartel here is comparatively plain, 
but still partaking of the character of similar work 

282 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

in the Leetionary. It contains the verses referring 
to the death of the Constable de Bourbon. 

Fol. 7. The third picture, of the death of Bour- 
bon, who is depicted in a blue corslet with yellow- 
orange thongs and pink skirt. A scarlet cloak 
falls from his shoulders. The city behind the tower 
has the houses on the left drawn in brown, on the 
right in violet. The river is pale blue — almost 
white. The man who is running to the Constable's 
assistance is also very carefully painted, especially 
in the flesh tones. 

Fol. 7 V. The verses for next picture in a frame, 
carefully painted, but not remarkable. 

Fol. 8. The fourth miniature, the herald before 
St. Angelo. The statues of SS. Peter and Paul 
remarkably good, in a cool grey, carefully mani- 
pulated. The costumes of the soldiers are glaring 
and gaudy. The sky is, to say the least, portentous 
in the violence of its tints. 

Fol. 8 V. A rather handsome frame to the verses 
of the next miniature. 

Fol. 9. The fifth scene, representing the Kaising 
of the Siege of Vienna. The striking feature of 
this picture is the rich caparison of the Emperor's 
horse, chiefly violet and cloth-of-gold. The rest 
of the picture, though laboured, is not masterly 
either in tone or design, but this is chiefly due to 
the Flemish artist. The sky, again, is fiery and 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 283 

threatening, and the city treated in the con- 
ventional manner of the miniaturists in violet, with 
delicate hatchings of the same tint. 

Fol. 9 V. A rather elegant cartel, containing 
verses " Los indios," &c. For what it is, its 
execution is fine. The two faces or masks in it 
quite as good as the master's work, either in the 
Soane or the Towneley MS. 

Fol. 10. A horrible scene, finished with more 
care than it deserves, with much stippling on the 
figures, in Clovio's manner. 

Fol. 10 V. Cartel, with verses, not remarkable, 
but thoroughly Flemish in style. 

Fol. 11. Tunis. The seventh miniature. The 
Imperial saddle-clothes scarlet and gold, the armour 
steel and gold. On the left a fine horse-cloth of 
greenish hue, enriched with borders and embroi- 
deries of gold and rose-pink. Distance tenderly 

Fol. 11 V. Frame to verses " De Cleues es el 
Duque," &e. 

Fol. 12. The eighth scene, representing the 
Submission of the Duke of Cleves. This is a 
beautiful miniature, and most carefully executed. 
Indeed it is only surpassed by one other of the 
pictures, and is not unworthy of comparison with 
Clovio's acknowledged work. The Emperor is 
seated under a green canopy. Over his head hangs 

284 Uife of Giorgio Griulio Clovio. 

a golden ball, with scarlet tassel. A wreath of 
laurel encircles his brown hair, and. the likeness is 
fairly- good. Like those in the first and tenth scenes 
the portraits here are manifestly copied from authen- 
tic sources. As to costume, the corslet is blue, the 
cloak pale crimson, the enrichments orange, crimson, 
and gold. The carpet is rich Flemish cloth of gold, 
elaborately overwrought with a pattern, which does 
not appear in the engraving. The tall figure on the 
left is also rich in colour. He wears a steel helmet 
enriched with gold. His near arm is fine green. 
His corslet orange, over which and behind hangs a 
robe of blue, very rich and full in tone. A green 
skirt and crimson hose, differing in depth of colour, 
and orange furnishings complete the splendour of 
his equipment. The other soldier who looks down 
upon the kneeling suppliant, is another triumph of 
military costume, in scarlet, blue, green, and gold. 
The Duke of Cleves — a young man with light 
brown hair and fair complexion — is beautifully 
painted. A golden diadem surrounds his head, 
and he wears a black cloak lined with ermine, his 
sleeves and hose violet. The shield, as before, 
gold, bearing black lions. Pale green and violet 
are the principal tints on the subordinate figures 

Fol. 12 V. A cartel for the verses of the next 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 285 

Fol. 13. The arrival of the Count van Buren, 
The accoutrements of the Emperor as usual are the 
strikmg part of the picture, being rich in colour- 
ing and full of finely wrought detail. Distance, 
pale green, and city delicate violet, with pale blue 
hills beyond. 

Fol. 13 V. Here the cartel is finer than usual in 
execution, elegant in form, and containing minutely 
finished masks. 

Fol. 15. The tenth miniature representing the 
Field of Muhlberg and the Surrender of John 
Frederic. The portraits are faithfully rendered, 
entirely differing in this respect from the engraving. 
The caparisons and costumes, as usual, are rich and 
elaborate, producing altogether a fine picture, by no 
means dozzinale, and certainly not vulgar either 
in taste or execution. The heavy figure of the 
Duke, with the bleeding scar across the face, is full 
of force and originality. Opposite to this miniature 
is inserted a pen drawing (Fol. 14 v.) of the same 
subject, but reversed. It is signed in the left 
corner "Martinus van Heemskerck Inventor 1554." 
Here the expression of the faces is very far inferior 
to the miniature. It appears to be a replica of 
one of the original drawings for the engravings. 

Fol. 15 V. A fine cartel with lion's head in 
centre of upper part of frame, and grotesque masks 
at the corners, highly finished and clever. 

286 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Fol. 16. The surrender of certain cities. This 
eleventh miniature is in many respects the finest 
of the series, and if any direct evidence could be 
found to attach it to the name of Clovio, I should 
not hesitate to accept it as a genuine production of 
his pencil. No one will accuse me of over credulity 
as to either his or any other works in miniature, 
and therefore I can the more freely admit the 
excellent internal evidence of this picture. I have 
subjected it to microscopic inspection side by side 
with some of Clovio's work, and I must confess 
that I find no difference sufficient to exclude it from 
his hand. The heads are not inferior to some in 
the famous Last Judgment in the Towneley MS. 
They are full of individual character. The draperies 
are good, and the execution throughout not in the 
least inferior to anything from the master's hand; 
and it accords in technic with his accustomed 
method of working. In short, my belief is that it 
really is his work. It can only be superficially 
described. The colours of the draperies of the 
kneeling figures as they occur in order are crimson, 
violet, black, blue, and violet. The especially 
delicate execution of the figure of the Emperor 
is beyond praise. The prevailing colours in the 
costume are violet, black, yellow, tender blue and 
gold. The cushion and rug beneath his feet, scarlet 
and gold, and the carpet fine yellow-gi'een. The 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 287 

floor or pavement is a masterly, imitation of veined 
marbles, or varied scagliolas, with, inlaid circlets of 
blue, violet and yellow.* 

The tall soldier in the right corner displays 
mainly orange, green, and violet. The curtain 
hanging over the Emperor's head is green. The 
step in the right corner is of cool grey marble. 

Fol. 16 V. The last cartel of verses, "Aqii tu 
vdes," &c., contains fine lions' heads and other 
decorative details, but is on the whole rather 

Fol. 17. The last miniature, an allegorical repre- 
sentation of the scene described in detail by De 
Thou : Histoire Universelle, I. 264-5. 

Here the Emperor is clothed in rich cloth-of-gold, 
with violet under-drapery. Over his head is a crim- 
son canopy, and across behind, a green curtain. The 
ecclesiastics in stiff brocades. The Landgrave is in 
black, with brown fur collar. The prince nearest to 
the throne wears a golden crown and a gold-brown 
cloak with golden heads for clasps, violet hose and 
black shoes. The next has a cool violet cloak, lined 
and collared ermine, hose and shoes black, a brown 

* Artificial scagliolas could scarcely lie known, to Clovio, their 
invention being attributed to Guido Sassi of Carpi, after 1600. 
But Sebastiano del Piombo discovered a method of painting 
on slabs of marble various ornamental designs and portraits. 
Marble pavements are often depicted in French and Italian 

288 lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

fur and scarlet cap surmounted by a diadem of gold 
and pearls. All, however, are richly clothed, and the 
effect suggestive of sovereign grandeur and dignity. 
No doubt here again the faces are all portraits, and 
perhaps by reference to the vast collection in the 
Ambras Museum at Vienna they might be recog- 
nized. De Thou's words are : " II fut done conduit 
sur les cinq heures du soir, par le due Maurice et 
I'Electeur de Brandebourg k I'Empereur devant 
lequel il se mit k genoux. Alors le Chancelier 
Gunterot lut une requite dressde, conime on en 
^tait convenu, par laquelle le Landgrave supplioit 
I'Empereur de lui pardonner sa faute, et de lui 
remettre la peine que mdritoit son crime. L'Emper- 
eur suivant la rdponse qui avoit ^t^ d6jh, concertee, 
Tui fit dire par George Selde que puisqu'il recon- 
naissoit humblement sa faute, et qu'il en demandoit 
pardon, il lui accordoit volontiers sa grace, et lui 
pardwnnoit tout le pass^ ; de sorte qu'il n'avoit h, 
craindre ni le supplice que sa trahison avoit m^rit^, 
ni la prison perpetuelle, ni la confiscation de ses 
biens, ni d'autres peines enfin que celles qui ^toient 
comprises dans le traits auquel il avoit souscrit. 
L'Arch^duc Maximilien, fils du roi Ferdinand, le due 
de Savc|ye, le due d'Albe, le Grand Maltre de 
Prusse, \les evdques d' Arras, de Naumbourg, et 
d'Hildesh^im, Henri, Charle Victor, et Philippe de 
Brunsvic, le legat du Pape, les Ambassadors des 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 289 

rois de Boh§me et de Dannemarc, du due de Cleves, 
et des villes Ans^atiques, et un grand iiombre 
d'autres seigneurs se trouverent pr^sens a cette 

Fol. 17 V. A vacant cartel, which ends the work. 

Fol. 18. Finis, in Roman capitals. 

Such are these famous twelve drawings. Though 
personally inclined to admit that, from the evidence 
of some of the work, they actually were undertaken 
by Clovio on the conditions before mentioned, yet I 
do not affirm that they are, in toto, the work of his 
hand. They need not have been more than partly 
so to come quite within the range of his commissions. 
He might have been largely assisted by his pupils 
and their assistants, as, for example, by Max. de Mon- 
ceau, who was a Fleming. But the taste for Flem- 
ish and German engravings, and for ultramontane 
work generally, prevailed in Italy at the time when 
these drawings were executed, so that no argu- 
ment can be brought against the accessories on this 
ground. Nor does it seem particularly logical to 
select the cartels for objection as being Flemish 
when it is admitted that the designs themselves 
were so, and that the drawings though quite 
original in many of the details, and notably in 
the portraiture, do not otherwise differ materially 
from them. 



Bonders account of the MS. executed for John III. 
King of Portugal. 

The work is addressed "ad Sereniss. D. JoannemV. 
Portugallise Regem de Julii Clovii clari admodum 
Pictoris operibus." 

It consists of "Libri sive Sermonestres": 1. Idea. 
2. Index. 3. Deliberatus. 

" Humiliter consecrati a Gulielmo Bonde, armi- 
gero," ..." nepote prsehonorabilis viri Thomse 
Bonde Equitis Aurati & Baronetti," ..." Anno 

The style of the Latinity is most inflated and 
wearisome. After a very urgent, though high- 
flown dedicatory address, comes the Title : 

" Thesaurus Artis Pictorise, ex unius Julii Clovii 
clari admodum pictoris operibus depromtus. . . sive 
liber primus." 

In this dedicatory epistle* the writer tells us 
that the book formerly belonged to John III. of 

* Preface : Hie liber, hie thesaurus totius artis pictorise fato 
nescio quo sed aliqua oerte illaque nimis iniqna rerum tempestate 
abreptus (quippe quein ejus su necnon impendio perliberali 
Joannis olim Portugallise Regis P. Jnlinm Clovium et exarasse 
et delineasse, et suscepisse & perfecisse constat) patria sua 
caruit Portngallise exul nimis longinquns et multos annos in 
aliena terra inconditus delituit. Hujus thesauri dudum amissi 
et jam nnper a me referti. . . (So Bonde claims its discovery.) 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Glovio. 291 

Portugal, and was executed for him by Clovio. At 
the beginning of it are painted the armorials of all 
the kings of Portugal, and it is clearly and elegantly 
written on two hundred leaves of the most beautiful 
vellum. The initial letter of every page of writing 
— a curious fact, and one that attests the luxury of 
ornament with which the book was executed, if 
indeed that be the meaning of Bonde's circumlo- 
cution : " Prima ilia literarum elementa a quibus 
pagina quoeque initium sumit, sunt accurate satis 
ornata, referta sunt curiosis ;" . . . " argenti et auri 
ornamentis," &c. — are carefully adorned, and crowded 
with ornaments in silver and gold; " and," he goes on 
to say, " with the richest and most beautiful colours 
that either art or imagination can possibly conceive." 
He informs us that the book has come down to the 
time in which he writes, " absolutely perfect, clean, 
and entire." It is reported, he says, that the MS. 
originated in a command of King Manuel the Great, 
whose glories he enlarges upon. "About that time 
lived the great artist Julio Clovio, who easily 
excelled every contemporary artificer, and who 
drew forth from his art of miniature painting certain 
novel and, so to speak, unheard-of miracles." 
• Then follows a general account of his work, 
mostly founded on Vasari and the old inaccurate 
authorities usually quoted, mentioning especially 
Alessandro Farnese and the great King of Hungary 


292 lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

among his patrons. He also names two artists as 
his pupils, Bernardo Buontalenti and Francesco 

Part II. begins with another address to John V., 
and then passes on to the description of the MS. 
Here is a fair sample — et ex pede Herculem — of the 
wordiness that one has to push through in trying to 
get at the pith of what he says: "Descriptum atque 
ornatiss^- descriptum bene junctis tum penicilli turn 
calami viribus, hie de quo nunc loquimur Julii 
Clovii liber contenit accuratiss™- Ephemeriden. Sic 
enim vocant nonnulli, alii autem vocant calendarium, 
in quo quippe singulse calendae et eorum dies anno- 
tantur." All that he really means is that " this 
book begins with an illuminated calendar," which 
was quite a usual beginning for such a book when 

I. January. The miniature represents a noble- 
man seated alone at a banquet, and surrounded by a 
host of servants, some of whom are bringing dishes. 
At the master's back is a fire-place, and somewhere 
about the picture are the insignia and portrait of 
King John. Surrounding the miniature is a border 
in Gothic taste, containing figures and other orna- 

This is a very common picture in this place of the 
calendar, and the description exactly fits the minia- 
ture for Januaiy in the Grimani Breviary. 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 293 

On the opposite page, which is surrounded by 
another Gothic border full of appropriate figures 
and rich ornaments, in circlet at top is depicted the 
Zodiacal signs, in this case two, Capricorn and 
Aquarius. The Dominical letter is A, which, 
except in leap year, is the same throughout the 

II. February. A scene of ice and snow. The 

painter, in fact, has here presented what the poet 

describes : 

Vides nt alta stet nive candidam 

The rustic cottages — -the cocks and hens — are so 
life-like, that, upon my word, they seem absolutely 
real. Various Gothic figures adorn the margin, 
which are meagre, indeed, but by no means feebly 
executed, and are, moreover, heightened with gild- 
ing. Nor is the opposite page of the calendar 
wanting in ornaments, which are, indeed, most 
delightful to behold. The sign of this month, which 
has in this instance twenty-eight days only, is also 

III. March. Here we see the figures of oxen 
under the yoke of the plough, toiling and as it were 
perspiring and snorting, in a most life-like manner. 
We see, too, not less life-like, rustic labourers of fine 
robust build, cultivating the soil, with such laborious 
gravity and such ludicrous gestures as to be most 

294 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

amusing. The borders of this page are ornamented 
with very many and varied objects appropriate to 
the subject. The signs are Pisces and Aries. 

IV. April. A youthful lord and lady are seen 
enjoying a walk in the sunshine. On every side the 
meadows smile with sweet vernal beauty. 

rus ! quando ego te aspiciam, quandoque licebit, 
Nunc vetemm libris, &c., &c. 

Like many last-century physicians, Dr. Bonde 
seems to have been a devout admirer of Horace. 
Unfortunately for us, the verses of that elegant 
and well-thumbed poet do not excite all the 
enthusiasm which our degenerate bosoms ought to 
feel in connection with the gushing utterances 
and flatulent sentimentality of our medical friend. 
Beside the rhetorical geysers of this modern 
Latinist, the "O rus! quando te aspiciam" of the 
city-tied, pavement-parched Augustan, full as it 
may be of futile sighs, has only a very secondary 
sort of efflatus. But to proceed. The signs are 
Aries and Taurus. 

V. May. A man of high rank accompanied by 
a noble dame and a crowd of attendants rides out 
into the country. How these painted horses seem to 
prance and curvet like very living things ! A most 
artistic and truly consummate work. The orna- 
ments along the margins of the page are most 
profuse and elegant. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 295 

The opposite page contains the calendar of the 
month. What the signs are, Bonde omits to say. 

VI. June. A sheep-shearing, &c. Here I think 
Dr. Bonde has made a mistake, as usually this is 
the subject for July which he does not describe. 
Spectacles and games of various kinds occupy the 
rest of the picture. 

The remaining months of the calendar it is need- 
less to particularize. Suffice it to say that they are 
delineated with the same fidelity and the same 
curiosa felicitas, ability and anxiety, as those that 
have preceded. 

VII. The work then begins with the Gospel of 
St. John, opening with a grand illumination, in 
which is represented an assembly of elders or 
apostles, and a crowd of listeners receiving the 
preaching of the Word of God. 

Around the borders are many graceful figures. 
Christ, sitting on an ass, enters the city of Jeru- 
salem, while the people strew the streets with 
their garments. 

Then begins the text of the Gospel with similar 
marginal decorations, the initial letter being most 
exquisitely painted. 

VIII. The next illumination presents a figure 
of St. Mark seated at a desk writing. At his feet 
reposes the Lion. This is a lovely picture. The 
initial of this Gospel and the border of the page, 

296 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

together with the border of the opposite page, in 
which is represented the life and death of the 
Evangelist, are excellently adorned. 

IX. The next page which comes under inspec- 
tion stands in front of the Prayer of St. Gregory, 
and is replete with the richest variety of colours. 
Here we have the great Doctor of the Western 
Church kneeling before the altar, wearing a purple 
robe and all the paraphernalia of the pontifical 
office except the tiara, which an attendant bishop 
carries in his arms. Here, too, is presented the 
sacred and holy body of Christ, which, astounding 
to mortal eyes, appears revealed in the sacrament. 
A vast number of ecclesiastics are also kneeling 
round about the Saint. No words can possibly 
express how wonderfully, how admirably these 
various figures, which are all but innumerable, are 

In. the border of this miniature is represented 
St. Peter, holding in his hand the Keys of Heaven. 
On the corresponding border of the opposite page 
St. Paul is depicted with his symbol, the sword. 

X. Next comes the Adoration of the Magi, the 
Divine child resting on the bosom of his Mother, 
while at her feet kneel prostrate the Kings of the 
East, led hither by the star, to present to the 
infant their pious gifts. What grandeur — says our 
author — in all these figures! How ashamed am I 

Life of Giorgio Oiulio Clovio. 297 

to write about a painter so great and so divine, 
when my writing falls so far short of his merits ! 
This man's excellence, indeed, all must admire, but 
not one can imitate. Surely this work is divine 
and inimitable : — 

ut sibi quivis 
Speret idem, sudet multum, frustra que labores 
Ausus idem. 

In the initial letter of this Prayer is a jfigure 
of Christ standing and holding in his hand the 
terrestrial globe. 

XI. Here is represented the Coronation of the 
Blessed Virgin, which Bonde describes in his usual 
tiresome and redundant phraseology. 

On the opposite page begin the Prayers for 
Indulgence, composed by Sixtus the Fourth, sur- 
rounded by a border containing foliages and flowers 
painted with a bold and masterly hand. So mani- 
festly real are they — but here I must give our 
author's very words : — " Non exiguum suavitatis 
odorem habere opportere sentimus, et profectd 
tantum non odora/mus." 

The initial letter of this Prayer is also orna- 
mented with a profusion of similar flowers. 

XII. Prayer of the Virgin. The miniature 
represents the Virgin Mother in a kneeling attitude 
and fervently deploring the death of her dear son. 
Before her face are depicted the cruel instruments 
of his passion. In the border of the page are 

298 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

miniatures of the various sujBferings of the Saviour, 
while in the Initial is placed a figure of the Virgin 
radiant with a great glory. 

XIII. The Salutation of St. Elizabeth. Both 
figures are what are called half-lengths, but more 
exquisite than Bonde can find words to describe. 
The illuminated borders here are beautiful in the 
extreme, and finely finished with gold. 

XIV. St. Michael the Archangel, together with 
a vast multitude of the heavenly host, expelling 
the rebel angels out of Heaven. Here Bonde 
grows right eloquent, yet justly despairs of being 
able to express in words what this wonderful minia- 
ture is like. " Tantum lectorem admonebo huic 
imagini tremenda angelorum prselia representante 
figuram inesse nullam nisi quce gestit, movit, vivit, 
agit, pugnat, atque ita facit haec omnia animose et 
graviter ut horum coelitum ita prseliantium mero 
vel aspectu animi hominum etiam spectantium incen- 
dantur ac inflammentur. . . . Aspicimus debella- 
torum, dsemonum lamenta, luctus, iracundiam, 
malitiam fui'orem. . . . Et triumphatos et triumph- 
antes exercitus, miUe formis, et miris mille modis, 
hie nobis ante oculos, pro infinita inexhaustse suae 
indolis facultate, pictor constituit." Such and 
much more is Bonde's rhapsody over this truly 
indescribable scene. And it is really one of the 
best passages in the book. 

lAfe of Giorgio Giylio Clovio. 299 

XV. St. Michael alone. The colouring of this 
figure most beautiful. " Homo adolescens pul- 
chrior esse non posset, nisi ipse Deus !" 

XVI. St. Sebastian. Naked and bound to a 
column, and suflfering flagellation. In the extreme 
distance is another figure of the martyr pierced with 

On the opposite page is a border filled with 
figures, and an Initial containing another efiigy of 
the saint in armour. 

XVII. Christ crucified between the two thieves. 
At the foot of the cross stand the Mother and 
St. John. The border to this miniature is full of 

XVIII. The Sacrament of the Mass. Con- 
taining a vast multitude of figures and choristers 
chanting the Psalms. Bonde goes almost to the 
length of declaring that a proficient in music could 
make out from the various expressions of the chor- 
isters' faces what the notes were which they were 
singing. This is rather too much to expect even of 
Clovio. He did not, nor probably did Bonde, know 
of Balthasar Denner, the painter of those marvellous 
portraits in the Belvedere at Vienna, who, it was said, 
was so conscientious in his finish as actually to depict 
the landscape reflected in the light on the iris of a 
person's eye, including in it the sheep grazing in a 
neighbouring meadow. The meaning is that it was 

300 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

a surprisingly perfect example of Clovio's patience, 
skill, and taste. The margin is fully, not to say 
profusely, occupied with congruent additional em- 

XIX. Scene in the interior of a church, with its 
rich architectural details completed with the most 
incredible perfection. The roof is brilliant with gold 
and silver. 

XX. Bonde contrives to condense into his remarks 
on this miniature all his usual — indeed more than 
his usual display of learning : " Neither did Apelles 
ever paint, nor Attains ever pay for, a more exquisite 
picture than this," alluding to a well-known passage 
in Pliny, discussed by Clovio, Michelangelo, and the 
rest, at one of Vittoria Colonna's conversazioni. 
Judging from the words — "Nescio quomodo mihi 
facile sit hanc imaginem describere, nisi fas sit dicere 
quod in hac una facie sit pulchra mortis imago quod 
sit visa, ut ita dicam, morientis effigies, sed fortiter 
morientis" — there is a head in an initial of the 
Hours of the Virgin in the British Museum, No. 
20927, which would give a very good idea of what 
Bonde means. Its expression is indeed indescribable. 
A bishop is offering a prayer beside the bed of a 
dying person, while domestics and ecclesiastics are 
standing by. On the opposite page are the prayers 
appropriated for use at funerals. 

XXI. A funeral procession in the choir of a 

Life of Giorgio GiuUo Clovio. 301 

cathedral, around which hang the insignia of the 
illustrious dead, which indeed are those of the Royal 
House of Portugal. 

XXII. Represents a grave personage wearing 
Papal vestments and holding in his hand a triple 
cross. In the margins are supplementary scenes 
illustrative of the subject of this portion of the work. 

XXIII. The Supreme Pontiff seated on a throne, 
with an air of the greatest majesty. Before him 
stands a bishop with pastoral insignia. "Perhaps 
the figure of St. Athanasius explaining his work on 
the Creed." 

XXIV. St. John before the Lateran Gate, under- 
going the suppUcium vasis ferventis olei. 

XXV. The Annunciation. Here the archangel 
entrusted with the wondrous message from the 
Almighty to Mary, is by his dignity, strength, and 
beauty, indeed, worthy of his high legation. The 
holy and lovely Virgin listens with a sort of half- 
incredulous dread and gladness mingled with the 
light of a supernatural glory that seems to irradiate 
from her sweetly perturbed spirit. A beautiful view 
of the Temple is seen in the background. Sur- 
rounding the initial which commences the text on 
the opposite page is a picture of the Assumption. 

XXVI. St. Matthew seated at a desk writing, an 
angel standing at his elbow. " Nature itself rather 
than a picture." 

302 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Round the margins are ships most beautifully 
painted, loaded with various merchandise. 

XXVII. Clovio's royal patron, kneeling before a 
crucifix. In the borders are exquisite scenes of the 
palace, the guards, watchmen, garrison, custodes, 

XXVIII. The same prince is awakened from 
sleep at dawn. Servants and attendants — garments 
laid about the room. Sweet in colour. 

XXIX. The bright and admirable colouring of 
this miniature, which represents the Creation, and 
the immense variety of forms, render it such as 
surely never was seen before. In the sky, brighter 
than the sun, is an infinite host of angels and 
cherubim. In the margins we have a multitude of 
terrestrial animals and fishes and of birds, as it were 
the whole world of created things. " Verba nulla 
non modo non ornare sed ne enumerare quidem pos- 
sunt omnes hujus picturse perfectiones." The air 
and landscape, to judge from the description, are 
such as we admire so much in the Grimani Breviary. 
Indeed, from many of Bonde's remarks, it seems 
much more like a Netherlandish MS. that he is 
describing than a work of Clovio's. In the initial 
or surrounding it is a picture of the formation of 
Eve, superior in conception to Ovid and to Titian 
in design. 

XXX. John the Baptist in the Desert with his 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 303 

disciples. In the border is Christ being baptized, 
and St. John preaching. 

In the initial to the opposite page is a picture of 
the Decollation of the Saint. 

XXXI. St. James habited as a poor pilgrim with 
a book in one hand and a staff in the other. The 
scene presents a rugged road, rocky cliff, and forest. 

XXXII. St. Vincent in the dress of a deacon and 
with a book in his hand. Curious and exquisite 
work. In the margin are representations of the 
martyr suffering various torments. 

XXXIII. St. Jerome praying in a desert place 
alone. Beside him lies the lion, and behind is a 
beautiful landscape. The initial of the opposite 
page contains another portrait of the saint. 

XXXIV. St. Antony seated with a book on his 
lap. He seems to be praying or reading with great 
fervour. Beside him are reposing the pig and lion 
and two other animals. The surrounding country 
is incredibly beautiful. 

XXXV. This is the last picture in the volume, 
and contains St. Francis kneeling, and surrounded 
by a heavenly host. He is on the summit of a 
rising ground, at the foot of which are various 
famous brothers of the Order. 

The third part — deliberatus or comments — con- 
sists of a life and character of Clovio, which, how- 
ever, contains nothing either new or remarkable. 

304 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Bonde says — again urging its purchase — that the 
book is in private hands, and both for the honour 
of the artist and of the king's own ancestor, ought 
to be restored to the royal collection. 


The Stuart de Rothesay MS. Now in the British 
Museum, Add. 20927. 

This is unquestionably the work of Clovio. It is 
a small book of Offices, written on vellum, ff. 172, 
and measures about 6 in. by 4 in. as the size of the 
page. It contains four miniatures with borders, 
and several very beautiful illuminated initials. 

Ff 1, 12 V, contain the Calendar, written in an 
ordinary black and red italic, common at the time of 
its execution ; not fine but fairly good. 

The two illuminated pages which form the first 
opening, ff. 13 v, 14, consist of — {a) a miniature of 
the Annunciation within a border, (6) the following 
words : Beatissime | virginis ma | rie Officium | ad 
matutinum | versus. Domine la | bia me a aperies | 
R Et OS meum, also within a border. The orna- 
ments of these borders, although much diversified, 
are, on the whole, symmetrically arranged : a is on 
a yellow ground, 6 on a pale blue, both stippled 
finely with gold. In the centre of the narrow upper 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 305 

border is, in each, a mask or face most elaborately 
finished, but with entirely different features and 
expression. At top of the outer wide border, a 
golden basket, filled in one case with fiowers, in the 
other with fruits. The basket is upheld by a half- 
length of a naked child, the lower part of whose 
body changes into coloured foliages, scrolls of which, 
terminating in flowers or tendrils, curl upwards on 
either side. 

Beneath these figures are cameos, (a) being white 
on a black ground, (6) all in brown-gold chiaro- 
scuro. The subject of the former is the Presentation 
in the Temple, of the latter the Adoration of the 

Beneath the cameos the ornaments differ entirely, 
those in a being a Terminus pointing to the minia- 
ture of the Annunciation and resting his arms on 
a sort of milestone, on which is inscribed in gold 
capitals : Ecce virgo concipiet. Beneath this are 
two naked children seated on a tiger, and supporting 
the golden frame of the cameo, which occupies the 
middle of the lower, and widest, border. The boy at 
the other side of it is seated on a hart. The subject 
of this cameo, which is in colours, is the Nativity, or 
Adoration of the Shepherds, by an inferior hand, or 
much hurried and imperfect.* The inner, narrow, 

* The drawings, or miniatures generally, are mucli worn and 
rubbed — some very badly indeed. 


306 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

border is occupied with a variety of things — a 
golden cornucopia, a white harpy, a golden lyre, 
and a satyr-lilie figure forming a Terminus. At the 
top of h the mask is flanked by two elegant but 
quite fanciful flamingo-like birds. Beneath the 
centre cameo, which contains the Wise Men's Ofler- 
ings, is a head combining the characters of the ibex 
and the lion, surrounded by most minutely finished 
foliage, two smaller lion-like heads attached to 
branches of ornament depend from the larger one, 
and a naked child seated on a lioness, at the foot of 
the border, seizes one of these heads with one hand, 
while with the other he points it out to his com- 
panion. In this page (&), which commences the 
Office of the B. V. Mary, the letters are, Kne by 
line, blue or lake and gold. The D of Domine 
forms a large initial, 1;^ in. square, on a gold flat 
panel, containing a miniature in colours of the 
Madonna and Child. The letter is made up of 
ornamental white foliage, with a mask in front of 
the curve at side. There is just room for the letters 
"online" to run down the side of this initial between 
it and the side border, A narrow bead of gold 
forms a frame to each border. In the lower border 
of {h), within a wreath of fruits supported by naked 
children, is a Venetian armorial shield, containing 
the arms of Cardinal Grimani, on a gold back- 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 307 

Then follow about a dozen folios of plain text, 
with simple gold capitals. 

fol. 27 V. Ad laudes. ver. Deus in adiutorium 
meum intende, in coloured or gold capitals, and an 
initial D on a green panel. Inside is a half-length 
portrait of a person speaking, with hand raised. 
He wears a red tunic, blue over-garment and blue 
cap, on a crimson ground. The letter is brown- 

Then more plain pages. 

fol. 41. Ad primam. ver. Same introit as before, 
a brown-gold letter on gold ground, containing a 
figure in attitude of prayer, wearing a blue tunic, 
red upper garment and cap. 

fol. 50. Ad sextam. ver., in green capitals. 
Same introit, and an initial D in elegant brown-gold 
on plain vellum. The interior ornament is a simple 
scroll of foliage and tendrils, also in brown-gold. 

fol. 90. In coloured and gold letters : Explicit 
officium Beate | Marie Virginis secundum j consue- 
tudinem | Romane | curie | . 

fif. 91 V, 92. The second pair of illuminated 
pages most clearly indicating the close study of the 
Sistine ceiling, for at foot is a direct copy, differing 
only in the background, of the David and Goliath 
in one of the corners. The borders consist of 
trophies of arms and armour, corslets, shields, axes, 
spears,. &c., and figures of children; cameos in brown- 


308 lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

gold, and masks supported by figures in the upper 
borders. The lower border in each consists of a fine 
miniature scene, (a) being the David and Goliath, 
(6) a cavalry skirmish, exquisitely painted. In (a) 
there is a miniature of David praying, having laid 
aside his crown, sceptre, harp, and most of his dress. 
In (6) are the words : Incipiunt sep | tem psalmi 
pe I nitentiales an | tiphona Ne re | miniscaris — 
Psalmus I Domine ne | in furore tuo | arguas me, 
neq.||. The borders are on green and violet grounds. 
As before, the letters are gold, blue, lake, and green 
capitals, line by line. The initial D a fine gold and 
lake letter on a pale blue ground, within a golden 
bead frame. Inside, a head of an old man as if 
speaking, with an open book in his hands. This 
head is very nobly painted. The cameo in border (a) 
represents Esther before Ahasuerus — that in (6) the 
anointing of David, various trophies at side. To 
describe the beauty of the colouring, the delicacy of 
the work, or the elegance and variety of the design 
in these two pages would be utterly impossible. 

fol. 118. Expliciunt septem psalmi Peniten- 

ff. 119 V, 120. A splendid instance of the use 
of gold as a background in the borders. The orna- 
ments are all taken from classical motives — the 
figures are Pompeian and highly finished. A 
coloured cameo occupies the centre of each side 


(Add. MS. 2092i_Brit. Miia.l 



fAcld. MS. 20927 Brit. Mas.) 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 309 

border, each containing a lion worrying a stag. 
Two tall satyrs stand at the foot of the borders, 
each supporting something on his head, from 
which birds are feeding. In (a) a pheasant, in {h) 
an ape stands beside on the framework, and in both 
a youthful satyr on the ground. 

The lower border in each consists of an oblong 
miniature in colours. In (a) the combat between 
three horsemen and three skeletons — one of the 
horsemen being unhorsed. The skeletons are on 
foot. In (&) a body is laid out on a bier, surrounded 
by persons weeping — a delicately painted landscape 
is visible outside the building, with the walls and 
towers of a city. 

The miniature in (a) is a crowded scene, a woman 
kneeling before Christ, another woman in a Cis- 
tercian dress, or at least in white robes, also kneels 
as joining in asking a favour. They represent 
Mary and Martha near the tomb of Lazarus. 
Behind are crowds of people, among whom is seen, 
several times over, the round felt hat in which 
Francisco de Holanda represents Michelangelo in 
his portrait of that artist. 

The words in (6) are : Ineipit officium | mortuo 
rum I ad vesperas | antiphona pla | eebo domino 
psalmu. I Dilexi | quoniam exau | diet Dominus, || 
as before in gold and colours. 

Initial D in violet on a golden panel, with a 

310 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

violet bead rim. Inside the letter a head. This 
head is most remarkable. It is that of a man 
just escaping from the icy grasp of death, the eyes 
still glazed, yet kindling with an intense eagerness 
for returning life. It is the head of Lazarus, 
just as he hears the Redeemer's voice, nor 
could it ever be surpassed for power, expression, 
and miraculous delicacy of finish. To paint such a 
head the size of life, might be the work of a really 
master hand. To paint it as it is cannot be 
otherwise than the very highest effort of a hand 
possessing perfect skill, and a mind capable of the 
highest conceptions in art. The figure of Christ 
in the opposite scene is most natural and graceful, 
and his expression most benignant and tender, 
but this head possesses an expression far beyond 
that of the Lazarus of Sebastiano del Piombo in 
the large painting at the National Gallery, and it 
is just half-an-inch across ! 

fol. 164 V. Explicit officium mortuorum. 

ff. 165 V, 166. The crucifixion, or rather the 
Stabat Mater, within a somewhat faded arabesque 
border, on violet and brown grounds, with central 
lozengy (a), cameos, and brown-gold chiaroscuro 
scene at foot. This latter is the way to Calvary — 
Christ supporting his cross — many figures about. 

(&) The words Incipit — officiu | sancte crucis | ad 
matutinum | versiculus | Domine labia mea ape- 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 311 

ries. R et os meum annu f ciabit laudem tua. v. Deus. | 
The last two lines are in small black text. Init. D. 
gold and green letter finely drawn, on a grey-black 
variegated and veined slab of marble, with a gold 
inner rim. This marble slab is a reminiscence of 
the invention of Sebastiano, who gave much of his 
time to the execution of such portraits as this on 
marble and metals. The head within this letter, 
though most exquisitely finished, is as feeble in 
expression as the Lazarus is powerful. It is never- 
theless a perfect gem as regards manual skill.* The 
two lozenge cameos are (a) Christ at Gethsemane, 
and (6) the Resurrection. The under cameo 
contains Christ visiting and releasing the souls in 
Hades. Both these oblong miniatures are most 
elaborately finished with gold pencilling on a warm 
brown design. Two sculpturesque Michelangelo- 
sort of figures support the frames of the pages above 
at either end of these cameos. 

fol. 172 V. Explicit officium sancti crucis. 
Opposite to this fol. 172 is a painting of a guardian 
angel leading a child, on a slab of variegated marble 
on which is placed a framework of gold. 

fol. 172 is the last except a fly-leaf. 

* The portraits on the initial D's are exquisitely finished; 
but the pne in the Office of the Dead is maryellous. 


Stanze op Eurialo d'Ascoli. No. 2660, Imperial 
Library, Vienna. 

This beautiful little volume is certainly a Clovio. 
It still remains in the original stamped, or rather 
figured, binding of two leathers, as executed for the 
Emperor Charles V., exhibiting his device of the 
two columns and the motto, Tie plus ultra, on ribbon 
across. Size of volume, 7 in. by 4 in. 

The first illumination occurs on Fol. 1 v., and 
consists of a gold-brown ornament on pink ground, 
with little corners here and there picked out with 
green, and the coils at the ends of the foliages blue. 
In the miniature, the soldier wears a green corslet, 
scarlet hose, and blue boots, enriched with gold, 
while the drapery behind him is blue. The woman 
with the child has pale blue drapery. The children 
in front are placed on pink. The funeral pyre is 
painted with great care, and the graceful figure 
upon it is most delicately finished. So also are the 
accessaries. On the opposite page, which has a 
similar border of trophies and foliage ornaments, the 
panel containing the gold letters of the title is a fine 
rich ultramarine. 

Pp. 19, 20. Here are two more illuminated 
pages. Title or dedication : Al gran marchese 
DAghillare. On p. 20, Al invittissimo Carlo 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 313 

Quinto sempre Aug. Stanze D'Eurialo d'AscolL 
The left border is of the Raffaellesca kind, with a 
small cherub at top — purple winged ; then slender 
sprays of fine Venetian renaissance foliage and 
small figurines. Next comes an oval panel con- 
taining a gold-brown figure of a dancing girl draped, 
on a violet ground. Then more foliages, and a fine 
black and white cameo of a man in armour bearing 
sword and shield. More foliages, and at foot two 
lovely children holding a basket of leaves. Along 
the lower border, amid graceful foliages, is a figure 
of Pan or some other sylvan Deity in a forest. 
This is certainly Clovio's own work, as evidenced 
by its close resemblance in method and manner of 
execution to the Stuart Rothesay MS. in the 
British Museum. A beautiful boy in the comer 
leads to more foliages, and another oval containing 
a sweet figure of a nymph prepared for the bath. 
Then ascending foliages of ornament again, leading 
to another cupid at^ top, corresponding in symme- 
trical arrangement with the opposite page. 

The next page has a similar design, the orna- 
ments containing the following colours delicately 
intermingled : pink, green, blue, crimson,, yellow, 
scarlet, and gold. An oval contains the figure of 
Hercules in gold on fine blue. The lower border is 
filled with double coils of ornament, and a cameo of 
a naked youth (Apollo?) performing on a viol, as he 

314 Life, of Giorgio Giutio Clovio. 

sits on a violet-pink robe. Amid further foliages 
are two boys holding a basket, above these is a 
black and white cameo of a soldier ; and in the 
centre cameo a draped female figure in gold on a 
fine ultramarine oval. After more graceful coils of 
exquisitely painted foliages, comes a shield-shaped 
cameo of the Dioscuri riding at high-speed, rich 
Venetian foliage finishing the border to the " sweet 
little cherub " at top. On his left is a seated 
monster and a pretty little panel containing two 
tiny children blowing horns. On the right page, in 
lieu of the monster, are two gold masks foliated. 
The ground of the left borders is a pale yellow, 
streaked with gold ; that of the right pale violet, 
also hatched with gold. The gold hatching is a 
feature both in the Paris Psalter of Paul III. and 
the Bodley Offices. 

The " Stanze " are three on a page, in a good 
black small Roman hand, with golden capitals to 
each line. There are no painted initials. 

The Title of the second part of the " Stanze " is 
placed on a very peculiarly formed sort of cartel or 
shield. Al invittissimo Carlo, &c. Stanze d'eurialo 
d'ascoli. The letters are gold on a green ground. 
A note on a slip of paper in the case says : " Ascoli 
(Eurialo d') Poeta Volgare del secol. XVI. assai 
stimato al tempo di Leone X. che molto lo favori. 
Amicissimo, specialmente de Caro, del Tolomei, e 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 315 

del Molza. Composa in Greco, Latino, e Toscano." 
The note is from Mazuchelli : I., 1157. 

Whilst looking at this volume, the Counsellor 
Dr. Ernst Ritter von Birk, brought me Sakcinski's 
"Life of Clovio," illustrated with photogravures. 
" Jure Glovic prozvan Julijo Klovio Hrvatski sitaos- 
likar, napisao ivan Kukuljevic Sakcinski, sa tri slike." 

The three pictures are his portrait, the Orosius 
Sibyl (from the doubtful Paris MS), and the Repose 
on the Way to Egypt (from the Munich Hours of 
Albert v.). The last MS. has been attributed to 
Lenker — who was a miniaturist of the highest class, 
as well as a skilful goldsmith. It is impossible, if 
the date assigned to its execution be correct, that 
Clovio, almost in the last stage of feebleness, which 
lingeringly preceded his death, could have painted 
the firmly and exquisitely finished miniatures which 
it contains. It is more probable that Lenker copied 
Clovio's designs, this being really after a drawing of 
his in the Florence Gallery. The portrait is an oval 
of an old man — the head only — with a turn-down 
collar, and " D. Giulio, miniatore," on the shoulder. 
This " Life of Clovio " is a large octavo, ot quarto : 
Zagreb (Agram), 1878. Naklada "Matiu Hrvatske." 
Tisak Karla Albrechta. 66 pp., and an appendix 
of letters. One of these is from Albert, Duke of 
Bavaria, asking for a picture painted by Clovio, but 
makes no mention of a book. 

The Gonzaga or Bodlet Offices. {Douce MSS. 

No, 29.) 

This MS. is also called the Prayer Book of 
Eleonora Ippolita Gonzaga, second wife of Francesco 
Maria della Rovere, Duke of Urbino. It is 12mo., 
and contains 136 leaves written in a very elegant text 
and one of the best specimens of miniature painting 
of the best period of the cinquecento. It was 
bought in Italy by Henrietta Louisa Countess of 
Pomfret, It has been attributed to Girolamo dai 
Libri, and to Girolamo Genga ; but much of the 
work in it completely corresponds with work in 
other MSS. that were painted by Clovio, and hence 
I place it among the MSS. to be described here. 
At the back of fol. 1 are painted the splendid arms 
of Gonzaga and Della Rovere. In the centre of 
the opposite page on a silver ground is written 
Leonore Gonzage Urbini duce. The borders of both 
pages are upon a gold ground, ornamented with 
trophies of arms and armour. 

fol. 2 v. is Moses receiving the Tables of the 
Law. In the borders upon crimson, blue, and 
green grounds, covered with fine gold dots, are 
most beautiful scenes treated as cameos, connected 
in historical sequence with the subject of the larger 
miniature, or having some symbolical connection 

lAfe of CHorgio Giulio Clovio. 317 

with. it. Below, in the corners, are vases of grace- 
ful antique forms, giving rise to delicate arabesques. 
These are executed with the utmost precision 
and grace. 

The initials are of gold in compartments of 
beautiful colours, enriched with delicate golden 
arabesques. They are small, but very numerous. 

fol. 14 V. Anna and Joachim meeting at the 
Golden Gate. 

fol. 15. The Visitation. 

The borders are gracefully ornamented in the 
Netherlandish, manner, with single flowers. Instead 
of cameos are eight silver shields on which are 
delineated the four cardinal virtues in chiaroscuro, 
then Faith, Hope, and Charity, and on the eighth 
shield " Major harum caritas." 

fol. 23 V. Zacharias, writing. 

fol. 24. The Adoration of the Shepherds. 

The border of 23 v. is brown-gold. On medal- 
lions are the four fathers of the Church. In the 
corners are antique masks, as if executed in marble. 
One represents Pan. The borders of 24 are not 
so well designed as others, being too irregularly 
distributed. They contain medallions of the four 
Evangelists in brown-gold, and two antique masks 
of great elegance. On the narrow side are two 

fol. 27 V. Joseph's dream. 

318 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

fol. 28. The Angels appearing to the Shepherds. 

The borders of 27 v. in four compartments of a 
delicate white on crimson ground, to four smaller 
miniatures, the subjects of which are the Annuncia- 
tion, Nativity, Adoration of Magi, and Resurrec- 
tion. They are finely composed and admirable in 
execution. The ground of the borders is silver, 
covered with a delicate white arabesque. On azure 
panels are appropriate inscriptions in gold. The 
borders of 28 are similar, and contain three angels. 

fol. 31 V. Visit of Queen of Sheba to Solomon. 

fol. 32. Adoration of Magi. 

On each border are beautiful angels bearing 

fol. 35 V. Presentation in the Temple of the 
Virgin Mary. 

fol. 36. Presentation of Christ. 

Dr. Waagen says that on fol. 35 is a date, but he 
is not certain whether 1510 or 1540, as the third 
figure is very indistinct. It is really no date at all, 
but simply the word " isto." However, he goes on 
to remark, that from the date of Leonora's marriage 
in 1509, and the opinion that a year would be 
too short a time to allow for the execution of the 
volume, also judging from the style of work, he is 
inclined to decide for the date 1540. The borders 
display a happy combination of the architectural 
taste of the Italian school, with the more arbitrary 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovip. 319 

yet beautiful and truthful work of the Netherlandish, 
from which the birds and insects are borrowed. The 
question is, what well-known Italian artist, for he 
was evidently an Italian, was capable of this perfect 
imitation of the Netherlandish work ? After the 
execution of the Grimani Breviary several Florentine 
and Venetian miniaturists caught the fancy for this 
style, but the peculiar tenderness and delicacy of 
this work, while it points to Clovio, is utterly out 
of the way of its commonly attributed author, 
Girolamo dai Libri. It may seem rather wayward 
to admit the possibility of this MS. being the work 
of Clovio, and to doubt the " Flora." But I go 
entirely upon the evidence. This MS. has other 
marks by which it seems possible to identify it. 
The other has not, at least I have not seen them. 

fol. 39 v. Overthrow of Pharaoh in the Red Sea. 

fol. 40. The Flight into Egypt. 

In the former the Almighty is unfortunately and 
almost ludicrously represented as a pillar of cloud. 
The latter is in the manner of Raffaello. The 
borders to each are of peculiar elegance, containing 
graceful angels who bear up rich garlands of fruit 
with golden bands on a black ground. 

fol. 45 V. The Vision of Solomon. 

fol. 46. Christ teaching in the Temple. 

The inscription to the Vision explains the subject. 
" Eece dedi tibi cor sapiens et intelligens." In 

320 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

the borders are eight masterly little black cameo 
subjects, among which the best are the Judgment 
of Solomon and the Massacre of the Innocents. 

Border to fol. 46 consists of rich brown-gold 
flowers and gold stems, on varied gold, green, and 
lake grounds. 

fol. 55 V. The Israelites collecting Manna. 

fol. 56. The Last Supper. 

The borders, chiefly in the Netherlandish taste, 
contains eight cameos of admirable skill. 

fol. 60 V. The Destruction of Sodom. 

fol. 61. The Repentance of David. 

The Almighty, as an aged man, is represented 
hurling thunderbolts, showing the influence of the 
revival of classical studies, and intimating the grow- 
ing custom of referring to God under the name of 
Jupiter or Jove. 

This is the commencement of the Penitential 
Psalms. In the border are eight appropriate cameos 
— the lowest one represents the Last Judgment. 

fol. 76 V. The Expulsion from Paradise. 

fol. 77. The Entombment of Christ. 

Of these the latter is the better composition. The 
borders contain cameos — the subjects of which are 
the Creation of Eve, the Fall, the Almighty speak- 
ing to Adam, Adam and Eve working after 
Expulsion, &c. The second border has four other 
subjects and four sphynxes. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio dovio. 321 

fol. 110 V. Christ bearing his Cross. 

fol. 111. Isaac bearing the wood, &c., for sacrifice. 

The former is inscribed "Ad matutinam sacratiss. 
passionis D. Nre Jesu Chr." The old typical mean- 
ing of the latter is given in the words " Per signum 
sancti crucis." The borders of these miniatures 
surpass all the rest in richness. Besides the usual 
eight subjects contained in medallions in the 
borders, and here consisting of scenes from 
the Passion, there are four others in the 
corners, and four others of an allegorical character. 
Those in the corners are blue cameos. Between 
all these subjects there are at the sides eight fishes, 
at foot two serpents and two tortoises, and at top 
four snails — all exquisitely finished. This is the 
part of the book which it was thought specially 
determined it to be the work of Girolamo dai 
Libri; but it is just the kind of work which Vasari 
attributes to Clovio. This, however, is not the 
reason that I would assign the manuscript to this 

fol. 131 V. A grand sacrifice offered by a king. 
Fire coming down from heaven to consume it. 

fol. 132. The Descent of the Holy Ghost. 

The sacrifice is, perhaps, that made by Ahab under 
the direction of Elijah. In eight blue cameos on 
the border of the scene of Pentecost are the chief 
events succeeding the Crucifixion. Among them, 


322 Life of Giorgio Giulio Glovio. 

the Descent of the Holy Ghost is incomparably- 
better than the larger representation of the same 
subject. Among these cameos are eight fishes and 
eight birds, upon a finely shaded silver ground. It 
is by means of the birds on this and other borders 
that I find an intimate connection with several other 
manuscripts executed in Rome, either by Clovio or 
his assistants. The identical two birds which occur 
in one of the upper borders are given on a border 
in the Missal of Clement VII. at Berlin, while similar 
ones occur in the cuttings known as the Rogers' 
Book, Add. MS. 21412, British Museum. One page 
in the Albani Missal has quite a repetition of the 
same motives, apparently by the same hand as the 
cuttings, and precisely similar work occurs in a 
Lectionary written for Gregory XIII. soon after 
1573. These later imitations I take to be the work 
of Claudio Massarelli — the earlier work to be that 
of Clovio. I have a strong conviction that after 
Sebastiano del Piombo became keeper of the Papal 
seal, and during the eleven years in which he is 
usually credited with indolent enjoyment of his 
ofiice, he busied himself with miniature painting, 
and is really the painter of several pages both of 
the Albani Missal and others attributed to Buon- 
fratelli and even to Clovio. But this may be so or 
not — I am not required to discuss it here. The 
Bodley MS. shows points of such decided similarity 

Life of G'iorgio Oiulio Clovio. 323 

to Clovio, and such decided indications of an advance 
beyond the fifteenth-century notions of Girolamo dai 
Libri, that, whether allowed to be an example of 
Clovio or not, it can never again be assigned to his 
skilful but old-fashioned predecessor. The Esdaile 
Missal of Sixtus IV., by Girolamo and his father, at 
once decides the matter ; and it is strange that 
either Douce or anyone else who had ever seen 
Dibdin's description of that MS. could imagine that 
this one was the work of thte same miniaturist. 


The Silius Italicus of the Marcian Library, 


Vasari, when describing this MS., which I do not 
think to be a Clovio, attributes it to Attavante, but 
all its features are so distinctively not in the manner 
of that artist, that Morelli, in his " Notizie d' Opere 
di Disegno 171," detects the mistake, and truth- 
fully remarks, "All is good in this description, except 
that the author of the beautiful miniatiu-es was not 
Attavante," and goes on to speak of the "Martianus 
Capella," which was executed by Attavante, and is 
still preserved in the Marciana. I have not seen 
the Italicus, but give Vasari's description for the 
use of those who may care to seek for it, as it is 

21 * 

324 lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

among those attributed to Clovio, and in order to 
compare with the other descriptions here given of 
Cloviesca miniatures. " In this book the figure of 
Sihus has on his head a helmet crested with gold 
and bearing a corona of laurel ; he wears a blue 
cuirass furnished with gold in the antique manner ; 
in his right hand is a book, his left rests on a short 
sword. Over the cuirass he wears a red chlamys, 
buckled in front, and hanging from his shoulders 
fringed with gold. The lining of this chlamys 
appears changeful in colour and is embroidered with 
rosettes of gold. He has yellow buskins, and poses 
on his right foot within a niche. The figure repre- 
senting Scipio Africanus wears a yellow cuirass, the 
shoulder-pieces and sword-belt blue worked with 
gold. On his head is a helmet with two little wings 
and a fish for crest. The figure of the youth is 
beautiful and blonde, and he lifts menacingly a 
naked sword in his right hand. In the left he 
holds the sheath, which is red and embroidered 
with gold. His boots are green and plain, and his 
cloak or chlamys, which is blue, has a red lining and 
a gold edging or border ; it fastens at the throat, 
leaving the front quite open, and then falls gracefully 
back. He wears blue boots embroidered with gold. 
This youth stands in a niche of green and variegated 
marbles, frowning with unspeakable ferocity upon 
Annibal, who is depicted on the opposite page. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 325 

" The figure of Annibal is that of a man about 
thirty years of age. His eyebrows are contracted as 
in great anger, and he gazes fixedly at Scipio. He 
has on his head a yellow helmet, with a dragon crest 
of green and yellow, and for chaplet or garland, a 
snake. He rests on the left foot, and holds in his 
right hand, which is raised, the shaft of a javelin, 
or rather, partizan. He wears a blue corslet and 
a sword-belt and pendants partly blue and partly 
yellow, with sleeves changeful azure and red, and 
small yellow boots. The cloak is changeful, like 
the sleeves, but of red and yellow, gathered over 
the right shoulder. The lining is green. He 
rests his left hand on his sword, and stands in a 
niche of variegated yellow-white and iridescent 
marble. On the other page is the figure of Pope 
Nicholas V. drawn from life, with a changeful robe 
of purple and red, and embroidered with gold. 
He is without beard and taken in profile, looking 
towards the commencement of the work which 
is opposite, and pointing to it with his right hand 
as if in wonder. The niche is green and red. 
In the border or margin are certain small half 
figures, within oval and round medallions and 
similar things, with a multitude of little birds and 
children, so well done that one could not wish for 
better. Besides these figures there are given in 
similar manner those of Anno the Carthaginian, 

326 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Asdrubal, Lelius, Massinissa, C. Salinator, Nero 
Sempronius, M. Marcellus, Qu. Fabius, Scipio the 
younger, and Vibius. At the end is a figure of 
Mars on a chariot drawn by two chestnut horses. 
He wears a red helmet, with gold ornaments and 
two winglets. On his left arm an antique shield 
which he holds forward, and in the right a naked 
sword. He rests on his left foot, holding the other 
in the air. He has an antique cuirass, red and gold, 
and his boots and hose are similar. His cloak is 
blue outside and green within, embroidered with 
gold. The chariot is covered with red drapery, 
with gold embroidery, and has a border of ermine 
around it. It is placed in a meadow-land, covered 
with grass and flowers ; but among crags and rocks. 
In the distance are seen cities, and a landscape, 
in a beautiful clear blue air. On the opposite page 
is a youthful Neptune, clad in a long garment, all 
embroidered with terra-verde. The carnation is 
very pale. In the right hand he holds a small 
trident, and with the left lifts up his drapery. He 
stands with both feet on the chariot, which is 
draped in red, wrought with gold, and edged with 
ermine. This chariot has four wheels like that 
of Mars, but is drawn by four dolphins, accompanied 
by three sea-nymphs, two children, and a shoal of 
fishes painted in a greenish tint. The atmosphere 
is most beautiful. Beyond them is seen Carthage 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 327 

in despair, represented by a woman standing 
upright with her hair dishevelled, with green 
garments above, and from the waist open down- 
wards, and lined with red embroidered with gold, 
and displaying through the opening another gar- 
ment of a thin, delicate texture, and changeful 
colours of violet and white. The sleeves are red 
and gold, with certain pendants and flutterings of 
the robe above. She stretches forth her left hand 
towards the figure of Rome, which is opposite, 
as if saying, ' What wouldst thou ? I will answer 
thee.' And in her right hand she brandishes a 
naked sword, as if in a fury. Her buskins are blue, 
and she stands on a rock in the midst of the sea, 
surrounded by a most beautiful atmosphere. Rome 
is represented as a young girl, as beautiful as one 
can possibly imagine, her head adorned with a 
chevelure of lovely tresses, and clothed outwardly 
in red drapery, with .a border of embroidery round 
the lower edge only. The lining of the robe is yellow, 
and the under-garment visible through the open- 
ing is changeful violet and white. Her boots are 
green. In her right hand she wields a sceptre, 
in the left an orb or world — emblem of sovereignty. 
She also rests upon a rock — in the midst of an 
atmosphere which could not be more beautiful." 
From what Vasari says of these miniatures, and 
his own knowledge of Clovio, I- should at once 

328 lAfe of Giorgio Qiulio Clovio. 

decide they were not by the latter, but belong to 
the end of the fifteenth century. Their treat- 
ment and the stress laid upon the airs or aerial 
perspective seems to class them with the Grimani 
Breviary. The design, too, of placing the figures 
in niches rivals the Roman de la Rose of the British 
Museum, and, with a very different style — though 
perfect in its way — the Ethics of Aristotle in the 
Imperial Library at Vienna. Indeed, the latter 
MS. painted by Rinaldo, or Naldo Piramo, for the 
Duke of Atri, seems to be quite in the manner 
described by Vasari. Piramo worked about the 
commencement of the sixteenth century, probably 
at Atri. 


A Missal in the Musbo Borbonico at Naples. 
Veil. Quarto, 352 f£ {Translated from 
Sakcinski: Slovnik umjetnikah JugoSlavenskih: 
u Zagrebu, 1858. Diet, of S. Slav. Biogr.) 

On the first folio is a large picture representing 
a priest engaged in the service of the Mass before 
the altar. On the steps are men praying. Above 
is a coat of arms and a cardinal's hat. Beside the 
arms are children blowing trumpets. The picture 
recalls that in the Missal at Agram. 

Lifr of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 329 

On fol. 10, immediately following the Calendar, is 
a picture of the Nativity. 

fol. 17. The Adoration of the Magi. 

fol. 137. The Almighty, most exquisitely finished 
and surrounded by arabesques. 

fol. 163. The Resurrection. 

fol. 175. The Ascension, surrounded with the 
usual Cloviesca arabesques. 

fol. 179. The Epiphany, with beautiful borders. 

fol. 186. The Holy Trinity. 

fol. 187. The Pope celebrating the Eucharist. 

fol. 220. St. Paul with a white beard, most 
beautifully painted and finished, with great spirit 
and firmness of expression. 

fol. 223. The Circumcision. 

fol. 228. The Annunciation. 

fol. 230. St. Philip and James, in a lovely land- 
scape. In the distance appear blue and green 
valleys, with nearer hills and a church and green 
gardens. Around are arabesques containing wonder- 
ful monsters and monkeys. 

fol. 237. The birth of John the Baptist. 

fol. 240. An angel conducts St. Peter from 
prison whilst the keeper sleeps. 

fol. 241. Conversion of St. Paul. The apostle, 
on a white horse, gazes up towards heaven in which 
appears the Almighty. Arabesque borders. 

fol. 245. St. James the Apostle. 

330 Life of Giorgio Criulio Clovio. 

fol. 249. St. Lawrence. 

fol. 253. Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, 
whom angels are carrying on clouds, whilst below 
are apostles gazing upward. 

fol. 256. St. Bartholomew. 

fol. 258. Decollation of St. John. 

fol. 258. Birth of the Virgin. 

fol. 260. St. Salmio ? bishop. 

fol. 263. St. Matthew, apostle. 

fol. 265. St. Michael, archangel. 

fol. 266. St. Francis. 

fol. 268. St. Luke. 

fol. 269. SS. Simon and Jude. 

fol. 270. All Saints, among whom is seen 
St. John Baptist with lamb. 

fol. 272. St. Martin. 

fol. 273. Presentation in the Temple. On the 
right is the martyrdom of St. Cecilia. After this, 
no more miniatures, until 

fol. 325. Office of the Dead. A priest officiates 
at the Mass ; on the right are deacons. Beautiful 
arabesques in the borders. 

fol. 335. Pope St. Gregory before an altar — 
two deacons kneeling. 

On fol. 339 begins another handwriting without 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 


A Small Book of Hours. Naples Museum. 

Small octavo. Bound in silver-gilt covers of 
goldsmith's work, attributed to Cellini. The insides 
of these covers are beautifully engraved. The 
handwriting is Italian, and on the last page is the 
following legend in white letters on a gold ground. 

The book is ornamented on 
most of its pages with marginal 
illuminations representing ara- 
besques and cameos. Besides 
these, there are about thirty pairs 
of miniatures or stories, always 
two together and opposite to 
each other as you open the book. 
They are each about 4 in. high 
and 2^ wide, surrounded with 
architectural ffames containing 
figurines, vases, and other orna- 
ments in -gold and colours, mostly hatched with 
gold. The ornament is very much in the taste 
of Michelangelo, while the arabesques on the other 
pages resemble those of Raifaello in the Vatican 
Loggie. The beauty of the figures is not to be 
described in words. Among the best are : — one 
at the beginning of the volume like Marc Antonio's 
print of Raffaello's Adam and Eve ; and one near 
the end, of Death seated on a throne. In one 










332 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

instance two pages are entirely covered by a 
landscape, with the text written upon it. Every 
leaf shows great [skill and even] genius in the 
design and delicacy of execution. The book is 
perfect in every respect inside and out. It mea- 
sures 7^ in. in height, 4|- in. in width, and one 
in thickness. {Hon. Rob. Curzon : A Short Account 
of some of the most celebrated Libraries of Italy. 
Philobiblon Soc. Bibliographical and Historical 
Miscellanies, I. 9-11. 1854.) 

Various works attributed to Clovio. 

1. Missale. No. 18, Barberini Lib., Rome. 

Folio. Illuminated by Julio Clovio. Contains 
two large miniatures. Another has been cut out, 
but preserved in another book (18 B). This illus- 
trious volume was executed for Cardinal Ximenes, 
and is full of small illuminations [and ornaments]. 
Idem,. Ibid. 

Murray's Guide to Rome (1881) says : "A Missal 
with fine illuminations by Giulio Clovio, executed 
for Cardinal Ximenes, is in this Library." I have 
seen the several fragments attributed by the Prefect 
of the Library to Clovio. For what I saw there 
was really no better ground than tradition and 
probability; but still, from the evidence of the work 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio.- 333 

itself, this was of the highest kind. This Missal 
is really a fragment — one of the miniatures once 
belonging to it being now kept in another volume. 

2. Labarte, "Hist, des Arts Industriels," II. 272, 
says that the Arsenal Orosius (Paris : Ars. Lib. 
H. R. 71) was executed in 1480, mainly by Attavante, 
whereas the keeper of MSS. was persuaded it was 
the work of Clovio. No documentary evidence, and 
not even the evidence of the work itself, in this 

3. At the Royal Picture Gallery in Turin is 
shown a miniature, 45 c. by 52, of the sudarium 
held by three angels beneath a deposition from the 
cross. This miniature is attributed to Clovio. 

4. Valentinelli : Bibliotheca MSSta..adS. Marci 
Venetiarum, &c. Codd. Lat. I. 312; has: "Officium 
Marie Virginis cum additis psalmis pcenitentialibus, 
officiis mortuorum, sctse crucis, et scti sptus. Cod. 
51. Numb. ssec. XV. a 901. 63 (L. I. XCII) D. In 
eleganti codicillo foliorum 267 singulorum officiorum 
paginas initiales quasdam ornamentis et figuris, 
spatiis cseruleo colore illitis, pinxit Julius Clovius 
quod et ex artis magisterio et ex nota sub fine : — 
' Del pre Clovio.' " 

This I have not seen. 

5. In Waagen's supplement to " Art and Artists 
in England," p. 330, the author says, that in the 
library of Sir Thomas Sebright is a MS. in Sir 

334 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Thomas's opinion attributed to Julio Clovio and 
executed for Leo X., or as Waagen thought, for 
Clement VII., and on this ground denied the 
authorship. He may have had other reasons, but 
this was certainly insufficient, 

6. A miniature of the Entombment of Christ, in 
the possession of J. Rutson, Esq., of Newby Wiske, 
Yorkshire, signed, and apparently having once 
formed part of a Missal. 

7. In the Brera, at Milan, is a miniature of the 
Woman taken in Adultery, from a picture by Palma 
"Vecchio. Attributed to Clovio. This, or another 
copy of the same subject, is said by Sakcinski to be 
after Titian. — See also Labarte, II. 276. 

8. Extract from an Inventory of things belonging 
to Margaret of Parma, dated 1586. Now in the 
Archivio Governativo of Parma, fol. 16. "Una 
lunetta eon le cornice d' ebano — con 1' Effigie della 
Madonna, di mano di Don Giulio, con sa sua 
borsa di cremesino cremesi e con un anello in cima 
d'argento." fol. 81. "Un quadro con un Crocifisso 
con sua cornice, di mano di Don Giulio." — "Un altro 
quadro con uno Pietk con sua cornice, di mano di 
Don Giulio." 

9. The Inventory of the Picture Gallery at Parma 
— called the Pinacoteca Farnesina — compiled in 
1708 by Stefano LoUi, describes two other pictures: 
fol. 6. " Quadro senza cornice, alto braccio uno 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 335 

oncie due e mezza, largo oncie undici. Una Notte, 
con mezza figura d' un giovine che col soffie accende 
una picciola candela, di Giulio Clovio. No. 161." 

fol. 18. "Quadro con cornice d'orata, alto braccio 
uno oncie due, largo braccio uno, oncie otto. Re- 
tratto di Don Giulio Clovio — con barba bianca, che 
con la destra accentia un libro aperto miniato, qual 
tiene nella sinistra, di Giulio Clovio. No. 154." 

This appears to be the portrait known as the 
Curzon portrait, an engraving of which is given on 
p. 182. 

10. Sakcinski : (Dictionary of S, Slavonian 
Artists, &c. Art. Klovio, p. 172.) Besides the 
Flora, by some attributed to Clovio, but denied 
by this author, he mentions a Breviary of Cardinal 
Farnese, in the Biblioteca Borbonica, with the 
Farnese arms, adorned with portraits of evangelists, 
popes, and various saints — every page crowded 
with pictures of scenes from the Old and New 
Testament. But he asks — may not this Breviary 
have been one not designed but only coloured by 
Clovio ? The drawings are much worn. It is 
known that Clovio, indeed, carefully and regularly 
designed, and was accustomed often to colour the 
designs of others. An inscription with the Farnese 
arms in this volume stands thus : AL. C. D. F. 

11, Ibid. In the Galleria Borghese, Rome, are 
two miniatures, a Madonna and a Head of Christ, 

336 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

without doubt by Clovio. On them, very much 
rubbed, are the letters Giulio Clodi {sic). 

12. Ibid. In the collection of the Russian Em- 
bassy at Naples are two pictures — 1. Mary in the 
Temple. 2. A Boar Hunt, with numerous figures. 
Both miniatures in the style of Raffaello, and 
executed on small pieces of paper (?) in water- 

13. Ibid. (p. 173). A Book of Offices, now in the 
Sacristy of the Cathedral of Agram, containing the 
arms of Bishop Thomas or Simon Erdoda. Executed 
by Clovio in his youth, yet very delicately. The 
MS. contains 280 folios, and thirty-three rather 
large pictures. 

14. In Mr. Mayor's Collection, London, 1871. A 
design for one of the compartments of the Palazzo 
del T, at Mantua, representing the Loves of Cupid 
and Psyche, painted by Giulio Romano. In bistre, 
heightened with gold, on buff ground. 

15. In the Library of the Cathedral of Ravenna. 
Part of a Missal, described by M. Ch. Diehl in 
VArt for 1883, pp. 224-230. 

16. Several drawings in the British Museum and 


Richardson's Notes. 

Extracts from "An Account of the Statues, Bas- 
reliefs, Drawings, and Pictures in Italy and 
France, &c." With remarks. By Mr. 
Richardson. [Lond. 1754. Small octavo.) 

p. 59. Here also (namely at Florence) are a 
great many miniatures of Fra Gio. Batt. di Monte 
(a Monastery abou five miles from Florence), 
amongst which is the Correggio — Madonna kneel- 
ing and adoring Christ on the ground, her hands 
a little asunder ; and St. John of Raffaello — a 
single figure holding out his right hand, &c., above- 
mentioned. He has also done the Adoration of 
the Shepherds, by Titian, and the Andrea del 
Sarto in the apartment of the Grand Prince. The 
miniatures of this monk are finer, more correct, and 
better coloured than those of Don Giulio Clovio 
that the Duke has. He wrought about fifty years 
ago (i.e. about 1700), and always after pictures of 
other Masters ; never did any of his own invention, 
but imitated the several manners perfectly well. 

p. 60. The Chamber of the Great Princess 
Dowager. Camera di Madonna. The Pietk of 
Michelangelo 'tis written upon by himself Julius 
Clovius Macedo faciebat, as he has writ upon most 
of his things. This is not comparable to those 


338 lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

miniatures said to be of him, of the Life of the 
Duke of Urbin, in the Vatican. 'Tis hard and 
flat, and the colours not gentle. The colouring is 
languid. There are five figures, 'tis described by 
Vasari. A Holy Family of the same character 

p. 61. Two Crucifixes : one has a vast number 
of little figures at a distance ; the other a woman 
embraces the Cross, and this is all the difference — 
they are else the same. Both have fine neat 
landscapes, but hard. A Portrait of a Woman, 
resembling Raffaello's mistress. A Picture of Dante 
in oil, the same size, resembling the same as my 
father's drawing, but the attitude different. This 
is in the common portrait way, a three-quarter face. 
The taste, too, is the same. 

By Fra Giovanni. A miniature of a picture by 
Paolo Veronese, which is in the Prince's apartment. 
This has none of the faults just remarked in those 
of Don Julio Clovio : the subject is the Madonna 
and St. Catharine, 

The Grand Duke's drawings in a room belonging 
to the Gallery. 

p. 64. A beautiful woman's head (by L. da 
Vinci) inserted in an ornament of Don Julio Clovio 
grotesque,* coloured upon a gold ground. 

* Richardson means what is now often called arahesqne, but 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 339 

p. 75. In a cabinet in the Pitti Palace. The 
Rape of Ganymede, after Michelangelo. See Gior. 
Vasari and Borghini. This is of the same character 
as the others of Don Julio in the apartment of 

p. 177. Marc Antonio Sabatini. Has a book in 
twelvemo, with miniatures of Don Julio Clovio, at 
least it is the same hand with those of the famous 
MS. of Dante in the Vatican, but to me they seem 
more modern than Don Julio, as these do also.* 
He has another very fine book of miniatures in the 
taste of Pinturicehio or Perugino. 

p. 264. An Officio, by an unknown miniaturist, 
with several histories of the Madonna in miniature 
done before the time of Raffaele. Carlo Maratt 
particularly admired the airs of the Virgin through- 
out, and studied much after them, having a certain 
simplicity and Divine beauty superior to any other 
even Raffaele himself The work in other respects 
is well, only hard and stiff. Virgil retouched. 
P. Sancta Bartoli has taken greater liberties here 
than in his other things. 

p. 265. There are two books of this part of the 
Library (the Vatican) that were of the Duke of 

which really consists of Renaissance foliage and small figures, 
with groups of armour, musical instruments, &c. 
* For the reason, perhaps, mentioned in the text. 


340 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Urbin. One of the Life of Franc. Maria di Monte- 
feltro della Rovere IIII. D. of Urbino. The other 
of Geronimo Mutio Giustinopolitano c?e' fatti di 
Fed. di Montefeltro D. d' Urbino. Each of these 
has three histories in miniature of Don Giulio 
Clovio finely drawn, and of a most beautiful colour- 
ing, but upon a Tinct pretty gaudy, and wanting 
simplicity. They are all said to have been re- 
touched by Padre Ramelli.* Certainly they are 
of a quite different colouring and manner from 
those (with frames and glasses) at Florence in the 
cabinet of Madonna, and in the Studiolo; and one 
in Parma, in the cabinet by the Gallery, all which 
have never been retouched. But the Missal of 
the same cabinet is infinitely above them all for 
drawing, colouring, and ornaments, and p. 266 was 
made by him for the Cardinal Farnese, as appears 
by the inscription at the end of his own writings, 
and has continued in the family ever since.t 

In these two books of the Dukes of Urbin there 
are their portraits often repeated and always 
exactly the same likeness and fine airs. The Dante 
of the D. of Urbin (which is the most beautiful 

* Don Felice P. Ramelli, b. 1666, d. 1740, resided at Rome, 
in the service of Clement XI. 

t This is the Office of the Virgin descrihed by Vasari and 
Quaranta, afterwards in the Royal Library at Naples, and which 
disappeared when the Bourbons were expelled. 

Life of Giorgio Criulio Glovio. 341 

MS. I ever saw upon vellum, large folio), has an 
infinite number of miniatures by different hands, 
and all fine. There are many of Don Giulio Clovio, 
or at least of the same as did" those in the two 
Lives. But there are others that pleased me 
better, particularly those by Pietro Perugino as 
they say, and very probably, if he ever did anything 
in miniature. They are of a fine Raflfaele-like 
taste, and perfectly agree with the best things 
of Perugino. In this Library are two or three 
Missals said to be of Don Giulio Clovio, but 
apparently very different from any of him that I 
have met withal elsewhere. 

p. 291. The Palace at Caprarola is thus called 
from the suekhng of Jupiter by a goat, which they 
say was in the mountains surrounding this place, 
as also that he was born here.* 

It was built by Vignola for the Cardinal Farnese, 
and is an entire study of architecture, recommended 

* Of course the story of the goat Amalthea and the child 
Jupiter is the subject really referred to, localized according 
to a not uncommon practice. According to the ancient Mytho- 
graphers " Parmenicus autem ait," says Hyginus, "Melissea 
quondam fuisse Cretm regem : ad ejus filias Jorem nutriendum 
esse de latum : quae quod non lac habuerint (quia virgines 
essent), capram ei admisisse. Amaltheam nomine, quae eum 
dicitur educasse." Others vary the story, but all agree that 
the original locality was the island of Crete, not the Mods 
Ciminius, on which the palace of Caprarola is built. 

342 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

as such by Bernino. It is now (1754) uninhabited, 
and has been so for a long time (since 1713 ?). 
The paintings are on the ceihngs and sides of the 
rooms, and some by Taddeo Zuccaro, assisted by his 
brother Frederico. The design for one room (the 
Cardinal's bedchamber) was given by Annibal Caro 
by the Cardinal's order. 

The Palace, or Castello, of Caprarola is con- 
sidered to be Vignola's masterpiece. It was begun 
in 1559. 

p. 291. In the Great Hall, and four other 
rooms, are various representations of the seasons, 
enriched with ornaments and grotesques alVantica 
as beautiful as those of Pierino, and altogether as 
fine as any in the Vatican, and in the same manner. 
In the saloon are [represented] the actions of the 
House of Farnese. 

p. 333. In the Cabinet of the Ducal Gallery at 
Parma, A fine Missal by D. Julio Clovio, bound 
in silver plate, a little above the size of a French 
twelvemo. At the end of it, on an altar, is written : 
" Julius Clovius Monumenta hsec Alexandro Far- 
nesio Domino suo faciebat MDXL.VI.* This 
Missal is vastly beyond whatever in the Vatican is 
ascribed to this Master. Those indeed have been 
retouched by Padre Ramelli (of the same order as 
Don Julio) and now alive : but this is perfectly 
* See p. 331. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 343 

well preserved, and is admirably well drawn and 
coloured, equal to any master. The taste in 
general is chaste and gentle in some of the figures, 
more especially there is an inclination towards the 
style of M. Angelo, but without his extravagance. 
All the pictures have grotesque ornaments about 
them : the colouring of which humours the general 
Tinct of the pictui'e with much beauty and harmony. 
A single picture, with a frame and glass, it is a 
St. John, but in a style different from that of the 
Missal, and like those of this Master in Florence. 


A List of Clovio's Works, given by Vasari. 

1. Madonna, after Albert Dtirer's wood engraving. 

2. Judgment of Paris, in chiaroscuro, i.e. a sepia 
drawing. (Executed for Louis King of Hungary.) 

3. Lucrezia killing herself (perhaps after Titian), 
and other things. 

4. Madonna, for Cardinal Campeggio the elder, 
and other smaU works. 

5. Works of miniature for Scopetines, at San 

6. Large Choral Book, with most delicate minia- 
tures and beautiful borders, containing a miniature of 
Christ appearing to Mary in the Garden (singularly 

344 lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

7. Woman taken in Adultery, with many figures, 
after Titian (the original appears to be the one at 
the Brera, usually attributed to Palma Vecchio). 

8. Various works at Candiana. 

9. At Perugia. An Office of Our Lady, with 
four beautiful miniatures. 

10. An Epistolary. Three large stories from Life 
of St. Paul, one of which was afterwards sent into 

11. APietk. 

12. A Crucifixion (afterwards belonged to Gio. 
Gaddo, Clerk of the Apostolic Chamber. 

13. Works for Cardinal Farnese — for whom he 
executed a vast number of most beautiful illus- 
trations and miniatures. To name all would be 

14. Small Madonna and Child, and Paul III. 
kneeling before her. Sent by the Emperor Charles V. 
to Spain. 

15. Office of Madonna, written by Monterchi. In 
a series of twenty-six miniatures, arranged in pairs 
of type and antitype, each suiTounded by a border 
of figures and fancies in harmony with the subject. 

1. Office for Matins, (a) The Annunciation, -with border 
containing children of miraculous beauty. (6) Isaiah speaking 
to the King of Israel. 

2. At Lauds, (a) The Visitation ; the border imitates metal. 
(6) Righteousness and Peace kissing each other. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 345 

3. At Prime, (o) The Birth of Christ. (6) Adam and Byb 
eating the Apple. 

The -frames both filled with figures, nude and draped, human 
and animal. 

4. At Tierce, (a) The Angels appearing to the Shepherds. 
(6) The Tiburtine Sibyl and the Emperor Augustus, with 
borders of figures and coloured ornaments, among which are 
the heads of Alexander the Great and Cardinal Alexander 

5. At Sexts. (a) The Circumcision. The figure of Simeon 
is a likeness of Pope Paul III., and in the story are portraits 
of Mancina and Septimia, Roman ladies of great beauty. (6) 
St. John baptizing Christ. 

Both with borders containing many nude figures. 

6. At Nones, (a) Adoration of the Magi. (6) The Visit of 
the Queen of Sheba to Solomon. At the foot of one border is 
the Festival of the Testaccio, with figures not so big as ants. 
All the colours or liveries given by the Cardinal Famese to his 
people are clearly distinguishable. 

(This miniature was in possession of the ex-queen of Naples 
in 1864.) 

7. At Vespers, (a) The FUght into Egypt. (6) The Sub- 
mersion of Pharaoh in the Red Sea. Much and varied beauty 
of ornament in the framework. 

8. At Complines, (a) Coronation of the Virgin. (6) The 
Story of Esther crowned by Ahasuerus. Borders of appropriate 

9. At Mass of the Madonna, (a) The Madonna and Child. 
(6) God the Father creating the World. With rich border of 
cameos, one containing The Annunciation. 

10. At Penitential Psalms, (a) The Battle in which Uriah is 
killed — melee of combatants and dead, miraculous. (6) David's 
Repentance. Border containing little grotesques and other 

(The miniature is a copy or duplicate of that in the Grimani 
Breviary at Venice.) 

346 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

11. Litanies. In these the artist has minutely interwoven 
the names of the Saints. In the upper border is the Holy 
Trinity, with angels, apostles, &c. (6) The Madonna in 
Heaven, with the holy virgins. In the lower border the pro- 
cession of the Corpus Christi ; various officials bearing torches, 
with the bishops and cardinals, and the Holy Sacrament carried 
by the Pope, who is followed by the remainder of the Court and 
the Guard of the Lanzknechts ; lastly, the Castle of St. Angelo, 
whence they are firing salutes, " the whole being a work," says 
Vasari, " calculated to astound the acutest intellect." 

12. At the Offices for the Dead, (a) Death himself triumph- 
ing over Kingdoms and the Mighty ones of the Earth, &c. 
(6) The Resurrection of Lazarus, with figure of Death in combat 
with figures on horseback. 

13. At the Office of the Crucifixion, (a) Christ on the Cross. 
(&) Moses lifting up the Serpent in the Wilderness. 

14. At the Office of the Holy Ghost, (a) The Descent of the 
Holy Ghost at Pentecost. (6) The building of the Tower of 
Babel by Nimrod. 

Nine years did Giorgio Clovio spend over this work. 

16. A small picture, with minute figui'es, for 
Cardinal of Trent, so beautiful that he sent it as a 
present to Charles V. 

17. A Madonna for same Cardinal, in which was 
also a portrait of Philip II. ; presented to the latter. 

18. For Cardinal Farnese : Madonna and Child, 
with St. Elizabeth and St. John in same picture. 
For Ruy Gomez ; sent to Philip II. 

19. St. John in Desert for Cardinal Farnese — and 
Landscape with animals. 

20. Copy of same ; sent to Philip II. 

21. Pieta for Cardinal Farnese; given to Paul IV. 

Life of Giorgio Griulio Clovio. 347 

22. David cutting off Goliath's head. From 
Cardinal Farnese to his sister-in-law, Mary of 
Parma ; she sent it to Philip II. 

23. Judith, painted for Margaret of Parma as a 
companion. (Delia Valle gives Clovio's letter sent 
with the miniature.) See Lemonnier's Vasari. 

24. Several works executed for Duke Cosimo 
during Clovio's visit to Florence. 

25. Small head of Christ from an antique that 
belonged to Godfrey of Bouillon. Crucifixion with 
Magdalen at foot of cross (now in the Uffizi 
Collection), " Julius Macedo fe." 1553. 

26. A Pietk, copy of which Vasari possessed. 

27. Madonna and Child in Choir of Angels. 

28. Ganymede, after Michelangelo, in possession 
of Tommaso de' Cavalieri. St. John Baptist seated 
on a stone, and some portraits. 

29. Pietk with the Maries, &c. for Vittoria 

30. Ditto, for Cardinal Farnese, who sent it to 
the Empress — Sister of Philip II. and wife of 

31. St. George and Dragon and landscape, which 
Cardinal Farnese sent to Maximilian. 

32. The Emperor Trajan, large but copied from 
a medal with "Judea capta" on reverse — sent to 
Emperor Maximilian (painted for a Spanish gentle- 

348 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

33. Christ and his Cross. 

34. Christ with Cross on shoulder, and crowd, 
going to Calvary, followed by the Maries. 

35. Two miniatures for a Missal — 

(a) Christ instructing the Apostles; 

(b) Last Judgment; 

— of marvellous beauty. (These seem to be two of 
the drawings belonging to the Towneley Lectionary.) 
Vasari compares these works to those of Titian or 
Bronzino — those in the Cameos have all the effect 
of colossal figures, although so excessively minute. 
(See the notice in Lemonnier's Vasari, V. 443-452. 
Milanese in his last edition of Vasari — Firenze, 
1881-8 — says, vii. 569, " Among the works painted 
by Clovio but not recorded by Vasari, I have noted 
the following which I have seen in Rome : Two 
Missals in the Vatican, nos. 3805 and 3807, splen- 
didly illuminated for Cardinal Francesco di Toledo; 
and in the MS. of the Deeds of Federigo da Monte- 
feltro, Duke of Urbino, written by Girolamo Muzio, 
there are five miniatures, and in the second volume, 
containing the life of Francesca Maria I., Duke of 
Urbino. But they show a falling off, suggesting 
the work of his old age. Likewise, in the same 
Library, are some miniatures in a MS. of Dante 
which are not by him, but belong certainly to one 
of his pupils, or an inferior imitator. They begin 
with Canto XXVIII. of the Purgatorio, and con- 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 349 

tinue all through the Paradise except the sixth 
canto, where they are by a different hand. Lastly, 
I may mention that the Cathedral of Ravenna 
possesses a Missal illmninated by Clovio for Cardinal 
Fulvio della Cornia. 

In the Inventory of the goods of Margaret of 
Austria (Parma), made in 1586, are mentioned the 
following works by Clovio : — 

1. A Lunette with a Madonna and Child. 

2. A Quadro with a Crucifix. 

3. „ „ PietL 

In the Inventory of the Library of the Farnese 
Palace at Parma, drawn up in 1768, is a small 
painting, 2^ in. by 11 in., containing a Notte or 
Nativity, and a portrait of Clovio with a white 
beard, his right hand pointing to an open book 
which he holds in his left (now known as the 
Curzon portrait), also the half-length of a young 
man lighting a small candle. 


liife of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

A List of Works attributed by various Authors 
TO Clovio. 





A pen drawing or miniature 
copy of Diirer's Madonna 



Pen drawings of coins and other 
works for Cardinal Dominico 



Judgment of Paris ; Death of 
Lucretia ; for Louis, King of 




About 1536 


Before 1540 
1540 or 


Service Books at S. Ruffino ; 
Christ appearing to Mary; 
Woman taken in adultery ; 
OfiBce of our Lady, with four 
illuminations. At Perugia 

Portrait of Clovio, Vienna, Am- 
bras Collection 

A Missal " with masterly minia- 
tures," usually called the 
Holford Missal, but not in 
Mr. H.'s collection 

The Grrimani Commentary, 
known as " Soane " Clovio, 

Stanze di Eurialo d'Ascoli, Imp. 
Library, Vienna 

Madonna for Card. Campeggio 

Madonna and Paul III. kneeling; 
sent as a present to Charles V. 

Psalter of Paul III., Paris 

Vasari, &c. 



Internal evidence 

and date 

Evidence of dedi- 
cation and dates. 

lAfe, of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 







Office of Virgin "wiitten by 

Vasari, &c. 

about 1646 

Monterchi, " Miracle of Art." 
Took Clovio nine years, and 
contains twenty-six small 
stories in pairs, each in fine 


S. Elizabeth for Cardinal Famese 



Office of Madonna for Cardinal 
Tarnese, with six miniatures, 

Offices for Dead (2); Death 
triumphing over kingdoms 
of Earth ; Eesnrrection of 
Offices of Holy Cross (2) ; Christ 
on Cross; Moses lifting up 
serpent in Wilderness 
Offices of Holy Ghost (2); 
Descent of Holy Ghost; the 
Building of Babel 


About 1546 

Towtieley Lectionary, now in 
the Lenox Library, New 


About 1546 

The Stuart de Rothesay Offices, 

Proved from in- 

Addl. 20927 

ternal evidence 

About 1546 

Missal of Cardinal Famese, Royal 
Library, Naples 


Breviary of Cardinal Farnese, 


Royal Library, Naples 


Farnese choir-book at Capo di 
Monte, Naples 


Large oil painting portrait in 


Museo Borbonico, Naples. 

Galler. VIL 


Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 




After 1554 
(if at all). 


About 1554 
(if at all). 



Piet^ in Pitti, Florence. Camera 

di Madama 
Pieta (small) in Sth chamber of 

Jupiter, No. 241 (one like it, 

Print Room, British Museum) 
Christ on Cross and Magdalen, 

for Cosimo di Med., Florence 
Portrait of Clovio in oil, small 

A Holy Family, in camera di 

Crucifixion, crowd in distance 
Dante, Paradiso, &c. Vatican, 

Lives of Dukes of Urbino, 

Vatican, Rome 
Several missals in Vatican 

MS. containing paintings by 
Clovio in Church of S. Croce 
in Gerusalemme, Rome, for- 
merly belonging to Padre 

A choir-book in Church of S. 
Salvatore, Rome 

Prayer Book or Office of Virgin, 
Royal Library, Naples 

Gxenville Victories. British 

"Flora" Offices of Virgin, Na- 






Dennistoun, &c. 

Dennistoun, &c. 




Doubtful. See 
Appendix, De- 


Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 






Several choir-books at Seyille 

Conca, &c. 


Juditb and Holofernes for 
Marg. of Parma 

Vasari, &c. , 


MS. of Cardinal della Rovere at 

Milanesi's Vasari, 


vii. 569 ; Diehl 


MS. of Cardinal jPnlvio della 
Comia, at Ravenna 


After 1564 

St. George and Dragon for 
Cardinal Farpese as present 
to Emperor Maximilian, and 
a Missal containing Christ 
instructing Apostles, and a 
Last Judgment 

(See Towneley Lectionary.) 


Painting, John Baptist in Galle- 


ria Borbonieo, Naples. Came 


from Parma 


Trivulzio Petrarch, once at 

Vasari, Rosini 

but Tery 




Deposition in the Ambrosian 
Library, Milan 


Battle-piece, once belonging to 


Gonzala Family, now at Venice 

S. Slav, Lex. 


Adoration of Magi, Royal Collec- 
tion, Windsor. A pen drawing 


Deposition from Cross. Print 


Room, British Museum. In 


red chalk 


Cupid complaining to "Venus of 


sting of bee at Sibenioo 





Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 






A miniature belonging to Baron 

Bruckentlials at Siebenburgen 
Figure of woman in mantle at 

Unbelief of St. Thomas, and 

another in Breviary in 

Cathedral at Agram 
Deposition in possession of 

J. Rutson, Esq., Thirsk 
Fountaine " Clovio " 

Missal in Barberini Library, 

Rome (Ximenes) 
Fragments in Barberini Library, 

Rome (Ximenes) 

A drawing in Municipal Library, 

David and Goliath for Margaret 
of Parma 

St. John in desert for Cardinal 

Madonna for the Cardinal of 

Design for Palazzo del T. Man- 
tua, in Mr. Mayor's Collection, 


Sakcinski, Life, 
and S. S. Lex. 


The owner 

Tradition. Prob- 
ably not a Clovio 

Murray's Guide, 
i.e. local tra- 

Murray's Guide 

S. Slav. Lex. 

Vasari, Sakcin- 
ski, &o. 

Vasari, &c. 

Sakcinski (from 

The owner 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 355 


Mars and Venus unfinished. 

A Pieta, after Michelangelo, by Clovio. 

Mardocheo, copied by Clovio. 

Hist, della Serpents, by Clovio, pen drawing after Michel- 

Judith (a group), by Clovio. 

Another Mars and Venus, after Michelangelo, finished. 

Charon and group, by Clovio. 

Phaeton, by Clovio. 

Three Resurrections, by Giulio Clovio, after Michelangelo. 

Deposition by Clovio. 

A Resurrection, with 8 figures, by Clovio. 

A Christ on Cross, by Clovio. 

A Christ on Cross, by Clovio. 

A Christ on Cross, by Clovio. 

A Christ on Cross with two thieves, original. 

Outline of a Madonna, by Giulio Clovio. 

Bacchus, by Clovio. 

Another, by Clovio. 

Antiochus chased from the temple by Angelo, after 
RafEaello, copied by Giulio Clovio. 

Figure by Michelangelo, pen drawing by Giulio Clovio. 

Pope Alexander III., fugitive to Venice, by Giulio Clovio, after 
Giam.bilino (Gian Bellini). 

Christ on Cross, after Michelangelo, by Giulio Clovio. 

Sheet of children, after Michelangelo, by Giulio Clovio.* 

Two other figures, by Clovio. 

Madonna and five other figures, by Clovio. 

Picture with ten figures, after a water-oolour by Michelangelo; 
Judith, after Michelangelo, both copied by Clovio. 

The Night of Michelangelo, copied by Clovio. 
' Outline of four figures, after Michelangelo, by Giulio Clovio. 

All the above are in a bundle, signed by letter A. 

* A dramng answering to this desoriptiou is in the British Museum 
Print Boom. 


356 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Christ on Cross, after Michelangelo, by Giulio Clovio. 

Gronp of little figures, by Clovio. 

Two legs, by Clovio. 

A Pieta, by Clovio. 

A head of RafEaello, by Giulio Clovio. 

Anatomical drawing, after Michelangelo, by Clovio. 

A little figure, by Clovio. 

Christ on Cross, after Michelangelo, copied by Clovio. 

All these in a bundle or packet marked B. 

A PietS, by Giulio Clovio, of his own invention. 

Madonna with two children, and another figure, after Raff aello, 
by Clovio. 

Two outlines of two figures, by Clovio. 

" Testone " pen drawing, by Clpvio. (A large head ?) 

A Goddess of Nature, by Clovio. 

Five children, outlines, after Michelangelo, by Giulio Clovio. 

Sketch of four figures and three horses, by Clovio. 

Four figures in outline, by Clovio. 

Christ and Madonna, by Clovio. 

Three sketches of nude little figures, by Clovio, after 

Feet pen drawing, by Clovio. 

Drawing of Troy, by Clovio, his own invention. 

Two figures, by Michelangelo and Clovio. 

The Ganymede, after Michelangelo, by Clovio. 

The " Sogno " (Dream) of Michelangelo, by Clovio, with a 
little sketch. 

A Madonna and three figures, after Michelangelo, copied by 

The Archer, after Michelangelo, by Clovio. 

A sheet of nude figures, after Baffaello, by Clovio. 

A head in pen and ink, after Michelangelo, by Clovio. 

Two wrestlers, by Clovio. 

A Piet&, after Michelangelo, with three figures, by Clovio. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 357 

Prudence and two children, a pen drawing, after Michel- 
angelo, by CloTio. 

Anatomical outline with, two figures, by Michelangelo, copied 
by Clovio. 

Flagellation in red chalk, with three figures, after Michel- 
angelo, by Clovio. 

Anatomical drawing, with all the measurements, by Clovio. 

A figure with measurements, by Clovio. 

An outline with measurements, by Clovio. 

Three little figures with an animal, with measurements, by 

A young lady (design of Clovio). 

On oval, after Perino, by Clovio. 

Head in pen and ink, after Michelangelo, by Clovio. 

Outline of figure designed by Clovio. 

Madonna with two children, after Michelangelo, by Clovio. 

Madonna with pne child, in lapisrosso, by Clovio. 

Sketch of many figures and a horse, original, by Clovio. 

All these are in a parcel marked C. 

Annunciation in water-colour, invented and drawn by Clovio. 

Vision of Elizabeth ; also an aquarelle, by Clovio. 

Isaiah, ditto. 

The Three Kings, ditto. 

Death of the Virgin, ditto. 

A nude, ditto. 

Circnmcision, ditto. 

A small draAving, ditto. 

A small drawing, ditto. 

Madonaaa, pen drawing, original. 

Figure sketch, pen drawing, original. 

Sketch after Correggio, by Clovio. 

Two small figures, after Michelangelo, by Clovio. 

One figure, by Clovio. 

All these drawings are in the packet signed with 

358 lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

letter T>, and tied up with two other bundles not by 

A bundle of drawings sealed with the seal of 
S. Sia. lUma. (Cardinal Farnese ?), about 129 pieces 
more or less. 

Another bundle of drawings of sixty-seven pieces. 

Another of sixty-nine drawings by Donato and 

Another of designs all by Clovio (seventy-eight). 

A book of engravings of Albert (Durer), with 
some by Michelangelo, some of which have been 
taken out. 

A bundle of drawings, sealed with the usual seal, 
of twenty-nine pieces, all by the hand of Clovio, 
containing among other the following : — 

The Advent of the Saviour. The Resurrection 
of the Evangelistarium (?). 

The Nativity of the Evangelistarium (?). 

The ornament of the Holy Spirit. 

The ornament of the Advent. 

Christ preaching. 

The Madonna with King Philip (four figures). 

A large Pietk. 

A Madonna with St. Elizabeth (three figures), 
and St. John, in aquarelle. 

A bundle of drawings, seventy-seven pieces, con- 
taining the following : — 

A Pieta, with five figures, in aquarelle. 

a CO 

Life of Giprgio Giulio Glovio. 359 

A Madonna with her son in her arms, with King 
Philip at her feet, and nine figures. 

A Madonna with King Philip. 

A bundle of different drawings not by his hand. 


A, B, and C are tied up together. 

" Ego Vettorius Petruttius predicta omnia de 
voluntate Rm. Di. Giulii scripsi et interfeei \_sic\ 
manu propria." 


Engravings on Copper prom Pictures by Clovio. 
(SakcinsM, ^P- 59-61.) 

1. Christ on Gross. Magdalene kneeling at the 
foot, clasping the Cross. On the right stands the 
Mother weeping ; behind, Joseph of Arimathea. 
On the left is St. John, and behind him a Roman 
soldier with shield and lance. In the background 
are high hiUs, and beneath them the. city of Jeru- 
salem. In the right corner, " Don Julio Clovio de 
Crouatia inventor." Beneath the picture "All. 
Illmo. et eccmo. Signior. H. Signor Giov. Con- 
stantius Duca di Wisnioviec. Gio. Pietro Pedriz- 
zani dedica." On the left "Agostino Caratio Pitor. 
Ecc. F." 

360 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Now in the collection of Archduke Charles at 
Vienna; vol. xxiv. of Roman School, No. 3549. 

2. Same subject. Most probably engraved by 
Cornelis Cort. Inscribed, " Don Julio Clovio de 
Crouatia inuentor 1568." Below the picture are six 
elegiac verses, beginning "Quid mundo si nulla," &c. 
At foot, " Romse Ant. Lafrerij." 

In Sakcinski's collection. 

3. Same subject. Engraved by J. Sadeler 

4. St, Agatha bound to a tree, two men tearing 
her breasts. Inscribed, " G. B. Mazza, Romse. 
Lucse Bertelli for S. Agatha." 

In the Imperial collection at Vienna, among 
engravings by Corn. Cort, No. 33. Another copy 
in the collection of Archduke Charles. 

5. Judith with head of Holof ernes, with a bloody 
sword in her left hand. Inscribed, " Hsec est 
Hsebrsea mulier qui confusionem fecit in domo 
Nabuchodonosar Regis. Ind. cap. XIII. Don 
Julio Clovio de Crouatia inuenit." 

In the Imperial collection at Vienna, among the 
engravings by C. Cort, I. 12. Another copy is in 
the collection of Archduke Charles. 

6. Sam£ subject. Engraved by Philip Soye. 
Below is the name of Ant. Lafrerij (Zani). 

7. Resurrection. Dated 1569, with the name of 
Ant. Lafrerij. Piobably engraved by C Cort. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 361 

In Sakcinski's collection. 

8. Same subject. Inscribed with four verses. 
En agit seternus victor, &c. Beneath the picture, 
" Nieolai Nilli formis Venetiis. 1569." 

In the collection of Archduke Charles. 

9. A Half-length of the Virgin Mary. In the 
Print Room of the British Museum. . 

10. Half-length of Clirist. Engraved by Philip 
Thomasin (Heinecken). 

11. St. George and the Dragon, ^ith many 

Inscribed, "Julius Corvatinus Inv. Enea Vicco 
Parm. Sc. Ant. Salamanca Exc." Dated 1542. 
An important engraving. 

Vasari says of Vico, and referring to this 
picture : — " Fece ancora per Don Giulio Clovio 
rarissimo miniatore, in una carta S. Giorgio a 
cavallo che ammazza il serpente, nella quale an- 
corche fasse si pu6 dire delle prime cose, che 
intaghasse, si portb molto bene." 

A copy of this engraving, slightly damaged, is in 
Sakcinski's collection. A good one in the Print 
Room of the British Museum. 

12. Same subject, but with certain differences. 

In the lower left corner, " Cum privilegio Summi 
Pont. Don JuHus Clovius Inv. Cor. Cort fecit. 1577." 
Beneath the picture, " Romse Paulus Palumbus 
Novarensis curabat anno 1578." 

362 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

In the Imperial collection at Vienna, among the 
engravings by C. Cort, II. 19. Also in British 

13. Same subject. Engraved by Alex. Vate, 
Nancy, 1592 (Heinecken). 

14. The Conversion of St. Paul. A large and 
masterly picture. It is the subject made use of, 
and altered for the worse, in the " Soane " MS. 

In the lower left corner, " Don Julius Clovius 
Iliricus Inv. Romse Laur. Vacar formis, 1576." 
In right, " C Cort fe." Then follows twelve elegiac 
verses, beginning, "Dum patrios ritus," ending, 
" Quod mediteris habes." 

In the Imperial collection at Vienna. Cort 
engr. II. 7 and 8. Also a fine copy in British 

15. Same subject. Engraved by Domenieo Vitta. 
Inscribed, " Dominicus Vitus Vallis umbrosse mona- 
cus ab alia excudeb. 1577. Don Jul. Clovio 
Iliricus inv. Romse Antonj Lafrerj formis" (Zani). 

17. Same subject. Inscribed, " Apud haeredes 
Claudii Duchetj formis. Romse, 1586." Later 
copies have "Johannis Orlandi formis, 1602" (Zani). 

18. Same subject. Inscribed, "Don Julius 
Clovius Iliricus inv. Romse, Antonj Lafrerj formis 
a Paulo Gratiano questta " (Zani). 

19. Same subject. Inscribed, " Don Julius Clo- 
vius inA^ Battista Parme. for. Romse, 1589." 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Cflovio. 363 

20. Same subject. Inscribed, "Don Julius 
Clovius Iliricus inv. Jo. Papistae de Cavaleris 

21. St. Peter with keys in left hand, and a book 
in right ; surrounded by kings, priests, &c. In the 
sky is the Trinity. Inscribed, " G. C. I." (Giulio 
Clovio invenit), and " C. C. f." (Cor. Cort fecit). 

In collection of Archduke Charles. 

22. John placing the ^dead body of Christ on a 
stone. Mary Magdalene kneeling and other figures. 
In the distance the ruins of a town. Inscribed 
on left, " Don Julio Clovio inv." Underneath, 
" Hujus livore sanatisumus." The engraver is not 
named, but the same picture was also engraved by 
J. Sadeler. 

23. The Entombment. Four figures behind. In 
the background Calvary and Jerusalem. Dated 1568. 
" C. Cort £" " Omnis creatura," &c. Beneath the 
picture, in the middle : Don Julio Clovio de 
Crovatia inv. On right side : " Joannis Orlandij 
formis rome 1602." On left: " Romee Ant. 

Also engraved by D. Tibaldi, H. Olgiati, Jac. 
Franco, 1571. Jac. Valegi, 1572. 

24. Sa/me subject. Engraved by an unknown 
hand, in smaller size. Dated 1580. Inscribed, 
" Atra domus mortis subiit, &c. . . . eohibere 
fines." Several copies in British Museum. 

364 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

25. Jesus at twelve years of age among the Doctors. 
Dated 1567. Engraved by C. Cort. 

In the collection of Archduke Charles. 

26. Same subject. Inscribed, " Julius quidem, 
&c. Gratioso V. Gasparis Alberti, successor 
Palumbi formis " (Zani). 

27. Mary's Return Home. Dated 1567. In- 
scribed also, "Jo. Orlandij, Ronise, 1602. Ant. 

In Imperial collection at Vienna. 

28. Uie Magdalene on a rock in the Desert, 
praying to a crucifix hung on a tree. Inscribed — 
"Non aurum aut gemmae, aut perfusus odore capillus 

Me lacrymse et luctus, et loca sola juvent 
Sic culpas luat, et sensus domat ille procaces 
-^terno Carus qui cupit esse Deo." 

Engraved by C Cort. 

In Imperial collection at Vienna. 

29. The Annunciation. Engraved by C. Cort. 
In the same collection. 

30. The Adoration of the Magi. A busy scene. 
Inscribed, "Don Julio Clovio de Crovacia inv, 
T. P. F." (perhaps for Tibaldi* PeUegrino fecii^ 
otherwise the engraver is unknown). The subject 
has a beautiful arabesque border of genii, angels, &c.; 
underneath; "Aurum, tus, myrrham," &c. There 
is a good copy of this in the Print Room of the 
British Museum. 

feiS,jgffiStote§3d£a"SKE*ci'™JeE; i"i ffAiisals 


(From a print in the British Museum). 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 365 

31. Same subject, without the border, 1567. 

32. Same subject. Inscribed, " Don Julio Clovio 
de Crovacia invenit. C Cort fecit, 1567. Romse 
ex typis Ant. D. Salamanca." 

In the Imperial collection at Vienna. 

33. Same subject, with variations. Inscribed, 
Sidereo, &c. 

In the same collection. 

34. A Holy Trinity, small size. 
In the same collection. 

35. Christ appearing to Holy Women. One is 
kneeling. In the background is a town, with 
towers, ruins, &c. ; behind are hills. 

In the same collection. 

36. Same subject, dated 1567. Ant. Lafreiij. 

37. Madonna and Child. Engraved by C. Cort 

38. The Baptism of Christ. Engraved by C. Cort. 
Dedicated to Piero Aldobrandini by Giov. di Parma 

39. A Pietd,. Thi-ee crosses in background. In- 
scribed, "Horrescent et humi," &c. (Heineken). 

40. Half-length of the Virgin Mary holding a 
figure of Christ). Engraved by C. Cort. Fol. 


41. Christ as a Child preaching in Temple. 1567. 
Engraved by C. Cort. Fol. (Huber). 

43. Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene in the. 

366 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Garden. Engraved by C. Cort. Fol. In the 
British Museum. 

44. Copies of several illustrations (I only know of 
one) from the works of Petrarch, given in Rosini's 
" Storia della pittura Italiana." 

45. The illustrations of the Comment on St. Paul's 
Epistle to the Romans, in the Soane collection, 
London. In facsimile by Owen Jones, in Hum- 
phreys's " Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages." 

Among those who copied Clovio in copper, were 
Cornells Cort, Phil. Soye, J. Janson, J. Sadeler, 
Agostino Caracci, Enea Vico, Domenico Tibaldi 
Pellegrini, G. B. Mazza, Hieron. Obligati (Sake. 
S. S. Lex. Olgiati), Nic. Velli, Domenico Vito, 
Aliprando Capriolo, Giovanni Cavaleris, Giov. 
Orlandi, Jacopo Franco, Jac. Valegio, Lasinio, 
St. Laune, Philippe Thomasin, Alexandre Valle, 
Silvester de Sacy, Humphreys, Johann Btissmucher, 
and the famous Sibenican artist, Martin Rota 

Through his great skill and deeply learned paint- 
ing* he became known to all the noted artists and 
scholars of his time, and among the rest, no doubt, 

* Gio. Paolo Lomazzo — himself a painter — in his "Idea of the 
Temple of Paintings," says of Clovio, that he learned much of the 
cultivated men with whom he associated, and produced work so 
elegant " per la cognizione delle lettere ch' egli hebbe profond- 
issima."— P. Ill, Ed. Milan, 1590. 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 367 

to many South Slavonians, who were engaged in 
various Italian cities in works of art or letters. 
There can be no doubt he worked for the Croat 
families of Frangepani and Zrini, who had large art- 
collections in the coast-lands of Dalmatia. 


Pupils of Clovio. 

1. Giovanna Clavio. 

2. Francesco (Rossi) di Salviati of Florence 
(1510-1563, Rome), and recommended by Clovio to 
Cardinal Farnese to execute certain frescoes in the 
chapel of the Chancery, in which he was assisted by 
Clovio. Was a pupil of Andrea del Sarto and 
protege of Cardinal Salviati, 

3. Bartolommeo Torre of Arezzo. Especially 
clever in anatomy. He died from blood-poisoning 
in his twenty-fifth year. 

4. Bernardo Buontalenti of Florence (1536-1608), 
who afterwards attained great fame as an engineer, 
architect, and sculptor.* 

* Spoken of by Italian writers as " ingegno universale nell' 
arti." For his life see Baldinucci II. (Dec. VII. del Sec. IV), 
p. 490, &o. He was called " Delle girandole," and was painter, 
miniaturist, sculptor, and architect. His soubriquet of Delle 
girandole was given him when a hoy for his skill in making 
paper lanterns to turn in the smoke. He was introduced to 
Clovio at Florence when Clovio was working there. - 

3G8 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

5. Marco du Val, a Frenchman, afterwards Court 
painter to Charles IX. 

6. Claudio Massarelli, who resided with him at 
his deathj and to whom he left his collection of 
drawings and materials. Massarelli also had two 
assistants named Maximilian de Monceau, and 
Alessandro da Como. 

7. Among the copyists may be placed Baroccio, 
F. Zuccaro, Apollonio BuonfrateUi, and Bartho 
lomew Spranger, who, after studying under Marco 
du Val at Paris, went to Rome and met with Clovio. 
Clovio kindly introduced him to the Cardinal, for 
whom he and his young friend Michiel Gionequoi 
worked at St. Oreste for four months.* 

Portraits of Clovio. 

1. A rather rough engraving of an elderly man 
of quiet aspect, in a plain coat buttoned, and with a 
turn-over collar, hair brushed back from forehead, 
well-trimmed beard, large but not aquiline nose. It 
forms the frontispiece to the German translation of 
Sakcinski's Life, octavo. Agram, 1852, The title 
below in both Italian and Croatian : Juraj Julio 
Klovio, slikar hrvatski. (G. Giulio Clovio, miniatore 

* Het leven der . . . schildera . door Karel van Mander. ed. 
by Jac. de Jongh. Amst., 1764, 2 vols. oot. II. 20-51. 

Life of Giorgio Oiulio Clovio. 369 

A similar head occurs in the Croatian edition of 
1878. Zagreb, thin quarto. 

2. A young and handsome man, with regular 
features, a slight moustache, and neatly trimmed 
beard, rather intense expression of eyes and lips. 
Wears a silken cap with rim all round, a close- 
fitting coat and cloak, hand holding it together. 
A lithograph of good execution in " Slovnik umjet- 
nikah jugoslavenskih od Ivana Kukuljevica Sakcin- 
skoga," i.e. "Lexicon of South-Slavonic Biography, 
by Ivan Kukuljevic Sakcinski." Art. Klovio, p. 160. 
Under the portrait is Julio Klovio, sitnoslikar. 
(Julio Clovio, miniature-painter.) 

3. Two gouache portraits in a rich and tasteful 
Renaissance frame : 1. (90) A young man in a 
black coat, beside him a dog. In gold letters on 
a blue ground are the words : "Julius Clovius 
Croatussui ipsius effigiator ao. setat . . salut. 1528." 
If this be authentic the missing age would be 
thirty. 2. (91) A young lady in fur and black, and 
a rose in her hand. It also bears a Latin motto 
and the date 1576, but shows a later or younger hand 
than Clovio. It may be the portrait of Giovanna 
Clavio, by herself, mentioned in Caro's letter. 

4. The original engraving of which (1) is a copy, 
is given in " Serie di Ritratti degli Uomini i pid 
lUustri nella pittura, scultura," &c. V. Firenze, 
1771, large quarto. He is called "Don Giulio 
Clovio, Miniatore Croato." 


370 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

5. The Curzon portrait. An elderly man holding 
a book, at which he points. 

6. A medallion, of which a cast has been most 
courteously furnished for me by Mr. H. 0. Grueber 
of the British Museum. 

The following is Mr. Grueber's note on the Medal. 
" There is nothing in the Clovio medal to show why 
or when it was made. The larger number of Italian 
medals are merely commemorative, referring in a 
general manner to the character of the person 
portrayed. The medal of Clovio was made rather 
late in his life, circ. 1560, and judging from its style 
of work, I would give it to the hand of Pietro 
Paolo Galeotto, called Romano. The Museum 
specimen is a poor cast ; but I think its original 
must have been of very good work. The portrait, 
I should say, is quite authentic, and the piece is 
unknown, i.e. unpublished, so if you illustrate it, 
it will be for the first time. P.S. I ought to have 
said that the original was a cast medal made from 
moulds, not struck from dies. This is quite charac- 
teristic of Romano's work. Argelati ' De Monetis 
Italise Milan, 1750, iii. 36,' describes one as being 
in the ' Braydensis ' collection. The obverse is the 
same as the B. M. cast, ivlivs clovivs pict. exc, 
but the inscription ends excel, and on the reverse 
is a female seated between trees : before her Fame 
blowing a trumpet, leg. fama vietvtis tvbiclna." 

In a later communication, Mr. Grueber suggests 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 371 

that the " Braydensis " can hardly mean Breda in 
Holland, as it would seem to, but of course he could 
not say what it means, as he had not seen the medal 
itself. Neither have I, but it seems to me that 
Argelati had not either, or that he made some 
mistake. As I have seen somewhere a note that 
a medal of Clovio exists in the Brefa Museum at 
Milan, I should think this to be the locaility meant. 
I regret that when in Milan I had not seen the 
note I refer to, so cannot affirm this to be the 
true explanation. 


Clovio's Will. 

[Atti e memorie delle R.R. deput. di storia patria 
per le Provincie dell' EmiUa. Nuov. ser. VII., 
pt. ii. Moden. 1881, pp. 259, 260.] 

In the above serial A. Bertolotti has given some 
interesting particulars respecting Clovio, and espe- 
cially refers to the discovery of his will. Attached 
to it was an inventory of pictures, &c., still in his 
possession. The document was not executed by the 
hand of a notary, ignorant of the things spoken of, 
but under the immediate direction of Clovio himself 
When, on December 27th, 1577, he made this 
will, he was already extremely infirm, and almost 
blind. It bears date 1578, because in Rome the 
year began with the Nativity. Clovio informs the 


372 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

writer that his father was of Macedonia and his 
mother a native of lUyria ; also, that he came to 
Italy himself when quite young and studied under 
Italian masters. Thus he claims nationality with 
Raffaello, Michelangelo, and Romano his masters. 
Being modest and mindful of his religious vows, he 
ordains that he shall be buried in the garb of his 
order. He further prescribes that on his tomb 
shall be inscribed these words — 

"Hie* jacet Don Julius Clovius " 
— in the church of San Pietro ad Vincula. And so 
we find on a pilaster in the choir a medallion with 
his portrait in white, marble, and the following 
inscription : — 


D . . O . . M . 












After his legacies as Scopetine, we come to those 
as artist. 

He leaves half his money to the Church of 
S. Luca, to which belonged the guild of artists of 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 373 

which he was a principal supporter. After artists 
in general he passes to his trusty assistant, Claudio 
Massarelli da Caravaggio, "whom," says Bertolotti, 
" I am very glad to rescue from an unmerited 
oblivion." To him he leaves all his attrezzi for 
the practice of miniature, the drawings by Luca 
Cambiasa of Genoa, and those of Mazzola, called 
Parmegianino, which were among those acquired 
whilst residing with Cardinal Grimani ; and all the 
rest of the drawings not by his own hand, except 
a San Lorenzo and other drawings copied by him 
from life from the famous Offices made for and 
bestowed on Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, and his 
other drawings, specially copied from RafFaello, 
Michelangelo, and Peter Breugel, also made under 
the same patron. 

The inheritance "of his furniture, &c., fell to the 
monastery attached to San Pietro in Vincoli, with 
prohibition to that body from selling the paintings, 
which were to remain as an ornament for their church. 

After religion and art comes his own family. 

All his property in Dalmatia he left to a nephew 
named Guido Clovio, together with the ring of gold 
and jewels which had been given him in Rome. 
This nephew was a captain in the Venetian army. 
Clovio's confessor and servant are not forgotten. 
He leaves them clothes. 

The executors of the will are the Cardinal Farnese 
and his agent. 

374 lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Fearing that owing to their smallness his minia- 
tures might get lost or dispersed, a few days after 
making his will he made an inventory of the 
drawings, &c., still in his hand. By means of this 
we are enabled to triple the lists given us by 
Vasari. They appear to be all studies by Clovio 
after Michelangelo and Raffaello. He was a 
personal friend of Peter Breughel. In this collection 
is one miniature partly by Clovio and partly by 

The inventions or original designs by Clovio are : 

A drawing of Mars and Venus ; a prophet ; a 
head of RafFaelle ; Troy ; a small figure with a 
baby in arms ; a naked girl ; outline of a study of 
the nude ; a sketch containing many figures and a 
horse ; an annunciation ; the Visitation of Saint 
Elizabeth ; Isaiah ; the three magi ; the circum- 
cision ; the death of the Virgin ; and others. 

By Michelangelo : — 

A chandelier ; the history of the serpent ; a pen 
drawing ; a window ; two prophets ; a gate ; a 
madonna and child ; a head in pen and ink ; 
Prudence, in pen and ink ; a chest ; a Flagellation, 
in red chalk ; a madonna and child, in red chalk ; 
two figures after Giotto. 

On January 3rd he again confirms the principal 
provisions of the will through his confidant Pe- 
truccio, enumerating the benefits received from 
Cardinal Farnese. That he , died on the following 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 375 

day, January 4th, 1578, follows clearly from the 
Inventory made on that day. And this is precious 
as it includes many works not mentioned in the 
former one, with the objects which adorned his 
apartment and such other valuables as, being most 
precious, he kept in a private cabinet. Among 
these are paintings by Titian and Correggio, copies 
of Raffaelle and an impronta of Don Giulio and 
of St. Ursula from the hand of the celebrated 
Sofonisba Anguisciola, the Cremonese portrait 
miniaturist. A San Lorenzo by Clovio himself 
and an illuminated " Offices," together with a few 
books mostly upon medals and engravings, and 
two gravicembali.* In one scatolino he kept the 
portrait of Lavinia Terlincks — i.e. Lavinia, daughter 
of Simon Bynnynck of Bruges, miniaturist to Queen 
Elizabeth. It is singular that in this second 
inventory we find mentioned a large painting by 
the hand of Rafiaelle without specification of the 
subject. Bertolotti then goes on to say, " I found 
too the will of his sole assistant. Like his master 
he thought first of his soul and his burial in the 
church of San Lorenzo in Damaso, then passes on 
to artistic matters. Massarelli left his drawings to 
his two assistants — Maximilian Monceau, a Fleming, 
and Alessandro da Como, whom he specially 
names his allievo. Monceau is a miniaturist 
hitherto unknown." 

* A kind of spinet or pianoforte. 


The Will of Giulio Clovio. 

Die 27 'Xbris 1578 a nativitate. 

In nomine Dni. Amen, &c. Quoniam mors et vita 
in manibus Dei sunt et nihil certius morte et incer- 
tius illius hora unumquemque prudentem decet dum 
est in sua bona memoria mentisque et intellectus 
ratione constitutus animse rebusque suis taliter 
providere ne inter posteros suos aliqua lis uel con- 
troversia conteutio siue differentia oriri possit ea 
propter in mei presentia presens et principaliter 
constitutus magnificus et reverendus d. Don Julius 
Clovius patre macedonico et matre illirica miniator 
celeberrimus sanus Dei gr. mente sensu & intellectu 
et in suo bono proposito sanoque et recto iuditio 
existens, corpore tamen infirmus timens iuditium 
diuinum nolens intestatus decedere sed rebus et 
bonis suis prospicere ac de illis disponere presens 
suum nuncupativum quod de iure civili sine scriptis 
appellatur fecit et condidit testamenta in modum 
sequente uidelicet Impiimis quia anima est nobilior 
corpore illam omnipotenti Deo Beateque Marie 
semper Virgini ac toti curie celesti humiliter et 
devote comendauit Corpori uero sepulturam elegit 
in ecclesia Diui Petri ad Vincula postquam ab eo 
eius anima segregari contigerit inibique humari 
uoluit absque pompa in habitu eiusdem religionis 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. Z77 

cum ceremonia tamen quam fratres ejusdeifl re- 
ligionis solent suis confratribus adtibere hoc 
adjecto quod super eius cadauer ponatur lapis cum 
sequente iscriptione, videlicet: Hic jaoet Don 
Julius Clouius. 

Mandauitque quod statim sequuta eius moi"te 
celebritur misse S*'- Gregorii in ecclesia S*'' Gregorii 
et S*'' Laurentii in ecclesia extra muros ad altaria 
privilegiata dici solite pro defunctis. Legauit et 
jure legati reliquit ecclesie Beate Marie consola- 
tionis de urbe unum offitium paruulum antiquum 
Dive Marie in parte miniatum quod modo penes se 
habere dixit. 

Pecuniae autem quae reperientur tempore ipsius 
obitus eas solutis soluendis diuidi uoluit et mandauit 
inter monasterium dictae ecclesiae S*"' petri ad vin- 
cula et ecclesiam diui Luce apud ecclesiam Beate 
Mar. \i.e. Majoris.] 

Legauit etiam et jure legati reliquit D. Claudio 
Massarolo de Carauaggio eius alumno omnia dis- 
signia q. d. Luce Cambiasii et Parmesanini et 
aliaque non sunt eiusdem testatoris manus, om- 
nesque formas rilieui jessi, et cere ac cuiusuis alie 
qualitatis una cum omnibus utensilibus lignaminis et 
aliis massaritiis et coloribus ad usum artis miniature 
et picture aptis ac etiam unum dessignum S*'" Lau- 
rentii et designa extracta per ipsum naturaliter ex 

378 lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

officio donato lU""- d. Cardinal! Farnesio neenon 
cum lecto seruitorum una cum duabus linteaminibus 
et duabus tobaliis. 

In delineationibus uero omnibus qui uulgo des- 
segni appellantur (demptis sup'^) manu ipsius et 
presertim extractis ex delineationibus q. d. Michelis 
Angeli bonarotti {sic) cum quadro babilonie et tribus 
aliis quadrettis Petri Brugal et quadretto miniato 
manu ipsius Testatoris suum heredem universalem 
instituit ac ore proprio nominauit 111™- et Rev""™- 
D. D. Cardinalem Alexandrum Farnesium S. R. E. 
presbiterum Cardinalem eius unicum dominum et 

In reliquis autem aliis suis bonis mobilibus et 
utensilibus masseritiis domus (infrascriptis tamen 
demptis) cum quadris magnis et parvis et hie in 
urbe existentibus suum heredem instituit ac ore 
proprio nominauit Monasterium et fratres dicte 
ecclesie S*"' Petri ad Vincula, prohibuit tamen dietis 
fratribus, dictorum quadrorum alienationem sed 
uoluit eos semper remanere ad ornamentum ecclesie 
et predictse sacristie illius. 

In omnibus autem aliis suis bonis mobilibus et 
imobilibus presentibus et futuris in partibus Dal- 
matise sine Schiauonise existentibus et consistentibus 
nee non in anulis aureis et omnibus lapidibus pre- 
tiosi quos hie in urbe habet, suum heredem instituit 
fecit ac ore proprio nominauit D. Guidum Clouium 

lAfe of Giorgio- Giulio Ciovio. 379 

ex que fratre suo nepotem itaque nil aliud ex bonis 
ipsius testatoris petere possit. Item legauit D. 
Marco Antonio Giorgio de Montelupo eius confessori 
unam sottannam rascie florentine nove. Legavit 
insuper Filippo pucetti de Cingulo eius famulo 
eius sottannam rascie veteri cum breuiario suo. 

Exequutores uero presentes sui testamenti ordi- 
nauit et deputauit predictum 111™™- et Eeu"- D. 
Cardinalem et magnificum D. Jo. Baptistam de 
auximo agente ipsius 111™- Card""- absentes quibus 
dedit potestatem et omnimodum autoritatem omnia 
et singula in presente suo testamento contenta 
exequenda et sue debite exequutioni demandandi et 
hoc etc. cassauit etc. et uoluit presens suum testa- 
mentum omnibus aliis preferri super quibus, etc. 

Actum Rome in Palatio predicti 111™"- D. Card"'- 
et in camera cubiculari predicta d. Testatoris pre- 
sentibus ibidem. 

Magnifico d. Jacobo Curtio salutiarum dioc. 

D. Antonio Galattero Montis regalensis. 

M""' d. Joanne Finali clerico Lunen.-sarzanen. 

M™' d. Marco Toccolo clerico parmense. 

D. Curtio Ricciono de Cellis D. Baptista Angeli 
Frattoni de Caprerola, etc. 

D. Philiberto Canet Sabaudien. testibus, etc. 
(Notarius Livius Prata 1577-8, fol. 353 to 405.) 

380 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Letters of Giulio Clovio. 

There are said to be letters from Giulio Clovio 
among those of the Buonarroti collection in 
Florence, and among those of Vasari now dispersed. 

Original Text. 

Given by A. Ronchini in Atti e Memoriali, Ser. 
III. 262, &c. 
About his 1. Al Cardinale Farnese a Parma. Ill""- Sig"- 


blindness. Parone mio. lo sum sempre espedito di servir 
et obedire a la 111™*- Signoria V. Pero non 
mi sento ancora a modo mio, maxime che mi 'h 
sopragiunto tanto male appresso lo occhio manco. 
Quell a infiagione, la quale era prima, mi h ingros- 
sata tanto sinistramente che mi impedesce a vedere, 
malamenti. Non facendo qualche remedio, non 
sarb bono per la 111™=- S. V. ne per me. E qui e 
uno Ciruico valente il quale a guarito conte 
Antonio Scoti di uno simile male in quindici di 
Et cusi prego la 111'™" S. V. che la si contenti che 
io provi uscire di questo affanno, a poterla servire 
come io desidero. II me dico dice che non h cura 
periculosamenti di offendere lo occhio, et che spera 
che in otto di potrb andare dove voglio. Subito 
risoluto qualche poco negnierb via : perb senza 
taglia non si pb fare questa cura ; dove mi da un 
poco di paura. Et cusi prego Iddio che conservi 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 381 


la IU"°" Sig™" V. in tutto quelle che la desidera, 

et la guard! ad ogni male. Et mi li ricomando 

umilissimamente. Di Piacenza alii 14 di genaro 

1558. Di V. S. Ill'"'" et Rev™'" umilissimo seruitore 

Don Julio Clovio. 

2. Alio stesso. Ill""- Sig'^^- Oggi che h sabato ho ^ ^^Xon*^^ 
fatto fare la iustitia del mio occhio et cusi per gratia 

di Dio, et per la opera di Maestro Batisto fiorentino 
medico e ciroico, il quale tanto destramente mi la 
tagliato la materia, tanto ingrossato che mi aveva 
quasi serrato lo occhio. Fatto il taglio, subito e 
saltata una materia come una pallotta, et non so che 
aqua gialla fuora ; et mancata o calata tutta la ^*^ success. 
grossezza, che mi occupava lo occhio, subito. Sia 
ringratiato Dio che mi la fatto questa gratia di 
potere servire la 111™*- S. V. la quale adoro, con 
miglior lume, il quale dubitava di perdere. Et cusi 
spero in breve di venire. 

3. Alio stesso ... a Piacenza. Ill™' signor et ^^°?* ^^^ 

" necessities. 

Patron mio oss™"' De la necessity grande che io 
sono astretto mando a fla 111"*- S. V. Messer Julio 
Berneri, il quale abita qui in Correggio, et ancora 
avendosi mosso da lui per avdrmi compassione a li 
mei affanni Et cusi supplico che la 111"""- S. V. Si 
degni di auscultarlo de li travagli mi sono accascati 
qua in Correggio, et tuttavia seguitano; et e persona 
secretissima. Et cusi prego Dio che prosperi la 
111™*- S. V. et la guardi di ogni male. 

382 Uife of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Di Correggio a li 9 di lujo, 1559, 
Di V. S. Ill"*- & Rev"^- umilissimo Servitore. 

Don Julio Clovio, 
Aboutgoing 4, ^lo Stesso a Roma. Ill"'°- & Rev"""- Sr. 

to Uanaiana. 

mio osser™°- Come V. S. Ill""- pub sapere la BoUa 
di S. Sta. per la quale si assolvono gli traslati, h 
talmente conditionata, che fe necessario comparire 
davanti agli Ordinarii et Priori di quelli luoghi dove 
si fa la professione : onde a me in particolare convien 
presentarmi e Candiana luoco della Diocese di 
Padova ; e cio nel termine di sei mese, de' quali 
uno e gi^ quasi passato. Supplico pertanto V. S. 
Wants let- 'Y\]^°- che si desfni accompasrnarmi col fauor suo, 

ter of recom- o i. o ' 

mendation. scrivcudo o al Vescovo di Padova, o a chi meglio 
parr^ a Lei, et dando ordine appresso di questo, a 
soi ministri che mi proveggan delle cose necessarie 
per questo viaggio. Dal qual tomato, spero poi 
venir colla presenza a servirla, come sempre ho 
desiderate, questo tanto di vita che mi resta. Et 
intanto Le bascio le mani, et nella sua buona gratia 
humilimente, mi raccomando. 

Di Correggio il 29 di Aprile, 1560. Di V. S. 
lUmo. & Revmo. Devotissmo. et obbligatisso. 
Servitor. Don Julio Clovio. [Ronchini.] 
About his 5. Alio stesso . . a Roma. Ill""'- et Rev"""- 


andhisreii- Sr. mio osscrmo. lo non ho mai desperato de la 

ance on tlie 

Cardinal's gratia ct bontk di V. S. 111"°- mentre che sono stato 

generosity, ^ 

in his present giovene e piti sano. Hora, estendo invecchiato et 

sickness. ° '- 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 383 

infermo, ne spero piil che mai, promettendomi al 
securo che Ella non potrk supportare ch' io perisca 
per necessity, di quanto fa bisognia a la recuperatione 
de la sanita. Io gravamente patisco all' orinare, et 
ho a quest! giorni fattomi curare, et ho pressa Faqua 
di bagni di Lucca, che fa portata qui per il Signer 
Hieronimo; et mi pare star peggio assai che prima. 
In Venetia e un valente homo, come dicono, e I'animo 
mio sarebbe di trasferirmi fin colk per un mese ; et 
mettermi in mano di lui. Perb, in questo caso, to'^o to a"*^ 
supplico V. S. Ill""- a farmi favore che sia scritta Y°^°g"^ 
una lettere al Governatore di San Gio. di Purlani, 
che mi accomodi di una stanza per detto tempo. 
Appresso ricordo a V. S. Ill™"' che sono hormai 
cinque mesi che non ho havuto un soldo de la pro- 
visione che la bontk e nobiltk sua mi dona, e che non Cannot get 

his salary 

mi basta la cortesia che mi fa il Sr. Hieronimo, che paid. 
per certo non mi lascia mancar, par conto del viver 
mio, di quelle cosi che si trovano qui. Ma a me 
bisognia qual che denari si per medici e medicine. 
Come anche fra i altre cose occorrenti al viver mio. 
Dunque finiendo, mi inchino a' piedi di V. S. Ill™*- 
pregandola a degniarsi di provedere alquanto a le 
mie necessitade. Et le bacio humilmente le mani. 
Di Correggio a di 13 giugnio 1560. Di V. S. 111™*- 
& Rev™*- Devotiss°- et obbligatiss"- ser™- 

Don Julio Clovio. [Ronchini.] 

7. Alio stesso a Caprarola. Ill™"- S""^- Patron About the 

384 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Taddef "^i° OSS""- M. Tadeo pittore [Taddeo Zuccaro] 
Zueoaro. passo di questa vita martedi notti non con poco 
dolor mio, maxime essendo cusi gran valentomo 
come era, oltra che ira pieno di ogni bontk talmente 
che qui non si trova eguale a lui, fora del suo 
fratello, il quale a me pare di maggior espettatione 
assai ; et acora lui h simile oltra la virtti, h da bene 
quanto sia possibile. So cbe V. S. ha di bisognio di 
tal persona e cusi non ve lassate scappare da le 
mani, perche mi pare che molto e stato ricercato 
dal Cardinale di Ferrara. Se V. S. Ill"*- andar^ in 
Lombardia verso Parma io prego nostro Signore 
Jesu Christo che conduca et reduca Y. S. Ill™- 
con tutte le satisfattioni che desidera. II Quadretto 
of thrheaT^ ^ * ^°^ tcrmiue, e saria finite ; ma li caldi di Roma 
his\^aT '° ^'^^ ™^ hanno lassate lavorare a modo mio, oltra la 
debilezza, de la mia testa. Et cusi a V. S. Ill"*- 
S. recomando humilissamente. Di Roma a li 5 di 
Settembre, 1566, Di V. S. Ill""*- & Res"*- 
Servitore humil™- Don Julio Clovio. [Ronchini.J 
6. A letter which ought to stand next in this 
collection, though not given by Ronchini, is photo- 
graphed by Milanesi in Scritture di Artisti III. 1. 
To Duke 18 di Marzo, '61. Ill"""- et Ecc™"- Sig''"- Prin' 

Cosimo about ^ 

going to Yaio Oss""' Julio Clovio. Io mi riputo a ffran 

Florence. ■■■ "^ 

fauore che 1 E'. v. si sia degnata c6mandarmi, ma 
me Io reputerei molto maggiore se conforme alia mia 
natural diuotione verso di lei et della 111™*- sua 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 385 

Casa io havessi liberty et comoditk di poterla servire 
come io desidero percioche hauendo io come Ella sa 
Princ. et essendo occupato per suo seruitio quanto 
ha potuto uedere il suo m' Giorgino aggiunta la mia 
ueochaja ni Io posso promettere dell' opera mia. Se 
non. poco et lontanamente. Tuttauia mi andrb 
inuolando alcuna uolta a tutte 1' altre mie facende, 
accioche I'e' v. resti appagata affatto della mia tion of his 
pronta volontk, et in parte anchora della fatica et Vasari. 
di quel poco che le possono promettere i molt' ani 
et le poche forze mie pel resto rimettendomi a m' 
Giorgino le bascio humilissamente la mano et priego 
ogni felicitk. Di Roma a xviij d' Marzo, 1561, 
[Archivio di stato in Firenze, Carteggio del Duca 
Cosimo de' Medici. Filza 196, Carta 726 (Inedita).] 

In a firmer hand lower down : — 

Studiarmi seruire a u e'cetia con tute le mie 
forze e' diligentia ho sapro e' quanto ho ragionato 
con m giorgio il quale refFerira a bocha a v ecc*'*- 
quanto li sono affecionatissimo ser*"™- >: 

Humilissimo se'"^' 
Don Julio Clovio. 

8. Al Duca di Parma e Piacenza. Ill'""- eL A^o^tapor 

trait wmoh he 

Excell™- mio P'rone. Da por che'l Conte Lodouico ^f the^^ufe 
[Conte Lod. Tedeschi maggiordomo del Cardinal °^ ^*''™^- 
Farnese] me ha ditto da parte di V. Excelltia. che io 
gli facessi il ritratto, ho lassato da banda le altre 
cose, e mi son sforzato di servirla ; et nonne havendo 


386 Life of Griorgio Giulio Clovio. 

altro migliore essempio lo ho cavato da un mio 
libretto, et lo mando alia Excellentia vostra, alia 
quale desidero cite satisfaccia si come io lo ho fatto 
volontieri e di core. Et la prego che excusi la etk 

Apologizes ... J. o 

for his failing mia, 11 occhj deboli et le manj ; promittendogli che 
skiu. come io potrb rubbar un poco di tempo dalle opere 

del Card^®' mi sforzaib di fare altro a satisfattione 
della Exc. Va. alia quale humilmente me recomando 
sempre. Di Roma alii 22. d' Ottobre, 1569. Di 
vostra excellentia humiliss"- seruitore, 

Don Julio Clovio. 
9. Al Card. Farnese an Viterbo. A di 16 di 
9bre, 1570. E capitato in Roma un giouane Can- 
Eecom- diotto discepolo di Titiano che a mio giuditio parmi 

mending a -T o Jr 

diote^pafi^er ^^^° uella pittura, et fra laltre cose e gli ha fatto 
Titi^J! °* ^° ritratto da se stesso che fa stupire tutti questi 
Pittori di Roma. Io vorrei trattenerlo sotto I'ombra 
di V. S. Ill'"''- et Rev™*- senza spesa altra del 
vivere ma solo de venghi ad accomodare meglio. Perb 
La prego et supplico sia contenta di scriuere al Co. 
Lud''"- suo maiord°- che lo provegghi ne' detto 
Palazzo di qual che stanza ad alto, ch^ V. S. Ill'™- 
far^ un' opera virtuosa degna di Lei et io gliene 
tenib oblige. Et Le baseio con reverenza le mani, 
Di v. S. Ill"""- & Rev"-*- humiUss"- ser'tore, 

Don Julio Clovio. 
About the 10. Alio stesso a Caprarola., Ill""- & Rev"" 

price of a 

picture. Sig''^- & Patron mio osserv™°- Per la prima 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 387 

V. S. Ill"™- mi ha dato da fare con uno piil dis- 
cortese e piii ostinato che sia al mondo. Volendo 
quel quadro solo di San Francescho, non si ver- 
gognia domandare cinquanta scudi d'oro, et non ho 
mai potuto aver altra risoluzione di lui, diciendo che 
quelle li guastaria il prezzo de li altri. Ma volendosi / 
pigliare tutti tre. San Jerolimo et la charitk li 
dark per cento scudi d'oro insieme con S. Francescho. 
Di questa sua ostinatione sono stati li pictori di 
Roma, Muciano et Jacopino et Jeromo Sermonta 
[Gerolamo Muziano, Jacopo Stella, et Gerolamo ' 
Siciolante de' Sermoneta] che hanno messo in tanto 
gran prezzo le opere di queste pitture, e certo non 
si pub dire non e bene perche sono fatte con gran 
leggiadr/ia. Di quell' altro S. Francescho, che V. S 
jjjma. j^i ordinb non ho haiito altro auiso. Gia 
aueua trouato il pittore e questo si potrik fare a 
questa mede'ma attitudine como ^ quello del Genuese. 
Perb volendosi fare questo convenia mi fussi man- 
data la misura de la altezza et de la larghezza, E 
cusi humilissimente a V. S. 111™°- mi ricomando, 
pregando Dio ha conservi sana et in gratia sua et 
quello che hai desidera. Di Roma a li 7 di luglio, 
1573. Di V. S. Ill""*- et Rev"'^- humihssimo 
servitore, Don Julio Clovio. 

11. Letter to Madama d' Austria, written by 
Caro in Clovio's name. 

" Mando a V. A. il quadro della Giuditta finite J^^'o"* ^'^^ 



lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Judith and 
painted for 
Margaret of 
Duchess of 
for delays. 

About the 
presented to 
Buy Gomez. 

The am- 
. bassador's 
pleasure on 
receiving it. 

ptir una volta, quando h piacuto a Dio Dico cosi, 
perche quanto a la vowontk e a la soUecitudine mia 
sarebbe gik da molti mesi compito ; ma sono stato 
impedito da tanti mail, e da tanti sinistri, cosi de la 
vita come de la fortuna, die se non fosse stato 
r ardore e la divotione con che vi ho lavorato credo 
che non ne sarei mai venuto a capo. Havrei voluto 
andar piti oltre con dargli forza et moto el spirito di 
vita et veritk, se avessi potuto, per empire il giuditio 
degli occhi suoi col concetto mio stesso . . di quk h 
stata veduta non senza lode mia et maraviglia di 
ognuno. Resta die io mi raccomandi ecgiacdi^ gli 
anni le infermita et la mala fortuna ec. Roma a li 
11 di Settembre, 1561." 

Given in the Milano edition of Vasari, in Classic! 
Italiani, 1811, Vol. 15, pp. 132-3, note 2. 

12. Letter from Giuliano Ardinghelli, Ambassador 
of the Duke of Parma at the Court of Brussels, 
to Cardinal Farnese. Now kept in the Archivio 
Governativo, Parma. 

" 4 Dec. 

" Ho presentato al Sigr. Ruy Gomez il quadretto 
di Don Julio, con quel modo che mi parve piti 
conveniente, mostrando che I'animo di V. S. Riv- 
era d'honorarlo con cosa di maggior momento, e che 
si riserbara a farlo con altra commodity. S.S. 
Rl™*- I'accettb con allegrissima cera, e mostro 
d'haverlo carissimo : et in prsesentia mia chiamb 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 389 

molti signori della camera del Re dove si feee 
grandisso. romore e fa lodato in estremo. Alia fine 
si raecomandb a tutti, per che non fusse detto 
niente al Re, dicendo che lo voleva mandare alia 
S™- Contessa sua moglie. lo lo pregai che mi 
dicesse se desiderava nessuna altra coso di quella 
mano per ch^ V. S. Ill™"" harebbe hauto gran 
piacere di saper I'animo suo per ordinare che la fassi 
servita, e gli soggiunsi che Y. S. Ill™*- haueua 
ordinato che se ne facessi uno per I'lniperatore in T^eEm' 
quella forma che sua AltL haveva detto che de- E|™o^e!"^^ 
siderava. A che mi rispose, che io pregassi V. S. The King 
111™"- a non lo mandare a S. Altk. se non per la via Tnother. ^ 
di qnk, per che il Re pigliark gran piacere vederlo ; 
et in ultimo disse che scriverria a V. S. 111™='- rin- 
graziandola, &c. Perb V. S. Ill™*- pensi a far che Don juiio's 

T^TTl* i_l j-*j_ work most 

JDon JuJio la von, por che le cose sue sono stimate highly valued. 
quk in estremo." — Atti e Memorie, &c., III. 262. 

13. In " Le Lettere familiare del Commendatore 
Annibal Caro" (8 vols. 12mo. Padova, 1734, II. 395) 
occurs one " al Sig™- Vicino Orsino " about certain 
loggie at Caprarola to be decorated "with scenes 
from the story of the Giants. Speaking of the 
effect of mere smallness of dimension not lessening 
the sense of grandeur, he says : " E se '1 vostro sark 
tale, supplira in questo al dubbio di V. S. che se 
bene ha considerato le cose di D. Giulio conoscera 
ch' ancora la miniatura con piccolissime figure 

390 lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

rappresenta i Giganti." It is a long letter, entering 
into the matter very minutely, as tlae other letter 
to M. Tadeo Zuccaro Pittore, where he is dealing 
with the subjects and decorations to be painted in 
the same palace (II. 303, No. 188). 

14. The letter written for Clovio by Caro to 
Signora Giovanna Clavio (Sakcinski : Life, &c., 

21) :- 

" lo ho sentito molti giorni innanti celebrare la 

Praising virtti et bcUezza vostra, et de I'una et de I'altra per 

her youth and fama era molto affectionato, quando da M ... mi 

her marvel- ~, . , . , . 

lous skill in e stata mostrata la vostra effigie da voi medesima 

miniature art, 

and thanking depinta, et in tal sorte che in un medesimo tempo, 

her for her 

portrait. ho scorto in voi la grazia del vostro volto, la vivezza 
del vostro spirito et I'eccellenza di quell' arte de 
la quale io fo professione. Hor pensate se prima 
v'amava, per avervi udita commendare quanto io 
v'ami et vi honori di poi che v'ho, si pub dir veduta 
et conosciuta et per donna tale che oltre a I'esser 
si bella e si giovine, siete ancora si eccellente in 
un' arte tanto rara ne gli uomini, non che nele 
donne. L'amore et la maraviglia insieme hanno 
fatto che io ritenghi il vostro ritratto appresso di me, 
et lo vagheggio a tutte I'hore per la piil mirabile 
Promises che si vegga ; et per ricompensa. M.'h parso di 

trait in return, mandarvi il mio par di mio propria mano piil perehe 
ancor voi consciate I'effigie di che v'ama, che 
'1 valor di che io faccio non lo giudico degno di 

Uife of Giorgio GiuUo Clovio. 391 

voi. Pure perche gli artefici sogliono hauer caro 
veder diverse maniere di quelli che operano, ho 
giudicato che non sia per dispiacervi di poter con- 
siderare quella di noi altri d'ltalia, et vi harei 
mandate un saggio d'istorie o di qualche figurettk 
ben finita, perche ne poteste far meglio giudicio, 
ma per brevity di tempo mi riserbo a farlo un altra 
volta et voglio' che questo vi riserva solamente, 
come io detto, per darvi conoscienza di me, e per 
un segno che io vi dono di me stesso. So che siete 
cosi cortese come vi mostrate ne I'aspetto, et per 
questo non dubito che non siate per accettarmi Friend or 
per vostro. Hora vi prego che mi faciate lauor 
di farmi intendere che mi abbiate per tale, et di 
commandarmi come a vostra cosa, facendomi gratia 
di qual che altra cosa di vostra mano, che io farb il 
medesimo con voi. E del resto rimettendomi a la 
relatione del Gentil'huomo apportator di questa, mi 
vi offero et mi vi dono per sempre, et vi baeio le 
delicate et artificiose mani. Stata sana." 

In the last Florentine edition of Vasari (Sansoni) 
— Firenze, 1882, Vol. VIII. 229— is the following 
note : — 

" Esista nella Riccardiana di Firenze, un codice 
cartaeeo in 8o. di carte 96 delle quale 84 scritte 
segnato di No. 2354 che contiene 54 lettere, di 
Giorgio Vasari eopiate certamente dalla mano del 
Cavaliere Giorgio Vasari suo nipote verso la fine 

392 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

del seeolo XVI. e tratte dalle bozze stesse del suo 
zio." It is entitled, " Yarie lettere di M. Giorgio 
Vasari aretino pittore et architettore scritte in 
diversi tempi a diversi amici suoi sopra inventione 
di varie cose da lui dipinte o da dipignersi, raccolte 
dal Cav. Giorgio Vasari suo nipote da certi suoi 
scritti." Of these fifty-four letters, nineteen were 
copied and sent to Rome to Bottari, who inserted 
them among the lettere pittoriche. But the first 
to print the whole in the order they bear in the 
MS. was Audin in his Edition of the " Opere 
Vasariane." Milanesi prints them re-arranged in 
the order of time as nearly as can be made out. 
Those hitherto inedited are distinguished by an 
asterisk. On fol. 91 of this Codex Riccardiana is 
a list of correspondents which, now that the 
precious collection of letters to Vasari has been 
dispersed and many lost (pp. 230-1), appears to 
be of some importance. Among the persons 
named in the list are : Clemente VII., Paolo III., 
Giulio III., Gregorio XIII., and other Popes ; 
Cardinals Aless. Farnese, Salviati, Bembo, and 
Sadoleto ; and Don Giulio Clovio. 


— •*■ — 

Altert Diirer, 34 

Alberto Pio da Carpi takes Clovio to Buda, 36 
Ambrogio, Fra, a celebrated preacber, 47 
Andres de Leon, an imitator of Clovio, 81, 91, 92 
" Anonimo " of Morelli, 25 
Antonio of Sicily, a dealer in MSS., 25 
Aragona, Tullia d', 197 
Artists of South Slavonia, 11 
Attains as an Art-patron, 63 


Beham, Hans Sebald, of Nuremberg, practises illumination, 109 

Bello, Valerio, of Vicenza, a celebrated medallist, 55 

Boccardino, miniaturist of Florence, 233 

Boduino, Giov. Maria, miniaturist of Friuli, 94 

Bonde, Dr. W., describes the Portuguese Offices executed for 

John III., 290 
Book of Kells, 4 

Bordone, Benedetto, of Padua, MSS. by him, 96 
Brief granted to Raffaello, 1615 (note), 30 
Bry, Theodore de, a famous engraver, 216 
Bynnynck, Simon, miniaturist of Bruges, 108 

Cambiaso, Luca, pupil of Perino del Vaga, 93 
Campeggio, Cardinal Lorenzo, employs Clovio, 39, 133 
Carolus Calvus, poem in honour of, 2 
Castello, Bernardo, 103 

„ Giov. Battista, 99 
Cellini, Benvenuto, 134 

,, executes a cover for a MS. painted by Clovio, 163, 

394 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Cesarei, Pietro, miniatarist of Perngia, 122 

Charlemagne, 2 

" Chief Victories " or Triumphs of Charles V., one of the sets 

of triumphs, desired by Heemskerck, described, 220 
Chigi, Agostino, builds the Farnesina (note), 32 
Choir-books in the Esoorial, 81 

„ in Ferrara, not by Cosimo Tura, 137 

„ in Borne, illuminated by Clovio, 203 

Clavio, Giovanna, comes to Rome, 152 

„ letter from her to Clovio, 153 

„ „ original text of, 390, Appendix XVIII. 

Clovio born 1498, 19 

„ comes to Italy, 28 

„ his introduction to Domenico Grimani, 23 

„ at Perugia, 139 

,, „ Rome, 39 

„ „ Bada, 36 

„ „ Grizane, 38 

„ „ San Ruffino and Candiana, 135 

„ meets with Giulio Romano, 29 

„ at Piacenza, 180 

„ „ Florence, 167 

„ „ Lucca, 183 

,, his general bad health, 182 

„ invitation to the Esoorial, 190 

„ last sickness, death, and funeral, 186 

,, letters of. Appendix XVIII. 

„ disputed works of, 208 

„ miniatures at Florence by, 167 

„ „ Ravenna by, 235 

„ pen-drawings of coins, &c., by, 28 

„ engravings after, 359 

„ portraits of, 368 

„ pupils and assistants of, 122, 367 

„ qualities as an artist, 128 

„ titles and epithets bestowed on, 16 

„ usual signature, 135 

„ various styles of painting, 125 

,, will of. Appendix XVII. 

lAfe of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 395 

Clovio works for Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggio, 39 
» ,, Domenico Grimani, 21 

n )i ), Marino Grimani, 26 

„ Vasari's list of works of, 343 

„ General list of works of, 350 
Coins and gems as ornaments in books, 87 
Colonna, Giorgio, miniatnrist of Venice, 123 

„ Isabella, marries Luigi Gonzaga, 160 

„ Vespasiand, Duke of Trajetto, 158 

„ Vittoria, Marchesa del Vasto, 148, 160, 161 
Commentaries of Cardinal Marino Grimani on the Epistle to the 

Bomans, illuminated by Clovio, described, 245 seg. 
Cock, Hieronymus, printseller of An.twerp, 212, 216 
Corsini missal, 137 

Cort, Comelis, engraver of Antwerp, 212 
Corvinus, John, Ban of Croatia, 18 

„ Matthias, King of Hungary, 36 
Cristobal, Andres, 91 
Cuerenhert, Dietrich Volkertsz, engraver, 216 


David and Goliath of Michelangelo, copied by Clovio into a 

MS., 40 
De Thou, his description of the submission of the Landgrave of 

Hesse, quoted, 288 
Del Piombo, Sebastiano, his business with the miniaturists, 237 
Delisle, M. Leopold, his notes on the Paris Psalter of Paul 111., 

Devises of the Pamese Family, 174 
Difference between miniature and painting, 7 
Difficulty of access to MSS., 6 
Durer, Albert, 108 

„ „ engravings by, 35 

„ „ "Epitome in DivaeParthenicesMarisehistoriam," 


Pamese Collection, 151 
Pamese, History of the House of, 142 
Farnesina (note), 82 
Felix of Ragusa (note), 12 

396 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Ferdinand of Tyrol, patron of Greorg Hoefnagel, and founder 

of the Ambras Museum, 94 
Florence, a chief emporium for illuminated MSS., 238 
Fouquet, Jean, miniaturist of Tours, 108 
Francesco de Holanda, a Portugpiese miniaturist, 41 
Frangipani, Family of, first patrons of Clovio, 18 
Fuenta, Fray Julian de, miniaturist, 91 


Galle, Philip, one of the engravers of Heemskerck's " Triumphs," 

Genoese miniature art, its influence on Spanish, 106 
Girolamo dai Libri, his method of painting, 83 
Giulio Clovio — see Clovio 
Giulio Romano — see Romano 

Glockendon Family, miniaturists of Nuremberg, 108, 110 
Godeschalk, 2 

Golden Gospels of Eptemach, 2 
Gomez, Pedro, miniaturist, 91, 92 
Gonzaga, Giulia di, her love story, 158 
Gospels of Maiel Brigid, 4 

" Grenville " miniatures, their authenticity discussed, 190,217,25'6 
Grimani, Antonio, General and Doge, 21 

,, Breviary, 25 

„ Domenico, Cardinal, Clovio's patron, 25 

„ Marino, Cardinal, Clovio's patron, 24, 138 
Grizane, the birthplace of Clovio, V? 
Grovata, meaning of the word, 19 


Handwritings of artists, 210 

Heemskerck, Martin, designer of the " Triumphs," &c., 211, 215 

„ „ paints scenes for triumphal arches in 

Rome, 214 
Hernandez, Francisco, miniaturist, 91, 92 
Hilliard, Nicholas, miniaturist, 97 
Hoefnagel, Georg, miniaturist, bis famous missal at Vienna, 

94, 114 
Holanda, Francisco de, his autobiography, 42 

„ „ conversations at San Silvestro, 46 

Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 397 

Holanda, Antonio de, his miniature portrait of Chas. V., 157 
Hacbald, writer on music, &o., 2 


Invention of stippling claimed by various artists, 59, 95 
Italian Schools of Miniature, 86 

" L'Aguila Triumphante," one of tte sets of Triumphs designed 

by Heemskerck, copied in miniature and known as the 

Grenville Clovio ; its description, 275 
Lala of Cyzicus, the first miniature portrait painter on record, 2 
Lenker, Hans, of Munich, the probable painter of the Munich 

Offices, attributed to Clovio, 241 
Liberale of Verona, miniaturist, 21 
" Lives of the Dukes of Urbino," a MS. in the Vatican, the 

miniatures of which are attributed to Clovio, 195 
Los Santos, historian of the monastery of San Lorenzo of the 

Escorial, 91 
Louis II. of Hungary, a patron of Clovio, 36 
Lufft, Hans, publisher of the Nuremberg Bible of 1558, 109 

Madruccio (Madruzzo) Cristoforo, Cardinal of Trent, 156, 163 
Manuzio, Paolo Aldo, printer of Rome, 113 
Mariano Valeriano of Urbino, 97 
Marini, Cavaliero, poet and courtier, 93 ' 

Martinez de los Corrales, calligrapher and miniaturist, 92 
Master miniaturists of Italy, 37 
Masters, the Little, 109 
Matthias Corvinus and his library, 36 
Mazzuoli, Francesco (Parmegianino), 132 
Medici, Cosimo de', founder of the Lanrentian Library and of the 

Museum, 86 
Medici, Ippolito de', Cardinal, 157 

„ Museum and gems, 88 
Michelangelo, discourses on painting, 50 
Mielich, Hans, of Munich, miniaturist, 111 
Miniature art, why comparatively unknown, 6 

398 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

Miniature art, the only form of painting wHch survived tlie 

inroads of barbarism, 8 
Miniatures in the Gonzaga offices at Oxford, 316 

„ „ GrenviUe " Victories," 275 

„ „ Munich Offices, attributed to Clovio, 239 

„ Offices of John III., 290 ' 

„ „ Paris Psalter of Paul III., 262 

„ „ Ravenna MSS., 235 

„ „ Soane MS., 245 

„ „ Stanze d'Eurialo d'Ascoli, 312 

„ „ Stuart de Rothesay MS., 304 

„ „ Towneley MS., 254 

„ „ Vatican MSS. of Dante, &c., 340 

Modrusch, near Clovio's birthplace, 17 
Mohacz, Battle of, 1526, 37 
Monceau, Max. de, pupil of Massarelli, 289 
Monterchi, a celebrated copyist, 198 

Miiller, Hermann, an engraver of Heemskerck's designs, 216 
Muzio, Girolamo, poet and scholar (note), 197 • 

Naples " Flora," attributed to Clovio, 204 

Offices of Leonora Gonzaga, Duchess of Urbino, at .Oxford, 201 

„ the Virgin at Munich, described, 239 

„ „ „ executed for Card. Farnese, once at Naples, 

described, 270 

Pageants in honour of the capture of Tunis by Charles V., 216 
Palazzo del T. at Mantua, 33 
Palencia, Fray Martin de, miniaturist, 91, 92 
Papal Lectionary executed for Paul III., known as the Towneley 

Clovio, 202, 254 
Paris Psalter executed for Paul III., 147, 149, 262 
Parma, Marguerite of, devises executed for her, 17 
Peruzzi, Baldassare, architect and decorator, 32, 132 
Piramo, Rinaldo, miniaturist, 83 
Plantin, Christopher, and the Plantin-Moretus prefss at Antwerp, 


Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 399 

Pollini, Oesari, miniaturist of Perugia, 122 
Psalter of John III. of Portugal, 192 

„ „ „ „ described by Bonde, Appendix ^ 

vii., 193 
Public interest in miniatures, 8 


Quaranta, B., description of the Naples Offices, 270 


Raosynski, Count, Letters from Portugal, 42 

Rafiaello, his Commission as superintendent of antiquities (note), 

RafEaello, the " Stanze " of the Vatican finished, 1520, 48 
Raimondi, Marcantonio, 132 
Ramirez, Cristobal, Fray miniaturist, 91 
Ravenna, supposed works of Clovio at, 235 
Rhabanus, Maurus, " In Laudem Crucis," 3 
Rome, sack of, 129 
Rosso, H, sufierings at Rome, 133 
Rovere, Giulia della, Duchess of Ferrara, 236 

Sacramentary of Metz, 2 
Salavarte, Pedro, miniaturist, 91 
Salazar, Fray Ambrosio de, miniaturist, 91 

„ „ Esteban de „ 92 

„ „ Juan de „ 92 

Sansavino, Jacopo, architect, 134 
San Silvestro, a convent on Monte Cavallo, 46 
Schier, Xystus, description of the Corvina Library referred to, 37 
Scorza, Gioy. Battista, Genoese miniaturist, 93 

„ Sinibaldo „ „ 101 

Sichem, Cristoffel van, engraver, 216 
Silvestro, the monk, calligrapher, 4 
Sintramn of the wondrous hand, 4 
Sistiae Chapel completed, 1512, 39 
" Soane " Clovio, 146, 211, 245 

Sonnets of Petrarch formerly in the Trivulzi Library, Milan, 
139, 261 

400 Life of Giorgio Giulio Clovio. 

" Sposalizio " oE Raffaello, 21 

" Sfcanze d'Eurialo d'Ascoli," Imperial Library, Vienna, 198 

Strawberry Hill " Clovio " described, 230 

Strozzi, Palla, 86 

" Stuart de Rothesay " Offices, 304 

Tasso, his illustrated edition of the Gernsalemme Liberata of 

1617, 103 
Therrase of Titus, influence on the Roman school of painting and 

miniature, 32 
Tolommei, Lattanzio, introduces Holanda to Michelangelo and 

Clovio, 45, 46 
"Towneley" Clovio described, 254 
" Trivulzi " Petrarch attributed to Clovio, 139, 261 
Tura Cosimo, and the Choir-books at Ferrara, 137 

Vaga, Ferine del, 93, 108, 131, 138 
Vico and Strada, pen drawings by, 28 
Vico, Enea, his handwriting, 210 
" Victories of Charles V." A series of miniatures attributed 

to Clovio, traditional history of the MS. now in the British 

Museum, 190 seq. 211, 217, 218 
Villa Madama (note), 33 
Vittoria Colonna at San Silvestro, 41 
Vos, Martin de, engraver of Heemskerck's designs, 216 

Will of Giulio Clovio, Appendix XVII. 
Works, General List of Clovio's, 350 


Zuccaro, Federigo, 97 

Zuccaro, Taddeo, at Caprarola, 184 


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