(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "An elementary hand-book of the Siamese language"

ASIA 



S\\ s^\'^ -"■wN 



«^i. 



11 I 






a 



M 1, 



I f.? t| 



■v.-SBS'-N-'-V-^^-*- 



CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 



Cornell University Library 
PL4163.C32E3 

An elementary hand-book of the Siamese I 



3 1924 009 746 227 





DATE DUE 




■^"^ 


waww— "!' 


4 




-mm 


MMPfr 






"^"rraVO ' 






























































































































CAYLORO 






^BINTCOIN U S.A. 



SI|*iw»>'«l'W-'- 



CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 



AN 

ELEMENTARY HAND-BOOK 



OP THE 



SIAMESE LANGUAGE 



BY 

BASIL OSBORN CARTWRIGHT, B. A., 

Exhibitioner of King's College, Cambridge. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 



BANGKOK : 

Pkixteo at ."The American Presbtteuian Mission Phess, 

1906. 



LUZAC (H Co.. 

LONDON. 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tliis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924009746227 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS TO THE 
FIRST EDITION. 



G. J. Adams 
J. Addison 
H. C. Andersen 
J. Andre 
N. E. Baasch 
A. E. Baguley 
M. C, Beaton 
J. R. Bell 

F. H. Bingham 
J. Stewart Black 
C. Bodenstab 
Dr. Bohmer (2) 

The Bombay Burmah Co. 
H. W. Bourke 
E. Brande 
R. H. Brown 
Oscar Browning M. A. 
(Cambridge) 

G. R. Brooks 
E. Bryan 

E. Bryant 
J. Bruun 
W. J. Burns 
J. D. Byrne 
M. Cacace 

F. Campbell 
A. C. Carter 
Dr. M. Carthew 
A. P. Carus 

R. H. Chubb 
H. W. Clarke 
F. Clements 



J. F. Cola50 
H. Collingwood 
Th. Collmann 
Rev. E. Columbet 
A. Willard Cooper 
L. Day 
F. Dean 
A. J. Dickson 

F. Didier 
Dr. F. Dietzel 

W. J. Doughty-Renong 

W. Duncan 

The East Asiatic Co. 

0. Eckert 

W. A. Elder 

J. E. Ellam 

N. R. Eltekoff 

G. F. Weston-Elwes 
F. Fairweather 
Messrs. Falck & Beidek 
P. Feit 

P. Frege 
J. P. Gandy 
V. Gedde 
A. Genkel 
R. B. H. Gibbins 
F. L. Gill (Miss) 
Luang Gini 
F. G. Gorton 
R. Gosnell 
Richard Gotte 
H. G. Gough 



IV. 



List of Subscribers to the First Edition 



A. W. Graham 

Canon Greenstock (2) 

W. Grossjohann 

F. Hamacher 

Dr. T. H. Hays (2) 

E. W. Hedgeland 

A. Heggie 

S. H. Hendrick 

W. H. Hill 

W. H. Hinchley 

H. Hooker 

E. Hutchinson 
Capt. N. Ivancich 
W. F. Jacobsen 

J. Caulfeild James (2) 
A. Jensen 

F. G. de Jesus 

G. de Jesus 
W. G. Johnson 
T. Jones 
Aage Jonsen 
0. Jorgensen 
Khaw Oo Soo 
L. Killian 

E. Kluzer 

K. Kono (Miss) 

J. van Langenburg 

Eric. S. J. Lawson 

M. D. O'Leary 

G.Lee 

H. S. Leonard 

A. Lessler 

J. W. Lindsay 

A. ListermannfSingap're) 

W. H. Lloyd 

J. Macbeth 

Dr. H. D. Mackenzie 



D. McGlashen 
A. Maire 

M. Mannsfeldt 

E. H. V. Mayne 
W. Meyer 

J. A. Minto 

E. C. Monod 
M. A. Morrison 
W. Mundie 

N. Nakashima (Miss) 
M. N. Nathan 

F. Neubronner (Penang) 
A. P. Norman 

H. Park 

R. E. Payne 

D. A. Pestonji 

M. Pickenpack (Hamb'rg) 

Nai Poh 

Phra Nai Wai 

Norman Prentice 

Messrs. Probsthain & Co., 

London (5) 
H. R H. Prince Rajani 
H. E. Phya Narissa 

Rajakitch (Tokio) 
C. H. Ramsay 

G. Kennedy Reid 
J. S. Reese 

C. Roberts 
J. Robertson 
C. Robyns 
G. Rowland 
F. Sampson 
R. Schultz 
H. Schv^^een 
H. G. Scott 
P. Scott 



List of Subscribers to the First Edition 



L. J. Sequeira 
W. W. Shand 
W. F. Smart (2) 
H. E. Spivey 
W. J. Steel 
Dr. Ph. Stoenner 
A. Storm 
J. Strachan 
W. G. Swan 
J. H. Swanston 
K. Tanabe 
J. Tanaka iTokio) 
L. B. Taylor 
W. Taylor 
H. Thomson 
A. F. G. Tilleke 
W. A. G. Tilleke 



C. G. Timonelli 
S. Tisseman 
M. Topenot 
E. W. Trotter 
P. Trotter 
E. N. Turner 
L. Th. Unverzagt 
T. M. Upton (3j 
A. Van 
V. Virgeen 
L. Volaperta 
J. Waldburger 
H. E. Ware 
C. B. West 
J. I. Westengard 
E. J. Wood 
T. Yasui (Miss) 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

— — Page 

Preface - - VIII 

Books Recommended - - XI 

Addenda - XII 

Errata XIII 

Introduction - - 1 

Chapter I.— The Low Class Consonants - 3 

Chapter II.-The Simple Vowels - 7 

Chapter III.— The Middle Class Conson- 
ants N. M. Ng 12 

Chapter IV. — Compound Vowels and Diph- 
thongs • - 17 

Chapter V.— The Tones (Introduction) - 23 

Chapter VI.— The High Class Consonants 

Rising and Acute Tones - 26 

Chapter VII.— Deep and Dropped Tones - 33 

Chapter VIII. — Tones of Words ending in 37 
K. P. T. and Short Vowels 

Chapter IX.— Haw Num; Recapitulation 41 
of Tones 

Chapter X. — Double Initial Consonants, &c. 50 

Chapter XL— Numerals - 57 

Chapter XII.— The Simple Sentence (Intro- 
ductory) - 60 

Chapter XIII. -The Noun - - 66 



Table of Contents vii. 

Chapter XIV. -The Verb - 80 

Chapter XV. -The Adjective 90 

Chapter XVI. -The Pronouns - 96 

Chapter XVII. -The Adverb - 104 

Chapter XVIIL— Prepositions Conjunctions 

Interjections - - HI 

Chapter XIX.— Time Money Weights and 

Measures - 116 

Chapter XX.— Some Miscellaneous Siamese 

Idioms 130 

Chapter XXI. -Letter Writing 143 

Chapter XXII. -The Court Language - 147 

Chapter XXIIL— Some Points of Siamese 

Orthography - - 152 

Miscellaneous Exercises (44-70,) 170 

Easy Passages for Translation into 

English (71-89,) 197 

Easy Passages for Translation into 

Siamese (90-100,) - 214 

Newspaper Cuttings (101-115,) - 222, 

Siamese Letters (116-135,) 234 

Harder Passages (Siamese) 135-150 with notes 252 

Appendix A. - 282 

Appendix B. - 309 

English-Siamese Vocabulary 321 

Siamese-English Vocabulary - 343 



I 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE. 

N this book, an attempt has been made for the first 
time, to set forth in English, a method of acquiring 
a practical working knowledge of the Siamese 
language. This method is one which the author has 
found by practical experience to be one, which can be 
succesfully followed by the majority of learners. 

Hitherto those who have tried to acquire the lang- 
uage from a native teacher, have laboured under two 
great disadvantages, firstly that so very few Siamese 
teachers have a suflficient knowledge of English to 
enable them to make explanations in necessary detail, 
and, secondly that they use a method, which although 
suitable forteachingthe Siamese language to a Siamese 
child, is one which is hard of comprehension by a 
foreigner. The author trusts that this book will 
remove these disadvantages by giving the rules and 
explanations, and by indicating an applicable method. 
The real work therefore of the Siamese teacher, is in 
the earlier part of the book, to teach the learner the 
correct pronunciation, and, in the latter- part, to help 
him to translate English into good Siamese. 

In the earlier exercises Nos. 26 to 38 for 
translation into English, the Siamese is not very 
idiomatic. This has been purposely arranged so as 
not to give the learner too many difficulties to deal 
with at first. It is useful for the learner to compare 
these sentences with the same sentences rendered 
into strictly idiomatic Siamese, in a small book 
entitled " Exercises for Translation " by the same 
author. Siamese is distinctly a difficult language 
especially as regards the correct pronunciation, on 
which the meanings of the majority of words so 
vitally depends. A word of caution is therefore 
necessary to would-be learners, and especially to those 



Author's Preface ix, 

who imagine they can " pick up" a smattering of the 
language in a few weeks by trying to learn words or 
sentences in a parrot like fashion from romanised 
versions which are invariably most misleading. To 
try to do this is merely absolute waste of time, money 
and frequently of temper also. 

The author has found by practical experience, 
that a working knowledge of the language can be 
acquired by average persons with proper tuition and 
diligence on the part of the learner in about 6—8 
months, and by those with linguistic abilities in a 
somewhat shorter period. 

It is a matter of regret that a few errata have 
been allowed to pass uncorrected. The learner is 
advised to make the corrections indicated on page xiii. 

The author trusts in a subsequent edition 
(should it be called for) that these defects will be 
eliminated. 

In conclusion the author begs to tender his best 
thanks to those who have so kindly assisted in the 
production of this work. His obligations are especially 
due to H. E. Phya Visuddha, Vice-Minister of Public 
Instruction. Pra Bhaisala, Dr. 0. Frankfurter, Ph. D., 
Mom Luang Yaam and Nai Boon Heng, for their 
kindness in correcting proof sheets and giving many 
valuable hints and suggestions. 

He also begs to thank H. E. Phya Visuddha 
and H. E Phya Sri Sahadheb, (Vice-Minister of the 
Interior) for their kind permission to use certain 
extracts from their books for translation exercises. To 
the former for Exercises 144, 145 and 146 taken from 

tiw fma nff uvummii- 



X. Author's Preface 

To the latter for Exercises 142, 143, and 148 
taken from r.wt vn^ m^-s wjtr.TiRimu ds^iH iJsuviPi ?^ l5il- 

Bangkok : 
October, 1906. 



Note to Siamese Teachers. 

It must be distinctly remembered that many of 
the combinations of characters used in the earlier 
exercises (Exercises 2-25 inclusive) are merely sounds 
and not words. The above exercises are for reading 
only and hence have been constructed somewhat on 
the lines of an ordinary English reading primer in 
which sounds such as ab eb ib ob ub are employed at 
first. Of course occasional words do occur here and 
there, but the student is not supposed to learn the 
meanings of any words until he reaches Chapter XI. 



Abbreviations used in this Book. 
F. S. R. = First Siamese Reading Book 
Inuu ilyu in mii ej 

D. P. = Designatory Particle. 
C. F. = Compare. 
N. = Noun. 
V. = Verb. 



BOOKS RECOMMENDED FOR THE 
STUDY OF SIAMESE. 



Readers. 

1. The First Siamese Reading Book [ mu 

iIdu h im ViW ] sold everywhere in Bangkok 12th 
Edition price 28 atts. 

2. The First Siamese Reader [ uuu srou dnu 
im ms ] price 16 atts. 

3. vmm tljjj n m ii'^n ^r\ price 16 atts (for 
very elementary reading. ) 

4. The Second Siamese Reading Book [ uuu 

mv. in im ?!m ] for practice in orthography. 
Books for Translation. 

5. "The Ladder of Knowledge" series, 

volume 3 (Morant) price 2^ ticals [ m \ inn m ] 
for further practice in translating easy Englisin 
passages into Siamese. 

6. " The Journeys of the Siamese Ambas- 
sadors to London and Paris" price 3 and 5 
salungs each respectively published by S. J.Smith 
Printing Office Bangkolem Bangkok for transla- 
tion from Siamese into English (fairly easy). 

'^- K4jt vnj m^-^ mt jTB miiu tlstsNiFf ilKiviR ytsiJ 

price 6 ticals (more difficult) Published at Luang 
Damrong's Printing office See kak Sow Ching 
Cha Bangkok. 



ADDENDA. 



To page 72. . Uses of the Designatory Particles. 
(i) With every numerical expression, 
(ii) With such words as wsiy >fi) uu- 

The Designatory particles are generally 
omitted with. 

(i) Material nouns. 

(ii) Generic statements, e. g. He sells 
knives. 

(iii) Possessive adjectives and the phrases 

mm 14 mki uu- 

To page 135. 

16. The Ccmparative without Hhan' is 
expressed in Siamese by "tiu not n^i- 

Example. You must write better. 

But You must write better than this. 

Tiiu ms nuii f\ mi ainj v.- 

To page 160. 

line 11. add. g^'^n'^^^^ February. 



ERRATA. 



The Student is advised to make the following 
corrections in his book. 



Page line 



For 



Read 



16 


Ex8B2 


68 


17 


72 


20 


78 


10 


83 


2 


90 


18 


116 


14 


140 


6 


149 


11 


160 


13 


181 


2 


185 


10 


205 


13 


206 


1 


7J 


8 


212 


10 


222 


8 


224 


10 


225 


10 


226 


5 


229 


11 


243 


4 


252 


10-12 


253 


4 


261 


10 


264 


7 


268 


10 



particles 

Engish 
adjective 

111 'fly 
an 

BUI 
TIJilD 

1 

nil 1m 
in 



Ml 
k 






particle 

m 

English 
adjectives 

•Sn 

QlJl 

tiku 

1 



ui^ 
■mi 
mi 

If UT 



li 



k 






n?) 



'i'i 



INTRODUCTION. 



Tjt H E Siamese language belongs to the class 
^ of ' Toned ' languages. It is devoid of all 
grammatical inflections and, since the bulk of the 
words are monosyllabic, ditt'erent ideas have to 
be expressed by using- the same or similar com- 
binations of characters. To differentiate these 
combinations into words it often happens that a 
given combination of characters has to be pro- 
nounced in different tones of the voice. It is of 
the greatest importance to the learner that he 
should become familiar with these different 
tones, as it is upon this point that it greatly 
depends whether he makes himself understood 
or not. There is no greater error than to sup- 
pose that these tone differences are of slight 
importance. They are the most vital point and 
the whole rrt/.r of the Siamese language. It is 
practically impossible to express adequately 
these tone differences on paper. , Many have 
tried to do so, but the resulting multiplicity of 
arbitrary signs and accents has only made 
'confusion worse confounded.' 

The only way for the student to become 
familiarised with the tones, is to hear them over 
ano over again from a well educated Siamese, 
and to be thoroughly acquainted with the rules 
which govern the tones. Another point of 
difficulty in representing Siamese words in 
Eomanised form is that certain of the Siamese 



( 2 ) 

vowels and consonants have no exact English 
equivalents. 

It is but sheer waste of time for the would- 
be learner to try to "pick-up" words and 
sentences from Romanised versions, for these 
reasons. In the first place he will not be able 
to acquire the correct pronunciation of any but 
the simplest words, and secondly, his knowledge 
of the language so acquired would be merely 
empirical. 

The great secret of learning to speak 
Siamese correctly is this. Firstly, learn the 
values of the different characters and become 
familiarised with the tones, before trying to 
make even the simplest sentence. Secondly, 
always try to remember how a word is spelled, 
as then it is easy to know its correct pronuncia- 
tion. No living language can be properly learnt 
from books alone, the assistance of a competent 
teacher is a siiu^ qua non. 

The Siamese language is by no means a 
homogenous one. There are a great many 
words of Chinese, Laos, and other words in- 
corporated into the ordinary speech of the 
people, while the bulk of the words used in 
Higher or Court Siamese are derived or taken 
directly from Pali and Sanskrit. A fair number 
of these Pali and Sanskrit derivatives, are, 
however used. in the ordinary language, 

Besides these, there are a few European 
words principally English, which have been 
taken into the Siamese language. 



( 3 ) 

The author has compiled this book with the 
object of its being used together with the ser- 
vices of an intelligent teacher. 

The author, having had considerable ex- 

Eerience in the teaching of Siamese to Europeans, 
as come to the conclusion that it is quite impos- 
sible to represent the sound of a Siamese word 
by such a combination by letters which will be 
intelligible to Europeans of different nationalities. 

For example, an Englishman will represent 
the sound of a given Siamese word by one com- 
bination, a German, by another, a Dane by a 
third and so forth. The author therefore has 
not given any Romanised equivalents except in 
the simple cases of the vowels and consonants. 
In such cases the equivalents are to be pronounc- 
ed according to standard English pronunciation 
unless otherwise directed. If the learner cares 
to do so, he can write down the sound of any 
combination in his book by whatever combina- 
tion of letters he may think best after being able 
to reproduce the sound correctly. 

The learner should procure a copy of the 

First Siamese Reading Book [ iiuu tvM m ijslw si ] to 
be used as directed in conjunction with this book. 



Chapter I. 

The first thing for the Student to do, is to 
be able to recognise the more common of the 
Siamese characters. 



( 4 ) 

The Consonants. 

In Siamese there are 44 consonants. They 
are divided into 3 classes. 

A. Low Class Consonants. 

B. Middle Class Consonants. 

C. High Class Consonants. 

It is of great importance (for a reason to be 
explained later i to remember to which of these 
thre3 classes each consonant belongs. Some of 
these 44 consonants are but rarely used in com- 
parison with the others. It is therefore the 
best plan not to attempt lo learn them all at 
once, but to take them a few at a time, begin- 
ning with those which are of most frequent 
occurrence. 



The Low Class Consonants. 

This class contains 24 consonants. 

They are pronounced in the ordinary or 
Common lone of Voice. 

The consonants of the Low Class of the 
most frequent occurrence are : — 

(pl pronounced khaw equivalent to kh (aspted). 
15 „ chaw ,, ,, ch (soft) 

JJ „ maw ,, ,, m 







( 5 


) 




u 


5 ) 


naw 


>> 


,, n 


n 


M 


paw 


) J 


M P 


V\ 


) ) 


faw 


>> 


„ f 


*f\ 


)> 


paw 


If 


M P 


If 


? » 


raw 


M 


„ r 


^ 


>> 


saw 


? ? 


M s 


v\ 


» J 


taw 


)> 


„ t 


*^ 


> f 


taw 


)) 


„ t 


^ 


>> 


law 


)> 


„ 1 


'^ 


M 


waw 


;> 


„ w 


u 


>> 


yaw 


>? 


,, y 




!f 


yaw 


> ) 


,, y 


d 


}) 


haw 


)) 


„ h 


^1 


>> 


ngaw 


) > 


,, ng 



( 6 ) 

It will be seen that there are two forms each 

equivalent to P. Y. T. lAi. n. £j.nj. Vi. I. but they 

are pronounced exactly alike in each case. Some 

words in Siamese are spelled with one character, 

and others with the other character. The 

characters marked with an asterisk {*) are less 

commonly used. 

Special attention should be paid to the letter 
^ (ng). There are many words in Siamese which 
have ^ as the initial consonant, 

Europeans will as a general rule, find some 
difficulty in pronouncing this letter as an initial 
consonant. The best method to acquire the 
pronunciation of initial ^ is to take such words 
as "running or walking" and try to slur the 
first two words together to produce the sound 
'runningor' with the stress on the last syllable, 
and then to make the sound ' ' ngor " by itself. 

The remaining low class consonants will be 
dealt with later (Chapter 10) 

The Student is advised to write down these 
characters several times on a piece of paper so 
as to become familiarised with them. 



N.R. — In writing Siamese characters, always 
begin with the small circle which occurs 
in all the characters except two. The 
shapes closely resembling those of the 
printed characters. 







( 7 ) 








Exercise 1. 








Read these Characters. 




7 


(=1 


'n Q EJ VJ 1/^1 Jl !I1 s 


<i 


in 


y 


JJ fi a in g Fi u 


"D 


^ 


n 


? 0) 2 s a u 3 T/i 


Q 



nj 



-(V,/^. — The Siamese consonants are vocalised with 
the sound 'aw' as in the word 'law/ just as 
in English, the letters b.cd. are vocalised 
as 'bee, cee, dee.' 



Chapter II. 

The Simple Vowels. 

By ' simple ' vowels are meant vowels which 
are represented by one character only. 

Simple vowels can be divided into four 
classes according to the position which they 
occupy relatively to the consonant with which 
they are sounded. 

N.B. — The vowel characters can never stand 

alond, they must be always accompanied 

by a consonant. 

1. Fir.sf Class. — Vowels written after the 
consonant with which they are sounded. 



( 8 ) 
"^ ■ Sounded as a in Father ex. m Kha 

'} ,, um in Sum ex. m Khum 



9^ 



,, (a very short) as the final a 
in the word: America. f\t Kha' 

The vowel t has a very short sound, and 
the breath must be cut off sharply. 

n and t cannot be followed by another con- 
sonant in the same syllable. 



Exercise 2. 
Read these sounds. 

m m m -m l^ i^ iii m ui ^i m T\ T\ 

m m m i^ h m ir\ l\^ in h m m m 

* 'rt 'c\z m T. It it w. m w. r. iz t. % 

m T. ai nji a:; i^ vc\ ut t\ T\ z ^i ^i 

2. Scroll. fJ Class. — Vowels written Under- 
neath the consonant with which they are 
sounded. 



■j Sounded as o6 short as in Cook f^ Khoo 



n ,, ,, oolong ,, in Boot Pi Khoo 



( 9 ) 











Exercise 3. 


















Read 


THESE SOUNDS. 










*P1 


? 


T 


? 


7 
t 


i 




? 


? 


a 




r 


u 


11 


U 


u 


11 


11 


n 51 

11 u 


2 
u 


11 


a 

11 


-3 
11 






VI 
11 


11 


Oj 


11 


1 
1 


a =D 
? 11 


? 


11 


1/1 
1 


lAl 

T 


Vi 


* TT 


f\v* i- 


IrtQ n 


11 


krt'r YM 


v*/^\■r\^ 


1 n /n o ^- 1 rw\ 


^■P + 


V»^Cii 


a ottI 


lloKl 


\ac> 



marked * see Chapter. 8. 

3. Third Class.— -Vowels written ABOVE 
the consonant with which they are sounded. 

"* sounded as i (short) as in Hit h Khi 

el ,, ,, ee{long) ,, See^Khee 

«p ,, ,, eu (short) ,, the French word 

Peu; no trueEngHsh equivalent. f\ Kheii. 

fH Sounded as eu (long) as in the French 
word Coeur; no true English equivalent. 

PI Kheu. 

•^ this vowel has a sound which is a mean 
between the sound of a (short) as in 
hat and li (short) as in hut. 

The vowel ^ will be considered later as 
it must always be followed by another con- 
sonant. 

.sv'«" Chapter ■!. 



( 10 ) 

Exercise 4. 

Read these sounds. 

PI ^'Q!DflJJ14 JV^TlSiflEJ 






PI ^!Q!Qfi3JU JlAIYlSVlfltJ 



PI ^3!Qfi3JU ?l/^V1SWflEJ 



n ^ Tan ^waiifiwjpi^ 

4. Foin-th Class. — Vowels written BEFORE the 
consonant AFTER which they are sounded. 

\a sounded as a in Fame e.g. LPl Kha. 

\X ,, ,, a in Sand only longer, and 
more drawled out LLPl Khaa. 

|j sound as o (long) as in So. Ipl Kho. 

y, ,, ,, i ,, as in Sigh. Ipl Khi, 

h ,, ,, do. do. iPi Khi. 

i and \ are sounded exactly alike. 



( n ) 

Exercise 5. 

Read these sounds. 

tJJ Lf=l W m L!D - LQ m LVl [1 lH d 
UJJ m LU U£^ LL!I1 LU LLWI UVl LL? U'Q LLIaI 

1:j lf=i \ Ifi l!D It Iv^ Iti 

WWUIWU|U|WW 

m lf=i w m I'D b m m 

IJI US la Ifl lu LU LLfl li 



c 


1« 


li^ 




Ifl 


\i 


1? 


I'D 


\i 


I; 


la 


LLU 



Note. — The student should learn later on, the 
names of the vowels in Siamese. They 
are called t^ra' or mai as a general rule. 

1 is called lakhang. 

? n are called teen 6o and teen 6o respectively. 

L is called mai nah. 

1 ,, mai malai. 

1 ,, mai mooan. 

1 , , mai oh. 
^ ,, mai pat'. 

The rest are called sra, i.e. it ^ -i. ^ a sra um 
sra a, i, etc. 

U is called mai nah song an=double mai nah 



( 12 ) 

CKapter III. 

The Middle Class Consonants. 
Words ending with jj u ^ 

The Middle Class Consonants, 9 in number, 
(two of which are rarely used) are pronounced 
in the common or ordinary tone of voice. 

Four of them namely fl (?1 iJ '^ present no little 
difficulty at first, as they have no exact English 
equivalents. 

fl This letter has a sound which may be 
represented approximately by !| k and i g or 
unaspirated k. The sound of the letter n is quite 
different from that of h and this difference can 
only be learnt from the teacher. Be very care- 
ful not to pronounce it as Gaw. 

^ This letter is about equivalent to tch or 
dj. tj. It has a sound somewhat like t in the 
word century when it is pronounced centjury. 

(^ is sounded daw and is equivalent to d. 
*/^ ditto. ditto, ditto, (rare) 

(?1 This letter has a sound which is a mean 



{ 13 ) 

between the sound of t and d. To produce it 
try to say t, but draw the tongue away sharply 
from the roof of the mouth and force the breath 
a little. 

* f\ ditto. ditto. ditto, (rare) 

U is sounded baw and is equivalent to b. 

LJ This letter has a sound which is a mix- 
ture of ;:^ p and :\ b. To produce it try to say p, 
but part the lips sharply and force the breath. 

t) This letter has the sound of aw, it is 
used sometimes as a consonant and sometimes as 
a vowel. Q can be written after a consonant, 
the combination has the same sound as that of 
the simple letter only, ''.^. W taw UB yaw. 

The student must be very careful to dif- 
ferentiate the sounds of U, ll and W or fl, and 
those of ^, PI and l/l or S. 



Exercise 6. 
Read these Sounds. 



m n" ni n n n n n n m im In In In 

^ ^ A Jk 1 "1 1 

ST s:; "^1 s "^ '^ "^ '^ "^ L*^ LH Is h h 

T 11 



( 14 ) 

m ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ f\ ^ i^ LLi^ It^ '■f?i m 



m K m ^ ^ f\ Pi ^ ^ i^ m 1^ 1pi 1pi 

yi ut un 11 u D fi C L Lu Liu lu lu lu 

ill iJ:; di iJ y" ^ ^ O iiJ LiiJ lij liJ liJ 

i]-^ s^ fi^ D 3 y s ^s ^^ ^ "^ '^ 



1 ti 



Special Points about the Letter q. 

1. If the plain open sound of a vowel is 
required, the consonant a (silent) must be writ- 
ten with the vowel in the usual place. 

As it has been remarked above, the vowel 

marks cannot stand alone, therefore to express 

the sound a um, etc., we must write Ql 01 and so 

forth, 

2. The letter a { silent ) must always be 
written after a consonant in combination with 

the vowel ^ if no other consonant follows. 

Example f=l ^, etc., in exercise 4 are not 

strictly correct, they should be written PTQ ^Q, etc. 

For the sound of ^ alone we must write 00. 

3. at the beginning of a word and not bear- 
ing any vowel mark in combination with it, is 



( 15 ) 

usually pronounced as short a, but in some words 
as short aw, or short o. 

4. Double Q Q sometimes occurs at the be- 
ginning of a word, it is pronounced as aw (long). 

Exercise 7. 

READ THESE SOUNDS. 

(!)• BT at an a Q a a QQ La Ltala la la 
(2). m m m la m fa m na sa m m 



na ^a la m ^a la Sa ^a aa aa m ^a 

Words ending with jj u ^ 

Rule. — Syllables ending with the consonants 
jj U ^ are pronounced as they would be 
in English i. e. the final letter has its full 
sound. 

Examples, m koom TM charn m rong. 



Exercise 8. (A) 
READ THESE SOUNDS. 

mjj mu m^ ni3J mu m^ m Bu 



m m m uu m m ll'=j3j 

T f ? 



LL'^u LH^ hi m m ]hi iJu iJ^ 

U 11 II 

^3j % ^^ 1?JJ Iju 1?^ m m m 



U tl 11 



( 16 ) 

iaIijj 1/Jiu iaIi3 ^ij m m % °ju 'g^ 

TfinU TITU 1/11^ !il3J HU 113 ^IJJ ^lU ^1^ 

I V t 

aijj Q1U 013 Su Qu 8^ lajj lau lq3 

The Unwritten vowel and the vowel o 

When two consonants stand alone together, 
a short 'o' sound is understood between them. 

This unwritten vowel sound is a peculiar 
modification of the usual short sound of o and 
can only be learnt from the teacher. Ex. 8 B [i] 

The vov/el ^ is used between two consonants. 
It has a short sound which is a mean between 
the sound of short a as in /tut and the sound of 
short u as in /////. Ex. 8 B (ii), 

The letter g can stand between two con- 
sonants. It is then a semi-vowel and gives the 
sound of aw (long) ; example WU tawn. Ex. 
8 B (iii) 

The letter "] can stand between two other 
consonants, in which case it is a semi-vowel and 
gives the sound of <'>oa ; example Will to-'ian. 
Ex. 8 B (iv) 



Exercise 8 (B) 

READ THESE SOUNDS CAREFULLY, WITH 
THE TEACHER. 

(i) uu u^ m s^ n^ m u m lIjj nu n m m 

^^ iu m iu Ll^3 m m m m m au m iJ^ ra 

(11) m m '^u m m ^^ m m m m -^^ 'qj m m 



( 17 ) 

m nu ?^ ?u V13J ilii uu m-im mm m '^u 
(iii) nau via^ nau piqjj ejqu iw iw um "^m uqu mw 

]\m m^ gau f=iQ3 w^ ]\m '^•m t\m mn nm 'im 
(iv) ngu Yig<i mu e^qu mu jq^ i/^|]^ '^qj -^gu ijg<i uqjj iJgu 

mxi ggu ra^ m^ jqsj mv. m^ mu mu <^'ii ago 

Final fi ? tt) TlJ (1) are pronounced as u (n) 
Examples. IJOJ boon mj karn m^ barn. 



Exercise 8 C. 

READ THESE SOUNDS. 



ni? mn mnj Lunj i^^ mj mi au tsiei moj Jin 
^^Hfi inn ijoj m m mm 

N. B. — Final ? after another consonant is 
pronounced awn {see Chapter 23). 



Chapter IV. 
COMPOUND VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS. 

By 'compound vowels' are meant vowels 
which are composed of two or more simple vowel 
characters which however form together only- 
one sound. 

The mark + in the following example is 
merely to indicate the position of the consonants. 



( 18 ) 
L + 1 pronounced ow as in how; LPII Khow, LQT ow. 

l" + „ er as in her. 

This vowel must always have a consonant 

following ''. [/■ ihl Khern 

There are several long vowels compounded 
with the vowel :;. All such compounds have a 
very short sound with the breath sharply cut off. 

i + :; pronounced eh' IK Kheh'. 

LU" „ aah'LLPi:; Khaah'. 

I.Z ,, Mh' Ik Khoh'. 

i^X ,, awh' imr Khawh'. 







Exercise 9 

Read These sounds. 










Lin 

LSU 


mi im 
ifnj im 


lai 




mi 
i™ 


mi L^i 


*ljj:; 


LC 


Lr 


l^t iz 


IK 


Lrc 


ir. 


IT. Ill" 


*LK 


im:; 


LLlJ" 


LLC ire 


nut 


wt 


mt 


llb:; LLUr 


■Am 


°TC 


l^i:; 


At Ilit 


ht 


\t]t 


].it 


111:; 1'^: 


* m: 


: IHT;; 


L^i:; 


iix mx 


mx 


imt 


wit 


[Hit iQr 



Many Vowels in Siamese are combined with 
the characters a. li. '3. In such cases the char- 
acters Q. U. 1. partake of the nature of vowels 
rather than that of consonants 



* For the correct pronunciation of these syllables see 
Chapter 8. 



( 19 ) 
I. Combinations with a only . 

L + pronounced as er in her ; im ter, im er. 
L + Q^as above, only very short. 

L + Q no true English equivalent, but approxi- 

mately something like eugha ; LU0 meugha (dis- 
syllabic). 

L + a" as above only very short. 

The sound L + Q can only be learnt from the 
teacher. 



Exercise 10. 



READ THESE SOUNDS. 

L3ja ira im im iw im iila laa l^b 

*LJja:; l?q: imz Lfia:; imz imt iila^ taffi imt 

im m LSQ L^a ifa ira ttia i,a'a tla 

* tfla^i mz i%z imz iwz imz tSa:; taa: mt 

II. Combinations with u only. 

L+U No English equivalent, but something 
like the French eni in the word ceinllez; lu^ neui. 
This sound can be learnt properly from the 
teacher only. 

L+EJ pronounced ^ea or eer as in beer (dis- 
syllabic.) 



( 20 ) 

Ulit as above, but very short. 

+T1 Has the long sound of i or as in aisle. 

This combination gives a longer sound 1 or i 
UlU nai. 

+ii Has the sound of 6oi (dissyllabic); fin l6oi. 



+^ Has the sound of ooi (dissyllabic) t\u looi. 

4} Has the sound of i somewhat similar to 
1 or 1 dtl li. 

l+LI Has the sound of ohwi (dissyllabic), long 
o ; \m dohwi. 



Exercise 11. 

READ THESE SOUNDS. 

im Ljjn [.'^u liJli l(?iu du m iw m 

L^!j iw L% ih mu [in itu w ih 

*mz L^n:; i^uz [tut tmr \.iuz mz lq?j:; itm 

mu mu '^lu iJiLi mu iiu <iiu mu qio 

m m j^ ]\i} m iaIej m m lu 

m m f} ]\u m ]t <iu w m 

11 11 iiiiiiiiijti 11 



m w sti iIej m iu ^ m 
\m hu hn \]lu \m liu l^u 1m 1 



go 



!m 



( 21 ) 
III. Combinations with '] only. 

Xl has the sound of ooa (final only) m nooa. 

+% as above but very short. 
+T] has the long sound of ow, but longer 
than L+1 \m now. 

7] has the short sound of ue as in cue or iw. 

m nue-niw. 

?3 as above, but rather a longer sound ; 

L + T no exact English equivalent but approxi- 
mately aew ; \m naew. 

LL + ■] has the sound of aaow ; LLUQ naaow 







Exercise 12. 












READ THESE SOUNDS. 






m 


m 


m 


11 


Jl 


aJ 


m 


m 






TO 








m 


WL 


vm 


wn 


wn 


ra 


m 


Td 


uig 


aig 


m 


m 


w\ 


M 


% 


fg 


Dg 


ag 


m 


m 


m 




tg 


1g 


& 


m 


LflQ 


rni 


\m 


Ljg 


vn 


L'^g 


Lug 


im 


UflQ 


m\ 


mi 


UJQ 


vm 


Lwg 


LLUg 


\xm 



( 22 ) 

IV. Combinations of a. U. Q. together . 

+m, has the sound of oy as in boy UfiU noy. 
+1], has the sound of ooweh dissyllabic ; UIU 
nooweh. 

l-^U% has the sound of eeo (dissyllabic) ; LUtlQ 
nt^eo. 

I + W, no English equivalent but something 

■ approximately like eughc-h (dissyllabic) ; iWU 
neugheh. 

Most of these sounds can only be learnt 
properly from the teacher. 



Exercise 13. 

Read these Sounds. 

wu wu iim ^m lIqlj nm mu mu mu 

mu SQtj mu ^lu iIqli mu mu I'iu mu 

lum iM lim lId'] iw'} itm mm lm im 

lum iwu imu mu iiinu imu imu mu lbqu 

There are few other diphthongs which are of 

extreme rarity, /. <'., L+QLI 7u i+Ut 

The exercises in this and in the preceding 3 
chapters should be gone over carefully several 
times with the teacher. The student should 
have plenty of practice in writing the characters 
also. 



( 23 ) 

Chapter V. 

THE TONES (INTRODUCTION). 

In Siamese there are 5 distinct tones ; it is 
absolutely essential that the student should be 
able to recognise and to render them fairly ac- 
curately if he wishes to make himself understood; 
as the ' tone ' is an integral part of the word. 

These tones are formed by altering the 
jitch of the voice, and to a certain extent, by 
3rolonging or. shortening the sound of the com- 
jinatioij of characters affected. 

It is a matter «f very -great difficulty to re- 
present these tones on paper. ...^ 

The following method has however been 
found to be the most satisfactory, in actual prac- 
tice. The student, must however distinct- 
ly bear in mind that the . Tones can only- 
he properly learnt from the teacher, and 
by constantly hearing the spoken lang- 
uage. 

Nomenclature of Tones. 

Various names have been used by different 
writers to designate the Tones. 

They agree however in calling the first tone, 
the Common Tone. 

The other tones have been designated as 
follows. 



( 24 ) 



(i) The Rising, Question or Ascending Tone. 

(ii) The Acute, Emphatic, or Circumflex Tone. 

(iii) The Deep, Falling or Depressed Tone. 

(iv) The Dropped, Low or Period Tone. 
In this book the following names have been 
used. (I) Common. (II) Rising or Question. 
(Ill) Acute. (IV) Deep, or Falling. (V) Dropped, 
or Low. Of the alternatives in 3.4 and 5 the 
first names are to be preferred. 

The relations of the Tones can best be un- 
derstood from the following diagram. 



THE TONE MODULATOR. 



Tones 
III 



II 



IV 




( 25 } 

The Arrow marked I. indicates the common 
tone. It will be seen that it takes the central 
line of the scale, numbered 0. (Do.) The student 
must take whatever note or tone of voice suits 
him best for his common tone and then derive 
the other tones from it. 

The numbers 1 to 4 of the scale represent 
sounds of higher pitch than the starting point 
(Common Tone) 

The numbers -1 to -4 represent similar in- 
tervals of lower pitch than the Common Tone. 
The lengths of the arrows are intended 
to represent the differences in length of the 
sound. Thus if the length of Common Tone (I) 
be represented by three beats, the Acute III. and 
Dropped V. Tones would be two beats, and the 
Eising II. and the Deep IV. Tones would be four 
beats. The height of the arrows on the scale 
represents the differences in pitch. 

The Student should not try to learn all the 
Tones at once. They should he taken one by one 
in the order given and the student should refer 
to the Modulator as he studies each tone. 

A seperate copy of the modulator is included 
with each copy of this book so that the student 
can have it before him as he learns the tones. 

All Siamese words can be divided into two 
classes as regards their tones 

A. Words which end (i) in long vowels, 
(ii) In the sound of N. M. or Ng. 

B. Words which end (i) in short vowels, 
(ii) In the sound of K. P. T. 



( 26 ) 

The first class is dealt with in chapters 6 and 
7. The second class in chapter 8. 



Chapter VI. 

THE HIGH CLASS CONSONANTS, RISING 
AND ACUTE TONES. 

The Rising Tone (2) is formed by raising" 
the voice gradually during the utterance of the 
word. It starts from a lower pitch than the 
common Tone and finishes on a higher pitch 
than the common Tone. 

The Rising Tone is slightly longer than the 
Common Tone. 

The High Glass Consonants all bear 
the rising tone, that is to say, all words begin- 
ning with one of these consonants must be pro- 
nounced in the Rising or Question Tone of Voice. 

N. B. — There are exceptions to this rule which 
will be considered later, ( '^'c Chapter 8.) 

The High Class consonants are 11 in number 
but one of them is practically obsolete, and 3 
others are but rarely used 

The High Class Consonants. (Rising in- 
tonation). 

ll equivalent to Kh. Khaw, 

il ditto. ditto, but is practically 



( 27 ) 
obsolete, its place being taken by '3. in modern 
Siamese. ^ is still found in old books 

t3 equivalent to Ch. Chaw 

W .. p. Paw 



iri 






F. Faw 

H. Haw 

T. Taw 

S. Saw (saw law) 

S. ,, (sawkhaw) 

S. ,, (saw baw) 

T. Taw 



Letters marked with an asterisk * are of 
rare occurrence in Siamese words. 

The following exercise must be carefully 
explained by the teacher, so that the student 
may comprehend the difference between the com- 
mon and the rising Tones. 



( 28 ) 

Exercise 14. 

Read the following Pairs of sounds 

very carefully. 

Common Rising Common Rising Common Rising 



F11 

Lm 



21 



L2T 



1^ ll 

In If 



m 






d LtJ 



LLH 



u 

LL'tJ 



m 



flQ 



Fi 









tl'N 



L^tJ 



ai^ 
la 






L3 
EJ1U 

1m 



Note to Teachers. — Be most careful to 
stop and correct the pupil every time he makes a 
mistake in his tones. Neglect of this point will 
induce a careless habit of not noticing the tones 
sufficiently. 

The teacher is also advised to exaggerate 
the tones a little at first so as to make them 
more distinct. 



( 29 ) 

By trying to read in a sort of singsong- 
voice, the tone differences will be more readily 
appreciated. 

The student is now advised to procure a 
copy of the First Siamese Reading Book ( LLUll 

LJEJU L?"] LfiJJ V\m which can be purchased any 
where in Bangkok, price 28 atts, (12th edition) 
and read carefully lessons 1 — 9 with the teacher. 

He should not attempt lesson 10 until he has 
mastered chapters, vii. viii. ix. in this book. 

The Tone Accents. 

There are four accents used in Siamese to 
indicate the various tones. These accents are 
placed over the initial consonants of syllables. 

The Tone Accents are. 



1 


mai-4yk 


accent. 


2 


%> mai-to 


accent. 


3 


^ leyk-chet 


accent. 


4 


+ kaka-bat 


accent. 



The first two (mai-ayk & mai-to) can be used 
with all consonants, but the third and fourth 
(leyk-chet and kaka-bat) are used only with con- 
sonants of the Middle class. 

It is very important now that the student 
should be able to recognise each consonant at 
sight and should know at once to which class it 
belongs. 



( 30 ) 



Also that he fully understands the difference 
between the Common and the Rising Tones. 

Hitherto no accents have been employed, 
but we must now turn our attention to the tone 
accents and their uses. 

The Kakabat accent + is used only 
with consonants of the Middle class. It 
indicates that the Rising Tone must be 
employed. 



Exercise 15. 

Read the following pairs of sounds 
very carefully. 

Common Rising Common Rising Common Rising 



m 


m 


LLlJ 




Lm 


im 


^ 
^ 




m 




mm 


ifeg 


1^ 


1^ 


mi 


m 


m 




I; 




Lra 


im 




isa 


[ff] 


L01 


^QU 


4qu 


iJntJ 


inu^ 


111 


LU 


m 


l^Q 


m^ 


mi 



The Acute Tone. 

To make the Acute tone raise the voice 
sharply as in exclamation. 



( 31 ) 



The Acute Tone is much higher and sharper 
in pitch than the common Tone, it is also con- 
siderably shorter in length. 

The Acute Tone is indicated by. 

I. The Mai-to accent ±j over a Low 
Class Consonant. 

II. The Leykchet Accent ^ over a 
Middle Class Consonant. 

The Acute Tone cannot be formed 
with the High Class Consonants. 



Exercise 16. 



Read the following Pairs of Sounds 
VERY Carefully, 

Common Acute Common Acute Common Acute 



m 



m 



lUI 






\m 



•m 






™ 



L^^ 




t 


f, 






LI^ 




LL? 




l?l!]^ 


Jim 


\.m 


\m 


LLU 


LLU 


e 




ill 


lil 


ill 


all 


LL'^ 


^ 

m 



The student will find it useful to aid him in 
fixing these tones in his mind, if he practises 
readmg these three tones consecutively, so as to 
grasp their relative differences in pitch and length 
as in the following exercise (17). 



( 32 ) 
Exercise 17. 

For practising the cadence Common, Rising, 
Acute. 

Read the following Sounds 

very carefully. 

Common Rising Acute 



Pll 


31 


P11 


^1 


m 


a-' 


Lfl 


in 






A 
m 


« 
m 


m 


1 + 




1. 


1.^ 




flQ^ 


m 




m 


m 


mEj 


LIT 


LLCJ 


£1 



1% im 

m'} mm mn 



( 33 ) 

Chapter VII. 

THE DEEP TONE AND THE DROPPED TONE. 

The Deep Tone (4) is the lowest in pitch of 
all the tones. Its length is about the same as 
that of the Rising Tone. 

To produce it, pitch the voice considerably 
lower than for the Common Tone. 

The Deep Tone is indicated by the Mai 
ayk accent over High or Middle class 
Consonants. 



Exercise 18. 

Read the following sounds very carefully. 
Common Deep Rising Deep Rising Deep. 



m 






LLlJ 



m 



\ 



m 



m 









Is 

A 

m 



31 
131 






31 

eJi 
3ig 






m 
1. 






m 






m 






m 



( 34 ) 

The Dropped Tone. 

The Dropped Tone is produced by dropping 
the voice sharply and uttering the sound from 
the chest, somewhat in the way in which the 
voice is dropped at the end of a sentence. Hence 
some writers call this Tone the "Period" or 'Full 
stop .' tone. 

The Dropped Tone is shorter than the 
Common Tone and 'does not drop quite so low as 
the Deep Tone. 

The Dropped Tone is indicated by :- 

I. The Mai-to Accent ■u over High or 
Middle Consonants. 



II. The Mai-ayk Accent 
Consonants. 



over Low 



Exercise 19. 

Read these sounds very carefully. 

Common Drop. Common Drop. Rising Drop. 



f=11 


Hi 


m 




T\ 


31 


"Ql 


in 


SI 


SI 


^^ 


HI 


IN 












1 


1 






11 


11 




1/1 1 


LlJl 


L1J1 


lia 





t 35 ) 

REVISION OF THE FIVE TONES. 

Exercise 20 (A). 

HIGH CLASS CONSONANTS. 

Rising Deep Dropped Rising Deep Dropped 



U1 

vn 
m 
m 



iw 






m 



1^0 



\iii 1' 






3J 

vn 






■tnu 



vnvi 



A. 



m 



itm 



km 



31U 
Vil^ 
313J 

U'iJ 






L^yg mil 



Exercise 20 (B) 

LOW CLASS CONSONANTS 
Common Drop. Acute Common Drop. Acute. 

L3J l3J m 



m 


m 




\ 


\k 


ir 


ijj 


lii 


2^ 

L3J 


u 
11 


21 


U 
11 



g1 



U1 



T\ 



U1 



Q1 

2J 

11 



m 



( 36 ) 



A. 


VI 


1 


rm 


•mu 


hw 


1/ 


m 


PIU 


m 


m 


\m 


L«31 


ik\ 


NT 


'Him 


itm 


itm 


lIj^ 


fi 



\n \k 1?^ 



Pin 



m 



vm 



EJIJJ 



mi 
m 






Exercise 20 (C) 

MIDDLE CLASS CONSONANTS. 
Common Deep Dropped Acute Rising. 



m 






LLlJ 

iJqjj 

LQfJ 



m 
1-^ 









iIqjj 



m\ 



m 



i: 



u 



LLlJ 

mu 

S1U 



^ 



I0JJ 



Lay 



m 



L 
LLlI 

Lin 

LBJJ 



m 

L^ 

A 

u 

LLll 
\ 

niu 
ilau 

LQEJ 



( 37 ) 

Chapter VIII. 

FINAL CONSONANTS, TONES OF WORDS 

ENDING IN K. P. T. AND SHORT VOWELS. 

There are only six different final consonant 
sounds in Siamese. 

These may be divided into two classes, 
(i) Final M. N. Ng sounds which can take 
all the tones. 

(ii) Final K. P. T. and short vowel sounds 
which do not follow the rules give above 
in Chapters 6-7. 
Rule 1. Words ending in the sound of 

K. P. T. f=i. n. l]. VI. S. etc. have the sound of the 

final letter clipped short. Thus to pronounce 
such a combination as WW pA.t', do not let the 
tongue drop from the roof of the mouth as is 
done in pronouncing final T. in English, uin nak', 

Pf\\ kheep'. 

Rule 2. Final l?l !!i 2 S or other letters 
equivalent to d. ch. s. are pronounced as t. 

clipped short. ( Rule 1 ) Examples, m meet', 
pm khat' etc. 

Rule 3. Final IJ IN fl B. or P. are pronounced 

as lI clipped. Example ?ll reepb'. 

Words ending with the sound of K. usually 
have n as the final consonant. 

Words ending with the sound of P. (iJ) 
usually have ll as the final consonant. 

Words ending with the sound of T. usually 
have ^ as the final consonant. 



( 38 ) 

Words ending with the sound of K. P. T- 
can never take any tone accents, with the 
exception of a few onomatopoeic words which 
follow the ordinary rules see F. S. R. Lesson 119 

TONES OF WORDS ENDING IN K. P. T. WITH LONG 
VOWELS OR DIPHTHONGS. 

Rule I. If the initial consonant belongs 
either to the High, or to the Middle Class the 
tone is Deep. 

Rule II. If the Initial Consonant belongs 
to the Low Class, the tone is the Dropped 
Tone. ^^^^^^ 

Exercise 21. 

Read the following sounds very carefully. 
Long Vowels. Final K. sounds. 



High Class 
Consonants. 

Deep Tone 

Rule I. 

tain 'tJin EJin 



w ^n m 



LL-an LL^n um 



an ^n un 

!1 11 ii 



Itan l^n li 



,Ejn 



LSEjn [.mn lum 



Middle Class 
Consonants. 

Deep Tone 
Rule I. 

nin '^in mn 



nn ^n m 



unn LLsn LLi?in 



nn '^n m 

II li u 



Inn I'^n li 



m 



in^n L%n mm 



Low Class 
Consonants. 

Dropped Tone 
Rule 11. 

f=nn i\T\ uif=i 



m 



an 



am LL^n Li^n 



Fin 'an ^n 

!J U tl 



Im li 



nn m 



mtjn L^iLin mr\ 



anu fiiu viiij 



aij tm m 



UaU LmU LLVllJ 

au niJ viu 

!1 U II 

laii IflU IviiJ 
Latju Lmu L^^ll 



( 39 ) 

Final. 
P. sounds. 

mu mu am 



nil ^u 01J 



LmU LL^U LLaiJ 

nu m QiJ 

U tl !I 

IniJ IpiiAi Ian 



Lmu Lmu latju 



Final T. Sounds. 






LL-ai?! iim 






m 



1m 1( 



m 






i^m mm im 



ni7\ 


ili^ 


ais 


m 


ilin 


a^ 


Lini^i 


Ull^ 


Liai^ 


n^ 


11 


an 
11.^ 


\m 


liJ^ 


lavi 


itm im 


mm 



mw !inij unii 



m fu ^11 



LLFllJ LL^HU nun 



m tail m 

II !1 U 



Ipiu 1™ ll 



,^1J 



LmiJ L^lIU L^^U 



m^ ?ia uijn 

m m m 

am ira am 

m m m 

II U II 

Im °\m 1m 
mm ifm mm 



TONES OF WORDS ENDING IN K. P. T. WITH 

SHORT VOWELS OR ENDING WITH THE 

THE SOUND OF A SHORT VOWEL 

OR DIPHTHONG. 



Rule I. 



If the initial consonant belongs to 
either the High or Middle class the 
tone is Deep. 



r 40 ) 

Rule II. If the initial consonant belongs to 
the Low class the tone is Acute, but 
in these words the acute tone is natur- 
ally not so strongly marked as it is in 
other words which take the acute Tone * 
N.B. — The short vowels are t .^ « « ? and the un- 
written vowel. The short diphthongs are 
those compounded with z ^ a , 
All other vowels and diphthongs are long. 

Exercise 22. 

FINAL K. p. T. WITH SHORT VOWELS AND 
FINAL SHORT VOWELS. 



READ THESE SOUNDS. 
(Rule I.) Deep Tone. 

"HZ ^ ^ "n w m !an m w au" liiz 

m uz m m m w m viz m 

n^ n H n ni^ nifi nn nn nu nu ifiiz 

^■u '^7\ 9 u:; iln tin m m m m 



T 



(Rule II.) Acute Tone. 



hz h f\ h m m m m Piu m \mz 
m 3z 5 m m m m m m m 

* Some writers consider that these words have a tone 
which differs from all the other tones thus constituting 
a sixth Tone. It is more correct to regard these words 
as taking the Acute Tone. 

The Siamese grant the existance of five tones only 

equivalent to fl fl H H fi 



( 41 ) 
CKapter IX. 

Vi U1 (HAW NUM) AND RECAPITULATION op TONES. 

The Rising Tone can be formed also with 
Low Class Consonants. This is done by placing 
the High Consonant Vi is front of the initial Low 
Class Consonant. The character Vi is silent in 
such cases and is equivalent merely to a Tone 

Accent. Vl used in this way is called Vi in ' haw 
num ' or leading h. 

VI can only be used for the purpose of form- 
ing the Rising Tone before such Low Class 
Consonants which have no equivalents in the 
High Class. 

That is to say, Vi can only be used before 

^. jj. u. (m.) u. nj. 7. J. &. (w.) 

Thus Vi in front of any of these letters makes 
it virtually equal to a High Class letter. 



Exercise 23 (A) 
READ THE FOLLOWING SOUNDS. 



<:i. 



Iv 



Villi VI3J im miv. am vi^i mm 
imm LMUQ ivmu mm mojInI wb 



\m imm m^ 1' 



LViUU LVi^tlQ ViU3J im iiVm V\W LViJJ 

viu m mi^ LviJEiEj 



In addition to Vi, the mai-ayk . and mai-to 
sj accents may be used. As Vi plus a Low Class 
Consonant is equivalent to a High Class Con.- 
nonant the tones given by the addition of mai- 



( 42 ) 

ayk and mai-to to such a combination will follow 
the rule for High Class Consonants i.e. 

vm is pronounced with the Rising Tone. 

^^ „ „ Deep Tone. 

,|^_ ;, ,, Dropped Tone. 



Exercise 23 (B) 
READ THE FOLLOWING SOUNDS. 

vi3jn V13J1 lvi3J \m m vi? mn 

mm Lrai vm vieju LvifQ^ vmm 

\ym imu vimu imu mm mw 
Remember the rules for final K. P. T. 
Therefore ViJJlfi and y\m will be pronounced 
with the Deep Tone. 



Exercise 23 (C) 


READ THE FOLLOWING SOUNDS. 


vwm vm vmx\ 


LTOfi iran 


vm\ ivmi mm 


\vm mm) 


v\m v\Vit vm 


viSn vm 


vm Lvi^!j^ vm 


vifn vm 



Note. — There are four common words which 
have Q in front instead of Vi. Three of 
them have the mai-ayk accent as well. 
Therefore they take the deep tone :— 

Q^ to be or to live 

u 

HU] do not (negative imperative). 

"him sort, kind. The fourth word is QEJIfl to 
want 



( 43 ) 

RECAPITULATION OF TONES. 

The following table should be learnt by heart 
as it is a short and convenient form of the rules 
which govern the tones,, and shows the effect of 
each accent on the different classes of consonants. 

TABLE OF TONES. A. 

For words not ending with the sound of K. P. T. 
or with short vowels. 



Accents. 


Consonants. 


High Class 


Mid. Class 


Low Class 


No Accent 


Rising 


Common 


Common 


Mai-ayk . 


Deep 


Deep 


Dropped 


Mai-to ij 


Dropped 


Dropped 


Acute 


Leyk-chet=ni 




Acute 


— 


Kakabat + 


— 


Rising 


— 


V1 + 




— 


Rising 


VI* 


— 




Deep 


V1 + 


— 


— ■ 


Dropped 



( 44 ) 
TABLE OF TONES. B. 

For words bearing no tone accents and ending 
with the sound of k. p. t. or with short vowels. 



Initial Consonants 


High 


Middle Low 


Words ending in 
K. P. T. with Long 
vowels or diphthongs 


Deep 


Deep 


Dropped 


Words ending in 
K. P. T. with Short 
vowels or ending with 
short vowels only 


Deep 


Deep 


Acute 



Note. — The onomatopoeic words referred to on 



a ij 



page 38 are such words as uri mn Mfl 
they take the Dropped Tone. 

There are also a few words beginning with 
middle class letters and ending with K. P. t, or a 

short vowel which take the leyk-chet ^ accent 

and hence have the Acute Tone, e.g. flfl '^m m\\K 



Common 

m 

la 
aivi 



\.w 



m 

m 

mil 

lf=ijj 



( 45 ) 
Exercise 24. 
THE FIVE TONES. 
Rising Acute Deep 



31 


P11 


a'l 


1« 


Is 


1^ 


imi 




Lviu'n 


viiln 




V1U1 




Ufa/ 


IviJ 


EJBU 


WflU 


6m 


'tll^l 




'di^ 


l/i'lJJ 


mil 


mil 


313J 


Lm 


im 


tm 


^nu 


21^ 


h 


* 


L2n 


uw 






t 




^s 


F 


til 


vira 


1 


1/ 


i 


MOT 


mm 


ila 



Dropped. 

r U 

Fll 211 

la 1^ 



Lu'l LVIUT 



U1 

1? V" 



mi 
m 



im tm 
mil 



Id 



ag 



131 
VII 



Vll^ 



( 46 ) 
The Student should now read carefully les- 
sons 10-32 in the First Siamese Reading book. 
He should not yet however try to translate any 
of it until he has mastered chapters 11-18 of 
this book. 

It will be often found that the student, al- 
though he can read his tones in a certain order 
fairly accurately, yet when he tries to read those 
same tones in a different order will fail to re- 
produce them correctly. He is therefore recom- 
mended to read the following exercise very care- 
fully several times until he can produce any three 
tones in any order. 

This exercise contains all the possible per- 
mutations of 5 tones taken in any order 3 at a 
time. 

It also forms a graduated reading exercise, 
since the combinations of characters used in- 
crease in complexity from Part I to Part V. 
Note. — This Exercise may be omitted by those 

who are able to make the tones fairly 
accurately. 



( 47 ) 



Exercise 25 A. 



Part I. 

(a) im m 

m m 

Lm m 

L3J1 'JH 

(b) Lm m 

L^n tin 

LU1 211 

Lin ^T 

L?^1 til 

(c) Lfi vn 

Lpn ri 

Lfii m 

LQT Hi 

LYii m 



u 

n 

11 

2^ 

Ifl 
tl 

I 
II 

yi 

u 

Yl 
II 

X\ 
II 

Ifl 
II 

T 
II 

Yl 
II 

in 
II 

tl 

II 

2^ 

JJ 
II 

u 



(d) Lm m 
L'D'i m 
L=in 'h 
L^i di 
Li/^n vn 

(e) Lfil m 

Llflll 
LW 
LSI 



EJ1 



m 
h 



Lm m 
Part II. 

(a) mi m 

LSI w 

Lm in 

Lm 31 

LCJl fil 



Yl 
u 

Vi 

II 

u 

EJ 

u 

I 

U 
11 

Yl 
II 

ej 
II 



11 
'I 

EJ 

II 

PI 



!iii 

LfJl 

m 

LLEJ 

2^ 



(b) m 

vn 



m 21 



vn an 
Cvil Ivi 
LYl 



Is 
h 
(C) L?i1 

m 

VI 

II 

LVl 
LLVI 

(d) m 

vn 

Ltn 

Lvn 



HI LLVl 

Fn Id 



m 'En 

h 'in 



m EJ 

?1 EJ 



m m 

EJ1 L^l 

fn Lv^ 

?n Ivi 

211 m 



( 48 ) 



(e) 1 ' 'i 
w m ^ 

Ifi m u 

LLCJ m Lm 

Ell Lvi \.h 
Part III. 



(a) JJ1 7\ m 



un m m 

m h V1JJ1 

111 LSI in 

(b) 01 fn ni 

3 ViJJl li 

11 !1 



1^ Id 



Vl^ 



m vif^n J 
11 



, . .ii 111/ 
(c) m b vn 

1^ 



LLI 



ur\ ra 



1! 
1! 



7 


a 
PI 


Ml 


?nu 


^nu 


ihi 


11 


1 


dl 


mu 


ifitj 




S1 


1 


LLn 


Min 


m 


LMUQ 



(d) Llll 



EJl LLfl 



2> 

in 



i?n 



(e) LLU 



1/ 
LLU 

ir 

u 



? sni 

m m 



Vi^l EJ 

11 



a 1/ 

'ti nn 



^ 1pi 
11 



1/ 4| 

Mfn LLLI 

I Pi) 

LL!D 1J1 



3J1 Vlfn 

10 m\ 



Part IV. 

(a) EJiu mM m 



A oj a 



(b) 31^ L^ll lSq 



31U L110 L2U 
'QU Llia IJQ 



11 

im mi 313J 



(c) mu L& mo 
I'iiu m'3 Lfio 
m La m 



ivm im ium 



m 



liln mm 



( 49 ) 



(d) mu Ivioj LmQ 


WM lim 


m 




m?\ mm lSli'T 


Imi 


mu 


nm 


mn an w 
11 


vdiw m i^m 
\v\mhu mp 




LLLJ 


Tif] 


(d)iAlin mn lS^ 


[h) im 


Jfjg mtj? 


yauviJJinvitjgu 


\.m mm m 








viun vin LOT 


(e) Su & m 




raQ^ 


im 


li^fj miTi LLiJ:; 


vm fi iif} 


m 

u 


L^U^ 


m 


m?J3J ™ LQLJ1?1 


v\m mi mxi 


Sti 


mii 


m 


, , Si 2-* c!i 


ii^ m lia 


J1^ 


miu 


m^ 


(e) m mf] [■um 


1 ij K 








Part V. 


(c) m 


am 


m 


Lf an fnn if^ 


(a)ai3j yiu im 


L^tJiJ m 




[.m mu If^n 


[m im imw 


m^ 


ml 


m 
1 


S^ mn n 



( 50 ) 

Chapter X. 

Pronunciation of Double initial 

CONSONANTS. THE REMAINING CHARACTERS 

AND MARKS USED IN SIAMESE. ANOMALIES 

OF SIAMESE PRONUNCIATION. 

PronuncAation of Double Initial Consonants. 

Siamese words which have two initial con- 
sonants fall into two classes, 

(A) Words having either fi j >] 1. r. w. follow- 
ing a consonant equivalent to K. or P. (and T, 
very rarely.) 

In such cases the two initial consonants are 
pronounced together. Note in these cases the 
tone accent is placed over the second consonant. 

Examples. wr\ pia. mm klong i/jg twee. 
°M] khwa or qua, 







Exercise 25 B. 










Read these 


Words. 






mm 


iJt^i 


i\m 


P1J1JJ 


pi^ijj 


pi^^ 


WC^QLJ 


nen-3 


fifijj 


Lll^^JU 


Lira 


iiIm 


n^jj 


Ifi? 


n^u 


m 


m^^ 


T\m 


mir. 


ium 


imr. 




LiJm 


Injs 


Ml 


m 


m 


VQ% LiJ^an wm 


m\ 


mr\ 


mm 


m 


^mz 




iJffl 



( 51 ) 

(B) Words whose initial consonants are other 
than theabove. In these cases(i)The first consonant 
is sounded as if it were separated f rom'the second 
consonant by the vowel t and thus the word be- 
comes dissyllabic, example TiVil? is pronounced 
ta'harn just as if it had been written Ti:;vn?. 

(ii) The initial consonant determines the tone 
of the second syllable and any tone-accent over 
the second consonant must be regarded as be- 
longing to the first consonant, and as such 
determining the tone of the second syllable. 

Examples, 



am (Kha'yum) 


second 


syllable 


Rising Tone. 


tarn 


7? 




Deep 


lin 


?7 




Dropped ,, 


m (Cha'nee) 


>> 




Common ,, 


m 


7; 




Dropped ,, 


m 


77 




Acute ,, 



The position of the tone accent will often 
show the pronunciation of this kind of word 
where otherwise ambiguity might arise. 

Examples. 



But. 



\.m 


chaang 


Common Tone. 


im 


77 


Dropped 


Tone. 




cha'ngaa ,, 


77 


LLTl.l 




Acute 


77 



mi 



( 52 ) 
Exercise 25 C. 

Read these Words. 

wi lAijji mt m mm lltiq 



m 






2fn imei^ LLtaEj^ wn 



1 



muii miu Tdii 






■nwu irauQ mm imu mu auu 

For further examples of this, the student is 
referred to the First Siamese Reading Book 
lessons 33^^38. 



Other Characters and marks used in Siamese. 
1 The Less common Loiv class cov sonants : — 

Fl khaw, equivalent to kh, this letter is 
practically obsolete, its place being taken by Fi 
with the one exception of the word P10. "neck." 



^ khaw (kh) 
bli naw (n) 



tU Chaw (ch) 
^ taw (t) 
1^ law (1) 



^ taw (t) 

2. The signs for the numerals. 
12345678 







9 

The Siamese numerals are used in exactly 
the same way as the ordinary Arabic numerals 
e-g. 267— labd 



( 53 ) 

3. The Fo/f.r Sansktii vowels. 

There are four Sanskrit characters used in 
Siamese, they partake of the nature of a vowel 
and a consonant combined. They are not of 
frequent occurrence. 

r] equivalent to 1 reugh or 1 ri 

rj] ,, 7B reugh 

J] ,, i leugh 

T\] ,, m leugh 

Note. — The character ij] is often used as being 

equivalent to WQ the sign of a question. 

4, — The Accent d {Leyk-paat). 

This Accent is placed over consonants. It 
merely shortens the sound of the syllable with- 
out affecting its tone. 

It should be noticed that when this'accent is 
used in conjunction with the vowel L, the sound 
of L (A as in same) is altered to that of short e (as 

in pen), e. g. im is pronounced 'hen' not 'hane.' 
Note. — The accent d is usually omitted from the 



word LIJU (to be), but this word must always 
be pronounced as if the accent d were 



written there, e. g. Lilu == pen not pane 



( 54 ) 

5. — The mark g' (karan.) 

When the mark c is placed over a consonant 
or vowel, that consonant or vowel is not pro- 

nounced, ('.(i. WS (boot.) 

For a complete list of common words having- 
a silent letter c. See Chapter 23 of this book. 

6. — The sign ^ means that the word or syllable 

preceding it, is to be repeated, eg. uafJ ^ boi boi. 

7. — The sign °i is used chiefly in official docu- 
ments and Royal proclamations. It means ' and 
so forth according to the recognised formula.'^ 
This sign is used after the name TM^im = Bang- 
kok thus n?-3 iW^ a short way of writing nj^ \m 

wn\W\W\l which is the full name of the City of 
Bangkok. °^fil is equivalent to "etc." 

8. — The sign @ shows the beginning of a 
chapter or paragraph, The sign ^% show the 
end of a paragraph or chapter. The sign ii>- 
is equivalent to the word ' finis ' at the end of a 
book. These signs are obsolete in modern 
Siamese, but they are met with in old books 

Modern Siamese has, to a great extent 
adopted European punctuation. 

Anomalies of Siinnese Proiiiinr/mtinn. 

1. Initial Yl? tr is pronounced like H (s) e. g. 
V1J11J is pronounced sap as if written T(W. 



( 55 ) 

2. Initial PI? (t'r) should properly be pro. 
nounced as written, but it is vulgarly pronounced 

as V3 ( kr ), e. g. w\ is vulgarly pronounced kra. 

3. Double jj is pronounced as if it were the 
vowel ^ with U e. g. OT is pronounced sun. 

4 Final l preceded by another consonant is pro- 
nounced awn, e. g. mi la'kawn. 

5. J preceded by ?i or '^ at the beginning of 
a word is usually silent in monosyllables, e. g. 

fsla^ is pronounced soi ( ^atl)' %^ is pronounced %^ 
Note. The common word Ira who ? is often 
vulgarly pronounced m 

6. Double nifii in a word. The first ^ is 



pronounced as n, e. g. ^OJttjT sunya. 

7. The initial s or t sounds of certain words 
are very apt to be interchanged by the common 
people, e.g. truu (ta'non) ''road" is often pro- 
nounced sa'non, and the word inw. ( sa'p^n ) 
"bridge " is often pronounced ta'pto. 

8. n after \ is silent, e. g. \\} pronounced as 
if written \^ 

9. The short vowels ■= ? when final and usually 
with J\ (final also) are silent in words of Pali 
derivation e. g. iw\ pronounced 'hate' not hatoo. 
'2^^ pronounced chat not chati. 



( 56 ) 

10. The word ^^ t'ooa is very commonly pro- 
nounced as t'ohwa. 

11. R. sounds in Siamese words are habitually 
pronounced as L. by Chinese and persons of 
Chinese descent. 

12. Very often L. is vulgarly omitted e. g. the 
town Bang-pla-soi is often called Bang-pa-soi. 

13. In words of two syllables or more, of Pali 
and Sanskrit origin (as a general rule), the final 
consonant of all the syllables before the last must 
be fully sounded. 

Example. iJjifiin pratana njumj Kromakarn 
Ll/lQm taywadn. 

14. In words beginning with U? a short ' o ' 
sound is understood after the u. 

Example. uflQU boriwayn. 

The student should notice the Siamese order 
of the consonants, as this order has been observ- 
ed in the Vocabulary at the end of the book. 

■3 Fi a ^ VI iii Q a 



m 



liiim 



'an 



( 57 ) 
Exercise 25 D. 
Read these Words. 

lJK3Jim 



W 



L^^U OJIU 



U3s! mn 



nifi umli^Ej 



jrjn ilnjnjn iraQiu iiwiii mih mmm 
iJn?sr^ jjuhIj mf\i m\m fsnilin miiJ'^u 



1 



]\fj^mm \m lupiIpulj 



l/^J1V13JW 



viniJ m^ nitwi^ mim m'mm miii 





Chapter XL 






THE NUMERALS. 






The Cardinal Numerals are : — 




0. 


o fg 


4 d 


i 


1 


51 v\m mf 


5 d 


vn 


2 


la ?im 


6 b 


vin 


3 


en ?iijj 


7d 


Cm 



( 58 ) 



* N. B. — ]MX] means one only. 



8 d 

9 ^ 

10 510 

11 SlGl 

12 cjilai 

13 sicn 

14 Gld 

15 Gl5 

16 sib 

17 cFid 

18 Gid 

19 s\^ 

20 Ifflo 

21 to 

22 ifflte 
30 cno 
40 do 
50 So 
60 bo 
70 do 



Lfll 

iu 

mm 
'mw\ 

ill \m 



80 

90 

100 

101 

102 

200 

300 

1000 

1001 



do 



LLlJl?! m 



tm 


2000 




10000 


mjjiu 


100000 


^iu 




wilL 


1,000000 


iraiji ail 


10,000,000 



i^o irfi ill 
c5)oo ran ViU^ 
510S1 mi \.m 



siolai JQLJ ?i!]^ etc. 

iHioo ?\w rm 
moo ?i13J Iq?J etc, 

Giooo mi viu^ 

(j)ooGi MU LQl?] 

ifflooo m^ m 



siooooViSuVlU^I 



siooooo LLfilJ VIU'3 



ei.oooooofnUVIW 



510.000.000 



( 59 ) 

The Ordinals are formed by prefixing ^ to 
the Cardinals e. g. t V\m first t fia^ second. 

The Numeral Adverbs are formed from the 
Cardinals by the addition of the words, m or t 
e.g. VIU mm or viu ViU^ once, m^ m or ^g^vi twice. 

Note, (i) m^ and mm are usually placed last 
in the sentence, (ii) viu^ ViU^= The first time. 

The words VIU or Ti are usedof separate occasions 
as m the sentence Til Ii 1\m m. Do this twice 

In such expressions as ' twice as large ' the 
word Lvil is used instead of VIU, example U Lviaj 

riQI UU ?SQ^ ll/n- This is twice as large as that 

The Distributives are formed with the word 
VC Example in the sentence "give these men 
three ticalseach" the latter part would be expressed 

by m v\t, mil vfm 

Fractions Half is expressed by the word 
ra or ™. Note, ra^ mi half a yard mi PIJJ 
a yard and a half. Other fractions are expressed 
by such phrases as i m\i immu Vim lit. " four 

parts, take one " so 4 or more briefly v\m fm fi 



( 60 ) 

Dcrimal Fractioji.y. are called IRH ^11. Thus 
•35 would be LFiH iu, wm W\. 

ViiJiiar Frart/oits are called IFIH 'k'm. Thus | 
would hem^ IFIM ^™ Ml 



The following Pali numerals are sometimes 
used. 


one LQn 


five linj^^ 


nine UC 


two \l] 


six 'iJfl 


ten mz 


three \nf 


seven i(?\Z 


eleven mn YlR" 


four SPTJI 


eight Q^" 


twelve ^Qlfff^:; 



Chapter XII. 
THE SIMPLE SENTENCE(INTRODUCTORY) 
The following rules should be carefully noticed. 

1. There are no grammatical inflections of 
any kind in Siamese : the individual words re- 
main the same always. 

2. There is no definite article 'the' in Siamese, 
but its place is taken by the words 14 this, these 

and UU that, those. 

3. The verb LlJu ' to be ' is usually omitted 



( .61 ) 

in many cases in which it would be used in 
EngHsh. 

It is always omitted when used with a 
Predicative adjective, eg. This horse is black 

fjTU^l lit. "horse this black" but the verb Lllu 

must always be used with a Noun complement, 

or a predicative adjective used as a Noun e.g. 

He is a soldier LSI Lllu wm. 



4. The verb ' to be ' used in the sense of 
' to live/ or ' to be situated ' is translated by QLI 

Siamese (not Lllu). e.g. "That book is on the 

table." ViuJa m m mXtt. Lit. Book that is on 
table. 



d. 



5. The verb JJ ' to have ' can be used im- 
personally to mean * there is or there are ' in 
which cases the verb 3J stands first in the sen- 
tence ( cf . French il y a). 

t:, ^. „ ( mi S JJT I have horses. 

Examples J ^ i. , ^ i^ „, , . , 

J JJ JJ'l QU VI liU Therearehorsesthere 

\ SI 

6. The subject comes before the verb and 
the object follows the verb except in certain re- 
lative sentences, just as in English. 



( 62 ) 

Examples \fS^^\ ^ I have a house. 

( JJlin ^U 3J L'^U The horse which I 
have is ill. 

7. The Negative 111 (not) always comes be- 
fore the verb, but in cases where the auxiliary- 
verb m (can) is used, the negative \ii is placed 

c 

before the auxiliary e.g. [ii w\ (cannot). 

W. LU im m 1 do not see horses. 

mi m !ji W l cannot seehorses. 

8. Adjectives always come after the Nouns 

which they qualify, r. tj. |ji (^i black'horses ; !jl 

30^ mj my horses ; m U this horse. But if a 

possessive or a demonstrative adjective e.g. my, 
your, this, those etc., is used together with an 
adjective of quality, the possessive or demon- 
strative adjective must follow the adjective of 
quality. 



Examples. 



i^ 



3J1 m l\m m My black horses, lit. 

^ Horses black my. 

!ji W\ tTu Those black horses, 
lit. horses black those 



But note m m m Those horses are black. 

If these three kinds of adjectives are used 
together the demonstrative adjective takes pre- 
cedence of the possessive adjective only. 



( 63 ) 
9. Questions can be formed by adding the 
word Wfl sometimes written t]] to the end of a 
sentence thus. 

V11U t V\mm You have books. 






Have you books ? 



10, In questions introduced by interrogative 
adverbs, Where ? Why ? When ? How much ? 
How many ! etc. the order of the words in the 
Siamese sentence is usually the reverse of the 
order in the corresponding English sentence. 

Examples. (1) Where is your new book? 

viu^ialra "am mi m ^\m 

u 

Lit. Book new yours is where. 

(2) When will you go 

mu "^t, iiJ L3JQb 

Lit. You will go when ? 

(3) How much money have you ? 

Lit. You have money how much ? 

Note. — The word V\TB or rf] is not used in ques- 
tions introduced by interrogative adverbs. 
11. Pronouns are not used elliptically in 
Siamese, as a rule the noun has to be repeated. 

.eg. " My book is large, but yours is small " 
is translated as if it were " My book is large but 
your book is small. 





( 


64 ) 






Vocabulary I. 






READ AND LEARN THESE WORDS. 


I 


this, these 


30^ mj 


my mine 


m 


that, those 


im mx 


your yours 


m 


I 


^m LSI 


his hers its 
their 


i/iiu 


you 


im \r\ 


ours 


LSI 


he, she, they 


f, mx 


where 


vn 


we 




How much 


iij 


to go 


lIu 


money, silver 




house, home 
horse 




to have (there 
is there are) 
black 


vnwia 


book 


\m\ 


red 


\m 


new 


MU 


stone 


Ivinj' 


large 


La?jg 


green 




small 


ang 


white 


m 


but 


u 


snake 


LLJ^ 


and 


mx 


to see 


\ 


in 


11 


to look at 



( 65 ) 

Exercise 26. 

Read and Translate into English. 

1 iji Su m 2 ^ 'nm ^u LM 

II 

7 jjTu IviQj UPi JJ1 uu mn 8 un u nu Lvn b p 

9 mS^lviQjri] 10 viijJquuIvijj 

10 ^u liJ m\i 12 vn'u \m m i\.m rf| 
13 m t m m im ^ m u t m lu mu aa^ m 
15 fiilwojaQ^i'mjafj^lviu 16 mill inulviaj 



Exercise 27. 

TRANSLATE INTO SIAMESE. 
1. This stone is green. 2. We have horses. 
3. This snake is small. 4. They have money. 
5. We go home. 6. My new horse is black. 
7. How much money have they ? 8. Our books 



( 66 ) 

are black. 9. Where is your book? 10. Where 
is my red book ? 11. This snake is small and 
that snake is large. 12. Those books are large. 
13. Have you a white horse ? 14. I see that 
white horse. 15. He has a green snake. 16. My 
horse is white but yours is black. 

Note to the Student : 

The exercises from English to Siamese 
should be done first orally with the teacher, and 
then written out in a book for him to correct. 

Note to the Teacher : 

The sentences in the above exercise are not 
at all idiomatic ; for example, the designatory 
particles have been omitted for the simple reason 
that they will be learnt in the next chapter. This 
exercise [21] should be re-translated after hav- 
ing done exercises 28 and 29. This has been 
done intentionally in order not to introduce the 
student to too many difficulties at once. 



Chapter XHI. 

THE NOUN. 

Like all other parts of speech in Siamese, 
the Noun is invariable as regards the inflec- 
tions of Number, Gender, and Case. 

NUMBER. To form the Plural of nouns : 

(1) The word 'mill' (many) is used with 
the noun repeated, or with the designatory 



( 67 ) 

particle ( r. hijf. ) c. g. ''3)1 vimu jll " Horses, lit. 
Horse many horses. 



(2) The plural can also be expressed by 
such phrases as (1) " LVldru, LVifinmi, " this lot 

that lot. (2) "wn" company, or 'llJjm' tribe. 
Examples 



m ivm U These horses. 



jH The horse tribe. 



When the Singular is required ViU^ or mui 
(one) is used, c g. Ul 3J1 \MJl one horse. 

GENDER, of persons is shown by the 
words eT'anLI (man) for the masculine, and 



cfvi^^ (woman) for the feminine. 



Examples 



d 



m\ child. 

L^n u'sm boy. 



\m U Vlf4 girl. 

The sex of animals is shown by the words 
ra eT for the male, and m ife for the female. 



( 68 ) 



JJT horse (generally speaking. | 



Examples ] 



mm eT stallion. 
m m mumare. 



Exception in^ elephant. 

m miu bull elephant. 

lil^ W cow elephant. 

Note •Q'1'3 LtJ0n white elephant 

The young of animals is shown by the word nn. 

foal 



Examples 



mm 

m m m u colt 

U IJ 

m h m L^LJ filly 



CASE. — ThePossessive case in shown by the 
word •flQ^ (of). 

Example vn^ 510^ !j1. The horse's tail. 

The word LLTl is sometimes used as a sign of 
the Dative case. 



Example 



f 



LQT L-JU m 



mun 



LLfl^U 



Give me the money. 



( 69 ) 

The word Lin however is more commonly 
omitted. 



Classes of Nouns. 

1. Simple Nouns. Composed of one word 
only. 

Example. \n water, UJJ breast, Is heart. 

2. Compound or Derivatire Nomis. Very 

many Siamese nouns are formed by the juxta- 
position of two Simple nouns. 

141 liJJ milk. lit. water of the 
breast. 

Examples J Ul (?n tears, lit. water of the eye. 

yi h will, intentions, lit. water 
of the heart. 

There are many nouns compounded with such 

words as UT water, m child, W\ father, LIJJ mother, 

etc. Note the following. 

MB m cook, lit. father (of the) kitchen. 

m l3J fruit, lit. child (of the) tree. 

fin till cartridge, lit. child (of the) gun. 



11 



m LJB sailors, lit. children (of the) ship. 



( TO ) 

im m river, lit. mother (of) water. 

LLJJ LVIC^n magnet, lit. mother (of) iron. 

The student will doubtless notice many more 
compound nouns of this type by glancing through 
the Siamese English Dictionary. 

3. Verbal Nouns. Nouns can be formed 
from verbs by the addition of the word T\V (work). 

Example, L^U 111 to walk, nil Ml 111 walking. 

Many nouns equivalent to English nouns 
ending in-or and-er denoting the doer or maker, 
(ageiit), are formed in Siamese as follows. 

110 to buy, EvI "M purchaser, lit. the person 
^ buying. 

[W lIq to sew, h^ mil im tailor, lit. h^ workman 

to sew clothes. 

lin to hire, EJ JU till tenant, lit. the person who 
^ receives the hire. 

ijn M tj m ih landlord, lit. the person 

^. who allows the hire. 

Note. FluliimfitJ bachelor, lit. man no have 
wife. 

4. Abstract Nouns. Can be formed from 
adjectives and verbs by the addition of the word 
f^igijj, which is equivalent to the English 
suffix, "ness." 



Examples 



( 71 ) 

7\ good, mi3J 7\ goodness. 
rm to fear, ram mi fright. 
mih anxious, raiUTQlil'^ anxiety^ 



Abstract nouns are used as little as possible 
in Siamese, as the Siamese idiom favours the 
concrete rather than the abstract. 

Names of the races of mankind are always 
accompanied by the word PIU person or 'DIQ people, 

Man, m CJ 'sm. 

Examples \ A Chinaman, ^u f=iu V\mor m f^n. 
The Burmese, ^ig WJj'l. 

Specific names of different kinds of birds, 
fishes, fruits, flowers, trees, snakes, etc. are 
always preceded by the generic word for 
bird," fruit, etc. 

un bird. 

Examples Ufl flCTan sparrow. 
lifimiW eagle. 

Exceptionslfl hen, LlJl^ duck, vm goose. 



( 72 ) 

The Designatory Particles. 

The use of the designatory particles, (piece 
words ) is an important, Siamese idiom. These 
words are used with every concrete Noun in 
Siamese. 

For example, the Siamese always say 
" horses three animals," where in English we 
simply say " three horses," "Boys two persons," 
for "two boys," "Cup, one round thmg," for 
" a cup," and so forth. 

There are a great many of these designatory 
particles, which are used for different classes of 
objects. 

It is very important for the student to learn 
the more common of these designatory particles, 
and to clearly remember for what classes of 
objects each one is used, as it sounds ludicrous 
in Siamese when these particles are misused ; 
for instance, in talking of knives or pointed ob- 
jects, to use the designatory particles which is 
applied to hollow or round objects, or vice versa. 

The following is a list of the more common 
designatory particles which should he learnt 
carefully. 



Qli for persons only, 
Examples 



a man, m EJ flirj P^ wm 

three boys, L^n U Tin mi m 
girls (plural), m CJ m)<i wm m 



( 73 ) 

2. m for all kinds of animals and living 
creatures, except the elephant. 

Also for chairs, tables, coats, trousers, shirts, 
pens and cigars. 



Examples 



JJ1 flQ^ ra two horses. 
Ik ra V\m a table. 



3. lu for round and hollow objects, ^.gi— 

bottles, plates, fruit, hats, pillows, 
and lamps. ( unlighted ). 

Example ^T] iu lu. ten bottles. 

4. msJ for thin, flat, or pointed objects e.g. 

books, knives, forks, pins, needles 
and nails. 

Example w\ Ivitt) LfiJJ ViU^ a large knife. 

5. ilJ0 for small objects, such as grains of 

sand, seeds, pills, or precious stones. 

Example ivm ?il3J LJJ^ three diamonds. 

6. f^ for lumps or pieces of anything. 

Example In mn f^m TIBU two lumps of sugar. 

7. ^ for things generally, not specially 

classified. 



( 74 ) 

A safe guide to the beginner is "when in 

doubt, say mi " but never use aii for persons or 
animals. 

The following designatory particles are used 
for the special objects mentioned. 

The Student is advised to learn these 
gradually. 

8. Jffi. for Kings, Princes, and images of 

Buddha. 

9. Jll ,, Buddhist priests. 

10. l?iU ,, ropes, strings, threads, wire, 

11. m ., trees, posts, columns. 

12. IMD ,, elephants. 

13. Tian ,, flowers, fireworks, and keys. 

14. &] ,, boats, ships, & logs of timber 

15. mz ,, stars, lights, lighted lamps. 

16. PIU ,, vehicles and umbrellas. 

17. m^ ,, buildings. 

18. fm ,] tramway and railway lines, chains 

or bracelets. 

19. ']^ ,, ring shaped objects, military 

bands, and orchestras. 



( 75 ) 

20. iLtm ,, flat objects such as sheets of 

paper, or iron. 

21. tm , , flat pieces of cloth of a definite 

size and shape such as panungs, 
handkerchiefs, table cloths, bed 
sheets, and napkins. 

22. m „ piece goods. 

23. vm ,, fruits and balls. 

24. m ,, fruits (High word). 

25. IJIJIJ ,, documents and manuscripts. 

v\mm m^ ifiu two books. 
Note. ^ ^ 

v\mfm m^ WH two letters. 

26. vatwm ,, guns, tubes, water pipes. 

27. imu „ clocks and watches. 

28. R ,, pairs. 

Example m^ \Jn ?i!]^ PI Two pairs of shoes. 

29. lIlJ ,, tins of kerosene oil. 

30. VI0 ,, parcels, bundles, packets. 

31. aim „ eggs (High word). 



( 76 ) 

32. imi ,, sets of things, suits of clothes. 

33. 1J1U , , windows and doors. 

34. I ,, teeth. 

35. !Dn ,, bones, ribs. 

36. LLW ,, pencils. 

37. im ,, rolls of paper or cloth. 

There are several others, but they are of 
extreme rarity. 

Very often the noun itself can be repeated 
as a designatory particle. 

Example. IJIU f\m llIU ' ' Two houses," can be 

used instead of the strictly correct, WiU SQ^ W^. 



Vocabulary 2. 

READ AND LEARN THESE WORDS BEING 

CAREFUL TO REMEMBER THE DESIGNATORY 

PARTICLE IN THE CASE OF EACH NOUN. 

m knife 

im fork 
WU spoon 



am 


cat 




table 




chair 


PI 


cupboard 



K.\.nm lamp 







r 77 ) 




mf 


cigar 


^u 


gun 


'^m\iA 


matches 


to 


door 


til ma 


sugar 


m mvi 


window 


iffl 


boat, ship 




to buy 


iraliiJ 


steamship 


•31^ 


to sell 


m 


carriage 


vn 


to look for 


m S 'aiu 


man 


11 


to stare at 


m tj viSjvi 


women 


ra^ m? 


to want 


un 


very 


mm m to want 



m f]^ tramway, tramcar mu beautiful (persons) 

ralvJ railway, train m beautiful (things) 

Ivil vll electric light in umbrella 

linn ni pen l!j Lvin walking stick 



Exercise 28. 
Read and Translate into English. 



1 uvi? aflvi ^u m 
II II 






m 



'OH aiEj m vn m 



11 



JO) 



( 78 ) 

6 111 vn LLjjg m m i^m m 

' T/IJU !!1Q Lfll ,0 Vin m 

8 irimfi Qu'flviu 

11 

9 mj 0mn \ 

10 liifi'i^ uiuulviajun 

11 i?i !j ^ntj Piu iTu LSI u fipi mu v\m 
11 11 

12 !j vifli^ mvi m m t iJin m ™ t^^ fia^ m 

11 M 

13 i/iTu t IpI:; Ivioj ra viu^ r|] 

14 131 i^fa^ m? im m^ \.m 

15 LJ1 "m uu i nKuan 

16 <m "Ml m m m m\ m 

17 ^ ifalvJmlviQjmj 

11 s 

18 u v^^ mjj m u Ijj fiQEJ un 

19 III Iq dajj LHi Lfi3J im i?i:;Lnti^ lu viw 

20 m nm m m uu m lu in 30^ ti'tu 



( 79 ) 
Exercise 29. 

Translate into Siamese. 

1 I have a large table. 

2 He has a small cat. 

3 We have two chairs. 

4 You have three spoons. 

5 I see a beautiful cat. 

6 We see five steamships. 

7 Look at those three men. 

8 We buy sugar. 

9 I want a cupboard. 

10 We want eight cigars. 

11 Where are the matches. 

12 Do you want a carriage. 

13 That girl is not beautiful. 

14 Go and look for those two pens. 

15 My gun is in that cupboard. 

16 He sells knives and forks. 

17 I want to buy three horses. 

18 They want to sell their carriage. 

19 Those two men have no matches. 

20 We want four lamps. 



( 80 ; 

Chapter XIV 
The Verb. 

The verb in . Siamese has no inflections for 
person, number, tense, mood or voice. 

Person and number are expressed by the pro- 
noun (if used). 

Tenses are expressed by certain words which 
are added to the verb. 

Example iWU "to write," 
Present Tense mj iWU I write. 
Continuous Present m TITO L31IU Q?J I am 

writing. 
Future Tense ^u ^z if LIU I shall or will write. 
Preterite Tense mi ll^'^iaLJU I wrote. 
Perfect Tense mi IWU IIW I have written. 
The Imperfect may be thus expressed lSq mi 

riTO L311U W I was writing. 

The Fluperject may be thus expressed, 

\.m milpfL^UU \m I had written. 

The Imperative is expressed by usin^ the 
simple verb word often followed by such mter- 

jections as \,W\. 5. 

tii^i iJj:;i?i \m shut the door. 



Examples 



JJT U f come here. 



( 81 ) 

Auxiliary verbs.— In addition to the words 
above mentioned, there are certain important 
auxiliaries viz :— 

Can is expressed by m after the verb 
word. 

Example mi 111 m I can go. 



N.B. Distinguish carefully between, 

mjllJll^'' I can go. 

mi m'^llJ I went. (Preterite Tense.) 

Must is expressed by Jm^ e.g. mi llQ^llJ 
I must go. 

Ought to is expressed by the words PIQ? S« 

e.g. mj m? s^IlI I ought to go. mj mi '^t "V^ liJ 
I ought to have gone. 

May, Might (Subjunctive) is expressed by 
the word m at the beginning of a sentence. 

e. g. 1m mi 111 "May I go or let me go," 

In polite speech the word "M would be added. 

<'. g. aa Im mi 111 " Please let me go." 

The word m has the following idiomatic 
uses, 



( 82 ) 

1. In such a sentence as ' Tell him to go ' 
the Siamese idiom is "Tell him let him go;" 

2. ivi sometimes means to order or to 

make to do, as mi "^zlvi mullJ lilU "I will 
make you go home." 

3. In combination with the words L01 . . un, m 
means ' ' to give. " 

Lai ill mti 111 Imw " Give me the sugar." 

The Passive Voice can be very rarely ex- 
pressed in Siamese, the active voice is almost 
always used, but there are a few phrases in 
which the word vm occurs, which have a passive 

sense, ''. g. m vm l4w LLff] "I have been beaten." 

Here the word fin gives the passive meaning in 
the sense of I have caught or attained to a 
beating, (tin properly means to touch.) 

Ru/<' /or Tramlatluv.. — Sentences in English 
in which the passive voice is used, should always 
be changed so as to use the active voice before 
translatmg them into Siamese. 



( 83 ) 

The verb Lllu *to be' is usually omitted where 

it would be employed in Engish, e.g. m PTQ U^IQ^'tlli 

"this is my horse, "lit." horse animal this mine." 

The Siamese never say m m U Lllu 'am mi. The 

verb Lllu is retained in such sentences as 

■ail Lllu Flli wnqy " I am an Englishman," where 

it is used with a noun, or an adjective equivalent 
to a noun. It is omitted when used with a 
Predicative adjective. 

''■g. mi l4u " I am ill," never mi Lllu L'^U. 

When a specific disease is mentioned, the 

Siamese say Lllu (to be), whereas the verb " to 
have " is always used in English in such cases. 



e.g. mi LlJu la "I have fever," lit. " I am 
fever." 

In sentences where the verb ' to be ' is used 

in the sense of to live or to be situated, the 

Siamese use the verb W instead of Lllu. 

e. g. mm "M^ mmt\m " where is my 
book?" 

vinu ad ^IviU "where do you live." lit. 
you is where ? 



( 84 ) 

The verb U (to have) is used impersonally at 
the beginning of a sentence to mean ' there is * 
or 'there are.' 

>'. (t. t mm^ m uul^lt '^m \m. There are two 

books on that table. 

Compound Verbs. — Many verbs in Siamese 
are compounded of two or more separate words 
which do not necessarily follow one another in 
the sentence. The following common verbs are 
of this nature. The student should learn them 
carefully and notice that the object is placed 
between the component parts. 

1. LQT 3jn to bring. 

f-ij. LQIuraui "bring the cigars." 

2. 101 inlw^ to give. 

^.{h LQI vm in \v\'m ' ' give me the cigars. " 

3. LQ1 .If or mi VA to put down. 

e.g. LQ1 UW Ig*" uulpi:; " put the cigars down 
on the table." 

4. mi .Ill to take. 

e.g. LQ1 UVllllJ f lHu " take the cigars 
home." 

5. LSI Ill L^U to. take away. 



( 85 ) 

^'.g. \.mm\m\vX'^\m " take these cigars 
away." 

e.g. m 20^ LVldn ulll iflU " send these things 
home." 

7. LBT .l?i to put. 

<'.g. miljralfiluMlJ "put the cigars in 
the box." 

8. LflU W to collect or put away. 

e.g. mu viu^ia LVidiul'f IupT -'put these 

books away in the cupboard." 

9. LQH W to distribute, to give out. 

e.g. vm mm \m\ u Ivi tan m ^t f^m im 

"give them each two of these books." 

10. LQI a&n to take out, 

e.g. L01 mm LVldl u aan sin MU "take these 

books out of the box." 
In other cases the component words of the 

verb are not separated, e.g. Jfl^ w^ ' to cry,' ^^ liJ 
' to fall down.' 

e.g. m\ Mm mm m "do not cry loudly," 

iK fl^lll tm " the water falls to the 
ground." 



( 86 ) 

There are certain words which can be added 
to verbs to give a different shade of meaning. 
A few common examples are subjoined. 

li^J gives the idea of 'thoroughness, completion. ' 

^^ gives the idea of ' down, ' or ' decreasing in 
strength. ' 

lu gives the idea of * up, ' or ' increasing in 
strength. ' 

^ gives the idea of fixity, stability. 

idu gives the idea of aimlessness, pleasure. 

IT\ gives the idea of motion into, 

WU gives the idea of motion out. 

s^ indicates a polite imperative. 

TO is used with the future tense to give em- 
phasis. 

Verbs of speaking, thinking, calling and 
hoping take the word h ( to say ) after them. 

'^.fj. uu m 11 [jc 14 Lu ra mz i\m 'tju I thmk 
that this is not my table. 

Most verbs of motion from are often com- 
pounded with the verb 111 ( to go ) and verbs of 
motion towards are compounded with the verb 
JJ1 ( to come ) 

Note i.— The idiomatic use of llJ m used to- 
gether to give a perfect tense meaning. 



( 87 ) 



e.g. VllullJlviU JJI "where have you been?" 
lit. "you go where come" 

Note ii.— LJJ Lllu is often used instead of 

ili M ( cannot ) of bodily actions. 

e.g. mirailllji LlJu "I cannot swim", is 

often said instead of mi m m\\\7\ 



Vocabulary 3. 

READ AND LEARN THESE WORDS. 



\.m liJ 


to walk 




i^ (III) 


to run 


du 


mt\ 


to swim 


vm 


6fl 


to hold, to carry 


TO 


mu 


to learn 


\.m 


aau 


to teach 


'MW 




to rise 


A 
^ 


UBU 


to sleep, to lie 
down 


m 


m 


to think 


xm 


m 

u 


to speak 


ran 


llfjfl 


to call 





to sit 

to stand 

to fear 

to help 

to play 

to like 

to beat 

to do, to make 

to ask 
to answer 
vt\'^ to understand 



( 88 ) 

Exercise 30. 

Read and Translate into English. 

1. mi s:; la i\m m m m^ 



2. 


mL^uliliHu 


3. 


L!aT=5:; QviliJiliu 


4. 


Ltan '^t w m lu 


5. 


in "^t 'im 121 




1 %j 1 



6. vnu "^ m^ m? wu vn \.m 

7. vi'nu Vain jH aao ifiiu vta 

8. m ^u im m unu 

9. mi amn still uau 

10 inu ^u ?ia^ nj^uari u I'f lu (n*" 

J.W. jl 

11. Lai Lma jji Iw'mi m v[m 

12. ™ m LJEJfi Piu uu Lm 3J1 

13. Lai viiwia Ldjjulij l^li 

14. L31 WW sau 'mi im u 

15. Lfl U^ m ¥" LLOT 

16 Lai ?n ill pi ui m3j m 

XV. jj 



( 89 ) 

Exercise 31. 
TRANSLATE INTO SIAMESE. 

1. We will go home. 

2. Bring me three chairs. 

3. Give him a pen. 

4. Put the table in the house. 

5. They will sleep on the table. 

6. He cannot swim. 

7. They have run home. 

8. I bought a horse. 

9. You must sell your horse. 

10. Let me go to sleep. 

11. Put those books on the chair. 

12. He will buy four tables. 

13. He sat in that chair. 

14. I helped him. 

15. Where did you see me ? 

16. Where have they been ? 



Exercise 32. 

Read and Translate into English. 

1. m )mm ^?nii In m m m lu 

2. mi m Qi L!3n "^^Ijj m m. u 



( 90 ) 

5. mi Qiu vwmfi im u mu m \.\m 

6. IT] Viltjn Iw'viiu in vi^^iu m aw m l?i lii 

\m yiiu JJ1 



Exercise 33. 

TRANSLATE INTO SIAMESE. 

1. He says that we shall have six knives . 

2. We think that he has seen us. 

3. They made four chairs and two tables. 

4. I am holding a pen and a spoon. 

5. Do you want a black horse ? 

6. They will call a carriage for us. 



Chapter XV. 

THE ADJECTIVE. 



Adjectives in Siamese follow the noun 
which they qualify, but there are a few ad- 
jective of Pall origm which precede the noun. 

e.p. mi great . 



( 91 ) 

Adjectives may be :— 

1. Simple, r.g. ^ gOod. pfl black. 

2. Doiihh . ('.(J. ^ ritj savage. W \k\ stupid. 

3. />f<r^■^Ja^^/ v.— Derivative adjectives may be 
formed from nouns and verbs by means 
of such words as W and !D^ 'which' 
m 'thing' ih 'face' or front. 

^.g. t m lovable. ^ nu eatable, m nm 
fearful. HU f w^a remaining. 

Some adjectives are formed with the phrase 

111 f (do not know.) 

«.'/. Ijjj Qlimy 'eternal,' lit. do not know 

11 

day to die. 

Note these three phrases : — 

LlIu 0U 3Jin plentiful, many. 

LlluaUBIl^ absolutely. 

IlIu ITiU chiefly, important. 
Possessive Adjectives. — These are formed by add- 
ing the word W^ (of or belonging to) to pronouns. 

''.ff. -iJU I. 110^ mi my, mine. 



( 92 ) 

Note. — When a possessive adjective is used 
with another adjective, the possessive adjective 
comes last. 

e.g. VC\ m "M^ m my black horse. 
Demonstrative Adjectives are: — 

U this, these, m that, those. Imi that 
those yonder. 

There is no definite article ' the ' in Siamese, 
but its place is taken by the demonstrative ad- 

jectives U and m. 

Comparison of ylr//V>^*;i/;«^^.— The comparative 

degree is formed by adding rrJl to the positive. 

<',g. ^ good. 71 trJl better. 
The superlative degree is usually formed by 

adding the words l\ m- to the positive. 

e,g. f\ good ^ rril better. f[tfm best. 

There are various other words which may 
be used to form the superlative degree, e.g. jjlfl 

or un 'very.' 7\ JJIfl or ^ llfl very good. 

it \M\1 and iVmi Lnil are strong forms. 

t\ MMn excellent, J\ LMfiBinu exceedingly good. 
A superlative meaning is given to adjectives 

by repeating, them thus, 71 71 usually written 

^«^ ' very good.' ^13J *] ' very beautiful.' 

Cf. M"^ ' very ' e.g. 3J1 m UU UW ILvT'^ 

that horse is very dear. 



( 93 ) 
Vocabulary 4. 

READ AND LEARN THESE WORDS. 



irii 

LLti 



•01 

mi 



\.m 



long 


L!JU 


cool 


short 


mi\ 


cold 


tall 


m 


fresh 


short (of persons) 


Pill 


unripe 


happy 


m 


sharp 


good-natured 


m 


blunt, stupid. 


sad 




hard 


many 


mi 


soft 


new 


h 


large 


old, of things 


vm 


young 


old, of persons 


m 


ill 


quick 


mm 


well, healthy 


slow 


m 


loud 


hot 


m 


quiet 


at all 


t 


to-morrow 



( 94 ) 
Exercise 34. 

Read and Translate into English. 

1. 'iu u mi'i inn 

3. .lai mmi \m m Ivi w. im v\m 

4. ifa f\m m u Lm riQi im w^ vn'u 

5. In L^ m mi t m lto miu m 

!J 

„ ^ U ^ H ^ 

6. gun 'Qu m?iui^ 

7. Ln '^:; liJ la ^u Iviu' ?im nj:;ijan 

8. ^aauLvimui] Lfn uli^ 

9. f^u wmm mu h inn 

10. LjT^l^Tuu mlH Lfuau iJim 

11. mj LLn n(n vn'u 

12. inu L^n !flQ^ TflTU QIJ ^Iviu 

13. mvniundi m 
? 

14. LiuTmaaniiiQii^O 

15. ui?i ?ia^ Lfiu u Rjj fi mm 



II 



? 

I A A 



( 95 ) 

16. jji Ivioj m LUJQ ranu im 

17. 'QuiLmQ'lviqj wmEJWi 

18. in iw m Im 

19. L-ailiJ t m im 

20. L5n m m iw Ivioj lliJi^ m 



Exercise 35. 

TRANSLATE INTO SIAMESE. 

1. That man is very old. 

2. That house is very large. 

3. I want a sharp knife. 

4. Do not speak loud. 

5. There are many black cats in that house. 

6. He is very happy to-day. 

7. Bring me three new books. 

8. I will sell this old horse. 

9. Those three children are stupid. 

10. Tom is a good natured man. 

11. My cat is smaller than yours. 

12. It is very hot to-day. 

] 3. That man is very tall. 



( 96 ) 

14. This boy is not younger than you. 

15. That horse is larger than this. 

16. We shall be ill to-morrow. 

17. To-day they will buy a new house. 

18. Take away this unripe fruit. 



Chapter XVI. 

THE PRONOUNS. 

I. Personal Fro/uxuti^.— Great care must be 
taken in the use of the personal pronouns, as 
different forms are used according to the rel- 
ative rank of the person speaking, the person 
spoken to, and the person spoken about. Offence 
can be given or taken very readily if a pronoun 
unsuited to the rank of the person be used. 

PRONOUNS OF THE FIRST PERSON. /. 

1. n A highly abusive and a con- 

temptuous word used to inferiors. 

2. 31 As above but not so abusive. 



3. 'till The general form used to 

equals and inferiors. 

4. Tmi'^ A polite or official form used 

principally in official letters. It 
can be used in speaking to 
superiors. 



( 97 ) 

5. w Used by inferiors to superiors; 

a very polite form. Most Siamese 
when talking together use 

W rather than mi 

6. ni':;CJJJ As above, only still more 

polite. 

mzmw or ! 

^ , Used in speaking to Princes. 

T\ VIJ:;wvislsi Used in speaking to H. M. 



the King of Siam. 



9. TOU A polite form used by wo- 

men, e.g. a servant to her 
mistress. 

10. m "We," but it is familiar. 

More formal expressions for 
" we " are such phrases as 

PRONOUNS OF THE SECOND PERSON. YOU. 

1. m A very abusive and contemptuous 

word used to inferiors. 

2. IW Rather contemptuous sometimes, 

but is the usual form to employ to 
a coolie. Parents speakmg to 
their children use this word. 



( 98 ) 

3. L'=^1 or Lin Used to servants and inferiors. 

4. n'TU The general term to equals, but 

is rather familiar. 

5. Fitii To superiors. To high officials the 



' word is used as follows. To a 

man of the rank of Luang, 

Piru Vim^. To a man of the rank of 

Phra, PimiAlJ". To a man of the 
rank of Phya or Chow Phya, 

w f=im. 

T 

6. im used by persons of high rank to 

each other. 

7. EJllAIJ^inifl To Royal Princes. 

8. Ill m naaon yJKinYlTo H. M. The King 

of Siam. 

9. mm a term of endearment used to 

women. 



\()f<'.- In speaking to superiors, or to 
equals in a formal way, when no intimacy exists 
between the parties concerned ; the Siamese 
employ a kind of impersonal method to obviate 
the use of such words as 1*^1 or i/iiu. 



( 99 ) 



The name or title of the person spoken to 
is used instead of the pronoun. 

('. (J. \s\m. '^x, vm m m\ AVill you come 

back ? speaking to a Phya. 

\m 3J1 mim ' Where do you come from' ? 
speaking to a ordinary person. in^==Mr, 

PRONOUNS OF THE THIRD PERSON. 
HE, SHE, IT, THEY. 



2. 

3. 



5. 
6. 

7. 

8. 



un 



4. im 



vm 



In 



fijjj 



u 

wLim 



It, referring to animals or 
children. It is abusive if used 
to refer to persons. 

Referring to inferiors. 

The general form referring 
to equals. 

Referring to superiors. Be 
careful not to confuse the use 
of this word as a second per- 
sonal pronoun with its use as 
a pronoun of the third person. 

Referring to superiors. 
Referring to princes. 
Referring to a Royal Prince. 

Referring to the H. M. the 

King of Siam. 
Referring to Royalty generally. 



( 100) 

ii, A;.s.s7>v//v' Protunui^ have the same form 
as the possessive adjectives '/./•. but are 
used as follows. 

Adjective !j1 2Q-3 'Su ' my horse. ' 

Pronoun |jl m U 20^ ^U ' This horse is mine'. 

iii. RrliiUri' Pronouns :ji and 1]^ "who, wMch, 

t\isX" ('.(J. ^tm^mmUM The horse 
which I bought. 

iv. Ut'fic.rln; Proi/oiiii.<: are formed from 
personal pronouns by the addition of 

the word \m >'■ g. utl LQ^ myself, m m 

m itself etc. 'mjli^'^i.sfjij mnm 'mi u m 

"I wrote this letter myself." 
V. Ijtl<'rr<)ij((tin' Pronoaiis 

m vulgarly pronounced m who ? 

9^1? what ? 

U V\m U \\ whoever ? 



u 



n how many ? N.B. n m what is the 

time ? 

iwXl how much ? 

m which ? 

vi. Indf'tivrte Prononns . 



%! 



Ul^ some, any. a:;lj any, anything. 

llJ lilpl? nobody. 121 they, one, cf. French 

on. 



( 101 ) 



Tin f=lU eV-erybody. m m^ both. 

a a ay a 

mwm, my\m, m'^u all. m every, au 

other, p^^^ *] various. T/in i^ each, every. 



Vocabulary 5. 

READ AND LEARN THESE WORDS. 






nu 
Ltan 



anvn? 
tim 



name 
to eat 
rice 
food 
cup 

mi\m^ glass 
fiji^nuiri to drink 
ifl'Dn tea 
lljtlTlfl country 

town 
frmn climate 
riu shop 



L^Qsl 



wm 


market 


m 


word 


fiw 


theatre 




cloth 


SU 


poor 


lULI 


butter 


LLW 


dear 




cheap 


m 
11 


pig 


ra<i 


room 


.n 


hen 


^ 1 
b 


egg 



( 102 ) 





day 


m 


head 


Jqu 


month 


m 


eye 




year 




ear 


f]imii 


week 




husband 


mif] 


hat 


im 


wife 


mu 


garden 


m 


tosay, to report 




hand 


nm 


price 



Exercise 36. 

Read and Translate into English. 

1. gu u fi m m f\ m 



2. ej3jl3JiQ"l?nl! 



4. 


S^lillm L?gf 


5. 


im m m m m u 


6. 


LSI t mn n m 



7. mff^ ?ia^piu Lsu 3jin 

8. vm Lira lu "uu jipin lvitIj 



( 103 ) 

9. IraLilumaQNiSvinj^Piuuu 

10. S^lijlra^ wmin 

11. EJjj'^"jJivnf=imw^mv!u 

12. PlUVlUUmLViUmLiULLe^Q 

13. mtainlslfi LLWun 

14. u viusitjl[?i'^:;ui 

15. L3J3J TOYlSt^DQ mmMM 

16. Laiun(?n^ jjilvimiui^ 

17. piu vin •] m'siaij™!! 

19. m EJ "DILI i^ L^u '^w m 

20. Ltaira^liJ^m] 

21. m m w. im l^u nihh 

22. L!ai #0 Qi L^n Finifi lTu unn 

23. vinuliJlQviugnliJviu^ 

24. L'^^ m^ LQ1 aivnj jji I m^ u 



( 104 ) 

Exercise 37. 

TRANSLATE INTO SIAMESE. 
1. Have you any eggs ? 2. Everybody will 
drink tea. 3. The man w^hom I saw was old. 
4. Shall you go home this year ? 5. Who saw 
me to-day ? 6. In this country the climate is 
bad. 7. Go and buy some different glasses. 
8. We must sleep every day. 9. What have you 
there ? 10. Have you been to market ? 11. How 
much is this cup ? 12. They will go to the shop. 
13. Whoever will go ? 14. I walk every day in 
my garden. 15. How many hens have you ? 
16. Do not buy that cloth. 17. Nobody likes 
pigs. 18. My wife has no butter. 19. Both 
those cats are large. 20. Her husband is poor. 
21, All my horses are ill. 22, Come and have a 
drink. 23. I went to the new shop myself. 
24. These eggs are not cheap. 



Chapter XVH. 
THE ADVERB. 
Adverbs can be formed from adjectives by 
the aid of such words as \m, LlJu, iv\. 



( 105 ) 



Examples. L2n f^ 111 l^lfJ Ifi ' *he runs quickly. " 

rofl lifl I'w'^iQIl?) "wash the clothes clean." 

The Adjective itself can be used as an 
adverb if placed after the verb. 

''.g. IT\ T^ fi he runs well. 
As a general rule, adverbs come either at 
the end or the beginning of a sentence. 

'''^ im W llJ mu when I go home. 

mj tlJ inii iim =] I often go home. 

The student should learn the following com- 
mon adverbs and adverbial phrases. 

I.— ADVERBS OF TIME. 



mil 



to-day 
yesterday 



■ mm u 



Qlli f U U the day before j mm \h 



1 






yesterday 
to-morrow 

the day after 



mm u'l 



iliii 



to-morrow u nm£J U 



now 

'^It \MIl presently 
mD vm afterwards 



at once 
now 

next week 
next month 
next year 
last year 



mm T\m U last month 
Qn^l^Llri'QUll last week 



m 



u 



in future 



( 106 ) 



A a . . 

LUQ Kr\ just now 

I X ij to-morrow 
f morning 

lSq mUQIUU yesterday 



m 



? 



evenmg 



PIU m ?^ all night long 

I 

all day long 
always 



'iu m P11 



L^3J0 



0n, an ^MW again 



muM 



then 
every day 



late at night 
ever, usually 
how old 
sometimes 
often 
never 

this evening 
im fin JJ gu 3J1 img 3 days ago 



muu 



Vin TU every day an f\m mugu in two or 

\ ^ ^ , three days 

m iT\ U this morning I time 

A A ^ 

L3J0 when. L3J0 b when ? (interrogative. ) 



II. -ADVERBS OF PLACE. 



1\ im 



A A 



Ay. 



2> 

MM 



where 

whence 

here 

there 

yonder 



ra m u 



tan m 



hence 
up and down 
back 
near 
far 



( 107 ) 



Pl?^ fill am opposite 






at home 
from home 
^ mu '^n ^ anywhere 






Sin inu 






'm uan 



over 

under 

underneath 

inside 

outside 



w\ 



llJ 



in front 
behind 
straight on 



JQUjBQJiJQLI around 



"m sQi 



on the right 
on the left 
elsewhere 
lliW^lviU nowhere 
Tin *] UVi^ everywhere. 



1/ u 
«i A 

1/1 QU 



III.— ADVERBS OF MANNER etc 

lAIQ 



LTlll?, nuinuQEJ howmuch? 
THI lu why ? 

BLn^l? how 
TO U,l7l^llu therefore 

adiJLranu of the same 

, A ^^^"^ 

0^1^ Qli of another 

kind 
am-jlviU what kind ? 



Lnau 



iJr3Jim 



LTnfm 






iJiunfii^ 

LLT/IU 



enough 

almost 

about 

equally 

especially 

medium 

nearly 



( 108 ) 



tin 

V 



correctly 
m wrongly 

LJQ, Im ill quickly 



m 



mm fm 
mi m 
•a JJ1 



un, 



slowly 

together 

on foot 

on horseback 

very 



uin much 

JJin inu 111 too much 
um little 

uaii mu 111 too little 
LIR only 

LHU Wl more than 
Lm, Lllu LLU truly 

'nmrnvm is that so 



Exercise 38. 

Read and Translate into English. 



1. lyi^nuLnaij 

2. {nu-aQ^muQ^lrifiinuaa^mj 

li 

3. uTu "sm L^n m m^ m fiw m mu iim i/n'u 

u 

4. ^U QLI 1] UTU Tin QU 
u f 

5. m mmu 'nm mmfm 

6. mu ui ^ !l i^ilu 

7. fi Lmg 5ra 31li i Iviu 



( 109 ) 

8. mi 111 m w In m^ m^ w. 

9. m u 21U f\m m & m t m 

SI L 

10. fi FlU BLj ^ LUBvl m toioi wu m 
11- 'tlU'^"2miLllTlL3JQ^UU 

12. ^uy i4nmfiLL?iui?i w 

18. M^^miTuwiupilviu 

14. mjjiu^ L^Q^lne^un 

15. ]}jtm m x).)! inu 

16. Laimm?|j&im 

17. vi'iu im fixi auy r]] 

18. m 14 Yi'iu rfa^ aiu in m iim vi'nu 

19. liJ 1J1U mw M Ifi "] 

20. mu '^^ lijj asl? m v(] 

21. Qnfffi 141 L!ai '^^ nmi in 

22. L^u i Ljnlii fi wu 

23. V11U uQulu iHu u ija^j =] r[] 

24. L71 u -au li m? vn liJu qu jjih 



( no ) 
Exercise 39. 

TRANSLATE INTO SIAMESE. 

1. Where have you come from ? 2. Let us go 
home the day after to-morrow. 3. That child 
eats all day long. 4. Presently they will return. 
5. Go to market at once. 6. Last year I was 
very ill. 7. Do not go out too late at night. 

8. Sometime we go for a drive in the evening. 

9. We see these things everywhere. 10. Call 
that man sitting yonder. 11. There is too much 
sugar in the tea. 12. What kind of box do you. 
want ? 13. Why do you drink that water ? 14. 
They have not had enough to eat. 15. Tom and 
I came together. 16. I want miore money than 
this 17. These two glasses are equal. 18. The 
garden is in front of the house. 19. They are 
walking behind the house. 20. This is nearly 
correct. 21. My house is opposite to yours. 22. 
We have almost reached home. 23. The book 
is underneath the table. 24. He says he has 
never seen a tiger. 



( 111 ) 



Chapter XVIII. 

PREPOSITIONS CONJUNCTIONS 
INTERJECTIONS. 

The Prepositions in Siamese are : — 



in 


at, to, 


^u ™ 


until 


h 


extending to 


mw\ 


through 


\ 


in 


^^m 


since 


m, '^^X\ from 


'him 


in order to 


Lifl 


to (dative) 


fnj, mu 


with 


m 


on 


m 3J 


without 


,P1 


under 


mm '^K\ 


except 


\n 


before, (place) 


m}i 


according to 


vm 


,, (time) 


mJiawil because 
f 


vm 


behind 


LLT/IU 


instead of 


lumi^ between 


f JJ near by the side of 




The Conjunctions i 


/ HiaiiieHi 


are : — 


im, 


Lm:;, nil and 


m 


but 


m^,mw!]ufnjalso 


™ Qtll^l? n ^ however 


WQ 


or 


Lwx "auu 


therefore 



ah 



( 112 ) 
and then fulfil, m^ once upon a time 



±J V U ' . „ 



•^i 



then 



nw besides 
Common IiUfrjccthiuf iit Siaiticsi' are :- 

\vm ! 4l ! 

calling attention 

nil \m ! L^i vm \ 

m\t ! LL14 ! 
f 

QLI ! aU ! QILI 
? u 

Lmu ! 
\.m ! 

^ LLfig ! m ! 



indicating 


surprise 


indicating 


pain 


>> 


disgust 


>i 


joy 


! f 


sorrow 


> J 


consent 



Vocabulary 6. 

LEARN THESE WORDS 
lW\ time ; igftT \.Y\m midday 

nmnt^l'^gu in the daytime LQft1 Ul 1^ dawn 

LQmn^^l^^U in the night ^ tgfn lAlfill 

1 L^fii ui m 



dusk 





( 113 ) 




w 


agreement 




to order 


T^VilJ 


soldier 


1 


business 


nm m 


army 


iitmii 


cocoanut 


%u 


soil, land 


mm 


mango 


mm 


sea 


mi\A 


clean 


U3JU1 


river 


m]\m 


dirty- 


TOQ^ 


canal 


i^un 


wet 


nm 
11 


mountain 


LLW 


dry 


vigi'j L-ai 


valley- 


Ifinfj 


the earth 


? 


fertile 


^j:;!n^i?i[j 


the sun 


mu 


fat 


yiK^m 


the moon 


Wli 


thin 


mi 


star 


UQfl 


to tell 


711^ 


path way 


vnEjliJ im 


to be lost 
urgent 


vijju mu 
1 


to go round 
to revolve 



( 114 ) 

Exercise 40. 

READ AND TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH. 

1. uiluLL3Jui f^niJjn jjin 



a-- I £=. 



3. ntai liu 0^ iJi TCLfi 

u li 

5. mil lu na^ ffvi uu uw m 

6. LQ1 LfiJ mill an 131 unvi v\m 

7. m inu fiij mj 

8. uan -^in Piu uu I3J fi Ira jji 

9. mil fi LLjjg ^Q^ m vifa lii (?ig viu^ 

10. mw m n ^ig imm m 

11. m Mui mi 5 

12. mj fi iim ?n3j i?fQ llpi ra v\m mu\]l im \.im 

13. mu sf^ ! lii m \m iim inuliJ 

14. mis ! 1^1 aiii^ iTu A 
1 

1.5. Q^ BU mi L^ii mVi 
? ? 



1 



6. TllU '^1 ! !!!!] l\Zm 1m mJ ?i1U m 



( 115 ) 

17. LBnf^UUulvi JJl W^U 



18. 131^ m miu m mm n ti miu m mu imm m 



ii>. m mil vn mu fi'ilii 

20. LW?X WJ t Sr SHLlJu 



Exercise 41. 

TRANSLATE INTO SIAMESE. 

1. There are four cocoanuts on the table. 2, I 
have been well since last year. 3. I live near the 
river. 4. The Earth goes round the sun. 5. One 
book is under the table. 6. The moon is smaller 
than the Earth. 7. There are four men in that 
house. 8. This valley is very fertile. 9. There 
is a valley between those mountains. 10. The 
soldiers marched through the country. 11 I 
will come instead of you. 12. The army has 
reached the sea. 13. My books are at home, 

14. This is not according to your agreement. 

15, I came before he did. 16. The soil near the 
canal is wet. 



( 116 ) 

Chapter XIX. 

TIME. MONEY, WEIGHTS AND 
MEASURES. 



Time. — The Siamese method of reckoning- 
the hours of the day is as follows. They start 
from sunrise (6 a.m.) and count six hours till 
noon : — 

Thus sunrise (6 a.m.) is VW\ U\h 



7 a.m. 




8 a.m. 


mm <mh\^ Lm 


9 a.m. 


iT(] mi m 


10 a.m. 


i^m^im m 


11 a.m. 


vm w^m LiH 


12 noon. 


\.T(] mm 



From noon onwards, they count six hours 
till sunset (6 p.m.) as follows. 



1 p.m. 


vm \m\m 


2 p.m. 


\jm im m^ \m 


3 p.m. 


\.imimm{\m 


4 p.m. 


\.imimt\m 



( 117 ) 

5 p.m. 

6 p.m. 



From 6 p.m to 6 a.m. they reckon 12 hours 
called m 



mi iji^ villus or m 


1m iim 


•1 d 

LOT vifi im mu or LOT 


m]} or i<]m m m 



Thus 7 p.m- 


LQfil m v\w 


8 p.m. 


LQon m^ m etc. 


up to 5 a.m. 


LQ01 m LH^ TO 
1 


The night is also divided into watches called 



!jn3J 

Thus 9 p.m. is often called LOT um v\m 

Midnight LQfn m^ mjJ 

3 a.m. Li^m mii L11JJ 

Since the introduction of European clocks 
many Siamese call the_ hours by the same num- 
bers as is done in English. 

For the fractional parts of the hour the 
following expressions are used. 



( 118 ) 

(i.) For the half hour, the word m ' half ' is 
added. 

r.ff. 2-30 p.m. ™i UltJ ?i9^ Ijj^ ra 

(ii. ) For periods of less than half an hour, they 
say so many hours and minutes. 

r.ff. 2-15 p.m. Lim 3J1^?iQ<ll3J^^U vilUI^ 

(iii.) For periods of more than half an hour, 
they reckon it as the next hour less so 
many minutes. 

(^.(/. 2-4.3 p. m. i']^i iiit] fiijj Ijj^ !j^ Til fi iu m 
mfi or nfii mu ^iii \m m 
•aipi ail vii my\ 

The Siamese language has adopted the 
English word minute 2u(^ which is often used 



^ 



instead of the word UITI. A second of time is 



A 



gunvi. 

Formerly the hour was divided into 6 parts 
of 10 minutes each, called uivi, but this is no 
longer used. 

T/ie Month is reckoned in two ways. 

(i.) The Official .^tjilc, in which the months 
correspond to those of the Gregorian calender ; 
the name being taken from the signs of the Zodiac. 



(119) 



January. 


jjnjif=iJj 


July. 


riiTigra 


February. 


nummis 


August. 


awn™ 


March. 


flUIRJi 


September. 


mnm 


April. 


Ljjmtju 


October. 


T 


May. 


wqam^jj 


November. 


wrjFismLiu 


June. 




December. 


wTim 



(ii.) The Popular Lunar reckoning. Each 
month has 29 or 30 days alternately. 

These months are numbered from 1 to 12, 
but the first month is called LinQU QIEJ and the 

second imu U, Every 3 years a 13th month has 

to be intercalated ; the eighth month mau LLlJpi 
is reckoned twice over. 

These lunar months are usually one month 
in advance of the ordinary calendar months i. e. 
the second month imu U is somewhere about 
January. 

Each of these lunar months is divided into 
two parts, (i) The waxing of the Moon, from 
new to full. {"SU) (ii.) The waning of the Moon, 



( 120 ) 



from full to new mil) Each day is called m. 
Thus the fourth day of the waning moon of the 
5th month would be Lmu h LLJ3J t m . The ^U mt 
or Siamese holy days always occur on the 1st 9th 
15th of the waning and 8th of the waxing, or 
else on the 8th and 15th of the waxing and the 
8th and 15th of the waning in alternate months. 

The common people invariably use this 
made of reckoning. In order to find out the cor- 
responding day in the Gregorian calendar, the 
best way is to purchase a Siamese almanac 

(llpUW) costing 1 salung. 

In these almanacs the days of the month, 
Gregorian or Official system, are put in* parallel 
columns with the Lunar reckoning thus. 



This rather cabalistic ar- 
rangement of figures requires 
some explanation. The Left 
hand column is simply the days 
of the month (Official reckon- 
ing.) 



February. 

? 


A 




SI 


+ Snoi 


Iffl 


bToi 


01 


&10 

d 1 en 



(121 ) 

The right hand column refers to the lunar 
reckoning. The sign i means the waxing or 
waning of the moon and the numeral above or 
below it the number of the m or day. When 
the numeral is over the sign °i it means waxing 

(2> S \ 
i'Sl^'SU) ) when the numeral is under the 

sign 1 it signifies waning moon can^LLJJJ) 



The numeral on the right hand side of .1 is 
the number of the lunar month, and the numeral 
on the left hand side of 1 indicates the day of the 
week 51 being Sunday la Monday and so forth. 
The mark + against the left hand numeral indi- 
cates 'm Wt (Siamese holy day. ) 

Therefore the first line of the above calendar 
corresponding to Feb. 1st will be Thursday Wan 
Pra the eight day of the waxing moon of the 
3rd month. 

The days of the week are : 



s' 



Sunday gu Trnm 



•u e' 



Monday lU "^UTO 

Tuesday oii mmi 



Wednesday m m\ 



Thursday 'III Vii:\mm 



(122) 

Friday QU Pinf 

Saturday gii ifJlf 

Siamese holy day oil mz 

It is an interesting fact to notice that the 
names of the days in Siamese are practically the 
same as the names in any European language 
the days being called after the planets in the 
order, Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, 

Saturn. Thus gu nmm means literally Sunday. 



THE YEAR. 

There are three eras used in Siamese chro- 
nology. 

(i. ) The official era Ratinakosinsok J. F|. dat- 
ing from the foundation of Bangkok A.D. 1782. 

(ii) The old civil era ( Chulasakkarat ) dating 
from A. D. 638. 

(iii) The religions era (Puttasakkarat) dating 
from the death of Buddha B, C. 543. 

The official new year begins on April 1st. 

The present year 1906 A. D. (April) is 
equivalent to 125 Ratinakosinsok. 1268 Chula- 
sakkarat or 2449 Puttasakkarat. 

The popular method of reckoning years, is 
by cycles of twelve, named after various animals 







( 123) 


The following 


is the 


popular cycle. 


il 'im 


year of the Rat. 


11 


>> 


>> >> 


Ox. 


li im 


>? 


) J )) 


Tiger. 


u \mt 


>> 


) > >> 


Rabbit. 


\\ V^l^ 


>> 


M M 


Large Dragon 


u V£:,\.m 


M 


>• )> 


Small Dragon. 


u Vitim 


)> 


> >» 


Horse. 


t U^LLII 


>> ) 


> )> 


Goat. 


t ran 


>> ) 


> > J 


Monkey. 


L j:;m 


j> ? 


J > ) 


Cock. 


li -^Q 


>j > 


> )> 


Dog. 


u nnj 


5> > 


7 >> 


Pig. 



There is a small handbook published in 
Siamese giving tables for reducing these popular 
dates to official Ratinakosinsok dates, and from 
thence it isquite easy to reduce the Siamese dates 
to their Gregorian equivalents. 



( 124 ) 

MONEY. 

The Siamese money table is as follows :— 

l?iT/}FI — 1 att 0^ 

— 1 pie Iw 
=- 1 song pie or seek !iin 
= 1 fuang mm 

— 1 salung m^ 

— 1 tical 1J1Y1 
-- 1 tamlung !^1^^ 

— 1 catty ^•J 

The coins in circulation are -^ lot, att, pie, 
and song pie. Bronze ; fuang, salung, and tical, 
Silver. 

The tamlung and the catty are merely sums 
of money. 

The silver coins are used as weights ; and 
other weights are derived from them. 

TABLE OF SIAMESE WEIGHTS. 

5 lee ra = 1 hoon VIU 

5 hoon — 1 fuang 

2 f uangs == 1 salung etc. as money table 

50 catties = 1 picul vnu = 133^^ lb. 



2 lots 


2 


atts 


2 


pies 


2 


song pies 


2 


fuangs 


4 


salungs 


4 ticals 


!0 


tamlungs 



( 125 ) 



The tical is about 15 grains or ^ oz. and the 
catty is about 2| lbs. Avoir. Besides the ' lee ' 
and 'hoon' which strictly speaking are Chinese 
weights used for opium and gems, there are 
several other small weights, but they are not 
important. 



Sums of money are thus denoted, 
catties 



tamlungs 



salungs 



d 



ticals 



fuangs 



en 



pies 

(i) 



(2) 



Thus fig 2 would represent the sum of 5 
catties 1 tamlung 2 ticals 3 salungs 1 f uang. 2 pies 
or 406 ticals 60 atts. 

To represent atts put the number in the 

place for pies and with the word ^ after it. 



Siamese Long Measure. 

4 krabiet, T\lt\m = 1 Niw (inch) & 
12 Niw. = 1 Kheub (span) m 

1 Kheub, = 1 Sawk (cubit) Fian 





( 126 ) 




4 Sawk, 


= 1 Wah 


'il 


20 Wah. 


= 1 Sen 




:00 Sen, 


1 Yote 


IfJ'Qli 



A ' Wah ' is practically 2 metres, or a little 
over 2 yards. 40 sen are practically 1 mile. 

Siamese Measure of Capacity for liquids and 
Dry goods. 

4 Kham meu. Til ua = (handful) = 1 tchang- 

awn s^Qatj 

2 tchangawn 1 tanan ViUTU (coconut 

shell) 
20 tanan = 1 tang !i^ (|pailful) 

25 tanan = 1 sat W\ (bushel) 

100 tang, or 80 sat = 1 coyan inxiU ( cart 

load.) 
A ' Tanan ' is nearly 1 litre or about 1 quart. 

SqiKtrr iiu'dsiirc. For measurements of area, 

the unit is the square wah. a square sen is 

called a rai [j (acre.) 

CiiJ)ir ivcuKiirc for sawn timber. The unit is 
the yok m which is 16 wah long 1 sawk wide 
and Iniw thick, 1 yok = 11-44 cubic feet 
approximately. 





(127) 






Vocabulary 7. 




ifB 


boat. 


m 


comb. 


viKmw 


plank. 


m mt 


to laugh. 


mu 


road. 


ilin 


mouth. 


BonqM 


English. 


m namely, for example 


^Jl3LFlPi 


French. 


5^ ^ 
U1 JJU 


oil. 


lumim 


German. 


r ^ ^ 


kerosine oil. 


^n 


European. 


nrmu 


paper. 


uiwm 


clock. 


mra 


salt. 


imm 


clerk. 


v^fn \m 


pepper. 


Lmgu 


ring. 


mn 


chilies. 


nfijj 


round. 


mnj^ 


accounts. 


[.m 


to be born. 


inan 


shoes, slippers 


m llI^bh 


paddy. 


m^ 


opposite to, 
equivalent to. 


Exerci 

READ AND TRANSLj 


se 42. 

^TE INTO ENGLISH. 



1 i'im mu ?ii3J im mi t sr mn. 

2 i'i'^i m k viiu m m mm vifa ' 



( 128 ) 

3 mm u m an m m \m 'Ht m ?i im l^qi. 

4 m% mi \M^ im m m ifja tu &3mj. 

6 lSq QiJ V13J fiau T11U 1^ m mm v\m win \m ? 

7 m m^ ^ imm m \\ mm wnm u. 

8 L^ifitju 2!]^ mj L^u JJT w Li(?i imi wrm im. 

1 



9 Vim m m Iw 3ji vn m lu gii vjqwiu^ mmti \n. 
10 lu iJj:;LinFi u lot ifiau lumiiu QimR n rm um. 



T 

12 LOTUi^gu'^ura mnt iMmnvmrn^i^immm^m. 



^^J^ 



i:; LUf] L^QU mnrjiPiuYnullitaiLiih £iu™liJ f\m- 

14 'DT] ivsSm mil m mjlH jji vn niu iti!] l'^^^i fiB^ Im vt\ 

15 nuu fnii u LIT] iJj:;uim n l^u-'' 

16 L^^ju inp ulHu ra:;mu uu ran Hm lot in. 

17 LJ1 JJT ™ llr^LVlFi tJy^LFlFI lu L^QU SUHFIU. 

18 m% Lm L^Q 7u ^ d Lrau Mnm u j pi. oiob. 

iv» L^QU u LLJjj vin m ra fiij ou i \A ? 

^^ LSI LQfi di 131 i&n u vs] la ui Lnibu at v\m^^ 



( 129 ) 
Exercise 43. 

TRANSLATE INTO SIAMESE. 
1. Come at half past five p.m. on Friday. 
2. He came home at 3 a.m. yesterday. 3. I 
shall be busy at 4 p.m. to-morrow. 4. It is now 
twenty minutes to 6 p.m. 5. It is 10.45 a.m. 
6. I shall go home in April. 7. Come and see me 
on Thursday morning. 8. Next Friday week 

1 shall be very busy. 9. This table is 3 sawk 
long and 2 sawk ^ wide. 10. How much is this 
paddy per coyan? 11. I will return at noon. 
12. Will you go for a walk at 10. a.m ? 13. I 
cannot see him at 9 p.m. 14. It was raining at 
12.30 p.m. 15. It is five minutes to 5 p.m. 
16. They will arrive in November. 17. I went 
out to find him last Monday. 18. In what year 
were you born. 19. The Siamese inch is smaller 
than the English inch. 20. I want a plank about 

2 wah long. 



(130 ) 
Chapter XX. 

SOME MISCELLANEOUS SIAMESE IDIOMS. 

1. Yes and No. There are various forms of 
affirmation and negation used in Siamese which 
differ according to the rank of the persons 
concerned. 

Yes. No. 

to equals and inferiors. 

2. -agfii LiJm'QQJij.lu'l'D' taafiJ 

to superiors. 

? ? 

to princes. 

4. mznmi4\T\wfii Sli^TiAiriAiviiL'Tisn miii 

t f 

to H. M. the King of Siam. 

5. L'STai a poUte form used by women to men. 

There are various other forms of affirma- 
tion and negation which are used in answers to 
questions, which differ according to the nature 
of the question asked. 



''./-/. 



Ijj t Kt. not have IjJ m cannot. 



( 131 ) 

Question fi iHu i^ ' Have you a house ' ? 

Answer lu' II = ' No ' or S — ' Yes '. 
Question mi t] ulU I]] ' Can you do this' ? 

Answer Ijj li^"^ ' No ' V == ' Yes '. 
The forms Sll^*^ and lu' LlJu are often 

used instead of the usual IjJ ll^^ (cannot), 
2. <2?/x^y^'io?2s.— Questions are asked by ad- 
ding the particle r|1 to the end of the sent- 
ence, r.f. chap. 12. § 9 and 10. <^.g. VIIU llJ 1^ IJ] 
' can you go ?'. Questions of this nature, which 
in English would be answered by a simple yes 
or no, are answered in Siamese by repeating 
the verb as follows. 



Affirmative. llJ m Lit. go can = Yes. 

Negative, lllm' Ll^"^ Lit. ' go not can'.=No. 
A double form of question is often used :— 

eg. Vl'iulll LLm q] !W=' Have you gone ? ' 

Lit. " Have you gone or not yet ?" 

Affirmative answer. LlJ iim Have gone— Yes. 

Negative answer, m Not yet = No. 



( 132 ) 

The word ^ is rather perplexing since it 
is used to mean ' yet ' and ' not yet ' in different 
sentences. 

3. Subovd'niaie 67« «.-v>.s-. — In Siamese, sub- 
ordinate clauses are usually placed before main 
clauses, when the reverse order is usually em- 
ployed in English. 

''.(J. iim m m \m ifiiu \.\m m m m m 
I arrived after I had seen you. 
Lit. When I had seen you I arrived. 

4. In certain relative sentences the object 
precedes the verb. 

e.g. mtm%timnmm]. 

I have spent all the money that I had. 

5. The word LOT is always placed last in a 
sentence when it is the sign of the perfect tense. 

N. B. In questions with tj], the word am 

would come before V[\. 

When \\m is placed first in a sentence, it is a 
Conjunction meaning ' and then '. 

6. The word ^ivinj means 'for the purpose 
of ' ' used for ' ' in order to '. By the aid of this 



( 133 ) 

word, and the word mfm "apparatus," many- 
ideas can be readily expressed which have no 
exact Siamese equivalents. 

^. g. m kwmi a ' a saddle horse ' Lit. a 
horse for riding. 

Lf=lf0^ fWmi im 7\1 ' a camera '. Lit. apparatus 
for making pictures. 

7. fl is an intensitive particle used to add 
emphasis to a sentence. It is frequently used 
with the verbs m, and S. 

e.g. 'au w\ M fl IM, 'I can (certainly) do this. 

QQ n U 'He has cows', i.e. 'he has cows for 
certain'. 

8. m) is the negative form of the 
imperative. 

e.g. am Vll V. 'Do not do this'. 

9. m is often used in the sense of to reach, 

to arrive at. 

e.g. mi ra nmm im ' I have arrived in 
t 

Bangkok. 



( 134 ) 

10. mn always gives the idea of pleasure 
as opposed to ■mt business. 



Note these phrases. 
Ill {.mi to go out on pleasure. 

llJ iWJ} Jfl to go out for a drive. 

mi 111 iWIi to go out for a walk. 

llJ iraQ L?Q to go out for a sail or a row. 

11. The English Gerund or Gerundive is 
expressed by the phrase ni?^ St or lu fll? t St. 

1 
Going there is pleasant. 

12. Note the idioms of these words. 
(a) To wash aiu, lifl, m 

anu ill „ to bathe, to wash oneself. 

%\ = to wash clothes. 

jfl^ = to wash plates, hands, things 
generally. 

{b) To carry m, LLUn, Villi, vnu, Q3J, m 

ra to carry in the hand. 
LLUn to carry on the shoulder, 



( 135 ) 

vnu to carry on litter or palanquin. 
vnu to carry on the back. 

an to' carry a child on the hip. 



t 

ra to carry at arm's length. 



13. The word LlJfn usually means " not ' 
but it is used in many phrases to mean "in vain " 
or " simply." 

e.g. mum LlJm •] To labour in vain. Lit. 
tired for nothing. 

U1 "01 llJfn "] Tea without anything added to 
it. 

14. The word W\ gives the idea of vague- 
ness in numerical expressions, 

e.g villi t m m\ LtIitIj About how much 



a> ^ ck «^ 



money have you 1 <mi\ UU m fm a UTVl I have 
a few ticals. Lit. about three or four ticals. 



Note. — m W\ teak tree LJJ m teak wood. 

15. The word OT is used in the same way 

with lu-J (hour) to mean 'per hour' ^ lu<l t\l IVlllj 
'How much per hour'. ? 



( 136 ) 

COLLOQUIAL EXPRESSIONS AND MISCEL- 
LANEOUS SHORT IDIOMATIC PHRASES. 

You are right. ihi flfl 

You are wrong. mil m\]l 

What do you call this ? u if^fl Q1 arlj 

Where have you been ? ifiiu llJ IviU 3J1 

Where are you going ? vilU '^Z 111 IviU 

What is the matter ? Lllu Q^l? 

How old are you ? mil lyilij 

Turn to the right. wm liTl 

Turn to the left. ifeg ¥]U 

Go straight on. ra^ 111 

Go back home. nmi llJ inu 

I beg your pardon. W LTiy 

Come here. SJI U f or in U ii\lZ 

Go there. llJ ^ UU 

Where do you live ? lilU 011 fi \m 

What do you want? ra^ mjffil? 



( 137 ) 

What business is it of ^. 

yours ? sr 0tb 



f 



What is your name ? m 'tzh 

What is the time ? n Im LOT 

I am not quite sure. W \ii ? LLU or lil Vinu 

Can you do it or not ? il 1^ vm \i\ Ipl 

Where can I find it ? vnlH i \m 

I cannot do it. 1^1 l3J 111 

Will you do it ? in vm Lllfn 

Is dinner ready ? QlVil? L^?^ LOT Wb m 

All right. ^ LL^g 

I do not know what it is. mih nlll V1J11J 

Anything will do. 0^1? "] n 111 

What are you doing ? m 0"!? 

Go right away. J^llllf 

What have you got there? U flsl? i mj 

What is this used f or ? U mm a:;!? 

Be quiet. it^ ? or itw "] 



( 138 ) 

How much is this ? U J1f=n LVlllj 

How do you do ? mu aUlU IJ) 

Quite well thank you. ?\mu ^ 

Good bye. -mj m DQU 

Good bye (more polite). EJU m llJ Vim or tJJJ m TI 

That is all nonsense. uii llJ Lllu LJ^H 

Please (invitation) iftt) 

Please take some. if Oj flllljtVlIU ah MUQU 

Thank you. taaiJ l-'i 

Thank you very much. WU l-S vnu JJIfl 

I do not want it. ui LQI 

No thank you (polite). W\i l-S ilh l,§QJ V11U Lfi?l 

Is Mr. at home ?• U1LJ ad Vila ^ 

u 

No, he is not at home UlEjllJ m 

Bye and bye. "^T.mn flSU 

Wait a minute. FlQEJ liJtL^Ejg 

There is none left. vm i\m ov%t \.ym 



( 139 ) 
Have you any more. ti Qfl vm 111 



A. 



Give me some more. LQI UT Qfl 



^ 



Just a very little. m IW^ 

At full speed. L?g m mm 

Too bad for words. leiu ^ 

Excessive. iviflfl \m 

It is all quite spoilt. m/m vm \.m 

Small change. Lfu ll^fl 

You worthless fellow. m IllVTIEJ 

Chinaman (slang term) Vi^ VIU 

To ride in a Ricksha .' 

(slang term). '^vami m^ m 

One's native land. lilU itm LJ1 

What date is it to-day ? gu U I LVnl? 

Take care. r'H 5 

You are very foolish ! Tttl sf^ •] 

You liar! dlEjlflVin 

Hurry up ! if] 131 



( 140 ) 

To give change. YlQIl 0^ 

Never mind. - IsJ Lllu a:;!? 

Slacken speed. LIJT mm 

Stop. v\m 

Get out of the way. Vl^n mEJ 3 

Can you speak EngUsh ? m mViV\Vi Ipl fj] 

Wait for an answer. f^0LI \MU 

Late at night. ^fl 



To get the carriage 
ready. 



II 



To pull a punkah. 'an M 



SOME SIAMESE PROVERBS. 

A certain insight into the mode of thought 
of a nation may be obtained by an examination 
of its common proverbial expressions. 

Notice the following common Siamese pro- 
verbs, their literal translations, and the equiv- 
alent English proverbs. 



( 141 ) 

1. VIU IMi iJ" 'Hm lit. If you run away 
from the tiger, you meet the crocodile; Par- 
rallel English Proverb. Out of the frying pan 
into the fire. 

2. 1AIk™i?i!j13J mu m lit. The Sun ^does not 
wait. Parallel English Proverb. Time and tide 
wait for no man. 

3. llJ iil am mi m lit. When you go into 
the jungle do not forget your knife. Parallel 
English Proverb. Forewarned is forearmed. 

4. Til LSLIQ am "Sm im lit. Do not send your 
boat across a rapid. Parallel English proverb. 
Do not run your head against a stone wall. 
Translate, and give the parallel English proverbs 
( where possible) for the following Siamese 
proverbs. 

1. am Lai mm'i m jji inn nu "aT] mu. 

2. lia uau am liJ m vn«3 Lia. 

t 

3. ?m LUEJ im ua tia Ig in ngi. 



( 142 ) 



4. 


vujiu wwfii'] imM. 


5. 


m\ w ih m. 


6. 


imt tan im ui tJu. 


7. 


m I'm am ilmmn. 


8. 


m 3i?i m\ tiin. 


9. 


]\m m h m \^. 


10. 


muluamiln aan. 


11. 


rrammimuwi. 


12. 


m\ m m mu vj. 


13. 


am iih vm mu mr]. 


14. 


v\m immi\i\fm. 


15. 


m inm mu a lu. 


16. 


gg vnu aau Pian 


17. 


aT^ wm m\?i "hlu tiJulwi 


18. 


cJuismliiYiQ ii. 


19. 


h ^^IviuiJfn n^^uii 


20. 


In ^ijj LW^i:; au f=iu ^tjj imr um 


21. 


!i]a f=iQiLi nfn^ muqi 



( 143 ) 
Chapter XXL 

LETTER WRITING. 

The chief formulae used in Siamese corres- 
pondence t6 begin and to end a letter are as 
follows ; — 

1. From master to servant, father to child, 
superiors to inferiors generally. 

Begin xk and put the name. 
End with signature only. 

2. From a firm to a, private individual or 
rice versa, or between equals where no intimacy 
exists : — 

Begin \.m mm JJT d^ [Name] wm mi 

Endlu ^ fiPi u aa am^ pmu im m m m {Naine) jm 
and signature or use f=mjj LPIITII instead of m\li 



mm, 



3. Between friends of equal rank : — 
Begin i\<wnm m TO JJ1 m {Name) mu m\ 

End lu ^api u m LLara mi3j jn \m mm Jfjn in 
m V11U mi Signature. 



( 144 ) 

4. From a private individual or firm to a 
man of title, i.e. Luang, Pra, Phya, or Chow 
Phya or from servant to master. 

Begin mull m m f=im (Name& Title) TOIIJ mu 
or mUJJld^™ (Name & Title) mi]} mu 

End lu ^ ^[Fi u w mm mm mjra mi^ ?\^ m m 

Pim (Name and Title) mu and Signature. 



Note. — If to a phya or chow phya use 
L'fJPiru with the name. 



IP 



5 From a private individual or a firm to 
a prince of the rank of Mom Chow: — 



aJ I U 



Begin TO UT Ll^ VluaULSI (Name) Yinu ratJ 

End PigjC f^l-^nLffg m '^z TO^IiIjpi and Signature. 

6. From a private individual or a firm to 
a Royal Prince :— 

Begin pJlup Vil?rL'=ll UQ^EJlIQ (Name and 
Title) vi?iije!Ii wj:;ijivi 



( 145 ) 

End. mi S mj iih m "^t \\m mm "^ and 

signature. 

( For examples of Siamese letters see 
Exercises 116-135). 

Notes' oil Siaiiieye 7'if.les-. 

There are two classes of Siamese titles : — 

1. Royal titles, which are hereditary to a 
certain extent. 

2. Non Royal titles, which are hot 
hereditary. 

1. Royal Titles: 

The children of the King by the Queen have 
the rank of 1%! ^1 Chow fa. 

The Crown Prince has the title of 

aULm WJ:;!]?!]!^?!!!™. Somdet Praboromorasah- 

tirat. 

Other children of the King have the title of 

nitmh iHl. Pra Ong Chow. 

These princes may be raised to the title of 
Krom V3li of which there are several degrees. 

The sons of all these princes are called 

VIIIBJJ ISI . Mom Chow, and are grandsons of 

the Xing. 

The son of a Mom Chow is a Mom Racha- 

wongse; VIUBJJ nm^h and the son of a Mom 



( 146) 

Rachawongse is a Mom Luang ; mw vm^. The 
son of a Mom Luang is an ordinary commoner 

\nu. = Mr, 

Thus it may be seen that Royal titles die 
out in five generations. 

2. No// Roiial tiller. A commoner (uiu) maybe 
raised to the following titles of which the first 
named is the lowest. 

1. Khoon. 21! 2. Luang, vm^ 3. Pra mt 

4. Phya mtm 5. Chow Phya LSI mtVf\ 6. Som- 

det Chow Phya, mim LSI mtn\. 

These titles are equivalent to European 
orders of knighthood and must not be translated 
by such titles as Baron, Marquis, etc,, as these 
Siamese titles are not hereditary. 

Note (i. ) the sons of noblemen of the rank 
of Phya or higher bear the courtesy title of Pim 

Note (ii.) Mom wau alone is a title for the 
wives of Princes. 

aitjandfl are abusive epithets or titles ap- 
plied the former to men and the latter to women. 
These words are equivalent to the English words 
" varlet " or "fellow " in the old meaning of the 
words. These terms are used also for criminals. 



( 147 ) 

Siamese habitually give the. title of Pltli to their 
elder relatives when referring to them. 

e.q. f=ini^ elder brother or sister, Pltm/^Q 

father PimLLJJ mother. PimiJl aunt, etc. 
T r 

QILIVHi mM. are used as pet names for 

11 !J ^ 

small children. 



Chapter XXII. 

THE COURT LANGUAGE. 

There are very many special words which 

are used when speaking to or about Royal 

personages in Siamese instead of the ordinary 
words. 

These words usually begin with either the 
prefix Wt for nouns or, 1/lJ'^ which shews that the 
word following i,s a verb. 

Most of the words are derived or taken 
directly from the Pali and Sanskrit languages. 

It is not necessary for Europeans to learn to 
speak the Court language, but it is useful to 
know something about it, as it is always employ- 
ed in Royal proclamations, official notices, history, 
and all matters relating to Royalty. 

The principal classes of these special words 
are : 



( 148 ) 

1. Tlif paiis of till' IkkIii. Examples. 

Hair ordinary word m Royal word mzixm 

Foot „ im ,, mt]m 

Ear ., ^ ,, wrnm 

Mouth ,, iJnn „. w^la^ 

etc. etc. etc. 

2. C'diiinioit (i/i/i'cfs hcloiKjiiig to ((ihI iixcd % 
Riilialtji. 

Clothes, ordin. word lIb m Royal word "mm mim'r\ 
Mosquito net,, m „ inr^fU 

Walking stick,, \l\ im „ SU WIJOT 

etc. etc. etc. 

3. Artirh's of Jooil (1 11(1 ih-'iitlr 

Tea ordinary word fc Royal word lAIJ^fillJR JQli 

Food generally , , miT\ 01V11J , , mtV^TJIwmw. 

etc. etc. etc. 

4. Most names of common fruits and fish 
used as articles of food, also certain kinds of 
flowers, e. (J. 

Melon, ordinary word, lira lu Royal word. eJH wm 

Sole (fish) ,, ,, ilm^iiviui ,, iJm^u?iTTnl; 
etc. etc. etc. 









( 149 


) 




5. 


riui 


King 


Itdatirc. 


.s- •'. (J. 




le. 






T 


Royal word 




t. 






til 


,, WKJJimnu 




etc. 




etc. 




etc. 



6. Most common rci-hs of bodily (iction. 



Togo 



111 Royal word 



mm 



Togofor a walkllJ mm 


,, falFl 


To sleep UQU 


., UJJTIJJ 


To eat nu fll llri/lIU 


,, i?m 


To think m 


,, 1/1?^ mmm 


To write or read Lauu,91U 


,, vi?^ wranm 


To permit auojIIFl 
To give IVi 


,, mznmiu 


To offer (to the 
King) 


,, miu 


To die Wti] 


,, mmm 


etc. etc. 


etc. 



( 150 ) 

7. y/oii''.^- oj A II 'nil ah. 

Pig, ordinary word V13J Royal word aflJ 

Dog ,, V1U1 ,, mm 

Cow ,, 73 ,, \\ 

Buffalo ,, m\ii ,, riA 

etc. etc. etc. 

The student will find a complete list of 

these words in any of the small books called 



EXAMPLES OF SENTENCES SHOWING THE DIF- 
FERENCE BETWEEN ORDINARY SIAMESE AND 
HIGH SIAMESE. 

1. Where is he going? 1*31 '^:; llJ mn \m. 
Where is His Majesty going :" mzv[m ^iUK^lS 

2. I will give you this horse, mj Ht^ m m U 

un vnii. 



May I present Your Majesty with this horse. 

m:;wvisLsn w mtii'HYiin miu m m u. 

3. May I do this ? w \v\ W il m? m U 1^ IviJj. 



(151 ) 
May it please Your Majesty to graciously 



permit me 


to do this ? 


1 




ra:;?i'Q 


vnu mzwm 


jTEniinjiPi m mj m u. 










4. He 


said that he 


was ill. 


L!31 


1 


m 


q't 1*31 




r 













His Majesty said that he was unwell. 

EXAMPLE OF A CONTINUOUS PASSAGE IN 
HIGH SIAMESE. 
The King having passed a good night, arose 
next morning and partook of tea and eggs His 
Majesty then received a deputation from the 
leading merchants, who presented a petition. 
His Majesty was dressed in full military uniform 
with medals. In the afternoon, the Royal phy- 
sician was summond to the Royal Palace, as Her 
Majesty the Queen was suffering from a severe 
toothache, which however was speedily cured. 



nit uvn r]7iwm m^ mtvatm vm m\ iih m m. 
ujjviu Lianw ih Lin i'lm wtmimmum vte^mi^'] im'^ 



u.._,^„„ ,„_,-"[- 



( 152 ) 

vi?^ wm mzmPi im m ^u mil un ll^i ]\zm lfijq^ 



Chapter XXIII. 
SOME POINTS OF SIAMESE ORTHOGRAPHY. 

1 and 1. The vowel [ is used only in the 
following words, most of which are very fre- 
quently used. Those of less common occurrance 
are marked with an asterisk.* 

In^ near. I'D to use. 

m whoever. ivinj 'large. 

IviJJ new. Lpf under, south. 

lf=lj who ? lu in. 

Ipij to wish for. In leaf, sail. 



( 153 ) 
h heart. llT dumb. 

I'D it is so. * 1e!1 to think about. 

fiZiTf daughter-in-law. 

L!J fibre, spider's web. 

« * m^m infatuated. 

m clear, pure. 

Ifi to put. 

m to give. 

Words ending in the sound of K.P.T. usual- 
ly have the letters fi. U. I^. as the final consonants 
respectively. The following are the common 
exceptions to this rule, in addition to which the 
more common words will be found which contain 
the less commonly used consonants, arranged 
under the respective consonants. 

■3 (final) Fia happy. lf\'h figures, numbers. 
PI (final) m disease, mm company. 

fdh to volunteer. 
?\ F=1Q neck. 

*a ^'l to kill, ^m a gong. 

\.4w to beat, it'm a large bell. 



( 154 ) 

Kl'^ a trolley. LJJ^ a cloud. IMfl'S'ig 
executioner. 

S (final) !fl LflLI'^ lazy ifim prince ais able 

PIJQ^ to inspect QTUTS power, authority 

fi'^ duty actions L?i?S finished Ll/1'^ 

mendacious I^IJ']'^ Royal Lictors. 

•a (final) ^jJlflU solemn procession m U'D merchant 
UQ'D to enter the priesthood. 

QJ LUIQ a tree. 

Oj Ivirij large ^lHttj important VlSjl grass 
JjaOj Peguan vi^^ woman ?inj zero 
L^nj to invite "flnuinj clever isfnj to pros- 
per mm^ ordinary LUnj-^j five flOjUS lock 
LlJjtJnj professor immj dollar, medal. 
anififa) to praise, national anthem. 

IJIQJ^ accounts. Qji^ relations, and some 
others. 



( 155 ) 

tt) nj ^njnjl agreement, contract fojOjl soul 
linjQjl wisdom, talent. 

fj n^ priest's quarters ^m petition, paybill 
InJ ten millions n^VIUI^ laws llnrig 
clear, intelligible T\h^ populace 'nzTfi 
crown used by actors njflfllPlJJ July. 

g iJjtpU almanac ll^n goad. 

^ m att. m brick, a^ camel. iJk;l^m 
excellent. \m^ rich man. j^lJlfi gov- 
ernment, dtii^nu position, form. 

"Ifl UDiTflfi province, county. 

HJ QUWOJ Wednesday. Uim old man. i^iiQ mtWi 
the planet Mercury. 

Q] iJj^JJItU about. ?intli aristocratic, well bred 

PlDl benefit, or a title. lunm ancient. 

ulnm neighbourhood. wmwlVIEJ orchestra. 



( 156 ) 

ff\ (final) mm to notice. amlPI proverbs. 

tl (final) munjtl brave, m carriage, !aUfl mutiny, 
rebellion, fM\ oath, luEl temple or shrine. 

71 (final) U1V1 tical mii quarrel, disturbance. 

llinm to despise, UVl lesson, chapter, ijfilvi 
commercial company. 

I I^ flag, IJ:; business, Lia (See prouoiuis) 
IlJ joss stick, 0™ weapons WI culprit, IriJI 
angry, -mJYlJ'aiS eclipse of the moon, mnm 
eclipse of the sun, "gi method, f UIUPI? bank 
note, S??3Jm ordinary, IJJJJLUtJJJ custom 
MJ3J right, duty, justice. 

ll (final) iJill wickedness, shame, ?ll form, shape. 
l/niJ continent. 

yj (final) fiQ^ m army, Jil nilAl picture, m corpse, 
vnm to respect, Vd^ mW] Bangkok. 



( 157 ) 

n Slim Chinese junk ?\z\n daughter in law, 
iWiZ only, QlinQ district flL^n mountain, 
^im power, mw pink, f\mil wife, iimm 
hornet mu Vllil for the future and many- 
other words. 

J pronounced as M mv temple, nvilJ soldier, 
aivn? food, raJ ought to, lhjj? Cambodian, 
mLIJ diligent, m favour, mJ work, business 
'mifVa chief priest, abbot. 

J Pronounced QQU 

ura city, fira theatre, ariMJ consonant 
alufiJ club, assembly. 

77 Pronounced ati 

lJ3im tribe, race, UJJVin to load, UJJVfl 
line, flJJm wife, BFISWEJ curious, 
inquisitive, «??FI to choose, nn3J death, 
misfortune, IJJU duty, justice. 



( 158 ; 

UJJmnm? presents, FiJjfi pregnant, WJJWT or 
gjJHT Buddhist Lent and many others. 
TiJ Pronounced 11 

mtlim Ministry, yiM property, wealth, 

T/inu to know, Yin3J common, inferior, 

im^ m? Kedah, m IviJ A tree, wmm 

eagle, yiJlEJ mu) sand, YIJ^ to tell ( High 
word and prefix). 

t\ (final) m to tell (to princes), mfi law court, 

m artifice, m mv private soldier, W llj 

fruit, JJ^Pin auspicious, ]]izw to fix a price, 

m low, mm place, address, Jl^Qfi prize, 

reward, lil Pinc^, sugar, piu mf\ 'lewd fellows 

of the baser sort', minn to swear upon 
oath. 

Fl (final) iJrmFl notice, aimF) climate, fpi point 
of the compass, LlAiFi sex, ^mm French, hJfi 
half an att, iJjaYlR country. 



( 159 ) 

il (final) IIJH male, vntt slave, IviU punishment. 
Tlrh wonderful, mW{)i English nrmM 
paper liiim special, 

III Ulim clock, '^il hair pin, IfllilF! or tIfi half 

an att. 
^ nXf\ Malay kriss. nrjU vernacular, a^nrjW 

English, ^rnvj^ Sanskrit, Xf\ season, ilrjnm 

to deliberate, iJj:;vir]i behaviour, gu lAiqwiu^ 

Thursday, mi lAiqMFlU^ Jupiter, i/^iqFimFIJJ May, 

lAirjFlfmLlli November. 

in r]] == WQ "or', or the sign of a question 
V^^]i hermit. 

J] rjfl deep Jrjn remembrance. 

TU 1^0^ m notorious. 

A list of the more common words having a 
silent final consonant (karan) <^ with meanings. 

ta ?)^°a conch shell trumpet. Vina misfortune. 

mm dog. 



( 160 ) 

Fl Q^Pl Designatory Particle of Royal personages, 

•oim tunnel, ]hzf\m desire. 
sa Wt^^'n Buddhist priest. 
1\ LfltUTfl conscription 



m lj!u?m plentiful, mimm Brahmin, finHm 



s' 



u 



behaviour, code of laws. 

J] l?inU!^ top knot cutting ceremony, ?).3nJ1U!^ solar 
new year festival, lJ?tVir|l?l manners, be- 
haviour. 

tl uimzi snuff. 

S qvif power. 

VI dij'^^UVl steps, stairs. 

U iJjtlLI'DU use, useful, Imu 400 sen, 

1j^ mtmlu Royal Mint, LVIRU sermon 
mm * amusing, pleasurable. 

W WUVI print, type. 

U WFl^J poison. 



( 161 ) 

U MK;LW pagoda, l^llJjSUtJ Post office, 
mt-Qimtl the Sun, Bivim a week, m^ true 
nn mu pupil, scholar, mm mankind, wm 
property, InriEJ *the Earth mtwm King. 

? WT3 sacred writings miWU bank note 

•Ki LSI? Saturday, l?n3 rarLOT Saturn, Til -^UTO 
Monday, mt'mu the Moon, '^n? machine, 
engine, iVW diamond, #1J seven tiered 

a' a' 

umbrella, W\l son or daughter, QiruiLSPlJarea, 

IWS um boundary, 
Q apn animal. 

U LTIM giant. 

a mii swan. 

Vi LP=in:;M chance, fortune, miv\ patience, 

perseverance. 
There are many other Pali and Sanskrit 
words having a silent consonant at the end, but 
the above list includes all the words which are in 
common use. 

Words marked * are usually written without the silent 
final consonant. 



( 162 ) 



Foreign words which have been incorporated 
into the Siamese language retain their spelUng as 
far as possible. 

To express European names in Siamese 
characters, the following points should be noticed. 

[[) The spelling in Siamese should be strictly 
phonetic. 

2 For Transliteration of the English con- 
sonants use the following Siamese consonants. 



B. IJ 






L 


fi 


C (hard) fl 


or 


Fl 


M 


3J 


C (soft) !D 






N 
Ng 




Ch(hard) n 


or 


f=l 


P 
Ph 


W or iJ 


Ch (soft) "Q 






Q 


m 


D ^ 






R (initial) 


J 


F VJ 






S 


!I1 


G (hard) n 






Sh 


•a 


G (soft) u 


or 


-^ 


T 


PI 


H a 






V. W 


1 



( 163 ) 



J tJ or 


^ 


Y EJ 


K n or 


PI 


X. Z. H 


For the Vowels. 






A as in father 


1 


I as in his 


A as in fame 


L 




I as in high 


A as in hand 


11 


short, between 2 
consonants 


A as in hat 


tU 


<'.g. Tom. a TfiQjj 


A final short 


h 


long as in so 1 


E as in hen 


a 
U 


Oo short as in book f 


E as in see 


A 


Oo long- ... boot 11 
U as in cue ^g 
U as in hut ^ 



The sound aw, should be represented by 
fl after a consonant or m (initial). 

The sound er should be represented by L + a? 
(final) or L^+ when there is a final consonant. 
The sound ccr should be represented by itu. 
The sound ow should be represented by L+1. 
Final // as in ?«// by 1. 



(164 ) 

3. Never use (i.) the high class consonants 
(ii.) the rarer consonants 2 T etc, in transliteration. 

4. Final consonants of the nature of K.P.T. 
should have the karan ='. 

5. Initial St. sc etc., should be written thus: 



e.g. 



Scotland 
Smith 






The following is a list of words which the 
Siamese language has borrowed from European 
languages. 

Portuguese. 

English. 

English. 

French. 

English. 

English. 

English. 

English. 

English. 

English. 



n?tmu 


paper. 


WTJfi 


carat. 


nai 


copy. 


niLvJ 


coffee 


flLJflLra 


director. 


•mf[ 


brandy. 


imi 


boy, servant. 


m 


bill 


\.m 


shirt. 


m 

u 


boot. 



( 165 ) 



uu 

u 


boom of a 


ship. 


English. 


LLiivirf 


bank. 




English. 


lui^ 


boat. 




English. 


liJ?ig(?i 


private. 




English. 


LLlJfiU 


surveyor's 


plan, 


English. 


ilu 


pin. 




English. 


lll^pl 


police. 




English. 


tjj'^ 


European. 




French. 


rJ^3Lf»iPi 


French. 




French. 


t 


foot, 
foot rule 


1 


English. 




monsoon. 




English, 


SuPi 


minute. 




English. 


mULraQUJJli 


Mrs. 

smart, well dressed 

pound, lb. or £. 


English 
(ma'am.) 

English (gen' 
tleman.) 

English. 


^a^ 


receipt. 




English. 





(166 ) 




In 


week. 


English. 


mu 


school term. 


English. 


u 


soap. 


Portuguese. 




flannel (properly red English (scai 

flannel). let), 
hotel. French. 


wM?\ 


office. 


English. 


LQLEJU 


agent. 


English. 


ILIJPIUlf 


postage stamp. 


English. 




salute (of guns). 


English. 


and many 


other technical words. 





Example of an Interlinear literal translation of 
an easy continuous passage of idiomatic 
Siamese with English version. 

( From the First Siamese Reading Book. ) 

nrpiifj m v\w im an mi 
Rabbit thing one spoilt leg walk 
A rabbit witir.li had hurt its leg and could 

ijj m UQU an m m Ljj 
no can, sleep was under tree 

not walk was slecjnng iindfr a tree. 



( 167 ) 

LLvi^ vi^^ am m m \.ki 

place one goat thing one spoilt 

A blind goat was' walking about to 



d 



PIT im m LYim vn nu n" 

eye walk come on pleasure to look for to eat with 
look for something to eat with its Jriends. 

LWBU m^ IWQU L^U liJ In^f 

friends miss the way friends walk go near 
Having sti'ayed Jrom its Jriends, it 

mtsfm r\vmi mu am m n 

rabbit Rabbit see goat come (so) 

went near the rabbit. The rabbit saw the goat 

vm <^ "^ viu n Ijj m 

fear will run run away (so) no can 

i-oming and was afraid, but could not run away. 

goat spoilt 

the goat iras 

vnn vm 



blind so it was glad and was no longer afraid. 



m iLn 


liJ \.m 


enough and 


go see 


Presently 


it sair that 


pn n 




eye (so) 


good heart. (| 



( 168 ) 

^^ ^ m fii ^ PI 2 

f II 

then put occasion to make which fierce to threaten 

Thru it pvt on a. Hcrce threatenimj look 

111 gi mi Ifij t. 3J1 vn t jm 
go say there who will come to look for at death 
and said. " There ! irlio is coming to seek 

(sign of question) 
dmth ? 

'J\ U a. ^ a d tJ 

iv\t m m m uu n vm 

goat (sign of past tense) hear thus that (so) fear 
The goat henr'nig this was ajraid, and 

% mu i!m T\ '"m mi ^'i \a 
then soft ask often say ' please do not kill to let 
then begged hiimhJii s((ii'uhi^ " Please do not kill 

fm im mi 'x. liqu liJu T\ 
die at all I will grant to be I 

lae, it is onlij /" 

nrmii f[ Is IvT imi iT[ in \m 

Rabbit glad let goat enter come near 
The rabbit teas glad, allowed the goat to 



( 169 ) 

n §u 3 vm Liw:; 

(so) got up to ride back goat 

approach, got upon the goat's haok^ and rode 

m 111 lii ill. 

enter go in forest. 
off into the J or est. 



It will thus be seen how very differently the 
Siamese sentence has to be turned to make good 
English, Hence can be deduced the golden rule 
for translating from Siamese to English and vice 
versa " Always translate one sentence in Siamese 
by the corresponding senicuce in English and do 
not translate word for word." 



( 170 ) 

MISCELLANEOUS SENTENCES 

FOR TRANSLATION. 

The Exercises from No. 44 onwards should 
be used at the discretion of the teacher, as soon 
as the Student has mastered chapter 20 : 

The words will be found in the Vocabularies 
at the end of the book ; but many of the common 
words which the Student is supposed to have 
already learnt, have not been repeated in the 
General Vocabularies. 

The Student should have plenty of practice 
in Reading, and in Dictation. 

For dictation, the easier passages from the 
First Siamese Reader may be used. 



Exercise 44. 

READ AND TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH. 

1 wj '3Q1J auu jjin m auu m 

u 

3 gu u vnu viil^j % in mi 

4 L-jm mu L3iL7i LiJ vnpiuuu 

5 m m lu mm m m Lu m 

6 uan f=iu 1^ m^ viiu Ivi lai in 21 jjh vi 

7 viuTnlu m vnii la ui sin Iviu? 



( 171 ) 

8 LjjB giuu vnu m m unu mu {.im ?\ im iT\ 

9 '^^ \^t\.f\m ?\m m^ ah to It' uu 1^ im u 
10 nan piu mi ?fi Ivi viupi i u 



Exercise 45. 

TRANSLATE INTO SIAMESE. 
1 At what time do you get up in the 
morning? 2 He cannot write very well, 3 You 
will go home when the carriage comes. 4 Have 
you lost your hat ? 5 If so, you must go and 
find it. 6 Will you have dinner with us to-mor- 
row ? 7 We shall be very pleased to come. 
8 How many persons can sit in that boat. ? 9 I 
do not know, but I think four only. 10 I did 
not hear what you said just now. 



Exercise 46. 
Read and Translate into English. 

1 un viu MM m uu mi a mnj m m 

2 ran lii mi u lHu m sin i \m ? 



( 172 ) 

3 m u tu '^t\]\ vn m i\w mu, ifinu "^ ill i^^^ we ? 



4 lu 



b 



vnu m viu nau moj uu Lu m 

6 mi s:;lvi piu 1^ w^ m m lqi viu lu uu liJ inu 

7 SB Ivi ?i^ 30^ imi u m VI uiu ^u 

8 uarb'aitj vinuuu un^ umluLvnuu 

9 Qu u cJu Pin Ivioj liu III L^mliJ "Ui 

10 LlJli B^Ij A 9!J Qn lulpl 



Exercise 47. 
Translate into Siamese. 
1 Tell the servant to light the lamp. 
2 You must write this again. 3 Go and find that 
book quickly. 4 Do you want to see my father ? 

5 Your hands are very dirty, go and wash them. 

6 I am very tired this morning. 7 That is 
wrong, you must do it again. 8 Where did you 
find this book ? 9 There are no trees in my 
garden. 10 Take this letter to the doctor, and 
wait for an answer. 



( 173 ) 

Exercise 48. 
Read and Translate into English. 

1 lUQ Ttwu 'm m hi 'iiu ui im lu mm 

3 THiu Lm Lvrn m m im wn m ■ 

4 mi Ifflvi latju '^i^iviJJiu'tiiJij u ?iijj viu 



5 vnu Jii faiu QHvn? imi wd m ? 

(j Lm m u fiQiJ Tfii nujjnn m 111 i^^g Lfiu 

7 \t\ -am m m n m\i m lu 

8 ira IiaI 2q^ vnu im ifi m im \i au •] 

i> LQfn m -au d sjt vnu mim vn mi lq^^i mu 

10 ui ^ mj w m lUfl li nt^itj u mu lsli ura 



Exercise 49. 

TRANSLATE INTO SIAMESE. 
1 Can you give me change for a tical ? 2 I will 
not take it all in atts. 3 Bring that bill again 
on the first of next month. 4 At what time 
does the train start for Paknam ? 5 I do not 
know, go and look at the notice. 6 Is there any- 



( 174 ) 

thing worth seeing in that town ? 7 I have 
forgotten your address, please tell me again. 
SjfAU people should learn to swim while they are 
young. 9 He does not eat much, but he drinks 
too much. 10 What do you wish to see me 
about ? 



Exercise 50. 
Read and Translate into English. 

1 lu mu mi t am n v\m ? 

2 mu t iJinm ira wn ? ^ ^ vn m 

s tm m i uii wn LiJm ? i\ m m m 

4 viviTj Lvifji m m q^Ij sd ^ u ? 

ti 

5 gu u m^ lij Vmi liJ 7\ mi 



6 LjjQ i!in li^ m mu uu L-ai Li ' 



mu uu L-ai w\ im mm nvimu 



8 YiTii t m m vrilu vitih mfi ? "iiij m uu an ao^ uivi 

9 mj Wm uu sii dg^ llto lii llu'u -=):; m urn 

10 'Kiumm'mw muz 'tiuu im «] ^o liJ tfiu tiq 



( 175 ) 

Exercise 51. 

TRANSLATE INTO SIAMESE. 
1 I am writing letters, do not disturb me. 
2 What is that blacksmith making ? 3 I shall 
buy a new horse the day after to-morrow. 

4 I received a letter from my brother yesterday. 

5 Will you take a bath this evening ? 6 Do not 
eat sweet cakes in the morning. 7 I have read 
that book many times. 8 My father has paid 
away all the money that he had yesterday. 9 
The gardener is planting pretty flowers in my 
garden. 10 I drink coffee in the morning, but 
in the afternoon, I prefer to drink tea. 



Exercise 52. 

Read and Translate into English. 

1 imi \Mi w. m auuul fiii im Lmlatn 



2 mi 111 nBu m fm fiu in wnt mi rm 

3 vnu Ivi m mm m m lim vitu \m 111 

4 m'^m^ 1m lTu mm un vnu ivnl? ^i -st mmi ' 

5 m iw ^uj m uu #1 n^^fn im % mill \m 

u 



( 176 ) 

6 mj f\m m iJfn m am wi^ m liJ lu ar 

7 LL3J "Sm TilM 7 \.Tfi <h VIIU llJ {.Wl '■ 
u 

8 viiu inn Qtlj QLilu raj iTu ^ mi nn^^i anu viiwia ati 

Exercise 53. 

TRANSLATE INTO SIAMESE. 

1 How many bottles of wine are there in 
that box ? 2 Please bring me some blotting 
paper and a pencil. 3 How many carriages are 
there -in the road ? 4 If you have plenty of 
money, you can buy that house. 5 This curry 
is the best that your new cook has ever made. 

6 Did you keep many horses ? No only two. 

7 Did you give those coolies two salungs each ? 

8 No I gave them twenty atts each only. 9 How 
many knives did you buy this morning ? 10 The 
elephant is much stronger than the horse. 



(177) 

Exercise 54. 

Read and Translate into English. 

1 itm m Qu m m li^Tnu itv rim mn ^^ m m mu 

2 tn yIiu fiu i\tm m "] mi m s" l^u uin 

3 m ^lu Pin vi'iu Ijj' mi liJ Iviu 

4 mi m "in iliu iim mi Ivinj m mu iiw mu ?njj m 

5 tatljjtj Piu MM fin L^^u ill ^ 

6 tfi ?n Ivl lii Lm'u 111 lI^ l?i '^t liJ IjJ mi Lim m\yi 

7 lIu ^ mi L01 1'f lu pf u fin dfi l^^ vijj?! LLfig 

8 mi JiiiJKvnu mwi iS'^ am miz wu '^z\]\ wm 

9 mhi Tfi'iu I3J fifl^ iHu uu mil i wiM dnjnji 
10 L-an uan mi 'in gii u '^i:; imm m sa^ m 1\ mu 



Exercise 55. 

TRANSLATE INTO SIAMESE. 
1 Which of these dogs did you sell to my 
brother ? 2 Be careful that the tram-conductor 
does not give you a bad salung. 3 The thief 
was arrested by that policeman for stealing 
clothes. 4 Which of you would like to come for a 



(178) 

drive with me to-day ? 5 If you wish to live 
here, I will build you a nice house. 6 While I 
was having my dinner, the electric light went 
out. 7 Having heard that your brother was ill, 
I went to visit him. 8 If it were raining now, I 
should not go out. 9 If you had run quickly, 
you would not have been late. 10 If you ran 
quickly, you would not be late. 



Exercise 56. 

Read and Translate into English. 

1 mi lim Lai 1^ il 1'=) ^ m m liIu m uin 1*21 Vi 

Ivi m mi^ f\f\m tm l?i m mAi nimu i 
1 

wi mj iJi^ vnu m '^r t mm um mn 

3 'Sij ™ s:;lvi viu^ia aanfiulvinj'] u llh yiiu 
vnu l-s 7\ LLvi '] WW 1'^ liin 

4 viiu ^t Hi iJoiu un fn i)\m •] vi^? m \.m lqt 

5 uan '=)in uu Ltai QLiin lli atli an vm ? ^r tan 



(179 ) 

usn 'h aa mi\ il^ iLt^ luli ll3^ Ivi lan ui^ 
6 figtj Ling ?m lu uu iipin ll^ m u III ia en a In 

8 LWQu lim ifiiu QiLilij Liri mn Laivifa ?s" iiri ran 

9 ynu i?m^ qili l^ai ^qu lvipi di viiu I ifiEJs :jin uci 
nfin n mejiu m^ 

10 vnu S Pigm Iq (?ij^ 'sf^ llw lm ij f=igiu umi^ inn 



Exercise 57. 

TRANSLATE INTO SIAMESE. 
1 He told me that he would answer your 
letter next Thursday ; have you received any 
reply ? 2 If the money has been stolen by that 
man, we shall have to inform the police. 3 If 
they are playing polo, I will go and watch them 
at 5 p.m. this afternoon. 4 He asked me 
whether I had seen the new house which he had 
built. 5 He explained to him that the machine 
was used for folding paper. 6 If your friend is 
having his dinner, do not call him, I will come 



( 180 ) 

later in the afternoon. 7 When I called at your 
house two days ago they said you were not at 
home. 8 The bill-collector said that the money 
must be paid before the end of the month. 9 
He jumped out of the railway carriage before 
the train had stopped, and so he broke his leg. 
10 I have only a little money in the house ; so go 
to the bank and bring me change for this cheque. 



Exercise 58. 

Read and Translate into English. 

1 LSI Ijj' li?r hmu mn m mm imz f=igi3j 1^' 

-' 711 u '^:;1.3j' V m mil iiAiJxdn i/i'iu st;ljj m i mi 

:- m m Lvim mu m mu s!^ m m m ui 3Jin 

m mu 

4 LVim iith Lilu i^ f n'lu wu vm m mm m "] 

m mi m ii mu "^t m mm Q:;^'uQm^^f ul^^i' 

1 

lu ]m um ?)ijj m 



( 181 ; 

]k, ikn v\m w s:; lai wu ij^ jjt an 

miu "am m 

8 LBT i!\t\ i ^ mi \m m Vi'm m m v\m lot lqi 

9 mi LSI uipnfildlii iri'DT taa^ rm vm LVi^a mu 
m !?ia W ravi l?i Lvi uatj hqi w. ii 

10 lu Mil lu u fi HOT ufi jj:;jj'q^ Lvii mi 



Exercise 59. 

TRANSLATE INTO SIAMESE. 
1 What do you want these sticks for ? I 
want them for beating dogs. 2 What did you 
buy at the market this morning ? I bought some 
chilies and a duck. 3 How much did you pay for 
that duck ? I paid five salungs. That was very 
•dear. 4 They told me that prices were high 
owing to the Chinese New Year. 5 Are you 
sure there were no fish for sale ? I did not see 



( 182 ) 

any at all. 6 Tell the cook that if he does not 
give me a better dinner than this to-morrow, I will 
cut his wages three ticals. 7 I must really dis- 
miss my coolie, I found him smoking opium in 
the dining room. 8 Can you tell me where I 
can procure a Siamese cook, I hear they can 
make good curry. 9 I wish you would tell my 
gardener not to cut down those plants. 10 What 
is the matter with the watchman ? I think he 
is drunk. Send him away at once, or call a 
policeman to take him to the Police Station. 



Exercise 6o. 

Read and Translate into English. 

1 mm ■urn mi t m m umn mi m m im 
■2 LSI LiJu iiviTp t f\mu m m m v\m lu Im u 
imit [m nth imz di lim^ T\m iJnTiR mi m\i 



JQ!J1?1 



B Ti'iu Vi m jjin mSaumiraQ iildi mvm, u mi 

'M S 3Jin vh\ mu mi uiyi 
4 ifi'iii \y\ "(Ai im m. 30 T11U m m m \K 



( 183 ) 

5 lu mi i lIq '^m \m m. ti rlnilu miu m wa ? 

6 itla Tiu u viiu Vim Im m y\ m mi m ViJdatJ 

11 

8 rm wn wpxi mn ? mj 'Qqu su uin dqi 

9 lu iiiii uii fi mm n inu ? i?i al^ Fina^ S ad vin 

II 11 

UnU LLC^ 1^ i}^ VtUU UlJl?l UTU 

11 

10 m '^^ ill >3TU v\ l?vi L^flfj uu fl m n ™ ? 



Exercise 6i. 

TRANSLATE INTO SIAMESE. 
1 If I see you gambling again, I will fine 
you five ticals. 2 If you had gone home last 
night, you might have been able to have caught 
the thief. 3 What are you waiting for ? Don't 
you see I have nothing to give you ? 4 Mind 
your own business, and do not meddle with that 
of other people. 5 This man wants to know 



( 184 ) 

whether you would like to buy some old weapons. 
6 If you fall out of that window, I think you 
will certainly break your neck. 7 Where is my 
inkstand? I think the coolie is cleaning it. 

8 Where does this tram-car go to ? It stops near 
the Palace. What is the fare ? One fuang. 

9 Shall you go to the races with him to-morrow ? 
Yes, and I hope to win some money there. 

10 I think the servant has drunk all the whisky 
and stolen my best cigars as well. 



Exercise 62. 

Read and Translate into English. 

2 L?i m^ w LiJu sjt lI™ nu iHu itm i\m m im 

3 m w. Lilu imm vi'iu mi m s:; usn piijj pigijj -^f^ 



iliJ 
4 vi'iu ra '^t fi mm mu ^li^'^vt^ L-ai m liJu qu im 

u 

jj m m, w m ej viu^ ej m !d^ vn mn mi^ uu 



U 11 



( 185) 

vigL?r LLIX Lai 

11 T T 

Lllu LLli 

7 3ii m^ m QQfi liJ LLOT vta ? m vinu ilpi ta 1?^ 
JJ1 Lq uuu [m m ra -^^ aan liJ [a.m 

8 U1U llifinI IsJ ttn vn mu iilu t iJqnm mIq ? s:; trai 
lin'jji L^a e;Q^ ?njj ou un udg 

9 im vnu m vn amviuu vn m m L?m uu m uia^y 

LMfvi wtmi an 



Exercise 63. 

TRANSLATE INTO SIAMESE. 
1 Have you been using my razors to sharpen 
pencils ? If so you had better buy me some new 
ones. 2 Has the washerman brought back my 
white suits ? He has brought four suits only, 
sir. 3 Look ! there is a mad dog. Get your 
gun and shoot it before it bites anyone. 4 Tell 



( 186 ) 

the carpenter to make me a table two yards long- 
and four feet wide. 5 He cannot speak Siamese 
well, because he has never learnt properly. 6 I 
told you to buy a packet of matches, not one box 
only. 7 Who is that man ? He is a trader. 
What is he selling ? He sells diamonds and pre- 
cious stones. 8 The roads are very dusty ; it 
would be better if they were watered a little. 

9 I want to go to Paknampho, which is the best 
way to get there ? you had better go by train. 

10 Tell the coachman not to forget the lamps, as 
it will be dark before I return. 



Exercise 64. 

Read and Translate into English. 

1 m nnjLL^ u iiJu ^n nojLi'^ a^l? ? m lu nm m 

2 L^n umj^ m m w 'Bth ? Ltan uan g'l im \i^ m 
-sin itm um imu mis l^b l'oi u 

3 nm m m u m L?ii?i mi t. m mu mu ifiiu su 



1 ll 



vm 121 vn m ra 



( 187 ) 

4 m imi m mm m 'Qzh m ? trai s^ m m 

II t f 

[.mr, Qu u Lilu qIj Lfii?i nm vm m}^ am mj 

5 Y\ m im am "am am iv\m tnu fn iliiu 111 y\ 



T 

mm 

8 untJLU^^aLiinuvifE]? tiJfii LanmraliJLrapimj 

9 mu'tnlpii'U'afjflviu ? mmt mum 'nmm 
10 uiLJ <h m Q^ ^nlv^ mu^ liJ im ]\itmw mj st ifw 

m^itiium^m'im 



Exercise 65. 

TRANSLATE INTO SIAMESE. 
1 Do you know if there are any houses to let 
in this street ? No I do not. 2 That tree is the 
largest I have ever seen in Bangkok, but I have 



( 188 ) 

seen larger trees in England. 3 If you want to 
know the time you had better ask a policeman, 
or buy a watch. 4 Where did the servant put 
the sugar ? I think he put it in that cup-board. 
5 What is the price of that diamond ring ? 600 
ticals. That is too dear, have you any cheaper 
ones ? 6 They tell me that a new school will be 
opened in Bangkok on the 10th of next month. 
7 Tell the coolie to buy a new lamp chimney ; he 
had better take the broken one as a pattern. 8 
This tramcar is very slow, why must it wait so 
long at each passing place ? 9 I shouted to the 
boatmen to stop, but they did not hear me. 10 
If you go for a walk during the rainy season, you 
had better take your umbrella with you. 



Exercise 66. 

Read and Translate into English. 

mu '^t ndii 3J1 sin m irii im 1? ? vr\ iipif "sm 

1 T 

mj fiiny mm m '^z ndij m lu m mu upif m^ 



( 189 ) 

2 L5n jj in ra v\w ^ijj t mw m w liJu llcjo €1 
m J] L21 QtJin 's:; Tiu lu irau u mi nng qt 
1511 St LQT Jim Lm^ un 

3 mi "^ Vi'mu LQT jiJ mw mi unlw'mi lin^vi?!] ? vi'iu 

u 

IwQIPl L^EJU LQ^ VTJQ ? If^'^LH?! mi fi JlJ mW ^IJJ S^ 

u 

nil ^mi mu miu mm 

V 

4 vjiljj vi'nu lii lai viu^aa 2!]^ mulg^uu ra'lu 
MfKi ju uan m "tju Lu ptq^ nu I'D vi uiu mjn m'^t 

LSI b Ifl uu 

5 L^u VI 'jiu Lpi Lvi un uiu m^ m \,i\i m b vijj?i liJ 
am viiu un dn tan '^z m mIq LiJdn ^ '^z m lif mi 

6 Eji wFifj u vii ra (nu viQjn QLi'ivi 1? ? vii mi m vioji 
™viu^ ^simil^'^LQiuisiniJnYiFi wjJn uiu urn 
mi Iffl^ m? u] nm u ^im ^1 m 

7 ^ti lii f 4n Piu uu mu 0Uin st pfu LhtJ nu 1,511 vm 
LLP) riau mu I3J li^"^ "euj lst ii liJu piu 1«^ ^ rnn m 
\i7jmmmm'\m 



( 190 ) 

111 I'd' ™ m in^ fiTulu' ^^ ila m\\A iumi iim m 

11 

9 u Ira Vni 31^ m -^nn ui^ tiqjj m?!] ? mi lu' vi?nu 
LLiH mi IpT l^uu 'S(?iviin^ ?nu -tiijij cJnn liJ fw L!ai 



10 mJ fh vihu 3Jin Lin -^r w ?n^d^ llh viiu 



Exercise 67. 

TRANSLATE INTO SIAMESE. 
1 Last night I saw two snakes in the road 
in front of my house, one of them was black. 

1 think it must have been a poisonous one. 

2 During the hot weather you should not eat so 
much meat ; it is better to eat fish, if you know 
that it has just come from the sea. 3 This curry 
is not hot enough. Tell the cook to put about 
three times as many chilies in the next one he 
makes. 4 In Siam we never have any snow, but 
they say that hail fell once about five years ago. 
5 Look how dark the sky is growing ; I think we 
shall have a heavy thunderstorm this evening. 



( 191 ) 

6 Walking is not- pleasant, in the streets of 
Bangkok, because most of them are rather nar- 
row, and there are so many carriages and rick- 
shaws. 7 If you cannot buy me a box of those 
cigars at that shop, go to the hotel and ask them 
if they keep them there. 8 Why are all those 
people dressed in white ? They are going to a 
cremation at the temple near your house. 9 The 
thief who stole my hat, has received three 
month's imprisonment. ] Where did you find 
that umbrella ? I found it on my verandah yes- 
terday. Does it belong to you ? If so you had 
better take it away with you. 



Exercise 68. 

Read and Translate into English. 

L!ai Vi'um mmfi vm ^ m w w^ m Im In Im 
m m dal'^lM^mi mm mm lij Viid^ l"^ lim 
mi s" nmi llIu imm 1'^ m\ 



( 192 ) 

m mnz w\i uan ra VliJia nil m in 
3 viiu ndg q^I?? Lildi i/inlu mu % viiPi m imm 
im\fn mi u LiJdn •mjlii' liJu q^I? uin liJu llpi 

Lm:; LSI '=^t Lilu ™ y anui'^^i uin 

5 ttia u miu m mn m mi \^\)1 iJ?:;l¥ifi o^nqH 
L21 '^" nmi L^Q 1? ? mj Id j'lli! LL(?i 'mj m 

u 

J] 131 ra s:; m i uu Sn ^sq^^ ^ ndi 

u 

6 S \m^ ann? Jn ^ nuu lwji:; im "nm Ij ?liJ in I • 

iim sin u'l m^ uiu u mu lmu q^Ij ? iildn lmu 

L^n ?injj Piu Kimz m ml im m 

11 

7 ^ iJjtniFi 'tiui v\m i^ m m t tJi mi ii mu m? 

L^nl3ilM'f=l'c]^ t U Lllu QU aii^ 

8 lUQ mau nau u ej3j li^ m ljjqsI mn im l^i h liJ 
imiz im q^Ij ? LVJjr [.m g'l cjjj lu' ?iui^ 

? T 



( 193 ) 

y lu iJj"LYi(^ fl^nr|H mi t itan ml uii tan ra m iilu 
Squ nm m mi m qi lu :3J Ira lsi jji lu unu uu 
m LQ14 w EJ jij L'Di mn u m mi •aa^ \m mm '^t 

!1 li 

10 inu Yi t mm m m\i lu' fiaii^i ?aij »] uu n ^ wfa 
iriu ^ LSI lu' iiz Tim l^mn m nm t w im 

r u 



Exercise 69. 
Translate into Siamese. 
1 To-day it is raining hard, I suppose Mr. 
Jones will not come to visit us this afternoon. 
He said that it was quite possible that he would 
not come if it were to rain. 2 Tom has no spare 
time to finish your work ; you must finish it 
yourself. Do not waste any more time, but 
begin at once. 3 What shall you do with all the 
money that you won at the gambling house last 
night ? I think I shall take it to gamble with 
again to-night. You are very foolish, you will 



( 194 ) 

lose it all if you go there again. 4 In Siam 
there are many tin mines especially in the Malay 
Provinces. Most of the miners are Chinamen, 
but the mines belong to European Companies. 

5 Did you hear that his wife died last night ? 
No I have not yet heard about it, what did she 
die of? The doctor said that it was typhoid fever. 

6 Those houses are very old and dirty but they 
will be pulled down next week. Will they be re- 
built ? I really cannot tell you. 7 The mice 
have eaten all the cheese that I bought yester- 
day. To-morrow I shall buy a good mouse-trap. 
8 Are there many patients in the new hospital ? 
The doctor told me that, at present there were 
twenty-seven, but that none of them were 
seriously ill. 9 Where can I buy a pair of spect- 
acles ? I do not think you can buy a pair to suit 
you in Bangkok ; you had better order a pair 
from London. 10 Yesterday evening, when I 
returned home, I saw that a table cloth had been 
taken away from the dining-room, I asked the 
servant whether he knew who had taken it, but 
he did not know anything about it. 



(195) 

Exercise 70. 
TRANSLATE INTO SIAMESE. 
1 When you go to the market, be sure not to 
forget to buy all the different things which I 
have told you to buy. 2 This book is very small, 
I want a larger one. Have you any about one 
foot square with good paper and a ruled 
margin ? 3 Do you ever smoke Siamese cigars ? 
No I find they are much too strong for me, I 
prefer to smoke cigarettes. 4 What is the name 
of this flower ? It smells very sweet. It is very 
similar to a kind of flower I have seen in 
France. 5 In Bangkok there are many Indians 
who sell cloth and other things in the street. 
Do you ever buy from them ? Yes I have 
bought a few things, but they charge very high 
prices. 6 Yesterday I ate some ice cream, I 
think it must have been made from canal water, 
as I am feeling very ill now. Please go and 
fetch the nearest doctor at once. 7 Do you 
ever bet on horse races r' Yes I sometimes bet 
a small amount, but have very rarely been able 
to pick a winner. 8 I should be much obliged if 



(196) 

you would kindly lend me your newspaper, 
when you have finished reading it. 9 This lamp is 
very dim. Why did you turn it down so low ? I did 
not turn it down I think there is no oil left in it. 
10 Let us call a carriage and go for a drive. 
Where shall we go ? I think it would be pleasant 
to listen to the military band which plays in 
front of the barracks. 



(197 ) 

EASY CONTINUOUS PASSAGES FOR 
TRANSLATION INTO ENGLISH. 



Exercise 71. 



11 



m jjin Tu v\m t um m^ m v\m h nrih m m m 
11 

m v\'m m aivn? L2n m im n?:;Liii lu uu qi^ b uu Lfiia 
1^ 



m v\m imt Ltai Vi'm m ivrm an ra v\m i^ m % im 

11 



' ' "1 m nu m urn lsi raa^ mm If 



lua LSI m nu m LLfiQ lsi raa^ mm m in lai L'^u m 



0ivn? d iiivi eTl^u vn^ m m gi mlu ^^ a uivi m aivn? 
11 

"smm la um/i lti'i uuIu'I'd' mIq L-^n *aa^lama ran gi 

^' ^^ f u(?i' m uii riKLili 2Q3 n'lu lu uu vrnm \m an fiu 

viu^ Lv^re nnili uu m m tma" u im m^ m m n 
II II 



fjau li/f lIu 6. vm uu lle^ w^ mm m lif" Piu au V\ m 

11 

™ viui^ gV'in I mj J?j ilu maivii? ?iwij x\r.ih 'hmm 
11. 

LLeU Lmr ^uu w^h m^ m\rjm mu'' l31 V iim 



( 198 ) 

njtLiii iLfi LQi 5IUJJ m Ijf Lin m^ qjqli qu «] m<i •] la lu 

mmt, Ivinj Tin ra uan '^in l^^ sq^ lamt^ f=iu mm 
Exercise 72. 

QU VlU^ LQfll L'D^ fi Un LJ^U to PIU ^^ lli Iih'jJI Ij^ lIuU 

Tiu Fi? Vtlm ufi Lmu Tw to m m mn g'n "i\i\ii jjiIjJ 
viii " un um m t m^ m V wm liJu qu 3Jin m ^ 
Lajj-a rill nil un mu m t m^ un lI^u fiu t Pijaaulli 
ran g'l '' EJ3J uau vimi m w fii LLn m tiu ii m titoIiJ 

u 

iJ?:;lt)fi JlnJ im l^q ujj li^^'Su l^lj^ r\mi iim In mu 
im un g'n liJu Litio it^m -am lIqIvJ " w SpiqijjwqIs liJu 

u 

Qu inn lu m? yi un lj^u fiu uu li^ m im^ u Lm m m 

f^^ IviH un un um m m hi % Vi' mn un lIiiu piu 1\ 

m^ ii ^'toiIjj lq^ 111 sV' un tltiu uulu' f ii '^t m\] 

II 

sdi^ 1j im L31 m q'i '^t im im V^imm n°ii ifw lim 

untrau Fiu ^ v\m lwx ^uu isili^'^rau di ejjj ray ?i^un 

imu f=lU U llJ lIb IiaI "30 fll" 



( 199 ) 
Exercise 73. 

•iii viii^ i\ "Din Piu v\w i^ mi iviaa m liJ itw lIq 
Tiii imu Tim L31 v\mu m mu m ilr imi m Vim 4] 
Tfi Iw^Lfii?! f=iau IviQJ =] Piu lu lIq n fi mm nm iH^ ti 
V[m rni f\'iu m v\m ^lii ndi lj^!j jji m mi cT'dili piu 
mu mi Q1 '• ui L?!] m u -^jj l^ej ut^ m m m ?im "^t liJu 
fnviij Vi'ilm m wm m j] )\m s:; nu Ipij n'au " uiej 
flQU PIU uu n U1Q1J di '' ]\m i^ LiJu iJt^n -^^trij^t m ^" fiu ra 
30^ "jiu n'au llIu llu llpi ]lm i wn nu 30^ araii pki -=^1^ nu 



ravinuri^u" 



Exercise 74. 



u 'siu P!u viUsi ^vi llIu piu i^u m m t mm mi^ 
inn m v\m itai l^^^^u mm aa^ I'ai i piu 2^ liJu piu m n 

u u 

ujjIjj Vlmu ifi'iu n'au mix "ii viiu liJu piu mu llti '^" 



( 200 ) 

inm v\m vi q^ nu 'm im^ v\m '^ im Ljj L^ to ^iu m 
u ?im LV11 rfu nil d^ Lvim m m v\m'' 

Exercise 75. 

vi'iu w \i i\m 

30^ Ltan 111 m qi l31 liJu !j ^ uni jjin n^i jjuhIj 

U ft? ? 

an ^ lultin LSI S vim m v\m filta liIu t/iq^ gii 2^:; 
Mu^ lu inn "] %. imx 'mu tan m m^ fi Yifvjfj mn 
In LfsajQ iJT:;LmQ lai un ^u lli qi ffi l!3i liJu imh^ 
L^u'3 nl^ <^z iilu m? ^ ^ mm ^ v\m ih ^^mii im di^: 
LiJu mj ^ vmiii m «iii viiu taa^ lji l^li L^a '=):; Iman la ina^ 
^^adlulfa^ taa^vi'iu iTuaan liiilil'viui?! lwi^^'i min ainn'^:; 
LiJuLFuyl m i\m "ai vinu -aa^ m l^ej iwa -^j^IIpT lanla'T/ia^ 
i^ ti m lu fia^ viiu iIu L^tj li^ mjji^ w m nm u '^z f\ 
viralij" itu nlli jjasjlw iiJu m? ^ im m lli ^'n vm 



(201 ) 

m mi \.m lSb l^t 7\ \\i m^ vnu m 1*01 to m^ fi mm 
L^u l'^ fim t m mT]z gi j]m "hm vhu i?fQ iTu liIu adi^ 

imi m m\]\ Ltan nliilUls iiJu ra^ §n liJu mi ani^ 
Exercise 76. 

iJinj^ lij fin 

vim?j li m LOT ^ nf=ii Ij'J v\m m lu n?^ naupiau lsi 

51!]^ ^H? mj LiJuf=iu aiviutjg llt/T'] guviu^ im Lai nid^ ra-^ 

inoj^ ■Tim m7 m imim fi '^iuqulIu mmux & ]lm^ 

s!?i lif lu uinj2 LiJu m luq Imluq nu Lfiua L^ai Vniu 

L^i^EJU gn ''lIuu 4iu ^ivifii a^l? piq^l^u^ llij^to sio mlii 

m Ijj ' ' mm li^'^i^iau gi ' ' LLug Lvim uu fi lii^luaif liJu 

m mf] LIT lIlj^ mi lo'^ivifii 4ii viu I "^t m l™^ nra 

11 

m^ =] luviiLi vi3Ji?i " iTmm mA'il wmi^^'iiu m u 1111 

t O II 



1 u 

uu 






( 202 ) 
Exercise 77. 



S><1 



iw lim vip cj PI 

uvi^^ m v\m t LUjg ^m inn \m v\m i^ lst t mm 

fh jjin gii Mu^ LLJjg m mi liJ 1^ Ldu lu fiiu 'sm inti piu 
Mu^ wIjJ iiqu LL3jg m^ Ltanli^^tan tu m m lluq ra \i]M 

Bu 3Jin lai Via lto^ Hfi vii] m^ m im Viian 

II 

LWflu aa^ 1211 vit^iLi Piulw^sii vru mu mu v\m ^m L!B1 41) 
l^^Mu Mj^iD m uv\m m uu Vtan m \m m lu viu^ 

11 II 3 c7 

LLfi m i.ai m m Lu viu viw3J^ isi m ?)^ Fiura Lm tan viu 



11 
t mu iim Miu t [7\ m im am m miu m uu 



lu UU 111 V! inu -aa^ um yi Ir 



t im w Lnm(^ VIU wm mu iwnt nuu Lsiaa^j lljjqIi^*^ 

L^Liu m lim LU?j uul'fuu mli m m iJrmFi qi S ^ "sm 

^"^m^u m LiJu aa^ nnuu tSa Piul^a^li^TLan mu uu ui 
I' 11 

^ u^u itu w^ mu m mil^its!] m m n n'ttim aan 

II 

v\m iTi fi mm Pinls jjin tm li^'^fa^l^'Liu^ m m 



( 203 ) 

th\ m 'nm TiWm liJu "am am liJ^uu mi mu" 



Exercise 78. 

ml? [.v\m im 

pi?^ v\m jj m Ldu n^ m wAm iy\in mi mu uan 



ml? "■ "" 

H A A > A ^ \ A iJ 



m^ n "Dig iHu uan lu ^im uu in ^ mm. nti vit^i^ f=iu 

ifia Lai li^'^idu xn mx\ iLiJan =] sa^ am am^ LailpT^mii 

'DHQ uiu uflfi ™ viu<i QT " mi as m 0^ viiu an !g vm ' ' 

niQ iHu ^xm n tjaii Im^l^t ^u piu idu nn uu ViiJmu 

m uu IvTliJu lIu ijiti viu^ \m iw m uivi uu l-f uu iPir 

Ijj 'Dig ijiu uan Piu uu "kmm 'diq iHu uan Vmu h\ 

'^ u a^ im Eju wla " fiu lHu nn i?iaij qi ^' €^ I aa ?°ij " 

mg iliu uan piu uu n vm lIu uiifiuuMunniliLi^^v^pigi 

II 

'' tri LiJu am^ uu cju ^aau Lai lIupiji taa^ eju Lmg u ^ngi 
Lwaviiu s^l^'^liiSlaniF! t 'x, LiJ^fjulw^Lilu a| an ^ viu^ " 



( 204 ) 

Exercise 79. 

Jijmw Tim Km \.\.m 

u u u 

m ui^ mi mi mi r\l qi mu mi ju nulu izvm^ wm Ltan 






LLfi mf] Qiiu JJJ m vi:;Lt^ am im an ui^ m mu 'oi^ia^u 



jil gi St ra^ ni? ilu mil ^'1^ tatju ?iJ pihu ^'n r. m^ 
m? m m uivi "an ui^ ^imw uu IjJ muli^'^ilu mi uirt 

T 

11 ? u 

mm iim w ui^ S pmu iJj:vit^ni?i 1-^ In mi t JilmiAi mi 

T U 

?\im 1(^EJ m L!ai \i''m vn a'n^ laiiu i]\ llh ubh lii^l Jil 

I] II 

II 
jiJnivi "hw TCLfi LLra liu " 'an m^li^Tmu an di '' wm Lian 



( 205 ) 

i im ^ rfu rill wm ai?ij uu m ^\m" immi ?i] rau 
■in " v^gn LL!an mi m liJ im Vim am i\.f\ mr\ aifii Pin ui 



? 



Exercise 80. 

mi m imu mii Im 

tlnm am m^u to^iiJiIfi t m m yiiu m v\w m 
1 

Tin Lv^iJi" ^im m uiLi wvifn^ '^rliljifi aan !g Iw^Ltan [-an 

'^t m\)\ L^LJ ma 's:;13j'1m'ui^ Kv\mu mj S pi™ ?^ 

if\m Yin ^ m li^'^QQn 0| liI'Lai im Piu aa mu Piu mi 

n l^'^jJi Y\ Inim mi raliJ llyiu vin m m v\m t mu m 

1 

v\m uan di '' iili mu miWm i^ m mm mm imiz 
mIbIjJ ivmt nil! llIu 0"1? " ™ aa vnu qi l21 liIt tad^lu 
LiJu im mu mu LLcf] i^^Li d"^ m mj ^^ di "ImiJu art? 
uu amn ''^it w^ " Piu w niu Piau dn " m am^ mi cjjj mi 



( 206 ) 

U 1 

mi] li ma vnlvi m bbh q^ m eju pi mi vi st mm u pmu 



Exercise 8i. 

L|,3J'] •aa^ U1U wm 

lirTfl^ piiil'irlM'L'ai lufl dfi iteupfviu^ uilw^Lmonu L'^fii Lin 
vin n gu t Pi' LLjjg m uu cjau ad l?iuq gu mu^ uiu yimu 

linn nM'm vm di " la^ Viai Lua unlmLU'] nu inn 'Ki 
mu m m Vila dm ' ' f^iu I'a^rau gi " uu lai ui Iw^Lfiua 
!aa JiJ " \m wm nlu' i^a L2in un di Piul^'^in'^miJ lIu 
Hi mal'f raa mm lai luauu jjinu L^Liia3 miT, 'mixm 
yivnjli^''^"^ Fiul'a^iaT mi^ m ma a^in '^:;f'iiLLUQ mm t\ 
iliviun LYi'il? ifiaViK m \xm m m\ i'Mm. am m 
m t\ uiviun dn ilaui^f l^li^ piuito'ijan "Ji " i^ 5 safij cju 



( 207 ) 






Exercise 82. 



Is j!][?i i?ig -^in Qumnii 



urn 34 ll 



uan-^n WQn sum 34 ipij ti uu^i im^ u luui^ilj^ lwjx 

li muliJ L^tJQ m3J ill )htim'i I'Mim ik mi iln ™ fin 
e^^ g<i m 3Jn L!fln fi u^i i.'30i via s:; lu uu m IsT ivn uu 
n™ vi3JiiiS '^t mm m sa^i^ai L^iVmLi m um ui?! 
MU1 ill n IjJ liJ sin lf=iii m Ijf mi iJj:;imQ L-an li^^^^i^i gn 
St ra^ Liii t m mw LWQ vijjn ilnVSu li^^ il uu m 
n viulil im v\m Lit^ % ndi] iHuVlm s^m 



( 208 ) 
Exercise 83. 

m v\m iitJ^m v\m t\]\ L^Ln mu Uiu uan im 
121 mm a jH 111 fi tJu m Ivinj tan Vlmu laim Lsn. '] 

™ ad ^ ut vif^n^ fiu mn: im u L-^fi "aa^ la Jfi uan 'in 

D ? 

v\m TO m 3J ui^ mu vi u fiu u In m " ej i?i piu uu n 
im ill mvia^ aifjivifn taadaLmuu \.m Laimia jjiu^qejiJj:; 

Lilii Qu jjin iSb l!Q1 u mi \\^m m im Lmg u fiu lmu 
■ii n^ lIu iim w mu im iim 1m mnz]^^ llwti m 

m lu fiKLili lIq 5iq^ mi m vr\ tJu lu' m\m\ mi m 

"^z nefijliJ vn ™ mj iwx ^ luij^f ad lu uu liJu m mn 

m mih n ^ mi ra^lil vn m i\m m L^m dni'j " piju 

lSb Piu mmiu mm uu li^^'aan liJ m m lIu lu mi u 

1 ti 

^ piu mi w m imhilQim im miM'inm um m^ f\ 
^ m LTOX im ii mm wi^ -urn lanlii m? ^ Vlj^'ilIq^ 
Invin ^^^ra NumilM^yt^ 



( 209 ) 

Exercise 84. 

un LLra lin tau 
1 



b J, u A 



un LLng m uu liJu un m'W] uin m mn nttm lli mu 

im Ivi m m mm mil am^ f=iu !j ^ ^^ '^z m^ "niu w 
II II 

ung uu Lwnt "in iiul^ fii vimu Lfiija lailu' amn '^"sm 

mrit lailli ia un imQ uu jim im^ lst m gi '^:; f^a^ 

viijj un Ling uu Ifi Ivi v^?i vitjiu an m liJ ut^i 1^ un Lim 

u 

W!?i arl? lij ?i3JPigj Lai n lai un Ifi lu via^ ad lli fiu m n 

U II f I 

gu viu^ im un LLng aii lu m^ 1^ m uu m n iwu Llj:;i?ini 

L r II 

^^ LLi?i m LL3jg !aa^ tj ^ piuuu iia^ lKi 3ji wliu nui Ling n 
ua^ ^ LLug m m im^ m lu g'l "a Ltjjg a lljj] 'nn w 

II 11 r 

La'jllil^ m miM Lvifiau mj vifa " 



Exercise 85. 

un LLng viui mu 

mv\m y un LLng m m^ i liJu ■^m im mn gu v\w 

im mlu m^ m m m t auu aiaEJ h aii m^ inim 
II II 

1^ ^a iju m^ m m^ tauu uu m im nl?iu mi lii\l 



( 210 ) 

Lm ItaI n tvifj'au'm l^u v\m mu v\m m !j v\m u li?i mn q't 
un Lira m\ii fi !aii m m lv^jx iw Qm>3lj lst 20^ un 
lira mil L?iiJ0 'j'l '' Lwrx mj m im ta^lutj tauu a™ ^ " 
igm ^ un iLralli 9u m u mj S raiu mu llIu mi uin tu 



li 



vi& fi Ej ^ LLfi n Fiu v\m m m lsi ^a^ un Lira i^fn 1211 
li Lili?i viu-^n miiij un am n lwu ^pir wi Ej ^ Ltn n tju 
mu m uu £iu ia^ imn mu limmm^wii ''mm imra 
mu ™ uu im LQEJ ! im lpili °a:;liiLj mu nmum imm m 



Exercise 86. 

mi im ilu m 

]l7ti\m fhu lI 3J1 Lim fi 'o'l^ tvi^n ?)0^ piu i m^ m 
liJ Ml ^iu ^ilu iJr'jR aLJjfm L^Q L21I1I til ilu n Id fi 
dn LvilLinj viw L!an TOfiQ^li^rRTi ^ ss mi lIu mu m? 'iimi^i 
Qdn-3 u urn T\\^m\n lIb m 20-3 im itu w n\i'm 
m mu w^ m^ mu mi mi lbi uMiJ iiiu ^ lAiammtam 
yi 'y lAiQ m uu S PiQiii iaiqIs f '^t m um Ig'i'iPii do mum 



( 211 ) 

iQ^^i r\m^ m mM'm til l^!j '^n mu mm m\i m . at] 



Exercise 87. 



m? Su ill 



gii v\m mm ^u Pin Ivinj inu Lira jji ^ iHu •aa^ 'unti 
1^1 tfeii 210^ LSI im uan dn " sslil'mi mi in w^ mu #1 
mm ' ' ui?j [^1 n Im^lst Sjj liJ imx m m uiu m lii 
smn '^tlil LTO mu v\m mu am^ul^im in m m m 
m im isTaa-^ m m m m v\m n du m Ivinj' an inLi 
m nliJ iHu MM} LW ma ^q^ w aa^ Ltan tSa uiej m m 
h mi uiu am L2n iaili mu am m in m xiiu m vfm qt 
' ' mu s^liJ li^u lai in "am m uu m Ww. Ln[^ ' ' uiu 



( 212 ) 

[m mil Qi '■ sj:; q^Ij mj m^ m? in m u lviSbu mi 

am vm mu mh^ u l^it tnu an di " mi n liJ f '^" m 
wih " ui^ Lira rau 'Jn "1^1 iviflau mj f liJ w in '^m 
piu 9U mm f=m viu^" 



Exercise 88. 



dim m^ un "aujj 
PIN Vim n u im mi it\ I1J lu m "aitj suuini lmu fi 



t\m nu taujj v!uiJj:;jjim^n m viu^ m li^'^tlm i4km mm 



aJ 2^ aJ fi^J. 



ini^ m 210 Jii " eTl^u yii^ raii di " tfi adi^ mi "auu au 
li 

u ^m LiJu 3UJJ ^ mii Vim It" lu uai n'au m 1^ ini?i in 



(213 ) 
Exercise 89. 

T]m im LHuliJ 

f=l?<l MU^Ura 3!]^ U I?l f=lU mj^ L'^LI ;jin LLJJ L31 m 

vn viuQ ^ fl la L^!j^ m mm m m uu IjJ fi ilin uu 
n vntj LL3i aa^i ['hiVi' liJ lSejjj Mua f=iu uu ^ iriu lsi 
uan vijjQ'ii ''lu nu ^ viua 1^*^ mm Mm 'am ^ mi vnfj 
^ mi fi f=i']nu wn 1'^ mi^ im ^ mi I3J mm qt '^:; 1m' 
ffil? Lilu ?i^#i ^ ?iumj LLfi viiu ^ mi m m fiw aasi viua 
^30 WBm LiJji?i ?u m im'^iiiui]^ <imm Ltiu lavi mn 
m]} g'l " i^ 30^ L^n =] ^lu' S jimlu' iilu mhi rw vi hz 
-^'itj m mn 11m wi^ uld fi3jnQ? ifiii " tTviffl^ m uu 
nlras LLfi fn3J di V13JQ '^:; Lai lIu LTi'i It viuq (?iai] qi 
L-ai pra^ ni? lIu cjioo uiTfi iiJu Hi jtimt im uu viitj tTviffi^ 

l^'^Llil?! TO LLfl ll^^^ra LSI SUOT QU L^^T ll^LLn WU LLf^ 
? 

L2n lan suura an en au uu m b Lu ™ in Lai L^ Lai Ifs h 
lu n?:;Lili urn n m nmi liJ 



( 214 ) 

EASY CONTINUOUS PASSAGES FOR 
TRANSLATION INTO SIAMESE. 



Exercise 90. 



There was once a poor man who had never 
been to school when he was young, and he 
wanted very much to be able to read. He had 
seen an old man who lived near his house 
reading all day long with spectacles. Therefore 
he thought that spectacles would enable a man 
to read. He went to a shop and asked for a 
pair of spectacles. He tried them on and then 
endeavoured to read a book which he had 
brought with him, but he found that he could 
not read it ; so he told the shopman that these 
spectacles were not the right kind, and asked to 
try on another pair. After trying on every pair 
in the shop still he could not read the book. 
The shopman said that he did not believe he 
could read at all. The man replied " Of course 
I cannot, do you think I should want spectacles 
if I could " ? 



(215) 

Exercise '91. 

A gentleman in India, one morning dis- 
covered that a valuable ring had been stolen 
from his room. He asked all his servants but 
they all said that they did not know who had 
taken it, so he said that he would have to use 
magic to find out the thief. He told his 
servants to stand in a row and said that he 
would repeat certain words and that the thief's 
turban would catch fire. He muttered a few 
words and stamped his foot on the ground. 
One of the servants snatched off his turban and 
threw it on the ground. By this means the 
gentleman discovered who had stolen the ring. 



Exercise 92. 



A wealthy gentleman who was fond of 
good living and had for years been abusing his 
stomach, at last found his health so bad that he 
consulted a celebrated doctor. He stated his 
case so clearly that the doctor could not mistake 
the nature of the disease. "I can cure you" 



( 216 ) 

said the doctor, " if you promise to do just what 
I tell you. " The gentleman said that he would 
be sure to do so, whereupon the doctor told him 
that he must steal a horse. The gentleman was 
very surprised. ' Yes' said the doctor "you must 
steal a horse, you will then be arrested, tried, 
and convicted, and you will be placed where 
your food will be such that in a short time your 
health will be perfectly restored." 



Exercise 93. 

Yesterday I went out for a walk. I met a 
friend of mine whom I had not seen for many 
years. I was very surprised to see him; but at 
first he did not seem to be able to recognise me. 
We went and had dinner together at the hotel 
where he was staying. He told me that since I 
had last seen him, he had been farming in 
Canada but had lost the greater part of his 
money. He asked me to help him to find some 
employment, but I told him it would be very 
difficult to find a vacant post just then. How- 



( 217 ) 

ever a week later he received information that 
he had inherited a considerable fortune-from his 
uncle, who had died a week or two previously. 
I was glad to hear that, and hoped he would 
remain prosperous for the rest of his life. 



Exercise 94. 

Two gentlemen travelling in Scotland, once 
stayed for the night at a small inn. In the 
morning they were rather surprised that one of 
them was charged two shillings for his horse, 
but the other was charged one only. They 
asked the innkeeper why different prices were 
charged. The innkeeper replied that the 
horse belonging to the first gentleman had a 
long tail, and therefore it could easily drive 
away the flies while it was eating ; but that as 
the second gentleman's horse had a short tail, 
it could not drive away the flies so easily, and 
hence could not eat so much, as it often had to 
withdraw its head from the manger. 



(218 ) 

Exercise 95. 

A gentleman dining at a hotel, at which the 

servants were too few for the work, sent one of 

them who was only a boy to fetch a plate of 

beef. After a long time the lad returned and 

the hungry gentleman asked him if he was the 

same boy whom he had sent to fetch the beef. 

The lad replied in the affirmative. " Dear me." 
said the gentleman, ' ' how you have grown to 
be sure." 



Exercise 96. 

Two friends who had not met each other 
for some years chanced to meet again, and so 
greatly had they changed in appearance, that at 
first they did not know each other. During 
these years the one had grown very stout, 
whilst the other, who had been seriously ill, was 
very thin and pale. When at last they re- 
cognised each other the stout gentleman said 
' ' Why Tom you look as if you had not tasted a 
dinner since I saw you last?" "And you" 
replied the thin gentleman, " look as if you had 
been at dinner ever since." 



( 219 ) 

Exercise 97. 

" I shall work in my field to-morrow " said 
a lazy farmer, ' the season is advancing, and I 
shall have no rice if I do not work." Next 
morning however he received an invitation to 
dinner and accepted it saying ; ' ' One day is of 
no consequence". On the following day he could 
not work as he had eaten too much and had a 
bad headache. ' ' To-morro^^' I will make up for 
this" he said, but on the morrow it rained The 
next day was fine, but his buffaloes were sick, and 
the following day was a holiday. Thus day 
after day passed and nothing was done, until 
the season for sowing was over, and when 
harvest time came, he had nothing to reap. | 



Exercise 98. 

An elderly gentlemen was well known for 
his kindness to children. One afternoon he was 
picking up an orange in his own garden, when 
he saw a small boy sitting on the wall. The boy 
did not know that the old gentleman was the 
owner of the garden, and he said he would show 



( 220 ) 

him a tree which had much better oranges on it 
than the one he had seen him pick up. *'But" 
said the boy " We must take care that the old 
man does not see us. " The gentlemen went with 
the boy and together they stole a dozen of his 
own oranges. 



Exercise 99. 

A Frenchman newly arrived in London, left 
his hotel one morning, to see the town. In 
order to find his way back, he copied on a card 
the name painted on the wall at the corner of 
the street. After walking about all day he 
called a cab and showed the driver the card. 
But the cabman only laughed at him. At this 
the Frenchman grew angry, and called to the 
passers by. A crowd soon collected and every 
one laughed loudly when they read the card. 
Soon a policeman came along and the Frenchman 
thought that now he was sure of help. But the 
policeman only roared with laughter when he 
read the card. At last a gentleman stopped to 



( 221 ) 

see what the matter was, and as he could speak 
French, the matter was all explained. The ad- 
dress which the Frenchman had so carefully 
copied at the corner of the street was ' ' Stick 
no bills". 



Exercise 100. 

A boy once went into a baker's shop to buy a 
two penny loaf, and when he received it, he 
thought it was rather small, so he remarked to 
the baker that it was not of the right weight. 

"Oh never mind that" said the baker "it 
will be the less for you to carry." " Very well '' 
said the boy, and giving three half pence to the 
baker, he went out of the shop. The baker 
called after him and said that he had not given 
him sufficient money. 

" Oh never mind that" said the boy " it will 
be the less for you to count." 



( 222 ) 

NEWSPAPER CUTTINGS, 
NOTICES Etc. 

From the " Siam Observer." 

JV. B. — These Exercise from 101-115 are put in as 
examples of ' ' Journalistic ' ' Siamese. 



e.) 



Exercise 101. 

m \^ wiM QT iim m m ™ mn mim f\ m 
LTO^^nu LL^Q mm m m. m m m 1?^ ubu uiu mi 

rai3j ?iu^ mw mil hm mn mi vii u'l f\ m'i^ m ^ mn 

A A ci <u ^iJ ij 1 A 



wif]^ m m m v\m m s:; -^u m miu =] m lst hi i/i 



Exercise 102. 



( 223 ; 



T 



-^in n?<i imtim fSLun lu tu u iim 



Exercise 103, 



Lfiaou fi d L^QU u urn mlli m in iiu m i mm 
mMivm m mum m ^11 uiu mi^i in^c^i. nij m ra^tgu 

T/i:^Lni:; ffu taT^ ?iifi #1 1'S' lqi ui?i wu n??tji ^n m ru m 



mu^immm. 



Exercise 104. 



f3j fiuu L'^^Fnjn?^ w llfi m\\i mm mi liJ fki raan Lssg 



( 224 ) 

1m] iTu im u l^i lAiun^ijlli m im vm imlval st m m 



LLmufimiJjSu^jjin 



Exercise. 105. 






\m\^ 1m m sin jci™ viu^ im still m luu {wlqu Lm 

lNfi1[?l4^lmmSQSU Jtll^m 30^ UHLJ ']^ S^lli IQU mill 

lu m m v\m tm fiai^i 1^1 IlI lu la jei ih lii^ an fw ?)q^ 
^1-3 an 3n>3 viu^ m^a m m lvii ad fia^ m Lvn uu untJQ^ 
t aimj Mun iiin LL!?i iiw im )M innij 'jt ma i^ im mi m 
St Lin Mui^ vniatj 



( 225 ) 
Exercise 106. 

itm TAi u imi lIt t m % m v\t^ um mu m lu 
uauln Fiw ^u u mu sr ^^ slj ^ uu vifnLi ii luj ll^i liJu 

u 

.™ ^ m ^i3j ma^ wi^ qi iz^ u liJu ri^ i^n wm 



Exercise 107. 

Lwa ™ 111 w\mm imi m m i^iirnu jYiht lii ^ a?!) 
Ti mm tiuu sn?g?i ui g^i Pin 3j piu im m im m im m 
i?i!:;l']u m uu ^n t v\m f\7\ m m am m m n ^^ m m 
#1 ^n liJ Lrau wt^ p)j:;luu n lAn ffu 111 In m #i '■^nj^^ 

tii^ n m ^i^liJ #1 f 1?^ mam n d^ wn i?in^i! ^ nn lito 

II 



( 226 ) 
Exercise 108. 

Ill jjQirajm? lu LOT u L^i liiLM m fimu ifaEJ'] m 

LfSUQ its IIU U CPiL(?lQ llJjl 1^ Un LSI JJI Qfl pfu MW lpl!J 

Ljfl Lm jn am^ u Lran I'l iJpiQFimf un sin m mw i^au 
Lit^i ul?i ii'] 'jnlu nw fiau rau im liJ raa ?ti uaLi?im 
mf DRLrajlilil W71 dn 1 m u'n st liIu m\?\rn nil i^m 
lu I'lm ihi 213J nuu t nj-3 fiBU i^isu lmxS m UQLrajm? 



i^jjliJ w 



L^JJ LU vi^ uu 



2^ i^ 



Exercise. 109. 



LLvi^ nu mu 
im m Qiu u LQpii ilj:;jjim aa^ ™ Lni?i mi] m mlu 
jtvi']i^ m mj jfi Ji^ Ivi^ nu m Im mi i ^im u'bu m 



•a']i^ ai) o^j^ vn<i l^i aan viiu ?n fiu LLsn m n 39 1m it\ 

111 Sii L^Li fi^ lu f=iu ku ?nu Ej mj I3J Ejau lil % Lni^ 

LiJu iJnn im^ nu -au unu si^ m w m 71^ l'j^^i mj ae 

li 

31^ ui m im Lni^ Lnii^ fm Lat at lu iKi uu %^ m '=5in ju 



( 227 ) 

liJ fic mum mu tm'fln mi lu m m li^itj ?nu i mi fii^^ 
v^n ui im mu ^i^ m Ipi ujj m LL-sn m lqi nHn l?i lg 
ii^ m TiU mu 'DiuliJ mu T^ viu tsnliJlu m bhej un 

Exercise 110. 

imu site) nt^n ^q^ um iPiu fi fiu Ii?j ^n f'- 00 piu wi m 

L31 iJKu inii im njtm 'am mu 1m mim mj mm inu 

viuQ^ "aD \.m^ mm mm wtM m m im i^ wi liJ lli 
? 

a:; fiii lu ^^ ^7\ miVi ^iw mit iiJu m? unu gu LSfj 
Ltm Fiu ra Ijj' i^fa^ MU lIu "dqu LLi?i ffi MU liJ (?iijj mmm 
f\ m 1^ fillip lu itm otviLi u nu I'^im m ii^ "^t, m 



( 228 ) 

LLJ^un mn •si'] iiiu fi mm mi\^ i^m ifi?^ f^n mn m 
mts Lilu ^fiTiim Qim u n mi ih q^ lau urn nu tfiu ill 
ui m f\ nm Isjfi^ 'sr rntfij vn mi mm moj *au m 
I3J u cj 'D'g^ iIjiij iJjiu piu fi^ lu iSa^ olintj 



Exercise lU. 



% nil immu 



^\M 



iju ffu !j qi iTumi i^aj •3iu?i^ i\]u ^uuu vii/nj Lnaiifij 
'^t m Qsn sin mm m lu nin Lu b Lfiau uu isi^ llpi m 
Pin ft^ ffu' im Tiviu mmm ^I'Wi mn sin im^ [f\w,'^i 

LviJi vi tih "Jiru: fRffe mQ u nii:mlvi '^u raLi lui 



ra au mnz im im ^ ut] tJ;:;lvir '^t m m m Opi m 
itm wi ^Ig'uu n m im uilu m ?\ihiiii iizut su hw 
uu mi^u liTii m fjiju I3J jjau 1m oji mi Jafkaiira? 1^ 
mm m LQuJaraiLyiaj 1j l^u im tfjnqw lmu jfil'kj jji 



( 229 ) 

lli iJafpiQiLviQj In^ m mf\ ti mm m mwiu ^^ m iqi 

im m MM \i\ mn "^z im liJjejij Im mM u ^^ m m t?\ 
LQT m lSqnI qu \^ m m m m itm ififs m Im ttm^ Siiu 

WM vivnj liJ in^ 



Exercise 112. 



LJjQmiti w\m\m LOT mu ifimIj mm en. d m n 
s"3Ji l™ t wzim m ?n]\m Lif^ fiu l^ ^n^lil iu ^ 
vli aw W\ 31^ wa unit^^ win uli l^u mj ]\^z^ Mitu m 

U 11 

liuvIqjjj iH^ LLf^ I3J LLPivi m m m im m wr\ uh im ^yw m 
1 II 



( 230 ) 

nu fltj w^n LL-an m !flT3 lmu L5ii ta:; at fm tiiu mi n Id 

u 

m Ivi Q0n liJ vlii ^in ujlm ^n 'sm \.m '^t 1^ iJi^ iJ?"pj 
latj unjj m llIu piu ira iHu n aan ui -^Jin iJ?:?i pin "hii 



fi^ vnn vmo n iiu m ^ m m mu mm %^ m wiu \m ti 



Exercise 113. 

1 
m r\ ui w^ 'hum Mi iim fm t ui llIu iaIi^ imQ ifi^ 

u 

pnti aan luq ui iloim tjidool? t ifm vm vim ilfin 

II 

m mu v\m v\m m ih nm vim mj ^ ui u^ Pigu m m^ 

tl T 

LLW iJT:;yim giooo \i liJu un taIi^i im mt^ '^:; tpi 21^ m7\ 



(231 ) 

L?n 5 mj m cj [^ Jj pmu mmf\ s: tug img n m m ijj:; 

u£^ Tim m VI Rif^ jJWTic^ wA'm pi? piiu mviu^ im ^n m 

jim Lmi cj 50 i^Q^ ii^ ifu Gi lu ^ mx m m an Piiu 

OTU uu '^:; d^ L^fn \ \m m X\ ia ffu pnn si^ pin m rm 

II 

ffi uli^i vimn s:; vijiij pi™ fi:;L0^i^lM III mu ui^ lu Ejn 



Exercise 114. 

T II 

m vinij gi ra \m qu u pia m ujhvi '=5:; m ?jq3j m ljq nfi 
1t/J l^u 111 m \ ma^ sa^ ura/i m 1^ lli?) i lvipi m m 

m'l f^m Plan \v\ mi vii aan ]\7ZJ\ lu mm m^ mm mn 
^a mm im m^ im m wmitw mu im m m^ m 

lillu ma^lli 



( 232 ) 

tfalvJ ^llilij QunjiPi u^g Ifa^ ]\rM^ piijj w mm 
i\m mm m:— win^lvi it^ mm mlillm tm ufi 

111 lu piiufi ^ t ira '^01^ 0fj vifiitj m m^ 5iri ffu to l?q 
li/^ mi s:; m^ im mii In ^ m im \ii 1m c^n mu m 



f u 

Qurai^j uri ih im ra^ mi mm Ir lSh uau un man 



•^z ™ ifa ai^ mm "^t m^ -nm iwa aumiu^ "aa^ ljq ai^ 
•^z m m w m 

Jli vii^ -nm \\n im i^n iim ifa i^a^ liIu !j Hi m mu 

ufavi '] s:il3J ^Q3j aunjiiFi Im im lu ma^ an m 111 iilu 
au aniri 



( 233 ) 
Exercise 115. 

LL^^ mm 

iifSviralv^vi'isu 

Ividj mm ^ inu victi ^wjlnui tuoii suvi? ^ lab njjmmjs 
eiicQd; L']fn iJiy 5 1m im •^z % ilqnm fiii m im nmii 
'^rl^ m mv\m iim im iim mm ?filv^ vi'i su ^^ m'^z 
Lai ^[^ ra J']JJ fm mm mli im n^a^ ufiu nauiJu mj 
Ej ^a w t u^ 111 111 m ntiM m \v\ m lu iw 



T/1 mtw uu l[?i 
? 






m nnmn am 



( 234 ) 

EXAMPLES OF SIAMESE LETTERS FOR 
TRANSLATION INTO ENGLISH. 

A. PERSONAL. 

Exercise 116. 

From a son to his father. 



inii UHJ fl^ 



■iu t M imimi muimmm m^ 



aJ nJ 



r\% mm um ifiu m \jm t "^z aautd Pijlli mm9\ 
ia mm urn ra lli iviflQu m u au lpvI 



( 235 ) 
Exercise 117. 

From father to son; answer to No. 116. 

iJin mm wrm 
7u t w ivmm jpiulnluvif Rfi m& 



m vm TOIL 

T 

mi w&\ '^mvm t^vi -Ki ^ m mm u i\ f\^ vrmm 

"I I '\iJ ']U V ^ T } ^ iJ ci Ifl I A A 

«QU [^ PiJ m mim Ivi lai m uw rai^ "aQ^j vi Lu u lpijq^i 
urn m s" "30 lTu mo inn uu vijnu uHg 



fjw am^ n m m '^t i\m ni? m ^wl tea lto^ llpi^ 
m mi Dm mu di liJu jnm n llw^ 1m iiq vi ?im m n^ 



; I'D 3'] Pim Lifii uu um l^ 



mi iwz I'D •fl'] Pim Lifii uu ui^n L^ um im lao uin m 



rnnii w '^mmu u m 



MIU filU 



( 236 ) 
Exercise 118. 

From Nai Tong Dee to Nai Sorn ( mutual friends) . 



in^ m 



^ t ifflri Lumiiu f^ulniuvif Fin gim 



LLSsi mm m m miu mn imu im t m viJiu 






i s: m m mu \¥\ Lv^jr ^(?i JTarn? uin rfi vliu fi lij^i 



? 



lli ?)ijnui fm m mu im '^z "siu t m \v\ fiwL^i im t 



m 71U u fiv^L^n Fii^ -ii '^t la lo' m^ inu qli 



laniFi 11 imm mm m m m mu 



uiti i/ia^i ^ 



( 237 ) 
Exercise 119. 

Master to Servant. 

QU t si& iJJHi^u jpiulniuifif' Fin ms. 

m Miu nau fsiii 

mu w. m liJ m y\ mfilmuiw m 'm i g& i^ 

mm m u % '^A^ mil m m nj^ l™^ m mm'Q mm 

1 

L°zn ?5^ :jn m n m ?ij lan lq img m mj^suu fi^ 3U Lil Lvi 
-till mu nu LVI liJ VI iiu Lf=i?jjj agta^ m ?i^ lu^ mu viu^ !au 
tiJ m lu gti f liii '^ nm m m m \v\ uan nn m aivn? 



Exercise 120. 

For')nal Invitation to a dinner party. 

mm m Ijo ^ 
wzui ( s ) y rai3J im w l3qj viiu Sfilpiq? lujifi 



Lgm la Yi'jj s:; S nu fij iJjtvnu aivn? IiIjti i?iqij 



( 238 ) 
Exercise 121. 

Reply accepting the above invitation. 



Qii t M ijjyifju fpiulniuTOFin eites 



LTO m\i\ m m mu mim ( s ) vinij 



m\ Tm^^ lli f\\ fiiFi 'qq^ tiiu m] v\m t m l^ojIiJ 
■^Tjm t inu Tfi'iu ilu ¥mvk] % vinu urn ^ nrn tm 



\mw\ u LL?iPi^ f^Qiu mm m m im wm 



CpiLPiaf Lum 



( 239 ) 
Exercise 122. 

Reply, declining the above invitadon. 



iHu w\u 



TU I lani LUHILIU jIlulflluviJFin sitoS 



Li^^ nm m m mtu] (^) vuiu 



wm mw "mnm i\m fiwisi 'timj nau n^ qu ^ lad 






T ■ ? 



li 



I mrc a^v^Lsi il^D 



laniFi u LL?i7i^ nm uuoa ui m i/iiu mu 



SRHriaf Lmifi 



( 240 ) 
B. BUSINESS. 

Exercise 123. 

An answer to an application for a clerkship, 

m mm llbu niiJu 

™ \m im wm 

ms 1^ III 'mmm m ou t sib itm u di s:; 21a in 
m?lu W13 iLn Ht m ifu i^au ^ tc & um iTu 1^ vinu 

LV^n: 11UU 141^ mn '^:; jji m ni? t mi^ lli lipi lIu 
if\m mm do uivi im m mir nulu m^ lii mi t q^Tj 
!jLi?im uinja fii si^ mnrh Sfi tnii lIu im mi di [siqIiJS 
mm vm im mvrsf\ ^-3 sr lu uu maulli Pi'a 111 mu 



\m vn^ fiSvi LLQufiiiJu 



( 241 ) 
Exercise 124. 

Invoice. 

m limw LLQuniiJu ^uSi^iiPiin 



gVl t ff.b LUklLU J.Fl. ffM 



IW miU 3J1 IKl U1EJ (H) vinij 



mil vnu Im m aiwi'^n ?i3 •aa^ m uu ui^iu -aQ^ vi ?i^ 



liJ L31 JJ1 m \m m nm mi si lu ?if=ii & invi en 

u 

II 
jim siteis Li^i J']u ^m Lafs LiJu lTu tobo uivi vm n%^ 

% m m mvinj mu lTu jjqtj 3ji riu !j m 'mnm -aiiij u 

u 

3Q mu It! m \M 1m ffu u m "rnvwriU vr\ mu Tmvk\ st 



( 242 ) 
Exercise 125. 

Request for payment of an overdue account. 



% yi f' imim ?.r. &m. 



LL^^ mm un m v\m^ m) toiu 



mu mu ^miiiu w^ n^i it mm vnuvifnii^iJiJ 
^a mu 111 m i^ "hw lpiIq^ 1^ m "^ sin m fiv^L^i ^(^ 
LiJu Jim lTu 6ic^^^ 1J1V1 mu m%i\^ m m m mu m 
yi vnu n m m i[^ tii ^nu '^t m m l^u Lin 'aiwH] •aiwLsi 
fi miu Jli Is jjin ^ siLilu '^r m^ m^ ll^ ™ am^lT n 
f\ fiiAiL^i Miij 1-^ g'l i/i'iu Pi^ '^r 111 Lfu fiiAii^i ma -^^i lliljj 
m^ llIu pmu ffu li^ \h fii miu diuin 'ra &m mu 



flFiLraf rau^ 



tj #1 nij Mi^ Ijuumj 

11 



( 243 ) 
Exercise 126. 

Receipt. 



u 



mi "] LiJu wu sidb.?' 1J1V1 0^ mu ml^i jii m 



w 



LLPl QU VI siGl L^QU LllUIDU ?. PI. Gilai<S 

m \m mm mm !j fii 

u 



Exercise 127. 

To a shipping firm,. 

vm wim mi t &o 
\[^i mm m m u 'm nu m Tui^af iim riiiJu 

mi] '^mmul.vi T\invii toiu m^lu 'mt<^ imim i. fi. 
GiifflS imx mmu i\ mii Ifi lli mm a^nijH mj wn ^ei im 

^ la iTu S^lll n'au OU ^ ei^S LJJHI^U ?. F1. 6ila)(S 30 TlIU 



l^liJjpi mii\v\ Tim^i win mu ^im^inz^mianm unn 
laniFi u u?i7i^ Pigiu fjutia jjt Ijn] t/iiu H^tJ 

uiu nil vi^^^ 



( 244 ) 
Exercise 128. 

From a firm to a Prince. 

tj %i nu m un^nan mn njiu m m m mzi^i \im 

mimtiliz^mii^n rn'mrr^ m mmm, iiJii i"im lyiiI? 
mj ViTiJiU LfiffiiLL^']™ ih mnmf iim Gicndtei uivi ra 
mmm ^.n^m&mo uivi m m wruiTi s:; m^ mt ]\jz?m 

mrv^iiniL'li '=^t1.^^^1iJuQnniviu?i en L^ausnji™ ranviwn 



TOJ 3 raj am llpi stliJji^ mmi 



SplLraf (CJ) 






( 246 ) 

c. oe:ficial. 
Exercise 129. 



sinl. 



•iu ^ cn wr]wm™ ikHrmmm m^ 



wrm cs) LW mm m m Yiitm ci) Mm m 

It 

r li 

ilmi ^ im^ \i mi n^ Mu JJ1 in w lu l^q^ jtquj ll£^:; 

T II 11 

Iw u uenliJ LM fiving^ LYipn^uiR urn uu 1^ ui miu 
mnij Yin wklsi uq^ misan LfiuiiJ^ n?:;vijQ^ i?in<i iJj:lvifi 

w 1^ ui PI113J ram m wj^lsi uq^ tJiLsan L?iuiLi7i 
II 



nrvi?']^ 3Jvni?ilviEJ vunu c!li wjnjnvi 



5> 






II 



( 246 ) 

Exercise 130. 



nitfim nmm 



gii t cno LUHi^u f^iulnluvifFin sim 



LL^^ mm 111 m v\m^ m) lsi muln ma ja[j#i?siii 

mu t u nan iii gn gu ^ m v^qym™ j. fi. gim '^r 

i ifs iu m t^i v\m i^ im "nm i v\w wm wz m lii lH 

Lwjx 'QiTu fmim mtvk] m^ misan lsuiii^ j\rj\m 
nmlvijj w ni ^^ T\ fn tra di uu im m m n Ivi viiu 
m-^ [^ i^ aa^ im m\ m^ t j\m m\ ym^ m I3J % nj 

u 

wj:;tJi (vl) 



li 



( 247 ) 
Exercise 131. 



m LjEju noQu muim 



30 iJonu mill imuim \.%i hmmm niu Rnmfmj 

mi m riHulj^ mM ulli S ra ^lau ]\n'k]mm trim 

II II 

II 



Pijg-^ LLSQ^ m mn H^n mi t Ji*am? 



milt 'iiiTu Lfi^T EJjj Lviu dn pi^j '^^ li ra iw ^nviiijl?^ 

II 



LJtiu u an Piu viU'j ra am mm 

II 






(248 ) 
Exercise 1(32. 

njiu vi£^ w?:;l^i um uiimi imim mtmi^ u?umt\ 
V1J11J c!li mtmm 

1 51 Lmu u QT % WQn viu^ 0!J Y\ mm tan f ^ fi lli vi'i 

u 

LLu^fi iJi^Qu Ivi 3im:;vivi5Lsn -su iTu lli vi?nij inhn nm 

fiij m mti'iM iJj:;jJim Ira lfiu 111 siijlln m % eai, % 
(U), ra viui wi ?)a^ fiu imt wi wniJruim m m 
fiviJtviTiiL^n 1^ Ivi m PiJtLgu lii ?i^ Fiin iwa Ifi ^squ pib 
liJ UK '^u (U) uu ?j^ 'su Ljj l?i aTOtmiL'si u^ m m 
wngu uf^s na^ m^ lluu ltoq vn ra m 

raj 5 raj LLog llpi '^^liJ?^ in^m 

SfILPIBJ (S) 

Ej wpfu m? 
II 



(249) 
Exercise 133. 

dvi ^ to wqyfnpiu jpiulniuvifpin s\m 
LL^^ mnu m iw mmm (^i ]\m wi\ nnj inu nit 



y\m imm 



^ IL^ I 



iPiaf (Q) L^i n?3J 1^ mu uu m quoj'ipi QanliJmn eimp! 

llnVIFI EjIjiI P1^ LLPl QU ^ 51 L^0U U 

t 

mivim L^i n?3J uviu 2fili?i!i? (Q) -^u rah ^: nnu un ?ii Jis 
■fiu LLfi:;mj^nulu u'l f uulviviiui^ im lii tm wn 

u 






( 250 ) 
Exercise 134. 



m\i 11 mj m ]k,\.m 



gu f sitf^ Ljjuitju jpiulnauvif RH (m& 



Lw mm m m mi% (S) ajjf^iravii?! i\mm 






m mi i^iju m^ •] iAil li^Jii Quajim ^in nj:;vij']^ li?i 



nj:;vijg^ viu^ 



mre -tjuu w\v\ mulfi if?iLf^ (H) 1m aanliJ '^m 

njii Mm^ (VI) 



imim 



(251 ) 
Exercise 135. 






mis. LJjyn!ju jpiulniui/iJFin sites 



II II 

ra?j m?\ Y\ jjoiififi uu LiJu Fiin ^ 111 firi^ un uiu ict 
if^ u -^1 n EJ fiij mj ^ iJ ^ivifij l^u 111 m \m %^ n n:;Lvii" 

ii^ ?i!j mu^IIiIm Jim m t m liIu ifu siteso uim fiwi^i 
3a Qunji/i iw llujj lto s"1^ ^ m ini 

51!] 1^ un fflijj njnu T/ifi iNnsic^n ljisq^i L?iuiii^ 

U 11 

? 

II 



( 252 ) 

HARDER PASSAGES FROM SIAMESE AUTHORS 
FOR TRANSLATION INTO ENGLISH, 

( With Notes.) 

N. B. Words enclosed in single quotations ' ' 

with reference numbers are translated or explained 
in the corresponding footnotes. 

Exercise 136. 

lu LUB^ mmm jj nuu mm im vm "^ i iilu mu 
Ivinj iJjnjnm mi uilpi in i liIu wu im rm vnn im a 

raif=i^ mwii ?ti in im fu tiuu w aa^ hi 'm lu' l sw 

s imm Lilu vn^ piu Lfiu \.ih i\ win anira ' mu 7\ im 

II ? 
m pnu aa^ T\i fiuu w Lfn Lvi^n a^ iJituntu wi Fian ' iln 

vih^ ffu' 3 iJj-3jim iu gi LLPi ' iln i^a^mi liIu iu lIj^t ' 4 

li ih Lilu H uii iJjii!j LSI If) \m Lira piijj IvJ lu m'] 

El 

noisi ^u li/»l y\ piijj &3nr]a L?tjn ^'n 'uf^ipi' 5 i.iJu ^la^ iljr 
mi^\ii e\m 1^ iJi iiii ll£^ 1^ imm ^:if\m mrum liJu 



( 253 ) 

L151 mm lu 111 LQi m IvJ s(?i f\ iIoiej mm n m m^ ^ 

T 

LJJB St Ivi ^u n m m^ im aui i^ m l^u li^ Lw n m 

m \yi um uu mnm 1^ m liJ vin inu vin ljiju ifau 

vrd-M ^ lu lSq^ rau LLP! ^n m uu na mtj aum {m mu 

S^ in^ vii LiJu ?njj fu in^ ^ fu in^ vii fu in^ m m m 

LLPi TOFii m iLuu =] uiu viui m ill LiJu ?iQ^ uu mf^n 

Qfj "au uan unu IIj Qfj fu lu img t mu an fu viu^ iiJu 
II II 

imi Lii^ LiJu m in>3 tJi dw hi lu ijpi nj't^ii^ fiitj m 
111 111 iJ Laa LfiLJ vin mu m tlau t tJi uu^ u i,i?ii m mu 
imn mvinilfilvllvi au iifi'] fi iJda^ mm m\]\ su viu 



vir^^im m mu 3U m lu ivi au a^ lu Ljau Piu i/i lu lua^ 

n 

mumu iTu Pi'a m t m jj-iH ^^ sr S uau aLi mtj rifiu 

II 

iim Hi '^1^ f=iu in ifau n lia^ im m uin vii fi m ?\m 
■mu m aijj ja^j ii LOT lii wa "it ini iraul^ lia^ L'Qifjau 
ad mriti m Lwm d m aiu all "3^ ln qi liJu piu su iji4 
Yi mi LiJu nn 'sn^ vii m? aa^ ui^j nu am mu ati lu ifau 

II u 

sm uiu ra '^ aan vn fiu m^ vnn lii 1^ i^^ii lai aai 



( 254 ) 

fiiim am m m uatj m mi sr lqi m 1^ n mm mu 
^fi m di^ f\m m nuu lu m itm iiJu vnj fiu "niu mm^ 
i\m mm m imm Lira mm man ltoq^ viq^ imm 
i]m am mm mm mm mtium mm 1!j ll^^ aw th 
mm Qu «] n uin mii miu mi^ m '^ piijj m u w sr 
iJjinui a^ 1[^ n L^tJi man i?i fa Ipi mil il^tmP] 



1. is raised. '2. on duty. .'>. ilistiiiit from each uther at intervals 
111'. 4. 'on each side alrei-iiately ' lit. set unevenly like the teeth of a 
tish. .=). fEnylish) tfis. 



Exercise 137. 

u 

JJ1 fij Km an^ mil aan lu Ltii tTi ivijjI li ljq m\i miu 
fm m LiJu LJQ 'lij ' Pin LTO '2 vjQj ^ UQU ^ i!w m^ih 
' 1si?i ujrs^ ' 3 f=iafj fii ^^ f=iu ' lu Hq^ L^m idu ' 4 lu 
Ri ui ' i?nu aiJiLj ' 5 cjiti uu un n w jei tritju ra m ^ 
i^LiQ lii'^ H viu^ m ?\m Pi m mn fii si^ piu IlI m piiu 



( 255 ) 

tiuu ?fi Lvirn tTu ^i m ']m ti'^i wz'^n ' 6 {n^ lu u 

111 ™ ill fiQ^ Ru uu vi^^m n i!wlpi an vim^ piu m m 
ajji^ tTu Jim fin tJ^lii'Daulslilra f=iu uin untj 



11 u • 



m m iLRFi an -am vim m m\i ^nvinjl^ vn^lnn 

liJlli?it^api vin 'vntSa^' 7 ^gfjlu mx lfijih uMu 
f II 

m^ jciItaI uu Yin Ifg^ ivi^n iiJu viij pi?^ fn m nL2n n t'snr 

II 

du aljj^ ei£^Q^ liJ '^u li^ luu ^ Lilu Luu m'] f\m 
m m Lilu vn^ ?iij mmm fn ^^ ll3j ^i vifa fie^q^ n n'a 
?iv^iu iut^T Tiu m Lilu t n'jj n nu lu Ivi ?iau L^iua iim 
m LiJu ?iaj vii^ ui^ ivn-3irmm^nu vn^jEiliJyn^ 
viu^ vno ?fi 3J1 vii^ viw 111 1m m vn^ Ijqli nm s'Ipiu nu 
^ LJLjn dn Jci 1t/I uu I'll '^z liJu ra li/^ vin m vn S l?i liJu 
3'filvl ail ?f] Lra LLPi jEi viu^im'] c^nn ?ei auliJlpi to Siu 



( 256 ) 

iiiJ?i jn ^ L^u lliluc K m au luo ra m^ m ls?i jqej 
lau LiJu riiviu^ Jii Lvifii uu li 'w imn inEji pis'] nu 

llJ ' 8 L[pi -^^ LiJu ^ aUl^l 'DUl^l ^ V\m UU JE1 mJ MU^ ffu 

LiJu pn;j viQj «] viu^ m \¥i a nu ?tj finu wa^ §ij aa^ piu 
mw mu vJn luit lui:; mnu m mu itwr ifi^ ui^ 1\ m 
mi] #infni^ m v\w vJan am^ ^ oii3j tJi l?i njt'^n Si?i li?i 
111 1m nu L^n m fi-3 lu fi jJ^ Livij aivinj iKi {.im Jci ^ 
aaj n i\i iiJu pnu msj imm m llpi mq^ mu^ wl^vinpiu 

Lu m nu MQi jfi au mi u au llti viai mui m uj m 
m ^mm ' iJu ]\: mz ffu ' 9 liJ tm a h^ lu n lu' 
u Lin:; viuau iif^ lu ^ aaii?! ^?i ^iu an m 1\ i aivinj iiii 
m Wi Lia am u un Lin o^ liJu ^u 

T 

V,.to. 

1. North west. 2. arniiiiifil, fitted up witli. .J. niaLjnificently 
ilpoorated. 4. to go up and down fov pli'asure. .">. in comfort. 
(i. glass windows. 7. important towns. S, iron i^juplings. 9. sit- 
ting closely together. 



(257) 
Exercise 138. 

\\i "^mz m\i m m m '^t w m m m m m m 
% m\^ i m fjj m^ n ^ mt m m ?fi '^ ^ g'n cjliri 

U U U 11 

iJ ^ d ^ < aJ U A <U U 'A \ cd cj iJ 

in^ t jfiliAlliJ ^ LfiT uiQ vin Fian tin vii^ fm iJruitu maj 
iu gi Lii "km m\k\ vm li/J vli dnsj ^t^ai^ liJ i/in vn 

II 
niMi mv\v^ lijn di ' irapunn^ ' i ^ivilii nan ' iw\ mi 

m "mi %Pm^ 2 \ \w ji^ ljq m ?m mi m \ m 

•30 l^ "30 viu^ m tvi m 1/1 fly LJjfl^ liiu 1 iim m tai^ 
Iflu -^^i uflfi Piflu lii 111 1^^ i?Q mSflu m Iw mi^ m im 



lu ^IfiH LLPi m s:; uan lqtIjjI^ Ifa^ iian rain im ^ 
mm QLi ^ iMi ^g[^ Ij fnui uu n i/ii i?iiy 'mm^ 4 ^ i.piti 

U II 

m m m m m Imi t rau jji ilrnijlpi n Ifa^ uflnun 
11 

H mm m luu LviSflu fm fi^ luii i?iqij jji ll^q u mm 



( 258 ) 

fi^ u S'l UQTi LLfi m 1m lw^ mj ^ ii0n fm 111 m m iTu 






piu ^ LiJu m ui^ im L?i?^ m iu iJj:;lvifi uii uij m 

ms ■^mi It' Iu iTu mi \\ ltot S^ lhu mu ?iijn^ ui^ ^ 

n 3 in liJ m un ' (?iiu fm^ ui ' ^ in^ ^gn f liJu !j ^ 

II 

i mn su 111 m iim n lai liJ n^u ri miin 

Xnlrs. 
1. (Krio'lish) ttle,L:i;ii)li uiics. '/. news (if any kiml. :>. K(>v:it 
(:i town alxmt 194 km. by rail X. E. of Hanukok). 4. coilt. ■'. to 
oil out sli(iotiiin'. (i, Hcvoss the tiL4fls. 7. frieuils and relations. 



Exercise 139. 

t rlvimulpilvitt)' ^[^ ^ijjIlI mu i^m m Lira m<3 •] 
mu adn^ ^ upi im mi^ 7\ mi^ m u mm liJ vij^id vra^ 



( 259 ) 

Piju tM via^ Ivinj an m^ vm 21^ v\m g^ ' fiPig^ ' 1 s>3 m 
nrm^ viu^ ad ^ '\\rj\ m mm iT\ 111 vn m m 

T II 11 

mi \m F1Q1JJ ivi njOTu sq 111 s^^ uu vin h m iJjtnnj 

eIiu njOTtJ Lm uu ^u m i )\rjf\ \m liJ lviu m^ 

11 11 

? 

r u u 

m\ mi m n "m liIu L-31 i^^au ^nrati gi-3 i<i aa^ nil 
Ltfi n [?w aii liJu mm im \i <kmn\ m m m^ lHjq^ 
ullfif^i im S ™SiiJ Lm LmliAl n m ra'u ad l^iiih inn 
LQm m Vivify '^:;lirlu nii Fifj n iJjv'^i l^liJ ui ad 



m lu tarn:; vstmi m\ m m t iIj^pi m m m m 

11 u 

nu nm m? tm in iwn:; liJu ^ vrnw Lm' Is lu Lut^i m 
pifg mj mm mmn nu rafj lIq^ nrmii -s: ^u '^i'^ i/h 
m uu fi f=iu I'lfpiu v\m m un ^u mulj m m mi 

r 

mu'D ' ^ Ivfufw \m\m m rau uan m^ uu am n t^i 



( 260 ) 

T\m liJ m m i^ 'ii riii r]7Z7\iu ii i"^ \^ m m I'a 



"1 Ljj 






UQfi LJJQ i?i:;n vijq 

sliLi r\rJm \m uu fu qi W\ m i\m m m '^^ t\ 

\.T\ 'T. m Lsn i/n ?5^ u '^:; vn l(?i vi?q jj m m m m am 

^^ 'H% lIq ' m!n^ ' 4 gn l4i iilu lAi'a m '^miu^m mnvi 

t 

vn JJ EJ m EJ viu^ Lu LUQ^ u ? -^m/n Ljj lqu u lli?i m 
m umm ' 5 nrm^ uu fii m 'in ![iij mu'D u liJu nm 
^itj n Iji' ^^iiJu 1? !a^wL'=n '^t w fii ini ira m^ ^ u 

m^ nil m l(?i s: iJj^ iJj:;?iJJ n -^^ L°a^ jji -#1 ll'^^ lqi pujiI-^ 

T\7zmu im mi f\ it\ liJ iJ?^ iJr^iJj piijj Is i^ m 

LTilslmLfiQm^nils 'Vim m ' 6 pi-fu LLtfg 4 mi 

11QU lIu jjt m d-3 IvT Lin yja m f u i?i lmu liIu ^ fi jfi 

11 

^ inn nQT ti m !Q^ ra li^"" m^ i^n jjt lli?i' n'au n mi 

1. (Knglish) .stcwiinl, major-domo. 2, orrtered. 3, a kind i)f 
.soup, bisque ? 4. irliahk' information, ."i. myself, (i. cjuicl?ly. 



(261 ) 
Exercise 140. 

v\m Liri LMU m um v\m w mi Lrfi a ^^ w lqi 
liJ m \iA um m t nm. m mi^ m m ' 5 IpT j" in 
m v\m mi] ' i lot uu lil ii v\^^ im f=iu u ' S f]Ti| 

- 1 T 

LLfi u li^ Im" LiJu 111 QLi'i^ 1^ n l^"" m m im ui Lilian lIq 

f PIU Id L^LI V!UI?1 VlSlJ IQI Vlli^ VimiU 111 LLPl'^ PTglw^LLT/lU 

Ja m m vij^ im i^i m \m iim m "urn mf\ t ram 
Lvi^au nJOTLi TOil^^ iiii nil ^ i^i Pifg "aa^ vij^ im uu S 
mm im \'H ' m^ m mm' 3 nt^ ^ jil h^ mu m n ndii 
n^^i^ 111 s1^ LViuau ^ tfu ti FiQijj im 1-^ am^ f ?i(^ si:; 
w aan g'l m^i n iaii?! Cli^'^iilu ui?i m ltiI^ fimi ad lti'i 



ihu vij^ LLfi LViu Lm uu ndii nf^itj iilu nrmiiliJ im 
4^ iSHii lif Im'liJu iimmi ^ m im m m^ v\m liJu 
mimi^ au m nau LLfi v\m llH liu n Lai Isi Id IvT ad 

c7 I] 

LiJu Fia ?iijn?j wl'^ T\miu m\ mi n Lrau imn v\m 



( 262 ) 

im Dm jju^i 

mimw Ru I'd" ^imjii ltot m ' un Rfuu ' 5 ^ij {|n via^ 
iriu JJ1 ?i'^ im' 1/^0 m Ivinj "am vij^ im mi im Tin 
L^ug ^ nj^^mLi m] mi liJ m n V un ui l^ liq n" vi^^itj =] 
un Lwn:; rai3J umi^i Pignii l^^j fii m u un an il viu<i 

vi^^i Lm Lviu t mm wu n mau ^llviusI Iu an iiJu 
cj [mm un fii^ lu inti? mn lu un m vittj^ un m m "^ 
n S I'Qr'UQtj Qu V1& n miu "] ™ un m^ lu ^ majran 
lij ' 6 Tju \ji J] i^iJu mj yn ^ntj ra^ i^ian 1!j [?ian m^ 
•^z u ui m^ ■^^ m lu Lnw? n m mm f\m v\m wn mii 

V1LI71 LYll UU 



.\nlH.s 



I. ilid not know that he was fast asleep. -2. power. 3. to wake 
up in a fright. 4. still suited bini lit. did not deceive different 
from what he liked, o. canary, li, stiginas (of flowers), 



( 263 ) 

Exercise 141. 

' m wi iu ' 1 gu f f' liwim mRrmmm &s\\> 

fnojn 111 W'^^utui raijj aioji ljq^ u ffu lli m m i ll'^nI lu 
FIT v^mu LLfi:; lii uti nrjviuitj fw di^l'^ji/iti EJntj -^imfj mi'^ 
iim SvilH fall TO3J rm iwnMi ' im sn^' 3 ^^ <^t 

BiiPKi wii l^yi!i VII gi lSs to vi m wfHmm ?, pi, 
eisib L^f^T L^i viiiau ji'Qg^H L^n lwbis LSI Lm ™ aiw 
wi TO ?Q^ LTii fin 31 nulrij !agi ^ si im vd\m ii^nm 
im iMQis LQ1 wa fn uuaiLi^i^ mj lqi jh^ m Piii tmu 
fiLi agn qili^^ m t uii^i Liut^ vim^ llw 

mi i?iu QiLTi^mjlw % LLfi ^ gn 'lSq li nzitu w 

11 

Fin ' 5 ii-jij ^f] 2i^n i-] ' gjHj njusjjfj ' 6 iJj-ffij ^i aina 
11 

2nu0 mj lSqIj^mq Pinm nnlg' iLrisim^ m m b mH^ 
f 11 



PM LL(?1 QIEJ m IM 51S1 U 
1 



( 264 ) 

mt^ imn ?ra mmm ^ '^iifiLi m ifij'3^ mm llot n 
111 ' rai3J ?iJj ' ''' mil m ly\ mi niu m ^ -^iLfi^ qt a m 

u 

LiJu 1/nu -^iLPiLi t mi mmim du ^if^inj m hiyi qi -^iLt^o 
f ^ LiJu ' uii\ ilu ' 8 -^^ [?iij ^ mj n ^ Lm uni^ llejo n 
llIu w in mii lii mmm fiiim ilitmi \^ ™ im "ii q 
wii m^ ' mfjlu mmm ' 9 my n ^ %mf\m iiim\v\ 

<nmLi f ^ iiJu U1LI lTu fi pi^ijj Qi^ liJu ainji !iu lij 1^ 

m\m im snmtj Dili nizm m m mm wzn^n qiqji f^ 
mi tlm mm vii li^ ^n nm nwtml'wii mu{v\]lmu 
m v\mh ii'sm im "^Mm v\m m liJ mij m rainyi u 

T 

1. .(iid;^eiueiit. 1'. Chief Justice. :i settUd. -i. rle])(ised. 
."). In the yeai- of the liuisi- cif tlio fourth drr.ide. fciv i-vole). 
(i. auieunieiit of servitude. 7. truth. S. creditor, inaster. '.». tlie 
period duriiio- which, slavery wa.s h=o-al. in. approve. 



( 265 ) 
Exercise 142. 

l4i ^^ VII m isilvi mi vnnj lwx lit iiiu mm 
mi^ mm fm lu m lolj f '^:; nK'3 m?^ Ij li^ uan "^in ' cj 
f ^ Ilk vii ' 1 Lm LiJu ' !j mm mi lviuq m I'ln ' 2 

Till ^mt^ ^^\ii m imz "^z Im mm ]hz[mu mm 

]\zmP\ Tim m ^ mm vm miu m m '^z\v\ llIu f=iBi 

LiJu iJ^^Iej^du im m l^i m lu fjisT^mj m mu ui ffu to 

f 

? 

TOvimu v\\ii mj torjl i-au ffu ' im uiu ' 4 liJu i^u 
LSI Pi']j s: f\z m L^LJ LJ1 y hiMi im wu m m 1'^ m 
1 1^ TiJiii ii 11 mm m? ljq lli fi^ li/iw un S ilrwril m? 
¥i m V. Ill L?a L?n '] aa irau g'l mi m im im lii lii 

Figijj iJ?:iAiqi liJ ^ mm ww\u m l?i '^zm im mu im 



( 266 ) 

Wf\ nij \m Lii'u mj raliJ im 

u 

0U ufiii ff^ P=)Q13J ?liJ LiJu ra uan ik\ mr\ vn mwr&i 1m 
mi jm m ms mm i?ijj0 fiii ijj:;ltifi tmiJ^^ ^ lji s:; 

111 LMli LIT ^:;l^l3J IFia^UQ^J villi 131 LL^l -^^ lH S FIQIU ^ 

3Jin 3U lii Fi'jj Lfitj t Ht m Is gi m m \m iTn f Ht 



imm m vm \mx, m m m m m liJ anlpii'^ l^t ff^ 
il^^ Lilu fnm mi m \m m\ mm ufi mm mm h% mi 
t?i m ?ijj m ™ 's:;l3j1.li mu l™ llpi ra iiJu vii^ imu t 

' m wm ' 7 LJi s:;lli lmu lu ni^ lin 

ij = 

1. rule s. Kings. I. nilei-. goveviiouv. :!. for the honour ami 
advantas;!' of the country 4. ^ambHiin. .'>. duty, position. 
%. pui'posely. 7. |)08t(rity. 



( 267 ) 
Exercise. 143. 

' \m\ vmu ' 1 t m^ sjt m mr\ m n liJu 'mm 
r\m wrs wm mu m? fs iJn nrm Lm L'^i m\m. t liJu 
f=iu iJn PiJBsi n LiJii ' vm ifivn? ' '^ mm m 3^ina ^si 
Tit]H vm mm 1m inn mj ' mi m mv. mi^ ^ t yivn? 
mw^ \m mu ivm sin qul^^ jjt pi^ iIctt ffitn m? ad 
111 m m\ ifliooo Fiu LiJu mr\x\^ m \m\ m m Ts t 
\Mm n ra tii invii? piu Q^nqiilil fii I'mm lu autfe '^u 
an II v\m t. % vm itm mr\v^ m. m n m Ivi m m 
mim \m ^ v\m mi ^^IwliJ itm a^nqu ' liJ^liu ran 
m 111 Liiu iTu ' 4 LLPi Tivn? ^ liJu ivm %mm la il iiJ^uu 
m y\m 1?^ vivn? ^ liJu f=iu mvm iJm 1?^ Ivi m t m 
uu \m vm mm waupi t m nu liJu 1?^ wcs utan au 
tm L31 LI03J 1m ura fiJJEJT m m m] m % \^ wm uu 
■ji t s?^ y ffQ liJ lu \mi wm LLW 1 011 unn u 1?^ Ivirij 
^ n ^ UU LSI iJm aiQ vii su ' Lt^Q n^i ' 5 ^ u n y 
1?^ yivn? U!an Suim ^ lu itm tamu vfa ^ im\ t\ 



( 268 ) 

mf]^^ m sin mn mmh mim m in Q!JifiHi mi 
lu lamij im ^Irifi rati pi:; d m 

1. Aden. 2. officer. ;i. civil scvN.ints. 4. velievc each otlici-. 
.'>. of inferior construction, li. crater. 



Exercise 144. 

u 
lu^lJ ' lllu nim frl ■^U Qi?l l^UU 111 ' 1 l^U LfLIQ LLJ^ L'Dl! U 

m y s:; 1^ fiqi^ mm -^n s:; ra-3 j '^n 1^ m lii let mm 
LWLij liJ 1^ llIu f\im m mii lu m^ i^'iim iw m t 
mm imi m m itidu m m w qu m m m m k "lu v 
\n ' 2 Lia m miu t ^t lli lu m^ imi v\m vm 
mm mium t '^t urn fi m ifm m liJ m m lSij lsi 
Qim? m ra Bui^ u LiJu Qinu 1 1^ mm mm m mw 
mm il^ rai3J tmlm ^bij ilu m l'qij nij lwlj? rti 
un mi Lrau l^j ml? In in mm m aiu mm m • m? 



wififijjjj ' 3 LiAi?jj m rre nRa ivim u liJu [?iu lSq a 



( 269 ) 



ffliu mi Lilu fnm m mv. lu yn<i ^ wu t mi mv. t\ 



m Iq ^1 ^^ ini Lra Ivi iLfiu cmj img n ^t m^ 1 ^ni 

'^z m^ im \v[ m m^ v\ mmi % "^t iJjiFisin ouraiu 

mu an d am^ 111 tm FifTisi ^a mm Ja ^ '^:; m mm 

)\izmh \v\ LL3JU ?ji di sr liJ 21^ Iviu -^^lli m mih ^^ 

'^t LiJu m ^ wn imt m m dn liJu t au mi 111 ra^ 

mj iinjnjT m mm 1 fi'^z yijiu ^t m m^ t liJ mj m 

mw} nm \i t imt am m vi \m f ^ ^i "^z i\m mn liJ 

li 

Im ?i^gn ra^ mi mi-B i]lfw m iln im mutt 
i?n au 7\ m]} 1 m in \u m mi f\'^z\)\f\ mi '^mu m m 

u u 

i?ia^ mi m m mi ^ '^z m mu '\v\ tfa am lil J^n (?njj 



m ihi im:; fin vn^ mil mr] h t m a^i^ '^m liJ ™ ^ 



u 



( 270 ) • 

i^ m m mi \^ jgu jqjj iiJu 1'^ ranu ']t !j sr im \h lii 

^t 111 '^z Lilu t i^ ^t ]\iz'c\ii m f\ sf3 imt im tea umiu 

iim v\m m d Ira -^t liJu ' ui im ' 5 s Ira s:; • ra 
™ ' 6 L^g Plan QT t lAiiajj iTigLj a^R 5 ifw u m\ n rai 
I'D fiifi^ Qsn Lja 111 m 

\nl,s. 

1. a means of self lielp. -'. at tlir i-aid tallies lit. in the eivile 
of tlie cards. :!. manual labniir. -1. .'> points nv )ieadinL;s. ■>■ to pilnt. 
(1. to steel . 



Exercise 145. 



nu m mm sf^ u mt []\u mi ^iraj llc^: liIu nu 



( 271 ) 

l!u mm sw m im mi m? ra^s ^ m im mt nu '^u 
m fn m \.m fiic^ i^ '^z l(?i ?igu ej i^i m [im njjmiu 
mm mlm m m m am dm '^i r\ N:; nn "m 
vijjjTU '2 f=iu Tfli Lfu urn n m^ Lfi^ S ^u i^ijis % m 

u 

EJ1U viu^ s" t h vm LTi'i ffu 'mm' 3 f ^ dg^ afj an 

11 ? u 



mtj v\m wn IjJ irair lmpi t i]\mm am %^ iim im lii 

u?ira h mm t llIu f=igijj sf>] Im f^u lmu 1^ mu m 3U 

pn^^ Y\ yi'^iim m m^ \v\ Imii %im ?iiiiifi li^ Hbu n 

[W]t im li^ n imiz im t ■^z m im Im llpiu m m^ 

mi ' vl«3 itm Isififj 'siLfi?j " 4 Im Infi ra Pigijj sl^ mu lsi 

upi nnSj n m vn i/^q IjJ m m^ iu ^gu vn wtJiu iJotqu 

lIq ^'qli Im im LMU f^iQiJj iw Lm:; €^ lu m m^ t '^t 

M'^utm Pi^ uu 1 lit mx Ml mm -^f^ llw sjjsji^n lmu 

tTi ?au raj fldlu ni Jqi^ tJi m luw mmn n iaiu p^ignu 
II ' 

'€^ g'l ili itif] ma^ lu iiJu la uw t Sifi5r|vif ^ '^:; m 
Tim vm lu 1^ mu mm im ^^ v\w im im m mi 3ji 



( 272 ) 



fltj'i^ lu LJQ^ VII mm '€i m \m 



y<ii< 



1. couiitevfeit coin. 2. will be put in jail. 8. wei.uhts 
4. lit. to hear tile voice of plaintiff and ilefendant i.e. tn hear botli 
sides of the que.stion. 



Exercise 146. 



piu ffwm^ f ^ Ln[?i JJ1 lu Ian u uw ]}r\mi i^ li^i liJu 
lvid| m^ Pii] dQ3J iJjinui mm m S lii vifa n b:!!? im 
•^^ iiJu mm m Im uw m im -ii "^t iim m? a:l? n 

m? ^ vit^i^ "] ^^ miu *] s{ji^ ?!ivinj man ffilfiPi la ?ij0^ 
(?nii 'QsiJ 1"^ iiJu Fiii mmi u^^i -^s nu n m^ mi inn '^ i^j 
m 3J mm m nu lai Ira nu im -^u nu tai m ui ro?m 
Tj'^ viu i mmu mm su iPira^ 1^ mm ffd^^ n Ifa^ 
mj liu uii m&ii nu im rau ^^ i^i 1m iJjinun Inf^ 
?mu°^ TOilgj i?ici!][^ su i/i3i!j iu m i!\m ^ '^^ 1^ ?!,mu ^m 



( 273 ) 

im \m\ii tillm n mm ilnmn m u uw iJnEiui 
m^ m m m m m m n m aunn t a^m IM ivifeu 

Piu n m im liJu l^t "aao iln hm^ mz m<i iwu lii auin 
^:; Ivi LiJu "sw u%u mt mn n m ?\t ?\ii v\vi imu um 
c!li!j ulii S ue^: t 111 WQ raiu iIjto'ui n Ijj m^i^ ' Fmu 

u f 

iJjifiui akivi Pi^m^n Kmu ' l vn lajlUmsi u n i? Ill 
vn^ Imi in^ m n vn mu fnm mm mui mium 1m 
f\'m m^ m n viSii mi 'li'iu lai \.\.m 5^ lan "am lai aii 
li?itj % ym mi m n la aui^ 'lu' *Dau sjjjj ' 2 fiiu 
m mm m^ lqt aa^ Lai lu in^ Mj yii^ vn vijkij ?53ju>i 



!flQ^ piu L51 mj EJau fi aEJ ' liJu aiun fa^u ' 3 



\)'/es. 
1. to attempt in many wn vs. 2. unjust. 3. too many. 



( 274 ) 
Exercise 147. 

LLpi iiS^ ' mil m^ [\m ' l jji mm mut ti itm v\m 
\\ Ivinj' riTisi mg liIu m mn im t niLw ma tau t ijq3j 
mu ?:;Lir niiw vim^ iuiiau =] viu^n w uu Ivinj mu ' im 
lAifi Yiviij ' -2 iJjr-^i 0LJ iiJu t in inn am «a'n m #ij w 

u u 

li^Li ?)[^^n im LiJu t mFis ?sunu ?iin!J tm jim^j vi^^aitj 
LiJii Qu jjnn "DT] L&^ mi i?m ili^ m m m ]\Km\^ m m 
^iii m "] im ijfijjtu mu ni? m "siu t mi^ Imqj' mu 
miu mun 'j^ f ^ivifii n?"Hra!j n t mim mil an mi 

iT\ liJ d ?)"uiu vin|i L^tiT ?ipi ?iQiPi m rfij iiai^i ' S 1m ^u 
tJiT m m ' :5 LLtf] t f] mm mu w mu m m^m^ 
ilfin Ijf (^flfi IjT 111 f fi i iJi'i'j n ^iw°ij T\7tmm ' i?)w 
aan ' 4 inai^ mzimi im w^ mz mm iiJu t ^uinj v^ij:; 
Itili im imi iim in min u iiJu u'l ret^nu uan m\ii 



( 275 ) 

mm v\m wz i iwlvinj m m m m liIu i ivi^uu m^ 
m uii m m piijj imm m iuu du via ?isi luliJ LviSaii 

u 

mi w ^ ^f^ ^071 via ?i^ m liJu n?"l'=53J i^ ^Pi ^lu Lwavi 
i]j"i?iij m im wt t ]U m wu m "am t npii liJu m 
di nr'^n L^i n?:;'^n ?il =] ra'a m^ =] ^i^ nil fJiEJW m m 
pnjj r^:; m^ yinim im mt mm i\lm m imiu n 
mu 1m ctI Uff] Ivinj' "] fiii mi init t m ^qu cJiejiw n 
umlil rac iuf^i mu iJ?:;i?iii ?imj ^ i?i'i^ =] via^ lu ra:; ^ 
m n LiJu vimi LiuQ m imw iri^ mvifii liJu ' m^ lii iLtan 

piju rau mili^ ^^ '^z w m liJ ^u m im mi m n m ^m 
m A\ m m n iim lil mu mi mu ^ ?sqii^ S wiun 
>3iu LQT 'l'^l?i ' 7 Jiri di^ ad mm itm u lIuttJi Luawm 

II II 

iMW au'n^i SJJJJLUUJJ Lilu ^ Luii mm ■ntmi ilrai jim^j 

noli mi wtmu mtmh u ^ wt au'ai v^r avif^ viunI 



( 276 ) 

' ihfm i?igu '10 Fill viu^ i ^ fla im m^k^'op ilJu 'nm 
$\ inn m m^ ipfa^ imu vn S 1^ iilftju C iH? sr IM 

ti t wkIti^ Lm" LL^i^^ vn m m m m m m lim 
mzfimi m lH lAi'a m uiu v\m m lpi™ i^'iu m ffd^^ 

m wa wj^lifiu llIiIsJ -^iliIu ra-3 LfiQ^ liJu mmi m 



1. once upon -i tiu)e. 'J. soldiers. ,">. evenly. 4. to ao (of the 
Kinu). 5. reception hull fur distiiioushed straiigei-s or guests. 6. to 
transact the business of the Kingdom. 7. were diligent. s. ruler. 
9. to reign. 10. food for the King. 



Exercise 148. 



\ 



imi LIU d. [m ono mf\ mtmii mim mzi^i m m 

!1 

111 ih mmx i^ ' di iJK^w^ni! i^rfiiii^isn^ ' i im^yi inn 
Mmmi i 'm mmz m iiii -m mi m im 'm fii mm mz 



( 277 ) 

rm i^inLuu t in m^ ma m^ t?im wznii mtuij ?\m f\i 
Mifi t mn lij lu llj iJj^iffu m *] ri mm u'l m t mtmu 
m ' ±izmz mtimm ' 2 m mu m if\m moi'q miuu 

ife^ LLf=iu^ W0JJ ifigtj 'uiu ilini uanm muviu^ f^uuvnmn 
1)^ LiJu ' yig in ' 3 l^i mmiu mm mi wmiPini?! piq?j 

iCT w:;a'U'uii!:;n:; am v\mm miu iai3':;v(1? si 'tjifu '^w im t 
yjoTQ mm i^iau gi w f=igijj wu 1'^ 1 1^ "wi m? ?ij jq^ 

m n W"invi ajjL^'^ vij:;Lsn qli Mg i/i?^ '^i^ siJ ltou u£i?i 
nu I gi Lilu i/^rfmpini?i Lfsfs Lmg fi mot3 ta^Fi '^t 

^ EJfi ' 6 JJ1 pijgs untj iJifn uanm n?iu impijj Yia w:;n?mi 

II U f 

m L3J ?i Li?ijj h 01^ LMPi m gn ' 7 Lu 3J Ifu im m '^u 

u 1 



( 278 ; 

m^ mtmmi^ mtmi] ?iii\.m mzi^i m m Y\n mzT]'^ 
mm im q'i mi ^ m m iim am^ \m ' liJu nu mm'8 

? 7 

u 

uu liJ m Yi?^ ju ig im m m 'm "sm mi^'] ii^ m m ill 
St tiQiEj LiJu mm Mmmi m ^ dn liJu wj:;ffui?isi(?i mi 
nmi ^u m m iim if\m iaicti^q ^iluu mil m f\ iljtffu 

1. H'lie-re Buddha's tuotli in kept. 2. ,iU in readiness. :i. clnet 
num. superintendant. 4. prayed for the well-l>eing of the Kino-. 
;"i. Buddhist doctrines. 6. designatniT particle of pnhn leaf lioo);.^ 
7. said unwillinsly that. «. proud. 



Exercise 149. 

' t lAiJtujjj jTala^ni? mi mtmiii f\mmiv\ ' i \v\ 

11 ? 

iJotIFI LLfi lAI?tlJ?3J'3^ttni!']^H ' LLO 31 T/lfl fl!]0W^ lAIKUIYl ' 2 

!j Ividj I U0?j LLt^ jmrjj mmi i^ m w lu ata^^ -^ww 

nj^ l™°i Jjvii mi u 3 Im i/ijiij im fm gi l^jj 1^ ra^ wir 
1 

n?nn IiJjpi man^^ Ivi t mi} iIotifi mijj D Im !j Ivioj #i 
•Q^u L^n Lfiu fiij mu m^ "] im S Ivi mn mu m? mu " 



( 279 ) 

m "1 w LiJu i\ m "am wm m m^ 111 m ^nm m m]lii 
t mm LLs^ #1 L-^u asj-lu v\mu ]l7tm^ m m m\m mm 
ill u?3J mi m 'tjiiij v\m nu iJj:;mFi iMu m gu mmu L^au 
ill im m m m il '^q w pin ftutq siiacnb liJu il f oi 

ifi u LM ^ piu i/^ifi m fiiu VII nu lu m? w'q ng^ tm 
Lilu mm mu m Lau m? Mim \v\ m uiJnn sin w mijj 
111 V1U1EJ iIotipi fw iffl ^ifu iTu m "^c nu S Ivi u li?i '€j 

nulli QlJIvl Qltl JJ1 Q1LJ L9UIJ LiJu i?iu LM m '1^' mil 
lu ' 4 W0 fig^ im m ma mm i] i\.um v\m im noj ^u 
L31 i^ \.iK^ raiJJ ra w:;tJi 3jvii jjui^i? '^ i^ m \v\ m m 
1 g am ui mm ' lu njiu mm m nnmm ' 5 i\n yijil 
EJ1 mm m mtvm s^i in?^ mxmm t\ mi m to im\ 
m Lfiu ni? mM liJu ni? wa fiQ^ 1m iiiJfin -^Jin wj:;?Ta 
unj Jpi vijji^ iJrniFi § liJu ni? '^tim S lli m?^ n^g mi 
m aiQji m vii nuli^i^ ^lii "Dan s?j3J ' 6 '^ vin v^r 
n?miliJji?i main Iw fi^ v^rai'D aioji to jji aiu lansj 



( 280 ) 

piu fi" cno t am Ivi iJfij uu nil? m m vijwfj t im \¥\ 

? 

toiR L^jj ifin ilttvra \.ih m^ mtvimi'hlm imm mm 
? t 

m gi ra UR M m m wiu 3J m u moj an squ iim inu 

11 o 

mi lAiuu ph^ '^ 

1. Edict of the 1st & 2nd Kings. 2. officials. 3. great city. 4. the 
thiTe card trick. 5. said (to the King). 6. unfair. 



Exercise 150. 

ujUQwnuQ^H Lm 31 Tifi t^aa^ m mtmin u \m u mu lu 

T tl f 11 O 11 

^?ru?jj uvn ?i!Qg°^ im v^j:;jn!flg'^ ug? n nu mu jmg? vkiiI']>3 

1m wnij m m q'i 

lu 'v\i?"Lnyi ^'uim viTtvki mm^ l m^ w:;jtq mfw 

II 

LMU Qi mj m m^m nJu liu vn^ iim m mm ? fTdg^j 

fi3jf^Q? ^ '^" ifiuiJi?^ 1m Lsfm ?^ ifa^ S^ lu liJ LWjnr piu lu 
ft ^ ? 

v\iu uiu mm ?\mu m u vi -^u Ipi LMttjiii ? viu^?ia n jj li?iu 

inn VI ? v^Q mu m isfju L^ llpi m nn rauuu n jj mu jjin 
11 11 



( 281 ) 

'ymmm ll?^ ura mm. fi ttq m? im niiTp tolIqvI 111 
Lfii L^u mm m^m^mlvi 7 1m K\.%m mu lluu im 

li f 

VK^Q^ LiJu Lira Lm Cm w^ wtijn mfw '^z Ivi (»ki \n mu 
°lv\ t mm)] mz'sraiii m'i^ m n TO:;!njiJj lia si:; Iw uro 

rail] !aQ^ 'Iw vli 31 urau' 3l^ tm ifiiulm min I3J 
li!}^ J[j Nu m^ a"l? L^n Lm Ij'J l^u ^iviIij toijjjj q^ 

HHUQw f\\\m LfiKnnlvi 1^^ lu ll^q i\ nmimn mu 

nvit^m LLVi^ viw LM '^v ra In l^u mviju Ti jnum? an 

1 

im m^ wrai'Q mm "nm wfum mim yntvk] m m 
iA]lm Lfimn Ivi #1 m?l?<i [fuM ffdgo u n lwi^ Wvi 
wovn rami LLfi \m ii 'Bi lleju^u LLfi t w"?tq fa^^I 
'^z\v\ m mm\m k im m miu liIu Pim llfi ranu 

LLfi LlJu raiJJ L-^foJ LLTl HU ini4 itm Ssl lulil 

1. title of H. M. The King of Siam. 2. method ordered by tlie 
King. 3. townsfolk. 



( 282 ) 
APPENDIX A. 

A classified list of over 800 common words, 
liable to be confused owing to the differences of 
the tones. 

Words bracketed together are pronounced 
alike, words on the same line have the same 
fundamental sound, but different tones accord- 
ing to the column in which they are placed. 
Be careful to notice the name of the tone at the 
top of each column. 



§ 1. 



I'diri'l St J /nil fs i/ilti.aJ. 



Common 

mu a net 



Bl 



uncle 



Q1U saddle 
Qiy shame 

1q steam cough 



Falling. 

mu soft 

01 to dress up 

n\s a bo wl 

Qiu to read 

iibu bent 
^ dock 



Low. 

mxi fat 
QB-u babyish 



m3 



to gape 
to refer to 



Qiy low fellow 

iiQi4 slender 
9 to rustle 



§ 2. 
Common. 



( 283 ) 
5j B initial. 



uu on 



I UTU to blossom 
1 tn«^ to guard 

u-\s thin 



Falling. 

' u^ to crush 
uin path 
uvi lesson, 
chapter 

m to grumble 
fli shoulder 



lu 



leaf, sail 



iui to slacken, 

light 

m marsh 
itio pestle 



TJiy afternoon 

\ to chew 
the cud 



ui: slave 



ifia surfeited 
tix4 to cut 



Low. 



m mad 
tjii4 house 

trij some 
dltj to smear 
Itj dumb 

itjT crucible 

w surly 

itjQ idiot 
im slice 







( 284 ) 






§ 3. 


U'D 


Ck. 


initial. 


Common. 


Falling. 


Low. 


Acute. 


Rising. 




dij 


its 


-h 


nin 


male 


noise of 
cymbals 


workman 

1^ 


elephant 

1^ 


granary 

my 
mirror 


to pierce 




it is so 


to use 




fi 


m 


& 






to seize 
by force 


cymbals 


lame 






to darn 




goad 




pungent 


HI 

tea 


m 
cries of 




slow 






joy 


^ 


k 




nun 


noise of 
frying 


burning 
wood 

joyful 


to point 
out 

wet 


exchof 
contempt 


"fng 








m-i 


people 




I'D! 

to rent 


1^1 
morning ■ 


to be ru- 
moured 



( 285 ) 



•at! 



upright 



n%i 



to rejoice 
at 







m 






storey- 
grade 


± 


h 


4-i 


agreeable 


pleasing 


bruised 



careless 



§ 4. 
Common 

proud 

soy 
sad 

insipid 

'SI 

to talk 

to ar- 
range 



Falling. 



yielding 



leader 



sign of 
future 

k 

to roast 



Low. 

to aim 
tiny 

2-- 

wages 
SI 
strong 

manifest 



Teh, Dj. Initial 



Acute. 



to tickle 



yes 



Rising. 



•say 
gloomy 



-5)1 

yes 



much 



( 286 ) 



§5. 
Common. 

mu 

to play 
mu 
hard 

mi} 
alone 



whoever 
one only 

m 

earth 
§ 6. 
Common 



straw 



Falling. 



JX 

Low. 



initial. 
Rising. 



mil 
hasty I cut off 

mu j rill 

custom I stubborn 
house I 

my 

' cotton 
i thread 

1 can 

im^ j 

height of a 
platform 

etc. 



now 



to roll about 

initial. 



Falling. 


Low. 


p. in 
Acute. 


ii 


ell 


m 


(palm of 
the hand 
sole of 
the foot) 

1 


dark 

mi 
millet 


sky 



Rising, 
lid wall 



Jij 



sapan 
wood 



( 287 ) 



Common 


Falling. 


Low. 


Accute. 


Rising. 




to send 


3amboo 
floor 








sour 


to beat 
clothes 






vIlD 


my 


my or ^^y 




dm 


hollow of 
the hand 


concern- 
ing 

Id 


flax 




to darn 

Id 


fire 


to desire 


2i 




pustule 

d 


i^ 


to snore 


to mutter 




a boil 


to listen 


coast 


nil 




to bury 


(1) to cut 

(2) tooth 


scabbard 
pod 


to twist 
a rope 


to hatch 


to drear 


t«lm 


to sift 


■jIIbj 


to beat 
against 




foam 




to float 


to accuse 

mm 




fluted 
carved 




to be di- 
vulged 


fuang 8 

atts 





^ 7. 



( 288 ) 
y\ H. initial. 



V{\ 



Rising, 
to look for 



wny oyster 

vQi to guard 
jealously 

^Q tower 

^ Minj brave 
/ ^ij to divide 

n^ to boil 

hasty 

net 



Mil 



iiW 
VC\i 

mi 

Mi; 

Lm 



vigorous 
tail 
louse 
to yawn 
a small jar 

(1) to lose 

(2) health 

^ijj to carry (a 
litter) 

^-i hungry 



■m 

■m 

vm. 

w 

M14 

im 

iiW 

^13 

TOl 



Falling, 

glague or 
>.P. of jars 
of water 

to feel an- 
xious for 

bundle 
goose 



Ml 



Low. 
five 



^Qy to suspend 
ditch 



wgj 



^^ quickly 



v\v, 



castor oil 
puppet 
procession i im 
place uw 

separate mij 
to bark 



shares 
angry 
dry 
shop 



a plant \ j^j"].!^ to weep 

1 1^ to give 



M13J 



not quite 
ripe 



M13J 



to prevent 



TO to carry (as 
a bag) 



( 289 ) 



§ 8. 
Common. 



nn artifice 

^ to run 
together 

fiRQ^ drum 

IfiK far 
TITO stag 

m:! glue 

im to 
scratch 

SI I 



^'^ Srdpers. 
pronoun 



my body 



n 
Falling. 

^"iQ laws 

^^ to press 

fi^i to reap 

ni at dawn 



n?ioj match 
box 



fioti before 

im old 
^ cooing 

ira bold 

iiri (1) old 
(2) sign 
of dative 



I A', ^ 6^. initial. 



mil 



to em- 
brace 



Low. 



mi but- 
tocks 



n?faj tube 

Injf near 
nrij wide 
ntiu mass 
mi to step 
ihi nine 

g' to lend at 
usury 

iTO small 
deer 

iin' to mend 



Rising. 



mi cover- 
ed 



( 290 ) 



in spring 


In hen 




tn^ to cheat 


tn.» bent 




UM with, to 
protect 


nu haft 


^li to separ- 
ate 


noiTiD. P. of 






sermons 

um troop 
pile 


noj basket 

ifiyg to asso- 
ciate 


^m echo 

i^^g to en- 
tice 



^ 9. 




3 FlPl 'a 




Kh. 


III if la/. 


Common 


Falling. 


Low. 


Acute. 


Rising. 


Flli 






TiU 






1114 


person 






viscid 


to 


look 


feather, 










after 


fur 


R3J 

sharp 


TO 

to 


op- 








TI3J 

bitter 




press 


TOJ 






nig-w 








to hurl 






cross 
wise 


neck 






TIB 

chapter, 
heading 






please 
to beg 



(291 ) 



cangue 



rough 

\f\ {\m) 
who 

R13 

musty 
smell 






salted 



scythe 



Til 

a root 



tny 
stake net 
I'll 
egg 

news 

ni 

knee 



to ride 



in J 
m price 

di to 
kill 



my 



camp 
fever 



m (i) rice 

(ii) to en- 
ter 



ordure 
dregs 

to flog 

IRJJ 

dark 
colour 



R1 



trade 



''"toil 



to 



down 



1r 

to pull 
out 



im 

order 
series 



to che w 



•tn 
leg 



to sell 

L'il 
to unlock 

white 

iTn(i) 3rd 
pers, 
pronoun 
(ii) hill 
(iii) horn 



to write 
needle 



green 







( 292 ) 






^"U Rti 


m 


%u 


(l)toitch 






(1) basin 


(2)DP. of 
vehicles 


[ 


division 


to- 
squeeze 


(2)tosing 


^ : 


«i 






teacher moment 






mm 


Rsiaj 


mm 


canal I nimble 


rhythm 


Rl \ HI 


^. 1 


word, [ \ nightfall to sup- i 


piece 


port 






ihi 


tQ^i 


1 


gong 


(l)things 
(2) of 


@ I i 


1 


ditch 1 J pair 


curved i 


§ 10. n 


L. utitial 


Common Falling. 


Low. 


Acute. 


Rising. 


a;j to 




?i2J to go 


1- 


v\mt 


deceive 




too far 


to grope 


a title 


SITU 






iSv, 


Msin 


palm leaf 


iron 




(i) bald 
ii million 


nephew 
niece 


wiu vari- 




2^iy ex- 


small 


wj^iy 


gated 




amination 




many 



shoulder 



Laos 



imi to 
question 



several 



m 



{l)tO say gimlet 
good bye 
2)donkey 



pheasant 



M?n 



tube 



bucket 



to sleep 



to wash 



( 293 ) 

Ik 

to drive 
away 



l^to 
anoint 



Cih to ex 
V plain 

(.spirits 

to shun 

|u 
slippery 

?)i to 

retreat 



to allure 

to pass 
through 

careless 
a shield 



to caress 



to feed 

k 

clean 
m 
delay 



wheel 



'XvMi to 
, flow 
^^^ infat- 
uated 
Msng 
to plane 

to point 



"IM to 
wobble 

secret 



mi 
yard 



to pare 



stupid 
dozen 



back 



( 294 ) 



^ 11. 




JJ 


M 


initial 


Common. 


Falling. 


Low, 


Acute. 


Rising 


wa 




M3JQ 




Mua 


to bellow 


all 


pot 


ant 


doctor 


JJDJ 


?^iiQJ 






WIIQJ 


to stare 


gong 






dirty 


uonj 


wliau 






MUQU 


Peguan 


mulberry 






pillow 


q n 






in 


■^Aiy\ 


i~i 1 

to come 


betel nut 


inn 
much 


horse 


dog 


v^ 




JJ/ 


jTj mos- 




to thatch 




to regard 


quito net 




3Jiy 




wiiiy 




Mint) 


plenty 




widow 




mark 


ii^) \u 


ImIi 3 


li^ not 


llj 


1.MW 


why 


new 1 
collection 


Iwjj- burn 


timber 


silk 
pig 


3J 




fi 




wij 


to have 




uproar 




a bear 



( 295 ) 



(l)it 
(2)potatoe 
(3) fat 



i3J1 

drunken 



§ 12. 
Common. 

field 



to flow 
to sleep 



viiM 


tiu 




diligent 


firm 




mu to 




3jn ad- 


ferment 




dicted to 




iTiii!n 


ijTn 




crushed 


ugly 




rice 




V13JB1U 


WQU to 




to kneel 


hand over 





barren 



to con- 
tract for 
work 



N. initial. 



Falling. 

mi 

custard 
apple 



beard 



Low. 



m in- 
front 



■ vnii 



face aunt 



here 



M'u debt this 



massage 
um calf iTsj 
of the leg younger 



k 

meat 



Acute. 



Rising. 

wui 
thick 

m 

to run 
away 



pus 

Vtunu 
worm 

north 



remains 
intricate 



spinning 
wheel 

Mr. 

w 
to lead 



TOvn 
belly 



( 296 ) 
rotten 



to caress to sit 
a child 

ViUU 

heavy 



disgusted 



to retain 



to dissolve 



un 
very 






water 



mm 
faded 

leather 



where ? 



satisfied 



i^ 12. 
Common. 



m 



bent 

work 

hand- 
some 



t^ sloping 



Low. 



m 



m 



angry 
fork 
easy 
foolish 



Acute. 

to con- 
ciliate 



sticky 
Ng. initial. 
Rising. 



v\n^ to re- 
cline 



m lustre 



3^ to gather 



rai; crooked jaw stag- 
gering 






( 297 ) 

stupid 

tree 
trunk 

hastily 



ili angry 
^^ spear 



mT\ sad 



bent 
forwards 



wnu crest 



§ 13. 
Common. 



m 
clump 

troop 

m bene- 
diction 



m 
to escort 

2 atts 

nil) 
to row 



v^un 



p. initial. 



Falling. 

wn to 

jump out 



beyond 
measure 



to split 

Id 
bamboo 



to spit out beyond 



Low. 



nu 



cloth 
cards 



Acute, 
pocket 



■nu 



Rising. 



dust 
fruit 



rock 



will 
to turn 



( 298 ) 



fat 



raft 



wo 
enough 











elder 




iw^ 


im^ 




peppery 


diamond 




nli 






flat 




to yield 


lUl 


mi 




family 


to race 






m 


1^ 




father 


to speak 
angrily 


m 




mii 


wrong 




poison 



1 ghost 

2 corpse 



1U1 

to burn 



§ 14. 
Common 

tlti to mix 

diu: to run 
after 

J-i to throw 

iJtu equal 



]} f^ F. J, B. initial. 



A 



year 
crab 



iiJi to pump 



Falling. 

dn to make 
small 



iJi jungle 

iliv. string 

oboe 
grand 
father 
lui to blow 



Low. 



Ml sour 

tJi aunt 

ti™ obtuse 

tj Chinese 
poll tax 

i^n target 



Rising. 



half closed 



( 299 ) 



§ 


15. 




J 




R. Initial 




Common. 




Low. 


1; 


Acute 

'?) to sprinkle 
R taste 
ti carriage 


J3J 


to smoke 
(of a fire) 


jjj 


umbrella, 
shade 






a- 


to tremble 


h 


to be leaky 


5^ 


fence hedge 


ny 


at intervals 


m 


• 

music 


fiy 


fierce 


I 


hole 


i 


dull 


9^ 


know 


h 


to dance 


51 


continually 






w 


nest 






5l 


topulltight 


n 


mouldy 


1 

n 


to ramble 


h 


rotten fish 


in 


we 






h 


eagerly 


JQy 


trace 


ran 


blunt 


foy 


hundred 


nw 


to rush in 


5114 


eager 


hu 


shop 


J1J 


confused 


51J 


shape 


h 


to desert 


1 


something 




acre, field 


Ir 


poor 


iiW 


strength 


iW 


a sieve 


im 


vulture 


JQ14 


to cut off 


5011 


to whet 


JQIJ 


hot 


ilo 


(1) to place 

under 

(2) deputy 

untidy 
boat 


JEW 

A 
15B 


ditch 

dawn 
fading 


5BJ 


to cry to sing 

(i) rain bow 
(ii) length 
slow, long 



^ 16. 
Common. 

TI3J 

dim 

V15J to do 

Royal 
prefix 

Tt^u stag- 
gering 

envelope 
to spread 

sand 
a trap 



( 300 ) 

fl Fi y "D (TO) 



Falling. 



to send • 
a part 



Low, 

( «jj vine 
] , gar 

TI3J 

orange 



Tiaj 



hid. 



illuminate ing place 



«\nu coarse 
cloth 



to move 
to & fro 



to put 



Acute. 



"Tim 
tumult 

TO 

obstinte 



iny 



initial. 
Rising. 

to add to 

m to 
take up 

garden 
two 



r mu to 
plait 
R1K law 
court 

?sn5 es- 
sence 



bowels 



left hand 
certainly 



my 

(1) string 

(2) late 

r \ to 

push 

1?? pure 
clean 



r. 301 ) 



to wash 

m 
torpid 



sign of im- 
perative 






to sign 



four 

ma 
mat 

for the 
purpose of 

to shake 
seducer 



m^ sad 



mif 



m a perch to jest 
stick i 



■If 
rib 



ma 



clothes 



JTti mmce 
Hui; word 



a set 



short 

T'a trust 
worthy 

nerve 



to buy 



k 

Tta 



Yijtj to 
wipe 

wealth 



girl 

Saturn 
i^^ a post 

colour 



me 
tiger 



^u pre- 
ferable 



( 302 ). 



1111) 






to pene- 3 
trate / 

J 



my; 
pale 



m 



,d 



to 



transform 
evil 
smell 



mu 



to know 



^f^ bushel 
jfji^^animal 



true 



to peck 



violin 

11B3J 

to prop up 



to slander 



thinness 
ononeside 

k 

end 
marrow 

lIBiJ 

fork 

ihu 



squinting jto hide 



"1 iRfiJ 



ripei 



-^ Venus 



happy 



f^to fling 
against 
to de- 
nounce 



•TIEIJJ to 

exercise 

to super- 
impose 

7^(1) to 
hide 
(2) to 
whisper 
(3) 
naughty 



pain 

M debt 

Hii sacred 
precepts 

white 



to teach 









( 303 ) 






§ 17. fl 'Yl S BJ n ^ T. 


initial. 


Common. 


Falling, 
beans 


Low. 
all, over 


Acute. 


Rising. 


- 


viQ aque- 
duct 
m to 
weave 

VIBJ 

'Old 


punt pole 


' mi to 

wade 
- timto 
deliber- 


■m 
to dread 

stomach 


to elbow 






ate 






Tiay 


my 


tiou 




nou 


to throw 
out 
vn 
to paint 


perverse 

i 


mutual 

m if 
y|^(i)wharf 

(ii) ap- 
pearence 


^-, to 
provoke 


to retire 
tn to 
sharpen 


road 


v,M to 
seperate 






tllJ to 
clear the 
ground 


t 


[ -vnualms 
\ TO rivu- 
( let 

guess 


im, 
coal 

to purge 


you 

trill 
long purse 


astern 


tnii 
basis 



( 304 ; 



to prick 

Siamese 

ivn 
to kneel 



HHJJ 

justice 

T^°-i to do, 
to make 



yi 
occasion 



to redeem 






trail 
dense 



flat 

i 

dull 
ingot 



iTii (Dashes 

(ii) equal 
old 



lan 



m 



man 



■m 
1 


V' 


uneven bag 


? 


ito rub 

1 


iiw to 




miscarry: 


l\ to 


plough 


iVil 


ifii 


foot assort- 




ment 



cave 



anvil 

fi 

(i) place 
(iiJ which 

mid-day 






all 



pail 



iviyj to 
dispute 



( 305 ) 



§ 18. 


J] 


^T UJ. 


lidlial. 


Common. 


Falling. 


Low. 


Rising. 


m body 




m dwarf 


m ticket 


uiB stake 


i^g to add 
before 


m dimness 
of sight 




^m banana 
leaf 




ms must 




f? pound- 
ed rice 

i.iM melon 


m to wake 
up 

f to em- 
bezzle 

liw to ar- 


^u shallow 
simple 

1 cup- 
board 






range 




\ entrails 


1^ to creep ] \y[ torch 
\ 1|i under 




iir)i oven 


Ml tortoise 


ilii cross 
piece 


mi dice 


^i Inj scissors 


^:1to mouldy 


r: LTif pert 




M birdlime 


^"j arm 
chair 


m to es- 
tablish 




611 to pound 


Ki low 








^Q^ to strike 


i^ty small 





( 306 ) 



§ 19. 



W. iiiilHil. 



Common. \ Falling, i Low. \ Acute, 



wah 

to place valley 



/ ^I'^whale 
} ;ii4to em- 
( ployhelp! 

i 

VM to : 

decrpase \ 



1; 
active 



V\7\U 

to sow 



II 



palace 



catarrh 



1 T\ 

|to say 

j 31? 

Ivacant 



3111 in 



get on ! 

31J 

Ispacious 



Rising, 



ito swim 



\m to 
salute 



3111 



to cry out 
in terror! 



I^tokeep 

3>1 

temple 



■sweet 
rattan 



lw3 

to shake 



M3J 

to hope 







( 307 ) 






§ 29. 


!J QJ )'. initu 


Common, 


Falling. 


Low. 


Acute. 


Risi 


?JQW 


MllQW 


iIqw 


?JEI3J 




to consent 


tapering 


habitually 


to dye 




yi 


QlJl 


wnji grass 






medicine 


do not 

auin 
to want 


"Jipaternal 
grand 
mother 

difficult 






yij india 


BtJU 


yij 






rubber 


sort 


smoked 
meat 






uiy grand 




iiiy 


diu to 




mother 




in pieces 


remove 




h 

spider's 
web fibre 


big 








\is 


mi 


Sj 




wnj^ 


to shoot 


vain 


more 




girl 


v^ 




^3 


^. 




mosquito 




confused 


barn 






mn 


i Un retite 






to cut 




yny giant 





( 308 ) 



to respect 

to watch 

m 
not yet 

mu to 
clean out 



to explore 
to slacken 



to oppress to repeat 
to strike 



to get bold 

yj per- 
manent 

dati to 
oscillate 



arrogant 



is 

yj 



to defer 

?JQU to 

conceal 



Notice.— The columns in this appendix marked 

falling ' ' and ' ' low ' ' should have been marked 

" deep " and "dropped" respectively also cf. Chap. V. 



( 309 ) 
APPENDIX B. 

A List of Common Words having two or 
MORE Diverse Meanings. 

n 

m crow teapot 

nstt-^w pavillion to rush upon 

riiim village head man presents 

mi together to prevent 

jin: sheep to carve to scratch 

ijh old ripe to ( dat ) 

lira glass beloved 

i.mi to connect to reap 

nil bold seed plot for rice 

n?5Qjj bolt rhyme rafter 

inx island to arrest to perch 

nu frog plane full 

fiatj to mix to draw up endowed 

my footstool to run aground 

ifijnt armour brittle 

nsQtJ frame dried 

nson alley lean to make to swallow 



( 310) 

HI leg, section Interjection calling at- 

f LI to drive to repel to sing *- 

I'D to open animal fat 

Hu to sing (of birds) funny, to stretch, 

ni to enter rice ■- 

i-tii horn hill he she they 

TiiR entirely to be broken 

inn Nonmongolian Asiatic visitor 

Af\ ball of cotton to be corrected 

I dregs addicted to odd number 

nm to torment eye tooth 

mo elephant goad to ask for 

irn feather fur to remove goods 

niBj of {sign of possessive) goods 

iiaFi to tie nearly empty to scrape 

Ki leaf stalk to broil 

^Q fetters joist 

PI 

Ri word mouthful 

R14 to itch rod D.P. of carriages 

R1?! to gird to conjecture 

Htj to associate lantern 





( 311 ) 


Mau 


hammer to squint to look cross 


ipy 


small prawns accustomed to 


i 


to rub moment 


? 


ditch to call from afar 


pi;li 


to spur to plait 


?n 


prison to bend the knee 



m night to give back 

ii ivory teel seed 

Ifj to bite to half -open 

Hu to seize to roost to reflect light, to 

-sin attap from f^"^* 

ii to remember, obliged, to imprison 

s~\u plate, to write with a stylus, diluted 

SR to prepare strong 

•^u poor until 

nm to mark to agree '^m v^m proud 

'^f\ to write down to reach to taste 

''iin colic sheaf cork tuft of hair 

-s^ to rub point to light 



( 312 ) 



m 


I to dine (of priests) 
tea cramp 


in 


4- 

■^1 


slow rude 


tllll 


edge male 


^U 


steep rosin 


m 


basis intention 


•b: 


time wicked 


11 LI 


to steep to transform the shape 


m^ 


rat great grand father 


iHQ 


ferment family 


%n 


to wash clothes to interrogate 


^n 


to denounce to fling against 


KQiJ 


fork to repair 


iTta: 


awkward ignorant 


Fiiy 


solitary to mow 


^°i 


black, to weave, to dine, to transplant 


riu 


side stubborn allotted task l^^^® 


A 

^ 


good gall 



r 313 ) 

^tj unripe in good condition 

^^ to flip to lever up to kick to 

im: to split wood to repulse [^disentangle 



^Q 


blunt obstinate 


l^Qtl 


month worm 
eye old man 


gn 


m 


lap to draw water 


m 


to pound to prick 


^B 


to add to bargain 

to take flight (birds) to sharpen 


m 


^^ 


cave box 


nw 


abundant to embank to enamel 


pn 


cheap to touch correct 


m 


to carry to observe to stand on 




one's dignity 


irai4 


wild fraudulent illicit 


vii 


¥1 
landing stage, to wait for, appearance 


liny 


Siamese free 


i-Vll 


ashes equal 


ii 


who {relative) place 


VlQ^ 


to throw to fry 


mv 


to go against lance to strike 



( 314 ) 

U 

y^,^-^ front season 

■un much expert 

tii soft scaly ant eater 

fe finger inch 

lAum pus marsh 

ilu raw cotton tender 

ma meat deer 

L 

^-^ shoulder overflowing 

lu leaf sail D. P. of round objects 

tjiy to turn aside afternoon 

u^v. to blossom folds of a door 

uv village thin marsh 

iLii light not heavy to go slowly to 

make water 

tnvi tical foot 

ui^ to wound a period of 6 minutes 

im fishhook fragment 

m dysentery twisted lazy 

■uxi on vow 

uifi to powder to iron clothes cloudy 



( 315 ) 

iJ 

{Ifi to fix to embroider 

3 Chinese poll tax pounded 

itl^^ to shine to draw out 

tJjiJ to fine to level 

\J crab to spread a carpet 

&jiy to turn widen 

m to fry to paint one's face delay 

iiejg to sweep brilliant 

u ghost corpse 

eJ3J I hair 



to disobey, daring,palmof thehand 
sole of the foot 



eJi 



di wall lid 

ti-\y on the part of addicted to 

im to watch,to go to an audience of the 

King or Princes 

^ boil skill 

pj^ rain to rub 

to become worse very bitter 



Mnu 





(316 ) 






Vi 


iWX 


to plant 


stomach 


mv 


to disunite dazzling 


mn: 


because 


melodious 


mv 


carpet 


to sprinkle 


ms 


garland 


chain indigestion 


!«liy 


liberal 


handful 


wn 


pumpkin 


to hatch eggs 




tooth 


to stab 


vJi? 


straw- 


dark 


ijjj 


abundant 


to take care of 


4^ 

3J1 


horse 


3J 

stool 


llj 


timber 


vowel, accent 


Imw 


silk a 


I fine sign of a question 


Cu 


oily polished he, she it, potatoe 


IIW^ 


flea 


first 


U3JU 


although 


similar 


Mjjg^ 


to cure 


section 

c 1 


in 


medicine 


LI 

tobacco to cover with 


tin 


to retire 


to make a sign fP^^^^ 



( 317 ) 

to fear to cut in pieces 

to oppress to strike 

to crack open plentifully 

^^^ evening cool 

a large net to praise 

to make short, wrinkles 

to cast (metals) to diminish (of a 
X ^ • [swellmg) 

smoked meat, to jump •- 

to stop mouldy 
season menstruation 
root to vomit 

to love armpits 
indistinct railway line 
body rough copy 

near to edge 

j-Vi to extract sect. 

jfey hundred to string 

tjy to wither to scatter 

m untidy after-birth 

5Qti to hover to whet to winnow 

5^^ ear of corn to dig 

jj dawn glittering 

1 






m 

Iti 






(318 ) 
t\ 
^^ donkey to say good bye 

^^ to hunt sky to retreat 

^^ secret to sharpen 

to drive away to examine 
bed of a river D. P. of boats, logs,&c. 
interpreter to fasten with a rope 
spring threshing-floor active 
bald a milHon 

rii to wash to execute criminals 

m to grow large short cut (road) 

uf^t and to flay beams to support 

n^ and to look [columns 

Mu to sail to run (of a vehicle) 

Mi wheel to provoke 

^u hasty to expose to the fire 

lin to cease to lift up 

mii royal Luang (a title) 

f] to draw up with the hand, category 

f^ to measure temple 

WW to have a cold to write a running 

iix to stop aslant [hand 

mI comb bunch of bananas 



(319) 
lifi war to search (for knowledge) 



nK 


pond to wash vowel 


n^\i 


late rope 


^n 


teak to tattoo to dig- cf . Chap. 25 

[§14 page 130 


?jn^ 


to repress,final consonant.to enchant 


2T^n 


sculpture bolt 


m^ 


pirate to shake off 


nfh 


a set food 


m 


to order to blow the nose 


m 


girl to pull a string 


HOT 


nerve 20 wahs D.P. of string 
rays of the sun sword I^^^P®' *^^- 


A. 


colour, mill stone, beautiful, to rub 


imz 


timid to unravel chronic 


m 


to please to meet 


Wjj 


orange sour 


^jj 


becoming to join 


ftj 


to smoke tobacco to suck to pump 


mxi 


garden to verify 


^n 


ripe cooked vivid 



( 320 ) 

Vi 

m plague measure of rainfall 

m to look for, without (negation) 

wy to be lost to be cured 

m to exercise herpes 

m box to press sugar-cane between 

MBU asthma to pack up '- 

wn six to fall down 

W3J to clothe oneself to press down 

WQ3J perfume onion 

wu times way 

ra to be anxious about ring of a chain 

m^ to scourge to mow sugar mould 

^u puppet mould 

Q 
gu musty damage 

Biy first (month) low fellow ! 

iitiLi to hide oneself box 

you self 



j,m one noise 



OB reed to stammer oh ! 

aa rather deaf tumult 

an a draught of water turbulent 



(321) 

ENGLISH— SIAMESE 
VOCABULARY. 



^V, B. This vocabulary merely contains the 
words used in the exercises and passages for 
translation from English into Siamese in this 
book. 



A an ■m.i im-^ to be f^used All 



with a suitable designa- 
tory particle 

About djrwiui 

Round about q^ jqu 
Abuse, revile ^t 

According to ^^jj 

Address= ^-^^ 
to speak to 

Address (place) ^^^, i^iu^ 

Advance (to) 1%^ W h 

Afternoon 

Again 

Ago jji am 

Agree ^n m flii'il r'jiw wq is 



on ^ wuj' an 



Agreement ■mmn ^njnji 



WM3J^ YIJ nv. 



All day long ™ m fiS 

Almost intiu 

Alms vi™ 

To ask alms tib vnu 

Always mun 

Amount (of 0,^, ^„ . n| 
money) ^™™^n'^^^^ 

And iis lisit fiu 

Angry "tn5f 

Another un ™ vw.^ fiv. 

Another person R^4 au 

Ant 3J^ 

Answer 

Any 



iJlQU 



UW 



Anyone Wk|lK 

Appearance gg,^ iM^Q^i 

= clear m^i d 
Army 
Around 
Arrest 
Arrive 
Ashes 
At 

At all 
At first 
At once 

At present imi u iv. am u 
Att 
Aunt 
Away 

Bad 
Bald 
Baker 
Bamboo 



( 322 ) 

Bank of a river r^^ 
Bank note m rtTtmu m^um 



nQJTO 

lilts 

irn 
li 

^ ii5n 

Is 






TJ1 tJl 



i\ 



B. 

Lu 61' "B-J 



,n?5 



Barn 
Barrack Ih nwu 
Bangkok nj,^ iviw i 
Bathe mu ^4l 
Beat ^ 

Beautiful (of persons) j^^y 
Beautiful (of things) n%x 
Bear (animal) m£i 

l,v.) fia 
Because iwjx aHii 
Bed itisj^ 

Bed room wa^ uq-u 
Beef ma 

Before (time) xmx^ 
„ (place) «Dl^^ii 
Beggar R^i •Da vnu 

T15 Wai 



Bank(money) utim Fim Tto 



Begin 

Behind 

Believe 

Belong 

Bet 



ilia 



( 323 ) 



Betel nut wwin 

Between lu ^tvih 

Bill (account) m Viwm mu 

,, (notice) tlj^nw 
Bill collector fiw itIu m 
Bite n^ 

Bird un 

Black fi\ 

Blacksmith tli^ mm 
Bloom mu 

Blind m uori 

Blow (wind) M 

,, [an instrument) isli 

,, (n.) mj Rti 
Blotting paper nzmu %ij 
Blue (light) ^lli 

(dark) ^uiifu' rhjj 
Boat ifa 

Boatman ej wi^j- Ht4 ifo 
Bold nm winj 

Book MUj^Qj $!i^^ 

Born (to be) ifi^ 









Borrow 
Both 
Bottle 
Box 

Boy (child) i^n | •am 
,, (servant) vn^ 
Break w uijin 
a limb wn 
Bread titiw dj 
Brick Bj 

Bride i^i mi 

Bridegroom h'i tJig 
Bring jbi • • • • ui 

Brother (elder) ^ tny 

,, (younger) tltiiTny 
Buffalo mi^i 
Build 2?ri^ 

Bury d^ 

Busy ilni5 3-nn' ws^jjin 
Business mj b^ 
Butter iyy 
Buy fa 

But m 



( 324 ) 



jjiin 

'!lt43J 



By means of l^y ^'^^x 

By means of this L^y v. 

0. 

Call 

Cake 

Can 

Cannot 

Canada 

Canal rkb^ 

Card (playing) Iw 
,, (visiting) u^n iO^jj 
,, (of invitation) rn(?i 

Carpenter tIu IIj 
Careful jqiUU 
Be careful rS^ 
Carriage 5n 
Carry 
Cat 
Catty 
Catch 
Cave 

Celebrated fl to im^ 
Certain m 



A certain 


man f\v, ww 


Certainly 


idu im 


Chair 


1. & 


Change (v. 


) diyu 


Change ( 


money) ifii li^n 


Chance (n 


.) lomFi 


By chance wtifiu 


Cheque 


lu ifln ifi4 1^^ 


Cheap 


51R1 ^n 


Cheese 


114U inj 


Chew- 


iR^; 


Chili 


W5n 


Child 


f)n i^n 



ii3J3 



Chimney (of lamp) wsiofi 

,, (of mill) tl^j'aj 
'China dnviR ^i4 
China wareiWEw ttiii 
Chinese iw 
Cigar f^ra 

Cigar tube mm i^jto 
Cigarette t^w ^mif^ 
Clean (adj.) stqi^ 

,, (v.) IKf^ Vll ll^ ?IQ1FI 



( 325 ) 



Climb lu ilu 


Cost (n.) nm 


Climate tnniR 


Cotton ^i%i 


Cloth eJl 


„ W00l?fl^ 


Clothes ila eJl 


Count uu 


Coal mi4 m 


Country iJKiyipr 


Coast a^ vitiK 


„ asopp. 
to town mti \mvi 


Coachman i?ii4 to 50 


Covered jto 


Cocoanut wrwri^ 


Coyan in3lji4 


Coffee m ny\ 


Crab t 


Collect i™ • • It- 


Cremation mj m 


Colour n 


Crowd mi 


Come 3JT 


11 


Company j^^n 


Crucible itji 
Cup ma 


Mercantile Co. ufm 


Considerable nilu um du 


Cupboard | 


Qu win 


Cure jhfen miu 


Consult iJ^nfen 


Curry imj 


Convict (v.) mX'nu 


Cut m 


,, (n.) tin tviM 


D. 


Coolie n^ 




T 

Cook ' mm 


Dark fi?i 


Copy (v.) ^lon ''i^ • • • Ig- 


Darn "pti iCfu 


Corner vq ^jj 


Day 014 


Correct V^ 


Day time m^ n?^-ii w 



( 326 ) 



Day after to- ^ 
morrow idu m 

Day before yes- ^ ^ 
terday mi w m 


Do 

Do not 
Doctor 


MJJQ 


Deaf ^ VtUiu 


Dog 


MU1 ^un^ 


Dear iim 


Down 


m %\i 'vny 


Dear me ! nv \-i%] ! 


Dozen 


"tw^i 


Diamond iv^tf 


Drawing-room mi ju utin 


Dice im 


Dress (v. ) 


iig)^ m 


Die (v.) m<ii 


„ (n.) 


mo 


Different from muv. 


Drink (v.) 


nii ^w 


Different kind m i 


„ (n.) 


Tim liw 


Difficult ?Jin 


Drive (v.) 


TO 5tl 


Dim m 


„ away 


L 


Dine fti tJj:vnu qtou 


Drum 


nsim 


Dining-room rai su oivnj 


Drunk 


ijji mm 


Dinner qtois i;?:i i^u 


Dry (adj.) 


JSM^ 


Dirty jrniJsn iQqij 


„ (V.) 


?nn jj^n 


Discover wu 


Duck 


ii!^ 


Disease Im 


Dumb 


llj 


Dislike lu nau mm^ 


Dust 


2^:!]B^ eji 


Dismiss 1.?i oon Id im 


Dusty 


fl ^tam 


Disturb 'wilMgii ™ 






Divide um vn5 







( 327 ) 



E. 
Each 'pn 

Each man fiusi: 
Earth Piu 
Earth(The)t85n. 



Easy 

Easily 

Eat 

Egg 

Elder 

Elderly 



A. 



Electric lightl?*! I^i 

Elephant « 

Employment ^™ ms vii jji 

wifiu 
Endeavour s^b^ |i w h 

End tlsii^ vi |f5i 

End of the month lu iHo-u 

England dsrivipi !Mnt]fe 

English Q5nt]M 

Enough SNQ 

Envelope itqj 

Equal m m 

Especially "t^iij ailuSj 



Europe wtl ytd 
European fJjl 
Evening am i^u 
Ever iRy 

Every vin •] 
Everybody -^n i ru 
Everywhere vm*] uw>^niJ 
Every time vj^n vi 
Explain oftiifj 
Extinguish m 

F. 
Fair iisj 2^i?j 

= light tni 
Fall i?in z^j mj 

Fare m Iny ^rij 

Farm w 

Farmer %-a ui 
Fat q™ 

Father m um 
Fence 5^ 
Fetch=call lil ifun 
,,=bring Id ib>--3ji 
Fever 1^ 



( 328 ) 



Few iisi uh^ 

Field m 

Find nu wi 

Fine (ad.) ji3j 
,, (n)(v) dfu 
Finish 'viiIm mij'^^i 
Fire W ma? 

First 'w Vtw 

Fish (n.) iJ?)i 

,, (v.) Kn il^n 
Five 
Flax 
Flower 
Fly(v.) 

„ (n.) 
Fold 
Fond 
Food 
Fool 
Foolish 
Foot 



nam fa 
m 



,, (12 inches) i}!^ 



For 



mwjt] 



Forget 

Fork 

Fortune 

Four 

France 

Friday 

Friend 

Fruit 

Fuang 



J53J 
TtQJJ 

mnii 
G. 



?)n 



iK 



Gamble 

Gambling house tsjuou 

Garden mu, 

Gardener fiu Vii ??;t4 

Gentleman ru |i ri 

Get up §in '^li 

Ghost 

Girl 

Give 

Glad 

Glass 

Glue 

Go 



? 

iQl • • • ui Iw 
m3 



Id 



( 329 ) 



Go out 


BQfl \} 


Hat 


wwin 


Gooutforj 


iwalk Wi^tjQi^u 


He, him 


ill! iin 


Go out for 


aridelili^iii^sJi 


Head 


TO mt 


Go out foradrivelili^yi m 


Headache 


dg^ mt 


Go round 


W3JU mu 


Health 


mMJ ?sm^ 


Good 


^ 


Hear 


€t4 


Good bye m mu 
Good natured \^ P\ 


Heavy 
Help 


■mu 


Goose 


1A^^i 


Hen 


Iri 


Grand father y m 


Here 


fi v. 


Granary 


mi m 


High 


¥ 


Grass 




Hold 




Green 


iw; 


Hole 


\ 


Ground 


m f\ 


Holiday 


014 M^^ JIU 


Grow 


ran 


Home 


tjlu 


,, of personlwry lii 


Hope 


ral'^ 


Gun 


^u 


Horse 


1^ 


Hail 


H. 

^n iwu 


Hospital 
Hot 




Hand 
Happy 


^1^ 


„— peppery im 
Hotel \mm 


Harvest 
Have 




House 
However 





( 330 ) 



How muchivlilj 
Hundred ra^j 
Hungry m 
Htirt(adj.)i^!J 

,, (v.) iim 
Husband wl 

I. 



mi ej3j Trnm 



I 

Ice 

Ice cream laTr^nlu 

If m 

If so vS tidij uv. 

Ill I'SU 

In I'U Ti^ ll4 

In front of « lii 
Instead of uvivi 
Imprison m^u 4i ^n 
Inch w 

India iJkivir fiujiiy 

Indian iitin 

Inform usn lii' I" 
Information tlii 



Inherit ( of fortune) ju 

Ink mm 

Inkstand nst^n mud 
Inn \tiw\i\ i^n •] 

Inn keeper i4i tib^ IsiR?^ 



In order to iwq s: 

Invite ifti) 

Invitation ni i^nj 

J. 

Jar v(m 

Jump nst^^ 

Jungle tJi 

Just now ifia ^tn 
K. 



i^fi 1 



\.m^ (animals) 



inu ••• b 



■JIT 



Keep 

Kill 
Kind (sort) am? 
„ (adj.) 1^ t\ 
Kindly fm U nsjmi 
,, —please TIB 
Kindness h;i3j nsfvn 





( 331 ) 




Kitchen 


msm 


Let or allow \vr 


Knife 


m 


,, (a house) ImifT 


Know 


l<u 


House to let tHii w 




Tj 


Letter 


Wiwlo '^^l^lll 




XJ« 


Light (V.) 


^^ 


Lad 


i^n ^'ii^ 


„ (adj.) 


iiui Iw mr] 


Lamp 


Kim^ 


,, (n.) 


mv\\ 


Landing stage vii 


„ (adj.) 


mi 


Laos 


mi 


Like (v.) 


HQU 


Large 


knj tpi 


„ (adj.) 


iMWQVi 


Last 


vi'wm 


Listen 


fi. 


Last month imu mxi u 


Little 


inn m^i 


Last week 


: OlfKll flQli M 


Live (v.) 


r 




-4 k 


a^ 


Last year 


U flJ^lU M 






Late 


lij mi m%i 


„ (adj.) 


ti^m 


Laugh 


mill 


Loaf 


nhu (ti\43j ijj) 


Lazy 


^im'^ 


London 


iWm ?)QU^B1i 


Leaky 


h 




fl^J ?iaUFlB14 


Learn 


fj^u 


Long 


in; 


Leave 


Ban ''^in 


Look 


|i um 


Left hand 


Till 


Lose (v.) 


m M1U 


Left 


mm 


,, (not to win) m 


Leg 


"tn 


Loud 


m 



( 332 ) 



Low 


h im 


Mend 


utT 


Low quality i?i^ 


Military band 3^ nm vimu 






Mine 


UQ UJ 


• 


M. 


Miner 


HU Tl^ iij 


Machine 


wf imm 4t]( 


Minute (adj.) i^n i 


Mad 


m 


,, (of time) 'u™ SQ^ 


Magic 


n8^3J15yi 


Mistake 


m m^ 


Make 


m 


Moment 


m rJ viw 


Malay 


%itm^ 


Money 


ifl4 


Man 


f\\i d'lnu wyyfj 


Monday 


Tv. Hum 


Many 


Msny 


Month 


imu 


Manger 




Moon 


mt ^T4TIJ 


March 


i^U IN5Q3J 


Morning 


am m 


Margin 


iJRW 


Mosquito 


^3 


Market 


l?l?51^ 


Mother 


aw ■u^m^ 


Mat 


V] a VI 1 


Mouldy 


ti^ihii 


Matches 


lu t1^ W 


Mountain 


Oi'ai 


Matter 


iMi^ m5 


Mouse 


M14 


What is the matter iiiuot'b 


Mouse trap mfm m^u 


Meat 


mn 


Mouth 


dm 


Meddle 


mxi 


Much 


win 


Medicine 


%}-] 


Must 


R°QJ 


Meet 


■nn dt 


Mutter 


nj:fij 



( 333 ) 



My °!iQi m 

Myself m. lal 
N. 

Name ^a 

Narrow iiwti 

Nature ■ wnm 

Near \rm 

Nearly inoti 

Neck RB 

Needle hjj 

Nephew vtmu Tnu 

Net UM 

New Iwii 

News tIi^ 

Newspaper 's^ wuiy m^ 

ww^B www 
New Year mf\ 

Never 12^11 

Next 1510 Iti ^Q nu 

Next day w^j ft 

Next month i^Q\4 will 

Next week mm%i mxi 

Next year u wtli 



Night na-w Ru 
Night time i^ai n?^ij Fiw 
Late at night m 
Night fall m^ m h 

No not IIiIti 111 idki 
None ill w lau lii w Irj 
Noon m^ mw 
Not at home Iw oii uIij 
Not very lii | 
Nothing 111 il nz\ 
Note (n.) -^^Majiti 
November wrjRsmu'u ' 
Now i^y: fi 

o. 

Obliged. =raust m^ 
,, pleased w mm ?\m 

Oboe u 

Often m%i •] 

Oil 'ui uu 

kerosene oil w iixi mpi 

Of course m uu 

Old (of person) iin 



( 334 ) 



Old (of thing)ifn tunm 

On nu "fl^ uu 

Only (one only) imi 

,, (adv.) muu 

Open (v.) iti^ 

Opium ?J1 ^14 

Opposite ?iK nw ni 
,, = other side of the 
river y\^u °r\i \xm 

Or wfa 

Orange m 

Order (v.) m 

,, (n.)mm 

,, (series) um vi 
In order to mo 's: 
Other Bu 



ilium 



Oven 
Owe 

Owing to iyj5i:^K^ 

Owner 



Packet 
Paddy 



P. 

MB 



Pail m 

Pair § 

Paint m ^ 
Palace :°3 
Royal palace wj:mf ;J 
Pale (adj.) wi%^ 
Paknam din ^l^ 
Paknampo din -m \n 
Paper rurE^nfe 
Part J?™ 

Passers by nu fi iHu lu fiuvi 
Passing place v\mr\ 
Patient(adj.) u min imi 

,, (n.) R\4 I'SU 

Pattern en mv imu 

Pay 

Pen 

Pencil ^u 2^0 

Perfectly X^si mu rqu 

\^%i iiU 

People "ill; ni^gj nu 
Person fw. 
, =one's own self m jm 



dm m 



( 335 ) 



Pick=choose i^an 
Pick up iiltJ 
Pig v^^ 

Place vi im mu?i 

Plank n3:^iii llJ 
Plant (n.) m Vlt^^ 
,, (v.) mx d|in 
Plate '^lu 

Play mv, 

Play polo t\ m 
Please "tia i^nj 

,, (v.) TIDU 1'^ 

Pleased u rqijj Su^? ^ 1'^ 
Pleasant n\fwx ?riJitJ 
Plenty win- tiiiW 
Plough (v. )1.ti 141 
Poetry tivi nsioii 
Poison ^1 WHW 
Poisonous u ^Hw 
Policeman y^!5 mt\M 
Police station tw fin 
Poor '^li 

Possible IK' iiJt4lill^'' 



mi 



Post 

,,=(duty)Mtlivi 
,, (military ■« wn vimis 
Post office iHldrautj 

Pot W3JB 

Precious stone ?\i?aoy 
Prefer t(qiu li n^i 
Present (n.) °!ib^ riiiiii 

,, (adj.) !]|i' ipi'q wfii 
Present time i;?ii i^y^ fi 

At present tJ^ v, 
Presently iJsti^^j^ 
Pretty ni%i iiw 
Previously noii 
Price 51R1 

Procure vn Iw 
Procession im 
Promise ^djj ^ryfyi 
Properly t^ii ?i3JR15 
Prosperous Cl waiu I'sfnj 
Province ajniin^^ 
Pull fi^ mx\ #1 

Pulldown ra 



Pure 
Put 



Quick 

Quickly 

Quiet 



Ifi' iTmim 



im ■ 
Q. 

d 

in 
l^y in 






( 336 ) 

Recognise "=51 1^ 
Red URJ 

Remain 
Remains 



■u:r 



R. 
Race (of mankind) n 

,, (horse fniTij 3j1 
Railway Jo li^ 
Rain (n.) ^m. 

,, (v.) du ^n 
Rarely ayu utiii 

w mi m mi 

mu 

•^Ts im 'siH 



Rather 

Razor 

Reach 

Read 

Really 

Reap 

Rebuild 

Receive 






Reception roomwm m uTin 



Repeat 
Reply 

Rest (v.) 









„ (n,) fi fin 
,, (adj.) muv\ mm 
Rest of life i?iaa^ •aSij 
Restore n^u ru ru 1m 
,, (health) ffiwlf^dm^ 
Respect (v. ) uupq 

In every respect lu pn 

iJ5tm5 






Return 
Revolve 

Rice Ai 

Rickshaw 5n I'sn 

Ride °1 3j1 

Right ^n 
Right (hand) tigi 

Ring (n.) awn 



tni tigi 





( 337 > 




River 


uii m 


Scratch 


im m 


Road 


nut4 


Scythe 


m iRu; 


Rock 


wu m^ 


Sea 


Yi:i25 


Room 


ms 


Season 


^^ 


Rotten 


^ IWUl 


Secret 


•tim m m 


Row (order) urn 


See 


'mu fj 


,, (a boat) 


iHQ ifa 


Sell 


"fill 


„ (noise) 


on riKVin 


Send 


ni---- Id 


Rule (v.) 


w m 


Send away dm ••••Id 


Ruler 


Wlil 


Seriously 


win l^y 45? *)1 


,, (wooden) ItjunYi^ 


Servant 


R14 m 


Ruled (line) i^ii mm 


Seven 


is^ 


Run 


^Id 


Sharp 


RW 




s. 


Sharpen 


m \v\ Rw 


Sad 


mil Is 


Shield 


!d 


Saddle 


0114 3J1 


Shoot 


Qj 


Salung 


m^ 


Shop 


r\M mi 


Salt 


ifl^B 


Shopman 


"UlU m'i^ 


Same 


wwQU nu 


Short 




Saturday 


w mij 


,, (of pel 


rsons) iitJ 


Sawk 


mn 


Shoulder 


di 


Say n 


|i 'ji> uon 3i5 iki gi 


jShout 


!q} m^f w 


School 


u^ ifiiu 


^Show 


^ 







r 338 ) 


Siam ifiQ^lvi'ij'iJa'viR sryi3j 


Son yiFif Tiiy 


Siamese 


IyiI) FI\4 


\y\%i 


Soon ul iJjriliy; 


Similar 


iwflQti rm 




Sow MQTU 


Since 


M ii^ 




Spacious nrij ni;i^ 


Sit 


■UJ 




Spare time n?si ii3 


Six 


wn 




Speak iji^ ^1 


Sky 


^^ 




Spectacles mu ^^ 


Slave 


Yiw tji; 




Spirits iw^i srsi 


Sleep 


■UQU -UQU mu 


Split eji 


Slow 


i'^ 




Spoon 'TOu 


Small 


i^n 




Square i mmv 


Smell (v. ) 


^3J 




Stag ngi^ 


,, (good) 


wow 




Stamp I V.) mtm (foot) 


,, ibad) 


miju 




,, (seal) iJjtviu mi 


Smoke (v. 


) fti Lira 




,, (n.) mii^iutl 


„ (n.) 


mu 




,, (n.) m [■dmm 


Snake 


{ 




Stand (v.) %iu 


Snatch 


mu 




Start Dan sin 


Snow 


Vtlit 




Stay oil 


Soil (nJ 


fiu 




Steal ^:t3jy 


Soldier 


VI 1115 




Steam boat ifa n?j 1^ 


Some 


1- 

°J1! 




Stick (n.) llj 


Sometimes uit ft 




,, (v.) m 



( 339 ) 



Stone mi 

Stop v\^^ 

Storey mi 
Story Civnu 

Stomach ms 
Stomach achediFi #1^ 
Storm SN^ 
Stout niv 

Street ^mu 
String i^Q-fi 
Strong n%i im 
Stupid "li 
Sugar ui m^ 
Sufficient wo 
Sun ?N5:aiviwy 

SunUght imn 
Sunday Tu mm%i 
Sure im 

Surprised ^n 1'^ 
Suit of clothes im Mu 
Suit (sight) V. m !?ii^ 
Sweet v^-i-m 

Swim g^y ^fi 



A 
ViliJ 



T. 

Table "t^: 
Table cloth eJi d tfc 
Tail v\M 

Take im Id 

Take away loi • • • -Id \m 
Tale QviTu 

Tall ^i 

Take care srfj 
That, those w 
They, them m 
This, these fi 
Target lui 
Taste f jj 
Tea tri TIT 

Teacher m 
Tell tan 

Temple g>i tuti 
Than ri^r 

Then ^j 

There vi w 
There is, there are w 
Therefore imizmuu 



Thief Ti:tutJ 

Thin (of person) wqjj 

,, (of things) ui^ 
Thing nia^ 
Think m uu 
Thirty 2^i3J iti 
Though win ii 
Thread ^r^ 
Three wnu 

Through ^nnf\ 
Thunder wi aw 
Thursday 2u !Nr]Mi^tili 
Tical tJiYi 

Tiger iiri 

Time i^^n 

Time (long) ijiu 
Tin wyn 

Tin mine tJa uj Fi^tin 
Tired mCioii 

To vi fij 

,, (dative) iih 
To-day in u 
To-morrow mu 



( 340 ). 

Too inii 

Too late '^'i ini4 id. 

Too much ifiti \\ 

Together wfau rwx' m%\ nt4 

Tortoise m^ 

Total 513J 

Town iwQj 

I 

ITrader mm 
I,, petty trader ?\u titj tiq^ 

Train jci Ivl 

JTram car 50 51:! jn la 
Tram conductor ru mu Sj 

iTramway 10 u m ju 

'Tramway Co. ujisfvi jn ju 

I Travel ifiu yiu 

|Traveller u mv, -vth 



jTread iwyyti 
ree ^u Ly 

Try aa? u pyw 

Trustworthy ^Q 
Turban tri twn rr: 
Turn mj 

Turn down im 



Twenty S m 

Two SfB^ 

Typhoid fever \Hm 

U. 
Umbrella iw 

Uncle ^i 
Under n m 
Underneath lli 
Unripe m 
Use 1% 

Useful w dstyu^ 

V. 
Vacant 'iv 

Valley vaii m 

Valuable w jifii win 

Verandah zims 

Very win iln 

Visit jflijw 

w. 
Wages ifu i^Qii 

Wah 31 

Wait RQy 

Walk im\} 

Walking stick IIj m 



( 341 ) 
Wall 



fj 



Want inamij Q?jin lli 

Wash m 

Wash clothes ■#! 
Washerman rt4 f n ma 
Waste mtj idioj 
Watch (n.)\4iwniwn 

„ (v.) ieii 
Watchman Rii jeji mt4ni4?ji3j 
Water tli 
Way (road) mis viu m^ 
. , method 11 
We i3i 

Wealthy ti m idu ii^5fej| 
Weapon ww q"^ 
Weather ainiR 
Week mm%i 

Weep 5m Iw 
Well n 

Well (healthy) ?iiJiy P\ 
Well known '^ ru ^ '^n nu^ 
Wet idun 

Weight w mu 



( 342 ) 



When 


ifla 


,, (timber) IjT 


When ? 


iCiolj 


Wooden n°i ^y laT 


Where 


ft Xviu 


Word Ri 


Whereupon % 


Worth seeing w gi 


Whether 


vsm 


Work (n.) j™ b^: ms 


While 


Tim: ifla 


,, (v.) Wilt4 101 m5 


Whisky 


mm nif\ 


Write Huu 


White 


tii 


Wrong incorrect m\j pn 


Who 


f\ ^i 


,, (bad) in 


Who? 


1r5 


1. 


Whoever 


Yard (3ft.) ran 


Why 


Yard (court yard)s^uiJJ wryi 
Year i 


Wide 


DQIJ 


Widow 


iijj W3j1ll 




Wife 


ifly nnyi 


Yellow ^ iM^o^ 


Win 


'ilUt 


Yesterday git; ■S 

1 1^ 


Winner 


% ISlMt 


IJJD 3TU t! 


Window 


1 


Yes 4t 
Yonder l-^^i 


Wine 


ttiXi 




M'ish 


T 

TiQij a^in iff 


You iHTu im i4i 
Your °!iQJ "vItu 


With 


^gy l^y 


Young wyu 


With draw uoii oan 


z. 


Wood (forest) ui 


Zero fuj 



( 343 ) 

SIAMESE ENGLISH 
VOCABULARY. 



This Vocabulary contains words with appro- 
priate meanings for exercises and passages for 
translation in this book from Exercise 46 onwards. 
Many common words which occur in the earlier 
part of the book have not been repeated in this 
vocabulary. The Arrangement of words is as 
follows. High words are marked * 

( i ) The letters are arranged in the order 
of the Siamese alphabet. 

( ii ) The words under each letter are ar- 
ranged as follows. 



A. 


Words whose first 
vowel. 


syllable 


ends in a simple 


B. 




99 


,, sound of N. 


C. 




99 


99 99 Ng. 


D. 




9* 


99 K. 


E. 




99 


99 T. 


F. 




99 


99 P- 


G. 


* 9 9 9 9 9 


99 


99 M. 


H. 


99 "9 99 


99 


,, diphthong. 



fit 1 til bag packet 
n:iwi:(l)basket(2^stomach 
115^=511 looking glass 

r\K'^w basket 

(1) to rush upon (2) tent 

nj:^iu plank 
UTM bell 

nit^m paper 

rwrt^^ to jump 

nj:my rabbit 

nr.vw flower pot 

fijtVii to do 



( 344 ) 

n 

njtCia 



fijtviransn iviii 



Ministry of ^^'ar! 



k 

njtlj 

ria 
m 

mid 
nri 

fifin 
n 
n tii^f 



iDMfJlLI 



nj:Yi5;}injyi?iji sms 

Ministry of Agriculture V^^ 

nj:vi53wid5:i'viB hnm 

Minis, of Foreign affairs 

Ministry of Local Govt 

njtvinwww liny 

Ministry of the Interior 

Ministry of Justice tnwn 



iifi 

In?) 

In 

In?^ 

InK'jRyj 



buffalo 

state procession 

tile 

what 

sailor 

King 

to build 

crow tea pot 

coffee 

bold 

brave 

behaviour 

how many 

what is the time 
rose 

virtue health 

pollen 

(l)to (2) old 

far 

hen 

near 

neighbouring 

liar 





( 345 ) 




iW h 


chair 


mj^ 


to respect 


riiilu 


ship 


ITO 


bold 


muw^ 


city wall 


lira 


rapids 


rii1j 


profit 


nm 


heap, troop 


miltJ 


to get worse 


riBJ 2^Q^ imw 


flw 


force 


secret ] 


police, detectives 


■riwii^ 


fixed appointed 


nm 


small box 


fiu (1) with (2) to prevent 


in 


cook 


rfti 


to separate 


nr|W3Jiy 


laws 


mj 


work, business 


m\ 


to bite 


m5 m Till 


trade 


m 


actions 


ms nmi 


betting 


fi^ 


to hinder 


niJ 5U rm 


war 


tnji 


angry 


1^,514 


a little 


iny-^i Finn lazy 


riou 


before 


itWiimf^ 


honour 


ITDTi 


piece 


lum^ 


to hate 


in'u ItJ 


to much 


im 


to be born 


njj 


cage 


mj iTi 


food 


n?an5 


middle 


um 


back 


ngiJ 


wide 


niti to cut with scissors 


n;^ jfii 


Ayuthia 


inu 


to collect 


n^^ mn i 


Bangkok 


njjjjmj 


committee 


up tits PI 


Paris 


nsumyilmjEducationDep. 



( 346 ) 



iinii 


cheek 


iTiWi'Ti 


I 


inu 


even accustomed 


Ti5mmj 


officials 


nsiiy 


transformation 


TO8^3iiviFnritJi8^ 


mii 


to tell to inform 


High Commissioner 


am (1) glass (2) valuable 


% 


to ride 


nm 


banana 


mntj-s 


idle 


inyg 


to connect 


^imv} 


stingy 


to have business with 




grumbler 
egg 

feather, fur 
a title Khoon 




to fear 
island 


b U 

nit4 




a 


piiij nobleman officals 


"imt 


while 


ut:u 


to hang up 


niawy 


thief 


mu 


to write 


°D:yiy 


to enlarge 


nnu wf 


' Paklat 


TJB 


to ask for 


tR 


to imprison 


IIQ vi™ 


to beg for alms 


iiTO toobstruct,opposition 


IB lV)W 


to beg pardon 


rij 


side 


2- 

■ilQ 


article, chapter 


'Clil'U 


inside 


in 


leg 


ft tmi 


yonder 


■n rm In? 


jaw 


« ■UBD 


outside 


1)31 


right hand 


rij wa°i 


behind 



( 347 ) 



in-a 


district 


^Tuli to salute 


TIBJ 


(1) of (2) goods 


m aj order 


%m mm 


I present gift 


Hu TiQ Tiiu beggar 


iiTin 


(1) Indian 


Ru w 3ti coachman 




(2) visitor 


HM \i' servant 


''m\'^ 


angry annoyed 


Ru^^y mv. passenger 


■#1 ?iV. 


poor 


F\u mu nsi conjuror 


'am 




mv. smoke 


l)entirely (2)to bebroken 


Ru to separate 


1^ 


to dig 


mu ma afraid of 


TO 


to cross 


m 1) evening 2)to restore 


in^ 


to sell 


f\m wave 


ti^y 


flute 


^fu (1) a title (2) favour 




PI 


^v. im intimate 


Kf\ 


lawsuit 


t Rii stump (of a tree) 


Fitum 


to become wild 


RQj ought to 


m 


price 


m WW once upon a time 


m 4i^ 


hire 


m i^h) dew 


m 


namely 


\r\nm canal 


^\ 


teacher 


m [1) screw(2)to brandish 


^ 


pair 


mw close to 


\m 


to wish for 


imm materials apparatus 


wi 


(1) word (2) piece 


mm m m^ mouse trap 



imm iiQ tools 



( 348 ) 

Ray 



imi 



■'iv, 



theatrical properties 
Han enclosure, corral 
n^ to bend 

m to think 

UHH gas 

R51J complete 

m kheub 

iiRu narrow 

imnu iiFisiJto doubt 

Mm im%i to forget 

m-iii w 4a^ opposition 

F131U WQ 1-^ satisfaction 

Fi;i3j Si4 ^ pleasure 

RQiw ^"ii happiness 

m to be in charge of |,^ pig-ijj 

Irw lantern 

large hanging lamp 
iHu ever 

Figw buffalo 

Rsig fi on this occasion 



to wait 
to chew 

"51 
to kill 
enemy 
to flog 

stupid 

reflection 

work 
tm imu salary wages 

J1W handsome, pretty 
m easy 

Ht ?it m confusedly 
SI chief 



substance of an affair 
P\ good natured 

141 njw director 

i'sri ^m proprietor 

i-fiwiliii™ manager 

'^MiiM amount 



( 349 ) 



4^ iilu 


important 


tsviy 


plaintiff 


4-\ isiii 


defendant 


411 


to catch, to arrest 


-^14 


(1) poor (2) until 


liv 


ill, sick 


'^TU 


dish 


'^v 


to sink 


^u 


Chinese 


4Mi 


to pay 


i-^u accustomed to, expert 


iisg wiy to row 


tsjnli 


robber 




gable 


43 v\m 


sub-district 


i-^X 


to bore, to dig out 


■€? 


true 




•n 


& 


then 


nnm 


savage 


iiHi 


manifest 


UV.V. 


and so 


l.i^s mm 


to inform 


jawx 


sufficient 


^n 


to tear up 


u?i'm 


clever 


I'^n 


Chinese 


inm illumination, festival 


ii'^n -^iiii 


to distribute 


mi 


I 


'=)^ 


to note down 


^u 


pungent 


■^^t^WTiJ 


letter 


?« 


to pull, to drag 


<#! 




5tJ Mil 


ruined 


(1) strong (2Uo prepare 


my 


indifferent, listless 


-#1 iHj 


to arrange 


Q^U 


to seize 


si?)jU 


heart 




"Q 




tasteless 


Ti:^: 


to win 


«ilf) 


to light 


■^rft^ 


kind, sort 






•3Q!J 



( 350 ) 

h \.\.H% explain to point out 

^Q name 

^a xmi ^ famous 

I'B'mQy to make use 

of a person's services 
i'Bi to rent 

'ai5: to decide 

mi storey, grade, form 

vm for example 

•mu spoon 

tR (l)to weight (2) catty 
Tiunu-u j^ii painter artist 
'bs. \%i carpenter 
^M m?sn blacksmith 
^j to snatch away 

'im gap,opportunity,hole 

to box TiQ'u im 

to pull Tin TfU 

to influence ir^ 



to wipe 

to like 

to praise 

to taste 

inhabitants 
Tn; mm townsfolk, people 
•315 OTtj garden 
Tn (1) bad (2) period 
to trust, to believe 



iTiO 



K5 



Tin ni4 

fn 

Tin TI5U 



|3J many, plentiful li^ titu ruined 



distinct, legible 
race, nation 
connected 



fiddle 
crest 
to buy 
chain 
naughty 
to hide 
naughty 
pale 



TO to hide 

T(Qu ijKjj to repair 
fitj left hand 



( 351 ) 





^iJ 


m 


to extinguish 


l?^n| 


large, big 


m 


unripe 


miu 


Annamite 


im 


at first, former 


ej 


fol 


^li 


star 




71 


m%i 


with 


^ (1) fierce (2) to scold. 






^ nu 


savage 




^ 


1. 


whoever 


^imw 


lamp 


m?i 


to command 


^:nsit 


greedy 


mi 


to break through 


^tnm 


to lean on one side 


mu 


custom house 


mv, uin 


west 


m earth, ground land 


i5iJu Ban 


east 


imii m 


ii^i4 adjoining 


Wi^l^ 


market 


\^\i 


to collide 


^^■Q^ 


through 


finu 


softly 


m 


to join together 


mii 


hasty- 


ra Id 


for the future 


imu 


month 


m i' 


to conquer 


mim 


and so 


W5"l^ 


balance, scales 


m 


to catch 


^ITOU 


to .despise 


i^n 


child 




cupboard 


^an \ 


flower 


\i\ mv>, 


to interrogate 


n^^ 


Sun 


ii?n J 










stove, oven 


imF, 


to boil 


7 



( 352 ) 



i^°iiiMi4j position 

rank, appointment 
place, locality 
low 

oneself 
plant 
tree 

(1) stopped up 
(2) at a loss 

to awake up 
empty, clear 
to remind 
straight 
to establish 
various 






m w 


to carry water 


m 


house, building 


iMr\ 


to break 


Kt]T\ 


lane alley 


m 


to cut 


m 


to join 


'<m'i'^ 


to inspect 


li?itj 


to strike, to slap 


\mu 


to answer 


'm 


to boil 


'mii 


to follow, following 


m^ 


to die 




large 



(?n^ 



1 



mj wn besides,in addition 



im to arrange 

iJa m to dress 

im^ bed 

>in to fall 

9,n I's to be startled 

m tn ^111 to be drowned 

i?in ilm to fish 



1 



1 1 



road, street 
to offer, to present 
permanent 
to hold, to carry 
to pull out 
correct 

(l)to(2)toreach 
money bag 



( 353 ) 



m^ (1) to make slower 
(2) to sink 

it\w rm to quarrel 

^n (i) cheap (2) correct 

m since after 

x\tif\ to take off 

m to push with the foot 

tl3J 

(1) abundant (2) enamel 
m?j (i) to redeem 

v\^%l m to pour out 

iitig row line 

nay to retire 

my cup 

vfTxi am glass 

VI 
Yitiuu'w account book 

v):i?> sea 

m^x to quarrel 

viMij soldier 

■WQ l'^ to be cowardly 

m^ to paint 

vii (1) landing stage 

(2) appearence 



m m 



times 
y\ ijou mattress 
uv) very 

ivn nii equal 

only 
m foot 

viiljj why 

(1) to support (2) patient 

vm punctual 

vituTi'tTiy punishment 
Yiu capital, money 

imv. instead of 

i.mu candle 

* viH wj:njuiT 
to be kind, to*^avour 

* Y15J w5:Ei°iiQ'u to go, to walk 
together 
all 
all 

mj road, way 

viQj gold 

viBJ ij^i copper 



& 
■vir 



(354 ) 



■y]m imm brass 






Yin 
vin°ti 



mu 



stomach 
to exact 
each every 
misfortune 
slave 



5553Jmy3J 

UR5 



joss stick 
ordinary, usual 
custom 



m point of the compass 
w€m to cheat to swindle 
i^s false 

VI a ^ to cast 

viQ^^ai^ auction sale 

wealth, property 

to know 

almost 

not very good 

(1) to harness 

(2) to compare 

iviBw^r Thomas 
Toiu stern helm 

viay to throw out 



mna 



¥15111 
iiVILI 
V1513J 
IViUSJ 



6' 



town, city 
•UR5 ^n^w Korat 
ujjlfms to worship 
uigi boat 

ruiwni clock, watch 
ill in front 

uims window 
\v\-ur\ mii 
i shameless, impudent 

'm 111 to run a ^vay 

jjm »] truly 

hi in 

llu r^mv between 



mvii 



Mt 



bank note 
business 



pui 
{ui 



rotten 
to lead to conduct 
water 
tea 
sugar 



( 355 ) 



■uiMiTn 


weight 


uti m 


to respect 


wmi. 


oil 


iu 


soft 


iiW 


firmly closely 


U3JJ 


(1) lined with 


unu V\m 


to be fast asleep 


cloth (2) cloak 


mvi 


hillock 


WW 


smooth 


V\Ui 


skin leather 


lUSJ 


butter 


■mmti ^m newspaper 


mu inj 


cheese 


w 


quiet 


Ulii VI W5 


officer 


WUBi 


(1) marsh (2) pus 




finger, inch 


un 


bird 


k t^ 


toe 


Mu iim 


parrot 


W14B1I 


little 


"uriH'jtJ'u 


canary 


UQSJ 


little 


Tin w^ 


whistle 


iMUQ 


north 


ilnilyu 


school boy 


il4Q 


meat, flesh 


uni^^i hooligans, rowdies 






■un 


to think 




U 


■uon sin 


besides except 


djyjui 


plentiful 


■u"^ 


desig, particle 


ultni?) 


to eat 




of guns in salutes 


Mj;™ 


neighbourhood 


U?l 1^113 


a very little 


mwi 


Company 


xi^ miIbu 


a little 




(mercantile) 


C'^UJOj 


continually 


ifjOTi 


pure 


dtj to count to reckon 


9^ 

U1 


mad 



( 356 ) 



vm father 

\m^tu ancient 

iLii (1) light (adj) 

(2) to go slowly 

tJi5,j to strenghten 

uu to grumble 

m\ ladder staircase 

IJ5MJ to do carefully 

•unm tribe, company 

ujj^n to load 

mp^ to make pro- 
clamation to command 

uiu to blossom to open 

uirij^ accounts 

Ban Kamin (a town) 
tri-u \4Qn up-country 

rustics, peasants 
m bill 
m to fly 
yoj luck, fortune, merit 
au'u thin, flat 
m to hide 

wm to rule, to ordain 



umii 

LIIJ 

mm li; 



un 
wn 



to do homage 

fortunately 

daring, bold 

some, any 

Bank 

on one side 

in future 

land 

to tell 

lesson, chapter 

now 

wound 

(1) to twist 

(2) dysentery 

son 

daughter 

to enter the 
priesthood 

plan, pattern 
slave 

cowrie shell 
large 
cushion 



( 357) 



iJ 
to meet 









iJ5:nQLi 

djtTn 

djt'jiu 

dn^y; 

d5:^ 

dj:vnii 

ds^ivipi 

* djtmj 

dstmm 



d: 

d?r^n5J4 assistant 

or deputy official 

■ilm pn^^Bj Vice-MinisterdstnTifi 

dgtJ^ to support 

dsnij 
particulars, point, way 

dsrmpi notice 
djtn;^ to compete 
composed of 
now 

to stay in 
multitude 
people, populace 
meeting 
to decorate 

presently 

door 

to give 

country 

to sit 

usage, custom 



djtwr]^ behaviour manners 

dstiJim about 

to fix a price 

to despise 

use, useful 

wonderful 

to be astonished 

desire 

to join 

to throw 

forest, jungle 

year 

last year 

oboe, bagpipe 

(1) to pave with 
(2) crab 

Post office 
to blow 
to mix 
dacoit 
to divide 



ii 



\im%i 



lUI 



d 



12^14 



tlnjnji 



reason, 
talent, intelligence 



( 358 ) 



llTU 



equal, like 
pin 



im to open 

id^ v\mn to raise the hat 



LiiilMnJ cannon, artillery tifij to fine 






pound sterling £ 
to change 

at the time when 

to bake 

to construct 

■iims (1) tube (2) chimney 

^m rm to take care, to 
take precautions 

to strip 

to govern 

to fix, to plant 

mouth 

pen 

to deliberate 

to plant 

strange curious 

to desire 

without 

to shut 

please 



tlnu dnu to conquer, to 
subdue 

Jfuu to compare, 
for example 



un 

din 

dinm 

dtjnw 

d^n 

udsin 

dnnui 

djii^'^Ti 

d^ 



?^QW 






counterfeit 
fort 

end, extremity 
djiiEiy to loose, to set free 
ill, sick 



m^ 



112%} 



li 



i&JiiB (1) proud (2) to 
soar (3) to come willingly 

wiHti well, healthy 
m cloth 

w ghost 

w to became rotten 

^ih m; manager 
fp\ gentleman 

^im vn^ traveller 
^wm mj commissary 



( 359 ) 



ej3 



savage, brigaijd pIj crowd, flock, pack 



wound 



produce, advantage ^n w>) to drill, to practice 



in 



to send 



concerning, on 
the side of 



fruit eJiy 

flat, sheet 

earth, world ^un^w 

(l)to substitute chamberlain manager 
(2) to pull hard 

to fasten to tie 

wrong 

(1) I, (2) hair 

thin 

husband 



eJi (1) wall (2) lid 

(\mw partition wall 

palm of the hand 

skill 

to watch, to 
have audience of 



* SMStl'^l an ^liTO 






lUl 






ram 

to dream 

coast 



w^itjijj patience 
wyii4 witness 

* mt uii3 palace windows 

* wsisl um yiiBB the title 
of the. King's brothers 

the title 
of the King's sons 

* mt nuv elder brother 

* mt ^^m^^ palace 

*nstr\ 'ui throne, any 
place where the King sits 

* wjtlviy heart 

* mt vnu to give 

* wjt mTu window 

* wKivimj eye 

* mtwu ui^um?-! 
Royal Palace 



( 360 ) 



order command 

mz iJkjjj I'^m Prapatom 

to want to desire 
W5:?MJ blessing 

mt ■nmuM^ prayer 

mt^-] a title Phya 

to journey to walk 

* wjsmvnti to give 

money property 

* w;:mi titijfuf 

order command 

to want, to desire 



* wjnTTS^j fejii^TO to trust 

second palace (Wang Na) 

* wraTB QiTirLji to punish 

* mtimu place enclosure 
i?<5fTOi5 temple 



* mt Rw cremation 
WKJira priest 

*v<5:q'i^'bi younger brother 

W5:tnnu temple 

wo father 

WB m trader, merchant 

n-Q Fif3 cook 

s^i to escort to accompany 

w'sisan to investigate 

viwinw judge 

w iIq^ rm relatives, brother 

IN SI rocket, firework 

mfi^M ceiling 
silk 

to be spread 
two atts 
common, people 
policeman 
(1) beyond 



nm 

iiWJ 



(2) to pass through 
nu thousand 

nnvu shape, form 
mxi quickly, smartly 



( 361 ) 



k 



vnu (1) vase (2) to snare 

wi2^ (1) stupid (2) to 

speak evil of 
(3) base, common 

floor, surface 
imi patience 
im\i friend 
«M2w to miss, to mistake 
■nmi whilst 

m to lean against 

m to ask, help of 

n^s u to-morrow 

mm tune 

iim dear 

Imi hollow, cave 

i.ms until as far as 

mr) company 

mv] ms relatives, friends 

m (1) fan (2) to blow 

■nm^ to stumble 

|in to speak 

mm uN^u of great interest 

mu to meet 

mil carpet 



wjQjj ready 
mhii rm together 
mnt because 
iwjx wm therefore 
JWD to stop, wait, not yet 



wi sky 

IvJ -fire 

JNi electricity, 

electric light 

1m3j' conflagration 
tooth 
ffu "dm alternately 
i^Itu deer 

m to listen,to hear 

y\-\i straw 

^o^tocomplain, to accuse 

n Tn bruise 

n mattress 

i^QTi to purify, to tan 

v\^f\ to beat clothes 

(on a stone) 






( 362 ) 





n 


L^ 


mile 


nifen 


language 


1] , ^ 


not very 


^m 


mountain 


V 


wood, timber 


njjyi 


wife 


mi 


drunk 


my Vim 


in future 


Mm4 


diligent 


my lu 


inside 


jjij^i 


mother 


my uan 


outside 


mv. 


screen, curtain 


my Mm 


afterwards 


liim 


skilful 




JJ 


iimi 


although 


3j titty 


mankind, people 


M3JQU 


pillow 


3j:w™ 


cocoanut 


mCiQU 


like, same 


}j:3Jg3 


mango 


aij 


(1) swollen (2) rich 




the day after 


ijj MUiy 


to pay attention to 




to-morrow 


ifltiJ 


town, country 


W3JQ 


doctor 


iJJBJ !J°4 


up-country 


M3J1 


dog 


jjTi 


addicted to 


wjji di 


wolf 


3Jin 


much 


wfi 


bear 


Mu;ri 


hat 


^V 


collection 


W3j;n snti panama hat 


My triu 


village 


V\li^ 


all 


(A 


verandah blinds 


uin 


although 


uu 


mother 


C^ ^^ 


to conceal 


nii m 


river 


m wn 


pocket knife 



iif) dark 

3JEIU to hand over 

wjjBu to kneel before 

corner 

plenty 

to decree 

weary 

wife 

just now 

small mattress 
u 

poison 

y yu Japan Japanese 

y ud Europe 

yi in a J to fear, to respect 

y iii (1) hanging down 

(2) moveable(3)palanquin 
Si4 to hear 

dti^ pleasure 

till to stand 

w yet, not yet. 

fji to shoot 

Sj more 



( 363 ) 



iWQ i?itn 



mosquito 
granary, bam 



to take away by force 
urn w 
to steal, to snatch away 

i^m (1) to turn aside 
(2) uneven 

yn fijiiulij 

chief clerk, secretary 

iin Tiu to lift up 

yn l!' to raise 

yin difficult 

M^R drop 

m (1) to hammer 

(2) to hold back 

viy^ to stop 

v\^^ m to rest at 
yoR summit, peak 

wyiu coarse rough gruff 
mu to pick up 

lyu to sew 

?i3j to borrow, to lend 
you to allow 
yau habitually 



( 364 ) 



^QW 1 


middling, small 


mm"^ 


to cause, trouble 


iSyjj 


to visit 


tim 


reward, prize 


^i: 


long 


jum^ 


body 




o 


f fjOJ 


improved 




J 


tw unii 


gambling house 


ifis 


large bell 


IjJ V)M15 


barracks 


KlUHU 


system 


tw wtJitn?^ hospital 


Ku: 


section, journey 


w Wn 


police station 


'5d5 


to take care 


Ijj i1y\4 


school 


5im 


between 


Ijj Jqu 


"11 


^ 




saw mill 


jrlMtiTU 


magnificent 


mum 


boots, shoe 


JIRI 


price 


3QJ 


track 


^f 


season 


A 






iJH^ 


story 


t 


to know 


Jfl 


to love 


5^^ 


toknow quite well 


ffifen 


to guard, to care 


i5 


to wander about 


fjyn 


to call 


5ir™ to trouble, to annoy 


w 


flavour 


h 


to dance 


;tiiw 


rickshaw 


hu 


shop 


Jtili*! 


railway 


jQu jiry 


to fight 


o- J 


jc 




dollar 


JTim?^ Dir 


^■UM M 


house, building 


present government 


5lm 


crow's nest 


Tnm^ 


government 



( 365 ) 



11' 



£ 



5Q^ m 



populace 

power, might 

to save oneself 

quickly 

to receive 

to partake of, 
to eat 



fu w^ Tiati independant 

ftj 5BJ to answer for, 
to guarantee 

to command 
nimble restless 
level flat 
to hurry 

form, shape 

picture 
around 

(1) altogether 

(2) to include 

fjiiu h\i well-arranged, 
tidy 



jiy 
in 
iliiy •] 




m 



m 



nu 



w 



joy, pleasant 
near, by the side of 



total 

at intervals 

report 

cruel fierce 

quick 

slow, dilatory 

steam boat 

ferry boat 

man o'war 

fence, hedge 



theatre 

in detail 

to fuse 

to attract 

(1) wheel )2) to 
jest, to banter 
to say good bye 

auction sale 

to flow 

to drive away, 
to dismiss 

isn to say, to explain 
mi^ spirit alcoholic liquor 



( 366 ) 



ikw 



\l 



an 

|in yoji 
an 4^s 



an iijjg 



iwal ufu brandy 

mil iijyj beer 

iW2?1 m\i wine 

aiuin trouble 

wm; steps 

riu (1) bald (2) million 

nm (1) to sail (2) to run 

aai4 ^at! London 

mM simply, entirely 

imxi (1) sledge (2) to 
move, to drag 

m triy to punish iJ^^n 

wa^ to miss the way,! i^^nii 

to forget \mm m 

via^iwa infatuated liaan 
walHi roof liSn 

ai^ below, beneathia^ 

aij to watch [sVib 

?i^ uncle ! 

nm^ to try 1^"'^ 

v\n-2i (1) royal, i2) a title 
m ^iim disobedient 
iauj (1) to keep(2) to feed 



to give a dinner 

^n to steal 

anynj code, appearance 

a in to pull 

wain to be astonished 

wan (1) to get out of 

the way (2) passing place 






deep 

key 

servant 

kitten 

iron 

world 

to deceive 

to choose 

to cease 

to lower 

religious 
formula, code 

(1) flat (2) to 

spread out 
to be untied 

tube, pipe,_lamp 
chimney 



( 367 ) 



m^ 


wire 


3^1 itu 


evening 


vi^^ti 


invisible 


h 


day 


mi 


secret 


m im 


birthday- 


mu 


asleep 


:xi 3iy 


trouble tumult 


?)3J 


wind 


ITU (1) exempt (2) unless 


J^13J 


(1) interpreter 


1- ^9^ 


excepted. 




(2) to tie up 


mu va 


dizzy 


Iw 


to forget 




1 






gj • 


palace 


f w 


low 








■m 


to expect 


irnfiii 


cape 


ral'51 


to hope 


ihii 


to enclose 


) 




im^i. 


side, angle 


2}S 1 

vn^ >- to, place to deposit 


i im^ii square 






m^ 


varigated 


k 


vacant at leisure 


iai 


inferior 


W 


temple 


im^i 


to turn round 


7\^ nyu 


to draw pictures 




Q 


m^^ m%}' 


to be startled 


gi 


wah=2 metres 


1 1- 








giy lii 


to swim 


ISIFIJ 


splendid 


TO 


kite 


iTIl 


knowledge 


S 


cow, ox 


l^n 


reasoning 






-;1 


method 




Fi 


'im 


disturbance quarrel 


m?> 


law court 


lipiw 


marvellous special 


fp\m nm 


civil court 



( 368 ) 



mmv,mn power might 


mwQ 


always 


m 


enemy 


siy^ ^^int to shudder 


mu^ 


education 


1i%iM\ 


Siam 


i^ti 


happy 


mi 


pond, lake 


(=iQn 


sawk, cubit 


■uni 


to let go 


ir\m^ 


to make merit 


nm 


diverse 




fraction, part 
rich man 




to eat, to enjoy 
daylight, light 


corpse 




to store up 
clean 


jjfii 


te be startled 


'gi^•i^^1^ 


to swear, oath 


imm 


to explain, to tell 


n^%s^^ 


able, strong, brave 


Ttmn 


safe, safety 


mti 


husband 




to come, to go 


sn5W>i 


of all kinds 


SfS 


mind, attention, 


■nim 


harsh, cruel 


Nvinu 


pleasant, cheerful 




colour 


2tQyi 


united, associated 


muitili 


Minister 


?rtn3J w 


ryl lawn, common 


V 


entrails 


nm%i 


well, healthy 


LfiflRjn 


rubbish, dirt 


■Hmu 


bridge 


im 


post 


?rj4f 


to fast 


jflRflJ 


important 


miJyu 


clerk 


«fi5inj 


well, healthy 


srw^ 


book 


i^m finished, completed 



( 369 ) 



Nuviui to converse 

jmjnji to promise 

agreement, contract 
mi short 

mm. mi stone rock 

lu (1) end (2) every thing 

(i) Sen (2) nerve 

garden 

part, share 

war 



m-i 






mv. 



nii?\ 



srti 



to doubt to mistrust 

w to send 

OTiriK to notice 
frJ to order 

mii to build 

NwtiJj^ Singapore 

m something, thing 
|fj tall, high 

?rnn?n^ woollen cloth 
^uh bright 
m fresh 

m^ enemy 



animal 
faithful virtuous 

finished 

to insert 

to enquire 

m (i) to smoke 2 to pump 

to eat to associate 

fellow-drinker, 
pot-companions 

examination 
suitable befitting 

to succeed 
according to one's wishes 










riches 

to decrease 

(1) late (2) line 

girl 

beautiful 



to regret the loss of 
iIb tiger 

im mat 

iIq clothes 



( 370 ) 



mx cowardice peevish 


m^ 


shoal, reef 


(2) to enquire 


iv\f cause reason matter 


Vi 


m 


box, chest 


MB tower 


W3J 


to prevent 


^ ear 


wy 


well, cured 


TOT to bark 


A 


1 . 




my my 


lost 


vwi. vn? way, path, journey 

1 




old, over ripe 


mu goose 


TO 


to carry 


wij tail 








ray 


oyster 


m separated, distant 


wk 


heart 


wj shop, store 


W MITi 


chief 


h shelf 


w; 15X 


to laugh 


uw place 






vfm room 


WQ 2^;j 


i 


#15 m kitchen 


to deceive, to mislead 


m^ nny iM2ri tap-room, bar 




a 


iAm\iCx]u cellar 








Qunin^ 


permission 


lAm ■uQ'u bed room 


QU3 


besides, as well 


rai fli UTin reception room 


aluli 


Vice-minister 


w^ uwu to refuse 


Btan 


limit 


TOJ (1) obstacle (2) loop 


BjQy 


delicious 


#1 to break 


tiims 




imn to force open 


symptom, appearance 



( 371 ) 



Qwuiiy week qIj 

m^ aged fin 

Qifij A.rab 

ai^ weapon 

mm^ to dwell, dwelling 

m-m food 

^QfiH^ gentle, not brave 

^uiu device stratagem 

^tjji tunnel passage 



to rely upon 
more 

fin nstfin 

noise, disturbance 
att 



mm V\W 



diligence perseverence 
steam 

taniR occasion 

-Q-Q m '^n^ harbour 

Mrs. 
power authority 

district officer 

danger 

other 

warm 

soft 

fat 

English 



IB W 



QliflQ 

tfui^ny 

A 



a fuang's worth of atts 
nm continually 
BTs capable daring 

brick 

m 

supernatural power 
^^ Vtuu to support 

to boast 
(1) scent (2) to be kind to 



03J 

my 

oly 
Big 



full satisfied 

to carry, to lift 

pretty 

shame 

low fellow 
gulf, bay 

tumult disturbance 



"tsi^a hotel, inn 



ig'X@#Vg) 



AD VBRTISEMENTS. 




BY APPOINTMENT 

KIAM HOA HENG & CO. 

THE WHITELEY OF BANGKOK 

EAST SIDE OF RIVER MENAM. 



IMPORTERS, OF ALL KINDS : 

"Wines, Spirits, Hardware and Fancy Goods 

SPECIAL ATTENTION PAID TO 
UP-COUNTRY ORDERS. 



h Fresh Supplies of Goods m 

(ti ^ 

M Arriving Weekly 

3 G 

^ We aim only to please 0) 

fl Do you want anything ^* 

You are sure to get the Best 53 

^ at honest value at Q 

^ KIAM HOA HENG'S § 

^ THE UNIVERSAL PROVIDERS OF THE S 

^ CITY OF THE Q 

^ -WHITi: EI-EFHANT. >^ 



IMA I LERT 

GENERAL^ STORE S- HOTEl^. 



TABLE REQUISITES c^ DECORATIONS- 



Carriages and Steam Launches on hire 
Sole Agent for the BANGKOK MANU- 
FACTURING Co's., Aerated Waters, and 
the famous ' New Home ' Sewing Machine. 

AH SEEANG 

TAILOR. 



Begs to submit the patronage of the public. 
White, and other suits of first-class style, fit 
and quality at moderate prices. Customers at- 
tended at their residences on receipt of post- 
card, giving their name and place of residence. 

Almost opposite to the 

BANGRAK MARKET 



K. ISONAGA & CO. 

Il^botograpbcrs from ])apan 

nindertaS^elo execute e>>er(| ^(i\<^of cPr\olograpr\ic\iOor85. 
cDeVelopii\g at\^ cPrii\tii>g of (^n>ateur s 9'legatiVes. 

Studio opposite the British Legation, 
NLW ROAD. 

C. PAPPAYflNOPULOS 

MANUFACTURER OF HIGH CLASS 
EGYPTIAN CIGARETTES. 



Choicest Turkish Tobacco, and the best Petchaboon 
Siamese Tobacco, always fresh in stock. 

New Road, Bangkok. 

By Special Appointment to 
H. M. THE KING OF SIAM. 



fiJiilimluiJla?! 



eTswuiu yi iin WW ill f miiJR mu i^au mi^ i\ v\w u 



^ A d^ 



1 \m 1 mwQ 1 w yi ly 



iiMTij yjoi Qyi^ ^ fi ^R m ^rnii5Pi 

VACUUM OIL COMPANY. 

OFFICZ: : BUSH l.A.NIi 

The Company Stock 40 varieties of Engine and 
Cylinder Oil. The best Oils are unsurpassed and 
hold the premier position in the lubricating World. 
Motor Oils a distinct speciality, made on scientific 
principles. 
The only Oil that always Oils as Oil should always Oil. 

Local Manager— E. H. V. MAYNE. 



KEE CHIANG & SONS 

CHAREO N KRUNG ROAD, TA LAT NOI. 

By Appointment Purveyors to 
R.R.R. Cbc Crovcn prince of Siam. 

PB.OVISIOn' WIN-E and SPIRIT 
MERCHAITTS. 

CHAROEN KRUNG PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDIO. 

J. ANTONIO —Proprietor, 
NEW ROAD, BANGKOK. 

Awarded Silver Medal Hanoi Exhibition 1902-1903. 
Silver Medal St. Louis Exhibition 190 Jf. 
A large collection of Views and Types of Siam 
Illustrated Post Cards. 

Illustrated Guide Book to Bangkok and Siam. 
Amateur,' s Plates developed and finished at moder- 
ate charges. 

A. Ml. ADAM 8. A. LEBBAY & CO. 

INDIAN MERCHANTS, WHOLESALE 
AND RETAIL. 

Fancy Goods of all Descriptions. 
Ladies and Gentlemen's Outfitters. 

WAT KOH STREET, - BANGKOK. 

H. SW^EE HO. 

GENERAL MERCHANTS & IMPORTERS. 

PROPRIETORS of the NATIONAL CHEMICAL DEPOT, Im- 
porters of Drugs and Chemical Dealers in Soluble and Flavour- 
ing Essences, Colourings Acid Sulphuric, and Soda Bicarbonate. 
Patent Medicines, Glassware and Druggists Sundries. Suppliers of 
Aerated Water Ingredients and Requisites. 

Established 1871. 

BANGKOK : 

A-ddrces Pit Saticn Bridge, Charoen Krung Road. 






^^■ 

^ 



IRON FOUNDERS 
IMPORTERS AND 
GENERAL CON- 
TRACTORS. 




f^ ^^^^ Bangkok, 
SHIP ^liA ^^^ Singapore, 



^ ^^^ Canton 
^^ ^r^ Rangoon 
LAUNCH ^^ ^^T and 

BUILDERS, V^ ^ ^^ 

BRIDGE 



BUILDERS AND 
BOILER-MAKERS. 



FOOK LOOIMG 



SILVER MEHAL HAIVOI EAHIBri'IOX. 



Contractor, Manufacturer of First Class Fur- 
niture, Cabinet Maker, Boat Builder and Painter. 
Furniture of every description made to order and 
from any design. 

A large quantity of ready made furniture 
in stock. 

Works and repairs executed with despatch. 
Customers attended at their residences upon 
receipt of a post-card. 

p. W . Wijeratne & Co. 

BUYERS AND SELLERS 

OF 

GENERAL PRODUCTS OF SIAM. 

Building, (shortly to be o[)ened) opposite the 

BRITISH LEGATION. 

Branches at Paknampo, Km^at and Chantaboon. 

S. S. MARICAN 

INDIAN STORE. 



SILK AND CLOTH MERCHANTS. 

Wholesale and Retail Importers, Dealers in all kinds of 
Indian, Chinese and Japanese Silk and Sundry Goods. 
New Road, nearly opposite the French Bank, Bangkok. 



2Ibe ]first ]Sail$ mcwspaper in Siam« 

PUBLISHED IN ENGLISH AND SIAMESE 
EVERY EVENING. 



( Local - Tcs. 40 per an. 
Subscription Rates -^ 

( Foreign £2 18s. Od. „ 



ENGimU EDITIOX. 

Subscription Local Tcs. 20 per annum 

Foreign - £1 10s. Od. „ 

SIAMESE WEEIiLV EDITIOIV. 

Subscription Local Tcs. 15 per annum. 

Moderate Advertising Rates 

And Special Terms for Contracts 
All kinds of printing at the 
SIAM OBSERVER PRINTING WORKS 
Oriental avenue— Bangkok. 



"WASHII&TO]^" LI&HT AO 
EiailfEEEIia CO. 



W. GROSSJOHANN & CO., BANGKOK. 



Sole Importers for the genuine WASHINGTON LIGHT 
D. R. PATENT. Patented in almost all civilized coun- 
tries. The cheapest light at the present time, 
a 500 candle power lamp will use IJ atts kerosine oil 
per hour. 

No Engines Required, No Danger, No Trouble 

Common Kerosine oil used only. 

GENERAL CONTRACTORS 

The above firm will undertake repairs of Automobiles, 

Spare Parts, as Sparkevils, Sparkplugs, Batteries (30 

amperes) also any other parts can be furnished at 
cheapest rates. 

Repairs of jMccbanical Instruments. 



Sole Agents for : R. "WOLF, Engineering- and 
Boiler Work, Magdeburg, Engle's Work, Solingen, 
Pneumatic Tool Co., Dusseldorf, A. Schumann 
Co., Armatur and Engine Works, Leipzic Plagurtz 
U. S. F. 

Representative of the 

DEUTZ ET GELDERMANN. 
Sec iLir MARNE CHAlVEFAGirE. 



C. G. TIMONELLI'S 

GENERAL PROVISION STORES. 



Speciality of Provisions, Wines and Liqueurs. 

New Road, 

Opposite the British Legation. 

m % ^ fijLuii'u?)! miy mm im jLnljtvnu m ^ 
iwm WW UK mm vaiv. m i iilu Vimv m^ 

S. TISSEPAri ^ CO. 

Ottateb-mahers, jewellers. Silversmiths 
and General Dealers. 



REPAIRS 

Established 1882, 



M. CACACE'S STORE 

New Road, nearly opposite 
Oriental Avenue. 

COMMISSION AGENTS 

AND 

Importers of Italian, German, English and 
French Provisions. 

WINE. — The largest Stock in Bangkok in 

Cases and Casks, Rhine, Burgundies, 

Bordeaux and Italian, 

N.B.—As we deal direct with all the Manufacturers in 

Europe our prices are lower than any other 

Store in Siam. 



INDIAN STORE 

w Grssietrr)ull ©/issoarnull ^ S®. 

SILK MERCHANTS & MILLINERS. 

Wholesale and Retail Importers, Dealers in all kinds of 

Indian, Chinese and Japanese Silk, Silverware and 

Sundry Goods. 

NEW ROAD, opposite the French Bank, Bangkok. 
FIRMS : FOKEIG.\ BRANCHES : 

Yokohama, Hongkong, Melbourne, Kobe, Canton, 

j Saigon, Sourabaya, Mac- 
Manila, Singapore, ' cassar,Samarang,Batavia, 

Bandoeng, Padang, 
Bombay and Europe. \ Penang, Rangoon, Ceylon 

and Calcutta. 



GOTTE & CO. 



General Printing 

EstablisJ)mi2nt and 
BooK-biQding Department. 

SEPARATE STATIONERY 
DEPARTMENT. 

NEW ROAD, Corner of BUSH LANE. 



SEANG LOONG 

CARPENTER & CONTRACTOR. 



Manufacture of First Class Furniture, Cabinet 
Maker, Boat-builder, and Painter. Furniture of 
every description made to order from any design. 

A large quantity of ready made furniture 

in stock. * 

Works and Repairs executed with despatch. 

Customers attended at their residences upon 
receipt of a post-card. 

WINDMILL ROAD, NEAR BANGRAK 
HOSPITAL. 

BANGKOK DISPENSARY. 



CHEMISTS DRUGGISTS AND OPTICIANS 

PATENT MEDICINES, AND SPECTACLES 

OF GOLD SILVER, AND NICKEL. 



OPTICAL AND^CHIRURGICAL INSTRUMENTS 
PA^EUR FILTERS. 

1. S. E. AlfG-TJLLIA & CO., 

RAJAWONG ROAD-BANGKOK. 



GENERAL MERCHANTS AND COMMIS- 
SION AGENTS. 
ROPES, COTTON, YARNS, CASTOR OIL 
TRUNKS, &c., &c. 



THE DRAPERY STORE 

IIVDIAAI VARIETIES & JAPANESE \OVELTIES. 

Silks, Cottons, Laces, Hosery, Tapestry, ' Boo/s, Shoes, Hats, Glass- 
ware, Silverware, Chinaware, Ebonyisare,* Clocks, Watches, 
Stationery, Greeting Cards, Bon'-bo*TS, 'fiiplls Curios 
Carpets, Dados, Side-boards, FlS'wer Pots, Mattings, 
Bamboo Waic, Wooden \^'are, and Rattan 
Goods, &c., &e. 

Building next CU9TOIVI HOUSE CANB, BSNCtJ^OK. 

Telegraphic Address : "DRAPERY" A. B. C. Code, 5th Edition. 

TUNG WHO & CO., 

BANGRAK. 
GENBRAI. PROVISION STORi:. 

Fresli Mutton on every Wednesdiiy mid Sunday 
morninn- a speciality, 

We beg to notify the public that we have always on hand every 
description of goods — Cross and Blackwell's, ^Morton's, American, 
French, and German Provisions also French. Dry .fraits sit moderate 
prices. 

For the Christmas Season, Fresh and. Dry Apples^ Walnuts and 
Stores of every description. A post-card s.fent, "will be attended to 
immediately. 

ORIENTAL BAKERY 

(ORIENTAL AVENUE). 



Have always on hand f^jBsh Biscuits 
and Rusk£^ 

Daily supply of White Bread and Rolls. 

Brown Bread every Wednesday 
and Sunday. 

Fresh Cakes made every other day. 
Wiener Bread on Sunday only. 

Other Cakes, Puddings, Tarts, Jellies and 
Ice-creams. Supplied to order. 

ALL ORDERS PROMPTLY ATTENDED TO.